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Sample records for azaspiracid shellfish poisoning

  1. A new category of shellfish toxins-azaspiracid shellfish poison%贝毒新成员——Azaspiracid shellfish poison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈应华; 杨宇峰; 王华接

    2008-01-01

    近年来,欧洲沿海国家发生了一系列因食用紫贻贝(Mytilus edulis)而引起人员中毒的事件.采用适宜的化学提取方法从养殖贝类的组织中提取出了azaspiracid (AZA1)及其类似物,并从养殖海区采集的厚甲原多甲藻(Protoperidinium crassipes)细胞中提取出了AZA1、AZA2和AZA3三种成分.鉴于这类毒素(AZAs)具有独特的化学结构和特性,把由它们引起的人员中毒事件称为AZP(azaspiracid shellfish poisoning).根据近年来国外对AZP研究的最新进展,本文对AZAs的化学结构、来源、地理分布、毒性效应、检测方法及作用机制等方面进行了综述,并对我国开展AZP研究的重点领域提出了建议.

  2. Detection of Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Azaspiracids Toxins in Moroccan Mussels: Comparison of LC-MS Method with the Commercial Immunoassay Kit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Fassouane

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP is one of recurrent gastrointestinal illnesses in Morocco, resulting from consumption of contaminated shellfish. In order to develop a rapid and reliable technique for toxins detection, we have compared the results obtained by a commercial immunoassay-“DSP-Check” kit” with those obtained by LC-MS. Both techniques are capable of detecting the toxins in the whole flesh extract which was subjected to prior alkaline hydrolysis in order to detect simultaneously the esterified and non esterified toxin forms. The LC-MS method was found to be able to detect a high level of okadaic acid (OA, low level of dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2, and surprisingly traces of azaspiracids 2 (AZA2 in mussels. This is the first report of a survey carried out for azaspiracids (AZP contamination of shellfish harvested in the coastal areas of Morocco. The “DSP-Check” kit was found to detect quantitatively DSP toxins in all contaminated samples containing only OA provided that the parent toxins were within the range of detection and was not in an ester form. A good correlation was observed between the two methods when appropriate dilutions were performed. The immunoassay kit appeared to be more sensitive, specific and faster than LC-MS for determination of DSP in total shellfish extract.

  3. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

  4. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, H.

    HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae......HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae...

  5. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP)

    OpenAIRE

    Ravn, H.

    1995-01-01

    In this manual a review is provided of the chemical and toxicological aspects of Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). The document contains information on chemical structure, chemical data, where to obtain standards and reference materials, the origin and occurrence, chemical analysis, mouse bioassay, epidemiology, mechanisms of action, symptoms and therapeutics. The practical use of this document has been highlighted in agreement with the Members of the Task Team on Aquatic Biotoxins. This ...

  6. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Hammond

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented.

  7. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO

    2001-01-01

    This review contains information on the neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) syndrome and the provoking toxins called brevetoxins, produced by the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve. Data on chemical structures and detection methods for brevetoxins, sources for brevetoxins, marine organisms associated

  8. Paralytic shellfish poisoning; A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mons MP; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    1998-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is caused by ingestion of shellfish containing PSP toxins. The PSP toxins are a group of 18 closely related tetrahydropurines. The first PSP toxin chemically characterised was saxitoxin. The various PSP toxins significantly differ in toxicity, with saxitoxin being

  9. Amnesic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO; CSR

    1999-01-01

    This review reports information on the amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) syndrome and the ASP toxins causing this poisoning, of which domoic acid is the major component. Data includes chemical structures and detection methods of ASP toxins, sources of ASP toxins, marine organisms associated with ASP

  10. Paralytic shellfish poisoning; A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mons MP; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    1998-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) wordt veroorzaakt door consumptie van schelpdieren die PSP toxinen bevatten. Er zijn 18 verschillende PSP toxinen, waarvan saxitoxine de meest bekende en de meest toxische is. PSP toxinen kunnen worden aangetoond met de muis bioassay, waarbij de dood van het d

  11. Amnesic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO; CSR

    1999-01-01

    Deze literatuurstudie bevat informatie betreffende het 'amnesic shellfish poisoning' (ASP) syndroom en de veroorzakende ASP toxines, van welke "domoic acid" de belangrijkste component is. Chemische structuren en detectie-methodes van ASP toxines, de bronnen voor ASP toxines,

  12. Red Tide and Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Barrie; Yentsch, Clarice M.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the nature and cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Includes toxic dinoflagellate ecology, taxonomy and life history, and chemistry of the toxins. Recent work with trace metals and directions of future research are also given. (MA)

  13. In vivo arrhythmogenicity of the marine biotoxin azaspiracid-2 in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sara F. Ferreiro; Vilariño, Natalia; Carrera, Cristina; Louzao, M. Carmen; Santamarina, Germán; Cantalapiedra, Antonio G.; Laura P. Rodríguez; Cifuentes, J. Manuel; Vieira, Andrés C.; Nicolaou, K.C.; Frederick, Michael O.; Botana, Luis M.

    2013-01-01

    Azaspiracids (AZAs) are marine biotoxins produced by the dinoflagellate Azadinium spinosum that accumulate in several shellfish species. Azaspiracid poisoning (AZP) episodes have been described in humans due to ingestion of AZA-contaminated seafood. Therefore, the contents of AZA-1, AZA-2 and AZA-3, the best-known analogs of the group, in shellfish destined to human consumption have been regulated by food safety authorities of many countries to protect human health. In vivo and in vitro toxic...

  14. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Hurley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case series of seven patients presenting to an emergency department with symptoms of paralytic shellfish poisoning. They developed varying degrees of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, ataxia and paresthesias after eating mussels harvested from a beach near their resort. Four patients were admitted to the hospital, one due to increasing respiratory failure requiring endotracheal intubation and the remainder for respiratory monitoring. All patients made a full recovery, most within 24 hours. The ability to recognize and identify paralytic shellfish poisoning and manage its complications are important to providers of emergency medicine. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(4:378-381.

  15. The preparation of certified calibration solutions for azaspiracid-1, -2, and -3, potent marine biotoxins found in shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Ruth A; Rehmann, Nils; Crain, Sheila; LeBlanc, Patricia; Craft, Cheryl; MacKinnon, Shawna; Reeves, Kelley; Burton, Ian W; Walter, John A; Hess, Philipp; Quilliam, Michael A; Melanson, Jeremy E

    2010-11-01

    The production and certification of a series of azaspiracid (AZA) calibration solution reference materials is described. Azaspiracids were isolated from contaminated mussels, purified by preparative liquid chromatography and dried under vacuum to the anhydrous form. The purity was assessed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The final concentration of each AZA in a CD(3)OH stock solution was determined by quantitative NMR spectroscopy. This solution was then diluted very accurately in degassed, high purity methanol to a concentration of 1.47 ± 0.08 μmol/L for CRM-AZA1, 1.52 ± 0.05 μmol/L for CRM-AZA2, and 1.37 ± 0.13 μmol/L for CRM-AZA3. Aliquots were dispensed into argon-filled glass ampoules, which were immediately flame-sealed. The calibration solutions are suitable for method development, method validation, calibration of liquid chromatography or mass spectrometry instrumentation and quality control of shellfish monitoring programs.

  16. In vitro chronic effects on hERG channel caused by the marine biotoxin Azaspiracid-2

    OpenAIRE

    Sara F. Ferreiro; Vilariño, Natalia; Louzao, M. Carmen; Nicolaou, K.C.; Frederick, Michael O.; Botana, Luis M.

    2014-01-01

    Azaspiracids (AZAs) are marine biotoxins produced by the dinoflagellate Azadinium spinosum that accumulate in many shellfish species. Azaspiracid poisoning caused by AZA-contaminated seafood consumption is primarily manifested by diarrhea in humans. To protect human health, AZA-1, AZA-2 and AZA-3 content in seafood has been regulated by food safety authorities in many countries. Recently AZAs have been reported as a low/moderate hERG channel blockers. Furthermore AZA-2 has been related to arr...

  17. The preparation of certified calibration solutions for azaspiracid-1, -2, and -3, potent marine biotoxins found in shellfish

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, R.; Rehmann, N.; Crain, S.; LeBlanc, P; Craft, C.; Mackinnon, S; Reeves, K.; Burton, I. W.; Walter, J A; P. Hess; Quilliam, M. A.; Melanson, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    The production and certification of a series of azaspiracid (AZA) calibration solution reference materials is described. Azaspiracids were isolated from contaminated mussels, purified by preparative liquid chromatography and dried under vacuum to the anhydrous form. Purity was assessed by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Final concentration of each AZA in a CD3OH stock solution was determined accurately by quantitative NMR spec...

  18. Sensitivity improvement of an immuno-detection method for azaspiracids based on the use of microspheres coupled to a flow-fluorimetry system

    OpenAIRE

    María Fraga Corral

    2014-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTION Azaspiracids (AZAs) are lypophilic marine toxins known to produce AZA poisoning (AZP). AZP is the most recent human syndrome related to the ingestion of toxin-contaminated shellfish meat which symptoms are similar to those produced by diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) (Furey et al., 2010). Since this first human intoxication by AZAs reported in 1995 (McManhon, 1996), their presence has been widely described along European coasts and punctually in Chile, Morocco and Japan ...

  19. Food contaminant analysis at ultra-high mass resolution: application of hybrid linear ion trap - orbitrap mass spectrometry for the determination of the polyether toxins, azaspiracids, in shellfish.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2010-10-30

    The biotoxins, azaspiracids (AZAs), from marine phytoplankton accumulate in shellfish and affect human health by causing severe gastrointestinal disturbance, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. Specific and sensitive methods have been developed and validated for the determination of the most commonly occurring azaspiracid analogs. An LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer is a hybrid instrument that combines linear ion trap (LIT) mass spectrometry (MS) with high-resolution Fourier transform (FT) MS and this was exploited to perform simultaneous ultra-high-resolution full-scan MS analysis and collision-induced dissociation (CID) tandem mass spectrometry (MS\\/MS). Using the highest mass resolution setting (100,000 FWHM) in full-scan mode, the methodology was validated for the determination of six AZAs in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) tissue extracts. Ultra-high mass resolution, together with a narrow mass tolerance window of ±2 mDa, dramatically improved detection sensitivity. In addition to employing chromatographic resolution to distinguish between the isomeric azaspiracid analogs, AZA1\\/AZA6 and AZA4\\/AZA5, higher energy collisionally induced dissociation (HCD) fragmentation on selected precursor ions were performed in parallel with full-scan FTMS. Using HCD MS\\/MS, most precursor and product ion masses were determined within 1 ppm of the theoretical m\\/z values throughout the mass spectral range and this enhanced the reliability of analyte identity.For the analysis of mussels (M. galloprovincialis), the method limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0.010 µg\\/g using full-scan FTMS and this was comparable with the LOQ (0.007 µg\\/g) using CID MS\\/MS. The repeatability data were; intra-day RSD% (1.8-4.4%; n = 6) and inter-day RSD% (4.7-8.6%; n = 3). Application of these methods to the analysis of mussels (M. edulis) that were naturally contaminated with azaspiracids, using high-resolution full-scan Orbitrap MS and low-resolution CID MS\\/MS, produced

  20. Development of Certified Reference Materials for Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins, Part 2: Shellfish Matrix Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Pearse; Reeves, Kelley L; Giddings, Sabrina D; Beach, Daniel G; Quilliam, Michael A

    2016-09-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) and its analogs, dinophysistoxins-1 (DTX1) and -2 (DTX2) are lipophilic biotoxins produced by marine algae that can accumulate in shellfish and cause the human illness known as diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Regulatory testing of shellfish is required to protect consumers and the seafood industry. Certified reference materials (CRMs) are essential for the development, validation, and quality control of analytical methods, and thus play an important role in toxin monitoring. This paper summarizes work on research and development of shellfish tissue reference materials for OA and DTXs. Preliminary work established the appropriate conditions for production of shellfish tissue CRMs for OA and DTXs. Source materials, including naturally incurred shellfish tissue and cultured algae, were screened for their DSP toxins. This preliminary work informed planning and production of a wet mussel (Mytilus edulis) tissue homogenate matrix CRM. The homogeneity and stability of the CRM were evaluated and found to be fit-for-purpose. Extraction and LC-tandem MS methods were developed to accurately certify the concentrations of OA, DTX1, and DTX2 using a combination of standard addition and matrix-matched calibration to compensate for matrix effects in electrospray ionization. The concentration of domoic acid was also certified. Uncertainties were assigned following standards and guidelines from the International Organization for Standardization. The presence of other toxins in the CRM was also assessed and information values are reported for OA and DTX acyl esters.

  1. Distribution of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins in consignments of blue mussel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kevin; Jensen, Lene Bai

    2004-01-01

    Data describing the distribution of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins in 13 consignments of Danish-produced blue mussels are reported. The content of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins was measured by a liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry detection method, and mean ......, the uncertainty of sampling and analysis, and the newly introduced European Union maximum levels of marine biotoxins in seafood products....

  2. Paralytic shellfish poison algal biotoxins: Sardinia report 2002-2011 and non-compliance management

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppa Lorenzoni; Igor Arras; Giovanna Sanna; Pietro Delogu; Alessandro Mudadu; Antonio Piras; Antonio Mura; Edoardo Marongiu; Sebastiano Virgilio

    2013-01-01

    Several microalgae of the genus Alexandrium (Alexandrium minutum and Alexandrium catenelle) can produce an algal biotoxin, the paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) that can be accumulated in the shellfish edible tissues making them hazardous to the consumer’s health. In this paper we report i) the results of PSP toxins survey carried out by mouse bioassays (mouse test AOAC 958.08) on 7457 samples of bivalve molluscs farmed in Sardinia and in other European countries and marketed in Sardinia...

  3. Development of an ELISA for the Detection of Azaspiracids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samdal, Ingunn A; Løvberg, Kjersti E; Briggs, Lyn R; Kilcoyne, Jane; Xu, Jianyan; Forsyth, Craig J; Miles, Christopher O

    2015-09-01

    Azaspiracids (AZAs) are a group of biotoxins that cause food poisoning in humans. These toxins are produced by small marine dinoflagellates such as Azadinium spinosum and accumulate in shellfish. Ovine polyclonal antibodies were produced and used to develop an ELISA for quantitating AZAs in shellfish, algal cells, and culture supernatants. Immunizing antigens were prepared from synthetic fragments of the constant region of AZAs, while plate coating antigen was prepared from AZA-1. The ELISA provides a sensitive and rapid analytical method for screening large numbers of samples. It has a working range of 0.45-8.6 ng/mL and a limit of quantitation for total AZAs in whole shellfish at 57 μg/kg, well below the maximum permitted level set by the European Commission. The ELISA has good cross-reactivity to AZA-1-10, -33, and -34 and 37-epi-AZA-1. Naturally contaminated Irish mussels gave similar results whether they were cooked or uncooked, indicating that the ELISA also detects 22-carboxy-AZA metabolites (e.g., AZA-17 and AZA-19). ELISA results showed excellent correlation with LC-MS/MS analysis, both for mussel extract spiked with AZA-1 and for naturally contaminated Irish mussels. The assay is therefore well suited to screening for AZAs in shellfish samples intended for human consumption, as well as for studies on AZA metabolism.

  4. Development of an ELISA for the Detection of Azaspiracids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samdal, Ingunn A; Løvberg, Kjersti E; Briggs, Lyn R; Kilcoyne, Jane; Xu, Jianyan; Forsyth, Craig J; Miles, Christopher O

    2015-09-01

    Azaspiracids (AZAs) are a group of biotoxins that cause food poisoning in humans. These toxins are produced by small marine dinoflagellates such as Azadinium spinosum and accumulate in shellfish. Ovine polyclonal antibodies were produced and used to develop an ELISA for quantitating AZAs in shellfish, algal cells, and culture supernatants. Immunizing antigens were prepared from synthetic fragments of the constant region of AZAs, while plate coating antigen was prepared from AZA-1. The ELISA provides a sensitive and rapid analytical method for screening large numbers of samples. It has a working range of 0.45-8.6 ng/mL and a limit of quantitation for total AZAs in whole shellfish at 57 μg/kg, well below the maximum permitted level set by the European Commission. The ELISA has good cross-reactivity to AZA-1-10, -33, and -34 and 37-epi-AZA-1. Naturally contaminated Irish mussels gave similar results whether they were cooked or uncooked, indicating that the ELISA also detects 22-carboxy-AZA metabolites (e.g., AZA-17 and AZA-19). ELISA results showed excellent correlation with LC-MS/MS analysis, both for mussel extract spiked with AZA-1 and for naturally contaminated Irish mussels. The assay is therefore well suited to screening for AZAs in shellfish samples intended for human consumption, as well as for studies on AZA metabolism. PMID:26245830

  5. Radiation resistance of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) toxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation resistance of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) toxins, obtained from Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum in shellstocks of green mussels, was determined by subjecting the semi-purified toxin extract as well as the shellstocks of green mussels to high doses of ionizing radiation of 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. The concentration of the PSP toxins was determined by the Standard Mouse Bioassay (SMB) method. The radiation assistance of the toxins was determined by plotting the PSP toxin concentration versus applied dose in a semilog paper. The D10 value or decimal reduction dose was obtained from the straight line which is the dose required to reduce the toxicity level by 90%. The effects of irradiation on the quality of green mussels in terms of its physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory attributes were also conducted. The effect of irradiation on the fatty acid components of green mussels was determined by gas chromatography. Radiation resistance of the PSP toxins was determined to be lower in samples with initially high toxicity level as compared with samples with initially low toxicity level. The D10 values of samples with initially high PSP level were 28.5 kGy in shellstocks of green musssels and 17.5 kGy in the semi-purified toxin extract. When the PSP level was low initially, the D10 values were as high as 57.5 and 43.5 kGy in shellstocks of green mussels for the two trials, and 43.0 kGy in semi-purified toxin extract. The microbial load of the irradiated mussels was remarkably reduced. No differnce in color and odor characteristics were observed in the mussel samples subjected to varying doses of ionizing radiation. There was darkening in the color of mussel meat and its juice. The concentration of the fatty acid components in the fresh green mussels were considerably higher as compared with those present in the irradiated mussels, though some volatile fatty acids were detected as a result of irradiation. (Author)

  6. A highly rapid and simple competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for monitoring paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawatsu, Kentaro; Kanki, Masashi; Harada, Tetsuya; Kumeda, Yuko

    2014-11-01

    Using a streptavidin-coated well plate, a biotin-labelled anti-gonyautoxin 2/3 monoclonal antibody GT-13A, and a decarbamoyl saxitoxin-peroxidase conjugate, a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PSP-ELISA) was developed for monitoring paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in shellfish. This assay is simple to perform and can be completed in approximately 20 min. The PSP-ELISA was compared to the mouse bioassay (MBA) for the detection of PSP toxins in shellfish samples (n=83) collected from the coast of Osaka Prefecture, Japan. When positive and negative results were indicated based on the regulatory limit for PSP toxins (4 mouse unit(MU)/g of shellfish meat), the PSP-ELISA results showed a sensitivity of 100% (25 of 25) and a specificity of 89.7% (52 of 58 samples) compared to the MBA results. These results suggest that the PSP-ELISA could be used as a rapid and simple screening method prior to the MBA.

  7. Structure Elucidation, Relative LC–MS Response and In Vitro Toxicity of Azaspiracids 7–10 Isolated from Mussels (Mytilus edulis)

    OpenAIRE

    Kilcoyne, Jane; Twiner, Michael J.; McCarron, Pearse; Crain, Sheila; Giddings, Sabrina D.; Foley, Barry; Rise, Frode; Hess, Philipp; Willdns, Alistair L.; Miles, Christopher O.

    2015-01-01

    Azaspiracids (AZAs) are marine biotoxins produced by dinoflagellates that can accumulate in shellfish, which if consumed can lead to poisoning events. AZA7–10, 7–10, were isolated from shellfish and their structures, previously proposed on the basis of only LC–MS/MS data, were confirmed by NMR spectroscopy. Purified AZA4–6, 4–6, and 7–10 were accurately quantitated by qNMR and used to assay cytotoxicity with Jurkat T lymphocyte cells for the first time. LC–MS(MS) molar response studies perfor...

  8. Studies in the Use of Magnetic Microspheres for Immunoaffinity Extraction of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins from Shellfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Elliott

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP is a potentially fatal human health condition caused by the consumption of shellfish containing high levels of PSP toxins. Toxin extraction from shellfish and from algal cultures for use as standards and analysis by alternative analytical monitoring methods to the mouse bioassay is extensive and laborious. This study investigated whether a selected MAb antibody could be coupled to a novel form of magnetic microsphere (hollow glass magnetic microspheres, brand name Ferrospheres-N and whether these coated microspheres could be utilized in the extraction of low concentrations of the PSP toxin, STX, from potential extraction buffers and spiked mussel extracts. The feasibility of utilizing a mass of 25 mg of Ferrospheres-N, as a simple extraction procedure for STX from spiked sodium acetate buffer, spiked PBS buffer and spiked mussel extracts was determined. The effects of a range of toxin concentrations (20–300 ng/mL, incubation times and temperature on the capability of the immuno-capture of the STX from the spiked mussel extracts were investigated. Finally, the coated microspheres were tested to determine their efficiency at extracting PSP toxins from naturally contaminated mussel samples. Toxin recovery after each experiment was determined by HPLC analysis. This study on using a highly novel immunoaffinity based extraction procedure, using STX as a model, has indicated that it could be a convenient alternative to conventional extraction procedures used in toxin purification prior to sample analysis.

  9. In vitro chronic effects on hERG channel caused by the marine biotoxin Azaspiracid-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, Sara F.; Vilariño, Natalia; Louzao, M.Carmen; Nicolaou, K. C.; Frederick, Michael O.; Botana, Luis M.

    2014-01-01

    Azaspiracids (AZAs) are marine biotoxins produced by the dinoflagellate Azadinium spinosum that accumulate in many shellfish species. Azaspiracid poisoning caused by AZA-contaminated seafood consumption is primarily manifested by diarrhea in humans. To protect human health, AZA-1, AZA-2 and AZA-3 content in seafood has been regulated by food safety authorities in many countries. Recently AZAs have been reported as a low/moderate hERG channel blockers. Furthermore AZA-2 has been related to arrhythmia appearance in rats, suggesting potential heart toxicity. In this study AZA-2 in vitro effects on hERG channel after chronic exposure are analyzed to further explore potential cardiotoxicity. The amount of hERG channel in the plasma membrane, hERG channel trafficking and hERG currents were evaluated up to 12 h of toxin exposure. In these conditions AZA-2 caused an increase of hERG levels in the plasma membrane, probably related to hERG retrograde trafficking impairment. Although this alteration did not translate into an increase of hERG channel-related current, more studies will be necessary to understand its mechanism and to know what consequences could have in vivo. These findings suggest that azaspiracids might have chronic cardiotoxicity related to hERG channel trafficking and they should not be overlooked when evaluating the threat to human health. PMID:25286396

  10. Synthesis of the Paralytic Shellfish Poisons (+)-Gonyautoxin 2, (+)-Gonyautoxin 3, and (+)-11,11-Dihydroxysaxitoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, John V; Walker, James R; Merit, Jeffrey E; Whitehead, Alan; Du Bois, J

    2016-05-11

    The paralytic shellfish poisons are a collection of guanidine-containing natural products that are biosynthesized by prokaryote and eukaryote marine organisms. These compounds bind and inhibit isoforms of the mammalian voltage-gated Na(+) ion channel at concentrations ranging from 10(-11) to 10(-5) M. Here, we describe the de novo synthesis of three paralytic shellfish poisons, gonyautoxin 2, gonyautoxin 3, and 11,11-dihydroxysaxitoxin. Key steps include a diastereoselective Pictet-Spengler reaction and an intramolecular amination of an N-guanidyl pyrrole by a sulfonyl guanidine. The IC50's of GTX 2, GTX 3, and 11,11-dhSTX have been measured against rat NaV1.4, and are found to be 22 nM, 15 nM, and 2.2 μM, respectively. PMID:27138488

  11. Fatal paralytic shellfish poisoning in Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) nestlings, Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Lance, Ellen W.; Corcoran, Robin; Piatt, John; Bodenstein, Barbara; Frame, Elizabeth; Lawonn, James

    2014-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is an acute toxic illness in humans resulting from ingestion of shellfish contaminated with a suite of neurotoxins (saxitoxins) produced by marine dinoflagellates, most commonly in the genus Alexandrium. Poisoning also has been sporadically suspected and, less often, documented in marine wildlife, often in association with an outbreak in humans. Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) is a small, rare seabird of the Northern Pacific with a declining population. From 2008 to 2012, as part of a breeding ecology study, multiple Kittlitz's Murrelet nests on Kodiak Island, Alaska, were monitored by remote cameras. During the 2011 and 2012 breeding seasons, nestlings from several sites died during mild weather conditions. Remote camera observations revealed that the nestlings died shortly after consuming sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus), a fish species known to biomagnify saxitoxin. High levels of saxitoxin were subsequently documented in crop content in 87% of nestling carcasses. Marine bird deaths from PSP may be underreported.

  12. Strategies for the elimination of matrix effects in the LC-MS/MS analysis of the lipophilic toxins okadaic acid and azaspiracid-1 in molluscan shellfish

    OpenAIRE

    Kilcoyne, Jane; Fux, Elie

    2010-01-01

    Considerable efforts are being made worldwide to replace in vivo assays with instrumental methods of analysis for the monitoring of marine biotoxins in shellfish. Analysis of these compounds by the preferred technique of LC-MS/MS is challenged by matrix effects associated with shellfish tissue components. In methods validation, assessment of matrix interferences is imperative to ensure the accuracy of analytical results. We evaluated matrix interferences in the analysis of okadaic acid (OA)...

  13. Investigations into the role of bacteria/dinoflagellate interactions in Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Töbe, Kerstin

    2003-01-01

    The interactions of purportedly toxic bacteria with dinoflagellates in the occurrence of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) were investigated. Dinoflagellates of the genus Alexandrium were examined to determine their bacterial population by the use of fluorescently labelled probes. Extracellular associated bacteria were shown to be associated with A. andersonii, A. tamarense and A. lusitanicum. Intracellulae bacteria were found in A. tamarense. Cyanoditolyltetrazolium chloride was used to de...

  14. Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxin esters in Danish blue mussels and surf clams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kevin; Scanlon, Sine Hedegaard; Jensen, L.B.

    2005-01-01

    Until recently, little focus was given to the presence of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning ( DSP) toxin esters in seafood products. However, during the last few years, the occurrence of a high percentage of esters of the total amount of DSP toxins present in some seafood products has been observed...... importance because of the increased use of chemical methods instead of mouse bioassay for the detection of DSP toxicity....

  15. Formation of a Volunteer Harmful Algal Bloom Network in British Columbia, Canada, Following an Outbreak of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Haigh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for shellfish toxin illness in British Columbia (BC on the west coast of Canada can be traced back to 1793. For over two hundred years, domestically acquired bivalve shellfish toxin illnesses in BC were solely ascribed to paralytic shellfish poisonings caused by algal blooms of Alexandrium. This changed in 2011, when BC experienced its first outbreak of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP. As a result of this outbreak, Canada’s first DSP symposium was held in November, 2012, in North Vancouver, BC. Three of the objectives of the symposium were to provide a forum to educate key stakeholders on this emerging issue, to identify research and surveillance priorities and to create a DSP network. The purpose of this paper is to review what is known about shellfish poisoning in BC and to describe a novel volunteer network that arose following the symposium. The newly formed network was designed for industry shellfish growers to identify harmful algae bloom events, so that they may take actions to mitigate the effects of harmful blooms on shellfish morbidity. The network will also inform public health and regulatory stakeholders of potentially emerging issues in shellfish growing areas.

  16. Cell bioassay for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP): comparison with postcolumn derivatization liquid chromatographic analysis and application to the monitoring of PSP in shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Rumiko; Saito, Hiroshi; Okumura, Masanao; Kondo, Fumio

    2006-01-25

    We performed a neuroblastoma cell (Neuro2a) culture assay modified slightly from a method reported previously to provide a simple and sensitive evaluation of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxicity in shellfish. The cell bioassay was just as sensitive for C-toxins as for gonyautoxins. The sensitivity of our cell bioassay was 4 times that of the current standard mouse bioassay. Using the cell bioassay, we evaluated PSP toxicity in 361 shellfish samples collected from Mikawa Bay and Ise Bay, Aichi Prefecture, Japan, from April 1999-March 2002. The results were compared with those obtained in a postcolumn derivatization liquid chromatographic analysis. PSP toxins were detected in 236/361 samples by both assays, and there was a fairly good correlation (r = 0.9001, n = 236, p < 0.001) between the results from the two assays. We applied this cell bioassay when short-necked clams in the bay turned poisonous in 2001. The chronological changes in PSP toxicity in the short-necked clams were analyzed and compared with those of the cell density of poisonous plankton (Alexandrium tamarense) occurring in the bay. The PSP toxicity in shellfish peaked 2 weeks after the cell density reached a maximum. We recommend using the cell bioassay for routine monitoring of PSP toxicity in shellfish living in natural marine environments. PMID:16417278

  17. A new simple screening method for the detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jinping; PI Shuaishuai; YE Shufeng; GAO Haomin; YAO Lei; JIANG Zhenyi; SONG Yuling; XI Lei

    2012-01-01

    The current testing for paralytic shellfish poisoning(PSP)in shellfish is based on the mouse bioassay(MBA).To alleviate animal welfare concerns,we evaluated the utility of using sublethal indicators of toxicity as an alternative to measuring time to death.Live mice were injected with a PSP congener and the changes in neurotransmitter levels were measured 60,90,and 120 min after injection.Acetylcholine (ACh)was the most sensitive marker for PSP toxicity.The changes in neurotransmitter levels were most pronounced in the blood.Thus,measurement of Ach levels in the blood may serve as a sensitive predictor for PSP that would not require sacrifice of the mice.This method was relatively simple,sensitive(less than 1 μg/kg weight,equivalent to 20 ng/mL),low maintenance,and rapid(less than 60 min).

  18. A new simple screening method for the detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jinping; Pi, Shuaishuai; Ye, Shufeng; Gao, Haomin; Yao, Lei; Jiang, Zhenyi; Song, Yuling; Xi, Lei

    2012-09-01

    The current testing for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in shellfish is based on the mouse bioassay (MBA). To alleviate animal welfare concerns, we evaluated the utility of using sublethal indicators of toxicity as an alternative to measuring time to death. Live mice were injected with a PSP congener and the changes in neurotransmitter levels were measured 60, 90, and 120 min after injection. Acetylcholine (ACh) was the most sensitive marker for PSP toxicity. The changes in neurotransmitter levels were most pronounced in the blood. Thus, measurement of Ach levels in the blood may serve as a sensitive predictor for PSP that would not require sacrifice of the mice. This method was relatively simple, sensitive (less than 1 μg/kg weight, equivalent to 20 ng/mL), low maintenance, and rapid (less than 60 min).

  19. Paralytic shellfish poison algal biotoxins: Sardinia report 2002-2011 and non-compliance management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppa Lorenzoni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Several microalgae of the genus Alexandrium (Alexandrium minutum and Alexandrium catenelle can produce an algal biotoxin, the paralytic shellfish poison (PSP that can be accumulated in the shellfish edible tissues making them hazardous to the consumer’s health. In this paper we report i the results of PSP toxins survey carried out by mouse bioassays (mouse test AOAC 958.08 on 7457 samples of bivalve molluscs farmed in Sardinia and in other European countries and marketed in Sardinia region from 2002 to 2011, and ii the management of positive cases. Based on our experience it is very important to strictly apply the planned activities in order to prevent any risk and to protect the consumer’s and producer’s health.

  20. Detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrhetic shellfish poison(DSP) , neurotoxic shellfish poison(NSP) by ELISA%ELISA法测定贝毒素污染的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳其芳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To probe into the feasibility of detecting paralytic shellfish poisoning(PSP), diarrhetic shellfish poison(DSP), neurotoxic shellfish poison(NSP) by ELISA . Methods The competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)was adopted for detection of PSP, DSP and NSP, The results were analyzed. Results For detection of PSP, the standard curve with concentration of 0.02~0.32μg/kg showed an R value of 0.996. Coefficient of variation(CV)was 2A%-8.3% and recovery rate was 88.7%-105.0% ; For detection of DSP, the standard curve with concentration of 0.20-5.00μg/kg showed an R value of 0.995 % and the CV was 1.5%-8.0 %, the recovery rate(%) was 89.6%-116.0% ; For detection of NSP, the standard curve with concentration of 0.10-2.50μg/kg showed an R value of 0.993. CV was 2.2%-9.5% and recovery rate was 88.7%-111.6% . Conclusion ELISA detection was characterized by high sensitivity, low interference, simple and safe in operation, with rapid and reliable test results.in detection of PSP, DSP and NSP in fodder both at home and abroad.%目的 探讨以ELISA检测麻痹性贝毒素(PSP)、腹泻性贝毒素(DSP)、神经性贝毒素(NSP)的可行性,并对深圳市污染状况调查.方法 采用ELISA检测PSP、DSP、NSP,对抽样的深圳市贝类样品进行检测.结果 PSP浓度为0.02~0.32μg/kg之间的标准曲线R=0.996,变异系数(CV,%)为2.4~8.3,回收率为88.7%~105.0%; DSP浓度为0.20~5.00μg/kg之间的标准曲线R=0.995,变异系数(CV,%)为1.5~8.0,回收率为89.6%~116.0%; NSP浓度为0.10~2.50μg/kg之间的标准曲线R=0.993,变异系数(CV,%)为2.2~9.5,回收率为88.7%~111.6%.结论 ELISA法检测三种贝毒均具有灵敏度高、干扰少、测定步骤简便、快速、操作安全、结果准确可靠的优点,适合作为快速筛选方法.

  1. In vitro chronic effects on hERG channel caused by the marine biotoxin azaspiracid-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, Sara F; Vilariño, Natalia; Louzao, M Carmen; Nicolaou, K C; Frederick, Michael O; Botana, Luis M

    2014-12-01

    Azaspiracids (AZAs) are marine biotoxins produced by the dinoflagellate Azadinium spinosum that accumulate in many shellfish species. Azaspiracid poisoning caused by AZA-contaminated seafood consumption is primarily manifested by diarrhea in humans. To protect human health, AZA-1, AZA-2 and AZA-3 content in seafood has been regulated by food safety authorities in many countries. Recently AZAs have been reported as a low/moderate hERG channel blockers. Furthermore AZA-2 has been related to arrhythmia appearance in rats, suggesting potential heart toxicity. In this study AZA-2 in vitro effects on hERG channel after chronic exposure are analyzed to further explore potential cardiotoxicity. The amount of hERG channel in the plasma membrane, hERG channel trafficking and hERG currents were evaluated up to 12 h of toxin exposure. In these conditions AZA-2 caused an increase of hERG levels in the plasma membrane, probably related to hERG retrograde trafficking impairment. Although this alteration did not translate into an increase of hERG channel-related current, more studies will be necessary to understand its mechanism and to know what consequences could have in vivo. These findings suggest that azaspiracids might have chronic cardiotoxicity related to hERG channel trafficking and they should not be overlooked when evaluating the threat to human health.

  2. 液相色谱-串联质谱法检测9种腹泻性贝毒毒素%Determination of 9 kinds of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴振兴; 静平; 曹文卿; 鲍蕾; 梁成珠; 宫小明

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立腹泻性贝毒毒素9种代表性化合物:大田软海绵酸、鳍藻毒素、蛤毒素2、扇贝毒素及其衍生物、环亚胺米氏裸甲藻毒素、螺环内酯毒素1和原多甲藻酸的高效液相色谱-电喷雾串联质谱(HPLC-ESI-MS/MS)检测方法。方法以80%甲醇水溶液对贝类组织中的毒素进行提取,再以亲水亲脂平衡柱(HLB)对提取液进行净化,最后以高效液相色谱-电喷雾串联质谱测定。结果 DSP毒素9种代表性化合物在各自浓度范围内线性良好,回收率为68.9%~94.2%,精密度为3.5%~9.5%。结论该方法具有灵敏度高、重现性好、操作简便、准确可靠等特点,适用于贝类中腹泻性贝毒毒素的测定。%Objective To establish a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method for determination of 9 kinds of representative diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins including okadaic acid(OA), dinophysistoxin1, 2(DTX1, DTX2), pectenotoxin2(PTX2), yessotoxin(YTX), homo-yessotoxin(hYTX), gymnodimine(GYM), spirolide1(SPX1) and azaspiracid1(AZA1) in shellfish. Methods The toxins were extracted with 80%methanol aqueous solution from the shellfish, then cleaned up by hydrophile-lipophile balance columns, at last, the extractive was determined by a reversed phase HPLC gradient program coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Results Nine representative diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins had a good linear relationship in respective concentration range, the average recoveries were ranged from 68.9%~94.2%, and the precision was in ranged from 3.5%~9.5%. Conclusion The developed method is simple and accurate, which can be applied for determination of DSP toxins in shellfish.

  3. Development of Certified Reference Materials for Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins, Part 1: Calibration Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Daniel G; Crain, Sheila; Lewis, Nancy; LeBlanc, Patricia; Hardstaff, William R; Perez, Ruth A; Giddings, Sabrina D; Martinez-Farina, Camilo F; Stefanova, Roumiana; Burton, Ian W; Kilcoyne, Jane; Melanson, Jeremy E; Quilliam, Michael A; McCarron, Pearse

    2016-09-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) and its analogs dinophysistoxins-1 (DTX1) and -2 (DTX2) are lipophilic polyethers produced by marine dinoflagellates. These toxins accumulate in shellfish and cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) in humans. Regulatory testing of shellfish is essential to safeguard public health and for international trade. Certified reference materials (CRMs) play a key role in analytical monitoring programs. This paper presents an overview of the interdisciplinary work that went into the planning, production, and certification of calibration-solution CRMs for OA, DTX1, and DTX2. OA and DTX1 were isolated from large-scale algal cultures and DTX2 from naturally contaminated mussels. Toxins were isolated by a combination of extraction and chromatographic steps with processes adapted to suit the source and concentration of each toxin. New 19-epi-DSP toxin analogs were identified as minor impurities. Once OA, DTX1, and DTX2 were established to be of suitable purity, solutions were prepared and dispensed into flame-sealed glass ampoules. Certification measurements were carried out using quantitative NMR spectroscopy and LC-tandem MS. Traceability of measurements was established through certified external standards of established purity. Uncertainties were assigned following standards and guidelines from the International Organization for Standardization, with components from the measurement, stability, and homogeneity studies being propagated into final combined uncertainties. PMID:27524810

  4. Determination of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning and amnesic shellfish poisoning of sea shellfish by HPLC in China Coast%HPLC分析检测我国沿海双壳贝类体内赤潮毒素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘仁沿; 付云娜; 关道明

    2004-01-01

    使用HPLC方法分析了2001年8~10月间采集的我国沿海双壳贝类体中的腹泻性贝毒(Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning,DSP).共分析了肌肉样品64个,消化腺样品11个,其中渤海18个肌肉样品中检出DSP的7个,南海和东海DSP未检出,消化腺检出DSP的有6个,含量最高的是菊花岛菲律宾蛤仔消化腺7.12×10-6(湿重).并首次报道分析我国沿海双壳贝类体内记忆缺失性贝毒(Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning,ASP)HPLC分析方法和结果.

  5. Diarrheic shellfish poisoning due to toxic mussel consumption: the first recorded outbreak in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, V; Papadopoulou, C; Brett, M; Kansouzidou, A; Charalabopoulos, K; Filioussis, G; Seferiadis, K

    2007-03-01

    During the week of 14-20 January 2000, 120 people visited the Emergency Departments of hospitals in Thessaloniki, northern Greece, complaining of acute gastrointestinal illness after eating mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). The symptoms indicated diarrhoeic shellfish poisoning, and the toxicity of mussels harvested from Thermaikos Gulf in Thessaloniki during the outbreak was investigated using mouse bioassays. The bioassays revealed toxicity to mice by the mussel samples; while high numbers of toxic algae Dinophysis acuminata were identified in water samples from Thermaikos Gulf. The harvesting of mussels was immediately suspended and a monitoring programme for algal blooms was established from then onwards. During a follow-up of the mussels' toxicity from January 2000 to January 2005, two more mussel samples were found positive for diarrheic shellfish poisoning: one harvested in March 2001 from the area of the outbreak (Thermaikos Gulf) and the other harvested in January 2001 from Amvrakikos Gulf in north-western Greece. However, no sporadic cases or outbreaks were reported during this period. PMID:17364933

  6. Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins and Other Lipophilic Toxins of Human Health Concern in Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bich-Thuy L. Eberhart

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The illness of three people in 2011 after their ingestion of mussels collected from Sequim Bay State Park, Washington State, USA, demonstrated the need to monitor diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs in Washington State for the protection of human health. Following these cases of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, monitoring for DSTs in Washington State became formalized in 2012, guided by routine monitoring of Dinophysis species by the SoundToxins program in Puget Sound and the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB partnership on the outer Washington State coast. Here we show that the DSTs at concentrations above the guidance level of 16 μg okadaic acid (OA + dinophysistoxins (DTXs/100 g shellfish tissue were widespread in sentinel mussels throughout Puget Sound in summer 2012 and included harvest closures of California mussel, varnish clam, manila clam and Pacific oyster. Concentrations of toxins in Pacific oyster and manila clam were often at least half those measured in blue mussels at the same site. The primary toxin isomer in shellfish and plankton samples was dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1 with D. acuminata as the primary Dinophysis species. Other lipophilic toxins in shellfish were pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2 and yessotoxin (YTX with azaspiracid-2 (AZA-2 also measured in phytoplankton samples. Okadaic acid, azaspiracid-1 (AZA-1 and azaspiracid-3 (AZA-3 were all below the levels of detection by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. A shellfish closure at Ruby Beach, Washington, was the first ever noted on the Washington State Pacific coast due to DSTs. The greater than average Fraser River flow during the summers of 2011 and 2012 may have provided an environment conducive to dinoflagellates and played a role in the prevalence of toxigenic Dinophysis in Puget Sound.

  7. Paralytic shellfish poison in Spisula solidissima: anatomical location and ozone detoxification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blogoslawski, W.J. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Milford, CT); Stewart, M.E.

    1978-01-01

    The surf clam Spisula solidissima, when exposed to a northern bloom of the toxic dinoflagellate Gonyaulax tamarensis, concentrates paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) and retains it for periods of over 1 year. The purpose of this investigation was to identify those tissues in which S. solidissima concentrates PSP and to examine the efficacy of ozone gas in PSP detoxification. Various levels of the toxin were found in every untreated tissue examined: the mantle and gill containing high concentrations (greater than 1600 ..mu..g/100 g tissue); the visceral mass, siphon, and foot showing less toxicity (1100 to 200 ..mu..g/100 g tissue); and the adductor muscle yielding a level of toxin considered safe for human consumption (less than 60 ..mu..g/100 g tissue). Toxic clams exposed to ozonized seawater for 2 weeks exhibited rapid detoxification in all tissues examined.

  8. Detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in Philippine mussel samples by electrospray mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence of toxic red tide outbreaks is an environmental and public health hazard in the Philippines. Thus it is necessary to develop monitoring programs to protect the shellfish industry and the general public. Previous methods for the detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins make use of mouse bioassays and/or fluorescence detection through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mouse bioassay, while cheap and rapid, requires a large amount of sample, and is capable of detection of toxin concentrations that are already near the regulatory limit. Fluorescence HPLC analysis of derivatized PSP samples is destructive and is not sufficiently reproducible. We report a new procedure for the rapid detection of components of samples contaminated by pyrodinium bahamense var compressum using a combination of reverse-phase HPLC and electrospray mass spectrometry. The procedure is fast and requires minimal amounts of sample, so that purified toxins need not be derivatizated as a prerequisite for its detection. In addition, results from this study complement earlier findings that the main toxic components of Philippine toxic red tide are neosaxitoxin, decarbamoylsaxitoxin, and gonyautoxin. (Author)

  9. In vivo arrhythmogenicity of the marine biotoxin azaspiracid-2 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, Sara F; Vilariño, Natalia; Carrera, Cristina; Louzao, M Carmen; Santamarina, Germán; Cantalapiedra, Antonio G; Rodríguez, Laura P; Cifuentes, J Manuel; Vieira, Andrés C; Nicolaou, K C; Frederick, Michael O; Botana, Luis M

    2014-02-01

    Azaspiracids (AZAs) are marine biotoxins produced by the dinoflagellate Azadinium spinosum that accumulate in several shellfish species. Azaspiracid poisoning episodes have been described in humans due to ingestion of AZA-contaminated seafood. Therefore, the contents of AZA-1, AZA-2 and AZA-3, the best-known analogs of the group, in shellfish destined to human consumption have been regulated by food safety authorities of many countries to protect human health. In vivo and in vitro toxicological studies have described effects of AZAs at different cellular levels and on several organs, however, AZA target remains unknown. Very recently, AZAs have been demonstrated to block the hERG cardiac potassium channel. In this study, we explored the potential cardiotoxicity of AZA-2 in vivo. The effects of AZA-2 on rat electrocardiogram (ECG) and cardiac biomarkers were evaluated for cardiotoxicity signs besides corroborating the hERG-blocking activity of AZA-2. Our results demonstrated that AZA-2 does not induce QT interval prolongation on rat ECGs in vivo, in spite of being an in vitro blocker of the hERG cardiac potassium channel. However, AZA-2 alters the heart electrical activity causing prolongation of PR intervals and the appearance of arrhythmias. More studies will be needed to clarify the mechanism by which AZA-2 causes these ECG alterations; however, the potential cardiotoxicity of AZAs demonstrated in this in vivo study should be taken into consideration when evaluating the possible threat that these toxins pose to human health, mainly for individuals with pre-existing cardiovascular disease when regulated toxin limits are exceeded.

  10. In vivo arrhythmogenicity of the marine biotoxin azaspiracid-2 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, Sara F; Vilariño, Natalia; Carrera, Cristina; Louzao, M Carmen; Santamarina, Germán; Cantalapiedra, Antonio G; Rodríguez, Laura P; Cifuentes, J Manuel; Vieira, Andrés C; Nicolaou, K C; Frederick, Michael O; Botana, Luis M

    2014-02-01

    Azaspiracids (AZAs) are marine biotoxins produced by the dinoflagellate Azadinium spinosum that accumulate in several shellfish species. Azaspiracid poisoning episodes have been described in humans due to ingestion of AZA-contaminated seafood. Therefore, the contents of AZA-1, AZA-2 and AZA-3, the best-known analogs of the group, in shellfish destined to human consumption have been regulated by food safety authorities of many countries to protect human health. In vivo and in vitro toxicological studies have described effects of AZAs at different cellular levels and on several organs, however, AZA target remains unknown. Very recently, AZAs have been demonstrated to block the hERG cardiac potassium channel. In this study, we explored the potential cardiotoxicity of AZA-2 in vivo. The effects of AZA-2 on rat electrocardiogram (ECG) and cardiac biomarkers were evaluated for cardiotoxicity signs besides corroborating the hERG-blocking activity of AZA-2. Our results demonstrated that AZA-2 does not induce QT interval prolongation on rat ECGs in vivo, in spite of being an in vitro blocker of the hERG cardiac potassium channel. However, AZA-2 alters the heart electrical activity causing prolongation of PR intervals and the appearance of arrhythmias. More studies will be needed to clarify the mechanism by which AZA-2 causes these ECG alterations; however, the potential cardiotoxicity of AZAs demonstrated in this in vivo study should be taken into consideration when evaluating the possible threat that these toxins pose to human health, mainly for individuals with pre-existing cardiovascular disease when regulated toxin limits are exceeded. PMID:23934164

  11. Lethal paralytic shellfish poisoning from consumption of green mussel broth, Western Samar, Philippines, August 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Katrina Ching

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In July 2013, the Philippines’ Event-Based Surveillance & Response Unit received a paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP report from Tarangnan, Western Samar. A team from the Department of Health conducted an outbreak investigation to identify the implicated source and risk factors in coastal villages known for green mussel production and exportation. Methods: A case was defined as a previously well individual from Tarangan, Western Samar who developed gastrointestinal symptoms and any motor and/or sensory symptoms after consumption of shellfish from 29 June to 4 July 2013 in the absence of any known cause. The team reviewed medical records, conducted active case finding and a case-control study. Relatives of cases who died were interviewed. Sera and urine specimens, green mussel and seawater samples were tested for saxitoxin levels using high performance liquid chromatography. Results: Thirty-one cases and two deaths were identified. Consumption of >1 cup of green mussel broth was associated with being a case. Seawater sample was positive for Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum and green mussel samples were positive for saxitoxin. Inspection revealed villagers practice open defecation and improper garbage disposal. Conclusion: This PSP outbreak was caused by the consumption of the green mussel broth contaminated by saxitoxin. As a result of this outbreak, dinoflagellate and saxitoxin surveillance was established, and since the outbreak, there have been no harmful algal blooms event or PSP case reported since. A “Save Cambatutay Bay” movement, focusing on proper waste disposal practice and clean-up drives has been mobilized.

