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Sample records for azalea rhododendron simsii

  1. Separation of Sperm Cells of Rhododendron simsii%杜鹃精细胞的分离

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉红; 于金金; 吴晓琛; 田惠桥

    2013-01-01

    The mature pollen of Rhododendron simsii is bicellular, containing one vegetative cell and one germ cell, with the sperm cells forming in pollen tube. Semi vitro technique was used in style pollinated to make pollen tube sprout from style. Then the pollen tube burst by osmotic shock method and released a pair of sperm cells which connected to vegetative nucleus. The sperm cells separated kept activities proved by FDA method. A fairly large number of separated sperm cells could be collected by micromanipulator.%  杜鹃成熟花粉为二胞型,含一个营养细胞和一个生殖细胞,其精细胞在花粉管中形成。应用半离体技术培养杜鹃已授粉花柱,使花粉管从花柱中长出,再用渗透压冲击法促使花粉管破裂,释放出一对与营养核相连的精细胞。分离的精细胞经FDA方法检测,证明具活性。用显微操作仪可收集数量较多的分离精细胞。

  2. Protective Effect and Mechanism of Total Flavones from Rhododendron simsii Planch Flower on Cultured Rat Cardiomyocytes with Anoxia and Reoxygenation

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    Yi Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many flavonoids have cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. Total flavones from Rhododendron simsii Planch flower (TFR can protect myocardial ischemic injuries. However, its protective mechanism is still unknown. The present study was designed to investigate the mechanism of TFR on myocardial I/R and anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R injuries. Rat model of myocardial I/R injury was made, and myocardial infarction was determined. A/R injury was induced in cultured rat cardiomyocytes; cellular damage was evaluated by measuring cell viability, LDH and cTnT releases, and MDA content. Expressions of ROCK1 and ROCK2 protein were examined by Western blot analysis, and K+ currents were recorded by using whole-cell patch clamp technique. TFR 20~80 mg/kg markedly reduced I/R-induced myocardial infarction. TFR 3.7~300 mg/L significantly inhibited A/R-induced reduction of cell viability, LDH and cTnT releases, and MDA production. Exposure to A/R significantly increased ROCK1 and ROCK2 expressions in rat cardiomyocytes, but TFR 33.3~300 mg/L obviously inhibited this increase. 300 mg/L TFR significantly augmented inward rectifier K+ current and other K+ currents in rat cardiomyocytes. These results indicate that TFR has a protective effect on rat cardiomyocytes A/R damage, and the protective mechanism may be engaged with the inhibition of ROCK1 and ROCK2 and activation of K+ channels.

  3. Phylogeographic analysis and environmental niche modeling of widespread shrub Rhododendron simsii in China reveals multiple glacial refugia during the last glacial maximum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong LI; Hai-Fei YAN; Xue-Jun GE

    2012-01-01

    The phylogeography of common and widespread species can help us to understand the history of local flora and vegetation.Here,we study the semi-evergreen shrub Rhododendron simsii Planch.,which is found in most areas of current evergreen broad leaved forest in China.Two noncoding chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) regions(rpl20-rps12 and trnL-F) and three amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) primer sets (E-AAC/M-CTA,E-AGC/M-CTA and E-AGG/M-CAT) were used to examine the phylogeographic pattern in relation to past (last glacial maximum) and present distributions based on ecological niche modeling.The cpDNA data revealed four phylogeographic groups (East,South,West,and North groups) corresponding to geographic regions.Molecular dating suggests that lineage diversification within species likely occurred during the mid-to-late Pleistocene.In contrast,the four main cpDNA phylogeographic groups were not supported by the AFLP dataset.The highest likelihood of the AFLP data was obtained when samples were clustered into three groups (K =3).However,these groupings did not correspond to separate geographic regions supported by cpDNA data.Both mismatch distribution analysis and environmental niche modeling (ENM) indicated that multiple glacial refugia were maintained across the range of Rhododendron simsii during the last glacial maximum,contrary to the previous hypothesis that subtropical broad leaved evergreen forests were forced to retreat southward as far as 25°N.The discordance between the patterns revealed by cpDNA and AFLP data indicate that localized postglacial range expansions may facilitate extensive gene flow between the major glacial refugia.

  4. Protective Effect and Mechanism of Total Flavones from Rhododendron simsii Planch on Endothelium-Dependent Dilatation and Hyperpolarization in Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion and Correlation to Hydrogen Sulphide Release in Rats

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    Jun Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We for the first time investigated the effect and mechanism of the total flavones of Rhododendron simsii Planch (TFR, a widely-used Chinese herb for a thousand years, on vasodilatation and hyperpolarization in middle cerebral artery (MCA of rats subject to global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (CIR. TFR (11~2700 mg/L evoked dose-dependent vasodilation and hyperpolarization in MCA of both sham and CIR that were partially inhibited by 30 μM N-nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester and 10 μM indomethacin and further attenuated by endogenous H2S synthese-CSE inhibitor PPG (100 μM or Ca2+-activated potassium channel (Kca inhibitor TEA (1 mM. In whole-cell patch clamp recording, TFR remarkably enhanced the outward current that was inhibited by TEA. CIR increased CSE mRNA expression and the contents of H2S that were further increased by TFR. We conclude that, in MCA of CIR rats, TFR induces non-NO and non-PGI2-mediated effects of vasodilatation and hyperpolarization involving Kca and increases CSE mRNA expression level in endothelial cells and H2S content in the cerebrum. These findings suggest that the response induced by TFR is potentially related to endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor mediated by the endogenous H2S and promote the use of TFR in protection of brain from ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  5. Hydroponic Screening for Iron Deficiency Tolerance in Evergreen Azaleas

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    Sonia DEMASI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Evergreen azaleas grow in acid soil and suffer from iron deficiency when cultivated in substrate with pH higher than 6.0. In order to select tolerant plants, 11 azalea genotypes were tested for 21 days in alkaline solution (pH 9, buffered with sodium hydrogen carbonate (1 g·l-1. Leaf damage, root length and mortality rate were recorded. While leaf damage and mortality rate allowed to discriminate genotypes, root development appeared not directly linked to iron deficiency tolerance. Rhododendron ‘Juko’, R. scabrum, R. macrosepalum ‘Hanaguruma’, R. x pulchrum ‘Oomurasaki’, and R. x pulchrum ‘Sen-e-oomurasaki’ resulted iron efficient genetic resources, useful for azalea cultivation and gardening in calcareous soils. On the contrary, R. obtusum ‘Kirin’, R. tosaense, R.x mucronatum ‘Fujimanyo’ and R. obtusum ‘Susogo-no-ito’ resulted iron deficiency sensitive genotypes. R. x mucronatum ‘Ryukyushibori’ and R. indicum ‘Kinsai’ showed intermediate responses.

  6. Diversity of fungi colonizing leaves of Rhododendron (Rhododendron L. cuttings

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    Barbara Kierpiec-Baran

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rhododendrons (Rhododendron L. are shrubs whose attractiveness is determined by their multi-coloured flowers and evergreen leaves. Necroses visible on the leaves of rhododendron cuttings diminish the suitability of nursery material for marketing. These symptoms are most frequently caused by fungi. The investigations were conducted in 2010–2011 in an ornamental shrub nursery to identify fungi colonizing the phyllosphere of rhododendron cuttings and causing leaf necroses. The material for analysis consisted of leaves of 11 rhododendron cultivars. 550 leaves were collected from 110 half-year-old cuttings for mycological analysis. Over 350 fungal colonies belonging to 15 species were isolated from the leaves of rhododendron cuttings. The dominants included: Pestalotiopsis sydowiana, Trichoderma koningii and Alternaria alternata. The influents included: Aspergillus brasiliensis, Mucor hiemalis f. hiemalis, Epicoccum nigrum, Sordaria fimicola and Umbelopsis isabellina. A large majority of the fungi preferred the phyllosphere environment of Yakushima rhododendron (R. yakushimanum cultivars ‘Sneezy’ and ‘Golden Torch’ as well as of the large-flowered cultivars ‘Flautando’, ‘Dominik’, and ‘Simona’. The phyllosphere of the large-flowered cultivars ‘Bernstein’, ‘Nova Zembla’, and ‘Goldbuckett’ was a reservoir for many fungal colonies and fungi species. The cultivars less susceptible to colonization by fungi and the most promising for planting in green areas and home gardens are the large-flowered cultivars ‘Bernstein’, ‘Nova Zembla’, ‘Goldbuckett’, ‘Rasputin’, and ‘Roseum Elegans’.

  7. Aplicação de extratos brutos de flores de quaresmeira e azaléia e da casca de feijão preto em volumetria ácido-base. Um experimento para cursos de análise quantitativa Application of crude extracts of Tibouchina granulosa and Rhododendron sinsii flowers and Phasealus vulgares grains skin in acid - base titration. A quantitative laboratory experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Márlon Herbert Flora Barbosa Soares; Éder Tadeu Gomes Cavalheiro; Patrícia Alexandra Antunes

    2001-01-01

    Crude extract of Tibouchina granulosa, Rhododendron simsii and Phaseolus vulgaris L. were prepared and used as alternative indicators in quantitative analysis teaching in standardization of NaOH solutions and in the determination of acetic acid contents in vinegar. Effect of using such natural extracts as indicators was very attractive to the students and the quantitative results were compared with conventional indicators with good agreement. Concepts of data statistics can successfully be di...

  8. 部分野生杜鹃杂交授粉后花粉管生长状况分析%Analysis of pollen tube growth after pollination in some wild Rhododendron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿兴敏; 张超仪; 尹增芳

    2014-01-01

    以映山红(Rhododendron simsii)及锦绣杜鹃(Rhododendron pulchrum)为母本,分别与杜鹃属15种杜鹃进行杂交授粉试验,观察授粉后花粉在柱头上萌发与花粉管生长状况,分析杜鹃远缘杂交组合的亲和性。结果显示,所有父本花粉都能在映山红及锦绣杜鹃柱头表面附着并萌发,花粉管生长情况和异常花粉管的比率因父本不同而情况各异。与锦绣杜鹃组合相比,映山红组合花粉管到达花柱底部速度快、数量多,异常花粉管比率低,部分锦绣杜鹃杂交组合,花粉管在花柱中、上部生长受阻,表明映山红组合种间杂交亲和性较高。亲和性较差的杂交组合,花粉管生长易出现扭曲、螺旋、膨大、破裂以及胼胝质过多沉积等现象,但自交与种内杂交组合也存在各种花粉管生长异常状况。结果表明,花粉管异常的类型与杂交亲和性无直接联系,但异常花粉管出现的比率与杂交亲和性相关。%Rhododendron simsii and Rhododendron pulchrum as maternal parent were crossed with 15 wild Rhododendron species. In order to make clear the interspecific cross compatibility and pre -fertilization barriers, the growth of pollen tube on the stigma and into the style was observed under the epifluorescence microscopy. The results showed that pollens of all cross combinations could be attached and germinated on stigmas of R. simsii and R. pulchrum, however pollen tube growth and the ratio of abnormal pollen tubes were different due to varied male parents. Different abnormalities of arrested pollen tube tips have been detected, including colied, spiralling, swollen, burst, heavy callose deposition on the wall and so on. The growth rate of pollen tube was more rapidly among cross combinations with better cross compatibility such as self - pollination and intraspecific hybridization of R. simsii, and their pollen tubes reached the bottom of style canal more than the cross

  9. A New Oidiodendron maius Strain Isolated from Rhododendron fortunei and its Effects on Nitrogen Uptake and Plant Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiangying; Chen, Jianjun; Zhang, Chunying; Pan, Dongming

    2016-01-01

    A new mycorrhizal fungal strain was isolated from hair roots of Rhododendron fortunei Lindl. grown in Huading Forest Park, Zhejiang Province, China. Morphological characterization and internal transcribed spacer rDNA analysis suggested that it belongs to Oidiodendron maius Barron, and we designated it as strain Om19. Methods for culturing Om19 were established, and the ability of Om19 to form mycorrhizae on R. fortunei was evaluated in a peat-based substrate. Microscopic observations showed hyaline hyphae on the surface of hair roots and crowded hyphal complexes (hyphal coils) inside root cortical cells of R. fortunei after inoculation, indicating that the roots were well colonized by Om19. In a second experiment, fresh and dry weight of R. fortunei 2 months after Om19 inoculation were greater than uninoculated plants, and the total nitrogen absorbed by plants inoculated with Om19 was greater than the uninoculated controls. qRT-PCR analysis of five genes related to N uptake and metabolism (two nitrate transporters, an ammonium transporter, glutamine synthetase, and glutamate synthase) showed that these genes were highly upregulated with twofold to ninefold greater expression in plants inoculated with Om19 compared to uninoculated plants. In the third experiment, Om19 was inoculated into the peat-based substrate for growing Formosa azalea (Rhododendron indica ‘Formosa’). ‘Formosa’ azalea plants grown in the inoculated substrate had larger canopies and root systems compared to uninoculated plants. Our results show that Om19 could be an important microbial tool for improving production of Rhododendron plants. PMID:27602030

  10. Cutting propagation of azaleas using hot water treatments to control pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azalea web blight, caused by certain binucleate species of Rhizoctonia, occurs yearly on some azalea cultivars during nursery production in the southern and eastern U.S. Azalea shoots collected for cutting propagation can harbor the pathogen, thus allowing the disease to be perpetuated during the cu...

  11. 3种杜鹃光合特性的比较%Photosynthetic Characteristics of Three Rhododendron Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华; 谢利娟; 白宇清; 王定跃

    2012-01-01

    为了利用杜鹃花的生理生态特性高效率地建设深圳梧桐山风景区的“十里杜鹃”景点,研究了该景区引种栽培的毛棉杜鹃、华丽杜鹃、映山红的光合特性参数.结果表明:毛棉杜鹃的净光合速率(Pn)为双峰曲线,出现光合“午休”现象;华丽杜鹃和映山红的Pn是单峰曲线.净光合速率的日均值由大到小的顺序为:毛棉杜鹃、华丽杜鹃、映山红.3种杜鹃的蒸腾速率(Tr)均为单峰曲线,华丽杜鹃的蒸腾速率(Tr)、气孔导度(Gs)和胞间CO2摩尔分数显著高于毛棉杜鹃和映山红.在水分利用率和光能利用率方面,毛棉杜鹃显著高于华丽杜鹃和映山红.因此,毛棉杜鹃可作为上述景点建设的优先选择种.%Diurnal changes in photoaynthetic characteristics of the leaves of Rhododendron moulmainense Hook. f. , R. eudoxum Barf. f. et Forrest and R. simsii Planch, were measured with the aid of Li-6400 portable photosynthesis system. Result showed that the net photosynthetic rate of R. moulmainense presented a double-peak curve with a midday depression; while that of R. eudoxum and it simsii both exhibited a single-peak curve. Moreover, the average net photosynthetic rate of R. moulmainense was the highest, followed by R. eudoxum and R. simsii. The transpiration rate of all the Rhododendron culti-vars appeared a single-peak curve. The transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and intercellular CO, concentration of R. eudoxum were markedly higher than those of the other cultivars. However, the water use efficiency and light use efficiency of R. moulmainense was the highest. In conclusion, R. moulmainense is the best cultivar for the construction of scenic spots due to its high net photosynthetic rate, water use efficiency, and light use efficiency.

  12. Study on a rooting inducing culture system for plantlets of two hybrid Rhododendron%两种杜鹃杂交种不定芽生根的培养基配方

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴影倩; 耿兴敏; 罗凤霞

    2013-01-01

    以杜鹃杂交种R.simsii×R.mucronatum和R.pulchrum×R.mucronatum组培苗的不定芽为外植体,对基本培养基和蔗糖浓度采用单因子设计,对生长素种类和活性炭采用正交试验,对适宜的生根培养基配方进行了探讨.结果表明:不同的杂交组合适宜不定芽生根的培养基类型、蔗糖浓度及激素组合都有所不同.R.simsii×R.mucronatum的适宜生根培养基为1/2 WPM+ 20 g/L蔗糖+3g/L AC,R.pulchrum×R.mucronatum的合适生根培养基为WPM+ 10 g/L蔗糖+2 mg/L IBA.适宜的移栽基质均为V泥炭∶V蛭石∶V珍珠岩=1∶1∶1.%To optimize a micro propagation of hybrid Rhododendron and improve the efficiency of Rhododendron breeding,In vitro shoots were used as the explants to establish a rooting system for two hybrid Rhododendron(R.simsii × R.mucronatum and R.pulchrum × R.mucronatum).Single factor experiments were used in basic medium and sucrose concentration,orthogonal test was applied to the type of auxin and activated carbon,select the appropriate culture conditions.The results showed that the optimal rooting medium was 1/2 WPM +20 g/L sucrose +3 g/L AC for R.simsii ×R.mucronatum and the optimal rooting medium was WPM + 10 g/L sucrose + 2 mg/L IBA for R.pulchrum × R.mucronatum.Optimal transplanting medium were peat∶ vermiculite∶ perlite =1 ∶ 1 ∶ 1.

  13. A New Oidiodendron maius Strain Isolated from Rhododendron fortunei and Its Effects on Nitrogen Uptake and Plant Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangying Wei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A new mycorrhizal fungal strain was isolated from hair roots of Rhododendron fortunei Lindl. grown in Huading Forest Park, Zhejiang Province, China. Morphological characterization and internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA analysis suggested that it belongs to Oidiodendron maius Barron, and we designated it as strain Om19. Methods for culturing Om19 were established, and the ability of Om19 to form mycorrhizae on R. fortunei was evaluated in a peat-based substrate. Microscopic observations showed hyaline hyphae on the surface of hair roots and crowded hyphal complexes (hyphal coils inside root cortical cells of R. fortunei after inoculation, indicating that the roots were well colonized by Om19. In a second experiment, fresh and dry weight of R. fortunei two months after Om19 inoculation were greater than uninoculated plants, and the total nitrogen (N absorbed by plants inoculated with Om19 was greater than the uninoculated controls. qRT-PCR analysis of five genes related to N uptake and metabolism (two nitrate transporters, an ammonium transporter, glutamine synthetase, and glutamate synthase showed that these genes were highly upregulated with 2 to 9 fold greater expression in plants inoculated with Om19 compared to uninoculated plants. In the third experiment, Om19 was inoculated into the peat-based substrate for growing Formosa azalea (R. indica ‘Formosa’. ‘Formosa’ azalea plants grown in the inoculated substrate had larger canopies and root systems compared to uninoculated plants. Our results show that Om19 could be an important microbial tool for improving production of Rhododendron plants.

  14. The diversity of fungi colonizing necrotic inflorescence buds of rhododendron (Rhododendron L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Żołna; Barbara Kierpiec-Baran; Maria Kowalik

    2013-01-01

    The infection of rhododendron (Rhododendron L.) inflorescence buds caused by pathogenic fungi induces its browning, withering, and dieback. The identification of fungi causing the infection of rhododendron inflorescence buds can be a reason for creating new improved cultivars with genetically determined resistance to pathogens. The investigations were carried out in 2010–2011 on the collection of ornamental plants of the Faculty of Horticulture, University of Agriculture in Kraków. The materi...

  15. Aplicação de extratos brutos de flores de quaresmeira e azaléia e da casca de feijão preto em volumetria ácido-base. Um experimento para cursos de análise quantitativa Application of crude extracts of Tibouchina granulosa and Rhododendron sinsii flowers and Phasealus vulgares grains skin in acid - base titration. A quantitative laboratory experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márlon Herbert Flora Barbosa Soares

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Crude extract of Tibouchina granulosa, Rhododendron simsii and Phaseolus vulgaris L. were prepared and used as alternative indicators in quantitative analysis teaching in standardization of NaOH solutions and in the determination of acetic acid contents in vinegar. Effect of using such natural extracts as indicators was very attractive to the students and the quantitative results were compared with conventional indicators with good agreement. Concepts of data statistics can successfully be discussed using the interest revived by the use of natural indicators.

  16. 植源性荧光色素的提取及抑菌效果%Extraction and Antibacterial Effects of Fluorescent Pigments from Azalea Petals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨燕; 赵歌; 陆小平

    2012-01-01

    Diaion HP-20 and Sephadex LH-20 were used to isolate and purify pigments from Rhododendron simsii,and a fluorescent pigment with high concentration was obtained from plant organs.Meanwhile,the antibacterial activity of this pigment was also evaluated.The results revealed that 5 different fluorescent regions in the petal extract from Sephadex LH-20 purification were observed.The strongest fluorescent region is a yellow-green region.In addiiton,this fluorescent pigment revealed an obvious inhibitory effect on the growth of Diplococcus.%用大孔吸附树脂DiaionHP-20和SephadexLH-20对杜鹃花瓣中色素进行分离和纯化,获得高浓度的植源性荧光物质,并对荧光物质进行抑菌实验。结果表明:花瓣浸提液中的色素经SephadexLH-20分离纯化,可以清晰看到5种不同荧光区域,其中绿黄色荧光效果最为明显。抑菌试验显示,该荧光色素对双球菌生长有很好的抑制作用。

  17. The diversity of fungi colonizing necrotic inflorescence buds of rhododendron (Rhododendron L.

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    Małgorzata Żołna

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The infection of rhododendron (Rhododendron L. inflorescence buds caused by pathogenic fungi induces its browning, withering, and dieback. The identification of fungi causing the infection of rhododendron inflorescence buds can be a reason for creating new improved cultivars with genetically determined resistance to pathogens. The investigations were carried out in 2010–2011 on the collection of ornamental plants of the Faculty of Horticulture, University of Agriculture in Kraków. The material comprised infected inflorescence buds collected from nine newly bred taxa and one botanical species of rhododendron. 596 colonies of fungi belonging to 31 species were isolated from infected rhododendron inflorescence buds. The dominant species were: Pestalotiopsis sydowiana, Truncatella truncata, Alternaria alternata, Phialophora asteris, and Trichoderma viride, which constituted almost 74% of the isolated fungi population. Boeremia exigua var. exigua, Epicoccum nigrum, Fusarium poae, Mammaria echinobotryoides, Paraphoma chrysanthemicola, Phialophora cyclaminis, Phoma eupyrena, Talaromyces wortmannii, Umbelopsis isabellina, and other fungi were isolated in a lower number. The results of mycological analysis confirm the diversity of species colonizing necrotic inflorescence buds of rhododendron. .

  18. Allelopathic activity of saponins exctracted from Rhododendron luteum Sweet

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    Iryna M. Yezhel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Article deals with allelopathic activity of saponins exctracted from Rhododendron luteumSweet leaves. Investigations show nonlinear correlation between saponins concetration and growth of the roots of test-cultures.

  19. Weather-Based forecasting of Rhizoctonia web blight development on container-grown azalea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungicides are the only approach currently used to control Rhizoctonia web blight on container-grown azalea. The most reliable criterion for timing fungicides has been a fixed calendar date with adjustment for year-to-year differences in disease progression made by monitoring early-season increase o...

  20. Dynamics of DNA methylation and Histone H4 acetylation during floral bud differentiation in azalea

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    Valledor Luis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to control the timing of flowering is a key strategy for planning production in ornamental species such as azalea, however it requires a thorough understanding of floral transition. Floral transition is achieved through a complex genetic network and regulated by multiple environmental and endogenous cues. Dynamic changes between chromatin states facilitating or inhibiting DNA transcription regulate the expression of floral induction pathways in response to environmental and developmental signals. DNA methylation and histone modifications are involved in controlling the functional state of chromatin and gene expression. Results The results of this work indicate that epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone H4 acetylation have opposite and particular dynamics during the transition from vegetative to reproductive development in the apical shoots of azalea. Global levels of DNA methylation and histone H4 acetylation as well as immunodetection of 5-mdC and acetylated H4, in addition to a morphological study have permitted the delimitation of four basic phases in the development of the azalea bud and allowed the identification of a stage of epigenetic reprogramming which showed a sharp decrease of whole DNA methylation similar to that is defined in other developmental processes in plants and in mammals. Conclusion The epigenetic control and reorganization of chromatin seem to be decisive for coordinating floral development in azalea. DNA methylation and H4 deacetylation act simultaneously and co-ordinately, restructuring the chromatin and regulating the gene expression during soot apical meristem development and floral differentiation.

  1. The New Real: Iggy Azalea and the Reality Performance

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    Tara Morrissey

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Questions of realness, authenticity, and legitimacy, are deeply invested in a politics of identity that polices the purity of its central categories. The creative potential of performative modes such as rap performance and reality television is thus complicated by expectations of authenticity that are frequently embroiled in broader projects of identity delineation and regulation. This paper considers correlations between hip hop culture’s ethos of realness and authenticity, and the ‘real’ as manifested in the cultural phenomenon of reality television, for the ways in which they are bound by but also strive to reconfigure the limits of realness. With particular attention to the work and self-styling of Australian female rapper Iggy Azalea, I emphasise the tension between performance and authenticity, and point to the ostensibly disparate subcultural forms of hip hop and reality television as distinctly engaged in the renegotiation of this tension. I invoke the critical imperatives of whiteness theory to critique the normative channels of realness that remain at the forefront of hip hop’s self-conceptualisation and general promotion, in particular the role of gender and race in the construction of hip hop authenticity. I then examine reality television and its relationship with shame and intimacy as crucial to understanding its devalued status in studies of television and popular culture more broadly. Ultimately, I propose the explorations of ‘real’ in these works as indicative of a contemporary shift in the evaluation and justification of authenticity that points to a revised appreciation of the power of performativity.

  2. Análisis comparativo del cariotipo en poblaciones de Alstroemeria ligtu subsp. ligtu y A. ligtu subsp. simsii (Alstroemeriaceae de Chile

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    Carlos M. Baeza

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Alstroemeria (Alstroemeriaceae es un género endémico de América del Sur. En Chile, este género se distribuye desde el extremo norte hasta la Patagonia, y la mayor diversidad de especies se encuentra en la zona central. Precisamente en esta zona crece Alstroemeria ligtu con sus 3 subespecies: A. ligtu subsp. ligtu, A. ligtu subsp. incarnata, A. ligtu subsp. simsii. Se realizó un estudio comparativo del cariotipo de individuos provenientes de 5 poblaciones de A. ligtu subsp. ligtu de la VIII Región, y de una población de A. ligtu subsp. simsii de la V Región, mediante tinción de los cromosomas con DAPI u orceína acética. Las seis poblaciones estudiadas presentaron un cariotipo asimétrico, con 2n=2x=16 cromosomas. Las poblaciones de A. ligtu subsp. ligtu presentaron una fórmula haploide conformada por cuatro cromosomas metacéntricos (los pares 1 y 2 con microsatélites, uno submetacéntrico con microsatélite y tres telocéntricos con microsatélites. La población de A. ligtu subsp. simsii se caracterizó por poseer cinco cromosomas metacéntricos (el par 2 con un microsatélite y el par 6 con una constricción secundaria y tres cromosomas telocéntricos con satélite. Estos resultados indican que el cariotipo en A. ligtu es variable, y es probable que cambios a nivel cromosómico hayan contribuido en la diversificación de esta especie.

  3. The genus Rhododendron L. in Indochina and Siam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleumer, H.

    1958-01-01

    In the course of my recent revision of the genus Rhododendron in Malaysia it has become evident, that the subsect. Irrorata, regarded as purely South Eastern Asiatic up to now, is also represented in the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra, whilst the subsect. Euvireya, outside of its large Malaysian area,

  4. eQTL mapping of candidate genes for flower colour as a model for genetical genomics in Azalea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyser, de E.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Bockstaele, van E.; Riek, de J.

    2012-01-01

    Flower colour in azalea is inherited as a semi-qualitative trait and is mainly determined by differences in anthocyanins and flavonols. A two-gene model is used to explain the phenotypic variation between white, brick red and carmine red colour: W in case the flower petals contain anthocyanins and Q

  5. Analysis of Flavonoid Aglycons in Rhododendron of Sichuan Liangshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hongxia; DING Mingyu; WU Zhuping

    2001-01-01

    An aqueous solution of the extracts from Rhododendron leaves from Sichuan Liangshan was extracted with solvents of increasing polarity,petroleum ether,ethyl ether,ethyl acetate and butanol.The main flavonoid aglycons extracted into the ethyl ether phase are the subject of this study.The flavonoid aglycons-mycetin,quercetin,kaempferol and farrerol,were separated and identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC),high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometer/mass spectrometer (LC/MS/MS).A simple and rapid HPLC method was developed for quantitative determination of quercetin and kaempferol in Rhododendron leaves,ethanol extracts and Jinjuan oral liquid drug (Liquor Jinjuan).The analysis of quercetin is useful for quality control of medicinal materials and Liquor Jinjuan products.

  6. Enraizamento de estacas de azaléia tratadas com concentrações de ANA em diferentes substratos Rooting of azalea cuttings treats with NAA concentrations and differents substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Mauad

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available De acordo com a necessidade de aumentar a produção de mudas de azaléia por meio da propagação vegetativa, em menor intervalo de tempo, foi proposto estudar os efeitos de diferentes substratos e concentrações de ANA (ácido naftalenoacético. O experimento foi conduzido em esquema fatorial 3X4 com três substratos (areia grossa lavada, casca de arroz carbonizada e húmus e quatro concentrações de ANA na forma de pó (0; 2,5; 5,0 e 7,5%. Utilizaram-se estacas de 100 mm de comprimento retiradas da porção apical do ramo, sem gema apical e com corte em bisel na parte superior, deixando um par de folhas cortadas ao meio. Essas foram colocadas para enraizar em bandejas de isopor de 128 células, por um período de 90 dias, nas quais avaliaram-se: comprimento, superficie, volume e diâmetro radicular e a porcentagem de estacas enraizadas, sobreviventes, mortas e número de brotos. Pode-se concluir que a maior porcentagem de enraizamento foi obtida no substrato de casca de arroz carbonizada e com ANA na concentração de 5%.In agreement with to enhancement scion production ofRhododendron x simsii Planch trough the vegetative propagation in shorter time, it was intended to study the effects of different substrates and NAA concentration. The experiment was in factorial design 3x4 with three substrates (sand, hush rice and humus and four NAA concentrations in the powder form (0; 2.5; 5.0 and 7.5%. The cuttings used had 100 mm length without apical meristem with two leaves cut in half. Those were put to rooting in trays of 128 cells, for 90 days in which were evaluated: length, surface, volume and root diameter and percentage of rooted, surviving and dead cuttings and number the buds. It can be conclued that the greatest of rooting was obtained in the substrates hush rice and the 5% of NAA.

  7. Pollen morphology of Rhododendron subgen. Tsutsusi and its systematic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-Jiao ZHANG; Xiao-Feng JIN; Bing-Yang DING; Jing-Ping ZHU

    2009-01-01

    Eighty-four pollen samples were obtained for 80 taxa, of which, 13 species and one variety are from sect. Brachycalyx Sweet, 58 species and two varieties from sect. Tsutsusi Sweet, and six species from subgen. Pentanthera (G. Don) Pojarkova, respectively. Pollen morphology of all samples was observed using LM and SEM. Pollen grains are revealed to be spheroidal and tetrahedral with tricolporate apertures. Pollen sizes of sub-gen. Tsutsusi (Sweet) Pojarkova range from 37.67 μm to 61.06 μm, and the exine sculptures are more or less compactly granulated. Pollen sizes are significantly different between sect. Brachycalyx and sect. Tsutsusi of subgen. Tsutsusi. Rhododendron tashiroi Maxim. of sect. Tsusiopsis Sleumer shows a close affinity to sect. Brachycalyx. Pollen size and exine are consistent with general morphology in differentiating species in sect. Tsutsusi. Rhododendron huadingense B. Y. Ding & Y. Y. Fang, once placed as a member of sect. Brachycalyx, should be considered as a species in subgen. Pentanthera.

  8. An unusual bioactive oleanane triterpenoid from Rhododendron campanulatum D.Don

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mudasir Ahmad Tantry; Reehana Khan; Seema Akbar; Abdul Rouf Dar; Abdul Sami Shawl; Mohammad Sarwar Alam

    2011-01-01

    An unusual oleanane triterpene (1) was isolated from aerial parts of Rhododendron campanulatum. The compound had shown prominent antibacterial and immunomodulatory activities. The structure of the compound was determined by spectroscopic data including ID and 2D NMR spectral analysis.

  9. Titulações espectrofotométricas de sistemas ácido-base utilizando extrato de flores contendo antocianinas Spectrophotometric titrations of acid-base systems using flower extracts containig anthocyanins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Souza Cortes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering the attraction of the students' attention by the changes in the colors of vegetable crude extracts caused by the variation of the pH of the medium, the use of these different colors in order to demonstrate principles of spectrophotometric acid-base titrations using the crude extracts as indicators is proposed. The experimental setup consisted of a simple spectrophotometer, a homemade flow cell and a pump to propel the fluids along the system. Students should be stimulated to choose the best wavelength to monitor the changes in color during the titration. Since the pH of the equivalence point depends on the system titrated, the wavelength must be properly chosen to follow these changes, demonstrating the importance of the correct choice of the indicator. When compared with the potentiometric results, errors as low as 2% could be found using Rhododendron simsii (azalea or Tibouchina granulosa (Glory tree, quaresmeira as sources of the crude extracts.

  10. Chemical Composition and Biological Properties of Rhododendron anthopogon Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabbriella Innocenti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Rhododendron anthopogon was investigated by GC-MS, and seventeen compounds (representing approximately 98% of the oil were identified. The major components of the aerial parts of the oil were the monoterpenes α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene and the sesquiterpene δ-cadinene. Biological studies revealed a weak topical anti-inflammatory activity; a significant killing effect against some Gram-positive reference strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcusfecalis, Bacillus subtilis was measured; Mycobacterium tuberculosis reference strain and a clinical isolate of Candida, C. pseudotropicalis were killed by as low as 0.04% (v/v essential oil. Moreover, the oil was able to reduce cancer cell growth independently of the cell line and the treatment protocols used.

  11. Maximum sustainable xylem sap tensions in Rhododendron and other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombie, D S; Milburn, J A; Hipkins, M F

    1985-01-01

    The acoustic technique was used in conjunction with the pressure chamber to determine the tensions causing cavitation of xylem sap in leaves of five woody angiosperms (Acer pseudoplatanus L., Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn., Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Fraxinus excelsior L. and Rhododendron ponticum L.) and three species of herbs (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill., Plantago major L. and Ricinus communis L.). The results showed leaves of most species to suffer considerably from cavitation at sap tensions of 1.6-3 MPa. Two of the herbs, Lycopersicum and Ricinus, cavitated extensively at sap tensions below 1 MPa. Additional evidence is presented that clicks, detected by acoustic amplification, are caused by cavitation of sap in the xylem conduits. A rapid method is suggested for the determination of sap tensions in cavitating leaves and which is suitable for surveys of the critical sap tension in a large number of species.

  12. Cold hardiness increases with age in juvenile Rhododendron populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev eArora

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Winter survival in woody plants is controlled by environmental and genetic factors that affect the plant's ability to cold acclimate. Because woody perennials are long-lived and often have a prolonged juvenile (pre-flowering phase, it is conceivable that both chronological and physiological age factors influence adaptive traits such as stress tolerance. This study investigated annual cold hardiness (CH changes in several hybrid Rhododendron populations based on Tmax, an estimate of the maximum rate of freezing injury (ion leakage in cold-acclimated leaves from juvenile progeny. Data from F2 and backcross populations derived from R. catawbiense and R. fortunei parents indicated significant annual increases in Tmax ranging from 3.7 to to 6.4 C as the seedlings aged from 3 to 5 years old. A similar yearly increase (6.7° C was observed in comparisons of 1- and 2-year-old F1 progenies from a R. catawbiense x R. dichroanthum cross. In contrast, CH of the mature parent plants (> 10 years old did not change significantly over the same evaluation period. In leaf samples from a natural population of R. maximum, CH evaluations over two years resulted in an average Tmax value for juvenile 2- to 3- year- old plants that was 9.2 C lower than the average for mature (~30 years old plants. . A reduction in CH was also observed in three hybrid rhododendron cultivars clonally propagated by rooted cuttings (ramets - Tmax of 4-year-old ramets was significantly lower than the Tmax estimates for the 30- to 40-year-old source plants (ortets. In both the wild R. maximum population and the hybrid cultivar group, higher accumulation of a cold-acclimation responsive 25kDa leaf dehydrin was associated with older plants and higher CH. The feasibility of identifying hardy phenotypes at juvenile period and research implications of age-dependent changes in CH are discussed.

  13. Antioxidant Activities and Phytochemicals of Leaf Extracts from 10 Native Rhododendron Species in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yang Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhododendron, one of the most famous ornamental plants in the world, is traditionally a medicinal plant. However, the potential bioactivities of native Rhododendron in Taiwan have not been completely studied. In this study, the results revealed that Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum exhibited the best antioxidant activities among 10 native Rhododendron species in Taiwan. Furthermore, based on a bioactivity-guided isolation principle, nine specific phytochemicals were isolated and identified as (2R,3S-catechin (1, (2R,3R-epicatechin (1′, (2R,3R-dihydromyricetin 3-O-β-l-arabinopyranoside (2, (2S,3S-taxifolin 3-O-β-l-arabinopyranoside (2′, (2R,3R-taxifolin 3-O-β-l-arabinopyranoside (3, myricetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3′, rutin (4, hyperoside (5, and quercitrin (6. Of these compounds, 2 and 3 were found to be major bioactive compounds, and their concentrations in the n-butanol (BuOH fraction were determined to be 52.0 and 67.3 mg per gram, respectively. These results demonstrated that methanolic extracts of Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum leaves have excellent antioxidant activities and great potential as a source for natural health products.

  14. Sanitation Can Be A Foundation Disease Management Tool: Potential Of Spreading Binucleate Rhizoctonia from Nursery Propagation Floors To Trays Containing Azalea Stem Cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binucelate Rhizoctonia spp. (BNR), the cause of web blight, are present all year on container-grown azaleas in the southern U.S. BNR can be eliminated during vegetative propagation by submerging stem cuttings in 50°C water for 21 minutes. The objective was to evaluate risk of rooting trays being con...

  15. Differentiating Phytophthora ramorum and P. kernoviae from other species isolated from foliage of rhododendrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora species are among plant pathogens that are the most threatening to agriculture. After the discovery of P. ramorum, surveys have identified new species and new reports on Rhododendrons. Based upon propagule production and characteristics and colony growth, a dichotomous key was produce...

  16. Assessing atmospheric concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by evergreen Rhododendron maximum next to a contaminated stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Viet D.; Walters, David; Lee, Cindy M.

    2016-01-01

    Conifers are often used as an “air passive sampler”, but few studies have focused on the implication of broadleaf evergreens to monitor atmospheric semivolatile organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, we used Rhododendron maximum (rhododendron) growing next to a contaminated stream to assess atmospheric PCB concentrations. The study area was located in a rural setting and approximately 2 km downstream of a former Sangamo-Weston (S-W) plant. Leaves from the same mature shrubs were collected in late fall 2010, and winter and spring 2011. PCBs were detected in the collected leaves suggesting that rhododendron can be used as air passive samplers in rural areas where active sampling is impractical. Estimated ΣPCB (47 congeners) concentrations in the atmosphere decreased from fall 2010 to spring 2011 with concentration means at 3990, 2850, and 931 pg m-3 in fall 2010, winter 2011, and spring 2011, respectively. These results indicate that the atmospheric concentrations at this location continue to be high despite termination of active discharge from the former S-W plant. Leaves had a consistent pattern of high concentrations of tetra- and penta-CBs similar to the congener distribution in polyethylene (PE) passive samplers deployed in the water column suggesting that volatilized PCBs from the stream were the primary source of contaminants in rhododendron leaves.