  12. PRESENCE OF P.S.P. TOXINS (PARALYTIC SHELLFISH POISON IN MUSSELS OF SARDINIA AND NON-CONFORMITY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Virgilio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The progressive diffusion of dinoflagellates belonging to Alexandrium genus (A. catenella and A.minutun and the contamination of the mussels used usually as food with marine toxins represents an high risk for the human health and for business mussels farms. In this study, the authors reported results of analysis during 2008 for detection P.S.P. (Paralytic Shellfish Poison toxins in mussels bred in Olbia and Oristano areas and health precautions.

  13. Analysis of paralytic shellfish poisoning in shellfish of Dalian coast%大连近岸海域经济贝类麻痹性贝毒分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋普江; 张伟; 王刚; 姬文婷; 李伟; 佟长青; 金桥

    2011-01-01

    对2007年1月至2008年10月间大连地区近岸海域经济贝类的麻痹性贝毒采用小鼠生物法检测,结果表明:2007年4月至9月及2008年2月至8月贝类中的麻痹性贝毒超标情况较多,超标率较高的地点是长海财神岛、庄河黑岛.在染毒的贝类种类中,主要以虾夷扇贝为主,在杂色蛤和牡蛎中未检出麻痹性贝毒.通过ELISA的方法研究了虾夷扇贝不同组织中的蛋白质对麻痹性贝毒的结合能力.采用DEAE-52离子交换层析和Sephadex G-100层析方法分离出麻痹性贝毒结合蛋白,通过SDS-PAGE测定出麻痹性贝毒结合蛋白的分子量分别为113 kDa和72.4 kDa.%The economic shellfish in Dalian coast were collected from Jan. 2007 to Oct. 2008. The paralytic shellfish poisoning( PSP)in shellfish was determined by the mouse bioassay. The results showed that the high values of PSP of economic shellfish were found from Apr. To Sep. Of 2007 and from Feb. To Aug. Of 2008 in Dalian coast. The high values of PSP were found in Caishen Island of Changhai and Hei Island of Zhuanghe. The major findings of PSP were in scallop Patinopecten yessoensis, not in clams Scrobicularia plana and oyster Crassostrea gigas. The paralytic shellfish poison-binding proteins (PSPBP) in different tissues were studied by ELISA and the result showed that the proteins in muscle strongly bind with PSP. PSPBP were isolated by DEAE 52 and Sephadex G-100. SDS-PAGE showed that the PSPBP has a molecular mass of 113 kDa and 72.4 kDa.

  14. Data from monitoring of shellfish for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) and Domoic Acid Poisoning (DAP) by the Washington State Department of Health, 1989-1999 (NCEI Accession 0000580)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The state of Washington routinely experiences seasonal restrictions on commercial and recreational shellfish harvest due to two toxic phytoplankton syndromes,...

  15. 浙南海域腹泻性贝毒分析%Analysis of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfishes collected from the coastal waters of south Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张树刚; 邹清; 陈雷; 郜钧璋

    2011-01-01

    Forty samples belonging to 10 species of shellfishes were collected in coastal waters of south Zhejiang.Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins were detected in 9 samples with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).The contents of DSP were between 0.07 to 5.87 μg/g; 7 samples (17.5%) exceeded the safety threshold.The positive rate and over-standard rate of DSP were mainly presented in Summer and the south.Mytilus edulis,Sinnovacula constricta, Tegillarca granosa and Cyclina sinensis showed high contents of DSP toxins.Moreover cultured shellfishes had stronger ability to accumulate DSP than wild shellfishes.%在浙南海域共采集了10种贝类40份样品.运用高效液相色谱方法检测腹泻性贝毒,共检出 9份样品含有腹泻性贝毒.染毒样品检出的腹泻性贝毒(软海绵酸,OA)质量比为0.07~5.85 μg/g,共有7个样品含量超标,超标率为17.5%.无论是检出率还是超标率,都呈现夏季>春季>秋季的规律.浙南海域的南部腹泻性贝毒检出率和超标率比北部和中部都高.紫贻贝、缢蛏、泥蚶和青蛤较其他种类易富集腹泻性贝毒.养殖的贝类检出率及超标率均高于野生的贝类.

  16. Application of rapid test kits for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in bivalve molluscs from Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Keith; Johnson, Sarah; Turner, Andrew D

    2016-09-01

    Six different commercial rapid screening assays for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning toxins were assessed with the analysis of shellfish samples from GB. The performance of each kit was assessed through comparison with the current regulatory HPLC method. Samples assessed consisted of a wide variety of shellfish species of importance to the shellfish industry in GB. These had been sourced over a number of years and with a wide variety of geographical origins. One lateral flow immunoassay was found to provide a quick qualitative assessment of PSP toxicity, with a low proportion of false negative results for PSP-positive samples, but with higher numbers of false positives. The performance of the five quantitative ELISA assays varied considerably, with two demonstrating an inappropriate linear range, with others either over-estimating or under-estimating toxicity. One ELISA from R-Biopharm was found to show a good correlation with the HPLC toxicity results. All ELISAs, however, returned some false negative results, most notably for samples containing high proportions of toxins with low cross reactivity to saxitoxin such as GTX1&4. Whilst the lateral flow assays on the market are of particular use to Food Business Operators for end product testing, further work is required in parallel with instrumental testing methods using a larger number of samples to assess the reliability and accuracy of these kits over the long term. PMID:27373993

  17. Onboard screening dockside testing as a new means of managing paralytic shellfish poisoning risks in federally closed waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrasse, Stacey; Conrad, Stephen; DiStefano, Paul; Vanegas, Camilo; Wallace, David; Jensen, Pete; Hickey, J. Michael; Cenci, Florence; Pitt, Jaclyn; Deardorff, Dave; Rubio, Fernando; Easy, Dorothy; Donovan, Mary Anne; Laycock, Maurice; Rouse, Debbie; Mullen, John

    2014-05-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is the foodborne intoxication associated with the consumption of seafood contaminated with naturally occurring neurotoxins known as paralytic shellfish toxins. To protect public health from this potentially fatal syndrome, harvesting closures are implemented when toxins exceed the regulatory action level. Traditional monitoring programs established by state shellfish authorities allow for timely closures in state waters with minimal negative impacts on industry. However, such monitoring programs are not feasible in federal offshore waters given their distance from shore and the range of their spatial coverage. Thus innovative management strategies were investigated for these offshore resources. Georges Bank, an offshore resource with an estimated market value of more than 3 billion in Atlantic surfclams and ocean quahogs, has been closed to harvesting following a temporary ban in 1989 and a subsequent indefinite closure in 1990 due to the risk of PSP. As a means of managing this risk and allowing harvest of safe shellfish from this important resource, the Onboard Screening Dockside Testing Protocol (referred to as the Protocol) was developed by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), state shellfish control authorities, and industry. The Protocol, which sets forth control measures to ensure product safety and public health protection, was endorsed by the Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference (ISSC) for pilot testing. Briefly, the pilot study Protocol required that (1) the fishing vessel receive a permit from NMFS to harvest in closed waters, (2) a miniμm of five shellfish samples per intended harvest lot be tested for PSP toxins onboard, and (3) harvesting only occur when the samples tested from the intended fishing area are negative using the Jellett Rapid Tests or Abraxis Shipboard ELISA kits. Finally, product landed under the Protocol was confirmed to be safe for consumption

  18. Paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins accumulation in purple clam Hiatula rostrata and toxic effect on milkfish Chanos chanos larval fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C Y

    2001-11-01

    In an attempt to feed purple clams (Hiatula rostrata) with dinoglagellate Alexandrium minutum, the maximal accumulation toxicity of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins reached 40.6 MU/g on day 5 of feeding. Subsequently, the toxicity increased no further, although purple clams ingested more toxic algae. Furthermore, when milkfish (Chanos chanos) larvae were treated with toxic, nontoxic A. minutum or PSP toxin-containing extract in the water medium, it was found that the mortality of fish increased with the increasing concentrations of toxic algae. PSP toxin-containing extract did not show any toxic effect on milkfish larvae.

  19. A mussel (Mytilus edulis) tissue certified reference material for the marine biotoxins azaspiracids

    OpenAIRE

    McCarron, Pearse; Giddings, Sabrina D.; Reeves, Kelley L.; Hess, Philipp; Michael A. Quilliam

    2015-01-01

    Azaspiracids (AZAs) are lipophilic biotoxins produced by marine algae that can contaminate shellfish and cause human illness. The European Union (EU) regulates the level of AZAs in shellfish destined for the commercial market, with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) being used as the official reference method for regulatory analysis. Certified reference materials (CRMs) are essential tools for the development, validation, and quality control of LC-MS methods. This paper describes...

  20. In silico analysis of putative paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins export proteins in cyanobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Soto-Liebe

    Full Text Available Paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs are a family of more than 30 natural alkaloids synthesized by dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria whose toxicity in animals is mediated by voltage-gated Na(+ channel blocking. The export of PST analogues may be through SxtF and SxtM, two putative MATE (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion family transporters encoded in PSTs biosynthetic gene cluster (sxt. sxtM is present in every sxt cluster analyzed; however, sxtF is only present in the Cylindrospermopsis-Raphidiopsis clade. These transporters are energetically coupled with an electrochemical gradient of proton (H(+ or sodium (Na(+ ions across membranes. Because the functional role of PSTs remains unknown and methods for genetic manipulation in PST-producing organisms have not yet been developed, protein structure analyses will allow us to understand their function. By analyzing the sxt cluster of eight PST-producing cyanobacteria, we found no correlation between the presence of sxtF or sxtM and a specific PSTs profile. Phylogenetic analyses of SxtF/M showed a high conservation of SxtF in the Cylindrospermopsis-Raphidiopsis clade, suggesting conserved substrate affinity. Two domains involved in Na(+ and drug recognition from NorM proteins (MATE family of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae are present in SxtF/M. The Na(+ recognition domain was conserved in both SxtF/M, indicating that Na(+ can maintain the role as a cation anti-transporter. Consensus motifs for toxin binding differed between SxtF and SxtM implying differential substrate binding. Through protein modeling and docking analysis, we found that there is no marked affinity between the recognition domain and a specific PST analogue. This agrees with our previous results of PST export in R. brookii D9, where we observed that the response to Na(+ incubation was similar to different analogues. These results reassert the hypothesis regarding the involvement of Na(+ in toxin export, as well as

  1. In Silico Analysis of Putative Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins Export Proteins in Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Liebe, Katia; López-Cortés, Xaviera A.; Fuentes-Valdes, Juan José; Stucken, Karina; Gonzalez-Nilo, Fernando; Vásquez, Mónica

    2013-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs) are a family of more than 30 natural alkaloids synthesized by dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria whose toxicity in animals is mediated by voltage-gated Na+ channel blocking. The export of PST analogues may be through SxtF and SxtM, two putative MATE (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) family transporters encoded in PSTs biosynthetic gene cluster (sxt). sxtM is present in every sxt cluster analyzed; however, sxtF is only present in the Cylindrospermopsis-Raphidiopsis clade. These transporters are energetically coupled with an electrochemical gradient of proton (H+) or sodium (Na+) ions across membranes. Because the functional role of PSTs remains unknown and methods for genetic manipulation in PST-producing organisms have not yet been developed, protein structure analyses will allow us to understand their function. By analyzing the sxt cluster of eight PST-producing cyanobacteria, we found no correlation between the presence of sxtF or sxtM and a specific PSTs profile. Phylogenetic analyses of SxtF/M showed a high conservation of SxtF in the Cylindrospermopsis-Raphidiopsis clade, suggesting conserved substrate affinity. Two domains involved in Na+ and drug recognition from NorM proteins (MATE family) of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae are present in SxtF/M. The Na+ recognition domain was conserved in both SxtF/M, indicating that Na+ can maintain the role as a cation anti-transporter. Consensus motifs for toxin binding differed between SxtF and SxtM implying differential substrate binding. Through protein modeling and docking analysis, we found that there is no marked affinity between the recognition domain and a specific PST analogue. This agrees with our previous results of PST export in R. brookii D9, where we observed that the response to Na+ incubation was similar to different analogues. These results reassert the hypothesis regarding the involvement of Na+ in toxin export, as well as the motifs L398XGLQD

  2. Assessment of sodium channel mutations in Makah Tribal members of the U.S. Pacific Northwest as a potential mechanism of resistance to paralytic shellfish poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Nicolaus G.; Robertson, Alison; Grattan, Lynn M.; Pendleton, Steve; Roberts, Sparkle; Tracy, J. Kathleen; Trainer, Vera L.

    2015-01-01

    The Makah Tribe of Neah Bay, Washington, has historically relied on the subsistence harvest of coastal seafood, including shellfish, which remains an important cultural and ceremonial resource. Tribal legend describes visitors from other tribes that died from eating shellfish collected on Makah lands. These deaths were believed to be caused by paralytic shellfish poisoning, a human illness caused by ingestion of shellfish contaminated with saxitoxins, which are produced by toxin-producing marine dinoflagellates on which the shellfish feed. These paralytic shellfish toxins include saxitoxin, a potent Na+ channel antagonist that binds to the pore region of voltage gated Na+ channels. Amino acid mutations in the Na+ channel pore have been demonstrated to confer resistance to saxitoxin in softshell clam populations exposed to paralytic shellfish toxins present in their environment. Because of the notion of resistance to paralytic shellfish toxins, we aimed to determine if a resistance strategy was possible in humans with historical exposure to toxins in shellfish. We collected, extracted and purified DNA from buccal swabs of 83 volunteer Makah tribal members and sequenced the skeletal muscle Na+ channel (Nav1.4) at nine loci to characterize potential mutations in the relevant saxitoxin binding regions. No mutations of these specific regions were identified after comparison to a reference sequence. This study suggests that any resistance of Makah Tribal members to saxitoxin is not a function of Nav1.4 modification but may be due to mutations in neuronal or cardiac sodium channels or some other mechanism unrelated to sodium channel function. PMID:27616973

  3. 浙江近岸海域贝类中重金属和贝毒污染状况研究%Contamination status of heavy metals and shellfish poisoning in the shellfish samples of Zhejiang coastal areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    母清林; 王晓华; 佘运勇; 邹伟明; 王剑; 王艳华

    2013-01-01

      在浙江近岸海域采集了青蛤(Cyclina sinensis)、毛蚶(Scapharca subcrenata)、厚壳贻贝(Mytilus coruscus)、缢蛏(Sinonovacula constricta)、泥螺(Bullacta exarata)、菲律宾蛤仔(Ruditapes philippi-narum)、文蛤(Meretrix meretrix)、僧帽牡蛎(Ostrea cucullata)和栉孔扇贝(Chlamys farreri)共9种贝类计29份样品,检测其中重金属汞、砷、铜、铅、锌、镉以及麻痹性贝毒和腹泻性贝毒。结果表明,瑞安毛蚶、瑞安栉孔扇贝中有麻痹性贝类毒素检出,嵊泗文蛤、毛蚶和乐清牡蛎中存在重金属超标的情况;牡蛎对汞、铜、锌、镉有较强的富集能力。%Twenty nine samples belonging to 9 species of shellfishes including Cyclina sinensis, Scapharca sub-crenat, Mytilus coruscus, Sinonovacula constricta, Bullacta exarata, Ruditapes philippinarum, Meretrix meretrix, Ostrea cucullata and Chlamys farreri were collected from coastal waters of Zhejiang. Heavy metals including mercury, arsenic, copper, lead, zinc, cadmium and paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins, diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins were detected. Paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins were detected in RuiAn S. subcrenata and Ruian C. farreri. Content of heavy metals in ShengSi M. meretrix, ShengSi S. subcrenata and LeQing O. cucullata exceed the stan-dard, and oysters have high capability in enrichment of heavy metals such as mercury, copper, zinc and cadmium.

  4. Review of Shellfish Poisoning and the Test Methods in Natural Watershed%天然水域中贝毒素及检测方法综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马嵩; 彭福; 张天峰; 陈葵

    2014-01-01

    天然水域中存在着一类由毒藻产生的毒素往往经贝类、鱼类等传播媒介造成人类中毒的毒素,而这类毒素通常被称为贝毒素,是一种广泛分布的生物毒素.目前已经研究发现了腹泻性贝毒(Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning,DSP)、麻痹性贝毒(Paralytic shellfish poisoning,PSP)、神经性贝毒(Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning,NSP)、记忆缺损性贝毒(Amnesic shellfish poisoning,ASP)和西加鱼毒素(Ciguatoxin,CTX)等5种主要贝类毒素.本文描述了各种毒素其主要特征,介绍了其毒物成分及毒理效应,并对已有的检测方法作以综合性的介绍和评判.其中,有关腹泻性贝毒和麻痹性贝毒的研究报道比较多,检测技术方法应用比较广泛,主要有生物检测,免疫法以及液相色谱等方法;而记忆缺损性贝毒和西加鱼毒素目前研究还相对较少,检测方法以免疫法为主.

  5. Paralytic shellfish poisoning: post-mortem analysis of tissue and body fluid samples from human victims in the Patagonia fjords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Carlos; del Carmen Bravo, María; Lagos, Marcelo; Lagos, Néstor

    2004-02-01

    In July 5, 2002 fishermen working in harvesting sea urchin (Loxechinus albus) in the Patagonia Chilean fjords were intoxicated by consumption of filter-feeder bivalve Aulacomya ater. After the ingestion of 7-9 ribbed mussel, two fishermen died 3-4 h after shellfish consumption. The forensic examination in both victims did not show pathological abnormalities with the exception of the lungs conditions, crackling to the touch, pulmonary congestion and edema. The toxic mussel sample showed a toxicity measured by mouse bioassay of 8575 microg of STX (saxitoxin) equivalent by 100 g of shellfish meat. Using post-column derivatization HPLC method with fluorescent on line detection was possible to measure mass amount of each paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin yielding individual toxin concentrations. These PSP toxins were identified in the gastric content, body fluids (urine, bile and cerebrospinal fluid) and tissue samples (liver, kidney, lung, stomach, spleen, heart, brain, adrenal glands, pancreas and thyroids glands). The toxin profiles of each body fluid and tissue samples and the amount of each PSP toxin detected are reported. The PSP toxins found in the gastric content, were STX and the gonyautoxins (GTX4, GTX1, GTX5, GTX3 and GTX2) which showed to be the major amount of PSP toxins found in the victims biological samples. The PSP toxin composition in urine and bile showed as major PSP toxins neoSaxitoxin (neoSTX) and GTX4/GTX1 epimers, both STX analogues with an hydroxyl group (-OH) in the N(1) of the tetrahydropurine nucleus. The neoSTX was not present in the gastric content sample, indicating that the oxidation of N(1) in the STX tetrahydropurine nucleus resulted neoSTX, in a similar way that GTX3/GTX2 epimers were transformed in GTX4/GTX1 epimers. Beside this metabolic transformation, also the hydrolysis of carbamoyl group from STX to form its decarbomoyl analogue decarbamoylsaxitoxin was detected in liver, kidney and lung. These two findings show that PSP

  6. Sampling for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning in commercial and recreational shellfish areas in Washington state marine waters, 1957 - 1988 (NODC Accession 0000597)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The state of Washington routinely experiences seasonal restrictions on commercial and recreational shellfish harvest due to two toxic phytoplankton syndromes,...

  7. Sampling for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning in commercial and recreational shellfish areas in Washington state marine waters, January - December 2000 (NODC Accession 0000559)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The state of Washington routinely experiences seasonal restrictions on commercial and recreational shellfish harvest due to two toxic phytoplankton syndromes,...

  8. Effect of environmental and nutritional factors on growth and azaspiracid production of the dinoflagellate Azadinium spinosum

    OpenAIRE

    Jauffrais, Thierry; Sechet, Veronique; Herrenknecht, Christine; Truquet, Philippe; Savar, Veronique; Tillmann, Urban; Hess, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Azadinium spinosum, a small dinoflagellate isolated from the North Sea, is a producer of azaspiracids (AZAs), a group of biotoxins associated with human illness following ingestion of contaminated shellfish. Using batch and continuous cultures of A. spinosum, the present study investigated the effects of different environmental and nutritional factors (salinity, temperature, photon flux density, aeration, culture media, nitrogen sources, phosphate source, and N/P ratios) on growth, maximum ce...

  9. Food poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poisoning, including: Campylobacter enteritis Cholera E. coli enteritis Toxins in spoiled or tainted fish or shellfish Staphylococcus aureus Salmonella Shigella Infants and older people are at ...

  10. Prevalence of paralytic shellfish poison-producing Planktothrix agardhii and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii in a Brazilian semi-arid reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Keslley Carloto Lopes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the composition and toxicity of the phytoplankton in Sítios Novos reservoir, used mainly as drinking water supply for approximately 30,000 people.MethodsSamples were collected between January 2010 and June 2011.ResultsDuring this period 19 taxa of cyanobacteria and 22 of algae were identified. Out of 45 samples collected, algae accounted for no more than 10% of the quantified organisms in 44 samples. Cyanobacteria accounted for 100% of the organisms quantified in three samples and for 99% in other 29 samples. Among the cyanobacteria group, Planktothrix agardhii (Gomont Anagnostidis & Komárek and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Woloszynska Seenaya & Subbaraju prevailed and both strains were isolated and identified as paralytic shellfish poison (PSP producers. C. raciborskii strain has shown to produce SXT and dcSXT while P. agardhii strain has shown to produce dcGTX2 or 3.ConclusionsTo the author’s knowledge, this is the first report of PSP-producer cyanobacteria species isolated in Northeastern Brazil and the first reported of a P. agardhii synthesizing dcGTX2/3.

  11. 我国麻痹性贝毒的研究现状%Present Status of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王焕玲; 梁玉波; 刘仁沿; 许道艳

    2008-01-01

    贝类毒素是海洋藻类产生的天然产物,能引发赤潮的海洋藻类有260多种,其中有70多种能产生毒素。由于许多有毒的藻类,被鱼、虾、贝类等海洋生物摄食,其毒素在这些生物体内蓄积,这类毒素称为贝毒,人们食用染毒的贝类可发生中毒,根据中毒症状可分为5类:①麻痹性贝毒(Paralytie Shellfish Poisoning , PSP),②腹泻性贝毒(Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning,DSP),③神经性贝毒(Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning,NSP),④记忆丧失性贝毒(Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning,ASP),⑤西加鱼毒(Ciguatera)。

  12. Structure Elucidation, Relative LC-MS Response and In Vitro Toxicity of Azaspiracids 7-10 Isolated from Mussels (Mytilus edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcoyne, Jane; Twiner, Michael J; McCarron, Pearse; Crain, Sheila; Giddings, Sabrina D; Foley, Barry; Rise, Frode; Hess, Philipp; Wilkins, Alistair L; Miles, Christopher O

    2015-05-27

    Azaspiracids (AZAs) are marine biotoxins produced by dinoflagellates that can accumulate in shellfish, which if consumed can lead to poisoning events. AZA7-10, 7-10, were isolated from shellfish and their structures, previously proposed on the basis of only LC-MS/MS data, were confirmed by NMR spectroscopy. Purified AZA4-6, 4-6, and 7-10 were accurately quantitated by qNMR and used to assay cytotoxicity with Jurkat T lymphocyte cells for the first time. LC-MS(MS) molar response studies performed using isocratic and gradient elution in both selected ion monitoring and selected reaction monitoring modes showed that responses for the analogues ranged from 0.3 to 1.2 relative to AZA1, 1. All AZA analogues tested were cytotoxic to Jurkat T lymphocyte cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner; however, there were distinct differences in their EC50 values, with the potencies for each analogue being: AZA6 > AZA8 > AZA1 > AZA4 ≈ AZA9 > AZA5 ≈ AZA10. This data contributes to the understanding of the structure-activity relationships of AZAs.

  13. Studies on azaspiracid biotoxins. III. Instrumental validation for rapid quantification of AZA 1 in complex biological matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay, Pearl K S; Brombacher, Stephan; Volmer, Dietrich A

    2003-01-01

    Azaspiracids are neurotoxins produced by marine algae that have been detected in harvested mussels since 1995. They pose a significant threat to human health through the consumption of contaminated shellfish, and negatively impact the economy of areas where shellfish are harvested and processed. Regulatory agencies are beginning to advocate instrumental assays over traditional mouse bioassay methods. The development and validation of an assay method for AZA 1, the predominant azaspiracid toxin, and the production of a calibration standard and reference material will therefore be vital for quality control in monitoring laboratories worldwide. This report demonstrates a rapid and reproducible liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method for separation of all twelve known azaspiracids. Using a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer, ultra-high sensitivity was obtained at the low-femtogram level injected on-column. At the same time, a linear response of three orders of magnitude was observed. We compared the results with those measured on an ion-trap mass spectrometer. The triple-quadrupole instrument was more sensitive, reliable and reproducible than the ion-trap instrument. The detection limit obtained on the ion-trap mass spectrometer was ten times higher than that obtained on the triple quadrupole. During the study, a new azaspiracid analog (AZA 7c) was discovered.

  14. The pattern of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning in shellfish cultured in the coast of Yellow Sea, China%黄海海域贝类腹泻性贝类毒素污染状况研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄翔; 江天久; 吴霓

    2013-01-01

    The diarrhetic shellfish poisoning(DSP) in shellfish cultured in the Yellow Sea,China was investigated by the mouse bioas-say. 61 samples including Patinopecten yessoensis ,Atrina pectinata and Pinna inflate were collected from Luohu seafood wholesale market in Shenzhen during November 2007 to October 2008. The results show that the positive rate and the over standard rate of samples contaminated by DSP were 44. 26% and 24. 59% , respectively. All shellfish species were contaminated by DSP, and scallop Patinopecten yessoensis was the most seriously polluted species. The distribution of the positive rate and the over standard rate were of seasonal difference, the samples collected in spring had the highest level of DSP.%运用小白鼠生物检测法,对产自我国黄海海域贝类进行腹泻性贝类毒素检测.本研究于2007年11月至2008年10月在深圳罗湖水产批发市场定期采集市售贝类,包括虾夷扇贝、栉江珧和胖江珧,61份样品.结果显示,黄海海域贝类腹泻性贝类毒素检出率为44.26%,超标率为24.59%;所有种类的贝类均受到不同程度腹泻性贝类毒素污染,其中虾夷扇贝腹泻性贝类毒素污染最为严重;贝类样品的阳性检出率和超标率随季节变化而存在一定差异,春季样品腹泻性贝类毒素含量最高.

  15. Remarkable difference in paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin distribution in tissues of pen shell atrina pectinata exposed to toxic red tide bloom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pen shell atrina pectinata is one of the commercially important bivalves in Western Pacific region. In the Philippines, it is marketed as a whole meat or processed by shellfish harvesters to separate the abductor muscle as an export commodity. During blooms of toxic dinoflagellate pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum (Pbc), A. pectinata accumulates paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins sometimes exceeding Philippine regulatory limit of 60μgSTXeq/100g tissue and international regulatory limit of 80μgSTXeq/100g tissue for safe human consumption, based on whole tissue analysis. Toxic blooms directly affect the shellfish industry which includes A. pectinata, and this causes not only significant economical losses on shellfish gatherers but also serious public health concerns. In this study, samples of A. pectinata exposed to toxic bloom of Pbc were collected in Sorsogon Bay, Philippines. Bioaccumulation and distribution of PSP toxins were determined in different tissues namely, abductor muscle, mantle, gills, gonads, siphon, stomach and intestine using High Performance Liquid Chromatography post column derivatization method with fluorescence detection. Likewise, green mussels Perna viridis being the sentinel species for PSP monitoring in the Philippines were also collected in the same area and served as control. Interestingly, results showed that the abductor muscle accumulates minimal level of PSP toxins and is several folds lower than the Philippine and international regulatory limits in contrast with the results obtained from P. viridis. Mantle parts showed toxicity values exceeding local regulatory limit and near to go beyond the international regulatory limit. Conversely, the remaining parts showed high toxicity values surpassing both regulation limits. Standard mouse bioassay regulatory used in PSP monitoring in the Philippines was also performed and revealed that the abductor muscle had non-detectable level of toxins. Also, toxicity values from different

  16. Optimisation of isolation methods for the azaspiracid group of marine biotoxins and the development of accurate and precise methods of analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kilcoyle, J.

    2015-01-01

    The two main groups of biotoxins which affect the Irish shellfish industry are azaspiracids (AZAs) and the okadaic acid (OA) group (OA, DTX2, DTX1 and their esters) toxins. Since AZAs were first identified in 1998, well over 30 analogues have been reported. Structural and toxicological data have been described for AZA1–5 (isolated from shellfish). LC-MS/MS is the EU reference method for detection of the AZAs (AZA1, -2 and -3) and the OA group toxins in raw shellfish with the regulatory limit ...

  17. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of the diarrhetic shellfish-poisoning toxins okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1 and pectenotoxin-6 in bivalves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T; Yasumoto, T

    2000-04-01

    Determination of diarrhetic shellfish-poisoning (DSP) toxins, okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) and pectenotoxin-6 (PTX6) was carried out by liquid chromatography (LC) followed by on-line atmospheric pressure electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) detection with a heated capillary interface. Mass spectra of authentic OA, DTXI and PTX6 standards exhibited abundant [M-H] at m/z 803, 817 and 887, respectively. Linearity of peak area obtained by selected-ion monitoring (SIM) for [M-H]- of each toxin was confirmed over a wide range of concentrations from 10 pg to 30 ng. LC-ESI-MS analysis of OA, DTX1 and PTX6 in scallops and mussels, collected at the same site (Mutsu Bay, Japan), was carried out. Scallops and mussels collected at the same site showed different toxin profiles. Although PTX6 was detected from scallops, it was not detected from mussels. PMID:10817358

  18. 麻痹性贝类毒素研究进展(综述)%Advance in the research of paralytic shellfish poisons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘智勇; 计融

    2006-01-01

    麻痹性贝类毒素(Paralytic shellfish poison PSP)中毒已经作为重要的公共卫生问题得到了全世界的关注。人类通常摄入因食用滤食浮游生物(含有毒微藻类)后产生PSP的贝类水产品(如蚌类,牡蛎和蛤等)而引起麻痹性贝类中毒,中毒症状以神经系统症状为主甚至引起死亡。本文对PSP研究进展综述如下。

  19. 浙南海域麻痹性贝毒研究%Paralytic shellfish poison in south coastal waters of Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张树刚; 刘亚林; 陈雷; 邱进坤

    2011-01-01

    40 samples were collected including 10 species of shellfishes in coastal waters of south Zhejiang. Hie paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) was found out in S samples with a high performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC). The toxicity of contaminated samples were between 22.3 to 70.0 μgSTXeq/100 g,all of results was below the public healthy safety standard of 80 μgSTXeq/100 g. The primary toxin profiles of PSP were C2,GTX5 and NEO.and with small quantity of Cl ,GTX2,GTX3 and GTX4. PSP mainly presented in summer, and the tendency of gradual was increased from north to south. Mytilus edulis and Tegillarca granosa was sensitive to PSP. Moreover, the cultured shellfish had stronger ability to accumulate PSP than wild shellfish.%在浙南海域共采集了10种贝类40份样品.运用高效液相色谱方法检测麻痹性贝毒,共检出5份样品含有麻痹性贝毒.染毒样品检出的麻痹性贝毒毒力值范围为22.3~70.0 μgSTXeq/100 g软组织,均低于我国目前暂定的80μgSTXeq/100 g的安全警戒值.5个样品中共检测出7种麻痹性贝毒成分,其中以C2,GTX5和NEO为主,还有少量的C1,GTX2,GTX3和GTX4组分.就整体检出率而言,夏季>春季>秋季.浙南海域麻痹性贝毒检出率呈现出由北向南递增的趋势.紫贻贝和泥蚶是麻痹性贝毒敏感种,较其它种类易富集麻痹性贝毒.养殖的贝类检出率高于野生的贝类.

  20. Effects of Heating on Proportions of Azaspiracids 1-10 in Mussels (Mytilus edulis) and Identification of Carboxylated Precursors for Azaspiracids 5, 10, 13, and 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcoyne, Jane; McCarron, Pearse; Hess, Philipp; Miles, Christopher O

    2015-12-30

    Azaspiracids (AZAs) are marine biotoxins that induce human illness following the consumption of contaminated shellfish. European Union regulation stipulates that only raw shellfish are tested, yet shellfish are often cooked prior to consumption. Analysis of raw and heat-treated mussels (Mytilus edulis) naturally contaminated with AZAs revealed significant differences (up to 4.6-fold) in AZA1-3 (1-3) and 6 (6) values due to heat-induced chemical conversions. Consistent with previous studies, high levels of 3 and 6 were detected in some samples that were otherwise below the limit of quantitation before heating. Relative to 1, in heat-treated mussels the average (n = 40) levels of 3 (range, 11-502%) and 6 (range, 3-170%) were 62 and 31%, respectively. AZA4 (4) (range, <1-27%), AZA5 (5) (range, 1-21%), and AZA8 (8) (range, 1-27%) were each ∼5%, whereas AZA7 (7), AZA9 (9), and AZA10 (10) (range, <1-8%) were each under 1.5%. Levels of 5, 10, AZA13 (13), and AZA15 (15) increased after heating, leading to the identification of novel carboxylated AZA precursors in raw shellfish extracts, which were shown by deuterium labeling to be precursors for 5, 10, 13, and 15.

  1. Effects of Heating on Proportions of Azaspiracids 1-10 in Mussels (Mytilus edulis) and Identification of Carboxylated Precursors for Azaspiracids 5, 10, 13, and 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcoyne, Jane; McCarron, Pearse; Hess, Philipp; Miles, Christopher O

    2015-12-30

    Azaspiracids (AZAs) are marine biotoxins that induce human illness following the consumption of contaminated shellfish. European Union regulation stipulates that only raw shellfish are tested, yet shellfish are often cooked prior to consumption. Analysis of raw and heat-treated mussels (Mytilus edulis) naturally contaminated with AZAs revealed significant differences (up to 4.6-fold) in AZA1-3 (1-3) and 6 (6) values due to heat-induced chemical conversions. Consistent with previous studies, high levels of 3 and 6 were detected in some samples that were otherwise below the limit of quantitation before heating. Relative to 1, in heat-treated mussels the average (n = 40) levels of 3 (range, 11-502%) and 6 (range, 3-170%) were 62 and 31%, respectively. AZA4 (4) (range, <1-27%), AZA5 (5) (range, 1-21%), and AZA8 (8) (range, 1-27%) were each ∼5%, whereas AZA7 (7), AZA9 (9), and AZA10 (10) (range, <1-8%) were each under 1.5%. Levels of 5, 10, AZA13 (13), and AZA15 (15) increased after heating, leading to the identification of novel carboxylated AZA precursors in raw shellfish extracts, which were shown by deuterium labeling to be precursors for 5, 10, 13, and 15. PMID:26631586

  2. 珠江口海域麻痹性贝毒的污染状况%Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP)in shellfish in Pearl River estuary and nearby waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷科明; 吴霓; 杜克梅; 吴峰; 江天久

    2014-01-01

    为了弄清珠江口海域麻痹性贝毒(paralytic shellfish poisoning,PSP)的污染状况,为监管海产品安全提供参考,本实验运用小白鼠生物检测法,对2007年12月至2009年5月在该海域的17个采样点采集的19个贝类品种共181份样品进行麻痹性贝毒测定.结果显示,珠江口海域贝类的PSP阳性检出率为20.4%,无超标,其中2009春季采自澳头和霞涌的华贵栉孔扇贝的检出值最高,为215 Mu/100 g软组织.PSP检出率呈明显季节特征,冬季最高,夏季次之,秋季最低.PSP的地理分布范围较广,珠江口、大鹏湾和大亚湾均有检出.主要染毒贝类为僧帽牡蛎(Ostrea cucullata)、栉江珧(Atrina pectinata)、华贵栉孔扇贝(Chlamys nobilis)、褶牡蛎(Ostrea plicatula)和近江牡蛎(Crassostrea rivularis).%In order to understand the pattern of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP)in Pearl River es-tuary,PSP levels of 181 samples collected from 17 sampling sites in Pearl River estuary and its adjacent sea areas from December 2007 to May 2009 were determined with the AOAC mouse bioassay.The results showed that positive rate of PSP contamination of shellfish collected from Pearl River estuary and its adja-cent sea areas was up to 20.4%.The contents of PSP were generally low and under the public health safety standard of 400 Mu/100 g.The maximum content of PSP was in Chlamys nobilis collected from both XiaYong and AoTou in spring of 2009 with toxicity of 215 Mu/100 g.The positive rates of PSP showed a markedly seasonal differentiation,the rate were highest in winter and lowest in autumn.The ge-ographical distribution of PSP was widely.PSP pollution was found in all the sampling areas,including Pearl River estuary,Dapeng Bay and Daya Bay.The contaminated shellfish species included Ostrea cu-cullata,Atrina pectinata,Chlamys nobilis,Ostrea plicatula and Crassostrea rivularis.

  3. Transcriptional responses of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, HSP70 and Na+/K+ -ATPase in the liver of rabbitfish (Siganus oramin) intracoelomically injected with amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Liang, Xu-Fang; Huang, Yan; Li, Shi-Ying; Ip, Kok-Chao

    2008-06-01

    Amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin domoic acid (DA) is a marine neurotoxin that accumulates in fish and shellfish, and has been implicated to be involved in human and marine wildlife mortality. The transcriptional responses of cytochrome P-450 1A (CYP1A), glutathione S-transferase alpha (GSTA), glutathione S-transferase rho (GSTR), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 (ATP1A1) in the liver of rabbitfish (Siganus oramin) intracoelomically injected with DA, were investigated. Experimental fish were administered with one injection of DA (2 microg/g wet weight) or PBS as control. After 24 h, fish were killed and hepatic RNA was isolated. Partial cDNA of rabbitfish CYP1A, GSTA, GSTR, HSP70, ATP1A1, and beta-actin were obtained by PCR using degenerate primers. Using beta-actin as an external control, the relative liver CYP1A, GSTA, GSTR, HSP70, and ATP1A1 mRNA abundance of rabbitfish were determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR within the exponential phase. The ratio CYP1A/beta-actin mRNA (%) of exposure group was determined to be 148.92+/-12.69, whereas the ratio of control group was 82.3+/-8.35, indicating that CYP1A was induced significantly in rabbitfish following DA exposure (P0.05). The induction of hepatic CYP1A in response to DA suggests a potential role for fish phase I xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme in DA metabolism.

  4. Application of the neuroblastoma assay for paralytic shellfish poisons to neurotoxic freshwater cyanobacteria: interlaboratory calibration and comparison with other methods of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humpage, Andrew R; Ledreux, Aurélie; Fanok, Stella; Bernard, Cécile; Briand, Jean-François; Eaglesham, Geoff; Papageorgiou, John; Nicholson, Brenton; Steffensen, Dennis

    2007-07-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs) are produced by freshwater cyanobacteria and pose a threat to human and animal drinking-water supplies. The wide range of toxin analogues (and the likelihood that further analogues remain to be discovered) means that chromatographic methods are not always reliable indicators of toxicity. Although the mouse bioassay remains the method of choice in the seafood industry, its use is increasingly being questioned on ethical grounds. The cell-based Neuro-2A neuroblastoma toxicity assay is an alternative bioassay validated for testing shellfish extracts, so it was of interest to determine its applicability with the different suite of toxin analogues produced by cyanobacteria. Cyanobacterial bloom samples from Australia, Brazil, and France were assayed using the neuroblastoma assay, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), high-performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn derivatization and fluorescence detection, and the Jellett Rapid Test for PSP. To assess interlaboratory variability, the neuroblastoma assay was set up in laboratories in Paris (France) and Adelaide (Australia). Neuroblastoma and chromatographic methods gave comparable results except in the case of the neurotoxic Brazilian samples: LC-MS/MS did not detect the putative new PSPs contained in these samples. Inter- and intralaboratory variability of the neuroblastoma assay was typical of biological assays but no greater than that found for interassay variability between different chromatographic determinations. The batch of Jellett Rapid Tests for PSP used did not yield quantitative results. Overall, the neuroblastoma assay was useful as a screening assay for determination of toxicity caused by saxitoxin neurotoxins in freshwater cyanobacteria, having the advantage of being sensitive to unidentified toxins that currently cannot be quantified by chromatographic means. PMID:17665694

  5. 液相色谱-串联质谱法检测贝类产品中腹泻性贝类毒素%Determination of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning in Shellfishes by Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    母清林; 方杰; 万汉兴; 王晓华; 曹柳燕; 张庆红

    2011-01-01

    建立了贝类组织中2种腹泻性贝毒(Diamletic shellfish Poisobing,DSP)聚醚类毒素-大田软海绵酸(Okadaic acid,OA)和鳍藻毒素(Dinophysistoxin-1,DTX-1)的高效液相色谱-串联质谱分析方法.贝类样品经80%甲醇溶液提取,经正己烷脱脂和HLB固相萃取柱净化,采用Pursuit C18(150 mm×3.0 mm,3 μm,varian公司)色谱柱分离,以80%(V/V)甲醇水溶液为流动相等度洗脱,负离子扫描,在多反应监测(MRM)模式下进行定性与定量分析.在4~200 μg/L范围内线性关系良好,OA和DTX-1的最低定量限均为2 μg/kg.添加水平在2,25和50 μg/kg时的平均回收率大于80%,相对标准偏差小于11%(n=6).%A liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization triple-quadruple tandem.mass spectrometric method has been established for the determination of two kinds of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning including okadaic acid (QA) and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1). After being extracted using methanol and water(80∶20, V/V ), the solution was extracted with n-hexane to remove lipid components and then cleaned-up by solid phase extraction (SPE) on an Oasis HLB cartridge. The analytes were eluted with methanol-water (80:20, V/V) on a Pursuit C18 column (150 mm×3.0 mm, 3 μm). The quantitative and confirmatory determination of OA and DTX-1 was performed by multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode. OA and DTX-1 were determined in the negative ion mode. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 4- 200 μg/L. The quantification limits of OA and DTX-1 were 2 μg/kg. The mean recoveries at spiked concentration of 2-100 μg/kg were more than 80% and the relative standard deviations were less than 11% (n=6).

  6. 黄海海域贝类麻痹性贝类毒素污染状况研究%The pattern of paralytic shellfish poisoning in shellfish cultured in the coast of Yellow Sea, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜克梅; 江天久; 吴霓

    2013-01-01

    于2007年11月至2008年10月在深圳罗湖水产批发市场定期采集来自我国黄海海域的主要市售贝类,运用小白鼠生物法进行麻痹性贝类毒素污染状况调查.检测结果表明,产自辽宁沿海的虾夷扇贝PSP污染水平较高,检出率高达90.48%,超标率达47.62%,PSP最高值为23.84 Mu/g,超过我国食用安全标准近6倍.在时间分布上,该海域的虾夷扇贝全年都含有毒素,但冬季毒素含量水平较低,而春季毒素含量最高,夏秋季逐步下降.产自江苏连云港海域的胖江珧未检出PSP,山东蓬莱海域的栉江珧受PSP污染水平也较低,检出率仅为5.26%,无超标.%The paralytic shellfish poisoning(PSP) in shellfish cultured inYellow Sea of China was investigated by the mouse bioassay. The samples were collected from Luohu seafood wholesale markets in Shenzhen during November 2007 to October 2008. The results show that Patinopecten yessoensis cultured in the coast of Liaoning province had the highest level of PSP with the positive rate of 90.48% and the over standard rate of 47.62%. The highest content of PSP was up to 23. 84 Mu/g. As to the seasonal pattern,PSP was detected in P. yessoensis all the year round, samples collected in winter had a lower level of PSP and in spring had the highest level, however, the level of PSP gradually declined in summer and autumn. PSP was not detected in Pinna inflata cultured in the coast of Iian Yungang. Atrina pectinata cultured in the coast of Penglai in Shandong Province was slightly contaminated with the positive rate of 5. 26% ,none was over standard.

  7. Distribution of Marine Lipophilic Toxins in Shellfish Products Collected from the Chinese Market

    OpenAIRE

    Haiyan Wu; Jianhua Yao; Mengmeng Guo; Zhijun Tan; Deqing Zhou; Yuxiu Zhai

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of lipophilic marine biotoxins in shellfish from the Chinese market, we used hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to measure levels of okadaic acid (OA), azaspiracid (AZA1), pectenotoxin (PTX2), gymnodimine (GYM), and spirolide (SPX1). We collected and analyzed 291 shellfish samples from main production sites along a wide latitudinal transect along the Chinese coastline from December 2008 to December 2009. Results reve...

  8. 一起贝类毒素引发的食物中毒%A food poisoning caused by shellfish toxins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周洁; 周志峰; 邓凯杰; 蒋立新; 石向辉

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To identify the reason and pathogenic factor of a food poisoning caused by hemifusus,carry out the effective prevention and control measures.[Methods] The samples of suspicious food were collected and investigated by field epidemiology.[Results] The main symptoms of 18 cases were nausea,vomiting and abdominal pain.The laboratory test results showed:the diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) in meat and intestinal gland of raw hemifusus was 147.04 μg/100g and 88.51 μg/100g respectively,while DSP in meat and intestinal gland of cooked hemifusus was 86.85 μg/100g and 62.78 μg/100g respectively.All results were higher than the standards.[Conclusion] This event is a food poisoning caused by hemifusus with DSP pollution.The market supervision and management department should carry out the tracing investigation in these hemifusus.It is necessary to promote the aquaculture technology that can prevent DSP pollution,establish an early warning system of shellfish toxins pollution,as well as strengthen the research,monitoring,management and control of shellfish toxins,to prevent the similar incidents.%目的 全面了解深圳市一起因食用海产品角螺所致食物中毒的发生原因和致病因素,以采取有效的预防控制措施.方法 采用现场流行病学调查采集可疑食品进行检测.结果 18例病例主要症状为恶心、呕吐、腹痛;实验室检测结果:生角螺的螺肉中腹泻性贝类毒素(DSP)含量为147.04 μg/100 g,肠腺中为88.51 μg/100 g;熟角螺螺肉中为86.85 μg/100 g,肠腺中为62.78 μg/100 g均超标.结论 该起事件是由于食用被DSP污染的角螺引起的食物中毒事件.市场监督管理部门应对该批角螺进行溯源调查.推广预防DSP污染的养殖技术,建立贝毒污染预警,加强贝毒研究、监测、管理、控制,防止类似事件发生.

  9. Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... talking with the Poison Control Center. GETTING HELP Call the Poison Control Center emergency number at 1-800-222-1222. DO NOT wait until the person has symptoms before you call. Try to have the following information ready: The ...

  10. Advance in the research of diarrhetic shellfish poisons%腹泻性贝类毒素研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓芳; 计融

    2006-01-01

    腹泻性贝类毒素(Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisons,DSP)是海洋中藻类或微生物产生的一类脂溶性次生代谢产物,被贝类滤食后在其体内性质非常稳定,一般的烹调加热不能使其破坏,人类误食会产生以腹泻为主要特征的中毒效应,目前尚无特效解毒剂,一般采取对症处理。现就DSP化学结构、来源、毒性、检测方法、国内外管理控制措施等方面进行综述。

  11. Results of a European interlaboratory method validation study for the quantitative determination of lipophilic marine biotoxins in raw and cooked shellfish based on high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Part I: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    These, Anja; Klemm, Christine; Nausch, Ingo; Uhlig, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    A European interlaboratory collaborative study was conducted to validate a method for the quantitative determination of lipophilic marine biotoxins based on high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. During this study, the diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins okadaic acid, dinophysis toxin1 and 2 including their esters, the azaspiracids 1-3, pectenotoxin2, and the yessotoxins were investigated at concentration levels near the limit of quantification and near the legal limit. Naturally contaminated blue mussels, both raw and cooked and spiked extracts of clams and oysters were studied and results were obtained for 16 test samples from 16 laboratories representing eight different countries. This article summarizes the study outcome concerning validation key parameters like specificity, linearity, limit of detection, accuracy/recovery, and precision. Further, influences of cooking of mussels before homogenization or hydrolysis on method robustness have been evaluated.

  12. 粤西海域麻痹性贝类毒素成分特征分析%Analysis on the profiles of paralytic shellfish poisoning in shellfish from the west coast of Guangdong province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷科明; 吴霓; 杜克梅; 邓国群; 江天久

    2013-01-01

    为了弄清广东西部沿海麻痹性贝类毒素(paralytic shellfish poisoning,PSP)的主要成分,该文于2005年-2006年间在粤西近岸重点养殖区采集主要经济贝类,运用高效液相色谱技术对其进行了麻痹性贝类毒素成分分析.结果表明:在染毒的贝类样品中共检出PSP的11种成分,主要成分为STX和C1,检出率分别为77.78%和66.67%,且STX的含量较高.其次为GTX4和dcGTX2-3,检出率均为55.56%,其含量普遍较低.总体上,麻痹性贝毒成分在粤西海域的分布具有一定的地域性、季节性和贝类种间差异.地域上,PSP主要分布在北津港、海陵湾和流沙湾;季节上毒素含量在春季末达到高峰;托氏毛蚶(Scapharca troscheli)对PSP的积累能力较强,相比于其它贝类,其体内PSP含量最高,达2.85 nmol/g,毒性达55.99μμgSTX/100g.该研究结果可为广东沿海赤潮生物毒素的监测和管理提供理论依据.

  13. Rapid Biochemical Method for the Detection of Paralytical Shellfish Poisoning Toxins in Shellfish from Seafood Market%市售贝类麻痹性贝毒快速生化检测方法探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘元嫄; 程金平; 高利利; 王金辉; 宋玉玲; 陈雪; 王文华

    2010-01-01

    为了研究快速检测海产品中低浓度麻痹性贝毒(paralytic shellfish poisoning,PSP)的生化方法,在传统小白鼠法的基础上,使用浓度(以STXeq计)为1和0.2μg/kg的市售双壳贝类PSP提取液对小鼠进行腹腔注射,分别研究暴露15、60、120min后小鼠血液中ACh、AChE、NO和NOS的变化情况.结果发现,低浓度(0.2μg/kg)、短时间(15 min)条件下仅ACh含量发生显著变化[与对照组相比P<0.05,含量(以蛋白计)为(141.2±14.8)μg/mg];而NO与NOS却在长时间(120 min)暴露后才发生改变[与对照组相比P<0.05,分别为(68.7±3.8)μmol/g及(40.1±4.9)U/mg].在高浓度下,3个时间点的ACh含量也均发生显著变化.结果表明,在低浓度及短时间条件下反映PSP效应的指标仅是ACh,从而可以尝试选择其作为快速检测PSP的生化指标.

  14. Tetrodotoxin and paralytic shellfish poisons in gastropod species from Vietnam analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Chin Jen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Among marine toxins, tetrodotoxin (TTX and paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs are known as notorious neurotoxins that induce serious food poisoning incidents in the Southeast Asia region. The aim of this study was to investigate whether TTX and PSP toxins are important issues of seafood safety. Paralytic toxicity was observed in mice exposed to 34 specimens from five species of gastropods using a PSP bioassay. Five species of gastropods, Natica vitellus, Natica tumidus, Oliva hirasei, Oliva lignaria, and Oliva annulata, were collected from the coastal seawaters in Nha Trang City, Vietnam, between August 2007 and October 2007. The average lethal potency of gastropod specimens was 90 ± 40 (mean ± standard deviation mouse units (MU for N. vitellus, 64 ± 19 MU for N. tumidus, 42 ± 28 MU for O. hirasei, 51 ± 17 MU for O. lignaria, and 39 ± 18 MU for O. annulata. All toxic extracts from the sample species were clarified using a C18 Sep-Pak solid-phase extraction column and a microcentrifuge filter prior to analysis. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection indicated that the toxins of the olive shell (O. hirasei, O. lignaria, and O. annulata were mainly composed of saxitoxin (STX (73–82%, gonyautoxin (GTX 2, 3 (12–22%, and minor levels of TTX (5–6%. The toxins of N. vitellus and N. tumidus were mainly composed of STX (76–81% and GTX 1, 4 (19–24%. Furthermore, liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry analysis was used to verify the identity of the PSPs and TTX. Our evidence shows that these gastropods have novel toxin profiles.

  15. Amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin stimulates the transcription of CYP1A possibly through AHR and ARNT in the liver of red sea bream Pagrus major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the role of detoxification-related liver genes in amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin metabolism, red sea bream Pagrus major were exposed to domoic acid (DA, 2 μg g-1 wet weight) for 24 h. Hepatic mRNA expression levels of AHR, ARNT, CYP1 and GSTs were determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The cytosolic factors aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) mRNA levels of DA exposure group were substantially enhanced by 113.3% and 90.9%, respectively. Consistent with this result, the phase I xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme (XME) cytochrome P-450 1A (CYP1A) was significantly induced. In contrast, the transcriptions of three major phase II XME glutathione S-transferases as well as heat shock protein 70 were not significantly affected by DA exposure. These results suggest a possible role of CYP1A after DA exposure in the toxin metabolism of marine fish, possibly through the AHR/ARNT signaling pathway.

  16. Accumulation and elimination profiles of paralytic shellfish poison in the short-necked clam Tapes japonica fed with the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsur, Mohamad; Takatani, Tomohiro; Yamaguchi, Yasunaga; Sagara, Takefumi; Noguchi, Tamao; Arakawa, Osamu

    2007-02-01

    The paralytic shellfish poison (PSP)-producing dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum (Gc) was fed to the short-necked clam Tapes japonica, and the accumulation, transformation and elimination profiles of PSP were investigated by means of high-performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization (HPLC-FLD). The short-necked clams ingested most of the Gc cells (4 x 10(6) cells) supplied as a bolus at the beginning of the experiment, and accumulated a maximal amount of toxin (181 nmol/10 clams) after 12 hr. The rate of toxin accumulation at that time was 16%, which rapidly decreased thereafter. During the rearing period, a variation in toxin composition, derived presumably from the transformation of toxin analogues in the clams, was observed, including a reversal of the ratio of C2 to C1, and the appearance of carbamate (gonyautoxin (GTX) 2, 3) and decarbamoyl (dc) derivatives (decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX) and dcGTX2, 3), which were undetectable in Gc cells. The total amount of toxin contained in clams and residue (remaining Gc cells and/or excrement in the rearing tank) gradually declined, and only about 1% of the supplied toxin was detected at the end of the experiment. PMID:17370612

  17. Identification of Indicator Species of Paralytic Shellfish Poison%麻痹性贝类毒素监测指示贝种的筛选研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范放; 李小燕

    2006-01-01

    为了解深圳地区贝类麻痹性贝类毒素(paralytic shellfish poison,PSP)染毒情况,对深圳地区主要贝类养殖海域养殖的10种贝类麻痹性贝类毒素染毒情况进行调查.筛选并确定PSP监测指示贝种,进而测定不同养殖海区PSP污染情况.采用AOAC发布的生物法测定麻痹性贝类毒素含量.华贵栉孔扇贝(Chalmys nobilis)和翡翠贻贝(Perna viridis)对PSP蓄积能力强,华贵栉孔扇贝的PSP含量较翡翠贻贝高.确定深圳贝类养殖海域PSP监测指示贝种为华贵栉孔扇贝和翡翠贻贝,全年对两种贝类的PSP监测结果表明PSP含量超过有关标准规定的安全限量的情况时有发生.本研究为实施有效的监测预警管理制度提供了科学依据.

  18. Preparation of Paralytic Shellfish Poison Reference Material%麻痹性贝类毒素标准样品的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋艳; 赵景红; 徐杨; 郑秋月; 赵昕

    2012-01-01

    Scallop, naturally contaminated with paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) toxins were collected and the shells were opened. Meat were removed, homogenized and lyophilized. Homogeneity and stability testing results showed that the PSP reference material was homogeneous and stable. The certification value was the average assigned by eight laboratories, The PSP content and its expanded uncertainty was (589 ±42) MU/g (k=2 ). The PSP reference material can be used in the method evaluation and quality control in the determination of PSP.%将麻痹性贝类毒素阳性的新鲜扇贝去壳后取贝肉,经过匀浆,冷冻干燥等步骤制备成冻干粉,然后进行均匀性和稳定性检验,结果表明,制备后的样品均匀,稳定,满足标准样品的要求.以多家实验室定值的方式对该标准样品进行定值,定值结果为( 589±42 )MU/g(k=2).该标准样品可用于麻痹性贝类毒素检测过程的方法验证与质量控制.

  19. 失忆性贝毒质谱测定与分析%Determination and analysis of amnesic shellfish poisoning by mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方晓明; 樊祥; 唐毅锋; 张星漪

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Amnesic shellfish poisoning(ASP) is caused by consumption of seafood contaminated by marine neurotoxins, mainly domoic acid (DA).OBJECTIVE: To ensure the safety of shellfish consumption by determining DA in shellfish by means of liquid chromatography(LC) combined with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(Q-TOF MS).DESIGN: A self-controlled prospective study SETTING: The experiment was carried out in the Center for Animal, Plant and Food Inspection and Quarantine, Shanghai Exit-Entry Inspection and Quarantine Bureau.MATERIALS: MUS-1B, a nominal sample of homogenized mussel tissue (containing 36 ± 1μg DA per gram, Batch No. MUS-1B 0159) and the standard DA solution (100 mg/L, Batch No. DACS-1C 352) were purchased from National Research Council of Canada (Halifax, Canada). Positive musscl samples were collected from the waters during the occurrence of red tide in China East Sea, and blank mussel samples were obtained from local seafood market. LC system (Waters 2695) combined with Q-TOF MS (Qultima, Micromass) and ultravilet (UV) detection (Waters 2487 ) was employed for analysis of ASP toxins.METHODS: The shellfish tissue samples were extracted with methanol-water (1: 1, V/V) and cleansed with a SAX solid-phase extraction cartridge. Separation was carried out on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-18 column (250×2.1 mm, 3.5μm) with gradient elution of CAN-H20 containing 0.05% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.20 mL per minute. In a positive electrospray ionization DA was ionized effectively, and collision-induced dissociation(CID) produced predominant characteristic ions[M + H] +allowing sensitive TOF MS detection.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Limit of quantification(LOQ); ②Accuracy and precision of LC/Q-TOF MS method.RESULTS: The average recoveries of DA spiked to tissue homogenates through the complete cleanse procedure ranged from 87.8% to 94.6%, and the relative standard deviations(RSD) ranged from 8.4% to 11.9%. TheLOQ in the shellfish tissue was 0.1

  20. Studies on azaspiracid biotoxins. II. Mass spectral behavior and structural elucidation of azaspiracid analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brombacher, Stephan; Edmonds, Suzanne; Volmer, Dietrich A

    2002-01-01

    In this report, the mass spectral analysis of azaspiracid biotoxins is described. Specifically, the collision-induced dissociation (CID) behavior and differences between CID spectra obtained on a triple-quadrupole, a quadrupole time-of-flight, and an ion-trap mass spectrometer are addressed here. The CID spectra obtained on the triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer allowed the classification of the major product ions of the five investigated compounds (AZA 1-5) into five distinct fragment ion groups, according to the backbone cleavage positions. Although the identification of unknown azaspiracids was difficult based on CID alone, the spectra provided sufficient structural information to allow confirmation of known azaspiracids in marine samples. Furthermore, we were able to detect two new azaspiracid analogs (AZA 1b and 6) in our samples and provide a preliminary structural analysis. The proposed dissociation pathways under tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) conditions were confirmed by a comparison with accurate mass data from electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight MS/MS experiments. Regular sequential MS(n) analysis on an ion-trap mass spectrometer was more restricted in comparison to the triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer, because the azaspiracids underwent multiple [M + H - nH(2)O](+) (n = 1-6) losses from the precursor ion under CID. Thus, the structural information obtained from MS(n) experiments was somewhat limited. To overcome this limitation, we developed a wide-range excitation technique using a 180-u window that provided results comparable to the triple-quadrupole instrument. To demonstrate the potential of the method, we applied it to the analysis of degraded azaspiracids from mussel tissue extracts.

  1. SHELLFISH DEPURATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Bratoš

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of marine environment influences seafood safety and quality, such is particularly the case with inshore growing organisms. With increased population and activities along the coast, shellfish contamination issue increases. While cooking inactivates pathogens, shellfish that are eaten raw are of special danger for human health. The need for purificarion of uncooked shellfish resulted with development of depuration. Depuration is a dynamic process, by using shellfish physiology it allows purging of contaminants in tanks of clean seawater, which results in reduced pathogen levels in shellfish.

  2. Rapid Detection of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisons by ELISA Method%酶联免疫法快速检测贝类中腹泻性贝类毒素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玉柳; 黄国秋; 叶欣宇; 黎小正; 吴祥庆; 杨姝丽; 吴明媛

    2011-01-01

    应用美国ABRAXIS腹泻性贝类毒素(DSP)试剂盒对广西钦州和防城港海域近江牡蛎各20个样品、北海海域文蛤20个样品进行了ELISA法DSP检测.全部检测过程在2h内完成,检测限为0.1 ppb,灵敏度为1.7 ppb.ELISA法检测DSP探作方便、成本低,检测限和灵敏度均满足要求.ELISA法有望作为理想的DSP快速筛选分析方法之一.%The United States ABRAXIS diarrhetic shellfish poisons(DSP) determination kit was applied to determine DSP in 20 oyster samples from Qinzhou seawater, 20 oyster samples from Fangchenggang seawater and 20 clam samples from North Sea seawater. All the detection was completed in 2 h with the detection limit of 0.1 ppb and the sensitivity of 1. 7 ppb. ELISA method was convenient with low cost, while its detection limit and sensitivity were sufficient to meet the requirements, so it was expected to playing an important role in rapid detection of aquatic products,in surveys of shellfish poisons in breeding areas,and in quality control of shellfish in market as an ideal rapid screening method for DSP.

  3. 腹泻性贝类毒素及检测技术研究进展%Research progress on diarrhetic shellfish poison and the detection methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓玉; 徐静; 黄莲芝; 卲筠乔; 刘慧颖; 曹际娟; 李丹丹

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, marine pollution has become more and more serious. The frequent occurrence of red tides directly leads to marine toxins pollution on shellfish, which not only directly affect the quality and safety of marine products, but also hinder the healthy development of the marine aquaculture industry. In order to solve the safety problem of marine products and protect people's life and health, the analysis and detection of marine biological toxins has been more and more concerned. The main characteristics, toxin components and toxicological effect of the diarrhea shellfish poisoning were reviewed in this paper. The detection methods including mouse bioassay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), molecular biological detection, micellar electrokinetic chromatography, enzyme inhibition methods, capillary electrophoresis, high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC), high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) were used to evaluate the comprehensive evaluation, and were also summarized in this paper.%近些年来海洋污染越来越严重,赤潮频发直接导致海洋生物毒素对贝类产品大面积污染,这不仅直接影响海洋产品的品质和食用安全,更加阻碍了海洋养殖业的健康发展,对食品安全造成极大威胁。为了解决海洋产品的食品安全问题,保障人们生命健康,对海洋生物毒素分析检测的研究已越来越多。本文综述了腹泻性贝类毒素的主要特征、主要毒素成分及毒理效应,并对小鼠生物测试法、酶联免疫检测法、胶束电动色谱法、酶活力抑制法、毛细管电泳法、高效液相色谱以及高效液相色谱-质谱法等常用的检测方法作以综合性评价,并对其研究进展加以介绍。

  4. 腹泻性贝类毒素标准样品研制%Preparation of standard sample of diarrhetic shellfish poison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋艳; 赵昕; 徐静; 郑秋月; 徐杨

    2012-01-01

    为解决贝类产品检测实验室严重缺乏贝类毒素标准样品的现状,保证小鼠生物法及酶联免疫法等腹泻性贝类毒素检测结果的准确,可靠和可比,本研究制备出腹泻性贝类毒素标准样品.将腹泻性贝类毒素阳性的新鲜贝类去壳后取中肠腺,匀浆,冷冻干燥等步骤制备冻干粉,均匀性和稳定性检验结果表明该样品均匀,稳定,满足标准样品的要求,以多家实验室定值的方式对标准样品进行定值,定值结果采用标准值±扩展不确定度的方式表示:即(8.83±0.60) x10-6(k =2).该标准样品可用于腹泻性贝类毒素检测过程的方法验证与质量控制.%In order to ensure the accuracy, reliability and comparability for the determination of diarrhetic shellfish poison (DSP) in shellfish with mouse bioassay, ELISA and other methods, the DSP standard material was produced. The mussles, natural contaminant with DSP toxins were collected and opened the shells. The midintestinal glands were removed, homogenized and lyophilized. Homogeneity and stability testing results show that the DSP standard material is homogeneous and stable. The certificate value is the average assigned by several laboratories, the DSP content and its combined uncertainty is 8. 83 ±0. 60 μg/g(k =2. It can be used in the method evaluation and quality control in the determination of DSP.

  5. Occurrence and profiles of lipophilic toxins in shellfish harvested from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew D; Goya, Alejandra B

    2015-08-01

    The presence of phytoplankton responsible for the production of lipophilic marine biotoxins is well recognised throughout parts of South America. To date, the quantitation of lipophilic toxins in Argentinean shellfish has been limited to select and highly focussed geographical studies. This work reports the analysis for lipophilic marine biotoxins in shellfish harvested across five regions of Argentina between 1992 and 2012. LC-MS/MS analysis was used for the quantitation of all regulated lipophilic toxins. High concentrations of okadaic acid group toxins were quantified, with a clear dominance of the parent okadaic acid and more than 90% of the toxin present as esters. Results showed DSP toxins in shellfish from the Buenos Aires Province during 2006 and 2007, earlier than previously described. There was also strong evidence linking the presence of okadaic acid to human intoxications. Other lipophilic toxins detected were yessotoxin, pectenotoxin-2 and 13-desMeC spirolide. With evidence published recently for the presence of azaspiracid producers, this work reports the detection of low concentrations of azaspiracid-2 in shellfish. As such the data provides the first published evidence for yessotoxins and azaspiracids in Argentinean shellfish and further evidence for the continuing presence of lipophilic marine toxins in Argentinean waters.

  6. Occurrence and profiles of lipophilic toxins in shellfish harvested from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew D; Goya, Alejandra B

    2015-08-01

    The presence of phytoplankton responsible for the production of lipophilic marine biotoxins is well recognised throughout parts of South America. To date, the quantitation of lipophilic toxins in Argentinean shellfish has been limited to select and highly focussed geographical studies. This work reports the analysis for lipophilic marine biotoxins in shellfish harvested across five regions of Argentina between 1992 and 2012. LC-MS/MS analysis was used for the quantitation of all regulated lipophilic toxins. High concentrations of okadaic acid group toxins were quantified, with a clear dominance of the parent okadaic acid and more than 90% of the toxin present as esters. Results showed DSP toxins in shellfish from the Buenos Aires Province during 2006 and 2007, earlier than previously described. There was also strong evidence linking the presence of okadaic acid to human intoxications. Other lipophilic toxins detected were yessotoxin, pectenotoxin-2 and 13-desMeC spirolide. With evidence published recently for the presence of azaspiracid producers, this work reports the detection of low concentrations of azaspiracid-2 in shellfish. As such the data provides the first published evidence for yessotoxins and azaspiracids in Argentinean shellfish and further evidence for the continuing presence of lipophilic marine toxins in Argentinean waters. PMID:26003796

  7. Rapid Determination of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning in Shellfish by Colorimetric Protein Phosphatase Inhibition Assay%磷酸酶抑制比色法快速测定贝类中腹泻性贝毒素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭萌萌; 吴海燕; 薛瑞宇; 谭志军; 李兆新; 翟毓秀

    2014-01-01

    基于腹泻性贝毒素(Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning,DSP)的致腹泻性组分大田软海绵酸(okadaic acid,OA)及其衍生物鳍藻毒素(dinophysistoxins,DTXs)能抑制蛋白磷酸酶活性的特点,建立了快速测定贝类中DSP的磷酸酶抑制比色分析方法.采用对硝基苯磷酸二钠(p-nitrophenyl phosphate disodium,p-NPP)为底物,其与蛋白磷酸酶2A(protein phosphatase 2A,PP2A)反应生成的黄色水解产物在碱性条件下于405 nm波长处有强烈的吸收峰,根据吸光废值计算抑制剂的浓度.酶抑制法继承了小鼠生物法能建立剂量-效应关系的优势,直接反映毒素的相对毒性大小,测定的是DSP毒素致腹泻性成分的总量,以OA浓度计.本研究优化了样品前处理方法并考察了基质浓度的影响.方法的筛选检出限为80 μg/kg.采用该方法进行加标回收实验,回收率在90.43%~118.52%范围内,相对标准偏差(RSD)为6.85%~13.93%.该方法操作简便、快捷,回收率高,重现性好,可作为快速筛查工具用于贝毒的日常监控.

  8. Analysis on the profiles of paralytic shellfish poisoning in shellfish collected from eastern coast of Guangdong%广东东部沿海麻痹性贝类毒素成分特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江天久; 包财; 雷芳; 吴锋; 江涛

    2010-01-01

    为了弄清广东东部沿海贝类中麻痹性贝类毒素(Paralytic shellfish poisoning,PSP)的主要成分及其藻类来源,运用液相色谱-柱后衍生荧光检测技术,对2005-2006年问在粤东近岸重点养殖区采集的主要经济贝类进行了麻痹性贝类毒素成分分析.分析结果表明,在染毒的贝类样品中共检出PSP的12种成分,各成分的检出率时空分布特征有所不同,其中N-磺酸氨甲酰基类毒素C1和氨基甲酸酯类毒素GTX1的检出率最高,均达78%以上;其次为GTX4,达71%.在毒素含量方面,C1普遍较低,春季含量较其他季节高,而在春秋两季贝类中,GTX1和GTX4含量普遍较高.总体上,麻痹性贝毒在粤东海域的分布具有明显的地域性、季节性和贝类种间差异.地域上以柘林湾污染较为严重,毒素成分最多,且含量较高;季节上春季为染毒高峰期,秋季次之;主要染毒贝类为牡蛎(Crassostrea spp.)、结蚶(Tegillarca nodifera)、泥蚶(Tegillarcagranosa)和蚶(Scapharca spp.),柘林湾2005年9月14日的结蚶毒性最高,其毒性当量值达到370 μg STX/100g.与其他贝类相比,蚶类对高毒力的GTX毒素有更强的积累能力.

  9. 液相色谱-质谱法检测水产品中腹泻性贝类毒素%Determination of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning in shellfishes by ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳萍; 傅晓航

    2015-01-01

    An ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography‐triple quadruple tandem mass spectrometric method has been proposed for the determination of a diarrhetic shellfish poisoning ,okadaic acid (OA) .After cleaned up by solid‐phase extraction (SPE) on an Oasis HLB cartridge ,the analytes were analysed on UPLC BEH column . The quantitative and confirmatory determi‐nation of OA was performed by multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode .Results indicated that the calibration curve of OA is 1inear in the range of 10‐400 μg/L .The quantification limit of OA is 10 μg/kg .The mean recoveries at spiked concentration of 10 ,50 and 200 μg/kg are 79 .4%‐90 .7% and the relative standard deviations are 8 .21%‐10 .69% (n=6) .%建立了超高效液相色谱‐串联四级杆质谱法检测贝类中腹泻性贝类毒素大田软海绵酸(O A )的方法。样品均质后经85%甲醇水溶液提取,HLB固相萃取柱净化,采用ACQUITY BEH C8(50 mm ×2.1 mm ,1.7μm)色谱柱分离,在多反应监测模式(M RM )下进行串联质谱定性与定量分析和检测。O A在10~400μg/L范围内线性关系良好,在10、50、200μg/kg 添加水平下平均回收率为79.4%~90.7%,相对标准偏差为8.21%~10.69%(n=6),定量检出限为10μg/kg。

  10. First identification of azaspiracid and spirolides in Mesodesma donacium and Mulinia edulis from Northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Gonzalo; Uribe, Eduardo; Avalos, Paulo; Mariño, Carmen; Blanco, Juan

    2010-01-01

    In an attempt to evaluate the risk for human consumption associated to the accumulation of lipophilic toxins by two commercially important bivalves: macha (Mesodesma donacium) and clam (Mulinia edulis) in Coquimbo Bay (Chile), monitoring of these species was carried out from March to September 2008. The samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to detect okadaic acid, dinophysistoxins, pectenotoxins, azaspiracids, yessotoxins and spirolides. Low levels of Azaspiracid-1 and 13-desmethyl C spirolide were found in both species. The toxins were detected at different dates throughout the monitoring period and in some cases both toxins were detected in the same sample. In all cases, the concentration of the toxins was below the limit of quantification of the technique used and therefore these detections are only indicative of a potential risk. This is the first report of the occurrence of these groups of toxins in Chile and suggests that it is necessary to monitor routinely these substances to warrant public health and shellfish exportations. PMID:19631679

  11. Contrasting physiological responses of two populations of the razor clam Tagelus dombeii with different histories of exposure to paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M Navarro

    Full Text Available This study describes the physiological performance of two populations of the razor clam Tagelus dombeii from two geographic areas with different histories of exposure to paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP linked to the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella. Clams from Melinka-Aysén, which are frequently exposed to PSP, were not affected by the presence of toxins in the diet. However, clams from Corral-Valdivia, which have never been exposed to PSP, exhibited significantly reduced filtration activity and absorption, affecting the energy allocated to scope for growth (SFG. Ammonia excretion and oxygen uptake were not affected significantly by the presence of A. catenella in the diet. Measurements of energy acquisition and expenditure were performed during a 12-day intoxication period. According to three-way repeated measure ANOVAs, the origin of the clams had a highly significant effect on all physiological variables, and the interaction between diet and origin was significant for the clearance and absorption rates and for the scope for growth. The scope for growth index showed similar positive values for both the toxic and non-toxic individuals from the Melinka-Aysén population. However, it was significantly reduced in individuals from Corral-Valdivia when exposed to the diet containing A. catenella. The absence of differences between the physiological response of the toxic and non-toxic clams from Melinka-Aysén may be related to the frequent presence of A. catenella in the environment, indicating that this bivalve does not suffer negative consequences from PSP. By contrast, A. catenella has a negative effect on the physiological performance, primarily on the energy gained from the environment, on T. dombeii from Corral-Valdivia. This study supports the hypothesis that the history of PSP exposure plays an important role in the physiological performance and fitness of filter feeding bivalves.

  12. COMPARISON OF ICR AND KM MICE USED IN BIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF PARALYTIC SHELLFISH POISON%ICR和昆明种小鼠生物法检测麻痹性贝类毒素毒性差异比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林健; 黄宗锈; 陈冠敏; 林蔚; 陈明中; 林春芳

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To compare the difference of ICR and KM mice used in biological examination of paralytic shellfish poison. [Methods] ICR and KM mice were parallel used in biological examination of paralytic shellfish poison for 20 Nas-sarius Sp samples to compare their differences. [ Results] The coefficient of variation between two species was 8%. T test showed no significant difference between two species. Results of two species were relative and the regression coefficient was significant. [Conclusion] Results of ICR and KM mice are highly relative in biological examination of paralytic shellfish poison although their values are a bit different.%[目的]了解痹性贝类毒素小鼠生物法检测采用ICR和昆明神小鼠的差异. [方法]用平行法对ICR和昆明种小鼠进行了20个批次的织纹螺麻痹性贝类毒素生物法比对试验. [结果]两个品系动物试验结果的变异系数为8%,t检验结果表明两种品系动物的差异无统计学意义.两个品系动物比对试验结果表明具相关性且回归系数有显著性意义,但绝对值有一定的差异. [结论]ICR和昆明种小鼠痹性贝类毒素小鼠生物法检测结果具有很强的相关性和线型关系,但在两组数值的绝对值的差异值得关注.

  13. Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that could poison you include the following: Cleaning products Household products, such as nail polish remover and other personal ... Get rid of old or expired medicines and household products. Keep medicines and chemicals in their original containers. ...

  14. Determination of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins in Shellfish by Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry%液相色谱-串联质谱法检测贝类产品中麻痹性贝类毒素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    母清林; 方杰; 王晓华; 胡颢琰; 曹柳燕; 张庆红

    2013-01-01

    建立了贝类组织中11种麻痹性贝类毒素的高效液相色谱-串联质谱分析方法,包括STX、dcSTX、NEO、dcNEO、GTX1-4、dcGTX2,3和GTX5(B1).贝类样品经含0.1%甲酸的80%(体积分数)乙腈水溶液超声提取后,经过冷冻分层,下层固体融化后通过HLB固相萃取小柱富集净化和10 000MWCO(Molecular Weight Cutoff)超滤管超滤截留,超滤液用于仪器分析.采用Zwitterionic亲水性相互作用色谱柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm,德国)分离,在多反应监测模式下进行定性和定量分析.各组分在一定的范围内具有良好的线性关系,平均回收率大于60%,相对标准偏差小于20%(n=7).用该方法分析染毒的栉孔扇贝样品,证实了对PSP毒素具有良好的分析测定效果.%A liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization triple-quadruple tandem mass spectrometric method has been established for the determination of eleven kinds of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins including STX, dcSTX, NEO, dcNEO, GTX1 -4, dcGTX2,3 andGTX5(B1). After being extracted using acetonitrile and water (80:20, V/V) including 0. 1 % formic acid, the solution was frozen to separate into two layers. To melt the solid, then the solution would be cleaned-up by solid phase extraction (SPE) on an Oasis HLB cartridge. In order to get rid of macromolecule compound, the sample was ultra filtrated with 10 000 MWCO ( Molecular Weight Cutoff) ultra-filtration device. The ultra-filtration solution would be analyzed. The sample would be separated on a Zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column ( 250 mm × 4. 6 mm, 5 μm ). The quantitative and confirmatory determinations of PSP were performed by multiple reactions monitoring mode. All components showed good linear relation in the suitable range. The mean recoveries were more than 60% and the relative standard deviations were less than 20% ( n = 7 ). The method has been applied to the analysis of samples contaminated with PSP toxins with

  15. First evidence of azaspiracids (AZAs): A family of lipophilic polyether marine toxins in scallops (Argopecten purpuratus) and mussels (Mytilus chilensis) collected in two regions of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rivera, A; O'Callaghan, K; Moriarty, M; O'Driscoll, D; Hamilton, B; Lehane, M; James, K J; Furey, A

    2010-04-01

    Azaspiracids are a family of lipophilic polyether marine biotoxins that have caused a number of human intoxication incidents in Europe since 1995 following the consumption by consumers of intoxicated shellfish (Mytilus edulis). These azaspiracids have now been identified in mussels (Mytilus chilensis) and scallops (Argopecten purpuratus) from two Chilean locations. This is the first report of the occurrence of azaspiracid toxins in these species (Mytilus chilensis and Argopecten purpuratus) from Chile. The areas studied were Bahía Inglesa (III Region, 27 degrees SL) and Chiloé Archipelago, both important scallop and mussels farming areas. Separation of azaspiracid (AZA1), azaspiracid isomer (AZA6) and its analogues, 8-methylazaspiracid (AZA2) and 22-demethylazaspiracid (AZA3), was achieved using reversed-phase LC and toxins were identified using a turbo electrospray ionisation (ESI) source, to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In mussels, AZA1 was the predominant toxin in mussel hepatopancreas with AZA2, AZA3 and AZA6 present in approximate equivalent amounts in the remaining tissues, 20-30% of the AZA1 level. AZA2 predominated in the scallop samples with the toxin almost entirely present in the hepatopancreas (digestive gland). AZA1 was only observed in some of the scallop samples and was present at 12-15% of the AZA2 levels. Whilst the levels of AZAs in Chilean samples are below the EU regulatory limit of 160mug/kg, it is significant that this toxin is present in Pacific Ocean species. Consequently measures should be taken by regulatory authorities to implement regular seafood monitoring to ensure safety of harvested product. PMID:19852974

  16. 免疫亲和色谱分离纯化PSP贝毒GTX2,3的研究%The researches on separation and purification for paralytic shellfish poisoning of GTX2,3 by immunoaffinity chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于广磊; 刘磊; 于姬; 刘仁沿; 梁玉波

    2011-01-01

    目的:分离纯化有毒塔玛亚历山大藻中麻痹性贝毒GTX2,3组分.方法:采用免疫亲和色谱方法,对有毒塔玛亚历山大藻中麻痹性贝类毒素进行分离纯化.结果:通过HPLC检测,免疫亲和柱有效的将麻痹性贝毒的GTX2,3与GTX1,4分离,获得了一定数量但具有高纯度的麻痹性贝毒GTX2,3.结论:初步建立了免疫亲和色谱技术对麻痹性贝类毒素GTX2,3分离纯化的方法.%Objective; To separate and purify paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) GTX2,3 from the PSP - producing dinoflag-ellate Alexandrium tamarense. Methods; Immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) was used to separate and purify paralytic shellfish poisoning. Results; With HPLC detection, a certain amount of high - purity GTX2,3 was obtained through separation of GTX2,3 and GTX1,4 by Immunoaffinity chromatography. Conclusion; The method for separation and purification of GTX2,3 by Immunoaffinity chromatography is preliminarily established.

  17. A mussel (Mytilus edulis) tissue certified reference material for the marine biotoxins azaspiracids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Pearse; Giddings, Sabrina D; Reeves, Kelley L; Hess, Philipp; Quilliam, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    Azaspiracids (AZAs) are lipophilic biotoxins produced by marine algae that can contaminate shellfish and cause human illness. The European Union (EU) regulates the level of AZAs in shellfish destined for the commercial market, with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) being used as the official reference method for regulatory analysis. Certified reference materials (CRMs) are essential tools for the development, validation, and quality control of LC-MS methods. This paper describes the work that went into the planning, preparation, characterization, and certification of CRM-AZA-Mus, a tissue matrix CRM, which was prepared as a wet homogenate from mussels (Mytilus edulis) naturally contaminated with AZAs. The homogeneity and stability of CRM-AZA-Mus were evaluated, and the CRM was found to be fit for purpose. Extraction and LC-MS/MS methods were developed to accurately certify the concentrations of AZA1 (1.16 mg/kg), AZA2 (0.27 mg/kg), and AZA3 (0.21 mg/kg) in the CRM. Quantitation methods based on standard addition and matrix-matched calibration were used to compensate for the matrix effects in LC-MS/MS. Other toxins present in this CRM at lower levels were also measured with information values reported for okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-2, yessotoxin, and several spirolides.

  18. A mussel (Mytilus edulis) tissue certified reference material for the marine biotoxins azaspiracids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Pearse; Giddings, Sabrina D; Reeves, Kelley L; Hess, Philipp; Quilliam, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    Azaspiracids (AZAs) are lipophilic biotoxins produced by marine algae that can contaminate shellfish and cause human illness. The European Union (EU) regulates the level of AZAs in shellfish destined for the commercial market, with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) being used as the official reference method for regulatory analysis. Certified reference materials (CRMs) are essential tools for the development, validation, and quality control of LC-MS methods. This paper describes the work that went into the planning, preparation, characterization, and certification of CRM-AZA-Mus, a tissue matrix CRM, which was prepared as a wet homogenate from mussels (Mytilus edulis) naturally contaminated with AZAs. The homogeneity and stability of CRM-AZA-Mus were evaluated, and the CRM was found to be fit for purpose. Extraction and LC-MS/MS methods were developed to accurately certify the concentrations of AZA1 (1.16 mg/kg), AZA2 (0.27 mg/kg), and AZA3 (0.21 mg/kg) in the CRM. Quantitation methods based on standard addition and matrix-matched calibration were used to compensate for the matrix effects in LC-MS/MS. Other toxins present in this CRM at lower levels were also measured with information values reported for okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-2, yessotoxin, and several spirolides. PMID:25335820

  19. Study Progress of Safety Assessment and Determination Technology of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins%麻痹性贝类毒素的安全评价与检测技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周磊; 杨宪立; 武爱波; 史西志; 苏秀榕

    2014-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins(PSTs)is a kind of efficient sodium channel neurotoxins.As a category of red tide toxins,PSTs is mainly produced by some marine dinoflagellataes and then make their way into humans through the food chain to present the toxic effects,of which people pay particular attention because of its broadest possible influence,strongest toxicity and greatest harmfulness in the marine biotoxins currently known.A review is given to the newest research on the or-igin,transmittal vectors,physicochemical property,safety evaluation,determination technology in detail,putting forward per-spectives to development tendency on monitoring this toxins.%麻痹性贝类毒素(Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins,PSTs)是一类高效的钠通道神经毒素,其作为赤潮毒素的一种主要由海洋中的部分双鞭毛藻产生,通过食物链进入人体产生毒性效应,是目前已知的影响范围最广、毒性最强、危害最大的一类海洋生物毒素,因而格外引发了人们对于此类毒素的关注。本文对PSTs的来源、传递方式、理化性质、安全性评价、检测技术等热点问题及发展趋势做了详细的介绍与展望。

  20. Study Progress of Safety Assessment and Determination Technology of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins%麻痹性贝类毒素的安全评价与检测技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周磊; 杨宪立; 武爱波; 史西志; 苏秀榕

    2014-01-01

    麻痹性贝类毒素(Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins,PSTs)是一类高效的钠通道神经毒素,其作为赤潮毒素的一种主要由海洋中的部分双鞭毛藻产生,通过食物链进入人体产生毒性效应,是目前已知的影响范围最广、毒性最强、危害最大的一类海洋生物毒素,因而格外引发了人们对于此类毒素的关注。本文对PSTs的来源、传递方式、理化性质、安全性评价、检测技术等热点问题及发展趋势做了详细的介绍与展望。%Paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins(PSTs)is a kind of efficient sodium channel neurotoxins.As a category of red tide toxins,PSTs is mainly produced by some marine dinoflagellataes and then make their way into humans through the food chain to present the toxic effects,of which people pay particular attention because of its broadest possible influence,strongest toxicity and greatest harmfulness in the marine biotoxins currently known.A review is given to the newest research on the or-igin,transmittal vectors,physicochemical property,safety evaluation,determination technology in detail,putting forward per-spectives to development tendency on monitoring this toxins.

  1. Diarrhetic shellfish poison in oyster in major culture waters in South China Sea%南海海域重要养殖水域牡蛎体中的腹泻性贝类毒素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨美兰; 贾晓平; 林钦; 吕晓瑜; 蔡文贵

    2009-01-01

    对2006年和2007年南海海域23个重要养殖水域牡蛎体中腹泻性贝类毒素(DSP)进行了调查,结果表明:甲子港、唐家湾、镇海湾、安埔港、防城港、八所港和榆林港等7个水域牡蛎体DSP毒性呈阳性结果,占调查水域的30.4%,其DSP值均为0.05MU/g.2006年牡蛎体DSP检出率为8.7%(n=23),2007年为21.7%(n=23).调查期间,牡蛎体DSP检出值0.05MU/g已达到了FDA(美国食品药物管理局)、日本、加拿大、澳大利亚、新西兰、朝鲜等6个国家食用贝类标准警戒限量水平,和超出了我国规定贝类DSP不得检出标准,表明了近期南海海域某些养殖水域的牡蛎已经受到了DSP毒化的威胁.%The investigation of diarrhetic shellfish poison (DSP) in oyster from 23 major culture waters in South China Sea was carried out in 2006 and 2007. The results showed that DSP in oyster was positive with the value of 0.05MU/g, from seven waters such as Jiazigang, Tangjiawan, Zhenhaiwan, Anpugang, Fangchenggang, Basuogang and Yulingang, which occupied 30.4% of all waters. The detected value of 0.05MU/g of DSP is reached the warning limit standard of edible shellfish of FDA, Japan, Australia, New Zealand and Korea, and exceed the undetected limit standard for shellfish DSP in China. The result showed that the oyster cultured in some waters in South China Sea has been poisoned by DSP recently.

  2. Lipophilic Toxins in WA - Clear and present danger: monitoring and management of lipophilic shellfish toxins in Washington State

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Lipophilic shellfish toxins comprise an extensive suite of compounds including those associated with the human syndromes known as diarrhetic shellfish poisoning...

  3. Exposure to domoic acid through shellfish consumption in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andjelkovic, M.; Vandevijvere, S.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Oyen, van H.; Loco, van J.

    2012-01-01

    A main known culprit causing amnesic shellfish poisoning in humans is domoic acid (DA). The toxin appearance in sea waters (by counting the toxin producing algae) and consequently in shellfish is closely monitored to prevent acute intoxications with gastrointestinal symptoms and neurological signs.

  4. 天津市市售贝类腹泻性贝类毒素的调查研究%Research on diarrhetic shellfish poisons of bivalves in seafood market of Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丹; 高丽娜; 李春青; 陈永平; 董学鹏

    2013-01-01

    Objective Objective The diarrhetic shellfish poison (DSP) was investigated in shellfish samples collected from Feb 2011 to Jan 2012 in Tianjin seafood market.Methods Mouse bioassay and LC/MS-MS method were used to determine toxin content and its component.Results DSP was detected only in samples of scapharca subcrenata collected on May and august from TangShan,and both were over the limit.DTX-1 and YTX were confirmed in the positive samples by LC/MS-MS.Conclusion The overall DSP detection rate in shellfish from Tianjin market was low,but still essential to prevent the risk in spring and enhance monitoring and public education in summer.%目的 对2011年2月-2012年1月天津市售双壳经济贝类腹泻性贝毒(DSP)污染状况进行为期一年的抽样,调查其食用安全性.方法 分别采用小鼠生物法和液相色谱-串联质谱法(LC/MS-MS)对可食部分进行检测,测定毒素含量及分析毒素组成.结果 在所抽查的10种103个贝类样品中,只有产自河北唐山的毛蚶中5月和8月采集的样品中有2个呈阳性且均超标.对阳性样品进行LC/MS-MS检测,检出DTX-1和YTX毒素.结论 腹泻性贝毒在天津市场范围内检出率及含量整体水平不高,但应提示有关部门应在春季预防,在夏季加强对食用贝类的监测和宣传,以保证市民健康安全.

  5. The pattern of paralytic shellfish poisoning in shellfish cultured in East China Sea and South China Sea%我国东海和南海近岸海域麻痹性贝类毒素污染状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜克梅; 雷芳; 吴霓; 江天久

    2013-01-01

    于2007年11月至2008年10月在深圳罗湖水产批发市场定期采集产自我国东海和南海海域的主要市售贝类,运用小白鼠生物法进行麻痹性贝类毒素污染状况调查.结果表明:在所调查的13种贝类中,只有华贵栉孔扇贝染毒,检出率为75%,毒性值均较低,最高值出现在2007年11月27日产自湛江的样品,达到2.57 Mu/g,无超标.在时间分布上,该种贝类全年都含有毒素,表现出冬、春季染毒率较高,夏、秋季染毒率比较低的季节特点.广东沿海贝类毒素的检出率为25.4%,主要分布在南澳和湛江海域,含量范围介于0.31~2.57 Mu/g.福建沿海的贝类毒素检出率为53.9%,含量范围介于0.35~0.96 Mu/g.广西沿海的贝类样品未检出PSP.%In the present study,the pattern of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in 13 species OF industrial shellfishe cultured in East China Sea and South China Sea was investigated by the mouse bioassay method.The samples were collected from Luohu seafood wholesale markets in Shenzhen during November 2007 to October 2008.The results showed that the PSP in the samples was only found in scallop Chlamys nobilis with the positive rate of 75%,but the toxin concentrations didn' t exceed the seafood safe standard.The PSP in Chlamys nobilis could be detected in all seasons,and the concentrations of PSP were higher in spring and winter than those in summer and autumn.The shellfishes cultured in the coast of Guangdong were contaminated by PSP with the positive rate of 25.4%,and the main contaminated sea areas were the coast of Nanao and Zhanjiang.The shellfish contaminated by PSP in the coast of Fujian Province was 53.9%,while no PSP-positive shellfish was found in the coast of Guangxi P All empires fall,you just have to know where to push.rovince.

  6. Risk Assessment of Shellfish Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex Munday

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Complex secondary metabolites, some of which are highly toxic to mammals, are produced by many marine organisms. Some of these organisms are important food sources for marine animals and, when ingested, the toxins that they produce may be absorbed and stored in the tissues of the predators, which then become toxic to animals higher up the food chain. This is a particular problem with shellfish, and many cases of poisoning are reported in shellfish consumers each year. At present, there is no practicable means of preventing uptake of the toxins by shellfish or of removing them after harvesting. Assessment of the risk posed by such toxins is therefore required in order to determine levels that are unlikely to cause adverse effects in humans and to permit the establishment of regulatory limits in shellfish for human consumption. In the present review, the basic principles of risk assessment are described, and the progress made toward robust risk assessment of seafood toxins is discussed. While good progress has been made, it is clear that further toxicological studies are required before this goal is fully achieved.

  7. Shellfish Harvest Prohibition Areas for 2011; shellfish11

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — Geospatial vector polygon data defining shellfishing prohibition areas, seasonal, and conditional shellfish closure areas, and areas open to legal shellfish...

  8. 我国海产贝类体中的麻痹性毒素及其来源%Paralytic shellfish poison in seashells collected along the coast of China and its origin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林燕棠; 贾晓平; 杨美兰; 全桂英

    2001-01-01

    @@ 在目前已知的海洋藻类毒素中麻痹性毒素(Paralytic Shellfish Poison,PSP)是毒害事件发生频率最高、对人类影响最为严重的一类毒素.文献记载最早发生该类中毒事件的地区,主要是在欧洲和北美的一些海域[1,2].据不完全统计,在我国因食用染毒贝类引起的中毒事件有几十起,主要发生在东海和南海海域.因此,贝类麻痹性毒素的含量状况和上市贝类的质量是消费者极为关注的问题,同时也是有关海域渔业可持续发展的保证条件之一.为维护和发展贝类养殖业,保证海产品的质量和促进海产品的出口贸易等,深入开展贝体中藻毒素的调查研究是非常必要和有意义的.

  9. 利用蛋白磷酸酶活力抑制法检测牡蛎体内的腹泻性贝毒%Protein Phosphatase Inhibition Assay for Detection of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison in Oyster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爱峰; 于仁成; 李钧; 唐祥海; 王云峰; 颜天; 周名江

    2006-01-01

    基于腹泻性贝毒(Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison,DSP)中大田软海绵酸(Okadaic acid,OA)和鳍藻毒素(Dinophysis toxins,DTXs)能够抑制蛋白磷酸酶活力的特点,人们建立了一种利用碱性蛋白磷酸酶活力变化检测贝类中大田软海绵酸毒性当量的生物化学测试方法.本实验利用该方法对威海出入境检验检疫局采集的3个牡蛎样品进行分析,结果表明:3个牡蛎样品中不含有OA和DTXs毒素,但水解后可检出OA毒性,其中两个牡蛎水解样品的毒性当量分别为1.81和1.21 μg OA eq./kg贝组织(湿重).

  10. Accumulation of short term and depuration process of paralytic shellfish poisoning in Chinese scallop Chlamys farreri%麻痹性贝毒在栉孔扇贝体内短期的累积与排出过程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田华; 张晓红; 高春蕾; 范士亮; 王宗灵; 朱明远

    2010-01-01

    初步研究了微小亚历山大藻Alexandrium minutum产生的麻痹性贝毒(paralytic shellfish poisoning,PSP)在栉孔扇贝Chlamys farreri体内短期累积、转化与排出的规律.结果表明,在累积实验阶段,栉孔扇贝内脏、肌肉及生殖腺中的PSP毒索含量均随实验时间的延长而逐渐增加.累积20 h后内脏的毒性达21.56μgSTXeq/100 g,累积速率为1.05 μgSTXeq/100 g/h.内脏是毒素累积的主要部位,含量占贝体内PSP毒素总量的89.5%,累积率为6.4%.远远高于肌肉、生殖腺.经过30 h的排出阶段,扇贝总毒性减少到15.05μgSTXeq/100 g,排出速率为0.22μgSTXeq/100 g·h,仅为累积速率的1/5.

  11. 海南岛近岸海域贝类中的腹泻性贝类毒素%Analysis on diarrhetic shellfish poisoning in bivalve collected from different coastal areas in Hainan Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡蓉; 江天久

    2013-01-01

    为了研究腹泻性贝类毒素(diarrhetic shellfish poisoning,DSP)在我国海南岛近岸海域中的贝类分布,于2010年12月至2011年9月间,在海南岛的文昌、澄迈、洋浦、陵水等5个采样点采集了14种95份贝类样品,用小白鼠测定法进行腹泻性贝毒测定.结果显示,海南岛海域贝类中的DSP检出率和超标率均比较高,分别达到46.32%和33.68%;DSP检出率和超标率在冬季最高,夏季最低;检出率和超标率较高的主要贝类为栉江珧、裂纹格特蛤、近江牡蛎、华贵栉孔扇贝和魁蚶.

  12. 浙江南麂海域双壳贝类的腹泻性贝毒分析%Analysis on diarrhetic shellfish poisoning in bivalve collected from Nanji Island sea area of Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴锋; 江天久; 张帆; 江涛

    2010-01-01

    为了研究腹泻性贝毒(diarrhetic shellfish poisoning,DSP)在我国浙江南麂海域的分布,于2006年4月~2007年3月在浙江南麂海域的主要水产养殖区设立了六个采样点.以厚壳贻贝、条纹隔贻贝、紫贻贝、虾夷扇贝、太平洋牡蛎、野生牡蛎为对象逐月采样,用小白鼠生物测定法进行腹泻性贝毒测定.结果显示,南麂海域DSP检出率和超标率都较高,分别达到了63.3%和56.7%;DSP检出率和超标率在夏季最高,冬季最低;DSP地理分布范围较广,几乎包括了整个南麂海域;易于积累DSP的主要贝类为养殖的虾夷扇贝和紫贻贝,野生的牡蛎、条纹隔贻贝和厚壳贻贝.