  17. Analysis on ch oosing tou ring route in Baili Rhododendron National Forest Park at blooming period%百里杜鹃国家森林公园盛花期游览路线选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅伟聪; 齐津达; 陈梓茹; 朱志鹏; 董建文; 丁国昌

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore the touring route selection in blooming period of Baili Rhododendron Forest Park, as well as probe the improvement plan of forest park management, an investigation was conducted in a sunny day of full-blossom period aiming at supporting consults for visitors and administrators, by means of collecting and analyzing the data about factors such as atmospheric particulate matter concentration, the comfortable degree of human body and beauty values in 8 monitoring points of Pudi scenic spot. The observations showed that the daily average concentration of atmospheric particulate matter was lower than grading standards I from 8 monitoring points in the park.The daily variation rules of atmospheric particulate matter concentration in the park went up in the morning and down at noon, and picked up slightly at dusk.The comfortable degree of human body was high in the Park. Generally speaking, the comfortable degree of human body was in a state of comfortable or very comfortable at other periods, but S2, S3 and S8 were not in a state of comfortable at 7:00 am.The azalea forest edge, the clearing, place inside the azalea forest and non-floricome broad-leaved mixed forest were successively ranked from high place to low place in terms of the beauty degree average standard.The best viewing angle varied from different time due to the changing of solar altitude and light intensity.%为探索贵州百里杜鹃国家森林公园盛花期游客游览路线选择及森林公园管理建设改善方案,选择杜鹃盛花期晴朗天,以普底景区8个游憩地为监测点,通过研究不同监测点大气颗粒物浓度、人体舒适度指标及美景度值等因子的变化,为游客、管理者提供参考。结果表明,8个监测点大气颗粒物日均浓度皆低于Ⅰ级标准,日变化规律均为上午高、中午低、傍晚略有回升;园内人体舒适指标总体较高,仅在7:00时,监测点S2、 S3和S8感觉不舒适,其余

  18. Rhodomollins A and B, two Diterpenoids with an Unprecedented Backbone from the Fruits of Rhododendron molle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Liu, Yun-Bao; Yan, Hui-Min; Liu, Yang-Lan; Li, Yu-Huan; Lv, Hai-Ning; Ma, Shuang-Gang; Qu, Jing; Yu, Shi-Shan

    2016-11-01

    Two new grayanoids, rhodomollin A (1) and rhodomollin B (2), possessing an unprecedented D-homo grayanane carbon skeleton, were isolated from the fruits of Rhododendron molle. The structures of 1 and 2 were fully characterized using a combination of spectroscopic analyses and X-ray crystallography. Rhodomollin B (2) exhibited modest activity against influenza virus A/95-359, with an IC50 value of 19.24 μM.

  19. Effects of Litter on the Seedling Regeneration and Seed Germination of Rhododendron agastum%凋落物对迷人杜鹃幼苗更新和种子萌发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周艳; 陈训; 韦小丽; 伍庆; 李朝婵

    2015-01-01

    促进迷人杜鹃幼苗的天然更新。%Objective]The“One Hundred Mile Azalea Forest”is the largest Rhododendron forest in China so far. Rhododendron agastum is an important protected species in the natural reserve“One Hundred Mile Azalea Forest”in Guizhou province,and has important ecological,scientific and cultural value.[Method]In field investigations in a forest of Rh. agastum,we found that there were a 1ot of litter but rare seedlings in the forest. Aiming at this problem,the effects of litter coverage on seedling regeneration of Rh. agastum communities were investigated in the One Hundred Mile Azalea Forest. The physical effects of litter coverage on seed germination and seedling growth were investigated in artificial simulation experiments in which different seed-sowing positions and different thicknesses of litter were applied. The biochemical effect of litter on seed germination was investigated by irrigating Rh. agastum seeds with litter leachates that were prepared by extraction of litter with diethyl ether,ethyl acetate,or n-butanol. [Result]Our results indicated that a thick litter layer suppressed seedling regeneration under natural conditions. The maximum seedling number was observed for litter less than 4 cm thick,and the number of seedlings gradually decreased with increased litter thickness. Sowing patterns and litter depth had a significant influence on the germination and seedling emergence. The seed germination rate of the control ( without litter) was highest. Seeds sown on the litter surface had much lower germination rate or failed to germination. With the increase of litter thickness,the seed germination rate and seedling emergence rate decreased. No matter which kind of extract processing of three kinds of leachates,high concentrations inhibited seed germination,most notably for the diethyl ether fraction at the concentration of 12 mg·mL -1 . In this concentration,the germination rate and seedling height of Rh. agastum were

  20. Isolation and Identification for Symbiotic Mycorrhizal Fungi of Rhododendron changii%树枫杜鹃菌根真菌分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振华; 姚娜; 杨凯; 王涛; 李振坚; 李潞滨

    2012-01-01

    Rhododendron changii is a monotypic species in China. This study isolated and obtained 10 same mycorrhizal fungi strains from Rhododendron changii and identified them by traditional classification method of morphology in conjunction with 18S rDNA sequence analysis. The results of identification suggest that this mycorrhizal fungi is Meliniomyces variabilis' sibling species.

  1. 杜鹃花色素的提取及稳定性研究%Study on Anthocyanidin Extraction from Flower of Rhododendron L. and Its Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗向东; 谢建坤; 张乐华; 戴亮芳

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study was to further investigate and utilize the natural anthocyanidin from Rhododendron L. [Method] Using Rhododendron L. with four different colors including white, pink, red and purple as the test materials, its anthocyanidin extraction methods were analyzed in this study to evaluate the spectral properties and its stability of various anthocyanidin. [Result] The anthocyanidin from Rhododendron L. was perfectly extracted by methanol with 1% concentrated hydrochloric acid (V/V) and had better stability in this extraction solution. The further experiment in vitro indicated that the anthocyanidin from Rhododendron L. became stable with pH value of 0-3, but could not resistant to high temperature or strong light, and the alkaline condition had also great effects on its stability. [Conclusion] The methanol with 1% concentrated hydrochloric acid (V/V) has the best effect for extraction, and the anthocyanidin from Rhododendron L. is more stable in low temperature, weak light and acid conditions.

  2. Phytochemical analysis of the flower extracts of Rhododendron arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kiruba S; Mahesh M; Nisha SR; Miller Paul Z; Jeeva S

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the preliminary phytochemical screening of the flower extracts of Rhododendron arboreum (R. arboreum) Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg. Methods: The preliminary phytochemical screening was performed by the standard methods as described by Harborne. Results: The phytochemical analysis carried out on the flowers of R. arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg showed the presence of phenols, saponins, steroids, tannin, xanthoprotein and coumarin. Conclusions:The present study suggested that the flower extracts of R. arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg possess significant phytochemical constituents and it can be used as antimicrobial agents against clinically isolated pathogens.

  3. Preliminary phytochemical studies of the leaf extracts of Rhododendron arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Solomon Kiruba; Mony Mahesh; Zachariah Miller Paul; Solomon Jeeva

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the secondary metabolites present in the leaf extracts of Rhododendron arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg. Methods: Phytochemical screening of the leaf extract was done to determine the phytochemical constituents in the various solvents studied.Results:nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg. confirm the existence of secondary metabolites such as phenols, saponins and tannins. Conclusions: The study suggests that the leaf extracts of R. arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg. can be best utilized in developing bioactive compounds against pathogenic infection. The phytochemical study carried out on the leaf extracts of R. arboreum Sm. ssp.

  4. Study on cuttage reproduction techniques of Camellia azalea%杜鹃红山茶扦插繁育技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    幸新妹; 郭志明; 张远福; 刘小平; 郭承芸

    2016-01-01

    Camellia azalea is a new development of flowers varieties with excellent ornamental value, bright colors, long flowering period and four seasons blossom. Its cuttage reproduction techniques through cutting time, cutting medium, content of cutting tissue were studied. The results showed that C. azalea can take cuttage reproduction throughout the year, the most optimal cutting medium is the cultivated soil mixed with red soil (1∶2), and the branches which have organization of substantial, sturdily and free of diseases and insects were chose as cuttings for cuttage reproduction.%杜鹃红山茶具有极好的观赏价值,花色鲜艳、花期长、四季开花,是一种可新兴开发的花卉品种。通过对扦插时间、基质、插穗组织充实程度等3个方面进行扦插繁育研究,结果表明杜鹃红山茶基本上常年可以进行扦插繁殖,扦插的基质以培养土+黄泥土(1∶2)为好,插穗要选择组织充实、粗壮、无病虫害的枝条。

  5. DNA barcoding of Rhododendron (Ericaceae), the largest Chinese plant genus in biodiversity hotspots of the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li-Jun; Liu, Jie; Möller, Michael; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Li, De-Zhu; Gao, Lian-Ming

    2015-07-01

    The Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains encompass two global biodiversity hotspots with high levels of biodiversity and endemism. This area is one of the diversification centres of the genus Rhododendron, which is recognized as one of the most taxonomically challenging plant taxa due to recent adaptive radiations and rampant hybridization. In this study, four DNA barcodes were evaluated on 531 samples representing 173 species of seven sections of four subgenera in Rhododendron, with a high sampling density from the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains employing three analytical methods. The varied approaches (nj, pwg and blast) had different species identification powers with blast performing best. With the pwg analysis, the discrimination rates for single barcodes varied from 12.21% to 25.19% with ITS barcodes showed the highest discrimination ability (both 41.98%) among all possible combinations. As a single barcode, psbA-trnH performed best with a relatively high performance (25.19%). Overall, the three-marker combination of ITS + psbA-trnH + matK was found to be the best DNA barcode for identifying Rhododendron species. The relatively low discriminative efficiency of DNA barcoding in this genus (~42%) may possibly be attributable to too low sequence divergences as a result of a long generation time of Rhododendron and complex speciation patterns involving recent radiations and hybridizations. Taking the morphology, distribution range and habitat of the species into account, DNA barcoding provided additional information for species identification and delivered a preliminary assessment of biodiversity for the large genus Rhododendron in the biodiversity hotspots of the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains.

  6. Effect of elevation and latitude on spring phenology of Rhododendron at Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, East Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailesh Ranjitkar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mountainous terrain in East corner of Nepal is good location for phenological studies. Spring phenology in Rhododendron arboreum Sm. was monitored around Ghunsa river valley in Kanchenjunga Conservation Area of Nepal. Observations were carried our following the crown density method; flowering events of the selected species were recorded in 15-days interval. Flowering activity including duration of flowering and synchrony were determined. In addition, expected difference in flower onset time in two consecutive monitoring plots was determined. Elevation, latitude and longitude were regressed against flower onset to determine effect of each variable on flower onset. Delay in flower onset with rise in elevation, North latitude and West longitude was found in the results of the regression. Full bloom phase was found highly synchronized throughout the elevation gradient with contraction of flowering duration. High synchrony also indicates that the reproductive timing might plastic enough to cope with short-term change in environment.

  7. Effect of temperature and moisture period on infection of Rhododendron 'Cunningham's White' by Phytophthora ramorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, Paul W; Browning, Marsha; Kyde, Kerrie L; Berner, Dana

    2009-09-01

    We investigated the temperature and moisture conditions that allow Phytophthora ramorum to infect Rhododendron 'Cunningham's White'. Most experiments were performed with a single P. ramorum isolate from the NA1 clonal lineage. For whole plants incubated in dew chambers at 10 to 31 degrees C, the greatest proportion of diseased leaves, 77.5%, occurred at the optimum temperature of 20.5 degrees C. Disease occurred over the entire range of temperatures tested, although amounts of disease were minor at the temperature extremes. For whole plants exposed to varying dew periods at 20 degrees C and then incubated at 20 degrees C for 7 days, a dew period as short as 1 h resulted in a small amount of disease; however, at least 4 h of dew were required for >10% of the leaves to become diseased. Moisture periods of 24 and 48 h resulted in the greatest number of diseased leaves. In detached-leaf, temperature-gradient-plate experiments, incubation at 22 degrees C resulted in the greatest disease severity, followed by 18 degrees C and then 14 degrees C. In detached-leaf, moisture-tent experiments, a 1-h moisture period was sufficient to cause disease on 67 to 73% of leaves incubated for 7 days at 20 degrees C. A statistical model for disease development that combined the effects of temperature and moisture period was generated using nonlinear regression. Our results define temperature and moisture conditions which allow infection by P. ramorum on Cunningham's White rhododendron, and show that P. ramorum is able to infect this host over a wide range of temperatures and moisture levels. The results indicate that P. ramorum has the potential to become established in parts of the United States that are outside its current range.

  8. Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies on Rhododendron molle G. Don

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    Zheng Xiao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR approach has become a widely used method to analyze expression patterns of target genes. The selection of an optimal reference gene is a prerequisite for the accurate normalization of gene expression in qRT-PCR. The present study constitutes the first systematic evaluation of potential reference genes in Rhododendron molle G. Don. Eleven candidate reference genes in different tissues and flowers at different developmental stages of R. molle were assessed using the following three software packages: GeNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. The results showed that EF1-α (elongation factor 1-alpha, 18S (18s ribosomal RNA and RPL3 (ribosomal protein L3 were the most stable reference genes in developing rhododendron flowers and, thus, in all of the tested samples, while tublin (TUB was the least stable. ACT5 (actin, RPL3, 18S and EF1-α were found to be the top four choices for different tissues, whereas TUB was not found to favor qRT-PCR normalization in these tissues. Three stable reference genes are recommended for the normalization of qRT-PCR data in R. molle. Furthermore, the expression profiles of RmPSY (phytoene synthase and RmPDS (phytoene dehydrogenase were assessed using EF1-α, 18S, ACT5, and RPL3 and their combination as internals. Similar trends were found, but these trends varied when the least stable reference gene TUB was used. The results further prove that it is necessary to validate the stability of reference genes prior to their use for normalization under different experimental conditions. This study provides useful information for reliable qRT-PCR data normalization in gene studies of R. molle.

  9. Species identification of Rhododendron (Ericaceae using the chloroplast deoxyribonucleic acid PsbA-trnH genetic marker

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    Yimei Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rhododendron is a group of famous landscape plants with high medicinal value. However, there is no simple or universal manner to discriminate the various species of this group. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA barcoding technique is a new biological tool that can accurately and objectively identify species by using short and standard DNA regions. Objective: To choose a suitable DNA marker to authenticate the Rhododendron species. Materials and Methods: Four candidate DNA barcodes (rbcL, matK, psbAtrnH, and ITS2 intergenic spacer were tested on 68 samples of 38 species. Results: The psbAtrnH candidate barcode yielded 86.8% sequencing efficiency. The highest interspecific divergence was provided by the psbA-trnH intergenic spacer, based on six parameters, and the Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Although there was not a clear barcoding gap, the Wilcoxon Two sample tests indicated that the interspecific divergence of the psbA-trnH intergenic spacer was significantly higher than the relevant intraspecific variation. The psbA-trnH DNA barcode possessed the highest species identification efficiency at 100% by the BLAST1 method. The present results showed that the psbA-trnH intergenic spacer was the most promising one of the four markers for barcoding the Rhododendron species. To further evaluate the ability of the psbA-trnH marker, to discriminate the closely related species, the samples were expanded to 94 samples of 53 species in the genus, and the rate of successful identification was 93.6%. The psbA-trnH region would be useful even for unidentified samples, as it could significantly narrow their possible taxa to a small area. Conclusion: The psbA-trnH intergenic region is a valuable DNA marker for identifying the Rhododendron species.

  10. Growth Response Of Container Grown Japanese Azalea And Euonymus And Concentration Of Nitrates And Phosphates In The Runoff Water Under Different Irrigation And Fertilization

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    Matysiak Bożena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study a growth response of two container-grown ornamentals (Euonymus japonicus ‘Ovatus Aureus’ and Rhododendron ‘Geisha Orange’ grown under different irrigation and fertilization rates was examined. The content of nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P in the plant leaves and in leachates was measured. Two levels of irrigation – standard irrigation (SI and – high irrigation rate (HI, and three control-release fertilizers (CRFs – Multicote 17-17-17, Osmocote Exact Standard 16-9-12 and Plantacote 15-10-15, applied at the rate of 1.5, 3.0 or 4.5 g·l−1, were applied. Fast-acting fertilizers were used as the control. HI adversely affected the growth and quality of Euonymus but stimulated the growth and increased quality of Rhododendron within two years of cultivation in relation to SI. There were no significant interactions between the irrigation and fertilization treatments; irrespective of water regimes, growth responses of both plant species to used fertilizers were similar. Osmocote and Plantacote at the rate of 3 g·l−1 were the most effective for the growth of Euonymus and Rhododendron plants, except of Euonymus in the second year, when 4.5 g·l−1 CRFs resulted in the best growth of plants. HI increased the amount of runoff water as well as N-NO3 and P-PO4 losses from containers during the entire growing period, irrespective of a fertilizer type. The amount of the nitrate and phosphate in leakage was higher when higher rates of CRFs were applied. Maximum nitrate concentration in leakage was the highest 14 days after the application of CRFs.

  11. 赤霉素+2,4-D及赤霉素+丁酰肼对马缨杜鹃光合作用日变化的影响%Diurnal variation of Rhododendron delavayi photosynthesis sparyed gibberellin+2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and gibberellin+daminozide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐小蓉; 张习敏; 牛晓娟; 唐婧; 乙引

    2011-01-01

    Different combinations of gibberellin + 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and gibberellin+daminozide have been sprayed on Rhododendron delavayi which growth in Guizhou Qianxi Bali Azalea Forest Par, and the diurnal variation of photosynthetic physiological indexes have been determined. The results show that the photosynthetic rate had two peaks with spraying different mixed plant growth regulator, and the peak values were at 11:30 am and 15:30 pm, respectively. At the 11:30 am, the photosynthetic rate of gibberellin plus 50, 100, 200 mg/kg 2,4-D and the control were 8. 39,8. 08,8. 14,8. 29 mol · m 2s-1 respectively. The transpiration rate of spraying gibberellin and different concentration of 2,4-D and the control showed a curve of two peaks, the first peak was at 9:30 am, the values of transpiration rate ranked from large to small as follows: CK>100 mg/kg+200 mg/kg>100 mg/ kg+50 mg/kg>10G mg/kg+100 mg/kg. The intercellular Coz concentration of spraying mixed plant growth regulator was not evidence. Gibberellin plus 2,4-D and gibberellin plus daminozide had an influence to water use efficiency. The results provide a basis for further research of the photosynthetic physiological character of Rhododendron delavayi.%以贵州黔西百里杜鹃野生林中马缨杜鹃为研究对象,喷施不同浓度配比的赤霉素+2,4-D及赤霉素+J酰肼,并测定其光合生理指标的日变化.结果表明:喷施不同浓度配比的外源激素下马缨杜鹃的光合速率呈双峰型,峰值分别出现在11∶30和15∶30,在11∶30,赤霉素分别与不同浓度50、100、200mg/kg 2,4- D混和对应光合速率分别为8.39,8.08,8.14,8.29 μmol·m-2s 1;喷施赤霉素和不同浓度的2,4-D对应的马缨杜鹃叶片蒸腾作用日变化也呈“双峰”曲线,第一个峰值均出现在9:30,表现为CK> 100 mg/kg+ 200 mg/kg> 100 mg/kg+ 50mg/kg>100 mg/kg+100 mg/kg;与对照相比,各喷洒浓度对胞间CO2浓度的影响不明显,赤霉素和2,4-D、赤霉素

  12. In Vitro Propagation of R. maddeni Hook. F. an Endangered Rhododendron Species of Sikkim Himalaya

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    Kaushal Kumar SINGH

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A protocol is described for rapid and large scale propagation of an endangered, important Sikkim Himalayan rhododendron (R. maddeni Hook. f. by in vitro culture of cotyledonary nodes from 15 days old seedlings. Several cytokinin types were evaluated for their effect on shoot multiplication from cotyledonary nodes. Maximum numbers of shoot (12.00 �0.58 were observed on the AM containing 7 mg/l 2iP, 0.1 mg/l IAA after eight weeks of culture. Incorporation of 0.1 mg/l IAA in the medium during the first subculture after establishment and initiation of shoot buds significantly improved the shoot elongation. Regenerated shoots were separated and rooted on same strength AM medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/l of IBA alone for three weeks. Well-developed complete plantlets were transferred on to specially made plastic cup containing soilrite. The rooted plantlets were hardened and successfully established in greenhouse, the plants were transferred to field site at Pangthang arboretum of the Institute and the �Rare & Threatened Plant Conservation Park� of Zoological Park, Gangtok, Sikkim.

  13. Toxicity of Rhododendron anthopogonoides Essential Oil and Its Constituent Compounds towards Sitophilus zeamais

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    Qi Zhi Liu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The screening of several Chinese medicinal plants for insecticidal principles showed that essential oil of Rhododendron anthopogonoides flowering aerial parts possessed significant toxicity against maize weevils, Sitophilus zeamais. A total of 37 components were identified in the essential oil and the main constituents of the essential oil were 4-phenyl-2-butanone (27.22%, nerolidol (8.08%, 1,4-cineole (7.85%, caryophyllene (7.63% and γ-elemene (6.10%, followed by α-farnesene (4.40% and spathulenol (4.19%. Repeated bioactivity-directed chromatographic separation on silica gel columns led us to isolate three compounds, namely 4-phenyl-2-butanone, 1,4-cineole, and nerolidol. 4-Phenyl-2-butanone shows pronounced contact toxicity against S. zeamais (LD50 = 6.98 mg/adult and was more toxic than either 1,4-cineole or nerolidol (LD50 = 50.86 mg/adult and 29.30 mg/adult, respectively against the maize weevils, while the crude essential oil had a LD50 value of 11.67 mg/adult. 4-Phenyl-2-butanone and 1,4-cineole also possessed strong fumigant toxicity against the adults of S. zeamais (LC50 = 3.80 mg/L and 21.43 mg/L while the crude essential oil had a LC50 value of 9.66 mg/L.

  14. Isolation, Characterization and Activity of the Flowers of Rhododendron arboreum (Ericaceae

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    Pankaj Kumar Sonar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The flowers of Rhododendron arboreum have been reported to possess certain polyphenolic compounds. Thus, this study was aimed at the anti-microbial and phytochemical screening of the flowers. Important bioactive agents like steroids, saponins and flavonoids were detected in the flowers. Quercetin (a flavonoid was isolated from the diethyl ether fraction of alcoholic extract by solvent-solvent extraction method. Isolated quercetin was identified and characterized by chemical tests, M.P., TLC, paper chromatography (with authentic marker and spectroscopic methods like UV-Visible, FT-IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR and Mass spectroscopy. The anti-microbial activity of the alcoholic and aqueous extract and isolated quercetin were investigated against five bacterial and two fungal strains by agar well-diffusion method. The activity was found to be concentration dependent. Ethanolic extract was found to be more active in comparison to the aqueous extract. Hence, isolation was done with ethanolic extract. The lowest effective concentration of quercetin was found to be 12.5 mg/ml against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Both extracts and isolated quercetin were found ineffective against fungal strains. Quercetin may be one of the components responsible for the observed anti-microbial activity of the plant.

  15. Roadside Rhododendron pulchrum leaves as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution in traffic areas of Okayama, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Yabuki, Toru; Ono, Yoshiro

    2009-02-01

    The leaves of roadside Rhododendron pulchrum Sweet were examined as a bioindicator of traffic-related heavy metal pollution in Okayama. Total contents of heavy metals in roadside soil and the R. pulchrum leaves were determined. Results of correlation analyses showed significant correlations among Pb, Ni, and Zn contents of roadside soil and leaf samples. These results suggest that R. pulchrum is a useful bioindicator of heavy metal pollution in traffic areas. To identify traffic-related heavy metal pollution sources, traffic-related materials such as tires, asphalt pavement, and road paint were collected and analyzed. The results of analyses of our data show that Zn is emitted mainly from the abrasion of tires; Cr is emitted mainly from wear of the asphalt pavement. Furthermore, the respective lead isotope ratios in R. pulchrum leaves, soil, roadside dust, and traffic-related materials were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The isotopic compositions of lead in R. pulchrum leaves were 207Pb/206Pb = 0.861-0.871 and 208Pb/206Pb = 2.093-2.127, which agrees well with ratios in automobile wheel balance weights, suggesting that lead-containing products associated with automobiles, such as wheel balance weights, contribute to traffic-related lead pollution.

  16. Melanogenesis Inhibitory Activity of Rhododendron Weyrichii in Mouse B16 Melanoma Cells.

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    Min-Jin Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, to evaluate the usefulness of Rhododendron weyrichii Maxim.as a whitening agent, the whitening effects of its extracts were investigated in alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH-induced B16F10 melanoma cells. No toxicity was noted in either B16F10 melanoma cells or HaCaT keratinocyte cells that were exposed to the hot water or 70% ethanol extracts of R. weyrichii Maxim. (RW-H and RW-E, respectively.Moreover, both the RW-H and RW-E extracts dose-dependently inhibited α-MSH-induced melanin production in B16F10 melanoma cells, with inhibitory effects of 52.5% and 51.6%, respectively, at a concentration of 200μg/mL. The RW-H and RW-E extracts also inhibitedintracellular tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent fashion. Western blot analyses showed that the RW-H and RW-E extracts decreased tyrosinase, tyrosinase-relatedprotein-1, and tyrosinase-relatedprotein-2 expression.Additionally,we found that ρ-coumaric acid-containing RW-H and RW-E extracts could be used as hypopigmentation agentssince they suppress melanogenesis. Collectively, our results suggest that RW-H and RW-E extracts have the potential to serve as functional cosmetic agents, including whitening agents.

  17. POLLEN AND SEED SURFACE MORFOLOGY IN SOME REPRESENTATIVES OF THE GENUS RHODODENDRON SUBSECT. RHODORASTRUM (ERICACEAE IN THE RUSSIAN FAR EAST

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    I. M. Koksheeva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Comparative study of pollen and seed morphology of three species of Rhododendron L. subsect. Rhodorastrum (Maxim. Cullen (Rh. dauricum L., Rh. mucronolatum Turcz., Rh. sichotense Pojark. is performed. Results of discriminant analysis of the total of morphometric characters of pollen and seeds have proved the distinctness of all three species from each other. Differences of polen are observed in the type of sculpture (granulate, rugulate, microrugulate and in the diameter of tetrads. The coefficient of elongation of the exotesta cells is established as a valuable morphometric character

  18. Rhizospheric Bacterial Community of Endemic Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Ssp. delavayi along Eastern Himalayan Slope in Tawang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Rajal; Yadav, Archana; Gupta, Vijai K.; Singh, Bhim P.; Handique, Pratap J.; Saikia, Ratul

    2016-01-01

    Information on rhizosphere microbiome of endemic plants from high mountain ecosystems against those of cultivated plantations is inadequate. Comparative bacterial profiles of endemic medicinal plant Rhododendron arboreum Sm. subsp. delavayi rhizosphere pertaining to four altitudinal zonation Pankang Thang (PTSO), Nagula, Y-junction and Bum La (Indo-China border; in triplicates each) along cold adapted Eastern slope of Himalayan Tawang region, India is described here. Significant differences in DGGE profile between below ground bulk vs. rhizospheric community profile associated with the plant was identified. Tagged 16S amplicon sequencing from PTSO (3912 m) to Bum La (4509 m), revealed that soil pH, total nitrogen (TN), organic matter (OM) significantly influenced the underlying bacterial community structure at different altitudes. The relative abundance of Acidobacteria was inversely related to pH, as opposed to TN which was positively correlated to Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria abundance. TN was also the significant predictor for less abundant taxonomic groups Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, and Nitrospirae. Bum La soil harbored less bacterial diversity compared to other sites at lower altitudes. The most abundant phyla at 3% genetic difference were Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria amongst others. Analysis of similarity indicated greater similarity within lower altitudinal than higher altitudinal group (ANOSIM, R = 0.287, p = 0.02). Constraining the ordination with the edaphic factor explained 83.13% of variation. Unique phylotypes of Bradyrhizobium and uncultured Rhizobiales were found in significant proportions at the four regions. With over 1% relative abundance Actinobacteria (42.6%), Acidobacteria (24.02%), Proteobacteria (16.00%), AD3 (9.23%), WPS-2 (5.1%), and Chloroflexi (1.48%) dominated the core microbiome. PMID:27642287

  19. Modelization of the Current and Future Habitat Suitability of Rhododendron ferrugineum Using Potential Snow Accumulation.

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    Benjamin Komac

    Full Text Available Mountain areas are particularly sensitive to climate change. Species distribution models predict important extinctions in these areas whose magnitude will depend on a number of different factors. Here we examine the possible impact of climate change on the Rhododendron ferrugineum (alpenrose niche in Andorra (Pyrenees. This species currently occupies 14.6 km2 of this country and relies on the protection afforded by snow cover in winter. We used high-resolution climatic data, potential snow accumulation and a combined forecasting method to obtain the realized niche model of this species. Subsequently, we used data from the high-resolution Scampei project climate change projection for the A2, A1B and B1 scenarios to model its future realized niche model. The modelization performed well when predicting the species's distribution, which improved when we considered the potential snow accumulation, the most important variable influencing its distribution. We thus obtained a potential extent of about 70.7 km(2 or 15.1% of the country. We observed an elevation lag distribution between the current and potential distribution of the species, probably due to its slow colonization rate and the small-scale survey of seedlings. Under the three climatic scenarios, the realized niche model of the species will be reduced by 37.9-70.1 km(2 by the end of the century and it will become confined to what are today screes and rocky hillside habitats. The particular effects of climate change on seedling establishment, as well as on the species' plasticity and sensitivity in the event of a reduction of the snow cover, could worsen these predictions.

  20. The impact of microbial biotransformation of catechin in enhancing the allelopathic effects of Rhododendron formosanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Min; Li, Tsai-Chi; Jhan, Yun-Lian; Weng, Jen-Hsien; Chou, Chang-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Rhododendron formosanum is distributed widely in the central mountains in Taiwan and the major allelopathic compound in the leaves has been identified as (-)-catechin, which is also a major allelochemical of an invasive spotted knapweed in North America. Soil microorganisms play key roles in ecosystems and influence various important processes, including allelopathy. However, no microorganism has been identified as an allelochemical mediator. This study focused on the role of microorganisms in the allelopathic effects of R. formosanum. The microorganism population in the rhizosphere of R. formosanum was investigated and genetic analysis revealed that the predominant genera of microorganisms in the rhizosphere of R. formosanum were Pseudomonas, Herbaspirillum, and Burkholderia. The dominant genera Pseudomonas utilized (-)-catechin as the carbon source and catalyzed the conversion of (-)-catechin into protocatechuic acid in vitro. The concentrations of allelochemicals in the soil were quantified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry. The concentration of (-)-catechin in the soil increased significantly during the extreme rainfall in the summer season and suppressed total bacterial populations. Protocatechuic acid accumulation was observed while total bacterial populations increased abundantly in both laboratory and field studies. Allelopathic interactions were tested by evaluating the effects of different allelochemicals on the seed germination, radicle growth, and photosynthesis system II of lettuce. Protocatechuic acid exhibited higher phytotoxicity than (-)-catechin did and the effect of (-)-catechin on the inhibition of seed germination was enhanced by combining it with protocatechuic acid at a low concentration. This study revealed the significance of the allelopathic interactions between R. formosanum and microorganisms in the rhizosphere. These findings demonstrate that knowledge regarding the precise biotransformation

  1. 生长激素对杜鹃红山茶扦插效果的影响%Effect of plant growth regulators on the cutting propagation of Camellia azalea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛克娜; 殷爱华; 张学平; 柯欢

    2011-01-01

    研究了不同扦插时期和不同植物生长激素对杜鹃红山茶扦插繁殖效果的影响.结果表明:杜鹃红山茶的春季和夏季扦插无显著性差异,而植物生长激素处理对杜鹃红山茶的成活率、平均生根数、平均根长、平均抽梢次数和平均苗高有显著影响(p<0.05).在13种激素处理中,效果最好的是0.5 g/L的混合植物生长激素组合(80%IBA+20%NAA).植物生长激素组合(80%IBA+20%NAA)的扦插效果优于NAA和IBA单独使用.%The effect of cutting period and plant growth regulators on the cutting propagation of Camellia azalea was studied in this paper. The results showed that there was no significant difference between spring cuttings and summer cuttings of C.azalea, while the plant growth regulators caused significant difference among the survival rate, average root number and average root length as well as the steckling height of C. azalea' s cuttings (p <0.05 ). Among the thirteen plant growth regulators treatment, the optimal one was mixed plant growth regulators (80% IBA + 20% NAA) treatment with concentration of 0.5 g/L, which was better than that of NAA and IBA alone.

  2. RAPID PROPAGATION OF Rhododendron hybridun%两种西洋杜鹃的组织培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亦菲; 孙月芳; 周润梅; 陆瑞菊

    2003-01-01

    以西洋杜鹃的两个栽培品种Rhododendron britannia和Rhododendron america为供试材料,比较MS、Anderson、Read、N6四种基本培养基对外植体诱导的影响;外源激素种类及浓度对杜鹃繁殖系数的影响;培养基中添加活性炭、抗坏血酸和聚乙烯吡咯烷酮对西洋杜鹃组培苗褐化的影响;以及激素IBA、IAA和NAA对西洋杜鹃组培苗生根的影响,研究结果表明Read培养基表现最为出色,诱导率达85%;在ZT与NAA组合上获得了较高的繁殖系数;培养基中添加活性炭和聚乙烯吡咯烷酮对西洋杜鹃组培苗褐化有较为明显的抑制作用;在添加IBA1.0mg/L的生根培养基上,生根率可达84%.

  3. Occurrence Investigation and Control Measures of Rhododendron Pests in Quanzhou City%泉州市杜鹃花害虫发生调查与防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑月琼; 陈达嵩

    2011-01-01

    The occurrences of rhododendron pests in Quanzhou city were investigated.The results showed that the main pests of rhododendron were leaf pests,including stephanitis pyriodes,Trialeurodes vaporariorum,rhododendron sawfly,snail,thrips and aphid.Among which,S.pyriodes,T.vaporariorum and rhododendron sawfly occurred widely and seriously,and the occurrences of snail,thrips and aphid were sporadic.This paper described the occurrence characteristic of the main pests mentioned above,and then summarized a set of effective control measures.%对泉州市杜鹃花发生情况进行调查,结果表明:目前泉州市杜鹃花害虫以叶部害虫为主,有杜鹃冠网蝽、温室白粉虱、杜鹃叶蜂、蜗牛、蓟马与蚜虫,其中杜鹃冠网蝽、温室白粉虱与杜鹃叶蜂发生普遍且严重,其次是蜗牛,蓟马与蚜虫则零星发生。该文描述了以上主要害虫的发生特点,并总结出一系列有效防治方法。

  4. Isolation, characterisation and antibacterial activity studies of coumarins from Rhododendron lepidotum Wall. ex G. Don, Ericaceae Estudos de isolamento, caracterização e atividade antibacteriana de cumarinas de Rhododendron lepidotum Wall. ex G. Don, Ericaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel-U-Rehman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Six coumarins daphnin (1, daphnetin (2, daphnetin glucoside (3, rhodonetin (4, rhodonin (5 and umbelliferone (6 were isolated from the methanolic extract of Rhododendron lepidotum Wall. ex G. Don, Ericaceae (aerial part. The compounds and their acetyl derivatives were screened for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC-29213, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus ATCC-15187, Escherichia coli ATCC-8739, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC-9027 by microdilution method as compared to the reference ciprofloxacin. Compound 2 displayed the best antibacterial activity with MIC 125 μg/mL against S. aureus ATCC-29213 and MRSA ATCC-15187 followed by 4 which exhibited the MIC value of 250 μg/mL against all the four tested strains. All molecules showed better antibacterial activity than their acyl derivatives.Seis cumarinas dafinina (1, dafinetina (2, dafinetina glicosídeo (3, rodonetina (4, rodonina (5 e umbeliferona (6 foram isoladas do extrato metanólico das partes aéreas de Rhododendron lepidotum Wall. ex G. Don, Ericaceae. Os compostos e seus derivados acetilados foram testados para verificar sua atividade antibacteriana contra Staphylococcus aureus ATCC-29213, Escherichia coli resistente à meticilina, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC-15187, ATCC-8739, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC-9027, pelo método de microdiluição, usando ciprofloxacina como referência. A substância 2 apresentou a melhor atividade antibacteriana com o MIC 125 μg/mL contra S. aureus ATCC-29213 e MRSA ATCC-15187 seguido pela substância 4, que apresentou o valor de CIM de 250 μg/mL contra as quatro cepas testadas. Todas as moléculas apresentaram melhor atividade antibacteriana do que seus derivados acetilados.

  5. A simple method for extracting DNA from rhododendron plants infected with Phytophthora spp. for use in PCR

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    Trzewik Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the numerous protocols that describe the extraction of DNA, those relating to the isolation of DNA from infected plants, are rare. This study describes a rapid and reliable method of extracting a high quality and quantity of DNA from rhododendron leaves artificially infected with Phytophthora cactorum, P. cambivora, P. cinnamomi, P. citrophthora, and P. plurivora. The use of the modified Doyle and Doyle protocol (1987 allowed us to obtain high quantity and quality DNA (18.26 μg from 100 mg of the fresh weight of infected leaves at the ratios of A260/280 and A260/230 - 1.83 and 1.72, respectively, suitable for conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR and real-time PCR amplifications.

  6. A Novel Class of Plant Type III Polyketide Synthase Involved in Orsellinic Acid Biosynthesis from Rhododendron dauricum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taura, Futoshi; Iijima, Miu; Yamanaka, Eriko; Takahashi, Hironobu; Kenmoku, Hiromichi; Saeki, Haruna; Morimoto, Satoshi; Asakawa, Yoshinori; Kurosaki, Fumiya; Morita, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Rhododendron dauricum L. produces daurichromenic acid, the anti-HIV meroterpenoid consisting of sesquiterpene and orsellinic acid (OSA) moieties. To characterize the enzyme responsible for OSA biosynthesis, a cDNA encoding a novel polyketide synthase (PKS), orcinol synthase (ORS), was cloned from young leaves of R. dauricum. The primary structure of ORS shared relatively low identities to those of PKSs from other plants, and the active site of ORS had a unique amino acid composition. The bacterially expressed, recombinant ORS accepted acetyl-CoA as the preferable starter substrate, and produced orcinol as the major reaction product, along with four minor products including OSA. The ORS identified in this study is the first plant PKS that generates acetate-derived aromatic tetraketides, such as orcinol and OSA. Interestingly, OSA production was clearly enhanced in the presence of Cannabis sativa olivetolic acid cyclase, suggesting that the ORS is involved in OSA biosynthesis together with an unidentified cyclase in R. dauricum. PMID:27729920

  7. The comparative analysis of leaf anatomical structure of Rhododendron catawbiense Michx. and Rh. maximum L. applied in green building of Bugsko-Palesky region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia V. Bondar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical structure of the leaves of two Rhododendron L. species from the first and the second years of growing was investigated. Diagnostic features have been revealed, and that will allow further to more rational choice of specific structure planned in landscape gardening, and also to develop practical recommendations about cultivation of modeling species of this genus. Comparative- morphological method was applied.

  8. Effects of high concentrations of calcium salts in the substrate and its pH on the growth of selected rhododendron cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Giel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available For proper growth and development, rhododendrons need acidic soils, whereas calcium carbonate (CaCO3 in the substrate markedly limits their growth. In this study, we analysed the reactions of rhododendrons to high concentrations of calcium salts and pH in the substrate. We used 4-month-old seedlings of Rhododendron 'Cunningham's White' and 1.5-year-old seedlings and rooted cuttings of R. 'Cunningham's White' and R. 'Catawbiense Grandiflorum'. Their reactions depended mostly on calcium salt type added to the substrate (sulphate or carbonate. An increase in concentrations of phenolic compounds was detected mostly in roots of the plants grown in a substrate with a high calcium carbonate content. Addition of calcium salts to the substrate caused a significant rise in total nonstructural carbohydrates in leaves and roots of the studied plants. As compared to the control, an increase in substrate pH in the variant with calcium carbonate limited the activity of acid phosphatase, while lowering of substrate pH in the variant with calcium sulphate, significantly increased its activity. Along with the rise in substrate pH, a remarkable increase was observed in the activity of nonspecific dehydrogenase (DHA in the substrate with CaCO3, as compared to the control. Unfavourable soil conditions (high calcium content and alkaline pH caused a decrease in assimilation of minerals by the studied plants (mostly phosphorus and manganese. Our results show that the major factor limiting rhododendron growth is an increase in substrate pH, rather than an increase in the concentration of calcium ions.

  9. Isolation and identification for mycorrhizal fungi of Rhododendron dauricum%兴安杜鹃菌根真菌分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀丽; 闫伟

    2016-01-01

    为了了解大兴安岭北部地区兴安杜鹃( Rhododendron dauricum L.)的菌根真菌多样性特征。采用形态学和 rDNA ITS 序列分析相结合的方法。结果表明从兴安杜鹃根样中分离得到的真菌分属于7个属:Phialocephala、粒毛盘菌属( Lachnum)、膜盘菌属( Hymenoscyphus)、Meliniomyces、丝核菌属( Rhizoctonia)、被孢霉属( Mortierella)和软盘菌属( Mollisia)。其中Phialocephala 、粒毛盘菌属( Lachnum)和膜盘菌属( Hymenoscyphus)为兴安杜鹃菌根真菌优势类群,在分离的菌株中所占比率超过了20%。研究表明与兴安杜鹃根共生的真菌类群较丰富。%The diversity of mycorrhizal fungi isolated from Rhododendron dauricum L.in the northern region of Great Khingan mountains was examined for the first time. In this study, morphology and rDNA ITS sequence analysis were used to identify the fungal communities. The results showed that seven groups of fungi were isolated from root samples of Rhododendron dauricum L.,they were Phialocephala; Lachnum; Hymenoscyphus; Meliniomyces; Rhizoctonia; Mortierella and Mollisia. Phialocephala, Lachnum and Hymenoscyphus were the dominant groups ,whose proportion of the strains is more than 20%. This study indicated that the diversity of fungi associated with Rhododendron dauricum were abundant.

  10. 煤炭资源开发对百里杜鹃环境的影响及防护%Environmental Impacts and Control Measures of Exploitation of Coal Resource in Baili Azalea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱生亮; 谢元贵; 江波

    2012-01-01

    分析煤炭资源开发活动对百里杜鹃保护区环境的影响,以及易造成的环境问题。分析煤炭资源开发的不利影响,提出保障社会环境可持续发展条件下的煤炭资源开发的建议。%Analysis of environmental impacts caused by exploitation of coal resource in Baili azalea and environ- mental problems were made. By analyzing the adverse effects of the exploitation, this paper put forward a few sug- gestions on the coal resource exploitation for the sustainable development of environment and social economy.

  11. Photosynthesis Light Response Characteristics of Camellia azalea and Fitting of Application Models%杜鹃红山茶的光响应特性及其最适模型筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张方秋; 杨会肖; 徐斌; 潘文

    2015-01-01

    Camellia azalea is a Camellia species endemic to China, and only confined to the E, huangzhang Nature Reserve in Yangchun City of Guangdong Province. It is widely used for landscapes because of its perfect form and the characteristics to bloom year-round . The reports on fitting of photosynthesis light-response curve model of C.azalea were seldom. Six typical models of light-response curve of leaf net photosynthesis, such as Binomial regressions model, Non-rectangular hyperbola model, Rectangular hyperbola model, Modified rectangular hyperbola model, Exponential model and Modified exponential model, were used to fit the photosynthesis light response curves of C. azalea. The results showed that there was a nonlinear relationship between photosynthesis rate and light intensity. Modified rectangular hyperbola model provided a best fit for the photosynthetic light-response curve. Except the Binomial regressions model, the estimated data from the photosynthesis light-response curve of C. azalea by the other models all were close to the measured values, and only the Modified rectangular hyperbola model could fit the data under photoinhibition. However, only the photosynthetic parameters estimated by Modified rectangular hyperbola model were fitting well with the measured values, and the correlation coefficient (R2) is 0.998. The estimated Pmax, Isat, Ic , Rd and initial quantum efficiency (α) of C. azalea were 5.56 μmol·m-2·s-1, 1 327.30 μmol·m-2·s-1, 29.44 μmol·m-2·s-1, 1.909 μmol·m-2·s-1 and 0.065 respectively. These data indicated that C. azalea is a sun plant, with strong light energy utilization ability, and has a certain shade tolerance and a wide range of adaptation to illumination.%杜鹃红山茶(Camellia azalea)是我国特有的山茶原生种,仅见于广东省阳春市鹅凰嶂自然保护区内,其树形优美、四季开花,在园林绿化中具有广泛的应用。鉴于当前对杜鹃红山茶光响应曲线模

  12. 青海省海北州杜鹃花科杜鹃花属植物种类形态特征及发展前景%Morphological Characteristics and Development Prospects of Plant Species of Rhododendron Genus,Ericaceae Family in Haibei State of Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    扈晓途

    2012-01-01

    There are four species belonging to Rhododendron genus,Ericaceae family in Haibei State,such as Rdodendron przewalskii Maxim.,Rhododendron anthopogonlides Maxim.,Rhododendron capitatum Maxim.and Rhododendron thymifolium Maxim..The morphological characteristics,pharmacological properties,production and sales as well as development prospects of Rhododendron genus were introduced.%青海省海北州境内的杜鹃花科杜鹃花属植物有4种,即青海杜鹃、烈香杜鹃、头花杜鹃、百里香杜鹃。介绍了杜鹃花属植物的形态特征、药理性能、功效、产销情况及发展前景。

  13. Genetic population structure of the alpine species Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum sensu lato (Ericaceae inferred from chloroplast and nuclear DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wei-Kuang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A complex of incipient species with different degrees of morphological or ecological differentiation provides an ideal model for studying species divergence. We examined the phylogeography and the evolutionary history of the Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum s. l. Results Systematic inconsistency was detected between gene genealogies of the cpDNA and nrDNA. Rooted at R. hyperythrum and R. formosana, both trees lacked reciprocal monophyly for all members of the complex. For R. pseudochrysanthum s.l., the spatial distribution of the cpDNA had a noteworthy pattern showing high genetic differentiation (FST = 0.56-0.72 between populations in the Yushan Mountain Range and populations of the other mountain ranges. Conclusion Both incomplete lineage sorting and interspecific hybridization/introgression may have contributed to the lack of monophyly among R. hyperythrum, R. formosana and R. pseudochrysanthum s.l. Independent colonizations, plus low capabilities of seed dispersal in current environments, may have resulted in the genetic differentiation between populations of different mountain ranges. At the population level, the populations of Central, and Sheishan Mountains may have undergone postglacial demographic expansion, while populations of the Yushan Mountain Range are likely to have remained stable ever since the colonization. In contrast, the single population of the Alishan Mountain Range with a fixed cpDNA haplotype may have experienced bottleneck/founder's events.

  14. Differential gene expression in Rhododendron fortunei roots colonized by an ericoid mycorrhizal fungus and increased nitrogen absorption and plant growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangying Wei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM fungi are specifically symbiotic with plants in the family Ericaceae. Little is known thus far about their symbiotic establishment and subsequent nitrogen (N uptake at the molecular level. The present study devised a system for establishing a symbiotic relationship between Rhododendron fortunei Lindl. and an ERM fungus (Oidiodendron maius var. maius strain Om19, quantified seedling growth and N uptake, and compared transcriptome profiling between colonized and uncolonized roots using RNA-Seq. The Om19 colonization induced 16,892 genes that were differentially expressed in plant roots, of which 14,364 were upregulated and 2,528 were downregulated. These genes included those homologous to ATP-binding cassette transporters, calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases, and symbiosis receptor-like kinases. N metabolism was particularly active in Om19-colonized roots, and 51 genes were upregulated, such as nitrate transporters, nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, ammonium transporters, glutamine synthetase, and glutamate synthase. Transcriptome analysis also identified a series of genes involving endocytosis, Fc-gamma R-mediated phagocytosis, glycerophospholipid metabolism, and GnRH signal pathway that have not been reported previously. Their roles in the symbiosis require further investigation. The Om19 colonization significantly increased N uptake and seedling growth. Total N content and dry weight of colonized seedlings were 36.6% and 46.6% greater than control seedlings. This is the first transcriptome analysis of a species from the family Ericaceae colonized by an ERM fungus. The findings from this study will shed light on the mechanisms underlying symbiotic relationships of ericaceous species with ERM fungi and the symbiosis-resultant N uptake and plant growth.

  15. Insect-flower interaction network structure is resilient to a temporary pulse of floral resources from invasive Rhododendron ponticum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Jo Tiedeken

    Full Text Available Invasive alien plants can compete with native plants for resources, and may ultimately decrease native plant diversity and/or abundance in invaded sites. This could have consequences for native mutualistic interactions, such as pollination. Although invasive plants often become highly connected in plant-pollinator interaction networks, in temperate climates they usually only flower for part of the season. Unless sufficient alternative plants flower outside this period, whole-season floral resources may be reduced by invasion. We hypothesized that the cessation of flowering of a dominant invasive plant would lead to dramatic, seasonal compositional changes in plant-pollinator communities, and subsequent changes in network structure. We investigated variation in floral resources, flower-visiting insect communities, and interaction networks during and after the flowering of invasive Rhododendron ponticum in four invaded Irish woodland sites. Floral resources decreased significantly after R. ponticum flowering, but the magnitude of the decrease varied among sites. Neither insect abundance nor richness varied between the two periods (during and after R. ponticum flowering, yet insect community composition was distinct, mostly due to a significant reduction in Bombus abundance after flowering. During flowering R. ponticum was frequently visited by Bombus; after flowering, these highly mobile pollinators presumably left to find alternative floral resources. Despite compositional changes, however, network structural properties remained stable after R. ponticum flowering ceased: generality increased, but quantitative connectance, interaction evenness, vulnerability, H'2 and network size did not change. This is likely because after R. ponticum flowering, two to three alternative plant species became prominent in networks and insects increased their diet breadth, as indicated by the increase in network-level generality. We conclude that network structure

  16. 井冈山猴头杜鹃群落特征的研究%Studies on the community characteristics of Rhododendron simiarum in Jinggang Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓贤兰; 吴杨; 刘玉成; 钟娟

    2011-01-01

    以井冈山猴头杜鹃(Rhododendron simiarum)群落5个样地调查资料为基础,对该群落的物种组成、区系成分、群落结构和物种多样性进行了研究,结果表明:群落有维管植物30科43属50种,其中蕨类植物有5科6属6种,裸子植物4科4属4种,被子植物21科33属40种.区系分析显示该植物区系起源古老,地理成分复杂,以热带性成分为主,温带性成分占有一定的比例.群落为复层异龄结构,猴头杜鹃、甜槠(Castanopsis eyrei)、福建柏Fokienia hodginsii)、台湾松(Pinus taiwanensis)、薯豆(Elaeocarpus japonicus)和白豆杉(Pseudotaxus chienii)为群落的建群种.除Pielou指数外,群落物种多样性指数较低,各样地间多样性指数测值变幅较大;测度猴头杜鹃群落物种多样性时,各种多样性指数基本表现出相同的趋势;总体来看,猴头杜鹃群落物种多样性在群落不同层次的变化规律为:灌木层>乔木层>草本层.%Based on data collected from five plots of Rhododendron simiarum in the Jinggang Mountain, the species and floral composition, the community structure and the species diversity were analyzed. Results showed that there were 50 vascular plant species belonging to 43 genera and 30 families, among them, 6 plant species belonging to 6 genera and 5 families were pteridophyte, 4 plant species belonging to 4 genera and 4 families were gymnosperm, and 40 plant species belonging to 33 genera and 21 families were angiosperm. The floristic analysis showed the flora is ancient and geographical elements are complex, tropical elements are obvious with a certain proporiton of temperate-zone elements. The structures of Rhododendron simiarum community are many storied all-aged forest,. The constructive species are Rhododendron simiarum, Fokienia hodginsii, Castanopsis eyrei, Pinus taiwanensis, Elaeocarpus japonicus and Pseudotaxus chienii. The species diversity index in Rhododendron simiarum was low with high variations among

  17. 锈叶杜鹃的开花特性及繁育系统研究%Flowering Characteristics and Breeding System of Rhododendron siderophyllum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白天; 关文灵; 宋杰; 解玮佳; 李世峰

    2014-01-01

    The flower phenology and flower-visiting insects of Rhododendron siderophyllum population were investi-gated and studied , and the flowering characteristics was analyzed .Through regulating outcrossing index , pollen-o-vule ratio and artificial pollination , the reproductive system of Rhododendron siderophyllum was studied.The re-sults showed that Rhododendron siderophyllum flowered from the beginning of February to July , the flowering span of individual flower , single flower truss and plant were 7.06 ±2.74 d, 12.33 ±2.37 d and16.17 ±4.24 d re-spectively .The pollens and the pistil matured at the same time at anthesis , but the time of the most vigourous was different.The best pollen vigour was the first day at anthesis and the best pistil receptivity was from the fourth to sixth day at anthesis .The breeding system of Rhododendron siderophyllum was outcrossing with self-compatibility , pollinators were necessary .Geitonogamy was the dominant pollinated method .Bees were the main effective polli-nators of Rhododendron siderophyllum.However , weevil beetles , ants and sawflies were invasive insects , serious-ly affected its pollination .The low frequency of pollinator visiting might be the main reason of the low natural hy-brid seed setting rate .%2012年对锈叶杜鹃自然居群进行了开花物候及访花昆虫的调查,分析了其开花特性;并运用杂交指数、花粉-胚珠比和人工控制授粉方法,对其繁育系统进行了研究。结果表明,锈叶杜鹃开花时间为2月初至7月,其单花花期、单花序花期及单株花期分别为7.06±2.74 d,12.33±2.37 d和16.17±4.24 d。锈叶杜鹃的雌、雄性器官具有同熟性,但两者的最佳活性时间不同,花粉活力在开花第1天的活力最高,而柱头可授性在开花第4~6天最好。锈叶杜鹃的繁育系统为异交型,自交亲和,需要传粉者;同株异花授粉是其主要的授粉方式。锈叶杜鹃的有效传粉昆虫主要为

  18. Uniform Design for Optimizating Regeneration Shoots Directly from Tender Leaves and Plant Regeneration System of Rhododendron chrysanthum Pall.%基于均匀设计优化牛皮杜鹃嫩叶直接再生芽苗及植株再生体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉梅; 姜云天; 孙智慧

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The experimental was aimed to screen the optimum regeneration shoot induction media and rooting media for tender leaves of Rhododendron chrysanthum Pall.[Method] The tender leaves of Rhododendron chrysanthum Pall were taken as explants to select the optimum bud induction media and rooting media through uniform design and the screening results were verified.[Result] The optimum media for regeneration shoot of Rhododendron chrysanthum Pall contained 1/4 MS,3.70 mg/L ZT, 0.02 mg/L IAA and 1.00 mg/L KT and its induction rate was 95.5% and the rooting media contained modified MS, 0.10 mg/L IAA and 0.07 mg/L NAA and its rooting rate was 98%. [Conclusion] Through this experiment, regeneration systems for regeneration shoot and regenerated plant from tender leaves of Rhododendron chrysanthum Pall were created successfully.

  19. Chemical Constituents from the Roots of Rhododendron spiciferum%碎米花杜鹃根的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兆圆; 李蓉涛

    2011-01-01

    Fifteen compounds were isolated from the roots of Rhododendron spiciferum by silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral characteristics and identified as: ( -)-lyoniresinol ( 1 ), ( + ) -cyclo-olivil ( 2 ), (-)-lyoniresinoL-9-O-β-D-glucopyranoside ( 3 ), ( -)-lyoniresinol-9-O-β-D-xy-lopyranoside ( 4 ), eucryphin (5), 3,5,7-trihydroxychromone-3 -O-α-L-arabinopyranoside (6), naringenin (7), eriodictyol (8), taxifolin ( 9 ), catechin ( 10 ), trans-taxifolin-3 -O-α-L-arabinopyranoside ( 11 ), engelitin ( 12 ), trans-taxifolin-3-O-α-L-arabinofuranoside (13) ,taraxerol (14) ,taraxerol acetate (15). Compounds 1-6,8,9 and 13-15 were obtained from Rhododendron spiciferum for the first time.%采用硅胶柱色谱、Sephadex LH-20柱色谱等手段从碎米花杜鹃Rhododendron spiciferum根中分离得到15个化合物,根据化合物的理化性质和光谱数据分别鉴定为(-)-南烛木树脂酚(1)、(+)-环合橄榄树脂素(2)、(-)-南烛木树脂酚9-O-β-D-葡萄吡喃糖苷(3)、(-)-南烛木树脂酚-9-D-β-D-木吡喃糖苷(4)、3,5,7-三羟基色原酮-3-O-α-L-鼠李吡喃糖苷(5)、3,5,7-三羟基色原酮-3-O-α-L-阿拉伯吡喃糖苷(6)、柚皮素(7)、圣草酚(8)、紫杉叶素(9)、儿茶索(10)、紫杉叶素-3-O-α-L-阿拉伯吡喃糖苷(11)、黄杞苷(12)、紫杉叶素-3-O-α-L-阿拉伯呋喃糖苷(13)、蒲公英赛醇(14)、蒲公英赛醇乙酸酯(15).其中化合物1~6,8、9、13~15为首次从该植物中分得.

  20. 广西杜鹃花属新分类群%New Taxa of Rhododendron from Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光照

    2001-01-01

    @@ 1 大橙杜鹃新种图1:1~7 Rhododendron dachengense G. Z. Li , sp. nov. (Subgen. Hymenanthes; Sect. Ponticum; Subsect. Taliensia;) Species Rh. haematodi Franch. affinis, sed corollis campanulatis, roseolis v el albis, 5-7-lobatis, staminibus 10-13; stylo glabro, calyx minoribus dense ve lutinis, lobis 5-7, undulato-triangulatis, 1 mm longis; petiolis et pedicelis in hispidis differt. Frutex 2-3 m altus. Ramuli atro-cinerei, cicatricibus petioli conspicuis; ramul i hornotini dense velutini, demum glabri, perulis persistentibus Folia coriacea, ellptico-oblonga, (3-)3.5-7.0(-10) cm longa, (1.2-)1.5-2.5(-3) cm lata, ap ice obtusa vel mucronata, basi cuneata, late uneata vel rotundata, supra virid ia glabra, subtus dense furcate-coacta, coactis superioribus dense deter gibilis , indumentis inferioribus tenuiter agglutinatis; costa media supra impressa, sub tus elevata, saepe coactis tecta; petiolus 0.5-1.7 cm longus, 1-2 mm diam. coa ctus, demumglabrus. Flores 4-7, racemoso-umbellati terminali; pedicelli 5-10 mm longi, dense velutini; calyx minoriorus 5-7-lobatus, lobis undulato-triangulatis , c. lmm longis, velutinis; corolla roseola vel alba, campanulata, 2.5-3 cm lo nga, 5-7-lobata, lobis semi-rotundatis 1-1.2 cm longis, 1.5-1.8 cm latis, gla bris, apice emarginatis, lobis superioribus roseo- maculatis; tubo corollae 1.5 -1.7 cm longo, 1.2-1.5 cm diam.; stamina 10-13, inaequalia, 0.4-1.8 cm long a; filamentis albis, infra medium 1/3 albo-pilosis; antherisaurantiis, oblongis, 2 mm longis, 1mm latis; pistillum 1.0-2.9 cm longum; ovar ium conicum, dense velutinum apice truncatum; stylus c. 2.3 cm longus; glabrus, stigmate capitato. Capsula ignota. Guangxi(广西): Jinxiu Xian(金秀县), Lahe(腊河), Luoyun( 罗运), Pashajie(爬沙界), alt. 1*!000 m, Apr. 25. 2*!000, RPRG(Rhododendron P rogram Resea Group,下同)009 (Typus, in IBK); Jinxiu Xian(金秀县), Shengtangs han, Linchang, pl. cult. alt 1*!100 m, Apr. 8.1999, Li Guang-zhao(李光照) 1688 2; Jinxiu

  1. Rhododendron plants in Nanling mountains along an altitudinal gradient and the prospect of landscape greening%南岭山地杜鹃花沿海拔梯度的分布及其园林应用前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张璐; 敬小丽; 苏志尧; 杜伟静

    2014-01-01

    [目的]从植物资源利用的角度,定量研究南岭山地杜鹃花沿海拔梯度的分布,以期为城乡园林绿化推荐可供引种的潜在杜鹃花种类.[方法]在南岭山地海拔700~1900 m范围内,采用样方法设置样地,运用相关分析和双向指示种分析( TWINSPAN)探讨南岭山地垂直带谱上的杜鹃花分异特征.[结果和结论]基于15600 m2样方数据,南岭山地共有杜鹃花属植物7种,皆为小径阶的常绿灌木或小乔木;TWINSPAN将7种杜鹃花分为3大类,第1大类由刺毛杜鹃Rhododendron championae、猴头杜鹃R.simiarum和龙山杜鹃R.chunii组成,第2大类由多花杜鹃R. cavaleriei、广东杜鹃R.kwangtungense和腺萼马银花R.bachii组成,云锦杜鹃R.fortunei自成第3大类,分类结果反映出南岭山地杜鹃花属沿海拔梯度的变化,揭示采用数量分类方法能够根据植被组成反映环境特点的生态原理;垂直带谱上,多花杜鹃分布最为广泛,其次为腺萼马银花,刺毛杜鹃和猴头杜鹃出现在多个海拔段.%[Objective]The objective was to determine the altitudinal pattern of Rhododendron plant distri-bution and the potential of using indigenous Rhododendron plant resource in landscape greening .[Meth-od] The continuous transect sampling method was employed and a total area of 15 600 m2 was surveyed . A horizontal transect (10 m ×120 m) was placed at an 100 m altitudinal interval from 700 m to 1 900 m a.s.l., representing the altitudinal range of Rhododendron in Nanling mountains of north Guangdong . The contiguous grid quadrat sampling method was used for plant census in each transect , which consisted of 12 quadrats (10 m ×10 m).Correlation analysis and two-way indicator species analysis (TWINS-PAN) were used to analyze the altitudinal patterns of Rhododendron species.[Result and conclusion]Seven Rhododendron species were found in the 15 600 m2 plot, all of which were perennial

  2. Physiological Response of Four Azalea Species to Water with Different pH Values%4个杜鹃品种对不同pH值灌溉水的生理响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲜小林; 陈睿; 秦帆; 万斌; 潘远智

    2013-01-01

    With four species of azalea as materials, we studied the growth and physiological indexes under pH 4. 5,5. 5,6. 5,7. 5,8. 5 irrigation water,in order to analysis the growth conditions with different acidity and alkalinity irrigation water. The results showed that; (1) With the pH increasing, the chlorophyll contents, superoxide dismutase activities, catalase activities and new shoot growth rates of four species increased firstly and then decreased, while the relative conductivities were contrary; (2) Under pH 5. 5, the chlorophyll contents of ' Mevrouw. A', ' Fugeer No. 1' and 'Green Glow', the CAT activities of 'Mevrouw. A'.'Spring Dance' and 'Green Glow' were maximum. The same to SOD activities and new shoot growth rates of the four species,while the chlorophyll content of 'Spring Dance' with pH 4. 5 treatment were maximum. The same to CAT activity of 'Fugeer No. 1'. Under pH 8. 5,all relative conductivities were maximum, while the other indexes were contrary; (3) With pH 4. 5~5. 5,the cultivation matrix which initial pH value was about 5. 0 could be maintained in the optimum pH range,about 5. 0. Therefore,azalea can grow well with the irrigation water of pH 4. 5 - 5. 5 in the Southwest, and 'Green Glow' even can grow with the untreated water of pH 7. 5. It is good for extension and breeding,also is a excellent resource for alkali tolerance rootstocks of azalea.%以4种杜鹃品种为材料,研究了pH 4.5、5.5、6.5、7.5(CK)、8.5的灌溉水对其生长发育和生理指标的影响,以分析杜鹃品种在不同酸碱性灌溉水浇灌下的生长情况,为杜鹃花品种的广泛推广提供核心种质资源和栽培管理奠定理论基础.结果表明:(1)4个杜鹃品种的叶绿素含量、SOD、CAT活性和新梢生长率总体上随灌溉水pH值的增加表现为先升高后降低的趋势,相对电导率变化则相反.(2)在pH5.5处理下,‘德国粉鹃’、‘富哥尔一号’和‘绿色光辉,的叶绿素含量最高,‘德国粉鹃’、

  3. Ascotricha bosei, a New Record of Endophytic Fungus from Rhododendron aureum in China%Ascotricha bosei——分离自牛皮杜鹃的中国新记录种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽莉; 吕国忠; 赵志慧; 杨晓贺

    2007-01-01

    Ascotricha bosei was isolated as an endophytic fungus from the fresh leaves of Rhododendron aureum collected from Changbai Mountains, Jilin province. It was characterized by geniculate terminal hairs and discoid ascospores. It was reported for the first time in China.%自吉林省长白山植物牛皮杜鹃(Rhododendron aureum)叶片上分离到1株内生真菌,经鉴定为鲍氏刺囊壳(Ascotricha bosei).该菌的典型特征是子囊壳外壁着生曲膝状附属丝和产生碟形子囊孢子.该菌为我国首次报道.

  4. ヤマツツジ(Rhododendron kaempferi Planch.)における花弁内アントシアニン構成の地域変異

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Although there were few differences of flower colors among these groups, large number of individuals of Rhododendron kaempferi in southern Kyushu showed vivid red color whereas the almost all individuals in Tohoku district showed relatively somber red. It was unable to distinguish the individuals of northern Kyushu from those of southern Kyushu by anthocyanin constitutions of the petals. However, the latter individuals showed wider variations in the anthocyanin constitutions than the former. ...

  5. 杜鹃花色素的分离与鉴定分析%Extraction and Primary Identification of Anthocyanidins in Rhododendron Flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丽媛; 罗向东; 戴亮芳; 曹娟芳; 刘丽萍; 洪海燕; 潘文艳

    2011-01-01

    Anthocyanin pigments from Rhododendron championae Hook flowers(light red color) were primarily identified and quantified by the specific color reactions and HPLC-MS/MS.Anthocyanins were extracted by grinding with liquid nitrogen.The resulting extract was found to contain non-red flavonoid compounds(mainly flavonoids,flavonols and flavanones) and some phenolic compounds.HPLC analysis demonstrated that the extract contained at least 39 compounds,of which,7 were identified to be myricetin-3-galactoside,quercetin3-galactoside,quercetin-3-rhamnoside,quercetin-3-glucoside,malva-3-arabinoside-5-glucoside,myricetin-3-rhamnoside and chlorogenic acid,respectively.Rhododendron championae Hook flowers were determined by UV spectrophotometry to contain 131.025 mg/100 g anthocyanin and 10.68 mg/g total flavonoids.%运用特征性颜色反应、高效液相色谱(HPLC)和质谱(MS)等技术对浅红色毛叶杜鹃(R.championae Hook)花瓣花色素提取液进行初步鉴定和含量测定。结果表明:该杜鹃品种的花色素含有非红色的黄酮类化合物,主要有黄酮、黄酮醇、二氢黄酮等色素,其中还有部分酚类色素。高效液相色谱(HPLC)显示杜鹃花色素提取液至少包括39种物质,其中有7种可以确定,分别为杨梅黄素3-半乳糖苷、槲皮素3-半乳糖苷、槲皮素-鼠李糖苷、槲皮素3-葡萄糖苷、锦葵素3-阿拉伯糖苷-5葡萄糖苷、杨梅黄素3-鼠李糖苷、绿原酸。利用紫

  6. Ring-widths of the above tree-line shrub Rhododendron reveal the change of minimum winter temperature over the past 211 years in Southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yingfeng; Xu, Jianchu; Yang, Jinchao; Li, Zongshan; Gebrekirstos, Aster; Liang, Eryuan; Zhang, Shibao; Yang, Yang; Yang, Yongping; Yang, Xuefei

    2016-08-01

    Changes in minimum winter temperature (MWT) and their potential effects on plant growth and development have been gaining increased scientific attention. To better understand these changes across long temporal scales, the present study used dendroclimatological techniques to assess variations in MWT in Southwestern China. Using data from Rhododendron species distributed in areas above the tree-line, a regional composite chronology was generated for a 341-year period. Based on the significant negative correlation between MWT values and ring-width, the most reliable parts of this chronological data were then used to reconstruct MWT values for the past 211 years. This reconstructed MWT series showed decadal to multi-decadal fluctuations. Three distinct cold periods prevailed during 1823-1858, 1882-1891 and 1922-1965, while four warm intervals occurred in 1800-1822, 1858-1881, 1892-1921 and 1966-2011. Our reconstructed MWT reveals a warming trend over the most recent eight decades, which is in agreement with instrumental observations. However, the MWT values and rate of warming over the past seven decades did not exceed those found in the reconstructed temperature data for the past 211 years. Spatial correlations reveal that the MWT in Southwest China is strongly associated with regional temperatures in the Eastern and Central Himalaya, Northern China, and the Indian Peninsula. Larger scale climate oscillations of the Western Pacific and Northern Indian Ocean as well as the North Atlantic Oscillation probably influenced the region's temperature in the past.

  7. Anatomy Features and Environment Flexibility of Rhododendron shanii Fang%都支杜鹃茎、叶解剖特征与环境的适应性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂芹; 刘艳然

    2012-01-01

    利用光学显微解剖技术,对生长于大别山区的都支杜鹃(Rhododendron shanii Fang)的茎、叶进行了解剖学与环境适应性之间的关系研究.结果表明:叶的上表皮具有厚的角质膜、复表皮、气孔缺失;下表皮被毛,气孔分布密集,气孔突出;叶肉中栅栏组织和纤维丰富,且纤维呈束存在,并形成了叶肉中的支撑系统,海绵组织内具有发达的通气组织;茎中木栓宽广,次生韧皮部与次生木质部厚度比是1/5,次生木质部中管孔直径狭窄、管密孔集,绝大多数为管胞,同时木纤维十分丰富.上述结构的特异性均表明茎和叶在诸多方面表现为结构与环境的统一性,是特殊综合生态环境长期作用的结果.复表皮、主脉周韧维管束、次生木质部缺少导管等这些特征均说明都支杜鹃在系统分类中应处于较原始的地位.%The relationships between the anatomy and the adaptation to the environment for stems and leaves of Rhododendron shanii Fang growing in the Dabie Mountain area were studied by means of optical microdissection technology. The results show that there are thick cuticle and multiple epidermis and stomatal absence on the leaves' epidermis; there are hair and distribution of prominent stomatal are serried under epidermis of leaves; there are abundance of palisade tissue and fibre in mesophyll, the fibre constitutes fiber bundle forming the skeleton system of mesophyll. Cork is wide in stem, the thickness ratio is 1/5 between the secondary phloem and secondary xylem; Most of pores with pores diameter stenosis and over disperse are the tracheid and moreover fibre is very rich in secondary xylem. All these features indicate that stems and leaves have unity of structure and environment in many aspects, such structural features results from adapting to environments. These features with multiple epidermis and amphicribral bundle of the main vein and vessel deficiency etc suggests that R. shanii is

  8. 云锦杜鹃 NRT 基因序列的生物信息学分析%Bioinformatics analysis of NRT gene sequences in Rhododendron fortunei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    We used next generation sequencing technology to investigate the transcriptomes between inoculated roots and uninoculated roots of the Rhododendron fortunei and obtained many differentially expressed genes.In this paper,the nu-cleic acid sequences and amino acid sequences of nitrate transporters from R .fortunei ,were analyzed by bioinformatics tools.Several parameters of these sequences,including sequences composition,physicochemical property,leader peptide, topological structure of transmembrane regions,hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity,secondary structures,functional domains and protein structures,were predicted.Phylogenetic tree was reconstructed for the nitrate transporters protein family. Provide the bioinformatics foundation to understand NRT gene’s function in inoculated seedling roots.%通过转录组测序,获得在接种 ERM 真菌的云锦杜鹃苗根系中显著差异表达的基因,其中硝酸根转运蛋白(NRT )基因是硝态氮吸收转运的关键基因。利用生物信息学方法,分析云锦杜鹃根转录组的硝酸根转运蛋白(NRT )基因序列,对其推导的氨基酸的理化性质、亲水性/疏水性、跨膜结构、导肽、二级结构、高级结构进行预测,并对硝酸根转运蛋白的氨基酸做进化发育分析。为进一步了解 NRT 基因在云锦杜鹃接种苗根系氮素吸收的作用奠定了基础。

  9. 美容杜鹃花挥发油化学成分GC-MS分析%Analysis on Volatile Oil from Rhododendron calophytum Franch by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田萍; 付先龙; 庄平; 白洁; 陈放

    2010-01-01

    采用气相色谱-质谱联用技术结合计算机标准谱库检索对由水蒸气蒸馏法获得的美容杜鹃(Rhododendron calophytum Franch.)花挥发油化学成分进行鉴定,并通过总离子流色谱图的面积归化法计算各成分的相对含量.从美容杜鹃花挥发油中共鉴定出54种化合物,其含量占挥发油总量的69.07%.所鉴定的组分与文献报道的杜鹃属其它种类挥发油成分及含量有明显不同,首次从杜鹃属植物中分离得到芳樟醇.除芳樟醇(Linalool,8.06%)外,其它一些主要成分有N-苯基-1-萘胺(1-naphthalenamine,n-phenyl)11.41%、亚麻酸甲酯(Linolenic acid,methyl ester)6.00%、棕榈酸(Palmitic acid Linalool)8.06%5.68%,1-辛烯-3-醇(1-octen-3-01)5.49%、邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(Dibutyl phthalate)4.87%、正二十一烷(Heneicosane)2.75%、1-壬烯-3-醇(1-nonen-3-ol)2.71%、α-松油醇(α-Terpineol)1.54%.

  10. 兴安杜鹃花色素提取及理化性质研究%Study on extraction and properties of pigment from rhododendron dauricum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔福顺; 金清; 李铉军; 麻欣欣

    2011-01-01

    以兴安杜鹃花为原料,对兴安杜鹃花色素的提取及理化性质进行研究.通过正交试验,确定兴安杜鹃花色素提取的最佳条件为提取剂浓度2%、提取温度50℃、提取时间1h、料液比1;10(m;V).兴安杜鹃花色素最大吸收波长为530 nm,在酸性条件下稳定,耐热和耐光性较好,常用食品添加剂及原料和大多数金属离子对色素稳定性无不良影响;Fe3+、Cu2+可引起色素变色;色素对氧化剂较稳定;对还原剂的耐受能力较弱.%The extraction and physicochemical properties of pigment from rhododendron dauricum L were investigated. The optimal extraction conditions on pigment by orthogonal assay were as followed] citric acid content 2%t radio of mate rial /solvent 1 : 10, extracting time 1 h, extracting temperature 50 ℃. The maximum absorption wavelength of pigment was 530 nm, This pigment is resistant to heat, light and common ingredients. Most metal ions have no undesirable effect on it, but Fe3+ , Cu2+ could change its color. The pigment is resistant to oxidizing agent, however, it was unstable to reducing agent.

  11. Simultaneous estimation of three triterpenoids-ursolic acid, β-sitosterol and lupeol from flowers, leaves and formulations of Rhododendron arboreum Smith. using validated HPTLC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Shilajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper enfolds a rapid and sensitive high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC method for the simultaneous estimation of three triterpenoids namely ursolic acid, β-sitosterol and lupeol from the leaves, flowers and herbal formulations of Rhododendron arboreum Smith., an ethnomedicinal Himalayan tree. All the three phytoconstituents have high therapeutic value. Aims and Objectives: The main aim is to separate, resolve and simultaneously quantitate the three markers-ursolic acid, β-sitosterol and lupeol from R. arboreum using normal phase HPTLC. Materials and Methods: Separation was performed on TLC aluminium plates precoated with silica 60 F 254 followed by detection of ursolic acid, β-sitosterol and lupeol carried out by derivatizing the plate with 10% methanolic sulphuric acid reagent followed by heating at 110΀C for 7 min. Camag TLC scanner 4 equipped with winCATS software was used for densitrometric scanning at 366 nm. The proposed method was further validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy and sensitivity as per the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH guidelines. Results: A good linear relationship was obtained for the calibration plots with r 2 = 0.999, 0.993 and 0.995 for ursolic acid, β-sitosterol and lupeol, respectively. Accuracy of the method was checked by recovery study conducted at three different levels with the average recovery between 95% and 98% for all the three markers. Conclusion: The developed method can be used for the assessment of the quality of botanicals in terms of bioactive content.

  12. 桃叶杜鹃菌根显微结构及侵染情况%Study on microstructure and infections of Rhododendron annae mycorrhiza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧静; 刘仁阳; 陈训

    2012-01-01

    By using the acid fuchsin staining, the roots of Rhododendron annae Franch were dyed and squashed, which grows in Guizhou province, and the microstructure and mycorrhizal colonization were observed. The results show that the lateral roots of ferine R. annae have complex structure, were enwrap by dense hypase to form hyphal sheath on the outside of the roots and there was no root hair; There wtre intracellular hyphal knots which are the unique and typical structure of ericoid mycorrhiza, there also were a few septate hypha and fasciculate hyphae structure. Wild plant infection index was higher, the indexes differences of the infected roots in different regions were remarkable, the indexes of Luchonghuang mycorrhiza of adult flowering plant were higher than Fangjiaping's; In different seasons, the rates in spring were higher than that in summer; The indexes of flowering adult tree were obviously less than that young tree. Sowing seedlings' index was lower. The infection indexes of 2-year-old sowing seedlings showed a rising trend compared with that of 1-year-old.%采用酸性品红染色法对贵州不同地域分布的桃叶杜鹃根系染色压片,对其菌根进行显微结构及菌根侵染情况观察.结果表明,野生桃叶杜鹃菌根结构复杂,根外被密集的菌丝包被形成菌丝鞘,无根毛,在菌根中具有杜鹃花类菌根特有典型结构菌丝结,也有穿梭于细胞间的有隔菌丝和束状菌丝等结构.野生植株菌根侵染指标较高;不同地域的菌根侵染指标差异显著,贵阳鹿冲关成年开花植株高于百里杜鹃方家坪成年开花植株;不同季节侵染指标两地春季高于夏季.分布于百里杜鹃的开花成年树侵染指标明显低于幼树.播种苗侵染指标较低,2a播种苗侵染指标较1a呈上升趋势.