  13. 超高效液相色谱荧光法检测贝类中三种高毒性麻痹性贝毒%Analysis of three paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins with high toxicity in shellfish by UPLC with fluorescence detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓玲; 杨桥; 惠芸华; 冯兵; 马丽艳; 于慧娟

    2012-01-01

    Establishing sensitive and reliable analytical methods for inspection on paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in shellfish foods is an effective mean to ensure the quality and safety of aquatic products in China. In this paper, the suitability of the ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and precolumn derivatization for the analysis of three PSP toxins (STX,GTX1 and NEO) with high toxicity in shellfish was investigated by choosing 3-(2-furoyl)quinoline-2-carboxaldehyde (FQ) as the derivatization reagent. Various parameters affecting the derivatization reaction and the UPLC separation were respectively optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the correlation coefficients (r) of three calibration equations were more than 0. 998, the relative standard deviations (RSD) values of the intra-day and inter-day precision for the retention time and peak area of the three targeted analyses were less than 3.1% and 5. 6% , respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) were 7 -14 μg · kg-1. The spiked recoveries were determined as in the range of 82 -92% with the RSDs value less than 5. 2%. The proposed method has proven sensitive and reliable, and can be used for the routine analysis of three PSP toxins in shellfish.%建立灵敏可靠的麻痹性贝类毒素(PSP)检测技术是保障我国贝类水产品质量安全的有力手段.本研究选取3-(2-呋喃甲酰基)-喹啉-2-羰醛(FQ)为荧光衍生试剂,利用超高效液相色谱(UPLC)和柱前衍生荧光检测技术,建立了贝类中3种高毒性PSP毒素成分(STX、GTX1及NEO)的检测方法,对影响荧光衍生效率和色谱分离效果的各主要实验因素分别进行了优化.结果表明,在优化后的最佳实验条件下,3种PSP毒素成分线性方程的相关系数(r)均大于0.998,保留时间(tm)及峰面积(PA)的日内及日间精密度RSD值分别小于3.1%和5.6%,当信噪比(S/N)等于3时,检测限范围为7~14 μg· kg-1,样品加标回收率为82% ~92%,RSD值小于5

  14. Synthesis of the ABCD and ABCDE ring systems of azaspiracid-1†‡

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xiao-Ti; Carter, Rich G.

    2004-01-01

    The efficient syntheses of the ABCD ring system of the originally proposed structure of azaspiracid-1 and the ABCDE ring system of the revised structure of azaspiracid-1 containing the correct stereochemistry at C6, C10, C13, C14, C16, C17, C19, C21, C22, C24 and C25 have been achieved.

  15. Accumulation and detoxification of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) in hard clam Meretrix meretrix%麻痹性贝毒在文蛤体内的累积及净化技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈和定; 付金花; 冉福

    2011-01-01

    There were two stages in the experiment, accumulation and detoxification. Accumulation PSP by hard clam Meretrix meretrix achieved by feeding clams certain amount paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) every day and detecting PSP periodically. The detoxification was determined by method of"inner discharge and out purification". We found that the clam had a low ability to accumulate PSP. It reached to 884μg/100g after exposed to toxic A. tamarense for 15 d and the toxins in the viscera were higher than in other muscles, accounting to 77.4% - 89.1%. The amounts of PSP decreased in three groups with the elimination rates of the control group 30.1%, ozone purified group 32.8%, group of inner discharge and out purification 47.2% during detoxification. This research showed that "inner discharge and out purification" could accelerate PSP detoxification.%试验研究分毒素累积和解毒两个阶段,丈蛤(Meretrix meretrix)对麻痹性贝毒(Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning,PSP)的累积能力试验中每天投喂一定量塔玛亚历山大藻(Alexandrium tamarense),定期测定丈蛤体内的毒素含量;解毒试验通过投喂饵料和水体消毒的“内排外解”法进行。结果表明:文蛤对麻痹性贝毒的累积能力较弱,累积试验末期(15d)的内脏毒素累积量仅为884μg/100g,内脏中毒素累积量高于肌肉,占全贝的77.4%~89.1%。15d的解毒试验

  16. Algal Toxin Azaspiracid-1 Induces Early Neuronal Differentiation and Alters Peripherin Isoform Stoichiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda V. Hjørnevik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Azaspiracid-1 is an algal toxin that accumulates in edible mussels, and ingestion may result in human illness as manifested by vomiting and diarrhoea. When injected into mice, it causes neurotoxicological symptoms and death. Although it is well known that azaspiracid-1 is toxic to most cells and cell lines, little is known about its biological target(s. A rat PC12 cell line, commonly used as a model for the peripheral nervous system, was used to study the neurotoxicological effects of azaspiracid-1. Azaspiracid-1 induced differentiation-related morphological changes followed by a latter cell death. The differentiated phenotype showed peripherin-labelled neurite-like processes simultaneously as a specific isoform of peripherin was down-regulated. The precise mechanism behind this down-regulation remains uncertain. However, this study provides new insights into the neurological effects of azaspiracid-1 and into the biological significance of specific isoforms of peripherin.

  17. A fluorimetric microplate assay for detecting diarrheic shellfish poisoning toxins%腹泻性贝类毒素的细胞F-肌动蛋白荧光检测法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海燕; 黄爱君; 付英斌; 黄薇; 余新天; 刘建军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish a new assay for detecting the cytotoxicity of diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins. The assay is based on the depolymerization of F-actin induced by okadaic acid (OA) , which is one of main components of DSP toxins. Methods HL-7702 Liver cells were stained with Oregon Green-514 phalloidin as a fluorescent marker for F-actin. The change of the fluorescence of F-actin treated with OA was measured with a fluorimetric microplate reader. The detection results of this assay and ELISA were compared to evaluate the reliability of the assay. Results OA caused an increase of F-actin depolymerization in a dose-dependent manner. There was a linear relationship between the concentration of OA and the depolymerization of F-actin in the range of 2.5 -40 nmol/L of OA in 24 hours (R2 =0.993). The detection limit of the F-actin fluorescence assay for OA was 2.01 μg/100g muscles in shellfish extracts, and the recoveries were 90% -100%. The results of the fluorescence assay were consistent with other methods mentioned above (R = 0. 830). Conclusion F-actin fluorescence assay was a promising method for the detection of OA in shellfish for its convenience, shortcut and sensitivity.%目的 通过检测大田软海绵酸(0A)对HL-7702肝细胞的F-肌动蛋白的解聚作用,建立腹泻性贝类毒素(DSP)的荧光检测法.方法 使用鬼比环肽标记F-肌动蛋白,多功能酶标仪检测荧光强度,通过荧光强度的变化分析样品中毒素的含量.比较荧光检测法和ELISA法对贝类样品的检测结果,分析所建荧光检测法的可靠性.结果 OA能明显破坏细胞F-肌动蛋白的聚合.随着作用浓度的增加,破坏程度也随之增加.在2.5 ~40 nmol/L范围内呈现明显的线性关系(R2 =0.9931),检测限值可达到2.01μg/100g贝肉;进行样本检测时,加标回收率为92.76%~96.49%,并与ELISA法检测具有较好的线性相关(R2 =0.830).结论 与现有的检测法相比,F-肌动蛋白荧光检测

  18. 枝角类为媒介的麻痹性贝类毒素传递与代谢研究%Study on transfer and metabolism of paralytic shellfish poison in cladoceran Moina mongolica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江天久; 雷芳; 徐轶肖

    2009-01-01

    为了弄清麻痹性贝类毒素(paralytic shellfish poisoning,PSP)在海洋生态系统中的产生、转化和归宿,本文以海洋枝角类为媒介,研究了麻痹性贝类毒素在海洋食物链中的传递与代谢过程.结果表明,PSP毒素可以沿甲藻塔玛亚历山大藻(Alexandrium tamarense)→枝角类蒙古裸腹溞(Moina mongolica)→红鳍东方纯(Fugu rubripes)鱼苗进行传递和代谢.整个实验过程中,塔玛亚历山大藻、蒙古裸腹潘、红鳍东方纯均检测到C1+2,鱼苗体内还发现似新生成的neoSTX.毒素传递过程中,C1+2中低毒性的α型毒素C1比例增大;毒素在鱼苗体内净化时,各PSP成分和总毒素含量普遍随净化时间的延长而减少.该结果为解释麻痹性贝类毒素为何在海洋各营养级生物体中广泛存在提供了直接的证据,也为我国开展麻痹性贝类毒素的监测和管理提供了新的理论依据.

  19. 一起进食紫贻贝引起腹泻性贝类毒素中毒的爆发调查%Investigation on a diarrheic shellfish poisoning incident by ingestion of blue mussels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林时辉; 涂文校; 欧剑鸣

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the measures taken in 2011 to a diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) in⁃cident caused by consumption of blue mussels in Fuding city of Fujian Province in order to facilitate prevention and supervision of such events in the future. Methods Upon reporting the incident, a series of measures were taken, including epidemiologic field investigation, case-control study, dose-effect response and laboratory tests. Results The incident was qualified as sea-food poisoning due to ingestion of the blue mussels in compliance with the patient’s symptoms of diarrhea, clinical features, case-control study, dose-effect response and laborato⁃ry findings as well as treatment. Conclusion Such incidents indicate that the local official sections responsible for food safety should enhance comprehensive surveillance over the red tide, prompt determination of the toxin level in local mussels, timely release of the information on mussel safety in order to prevent occurrence of DSP events.%目的:对福建省福鼎市2011年一起进食紫贻贝引起腹泻性贝类毒素中毒的爆发疫情进行调查处置分析,为今后预防和监管提供依据。方法采用现场流行病学调查、病例对照研究、剂量效应关系和实验室分析。结果患者症状与紫贻贝引起腹泻性贝类毒素中毒症状相似,综合本次中毒病例的临床表现特征、病例对照研究、剂量效应关系、实验室检测结果和干预措施有效性判断,本次中毒事件为进食紫贻贝导致的腹泻性贝类毒素中毒。结论政府食品安全相关部门应当加强海洋赤潮监测及对相关贝类进行毒素检测,及时发布信息和贝类食用安全预警,杜绝此类食物中毒事件的发生。

  20. Dinophysis Toxins: Causative Organisms, Distribution and Fate in Shellfish

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Reguera; Pilar Riobó; Francisco Rodríguez; Díaz, Patricio A.; Gemita Pizarro; Beatriz Paz; Franco, José M.; Juan Blanco

    2014-01-01

    Several Dinophysis species produce diarrhoetic toxins (okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins) and pectenotoxins, and cause gastointestinal illness, Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), even at low cell densities (<103 cells·L−1). They are the main threat, in terms of days of harvesting bans, to aquaculture in Northern Japan, Chile, and Europe. Toxicity and toxin profiles are very variable, more between strains than species. The distribution of DSP events mirrors that of shellfish production a...

  1. 我国东海和南海近岸海域腹泻性贝类毒素污染状况%The pattern of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning in the coast of the East China Sea and the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄翔; 雷芳; 江天久

    2013-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to clarify the pattern of the diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) in shellfish from the East China Sea and the South China Sea, improve the evaluation of biotoxin in shellfish and insure the seafood safety in our country. The total 186 samples of 14 shellfish varieties were collected from Luohu seafood market in Shenzhen during November 2007 to October 2008 and tested by the mouse bioassay. The results indicated that shellfish were seriously contaminated by DSP. The positive rate and over-standard rate of the samples from the coast of Guangdong province were 52. 54% and 40. 68% , respectively. DSP contents in shellfish showed significant difference among shellfish varieties, and Paphia undulata was subject to DSP contamination. The positive rates and over-standard rates changed with seasonal fluctuation, and the samples collected in spring and autumn often contained higher toxin contents.%为了揭示我国海产贝类腹泻性贝类毒素的污染状况,提高贝类毒素的监测和管理水平,确保海产品的食用安全.从2007年11月至2008年10月在深圳罗湖水产批发市场定期采集产自我国东海和南海海域贝类,共14个贝类品种,186份样品,运用小白鼠生物检测法进行腹泻性贝类毒素检测.结果显示,东海和南海海域贝类腹泻性贝类毒素污染较严重,其中广东沿海贝样检出率和超标率分别为52.54%和40.68%;腹泻性贝类毒素污染程度与贝类种间差异相关,以波纹巴非蛤受毒素污染情况最严重;贝类样品阳性检出率和超标率呈现季节性变化特征,春季和秋季样品毒素含量较高.

  2. Shellfish Toxins Targeting Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs play a central role in the generation and propagation of action potentials in excitable neurons and other cells and are targeted by commonly used local anesthetics, antiarrhythmics, and anticonvulsants. They are also common targets of neurotoxins including shellfish toxins. Shellfish toxins are a variety of toxic secondary metabolites produced by prokaryotic cyanobacteria and eukaryotic dinoflagellates in both marine and fresh water systems, which can accumulate in marine animals via the food chain. Consumption of shellfish toxin-contaminated seafood may result in potentially fatal human shellfish poisoning. This article provides an overview of the structure, bioactivity, and pharmacology of shellfish toxins that act on VGSCs, along with a brief discussion on their pharmaceutical potential for pain management.

  3. Advances in conventional methods of assay of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins%麻痹性贝类毒素常规检测分析方法比较与研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张松山; 李庆鹏; 靳静; 哈益明

    2014-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish as potent toxins are widely distributed, not only being a serious threat to people’s health, but also causing considerable economic losses. Therefore researches and improving of their surveillance and testing methods have been one of the research focus. The advantages and disadvantages of the latest research progress of three conventional analytical methods to detect the most common marine toxins are reviewed in the paper. Mouse bioassay, immunoassay and chromatography technol-ogy as the primary due to different principles of detection, combining different research areas need of their ap-plications. Although the mouse bioassay generalize toxicity is valid, its low sensitivity and requiring a lot of live animals is gradually being replaced by chromatographic immunoassay technology. In addition, nerve cell analysis, capillary electrophoresis and surface plasmon resonance sensor technology and other methods have gradually been applied. Anyway, because of the requiring professionals, cost issues still need to be improved.%麻痹性贝类毒素作为贝类产品中一种毒性最强、分布广泛的毒素,不仅严重威胁人们的身体健康,而且会造成相当大的经济损失。因此其监测检测方法的研究与改进一直是人们的研究热点。本文分析评述了麻痹性贝类毒素的三种常规检测分析方法的优缺点以及最新研究进展,并探讨了小白鼠生物法、免疫测定法和色谱联用技术作为主要的检测方法由于原理不同,结合不同的研究需求其应用的领域。其中,小白鼠生物测定法虽然概括毒性有效,但是其灵敏度低、误差大、并且需要大量活体动物而逐渐被色谱技术和免疫测定法所取代,此外,神经细胞分析法、毛细管电泳技术和表面等离子体共振传感器技术等方法也逐渐得到应用。不管怎样,这些方法由于需要专业人员、成本高等问题仍需进一步完善。

  4. Detection of diarrhetic shellfish poisons and pectenotoxins in the mussels that caused an outbreak of diarrhea%从暴发腹泻的贻贝中同时检出腹泻性贝类毒素和扇贝毒素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀尧; 蔡欣欣

    2012-01-01

    目的:2011年5月25日-5月27日,我市苍南县暴发了57例因食用贻贝引起的腹泻性贝类毒素(DSP)中毒事件,采集了19份样品进行检测.方法:采用超高效液相色谱-串联质谱方法对贻贝中5种脂溶性贝类毒素进行检测,根据欧盟贝类毒素的限量值进行评价.结果:15份样品检出大田软海绵酸(OA)、鳍藻毒素-1(DTX-1)和7-epi-pectenotoxin-2 seco acid(7-epi-PTX-2sa),16份检出pectenotoxin-2seco acid(PTX-2sa),7份检出pectenotoxin-2(PTX-2).其中4份样品中游离OA和DTX-1含量超出欧盟限量值3倍多,它们的总OA约超出9倍.其余均低于欧盟限量值.首次在我国贝类中检出了PTX-2sa和7-epi-PTX-2sa.结论:鉴于部分贻贝样品DSP超标,今后应加强贝类上市前的监测工作.%Objective: During 25 - 27th. May 2011 , there was an outbreak of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning ( DSP) after ingestion of intoxicated mussels in Cangnan county, located at the south coast of Zhejiang province in China, 57 persons were affected. To investigate the contamination of shellfish poisoning in mussels based on 19 samples randomly collected from the local seafood markets. Methods: Ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry was used to detect the following lipophilic toxins: okadaic acid (OA) , dinophysis-toxin - 1 ( DTX - 1) , pectenotoxin - 2 ( PTX - 2) , pectenotoxin - 2 seco acid ( PTX - 2sa) and 7 - epi - pecteno-toxin - 2 seco acid (7 - epi - PTX - 2sa) . The safety assessment of diarrhetic shellfish poisons and pectenotoxins in mussels was conducted according to the maximum permitted levels in EU. Results: OA, DTX - 1 and 7 - epi - PTX - 2sa were detected in 15 samples, PTX - 2sa was detected in 16 samples, and PTX - 2 was detected in 7 samples, respectively. The concentrations of free OA and DTX - 1 in 4 samples were about 3 times greater than the maximum permitted levels in EU, and their total OA surpassed 9 times the level. Others were

  5. Distribution of Marine Lipophilic Toxins in Shellfish Products Collected from the Chinese Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Wu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the prevalence of lipophilic marine biotoxins in shellfish from the Chinese market, we used hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS to measure levels of okadaic acid (OA, azaspiracid (AZA1, pectenotoxin (PTX2, gymnodimine (GYM, and spirolide (SPX1. We collected and analyzed 291 shellfish samples from main production sites along a wide latitudinal transect along the Chinese coastline from December 2008 to December 2009. Results revealed a patchy distribution of the five toxins and highlighted the specific geographical distribution and seasonal and species variation of the putative toxigenic organisms. All five lipophilic marine biotoxins were found in shellfish samples. The highest concentrations of OA, AZA1, PTX2, GYM, and SPX1 were 37.3, 5.90, 16.4, 14.4, and 8.97 μg/kg, respectively. These values were much lower than the legislation limits for lipophilic shellfish toxins. However, the value might be significantly underestimated for the limited detection toxins. Also, these toxins were found in most coastal areas of China and were present in almost all seasons of the year. Thus, these five toxins represent a potential threat to human health. Consequently, studies should be conducted and measures should be taken to ensure the safety of the harvested product.

  6. Distribution of Marine Lipophilic Toxins in Shellfish Products Collected from the Chinese Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyan; Yao, Jianhua; Guo, Mengmeng; Tan, Zhijun; Zhou, Deqing; Zhai, Yuxiu

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the prevalence of lipophilic marine biotoxins in shellfish from the Chinese market, we used hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to measure levels of okadaic acid (OA), azaspiracid (AZA1), pectenotoxin (PTX2), gymnodimine (GYM), and spirolide (SPX1). We collected and analyzed 291 shellfish samples from main production sites along a wide latitudinal transect along the Chinese coastline from December 2008 to December 2009. Results revealed a patchy distribution of the five toxins and highlighted the specific geographical distribution and seasonal and species variation of the putative toxigenic organisms. All five lipophilic marine biotoxins were found in shellfish samples. The highest concentrations of OA, AZA1, PTX2, GYM, and SPX1 were 37.3, 5.90, 16.4, 14.4, and 8.97 μg/kg, respectively. These values were much lower than the legislation limits for lipophilic shellfish toxins. However, the value might be significantly underestimated for the limited detection toxins. Also, these toxins were found in most coastal areas of China and were present in almost all seasons of the year. Thus, these five toxins represent a potential threat to human health. Consequently, studies should be conducted and measures should be taken to ensure the safety of the harvested product.

  7. Epidemiology of toxic and infectious risks due to shellfish consumption; Epidemiologie des risques toxiques et infectieux lies a la consommation de coquillages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desenclos, J.C.

    1996-10-01

    For feeding purposes shellfish filter large amounts of water but also concentrate infectious agents and toxins that are resent in the marine environment either naturally or because of pollution. Most of shellfish-borne infectious diseases are linked to fecal contamination of the marine environment; they include: typhoid fever, salmonellosis, shigellosis, campylobacteriosis, cholera, Norwalk or Norwalk-like gastroenteritis and hepatitis A. In warm climates, shellfish contains naturally occurring halopilic Vibrios and may cause severe sporadic infections (septicemias). Shellfish also causes outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) and diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) when they are contaminated by toxins produced when Dinophisis, a marine plankton, proliferates. Chemical compounds (heavy metals and organic toxins) that are dumped in the environment (soil, air, and water) also reach shellfish harvesting waters where they are concentrated. Since it is impossible to prevent completely the contamination of coastal waters by any of the agents cited above, the prevention of shellfish-borne diseases requires monitoring of the marine environment and shellfish flesh. This surveillance allows the classification o growing areas as suitable or not for harvesting and distribution of shellfish. However, indicators of fecal pollution are particularly not reliable for shellfish viral contamination. A better knowledge of marine biology, the limitation of coastal waters pollution, improved surveillance, the development of more sensitive indicators, the responsibleness of the industry and the information of the public on the health hazards associated with shellfish consumption are the key issues for the improvement of shellfish-borne disease prevention. (author) 106 refs.

  8. Structure Elucidation and in Vitro Toxicity of New Azaspiracids Isolated from the Marine Dinoflagellate Azadinium poporum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Krock

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two strains of Azadinium poporum, one from the Korean West coast and the other from the North Sea, were mass cultured for isolation of new azaspiracids. Approximately 0.9 mg of pure AZA-36 (1 and 1.3 mg of pure AZA-37 (2 were isolated from the Korean (870 L and North Sea (120 L strains, respectively. The structures were determined to be 3-hydroxy-8-methyl-39-demethyl-azaspiracid-1 (1 and 3-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-39-demethyl-azaspiracid-1 (2 by 1H- and 13C-NMR. Using the Jurkat T lymphocyte cell toxicity assay, (1 and (2 were found to be 6- and 3-fold less toxic than AZA-1, respectively.

  9. 贝类毒素检测方法研究概况%Research on Progress of Determination of Shellfish Toxin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳; 李雪梅; 李献刚; 于凤娇; 陈莹; 孙沛

    2015-01-01

    主要针对腹泻性贝毒(DSP)、麻痹性贝毒(PSP)、神经性贝毒(NSP)、记忆缺损性贝毒(ASP)和蓝藻毒素5类主要贝类毒素,着重介绍分析检测方法和仪器分析技术,同时介绍这5类毒素的相关概况及限量要求.%This article mainly aims at five kinds of shellfish toxins , including diarrhea shellfish poisoning (DSP), paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP),amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP)and cyanophyta toxin, introduced emphatically analytical method, instrument analysis technology, the general situation and the limited requirements of them.

  10. Two-year study of lipophilic marine toxin profile in mussels of the North-central Adriatic Sea: First report of azaspiracids in Mediterranean seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchiocchi, Simone; Siracusa, Melania; Ruzzi, Angela; Gorbi, Stefania; Ercolessi, Manuela; Cosentino, Maria Anna; Ammazzalorso, Patrizia; Orletti, Roberta

    2015-12-15

    Since the late 1980s, the North-central Adriatic Sea has frequently experienced blooms of harmful algal species, producing marine lipophilic toxins (MLTs) which accumulate in mussels and pose a serious threat to consumer health. Here, we present a 2-year LC-MS/MS study (2012-2014) of the MLT profile in mussels from the North-central Adriatic Sea in the context of the presence of toxic phytoplankton concentrations in seawater. Okadaic acid increased in mussels from all areas during the summer and autumn-winter periods with a rising trend between 2012 and 2014. In the same periods, Dinophysis sp. increased in abundance in seawater, but the highest densities of algae did not always coincide with the highest levels of toxins in mussels. Yessotoxins (YTXs) content in mussel increased sharply in the autumn-winter periods even exceeding the legal limit; although this accumulation did not always correlated with the YTX-producers in water (such as Lingulodinium polyedrum and Protoceratium reticulatum) a massive bloom of Gonyaulax spinifera was reported in November 2013, suggesting the role of this species in YTXs shellfish contamination. Traces of Azaspiracid 2 (AZA-2) were observed often in mussels during the study period, confirming for the first time the presence of this biotoxin in Mediterranean seafood. PMID:26455996

  11. Reporter Gene Assay for Detection of Shellfish Toxins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI-DONG YANG; MIN-YI WU; JIE-SHENG LIU; XI-CHUN PENG; HONG-YE LI

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the potential reporter gene assay for the detection of sodium channel-specific toxins in shellfish as an alternative for screening harmful algal bloom (HAB) toxins, considering the fact that the existing methods including HPLC and bioassay are inappropriate for identifying HAB toxins which poses a serious problem on human health and shellfish industry. Methods A reporter plasmid pEGFP-c-fos containing c-fos promoter and EGFP was constructed and transfected into T24 cells using LipofectAMINE 2000. Positive transfectants were screened by G418 to produce a pEGFP-c-fos-T24 cell line. After addition of increasing neurotoxic shellfish poison (NSP) or GTX2,3, primary components of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP), changes in expression of EGFP in the cell line were observed under a laser scanning confocal microscope and quantified with Image-pro Plus software. Results Dose-dependent changes in the intensity of green fluorescence were observed for NSP in a range from 0 to 10 ng/mL and for GTX 2,3 from 0 to 16 ng/mL. Conclusion pEGFP-c-fos-T24 can be applied in detecting HAB toxins, and cell-based assay can be used as an alternative for screening sodium channel-specific HAB toxins.

  12. Lead poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control If someone has severe symptoms from possible ... be caused by lead poisoning, call your local poison control center. Your local poison center can be ...

  13. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  14. A-year change of paralytic shellfish poisoning in Japanese scallop on Dayao Bay%大窑湾海域虾夷扇贝体内麻痹性贝毒的周年变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩华; 周春; 于光磊; 许道艳; 刘仁沿; 梁玉波

    2012-01-01

    麻痹性贝毒是对人体健康构成严重危害的甲藻类毒素.2007~2008年,大窑湾虾夷扇贝体内麻痹性贝毒2周年的调查发现,其含量与组分有着明显的季节变化,4-7月份麻痹性贝毒含量较高,4月份最高,平均含量可达378.32μg STXeq/100g,有C1、C2、GTX1、GTX2、GTX3、GTX5、dcGTX2、dcGTY3、neoSTX、STX等10种毒素组分.大窑湾虾夷扇贝体内麻痹行贝毒组分显著增多,含量明显增高.%Paralytic Shellfish Poiaoning( PSP) caused by the toxic diiraflagellateis is harmful toxins to humankind health. PSP in the Japanese scallop Patinopecten yessoesis on Dayao Bay was investigated month by month from 2007 to 2008, the content and composition had clearly seasonal change with the high level from April to July, especially on April, the toxins average concentration was highest to 378.32 g STXeq/100 g and the composition included Cl, C2, GTX1, GTX2, GTX3, GTX5, dcGTX2, dcGTX3, neoSTX, STX. PSP Level on Dayao Bay have become fearful than before on the northern Yellow sea along the Chinese coast.

  15. Oleander poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  16. Detergent poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  17. Philodendron poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  18. Ammonia poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  19. Foxglove poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  20. Yew poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  1. Mistletoe poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  2. Poison Ivy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Poison Ivy Posted under Health Guides . Updated 2 June ... everyone is sensitive to these plants. What is poison ivy? Poison ivy is a plant that can ...

  3. Diazinon poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  4. Iodine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  5. Deodorant poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  6. Mushroom Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poisoning, call your doctor or the Poison Control Center. Call 911 immediately if the person is unconscious, not breathing or convulsing. The phone number for the Poison Control Center is 1-800-222-1222. This number is ...

  7. Dinophysis toxins: causative organisms, distribution and fate in shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguera, Beatriz; Riobó, Pilar; Rodríguez, Francisco; Díaz, Patricio A; Pizarro, Gemita; Paz, Beatriz; Franco, José M; Blanco, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Several Dinophysis species produce diarrhoetic toxins (okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins) and pectenotoxins, and cause gastointestinal illness, Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), even at low cell densities (Chile, and Europe. Toxicity and toxin profiles are very variable, more between strains than species. The distribution of DSP events mirrors that of shellfish production areas that have implemented toxin regulations, otherwise misinterpreted as bacterial or viral contamination. Field observations and laboratory experiments have shown that most of the toxins produced by Dinophysis are released into the medium, raising questions about the ecological role of extracelular toxins and their potential uptake by shellfish. Shellfish contamination results from a complex balance between food selection, adsorption, species-specific enzymatic transformations, and allometric processes. Highest risk areas are those combining Dinophysis strains with high cell content of okadaates, aquaculture with predominance of mytilids (good accumulators of toxins), and consumers who frequently include mussels in their diet. Regions including pectenotoxins in their regulated phycotoxins will suffer from much longer harvesting bans and from disloyal competition with production areas where these toxins have been deregulated. PMID:24447996

  8. Dinophysis Toxins: Causative Organisms, Distribution and Fate in Shellfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Reguera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several Dinophysis species produce diarrhoetic toxins (okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins and pectenotoxins, and cause gastointestinal illness, Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP, even at low cell densities (<103 cells·L−1. They are the main threat, in terms of days of harvesting bans, to aquaculture in Northern Japan, Chile, and Europe. Toxicity and toxin profiles are very variable, more between strains than species. The distribution of DSP events mirrors that of shellfish production areas that have implemented toxin regulations, otherwise misinterpreted as bacterial or viral contamination. Field observations and laboratory experiments have shown that most of the toxins produced by Dinophysis are released into the medium, raising questions about the ecological role of extracelular toxins and their potential uptake by shellfish. Shellfish contamination results from a complex balance between food selection, adsorption, species-specific enzymatic transformations, and allometric processes. Highest risk areas are those combining Dinophysis strains with high cell content of okadaates, aquaculture with predominance of mytilids (good accumulators of toxins, and consumers who frequently include mussels in their diet. Regions including pectenotoxins in their regulated phycotoxins will suffer from much longer harvesting bans and from disloyal competition with production areas where these toxins have been deregulated.

  9. Characterisation of the paralytic shellfish toxin biosynthesis gene clusters in Anabaena circinalis AWQC131C and Aphanizomenon sp. NH-5

    OpenAIRE

    Neilan Brett A; Kellmann Ralf; Mihali Troco K

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Saxitoxin and its analogues collectively known as the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are neurotoxic alkaloids and are the cause of the syndrome named paralytic shellfish poisoning. PSTs are produced by a unique biosynthetic pathway, which involves reactions that are rare in microbial metabolic pathways. Nevertheless, distantly related organisms such as dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria appear to produce these toxins using the same pathway. Hypothesised explanations for ...

  10. Determination of paralytic shellfish poison by means of ELISA and mouse bioassay%ELISA法与小白鼠生物法检测麻痹性贝类毒素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄奕雯

    2012-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poison(PSP) is one of marine biotoxins with world-wide distribution and most serious harmness.In this study,20 samples of Mytilus from Fujian were used to determine PSP by ELISA and mouse bioassay.The results of two methods were consistent,but ELISA was more suitable to detect the Mytilus samples with small PSP content.Comparing these two methods,the mouse bioassay was simple,but couldn't evaluate quantitatively,however,the ELISA assay showed to be simple,sensitive and low cost,which possesses great significance to rapid check out PSP.Combining these two methods could obtain more accurate analyzing results of PSP content.%麻痹性贝类毒素(PSP)是当前世界范围内分布最广、危害最大的一种海洋生物毒素。该研究以福建地区贻贝为原料,采用酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)与传统的小白鼠生物测定法对20份贻贝样品中的麻痹性贝类毒素进行检测,结果表明:两种方法检测麻痹性贝类毒素的结果吻合程度较好,但ELISA法更适于检测PSP含量较小的贝类。通过比较研究,小白鼠生物法操作简单但无法准确定量;而ELISA法快速简便、灵敏度高且检测成本低,对于麻痹性贝类毒素的快速筛选检测具有重要的现实意义。这两种方法结合运用可以确保麻痹性贝类毒素检测的结果更加准确。

  11. Analysis of Marine Biotoxins Using LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckas, Bernd; Erler, Katrin; Krock, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Different clinical types of algae-related poisoning have attracted scientific and commercial attention: paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), and amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP). Bioassays are common methods for the determination of marine biotoxins. However, biological tests are not completely satisfactory, mainly due to the low sensitivity and the absence of specialized variations. In this context LC-MS methods replaced HPLC methods with optical detectors, allowing both effective seafood control and monitoring of phytoplankton in terms of the different groups of marine biotoxins. This chapter describes state-of-the-art LC-MS/MS methods for the detection and quantitation of different classes of phycotoxins in shellfish matrices. These classes include the highly hydrophilic paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) has been shown to be useful in the separation of PSP toxins and is described in detail within this chapter. Another important class of phycotoxins is diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins. This group traditionally comprises okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins (DTXs), pectenotoxins (PTXs), and yessotoxins (YTXs). The most recently described shellfish poisoning syndrome, azaspiracid shellfish poisoning (AZP) is caused by azaspiracids, which in turn are diarrhetic, but usually are treated separately as AZP. The last group of regulated shellfish toxins is the amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) toxin domoic acid, produced by species of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia.

  12. Analysis of Marine Biotoxins Using LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckas, Bernd; Erler, Katrin; Krock, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Different clinical types of algae-related poisoning have attracted scientific and commercial attention: paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), and amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP). Bioassays are common methods for the determination of marine biotoxins. However, biological tests are not completely satisfactory, mainly due to the low sensitivity and the absence of specialized variations. In this context LC-MS methods replaced HPLC methods with optical detectors, allowing both effective seafood control and monitoring of phytoplankton in terms of the different groups of marine biotoxins. This chapter describes state-of-the-art LC-MS/MS methods for the detection and quantitation of different classes of phycotoxins in shellfish matrices. These classes include the highly hydrophilic paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) has been shown to be useful in the separation of PSP toxins and is described in detail within this chapter. Another important class of phycotoxins is diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins. This group traditionally comprises okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins (DTXs), pectenotoxins (PTXs), and yessotoxins (YTXs). The most recently described shellfish poisoning syndrome, azaspiracid shellfish poisoning (AZP) is caused by azaspiracids, which in turn are diarrhetic, but usually are treated separately as AZP. The last group of regulated shellfish toxins is the amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) toxin domoic acid, produced by species of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. PMID:26108513

  13. 塔玛亚历山大藻经蒙古裸腹溞至美国红鱼鱼苗的麻痹性贝类毒素传递与代谢研究%Transfer and metabolism of paralytic shellfish poisoning from Alexandrium tamarense to Moina mongolica and to Sciaenops ocellatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐轶肖; 江天久

    2006-01-01

    首次采用枝角类作为麻痹性贝类毒素(Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning,PSP)海洋食物链传递的媒介,实验研究了PSP从甲藻塔玛亚历山大藻(Alexandrium tamarense)经枝角类蒙古裸腹溞(Moina mongolica)至美国红鱼(Sciaenops ocellatus)鱼苗的动态传递与代谢过程.结果表明,塔玛亚历山大藻为550~4900个·mL-1时,蒙古裸腹潘体内可以检测到麻痹性贝类毒素(PSP),美国红鱼鱼苗因摄入含PSP的蒙古裸腹溞而染毒.整个实验过程中,塔玛亚历山大藻、蒙古裸腹溞、美国红鱼消化腺均含有N-磺酰氨甲酰基类毒素C1+2,后者还检测到新生成的氨基甲酸酯类毒素neoSTX.毒素传递给蒙古裸腹溞时,C1+2中β型毒素C2的比例增大,传递给鱼苗时,则α型毒素C1的比例增加.毒素净化期间,鱼苗体内的C1、C2含量基本呈下降趋势,但neoSTX未呈现特定规律性;总毒素含量除藻密度550个·mL-1实验外,随净化时间的推移而下降.

  14. Screening Tests for the Rapid Detection of Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins in Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera L. Trainer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The illness of three people due to diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP following their ingestion of recreationally harvested mussels from Sequim Bay State Park in the summer of 2011, resulted in intensified monitoring for diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs in Washington State. Rapid testing at remote sites was proposed as a means to provide early warning of DST events in order to protect human health and allow growers to test “pre-harvest” shellfish samples, thereby preventing harvest of toxic product that would later be destroyed or recalled. Tissue homogenates from several shellfish species collected from two sites in Sequim Bay, WA in the summer 2012, as well as other sites throughout Puget Sound, were analyzed using three rapid screening methods: a lateral flow antibody-based test strip (Jellett Rapid Test, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and a protein phosphatase 2A inhibition assay (PP2A. The results were compared to the standard regulatory method of liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS. The Jellett Rapid Test for DSP gave an unacceptable number of false negatives due to incomplete extraction of DSTs using the manufacturer’s recommended method while the ELISA antibody had low cross-reactivity with dinophysistoxin-1, the major toxin isomer in shellfish from the region. The PP2A test showed the greatest promise as a screening tool for Washington State shellfish harvesters.

  15. Domoic Acid - A New Toxin in the Croatian Adriatic Shellfish Toxin Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Marasović

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study that presents concentrations of domoic acid detected in the whole shellfish tissue from breeding and harvesting areas along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea during the period 2006 to 2008. Shellfish sample analyses after SAX cleaning procedures, using a UV-DAD-HPLC system, showed the presence of domoic acid in four species. The most prevalent of those species were the blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis, followed by European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis, Mediterranean scallop (Pecten jacobaeus and proteus scallop (Flexopecten proteus. Domoic acid, a potentially lethal phycotoxin that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP, was detected for the first time in January 2006 with the highest value of 6.5486 μg g-1 in whole shellfish tissue. Pseudo-nitzschia spp. bloom events preceded these high domoic acid concentrations. According to this study, retention of domoic acid in the blue mussel M. galloprovincialis is more than 42 days. This investigation indicates the first presence of domoic acid in Croatian shellfish, but in concentrations under the regulatory limit (20 μg g-1, therefore shellfish consumption was not found to endanger human health.

  16. Development of Paraltic shellfish poisoning (PSP) monoclonal antibody and establishment of enzyme linked immolunosorbent assay (ELISA) detection method%麻痹性贝毒单克隆抗体的制备和酶联免疫检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许道艳; 刘磊; 刘仁沿; 梁玉波

    2013-01-01

    目的:利用B淋巴细胞杂交瘤技术制备麻痹性贝毒(PSP)的单克隆抗体,以便建立快速、灵敏、有效的毒素检测方法.方法:采用甲醛法将半抗原石房蛤毒素(STX)与血蓝蛋白(KLH)偶联制备成完全抗原STX-KLH,免疫BALB/c小鼠,取其脾细胞与SP2/0骨髓瘤细胞融合,经筛选和克隆,HAT选择培养杂交瘤细胞,利用ELISA方法筛选出分泌抗STX-McAB的杂交瘤细胞株,并通过小鼠体内诱生腹水的方法获得单克隆抗体.结果:共获得4株能稳定分泌麻痹性贝毒抗体的阳性细胞株,建立了分析检测麻痹性贝毒的间接竞争酶联免疫方法.对PSP中STX组分的检出限为20 ng/ml,IC50为220 ng/ml;对GTX2/3的检出限为10 ng/ml,IC5o为50 ng/ml.结论:所制备抗体具有高特异性和灵敏性,可用于研制高质量的国产快速检测麻痹性贝毒ELISA试剂盒.%Objective: To develop a rapid, sensitive and effective method for the detection of Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Methods:Monoclonal antibody prepared by B lymphocyte hybridoma technique was used by the formaldehyde method, hapten antigen saxitoxin ( STX) and hemocyanin ( KLH) were used to prepare complete antigen STX-KLH, which was used to immune BALB/c mouse. The selected fusion cells were produced by fusing mouse spleen cells with SP2/0 myeloma cells, followed by screening and cloning, and cultured with HAT medium. The anti-STX-McAB hybridoma secreting cell lines was obtained by ELISA screening. Monoclonal antibody was produced by mouse in vivo induced ascites method. Results: We obtained a total of four stable PSP antibody secreting positive cell lines and established a method for detecting PSP by indirect competitive ELISA. Detection limit of STX in PSP was 20 ng/ml, with IC50 of 220 ng/ml; while detection limit of GTX2/3 was 10 ng/ml, with IC50 of 50 ng/ml. Conclusion: The McAB with high specificity and sensitivity can be used to develop domestic high-quality ELISA kit for paralytic shellfish

  17. Shellfish Hemocyte Data from Flow Cytometers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various immune function tests using shellfish hemolymph have been developed to determine shellfish health. These tests including viability, phagocytosis, adhesion,...

  18. Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  19. Starch poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  20. Ethanol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002644.htm Ethanol poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ethanol poisoning is caused by drinking too much alcohol. ...

  1. Insecticide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 76. Borron SW. Pyrethins, repellants, ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 77. Cannon RD, Ruha A- ...

  2. Merbromin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 71. Linakis JG, Skarbek-Borowska S. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 18. Rusyniak DE, Arroyo A, ...

  3. Copper poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 75. Holland MG. Pulmonary toxicology. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 9. Jones AL, Dargan PI. ...

  4. Bivalve molluscs as vectors of marine biotoxins involved in seafood poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciminiello, P; Fattorusso, E

    2006-01-01

    Molluscs of many sorts, which are high in protein and trace minerals, have always been a substantial portion of the human diet. A great variety of mollusc species are therefore of commercial importance throughout the world. Episodes of poisoning occasionally happen to the consumers of molluscs, the main hazard being represented by bivalve molluscs. These organisms are filter-feeders, feeding mainly on a wide range of phytoplankton species. Among the thousands of species of microscopic algae at the base of the marine food chain, there are a few dozen which produce potent toxins. One major category of impact occurs when toxic phytoplankton are filtered from the water as food by shellfish, which then accumulate the algal toxins to levels which can be lethal to humans. Incidences of poisoning related to marine algal toxins come under the main categories of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), and amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), depending upon the toxins and the symptoms that they cause. Since the beginning of the 1990s, a research program has been initiated to examine the toxin profiles in mussels from the Adriatic Sea. Since then, a number of polyether toxins have been isolated and characterized, some of which represent new additions to the DSP class of biotoxins. During this investigation, new types of toxins have also been isolated. The recent application of LC-MS methods for the detection of Adriatic marine biotoxins made it possible to speed up the analysis of toxic samples.

  5. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the ... or empty container of a toxic substance, call Poison Help immediately. More than a million American children ...

  6. Photographic fixative poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photographic developer poisoning; Hydroquinone poisoning; Quinone poisoning; Sulfite poisoning ... Quinones Sodium thiosulfate Sodium sulfite/bisulfite Boric acid Photographic fixative can also break down (decompose) to form ...

  7. Human intoxication with paralytic shellfish toxins: clinical parameters and toxin analysis in plasma and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Carlos; Lagos, Marcelo; Truan, Dominique; Lattes, Karinna; Véjar, Omar; Chamorro, Beatriz; Iglesias, Verónica; Andrinolo, Darío; Lagos, Néstor

    2005-01-01

    This study reports the data recorded from four patients intoxicated with shellfish during the summer 2002, after consuming ribbed mussels (Aulacomya ater) with paralytic shellfish toxin contents of 8,066 +/- 61.37 microg/100 gr of tissue. Data associated with clinical variables and paralytic shellfish toxins analysis in plasma and urine of the intoxicated patients are shown. For this purpose, the evolution of respiratory frequency, arterial blood pressure and heart rate of the poisoned patients were followed and recorded. The clinical treatment to reach a clinically stable condition and return to normal physiological parameters was a combination of hydration with saline solution supplemented with Dobutamine (vasoactive drug), Furosemide (diuretic) and Ranitidine (inhibitor of acid secretion). The physiological condition of patients began to improve after four hours of clinical treatment, and a stable condition was reached between 12 to 24 hours. The HPLC-FLD analysis showed only the GTX3/GTX2 epimers in the blood and urine samples. Also, these epimers were the only paralytic shellfish toxins found in the shellfish extract sample. PMID:16238098

  8. Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Updates Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... hang in loose clusters. back to top Poison Plant Rashes Aren’t Contagious Poison ivy and other ...

  9. Contemporary issues in food allergy: seafood toxin-induced disease in the differential diagnosis of allergic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chegini, Soheil; Metcalfe, Dean D

    2005-01-01

    Seafood, including fish, shrimp, lobster, crab, crayfish, mussel, and clam are among the most frequent causes of food allergy. Seafood poisoning, including reactions to natural toxins, frequently masquerades as an allergic reaction on presentation. Ingestion of contaminated shellfish results in a wide variety of symptoms, depending on the toxins present, their concentrations in the shellfish, and the amount of contaminated shellfish consumed. Five types of shellfish poisoning have been identified clearly including paralytic, neurotoxic, diarrhetic, amnestic, and azaspiracid shellfish poisonings. Based on the presence or absence of the toxin at the time of capture, fish poisoning can be considered conceptually in two categories. In ciguatera and puffer fish poisoning, the toxin is present in live fish, whereas in scombroid, it is produced only after capture, in the fish flesh, by contaminating bacteria because of improper refrigeration. Most shellfish-associated illness is infectious in nature (bacterial or viral), with the Norwalk virus accounting for most cases of gastroenteritis. PMID:16119031

  10. Paraffin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax poisoning - paraffin ... Paraffin ... Eating a lot of paraffin can lead to intestinal obstruction, which can cause abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and possible constipation. If the paraffin contains a ...

  11. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, D.G.

    1974-01-01

    The use of arsenic in ant poisons, herbicides, and insecticides affords the necessary contact with the poison by pets. The gastrointestinal tract appears to suffer the greatest though there may also be injury to the liver and kidneys. The treatments discussed were in relation to very early poisoning in which the owner had observed ingestion of the arsenic, and when the signs of the poisoning were evident. Early observation treatment included emptying the stomach before the arsenic passed in quantity into the intestine. If the signs of toxicity were already advanced, then the treatment consisted of the intramuscular administration of dimercaprol (BAL) at a dosage of 3 mg/lb of body weight three times a day until recovery. l reference.

  12. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, D.G.

    1971-01-01

    The use of arsenic in ant poisons, herbicides, and insecticides affords the necessary contact with the poison by pets. Treatment was discussed in relation to two circumstances: very early poisoning in which the owner has observed ingestion of the arsenic, and when the signs of the poisoning are evident. Treatment for early ingestion involves emptying the stomach before the arsenic can pass in quantity into the intestine. This is followed with a 1% solution of sodium bicarbonate, with the administering of 3 to 6 mg of apomorphine. When signs of arsenic toxicity are already advanced, there is little advantage to be gained by either gastric lavage or administration of an emetic. The treatment then consists of the intramuscular administration of dimercaprol (BAL) at a dosage of 3 mg/lb of body weight three times a day until recovery. This is the specific antidote for arsenic. 1 reference.

  13. Zinc poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hill; 2006. Hall AH, Shannon MW. Other heavy metals. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ,eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA. Elsevier ...

  14. Malathion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used in agriculture to kill and control insects on crops and in gardens. The government also ... Mercaptothion poisoning References Cannon RD, Ruha A-M. Insecticides, herbicides, and rodenticides. In: Adams JG. Emergency Medicine . ...

  15. Chlorine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... VESSELS Collapse Low blood pressure that develops rapidly SKIN Burns Holes (necrosis) in the skin or tissues underneath ... the effect of the poison Surgical removal of burned skin (skin debridement) Tube through the mouth into the ...

  16. Solder poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... occurs when someone swallows solder in large amounts. Skin burns can occur if solder touches the skin. This ... the effect of the poison Surgery to remove burned skin Tube through the mouth into the stomach to ...

  17. Concentrations of some heavy metals in commercially important finfish and shellfish of the River Ganga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Abhijit; Chowdhury, Ranju; Banerjee, Kakoli

    2012-04-01

    Heavy metals are dangerous to aquatic organisms and it can be bioaccumulated in the food chain leading to diseases in human. Cumulative effects of metals or chronic poisoning may occur as a result of long-term exposure even to low concentrations. The accumulation of heavy metals varies depending upon the species, environmental conditions, and inhibitory processes. Concentrations of zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium were determined in finfish and shellfish species in the Gangetic delta using a PerkinElmer Sciex ELAN 5000 ICP mass spectrometer and expressed as milligrams per kilogram of dry weight. In finfish and shellfish species the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd were comparatively higher at stations 1 and 2 than the permissible level of WHO. The concentration of metals exhibited significant spatial variation and followed the order station 1 > station 2 > station 3 > station 4, which may be related to different degree of contamination in different location. The metal accumulation exhibited species specificity.