  13. Influence of Different Substrates and Different Methods of Germination on Seeds Emergence of Rhododendron mucronulatum%播种基质与催芽方法对迎红杜鹃出苗率的影响试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明哲; 马继峰; 李娟; 李华; 吴玉德

    2011-01-01

    Research on the seeds of Rhododendron mucronulatum with different substrates and different methods of germination is conducted. The results of seeds emergence showed that different substrates, different germination methods and also the interactive effect can obviously influence the seeds emergence of Rhododendron mucronulatum. The substrate is made by mixing budding soil corrosion with sand by 2: 1 , above with a layer of lcm thick dry moss. The Germination method is mixing wet sand 10 d before planting, the ratio of seeds and sand is 1∶6, placed inside the greenhouse or spreaded in a small shed, turning 2 times a day and timely water. This combination has the highest germination rate.%以迎红杜鹃种子为材料,采用双因素4次重复随机排列试验设计进行了不同播种基质和不同催芽方法对播种出苗率的影响试验.结果表明,不同基质与不同催芽方法以及二者的交互作用对迎红杜鹃播种出苗率均有显著影响.其中,以播种基质为腐殖土与沙混合,比例为2∶1,上面再铺一层1 cm厚粉碎的旱苔藓,催芽方法为播种前10d混湿沙,种沙比为1∶6,置于温室或小拱棚内摊开,每天翻动2次并适时喷水这个组合出苗率最高.

  14. Establishment and Optimization of in vitro Micropropagation of Rhododendron delavayi Franch%马缨杜鹃离体快繁体系的建立及优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪怡; 文晓鹏

    2012-01-01

    Using seeds of Rhododendron delavayi Franch as the explants,an efficient micropropagation system for this plant species was established and optimized,and ISSR markers were used to assess the genetic stability of the regenerated plantlets.The seeds germinated well in 1/4MS+1.0 mg/L KT and gave a germination rate of 70% or more.Shoot sections with a terminal bud were the best explants,and WPM(Woody Plant Medium)+KT 0.5 mg/L+GA 1.0 mg/L was the optimum medium for bud cluster induction.WPM+KT 0.5 mg/L+GA 1.0 mg/L was the optimum medium for the growth of the induced bud clusters.With the addition of 0.5 mg/L KT,1.0 mg/L NAA and 2.0 mg/L IBA,1/2WPM demonstrated the best root induction effect after 30 days,whose rooting rate was as high as 100%.After 90-day acclimatization,80% of the plantlets survived after transplantation.ISSR amplification with 20 primers was made to test the somaclonal variation of the plantlets and no polymorphic bands were detected,thus indicating that this micropropagation system could produce plantlets with high genetic stability.%以马缨杜鹃种子为外植体,建立和优化了马缨杜鹃高效而稳定的离体快繁体系,并采用ISSR标记对试管苗的遗传稳定性进行分子检测.结果表明:种子在接种于1/4MS+1.0mg/L KT培养基上,萌发率在70%以上,丛生芽诱导以无菌苗带顶芽茎段为佳,最适培养基为WPM附加0.5mg/L TDZ和1.0mg/L IBA,丛芽伸长最适培养基为WPM+KT 0.5mg/L+GA 1.0mg/L.在1/2WPM+KT 0.5mg/L+NAA 1.0mg/L+IBA 2.0mg/L培养基上30d开始生根,生根率可达100%.90d后驯化移栽成活率在80%以上.采用20个ISSR引物扩增,对通过上述流程快繁的试管苗的体细胞无性系遗传变异进行分子检测,未检测到多态性带,表明该快繁体系能生产出遗传稳定性高的试管苗.

  15. 叶片表皮指纹在杜鹃花属分类中的意义%Significance of the leaf epidermis fingerprint for taxonomy of Genus Rhododendron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀伟; 毛子军

    2006-01-01

    本实验于2004年在东北林业大学进行.用指甲油印记法在光学显微镜下观察了杜鹃花属6个种(牛皮杜鹃 Rh.aureaum,兴安杜鹃 Rh. Dauricum,照白杜鹃 Rh.micranthum,迎红杜鹃 Rh.mucronulatum,苞叶杜鹃 Rh.Redowskianum和大字杜鹃 Rh.schlippenbachii)的表皮指纹特征.对叶片的形态特征包括叶片下表皮气孔类型、保卫细胞和副卫细胞的特征、叶片两面的普通细胞(形状和垂周壁特征)和表皮毛进行了较详细的描述.所研究的6种杜鹃花中,有3种气孔类型,其中兴安杜鹃、照白杜鹃、和迎红杜鹃为单细胞型气孔(Pericytic型),苞叶杜鹃为不规则型气孔(Anomocytic型),牛皮杜鹃和大字杜鹃是平轴式气孔(Diacytic式).不同种间,单细胞型和平轴式气孔的副卫细胞类型在形状和表面特征上有所不同.普通表皮细胞的表面观为从四边形、六边形,多边形或不规则型,垂周壁呈平直或弯曲状.兴安杜鹃、照白杜鹃和迎红杜鹃3种的叶片两面均有腺鳞.所有这些叶片特点表明上述6种杜鹃花的表皮指纹具有种的特性.图4表2参29.%Leaf epidermal fingerprints of six species of Rhododendron ( Rh. Aureaum, Rh. dauricum, Rh. micranthum, Rh. Mucronulatum,Rh. Redowskianum, Rh. schlippenbachii) were observed by optical microscope with nail polish expression method in Key Laboratory of Forest Plant Ecology of MinistryEducation China in Northeast Forestry University in 2004. The leaf morphological features including of stomata types, characters of guard cells, subsidiary cells in lower epidermis were observed. And ordinary cells (in shape and anticlinal walls feature) as well as the trichomes in both sides of the leaves are described in detail. The results showed that there were three types of stoma in six investigated Rhododendron species, from which Pericytic stomata type exists in three species (Rh. dauricum, Rh. micranthum, and Rh.mucronulatum), Anomocytic stomatal type in Rh

  16. Regional Supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual: Eastern Mountains and Piedmont Region (Version 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    greenbriers (Smilax spp.), poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans), various sedges ( Carex spp.), flatsedges (Cyperus spp.), and grasses (e.g., white grass...possumhaw (Viburnum nudum), and pink azalea (Rhododendron periclymenoides = R. nudiflorum). Herbaceous plants include sedges (e.g., Carex lurida and C...depression wetlands support a moderate ground cover of sedges , grasses (e.g., Chasmanthium laxum, Glyceria spp., and Cinna arundinacea), rushes (Juncus

  17. 均匀设计法优化短果杜鹃高效快繁体系%Optimizing High Efficient Micropropagation System of Rhododendron brachycarpum D. Don by Using Uniform Design Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜云天; 陈艳秋; 顾地周; 李玉梅; 曲柏宏

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] To establish high efficient micropropagation system of Rhododendron brachycarpum D. Don, and realize the high efficient in vitro micropropagation of R. brachycarpum. [Method] Young stems of R. brachycarpum were used as explants, suitable medium compositions for axillary bud growing and rooting were screened through uniform design experiments. [Result] MS (modified) + IAA 0.15 mg/L+IBA 0.30 mg/L +GA_3 3.00 mg/L was the most suitable medium with the regeneration rate of 92%. Stems each with one node were cut from regenerated shoots and cultured for propagation, the proliferative multiple was over 45 within one culture period of 35 days. [Conclusion] High efficient micropropagation system of R. brachycarpum has been successfully established, which provides some basis for development and utilization and industrial seedling of the alpine rhododendron in Changbaishan.%[目的] 建立短果杜鹃高效快繁体系,实现短果杜鹃的高效离体快繁.[方法] 以短果杜鹃嫩茎段为外植体,应用均匀设计法筛选最适合的培养基.[结果] 最适合嫩茎段的腋芽萌发及生根的最佳培养基为MS(改良)+IAA 0.15 mg/L +IBA 0.30 mg/L +GA_3 3.00 mg/L,再生率达92%以上.以再生植株的茎节为材料进行快繁的结果表明,在35 d的1个培养周期内增殖倍数平均达45以上.[结论] 该研究建立了短果杜鹃的高效快繁体系,为长白山高山杜鹃的开发利用和工厂化育苗提供了依据.

  18. Cinnamtannin D1 from Rhododendron formosanum Induces Autophagy via the Inhibition of Akt/mTOR and Activation of ERK1/2 in Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Tzong-Der; Tsai, Shang-Jie; Wang, Chao-Min; Jhan, Yun-Lian; Ho, Chi-Tang; Chou, Chang-Hung

    2015-12-01

    In our previous study, ursolic acid present in the leaves of Rhododendron formosanum was found to possess antineoplastic activity. We further isolated and unveiled a natural product, cinnamtannin D1 (CNT D1), an A-type procyanidin trimer in R. formosanum also exhibiting anticancer efficacy that induced G1 arrest (83.26 ± 3.11% for 175 μM CNT D1 vs 69.28 ± 1.15% for control, p non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells. We found that CNT D1-mediated autophagy was via the noncanonical pathway, being beclin-1-independent but Atg5 (autophagy-related genes 5)-dependent. Inhibition of autophagy with a specific inhibitor enhanced cell death, suggesting a cytoprotective function for autophagy in CNT D1-treated NSCLC cells. Moreover, CNT D1 inhibited the Akt/mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and activated the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway, resulting in induction of autophagy.

  19. 太白山自然保护区金背杜鹃菌根调查研究%A Study on Rhododendron clementiae Forrest ex W.W. Smilh Subsp.aureodorsale W.P.Fang' Mycorrhizae in the Nature Preserve of the Taibai Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴重华; 王吉忍; 杨俊秀; 胡崇德

    2000-01-01

    首次报道了在太白山自然保护区巴山冷杉林下采到的金背杜鹃(Rhododendron clementinae Forrest ex W.W. Smith subsp. aureodorsale W. P. Fang)共生真菌3种:卷缘网褶菌(Poxillus involotes (Botsch) Fr.)、亚褐环粘盖牛肝(Suillus subluteus (Peck) Snell ex Slipp & Snell.)、黄粉牛肝菌(Pulveroboletus ravenelii Berk. et Curt.),且这3种与金背杜鹃形成外生菌根.

  20. Photosynthetic Characteristic on Exposure to Higher Light of Shade-developed Rhododendron fortunei Saplings%光照增强对林下云锦杜鹃树苗光合作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯世省; 张云生

    2014-01-01

    研究了林下(L)云锦杜鹃(Rhododendron fortunei)树苗对林窗(H)和林缘(M)不同强度光照的生理响应。夏季将林下发育成熟的云锦杜鹃树苗分别转移到林窗(L-H)和林缘(L-M)后,云锦杜鹃的最大光化学效率和表观量子效率立即降低,随后L-H植株恢复缓慢,而L-M植株快速恢复并接近原来的水平,表明L-H植株发生了严重的光抑制;转移后一个月,与L-H植株相比,L-M具有较高的光合能力,这与两者之间实际量子效率、叶氮含量、比叶重和叶绿素含量等的差异有关;L-M植株还具有较高的对光能的化学利用效率和较低的非光化学淬灭;林下云锦杜鹃对强光的适应状况取决于其所处环境的光照强度,要适应增强的光照并避免严重的光抑制,转移前后光照强度的差异不能过大,否则将导致严重的光能过剩;林下云锦杜鹃适宜的转移生境是林缘。%Experiments were conducted on the physiological response of understory-developed (L)Rhododendron fortunei saplings exposed to higher light (H: canopy gap, M: forest edge) in the summer. The result demonstrated that the maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and apparent quantum yield (AQY) decreased immediately and was followed by a slow recovery in L-H leaves and a rapid recovery in L-M leaves, indicating that photoinhibition in L-H leaves was greater than that in L-M leaves. Their difference had correlated with real quantum efficiency of PSII (PhiPSII), leaf N content (Narea), leaf mass per unit area (LMA) and chlorophyll content. L-M leaves had greater photo chemical quenching coefficient (qP) and lower non-photo chemical quenching coefficient (qN), compared to L-H leaves. The experiment demonstrated that the physiological acclimation on exposure to higher light depended on the degree of light. In conclusion, forest edge was proved to be optimal for photosynthesis of shade-developed leaves of

  1. 均匀设计法优化短果杜鹃高效快繁体系%Optimizing Efficient Micropropagation System of Rhododendron Brachycarpum D. Don by Uniform Design Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜云天; 陈艳秋; 顾地周; 李玉梅; 曲柏宏

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The study was conducted to establish a high efficient micropropagation system for Rhododendron Brachycarpum D. Don and realize the high efficiency in vitro micropropagation of R.brachycarpum. [Method] Young stems of R.brachycarpum were used as explants, suitable medium compositions for axillary bud growing and rooting were screened through uniform design experiments. [Result] MS (modified) + IAA 0.15 mg/ L + IBA 0.30 mg/L + GA3 3.00 mg/L was the most suitable medium with the regeneration rate of 92%. Stems each with one node were cut from regenerated shoots and cultured for propagation, the proliferative multiple was over 45 within one culture period of 35 d. [Conclusion] High efficient micropropagation system of R.brachycarpum has been successfully established, which provides some basis for development and utilization and industrial seedling growth of the alpine rhododendron in Changbai Mountain northeast China.%[目的] 建立短果杜鹃高效快繁体系,实现短果杜鹃的高效离体快繁.[方法] 以短果杜鹃嫩茎段为外植体,选用U10(108)均匀表,考察IAA、IBA、NAA和GA3浓度交叉配比对短果杜鹃腋芽生长伸长及生根的影响,筛选最适合短果杜鹃腋芽萌发生长及生根的培养基.继代快繁采取节培法.[结果] 最适合嫩茎段的腋芽萌发生长及生根的最佳培养基为MS(改良)+IAA 0.15 mg/L + IBA 0.30 mg/L +GA3 3.00 mg/L,再生率达92%以上.以再生植株的茎节为材料进行快繁的结果表明,在35 d的1个培养周期内增殖倍数平均达45以上.待苗根长至2.0 cm以上时,从培养瓶中取出试管苗,在含有5.00 mg/L杀毒矾溶液中洗去苗上残留的琼脂,然后将苗植入经20倍杀毒矾消毒过的腐烂松针、泥炭土和细河砂混合(比例为2∶2∶1)的基质中,用透光好的塑料薄膜覆盖以保湿保温,湿度保持在75%,温度控制在(18±2) ℃,每天自然光照8 h,每天中午通风换气10 min.10 d后揭去薄

  2. 无土盆栽花卉的最佳水位线研究%The optimal drainage line of potted flowers of soilless culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金龙新; 李青峰

    2005-01-01

    @@ Water is the source of life. China ranks No.13 among the water shortage countries. The most of the water is utilized in agriculture, while the utilization rate of irrigation water is only 40%, so it is very important to study on the theory and technology on high efficient water utilization. The purpose for this study is to find out the optimal drainage line on potted flowers through the analysis of experimental results of Aglaonema modestum and Rhododendron simsii Planch in different drainage lines.

  3. Analysis on the volatile components from Rhododendron parvifolium in Shangri-La County by GC-MS%香格里拉产小叶杜鹃花挥发性成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴林芬; 刘巍; 普杰; 李亮星; 李干鹏

    2012-01-01

    研讨香格里拉县小叶杜鹃花的挥发油化学成分,为进一步合理开发利用其药用资源提供试验依据.利用水蒸汽同时蒸馏萃取法(SDE)提取小叶杜鹃花的挥发性化学成分,通过气相色谱-质谱联用技术(GC-MS)对各个色谱峰定性,并采用色谱峰面积归一法获得各个化合物的相对含量.从小叶杜鹃花挥发油中共分离鉴定了73个色谱峰,占挥发油总量的85.53%.小叶杜鹃花挥发油主要成分有α-蒎烯(14.00%)、正二十三烷(9.51%)、7-甲氧基-2,2-二甲基-3-色烯(6.26%)、正二十烷(6.11%)、苯乙醇(5.10%)、1-Heneicosyl formate(4.60%)等.%The first study was to explore the chemical compounds of essential oil from Rhododendron parvifolium Adams in Shangri-La county,and provide the test basis for further rational exploitation and utilization of its medicinal resources. The chemical composition of essential oil of R. parvifolium was extracted by simultaneous distillation and solvent extraction and analyzed by gas chroma-tography-mass spectrometry( GC-MS). The relative contents of each component in the volatile oil were obtained by normalization of peak areas. 73 chromatographic peaks were separated and identified which took up 85.53% in the essential oil from R. parvifolium. The main components of essential oil from R. parvifolium were alpha-pinene( 14.00% ) , N-tricosane( 9.51% ) ,7-methoxy-2,2-dim-ethyl-3-chromene(6.26% ) ,N-eicosane(6. 11% ) ,phenethyl alcohol(5.10% ), 1 -heneicosyl formate(4. 60% )etc.

  4. 2003~2012年我国高山杜鹃研究现状和发展趋势文献分析%Analysis on the Literature in Research Status and Development Trend on Rhododendron hybrids in China During 2003-2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪海霞; 吴彤; 邢震; 禄树晖

    2015-01-01

    调查我国高山杜鹃研究现状,为分析其发展趋势提供参考依据。通过文献检索,采用文献计量学等统计方法系统分析了我国高山杜鹃研究的动态及热点内容。分析结果表明,近10年来我国对高山杜鹃的研究总体呈现上升趋势,但2005及2008年间研究有所减少,这可能与高山杜鹃的市场发展有关。文献类型以期刊论文为主,占91.28%;而学术论文占8.27%。文献来源主要为中国花卉报、中国花卉园艺和安徽农业科技,共占文献总量的20.18%,其中中国花卉报占11.48%。研究的前十项热点内容依次为基础研究、群落特征及保护、育种研究、资源及应用、栽培技术、观赏性状、发展现状、组织培养技术、激素的影响。%Research Status on Rhododendron hybrids in China were investigated to provide references for Develop‐ment Trend on Rhododendron hybrids .The research literature on Dynamic and hot content in China were analyzed by bibliometric statistical methods .The results showed that nearly 10 years of research on Rhododendron hybrids overall upward trend ,but the study between 2005 and 2008 shrank somewhat ,which may be related to Rhododen‐dron hybrids on market development .Document type to journal articles ,accounting for 91 .28% ;while 8 .27%papers .Flowers are mainly Chinese literature sources reported that the China flower gardening ,and Anhui Agricul‐tural science and technology ,literature accounted for 20 .18% of the total ,which accounted for 11 .48% of China Flower reported .Top ten hot contents of the study were the basis of research ,community characteristics and protection , breeding research , resources and applications , cultivation techniques , ornamental characteristics , development status ,tissue culture techniques ,the impact of hormones .

  5. 几种植物对入侵害虫悬铃木方翅网蝽的适合性评价%Evaluation of suitability of several plants to invasive pest,sycamore lace bug,Corythucha ciliata(Say)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安红柳; 邱国强; 李传仁

    2011-01-01

    The 2nd instar nymphs, 4th instar nymphs and adults of Corythucha ciliata (Say) were fed on 4 kinds of young leaves (Platanus acerifolia, Broussonetia papyrifera, Castanea mollissima, Rhododendron simsii ) in the laboratory, and the results indicated that sycamore lace bugs could feed, develop and oviposite on sycamore leaves,but not in the other three leaves and died within 2 ~ 7 days. The analysis suggest that Broussonetia papyrifera,Castanea mollissima and Rhododendron simsii are not the host plants of sycamore lace bug.%实验条件下用二球悬铃木、构树、板栗、杜鹃等4种植物的幼嫩叶片饲养悬铃木方翅网蝽2龄若虫、4龄若虫和成虫,观察该虫发育、存活、寿命和产卵量,结果表明,在悬铃木叶片上悬铃木方翅网蝽能取食、发育或产卵,在其他3种植物叶片上存活时间仅2~7d左右,不能取食、发育或产卵.证实构树、板栗和杜鹃不是悬铃木方翅网蝽的寄主植物.

  6. Simultaneous Determination of Four Flavonoids in the Leaves of Rhododendron pulchrum by HPLC%HPLC同时测定锦绣杜鹃四种黄酮类成分的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梅; 潘大仁

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a HPLC method for simultaneous determination of 4 kinds of flavonoids (quercetin-3-galactoside,quercetin-3-glucoside,quercitrin,and quercetin ) in the leaves of Rhododendron pulchrum. The following system was found to be optimum for the analysis: Waters C18 column ( 4. 6 mm×250 mm,5 μm) by gradient elution with mobile phase A (water) and B (methanol): 0-24 min,31%-42% B;24-30 min,42%-50% B;30-35 min,50%-60% B;35-40 min,60% B. The detection wavelength was 356 nm,and the rate flow was 0. 7 mL/min with column temperature at 30℃. Under these conditions,4 types of flavonoids could be well separated. The average recovery of 4 types of flavoniods (quercetin-3-galactoside,quercetin-3-glucoside,quercitrin,and quercetin ) were 97. 73%, 101. 71% ,98. 70% and 104. 28%,and the relative standard deviations of the method were 2. 25% ,1. 31% ,1. 82% and 2. 81% (n = 5) ,respectively. The method was accurate and sensitive, which could be used for the determination of flavoniods in the leaves of R. pulchrum. The contents of flavonoids were in the highest levels in april.%在建立高效液相色谱法(HPLC)同时,测定锦绣杜鹃中金丝桃苷、异槲皮苷、槲皮苷、槲皮素4种黄酮类化合物的含量.采用Waters C18(4.6 mm×250 mm,5μm)反相色谱柱,甲醇(B)和水(A)为流动相,梯度洗脱程序为:0~24 min,31%~42% B;24~30 min,42%~50% B;30~35min,50%~60% B;35~40 min,60% B;检测波长356 nm,流速为0.7mL·min-1,柱温30℃.结果显示锦绣杜鹃中4种黄酮类化合物达到了较好的分离,其中平均回收率分别为97.73%、101.71%、98.70%、104.28%;RSD分别为2.25%、1.31%、1.82%、2.81%(n=5),说明该分析方法简便、准确、重现性好,适合于锦绣杜鹃中黄酮类化合物含量的测定,其中锦绣杜鹃中黄酮类成分在4月份达到最大值.

  7. A Control Technology for Plantlets Fast Growing of Rhododendron chrysanthum Pall.in Changbai Mountain%长白山牛皮杜鹃种苗速生调控技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾地周; 沈红梅; 闫中雪; 徐鹏佳; 袁浩; 杨丽娟; 王秋爽; 张学士

    2014-01-01

    We used the plantlets of Rhododendron chrysanthum Pall.to study the main factors with different levels by repeated experiments with multi factorial for establishing a control system of plantlets fast growing of R.chrysanthum.The the main factors with levels for plantlets fast growing of R.chrysanthum are under the light hours of 13 h· d-1 , the interval time of topdressing nutrient solution of 21-22 days, the light intensity of 700-800 lx and the temperature of 26℃.The longitudi-nal growth height and transverse diameter of plantlets of R.chrysanthum were 17.6 cm and 6.0 mm in 25 d, and 26.0 cm and 7.4 mm in 50 d, respectively.The growing height and stem diameter of contrast plant were only 8.8 cm和2.0 mm in 25 d, and 10.2 cm and 2.9 mm in 50 d, respectively.We got the optimization for plantlets fast growing of R.chrysanthum.%本研究以牛皮杜鹃组培苗为供试植物,通过多因子交叉重复试验对影响牛皮杜鹃组培苗快速生长的各主要因素及其水平的作用进行了探讨,旨在探索并建立一种牛皮杜鹃种苗快速生长的调控方法。结果表明:最适合牛皮杜鹃组培苗快速生长的主要因素及其水平是光照时间为13 h· d-1、营养液追施间隔时间为21~22 d、光照强度为700~800 lx和温度为26℃。经过25 d的调控处理,牛皮杜鹃组培苗纵向生长高度和横向直径分别达到17.6 cm和6.0 mm,对照组仅分别达到8.8 cm和2.0 mm;50 d后纵向生长高度和横向直径分别达到26.0 cm和7.4 mm,而对照组仅分别达到10.2 cm和2.9 mm。初步得到牛皮杜鹃种苗速生的优化组合,该组合将有利于牛皮杜鹃种苗的快速生长。

  8. Physiological changes and heat tolerance comparison of five Rhododendron species under high-temperature stress%高温胁迫下五种杜鹃花属植物的生理变化及其耐热性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乐华; 孙宝腾; 周广; 王书胜; 李晓花; 单文

    2011-01-01

    高温是制约分布于较高海拔地区杜鹃花迁地保育与园林应用的重要因子.为探讨杜鹃花属植物的 高温致伤机理,该实验以隶属不同亚属的白花杜鹃、羊踯躅、毛棉杜鹃、红滩杜鹃及红棕杜鹃4年生实生苗为 材料,通过人工气候箱的盆栽实验,研究了30℃、38℃高温胁迫下其叶片生理生化指标的变化,并利用隶属 函数法及系统聚类分析法对其种间耐热性进行了综合评价.结果表明:高温胁迫下,5种杜鹃叶片的过氧化 氢酶(CAT)、抗坏血酸过氧化物酶(APX)活性及脯氨酸(Pro)、过氧化氢(H2O2)、丙二醛(MDA)含量均随着 胁迫温度的升高而增大;超氧化物歧化酶( SOD)活性在30℃轻度胁迫时均小幅度上升,而38℃重度胁迫时 下降.2个高温条件下,SOD、CAT的变化幅度与杜鹃种间耐热性总体呈正相关,而H2 O2、MDA增幅与种间 耐热性呈负相关;Pro增幅在30℃轻度胁迫时与种间耐热性呈负相关,而38℃重度胁迫时与耐热性呈正相 关;APX增幅与种间耐热性的相关性较弱.隶属函数与聚类分析综合评判得出5种杜鹃耐热性强弱顺序为:白花杜鹃>羊踯躅、毛棉杜鹃>红滩杜鹃>红棕杜鹃,与其田间耐热性表现一致.%High temperature is the important constraining factor of Rhododendron in ex situ conservation and landscape application. In order to reveal the injury of mechanism of five Rhododendron species under high-temperature stress,R. Mucronatum,R. Molle,R. Moulmainense,R. Chihsinianum and R. Rubiginosum which belong to different subg. Rhododendron were used in the experiment Four years-old seedlings of these five species were planted in artificial climate chambers and their changes of physiological and biochemical index were determined under high-temperature of 30 ℃ and 38 ℃ stress,and the heat tolerance was comprehensively evaluated with fuzzy subordinate function and system cluster analysis. The results showed that

  9. 不同激素及扦插基质对兴安杜鹃嫩枝扦插成活率的影响%Effects of different hormone treatments and cutting media on suvival rate of green branch cutting in Rhododendron dauricum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周金梅; 宫敬利; 建德锋

    2012-01-01

    In order to select breeding methods which could improve survival rate of green branch cutting in Rhododendron dauricum, green branch cutting propagation test of R. dauricum was carried out by using three kinds of hormone treatments and three kinds of cutting media. The results show that the green branch treated in 150 mg/L IB A for 30 s before cutting has the highest rooting rate, and the rooting rate can be up to 90% in the mixture medium of sand and peat (the volume rate of 1 : 2).%为了筛选能提高兴安杜鹃嫩枝扦插成活率的繁殖方法,采用3种不同的激素处理和3种不同扦插基质对兴安杜鹃进行了嫩枝扦插繁殖试验.结果表明:扦插前采用150 mg/L的IBA激素处理嫩枝30 s,扦插后的生根率最高;而采用沙子+腐殖土(体积比为1∶2)的扦插基质可使扦插生根率达到90%.

  10. Effects of Media and IBA Concentrations on Rooting of Rhododendron fortunei for Cutting Propagation%基质和IBA浓度对云锦杜鹃扦插生根的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王书胜; 单文; 张乐华; 杜有新; 李晓花; 王凯红

    2015-01-01

    为云锦杜鹃扦插生根的最佳组合,其腐烂率、生根率、老叶率、总根数及不定根数在所有组合中表现最佳;泥炭+珍珠岩(4∶1)与100 mg·L -1 IBA组合愈伤率最高(100%),其他指标也表现良好,综合生根效果其次;纯森林土与800 mg·L -1 IBA 组合生根效果最差。【结论】云锦杜鹃扦插生根受基质、IBA浓度及其交互效应的显著影响,纯河沙、泥炭+珍珠岩(4∶1)生根效果优于其他4种基质,为其扦插生根的首选基质,纯森林土不适合扦插育苗;200,100 mg·L -1 IBA处理有利于插穗愈伤组织诱导和不定根形成,而800 mg·L -1处理引发插穗腐烂,不利于生根和根系发育;不同基质扦插生根的最适IBA浓度存在差异,纯河沙与200 mg·L -1 IBA及泥炭+珍珠岩(4∶1)与100 mg·L -1 IBA 2个处理组合被推荐用于云锦杜鹃产业化育苗。%[Objective]Medium composition and application of exogenous hormones are important factors that influence the rooting of cuttings. As it is hard to root for cutting propagation of Rhododendron fortunei,this study was aimed at investigating different media,indole-3-butyric acid ( IBA) concentrations and their interactions on the rooting of cuttings of this species,and to select the optimum combination of rooting medium and IBA concentration,then to provide a theoretical basis for its introduction and domestication,and industrialization. [Method]Using the lignified new terminal branches with leaf buds of R. fortunei as propagating material,and adopting a completely randomized factorial design with two factors,i. e. ,six types of rooting media: pure river sand,peat + perlite (4∶1 by volume),perlite + forest soil (4∶1),vermiculite + forest soil ( 4∶ 1 ),river sand + forest soil ( 1∶ 1 ) and pure forest soil,and four IBA concentrations:100 ,200 ,400 ,800 mg·L -1 ,we investigated the effects of different combinations of rooting medium and IBA

  11. Simultaneous Determination of Flavonoids in Rhododendron Mucronatum Leaves by Ionic Liquid-based Ultrasonic-assisted Extraction Combined with High Performance Liquid Chromatography%离子液体-超声辅助萃取/高效液相色谱法测定白花杜鹃叶中的黄酮

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈君; 周光明; 杨远高; 秦红英; 窦文虎

    2013-01-01

    建立了以离子液体1-丁基-3-甲基咪唑溴化盐([BMIM] Br)水溶液为萃取剂,超声辅助萃取结合反相高效液相色谱/紫外检测器同时分离测定白花杜鹃叶中的芦丁、槲皮素和山奈酚3种黄酮化合物的方法.采用Phenomenex C18色谱柱(250 mm ×4.6 nn,5μm)进行分离,以乙腈-0.25%乙酸水溶液梯度洗脱,流速1.0 mL·min-1,紫外检测波长355 nm,柱温34℃.在优化条件下,芦丁、槲皮素和山奈酚分别在0.064~128、0.076~152、0.064~128 mg·L-1范围内线性关系良好,相关系数(r)均为0.9999,检出限(S/N=3)分别为0.0066、0.0092、0.005 0 mg·L-1;样品的回收率为90%~97%.实验结果表明,该萃取方法操作简单快速,定量结果准确可靠,且绿色环保,为白花杜鹃叶中黄酮的提取、分离及检测提供了有效的方法.%A novel ionic liquid-based ultrasonic-assisted extraction (ILUAE) combined with reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography tandem UV detection ( HPLC - UV) was first developed to isolate and determinate flavonoids in rhododendron mucronatum leaves. The 1-butyl-3-methylimid-azolium chloride ( [BMIM]Br) aqueous solution was selected as extraction solvent. The sample was separated on a Phenomenex C18 column using acetonitrile -0. 25% acetic acid as mobile phase by gradient elution at a flow rate of 1. 0 mL·min-1. The UV detection wavelength was set at 355 nm. The quantitative analysis of rutin, quercetin and kaempferol were carried out by the external standard method. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the calibration curves of rutin, quercetin, and kaempferol were linear in the ranges of 0. 064 - 128, 0. 076 - 152 and 0.064 - 128 mg·L-1, respectively, with correlation coefficients of 0. 999 9. Their limits of detection(LODs, S/N = 3) were 0. 006 6, 0. 009 2 and 0. 005 0 mg·L-1, respectively. The spiked recoveries of three compounds ranged from 90% to 97% . The results indicated that the proposed method was an

  12. Physiological and Biochemical Effects of High Temperature Stress on the Seedlings of Two Rhododendron Species of Subgenus Hymenanthes%高温胁迫对两种常绿杜鹃亚属植物幼苗生理生化特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乐华; 周广; 孙宝腾; 李晓花; 王书胜; 单文

    2011-01-01

    为探明常绿杜鹃亚属植物高温致伤的生理机制,以猴头杜鹃(Rhododendron simiarum Hance)、井冈山杜鹃(R.jinggangshanicum Tam)四年生实生苗为材料,通过人工气候箱中的盆栽实验,研究了不同程度的高温胁迫对两种常绿亚属杜鹃幼苗叶片生理生化特性的影响.结果表明:(1)两种杜鹃叶片的丙二醛(MDA)、过氧化氢(H2O2)及脯氨酸(Pro)、可溶性蛋白质含量均随胁迫温度的升高而增大;猴头杜鹃的H2O2、可溶性蛋白含量及增幅均明显小于井冈山杜鹃,而MDA、Pro的增幅则因胁迫温度而异.(2)两种杜鹃叶片抗坏血酸(AsA)含量均随胁迫温度的升高而降低,但猴头杜鹃的降幅小于井冈山杜鹃.(3)高温胁迫下,猴头杜鹃除过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性增幅略小外,超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)及抗坏血酸过氧化物酶(APX)增幅均大于井冈山杜鹃.可见,随着胁迫温度的升高两种杜鹃叶片膜脂过氧化作用加重,而猴头杜鹃较井冈山杜鹃具有更强的酶促和非酶促清除活性氧能力.%To illuminate the injury mechanism of Rhododendron Subgenus Hymenanthes under high temperature stress,4-year-old seedlings of R. simiarum Hance and R. jinggangshanicum Tam were planted in artificial climate chambers and their physiological and biochemical changes were determined under different high temperature stress. The results showed that: (1)The contents of maiondialdehyde(MDA), hydrogen peroxide(H202) ,proline( Pro)and soluble protein in leaves of both species increased when the temperature increased. The contents and changes of H202 and soluble protein in R.simiarum leaves increased less than those in R. jinggangshanicum,whereas the changes of MDA and Pro in both species were independent of temperature. (2)The contents of ascorbic acid(AsA)in leaves of the two species were negatively correlated with temperature,with R. simiarum decreased less than R. jinggangshanicum.(3) The activities of

  13. 5种杜鹃幼苗对高温胁迫的生理生化响应及耐热性综合评价%Physiological-biochemical response of five species in Rhododendron L.to high temperature stress and comprehensive evaluation of their heat tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯红; 刘向平; 张乐华; 凌家慧; 李立

    2011-01-01

    Using four-year-old seedlings of five species belonging to five subgenera in Rhododendron L. as experimental materials, contents of malondialdeyde (MDA) , hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and proline (Pro) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) , catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were determined and analyzed under condition of artificial simulated high temperature ( 30 t and 38 T ) , and correlation and principal component analyses of above indexes were also conducted. On this basis, comprehensive evaluation of heat tolerance of the five species was performed by subordinate function method, and comprehensive evaluation results were tested by means of the established optimum regression equation. The determination results show that compared to the control (22 t ) , contents of MDA, H2O2, Pro and activities of CAT, APX of the five species seedlings all increase with rising of stress temperature, and SOD activity appears the trend of less increasing under 30 CC condition while decreasing under 38 t condition. CAT activity has extremely significant positive correlation with contents of H2O2 and Pro and APX activity (P<0. 01 ) , and APX activity has significant positive or negative correlations respectively with Pro content and SOD activity (P<0.05 ). Six single indexes tested of allspecies are converted into three independent comprehensive indexes with an accumulative contribution rate of 87.52% by principal component analysis. According to the comprehensive evaluation value (D), heat tolerance of the five species can be divided into four classes; heat tolerance of R. mucronatum (Blume) G. Don is the strongest, that of R. moulmainense Hook. f. and R. molle (Blume) G. Don is stronger, that of R. chihsinianum Chun et Fang is weaker, and that of R. rubiginosum Franch. is the weakest. The heat tolerance of the five species can be predicted using the optimum regression equation established and the prediction value order is completely in accordance with D value

  14. 山东五莲山植物群落结构及物种多样性%Community Structure and Species Diversity in Wulian Mountain of Shandong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高远; 姚亮; 邱振鲁; 颜景浩

    2008-01-01

    五莲山自然保护区地处鲁东南沿海地区,为全面了解其群落结构组成及物种多样性,作者进行了野外调查,共获得11个标准样方,面积6 600 m2.样方内记录到高等植物52科141种.该保护区地带性植被为常绿-落叶针阔叶天然次生混交林、落叶阔叶林,主要森林植被为赤松-板栗群落(Pinus densiflora-Castanea mollissima community)、麻栎-赤松群落(Quercus acutissima-Pinus densiflora community)、赤松-杜鹃群落(P.densiflora-Rhododendron simsii community)、麻栎-杜鹃群落(Q.acutissima-Rhododendron simsii community).样方数据显示该区域木本植物种类不是很丰富,但植物群落结构复杂,具有明显的生境异质性,其多样性指数乔木层<木本层<灌木层.作者认为影响该保护区核心区多样性的最显著特征应该为海拔和坡度,而人为干扰会严重影响外围保护区植被类型及其物种多样性.整体上看,本区域正处于群落演替早期,种间竞争尚不充分,物种多样性偏低.