  18. A putative gene cluster from a Lyngbya wollei bloom that encodes paralytic shellfish toxin biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troco K Mihali

    Full Text Available Saxitoxin and its analogs cause the paralytic shellfish-poisoning syndrome, adversely affecting human health and coastal shellfish industries worldwide. Here we report the isolation, sequencing, annotation, and predicted pathway of the saxitoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in the cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei. The gene cluster spans 36 kb and encodes enzymes for the biosynthesis and export of the toxins. The Lyngbya wollei saxitoxin gene cluster differs from previously identified saxitoxin clusters as it contains genes that are unique to this cluster, whereby the carbamoyltransferase is truncated and replaced by an acyltransferase, explaining the unique toxin profile presented by Lyngbya wollei. These findings will enable the creation of toxin probes, for water monitoring purposes, as well as proof-of-concept for the combinatorial biosynthesis of these natural occurring alkaloids for the production of novel, biologically active compounds.

  19. Depuration of paralytic shellfish toxins in Japanese scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) in natural environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Tao; LIU Lei; SONG Xiaoping; LIANG Yubo; ZHUANG Guohong

    2015-01-01

    To study the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) depuration in Japanese scallopPatinopecten yessoensis in natural environment, Japanese scallops naturally contaminated with paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in the Dayao Bay in the northern Huanghai Sea are transited to Qipanmo waters in the Bohai Sea of no reported PSTs incidents. The levels and profile of PSTs during 30-day depuration are detected by the high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). The results show that the toxicity of the PSTs in soft tissues decreases to a relatively low level at Day 9. Moreover, the depurated ratio at the early stage of the PSTs depuration is higher than that at the later stage. The toxicity analysis of dissected organs reveals that the digestive gland is the most contaminated PSTs part, which is of important implication for the human health and scallop aquiculture. The mortality of Japanese scallops during PSTs depuration experiment is relevant to PSTs level in the soft tissue.

  20. Concentrations of some heavy metals in commercially important finfish and shellfish of the River Ganga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Abhijit; Chowdhury, Ranju; Banerjee, Kakoli

    2012-04-01

    Heavy metals are dangerous to aquatic organisms and it can be bioaccumulated in the food chain leading to diseases in human. Cumulative effects of metals or chronic poisoning may occur as a result of long-term exposure even to low concentrations. The accumulation of heavy metals varies depending upon the species, environmental conditions, and inhibitory processes. Concentrations of zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium were determined in finfish and shellfish species in the Gangetic delta using a PerkinElmer Sciex ELAN 5000 ICP mass spectrometer and expressed as milligrams per kilogram of dry weight. In finfish and shellfish species the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd were comparatively higher at stations 1 and 2 than the permissible level of WHO. The concentration of metals exhibited significant spatial variation and followed the order station 1 > station 2 > station 3 > station 4, which may be related to different degree of contamination in different location. The metal accumulation exhibited species specificity. PMID:21660552

  1. Fish and shellfish upgrading, traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérard, Fabienne; Sellos, Daniel; Le Gal, Yves

    2005-01-01

    Recognition of the limited biological resources and the increasing environmental pollution has emphasised the need for better utilisation of by-products from the fisheries. Currently, the seafood industry is dependent on the processing of the few selected fish and shellfish species that are highly popular with consumers but, from economic and nutritional points of view, it is essential to utilise the entire catch. In this review, we will focus on recent developments and innovations in the field of underutilised marine species and marine by-product upgrading and, more precisely, on two aspects of the bioconversion of wastes from marine organisms, i.e. extraction of enzymes and preparation of protein hydrolysates. We will deal with the question of accurate determination of fish species at the various steps of processing. Methods of genetic identification applicable to fresh fish samples and to derived products will be described. PMID:16566090

  2. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoolmeester, W.L.; White, D.R.

    1980-02-01

    Arsenic poisoning continues to require awareness of its diverse clinical manifestations. Industry is the major source of arsenic exposure. Although epidemiologic studies strongly contend that arsenic is carcinogenic, there are little supportive research data. Arsenic poisoning, both acute and chronic, is often overlooked initially in the evaluation of the patient with multisystem disease, but once it is suspected, many accurate methods are available to quantitate the amount and duration of exposure. Treatment with dimercaprol remains the mainstay of therapy, and early treatment is necessary to prevent irreversible complications.

  3. Relevant shellfish consumption data for dietary exposure assessment among high shellfish consumers, Western Brittany, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot, Cyndie; Nguyen, Thuan Anh; Carpentier, François-Gilles; Roudot, Alain-Claude; Parent-Massin, Dominique

    2011-04-01

    Shellfish consumption can be a major pathway of exposure to pollutants for humans. It is fundamental to know if people eat enough shellfish to cause health problems, firstly in high consumers as recreational shellfish harvesters. The objectives of this study were to investigate the types of shellfish eaten, number of meals, portion size, sources of shellfish and shellfish consumption rates among French recreational shellfish harvesters; to determine factors affecting consumption patterns and to examine the reliability of the two methods used: a Food Frequency Questionnaire and a one-month food diary. The mean consumption rates were 11.63 and 26.21 g/person/day for shellfish derived from a self-harvested source only and from all sources, respectively. Harvester consumption rates were between 6- and 15-fold higher than the general French population. The comparison between the FFQ and the food diary showed that results were reliable. Thereby, our results are relevant to assess risk due to shellfish consumption.

  4. Shellfish as reservoirs of bacterial pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Hariharan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to present an overview on bacterial pathogens associated with shellfish in Grenada and other countries including the authors’ experience. Although there have been considerable published work on vibrios, there is a lack of information on Salmonella serovars associated with various shellfish. In Grenada, for instance the blue land crabs collected from their habitats were found to harbor several Salmonella serovars. Also, it is notable that only minimal research has been done on shellfish such as conchs and whelks, which are common in the Caribbean and West Indies. Information on anaerobic bacteria, particularly, non-spore forming bacteria associated with shellfish, in general, is also scanty. This review re-examines this globally important topic based on the recent findings as well as past observations. Strategies for reduction of bacteria in oysters are briefly mentioned because of the fact that oysters are consumed commonly without complete cooking.

  5. Acetone poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript. Acetone is a chemical used in many household products. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing acetone-based ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Household Products Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  6. Monitoring of Shellfish Growing Areas - 1993

    OpenAIRE

    Nixon, E; Rowe, A.; Smith, M.; McLoughlin, D; Silke, J

    1994-01-01

    During 1993, water and shellfish from 19 major growing areas were monitored for chemical parameters in accordance with the 1979 Council Directive 79/923/EC. At each site temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen and suspended solids measurements were taken and shellfish samples were returned to the laboratory for metal, chlorinated hydrocarbon and algal biotoxin determinations. Generally, water quality in all areas was good and conformed to the guidelines of the Directive. The highest...

  7. Ecotoxicology of marine biotoxins in bivalve shellfish

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, Moira

    2013-01-01

    A small proportion of harmful algae produce toxins which are harmful to human health. Strict monitoring programmes are in place within Ireland and the EU to effectively manage risk to human consumers of shellfish species that have accumulated marine biotoxins in their tissues. However, little is known about the impacts of HABs on shellfish health. This study used Solid Phase Adsorption and Toxin Tracking (SPATT) for the passive sampling of algal biotoxins at Lough Hyne Marine Nature Reserve i...

  8. [Nutritive value of shellfish consumed in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, N; Vera, G; Araya, H

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the protein quality and digestibility of shellfish commonly consumed in Chile, and to estimate its contribution to the protein needs of the Chilean population. The shellfish studied were chorito (Mytilus edulis chilensis), macha (Mesodesma donacium), loco (Concholepas concholepas), cholga (Aulacomya ater), erizo (Loxechinus albus) and almeja (no specific variety). The NPU method was used to determine protein quality. The percentage of protein adequacy for adult rations was calculated according to FAO/WHO 1973. The contribution of shellfish to the protein availability according to the family income of the Santiago population, was also calculated. Most of the shellfish presented NPU values of about 70; the lowest values were found for loco (54.9) and macha (63.3). The apparent and true digestibility gave an average of 83.6 and 90.4, respectively. The percentage of protein adequacy of habitual rations ranged between 27% (erizo) and 58% (loco). The availability of shellfish protein in relation to total protein increased from 0.4 to 2.5% when income increased. It is concluded therefore, that shellfish protein is, in general, of good quality. Nevertheless, it might be considered of poor influence insofar as fulfilling the protein needs of the population studied, whatever its socioeconomic level. PMID:3834878

  9. [Nutritive value of shellfish consumed in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, N; Vera, G; Araya, H

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the protein quality and digestibility of shellfish commonly consumed in Chile, and to estimate its contribution to the protein needs of the Chilean population. The shellfish studied were chorito (Mytilus edulis chilensis), macha (Mesodesma donacium), loco (Concholepas concholepas), cholga (Aulacomya ater), erizo (Loxechinus albus) and almeja (no specific variety). The NPU method was used to determine protein quality. The percentage of protein adequacy for adult rations was calculated according to FAO/WHO 1973. The contribution of shellfish to the protein availability according to the family income of the Santiago population, was also calculated. Most of the shellfish presented NPU values of about 70; the lowest values were found for loco (54.9) and macha (63.3). The apparent and true digestibility gave an average of 83.6 and 90.4, respectively. The percentage of protein adequacy of habitual rations ranged between 27% (erizo) and 58% (loco). The availability of shellfish protein in relation to total protein increased from 0.4 to 2.5% when income increased. It is concluded therefore, that shellfish protein is, in general, of good quality. Nevertheless, it might be considered of poor influence insofar as fulfilling the protein needs of the population studied, whatever its socioeconomic level.

  10. RESPONSE OF APOPTOTIC GENES TO APHANTOXIN-PARALYTIC SHELLFISH POISON IN FRESHWATER EXTRACTED FROM THE APHANIZOMENON FLOS-AQUAE DC-1 IN CELLS OF BRAIN ON ZEBRAFISH (DANIO RERIO)%斑马鱼脑细胞凋亡基因对束丝藻毒素致毒的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德禄; 胡春香; 王高鸿; 刘永定; 李敦海; 李根宝; 沈银武

    2011-01-01

    breathe the odorous air than fresh air today, and see a bad scenery of green-mud water than clear blue waters. Especially the dominant species can produce aphantoxins, which is attributed to the paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs) and influences aquatic ecosystem and damages the nerve system of animals and human. However, little research has been carried out on the toxin, in particular the effects on central nervous system (CNS) of animals and human. Thus the present research is to investigate abnormity of apoptotic gene expression, ultrastructural damage of brain induced by aphantoxin, to reveal mechanism of response of brain on zebrafish to aphantoxins.Virus-free male zebrafish (Danio rerio), 110 days old or so, average bodyweight of (0.4 ± 0.01) g, after 7-10 days of acclimatization, were randomly assigned into control and treated groups (45 fish per group). The two groups were received 30μL 0.01 mol/L acetic acid solution (control) and 30 μL 0.01 mol/L acetic acid solution contained aphantoxins (5.3 μg STXeq/kg bodyweight, treated) through intraperitoneal injections (i.p.). At each time point (1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24h), five zebrafish in each group were sacrificed by cold shock (embedding into crushed ice at -8℃), and cerebra were removed from whole brain and washed at once in 0.86% ice-cold physiological saline, prefixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde solution for electron microscopy. In another 5 fish at each timepoint, whole brains were removed as described above,frozen in liquid nitrogen, and stored at either -70℃ for subsequent RNA analysis. The prefixed cerebra (at 9h) were dehydrated in graded ethanol and propylene oxide, embedded in Epon 812, and cut into the ultra-thin sections using glass knives on an ultramicrotome (Leica, Germany). Sections were stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate before electron microscopy (JEM-1230, Japan). The 45mg frozen (-70℃) whole brain (five fish each timepoint) of zebrafish were homogenized (IKA(R)Werke, Germany) in

  11. Bug spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... was swallowed or inhaled Amount swallowed or inhaled Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  12. Hair tonic poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  13. Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1222 immediately. Name State American Association of Poison Control Centers Address AAPCC Central Office NOT A POISON ... not for emergency use. Arkansas ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center Address 1717 S. Philo Road, Suite 36 Urbana, ...

  14. Plastic casting resin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epoxy poisoning; Resin poisoning ... Epoxy and resin can be poisonous if they are swallowed or their fumes are breathed in. ... Plastic casting resins are found in various plastic casting resin products.

  15. Shellfish Feeding Experiments, Filter Weight and Tissue Weight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Particulate matter removal by shellfish was quantified in several geographic locations, across several years. Data include filter and shellfish tissue weights.

  16. Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIOSH NIOSH Fast Facts: Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants Language: English Español (Spanish) Kreyol Haitien (Hatian Creole) ... outdoors is at risk of exposure to poisonous plants, such as poison ivy, poison oak, and poison ...

  17. 液相色谱结合串联质谱方法研究中国沿海贝类中脂溶性藻毒素的种类结构和分布规律%The Lipophilic Phycotoxins Profile and Distribution in Bivalve Shellfish of Chinese Coasts by High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘仁沿; 梁玉波; 刘磊; 樊东红; 许道艳; 孙茜

    2014-01-01

    A number of marine microalgae are known to produce toxins that can accumulate in shellfish, leading to food poisons and potentially fatal reactions of humans and other mammals consuming the contaminated shellfish. Lipophilic phycotoxins are dissolvable in organic solvents, and easily accumulated in animal adipose tissue. There are six common types lipophilic phycotoxins with variety of structures for each. This paper reported the profiles and distributions of lipophilic phycotoxins in 34 bivalve species from 55 stations along the coasts of China. Multiple types of lipophilic phycotoxins were detected in the bivalves along the coasts of China through the HPLC-MS/MS method, including Okadaic acid (OA), Pectenotoxin (PTXs), Azaspiracid (AZAs), Yessotoxin (YTXs)、Gymnodimine(GYM) and Spiroloides(SPX)etc. GYM was mostly observed in the coastal water of Guangdong, Guangxi and Hainan in South China Sea;YTXs, mainly present in Patinopecten yessoensis and Chlamys farreri, were detected only in Yellow Sea; while PTXs were mostly from the coast of Bohai. We observed three structures of PTXs, among which, the one had highest positive rate of 44% and maximum tissue concentration of 53.2 µg·kg-1 were PTX-2Sa; In terms of positive rate and tissue concentration, GYM (35.3%,39.1 µg·kg-1) followed PTX-2Sa. Similarly, three structures of YTXs were detected. And YTXs were present in the tissues of Patinopecten yessoensis in northern Yellow Sea throughout the year with a peak concentration in September. The geographic distributions of phycotoxins could be depended on the presence of toxic algae, while it was still unclear about the biological source of these three common lipophilic phycotoxins detected in the shellfish in China. Although the level of lipophilic phycotoxins in this study were lower than the regulated limitation for food safety, the work here reported the wide presence of variety of phycotoxins in the shellfish along the coasts of China, posing potential health

  18. Determination of Two Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisons Residues in Mytilus edulis Linnaeus by High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry%高效液相色谱-串联质谱法测定贻贝中腹泻性贝类毒素的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海琪; 何欣; 郑重莺

    2012-01-01

    Establish the detection method of okadaic acid(OA) and dinophysistoxins(DTX-1) in Mytilus edulis using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(HPLC-MS/MS).Shellfish sample was extracted by 80% methyl.Shellfish extract solution was clean-up by Sep-pak silica column.A triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer was used as a detector for HPLC to determine OA.As for the MS/MS,the multi-reactions monitoring(MRM) scan type and the negative ion electrospray ionization(-ESI) mode were applied.The precursor ion→product ion(m/z 803.5→m/z 255.1,m/z 803.5→m/z 563.1) was selected as OA quantitate detection ion pair.The precursor ion→product ion(m/z 817.4→m/z 255.1,m/z 817.4→m/z 113.1) was selected as DTX-1 quantitate detection ion pair.The mobile phase of HPLC was the methyl cyanide: 1% methanoic acid-water(vol/vol: 70:30) and the chromatographic column was Zorbax XDB-C18(2.1mm×150mm×5μm).The standard OA and DTX-1,the shellfish being added with OA and DTX-1,the shellfish sample were determine by the HPLC-MS/MS.The standard curve for OA showed good linearity over the concentration range of 5~640 ng/ml,the equation of linear regression was Y =207X-241(Q1/Q3:m/z 803.5→255.1),r was 0.9998,The recovery of sample being added with OA was 79.5%~88.6% and the RSD was 8.43%~10.4%.The standard curve for DTX-1 showed good linearity over the concentration range of 0 ~ 200 ng/ml,the equation of linear regression was Y =141X +3.59×103(Q1 /Q3: m / z817.4→255.1),r was 0.9997,The recovery of sample being added with DTX-1 was83.8%~91.2% and the RSD was 4.22%~6.54%.This HPLC-MS/MS is highly sensitive,fast,and very accurate.So it can be used for detecting the remain of OA and its natural derivative DTX-1 in shellfish.Among the 45 samples from the origin and market,4 samples were detected DSP,the ratio was 8.9%.%采用液相色谱-串联质谱法检测了贻贝中大田软

  19. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  20. Paralytic shellfish toxins in clinical matrices: Extension of AOAC official method 2005.06 to human urine and serum and application to a 2007 case study in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrasse, Stacey; Rivera, Victor; Roach, John; White, Kevin; Callahan, John; Couture, Darcie; Simone, Karen; Peredy, Tamas; Poli, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), a potentially fatal foodborne illness, is often diagnosed anecdotally based on symptoms and dietary history. The neurotoxins responsible for PSP, collectively referred to as the saxitoxins or paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are natural toxins, produced by certain dinoflagellates, that may accumulate in seafood, particularly filter-feeding bivalves. Illnesses are rare because of effective monitoring programs, yet occasional poisonings occur. Rarely are contaminated food and human clinical samples (e.g., urine and serum) available for testing. There are currently few methods, none of which are validated, for determining PSTs in clinical matrices. This study evaluated AOAC (Association of Analytical Communities) Official Method of Analysis (OMA) 2005.06. [AOAC Official Method 2005.06 Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins in Shellfish: Prechormatographic Oxidation and Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection. In Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International ], validated only for shellfish extracts, for its extension to human urine and serum samples. Initial assessment of control urine and serum matrices resulted in a sample cleanup modification when working with urine to remove hippuric acid, a natural urinary compound of environmental/dietary origin, which co-eluted with saxitoxin. Commercially available urine and serum matrices were then quantitatively spiked with PSTs that were available as certified reference materials (STX, dcSTX, B1, GTX2/3, C1/2, NEO, and GTX1/4) to assess method performance characteristics. The method was subsequently applied successfully to a PSP case study that occurred in July 2007 in Maine. Not only were PSTs identified in the patient urine and serum samples, the measured time series also led to the first report of human PST-specific urinary elimination rates. The LC-FD data generated from this case study compared remarkably well to results obtained using AOAC OMA 2011.27 [AOAC Official

  1. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  2. Ciguatera fish poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    J. Crump; McLay, C.; Chambers, S.

    1999-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is one of a variety of non-bacterial forms of human seafood poisoning. Consuming large predatory fish from tropical reef ecosystems may be hazardous. We describe a case that is typical of the disease, and illustrates the persistence of neurological symptoms that occur in some patients.


Keywords: ciguatera fish poisoning; ichthyosarcotoxaemia; poisoning; biotoxins

  3. Paraphenylene diamine poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    A C Jesudoss Prabhakaran

    2012-01-01

    The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD). Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, we report a case of PPD poisoning and the importance of clinical of hair dye poisoning. The lack of specific diagnostic tests, a specific antidote for paraphenylene diamine poisoning and the importance of early supportive treatment modalities are also discussed.

  4. Paraphenylene diamine poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A C Jesudoss Prabhakaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD. Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, we report a case of PPD poisoning and the importance of clinical of hair dye poisoning. The lack of specific diagnostic tests, a specific antidote for paraphenylene diamine poisoning and the importance of early supportive treatment modalities are also discussed.

  5. Cytotoxicity and mycotoxin production of shellfish-derived Penicillium spp., a risk for shellfish consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, M; Guitton, Y; Vansteelandt, M; Kerzaon, I; Blanchet, E; Robiou du Pont, T; Frisvad, J C; Hess, P; Pouchus, Y F; Grovel, O

    2013-11-01

    In order to assess the putative toxigenic risk associated with the presence of fungal strains in shellfish-farming areas, Penicillium strains were isolated from bivalve molluscs and from the surrounding environment, and the influence of the sample origin on the cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated. Extracts obtained from shellfish-derived Penicillia exhibited higher cytotoxicity than the others. Ten of these strains were grown on various media including a medium based on mussel extract (Mytilus edulis), mussel flesh-based medium (MES), to study the influence of the mussel flesh on the production of cytotoxic compounds. The MES host-derived medium was created substituting the yeast extract of YES medium by an aqueous extract of mussel tissues, with other constituent identical to YES medium. When shellfish-derived strains of fungi were grown on MES medium, extracts were found to be more cytotoxic than on the YES medium for some of the strains. HPLC-UV/DAD-MS/MS dereplication of extracts from Penicillium marinum and P. restrictum strains grown on MES medium showed the enhancement of the production of some cytotoxic compounds. The mycotoxin patulin was detected in some P. antarcticum extracts, and its presence seemed to be related to their cytotoxicity. Thus, the enhancement of the toxicity of extracts obtained from shellfish-derived Penicillium strains grown on a host-derived medium, and the production of metabolites such as patulin suggests that a survey of mycotoxins in edible shellfish should be considered.

  6. Studies on the transmission and metabolism of paralytic shellfish poisoning from Chlamys nobilis to Panulirus stimpsoni%华贵栉孔扇贝→中国龙虾的麻痹性贝类毒素传递与代谢研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江天久; 徐轶肖

    2006-01-01

    麻痹性贝类毒素(Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning,PSP)是目前已知的赤潮生物毒素中,发生次数最频繁、对人类影响最严重的一种.以往的监测数据表明,PSP可以沿食物网进行传递、积累和代谢,结果不仅使直接营滤食生活的贝类、草食性鱼类等含毒,而且可能使更高营养级的生物染毒,如常见的水产甲壳类,甚至包括一些海洋哺乳动物.总的来说,国内对PSP在生物体内的传递和代谢研究起步较晚,相关报道主要见于近5年,内容基本集中在实验室条件下PSP沿藻类一贝类体内的积累、转化与排出.而国外在该领域的研究要更深入且涉及的范围亦更广.除了实验室和野外条件下PSP在贝类体内的积累和净化及其动力学研究外,还在实验室条件下,可控模拟PSP毒素可能存在的其他一些更为复杂的食物链代谢途径。和原先工作不同的是,这类研究将目光投向PSP沿多个营养级传递时的动态代谢及与人类生活戚戚相关的高营养级生物.

  7. Francisella infections in fish and shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkbeck, T H; Feist, S W; Verner-Jeffreys, D W

    2011-03-01

    A series of recent reports have implicated bacteria from the family Francisellaceae as the cause of disease in farmed and wild fish and shellfish species such as Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L., tilapia, Oreochromis spp., Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., three-line grunt, Parapristipoma trilineatum (Thunberg), ornamental cichlid species, hybrid striped bass Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis and, recently, a shellfish species, the giant abalone, Haliotisgigantea Gmelin. The range of taxa affected will very probably rise as it is likely that there has been considerable under-reporting to date of these disease agents. In common with other Francisella species, their isolation and culture require specialized solid and liquid media containing cysteine and a source of iron. This likely restricted earlier efforts to identify them correctly as the cause of disease in aquatic animals. The most information to date relates to disease in cod, caused by F. noatunensis and tilapia, caused by F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis (also termed F. asiatica), both causing granulomatous inflammatory reactions. Mortalities in both species can be high and, as the disease can likely be transferred via live fish movements, they pose a significant threat to tilapia and cod aquaculture operations. Although the fish-pathogenic Francisella species are classified in the same genus as the human pathogens F. tularensis, causative agent of tularemia, and F. philomiragia, the risk to humans from the fish and shellfish pathogenic Francisella species is considered very low. PMID:21306585

  8. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  9. Face powder poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002700.htm Face powder poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Face powder poisoning occurs when someone swallows or breathes ...

  10. Steam iron cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cleaner is a substance used to clean steam irons. Poisoning occurs when someone swallows steam iron cleaner. This ... Below are symptoms of steam iron cleaner poisoning in different ... AND THROAT Severe pain in the throat Severe pain in the mouth ...

  11. Poisoning first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... or burns Stupor Unconsciousness Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing: ...

  12. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) hair ...

  13. Bracken fern poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) is found throughout the world and enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews the plant, the various poisoning syndrome that it produces, the current strategies to prevent poisoning, and recommended treatments....

  14. Arsenic: the forgotten poison?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, E N; Gilbert, D T; Raju, K; Morgan, O S

    1992-03-01

    Chronic arsenic poisoning is an uncommon cause of peripheral neuropathy in Jamaica. A patient with this disorder is described. The insidious nature of chronic arsenic poisoning, with its disabling complications, is emphasised.

  15. Paraphenylene diamine poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakaran, A.C. Jesudoss

    2012-01-01

    The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD) being used by the people to color their hair all over the world. Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, the importance of clinical manifestations and of hair dye poisoning is discussed due to the lack of specific diagnostic tests. Since there is no specific antidote for PPD poisoning, the early supportive treatment modalities are dis...

  16. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, A. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Early symptoms of lead poisoning in children are often overlooked. Lead poisoning has its greatest effects on the brain and nervous system. The obvious long-term solution to the lead poisoning problem is removal of harmful forms of the metal from the environment. (JN)

  17. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Lead Poisoning KidsHealth > For Parents > Lead Poisoning Print A ... Family en español La intoxicación por plomo About Lead Poisoning If you have young kids, it's important ...

  18. Paralytic shellfish toxins in the freshwater cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, isolated from Montargil reservoir, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, P; Onodera, H; Andrinolo, D; Franca, S; Araújo, F; Lagos, N; Oshima, Y

    2000-12-01

    Montargil reservoir, located in a dry flat area in the centre of Portugal, was filled in 1958 to fulfil agricultural, electric and industrial requirements. In May 1996, an intensive bloom of phytoplankton was detected. The algal community was strongly dominated by cyanobacteria with predominance of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae from May to June and Microcystis aeruginosa from July to August. Extracts of samples collected during the bloom period showed high toxicity by mouse bioassay. During the M. aeruginosa predominance period, the toxicity was ascribed to the presence of hepatotoxins, but clear symptoms of paralytic shellfish poison were observed when A. flos-aquae was the dominant species. In order to confirm the production of neurotoxins a strain of A. flos-aquae was isolated and established in culture. In this manuscript, we show the morphological characteristics and confirm paralytic shellfish toxins production by the strain isolated and maintained in culture. Identification of the saxitoxin analogs was achieved using high performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization (HPLC-FLD) and liquid chromatographic mass spectrometry technique (LC-MS). The toxins found in the culture extract were GTX5 (64.5 mol%), neoSTX (23.0 mol%), dcSTX (6.1 mol%), STX (5.4 mol%) and GTX6 (1.1 mol%). This is, to our knowledge, the first report of unambiguous evidence of paralytic shellfish toxins produced by freshwater cyanobacteria in Portugal. The toxin profile is rather different from the previously reported PSP producing A. flos-aquae and demonstrates its diversity in terms of toxin production. PMID:10858510

  19. Marijuana poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    , tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms.

  20. Glyphosate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and

  1. Marijuana poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    , tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. PMID:23796481

  2. Glyphosate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and

  3. Novel application of high pressure processing for the production of shellfish toxin matrix reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew D; Powell, Andy L; Burrell, Stephen

    2014-11-01

    The production of homogeneous and stable matrix reference materials for marine biotoxins is important for the validation and implementation of instrumental methods of analysis. High pressure processing was investigated to ascertain potential advantages this technique may have in stabilising paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish tissues compared to untreated materials. Oyster tissues were subjected to a range of different temperatures and pressures, with results showing a significant reduction in biological activity in comparison to control samples, without significantly altering toxin profiles. Tissue subjected to pressures >600 MPa at 50 °C was assessed for homogeneity and stability. The sample homogeneity was determined using a pre-column oxidation LC-FLD method and shown to be within accepted levels of within batch repeatability. Short and long-term stability studies were conducted over a range of temperatures, with analysis by pre and post column oxidation LC-FLD demonstrating improved stability of toxins compared to the untreated materials and with epimerisation of toxins also notably reduced in treated materials. This study confirmed the technique of high pressure processing to improve the stability of PSP toxins compared to untreated wet tissues and highlighted its applicability in reference material preparation where removal of biological activity is of importance.

  4. Innovative mode of action based in vitro assays for detection of marine neurotoxins

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas, J.A.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Innovative mode of action based in vitro assays for detection of marine neurotoxins J. Nicolas, P.J.M. Hendriksen, T.F.H. Bovee, I.M.C.M. Rietjens Marine biotoxins are naturally occurring compounds produced by particular phytoplankton species. These toxins often accumulate in seafood and thereby represent a threat to consumers. Regulatory limits have been set for lipophilic marine biotoxins (diarrhetic shellfish poisons (DSPs) and azaspiracids (AZPs)) and for most marine neurotoxins (amnesic ...

  5. Enteric porcine viruses in farmed shellfish in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Larsen, Lars Erik; Schultz, Anna Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Bivalve shellfish are at constant risk of being exposed to pathogens as a consequence of contamination of the shellfish beds with human or animal waste originating from sewage treatment plants or slurry fertilized fields. Consumption of contaminated oysters and mussels are frequently reported as ...

  6. Seafood-Associated Shellfish Allergy: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khora, Samanta S

    2016-08-01

    Shellfish are diverse, serve as main constituents of seafood, and are extensively consumed globally because of their nutritional values. Consequently, increase in reports of IgE-mediated seafood allergy is particularly food associated to shellfish. Seafood-associated shellfish consists of crustaceans (decapods, stomatopods, barnacles, and euphausiids) and molluskans (gastropods, bivalves, and cephalopods) and its products can start from mild local symptoms and lead to severe systemic anaphylactic reactions through ingestion, inhalation, or contact like most other food allergens. Globally, the most commonly causative shellfish are shrimps, crabs, lobsters, clams, oysters, and mussels. The prevalence of shellfish allergy is estimated to be 0.5-2.5% of the general population but higher in coastal Asian countries where shellfish constitute a large proportion of the diet. Diversity in allergens such as tropomyosin, arginine kinase, myosin light chain, and sarcoplasmic binding protein are from crustaceans whereas tropomyosin, paramyosin, troponin, actine, amylase, and hemoyanin are reported from molluskans shellfish. Tropomyosin is the major allergen and is responsible for cross-reactivity between shellfish and other invertebrates, within crustaceans, within molluskans, between crustaceans vs. molluskans as well as between shellfish and fish. Allergenicity diagnosis requires clinical history, in vivo skin prick testing, in vitro quantification of IgE, immunoCAP, and confirmation by oral challenge testing unless the reactions borne by it are life-threatening. This comprehensive review provides the update and new findings in the area of shellfish allergy including demographic, diversity of allergens, allergenicity, their cross-reactivity, and innovative molecular genetics approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-threatening as well as life-long disease. PMID:27404324

  7. Occurrence of potentially pathogenic arcobacters in shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottola, Anna; Bonerba, Elisabetta; Figueras, Maria José; Pérez-Cataluña, Alba; Marchetti, Patrizia; Serraino, Andrea; Bozzo, Giancarlo; Terio, Valentina; Tantillo, Giuseppina; Di Pinto, Angela

    2016-08-01

    Considering that several recent cases of human gastroenteritis have been associated with species from the Arcobacter genus, and that few data are currently available about the occurrence of this genus in Italian shellfish, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of Arcobacter spp. and the presence of virulence-associated genes. The approach consisted of cultural and biomolecular (multiplex-PCR and 16S-RFLP) methods identifying isolates, followed by PCR assays aimed at the cadF, ciaB, cjl349, irgA, hecA putative virulence genes. Arcobacter spp. was detected in 16/70 (22.8%) shellfish samples. Specifically, Arcobacter spp. was highlighted in 10/42 (23.8%) mussel and in 6/28 (21.4%) clam samples. Subsequently, biomolecular assays revealed Arcobacter butzleri in 12/16 (75%) and Arcobacter cryaerophilus 1B in 4/16 (25%) isolates. PCRs aimed at the five putative virulence genes demonstrated widespread distribution of these genes among Arcobacter isolates and some differences from the results published by other authors. Our research provides more information regarding the health risks associated with the consumption of raw bivalve molluscs and underlines the need to implement an adequate control plan by performing intensive and continuous monitoring in order to guarantee human health. PMID:27052698

  8. Characterisation of the paralytic shellfish toxin biosynthesis gene clusters in Anabaena circinalis AWQC131C and Aphanizomenon sp. NH-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neilan Brett A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saxitoxin and its analogues collectively known as the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs are neurotoxic alkaloids and are the cause of the syndrome named paralytic shellfish poisoning. PSTs are produced by a unique biosynthetic pathway, which involves reactions that are rare in microbial metabolic pathways. Nevertheless, distantly related organisms such as dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria appear to produce these toxins using the same pathway. Hypothesised explanations for such an unusual phylogenetic distribution of this shared uncommon metabolic pathway, include a polyphyletic origin, an involvement of symbiotic bacteria, and horizontal gene transfer. Results We describe the identification, annotation and bioinformatic characterisation of the putative paralytic shellfish toxin biosynthesis clusters in an Australian isolate of Anabaena circinalis and an American isolate of Aphanizomenon sp., both members of the Nostocales. These putative PST gene clusters span approximately 28 kb and contain genes coding for the biosynthesis and export of the toxin. A putative insertion/excision site in the Australian Anabaena circinalis AWQC131C was identified, and the organization and evolution of the gene clusters are discussed. A biosynthetic pathway leading to the formation of saxitoxin and its analogues in these organisms is proposed. Conclusion The PST biosynthesis gene cluster presents a mosaic structure, whereby genes have apparently transposed in segments of varying size, resulting in different gene arrangements in all three sxt clusters sequenced so far. The gene cluster organizational structure and sequence similarity seems to reflect the phylogeny of the producer organisms, indicating that the gene clusters have an ancient origin, or that their lateral transfer was also an ancient event. The knowledge we gain from the characterisation of the PST biosynthesis gene clusters, including the identity and sequence of the genes involved

  9. Thirty years - Alexandrium fundyense cyst, bloom dynamics and shellfish toxicity in the Bay of Fundy, eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jennifer L.; LeGresley, Murielle M.; Hanke, Alex R.

    2014-05-01

    Sediment and water samples were collected for Alexandrium fundyense spatial and temporal distribution and abundance at more than 120 locations throughout the Bay of Fundy during the summers and winters of 1980-1984. These broad surveys have been repeated at various times through the past 30 years, with more regular sampling since 2004. In addition, A. fundyense abundance has been monitored at several locations within the Bay of Fundy at weekly intervals from April to November and monthly during the remaining months since 1988. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxins in shellfish (notably Mya arenaria) have also been monitored at multiple locations in the Bay of Fundy since 1943. The datasets were examined to determine relationships and roles between overwintering resting cysts, bloom initiation, bloom decline, motile cell dispersal and A. fundyense motile populations and resulting shellfish toxicity since 1980. Cysts are widely dispersed throughout the Bay of Fundy in the offshore, inshore and intertidal zones with the largest deposits located in the offshore in silt/clay sediments to the east and north of Grand Manan Island at depths of 60-180 m. Results show that there is a constant stable source of cysts in the Bay of Fundy with highest concentrations of cysts (9780 cysts cm-3) observed in 2010 and highest concentrations of A. fundyense motile cells (18×106 cells L-1) observed in 1980. Interannual changes in abundance in A. fundyense populations, resting cysts and the temporal trends in M. arenaria toxicity are discussed. Results show that there was no relationship between the abundance of overwintering cysts and the magnitude of A. fundyense blooms. The offshore seed beds appear to be relatively constant in cyst density among most years and serve as an important source for the motile cells that lead to initiation of major blooms and resulting shellfish toxicity throughout the Bay of Fundy.

  10. Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V., Jr.; Ediger, E.

    1950-01-01

    Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

  11. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  12. Extracorporeal treatment for barbiturate poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mactier, Robert; Laliberté, Martin; Mardini, Joelle;

    2014-01-01

    The EXTRIP (Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning) Workgroup conducted a systematic review of barbiturate poisoning using a standardized evidence-based process to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with barbiturate poisoning. The authors reviewed al...

  13. Determination of paralytic shellfish toxins in shellfish by receptor binding assay: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dolah, Frances M; Fire, Spencer E; Leighfield, Tod A; Mikulski, Christina M; Doucette, Gregory J

    2012-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted on a microplate format receptor binding assay (RBA) for paralytic e shellfish toxins (PST). The assay quantifies the composite PST toxicity in shellfish samples based on the ability of sample extracts to compete with (3)H saxitoxin (STX) diHCl for binding to voltage-gated sodium channels in a rat brain membrane preparation. Quantification of binding can be carried out using either a microplate or traditional scintillation counter; both end points were included in this study. Nine laboratories from six countries completed the study. One laboratory analyzed the samples using the precolumn oxidation HPLC method (AOAC Method 2005.06) to determine the STX congener composition. Three laboratories performed the mouse bioassay (AOAC Method 959.08). The study focused on the ability of the assay to measure the PST toxicity of samples below, near, or slightly above the regulatory limit of 800 (microg STX diHCl equiv./kg). A total of 21 shellfish homogenates were extracted in 0.1 M HCl, and the extracts were analyzed by RBA in three assays on separate days. Samples included naturally contaminated shellfish samples of different species collected from several geographic regions, which contained varying STX congener profiles due to their exposure to different PST-producing dinoflagellate species or differences in toxin metabolism: blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) from the U.S. east and west coasts, California mussel (Mytilus californianus) from the U.S. west coast, chorito mussel (Mytilus chiliensis) from Chile, green mussel (Perna canaliculus) from New Zealand, Atlantic surf clam (Spisula solidissima) from the U.S. east coast, butter clam (Saxidomus gigantea) from the west coast of the United States, almeja clam (Venus antiqua) from Chile, and Atlantic sea scallop (Plactopecten magellanicus) from the U.S. east coast. All samples were provided as whole animal homogenates, except Atlantic sea scallop and green mussel, from which only the

  14. Complete Genome Sequence for the Shellfish Pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus RE98 Isolated from a Shellfish Hatchery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gary P; Bono, James L; Watson, Michael A; Needleman, David S

    2014-12-18

    Vibrio coralliilyticus is a pathogen of corals and larval shellfish. Publications on strain RE98 list it as a Vibrio tubiashii; however, whole genome sequencing confirms RE98 as V. coralliilyticus containing a total of 6,037,824 bp consisting of two chromosomes (3,420,228 and 1,917,482 bp) and two megaplasmids (380,714 and 319,400 bp).

  15. Sensitive method for the determination of lipophilic marine biotoxins in extracts of mussels and processed shellfish by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based on enrichment by solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    These, Anja; Scholz, Jana; Preiss-Weigert, Angelika

    2009-05-22

    A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for the enrichment and clean-up of lipophilic marine biotoxins from extracts of different species of bivalve molluscs and processed shellfish products was developed. Okadaic acid (OA), pectenotoxin2 (PTX2), azaspiracid1 (AZA1) and yessotoxin (YTX) were determined by LC-MS/MS in hydrolyzed and non-hydrolyzed extracts. Applying a concentration factor of 10 the limit of quantification for the four toxins was determined to be 1 microg/kg. An organized in-house ring trial proved transferability of the method protocol and satisfactory results for all four toxins with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 5-12%. The precision of the whole method including LC-MS detection was determined by processing seven independent extractions analyzed in independent sequences. RSD ranged between 12% and 24%. This SPE method was tested within a concentration range corresponding to the range of the current European Union regulatory limits (up to 160 microg/kg for the OA group), but it would also be applicable to a lower microg/kg range which is important in view of a possible decrease of regulatory limits as proposed by a working group of the European Food Safety Authority. The potential of SPE as a cleaning tool to cope with matrix effects in LC-MS/MS was studied and compared to liquid-liquid portioning.

  16. Climate Change May Bring More Tainted Shellfish to Northern Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160300.html Climate Change May Bring More Tainted Shellfish to Northern Seas ... must be monitored "in the light of ongoing climate change, especially in coastal areas most heavily affected by ...

  17. Neurotoxins from Marine Dinoflagellates: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Zhi Wang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellates are not only important marine primary producers and grazers, but also the major causative agents of harmful algal blooms. It has been reported that many dinoflagellate species can produce various natural toxins. These toxins can be extremely toxic and many of them are effective at far lower dosages than conventional chemical agents. Consumption of seafood contaminated by algal toxins results in various seafood poisoning syndromes: paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP, neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP, amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP, diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP, ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP and azaspiracid shellfish poisoning (ASP. Most of these poisonings are caused by neurotoxins which present themselves with highly specific effects on the nervous system of animals, including humans, by interfering with nerve impulse transmission. Neurotoxins are a varied group of compounds, both chemically and pharmacologically. They vary in both chemical structure and mechanism of action, and produce very distinct biological effects, which provides a potential application of these toxins in pharmacology and toxicology. This review summarizes the origin, structure and clinical symptoms of PSP, NSP, CFP, AZP, yessotoxin and palytoxin produced by marine dinoflagellates, as well as their molecular mechanisms of action on voltage-gated ion channels.

  18. Shellfish Toxins Targeting Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Zhang; Xunxun Xu; Tingting Li; Zhonghua Liu

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) play a central role in the generation and propagation of action potentials in excitable neurons and other cells and are targeted by commonly used local anesthetics, antiarrhythmics, and anticonvulsants. They are also common targets of neurotoxins including shellfish toxins. Shellfish toxins are a variety of toxic secondary metabolites produced by prokaryotic cyanobacteria and eukaryotic dinoflagellates in both marine and fresh water systems, which can acc...

  19. Surveillance of Hepatitis E Virus Contamination in Shellfish in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenyang Gao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV has been confirmed to be a zoonotic virus of worldwide distribution. HEV contamination in the water environment has not been well examined in China. The objective of this study was to evaluate HEV contamination in shellfish in a coastal area of China. Such contamination would be significant for evaluating public health risks. Methods: samples of three species shellfish were collected from thirteen points of estuarine tidal flats around the Bohai Gulf and screened for HEV RNA using an in-house nested RT-PCR assay. The detected HEV-positive samples were further verified by gene cloning and sequencing analysis. Results: the overall HEV-positive detection rate is approximately 17.5% per kilogram of shellfish.  HEV was more common among S. subcrenata (28.2%, followed by A. granosa (14.3% and R. philippinarum (11.5%. The phylogenetic analysis of the 13 HEV strains detected revealed that gene fragments fell into two known 4 sub-genotypes (4b/4d groups and another unknown group. Conclusions: 13 different sub-genotype 4 HEVs were found in contaminated shellfish in the Bohai Gulf rim. The findings suggest that a health risk may exist for users of waters in the Bonhai area and to consumers of shellfish.  Further research is needed to assess the sources and infectivity of HEV in these settings, and to evaluate additional shellfish harvesting areas.

  20. Clinical Marine Toxicology: A European Perspective for Clinical Toxicologists and Poison Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc De Haro

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Clinical marine toxicology is a rapidly changing area. Many of the new discoveries reported every year in Europe involve ecological disturbances—including global warming—that have induced modifications in the chorology, behavior, and toxicity of many species of venomous or poisonous aquatic life including algae, ascidians, fish and shellfish. These changes have raised a number of public issues associated, e.g., poisoning after ingestion of contaminated seafood, envenomation by fish stings, and exposure to harmful microorganism blooms. The purpose of this review of medical and scientific literature in marine toxicology is to highlight the growing challenges induced by ecological disturbances that confront clinical toxicologists during the everyday job in the European Poison Centers.

  1. Asphalt cement poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... petroleum material that hardens when it cools. Asphalt cement poisoning occurs when someone swallows asphalt. If hot ... found in: Road paving materials Roofing materials Tile cements Asphalt may also be used for other purposes.

  2. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heater). Many carbon monoxide poisonings occur in the winter months when furnaces, gas fireplaces, and portable heaters ... 16567227 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16567227 . Nelson LS, Hoffman RS. Inhaled toxins. In: Marx JA, ...

  3. Tips to Prevent Poisonings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemical products such as cleaning solutions or beauty products. Never mix household products together. For example, mixing bleach and ammonia ... the fan and open windows when using chemical products such as household cleaners. Keep Young Children Safe from Poisoning Be ...

  4. Drain cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002779.htm Drain cleaner poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Drain cleaners contain very dangerous chemicals that can be ...

  5. Cold wave lotion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002693.htm Cold wave lotion poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cold wave lotion is a hair care product used ...

  6. Cedar leaf oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedar leaf oil is made from some types of cedar trees. Cedar leaf oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... The substance in cedar leaf oil that can be harmful is thujone (a hydrocarbon).

  7. Oximes in organophosphorus poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherian M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute organic insecticide poisoning is a major health problem all over the world, particularly in the developing countries, where organophosphates (OPs are the most common suicidal poisons with high morbidity and mortality and account for a large proportion of patients admitted to intensive care units. Other insecticides less commonly used are organocarbamates, organochlorides, and pyrethroids, which are less toxic and are associated with less morbidity and mortality. Patients with poisoning present with a wide spectrum of gastrointestinal, neurological, and cardiac manifestations. A strong clinical suspicion is necessary to make an early diagnosis and to start appropriate therapy. Treatment is primarily supportive and includes decontamination, anticholinergics, protection of the airway, and cardiac and respiratory support. The use of oximes has been controversial and may be associated with higher mortality owing to a higher incidence of type-II paralysis. They may have other toxic side effects. This paper reviews the literature on OP poisoning.

  8. Metal cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metal cleaners are very strong chemical products that contain acids. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or ... Metal cleaners contain organic compounds called hydrocarbons, including: 1,2-butylene oxide Boric acid Cocoyl sarcosine Dicarboxylic ...

  9. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  10. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... products, including: Antifreeze De-icing products Detergents Paints Cosmetics Note: This list may not be all-inclusive ... vein (IV) to reverse severe acidosis Antidotes that slow the formation of the poisonous by-products in ...

  11. Poison Ivy Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Poison Ivy Dermatitis Share | "Leaves of three - let it be!" aptly ... is caused by an allergic reaction ( allergic contact dermatitis ) to the oily coating that covers of these ...

  12. Medicine Poisoning in Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lígia Montenegro de Albuquerque

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to identify the main medications responsible for exogenous poisoning of children attended at a referral emergency hospital of Fortaleza, Ceará State,Brazil; to describe the most prevalent age and gender, as well as the main reactions presented by poisoned children. It was a documental retrospective study of 203 records of patients attended in 1997 at the Toxicology Center of Ceará. Our results showed that antidepressants, bronchodilators and vitamins were the most common agents; 77% of poisoned children were between 1 and 4 years of age, and 54% were males; somnolence, psicomotor excitement, tachycardia and vomiting were the most commonly encountered reactions. In conclusion, these medicines represents an important cause of children poisoning, Families must attempt to the safe storing and dealing with these products. It is mandatory that the government determines the utilization of special packages for children protection in our country.

  13. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  14. Furniture polish poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... touched your skin or eyes you may have: Skin burns and irritation Vision loss If the poison is ... out the stomach ( gastric lavage ) Surgical removal of burned skin (skin debridement) Washing of the skin (irrigation), perhaps ...

  15. Stoddard solvent poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems Nervousness Numbness in arms and legs Unconsciousness SKIN Burns Irritation Holes in the skin or underlying tissues ... if poison touches the skin) Surgery to remove burned skin Tube through the mouth into the stomach to ...

  16. Carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Louise W; Nañagas, Kristine A

    2005-11-01

    CO is an ubiquitous poison with many sources of exposure. CO poisoning produces diverse signs and symptoms that are often subtle and may be easily misdiagnosed. Failure to diagnose CO poisoning may result insignificant morbidity and mortality and permit continued exposure to a dangerous environment. Treatment of CO poisoning begins with inhalation of supplemental oxygen and aggressive supportive care. HBOT accelerates dissociation of CO from hemoglobin and may also prevent DNS. Absolute indications forHBOT for CO poisoning remain controversial, although most authors would agree that HBOT is indicated in patients who are comatose or neurologically abnormal, have a history of LOC with their exposure, or have cardiac dysfunction. Pregnancy with an elevated CO-Hgb level(>15%-20%) is also widely, considered an indication for treatment.HBOT may be considered in patients who have persistent symptoms despite NBO, metabolic acidosis, abnormalities on neuropsychometric testing, or significantly elevated levels. The ideal regimen of oxygen therapy has yet to be determined, and significant controversy exists regarding HBOTtreatment protocols. Often the local medical toxicologist, poison control center, or hyperbaric unit may assist the treating physician with decisions regarding therapy. PMID:16227059

  17. Potential of irradiation technology for improved shellfish sanitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation is shown capable of serving as an effective sanitizing treatment improving the sanitary quality of shellfish and providing an increased margin of safety for shellfish consumers. 60Co irradiation of the hard-shelled clam, Mercenaria mercenaria, and the oyster, Crassostrea virginica, significantly reduced virus carriage numbers without unduly affecting shellfish survival rates or desirable organoleptic qualities. A D10 value of 2 kGy was determined for depletion of hepatitis A virus in clams and oysters as measured by in situ hybridization fluorescent foci and cytopathology enumeration methods. A D10 value of 2.4 kGy was determined for depletion of rotavirus SA11 in clams and oysters as measured by a plaque forming unit enumeration method. Study results showed ionizing radiation capable of providing an extra, highly effective safeguard of shellfish sanitary quality when combined with traditional depuration treatment. Data drawn from other studies is introduced which shows D10 values as low as 1.0 kGy effectively eliminate Vibrio cholerae, and V. parahemolyticus, from shellfish

  18. Shellfish Culture at the Milford Laboratory: hatchery production, stock enhancement and aquaculture research

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Provide shellfish in support of Milford Lab efforts, external research projects and regional shellfish restoration. Conduct aquaculture experiments aimed at...