  15. The Compatibility and Fruit Growth Dynamics of the Cross between Rhododendron decorum and R.irroratum%大白杜鹃与露珠杜鹃杂交亲和性及其杂交果实发育动态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解玮佳; 王继华; 彭绿春; 宋杰; 陆琳; 徐红林; 李世峰

    2016-01-01

    The cross between Rhododendron decorum and R.irroratum was conducted.Its cross feasibility was analysed by measuring the ratio of male style length of R.irroratum to the female style length of R.deco-rum.Fluorescence microscope was used to study the process of pollen sprouting and pollen tube growth of R.ir-roratum after crossing to ensure the cross compatibility.The hybrid fruit growth dynamics of the crosses were observed and analyzed at different development stages after pollination under the conditions of greenhouse and outdoors separately,the results showed as follows,the ratio of male style length of R.irroratum to the female style length of R.decorum was 0.98 which indicated that the cross between R.decorum and R.irroratum in-clined to success.The cross compatibility was proved by the fact that the pollen tube of R.irroratum entered the ovules of R.decorum and then the fertilization happened at 9d after pollination according to the observation of Fluorescence microscope.The morphological mature period of both the hybrid fruits under two separate cultiva-tion conditions was about 180 d,in which,after pollination,0-9 d was the first slow growth period,9-105 d was the first fast growth period,105-135 d was the second slow growth period and 135-180 d was the second fast growth period.The growth dynamic changes of the vertical and horizontal diameters of the fruit were similar but the dynamic growth curve of horizontal diameter was gentler than that of the vertical diameter.The results indicated that the cross between Rhododendron decorum and R.irroratum was compatible and the hybrid fruit growth curve belonged to the double “S” curve.Moreover,the size of the vertical and horizontal diameters of the hybrid fruit at the morphological mature time was directly related to the cultivation conditions.%以大白杜鹃为母本,露珠杜鹃为父本进行杂交试验,通过测算露珠杜鹃与大白杜鹃的花柱长度比进行杂交可行性分析,利用荧

  16. 水杨酸对低温胁迫下西洋杜鹃光合作用和叶绿素荧光的影响%Effects of Salicylic Acid on Photosynthesis and Chlorophyll Fluorescence of Rhododendron hybridum under Low Temperature Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余丽玲; 何天友; 陈凌艳; 张迎辉; 郑郁善

    2014-01-01

    为了解水杨酸( SA)提高西洋杜鹃幼苗抗寒性的生理机制,以抗寒性不同的2个西洋杜鹃品种(粉红、普红)为材料,研究叶面预先喷施不同浓度的SA(0,0.3,0.5,1.0,1.5,2.0 mmol/L)对低温胁迫下西洋杜鹃幼苗气体交换参数、光化学效率的影响。结果表明SA预处理能够:1)缓解因低温胁迫导致的净光合速率( Pn )、气孔导度(Gs)、粉红品种胞间CO2浓度(Ci)、蒸腾速率(Tr)、PSII最大光化学效率(Fv/Fm)、PSII实际光化学量子产量(Yield)、光化学猝灭系数(QP)的下降;2)缓解低温导致的非光化学猝灭系数(NPQ),普红品种胞间CO2浓度( Ci )的上升;3)喷施0.5 mmol/L的SA能显著提高粉红品种的抗寒性,喷施1.5 mmol/L的SA能显著提高普红品种的抗寒性。%In order to understand the physiological mechanism of salicylic acid ( SA) -enhancement of cold tolerance in Rhododendron hybridum seedlings,the seedlings of Fenhong and Puhong were foliar-sprayed with Salicylic acid of different concentrations (0 mmol/L,0.3 mmol/L,0.5mmol/L,1.0 mmol/L,1.5 mmol/L and 2.0mmol/L) to investigate the effects of its pretreatment on leaf gas exchange parameters and photochemi-cal efficiency .The results showed that SA pretreatment effectively alleviated the decrease in net photosynthetic rate (Pn),stomatal conductance (Gs),intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) of Fenhong,maximal photochemi-cal yield (Fv/Fm),the actual photochemical ef-ficiency of system Ⅱ( Yield) and photochemical quenching coefficient ( QP ).Salicylic acid pretreatment also significantly reduced the increase of non -photochemical quenching coefficient(NPQ) and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) of Puhong.Spraying 0.5 mmol/L and 1.5 mmol/L of SA could significantly increase the cold-resistance of Fenhong and Puhong seedlings .

  17. 接种ERM真菌对桃叶杜鹃幼苗的促生效应及生理生化影响%Effects of Inoculation with ERM Fungi Isolates on the Growth and Physio-biochemical Properties of Rhododendron annae seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧静; 韦小丽; 何跃军; 刘仁阳; 陈训

    2013-01-01

    通过12个不同ERM真菌菌株接种2年生无菌实生桃叶杜鹃幼苗,研究接种对幼苗生长势与生物量的影响,分析ERM菌株对内源激素含量与氧化酶活性的变化.结果表明:接种显著提高桃叶杜鹃幼苗的苗高、地径、叶面积、主根长和生物量.接种苗苗高比对照增加29.47% ~ 73.68%,地径比对照增加11.16%~70.09%,总生物量比对照增长3.86%~61.22%;地上部分干质量增幅最高值为99.69%,地下部分干质量增幅最高值为27.27%.ERM菌株显著提高接种苗地上和地下部分吲哚乙酸(IAA)、赤霉素(GA3)、玉米素核苷(ZR)、脱落酸(ABA)含量和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性,降低了丙二醛(MDA)含量.ERM真菌可能是通过分泌激素或刺激植株分泌激素,几种激素物质的协调配合来促进桃叶杜鹃幼苗的生长.从综合接种效应来看,TY29,TY35,TY12,TY18,TY14和TY02是培育桃叶杜鹃菌根苗优良备选菌株.%Twelve ericoid mycorrhiza (ERM) fungal isolates were used to inoculate 2-year-old Rhododendron annae Franch.seedlings to study effects of the inoculations on the plant growth potential,biomass and endogenous hormones contents and enzyme activity.The results showed that the inoculations with ERM significantly increased height,diameter,leaf area,mainroot length and biomass of the seedlings.The height increased by 29.47%-73.68% than that control,and diameter increased by 11.16% ~70.09%.The total biomass increased by 3.86%-61.22%,of which the highest increase in shoot dry weight was 99.69%,and and the highest increase in underground part dry weight was 27.27%.The contents of indole acetic acid (IAA),gibberellin (GA3),zeatin riboside (ZR),abscisic acid (ABA) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD),peroxidase (POD),catalase (CAT) in the inoculated seedlings with ERM were significantly higher than those in non-inoculated plants,while the

  18. 杜鹃花组培快繁技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高文强; 樊金会; 赵红霞; 于淑惠; 张利

    2011-01-01

    The seeds of Rhododendron simsii germinated under aseptic conditions , then the leaves from Rhododendron tube seedlings were used as explants , the system of rapid propagation was established by means of two steps method. The results were as follows; The best callus induction medium was 1/4Anderson + 2, 4-D 1 mg/L + TDZ 0.1 mg/L; the best shoots induction medium was 1/4Anderson + IBA0.1 mg/L + TDZ 1 mg/L + 2-IP 0.5 mg/L; the best medium for rooting was 1/4Anderson + NAA 0.1 mg/L.%用野生杜鹃花的种子无茵发芽获得试管苗,然后用试管苗的叶片进行离体培养,用二步法建立杜鹃花的快繁体系。试验结果表明:诱导愈伤的最佳培养基是1/4Anderson+2,4-D1mg/L+TDZ0.1mg/L;芽诱导培养基是1/4 Anderson+IBA0.1mg/L+TDZ1mg/L+2-IP0.5mg/L;生根培养基是1/4Anderson+NAA0.1mg/L。

  19. [Selection of winter plant species for wetlands constructed as sewage treatment systems and evaluation of their wastewater purification potentials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-hua; Wu, Xiao-fu; Chen, Ming-li; Jiang, Li-juan; Li, Ke-lin; Lei, Dian; Wang, Hai-bin

    2010-08-01

    In order to establish an evaluation system for selection of winter wetland plants possessing high wastewater purification potentials in subtropics areas, designed sewage treatment experiments were carried out by introducing into the constructed wetlands 25 species of winter wetland plants. Cluster analysis was performed by including harmful environment-resistant enzyme and substrate enzyme activities into the commonly applied plant screening and assessment indexes system. The obtained results indicated that there were significant differences among the tested winter plants in their root length and vigor, leaf malonaldehyde (MDA), biomass, average nitrogen and phosphorus concentration and uptake, and urease and phosphoric acid enzyme activities in the root areas. Based on the established evaluation system, the tested plants were clustered into 3 groups. The plants in the 1st group possessing high purification potentials are Oenanthe javanica, Brassicacapestris, Juncus effusu, Saxifragaceae, Iris pseudoacorus, Osmanthus fragrans and Iris ensata; those in the 2nd group possessing moderate purification potentials are Brassica oleracea var acephala, Calendula officinalis, Aucuba japonica, Ligustrum lucidu, Beta vulgaris, Rhododendron simsii and Ilex latifolia; and those in the 3rd group with low purification potentials are Brassica oleracea var acephala, Calistephus chinensis, Rosa chinensis, Antirrhinums, Liriope palatyphylla, Zephyranthes candida, Fatshedera lizei, Petunia hybrida, Ilex quihoui, Dianthus caryophyllus and Loropetalum chinensis.

  20. Rhizospheric Bacterial Community of Endemic Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Ssp. delavayi along Eastern Himalayan Slope in Tawang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajal Debnath

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Information on rhizosphere micobiome of endemic plants from high mountain ecosystems against those of cultivated plantations is inadequate. Comparative bacterial profiles of endemic medicinal plant R. arboreum Sm. subsp. delavayi rhizosphere pertaining to four altitudinal zonation Pankang-Thang (PTSO, Nagula, Y-junction and Bum La (Indo-China border (in triplicates each along cold adapted Eastern slope of Himalayan Tawang region, India is described here. Significant differences in DGGE profile between below ground bulk vs rhizospheric community profile associated with the plant was identified. Tagged 16S amplicon sequencing from PTSO (3912m to Bum La (4509 m, revealed that soil pH, total nitrogen (TN, organic matter (OM significantly influenced the underlying bacterial community structure at different altitudes. The relative abundance of Acidobacteria was inversely related to pH, as opposed to TN which was positively correlated to Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria abundance. TN was also the significant predictor for less abundant taxonomic groups Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes and Nitrospirae. Bum La soil harbored less bacterial diversity compared to other sites at lower altitudes. The most abundant phyla at 3% genetic difference were Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria amongst others. Analysis of similarity indicated greater similarity within lower altitudinal than higher altitudinal group (ANOSIM, R = 0.287, p = 0.02. Constraining the ordination with the edaphic factor explained 83.13% of variation. Unique phylotypes of Bradyrhizobium and uncultured Rhizobiales were found in significant proportions at the four regions. With over 1% relative abundance Actinobacteria (42.6%, Acidobacteria (24.02%, Proteobacteria (16.00%, AD3 (9.23%, WPS-2 (5.1% and Chloroflexi (1.48% dominated the core microbiome.

  1. Calcium and potassium dynamics and biopurification in two populations of the subalpine evergreen shrub Rhododendron ferrugineum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Marty

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Calcium (Ca and potassium (K are important acidity neutralizers in soils and essential elements for plants. These two elements are known to undergo a biopurification within the plant (i.e., discrimination against strontium (Sr and barium (Ba for Ca, and rubidium (Rb for K. However variations in the magnitude of this process between plant populations have rarely been reported, especially in high altitude, nutrient-depleted habitats. Concentrations of Ca, Sr, Ba, K and Rb were measured in roots, stems and in the different leaf cohorts in two populations of the evergreen shrub R. ferrugineum located at a granitic high elevation site. Calcium and K concentrations in leaves were respectively ~5 and 3 times higher than in roots and stems. Ca concentration increased while K concentration decreased with leaf age. The ratios Ca/Sr, Ca/Ba and K/Rb increased from roots to leaves, revealing a significant biopurification especially between stems and leaves. This phenomenon was higher for Ca than for K, with Ca/Sr and Ca/Ba ratios more than twice and 4 times higher in leaves than in roots, respectively, while K/Rb ratio in leaves was only 50% higher than in roots. Ca/Sr ratio decreased whereas K/Rb increased with leaf age. While the first could result from a "chromatographic effect" of the vascular column, the latter suggests the existence of biopurification mechanisms during influx/efflux of K from the leaf. Surprisingly, the magnitude of Ca biopurification varied between populations on a small geographical scale suggesting that Ca/Sr ratio should be used cautiously for plant Ca source identification.

  2. BBGD: an online database for blueberry genomic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews Benjamin F

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blueberry is a member of the Ericaceae family, which also includes closely related cranberry and more distantly related rhododendron, azalea, and mountain laurel. Blueberry is a major berry crop in the United States, and one that has great nutritional and economical value. Extreme low temperatures, however, reduce crop yield and cause major losses to US farmers. A better understanding of the genes and biochemical pathways that are up- or down-regulated during cold acclimation is needed to produce blueberry cultivars with enhanced cold hardiness. To that end, the blueberry genomics database (BBDG was developed. Along with the analysis tools and web-based query interfaces, the database serves both the broader Ericaceae research community and the blueberry research community specifically by making available ESTs and gene expression data in searchable formats and in elucidating the underlying mechanisms of cold acclimation and freeze tolerance in blueberry. Description BBGD is the world's first database for blueberry genomics. BBGD is both a sequence and gene expression database. It stores both EST and microarray data and allows scientists to correlate expression profiles with gene function. BBGD is a public online database. Presently, the main focus of the database is the identification of genes in blueberry that are significantly induced or suppressed after low temperature exposure. Conclusion By using the database, researchers have developed EST-based markers for mapping and have identified a number of "candidate" cold tolerance genes that are highly expressed in blueberry flower buds after exposure to low temperatures.

  3. Foliar litter decomposition in an alpine forest meta-ecosystem on the eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Kai; Yang, Wanqin; Peng, Changhui; Peng, Yan; Zhang, Chuan; Huang, Chunping; Tan, Yu; Wu, Fuzhong

    2016-10-01

    Litter decomposition is a biological process fundamental to element cycling and a main nutrient source within forest meta-ecosystems, but few studies have looked into this process simultaneously in individual ecosystems, where environmental factors can vary substantially. A two-year field study conducted in an alpine forest meta-ecosystem with four litter species (i.e., willow: Salix paraplesia, azalea: Rhododendron lapponicum, cypress: Sabina saltuaria, and larch: Larix mastersiana) that varied widely in chemical traits showed that both litter species and ecosystem type (i.e., forest floor, stream and riparian zone) are important factors affecting litter decomposition, and their effects can be moderated by local-scale environmental factors such as temperature and nutrient availability. Litter decomposed fastest in the streams followed by the riparian zone and forest floor regardless of species. For a given litter species, both the k value and limit value varied significantly among ecosystems, indicating that the litter decomposition rate and extent (i.e., reaching a limit value) can be substantially affected by ecosystem type and the local-scale environmental factors. Apart from litter initial acid unhydrolyzable residue (AUR) concentration and its ratio to nitrogen concentration (i.e., AUR/N ratio), the initial nutrient concentrations of phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) were also important litter traits that affected decomposition depending on the ecosystem type.

  4. Potential of bioenergy production from garden wastes in West Lake scenic spots of Hangzhou, China%杭州西湖风景名胜区园林废弃物生产生物能源潜力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史琰; 郑楠; 唐宇力; 范丽琨; 郭克俭; 范星; 葛滢; 常杰

    2012-01-01

    在当前我国景区节能减排目标难以达到的情况下,发展生物能源将为此提供一个途径.本文以杭州西湖风景名胜区为案例,分析园林管理所获得的可用生物量及其生产生物能源的潜力.通过实地测定和问卷调查,研究表明:单位绿地面积园林废弃生物量为(4.60±3.12)t·hm-2·a-1;道路区域绿地的单位面积废弃物产量最高,干重平均值为5.96t·hm-2·a-1;产生绿化废弃物的主要植物种类有香樟(Cinnamomum camphora)、桂(Osmanthus fragrans)、杜鹃(Rhododendron simsii)等;园林废弃物总量干重为3402 t·a-1,可产生能量6.3×1010 kJ·a-1,理论上可以抵消景区40%的电能消耗;园林废弃物转化为生物能源适宜采用固体成型生物燃料技术;利用园林废弃物生产生物能源替代化石燃料每年可减排CO2 4177 t.开发利用景区园林废弃物生产生物能源,可实现减轻环境压力和增加生物能源供应的双赢.%The development of bioenergy may provide a solution to achieve the reduction targets for scenic spot emissions. This paper provides a synthesis of questionnaire survey and experimental data to assess the potential of garden waste biomass for renewable energy production in West Lake of Hangzhou. Our results showed that the waste dry biomass from greenspace reaches 4. 60 ±3.12 t · hm-2 · a-1. The garden waste dry biomass from greenspace in the road area was 5. 96 t · hm-2 · a-1 which was higher than the other area. The main species of the garden wastes were Cinnamomum camphora, Osmanthus fragrans and Rhododendron simsii. The total amount of dry biomass from scenic wastes was estimated at 3402 t · a-1. The total potential biofuel produced as scenic waste biomass was estimated at 6. 3×1010 kJ · a-1 , which accounts for 40% of the energy consumption for the West Lake. The wood pellets production bioenergy system was the best way for the garden waste biofinery. The emission reduction of using garden

  5. 阿德利亚产品与MIMO-OFDM无线宽带技术%Azalea Products and MIMO-OFDM Wireless Broadband Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿德利亚科技

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1.MIMO-OFD M技术介绍 正交频分复用(OFDM)是在无线高速数据传输中常用的一种技术.OFDM可以利用设备的多天线结构在一个时变的多径衰落信道中提高分集增益和系统容量,这促成了MIMO-OFDM系统的出现.

  6. Environ: E00635 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 07], Rhododendron brachycarpum [TAX:118365], Rhododendron metternichii [TAX:66907] Ericaceae (heath family) ...eaf (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Ericaceae (heath family) E00635 Rhododendron leaf ...

  7. Cellulose Dynamics during Foliar Litter Decomposition in an Alpine Forest Meta-Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yue

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the dynamics and relative drivers of cellulose degradation during litter decomposition, a field experiment was conducted in three individual ecosystems (i.e., forest floor, stream, and riparian zone of an alpine forest meta-ecosystem on the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Four litter species (i.e., willow: Salix paraplesia, azalea: Rhododendron lapponicum, cypress: Sabina saltuaria, and larch: Larix mastersiana that had varying initial litter chemical traits were placed separately in litterbags and then incubated on the soil surface of forest floor plots or in the water of the stream and riparian zone plots. Litterbags were retrieved five times each year during the two-year experiment, with nine replicates each time for each treatment. The results suggested that foliar litter lost 32.2%–89.2% of the initial dry mass depending on litter species and ecosystem type after two-year’s incubation. The cellulose lost 60.1%–96.8% of the initial mass with degradation rate in the order of stream > riparian zone > forest floor. Substantial cellulose degradation occurred at the very beginning (i.e., in the first pre-freezing period of litter decomposition. Litter initial concentrations of phosphorus (P and lignin were found to be the dominant chemical traits controlling cellulose degradation regardless of ecosystems type. The local-scale environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and nutrient availability were important moderators of cellulose degradation rate. Although the effects of common litter chemical traits (e.g., P and lignin concentrations on cellulose degradation across different individual ecosystems were identified, local-scale environmental factors such as temperature and nutrient availability were found to be of great importance for cellulose degradation. These results indicated that local-scale environmental factors should be considered apart from litter quality for generating a reliable predictive framework for the drivers

  8. 十六味杜鹃花丸中丁香酚含量的GC测定法%Content measuring of eugenol as a quality control index in sixteen azalea pills by GC Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 岳秀峰

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]To establish the control index of intrinsic quality, and improve the drug quality standard. [Methods]The content of eugenol was determined by gas chromatography method. [Results] The content of eugenol showed good linear relationship in the range of 50-500 μg, the regression equation was Y = 1 215. 3 X- 42. 233, R = 1. 000, the average recovery ratio was 99.23% , RSD was 0.53%. [Conclusion]The method is simple, sensible and accurate, and the study has lay the foundation of further improving the drug quality standard.%目的 建立内在质量监控指标,提高药品质量标准.方法 采用气相色谱法测定丁香酚的含量.结果 丁香酚在50~500μg范围内呈良好线性关系,回归方程y=1215.3 X-42.233.R=1.000,平均回收率为99.23%,RSD为0.53%.结论 该方法简便、灵敏、准确,为进一步提高该药的质量标准打下了基础.

  9. The Bunge Prickly-Ash Tree Damaged by a Mealybug,Phenacoccus azaleae Attracting the Ladybug, Harmonia axyridis%绵粉蚧危害的花椒树对异色瓢虫的招引作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢映平; 薛皎亮; 唐晓燕; 赵世林

    2004-01-01

    1999-2001年研究了山西太行山区花椒林受绵粉蚧危害后,花椒树对主要天敌昆虫异色瓢虫的招引作用.结果显示 ,花椒树受害的新鲜枝梢对瓢虫的引诱率为57.0%,未受害新鲜枝梢引诱率为20.0%,用受害枝条水浴蒸馏出的馏分招引瓢虫的百分率为 37.0%,未受害枝条馏分招引瓢虫百分率为10.3%.说明花椒绵粉蚧危害,可诱导树体挥发性物质发生改变,增加了对天敌昆虫的引诱作用,并且对瓢虫的引诱力随着受害枝梢量的增加而增强,它的诱导活性在受害后可持续约2个月;采用GC/MS联用仪分析比较, 发现受害花椒枝梢的酯类物质明显增多,受害与未受害花椒枝梢的气相色谱图中有15个峰位的化学组分相同,但受害的含量显著高.另有9个峰位的组分在未受害枝梢中含量太低,未检测出.

  10. Effect of Dominant Plant Species and Ecological Environment on Truffle Distribution in Yanbian County, Sichuan Province, China%四川盐边县块菌产区优势植物及生态环境对块菌的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小林; 柳成益; 唐平; 杨梅; 贾定洪; 郑林用

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate regression tree (MRT)methodology was used to systematically analyze the effect of dominant plant species and environmental factors on the occurrence of truffles in the Yanbian region of Sichuan Province.A total of 58 seed plant species belonging to 47 genera from 29 families,and four kinds of fern belonging to four genera from four families were identified.The dominant tree species were Pinus yunnanensis,Keteleeria evelyniana,Cyclobalanopsis glauca and Pistacia weinmannifolia,while Coriaria nepalensis,Rhododendron simsii and Rapanea neriifolia were the dominant shrub species. Ageratina adenophora,Eupatorium odoratum and Bidens pilosa were the dominant herbaceous species.The main truffle hosts in the region were P.yunnanensis,K.evelyniana,C.glauca and P.weinmannifolia.MRT revealed that Pteris cretica var.nervosa,A.adenophora,P.yunnanensis,B.pilosa,Juglans regia and P. weinmannifolia were the main plant species affecting the occurrence of tuffles,with P.cretica var. nervosa,A.adenophora and B.pilosa exercising a negative impact and P.yunnanensis,K.evelyniana and P.weinmannifolia a positive effect.Our data also indicated that canopy density,slope,elevation,average tree height and diameter,and average shrub height were the main factors impacting on truffle occurrence. Within our investigation range, truffle occurrence increased with increasing canopy density, elevation, average shrub height and average tree diameter,and decreased with decreasing slope and tree height.%抽样调查了四川省盐边县块菌产区的植物群落优势物种、块菌生态环境情况,用多元回归树方法系统分析了优势物种和生态环境因子对块菌发生的影响。结果表明,盐边县块菌产区的优势物种共有种子植物58种,隶属29科47属,蕨类植物4科4属,该区域植物群落结构不是十分复杂,但呈现出一定多样性,主要优势乔木为云南松(Pinus yunnanensis)、云南油杉(Keteleeria evelyniana

  11. 马缨杜鹃菌根真菌的种类组成%Species Composition of the Mycorrhizal Fungi of Rhododendron delavayi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐胜男; 王济; 张凌云; 张施施; 李珊珊; 邓赞

    2014-01-01

    To explore the species of mycorrhizal fungi of R.delavayi,and provide technical reserves for cultivation and application of R.delavayi,the molecular biological method rDNA-ITS-PCR was employed to identify the isolated mycorrhizal fungi of R.delavayi.Results:six kinds of mycorrhizal fungi closely related to ERM were isolated, including Phialocephala sp (CK007137 ), Oidiodendron sp (HM208742.1 ),Oidiodendron sp. shylhs04 (AY268186.1 ), two kinds of different Epacris root associated fungus,which were the relatives of ERM and fungal sp.R38 which was a new type of ERM respectively.%为探明马缨杜鹃菌根真菌的种类,采用 rDNA-ITS-PCR分子生物学方法对分离的马缨杜鹃菌根真菌进行鉴定。结果表明:从马缨杜鹃菌根共分离出6种与杜鹃花类菌根真菌 Phialocephala sp (CK007137)、Oidiodendron sp(HM208742.1)、Oidiodendron sp.shylhs04(AY268186.1)、2个不同的 Ep-acris root associated fungus 类菌株和 fungal sp.R38亲缘关系十分密切的真菌。其中,前5种真菌与其他ERM 植物的菌根真菌同源或近缘,fungal sp.R38是 ERM 植物菌根真菌的新类型。

  12. Induction of intracellular Ca2+ and pH changes in Sf9 insect cells by rhodojaponin-III, a natural botanic insecticide isolated from Rhododendron molle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xing-An; Xie, Jian-Jun; Hu, Mei-Ying; Zhang, Yan-Bo; Huang, Jing-Fei

    2011-04-15

    Many studies on intracellular calcium ([Ca2+](i)) and intracellular pH (pH(i)) have been carried out due to their importance in regulation of different cellular functions. However, most of the previous studies are focused on human or mammalian cells. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the effect of Rhodojaponin-III (R-III) on [Ca2+](i) and pH(i) and the proliferation of Sf9 cells. R-III strongly inhibited Sf9 cells proliferation with a time- and dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry established that R-III interfered with Sf9 cells division and arrested them in G2/M. By using confocal scanning technique, effects of R-III on intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+](i)) and intracellular pH (pH(i)) in Sf9 cells were determined. R-III induced a significant dose-dependent (1, 10, 100, 200 μg/mL) increase in [Ca2+](i) and pH(i) of Sf9 cells in presence of Ca2+-containing solution (Hanks) and an irreversible decrease in the absence of extra cellular Ca2+. We also found that both extra cellular Ca2+ and intracellular Ca2+ stores contributed to the increase of [Ca2+](i), because completely treating Sf9 cells with CdCl(2) (5 mM), a Ca2+ channels blocker, R-III (100 μg/mL) induced a transient elevation of [Ca2+](i) in case of cells either in presence of Ca2+ containing or Ca2+ free solution. In these conditions, pH(i) showed similar changes with that of [Ca2+](i) on the whole. Accordingly, we supposed that there was a certain linkage for change of [Ca2+](i), cell cycle arrest, proliferation inhibition in Sf9 cells induced by R-III.

  13. Induction of Intracellular Ca2+ and pH Changes in Sf9 Insect Cells by Rhodojaponin-III, A Natural Botanic Insecticide Isolated from Rhododendron molle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Bo Zhang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies on intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i and intracellular pH (pHi have been carried out due to their importance in regulation of different cellular functions. However, most of the previous studies are focused on human or mammalian cells. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the effect of Rhodojaponin-III (R-III on [Ca2+]i and pHi and the proliferation of Sf9 cells. R-III strongly inhibited Sf9 cells proliferation with a time- and dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry established that R-III interfered with Sf9 cells division and arrested them in G2/M. By using confocal scanning technique, effects of R-III on intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i and intracellular pH (pHi in Sf9 cells were determined. R-III induced a significant dose-dependent (1, 10, 100, 200 μg/mL increase in [Ca2+]i and pHi of Sf9 cells in presence of Ca2+-containing solution (Hanks and an irreversible decrease in the absence of extra cellular Ca2+. We also found that both extra cellular Ca2+ and intracellular Ca2+ stores contributed to the increase of [Ca2+]i, because completely treating Sf9 cells with CdCl2 (5 mM, a Ca2+ channels blocker, R-III (100 μg/mL induced a transient elevation of [Ca2+]i in case of cells either in presence of Ca2+ containing or Ca2+ free solution. In these conditions, pHi showed similar changes with that of [Ca2+]i on the whole. Accordingly, we supposed that there was a certain linkage for change of [Ca2+]i, cell cycle arrest, proliferation inhibition in Sf9 cells induced by R-III.

  14. Forest Gaps Inhibit Foliar Litter Pb and Cd Release in Winter and Inhibit Pb and Cd Accumulation in Growing Season in an Alpine Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie He

    Full Text Available The release of heavy metals (such as Pb and Cd from foliar litter play an important role in element cycling in alpine forest ecosystems. Although natural forest gaps could play important roles in the release of heavy metals from foliar litter by affecting the snow cover during the winter and solar irradiation during the growing season, few studies have examined these potential roles. The objectives of this study were to document changes in Pb and Cd dynamics during litter decomposition in the center of gaps and under closed canopies and to investigate the factors that controlled these changes during the winter and growing seasons.Senesced foliar litter from six dominant species, including Kangding willow (Salix paraplesia, Masters larch (Larix mastersiana, Mingjiang fir (Abies faxoniana, Alpine azalea (Rhododendron lapponicum, Red birch (Betula albosinensis and Mourning cypress (Sabina saltuaria, was placed in litterbags and incubated between the gap center and closed canopy conditions in an alpine forest in the eastern region of the Tibetan Plateau. The litterbags were sampled at the snow formation stage, snow coverage stage, snow melt stage and during the growing season. The Pb and Cd concentrations in the sampled foliar litter were determined by acid digestion (HNO3/HClO4.Over one year of decomposition, Pb accumulation and Cd release from the foliar litter occurred, regardless of the foliar litter species. However, Pb and Cd were both released from the foliar litter during the winter and accumulated during the growing season. Compared with the gap center and the canopy gap edge, the extended gap edge and the closed canopy showed higher Pb and Cd release rates in winter and higher Pb and Cd accumulation rates during the growing season, respectively. Statistical analyses indicate that the dynamics of Pb were significantly influenced by frequent freeze-thaw cycles in winter and appropriate hydrothermal conditions during the growing season, the

  15. Analysis on Phylogenesis of Rhododendron L. Plant Located in Hundred Rhododendron Protection Zone of Guizhou and Flowering Characteristics in Molecular Level%贵州百里杜鹃保护区杜鹃属植物系统发育与开花习性的分子水平分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王孜昌; 陈训; 任竹梅; 周家维; 陈翔; 安淼; 高贵龙; 黄家勇; 罗在柒

    2010-01-01

    应用trnL-F序列分析方法,对贵州百里杜鹃自然保护区内的杜鹃属进行了系统发育关系与开花性状研究和分析.从分子水平分析了杜鹃花属中马银花亚属、映山红亚属、杜鹃亚属、糙叶杜鹃亚属、常绿杜鹃亚属等5个亚属的系统发育关系;从常绿杜鹃亚属的参试物种中分析了3个不同颜色的聚合群及之间的系统发育关系;从遗传物质的重组和分离的视角对红色、白色和粉色不同聚合群的生殖关系提出了两个假设.

  16. Volatile chemicals associated with host plants of the strawberry rootworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    The strawberry rootworm (SRW), Paria fragariae Wilcox (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae), hinders profitable production of azaleas and other containerized ornamental crops at nurseries throughout the Southeast. Properly timed early-season insecticide applications are critical to reducing poten...

  17. 安顺市区典型绿化植物滞尘能力与杀菌作用研究%Sluggishing Dust and Disinfection of Typical Green Plants in Anshun City Proper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张来; 张显强

    2011-01-01

    The garden greening as a subsystem of the urban ecosystems beautifies the urban environment; it plays an active role for maintaining urban ecological balance and sustainable development On the basis of surveying the green plants in Anshun city proper, the capability of sluggishing dust and disinfection involving typical plants is studied, and results show that the plant species is few, structure is unitary, species evenness is low; in terms of the index of leaf area, the order is the arbors, climbing plants, flowers and herbs, and shrubs one by one. With the time increasing, the capability of sluggishing dust is increasing for different green plants. Among them, the strongest is Rhododendron simsii that the capability of sluggishing dust reaches 6.6298g/(m2·week) four weeks late, compared with 3.3376g/(m2·week) in the end of the first week, it increases nearly two-fold; the second place belongs to Pinus massoniana, it is up to 5.7413g/(m2·week); the last place belongs to climbing plants. For the open area, the bacterial number is significantly more than that for the plant areas, 11 species of them including Cinnamomum camphora have strong bactericidal effects, their sterilization rates are above 40%.%园林绿化作为城市生态系统的一个子系统,在美化城市环境、保持城市生态平衡、维持城市可持续发展方面起着积极的作用.本文在对安顺城区绿化植物进行调查的基础上对典型植物的叶面积、滞尘能力和杀菌能力的研究表明:区内绿化植物种类较少,结构单一,树种均匀度低.叶面积指数以乔木树种最大,攀援植物次之,花卉和草本植物第3,灌木最小.不同绿化植物滞尘能力随时间而逐渐增加,杜鹃的滞尘能力最强,滞尘四周后达6.6298g/(m2·周),比第一周结束时的3.3376g/(m2·周)增大近2倍;其次为马尾松,达5.7413g/(m2·周);攀援植物滞尘能力最小.空旷区域的含菌量明显高于有植物的区域,香樟等11种植物

  18. Evaluation of irradiated essential oils to control of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae); Avaliacao de produtos naturais irradiados para o controle de Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) e Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potenza, Marcos Roberto

    2004-07-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of irradiated essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus sp., Azadirachta indica, Cymbopogon nardus, Cupressus sempervirens, Cymbopogons citratus and Juniperus communis and aqueous, hexanic and ethanolic irradiated extracts of Solanum paniculatum, Dahlia pinnata, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nephrolepis pectinata, Ruta graveolens, Ficus elastica, Lavandula angustifolia, Rhododendron simsii, Agave angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Allamanda cathartica, Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Pennisetum purpureum, Annona squamosa, Coffea arabica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, in order to identify new substances to integrated pest management (IPM) and to observe possible effects of gamma radiation about extracts and essential oils efficiency such as increase, reduction, activation and inactivation of the same to the pest control. It evaluated the effect of contact on Sitophilus zeamais and by ingestion in Blattella germanica. To irradiation was used an experimental irradiator of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell 220. The essential oils were submitted increasing doses of gamma radiation: 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 kGy. The bioassay with B. germanica demonstrated efficiency between 22.0 e 30.0% and between 30.0 and 42.0%, respectively, to irradiated essential oils of E. citriodora and E. globulus and they demonstrated too repellency to the nymphs. The gamma radiation used promoted changes in essential oils of E. citriodora e E. globulus that they began to show efficiency on B. germanica nymphs besides a significant reduction of repellency. Essential oils of Pinus sp., A. indica, C. sempervirens and J. communis did not display efficiency. The essential oils of C. nardus, and C. citratus had low efficiency. The gamma radiation increased the efficiency of ethanolic extract of D. Pinnata with dose of 7.5 kGy, showing 48.0% of efficiency on B. germanica nymphs. The gamma radiation showed adverse effect on the aqueous extract of R. Graveolens

  19. 喀斯特山区9种常见树木叶片在防火期的阻火性分析%Fire Resistance of Leaves During Fire Prevention Period of Nine Common Tree Species in Karst Mountain Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁琴; 陶建平; 邓锋; 王微; 方文; 何平

    2015-01-01

    Objective]Guizhou province of China is one of the most typical karst regions in the world,at the same time,its fire disturbance is highly representative in the national forest fires. With the fragile karst environment plus severe forest fire disturbance,the fire prevention is particularly important and urgent in the Karst mountain regions of Guizhou province. Among the many fire prevention measures,the biological firebreak with its versatile,and long-term advantage, has attracted much attention of scholars and managers. The primary task of biological firebreak is to select the appropriate pyrophyte ( the plants with good fire resistance) . However,there is few study focus on the pyrophyte selection for karst mountain regions. On the other hand,with regard to pyrophyte selection,there is no uniform evaluation method up to now. It’s necessary to select appropriate fire-resistant tree species which are also suitable for growing in karst mountain regions,[Method]we investigated 9 common tree species from karst mountain regions of northwest Guizhou. Based on the measurements of four leaf traits ( benzene -alcohol extract content,ash content,ignition time and heat value) during fire prevention period,we used the Principal Component Analysis ( PCA) ,combined with the Weighted-Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution ( W-TOPSIS) ,to analyze the fire resistance.[Result]The Viburnum foetidum var. ceanothoides’s and Castanea seguinii’s benzene-alcohol extractive content were 2. 12 and 1. 97 times higher than Murica nana’s; The ash content of M. nana’s and V. foetidum var. ceanothoides’were the highest,and Castanea seguinii’s,Vaccinium pseudorobustum ’s and Ligustrum quihoui ’s were the lowest; The ignition time of L. quihoui, Castanea seguinii and Cotoneaster glaucophyllus var. glaucophyllus were the longest, and Puracantha fortuneana, Cunninghamia lanceolata and Rhododendron simsii were the shortest;The highest heat value were

  20. Stephanitis takeyai and S. rhododendri (Heteroptera: Tingidae in Slovakia: first record and economic importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barta Marek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report on the occurrence of andromeda lace bug, Stephanitis (Stephanitis takeyai Drake and Maa, 1955, and rhododendron lace bug, Stephanitis (Stephanitis rhododendri Horvath, 1905, in Slovakia. Syntopic colonies of both species were found on rhododendron shrubs (Rhododendron sp. in south-western Slovakia in 2015. The feeding of the lace bugs resulted in damage to infested rhododendrons. Leaves turned yellow and brown, prematurely dropped what led to continuous drying up of twigs and the whole plants. Details on morphology of adult stages of the two species, description of damage symptoms and economic importance of these pests are presented and discussed.

  1. EXPERIMENTS ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE FLOWERS OF RHODODENDRON MOLLE AGAINST THREE STORED GRAIN INSECT PESTS%黄杜鹃花对3种仓库害虫的毒杀试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程东美; 胡美英

    2000-01-01

    黄杜鹃花甲醇抽提物对赤拟谷盗、米象、谷蠢具有毒杀作用,处理后30天的分别为3.51mg/g、.57mg/g和4.38mg/g,且对赤拟谷盗成虫的种群有较强的繁殖抑制作用,用10mg/g浓度处理60天和90天的繁殖抑制率分别为94.10%和92.30%,说明黄杜鹃花能有效抑制赤拟谷盗成虫种群的繁殖达90天.

  2. 雷山杜鹃菌根的显微结构与菌根真菌的侵染率%Microstructure and Fungus Infection Rate of Rhododendron leishanicum Mycorrhiza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘仁阳; 欧静

    2014-01-01

    The mycorrhiza morphology and fungus infection rate of wild R.leishanicum root system were studied in Spring and Autumn by the acid fuchsin method to explore the morphological structure characteristics and fungus infected rate in the natural habitat.The results showed that the surface of R.leishanicum root system is covered with monilioid hyphae and septate hypha without exogenous-hyphae;there is a typical ERM structure-hyphal knot in cells of the root system, and hyphae are distributed in the special cells along cell wall of the root system. The fungus infection rate of R.leishanicum mycorrhiza in Spring and Autumn is 75% and 54% separately.%为探明雷山杜鹃菌根的形态结构特征及在自然生境中菌根真菌的侵染率,以野生雷山杜鹃根系为试验材料,采用酸性品红染色压片法,对其春季和秋季的菌根形态及侵染情况进行初步研究。结果表明:雷山杜鹃根系表面被念珠状菌丝和有隔菌丝覆盖,未发现外生菌丝侵入根系细胞;根系细胞内存在典型杜鹃花类菌根(ERM)结构---菌丝结;菌丝只在沿根系细胞壁分布的特殊细胞内贯穿分布。雷山杜鹃菌根真菌侵染率春季(75%)高于秋季(54%)。

  3. 砍伐与滑坡对东祁连山杜鹃灌丛草地土壤肥力的影响%Effect of deforestation and landslide on soil of Rhododendron shrub ecosystem in the eastern Qilian mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德罡

    2002-01-01

    分布于东祁连山高山地带的杜鹃灌丛下的土壤中,有效氮与有机质含量呈正相关关系(r=0.879 4,P<0.01),全氮和全磷在年内变幅较小.砍伐后第1年内有机质、全氮含量变幅很小,分别由砍伐前的24.43%和1.00%降为24.39%和0.97%;全磷含量未见变化;有效氮含量和pH值则分别由543.4×106和7.34上升为597.8×10-6和7.43.在植被完全遭到破坏的自然滑坡地段,土壤有机质、有效氮、全氮和全磷含量与其对照相比,有不同程度的下降,分别由16.56%、415.4×10-5、0.97%和0.052%下降为9.20%、204.0×10-6、0.46%和0.038%;土壤pH值则由7.61上升为7.79.研究表明,干扰对土壤因子有较大影响,尤以滑坡最为严重.