  19. Shellfish conflict in Baynes Sound: a strategic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, Luai; Hipel, Keith W; Kilgour, D Marc

    2004-10-01

    The shellfish aquaculture industry (SAI) has operated in Baynes Sound, British Columbia (BC) since the early 1900s. Recognizing the economic potential of the area, the industry has requested additional farming opportunities. However, Baynes Sound upland residents and many other stakeholders have expressed concerns that SAI activities are having a negative impact on the environment, quality of life, and other nonaquaculture resource uses in the area. In order to address these issues, the Action Plan was initiated by a BC government interagency project team in November 2001. To assist in assessing the strategic aspects of this conflict, the decision support system GMCR II is employed here to apply a new methodology, the graph model for conflict resolution, to systematically analyze the ongoing conflict over shellfish aquaculture development in Baynes Sound within a social, economic, and environmental framework. Valuable insights are procured to guide decision-makers toward sustainability of the shellfish industry.

  20. Prevalence of Rotavirus in shellfish from Southern Kerala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vysakh Mohan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of Rotavirus in shellfish from Southern Kerala. Materials and Methods: The shellfish samples after processing was concentrated using proteinase K. RNA was isolated from the concentrated samples using phenol chloroform method. Rota viral RNA was detected using reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction. Results: A low prevalence of 2.5% (5/200 was obtained during the study. Rotavirus was detected in 2 out of 60 brown mussels (3.33%, 2 out of 70 yellow clams (2.86% and 1 out of 70 black clams (1.43%. Conclusion: Low prevalence of Rotavirus was obtained in our study. A more extensive study need to be conducted to estimate the prevalence of enteric virus in shellfish.

  1. 78 FR 42820 - Agency Information Collection (Purchase of Shellfish) Activities Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Purchase of Shellfish) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY: Office...: VAAR clause 852.270-3, Purchase of Shellfish, requires that a firm furnishing shellfish to VA...

  2. Poison control center - emergency number

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  3. Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000027.htm Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Poison ivy, oak, and sumac are plants that commonly ...

  4. 10 "Poison Pills" for Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health 10 "Poison Pills" for Pets Anyone who takes medication prescribed ... of all phone calls to the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center (APCC) are about human medications. Your ...

  5. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  6. Extracorporeal Treatment in Phenytoin Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anseeuw, Kurt; Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A;

    2016-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) Workgroup conducted a systematic literature review using a standardized process to develop evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with phenytoin poisoning. The authors reviewed all articles, extr...

  7. Extracorporeal treatment for theophylline poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Wiegand, Timothy J; Liu, Kathleen D;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its systematic review and recommendations for theophylline. METHODS: After a systematic...

  8. Massive acute arsenic poisonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Teresa; Trela, Franciszek

    2005-07-16

    Arsenic poisonings are still important in the field of toxicology, though they are not as frequent as about 20-30 years ago. In this paper, the arsenic concentrations in ante- and post-mortem materials, and also forensic and anatomo-pathological aspects in three cases of massive acute poisoning with arsenic(III) oxide (two of them with unexplained criminalistic background, in which arsenic was taken for amphetamine and one suicide), are presented. Ante-mortem blood and urine arsenic concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 6.7 microg/ml, respectively. Post-mortem tissue total arsenic concentrations were also detected in large concentrations. In case 3, the contents of the duodenum contained as much as 30.1% arsenic(III) oxide. The high concentrations of arsenic detected in blood and tissues in all presented cases are particularly noteworthy in that they are very rarely detected at these concentrations in fatal arsenic poisonings. PMID:15939162

  9. Analysis of toxic and harmful substances in shellfish of Jiaozhou Bay%胶州湾贝类体内有毒有害物质污染状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    过锋; 崔毅; 陈碧鹃; 陈聚法; 李秋芬; 徐勇; 刘传霞

    2011-01-01

    通过近3年青岛胶州湾贝类中有毒有害物质的抽样调查,了解其食用安全性.从胶州湾34个养殖单位采集贝类,近300多个样品.检测菌落总数、大肠杆菌、麻痹性贝类毒素、腹泻性贝类毒素、铅、铜、镉.结果表明,麻痹性贝类毒素、腹泻性贝类毒素、铅、镉、菌落总数等项目均未检出,符合食用安全标准,但微生物指标大肠杆菌超出规定值范围.本研究根据对胶州湾水域贝类体内有毒有害物质残留的监控调查,采用贝类质量等级划分评价指数法(Sj)对养殖贝类质量进行评价和探讨,说明胶州湾贝类基本符合国家食用安全标准,但应随时注意胶州湾水域的污染状况与变化,确保水产品的食用安全.%To investigate the food safety risk, toxic and harmful substances in shellfish ofJiaozhou Bay,Qingdao, was determined and analyzed for three years. Nearly 300 shellfish samples in 34 culture zones in Jiaozhou Bay were collected,and the total number of bacterial colony, Escherichia coli, paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP), lead, copper, and cadmium were determined. The total number of bacterial colony, PSP, DSP, lead and cadmium were not detected, indicating that these shellfish met the safe standard for edible seafood. However, the microbial indicator such as E. Coli exceeded the standard. According to the monitoring and the assessment results following the cultured shellfish quality index method (Sj) , the shellfish in Jiaozhou Bay meets the national food safety standard. However, more attention should be paid to the pollutants in seawater of Jiaozhou Bay,in order to ensure the sea food safety.

  10. [Electronic poison information management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier. PMID:24466697

  11. Extracorporeal treatment for thallium poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Nolin, Thomas D; Goldfarb, David S;

    2012-01-01

    The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl).......The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl)....

  12. [Electronic poison information management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier.

  13. Chronic lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, K.; Straub, P.W.

    1974-02-19

    A detailed description is given of the complex pathological picture observed in the case of a worker with 30 years' occupational exposure to lead in an accumulator factory (evolution of the disease, clinical findings, autopsy). In spite of a typical clinical picture, lead is not held responsible for the terminal encephalopathy, in view of the fact that Alzheimer's syndrome was discovered at autopsy. However, the neurovegetative asthenia and progressive kidney disease without hypertonia, but with uraemia, which preceded the encephalopathy are in all probability due to chronic lead poisoning. The article discusses the diagnosis and symptomatology of chronic lead poisoning, encephalopathy and kidney disease.

  14. Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth First Aid: Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac Print A A A Text Size The oil in poison ivy /oak/sumac plants (called urushiol ) can cause ...

  15. DISTRIBUTION OF BACTERIA IN SHELLFISH CULTURE AREA AROUND QINGDAO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Bacteria numbers in water of coastal shellfish culture area around Qingdao were examined in April, August and October 1998 respectively. The results showed that the total numbers of heterotrophic and coliform bacteria in waters of the area and the specific geographical area varied with seasons. The highest populations were recorded during summer, I.e. 1.0×104~4.5×106cell/ml and 3.0×100~2.4×103cell/100ml, and with average values of 1.61×105cell/ml and 1.24×102cell/100ml respectively. The second highest populations occurred in autumn, and the lowest were in spring. The numbers of coliform bacteria were relatively low in waters near the mouths of bays and open part of the shellfish culture area, while those in waters near the estuaries of big rivers, wharves, navigation routes or the area in front of downtown areas were much higher than other areas. Single-index assessment of the environment quality of shellfish culture was made to indicate that the water sanitary quality in most of these areas are very good, however, some parts were serious polluted by the faeces of warm-blood animals. These results provided theoretical reference for the programming and organizing of shellfish culture.

  16. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Guan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role of chelating agents against mercury poisoning, which provides a promising research direction for broader application of chelation therapy in prevention and treatment of mercury poisoning.

  17. Hemlock water dropwort poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, M J; Flather, M. L.; Forfar, J C

    1987-01-01

    Severe plant poisoning is relatively uncommon in adults. We report two adults who ingested hemlock water dropwort roots, having mistaken them for wild parsnip. One developed prolonged convulsions, severe metabolic acidosis and respiratory distress requiring mechanical ventilation. The toxin--oenanthotoxin--was detected in the gastric aspirate and measured by high performance liquid chromatography.

  18. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment.

  19. Heterogeneous burnable poisons:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of materials possessing high neutron absorption cross-section commonly known as 'burnable poisons' have its origin in BWR reactors with the purpose of improving the efficiency of the first fuel load. Later on, it was extended to PWR to compensate of initial reactivity without infringing the requirement of maintaining a negative moderator coefficient. The present tendency is to increase the use of solid burnable poisons to extend the fuel cycle life and discharge burnup. There are two concepts for the burnable poisons utilization: 1) heterogeneously distributions in the form of rods, plates, etc. and 2) homogeneous dispersions of burnable poisons in the fuel. The purpose of this work is to present the results of sinterability studies, performed on Al2O3-B4C and Al2O3-Gd2O3 systems. Experiments were carried on pressing at room temperature mixtures of powders containing up to 5 wt % of B4C or Gd2O3 in Al2O3 and subsequently sintering at 1750 deg C in reducing atmosphere. Evaluation of density, porosity and microstructures were done and a comparison with previous experiences is shown. (Author)

  20. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment. PMID:25486670

  1. A review: paralytic shellfish poisoning and diarrhetic shellfish poisoning in red tide poison%赤潮毒素中腹泻性贝毒和麻痹性贝毒的研究及进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁君

    2001-01-01

    阐述了赤潮毒素中腹泻性贝毒和麻痹性贝毒的传播途径以及两种贝毒的种类、结构及其理化、毒理性质,着重介绍了腹泻性贝毒的分析、检测方法,包括小鼠分析法、大鼠分析法、肠回路分析法等生物分析法及气相色谱、高效液相色谱等化学分析法.在麻痹性贝毒的分析、检测方法中着重介绍了小鼠法、免疫分析法、细胞毒性检测法等生物方法及高效液相色谱法等化学方法.这些方法均被国内外各赤潮研究、检测单位所广泛采用,具有很好的实用性.

  2. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. Methods. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender, benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old, middle aged (41-65-year old and elderly (older than 65. Results. During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Conclusion. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  3. Using Poison Center Exposure Calls to Predict Methadone Poisoning Deaths

    OpenAIRE

    Nabarun Dasgupta; Jonathan Davis; Michele Jonsson Funk; Richard Dart

    2012-01-01

    Purpose There are more drug overdose deaths in the Untied States than motor vehicle fatalities. Yet the US vital statistics reporting system is of limited value because the data are delayed by four years. Poison centers report data within an hour of the event, but previous studies suggested a small proportion of poisoning deaths are reported to poison centers (PC). In an era of improved electronic surveillance capabilities, exposure calls to PCs may be an alternate indicator of trends in over...

  4. Arsenic poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLennan, M.W.; Dodson, M.E.

    1972-06-01

    A case of acute arsenic poisoning in cattle was reported. The losses occurred on a property in the south east of South Australia. The weather had been hot for two or three days before the death occurred. The tank supplying the water trough had almost run dry. The cattle then attempted to meet their water requirements by drinking from the sheep dipping vat. A sample of rumen contents and a sample of water from the dipping vat were checked for arsenic. The rumen sample contained 45 ppM As/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and the sample of dipping fluid contained 200 ppM As. The lesions observed were similar to earlier reported arsenic poisoning. 5 references.

  5. Approach in Pregnant Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Gulay Ok

    2014-01-01

    Poisoning in pregnant patients seen in the most common second trimester affects both the mother and fetus. Most of the toxic exposure is accidental and frequently occurs orally. Pregnant patients should be in emergency department or in any department which has a monitoring opportunity and when necessary interventions can be done quickly in the chosen department. The patient%u2019s airway should be secured, respiration must be protected, and changes in blood pressure, pulse, fever, peripheral ...

  6. Lead Poison Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  7. Homicidal arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Andrew; Taylor, Andrew; Leese, Elizabeth; Allen, Sam; Morton, Jackie; McAdam, Julie

    2015-07-01

    The case of a 50-year-old man who died mysteriously after being admitted to hospital is reported. He had raised the possibility of being poisoned prior to his death. A Coroner's post-mortem did not reveal the cause of death but this was subsequently established by post-mortem trace element analysis of liver, urine, blood and hair all of which revealed very high arsenic concentrations.

  8. nsect poisons in museums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eirik Granqvist

    2015-01-01

    Since natural history museums existed, there have been problems concerning how to protect the collections from damages caused by insects. In 1740s', French Chemist Becoeur started to use arsenic-soap to protect his taxidermy specimens against insects. But in the years of 1770s', it was discovered the terrible strong arsenic poison which was dangerous to human beings. Finally taxidermy specimens leave the use of ar- senic and borax to history and use Eulan in their place.

  9. A comparative study for PSP toxins quantification by using MBA and HPLC official methods in shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Gigirey, B; Rodríguez-Velasco, M L; Otero, A; Vieites, J M; Cabado, A G

    2012-10-01

    Commission Regulation (EC) N° 2074/2005 recognises the biological method as the reference method for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxins detection in molluscs. It was amended by Commission Regulation (EC) N° 1664/2006 that accepted the so-called Lawrence method as an alternative to the reference method. The goal of this study was to compare AOAC Official Methods of Analysis 959.08 (Biological method) and 2005.06 (Prechromatographic Oxidation and Liquid Chromatography with fluorescence detection) in samples with different toxin profiles. The influence of extraction solvent in the total samples toxicity was also evaluated. A total of 40 samples including mussels, clams, scallops, razor-clams, cockles, oysters and barnacles were analysed by both official methods. Samples were selected with Alexandrium and Gymnodinium toxic profiles, from different origin and including several presentations: fresh, frozen, canned and boiled. Acetic and hydrochloric acid extractions were performed in all samples and the extracts were simultaneously analysed by both methods. Most samples were naturally contaminated and two samples were spiked. Comparison of both official methods, mouse bioassay (MBA) with HCl extraction and Liquid Chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) with acetic acid extraction, led to an 85% of consistent results regarding compliance with legal limit, including samples below and above it. The linear correlation coefficient was r² = 0.69 and the paired t test (two tails, α = 0.05) indicated that there were not significant differences among both sets of data. Nevertheless, toxicity differences were found in several samples. In 15 out of 18 shellfish with a Gymnodinium toxic profile, higher toxicity levels were obtained by MBA. This fact was more evident in 7 samples, partially related to the lack of standards and the impossibility of analysing dc-NEO, C1, 2 and GTX6 at the beginning of the study. However, other factors concerning the extraction

  10. Fragmentation Considered Poisonous

    CERN Document Server

    Herzberg, Amir

    2012-01-01

    We present practical poisoning and name-server block- ing attacks on standard DNS resolvers, by off-path, spoofing adversaries. Our attacks exploit large DNS responses that cause IP fragmentation; such long re- sponses are increasingly common, mainly due to the use of DNSSEC. In common scenarios, where DNSSEC is partially or incorrectly deployed, our poisoning attacks allow 'com- plete' domain hijacking. When DNSSEC is fully de- ployed, attacker can force use of fake name server; we show exploits of this allowing off-path traffic analy- sis and covert channel. When using NSEC3 opt-out, attacker can also create fake subdomains, circumvent- ing same origin restrictions. Our attacks circumvent resolver-side defenses, e.g., port randomisation, IP ran- domisation and query randomisation. The (new) name server (NS) blocking attacks force re- solver to use specific name server. This attack allows Degradation of Service, traffic-analysis and covert chan- nel, and also facilitates DNS poisoning. We validated the attac...

  11. Chronic arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alan H

    2002-03-10

    Symptomatic arsenic poisoning is not often seen in occupational exposure settings. Attempted homicide and deliberate long-term poisoning have resulted in chronic toxicity. Skin pigmentation changes, palmar and plantar hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal symptoms, anemia, and liver disease are common. Noncirrhotic portal hypertension with bleeding esophageal varices, splenomegaly, and hypersplenism may occur. A metallic taste, gastrointestinal disturbances, and Mee's lines may be seen. Bone marrow depression is common. 'Blackfoot disease' has been associated with arsenic-contaminated drinking water in Taiwan; Raynaud's phenomenon and acrocyanosis also may occur. Large numbers of persons in areas of India, Pakistan, and several other countries have been chronically poisoned from naturally occurring arsenic in ground water. Toxic delirium and encephalopathy can be present. CCA-treated wood (chromated copper arsenate) is not a health risk unless burned in fireplaces or woodstoves. Peripheral neuropathy may also occur. Workplace exposure or chronic ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water or arsenical medications is associated with development of skin, lung, and other cancers. Treatment may incklude the use of chelating agents such as dimercaprol (BAL), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and dimercaptopanesulfonic acid (DMPS).

  12. Le poison chez les Trastamare

    OpenAIRE

    Ramires, Flora

    2012-01-01

    During the last centuries of the Middle Ages, poison seems to have played an important role in Castilian political life, and many authors of chronicles and medical treatises pay attention to the reality of this phenomenon. The article focuses on the use of poison by the Trastamaras, and on its political consequences. We attempt to show the impact of poison on the imagination of contemporaries and on the reality of this practice by members of the Trastamara dynasty, and to demonstrate that ref...

  13. Paraquat poisoning in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recovery from paraquat poisoning in the dog is rare. This is a report of a case of recovery from confirmed paraquat poisoning in a clinical setting. The dog exhibited the usual signs of paraquat poisoning. The diagnosis was confirmed on toxicological analysis of urine using an ion exchange technique. The dog was treated with frusemide, nicotinamide, corticosteroids, α-tocopherol, vitamin A, etamiphylline camsylate and ampicillin. He recovered after seven weeks of intensive therapy. Alternative treatments are discussed

  14. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Guan; Han Dai

    2009-01-01

    Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role o...

  15. Moonshine-related arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, R E; Crecelius, E A; Hudson, J B

    1980-02-01

    Twelve sequential cases of arsenic poisoning were reviewed for possible sources of ingestion. Contaminated illicit whiskey (moonshine) appeared to be the source in approximately 50% of the patients. An analysis of.confiscated moonshine revealed that occasional specimens contained high levels of arsenic as a contaminant. Although arsenic poisoning occurs relatively infrequently, contaminated moonshine may be an important cause of the poisoning in some areas of the country.

  16. Disease Resistant Fish and Shellfish Are within Reach: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Trygve Gjedrem

    2015-01-01

    Disease in fish and shellfish is one of the main problems facing aquaculture production. Therefore, all attempts should be made to increase the rate of survival and, thus, reduce economic losses. Much has been done to develop vaccines and medical treatments to reduce mortality; and however, farming of aquatic species has a long way to go to optimize the environmental conditions for the animals and, thus, reduce stress and improve animal welfare. However, the good news is that there is the pot...

  17. Impact of xynthia tempest on viral contamination of shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodzki, Marco; Ollivier, Joanna; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Piquet, Jean-Côme; Noyer, Mathilde; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2012-05-01

    Viral contamination in oyster and mussel samples was evaluated after a massive storm with hurricane wind named "Xynthia tempest" destroyed a number of sewage treatment plants in an area harboring many shellfish farms. Although up to 90% of samples were found to be contaminated 2 days after the disaster, detected viral concentrations were low. A 1-month follow-up showed a rapid decrease in the number of positive samples, even for norovirus. PMID:22344664

  18. American Association of Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Poison Data System Our Work Alerts Keep Up-to-Date on the Latest Poison News The AAPCC works ... the latest poison safety and prevention news! Sign Up! Save the Date! Medication Safety 101 Twitter Chat Medication Safety 101: ...

  19. Survey on Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins in Shellfish%贝类污染腹泻性贝类毒素的调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玉柳; 黎小正; 吴祥庆; 庞燕飞; 韦信贤; 黄国秋; 童桂香

    2010-01-01

    介绍了对腹泻性贝类毒素(DSP)的检测方法、判断标准和近年来对国内产区贝类污染DSP的检测情况.结论:腹泻性贝类毒素在国内贝类产区分布广、检出率高,但在地域上存在着差异,可能与DSP的产生机理以及不同贝类品种对DSP的耐受能力有关.提出预防贝类污染DSP和预防人体DSP中毒的措施,为贝类的生产和管理提供理论依据.

  20. Development of An ICR Mouse Bioassay for Toxicity Evaluatition in Neurotoxic Poistioning Toxins-Ctiontaminated Shellfish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WONG Chun Kwan; HUNG Patricia; KAM Kai Man

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop an ICR (female) mouse bioassay (MBA) for toxicity ctionfirmatition and evaluatition of neurotoxins (brevetoxins)-ctiontaminated shellfish. Methods Brevetoxins (BTX-B) as a causative agent of neurotoxic shellfish poistioning (NSP) under different shellfish matrices were intraperittioneally injected at different doses into mice to study their toxic effects and to differentiate the range of lethal and sublethal dosages. Their sensitivity and specificity were analyzed with 2 competitive ELISA kits for quantitative determinatition of standard BTX-B and dihydroBTX-B under different shellfish matrix-diluent combinatitions. Detectition rates of MBA and two antibody-based assays for BTX-B from field NSP-positive shellfish samples were compared. Results BTX-B could be detected in shellfish tissues at ctioncentratition of 50-400 μg/100 g under shellfish matrix-Tween-saline media, which were appropriate to identify toxic shellfish at or above the regulatory limit (80 μg/100 g shellfish tissues). The LD50 identified was 455 μg/kg for BTX-B under general shellfish matrices (excluding oyster matrices) dissolved in Tween-saline. The presence of shellfish matrices, of oyster matrices in particular, retarded the occurrence of death and toxicity presentatition in mice. Two antibody-based assays, even in the presence of different shellfish matrix-diluent combinatitions, showed acceptable results in quantifying BTX-B and dihydroBTX-B well below the regulatory limit. Ctionclusition The two ELISA analyses agree favorably (correlatition coefficient, r≥0.96;Student's t-tests, P>0.05) with the developed bioassay.

  1. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. PMID:24716788

  2. Biodiversity of the benthic shellfish in the intertidal zone of the Liusha Bay, Leizhou Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Ke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An analysis was conducted of species composition, spatial-temporal distribution and biodiversity of benthic shellfish in the intertidal zone of the Liusha Bay, Leizhou Peninsula, where shellfish are intensively framed. Areas sampled in 2008 and 2009 included seagrass beds (SGB, cultured shellfish areas (CSA and non-cultured areas (NCA. We found (1 97 shellfish species, of which 58 occurred in the NCA and 49 in the SGB. Cerithidea cingulata and Batillaria zonalis were dominant species in all three areas. (2 In the SGB and NCA, biomass and abundance of shellfish reached highest values in September and lowest in May. In the SGB and CSA, highest biomass and abundance of shellfish occurred in the high-tidal zone, followed by the mid-tidal zone and low-tidal zone. (3 Highest Margalef richness index and Shannon-Wiener index values were estimated for the NCA while the highest Pielou evenness index values was obtained for the CSA. Based on an analysis of K-dominance curves, the CSA was most severely disturbed. In summary, an unstable community structure and reduced biodiversity of shellfish was evident in the intertidal zone of the SGB and CSA. Improvements to both community structure and biodiversity of benthic shellfish in these areas are likely to result from reducing the intensity of shellfish culturing and extending seagrass coverage and mix-typed sediment.

  3. Approach in Pregnant Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulay Ok

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning in pregnant patients seen in the most common second trimester affects both the mother and fetus. Most of the toxic exposure is accidental and frequently occurs orally. Pregnant patients should be in emergency department or in any department which has a monitoring opportunity and when necessary interventions can be done quickly in the chosen department. The patient%u2019s airway should be secured, respiration must be protected, and changes in blood pressure, pulse, fever, peripheral O2 saturation should be measured. At the patients who do not respond cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the first 5 minutes, it is recommended to consider obstetric consultation with bedside cesarean section.

  4. Neurology of acute organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gagandeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute organophosphate (OP poisoning is one of the most common poisonings in emergency medicine and toxicological practice in some of the less-developed nations in South Asia. Traditionally, OP poisoning comes under the domain of emergency physicians, internists, intensivists, and toxicologists. However, some of the complications following OP poisoning are neurological and involve neurologists. The pathophysiological basis for the clinical manifestations of OP poisoning is inactivation of the enzyme, acetylcholinesterase at the peripheral nicotinic and muscarinic and central nervous system (CNS nerve terminals and junctions. Nicotinic manifestations occur in severe cases and late in the course; these comprise of fasciculations and neuromuscular paralysis. There is a good correlation between the electrophysiological abnormalities and the severity of the clinical manifestations. Neurophysiological abnormalities characteristic of nicotinic junctions (mainly neuromuscular junction dysfunction include: (1 single, supramaximal electrical-stimulus-induced repetitive response/s, (2 decrement-increment response to high frequency (30 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS, and (3 decremental response to high frequency (30 Hz RNS. Atropine ameliorates muscarinic manifestations. Therapeutic agents that can ameliorate nicotinic manifestations, mainly neuromuscular, are oximes. However, the evidence for this effect is inconclusive. This may be due to the fact that there are several factors that determine the therapeutic effect of oximes. These factors include: The OP compound responsible for poisoning, duration of poisoning, severity of poisoning, and route of exposure. There is also a need to study the effect of oximes on the neurophysiological abnormalities.

  5. CLINICAL STUDY OF ACUTE POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panduranga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Acute poisoning is an important medical emergency. Studies of this nature will be useful tool in planning, early diagnosis and management of acute poisoning cases. The objective of the study are to study the clinical features, diagnosis and management, morbidity and mortality of various acute poisoning. METHODOLOGY: This study comprises of 350 patients of acute poisoning admitted to Chigateri General Hospital and Bapuji Hospital attached to J. J. M. Medical College, Davangere, between 1st March 2011 to 31st October 2011. REUSLTS: Out of 350 cases of acute poisoning studied, there were 268 males and 82 females. Males comprised 76.57%and females 23.42% of the total, in this series, Organophosphorous compounds were the commonest (30%, majority of the patients hailed from rural area 70%. Mortality is 10.57%.

  6. Scombroid Poisoning: A Practical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guergué-Díaz de Cerio, O; Barrutia-Borque, A; Gardeazabal-García, J

    2016-09-01

    Scombroid poisoning is a common cause of food poisoning worldwide. It is caused by ingestion of oily fish contaminated with bacteria that trigger the formation of high concentrations of histamine. Scombroid poisoning manifests mainly as a skin complaint (flushing that spreads downward and/or an erythematous urticarial rash affecting the face and upper trunk). Although the clinical course is usually self-limiting and benign, vascular compromise, bronchospasm, and arrhythmias have been described. It is important to establish a differential diagnosis that includes conditions such as fish allergy. Oral antihistamines are the mainstay of treatment. Scombroid poisoning is best prevented by refrigerating fish properly. The practical review of scombroid poisoning provided here is intended for dermatologists. PMID:27133773

  7. Lead poisoning in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed and studied in 60 dogs. It was found that lead poisoning is a common disease of young dogs, especially in the summer and fall, and is related to their chewing and eating habits resulting in the ingestion of paint, linoleum, or other lead-containing materials. The signs were characterized by gastrointestinal dysfunction (colic, vomiting, and diarrhea) and nervous disorders (convulsions, hysteria, nervousness, behavioral changes). The blood findings, which the authors consider nearly pathognomonic, consisted of numerous stippled and immature (especially nucleated) erythrocytes in the absence of severe anemia. Protein and casts were frequently found in the urine. Radiography sometimes revealed lead-containing particles in the gastro-intestinal tract, and lead lines were occasionally detected in the metaphysis of long bones in immature dogs. Treatment with calcium ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid resulted in rapid and often dramatic recoveries in nearly all instances. Removal of lead from the gastrointestinal tract and treatment to relieve pronounced central nervous disorders was sometimes necessary. 40 references, 6 figures, 7 tables

  8. [Arsenic - Poison or medicine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Koszowska, Aneta; Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Nowak, Justyna; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine.

  9. [Poisonings in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, C; Hoffmann-Walbeck, P

    2012-03-01

    Attempted suicides and poisonings in pregnancy are a challenge for health care professionals because of the unknown effects of the toxic agent and the antidote therapy on the unborn. In case of intoxication, the malformation risk is often overestimated. In contrast, pertinent data show that the risk is not very high as long as the drug is not known as a teratogen and the mother's health is not substantially impaired. This applies to suicide attempts with acetaminophen, iron-containing products, and multidrug overdoses with psychopharmaceuticals as well as snake and spider bites and the ingestion of poisonous mushrooms. It is of utmost importance that the pregnant patient receives the same detoxification and supportive therapy following pertinent guidelines as a non-pregnant patient. The fetus should be followed-up by ultrasound with special focus on its vital parameters, movement pattern, and normal growth and organ differentiation. As long as the maternal health status is not substantially impaired, there is no indication to discuss elective termination of pregnancy "for toxicological reasons". PMID:22349530

  10. Does traditional shellfishing affect foraging by waders? The case of the Tagus estuary (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maria P.; Peste, Filipa; Granadeiro, José P.; Palmeirim, Jorge M.

    2008-03-01

    Estuarine intertidal flats are often exploited by humans and waders since they provide food, particularly shellfish. This raises important conservation issues. Waders can be affected by shellfishing activities in multiple ways, such as a reduction of the available shellfish, disturbance by the presence of shellfishers on their feeding areas, and changes in micro-habitat, due to sediment reworking. In this study we quantified the impact of traditional shellfishing on waders in the Tagus estuary. Particular attention was given to hand-raking of clams Scrobicularia plana, which constitutes most of the consumed food by waders. Shellfishers did not cause a relevant depletion of clams for waders; they removed less than 0.3% of its total production and focused on size classes that were usually not taken by birds. Hand-raking caused temporary changes in the vertical distribution and availability of invertebrate prey in the sediment. However, this did not affect the bird's feeding rates, presumably because prey availability remained above the threshold at which intake rates are expected to decline. The presence of shellfishers in the birds foraging areas potentially affects waders by keeping them away from foraging areas, but even the most affected species lost less than 10% of their foraging grounds due to this factor. Overall, we conclude that the current low harvesting levels of shellfishing are compatible with the preservation of the estuary as a key site for waders. Nevertheless, simulations showed that traditional shellfishing could have much greater potential to affect waders through disturbance than through prey removal. The results for the Tagus show that even small harvest rates, representing a negligible loss of food for waders and potentially considered sustainable by shellfish managers, could have a great impact on waders due to increased disturbance. This effect of disturbance likely occurs in most estuaries and should be taken into consideration when planning

  11. Genotoxicity assays of shellfish by Ames test%Ames试验对海产贝类遗传毒性的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘材材; 项凌云; 王金辉; 张昊飞; 叶属峰; 徐韧; 程祥圣

    2010-01-01

    采用Ames试验结合小白鼠生物学试验对贝类腹泻性贝毒(diarrhetic shellfish poisoning,DSP)的提取物进行了遗传毒性初步研究.结果表明:4份贝类样品不同程度地受到了遗传毒物的污染,7份贝类样品受到腹泻性贝毒污染.同时本文也从实践上证明在我国海洋环境监测开展Ames试验对贝类遗传毒性检测具有极为重要的意义.

  12. Generation of a panel of high affinity antibodies and development of a biosensor-based immunoassay for the detection of okadaic acid in shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Berre, Marie; Kilcoyne, Michelle; Kane, Marian

    2015-09-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) and its derivatives, DTX-1 and DTX-2, are marine biotoxins associated with diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. Routine monitoring of these toxins relies on the mouse bioassay. However, due to the technical unreliability and animal usage of this bioassay, there is always a need for convenient and reliable alternative assay methods. A panel of monoclonal antibodies against OA was generated and the most suitable was selected for biosensor-based assay development using surface plasmon resonance. The cross reactivity of the selected antibody with DTX-1 was found to be 73%, confirming the antibody suitability for both OA and DTX detection. The OA and derivative assay was designed as an inhibition assay covering the concentrations 1-75 ng/ml, with a sensitivity of 22.4 ng/ml. The assay was highly reproducible and preliminary validation showed no matrix interference from mussel extracts and good recovery of added standard in mussel extracts, with %CV of <9.3%. This assay could provide a useful and convenient screening tool for OA and its derivatives with a comprehensive extraction protocol for shellfish monitoring programmes.

  13. Generation of a panel of high affinity antibodies and development of a biosensor-based immunoassay for the detection of okadaic acid in shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Berre, Marie; Kilcoyne, Michelle; Kane, Marian

    2015-09-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) and its derivatives, DTX-1 and DTX-2, are marine biotoxins associated with diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. Routine monitoring of these toxins relies on the mouse bioassay. However, due to the technical unreliability and animal usage of this bioassay, there is always a need for convenient and reliable alternative assay methods. A panel of monoclonal antibodies against OA was generated and the most suitable was selected for biosensor-based assay development using surface plasmon resonance. The cross reactivity of the selected antibody with DTX-1 was found to be 73%, confirming the antibody suitability for both OA and DTX detection. The OA and derivative assay was designed as an inhibition assay covering the concentrations 1-75 ng/ml, with a sensitivity of 22.4 ng/ml. The assay was highly reproducible and preliminary validation showed no matrix interference from mussel extracts and good recovery of added standard in mussel extracts, with %CV of <9.3%. This assay could provide a useful and convenient screening tool for OA and its derivatives with a comprehensive extraction protocol for shellfish monitoring programmes. PMID:26169671

  14. 75 FR 28858 - Agency Information Collection (Purchase of Shellfish) Activities Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Purchase of Shellfish) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY: Office... approved collection. Abstract: VAAR clause 852.270-3, Purchase of Shellfish, requires that a...

  15. International Standardisation of a Method for Detection of Human Pathogenic Viruses in Molluscan Shellfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lees, David; Schultz, Anna Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The viruses primarily associated with shellfish-borne illness are norovirus, causing gastroenteritis and hepatitis A virus (HAV). Recent years have seen a proliferation of publications on methods for detection of these viruses in shellfish using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, currently...

  16. Fatal aluminium phosphide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Mahesh Chand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently aroused interest with a rising number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. Its easy availability in the markets has increased also its misuse for committing suicide. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. Poisoning with AlP has often occurred in attempts to commit suicide, and that more often in adults than in teenagers. This is a case of suicidal consumption of aluminium phosphide by a 32-year-old young medical anesthetist. Toxicological analyses detected aluminium phosphide. We believe that free access of celphos tablets in grain markets should be prohibited by law.

  17. Progress in Marine Toxins%海洋毒素研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 杨雁; 史清文; 董玫

    2011-01-01

    A number of marine toxins with diverse structures and a wide array of fascinating bioactivities have been isolated from marine organism. Progress in the studies of marine toxins was summarized,including puffer fish poisoning,paralytic shellfish poisoning, azaspiracid shellfish poisoning, hepatotoxic shellfish poisoning, amnesic shellfish poisoning,diarrhetic shellfish poisoning,neurotoxic shellfish poisoning,ciguatoxin and miscellaneous marine toxins. Marine toxins play a dominant role in the discovery of useful leads for the development of pharmaceutical agents for the treatment of diverse diseases like cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and central nervous system diseases and so on and also serve as useful tools to exploring biological sciences. Total 67 structures and 70 references were provided.%从海洋生物中分离出大量结构新颖、生物活性独特的海洋毒素.本文对目前分离得到的海洋毒素进行了总结,包括:河豚毒素、麻痹性贝毒素、腹泻性贝毒素、肝脏毒贝毒素、神经性贝毒素、记忆丧失性贝毒素、西加毒素和其它类型的海洋毒素.海洋毒素不仅可以作为寻找新型防治心血管疾病药物和抗肿瘤药物的先导化合物,还是研究生命科学有用的工具.本文列出了67个重要的海洋毒素的结构并提供70篇参考文献.

  18. New molecular methods for the detection of hepatitis A and Norwalk viruses in shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romalde, J L

    1996-12-01

    Outbreaks of viral enteric diseases after consumption of shellfish are a major health risk. Methodological problems (such as toxicity for cell cultures and low viral concentrations) and the unculturability of some strains (i.e. hepatitis A virus, Norwalk virus) have made it difficult to study those viruses in the environmental samples. Currently, the analysis of the hygienic quality of marketable shellfish is determined by the use of fecal indicator bacteria, but their reliability in determining viral pollution of shellfish is very low. Recent biotechnology developments are providing available rapid, sensitive, and specific tools for detecting food-borne viruses in shellfish and in shellfish-growing waters. In this paper, a review of these new molecular methods is carried out, discussing their advantages and possible applications.

  19. Seasonal variation of bacterial communities in shellfish harvesting waters: preliminary study before applying phage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, C; Santos, L; Silva, A P; Silva, Y J; Cunha, A; Romalde, J L; Nunes, M L; Almeida, A

    2015-01-15

    The recurrent emergence of infections outbreaks associated with shellfish consumption is an important health problem, which results in substantial economic losses to the seafood industry. Even after depuration, shellfish is still involved in outbreaks caused by pathogenic bacteria, which increases the demand for new efficient strategies to control the shellfish infection transmission. Phage therapy during the shellfish depuration is a promising approach, but its success depends on a detailed understanding of the dynamics of bacterial communities in the harvesting waters. This study intends to evaluate the seasonal dynamics of the overall bacterial communities, disease-causing bacterial populations and bacterial sanitary quality indicators in two authorized harvesting-zones at Ria de Aveiro. During the hot season, the total bacterial community presented high complexity and new prevalent populations of the main shellfish pathogenic bacteria emerged. These results indicate that the spring/summer season is a critical period during which phage therapy should be applied. PMID:25484114

  20. Poison control center - emergency number

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. ... centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if you have any questions ...

  1. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002838.htm Grass and weed killer poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Many weed killers contain dangerous chemicals that are harmful if swallowed. ...

  2. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention Language: English Español (Spanish) ... tornadoes), using alternative sources of power can cause carbon monoxide (CO) to build up in a home ...

  3. Extracorporeal Treatment for Metformin Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calello, Diane P; Liu, Kathleen D; Wiegand, Timothy J;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Metformin toxicity, a challenging clinical entity, is associated with a mortality of 30%. The role of extracorporeal treatments such as hemodialysis is poorly defined at present. Here, the Extracorporeal Treatments In Poisoning workgroup, comprising international experts representing ...

  4. Pipazethate--acute childhood poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, O A; Lopez, M

    1977-01-01

    A previously healthy child who who had accidentally ingested an unknown quantity of 20-mg tablets of pipazethate developed severe acute poisoning with neurologic, metabolic, and cardiovascular disturbances. She recovered with symptomatic and supportive therapy. PMID:589958

  5. Anti-rust product poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vision Weakness Brain damage from low oxygen level SKIN Burns Irritation Holes (necrosis) in the skin or tissues ... the effect of the poison Surgical removal of burned skin (skin debridement) Tube through the mouth into the ...

  6. Enteric viruses in a mangrove lagoon, survival and shellfish incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez de Cardona, I.; Bermudez, M.; Billmire, E.; Hazen, T.C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico)

    1988-12-31

    Mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) were screened for enteric viruses. For 18 months oysters were collected from Cano Boqueron, a tropical mangrove lagoon on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. This popular tourist resort has two primary sewage treatment plants which service 158 single family cabanas. In spite of the heavy seasonal input of sewage to Cano Boqueron and high densities of fecal coliform bacteria, enteric viruses were not detected in shellfish meat. Because no viruses were detected in the oysters, a virus survival study was performed. Poliovirus type 1 was placed in diffusion chambers in situ at two sites in Cano Boqueron. More than 95% of the poliovirus inactivation occurred within 24 h. Virus inactivation was significantly different by site, indicating different inactivation rates within the lagoon. Chamber studies done simultaneously with Escherichia coli did not reveal differences between sites. It is suggested that the sewage effluent had an antiviral effect in the absence of an antibacterial effect. This study demonstrates the importance for establishing microbial contamination standards for shellfish growing waters in the tropics based upon in situ studies with tropical species, e.g. mangrove oyster.

  7. Alcohol Poisoning Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  8. Paracetamol poisoning: beyond the nomogram

    OpenAIRE

    Bateman, D Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Paracetamol poisoning is the commonest overdose seen in the UK. The management of patients with paracetamol poisoning has been little changed for the past 40 years, with a weight related dose of antidote (acetylcysteine) and treatment based on nomograms relating paracetamol concentration to time from ingestion. In 2012 the UK Commission on Human Medicines recommended a revision of the nomogram, following the death of a young woman, lowering the treatment threshold for all patients. As a resul...

  9. First report of diarrheic shellfish toxins in mollusks from Buenos Aires province (Argentina associated with dinophysis spp.: evidence of okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1 and their acylderivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia A Sar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In January 2010, the toxin-producing dinoflagellates Dinophysis acuminata and D. caudata (10³ cells·l-1 were detected in Mar Azul during routine plankton monitoring in Buenos Aires Province coastal waters, Argentina. Wild clams Mesodesma mactroides and Donax hanleyanus from Mar Azul intertidal beach, which are part of the diet for local inhabitants and tourists, tested positive with the offcial lipophilic mouse bioassay. This paper focuses on the detection of Diarrhetic Shellfsh Poison (DSP toxins in these samples using a HPLC-FLD pre column derivatization procedure. The data showed that shellfish were contaminated with complex DSP toxin profiles composed of Okadaic Acid (OA, Dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1, Acyl-Dinophysistoxin-1 (Acyl-DTX-1 and Acyl-Okadaic Acid (Acyl-OA. The DSP toxins found in this study produce diarrhea symptoms consistent with those experienced by patients who had ingested cooked shellfish in January. This is the first report of Acyl-derivatives in South American Atlantic shellfish samples and of OA in Argentinean shellfish samples.Primer reporte de toxinas diarreicas de moluscos en bivalvos de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina asociado con Dinophysis spp.: evidencia de Ácido Okadaico, Dinophysistoxina-1 y sus acyl-derivados. En enero de 2010, los dinoflagelados productores de toxinas Dinophysis acuminata y D. caudata (10³ cells·l-1 fueron detectados en Mar Azul durante un monitoreo rutinario de fitoplancton realizado en aguas costeras de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mesodesma mactroides (almeja amarilla y Donax hanleyanus (berberecho del intermareal de Mar Azul, que son parte de la dieta de los habitantes del lugar y de turistas, dieron resultado positivo para toxinas lipofílicas mediante bioensayo ratón. Este trabajo está focalizado en la detección de Toxinas Diarreicas de Moluscos (DSP en muestras colectadas durante el evento de toxicidad usando un HPLC-FLD con procedimiento de derivatizaci

  10. RARE CASE REPORT OF CHRONIC ARSENIC POISONING

    OpenAIRE

    Mundle; Neelima; Sushrut; Yogesh; Shukan; Shalik; Siddharth

    2014-01-01

    Today, arsenic is primarily used in the produc tion of glass and semiconductors., Arsenic may be found as a water or food contaminant, particularly in shellfish and other seafood, and often contaminates fruits and vegetables, particularly rice

  11. RARE CASE REPORT OF CHRONIC ARSENIC POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, arsenic is primarily used in the produc tion of glass and semiconductors., Arsenic may be found as a water or food contaminant, particularly in shellfish and other seafood, and often contaminates fruits and vegetables, particularly rice

  12. Marker-assisted selection in fish and shellfish breeding schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main goals of breeding programmes for fish and shellfish are to increase the profitability and sustainability of aquaculture. Traditionally, these have been carried out successfully using pedigree information by selecting individuals based on breeding values predicted for traits measured on candidates using an 'animal model'. This methodology assumes that phenotypes are explained by a large number of genes with small effects and random environmental deviations. However, information on individual genes with medium or large effects cannot be used in this manner. In selective breeding programmes using pedigree information, molecular markers have been used primarily for parentage assignment when tagging individual fish is difficult and to avoid causing common environmental effects from rearing families in separate tanks. The use of these techniques in such conventional breeding programmes is discussed in detail. Exploiting the great biological diversity of many fish and shellfish species, different experimental designs may use either chromosomal manipulations or large family sizes to increase the likelihood of finding the loci affecting quantitative traits, the so-called QTL, by screening the segregation of molecular markers. Using information on identified loci in breeding schemes in aquaculture is expected to be cost-effective compared with traditional breeding methods only when the accuracy of predicting breeding values is rather low, e.g. for traits with low heritability such as disease resistance or carcass quality. One of the problems facing aquaculture is that some of the resources required to locate QTL accurately, such as dense linkage maps, are not yet available for the many species. Recently, however, information from expressed sequence tag (EST) databases has been used for developing molecular markers such as microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Marker-assisted selection (MAS) or genome-wide marker-assisted selection (G-MAS) using

  13. 77 FR 64997 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning... poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and recommends improvements in national childhood lead poisoning prevention...

  14. Dynamics of seawater bacterial communities in a shellfish hatchery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, S M; Chapman, C C; Bermudes, M; Tamplin, M L

    2013-08-01

    Bacterial disease is a significant issue for larviculture of several species of shellfish, including oysters. One source of bacteria is the seawater used throughout the hatchery. In this study carried out at a commercial oyster hatchery in Tasmania, Australia, the diversity of the bacterial community and its relationship with larval production outcomes were studied over a 2-year period using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and tag-encoded pyrosequencing. The bacterial communities were very diverse, dominated by the Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria and Cyanobacteria. The communities were highly variable on scales of days, weeks and seasons. The difference between the intake seawater and treated clean seawater used in the hatchery was smaller than the observed temporal differences in the seawater throughout the year. No clear correlation was observed between production outcomes and the overall bacterial community structure. However, one group of Cyanobacterial sequences was more abundant when mass mortality events occurred than when healthy spat were produced although they were always present.

  15. Extracorporeal treatment for valproic acid poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Laliberté, Martin; Nolin, Thomas D;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup presents its systematic review and clinical recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in valproic acid (VPA) poisoning. METHODS: The lead authors reviewed all of the articles from a systematic literature...

  16. Extracorporeal treatment for tricyclic antidepressant poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yates, Christopher; Galvao, Tais; Sowinski, Kevin M;

    2014-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its results for tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). After an extensive literature search, using a predefined ...

  17. Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning : cases and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardema, H.; Ligtenberg, J. J. M.; Peters-Polman, O. M.; Tulleken, J. E.; Zijlstra, J. G.; Meertens, John H. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Self-poisoning with organophosphate pesticides is a major health problem world-wide. Through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, organophosphorus poisoning is characterised by the clinical picture of acute cholinergic crisis. Other manifestations are the intermediate neurotoxic syndrome and dela

  18. Extracorporeal treatment for digoxin poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A; Anseeuw, Kurt;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning. Here, we present our results for digoxin. METHODS: After a systematic literature search, clinical and toxicokinetic data were....... A second vote was conducted to determine the final workgroup recommendations. RESULTS: Out of 435 articles screened, 77 met inclusion criteria. Only in-vitro, animal studies, case reports and case series were identified yielding a very low quality of evidence for all recommendations. Based on data from 84...... recommended against the use of ECTR in cases of severe digoxin poisoning when Fab was available (1D) and also suggested against the use of ECTR when Fab was unavailable (2D). CONCLUSION: ECTR, in any form, is not indicated for either suspected or proven digoxin toxicity, regardless of the clinical context...

  19. Poisonous birds: A timely review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligabue-Braun, Rodrigo; Carlini, Célia Regina

    2015-06-01

    Until very recently, toxicity was not considered a trait observed in birds, but works published in the last two decades started to shed light on this subject. Poisonous birds are rare (or little studied), and comprise Pitohui and Ifrita birds from Papua New Guinea, the European quail, the Spoor-winged goose, the Hoopees, the North American Ruffed grouse, the Bronzewings, and the Red warbler. A hundred more species are considered unpalatable or malodorous to humans and other animals. The present review intends to present the current understanding of bird toxicity, possibly pointing to an ignored research field. Whenever possible, biochemical characteristics of these poisons and their effects on humans and other animals are discussed, along with historical aspects of poison discovery and evolutionary hypothesis regarding their function.