  4. Isolation and identification of mycorrhizal fungi from Rhododendron hippophaeoides and application of DGGE%灰背杜鹃菌根真菌的分离与鉴定及DGGE的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振华; 李潞滨; 童方平; 姚娜

    2012-01-01

    应用传统的培养方法分离菌根真菌,应用ITS rDNA分子生物学手段,进行了菌株的分类鉴定,并结合DGGE(变性梯度凝胶电泳)技术对菌根真菌进行检测.传统培养得到了2种与杜鹃花菌根真菌亲缘关系十分密切的真菌,分别为Phialocephala fortinii和Epacris pulchella root associated fungus.DGGE(变性梯度凝胶电泳)技术检测到1种菌根真菌为Rhizoscyphus ericae.

  5. Uniform design for high efficient micropropagation system of Rhododendron redowskianum Maxim%基于均匀设计法优化苞叶杜鹃高效快繁体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾地周

    2010-01-01

    以苞叶杜鹃嫩茎段为外植体,应用均匀设计法筛选最适合的培养基,结果表明,最适合嫩茎段腋芽萌发生长及茎段生根的培养基为DR+IAA 0.10 mg/L+NAA 0.08 mg/L+GA31.90 mg/L,再生率达99.3%以上.以再生植株的茎节为材料进行快繁,在45 d的培养周期内增殖倍数平均达5以上.建立了苞叶杜鹃的高效快繁体系.

  6. 遮阴对迷人杜鹃种子萌发和芽苗生长的影响%Effects of Shade on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth in Rhododendron agastum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周艳; 韦小丽; 李朝婵; 陈训

    2015-01-01

    为给迷人杜鹃的抚育管理提供参考,采用盆栽法人工模拟光照条件,探索不同遮阴处理对迷人杜鹃种子萌发和芽苗生长的影响试验。结果表明:迷人杜鹃种子萌发率和萌发指数在30%遮阴处理时达到最大,分别为90.00%和2.46;随着光照的减弱而逐渐减小,在80%遮阴处理下最小,为40%和0.27。弱光照对种子萌发进程有一定的延迟作用,萌发活力指数随着光照的减弱而减小。不同遮阴处理的迷人杜鹃芽苗具有较大的形态学可塑性,30%遮阴处理的芽苗胚根长、胚轴长、芽苗活力指数和幼叶宽均最大,分别比全光照提高60.71%、29.91%、52.26%和33.33%;80%遮阴处理最小,分别比全光照降低59.09%、54.88%、74.32%和66.67%。随着遮阴度的增加,幼苗的根系活力降低,而总叶绿素含量先上升后降低,根系活力以30%遮阴处理最大,为3.49 mg/(g·h);MDA 含量以80%遮阴处理最大,为13.42 nmol/g FW;叶绿素含量以50%遮阴处理最大,为75.32μg/g。遮阴度为30%的光照环境有利于迷人杜鹃盆栽育苗。%To provide references for the R.agastum tending management,a pot culture experiment with artificial simulation of light conditions was conducted to explore the effects of different shading treatments on seed germination and seedling growth of R.agastum.Results:The seed germination rate and germination index of 30% shading treatment were the highest,respectively 90.00% and 2.46,and gradually decreased with decreasing light intensity,then reached the minimum at 80% shading treatment, respectively 40% and 0.27.Weak light put off seed germination process in certain degree,germination vigor index decreased with weakening light intensity.R.agastum with different shading treatment had great morphological plasticity,radical length,hypocotyl length,vigor index and young leaf width of 30%shading treatment were the highest,which were respectively 60.71%,29.91%,52.26% and 33.33%higher than full light treatment,that of 80% shading treatment were the lowest,59.09%,54.88%, 74.32% and 66.67% lower than full light treatment respectively.With increasing the shading degree, seedling root vigor decreased,while total chlorophyll content first increased and then decreased,root vigor of 30% shading treatment was the highest[3.49 mg/(g·h)],MDA content of 80% shading treatment was the highest(13.42 nmol/g FW),chlorophyll content of 50% shading treatment was the highest(75.32μg/g).30% shading treatment was beneficial for pot culture of seedlings of R.agastum.

  7. A study on the variety of the endo- epiphyte and rhizo- epiphyte of rhododendron microphyton%亮毛杜鹃根际真菌与内生真菌的多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪玲

    2004-01-01

    为进一步研究根际真菌与内生真菌及植物之间的联系.本文对生长于云南省楚雄市的亮毛杜鹃(Rododendron microphyton)的根际真菌和内生真菌进行分离,结果共获得真菌75株,经显微形态观察鉴定,它们均属于半知菌亚门的8个属,其中青霉属31株,占总数的41.3%,属于绝对优势类群,结果表明亮毛杜鹃的根际真菌和内生真菌有着丰富的多样性.

  8. 78 FR 9915 - Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals To Change the Community of License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... COMMISSION Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals To Change the Community of License AGENCY: Federal..., From GOSHEN, AL, To BRANTLEY, AL; AZALEA RADIO CORPORATION, Station NEW, Facility ID 183371, BMPH- 20121206ACO, From ROUNDUP, MT, To LEWISTOWN HEIGHTS, MT; COLONIAL RADIO GROUP, INC. Station WBYB, Facility...

  9. Fieldwork coastal engineering: Varna, Bulgaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arecco, P.; Van Leeuwen , Y.; Brouwer, M.; Miranda, C.; Curto, V.; Piccoli, C.; Dobochinski, J.; Van Steijn , P.; Friedman, J.; Weeda, T.; Fuentes, M.; Winde, E.; Groenenberg, X.; Wit, M.; Kolijn, D.; Tiseh, I.; Angelov, D.; Nacheva, D.; Marinov, K.; Petkov, S.

    2013-01-01

    One of these resort areas lies in the town of St. Konstantine I Elelna, where Hotel Sirius and hotel Azalea are built very close to the waterline. These hotels are dependent on their neighbouring beaches for the attraction of tourism and for the structural safety of their buildings. Therefore, they

  10. Systemic Insecticides Reduce Feeding, Survival and Fecundity of Adult Black Vine Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on a Variety of Ornamental Nursery Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of bioassays were conducted to test the systemic activity of clothianidin, chlorantraniliprole, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam against adult black vine weevils (Otiorhynchus sulcatus F.) on Taxus, Heuchera, Astilbe, Sedum, Euonymus, and Rhododendron grown in containers. The insecticides wer...

  11. The Biological Activity of Essential Oil in Rhododendron anthopogonoides Maxim and Artemisia dubia Wall. ex Bess. to Grassland Caterpillar, Gynaephora menyuanenis (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)%烈香杜鹃精油和牛尾蒿精油对门源草原毛虫的生物活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严林; 胡凤祖; 吴静; 韩福龙

    2009-01-01

    采用浸叶法和点滴法测定烈香杜鹃(Rhododendrom anthopogonoides Maxim)、牛尾蒿(Artemisa dubia Wall. ex Bess)植物精油对门源草原毛虫(Gynaephora menyuanensis)(鳞翅目Lepidoptera: 毒蛾科Lymantriidae )6龄幼虫的生物活性.结果表明,烈香杜鹃和牛尾蒿植物精油对幼虫具有很强的胃毒、触杀活性和拒食作用,以及生长抑制作用.烈香杜鹃精油对门源草原毛虫幼虫的生物活性高于牛尾蒿精油.

  12. A Study on the Technique System of Tissue Culture in Rhododendron Hybrind(Ⅰ)——Selection of Medium and Explant%西洋杜鹃组织培养技术体系研究(Ⅰ)——基本培养基和外植体的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟宇; 张健; 罗承德; 陈其兵

    2001-01-01

    实验以不同季节的茎尖(含茎段)为材料,采用不同基本培养基,研究确定西洋杜鹃组织培养适合的基本培养基类型,植株再生的可能途径,以及适宜的培养条件。结果表明:①低盐分浓度及高比值NH4+/NO3-的基本培养基Read培养基适合西洋杜鹃;②最适外植体为摘花芽后萌发的顶芽茎尖;③最佳取材时间为3~5月;④培养条件:温度25±2℃,光照16h/黑暗8h,光照强度1500~2500lx。%In view of studying the suitable type of medium, probable way of explant regeneration and suitable condition of culture for tissue culture in R.hybridn, a experimentation was established in which shoot tip from different seasons and a series of different medium were employed. The results are as follows: ①Read medium with low mineral salt concentration and high ration of NH4+/NO3- is suitable for R.hybridn microculture; ②The optimal explants are shoot tips of end buds excised from R.hybridn in 3~5 months; ③All the cultures are kept under the temperature of 25±2℃, illuminated for 16 hours per day, and light intensity was 1500~2500lx.

  13. Effect of stump girth and height on resprouting of Rhododendron ar-boreum following disturbance in temperate mixed broad leaved forest of Arunachal Pradesh, India%印度阿鲁纳恰尔邦温带阔叶混交林树桩周长和高度对受干扰的树形杜鹃再发芽的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul Ashish; Khan Mohamed Latif; Das Ashesh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    在印度北部阿鲁纳恰尔邦两块受干扰的树形杜鹃林地(Paipraw和Falockchar)内,研究了树木采伐后树桩发芽 对林木再生的作用.树桩被分成7个周长、高度等级,评价了树桩周长和高度对发芽的作用.还研究了树桩周长对新发芽成活的影响.结果表明,两块样地内中等周长(50-80,80-110,和110-140 cm)的树桩数最高.但是,Paipraw样 地(1210 stumps·ha-1)内的树桩密度要大于Falockchar样地(1154 stumps·ha-1).Fa|ockchar样地树桩发芽百分比(18%)略高于Paipmw(15%).同样地,两块样地内中等高度(50-80,80-110和110-140 cm)的树桩数量也最多.周长越低树桩的发芽能力越强.树桩抽芽能力与树桩周长、高度显著相关.发芽存活情况也依赖于树桩周长,此外,还与取样时间有关.总的发芽再生能力较低,周长小的树桩抽芽存活能力要好于周长大的树桩.本研究表明,树桩虽有一定的发芽能力,但树桩发芽对树形杜鹃自然再生作用不大.对于肆意砍伐林地来说,树桩发芽只能形成质量较差的小灌木材,以此无法重建林分;种子再生和苗木再生才是更好的选择.

  14. Official Zhang Flower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Tucked away at the highest elevation of any city in the world, Lhasa is filled with flowers bathed in warm sunlight. Whether in Barkor Street or in snaking alleys, one finds flowers in full bloom. They include the famous Gal-sang flower, azaleas, to be found in the mountains, Rho-diola which is used as a medicinal herb, and a kind of flower known as High Commissioner Zhang.

  15. Effect of applied synthetic auxin on root growth in plantlet propagation by cuttage and tissue culture; Sashiki to soshiki baiyo ni okeru gosei auxin rui no shiyo koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, K.; Yoshihara, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    The effect of synthetic plant hormone 4-C1-IAA and TFIBA on root growth in plantlet propagation was clarified by the cuttage and the issue culture of strawberry seedling production. A periwinkle, vine, and azalea are the effect of 4-C1-IAA on root growth, and a promotion effect was recognized for rooting and root elongation. The concentration of 4-C1-IAA in which the growth promotion effect of a root most appears varies depending on the species of a plant. The concentration of a periwinkle was 20 ppm, and that of an azalea was 2000 ppm. The growth promotion effect of a root in 4-C1-IAA and TFIBA was compared with IBA for an azalea. The result showed that 4-C1-IAA is the same in the effect as IBA and that TFIBA is higher than for IBA. The growth of a vine`s terminal bud was promoted by the effect of TFIBA on root growth, and the callus occurring when IBA was treated was not formed. The rooting of a strawberry was promoted by the effect of TFIBA on root growth. The combined use of TFIBA and BA promotes the growth of a side bud and forms a multi-bud plant. However, rooting was inhibited. The callus caused by the effect of BA on root growth could be suppressed through the combined use with TFIBA. 6 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Studies on the occurrence and colonisation of plants by Phytophthora ramorum in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Orlikowski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of Phytophthora ramorum on Rhododendron, Vaccinium, Viburnum and Quercus species in ornamental nurseris and fores stands in 2001-2002 and necrosis spead on plant parts and seedlings wewe studied. Only P. citricola was isolated from Rhododendron spp. and V.vitis-idaea. Shoot necrosis and dieback symptoms were not observed on Viburnum species in surveyed nurseries. From diseased Quercus trunks among others Armillaria spp. and Fusarium spp. were isolated. Inoculation of leaves and stem parts of Rhododendron cultivars and other ericaceous plants with P. ramorum resulted in the development of leaf and stem rot. The species caused stem necrosis of Fagus sylvatica, Q. rubra and Pseudotsuga menziesii but symptoms developed slowly.

  17. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 October 2011-30 November 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Aluana G; Albaina, A; Alpermann, Tilman J; Apkenas, Vanessa E; Bankhead-Dronnet, S; Bergek, Sara; Berumen, Michael L; Cho, Chang-Hung; Clobert, Jean; Coulon, Aurélie; DE Feraudy, D; Estonba, A; Hankeln, Thomas; Hochkirch, Axel; Hsu, Tsai-Wen; Huang, Tsurng-Juhn; Irigoien, X; Iriondo, M; Kay, Kathleen M; Kinitz, Tim; Kothera, Linda; LE Hénanff, Maxime; Lieutier, F; Lourdais, Olivier; Macrini, Camila M T; Manzano, C; Martin, C; Morris, Veronica R F; Nanninga, Gerrit; Pardo, M A; Plieske, Jörg; Pointeau, S; Prestegaard, Tore; Quack, Markus; Richard, Murielle; Savage, Harry M; Schwarcz, Kaiser D; Shade, Jessica; Simms, Ellen L; Solferini, Vera N; Stevens, Virginie M; Veith, Michael; Wen, Mei-Juan; Wicker, Florian; Yost, Jennifer M; Zarraonaindia, I

    2012-03-01

    This article documents the addition of 139 microsatellite marker loci and 90 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Aglaoctenus lagotis, Costus pulverulentus, Costus scaber, Culex pipiens, Dascyllus marginatus, Lupinus nanus Benth, Phloeomyzus passerini, Podarcis muralis, Rhododendron rubropilosum Hayata var. taiwanalpinum and Zoarces viviparus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Culex quinquefasciatus, Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum Hay. ssp. morii (Hay.) Yamazaki and R. pseudochrysanthum Hayata. This article also documents the addition of 48 sequencing primer pairs and 90 allele-specific primers for Engraulis encrasicolus.

  18. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 October 2011 - 30 November 2011

    KAUST Repository

    Abreu, Aluana Gonçalves

    2012-02-01

    This article documents the addition of 139 microsatellite marker loci and 90 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Aglaoctenus lagotis, Costus pulverulentus, Costus scaber, Culex pipiens, Dascyllus marginatus, Lupinus nanus Benth, Phloeomyzus passerini, Podarcis muralis, Rhododendron rubropilosum Hayata var. taiwanalpinum and Zoarces viviparus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Culex quinquefasciatus, Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum Hay. ssp. morii (Hay.) Yamazaki and R. pseudochrysanthum Hayata. This article also documents the addition of 48 sequencing primer pairs and 90 allele-specific primers for Engraulis encrasicolus. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) : [luuletused] / R. W. Stedingh ; tlk. ja saatesõna: Jüri Talvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stedingh, R. W.

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) ; Rubus spectabilis ; Rododendron (Rhododendron macrophyllum) ; Lysuchitum americanum ; Tulp (Tulipa gesneriana) ; Kanada hani (Branta canadensis) ; Metsorava pärastlõuna (Sciurus carolinensis) ; Ohakalind (Spinus tristis) ; Shakespeare'i mälestusmärk (kogust "Stanley pargi süit")

  20. A Rapid Diagnostic Test to Distinguish Between American and European Populations of Phytophthora ramorum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, L.P.N.M.; Verstappen, E.C.P.; Kox, L.F.F.; Flier, W.G.; Bonants, P.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    A new devastating disease in the United States, commonly known as Sudden Oak Death, is caused by Phytophthora ramorum. This pathogen, which previously was described attacking species of Rhododendron and Viburnum in Germany and the Netherlands, has established itself in forests on the central coast o

  1. Research Progress on Ericoid Mycorrhiza%杜鹃花科植物菌根研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟林芳; 郁书君

    2012-01-01

    杜鹃是我国传统花卉,具有极高的观赏及园林应用价值.杜鹃能够在恶劣环境下存活与其根部能形成菌根是密不可分的.开展杜鹃菌根研究不仅对杜鹃花的园林应用具有重要价值,同时对其物种的多样性保育也具有重要意义.综述了杜鹃内生菌根真菌的生物多样性及对杜鹃生长发育的作用,以期为加强杜鹃内生菌根真菌应用前景及探究其作用机制奠定基础.%Rhododendron is one of traditional flowers in China,and it has excellent ornamental and application values. Survival of rhododendron under severe natural environment is intimately related with ericoid mycorrhiza. To carry out studies on ericoid mycorrhiza is not only of important value for rhododendron garden application,but also of great significance for species diversity conservation. This paper expounds the biodiversity of ericoid mycorrhizal fungi and its function in rhododendron's growth and development. This study will surely lay a solid foundation for further utilization and mechanism exploitation of ericoid mycorrhizal fungi.

  2. A revision of the history of the Colletotrichum acutatum species complex in the Nordic countries based on herbarium specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundelin, Thomas; Strømeng, Gunn Mari; Gjærum, Halvor B.

    2015-01-01

    seven plant hosts (three cherry species, apple, raspberry and rhododendron). This is the first time herbarium specimens have been used to study these pathogens under Nordic conditions. Differences in the ITS sequences suggest the presence of different genotypes within the complex, indicating a well...

  3. Screening Level Ecological Risk Assessments of Some Military Munitions and Obscurant-related Compounds for Selected Threatened and Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    Daisies, dandelion, thistles Plant 8 Bromeliaceae Bromiliads Plant 5.1 Cyperaceae Sedges Plant 3 Ericaceae Rhododendron, heather, blueberry Plant...grama Grass Plant 2 Sedge Grass Plant 1 Bush muhly Grass Plant 6 Slender janusia Shrub Plant 4 Redstem filaree Herb Plant 8 Common winterfat Sage

  4. Identificação de pigmentos naturais de espécies vegetais utilizando-se cromatografia em papel Identification of natural pigments from vegetal species using paper chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Okumura

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural dyes to demonstrate principles of paper chromatography is proposed. Extraction of the coloring compounds were performed in order to obtain the aglycone form of the anthocyanins present in the crude extracts. Separations were carried out on chromatographic paper with BAW (butanol/acetic acid/water as mobile phase and the results compared with literature data. The crude extracts were obtained from Tibouchina granulosa, Rododhendron simsii, Impatiens walleriana flowers which are wildely found in Brazil and Phaseolus vulgaris L. grains skin which is the principal ingredient of the world famous "feijoada". Such species were chosen in order to attract the students attention since they are present in their quotidian, in agreement with the new proposals for Brazilian education.

  5. Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Insecticidal Activities of Hedychium Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanniah Rajasekaran

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been documented, and their use as “biocides” is gaining popularity. The aims of this study were to analyze the chemical composition and assess the biological activities of Hedychium essential oils. Oils from 19 Hedychium species and cultivars were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS techniques. The antifungal and insecticidal activities of these oils were tested against Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides, and three insects, the azalea lace bug (Stephanitis pyrioides, the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti, and the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta. Hedychium oils were rich in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, especially 1,8-cineole (0.1%–42%, linalool (<0.1%–56%, a-pinene (3%–17%, b-pinene (4%–31%, and (E-nerolidol (0.1%–20%. Hedychium oils had no antifungal effect on C. gloeosporioides, C. fragariae, and C. acutatum, but most Hedychium oils effectively killed azalea lace bugs. The oils also show promise as an adult mosquito repellent, but they would make rather poor larvicides or adulticides for mosquito control. Hedychium oils acted either as a fire ant repellent or attractant, depending on plant genotype and oil concentration.

  6. A phytosociological study on Betula Platyphylla forests in Daxing’an Mountains of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永富; 侯丽君; 魏占才; 宋关玲

    2000-01-01

    For the first time in this paper the forests of Betula platyphylla in Daxing’an Mountains are subdivided by phytosociological methods. Three community types of B. platyphylla forest have been differentiated, e.g., Rhododendron dahuricum-Betula platyphylla community, Corylus heterophylla-Betula platyphylla community and Artemisia stolonifera-Betula platyphylla community. The distributed elevation, stand height, differential species, major composition species of tree layer, shrub layer and herb layer for each community were detail described

  7. Screening of Korean Medicinal Plant Extracts for α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Sancheti,Shruti; Sancheti,Sandesh; LEE, Seung-Hun; Lee, Jae-Eun; Seo, Sung-Yum

    2011-01-01

    Glycosidases are the enzymes involved in various biochemical processes related to metabolic disorders and diseases. Therefore, much effort has been focused on searching novel pharmacotherapy for the treatment of these ailments from medicinal plants due to higher safety margins. To pursue these efforts, the present study was performed to evaluate the α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of thirty Korean medicinal plant extracts. Among the plants studied, Euonymus sachalinensis, Rhododendron sch...

  8. CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING THE CONSERVATION STATUS OF THE NATURAL HABITATS FROM BUILA-VÂNTURARIŢA NATIONAL PARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Neblea

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a characterization of the conservation status of natural habitats from Buila-Vânturariţa National Park was maded. There were analyzed three types of habitats, according to NATURA 2000 classification, as follows: 8210 Calcareous rocky slopes with chasmophytic vegetation; 4070* Bushes with Pinus mugo and Rhododendron hirsutum (Rhododendretum hirsuti and 6190 Rupicolous Pannonic grasslands (Stipo-Festucetalia pallentis.

  9. A Comprehensive Study of the Tocks Island Lake Project and Alternatives. Part B. Review of Tocks Island Lake Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    California . Dr. Joseph Shapiro, Limnological Research Center, University of Minnesota. Dr. Raymond K. Linsley, P.E., Department of Civil Engineering...Stanford University, Palo Alto, California . IX-4 IX.A.2 HISTORY OF THE CONCERN OVER POTENTIAL EUTROPHICATION IN TOCKS ISLAND LAKE This section is...rhododendron. Many interesting wildflowers will be lost when the floodplain is inundated. The most conspicuous is purple loosestrife, an introduced species, but

  10. Mississippi River Navigation System. Environmental Evaluations of Proposed Mooring Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    crayfish, oligochetes, nematodes , snails, clams, mussels and tubifex worms. Fish commonly found in the Kentucky River and tributaries are carp, drum...with ash, poplar, tulip tree, sugar maple, and pawpaw as associate species. The floodplain portions of the basin include southern "swamp" species...such as oak, hickory, ash, poplar, tulip tree, sugar maple and associated species. Understories include rhododendron, laurel, dogwood and wild cherry

  11. Photosynthetic limitation of several representative subalpine species in the Catalan Pyrenees in summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernàndez-Martínez, J; Fleck, I

    2016-07-01

    Information on the photosynthetic process and its limitations is essential in order to predict both the capacity of species to adapt to conditions associated with climate change and the likely changes in plant communities. Considering that high-mountain species are especially sensitive, three species representative of subalpine forests of the Central Catalan Pyrenees: mountain pine (Pinus uncinata Mill.), birch (Betula pendula Roth) and rhododendron (Rhododendron ferrugineum L.) were studied under conditions associated with climate change, such as low precipitation, elevated atmospheric [CO2 ] and high solar irradiation incident at Earth's surface, in order to detect any photosynthetic limitations. Short-term high [CO2 ] increased photosynthesis rates (A) and water use efficiency (WUE), especially in birch and mountain pine, whereas stomatal conductance (gs ) was not altered in either species. Birch showed photosynthesis limitation through stomatal closure related to low rainfall, which induced photoinhibition and early foliar senescence. Rhododendron was especially affected by high irradiance, showing early photosynthetic saturation in low light, highest chlorophyll content, lowest gas exchange rates and least photoprotection. Mountain pine had the highest A, photosynthetic capacity (Amax ) and light-saturated rates of net CO2 assimilation (Asat ), which were maintained under reduced precipitation. Furthermore, maximum quantum yield (Fv /Fm ), thermal energy dissipation, PRI and SIPI radiometric index, and ascorbate content indicated improved photoprotection with respect to the other two species. However, maximum velocity of carboxylation of RuBisco (Vcmax ) indicated that N availability would be the main photosynthetic limitation in this species.

  12. 我国网络慈善组织人才困境与对策--以“格桑花”为例%The Talent Dilemma and Countermeasures of Network Charity Organization In China---Taking the“Sims Azalea” for example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕

    2013-01-01

    How to optimize human resources management is directly related to organization in the future, this article use“Sims Azalea western student network” as an example, and analyze the dilemma encountered in the process of human resource management of network charity organization, and try to put forward the corresponding countermeasures.%如何优化人力资源管理直接关系到组织未来,本文以“格桑花西部助学网”为例,分析网络慈善组织发展过程中遇到的人力资源管理困境,并提出相应对策。

  13. 10种亚热带绿化树种净化大气能力初步研究%Preliminary Study on Air Purification of 10 Greening Tree Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋绪忠; 杨华; 邹景泉; 余家中; 潘忠民; 叶华琳; 姚刚

    2012-01-01

    通过对香樟(Cinnamonum campora)、广玉兰(Magnolia grandiflora)、银杏(Ginkgo biloba)、朴树(Celtis sinensis)、乌桕(Sapium sebiferum)、桂花(Osmanthus fragrans)、马银花(Rhododendron ovatum)、含笑(Michelia figo)、杜鹃(Rhododendron spp.)、三角枫(Acer buergerianum)10种亚热带绿化树种对大气中的粉尘、N、S、Cl 4种有害物质的吸收净化能力的初步测定,结果表明:单位面积滞尘量最高的树种是朴树,氮吸收最高的树种是乌桕,硫吸收最高的树种是银杏,氯吸收最高的树种是杜鹃;乔木树种的全氮含量、全硫含量、单位面积滞尘量都比灌木树种的含量高,但是全氯含量比灌木树种的含量低;落叶树种的各净化指标平均值都比常绿树种的高.%Determinations were conducted on air purification capability of ten greening tree species in Hangzhou. The result demonstrated that Celtis sinensis had the strongest capacity of dust retention, Sapium sebiferum had the best effect of absorption of N, and Ginkgo biloba of S, Rhododendron ssp of Cl. TN, TS, unit area dust retention of arbor species was larger than that of shrub species, except TCL. The air purification cabilities of deciduous trees were higher than that of evergreen trees.

  14. WILD HONEY INTOXICATION: CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munire Babayigit

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wild honey intoxication (WHI is a rare disease that results from consuming honey produced by Rhododendron polen feeded bees. WHI develops due to grayanotoxin (GT that it contains. WHI might present with mild symptoms of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and neurological systems or might also present in a life threatining form with AV block and cardiovascular collaps. In this report we aimed to present clinical presentation and treatment of a case of WHI. [J Contemp Med 2013; 3(3.000: 197-199

  15. Humboldt Bay Wetlands Review and Baylands Analysis. Volume III. Habitat Classification and Mapping and Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    itiflorum Pteridium equi hinum Melilotus spp. Rhododendron cahifornicm Phragmi tes communis Rubus spectabi his Plan tago hanceo Zeta Salix spp. Poe pratensizs...in mud and] rhuddy SiliE! bottomIs) C I ’J 0 c j d , v-( I t LI Illi I I "I fo) [ilia 1, 11 S l S ’c I , iv In I caLl fo n 0 m11ZI s ’_5 poe ( )O)OSC...California listing, State Lands Commission). Smith, Allan R., 1967. Population dynamics and ecology of the embiotocids of Humboldt Bay, California

  16. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON WHOLE TREE VERTICAL TENSILE STRENGTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihua CHEN; Xinxiao YU; Dongsheng ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the vertical tensile strength of whole tree roots under the same soil and landform conditions.The experiments show that the shape of a root system's distribution affects the vertical tensile strength of roots.Rhododendron trees have horizontal root systems,so the whole roots were pulled out in the experiment process.Populous purdomii has vertical roots,so the experiment continued quite a long time.Abies fabric has both vertical and horizontal main roots,so the P-S curve shows a multi-peak shape.

  17. PRELIMINARY RESEARCHES ON NATURAL HABITATS FROM PIETRICICA MOUNTAIN (PIATRA CRAIULUI NATIONAL PARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Neblea

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a characterization of some natural habitats from Pietricica Mountain (Piatra Craiului National Park was maded. There were analyzed five types of habitats, according to NATURA 2000 classification, as follows: 4060 Alpine and boreal heaths, 4070* Bushes with Pinus mugo and Rhododendron hirsutum (Mugo-Rhododendretum hirsuti, 6170 Alpine and subalpine calcareous grasslands, 6430 Hydrophilous tall-herb fringe communities of plains and of the montane to alpine levels and 9410 Acidophilous Picea forests of the montane to alpine levels (Vaccinio-Piceetea.

  18. The diversity of soil culturable fungi in the three alpine shrub grasslands of Eastern Qilian Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junzhong ZHANG; Baiying MAN; Benzhong FU; Li LIU; Changzhi HAN

    2013-01-01

    To understand the diversity of culturable fungi in soil at alpine sites,Rhododendron fruticosa shrubland,Salix cupularis fruticosa shrubland,and Dasiphoru fruticosa shrubland of the Eastern Qilian Mountains were selected to investigate.Three methods,including traditional culturing,rDNA intemal transcribed spacer (ITS)sequence analysis,and economical efficiency analysis,were carried out to estimate the diversity of soil culturable fungi of these three alpine shrublands.A total of 35 strains of culturable fungi were cultured by dilution plate technique and were analyzed by rDNA ITS sequence.The diversity indices such as species abundance (S),Shannon-Wiener index (H),Simpson dominance index (D),and Pielou evenness index (J) of Rhododendron fruticosa shrubland,Salix cupularis fruticosa shrubland,and Dasiphoru fruticosa shrubland were ranged between 16 and 17,2.66-2.71,0.92,0.95-0.97 respectively.The results showed that the diversity of soil fungi were abundant in these three types of alpine shrub grasslands,while further study should be done to explore their potential value.

  19. 抑制烟草花叶病毒侵染的植物提取物的筛选%Selecting materials of antiviral activity to tobacco mosaic virus infection from some plant extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马学萍; 孔宝华; 叶敏; 段云晖

    2007-01-01

    Ethanol extracts from thirty-three kinds of plant were tested for inhibiting Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) infection by using half leaf technique on Nicotiana glutinosa.The results showed that the extracts of Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G.Don and Eucalyptus maideni F.V.Muell performed better inhibitory activities to TMV infection comparing other plant species.The inhibition percentage were 89.7%and 78.3%,respectively.The extracts of Cuscuta chinensis Lam.,Rosa moyesii Hemsl.et wils,Morus alba L.,Callistemon rigidus R.Br,R.simsii planch,Osmanthus fragrans (Thunb)Lour,Dianthus chinensis L.,Ehretia coryltfolia C.H.Wight,Brassica juncea(L.) Czern.et coss,Aloe vera(L.) Burm.f.showed inhibitory effect as well.The inhibition percentage all of them were over 50%.%用半叶枯斑法,在心叶烟上测试了33种植物乙醇提取物水溶液对烟草花叶病毒(Tobacco mosaic virus,TMV)侵染的抑制效果.结果表明,雪松、桉树提取物能较好地抑制病毒(TMV)侵染, 抑制率达到89.7%,78.3%;此外,菟丝子、红花蔷薇、桑、红千层、杜鹃、桂花、香石竹、滇厚朴、荠菜、芦荟等植物提取物也具有抑制烟草花叶病毒(TMV)侵染的效果,抑制率均在50%以上.

  20. Biochar as a biosecurity tool for the management of invasive and/or infected plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Philip J. E.; Fielding, J. James; Alayne Street-Perrott, F.; Doerr, Stefan H.; Brackenbury, Sion

    2014-05-01

    Control of invasive alien/native plants and diseased trees is often achieved using labour-intensive mechanical methods, incurring high costs and significant carbon debt. Disposal of cleared biomass may be heavily regulated. The commonly used method, burning, wastes a potentially valuable resource. Biochar may offer a safe, cost-effective solution to the problem of disposal. Large areas of Wales are covered by bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) (37x103 ha) or invasive Rhododendron ponticum (area not yet quantified). Clearance of these plants is often necessary for agriculture or maintenance of biodiversity (bracken), or to curb the rapid dispersal of the fungus-like pathogen Phytophthora ramorum from rhododendron (the principal host) into commercial timber stands, notably Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi). In addition, ash dieback (the fungal disease Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus aka Chalara fraxinea) is now spreading aggressively in common ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior) in the UK. Pilot-scale experiments are being conducted using a BiGchar 1000 mobile, fast pyrolysis -gasification unit, focussing on chipped rhododendron, Japanese larch and common ash feedstocks. Preliminary results of these experiments will be presented. The biochars produced are being subjected to a range of physical and chemical analyses. Levels of micro- and macro-nutrients retained from the original feedstocks are being evaluated. Organic and inorganic contaminants are also being compared with those in the respective feedstocks. Biochar produced from R. ponticum comprised C 63.7-85.9%, H 0.4-0.8%, N 0.4-0.8%, S 0.27-1.79% and O 4.1-27.4%, with most of the mineral nutrients being retained from the original feedstock, especially Mn. Larch biochar comprised C 84.1-91.7%, H 1.8-3.1%, N 0.3-0.8%, S 0.42-0.69% and O 4.1-10.7%. Heavy-metal concentrations were below recommended limits (International Biochar Initiative, 2012), although R. ponticum growing on highly acidified soils showed some tendency to bio

  1. Detrital stoichiometry as a critical nexus for the effects of streamwater nutrients on leaf litter breakdown rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, David W P; Rosemond, Amy D; Kominoski, John S; Gulis, Vladislav; Benstead, Jonathan P; Maerz, John C

    2015-08-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations are elevated in many freshwater systems, stimulating breakdown rates of terrestrially derived plant litter; however, the relative importance of N and P in driving litter breakdown via microbial and detritivore processing are not fully understood. Here, we determined breakdown rates of two litter species, Acer rubrum (maple) and Rhododendron maximum (rhododendron), before (PRE) and during two years (YR1, YR2) of experimental N and P additions to five streams, and quantified the relative importance of hypothesized factors contributing to breakdown. Treatment streams received a gradient of P additions (low to high soluble reactive phosphorus [SRP]; ~10-85 µg/L) crossed with a gradient of N additions (high to low dissolved inorganic nitrogen [DIN]; ~472-96 µg/L) to achieve target molar N:P ratios ranging from 128 to 2. Litter breakdown rates increased above pre-treatment levels by an average of 1.1-2.2x for maple, and 2.7-4.9x for rhododendron in YR1 and YR2. We used path analysis to compare fungal biomass, shredder biomass, litter stoichiometry (nutrient content as C:N or C:P), discharge, and streamwater temperature as predictors of breakdown rates and compared models containing streamwater N, P or N + P and litter C:N or C:P using model selection criteria. Litter breakdown rates were predicted equally with either streamwater N or P (R2 = 0.57). In models with N or P, fungal biomass, litter stoichiometry, discharge, and shredder biomass predicted breakdown rates; litter stoichiometry and fungal biomass were most important for model fit. However, N and P effects may have occurred via subtly different pathways. Litter N content increased with fungal biomass (N-driven effects) and litter P content increased with streamwater P availability (P-driven effects), presumably via P storage in fungal biomass. In either case, the effects of N and P through these pathways were associated with higher shredder biomass and breakdown

  2. Effects of air pollution on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidman, G.

    1965-01-01

    Weather, automobile exhaust, waste dumps and industrial activities are major factors in the creation of air pollution problems. The first indication of an air pollution problem is often the injury that appears on comparatively sensitive vegetation. Sulfur dioxide causes both acute and chronic plant injury. Plants especially sensitive to SO/sub 2/ are alfalfa, cosmos, sweet pea, bachelor's button, and blackberry. Fluoride causes characteristic injury on plants. Plants sensitive to fluoride injury are gladiolus, azalea, tulip, and young needles of pine. Ethylene damage to plants was initially noted in greenhouses using artificial gas for heating. Orchids and carnations are sensitive to ethylene. Ozone is highly reactive and causes typical spotting injury to the upper surface of leaves. PAN causes injury to vegetation, especially petunia and lettuce. Other pollutants also cause plant injury. Mercury vapor, chlorine gas, ammonia, H/sub 2/S, CO, and nitrogen oxides are minor hazards. Susceptibility of vegetation to air pollution depends on various things such as variety of plants, amount of moisture available to the plants, temperature, and amount of sunlight during the period of air pollution. 8 references.

  3. Q89 环境生物学和生态学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    有害藻华(HAB)的发生、生态学影响和对策=The occurrence, ecological effects of HAB and countermeasures against it;高寒沙区植被人工修复与种子植物物种多样性的变化=Changes of plant species diversity in the process of human-induced vegetation restoration in sandy lands of Qinghai-Tibet plateau;绵粉蚧危害的花椒树对异色瓢虫的招引作用=The bunge prickly-ash tree damaged by a mealybug, Phenacoccus azaleae attracting the ladybug, Harmonia axyridis;毛竹林经营干扰、林下植物与冠层螨类之间的关系= Relation between management disturbance and undergrowth and canopy mites in PhyUostachys pubescens forests;西部高寒温地系统的草地资源保护与优化利用模式研究=Meadow conservation and optimal utilization of the alpine wetland in the Western China。

  4. Printshops, Pressmen, and the Poetic Page in Colonial Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne de Fremery

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing the way vernacular Korean poetry of the 1920s was produced, this article initiates a study of the sociology of Korean literary production. Based on a survey of forty-five vernacular Korean books of poetry produced between 1921 and 1929, bank records, Japanese colonial government records, and printed interviews, the study describes the people, organizations, and technologies involved in the production of vernacular Korean poetry in the early twentieth century. It suggests that a small number of men in a few printing facilities working within restrained typographic conditions were responsible for printing the extant corpus of Korean vernacular poetry from the 1920s. An overview of the creative ways in which poetry was expressed visually and a discussion of the poem “Pandal” (Half moon, which appears differently in the two originary alternate issues of Kim So-wŏl’s canonical 1925 work Chindallaekkot (Azaleas, make it clear that an understanding of these people and organizations, as well as of the technologies they employed, should inform how we approach texts from this period hermeneutically.

  5. Screening of Korean Medicinal Plant Extracts for α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancheti, Shruti; Sancheti, Sandesh; Lee, Seung-Hun; Lee, Jae-Eun; Seo, Sung-Yum

    2011-01-01

    Glycosidases are the enzymes involved in various biochemical processes related to metabolic disorders and diseases. Therefore, much effort has been focused on searching novel pharmacotherapy for the treatment of these ailments from medicinal plants due to higher safety margins. To pursue these efforts, the present study was performed to evaluate the α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of thirty Korean medicinal plant extracts. Among the plants studied, Euonymus sachalinensis, Rhododendron schlippenbachii, Astilbe chinensis and Juglans regia showed the strongest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 10, 20, 30 and 80 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, Meliosma oldhamii and Symplocos chinensis showed moderate α-glucosidase inhibition with IC50 values of 150 and 220 µg/mL, respectively. Therefore, they might prove to be a potential natural source for the treatment of metabolic ailments such as, diabetes, and need further investigations.