  20. Nitric Acid Poisoning: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitric acid (HNO3) is a corrosive fluid that, when in contact with reducing agents, generates nitrogen oxides that are responsible for inhalation poisoning. We present two cases of poisoning from nitric acid gas inhalation resulting from occupational exposure. Imaging findings were similar in both cases, consistent with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): bilaterally diffuse alveolar opacities on the chest X-ray and a cobblestone pattern on computed tomography (CT).one of the patients died while the other evolved satisfactorily after treatment with n-acetyl cysteine and mechanical ventilation. The diagnosis of nitric acid poisoning was made on the basis of the history of exposure and the way in which the radiological findings evolved.

  1. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  2. New technique unveils environmental poisons in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to determine the extent of environmental poisons, the Norwegian Institute for Water Research, NIVA, has for some time been measuring the concentration of environmental poisons in mussels, fountain moss and seaweed. These organisms are 'bio monitors' that accumulate environmental poisons occurring in low concentrations in the water. Similar analyses are performed on fish gills to study poisonous metals in acid water (aluminium, copper, iron etc.)

  3. 78 FR 22366 - Proposed Information Collection (Purchase of Shellfish) Activity: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Purchase of Shellfish) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Office... comment period, comments may be viewed online through FDMS. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  4. 75 FR 13211 - Proposed Information Collection (Purchase of Shellfish) Activity: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Purchase of Shellfish) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Office...-0589'' in any correspondence. During the comment period, comments may be viewed online through...

  5. Effects of hydraulic shellfish harvesting on benthic communities and sediment chemistry 2009-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The effects of hydraulic shellfish harvesting on the ecology of biological communities and chemistry of benthic sediments were investigated through a series of...

  6. Extracorporeal treatment for acetaminophen poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosselin, S; Juurlink, D N; Kielstein, J T;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning and the results are presented here for acetaminophen (APAP). METHODS: After a systematic review...... an overall very low quality of evidence for all recommendations. Clinical data on 135 patients and toxicokinetic data on 54 patients were analyzed. Twenty-three fatalities were reviewed. The workgroup agreed that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is the mainstay of treatment, and that ECTR is not warranted in most...

  7. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  8. National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

    This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

  9. Is Your Child Safe from Lead Poisoning?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-02

    In this podcast, Dr. Mary Jean Brown, chief of CDC's Lead Poisoning and Prevention Program, discusses the importance of testing children for lead poisoning, who should be tested, and what parents can do to prevent lead poisoning.  Created: 10/2/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 10/2/2008.

  10. Plants Poisonous to Your Horse - Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horses are relatively selective grazers and generally are poisoned less frequently than other livestock. However there are exceptions. Some poisonous plants are palatable to horses and exposed horses readily eat them. Most equine poisonings occur as result to toxic plants contaminating feeds. Mo...

  11. Evaluation of viral shellfish depuration in a semi-professional tank

    OpenAIRE

    Pommepuy, Monique; Caprais, Marie-Paule; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Le Mennec, Cecile; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; Madec, Yvon; Monier, Martial; Brest, Goulven; Le Guyader, Francoise

    2002-01-01

    Depuration processes try to eliminate microorganisms using seawater to allow living, filter-feeding shellfish to naturally purge themselves from agents they accumulated from the environment. Until now the only parameter to evaluate depuration was the decrease in E. coli counts. Studies have shown that viruses can persist in the environment longer than E. coli and that shellfish meeting the endstandard (< 230 E.colil /100g) have been involved in viral outbreaks. Starting in February 2000, the ...

  12. Recent innovation in microbial source tracking using bacterial real-time PCR markers in shellfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► DNA extraction from intravalvular liquid is promising for microbial source tracking in oysters. ► Host-associated bacterial markers in shellfish digestive tissues were difficult to assess with real-time PCR. ► DNA extracts from shellfish flesh appeared to have low inhibitor levels but low marker levels. ► Protocol transfer from one shellfish species to another does not appear possible. -- Abstract: We assessed the capacity of real-time PCR markers to identify the origin of contamination in shellfish. Oyster, cockles or clams were either contaminated with fecal materials and host-associated markers designed from Bacteroidales or Catellicoccus marimammalium 16S RNA genes were extracted from their intravalvular liquid, digestive tissues or shellfish flesh. Extraction of bacterial DNA from the oyster intravalvular liquid with FastDNA spin kit for soil enabled the selected markers to be quantified in 100% of artificially contaminated samples, and the source of contamination to be identified in 13 out of 38 naturally contaminated batches from European Class B and Class C areas. However, this protocol did not enable the origin of the contamination to be identified in cockle or clam samples. Although results are promising for extracts from intravalvular liquid in oyster, it is unlikely that a single protocol could be the best across all bacterial markers and types of shellfish

  13. Usage of burnable poison on research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fuel assemblies with burnable poison are widely used on power reactors, but there are not commonly used on research reactors. This paper shows a neutronic analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the burnable poison usage on research reactors. This paper analyses both burnable poison design used on research reactors: Boron on the lateral wall and Cadmium wires. Both designs include a parametric study on the design parameters like the amount and geometry of the burnable poison. This paper presents the design flexibility using burnable poisons, it does not find an optimal or final design, which it will strongly depend on the core characteristics and fuel management strategy. (author)

  14. Acute arsenic poisoning diagnosed late.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumy, Farzana; Anam, Ahmad Mursel; Kamruzzaman, A K M; Amin, Md Robed; Chowdhury, M A Jalil

    2016-04-01

    Acute arsenicosis, although having a 'historical' background, is not common in our times. This report describes a case of acute arsenic poisoning, missed initially due to its gastroenteritis-like presentation, but suspected and confirmed much later, when the patient sought medical help for delayed complications after about 2 months.

  15. Ciguatera fish poisoning: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouw JC de; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    2001-01-01

    This review on ciguatera fish poisoning contains information on the ciguatera intoxication syndrome and the provoking ciguatoxins (CTXs) and gambiertoxin-4b (GTX-4B), of which CTX-1 is a major component at the end of food chain (the carnivore fish). Data on chemical structures and detection methods

  16. [Poisonous animals registration in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrus, Małgorzata; Szkolnicka, Beata; Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka

    2005-01-01

    The Act on Nature Conservation of 16.04.2004 (Official Journal, 2004, No 92, item 880) imposes on private individuals the duty to register some animals. The data collected by Kraków municipal authorities and delivered to the Poison Information Centre (Colleglum Medicum, Jagiellonian University) indicate that there are following species in private hands in the city and its surroundings: 11 individuals of Naja naja, 2--Hydrodynates gigas and 55-- Dendrobates spp. According to these information the employees of the PIC elaborated the advice on the treatment of specific animals' poisoning. In the period May 2003 - May 2004 (before the above Act came into force) there were 143 individuals from Brachypelma genus and 3 scorpions (Pandinus imperator) registered in Krakow. These species produce venoms which take local effect. According to art. 64 (1) of the above Act it is compulsory to register amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, it would be desirable to introduce the duty to register also dangerous species of invertebrates and fishes. It would provide the complete list of poisonous animals kept in private hands. Thus, it would be possible to estimate any possible threats and to elaborate adequate treatment in case of specific animals' poisoning.

  17. Extracorporeal Treatment for Salicylate Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juurlink, David N; Gosselin, Sophie; Kielstein, Jan T;

    2015-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Salicylate poisoning is a challenging clinical entity associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. The indications for extracorporeal treatments such as hemodialysis are poorly defined. We present a systematic review of the literature along with evidence- and consensus-ba...

  18. Acute arsenic poisoning diagnosed late.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumy, Farzana; Anam, Ahmad Mursel; Kamruzzaman, A K M; Amin, Md Robed; Chowdhury, M A Jalil

    2016-04-01

    Acute arsenicosis, although having a 'historical' background, is not common in our times. This report describes a case of acute arsenic poisoning, missed initially due to its gastroenteritis-like presentation, but suspected and confirmed much later, when the patient sought medical help for delayed complications after about 2 months. PMID:26508422

  19. [Poisonous animals registration in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrus, Małgorzata; Szkolnicka, Beata; Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka

    2005-01-01

    The Act on Nature Conservation of 16.04.2004 (Official Journal, 2004, No 92, item 880) imposes on private individuals the duty to register some animals. The data collected by Kraków municipal authorities and delivered to the Poison Information Centre (Colleglum Medicum, Jagiellonian University) indicate that there are following species in private hands in the city and its surroundings: 11 individuals of Naja naja, 2--Hydrodynates gigas and 55-- Dendrobates spp. According to these information the employees of the PIC elaborated the advice on the treatment of specific animals' poisoning. In the period May 2003 - May 2004 (before the above Act came into force) there were 143 individuals from Brachypelma genus and 3 scorpions (Pandinus imperator) registered in Krakow. These species produce venoms which take local effect. According to art. 64 (1) of the above Act it is compulsory to register amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, it would be desirable to introduce the duty to register also dangerous species of invertebrates and fishes. It would provide the complete list of poisonous animals kept in private hands. Thus, it would be possible to estimate any possible threats and to elaborate adequate treatment in case of specific animals' poisoning. PMID:16225138

  20. Lead poisoning by contaminated flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershko, C; Eisenberg, A; Avni, A; Grauer, F; Acker, C; Hamdallah, M; Shahin, S; Moreb, J; Richter, E; Weissenberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Between October 1982 and June 1983, 43 patients were identified with symptomatic lead poisoning in three Arab villages of the Nablus district. Because of the clustering of clinical poisoning by household units, investigation was focussed on potential sources common to all members of the households. After excluding water, olive oil and a variety of foodstuff, lead in high concentrations was discovered in locally ground flour in all affected households. The source of poisoning was lead poured into the fissures between the metal housing and the driveshaft of the millstone. Significant lead contamination of freshly ground flour was demonstrated in 23% of the 146 community flour mills operating in West Bank villages. Since the completion of these studies, similar outbreaks of lead poisoning caused by contaminated flourmills have been identified in the Upper Galilee and in Spain. As the methods of milling in the Mediterranean area are similar, a coordinated international effort is needed in order to eliminate this health hazard from countries where similar community stone mills are still in use.

  1. Profile of acute mixed organophosphorus poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunga, Girish; Sam, Kishore Gnana; Khera, Kanav; Xavier, Vidya; Verma, Murlidhar

    2009-06-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide self-poisoning is a major clinical and public health problem across much of rural Asia and responsible for two thirds of suicidal deaths. However, clinical reports or evidence for the management of mixed poisoning are lacking. Patients are often treated based on the type of symptoms they exhibit, and there are no specific guidelines available to treat mixed poisoning. In this case series, we report 3 acute OP poisoning cases with mixed poisons such as organochlorine, fungicide, copper sulfate, and kerosene. All 3 patients were treated successfully, with a greater focus on OP poisoning with pralidoxime and atropine infusion along with standard decontamination procedures. Because patients developed complications due to the concomitant poisons ingested, they were later treated symptomatically, and in one case, D-penicillamine was administered as antidote for copper poisoning. Mixed poisoning especially with OP compounds makes the diagnosis difficult because the clinical symptoms of OP predominate, whereas damage produced by other pesticides is late to develop and often neglected. Common treatment procedures are focused mainly on the OP poisoning ignoring the complications of other concomitant pesticides ingested. Treating physicians should be prepared and consider the possibility of mixed poisoning prevalent in that region before initiating therapy. PMID:19497478

  2. Metal Poisoning: Threat and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SJS Flora

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to toxic metals remains a wide spread occupational and environmental problems in world. Due to their widespread use in human activities such as industry, agriculture and even as medicine numerous health risks may be associated with exposure to these substances. Lead, arsenic and cadmium generally interferes with a number of body functions such as the haematopoietic system, central nervous system (CNS, liver and kidneys. Over the past few decades there have been growing awareness and concern that the toxic biochemical and functional effects are occurring at lower level of metal exposure than those that produce overt clinical and pathological signs and symptoms. Despite many years of research we are still far from an effective treatment of chronic heavy metal poisoning. The main therapeutic option for chronic metal poisoning relies in chelation therapy. Chelating agents are capable of linking together metal ions to form complex structures which can be easily excreted from the body. They have been used clinically as antidotes for acute and chronic poisoning. 2, 3-dimercaprol (BAL has long been the mainstay of chelation therapy of lead or arsenic poisoning. Meso 2, 3, -dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA has been tried successfully in animals as well as in few cases of human lead or arsenic poisoning. However, one of the major disadvantages of chelation with DMSA has been its inability to remove heavy metal from the intracellular sites because of its lipophobic nature. Further, it does not provide protection in terms of clinical/ biochemical recovery. A new trend in chelation therapy has emerged to use combined treatment. This includes use of structurally different chelating agents or a combination of an antioxidant and a chelator to provide better clinical/biochemical recovery in addition to mobilization of heavy metal form intracellular sites. The present review article attempts to provide update information about the current strategies being

  3. PLANT POISONING IN THAILAND: A 10-YEAR ANALYSIS FROM RAMATHIBODI POISON CENTER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriapha, Charuwan; Tongpoo, Achara; Wongvisavakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Srisuma, Sahaphume; Wananukul, Winai

    2015-11-01

    Plant poisoning is not uncommon in Thailand. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, type, clinical manifestations, severity and outcomes of plant poisoned patients in Thailand over a 10-year period. We retrospectively reviewed data from the Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance System for 2001-2010. A total of 2,901 poisonous plant exposure cases were identified, comprising 3.1% of the 92,392 poison cases recorded during the study period. This was the fifth most common type of poisoning recorded. Children aged Jatropha curcas (physic nut) comprising 54.1% of these. Most patients had only minor signs and symptoms. The mortality rate among the total plant poisoning cases was 0.9%, with 26 deaths. Thirteen deaths occurred in children aged Jatropha curcas was the most common cause of poisoning and Manihot esculenta was the most common cause of death. Public education is important to minimize these poisonings. PMID:26867365

  4. Attempts at refining system parameters for ESR measurements in shellfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of ESR spectra for various species of shellfish may pose problems in cases, where the radiation dose was low. Difficulties are added by unspecific interference signals from manganese that vary in intensity. As such variations were even observed between the samples analyzed during this multilateral study (Nephrops norvegicus), which are likely to have the same geographical origin, they are probably closely linked to the age and degree of calcification of the shell. In spite of those difficulties, an attempt was made to achieve a reliable distinction between irradiated and non-irradiated samples by gradually increasing the microwave rate and simultaneously diminishing the modulation amplitude. The results obtained cannot be regarded as being of general value, as each sample had its specific individual reactions. The adjustment of the measuring parameters did not basically improve the quality of the ESR signal. We take the view that false-negative results cannot always be excluded in cases of low-dose irradiation and high manganic contents. (orig./vhe)

  5. Occurrence of norovirus and hepatitis A virus in shellfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTINA TERIO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Norovirus (NoV and hepatitis A virus (HAV are a common cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks associated with consumption of raw shellfish. The majority of NoV infections worldwide are due to geno group II NoVs. The predominant HAV strains belong to sub-genotype IB. A total of 369 bivalve molluscs (294 mussels, 42 clams and 33 oysters from several retail points and harvesting class-A areas of the Adriatic basin in South Italy, North Italy and Albania (Butrinti Lagoon were sampled between 2008-2013. All the samples were screened by a hemi-nested RT-PCR specific for NoV geno group II and by a nested RT-PCR for the VP1/2A region of HAV. NoV RNA was detected in 10,5% of samples and ranged from 3% in 2008 to 85% in 2013. HAV RNA was detected in 32,5% of samples and ranged from 90% in 2008 to 3,1% in 2013. The marked decrease in HAV prevalence may be the related to the vaccine-induced immunity, able to interrupt the ecological cycle of HAV. Monitoring the epidemiology of the virus strains circulating in the fieldis pivotal to develop and assess the efficacy of new control strategies to reduce the risks for public health.

  6. Economic benefits or irradiation of molluscan shellfish in Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louisiana is traditionally the number one producer of shellstock oysters in the United States in America, averaging approximately 12 million pounds of meats per year over the last ten years. In the last few years, however, extensive press campaigns questioning the safety of domestic seafood, especially raw molluscan shellfish, have created national public concern. As a result, large retail buyers entirely stopped purchasing oysters in 1988, and some states decided to require warning labels on raw oyster products. To regain public confidence in the safety of products, the oyster industry in Louisiana and throughout the country is supporting research, development and education for irradiation processing technology, mainly to eliminate species of Vibrio bacterial from live or raw processed oysters. The current estimated added cost of US $0.05-$0.08/lb for large volume commercial irradiation would certainly be considered a cost beneficial value-added processing step to the oyster industry in Louisiana and the entire country. The incentive is to offer an even safer product to all consumers, and to regain public confidence and the large commercial markets. Oyster industry leaders predict that acceptance of this technology by the public would cause the market to rebuild to its former levels or higher within six months to a year. 15 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  7. Disease Resistant Fish and Shellfish Are within Reach: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trygve Gjedrem

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Disease in fish and shellfish is one of the main problems facing aquaculture production. Therefore, all attempts should be made to increase the rate of survival and, thus, reduce economic losses. Much has been done to develop vaccines and medical treatments to reduce mortality; and however, farming of aquatic species has a long way to go to optimize the environmental conditions for the animals and, thus, reduce stress and improve animal welfare. However, the good news is that there is the potential to increase disease resistance by selective breeding. By challenge-testing fingerlings from a number of families per generation, and including the rate of survival in the breeding goal, the results so far are very promising. By focusing on one disease at a time it is possible to increase the rate of survival by at least 12.5% per generation for most diseases studied. Unfortunately, selective breeding is only used to a small degree in aquatic species. In 2010, it was estimated that only 8.2% of aquaculture production was based on genetically improved stocks.

  8. Matrix effects on a cell-based assay used for the detection of paralytic shellfish toxins in bivalve shellfish samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aballay-Gonzalez, Ambbar; Ulloa, Viviana; Rivera, Alejandra; Hernández, Víctor; Silva, Macarena; Caprile, Teresa; Delgado-Rivera, Lorena; Astuya, Allisson

    2016-05-01

    Detecting marine biotoxins such as paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) is essential to ensuring the safety of seafood. The mouse bioassay is the internationally accepted method for monitoring PSTs, but technical and ethical issues have led to a search for new detection methods. The mouse neuroblastoma cell-based assay (Neuro-2a CBA) using ouabain and veratridine (O/V) has proven useful for the detection of PSTs. However, CBAs are sensitive to shellfish-associated matrix interferences. As the extraction method highly influences matrix interferences, this study compared three extraction protocols: Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) 2005.06, AOAC 2011.02 and an alternative liquid-liquid method. These methods were used to assess the matrix effect of extracts from four commercially important bivalve species (Chilean mussel, Magellan mussel, clam and Pacific oyster) in Neuro-2a CBA. Extracts from all three protocols caused a toxic effect in Neuro-2a cells (without O/V) when tested at a concentration of 25 mg of tissue-equivalent (TE) ml(-1). The greatest toxicity was obtained through the AOAC 2011.02 protocol, especially for the Chilean mussel and Pacific oyster extracts. Similar toxicity levels (less than 15%) were observed in all extracts at 3.1 mg TE ml(-1). When assessed in Neuro-2a CBA, AOAC 2005.06 extracts presented the lowest matrix interferences, while the highest interferences were observed for AOAC 2011.02 in Magellan mussel and clam extracts. Finally, the AOAC 2005.06 and alternative protocols were compared using Chilean mussel samples fortified with 40 and 80 µg STX per 100 g meat. The AOAC 2005.06 method demonstrated better results. In conclusion, the AOAC 2005.06 extracts exhibited the fewest interferences in the Neuro-2a CBA. Therefore, this extraction method should be considered for the implementation of Neuro-2a CBA as a high-throughput screening methodology for PST detection.

  9. Matrix effects on a cell-based assay used for the detection of paralytic shellfish toxins in bivalve shellfish samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aballay-Gonzalez, Ambbar; Ulloa, Viviana; Rivera, Alejandra; Hernández, Víctor; Silva, Macarena; Caprile, Teresa; Delgado-Rivera, Lorena; Astuya, Allisson

    2016-05-01

    Detecting marine biotoxins such as paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) is essential to ensuring the safety of seafood. The mouse bioassay is the internationally accepted method for monitoring PSTs, but technical and ethical issues have led to a search for new detection methods. The mouse neuroblastoma cell-based assay (Neuro-2a CBA) using ouabain and veratridine (O/V) has proven useful for the detection of PSTs. However, CBAs are sensitive to shellfish-associated matrix interferences. As the extraction method highly influences matrix interferences, this study compared three extraction protocols: Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) 2005.06, AOAC 2011.02 and an alternative liquid-liquid method. These methods were used to assess the matrix effect of extracts from four commercially important bivalve species (Chilean mussel, Magellan mussel, clam and Pacific oyster) in Neuro-2a CBA. Extracts from all three protocols caused a toxic effect in Neuro-2a cells (without O/V) when tested at a concentration of 25 mg of tissue-equivalent (TE) ml(-1). The greatest toxicity was obtained through the AOAC 2011.02 protocol, especially for the Chilean mussel and Pacific oyster extracts. Similar toxicity levels (less than 15%) were observed in all extracts at 3.1 mg TE ml(-1). When assessed in Neuro-2a CBA, AOAC 2005.06 extracts presented the lowest matrix interferences, while the highest interferences were observed for AOAC 2011.02 in Magellan mussel and clam extracts. Finally, the AOAC 2005.06 and alternative protocols were compared using Chilean mussel samples fortified with 40 and 80 µg STX per 100 g meat. The AOAC 2005.06 method demonstrated better results. In conclusion, the AOAC 2005.06 extracts exhibited the fewest interferences in the Neuro-2a CBA. Therefore, this extraction method should be considered for the implementation of Neuro-2a CBA as a high-throughput screening methodology for PST detection. PMID:27002718

  10. 75 FR 13215 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... National Poison Prevention Week we alert American families about the dangers of accidental poisonings and... campaigns like National Poison Prevention Week, childhood death rates from unintentional poisonings have... 24 hours every day. These centers provide emergency assistance, offer guidance on poison...

  11. Paracetamol poisoning: beyond the nomogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, D Nicholas

    2015-07-01

    Paracetamol poisoning is the commonest overdose seen in the UK. The management of patients with paracetamol poisoning has been little changed for the past 40 years, with a weight related dose of antidote (acetylcysteine) and treatment based on nomograms relating paracetamol concentration to time from ingestion. In 2012 the UK Commission on Human Medicines recommended a revision of the nomogram, following the death of a young woman, lowering the treatment threshold for all patients. As a result many more patients were treated. This has resulted in a large increase in admissions and in the proportion suffering adverse reactions to the antidote acetylcysteine since, interestingly, higher paracetamol concentrations inhibit anaphylactoid reactions to the antidote. New approaches to assessing the toxicity of paracetamol are now emerging using new biomarkers in blood. This article discusses new approaches to risk assessment and treatment for paracetamol overdose based on recent research in this area. PMID:26099917

  12. Vibrio parahaemolyticus in shellfish and clinical samples during two large epidemics of diarrhoea in southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuenzalida, Loreto; Hernández, Cristina; Toro, Jessica; Rioseco, M Luisa; Romero, Jaime; Espejo, Romilio T

    2006-04-01

    Large epidemics of diarrhoea associated with seafood consumption and Vibrio parahaemolyticus occurred during the austral summers of 2004 and 2005 in the environs of Puerto Montt, Chile (41 degrees 29'S 72 degrees 24'W). There are no reports of V. parahaemolyticus infections before 2004 in this region, their absence being explained by the low ocean temperatures which seldom reach 16 degrees C. We analysed V. parahaemolyticus obtained from shellfish and clinical samples during epidemics. Isolates were examined using conventional protocols and an improved method for restriction enzyme analysis using total bacterial DNA which permits direct genome restriction enzyme analysis by conventional gel electrophoresis (DGREA) with a similar discrimination index as restriction fragment length polymorphism-pulsed field gel electrophoresis (RFLP-PFGE). Analysis of clinical samples showed that the epidemics were caused by the V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 pandemic clonal group. On the other hand, analysis of shellfish samples during both epidemics showed that 53% contained V. parahaemolyticus (3-93 g(-1)). Detailed analysis of 50 positive shellfish samples showed that only three contained detectable levels of the pandemic clone. Most V. parahaemolyticus isolates obtained from shellfish corresponded to non-pandemic clones differentiated into 14 groups by DGREA. In summary, the causative agent during epidemics was only a minor component of a small but diverse population of V. parahaemolyticus in shellfish. PMID:16584479

  13. Efficient Factors for Food Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Fügen DURLU ÖZKAYA; CÖMERT, Menekşe

    2008-01-01

    In today’s world, extreme precautions must be taken for securing food processing and food hygiene issues in order to decrease food poisoning cases. Secure food processing is the process of purification of food from physical, chemical and biological artifacts, with certain controlling steps involved during the production. Food hygiene is defined as the state of afood being clean, or in other words in a condition that is not unhealthy, purified from artifacts that may have caused illness. Provi...

  14. Absorber management using burnable poisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of the problem of optimal control carried out by means of a two-dimensional model of a PWR reactor. A solution is found to the problem, and the possibility of achieving optimal control with burnable poisons such as boron, cadmium and gadolinium is discussed. Further, an attempt is made to solve the control problem of BWR, but no final solution is found. (author)

  15. Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes, as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetr...

  16. Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.W.

    1985-05-01

    A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetrated more easily than usual. Some fetuses were poisoned at the time the mothers ingested the oil; others were affected in the subsequent years from residual contamination in the mothers' bodies. The misadventure in Japan was repeated in Taiwan in 1979. The seven congenital cases in Taiwan reported thus far seem to differ from those in Japan. In Taiwan the noses were somewhat black, two of the infants did not have low birth weight and the osseous abnormalities of the skull and gingival hyperplasia were not observed. Systematic followup studies should be made in Taiwan of the children born within 2 years of maternal poisoning with PCBs. Special attention should be given to age at first dentition and skull-X-rays for spotty calcification, among other measures of physical, neurologic and intellectual development.

  17. The effects of shellfish fishery on the ecosystems of the Dutch Wadden Sea and Oosterschelde : final report on the second phase of the scientific evaluation of the Dutch shellfish fishery policy (EVA II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ens, B.J.; Smaal, A.C.; Vlas, de J.

    2004-01-01

    This publication summarises the findings of the scientific research projects carried out as part of EVA II, the second phase in the evaluation of shellfish fisheries policy in the Zeeland Delta and the Wadden Sea, and relates these findings to other studies on the ecological effects of shellfish fis

  18. A Survey of Primary Care Offices: Triage of Poisoning Calls without a Poison Control Center

    OpenAIRE

    Travis Austin; Brooks, Daniel E.; Sharyn Welch; Frank LoVecchio

    2012-01-01

    Poison control centers hold great potential for saving health care resources particularly by preventing unnecessary medical utilization. We developed a four-question survey with three poisoning-related scenarios, based on common calls to our poison center, and one question regarding after-hours calls. We identified primary care provider offices in our poison center's region from an internet search. We contacted these offices via telephone and asked to speak to an office manager or someone res...

  19. HAIR DYE POISONING: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Shankar; Raghunadh Babu; Ramakrishna; Kathyayini; Surekha

    2015-01-01

    S uper Vasmol is one of the commonly used, cheap, freely available hair dye poisoning is emerging a major cause of suicidal poisoning in India, and the hair dyes mainly contain paraphenylene diamine (PPD) and resorcinol. Acute poisoning by PPD causes charact eristic sever angio - neurotic oedema of upper air way associated with a swollen, dry, hard and protruding tongue, systemic intoxication results in multisystem involvement and can cause rhabdomyolysis, acute ...

  20. Hemlock (Conium Maculatum) Poisoning In A Child

    OpenAIRE

    KONCA, Capan; Kahramaner, Zelal; Bosnak, Mehmet; Kocamaz, Halil

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) is a plant that is poisonous for humans and animals. Accidental ingestion of the plant may result in central nervous system depression, respiratory failure, acute rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and even death. The main treatment of hemlock poisoning is supportive care. The case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of burning sensation in mouth, hypersalivation, tremor in hands and ataxia after ingestio...

  1. DETECTION OF HUMAN ENTEROVIRUS AND ADENOVIRUS IN SHELLFISH COLLECTED IN MOROCCO MEDITERRANEAN COAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Benabbes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the screening for the presence of enteric human virus in shellfish (clam and cockle collected from two production area in Moroccan Mediterranean coast. Between October 2006 and April 2008, forty four samples were collected and tested for viral contamination using cell culture (HEp-2 and Vero cells and integrated cell culture PCR. Overall, 88.6 % of all analysed samples were contaminated by at least one of the studied viruses, Adenovirus was detected in 52.3 % of the samples and Enterovirus in 36.3%. The presence of viruses in shellfish production area can represent a potential health risk by causing gastroenteritis. The procedure used in this study may be a tool for monitoring shellfish viral contamination in Morocco.

  2. Underreporting of fatal cases to a regional poison control center.

    OpenAIRE

    Blanc, P D; Kearney, T E; Olson, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    We assessed fatal drug overdose and poisoning case surveillance by a regional poison control center, comparing it with medical examiner determinations of death by poisoning over the same 2-year period and from the same catchment area. We studied 358 fatal cases of poisoning or drug overdose reported by a medical examiner and 10 fatal cases of poisoning or drug overdose reported by a poison control center, analyzing demographics and other case-associated factors with with possible successful p...

  3. Trace elements in edible shellfish species from the lower Gangetic delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Abhijit; Banerjee, Kakoli

    2011-09-01

    The accumulation of trace elements in edible shellfish species may lead to serious health problems through the food chain. In this study we measured the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd in the shellfish species like Penaeus monodon, Penaeus indicus, Scylla serrata, Saccostrea cucullata and Crassostrea madrasensis using a ICP mass spectrometer. Samples were collected from the lower stretch of the River Ganga which receives wastes of complex character from industries and various anthropogenic activities. The trace element concentrations present an alarming picture from the point of human consumption and at the same time exhibit significant spatial variations. The bioaccumulation pattern of selected trace elements also exhibit species specificity. PMID:21570722

  4. [Hydrofluoric acid poisoning: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Tatiana Judith; Ferrero, Hilario Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is a highly dangerous substance with industrial and domestically appliances. Clinical manifestations of poisoning depend on exposure mechanism, acid concentration and exposed tissue penetrability. Gastrointestinal tract symptoms do not correlate with injury severity. Patients with history of hydrofluoric acid ingestion should undergo an endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Intoxication requires immediate intervention because systemic toxicity can take place. We present a 5 year old girl who accidentally swallowed 5 ml of 20% hydrofluoric acid. We performed gastrointestinal tract endoscopy post ingestion, which revealed erythematous esophagus and stomach with erosive lesions. Two months later, same study was performed and revealed esophagus and stomach normal mucous membrane.

  5. Extracorporeal Treatment for Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Brian S; Goldfarb, David S; Dargan, Paul I;

    2015-01-01

    extraction of patient-level data. The workgroup concluded that lithium is dialyzable (Level of evidence=A) and made the following recommendations: Extracorporeal treatment is recommended in severe lithium poisoning (1D). Extracorporeal treatment is recommended if kidney function is impaired and the [Li......(+)] is >4.0 mEq/L, or in the presence of a decreased level of consciousness, seizures, or life-threatening dysrhythmias irrespective of the [Li(+)] (1D). Extracorporeal treatment is suggested if the [Li(+)] is >5.0 mEq/L, significant confusion is present, or the expected time to reduce the [Li(+)] to

  6. Accidental haloperidol poisoning in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona P Gajre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Haloperidol, a butyrophenone neuroleptic drug, is an antipsychotic used in the treatment of adult schizophrenia and mania. It is used in children with neurological disorders like chorea and developmental disorders such as hyperactivity. With the advent of newer selective neuroleptics use of haloperidol is now on decline. However, in adults it is still the preferred drug especially in resource challenged settings. Extrapyramidal reactions occur frequently with haloperidol predominantly as parkinsonian symptoms. There are few case reports of accidental haloperidol poisoning in children and this one of them.

  7. Poison control center - Emergency number (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a poison emergency call 1-800-222-1222 anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the U.S. use this national ...

  8. 76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Poison Control Program AGENCY: Health... SUNY d.b.a. the Upstate New York Poison Control Center. HRSA will also transfer funds and duties from Winthrop University to the New York City Health & Hospitals Corporation d.b.a. the New York City...

  9. Validation of a Poison Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Noel C.; Braden, Barbara T.

    Two way analyses of variance and cross-group descriptive comparisons assessed the effectiveness of the Siop Poison Prevention Program, which included an educational program and the use of warning labels, on improving verbal and visual discrimination of poisonous and nonpoisonous products for preschool children. The study sample consisted of 156…

  10. The Poison Control Center--Its Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoguerra, Anthony S.

    1976-01-01

    Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.…

  11. A survey of poison control centers worldwide

    OpenAIRE

    Maryann Mazer; Justin Wang; Ali Pourmand

    2012-01-01

    Abstract To stem the rising incidence of toxic exposure as well as the associated morbidity and mortality, the past century has seen the establishment and evolution of poison control centers (PCCs) worldwide. Depending on the location, PCCs vary in terms of staffing model, services offered, and funding sources. In this article, we discuss a survey of poison control centers worldwide.

  12. Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Superwarfarins are a class of rodenticides. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a fatal complication of superwarfarin poisoning, requiring immediate treatment. Here, we report a 55-year-old woman with tardive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning after endoscopic cold mucosal biopsy.

  13. Poison Awareness: A Discussion Leader's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    Because over 40,000 children are annually poisoned by household products, this guide for group leaders emphasizes hazards and preventive actions. Major objectives are defined: (1) to raise the audience's knowledge/awareness level concerning major hazards associated with potentially poisonous household products, (2) to point out primary hazard…

  14. Tropane alkaloids in food: poisoning incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamse, P.; Egmond, van H.P.; Noordam, M.Y.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    A large number of wild and cultured plants produce secondary metabolites that can be toxic to humans and animals. The present study aims to provide insight into the routes of (un)intentional poisonings of humans by tropane alkaloids. Poisonings of humans by tropane alkaloids occur as unintended inge

  15. Poisonings in the Nordic countries in 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrew, Erik; Tellerup, Markus; Termälä, Anna-Mariia;

    2012-01-01

    To map mortality and morbidity of poisonings in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2007 and undertake a comparison with a corresponding study in 2002.......To map mortality and morbidity of poisonings in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2007 and undertake a comparison with a corresponding study in 2002....

  16. Fatal poisoning among patients with drug addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, K. W.; Christoffersen, D. J.; Banner, J.;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fatal poisonings among drug addicts in Denmark in 2012 were examined. Cause of death, abuse pattern and geographic differences are discussed and data are compared with previous studies. Methods: All fatal poisonings examined at the three institutes of forensic medicine in Denmark in...

  17. [New causes of animal poisoning in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schediwy, M; Mevissen, M; Demuth, D; Kupper, J; Naegeli, H

    2015-03-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the frequency, etiology, therapy and prognosis of animal poisoning registered from 2003 to 2012. The relevant cases reported to the Swiss Toxicological Information Center (STIC) were compared with those from previously examined periods. Human medicines not approved for animals and pesticides represented the most common causes of poisoning in dogs. Novel cases occurred as a consequence of the exposure of dogs to ricinus fertilizers, grape residues from wineries, pepper lachrymatory spray and dry bouillon. Cats are still freequently poisoned by pyrethroid drugs that should be administered only to dogs. Agrochmical products are the main source of toxicities in farm animals. Most poisonings in horses and exotic animals took place due to toxic plants. In addition, two tigers died of a secondary poisoning after ingestion of meat from euthanized calves. PMID:26753326

  18. SUPERVASMOL POISONING: AN EMERGING ENT EMERGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning is one of the commonest modes of suicide in India. Supervasmol poisoning is one of the commonest modes of suicidal attempt in our region. The common cause for consumption of hair dye is by suicidal intent or accidental oral ingestion. There is no specific antidote for Supervasmol poisoning. Management is only symptomatic and supportive with emergency tracheostomy in majority of cases. Hence, we conducted this study to emphasize the role of ENT surgeon in Supervasmol poisoning. STUDY DESIGN Prospective study. MATERIALS AND METHODS We present a total of 79 cases of Supervasmol poisoning who attended the Emergency Department of Narayana Medical College and General Hospital, Nellore. RESULTS All patients were between age group 15-35 yrs. Females are more than males. More patients were in second decade; 55 cases presented in acute phase, 51 patients underwent tracheostomy and four patients were brought dead. CONCLUSION Emergency tracheostomy is a life saving measure in severe stridor

  19. Confirmation of pinnatoxins and spirolides in shellfish and passive samplers from Catalonia (Spain) by liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole and high-resolution hybrid tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Altares, María; Casanova, Alexis; Bane, Vaishali; Diogène, Jorge; Furey, Ambrose; de la Iglesia, Pablo

    2014-06-01

    Cyclic imines are lipophilic marine toxins that bioaccumulate in seafood. Their structure comprises a cyclic-imino moiety, responsible for acute neurotoxicity in mice. Cyclic imines have not been linked yet to human poisonings and are not regulated in Europe, although the European Food Safety Authority requires more data to perform a conclusive risk assessment for consumers. This work presents the first detection of pinnatoxin G (PnTX-G) in Spain and 13-desmethyl spirolide C (SPX-1) in shellfish from Catalonia (Spain, NW Mediterranean Sea). Cyclic imines were found at low concentrations (2 to 60 µg/kg) in 13 samples of mussels and oysters (22 samples analyzed). Pinnatoxin G has been also detected in 17 seawater samples (out of 34) using solid phase adsorption toxin tracking devices (0.3 to 0.9 µg/kg-resin). Pinnatoxin G and SPX-1 were confirmed with both low and high resolution (<2 ppm) mass spectrometry by comparison of the response with that from reference standards. For other analogs without reference standards, we applied a strategy combining low resolution MS with a triple quadrupole mass analyzer for a fast and reliable screening, and high resolution MS LTQ Orbitrap® for unambiguous confirmation. The advantages and limitations of using high resolution MS without reference standards were discussed.

  20. Lead poisoning in six captive avian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except screech-owls were then killed by euthanasia. An additional group of mallards was poisoned with Pb shot. The gizzards of mallards poisoned either way usually were stained with bile; some of these birds also had proventricular impaction. Most poisoned birds of the other species were emaciated but lacked other gross lesions caused by Pb poisoning. In birds other than mallards, Pb poisoning could not be diagnosed without histological or hematological examinations or analysis of tissues. Poisoned birds of all six species could be reliably separated from control birds by an increase in the protoporphyrin concentrations in the blood and by a decrease in the activity of delta-aminoievulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells. Hepatic iron (Fe) concentrations varied so much among individual birds that even though median hepatic Fe concentrations increased in poisoned birds, hepatic Fe concentrations were not useful in identifying poisoned birds. Renal intranuclear inclusion bodies occurred in 83% of all birds dying from Pb poisoning. Nephrosis, myocardial necrosis, and arterial fibrinoid necrosis were occasionally present. Median hepatic Pb concentrations varied from 20 ppm (wet wt) in male red-winged blackbirds to III ppm in female northern bobwhites. Median renal Pb concentrations varied from 22 ppm in red-winged blackbirds to 190 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Hepatic and renal Pb concentrations varied substantially among birds within each species. Median hepatic and renal Pb concentrations of birds that died were not statistically

  1. Boron Poisoning of Plutonium Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a theoretical investigation into the possible relaxation of criticality concentration limits in wet chemical reprocessing plants, due to the introduction of boron poisoning, are reported. The following systems were considered: 1. 1 in. stainless steel tubes filled with boron carbide at various pitches in homogeneous mixtures of 239Pu (NO3)4, 5H2O and water. 2. 1 in. and 2 in borosilicate glass Raschig rings in homogeneous mixtures of 239Pu (NO3)4, 5H2O and water. 3. The concentration of natural boron required for k∞ = 1 in homogeneous mixtures of 239Pu-B-H2O. The method of calculation was Monte Carlo using the GEM code with Nuclear Data File cross-sections. The Raschig rings used are those commercially available. The core model consisted of a cubic arrangement of unit cubes of solution within each of which a Raschig ring was centrally placed. The arrangement was such that the rings were regularly stacked with axes parallel, but the side of the unit cube was fixed to preserve the random packing density. Comparison is made with other reported results on boron poisoning. (author)

  2. Arsenic – Poison or medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Kulik-Kupka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine. Med Pr 2016;67(1:89–96

  3. The treatment of acetaminophen poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, L.F.; Critchley, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Acetaminophen has become a very popular over-the-counter analgesic in some countries and as a result it is used increasingly as an agent for self-poisoning. Without treatment only a minority of patients develop severe liver damage and 1 to 2% die in hepatic failure. Until Mitchell and his colleagues discovered the biochemical mechanisms of toxicity in 1973 there was no effective treatment. They showed that the metabolic activation of acetaminophen resulted in the formation of a reactive arylating intermediate, and that hepatic reduced glutathione played an essential protective role by preferential conjugation and inactivation of the metabolite. Early treatment with sulphydryl compounds and glutathione precursors has been dramatically effective in preventing liver damage, renal failure, and death following acetaminophen overdosage. It seems likely that these agents act primarily by stimulating glutathione synthesis. Inhibition of the metabolic activation of acetaminophen is another potential therapeutic approach that has not yet been put to the test clinically. The clinical management of acetaminophen poisoning has been transformed and it is particularly gratifying to have effective treatment based on a well established biochemical mechanism of toxicity. It is likely that effective treatment will be developed for toxicity caused through similar mechanisms by other agents.

  4. Congenital abnormalities in methylmercury poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilani, S.H.

    1975-04-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the teratogenic potential of methylmercury on chick embryogenesis. Methylmercuric chloride was dissolved in sodium bicarbonate (0.2%) and administered to the chick embryos at doses ranging from 0.0009 to 0.010 mg per egg. The injections were made at days 2 and 3 on incubation (Groups A and B). All the embryos including controls were examined on the 7th day of incubation. Methylmercury poisoning was observed to be both embryolethal and teratogenic. Within the two groups, embryolethality was higher in Group A. The following congenital abnormalities were observed: exencephaly, shortened and twisted limbs, microphthalmia, shortened and twisted neck, beak abnormalities, everted viscera, reduced body size and hemorrhage all over the body. Exencephaly and limb abnormalities were very common. No differences in the incidence and types of gross abnormalities within both the groups (A and B) were noted. The incidence of malformations among the controls was low. The results of present investigation show that methylmercury poisoning is both embryolethal and teratogenic to early chick embryogenesis. (auth)

  5. High risk exotic species with respect to shellfish transports from the Oosterschelde to the Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den A.M.; Wijsman, J.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the results of a literature review on 11 exotic marine species that are present in the Oosterschelde and could potentially be introduced into the Wadden Sea with shellfish transfers. Ten of the species result from a previous risk study, where they were identified as the species p

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of the Larval Shellfish Pathogen Vibrio tubiashii Type Strain ATCC 19109.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gary P; Needleman, David S; Watson, Michael A; Bono, James L

    2014-12-18

    Vibrio tubiashii is a larval shellfish pathogen. Here, we report the first closed genome sequence for this species (ATCC type strain 19109), which consists of two chromosomes (3,294,490 and 1,766,582 bp), two megaplasmids (251,408 and 122,808 bp), and two plasmids (57,076 and 47,973 bp).

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of the Shellfish Larval Probiotic Bacillus pumilus RI06-95.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, Meagan; Spinard, Edward; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta; Nelson, David R; Rowley, David C

    2015-09-03

    Bacillus pumilus RI06-95 is a marine bacterium isolated in Narragansett, Rhode Island, which has shown probiotic activity against marine pathogens in larval shellfish. We report the genome of B. pumilus RI06-95, which provides insight into the microbe's probiotic ability and may be used in future studies of the probiotic mechanism.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of the Shellfish Bacterial Pathogen Vibrio sp. Strain B183.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Harold J; Schott, Eric J

    2014-09-18

    We report the draft genome sequence of Vibrio sp. strain B183, a Gram-negative marine bacterium isolated from shellfish that causes mortality in larval mariculture. The availability of this genome sequence will facilitate the study of its virulence mechanisms and add to our knowledge of Vibrio sp. diversity and evolution.

  9. 76 FR 37815 - Cooperative Agreement To Support Shellfish Safety Assistance Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... guidance, technical training, research, consumer education, and conformity with requirements of the NSSP...; funding support to research the influence of water and air temperature, dissolved oxygen, and nutrients on... FDA efforts to help ensure that shellfish is free of harmful pathogens. B. Research Objectives...

  10. Shellfish allergy and relation to iodinated contrast media: United Kingdom survey

    OpenAIRE

    Baig, Mudassar; Farag, Ahmad; Sajid, Jamal; Potluri, Rahul; Irwin, R Bruce; Khalid, Hafiz Mohammed Idrees

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess current practice of United Kingdom cardiologists with respect to patients with reported shellfish/iodine allergy, and in particular the use of iodinated contrast for elective coronary angiography. Moreover we have reviewed the current evidence-base and guidelines available in this area.

  11. Proposal on the usage of conversion factors for fatty acids in fish and shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Verena; Rittenschober, Doris; Exler, Jacob; Charrondiere, U Ruth

    2014-06-15

    Different approaches for converting fatty acid (FA) data in fish and shellfish expressed as weight percent of total FA or of total lipid content (TL) to per 100g edible portion fresh weight (EP) are used. FAO/INFOODS studied on a dataset of 668 fish and shellfish firstly the impact on their FA and TL content per 100g EP using two fatty acid conversion factors, namely the factors published by Weihrauch et al. (XFAW) and Greenfield and Southgate (XFAGS), and secondly the usefulness of Sheppard factors (ShF), which convert fatty acid methyl esters to fatty acids. The data show that XFAW should be used as they are applicable to fish and shellfish and the resulting FA values are a continuous function of the TL content while applying a minimum TL value of 0.55 g/100 g EP even for lower TL values. This study showed that the use of ShF is not necessary for fish and shellfish as they do not influence fatty acid values significantly. PMID:24491754

  12. Occurrence and antibiotic resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from shellfish in Selangor, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengadesh eLetchumanan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available High consumer demand for shellfish has led to the need for large-scale, reliable shellfish supply through aquaculture or shellfish farming. However, bacterial infections which can spread rapidly among shellfish poses a major threat to this industry. Shellfish farmers therefore often resort to extensive use of antibiotics, both prophylactically and therapeutically, in order to protect their stocks. The extensive use of antibiotics in aquaculture has been postulated to represent a major contributing factor in the rising incidence of antimicrobial resistant pathogenic bacteria in shellfish. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus and determine the antibiotic resistance profile as well as to perform plasmid curing in order to determine the antibiotic resistance mediation. Based on colony morphology, all 450 samples tested were positive for Vibrio spp; however, tox-R assay showed that only 44.4% (200/450 of these were Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Out of these 200 samples, 6.5% (13/200 were trh-positive while none were tdh-positive. Antibiotic resistance was determined for all Vibrio parahaemolyticus identified against 14 commonly used antibiotics and the multiple antibiotic resistance index (MAR was calculated. The isolates demonstrated high resistance to several antibiotics tested- including second and third-line antibiotics- with 88% resistant to ampicillin, 81% to amikacin ,70.5% to kanamycin, 73% to cefotaxime and 51.5% to ceftazidime. The MAR index ranged from 0.00 to 0.79 with the majority of samples having an index of 0.36 (resistant to 5 antibiotics. Among the 13 trh-positive strains, almost 70% (9/13 demonstrated resistance to 4 or more antibiotics. Plasmid profiling for all Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates revealed that 86.5% (173/200 contained plasmids - ranging from 1 to 7 plasmids with DNA band sizes ranging from 1.2kb to greater than 10kb. 6/13 of the pathogenic V. pathogenic strains contained

  13. Occurrence and Antibiotic Resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from Shellfish in Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchumanan, Vengadesh; Pusparajah, Priyia; Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Yin, Wai-Fong; Lee, Learn-Han; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2015-01-01

    High consumer demand for shellfish has led to the need for large-scale, reliable shellfish supply through aquaculture or shellfish farming. However, bacterial infections which can spread rapidly among shellfish poses a major threat to this industry. Shellfish farmers therefore often resort to extensive use of antibiotics, both prophylactically and therapeutically, in order to protect their stocks. The extensive use of antibiotics in aquaculture has been postulated to represent a major contributing factor in the rising incidence of antimicrobial resistant pathogenic bacteria in shellfish. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus and determine the antibiotic resistance profile as well as to perform plasmid curing in order to determine the antibiotic resistance mediation. Based on colony morphology, all 450 samples tested were positive for Vibrio sp; however, tox-R assay showed that only 44.4% (200/450) of these were V. parahaemolyticus. Out of these 200 samples, 6.5% (13/200) were trh-positive while none were tdh-positive. Antibiotic resistance was determined for all V. parahaemolyticus identified against 14 commonly used antibiotics and the multiple antibiotic resistance index (MAR) was calculated. The isolates demonstrated high resistance to several antibiotics tested- including second and third-line antibiotics- with 88% resistant to ampicillin, 81% to amikacin,70.5% to kanamycin, 73% to cefotaxime, and 51.5% to ceftazidime. The MAR index ranged from 0.00 to 0.79 with the majority of samples having an index of 0.36 (resistant to five antibiotics). Among the 13 trh-positive strains, almost 70% (9/13) demonstrated resistance to 4 or more antibiotics. Plasmid profiling for all V. parahaemolyticus isolates revealed that 86.5% (173/200) contained plasmids - ranging from 1 to 7 plasmids with DNA band sizes ranging from 1.2 kb to greater than 10 kb. 6/13 of the pathogenic V. pathogenic strains contained plasmid. After plasmid

  14. Concentrations and distribution of organochlorine pesticides in shellfish from Changjiang estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jizhen; SHEN Xinqiang; YUAN Qi; JIANG Mei

    2008-01-01

    To analyze and evaluate the status of organochlorine pollutants in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuary and adjacent waters, the concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) in shellfish collected in study area from 2006 to 2007 were determined with gas chromatography (GC). The concentration range of HCHs was (ND-12.13)×10-3 mg/kg wet weight and averaged at 0.54×10-3 mg/kg while the concentration of DDTs was in the range of (4.06-281.73) × 10-3 mg/kg with a mean of 57.52×10-3 mg/kg in the survey areas. The concentrations of DDTs in the shellfish were higher than HCHs', so that DDTs could be considered as typical organochlorine pollutants in the areas. The concentrations of DDTs in the shellfish were higher than HCHs', so that DDTs could be considered as typical organochlorines pollutants. The HCHs in all the shellfish conformed to the first level of criterion (0.02 mg/kg) of the Marion Biology Quality (GB 18421-2001), and that of DDTs in most samples were beyond the first level (0.01 mg/kg) but conformed to the second level (0.10 mg/kg). On average, α-HCH and δ-HCH occupied the most part of HCHs, while O,P'-DDT and P,P'-DDT occupied the most part of DDTs. The concentrations of organocholorine pesticides in shellfish samples varied in site and in species. The highest level occurred at the Shengsi (SS), followed by Yangkougang (YKG), Lvsi (LS), Dongyuan (DY) and Beibayao (BBY), low concentrations were observed at Changsha (CS), Beidaodi (BDD), and Gouqi (GQ). The concentration of HCHs and DDTs in most sites decreased clearly from 2006 to 2007 except for YKG, DY, BDD, LYS, and SS. All of above results suggested that the study area was slightly affected by organochlorine pesticide, special by DDTs.

  15. Interlaboratory comparisons of receptor binding assay with mouse bioassay as screening method for shellfish toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Receptor-binding Assay (RBA) is an isotope-based technique using tritium-labeled saxitoxin (STX) as a tracer. Its response is based on the competition between the labeled and unlabeled saxitoxin to specifically interact with its receptor, sodium (Na+) channel. RBA is locally established at PNRI and now being routinely used for research purposes. RBA results were compared with the standard mouse bioassay method (MBA) as a part of screening program for shellfish toxins. The Microplate RBA is shown to have a sensitivity of 0.40 μg Saxitoxin equiv/100 g shellfish meat. A good agreement at low levels (40-50 μg Saxitoxin equiv/100 g shellfish meat) in the preliminary assays was obtained between the methods. With this, RBA method shows potential in the routine monitoring of shellfish PSP toxicity. Assay interlaboratory comparisons among Asia-Pacific Region laboratories were also performed. The RBA, in microplate and traditional formats, shown to have a sensitivity of 0.30 and 0.25 μg STX equiv/100 g shellfish meat respectively. The inter-and intra-assay variation for RBA is within 5-11%, which met the <30% criterion. The quality control check is within 6.3%, which validates day-to-day analyses. The results are highly comparable and consistent with expected values, with an RSD value <20%, as expected for good variability among the samples. RBA results were highly correlated and exhibited close quantitative agreement with MBA. It provides a reliable means of rapidly assessing PSP toxicity in laboratory and field samples. Thus, RBA can be effective screening tool in responding to suspected cases of PSP intoxication. (author)

  16. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS placard. 172.540 Section 172.540... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.540 POISON GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS... the POISON GAS placard and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be...

  17. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS label. 172.416 Section 172.416... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS label... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and...

  18. 78 FR 17069 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ..., Americans have marked National Poison Prevention Week by highlighting the steps we can take to protect... poisoned should call the National Poison Help Line immediately at 1-800-222-1222. Today, the majority of... communities. For more resources on preventing drug overdose and other forms of poisoning, visit...

  19. Suspected poisoning of domestic animals by pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Rivolta, Marina; Davanzo, Franca

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing all suspected cases of domestic animal poisoning attributed to pesticides, reported to the Milan Poison Control Centre (MPCC) between January 2011 and December 2013. During this period, pesticides were found to be responsible for 37.3% of all suspected poisoning enquiries received (815). The most commonly species involved was the dog (71.1% of calls) followed by the cat (15.8%), while a limited number of cases involved horses, goats and sheep. Most cases of exposure (47.1%) resulted in mild to moderate clinical signs. The outcome was reported in 59.9% of these cases, with death occurring in 10.4% of them. Insecticides (40.8%) proved to be the most common group of pesticides involved and exposure to pyrethrins-pyrethroids accounted for the majority of calls. According to the MPCC data, there has been a decrease in the number of suspected poisonings cases attributed to pesticides that have been banned by the EU, including aldicarb, carbofuran, endosulfan and paraquat. In contrast, there has been an increase of suspected poisoning cases attributed to the neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and acetamiprid, probably due to their widespread use in recent years. Cases of suspected poisoning that involved exposure to rodenticides accounted for 27.6% of calls received by the MPCC and anticoagulant rodenticides were the primary cause of calls, with many cases involving brodifacoum and bromadiolone. Herbicides were involved in 14.2% of calls related to pesticides and glyphosate was the main culprit in cases involving dogs, cats, horses, goats and sheep. As far as exposure to molluscicides (11.5%) and fungicides (5.9%), most of the cases involved dogs and the suspected poisoning agents were metaldehyde and copper compounds respectively. The data collected are useful in determining trends in poisoning episodes and identifying newly emerging toxicants, thus demonstrating the prevalence of pesticides as causative agents in animal

  20. Extracorporeal treatment for carbamazepine poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Yates, Christopher; Galvao, Tais F;

    2014-01-01

    -vitro studies; two poor-quality observational studies were identified, yielding a very low quality of evidence for all recommendations. Data on 173 patients, including 6 fatalities, were reviewed. The workgroup concluded that carbamazepine is moderately dialyzable and made the following recommendations: ECTR...... is suggested in severe carbamazepine poisoning (2D). ECTR is recommended if multiple seizures occur and are refractory to treatment (1D), or if life-threatening dysrhythmias occur (1D). ECTR is suggested if prolonged coma or respiratory depression requiring mechanical ventilation are present (2D...... mg/L (42 the μ in μmol/L looks weird.) (2D). Intermittent hemodialysis is the preferred ECTR (1D), but both intermittent hemoperfusion (1D) or continuous renal replacement therapies (3D) are alternatives if hemodialysis is not available. MDAC therapy should be continued during ECTR (1D). CONCLUSION...

  1. Carbon monoxide: an old poison with a new way of poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Cheng-Hsiu; Lai, Ching-Huang; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Loh, Ching-Hui

    2012-08-01

    We present two events of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, which spread out through ventilation pipes to kill or injure neighbors. This is a previously undocumented poisoning process. In the first event, three people died and eight others suffered CO poisoning from a gas-powered water heater in an apartment building. Similar to the first event, three people expired and three others were injured by CO poisoning in the second event. We subsequently determined the cause of these tragedies were due to obstructions at the openings of ventilation pipes. CO is one of the most common causes of poisoning worldwide and these cases often result in tragedy. Early recognition of CO poisoning resulting from obstructed ventilation pipes will facilitate proper management and prevent possible lethal disasters. Additionally, all clinicians and other paramedical personnel ought to raise the suspicion of chemical-related casualties when encountering clusters of patients from a single locale.

  2. Chronic mercury poisoning: Report of two siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Cahide

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury exists as organic inorganic and elementary forms in nature and is one of the most toxic metals that are poisonous for human beings. Mercury is commonly used in many different sectors of industry such as in insects formulas, agriculture products, lamps, batteries, paper, dyes, electrical/electronic devices, jewelry, and in dentistry. In this study, two siblings (one a 7-year-old boy and the other a 13 years old girl are reported who developed chronic mercury poisoning as a result of long-term contact with batteries. Our aim is to emphasize the importance of mercury poisoning that is extremely rarely seen in childhood.

  3. Phosphide poisoning: a review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumbrah, Gurvinder Singh; Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Sharma, Madhulika; Sodhi, Gurvinder Singh

    2012-01-10

    Metal phosphides in general and aluminium phosphide in particular are potent insecticides and rodenticides. These are commercially used for protection of crops during storage, as well as during transportation. However, these are highly toxic substances. Their detrimental effects may range from nausea and headache to renal failure and death. It is, therefore, pertinent to ensure their circumspect handling to avoid poisoning episodes. Its poisoning has a high mortality and recent years have seen an increase in the number of poisoning cases and deaths caused by suicidal ingestion. Yet due to their broad spectrum applications, these chemicals cannot be written off. The present communication reviews the various aspects of toxicity associated with metal phosphides.

  4. Lead Poisoning in the World and Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Azizi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Lead is a relatively ubiquitous heavy metal with particular features such as resistance to corrosion, high malleability and wide variety of industrial applications. In medicine, however, it is considered as a slow-acting toxic substance affecting multiple body systems, specifically functioning as a potent neurotoxin in the central nervous system. Lead poisoning may be acute or chronic and can be due to occupational or environmental exposures. The history of lead poisoning dates back to ancient times. The present paper briefly describes the worldwide historical accounts of lead poisoning with a special focus on Iran.

  5. Organophosphorus and carbamate insecticide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Allister; Lotti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Both organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate insecticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which results in accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh) at autonomic and some central synapses and at autonomic postganglionic and neuromuscular junctions. As a consequence, ACh binds to, and stimulates, muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, thereby producing characteristic features. With OP insecticides (but not carbamates), "aging" may also occur by partial dealkylation of the serine group at the active site of AChE; recovery of AChE activity requires synthesis of new enzyme in the liver. Relapse after apparent resolution of cholinergic symptoms has been reported with OP insecticides and is termed the intermediate syndrome. This involves the onset of muscle paralysis affecting particularly upper-limb muscles, neck flexors, and cranial nerves some 24-96 hours after OP exposure and is often associated with the development of respiratory failure. OP-induced delayed neuropathy results from phosphorylation and subsequent aging of at least 70% of neuropathy target esterase. Cramping muscle pain in the lower limbs, distal numbness, and paresthesiae are followed by progressive weakness, depression of deep tendon reflexes in the lower limbs and, in severe cases, in the upper limbs. The therapeutic combination of oxime, atropine, and diazepam is well established experimentally in the treatment of OP pesticide poisoning. However, there has been controversy as to whether oximes improve morbidity and mortality in human poisoning. The explanation may be that the solvents in many formulations are primarily responsible for the high morbidity and mortality; oximes would not be expected to reduce toxicity in these circumstances. even if given in appropriate dose. PMID:26563788

  6. An Unusual Cause of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Narghile Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateş, Alpay; Arikan, Müge; Özgök, Ayşegul

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is commonly seen during the winter season in Turkey due to use of charcoal stoves and water heaters, but narghile smoking is a rare cause of CO poisoning. CASE REPORT In this paper, we report a CO poisoning case caused by narghile smoking. The patient was admitted to the ED with nausea, dizziness, vertigo, and syncope. CONCLUSIONS The diagnosis of CO poisoning depends on suspicious anamnesis. The major treatment of CO poisoning is oxygen supply. PMID:27618983

  7. A Survey of Primary Care Offices: Triage of Poisoning Calls without a Poison Control Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Austin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poison control centers hold great potential for saving health care resources particularly by preventing unnecessary medical utilization. We developed a four-question survey with three poisoning-related scenarios, based on common calls to our poison center, and one question regarding after-hours calls. We identified primary care provider offices in our poison center's region from an internet search. We contacted these offices via telephone and asked to speak to an office manager or someone responsible for triaging patient phone queries. Using a scripted form, trained investigators questioned 100 consecutive primary care provider offices on how they would handle these poisoning-related calls if there was no poison center to refer their patients to. Results of our survey suggest that 82.5% of poisoning-related calls to primary care offices would be referred to 911 or an emergency department if there was no poison center. These results further support the role that poison centers play in patient care and health care utilization.

  8. Stable isotope database - Transport and fate of nutrient and pathogen loadings into nearshore Puget Sound: consequences for shellfish growing areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project seeks to develop and apply an assessment of shellfish growing area (SGA) vulnerability to closures caused by watershed- and marine-derived pathogens....

  9. NODC Standard Format Marine Fish and Shellfish Surveys (F123) Data (1948-1992) (NCEI Accession 0014195)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data type contains data from field sampling of marine fish and shellfish. The data derive from analyses of midwater or bottom tow catches and provide...

  10. Cyanide poisoning after bitter almond ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Mouaffak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are responsible for 5% poisoning recorded by Poison Control Centers. Among all known toxic plants, some present a real danger if ingested. We report the case of a five years old child, who presented, after ten bitter almonds ingestion, consciousness disorders progressing to coma with generalized tonic-clonic seizures, miosis and metabolic acidosis. Bitter almonds and nuclei of stone fruits or other rosaceae (apricot, peach, plum contain cyanogenic glycosides, amygdalin, that yields hydrogen cyanide when metabolized in the body. Swallowing six to ten bitter almonds may cause serious poisoning, while the ingestion of fifty could kill a man. The binding of cyanide ions on cytochrome oxidase lead to a non hypoxemic hypoxia by blocking the cellular respiratory chain. Therapeutic measures include, oxygen support, correction of acidosis and cyanide antidote by hydroxocobalamin in case of serious poisoning.

  11. Inorganic arsenic poisoning in pastured feeder lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, H.A.; Crane, M.R.; Tomson, K.

    1971-01-01

    Clinical signs and necropsy findings in a group of feeder lambs were suggestive of inorganic arsenic poisoning. Source of exposure was established and toxic concentrations of arsenic were detected in the tissues. 13 references, 1 table.

  12. Poison control center - Emergency number (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. ... control centers in the U.S. use this national number. You should call if you have any questions ...

  13. Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products Share Tweet Linkedin ... situations, criminal prosecution. back to top Dangers of Mercury Exposure to mercury can have serious health consequences. ...

  14. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the role of alcohol in injuries and deaths. Doctors, nurses, and other providers can Screen all adult patients ... lifethreatening signs of alcohol poisoning. Talk to your doctor, nurse, or other health care provider if you think ...

  15. Household Safety: Preventing Poisoning (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spend a lot of time there). continue Cleaning Products and Other Household Chemicals Never put cleaning products in old soda ... poison on the floors of your home. Store household cleaning products and aerosol sprays in a high cabinet far ...

  16. Lead poisoning in captive wild animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zook, B.C.; Sauer, R.M.; Garner, F.M.

    1972-07-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed post-mortem in 34 simian primates, 11 parrots, and 3 Australian fruit bats at the National Zoological Park. Diagnoses were made by the finding of acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in renal epithelia or hepatocytes and, in most cases, by finding excess lead in samples of liver. The estimated prevalence of lead intoxication among autopsied primates and parrots was 44% and 50% respectively. Leaded paint was found in many animal enclosures at this zoo and it was available to all the lead-poisoned animals in this study. The finding of renal intranuclear inclusion bodies in animals at several zoos, scattered reports of lead intoxication of animals dwelling in various zoos, the occurrence of leaded paint in many zoos and the high incidence of lead poisoning at this zoo, indicated that lead poisoning of zoo animals is much more common than was previously thought.

  17. ASSESSING EFFECTS OF PRICES AND ADVERTISING ON PURCHASES OF FINFISH AND SHELLFISH IN A LOCAL MARKET IN TEXAS

    OpenAIRE

    Capps, Oral, Jr.; Lambregts, Johannes Adrianus

    1991-01-01

    Estimates of demand parameters for disaggregate finfish and shellfish products were obtained using scanner data from a retail food firm in Houston. Demand for the various products was elastic (except for oysters); in general, cross-price effects play a statistically significant role in pounds sold per 1000 customers. Own-advertisement effects are important, but cross-advertisement effects are generally marginal. Seasonality is a key factor in purchases of most finfish and shellfish products.

  18. Technological adaptation to harmful algal blooms : socioeconomic consequences for the shellfish farming sector in Bourgneuf Bay (France)

    OpenAIRE

    Perez Agundez, José A.; Raux, Pascal; Girard, Sophie; Mongruel, Remi

    2013-01-01

    The economic impacts of harmful algal blooms (HABs) on the shellfish farming sector depend on their frequency, duration and intensity. Safeguarding storage and accelerated detoxification are technical solutions that could mitigate the effects of these events. This article first analyzes the economic feasibility of the technological changes that can be adopted by the shellfish farming sector in France. It then examines their associated social impacts. Finally, an application is carried out on ...

  19. Effects of marine wind farms on the distribution of fish, shellfish and marine mammals in the Horns Rev area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E.; Astrup, J.; Larsen, Finn; Munch-Petersen, S.

    2000-05-15

    The purpose of the report is: 1) to give a quantitative description of the abundance of the fish and shellfish in the area surrounding the windmill area and to evaluate the effects of the physically presence of the windmills on the abundance of fish and shellfish in the area; 2) to evaluate the artificial reef effect in the windmill area; 3) to evaluate the effects of noise and electromagnetic fields on the abundance of fish and marine mammals. (au)

  20. Effects of marine wind farms on the distribution of fish, shellfish and marine mammals in the Horns Rev area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the report is: 1) to give a quantitative description of the abundance of the fish and shellfish in the area surrounding the windmill area and to evaluate the effects of the physically presence of the windmills on the abundance of fish and shellfish in the area; 2) to evaluate the artificial reef effect in the windmill area; 3) to evaluate the effects of noise and electromagnetic fields on the abundance of fish and marine mammals. (au)

  1. Acute Pancreatitis Caused By Mushroom Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Karahan, Samet; Erden, Abdulsamet; Cetinkaya, Ali; Avci, Deniz; Ortakoyluoglu, Adile Irfan; Karagoz, Hatice; BULUT, Kadir; Basak, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Of the more than 5000 species of mushrooms known, 100 types are toxic and approximately 10% of these toxic types can cause fatal toxicity. A type of mushroom called Amanita phalloides is responsible for 95% of toxic mushroom poisonings. In this article, we report 2 cases of mushroom poisonings caused by Lactarius volemus, known as Tirmit by the local people. The patient and his wife were admitted to the emergency room with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting 20 hours after consuming Lactariu...

  2. Hair dye poisoning and the developing world

    OpenAIRE

    Sampathkumar Krishnaswamy; Yesudas Sooraj

    2009-01-01

    Hair dye poisoning has been emerging as one of the important causes of intentional self harm in the developing world. Hair dyes contain paraphenylene-diamine and a host of other chemicals that can cause rhabdomyolysis, laryngeal edema, severe metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Intervention at the right time has been shown to improve the outcome. In this article, we review the various manifestations, clinical features and treatment modalities for hair dye poisoning.

  3. Vital Signs-Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This podcast is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  4. Survey of pesticide poisoning in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    J. Jeyaratnam; Seneviratne, R. S. de Alwis; Copplestone, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    This study included a sample survey of the clinical records of patients admitted to the different hospitals in Sri Lanka, and showed that approximately 13 000 patients are admitted to hospital annually for pesticide poisoning and that each year 1000 of them die. Suicidal attempts account for 73% of the total, and occupational and accidental poisoning accounts for 24.9%. It is recommended that urgent action be taken to minimize the extent of the problem.

  5. Facts and fallacies on industrial poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    THIENES, C H

    1957-09-01

    Misdiagnosis of diseases as due to industrial poisoning leads to much misunderstanding, higher taxes and insurance rates and "compensation neuroses." It is important to know the concentration of the suspected poison and its specific effects in order to logically indict it as the cause of illness. Examples discussed to illustrate some of the pitfalls of diagnosis in industrial medicine are methylbromide, carbon monoxide, ozone, oxides of nitrogen and of sulfur, hydrogen sulfide, benzene analogs, boron and fluorides. PMID:13460717

  6. A CLINICAL PROFILE OF ACUTE POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaddadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available 100 patients were studied to know the common poisons, age, sex, clinical manifestations, response to treatment, motive behind the consumption and prognostic factors. Out of 100 cases, most of them committed this with suicidal intention, 21 - 30 age group, males, insecticide poison consumed were affected. 70% of them had domestic problems as the main reason to commit this extreme step. Those who reached early to the hospital had recovered well with a mortality rate of 7%.

  7. Hair dye poisoning and the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampathkumar Krishnaswamy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair dye poisoning has been emerging as one of the important causes of intentional self harm in the developing world. Hair dyes contain paraphenylene-diamine and a host of other chemicals that can cause rhabdomyolysis, laryngeal edema, severe metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Intervention at the right time has been shown to improve the outcome. In this article, we review the various manifestations, clinical features and treatment modalities for hair dye poisoning.

  8. An unusual presentation of methanol poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    TURMEN, Suha; ERYİĞİT, Umut; SAHİN, Aynur; MENTESE, Seda; Gunduz, Abdulkadir

    2014-01-01

    Methanol is a substance possessing high toxicity even in small quantities. It may lead to intracerebral hemorrhage, blindness and death. Methanol poisoning generally takes place as result of oral ingestion, but may rarely occur through inhalation or transdermally. Persons may be exposed to methanol because of illegal alcohol beverage producers or alternative medicine providers. A 55-year-old male with methanol poisoning as a result of rubbing a self-prepared mixture of methylated spirit and a...

  9. Acute iron poisoning. Rescue with macromolecular chelators.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahoney, J R; Hallaway, P E; Hedlund, B E; Eaton, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    Acute iron intoxication is a frequent, sometimes life-threatening, form of poisoning. Present therapy, in severe cases, includes oral and intravenous administration of the potent iron chelator, deferoxamine. Unfortunately, high dose intravenous deferoxamine causes acute hypotension additive with that engendered by the iron poisoning itself. To obviate this problem, we have covalently attached deferoxamine to high molecular weight carbohydrates such as dextran and hydroxyethyl starch. These ma...

  10. Demographic Predictors of Peanut, Tree Nut, Fish, Shellfish, and Sesame Allergy in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ben-Shoshan

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To identify potential demographic predictors of food allergies. Methods. We performed a cross-Canada, random telephone survey. Criteria for food allergy were self-report of convincing symptoms and/or physician diagnosis of allergy. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to assess potential determinants. Results. Of 10,596 households surveyed in 2008/2009, 3666 responded, representing 9667 individuals. Peanut, tree nut, and sesame allergy were more common in children (odds ratio (OR 2.24 (95% CI, 1.40, 3.59, 1.73 (95% CI, 1.11, 2.68, and 5.63 (95% CI, 1.39, 22.87, resp. while fish and shellfish allergy were less common in children (OR 0.17 (95% CI, 0.04, 0.72 and 0.29 (95% CI, 0.14, 0.61. Tree nut and shellfish allergy were less common in males (OR 0.55 (95% CI, 0.36, 0.83 and 0.63 (95% CI, 0.43, 0.91. Shellfish allergy was more common in urban settings (OR 1.55 (95% CI, 1.04, 2.31. There was a trend for most food allergies to be more prevalent in the more educated (tree nut OR 1.90 (95% CI, 1.18, 3.04 and less prevalent in immigrants (shellfish OR 0.49 (95% CI, 0.26, 0.95, but wide CIs preclude definitive conclusions for most foods. Conclusions. Our results reveal that in addition to age and sex, place of residence, socioeconomic status, and birth place may influence the development of food allergy.

  11. Paralytic shellfish toxins in bivalves which are not associated with dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, T; Sato, S; Kodama, M

    1989-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSP toxins) were detected in the freshwater bivalve Corbicula sandai collected from Lake Biwa, Shiga Prefecture, Japan, and marine mussel Septifer virgatus from Mutsu Bay where known causative dinoflagellates and their cysts have never been observed. The toxin profile of C. sandai and S. virgatus was considerably different from suspected causative organisms Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Protogonyaulax spp., respectively. The causative organism(s) responsible for PSP toxins in these waters is at present unknown. PMID:2617541

  12. Evidence for production of paralytic shellfish toxins by bacteria associated with Alexandrium spp. (Dinophyta) in culture

    OpenAIRE

    Gallacher, S.; Flynn, Kevin J.; Franco, José M.; Brueggemann, E. E. (Ernst); Hines, H.B. (Harry)

    1997-01-01

    A substantial proportion of bacteria from five Alexandrium cultures originally isolated from various countries produced sodium channel blocking (SCB) toxins, as ascertained by mouse neuroblastoma assay. The quantities of SCB toxins produced by bacteria and dinoflagellates were noted, and the limitations in comparing the toxicities of these two organisms are discussed. The chemical nature of the SCB toxins in selected bacterial isolates was determined as paralytic shellfish toxins by pre- and ...

  13. Cytotoxicity and mycotoxin production of shellfish‐derived Penicillium spp., a risk for shellfish consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiger, M.; Guitton, Y.; Vansteelandt, M.;

    2013-01-01

    In order to assess the putative toxigenic risk associated with the presence of fungal strains in shellfish‐farming areas, Penicillium strains were isolated from bivalve molluscs and from the surrounding environment, and the influence of the sample origin on the cytotoxicity of the extracts was ev...... enhances the cytotoxicity of extracts when compared with classical media. The production of cytotoxic compounds and of the mycotoxin patulin on such a host‐derived medium highlights a potential health risk for shellfish consumers....

  14. Matrix effect on paralytic shellfish toxins quantification and toxicity estimation in mussels exposed to Gymnodinium catenatum

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho, Maria João; Vale, Carlos; Mota, Ana Maria; Rodrigues, Susana Margarida; Costa, Pedro Reis; Gonçalves, Maria Lurdes S. Simões

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Paralytic shellfish toxins were quantified in whole tissues of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to blooms of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum in Portuguese coastal waters. The validated liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection, involving pre-chromatographic oxidation was used to quantify carbamoyl, N-sulfocarbamoyl and decarbamoyl toxins. In order to test the matrix effect in the quantification of those toxins, concentrations obtained fr...

  15. PHENOTIPIC AND GENOTIPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF SALMONELLA SPP ISOLATED FROM MOLLUSCAN SHELLFISH IN MARCHE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fisichella

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica is a major epidemic cause of gastrointestinal infection worldwide. Although the animal host is believed to be the primary habitat of this specie, Salmonella is frequently isolated from water sources and it has been identified in marine environments. In this study the incidence of serotypes of Salmonella in the coastal water of the Italian region of Marche on the Adriatic Sea was evaluated. A total of 3985 samples of molluscan shellfish were analyzed during routine surveillance activity for a period of five years (2002-2007 and 0,95% of the samples were found contaminated with Salmonella. The most prevalent serotypes were Seftenberg (23.5%, Typhimurium (14,7% and Enteritidis (11.8% respectively. Pulsed-field electrophoresis and phage typing were used to determine possible genetic relationship (relatedness between S. Enteritidis strains isolated from bivalve mollusc and those isolated from human cases, animals and foods in Region of Marche. Three isolates from mollusc shellfish, 7 from sporadic human infection and 4 from poultry farms were confirmed as phagetype PT2 and PFGE profile XB0002. These results suggest a molecular fingerprinting relationship among shellfish, human and animal isolates, which could be considered as preliminary evidence of human infections associated with poultry production industry.

  16. Review of availability of food composition data for fish and shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenschober, Doris; Nowak, Verena; Charrondiere, U Ruth

    2013-12-15

    The FAO/INFOODS database on fish and shellfish (aFiSh) is a collection of analytical data from primary sources and holds values for 2,277 entries on raw and processed food with sufficient quality. Most data were entered on fatty acids (60%), followed by macronutrients and their fractions (16%), minerals (10%), amino acids (7%), (pro)vitamins (2%), heavy metals (2%) and other components (3%). Information on several factors that contribute to the variation of compositional data (e.g., biodiversity, catch season, habitat, size and part of fish/shellfish analysed) as well as the bibliographic references are presented alongside with each food entry. The data were published in the FAO/INFOODS Food Composition Database for Biodiversity (BioFoodComp2.0) and in the FAO/INFOODS Analytical Food Composition Database (AnFooD1.0), freely available at the INFOODS webpage http://www.fao.org/infoods/biodiversity/index_en.stm. The provision of easy accessible, analytical compositional data should be seen as stimulation for researchers and compilers to incorporate more analytical and detailed data of fish and shellfish into future food composition tables and databases and to improve dietary assessment tools. PMID:23993619

  17. Time-series prediction of shellfish farm closure: A comparison of alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaqur Rahman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Shellfish farms are closed for harvest when microbial pollutants are present. Such pollutants are typically present in rainfall runoff from various land uses in catchments. Experts currently use a number of observable parameters (river flow, rainfall, salinity as proxies to determine when to close farms. We have proposed using the short term historical rainfall data as a time-series prediction problem where we aim to predict the closure of shellfish farms based only on rainfall. Time-series event prediction consists of two steps: (i feature extraction, and (ii prediction. A number of data mining challenges exist for these scenarios: (i which feature extraction method best captures the rainfall pattern over successive days that leads to opening or closure of the farms?, (ii The farm closure events occur infrequently and this leads to a class imbalance problem; the question is what is the best way to deal with this problem? In this paper we have analysed and compared different combinations of balancing methods (under-sampling and over-sampling, feature extraction methods (cluster profile, curve fitting, Fourier Transform, Piecewise Aggregate Approximation, and Wavelet Transform and learning algorithms (neural network, support vector machine, k-nearest neighbour, decision tree, and Bayesian Network to predict closure events accurately considering the above data mining challenges. We have identified the best combination of techniques to accurately predict shellfish farm closure from rainfall, given the above data mining challenges.

  18. Toxicological management of chlorophacinone poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrange, F; Corniot, A G; Titier, K; Bedry, R; Pehourcq, F

    1999-01-01

    A 33-year-old man was admitted 8 hours after voluntary ingestion of 1875 mg of chlorophacinone (C'Operat 750 mL). The examination revealed excitation and nausea, with a normal prothrombin index (PI). Comprehensive testing for abused and therapeutic drugs in blood confirmed chlorophacinone (maximum plasma level: 27.6 mg/L), an antivitamin K (AVK) rodenticide. In a search for easy toxicological management of chlorophacinone poisoning treated by phytomenadione and a cytochrome P450 inducer (phenobarbital), PI and chlorophacinone plasma levels were monitored concomitantly during 17 days. A simple HPLC procedure for the determination of chlorophacinone in human plasma is reported for that purpose. Under phenobarbital 200 mg/day, chlorophacinone exhibited an apparent elimination half-life (3.27 days) shorter than in previously reported cases. If PI is useful for planning phytomenadione treatment and used for therapeutic monitoring of AVK, the chlorophacinone concentrations follow-up may provide a better estimation of the duration of hospitalisation. Chlorophacinone accumulation in target cells or existence of an unidentified metabolite may explain persistence of the hypocoagulability syndrome at low plasmatic concentrations of chlorophacinone. This case illustrates how toxicological management may facilitate toxicokinetics and therapeutic data acquisition.

  19. Researching nature's venoms and poisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrell, David A

    2009-09-01

    Our environment hosts a vast diversity of venomous and poisonous animals and plants. Clinical toxinology is devoted to understanding, preventing and treating their effects in humans and domestic animals. In Sri Lanka, yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana, Sinhala 'kaneru'), a widespread and accessible ornamental shrub, is a popular means of self-harm. Its toxic glycosides resemble those of foxglove, against which therapeutic antibodies have been raised. A randomised placebo-controlled trial proved that this treatment effectively reversed kaneru cardiotoxicity. There are strong scientific grounds for the use of activated charcoal, but encouraging results with multiple-dose activated charcoal were not confirmed by a recent more powerful study. Venom of Russell's viper (Daboia siamensis) in Burma (Myanmar) produces lethal effects in human victims. The case of a 17-year-old rice farmer is described with pathophysiological interpretations. During the first 9 days of hospital admission he suffered episodes of shock, coagulopathy, bleeding, acute renal failure, local tissue necrosis, generally increased capillary permeability and acute symptomatic hypoglycaemia with evidence of acute pituitary/adrenal insufficiency. Antivenom rapidly restored haemostatic function but failed to correct other effects of venom toxins incurred during the 3h before he could be treated.

  20. ARE THE SO-CALLED POISONOUS FOOD-COMBINATIONS REALLY POISONOUS?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Libin T CHENG

    2009-01-01

    @@ The idea that to eat certain two foods simultaneously is to get poisoned has been entertained by柄Chinese people for many years. There are about 184 pairs of the so-called poisonous food-combinations, and 180 of them are mentioned in Chinese Ancient Materia Medica, Ben-Tsao-Gung-Mu (本草纲目) or other books. (1a,2a) This belief was based upon some personal sketch, old-fashioned doctors' notes, stories and other false facts. Although these statements were originated without any experimental ground, yet many of the Chinese, even at present time, still believe them firmly. Whenever any poisoning outbreak occurs accidentally after having taken the so-called poisonous food-combination, they always attribute the cause of the poisoning to the two foods served simultaneously.

  1. Analysis of Nine Cases of Acute Thallium Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiwei; HUANG Xiaojiang; LIU Liang

    2007-01-01

    In this study nine cases of thallium poisoning in a series of homicidal poisoning were analyzed in order to provide more information concerning thallium poisoning. It was found that the most common clinical feature of thallium poisoning was peripheral neuropathy and paraesthesia was more common than amyasthenia. Understanding of these clinical characteristics of thallium poisoning was helpful to early identification and differential diagnosis. Since the early administration of Prussian Blue, as a specific antidote for thallium poisoning, can substantially improve the prognosis, it is of great importance to establish a correct and early diagnosis.

  2. An Unusual Cause of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Narghile Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateş, Alpay; Arikan, Müge; Özgök, Ayşegül

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 27 Final Diagnosis: Carbon monoxide poisoning Symptoms: Dizziness • nausea • Syncope Medication: — Clinical Procedure: O2 treatment Specialty: Anesthesiology Objective: Challenging differential diagnosis Background: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is commonly seen during the winter season in Turkey due to use of charcoal stoves and water heaters, but narghile smoking is a rare cause of CO poisoning. Case Report: In this paper, we report a CO poisoning case caused by narghile smoking. The patient was admitted to the ED with nausea, dizziness, vertigo, and syncope. Conclusions: The diagnosis of CO poisoning depends on suspicious anamnesis. The major treatment of CO poisoning is oxygen supply. PMID:27618983

  3. 75 FR 66771 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning... lead poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and recommends improvements in national childhood lead poisoning...

  4. 浙江省海水贝类应急监测和处置措施探讨%Discussion of shellfish emergency monitoring and disposal measures in Zhejiang province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张成; 杜伟; 黎飞; 封震静; 王扬

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the frequent occurrence of red tide along the coast of Zhejiang province had caused serious damage to the fishery production, especially the direct influence on the mariculture shellfish. In May 2011, poisoning events of eating mussels occurred in Ningbo and Zhoushan of Zhejiang province. Due to the emergency measures taken by the related management department, this “mussel” event had been disposed of properly. However, after introspection, the deficiencies remaining in the emergency monitoring and disposal measures for aquatic products quality and safety were analyzed, and some suggestions on how to draw lessons from foreign advanced practice and strengthen the management of shellfish products quality and safety were put forward. In view of the practical situation of China, the top priority is to propel the construction of the shellfish quality and safety supervision system of China, increase the input into basic scientific research on the shellfish quality and safety supervision and improve the urgent processing capacity upon aquatic product accidents. We must have clear-cut emergency duties, unimpeded information channel, prompt emergency monitoring, and efficient decision and treatment to make the shellfish quality and safety supervision of China be geared to international standards.%浙江省沿海近年来赤潮频发,给渔业生产造成严重损失,尤其是对海水养殖的贝类更是造成直接影响。2011年5月浙江省宁波、舟山等地发生市民因食用贻贝中毒事件,随后相关管理部门立即采取应急措施,这起“问题贻贝”事件得到了妥善处理。但事后反思,针对水产品质量安全应急监测和处置措施上尚存不足之处进行分析,并对如何借鉴国外先进做法、加强贝类产品质量安全管理力度提出几点建议。结合我国实际情况,加快推进我国贝类质量安全监管体系建设、加大贝类质量安全监管基础性科研投入

  5. [Problems introducing a pediatric poisoning treatment set].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockstedt, M

    2004-01-01

    Between 1995 and 1998 the Berlin poison center conducted a case-control study supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Berlin Medical Association, a health insurance company, and the Berlin Pediatric Society to test the efficacy of a pediatric poisoning treatment set. The aim of the study was to induce parents of small children to call the poison center immediately in cases of unintentional poisonings at home and to administer activated charcoal if advised to do so by the poison center specialist. This was achieved by handling over a so-called "emergency kit" to 24,000 parents during the regular pediatric office check-up when the children were 10-12 months of age. When an accident occurred, parents with an emergency kit at hand were able to give activated charcoal within 14 min compared to 51 min without this aid. Problems arose when attempts were undertaken to introduce the emergency kit into the routine counseling sessions throughout the country: restrictions imposed by the pharmaceutical law, lack of interest shown by pharmaceutical companies, and diverging responsibilities at county and federal political levels and between different health insurance companies have hitherto prevented the realization of this evidence-based method. PMID:15205817

  6. Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, Louis; Beyer, W. Nelson; Mateo, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    Four waterfowl were collected in the TriState Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn.

  7. Pharmacological treatment of cardiac glycoside poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Darren M; Gallapatthy, Gamini; Dunuwille, Asunga; Chan, Betty S

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac glycosides are an important cause of poisoning, reflecting their widespread clinical usage and presence in natural sources. Poisoning can manifest as varying degrees of toxicity. Predominant clinical features include gastrointestinal signs, bradycardia and heart block. Death occurs from ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia. A wide range of treatments have been used, the more common including activated charcoal, atropine, β-adrenoceptor agonists, temporary pacing, anti-digoxin Fab and magnesium, and more novel agents include fructose-1,6-diphosphate (clinical trial in progress) and anticalin. However, even in the case of those treatments that have been in use for decades, there is debate regarding their efficacy, the indications and dosage that optimizes outcomes. This contributes to variability in use across the world. Another factor influencing usage is access. Barriers to access include the requirement for transfer to a specialized centre (for example, to receive temporary pacing) or financial resources (for example, anti-digoxin Fab in resource poor countries). Recent data suggest that existing methods for calculating the dose of anti-digoxin Fab in digoxin poisoning overstate the dose required, and that its efficacy may be minimal in patients with chronic digoxin poisoning. Cheaper and effective medicines are required, in particular for the treatment of yellow oleander poisoning which is problematic in resource poor countries. PMID:26505271

  8. Histamine (Scombroid) Fish Poisoning: a Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Charles; Teuber, Suzanne; Gershwin, M Eric

    2016-02-01

    Histamine fish poisoning, also known as scombroid poisoning, is the most common cause of ichythyotoxicosis worldwide and results from the ingestion of histamine-contaminated fish in the Scombroidae and Scomberesocidae families, including mackerel, bonito, albacore, and skipjack. This disease was first described in 1799 in Britain and re-emerged in the medical literature in the 1950s when outbreaks were reported in Japan. The symptoms associated with histamine fish poisoning are similar to that of an allergic reaction. In fact, such histamine-induced reactions are often misdiagnosed as IgE-mediated fish allergy. Indeed, histamine fish poisoning is still an underrecognized disease. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of scombroid disease. Because more than 80% of fish consumed in the USA is now imported from other countries, the disease is intimately linked with the global fish trade (National Marine Fisheries Service, 2012). Preventing future scombroid outbreaks will require that fishermen, public health officials, restaurant workers, and medical professionals work together to devise international safety standards and increase awareness of the disease. The implications of scombroid poisoning go far beyond that of fish and have broader implications for the important issues of food safety. PMID:25876709

  9. 贝类毒素(大田软海绵酸)抑制磷酸酶法的建立%The establishment of phosphatase inhibition assay for detection of diarrhetic shellfish poison(okadaic acid)in shellfish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵前程; 秦成; 吴斌; 王翀; 常亚青

    2010-01-01

    基于腹泻性贝毒(DSP)中大田软海绵酸(OA)能够抑制磷酸酶活力的特点,建立了一种利用磷酸酶活力变化检测贝类中大田软海绵酸的快速方法.结果表明:应用抑制磷酸酶法对腹泻性贝类毒素检测,具有检测限低(定性检测限和定量检测限分别为30.3μg/kg和70.3μg/kg),与HPLC和小鼠生物试验法相一致的优点,对于监控海产食品中腹泻性贝类毒素具有重要的现实意义.

  10. 海南省近岸海域麻痹性贝毒素分析%Analysis of paralytic shellfish poisoning in shellfish from alongshore of the Hainan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴施卫; 卢楚谦; 刘景钦; 韩联民; 张纯超

    2006-01-01

    通过对近年来海南省近岸海域贝类样品的麻痹性贝毒素小白鼠生物法和高效液相色谱法检测结果的分析,表明海南省近岸海域多处地区和多种贝类含有麻痹性贝毒素;海口海域的麻痹性贝毒素含量值相对较高;各主要成分在壳内全部软组织中的检出率高于在消化腺中的检出率;未检出STX成分;GTX4、GTX2、GTX5和GTX3等是主要成分.

  11. Analysis of paralytic shellfish poison in shellfish in the offshore of the Guangxi%广西近岸海域麻痹性贝类毒素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢楚谦; 吴施卫; 张纯超; 余汉生; 朱小山; 刘孟兰

    2005-01-01

    通过对近年来广西近岸海域贝类样品的麻痹性贝毒素小白鼠生物法和高效液相色谱法检测结果的分析,表明广西近岸海域多处地区和多种生物含有麻痹性贝毒素;4~5月及7~11月为两个毒性值的年高峰期;GTX4、GTX5和GTX3毒素成分的检出率较高等.

  12. Risk Assessment of Paralytic Shellfish Poison in Exported Shellfish from Beibu Gulf%北部湾出口贝类中麻痹性贝类毒素的风险评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟旭倩; 刘丹; 梁海麟

    2010-01-01

    麻痹性贝类毒素是一种神经性毒素,其自古以来就是一种人类避之唯恐不,318及的毒素,人类摄入因食用有毒藻类后产生麻痹性贝类毒素的贝类水产品会引起麻痹性贝类中毒,中毒症状以神经系统中毒症状为主,严重时会导致死亡.近年来,国外不断有因食用贝类产品而中毒的报道,引起人们的高度关注.文章从危害鉴定、危害特征描述、暴露评估、风险特征描述等方面综述了北部湾麻痹性贝类毒素在出口贝类中的风险评估.

  13. Preliminary Study on the Impact of Quarantine of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Caused by Cold Storage Shellfish%贝类低温储存后对腹泻性贝毒检疫的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐倩囡; 曹琳琳; 吴真真; 程绍杰; 张继千

    2009-01-01

    介绍了对腹泻性贝毒(DSP)的生物分析检测方法和仪器分析技术,并采用小白鼠生物试验法检测了低温储藏12个月的贝类的DSP.结果表明,储藏温度和时间等因素,有可能使无毒的贝类肠腺产生某种生化物质以致小白鼠死亡,从而影响小白鼠法贝毒的检疫结果.试验条件下储藏12个月的贝类样品提取液0.14~0.20 g可致小白鼠在24 h内死亡.

  14. Unusual case of methanol poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, L.; Henderson, M. (St. James' s Univ. Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Pathology); Madi, S.; Mellor, L. (St. James' s Univ. Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medicine, and Pharmacy)

    1993-01-09

    A 31-year-old man with a history of alcohol abuse presented to the accident and emergency department complaining of blurred vision. 4 h previously he had drunk 300 mL de-icer fluid. Electrolytes, urea, creatinine, glucose, and blood-gas analysis were normal. Measured osmolality, however, was 368 mosmol/kg with a calculated osmolality of 300 mosmol/kg, which indicated a greatly increased osmolar gap. He was therefore given 150 mL whisky and admitted. Methanol was later reported as 200 mg/dL. Ethylene glycol was not detected, but another glycol, propylene glycol, was present at 47 mg/dL. 10 h after ingestion an intravenous infusion of ethanol was started and he was hemodialysed for 7 h. After dialysis he was given a further 100 mL whisky and the rate of ethanol infusion was reduced to 11 g per h. Methanol and ethanol were measured twice daily until methanol was under 10/mg/dL: The recommendation is that blood ethanol be maintained between 100 and 200 mg/dL during treatment of methanol poisoning. This concentration was not achieved, presumably because of the high rate of ethanol metabolism often found in alcoholics. Antifreeze solutions commonly contain methanol and ethylene glycol. Sometimes propylene glycol is substituted because it has properties similar to those of ethylene glycol but is less toxic. The authors postulate that propylene glycol inhibited the metabolism of methanol in the patient, thus sparing him from the toxic effects of methanol.

  15. ONE CASE REPORT OF ACUTE POISONING BY BARIUM CARBONATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Qin-min; BIAN Fan; WANG Shu-yun; SHEN Sheng-hui

    2009-01-01

    @@ Most barium poisoning cases were caused by oral intake by mistake. Recent years, barium carbonate poisoning has been rare to be reported. Here we reported a case of acute barium carbonate toxication taken orally on purpose.

  16. E-Cigarette Poisonings Skyrocket Among Young Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158738.html E-Cigarette Poisonings Skyrocket Among Young Kids: Study Swallowing ... poison control centers about young children's exposure to e-cigarettes have skyrocketed in recent years, new research ...

  17. The EXTRIP (EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning) workgroup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavergne, Valéry; Nolin, Thomas D; Hoffman, Robert S;

    2012-01-01

    Extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs), such as hemodialysis and hemoperfusion, are used in poisoning despite a lack of controlled human trials demonstrating efficacy. To provide uniform recommendations, the EXTRIP group was formed as an international collaboration among recognized experts from...... nephrology, clinical toxicology, critical care, or pharmacology and supported by over 30 professional societies. For every poison, the clinical benefit of ECTR is weighed against associated complications, alternative therapies, and costs. Rigorous methodology, using the AGREE instrument, was developed...... and ratified. Methods rely on evidence appraisal and, in the absence of robust studies, on a thorough and transparent process of consensus statements. Twenty-four poisons were chosen according to their frequency, available evidence, and relevance. A systematic literature search was performed in order...

  18. Zebrafish Models for Human Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Melissa; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Padrós, Francesc; Babin, Patrick J; Sebastián, David; Cachot, Jérôme; Prats, Eva; Arick Ii, Mark; Rial, Eduardo; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Mathieu, Guilaine; Le Bihanic, Florane; Escalon, B Lynn; Zorzano, Antonio; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2015-10-22

    Terrorist use of organophosphorus-based nerve agents and toxic industrial chemicals against civilian populations constitutes a real threat, as demonstrated by the terrorist attacks in Japan in the 1990 s or, even more recently, in the Syrian civil war. Thus, development of more effective countermeasures against acute organophosphorus poisoning is urgently needed. Here, we have generated and validated zebrafish models for mild, moderate and severe acute organophosphorus poisoning by exposing zebrafish larvae to different concentrations of the prototypic organophosphorus compound chlorpyrifos-oxon. Our results show that zebrafish models mimic most of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this toxidrome in humans, including acetylcholinesterase inhibition, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, and calcium dysregulation as well as inflammatory and immune responses. The suitability of the zebrafish larvae to in vivo high-throughput screenings of small molecule libraries makes these models a valuable tool for identifying new drugs for multifunctional drug therapy against acute organophosphorus poisoning.

  19. HAIR DYE POISONING: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available S uper Vasmol is one of the commonly used, cheap, freely available hair dye poisoning is emerging a major cause of suicidal poisoning in India, and the hair dyes mainly contain paraphenylene diamine (PPD and resorcinol. Acute poisoning by PPD causes charact eristic sever angio - neurotic oedema of upper air way associated with a swollen, dry, hard and protruding tongue, systemic intoxication results in multisystem involvement and can cause rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure (ARF. There is no specific antidote for PPD and treatment mainly supportive, emergency tracheostomy will help the patient to relieve the airway obstruction and reduce mortality. We report a case of suicidal ingestion of hair dye that was presented with cervico - fascial oedema later developed rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure managed with emergency tracheostomy, systemic management and dialysis.

  20. Acute Anterolateral Myocardial Infarction Due to Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Bita Dadpour; Zohre Oghabian

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a highly effective rodenticide which is used as a suicide poison. Herein, a 24 year-old man who’d intentionally ingested about 1liter of alcohol and one tablet of AlP is reported. Acute myocardial infarction due to AlP poisoning has been occurred secondary to AIP poisoning. Cardiovascular complications are poor prognostic factors in AlP poisoning