  6. Structure and Metabolic-Flow Analysis of Molecular Complexity in a (13) C-Labeled Tree by 2D and 3D NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Takanori; Ohishi, Risa; Shino, Amiu; Kikuchi, Jun

    2016-05-10

    Improved signal identification for biological small molecules (BSMs) in a mixture was demonstrated by using multidimensional NMR on samples from (13) C-enriched Rhododendron japonicum (59.5 atom%) cultivated in air containing (13) C-labeled carbon dioxide for 14 weeks. The resonance assignment of 386 carbon atoms and 380 hydrogen atoms in the mixture was achieved. 42 BSMs, including eight that were unlisted in the spectral databases, were identified. Comparisons between the experimental values and the (13) C chemical shift values calculated by density functional theory supported the identifications of unlisted BSMs. Tracing the (13) C/(12) C ratio by multidimensional NMR spectra revealed faster and slower turnover ratios of BSMs involved in central metabolism and those categorized as secondary metabolites, respectively. The identification of BSMs and subsequent flow analysis provided insight into the metabolic systems of the plant.

  7. Inhibition of enzymatic browning and protection of sulfhydryl enzymes by thiol compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, O; Ozawa, T

    2000-06-01

    In a reaction between (-)-epicatechin (EC) and 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME), catalyzed by partially purified polyphenol oxidase (PPO) extracted from the style of Rhododendron mucronatum, 2'-(2-hydroxyethylthio)-(-)-epicatechin (2'-HETEC), 5'-(2-hydroxyethylthio)-(-)-epicatechin (5'-HETEC), and 2',5'-bis(2-hydroxyethylthio)-(-)-epicatechin (2',5'-HETEC) were formed. The rate of formation of 2',5'-HETEC from 5'-HETEC was faster than that from 2'-HETEC. In the absence of 2ME, the concentration of EC decreased rapidly and the reaction mixture turned brown; 2'-, 5'-, and 2',5'-HETEC, especially 2'-substituted HETECs. reacted more slowly. These data indicate that 2ME acts both as an inhibitor of the polymerization of O-quinone, presumably by binding to it and as a reductant involved in the conversion of O-quinone to O-dihydroxyphenol, Inhibition of enzymatic browning by other thiol compounds such as cysteine and dithiothreitol was also investigated.

  8. 云锦杜鹃ERM真菌氮源吸收特性及其接种效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹丽娟; 张春英; 杨兵

    2010-01-01

    本文采用菌丝干重定量研究从云锦杜(Rhododendron fortunei)根系分离的菌根(Eriocoid Mycorrhiza,ERM)真菌的氮源吸收特性;在不同的氮源培养基上,采用单菌株接种无菌云锦杜鹃幼苗研究ERM对宿主植物生长的影响。结果表明,菌株在无机氮中生长量较大;在不同氮源培养基上,菌株接种幼苗生长均优于非接种苗,尤其在牛血清蛋白和硝态氮培养基上,接种苗优势最为明显。

  9. Plant regeneration from petiole segments of some species in tissue culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Klimaszewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration ability of 21 plant species belonging to 14 families was tested. The method of tissue culture in vitro was applied, on basic MS medium with an addition of growth regulators from the auxin and cytokinin groups. From among the investigated plant groups Peperomia scandens and Caladium × hortulanum were capable of plant regeneration, Passiilora coerulea regenerated shoots, Hedera helix, Begonia glabra, Coleus blumei, Fuchsia hybrida, Passiflora suberosa and Peperomia eburnea formed callus and roots, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, Pelargonium grandiflorum, P. peltatum, P. radula, Coleus shirensis and Magnolia soulangeana produced callus, Philodendron scandens, Rhododendron smirnovii, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Coprosma baueri, Cestrum purpureum and Solanum rantonnetii did not exhibit any regeneration reactions.

  10. AMS radiocarbon dating of wood trunks in the pumiceous deposits of the Kikai-Akahoya eruption in Yakushima Island, SW Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, Mitsuru, E-mail: okuno@fukuoka-u.ac.jp [Department of Earth System Science, Faculty of Science, Fukuoka University, 814-0180 Fukuoka (Japan); AIG Collaborative Research Institute for International Study on Eruptive History and Informatics, Fukuoka University, 814-0180 Fukuoka (Japan); Nakamura, Toshio [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, 464-8602 Nagoya (Japan); Geshi, Nobuo [Geological Survey of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Science and Technology, 305-8567 Tsukuba (Japan); Kimura, Katsuhiko [Division of Environment System Management, Faculty of Symbiotic System Science, Fukushima University, 960-1296 Fukushima (Japan); Saito-Kokubu, Yoko [Tono Geoscience Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 959-31 Jorinji, Toki, Gifu 509-5102 (Japan); Kobayashi, Tetsuo [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 890-0065 Kagoshima (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Radiocarbon dating using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was performed on numerous wood trunks from pumiceous deposits along the Nagata, Isso and Miyanoura rivers on the northern side of Yakushima Island, 60 km south of Kyushu Island. The obtained {sup 14}C dates were around 6.5 ka BP, which, in combination with the geological characteristics of the pumiceous deposits indicates that these specimens were buried during the Kikai-Akahoya (K-Ah) eruption from the Kikai caldera. However, the fact that they are not charred suggests that the origin of these deposits are not pyroclastic flows. Fourteen taxa (Pinus subgen. Diploxylon, Tsuga, Cryptomeria, Chamaecyparis, Myrica, Castanea, Castanopsis, Quercus subgen. Cyclobalanopsis, Trochodendron, Phellodendron, Lagerstroemia, Rhododendron, Myrsine and Symplocos) were identified through anatomical characteristics. This is the first discovery of forest species on the Yakushima Island before the devastating eruption.

  11. Atrioventricular block induced by mad-honey intoxication: confirmation of diagnosis by pollen analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagli, Kumral Ergun; Tufekcioglu, Omac; Sen, Nihat; Aras, Dursun; Topaloglu, Serkan; Basar, Nur; Pehlivan, Sevil

    2009-01-01

    An unusual type of food poisoning, mad-honey intoxication, can be observed in the Black Sea region of Turkey and various other parts of the world. It can occur after ingestion of grayanotoxin-contaminated honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum and other plant species, chiefly of the Ericaceae and Sapindaceae families. Mad-honey intoxication can result in severe cardiac complications, such as complete atrioventricular block. The diagnosis is generally reached on the basis of the patient's history of honey intake. In this report, we describe the case of a patient who had mad-honey-related complete atrioventricular block; in this instance, the diagnosis was confirmed by a pollen analysis of the suspect honey.

  12. Labrador tea--the aromatic beverage and spice: a review of origin, processing and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dampc, Anna; Luczkiewicz, Maria

    2015-06-01

    Labrador tea is a name for the dried leaves of Rhododendron groenlandicum, R. tomentosum or R. neoglandulosum (family Ericaceae, previously genus Ledum) as well as for the beverage native to North America, which is made from them. The above species are rich in the essential oil, which gives a conifer aroma to the tisane. Labrador tea is a valuable source of ascorbic acid, with tonic, improving digestion and relaxing activity. However, this beverage should not be drunk more than once daily because of the ledol and grayanotoxin toxicity. The common recipe for making Labrador tea is to add one teaspoonful of dried leaves to one cup of boiling water and to brew for 5 min. It is often sweetened or enriched with other flavors. Additionally, Labrador tea dried leaves are used to spice meat, soups, sauces, salads, beer, cakes and other dishes. In agriculture, its insecticidal properties can be useful for controlling pests.

  13. Toxic Plant Resources in Panxi Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yun; SU Chunjiang; ZHENG Yuanchang

    2007-01-01

    Panxi Area is abundant in plant resources, among which toxic plants are of great value in terms of exploitation. This paper is an initiative study (via field as well as literature investigation) of the categories, distributions, and reserves of toxic plant resources in Panxi Area. The study reveals that there are 51 families (210 species) of toxic plants evenly distributed in Panxi Area, of which more than 40 species grow in all counties in the area, and more than 14 species total a reserve more than 1.0×105kg. These toxic plants are of great applications to medicine, gardening, biopesticide industry, environmental engineering, and oil manufacturing. Rhododendron molle, Anisodus acutangulus, Arisaema erubesocens, Stellera chamaejasme, Rhytolacca acinosa, Rheum officinale, and Azadiralta indica etc are the typical toxic plants with great value of exploitation in Panxi Area.

  14. A passive dosing method to determine fugacity capacities and partitioning properties of leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolinius, Damien Johann; Macleod, Matthew; McLachlan, Michael S.;

    2016-01-01

    The capacity of leaves to take up chemicals from the atmosphere and water influences how contaminants are transferred into food webs and soil. We provide a proof of concept of a passive dosing method to measure leaf/polydimethylsiloxane partition ratios (Kleaf/PDMS) for intact leaves, using...... polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as model chemicals. Rhododendron leaves held in contact with PCB-loaded PDMS reached between 76 and 99% of equilibrium within 4 days for PCBs 3, 4, 28, 52, 101, 118, 138 and 180. Equilibrium Kleaf/PDMS extrapolated from the uptake kinetics measured over 4 days ranged from 0.......075 (PCB 180) to 0.371 (PCB 3). The Kleaf/PDMS data can readily be converted to fugacity capacities of leaves (Zleaf) and subsequently leaf/water or leaf/air partition ratios (Kleaf/water and Kleaf/air) using partitioning data from the literature. Results of our measurements are within the variability...

  15. La diversité naturelle des espèces ligneuses en tant que source de plantes ornementales et utilitaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena De Belder

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural diversity of woody species as a source of ornamental plants.The collection of the Kalmthout Arboretum contains 4 000 plants, representing 170 généra of woody plants and 240 généra of herbaceous plants. An additional 6 000 plants are kept on the site of Hemelrijk, in Essen. The material originated partly from other institutions but also from collecting trips in Japan, South and North Corea, Russia and China. A part of thèse introductions was evaluated or used for hybridizing with a view to produce woody plant cultivars of ornamental value, especially in the généra Hamamelis, Hydrangea, Prunus, Malus, Pyrus and Rhododendron. A large number of thèse new cultivars are now grown in commercial nurseries in Europe, North America and Japan.

  16. Natural Mongolian Pine Forests in the Great Xing'an Mountains, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Zhiqiang; Liu Tong; Zhou Lin

    2003-01-01

    Based upon 134 reléves, the vegetation of the forests with Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) of the Great Xing'an Mountains in the northeast China was classified into 3 communities, 7 types and 4 subtypes by numerical cluster analysis. 1) The Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica-Populus davidiana-community was found on relatively dry sites. It was subdivided into a Quercus mongolica-type, consisting of a Adenophora tetraphylla subtype, a Pulsatilla dahurica subtype, and a pure type; 2) The Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica-Rhododendron dauricum-community occurred on medium dry sites. It included a Calamagrostis angustifolia type, consisting of a Cladonia arbuscula subtype, a pure subtype, and a Rubus idaeus-type; 3) The Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica-Ledum palustre-community was found on periodically wet sites. It included a Picea koraiensis type, a Vaccinium uliginosum type, and a pure type.

  17. Application of Genomic In Situ Hybridization in Horticultural Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Ramzan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular cytogenetic techniques, such as in situ hybridization methods, are admirable tools to analyze the genomic structure and function, chromosome constituents, recombination patterns, alien gene introgression, genome evolution, aneuploidy, and polyploidy and also genome constitution visualization and chromosome discrimination from different genomes in allopolyploids of various horticultural crops. Using GISH advancement as multicolor detection is a significant approach to analyze the small and numerous chromosomes in fruit species, for example, Diospyros hybrids. This analytical technique has proved to be the most exact and effective way for hybrid status confirmation and helps remarkably to distinguish donor parental genomes in hybrids such as Clivia, Rhododendron, and Lycoris ornamental hybrids. The genome characterization facilitates in hybrid selection having potential desirable characteristics during the early hybridization breeding, as this technique expedites to detect introgressed sequence chromosomes. This review study epitomizes applications and advancements of genomic in situ hybridization (GISH techniques in horticultural plants.

  18. AMS radiocarbon dating of wood trunks in the pumiceous deposits of the Kikai-Akahoya eruption in Yakushima Island, SW Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Mitsuru; Nakamura, Toshio; Geshi, Nobuo; Kimura, Katsuhiko; Saito-Kokubu, Yoko; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was performed on numerous wood trunks from pumiceous deposits along the Nagata, Isso and Miyanoura rivers on the northern side of Yakushima Island, 60 km south of Kyushu Island. The obtained 14C dates were around 6.5 ka BP, which, in combination with the geological characteristics of the pumiceous deposits indicates that these specimens were buried during the Kikai-Akahoya (K-Ah) eruption from the Kikai caldera. However, the fact that they are not charred suggests that the origin of these deposits are not pyroclastic flows. Fourteen taxa (Pinus subgen. Diploxylon, Tsuga, Cryptomeria, Chamaecyparis, Myrica, Castanea, Castanopsis, Quercus subgen. Cyclobalanopsis, Trochodendron, Phellodendron, Lagerstroemia, Rhododendron, Myrsine and Symplocos) were identified through anatomical characteristics. This is the first discovery of forest species on the Yakushima Island before the devastating eruption.

  19. Dominance and diversity studies of tree species in lesser Himalayan forest of Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. BISHT

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Bisht AS, Bhatt AB. 2016. Dominance and diversity studies of tree species in lesser Himalayan forest of Uttarakhand, India. Biodiversitas 17: 70-77. For the present investigation single mountain, approach was applied. This is a supplement the basic approach and extends the gradients further downward in to the forest belt. Vegetational analysis of nine stands covering all the four aspects of the study site of Pauri Garhwal district of Uttarakhand, India has been undertaken. In seven trees, species were encountered. East aspect is characteristics by highest density of Cupressus torulosa while west aspect comprised of Cedrus deodara, Myrica esculenta, Pinus. roxbugrhii, Quercus. leucotrichophora and Rhododendron arboreum, i.e. high diversity with low dominance Cupressus torulosa and Cedrus deodara dominated the north aspect. In general, influence of higher anthropogenic pressure on Quercus species is an important factor for leads to gradual replacement of oak species by Pinus roxburghii in all the aspects.

  20. Phytophthora species recovered from the Connecticut River Valley in Massachusetts, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazee, Nicholas J; Wick, Robert L; Hulvey, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Little is currently known about the assemblage of Phytophthora species in northeastern North America, representing a gap in our understanding of species incidence. Therefore, Phytophthora species were surveyed at 20 sites in Massachusetts, with 16 occurring in the Connecticut River Valley. Many of the sampled waterways were adjacent to active agricultural lands, yet were buffered by mature floodplain forests composed of Acer, Platanus, Populus and Ulmus. Isolates were recovered with three types of baits (rhododendron leaves, pear, green pepper) in 2013 and water filtration in 2014. Overall, 457 isolates of Phytophthora were recovered and based on morphological characters and rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS), β-tubulin (β-tub) and cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (cox1) sequences, 18 taxa were identified, including three new species: P. taxon intercalaris, P. taxon caryae and P. taxon pocumtuck. In addition, 49 isolates representing five species of Phytopythium also were identified. Water filtration captured a greater number of taxa (18) compared to leaf and fruit baits (12). Of the three bait types rhododendron leaves yielded the greatest number of isolates and taxa, followed by pear and green pepper, respectively. Despite the proximity to agricultural lands, none of the Phytophthora species baited are considered serious pathogens of vegetable crops in the region. However, many of the recovered species are known woody plant pathogens, including four species in the P. citricola s.l. complex that were identified: P. plurivora, P. citricola III, P. pini and a putative novel species, referred to here as P. taxon caryae. An additional novel species, P. taxon pocumtuck, is a close relative of P. borealis based on cox1 sequences. The results illustrate a high level of Phytophthora species richness in the Connecticut River Valley and that major rivers can serve as a source of inoculum for pathogenic Phytophthora species in the northeast.

  1. Twenty years of ecosystem response after clearcutting and slashburning in conifer forests of central British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Michael; Bradfield, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Forests are being clearcut over extensive areas of western North America, but plant community response to harvesting and slashburning under varying climatic conditions in central British Columbia, Canada is still largely unknown. Evaluation of resilience is hampered by the short history of logging, lack of long-term experiments and methodological limitations. To test the effect of clearcut logging, prescribed burning and reforestation on forest resilience, we recorded vascular plant cover repeatedly after treatment between 1981 and 2008 in 16 permanent research installations in three biogeoclimatic zones: Engelmann Spruce-Subalpine Fir, Interior Cedar-Hemlock and Sub-Boreal Spruce. We created a plant-trait dataset for the 181 recorded species to define plant functional types representing groups of plants that behave in similar ways and/or produce similar ecological outcomes. These plant functional types, along with taxonomic analysis of diagnostic and indicator species, were then used to evaluate plant community response to disturbance. Twenty years post-treatment, species diversity increased in all zones and plant abundance was greatest in the Interior Cedar-Hemlock. Cover of understory plant functional types associated with mature conifer forests increased in all zones, constituting a significant proportion (> 40%) of the vegetation community by year 20. Response patterns varied by zone and with time. Understory species diagnostic of mature forests were present in all zones by year 20, but we identified indicator species sensitive to slashburning or requiring more time for recovery, including white-flowered rhododendron (Rhododendron albiflorum) and devil's club (Oplopanax horridus). Overall, loss of compositional or functional diversity following harvest and site remediation was not detected, suggesting that montane and subalpine forests in British Columbia are resilient to this treatment. However, because these forests can be slow to recover from disturbance

  2. Dispersion pattern interspecific association and population status of threatened plants on submontane and montane zones of Mount Gede-Pangrango National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIHERMANTO

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mount Gede-Pangrango National Park has an attractive landscape view of mount summits with its crater, genuine flora and fauna of tropical rainforest, and a mild weather. Exploitation is forbidden in the area, but in reality encroachments occur, which will lead to changes in plant population status, particularly for threatened species. The aims of the research were investigate the populations status, dispersion pattern and possible interspecific associations of threatened plant species occurred in the sub montane and montane zones of the Mount Gede-Pangrango National Park. Most of the threatened species occurred in the park had clumped distributions and only one of those showed a regular dispersion, namely Symplocos costata. It should be realized that populations with a clumped dispersion tend to provide over or under estima-tion of abundance, indicating the need for a larger sampling unit to cover. Based on the association tests conducted, three species (Antidesma tetrandrum, Pinanga coronata, and Castanopsis javanica were significantly associated with Saurauia bracteosa, while Altingia excelsa and A. tetrandrum with Symplocos costata, as they had association indices more 0.3 using Jaccard Index. Pinanga coronata seems to be relatively closely associated with Saurauia cauliflora, Altingia excelsa with S. bracteosa, and Castanopsis javanica with S. costata. In contrast, Pinanga javana, Calamus adspersus, and Rhododendron album had low degrees of association, indicating their low abundance and co-occurrence with other species. Seven species of threatened plants were recorded in the Mount Gede-Pangrango: 5 of which had been proposed to change in their status. They were Calamus adspersus from vulnerable (V changed into vulnerable (V UD2., Lithocarpus indutus from vulnerable changed into critically endangered, Pinanga javana from endangered changed into vulnerable, Rhododendron album from vulnerable changed into endangered, and Saurauia bracteosa

  3. Analysis on classification and species diversity of Pinus taiwanensis community in Daiyun Mountain National Nature Reserve%戴云山国家级自然保护区黄山松群落类型与物种多样性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任国学; 刘金福; 徐道炜; 洪伟; 郑世群; 黄志森

    2011-01-01

    采用典型取样法对戴云山国家级自然保护区黄山松(Pinus taiwanensis Hayata)群落的类型和物种多样性进行了分析.以乔木层主要树种的重要值为参考指标,通过系统聚类分析,可将该黄山松群落分为8个群丛类型:黄山松+杉木—乌药—铁芒萁群丛(Assoc.P.taiwanensis+ Cunninghamia lanceolata - Lindera aggregate - Dicranopteris linearis);黄山松+多脉青冈—细枝柃—里白群丛(Assoc.P.taiwanensis+Cyclobalanopsis multinervis-Eurya loquaianaHicriopteris glauca);黄山松+江南山柳—短尾越桔—铁芒萁群丛(Assoc.P.taiwanensis+ Clethra cavaleriei- Vaccinium carlesii-Dicranopteris linearis);黄山松+甜槠—肿节少穗竹—里白群丛(Assoc.P.taiwanensis+ Castanopsis eyreiOligostachyum oedogonatum-Hicriopteris glauca);黄山松+吊钟花—短尾越桔—狗脊群丛(Assoc.P.taiwanensis+Enkianthus quinqueflorus-Vaccinium carlesii-Woodwardia japonica);黄山松+华丽杜鹃—短尾越桔—里白群丛(Assoc.P.taiwanensis+ Rhododendron farrerae- Vaccinium carlesii- Hicriopteris glauca);黄山松+光叶水青冈—满山红—铁芒萁群丛(Assoc.P.taiwanensis+Fagus lucida-Rhododendron mariesii-Dicranopteris linearis);黄山松—满山红—平颖柳叶箬群丛(Assoc.P.taiwanensis-Rhododendron mariesii-Isachne truncata).各群丛总体物种丰富度指数和多样性指数总体上呈随海拔升高而降低的趋势,总体均匀度指数Pielou指数和Alatalo指数波动不大.在群落垂直结构上,乔木层、灌木层和草本层物种丰富度指数、多样性指数和均匀度指数有差异;各群丛间乔木层和灌木层的物种丰富度指数、多样性指数和均匀度指数波动较大,草本层这3个指数波动较小且数值上小于前两者.分析结果显示:海拔是决定该黄山松群落多样性差异的主导因子.%Classification and species diversity of Pinus taiwanensis Hayata community in Daiyun Mountain National Nature Reserve

  4. Retrieval of leaf area index in different plant species using thermal hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neinavaz, Elnaz; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Groen, Thomas A.

    2016-09-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important variable of terrestrial ecosystems because it is strongly correlated with many ecosystem processes (e.g., water balance and evapotranspiration) and directly related to the plant energy balance and gas exchanges. Although LAI has been accurately predicted using visible and short-wave infrared hyperspectral data (0.3-2.5 μm), LAI estimation using thermal infrared (TIR, 8-14 μm) measurements has not yet been addressed. The novel approach of this study is to evaluate the retrieval of LAI using TIR hyperspectral data. The leaf area indices were destructively acquired for four plant species: Azalea japonica, Buxussempervirens, Euonymus japonicus, and Ficus benjamina. Canopy emissivity spectral measurements were obtained under controlled laboratory conditions using a MIDAC (M4401-F) spectrometer. The LAI retrieval was assessed using a partial least squares regression (PLSR), artificial neural networks (ANNs), and narrow band indices calculated from all possible combinations of waveband pairs for three vegetation indices including simple difference, simple ratio, and normalized difference. ANNs retrieved LAI more accurately than PLSR and vegetation indices (0.67 retrieval did not differ significantly between the vegetation indices. The results revealed that wavebands from the 8-12 μm region contain relevant information for LAI estimation, irrespective of the chosen vegetation index. Moreover, they demonstrated that LAI may be successfully predicted from TIR hyperspectral data, even for higher values of LAI (LAI ⩾ 5.5). The study showed the significance of using PLSR and ANNs as multivariate methods compared to the univariate technique (e.g., narrow band vegetation indices) when hyperspectral thermal data is utilized. We thus demonstrated for the first time the potential of hyperspectral thermal data to accurately retrieve LAI.

  5. Do top-down or bottom-up forces determine Stephanitis pyrioides abundance in urban landscapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrewsbury, Paula M; Raupp, Michael J

    2006-02-01

    This study examined the influence of habitat structural complexity on the collective effects of top-down and bottom-up forces on herbivore abundance in urban landscapes. The persistence and varying complexity of urban landscapes set them apart from ephemeral agroecosystems and natural habitats where the majority of studies have been conducted. Using surveys and manipulative experiments. We explicitly tested the effect of natural enemies (enemies hypothesis), host plant quality, and herbivore movement on the abundance of the specialist insect herbivore, Stephanitis pyrioides, in landscapes of varying structural complexity. This herbivore was extremely abundant in simple landscapes and rare in complex ones. Natural enemies were the major force influencing abundance of S. pyrioides across habitat types. Generalist predators, particularly the spider Anyphaena celer, were more abundant in complex landscapes. Predator abundance was related to greater abundance of alternative prey in those landscapes. Stephanitis pyrioides survival was lower in complex habitats when exposed to endemic natural enemy populations. Laboratory feeding trials confirmed the more abundant predators consumed S. pyrioides. Host plant quality was not a strong force influencing patterns of S. pyrioides abundance. When predators were excluded, adult S. pyrioides survival was greater on azaleas grown in complex habitats, in opposition to the observed pattern of abundance. Similarly, complexity did not affect S. pyrioides immigration and emigration rates. The complexity of urban landscapes affects the strength of top-down forces on herbivorous insect populations by influencing alternative prey and generalist predator abundance. It is possible that habitats can be manipulated to promote the suppressive effects of generalist predators.

  6. Future species composition will affect forest water use after loss of eastern hemlock from southern Appalachian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, Steven; Ford, Chelcy R; Vose, James M

    2013-06-01

    Infestation of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) with hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA, Adelges tsugae) has caused widespread mortality of this key canopy species throughout much of the southern Appalachian Mountains in the past decade. Because eastern hemlock is heavily concentrated in riparian habitats, maintains a dense canopy, and has an evergreen leaf habit, its loss is expected to have a major impact on forest processes, including transpiration (E(t)). Our goal was to estimate changes in stand-level E(t) since HWA infestation, and predict future effects of forest regeneration on forest E(t) in declining eastern hemlock stands where hemlock represented 50-60% of forest basal area. We used a combination of community surveys, sap flux measurements, and empirical models relating sap flux-scaled leaf-level transpiration (E(L)) to climate to estimate the change in E(t) after hemlock mortality and forecast how forest E(t) will change in the future in response to eastern hemlock loss. From 2004 to 2011, eastern hemlock mortality reduced annual forest E(t) by 22% and reduced winter E(t) by 74%. As hemlock mortality increased, growth of deciduous tree species--especially sweet birch (Betula lenta L.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), and the evergreen understory shrub rosebay rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum L.)--also increased, and these species will probably dominate post-hemlock riparian forests. All of these species have higher daytime E(L) rates than hemlock, and replacement of hemlock with species that have less conservative transpiration rates will result in rapid recovery of annual stand E(t). Further, we predict that annual stand E(t) will eventually surpass E(t) levels observed before hemlock was infested with HWA. This long-term increase in forest E(t) may eventually reduce stream discharge, especially during the growing season. However, the dominance of deciduous species in the canopy will result in a

  7. POLLUTANTS REMOVAL BY SIX POTTED-PLANTS UNDER THE SINGLE OR MIXED BENZENE AND TOLUENE%六种盆栽植物在单一及复合苯/甲苯气体胁迫下的净化效果及应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华; 刘庆阳; 刘艳菊

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the purification of indoor air by potted plants under the condition of single and mixed pollutants, six potted-plants, including Rhododendron hybrids, Ficus elastica , Codiaeum variegatum ,Hemerocallis fulva, Euphorbia pulcherrima and Cymbidium sinense, were chosen to test their removal capacity for benzene and toluene by kinetic fumigation experiments. The result showed that all tested potted-plants could remove indoor benzene and toluene, with a significant variance at different concentrations. The removal capacity of toluene was affected by the presence of benzene. The six pot plants removed benzene and toluene at the most efficient way with 0.64 mg· m -3 benzene and 0.76 mg· m-3 toluene. To achieve the best removal effect, plant species need to be chosen by considering pollutant concentration, fumigation time and pollutant species.%选取杜鹃(Rhododendron hybrids)、橡皮树(Ficus elastica)、变色木(Codiaeum variegatum)、萱草(金娃娃)(Hemerocallis fulva)、一品红(Euphorbia pulcherrima)和国兰(Cymbidium sinense)等6种植物,采用动态熏蒸方式,研究其在6 h熏蒸时间内,分别对3个浓度水平的苯、甲苯以及苯/甲苯复合气体的净化效果.实验结果表明,6种植物对几种有害气体均有净化作用,但不同浓度水平下净化效果有明显差异.植物对甲苯的选择性净化作用会因为苯的介入而受到抑制.实验植物在苯浓度为0.64mg·m-3,甲苯浓度0.76mg·m-3时达到最佳净化效果.兼顾到实际应用中污染物浓度、时间、污染物种类及数量等因素,将植物进行适当合理的搭配可达到稳定的净化效果.

  8. 基于ICD-10的药用植物种类统计分析%Statistical Analysis of Medicinal Plants Based on ICD-10

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨林; 卢大丽; 袁万清; 钱津; 熊源新

    2013-01-01

    A total of 4 258 species of medicinal plants in Guizhou Province, are analyzed according to the Tenth Revision of International Classification of Diseases (ICD - 10) in the current investigation. Dominant families, genera, species of medical plants in Guizhou province are carried out statistical analysis. Twenty one families contain more than 50 species play a role in most diseases. The most proportion of dominant family is Polygonaceae. The genera of the most species including Polygonum, Rubus, Rhododendron etc. The most proportion of dominant genera including Asplenium and Selaginella. Among which 21 species including Aristolo-chia debilis, Polygonum chinense, Croton tiglium and Rhodomyrtus tomentosa etc show curative effect for more than 15 diseases.%根据世界卫生组织ICD-10(《国际疾病分类系统》第十次修订本International Classification of Diseases)的分类内容对贵州4258种药用植物进行了统计分析.对其中涉及疾病最多的科、属、种进行了分析;对重要的科、属、种涉及的疾病也进行了分析.含药用植物种数大于50种的有21科,涉及疾病最多、疾病种类比例最高的科是蓼科Polygonaceae.含药用植物种类最多的属包括蓼属(Polygonum)、悬钩子属(Rubus)、杜鹃花属(Rhododendron)等,涉及疾病种类属的比例最高的是铁角蕨属Asplenium和卷柏属Selaginella.能对15种以上的疾病有疗效的药用植物有21种,包括马兜铃Aristolochia debilis、火炭母Polygonum chinense、巴豆Croton tiglium、桃金娘Rhodomyrtus tomentosa等.

  9. "Fast pedogenesis" on proglacial areas: examples from the north-western Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Michele; Freppaz, Michele; Zanini, Ermanno

    2013-04-01

    Climate changes have huge impacts on alpine ecosystems. One of the most visible effects is glacial retreat since the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA: 190-190 years ago), which caused the exposure of previously glaciated surfaces. These surfaces are open-air laboratories, verifying theories regarding ecosystem and soil development. In order to increase our knowledge on the effect of time and vegetation primary succession on soil development in proglacial areas, we sampled soils and surveyed plant communities on stable points on the proglacial areas of the Lys and Verra Grande glaciers, in the Italian north-western Alps (Valle d'Aosta). Sampling sites were located on dated sites (6-260 years), on the basis of literature or historical photographs). Glacial till is attacked by weathering processes immediately after deposition and stabilization, such as loss of soluble compounds, acidification, primary mineral weathering. The speed of these processes are largely increased after the establishment of a continuous vegetation cover, thanks to surface stabilization, organic matter accumulation caused by litter input and root decomposition below the soil surface. On sialic glacial tills (Lys forefield), below timberline and under a larch - Rhododendron forest, a fast and steady decrease in pH values, increase in organic matter content and horizon differentiation were observed. In particular, genetic eluvial horizons formed in just 60 years, while diagnostic albic horizons were developed after ca. 90 years, evidencing an early start of the podzolization processes. Cheluviation of Fe and, secondarily, Al were analytically verified. However, illuviation of Fe, Al and organic matter in incipient B horizons was not sufficient to obtain diagnostic spodic horizons on LIA materials. Under grazed grassland below timberline and alpine prairie above timberline, acidification and weathering were slightly slower, and no redistribution with depth of Fe and Al oxi-hydroxides was observed. A

  10. Culturable fungal endophytes in roots of Enkianthus campanulatus (Ericaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obase, Keisuke; Matsuda, Yosuke

    2014-11-01

    Roots of plants in the genus Enkianthus, which belongs to the earliest diverging lineage in the Ericaceae, are commonly colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. We documented the community of fungal root endophytes associated with Enkianthus species using a culture-based method for better understanding the members of root-colonizing fungi, except for AM fungi. Fungal isolates were successfully obtained from 610 out of 3,599 (16.9 %) root segments. Molecular analysis of fungal cultures based on ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences yielded 63 operational taxonomical units (OTUs: 97 % sequence similarity cutoff) from 315 representative isolates. Further phylogenetic analysis showed that most (296 isolates) belonged to Ascomycota and were either members of Helotiales (Dermataceae, Hyaloscyphaceae, Phialocephala and Rhizoscyphus ericae aggregate), Oidiodendron, or other Pezizomycotina. Twenty-three out of 63 OTUs, which mainly consisted of Leotiomycetes, showed high similarities with reference sequences derived from roots of other ericaceous plants such as Rhododendron. The results indicated that Enkianthus houses variable root mycobionts including putative endophytic and mycorrhizal fungi in addition to AM fungi.

  11. Complementarity in mineral nitrogen use among dominant plant species in a subalpine community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornon, André; Escaravage, Nathalie; Lamaze, Thierry

    2007-11-01

    The underlying mechanisms that enable plant species to coexist are poorly understood. Complementarity in resource use is among the major mechanisms proposed that could favor species coexistence but is insufficiently documented. In alpine soil, low temperatures are a major constraint for the supply of plant nitrogen. We carried out (15)N labeling of soil mineral N to determine to what extent four major species of a subalpine community compete for N, or develop ionic (NH(4)(+) vs. NO(3)(-)) or temporal complementarity. The Poaceae took up much more (15)N per soil area unit than the ericaceous species, and all species displayed three major strategies in exploiting (15)N: (1) uptake mainly early in the growing season (Vaccinium myrtillus), (2) uptake at a slow and similar rate throughout the growing season (Rhododendron ferrugineum), and (3) uptake at high rates over the growing season (Festuca eskia and Nardus stricta). However, while F. eskia used (15)NH(4)(+) mainly early and (15)NO(3)(-) mainly late in the growing season, the reverse was observed for N. stricta. Taking into account (15)N dilution in soil NH(4)(+) and NO(3)(-) pools, we calculated that NH(4)(+) provided more than 80% of the mineral N uptake in Ericaceae and about 60% in grasses. Together, such ionic and temporal complementarity would reduce competition between species and could be a major mechanism promoting species diversity.

  12. Why Do Some Evergreen Species Keep Their Leaves for a Second Winter, While Others Lose Them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Grubb

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In subtropical montane semi-moist forest in SW China (SMSF, a large majority of evergreen tree and tall shrub species was found to have only one cohort of old leaves in early spring. In contrast, almost all species of evergreen tree and tall shrub in warm temperate rain forest (WTRF in Japan and sclerophylls in Mediterranean-climate forest (MSF of the Mediterranean Basin have two or more cohorts of old leaves in early spring; they drop their oldest cohort during or soon after leaf outgrowth in spring. Japanese WTRF has no dry season and MSF a dry summer. SMSF has a dry winter. On four evergreen Rhododendron species from SW China with only one cohort of old leaves in spring when in cultivation in Scotland, the majority of leaves in the senescing cohort fell by the end of December. We hypothesize that with dry winters, there is an advantage to dropping older leaves in autumn, because there is a low chance of appreciable positive assimilation in winter and a high chance of desiccation, reducing the resorption of dry mass and mineral nutrients from ageing leaves. Our hypothesis may be extended to cover evergreens at high altitude or high latitude that experience cold soils in winter.

  13. 髯花杜鹃叶的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周先礼; 秦长红; 梅莹; 黄帅; 阿萍

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究藏药髯花杜鹃Rhododendron anthopogon叶的化学成分.方法 95%乙醇提取制备总浸膏,硅胶柱色谱分离其成分,波谱法鉴定其结构.结果 分离得到的10个已知化合物,分别为鲨烯(1)、熊果酸(2)、β-谷甾醇(3)、伞形花内酯(4)、3-羟基-3-苯基丙酰胺(5)、苔黑酚(6)、槲皮素(7)、杨梅素(8)、杨梅素-3’-O-β-D-吡喃木糖苷(9)和金丝桃苷(10).结论 所有化合物均为首次从该植物叶中分离得到.

  14. Diversity and regeneration status of Sarkot Van Panchyat in Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nazir A. Pala; A. K. Negi; Yogesh Gokhale; Jahangeer A. Bhat; N. P. Todaria

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the floristic composition,phytosociological and regeneration status of Sarkot Van Panchyat (community forest) in Chamoli district of Garhwal Himalaya.A total of 52 plant species of 46 genera and 26families were recorded,which included 12 trees,18 shrubs and 22 herb species.Quercus leucotrichophora was dominant tree species in sapling and seedling layers,followed by Lyonia ovalifolia and Rhododendron arboreum.Out of 12 tree species,7 species in seedling stage and 8 species in sapling stage were recorded in the study area.The 44.41% species in the study area showed good regeneration status,16.66% species were fairly regenerating,and 8.33% species showed poor regeneration status,while 33% species were not regenerating.Number of individuals from lower girth classes (0-10 cm and 10-30 cm) showed decreasing trend with the increase in size of girth class.Shannon index (H) for trees,shrubs and herbs was recorded as 1.82,2.24 and 2.41 respectively.Simpsons index (CD) was recorded as 0.21,0.12and 0.12 for trees,shrubs and herbs respectively.The forest should be divided into compartments for better management purpose and each compartment should be closed for five years to assist regeneration and enrichment planting may also be carried out for sustainable management.

  15. Identification of five active ingredients and content determination of piperine in Shiwuwei Heyaowan pills by TLC and HPLC%十五味黑药丸中4种活性成分的定性鉴别及胡椒碱的含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡婧; 易凡力; 刘松青

    2011-01-01

    目的 对十五味黑药丸中4种主要中药成分进行定性鉴别并测定胡椒碱的含量.方法 采用薄层色谱法 (thin layer chromatography,TLC)对方中藏木香、荜茇、黑胡椒、干姜、烈香杜鹃进行定性鉴别;采用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)测定胡椒碱的含量.色谱柱:Phenomenex Luna C18(2)(4.6 mm×150 mm,5 μm),流动相∶甲醇-水(74∶26),流速0.8 ml/min,检测波长343 nm,柱温35 ℃.结果 采用TLC均能检出3批十五味黑药丸中的去氢木香内酯、胡椒碱及烈香杜鹃和干姜药材,该鉴别方法专属性强、薄层色谱斑点清晰,阴性对照无干扰;胡椒碱的HPLC色谱峰与其他色谱峰分离良好,进样量在0.021 056~0.105 28 μg范围内呈良好线性关系(r=0.999 8),平均加样回收率(n=9)为97.76%,3个批次(010624、021008、030323)9个样品中胡椒碱的含量平均值为1.64 mg/丸.结论 建立的十五味黑药丸质量标准可用于藏木香、荜茇、黑胡椒、干姜、烈香杜鹃5种中药的成分鉴别及组方中胡椒碱的含量测定.%Objective To identify five active ingredients (Inula racemosa, Piper longum, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale and Rhododendron anthopogonoides) and determine the content of piperine in traditional Tibetan medicine pills-Shiwuwei Heiyaowan. Methods Three batches of Shiwuwei Heiyaowan pills were dissolved in ethyl ether or absolute ethyl alcohol as the sample solutions. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was utilized to identify Inula racemosa, Piper longum, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale and Rhododendron anthopogonoides in Shiwuwei Heiyaowan pills. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to determine the content of piperine. In HPLC, the chromatographic column is Phenomenex Luna C18 (2) (4.6 mm × 150 mm, 5 μm); the mobile phase is methanol-water (74: 26); the flow rate is 0.8 ml/min; the detection wavelength is 343 nm; the column temperature is 35 ℃. Results In TLC, dehydrocostunolide lactone (the

  16. Distribution and uptake of {sup 137}Cs in relation to alkali metals in a perhumid montane forest ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, J.H. [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: jhchao@mx.nthu.edu.tw; Chiu, C.Y. [Research Center for Biodiversity, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Lee, H.P. [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2008-10-15

    We determined the content of radiocesium ({sup 137}Cs) and alkali metals in soils, plants (2 ferns, a shrub and moss) and rainwater collected in an undisturbed forest ecosystem. The {sup 137}Cs activity and the isotopic ratio of {sup 137}Cs/Cs in the samples were used to interpret the distribution and uptake of {sup 137}Cs and the alkali metals in plants. As a whole, the {sup 137}Cs in plants was assimilated together with K but was not dependent on Cs. Different adaptations of fern species collected in ecological niches cause them to have different {sup 137}Cs/Cs ratios. Diplopterygium glaucum is distributed at the edges of the forest; it usually has shallow organic layers, and the root takes up more stable Cs from mineral layers, leading to lower {sup 137}Cs/Cs ratios than that in the understory Plagiogyria formosana and Rhododendron formosanum species. The steady supply of stable Cs through the uptake by D. glaucum from deep soils may gradually dilute the {sup 137}Cs concentration and thus explain the lower {sup 137}Cs/Cs ratio in the fern samples. The {sup 137}Cs is predicted to be proportional to the Cs content across plant species in the biological cycle once isotopic equilibrium is attained.

  17. Application of symbolization in Rebecca%象征手法在《蝴蝶梦》中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹静

    2013-01-01

    达夫妮·杜穆里埃在哥特式小说《蝴蝶梦》中通过大量植物、景物描写,运用象征手法恰到好处地刻画了3个主人公的形象:芬芳的紫丁香象征了单纯善良的“我”;美丽红艳的石南象征了双重人格的吕蓓卡;秀美的“幸福谷”象征了追求完美、实现自我的迈克希姆,这样寓情于景的写法更好地使读者了解小说的情节发展。%Gothic Novel Rebecca includes large part of the description of landscape and plants by symbolization :li-lac symbolized the kind and innocent “I”;rhododendrons symbolized the dual personality Rebecca;Happy Valley symbolized pursuit of perfection and self realization of Maxim , through which it simplifies the readers'understanding of the plots.

  18. Community dynamics of a montane Fagus engleriana–Cyclobalanopsis multiervis mixed forest in Shennongjia, Hubei, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jielin Ge

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Montane evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forests are some of the main vegetation types in China. Specifically, the Fagus–Cyclobalanopsis mixed forest is a dominant forest community in themountainous region of Shennongjia. Using three datasets (2001, 2006, and 2010 from a permanent 120 m ×80 m plot in the montane evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest in Shengnongjia, we analyzedthe dynamics of tree species composition and community structure for individual trees (DBH ≥ 4 cm. We found that total species number increased from 81 in 2001 to 84 in 2006, and then decreased to 83 in 2010. Dominant species remained constant throughout the study period, including Cyclobalanopsis multiervis, Fagus engleriana, Rhododendron hypoglaucum and Lithocarpus henryi. Stem number and basal area followed the same trend with an initial increase, followed by a decline. The mortality and recruitment of this survey plot changed substantially over the nine-year study period. Although an ice storm in 2008 had some impact on the community, the species richness and community structure did not alter significantly and the community appeared to be in a state of dynamic equilibrium with strong resilience to external disturbances.

  19. Ecosystem function in Appalachian headwater streams during an active invasion by the hemlock woolly adelgid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M Northington

    Full Text Available Forested ecosystems in the southeastern United States are currently undergoing an invasion by the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA. Previous studies in this area have shown changes to forest structure, decreases in canopy cover, increases in organic matter, and changes to nutrient cycling on the forest floor and soil. Here, we were interested in how the effects of canopy loss and nutrient leakage from terrestrial areas would translate into functional changes in streams draining affected watersheds. We addressed these questions in HWA-infested watersheds at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in North Carolina. Specifically, we measured stream metabolism (gross primary production and ecosystem respiration and nitrogen uptake from 2008 to 2011 in five streams across the Coweeta basin. Over the course of our study, we found no change to in-stream nutrient concentrations. While canopy cover decreased annually in these watersheds, this change in light penetration did not translate to higher rates of in-stream primary production during the summer months of our study. We found a trend towards greater heterotrophy within our watersheds, where in-stream respiration accounted for a much larger component of net ecosystem production than GPP. Additionally, increases in rhododendron cover may counteract changes in light and nutrient availability that occurred with hemlock loss. The variability in our metabolic and uptake parameters suggests an actively-infested ecosystem in transition between steady states.

  20. 闹羊花中黄酮类成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘有强; 孔令义

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究闹羊花Rhododendron molle中的黄酮类成分.方法 利用各种柱色谱分离得到化合物,利用理化性质、波谱技术鉴定其结构.结果 从闹羊花中分离得到9个黄酮类化合物,分别鉴定为槲皮素(quercetin,I)、槲皮苷(quercitrin,II)、槲皮素-3-O-α-L-阿拉伯糖苷(quercetin-3-O-α-L-arabinoside,III)、槲皮素-3-O-β-D-半乳糖苷(quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactoside,IV)、quercetin 3-rhamnoside 2"-gallate(V)、山柰酚(kaempferol,Ⅵ)、山柰酚-7-O-α-L-鼠李糖苷(kaempferol-7-O-α-L-rhamnoside,Ⅶ)、山核桃素(caryatin,Ⅷ)和异鼠李素(isorhamnetin,IX).结论 此9个化合物均为首次从该植物中分离得到,其中化合物V、Ⅶ和Ⅸ为首次从闹羊花属中分离得到.

  1. Multiple Phytophthora species associated with a single riparian ecosystem in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Jan H; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael J; Gryzenhout, Marieka

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of Phytophthora spp. in rivers and riparian ecosystems has received considerable international attention, although little such research has been conducted in South Africa. This study determined the diversity of Phytophthora spp. within a single river in Gauteng province of South Africa. Samples were collected over 1 y including biweekly river baiting with Rhododendron indicum leaves. Phytophthora isolates were identified with phylogenetic analyses of sequences for the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal DNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (coxI) gene. Eight Phytophthora spp. were identified, including a new taxon, P. taxon Sisulu-river, and two hybrid species from Cooke's ITS clade 6. Of these, species from Clade 6 were the most abundant, including P. chlamydospora and P. lacustris. Species residing in Clade 2 also were encountered, including P. multivora, P. plurivora and P. citrophthora. The detection of eight species in this investigation of Phytophthora diversity in a single riparian river ecosystem in northern South Africa adds to the known diversity of this genus in South Africa and globally.

  2. Phytophthora aquimorbida sp. nov. and Phytophthora taxon 'aquatilis' recovered from irrigation reservoirs and a stream in Virginia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chuanxue; Richardson, Patricia A; Hao, Wei; Ghimire, Sita R; Kong, Ping; Moorman, Gary W; Lea-Cox, John D; Ross, David S

    2012-01-01

    Two distinct subgroups (L2 and A(-2)) were recovered from irrigation reservoirs and a stream in Virginia, USA. After molecular, morphological and physiological examinations, the L2 subgroup was named Phytophthora aquimorbida and the A(-2) designated as Phytophthora taxon 'aquatilis'. Both taxa are homothallic. P. aquimorbida is characterized by its noncaducous and nonpapillate sporangia, catenulate and radiating hyphal swellings and thick-walled plerotic oospores formed in globose oogonia mostly in the absence of an antheridium. P. taxon 'aquatilis' produces plerotic oospores in globose oogonia mostly with a paragynous antheridium. It has semi-papillate, caducous sporangia with variable pedicels, but it does not have hyphal swelling. Analyses of ITS, CO1, β-tubulin and NADH1 sequences revealed that P. aquimorbida is closely related to P. hydropathica, P. irrigata and P. parsiana, and P. taxon 'aquatilis' is related to P. multivesiculata. The optimum temperature for culture growth is 30 and 20 C for P. aquimorbida and P. taxon 'aquatilis' respectively. Both taxa were pathogenic to rhododendron plants and caused root discoloration, pale leaves, wilting, tip necrosis and dieback. Their plant biosecurity risk also is discussed.

  3. Litter Production, Decomposition, and Nutrient Release in Subalpine Forest Communities of the Northwest Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod K. Bisht

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production, decomposition, and release of nutrients from leaf and nonleaf litter were investigated in four subalpine forests of North-West Himalaya, India. Total annual litter fall in four communities varied from 2950.00 to 4040.00 kg ha−1 and was found significant (CD0.05 = 118.2. Decomposition of leaf litter varied from 1.82–3.5% during autumn-winter to 36.14–45.51 during summer rainy season in all stands and percent of mass loss was significantly varied in stands (CD6.00. Similarly, decomposition in nonleaf litter was varied from 0.3–1.1% during autumn-winter to 19.59–30.05% during summer rainy season and was significantly varied irrespective of seasons. However, percent decomposition of leaf litter and the values of decay constant (k were at par in all stands. Total standing state of nutrients in fresh litter as well as release of total nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, and potassium (K in due course of decomposition (12 months was also varying significantly. The rate of nonleaf litter decomposition was significantly positively correlated with air temperature (r=0.63–0.74 in all communities. The significant correlation (r=0.85 was observed only in Rhododendron-Sorbus forest community (PRS. Study indicates that the air temperature is a major determinant for nonleaf litter decomposition in this region.

  4. A role of periaqueductal grey NR2B-containing NMDA receptor in mediating persistent inflammatory pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Qi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG is a structure known for its roles in pain transmission and modulation. Noxious stimuli potentiate the glutamate synaptic transmission and enhance glutamate NMDA receptor expression in the PAG. However, little is known about roles of NMDA receptor subunits in the PAG in processing the persistent inflammatory pain. The present study was undertaken to investigate NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG and their modulation to the peripheral painful inflammation. Noxious stimuli induced by hind-paw injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA caused up-regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG, while NR2A-containing NMDA receptors were not altered. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed that NMDA receptor mediated mEPSCs were increased significantly in the PAG synapse during the chronic phases of inflammatory pain in mice. PAG local infusion of Ro 25-6981, an NR2B antagonist, notably prolonged the paw withdrawal latency to thermal radian heat stimuli bilaterally in rats. Hyperoside (Hyp, one of the flavonoids compound isolated from Rhododendron ponticum L., significantly reversed up-regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG and exhibited analgesic activities against persistent inflammatory stimuli in mice. Our findings provide strong evidence that up-regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG involves in the modulation to the peripheral persistent inflammatory pain.

  5. Castanopsis eyrei community characteristics in Zhawan Natural Reserve of Anhui Province%安徽查湾自然保护区甜槠群落结构特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江国华; 吴泽民

    2011-01-01

    Castanopsis eyrei forest is one of the main forest types in Zhawan Nature Reserve. The investigation result showed that the Castanopsis eyrei community has a remarkable mono-dominant character. The community is mainly composed of Castanopsis eyrei-Rhododendron ovatum plus Meliosma veitchiorum-Woodwardia japonica. The complicated vertical structure could be divided into tree layer, shrub layer and herb layer, as well as a definite number of inter-stratum plants. The species diversity index of the tree layer is low, and the general trend is shrub layer > treeilayer > herb layer.%甜槠林是查湾自然保护区常绿阔叶林主要类型之一.对甜槠群落特征进行分析和研究.结果表明,甜槠群落中,甜槠的优势明显,呈单优势群落.形成的群落类型为甜槠-马银花+暖木-狗脊蕨.群落垂直结构复杂,成层现象明显.乔木层物种多样性指数偏低,垂直结构各层次间物种多样性大小依次为灌木层>乔木层>草本层.

  6. Evaluation of DNA barcodes in Codonopsis (Campanulaceae) and in some large angiosperm plant genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xiao-Guo; Huang, Lu-Qi; Jin, Xiao-Hua

    2017-01-01

    DNA barcoding is expected to be one of the most promising tools in biological taxonomy. However, there have been no agreements on which core barcode should be used in plants, especially in species-rich genera with wide geographical distributions. To evaluate their discriminatory power in large genera, four of the most widely used DNA barcodes, including three plastid regions (matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA) and nuclear internal transcribed spacer (nrITS), were tested in seven species-rich genera (Ficus, Pedicularis, Rhodiola, Rhododendron,Viburnum, Dendrobium and Lysimachia) and a moderate size genus, Codonopsis. All of the sequences from the aforementioned seven large genera were downloaded from NCBI. The related barcodes for Codonopsis were newly generated in this study. Genetics distances, DNA barcoding gaps and phylogenetic trees of the four single barcodes and their combinations were calculated and compared in the seven genera. As for single barcode, nrITS has the most variable sites, the clearest intra- and inter-specific divergences and the highest discrimination rates in the seven genera. Among the combinations of barcodes, ITS+matK performed better than all the single barcodes in most cases and even the three- and four-loci combinations in the seven genera. Therefore, we recommend ITS+matK as the core barcodes for large plant genera. PMID:28182623

  7. Bioindication of heavy metals in the town Wrocław (Poland) with evergreen plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samecka-Cymerman, A.; Kempers, A. J.

    In this paper the results are reported of a study on the concentration of macroelements (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and Fe) and heavy metals (Ni, Cr, Co, V, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ba and Sr) in soil and in three species of the evergreen plants Ilex aquifolium, Mahonia aquifolium and Rhododendron catawbiense. These plants are collected in the Botanical Garden of the Polish town Wrocław (which is exposed to atmospheric exhausts of heavy traffic, chemical factories, metal smelters and a heat and power plant partly alimented with lignite and coals) and in two presumed unpolluted reference (background) sites, one in Poland (the Dendrological Garden in Wojslawice near Niemcza, south from Wrocław) and the other in The Netherlands (the Botanical Garden of the University of Nijmegen). Analyses of both soil and plant samples point to the pollution of the Wrocław Botanical Garden by Ni, Cr, Co, Cd via the atmosphere and pollution by Zn, Pb and Hg probably via atmosphere and soil. Especially pollution with Hg via soil is supported by a significant positive correlation between Hg content in soil and in all the examined species of which Ilex aquifolium seemed to be the best monitor of soil pollution with this element.

  8. Leaf architecture and direction of incident light influence mesophyll fluorescence profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Daniel M; Smith, William K; Vogelmann, Thomas C; Brodersen, Craig R

    2005-09-01

    Light propagation and distribution inside leaves have been recognized as important processes influencing photosynthesis. Monochromatic light absorption across the mesophyll was measured using chlorophyll fluorescence generated from illumination of the cut edge (epi-illumination), as well as the adaxial or abaxial surfaces of the leaf. Species were selected that had basic leaf types: laminar leaf with adaxial palisade layer (Rhododendron catawbiense), needle with palisade (Abies fraseri), and needle without palisade (Picea rubens). Fluorescence was more evenly distributed across the mesophyll for adaxially illuminated leaves with a palisade cell layer, as well as for the needles (cylindrical) without palisade, when compared to fluorescence generated by abaxial illumination. Moreover, fluorescence from green light illumination remained high across the mesophyll of adaxially illuminated R. catawbiense, indicating a possible influence of mesophyll structure on internal light distribution beyond that of chlorophyll levels. These data support the idea that light propagation within the mesophyll is associated with asymmetric mesophyll structure, in particular the presence of palisade cell layers. In addition, we propose that the evolution of a more cylindrical leaf form, such as found in conifer species, may be a structural solution to excessive sunlight that replaces the highly differentiated mesophyll found in most laminar-leaved species.

  9. Allelopathy on bark of downed logs of Chamaecyparis Obtusa sieb. and Zucc. var. formosana (Hayata) Rehder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Mei-Hwei; Lai, Wen-Rong; Hsieh, Chin-Lin; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung

    2007-06-01

    Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. and Zucc. var. formosana (Hayata) Rehder is the dominant species in the temperate forest of Yuanyang Lake Nature Reserve (YYL), Taiwan. Although downed logs of C. obstusa var. formosana occupy only a small percentage of the forest floor area in YYL, they are important regeneration substrates. Seedlings of this species often grow without competition on the new downed logs, and a few broadleaf trees grow with them. We hypothesized that the bark of the newly fallen logs possesses allelopathic potential that provides a habitat especially suitable for seedling establishment. Eight different seeds including those from Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce), Bidens pilosa (an invasive weed), and six species in YYL were planted on the bark of the downed logs in an incubator for germination tests. Two dominant species in the forest of YYL, C. obtusa var. formosana and Rhododendron formosanum, were able to grow normally, but the others, Pieris taiwanensis, Barthea formosana, Chamaecyparis formosensis, Miscanthus transmorrisonensis, lettuce, and B. pilosa were growth inhibited. A bioactivity-guided isolation was designed to isolate allelochemicals from the bark. Salicylic acid, one of the inhibiting substances, was isolated and identified by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), and infrared (IR). Bioassay of salicylic acid confirmed a phytotoxic effect. The results suggest that the dominance of C. obtusa var. formosana seedlings on bark could be partly due to allelopathy.

  10. Mad honey intoxication: A systematic review on the 1199 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silici, Sibel; Atayoglu, A Timucin

    2015-12-01

    Mad honey, produced by honeybees from the nectars of Rhododendron genus (R. ponticum and R. luteum) flowers, is widely used in indigenous medicine, especially in the treatment of hypertension and sexual dysfunction. However, the consumption of this honey can result in intoxication soon after. The diagnosis of honey poisoning and a full understanding of its treatment is important for both effective and immediate treatment, and also for the prevention of unnecessary costs. Upon the evaluation of approximately 34 years of case reports between 1981 and 2014, it was found that the cases of poisoning were more frequently reported in males (75.17%) and between the ages 41 to 65. The most common complaints related to honey poisoning were dizziness, nausea, presyncope and the ECG findings were: sinus bradycardia (79.58%), complete atrioventricular block (45.83%), atrioventricular block (30.91%), ST-segment elevation (22.63%), and nodal rhythm (11.27%), As a result of the evaluation of 1199 cases, it was found that no deaths were reported. The patients were most frequently treated with 0.5 mg atropine (37.79%), 1 mg atropine (49.73%), salin (iv fluid) (65.35%), and generally the patients were discharged within 24 h after recovery.

  11. Classification of 7 monofloral honey varieties by PTR-ToF-MS direct headspace analysis and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhfried, Erna; Sánchez del Pulgar, José; Bobba, Marco; Piro, Roberto; Cappellin, Luca; Märk, Tilmann D; Biasioli, Franco

    2016-01-15

    Honey, in particular monofloral varieties, is a valuable commodity. Here, we present proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry, PTR-ToF-MS, coupled to chemometrics as a successful tool in the classification of monofloral honeys, which should serve in fraud protection against mispresentation of the floral origin of honey. We analyzed 7 different honey varieties from citrus, chestnut, sunflower, honeydew, robinia, rhododendron and linden tree, in total 70 different honey samples and a total of 206 measurements. Only subtle differences in the profiles of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the headspace of the different honeys could be found. Nevertheless, it was possible to successfully apply 6 different classification methods with a total correct assignment of 81-99% in the internal validation sets. The most successful methods were stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and probabilistic neural network (PNN), giving total correct assignments in the external validation sets of 100 and 90%, respectively. Clearly, PTR-ToF-MS/chemometrics is a powerful tool in honey classification.

  12. Morphology, ontogenesis, and molecular phylogeny of an Indian population of Cyrtohymena (Cyrtohymenides) shii, including remarks on the subgenus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jasbir; Kamra, Komal; Sapra, Gulshan Rai

    2013-05-01

    The freshwater ciliate Cyrtohymena (Cyrtohymenides) shii (Shi et al., 1997) Shao et al., 2012 (Hypotricha, Oxytrichidae), isolated from Barsey Rhododendron Sanctuary of The Eastern Himalayas, is slightly flexible, measures about 150 μm × 50 μm in life and possesses citrine cortical granules randomly distributed singly and in small clusters. Cells of our Indian population have five or six dorsal kineties arising from multiple fragmentation of the third dorsal anlage. The subgenus Cyrtohymenides includes species with multiple dorsal kinety fragmentation namely C. (C.) aspoecki (type species), C. (C.) australis, and the present species. Ventral morphogenesis of the genus Cyrtohymena has been reported only for the type species C. muscorum. Notable features of the Indian population include formation of frontal anlagen from four parental cirri, two more parental cirri possibly contribute to these anlagen later, and the formation of primary primordia which later split transversely to form two sets, one for each daughter cell. 18S rDNA sequence of the Indian population matches with those of two populations of C. citrina; it also clusters with Afrokeronopsis aurea, a neokeronopsid, with which it interestingly shares some morphological features, supporting the CEUU hypothesis.

  13. Investigations on the Effects of Five Different Plant Extracts on the Two-Spotted Mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Arachnida: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervin Erdogan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Arac.: Tetranychidae, is an economic pest worldwide including Turkey, causing serious damage to vegetables, flowers, and fruit crops. In recent years, broad-spectrum insecticides/miticides have been used to control this pest in Turkey. Control is difficult mainly due to resistance to conventional pesticides. This study was conducted to determine efficacy of pesticides extracted from five different plants [i.e., Allium sativum L. (Amaryllidaceae, Rhododendron luteum S. (Ericaceae, Helichrysum arenarium L. (Asteraceae, Veratrum album L. (Liliaceae, and Tanacetum parthenium L. (Asteraceae] against this mite. Bioassays were tested by two different methods to determine the effects of varying concentrations. Experiments were performed using 3 cm diameter leaf disk from unsprayed bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. In addition, the effects of the extracts on reproduction and oviposition were investigated. The extract yielded high mortality. In the lowest-concentration bioassays, the adult mites laid lower numbers of eggs compared to the untreated control. No ovicidal effect was observed.

  14. 5种园林植物的抗旱性比较研究%Comparative study on drought resistances of five species of garden plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑛

    2013-01-01

    采用自然干旱胁迫方法,测定上海南园公园5种园林植物的9项生理生化指标,分析干旱胁迫下植物的生理反应,并用模糊数学隶属函数值法对植物抗旱性进行综合评价.结果表明:在自然干旱胁迫下,5种园林植物抗旱性由强到弱的排序为:八宝景天、马蔺、香茅、红叶石楠、杜鹃.%Under natural drought stress,5 species of garden plants in Shanghai Nanyuan Park were determined in terms of 9 physiological and biochemical indexes,their physiological reactions were analyzed and their drought resistances were comprehensively evaluated by a fuzzy mathematics membership function method.The results indicated that the descending order of the plants in drought resistance was Sedum spectabile,Iris lactea var.chinensis,Cymbopogon citrates,Photinia serrulata and Rhododendron pulchrum.

  15. 松茸发生地植被特征及功能分区%Vegetation Characteristics and Functional Division of Tricholoma matsutake habitat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙刚; 王振堂

    2000-01-01

    研究了长白山松茸发生地的植被特征及功能分区.结果表明,松茸发生地植被组成比较简单,冠层稀疏,郁闭度较低(一般在0.5~0.6之间).松茸主要生长于赤松(Pinus densiflora)林中、岳桦(Betula ermanii)、杜鹃(Rhododendron dahuricum)和羊胡子苔草(Carex callitrichos)是赤松最常见的伴生种群.以松茸生产为指标,将赤松林划分为适宜松茸生长的高产天然赤松针阔混交林、低产或不产松茸的疏林型天然赤松林、不产松茸的密林型天然赤松林和人工赤松林4类.松茸保护区可分为生态环境保障带、松茸产出带和缓冲带.

  16. Rare and endangered plants in Mount Jinggangshan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of rare, endangered, and protected plant species is of importance in assessing the status of local biodiversity and the environment as well as developing strategies for nature conservation and management. The abundance and distribution of rare and endangered plants in the Mount Jinggangshan region were investigated as well as the community characteristics of important woody species. The resultsdemonstrate that rare and endangered species have high conservation value and significant importance in systematics and biogeography. This area contains two endangered bryophyte species and 199 species of vascular plants. Among them, 50 species are included in the IUCN Red List of Threatened species, 160 species in the China Species Red List, 49 species in the List of Wild Plants Under State Protection (First Batch, and 90 species in the Appendices of CITES. The variety and abundance of rare and endangered species in this area are equivalent to those for Mount Emei and higher than those for Mount Wuyi and MountTaibai. Many perfectly preserved communities, covering a large area, exist in the Mount Jinggangshan vicinity, and are dominated by rare and endangered species, such as Abies beshanzuensis var. ziyuanensis,Corylus chinensis, Pseudotaxus chienii, Taxus wallichiana var. mairei, Fokienia hodginsii, Amentotaxus argotaenia, Phoebe bournei, Pieris japonica, Rhododendron jinggangshanicum, etc. The communities where some important rare and endangered plants occur are described in detail and suggestions are made for their protection.

  17. Ethnomedicine in Himalaya: a case study from Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshhetri Hari B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional plant use in Nepal has been documented for millennia. The importance of plants as medicine has not diminished in any way in recent times, and traditional medicines are still the most important health care source for the vast majority of the population. This paper examines the ethnobotany and traditional use of plants extracted from the vulnerable alpine zone in the Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal. The results of this ethnobotanical study indicate that a very large number of plant species is used as traditional medicines. There were 107, 59, 44 and 166 species of ethnomedicinal importance in surveyed areas of Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang district respectively. Of these, 84 common species, used at least in two districts, were selected to enumerate their ethnomedicinal properties. The 84 species belonged to 75 genera and 39 families. The commonest species in this pharmacopoeia were: Allium wallichii, Cordyceps sinensis, Dactylorhiza hatagirea, and Rheum australe. A total of 21 species were most common in three districts and 59 in two districts. The genera Aconitum, Allium, Arisaema, Berberis, Corydalis, Gentiana, Hippophae, Juniperus and Rhododendron each possessed two species with ethnomedicinal use. Labiatae was the most medicinally important family with five species used, followed by Araceae, Compositae, Liliaceae, Polygonaceae, Ranunculaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Umbelliferae, each contributing four species.

  18. Toxic compounds in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-07-01

    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food.

  19. On the patterns of abundance and diversity of macrolichens of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hans Raj Negi

    2000-12-01

    A total of 3211 colonies of macrolichens, from twelve 50 m × 10 m plots distributed across four macrohabitat (vegetation) types between 1500 m–3700 m in the Chopta-Tunganath landscape of the Garhwal Himalaya, yielded 13 families with 15 genera and 85 species. Lobaria retigera stood out as a broad-niched generalist species with moderate levels of abundance in all the three major microhabitats, viz. rock, soil and wood across 83% of all the plots sampled, whereas Umbilicaria indica emerged as an abundantly occurring specialist confined to rock substrates. Heterodermia incana and Leptogium javanicum appeared to be rare members of the community as they were encountered only once during the field survey. Woody microhabitats turned out to be richer than rock and soil substrates for macrolichens. Amongst the macrohabitats, middle altitude (2500–2800 m) Quercus forest was richest in species and genera followed by high altitude (2900–3200 m) Rhododendron forest, higher altitude grasslands (3300–3700 m) and then the lower elevation (1500 m) Quercus forest. Species, genus and family level alpha- as well as beta-diversities were significantly correlated with each other, implying that higher taxonomic ranks such as genera may be used as surrogates for species thus facilitating cost- and time-effective periodic monitoring of the biodiversity of macrolichens. Dynamics of the diversity of lichen communities in relation to various forms of environmental disturbance including livestock grazing and tourism as dominant land use activities in the higher Himalaya need further research.

  20. Flowering Plants Preferred by Bumblebees (Bombus Latr. in the Botanical Garden of Medicinal Plants in Wrocław

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikora Aneta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to fewer bumblebees in rural areas these days, it is necessary to look for alternative habitats for the active protection of these very important pollinators. The research was carried out in The Botanical Garden of Medicinal Plants, in Wrocław, Poland. In the garden, approximately 2000 plant species were cultivated, of which 185 were visited by bumblebees. Amongst them, 57 plant species were deemed very attractive and were determined to be indicators for 7 bumblebee species. Indicator species for bumblebees ranged between 6 for Bombus pratorum to up to 20 for B. pascuorum. Monarda didyma was an indicator plant to 6 recorded bumblebee species. Other indicator plant species for at least 4 bumblebees species were: Origanum vulgare, Lavandula angustifolia, Rhododendron catawbiense, Phacelia tanacetifolia, and Agastache rugosa. Three bumblebee species were found to forage the most on 11 of the flowering plant species. The biggest group of plants were those which were mostly visited by 1-2 bumblebee species. Amongst all recorded indicator plants, 32% were native species.

  1. Leaf-litter microfungal community on poor fen plant debris in Torfy Lake area (Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Wilk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to initially evaluate the species diversity of microfungi growing on litter of 15 plant species occurring on the poor fen and neighbouring area of the Torfy Lake, Masovian voivodeship, Poland. The lake is located near the planned road investment (construction of the Warsaw southern express ring road S2. The place is biologically valuable as there are rare plant communities from Rhynchosporion albae alliance protected under the Habitats Directive adopted by the European Union. On the examined plant debris 73 taxa of fungi were recorded (3 basidiomycetes, 13 ascomycetes, 2 zygomycetes, 43 anamorphic ascomycetes, 12 unidentified. Two of them, Dicranidion sp. and Wentiomyces sp. are presented here as new to Poland. Among the plant species examined, the litter of Rhododendron tomentosum harbored the highest number of fungal taxa (16. The highest percents of substrate-specific microfungi (i.e. recorded only on one plant species was noted on R. tomentosum (81.3 %, and Pteridium aquilinum (75%. It is emphasized that the lake area should be protected not only because of rare plant community but also because of the uniqueness and diversity of mycobiota.

  2. Cloning and Sequence Analyzing of Chalcone Synthase Gene in Loropetalum chinense var.Rubrum%红花檵木CHS基因的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许威; 于晓英; 陈己任; 符红艳; 胡博文; 陈彦斌; 李达

    2013-01-01

    查尔酮合酶(chalcone synthase,CHS)是进入类黄酮和花色素苷次生代谢的第1个关键酶.根据植物查尔酮合成酶保守区序列设计引物,以红花檵木Loropetalurn chinense var.Rubrum)大叶红的嫩叶为材料,用RT-PCR方法,分离得到了一个查尔酮合成酶基因的eDNA(GenBank登录号为JQ609678),将该基因命名为Lc vrCHS1.该序列长927 bp,编码232个氨基酸残基.其核苷酸序列与GenBank已登录的同样来源的核桃、山茶属植物CHS序列同源性达83%,与其他科植物(绣球花、葡萄、桃、马铃薯、甘草、领春木属)CHS序列同源性也达到80%以上;其编码的氨基酸序列与山茶属、葡萄、鳄梨、洋梨、沙梨、映山红CHS基因编码的氨基酸序列同样具有高度同源性,同源性高达98%.%Chalcone synthase (chalcone synthase, CHS) is the key enzyme that catalyzes the first step in flavonoids biosynthesis and anthocyanins secondary metabolites. A full-length cDNA encoding CHS was cloned from the young leaves of Loropetalurn chinense var. rubrum by RT-PCR using specific primers based on the highly conserved sequences of plant CHS that had already known. Blast search revealed that it was a new gene, and was named as LcvrCHSl (GenBank accession: JQ609678). The sequence was 927 bp, encoding 232 amino acid residues. It had 83% sequence homology with walnut and camellia that had been logged in GenBank; with other genus plants (hydrangea, grapes, peaches, potatoes, licorice, Euptelea genus), CHS sequence homology was also more than 80%; with other plants (camellia, grapes, avocados, bartlett pear, sand pear, azalea), CHS sequence also had high homology, up to 98% homology.

  3. Resistance to Nitrogen Dioxide of 18 Kinds of Landscape Species in South China%华南18个景观树种抗N02能力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘先华; 张卫强; 李召青; 郭乐东; 周平

    2013-01-01

    为探讨18个华南景观树种抗NO2污染能力,以2~3a生实生苗为材料,通过人工气候室的盆栽试验,在NO2质量体积浓度为2.05 mg/m3的胁迫处理下,测定了叶片表观伤害症状、叶片气体交换参数及相对叶绿素含量等生理生态指标.采用隶属函数法及系统聚类分析法对其抗NO2污染能力进行了综合评价.结果表明,复羽叶栾树(Koelreuteria bipinnata)、穗花棋盘脚(Barringtonia racemosa)和广宁红山茶(Camellia chekiangoleosa)抗N02污染能力强;大花紫薇(Lagerstroemia speciosa)、紫薇(Lagerstroemia indica)、木棉(Bombax ceiba)、杜鹃红山茶(Camellia azalea)、深山含笑(Michelia maudiae)和澳洲火焰木(Brachychiton acerifolius)抗NO2污染能力较强;腊肠树(Cassia fistula)、仪花(Lysidice rhodostegia)和红花荷(Rhodoleia championii)抗N02污染能力中等;火焰木(Spathodea campanulata)、蓝花风铃木(Tabebuia pentaphylla)、樱花(Prunus serrulata)、红花羊蹄甲(Bauhinia blakeana)和美丽异木棉(Chorisia speciosa)抗NO2污染能力较弱,蓝花楹(Jacaranda mimosifolia)抗NO2污染能力弱.研究结果为华南重度酸污染地区景观树种选择提供参考.

  4. 福建光泽天然林中南方铁杉的种内与种间竞争%Intra and interspecific competition in Tsuga chinensis var.tchekiangensis in a natural forest in Guangze, Fujian, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗金旺

    2011-01-01

    Hegyi's single-tree competition index was selected from several competition indices and to be used for the intra-and interspecific competition intensities of Tsuga chinensis var. Tchekiangensis trees in a natural forest in Cuzngze, Fujian, China. The results showed that the intraspecific competition intensity of T. Chinensis var. Tchekiangensis was 52.03, and was higher than any other interspecific competition intensities, but lower than the sum of all the interspecific competition intensities (164.08). The order of the intraspecific and interspecific competition intensities received by T. Chinensis var. Tchekiangensis was: T. Chinensis var. Tchekiangensis > Schima superba > Rhododendron simiarum > Castanopsis eyrei > Sorbus dunnii > Cyclobalanopsis gracilis > Rhododendron latoucheae > Cleyera pachyphylla > Pinus taiwanensis > Lithocarpus iteaphyl-lus > Toxicodendron succedaneum > Acanthopanax evodiaefolius > Ternstroemia kwangtungensis > Cryptomeria fortwiei > Uquid-ambar formosana > Ilex ficoidea > Sorbus folgneri > Pieris polka > Dendropanax dentiger > Ilex purpurea > Halesia macgregorii. The competition intensities received by T. Chinensis var. Tchekiangensis were decreased with the increase in diameter at breast height ( DBH) of objective trees. When DBH of objective trees reached 30 cm, the competition intensities changed little. The relationships between competition intensities and DBH of objective trees were closely followed the power function.%通过各种竞争指数的比较,提出采用Hegyi单木竞争指数模型研究福建光泽天然林中南方铁杉在生长发育过程中受到的种内和种间竞争强度.结果表明,南方铁杉受到的种内竞争指数为52.03,高于任一其他树种的竞争指数,但低于种间竞争指数总和(164.08).南方铁杉受到的种间和种内竞争大小顺序为:南方铁杉>木荷>猴头杜鹃>甜槠>棕脉花楸>小叶青冈>鹿角杜鹃>厚叶红淡比>黄山松>鼠刺叶石栎>

  5. Rare and endangered plants in Mount Jinggangshan region%井冈山地区珍稀濒危植物及其生存状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蕾; 施诗; 廖文波; 陈春泉; 李贞

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of rare, endangered, and protected plant species is of importance in assessing the status of local biodiversity and the environment as well as developing strategies for nature conservation and management. The abundance and distribution of rare and endangered plants in the Mount Jinggangshan region were investigated as well as the community characteristics of important woody species. The results demonstrate that rare and endangered species have high conservation value and significant importance in systematics and biogeography. This area contains two endangered bryophyte species and 199 species of vascular plants. Among them, 50 species are included in the IUCN Red List of Threatened species, 160 species in the China Species Red List, 49 species in the List of Wild Plants Under State Protection (First Batch), and 90 species in the Appendices of CITES. The variety and abundance of rare and endangered species in this area are equivalent to those for Mount Emei and higher than those for Mount Wuyi and Mount Taibai. Many perfectly preserved communities, covering a large area, exist in the Mount Jinggangshan vicinity, and are dominated by rare and endangered species, such as Abies beshanzuensis var. ziyuanensis, Corylus chinensis, Pseudotaxus chienii, Taxus wallichiana var. mairei, Fokienia hodginsii, Amentotaxus argotaenia, Phoebe bournei, Pieris japonica, Rhododendron jinggangshanicum, etc. The communities where some important rare and endangered plants occur are described in detail and suggestions are made for their protection.%开展国家珍稀濒危保护植物的考察、研究,对探讨区域生物多样性的性质、评价生态环境的状况和质量,提出适当的自然保护、管理对策等,均具有重要的指导意义.本文调查研究了井冈山地区珍稀濒危植物的种类、数量、分布、生长状况以及重要木本植物的群落特征,探讨了珍稀濒危植物的系统学与生物地理学特征.结果表明,井冈

  6. 东北长白山垂直林带下现代表土花粉与植被关系%Pollen Record of Surface Sediments from Vertical Forest Zones of Changbai Mountain, Northeast China and Their Relations to the Modern Vegetation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙湘君; 罗运利; 田军; 吴玉书

    2003-01-01

    Twenty-nine surface samples (mosses) from five vertical distribution vegetation zones inChangbai Mountain, Northeast China have been palynologically analyzed and the results were tested bycorrespondence analysis. The results show that, except a few samples, arboreal pollen is predominant inalmost all pollen assemblages; Pinus and Betula are the main pollen types in quantities and they are foundin all vegetation zones of Changbai Mountain. The highest pollen proportion of Pinus occurs in the mixedconifer and broadleaved forest where Pinus koraiensis is the main component; Betula pollen is found inhigh percentage in both subalpine B. ermanii forest and broadleaved deciduous forest predominated byBetula and Quercus; in the former Betula pollen is accompanied by cold-tolerant shrub such as Rhodo-dendron; whereas in the latter it appears a large amount of fern spores. Pollen assemblage of broadleaveddeciduous forests is marked by high diversity and proportions of deciduous trees and a large number of fernspores. Subalpine conifer forest is distinguished by high percentage of Picea pollen. Although tree pollenis slightly dominated, very few or absent of fern spores and increasing of herb and small shrub pollenproportions, particularly predominance of Rhododendron in herbaceous pollen and occurrence of tundraindicator type-Dryas pollen distinguish pollen assemblages of alpine tundra.%在长白山北坡5个垂直植被带的林下采集29个表土(苔藓)样品进行孢粉分析,同时将其结果作对应分析.结果表明,除个别样品,在长白山垂直植被带的孢粉组合中乔木花粉占优势,其中以松属和桦木属最多,在各植被带均有分布.松属花粉最高含量出现在以红松为主的针阔混交林带的孢粉组合中;桦木属花粉则大量见于亚高山岳桦林带和以栎桦为主的阔叶落叶林带,但前者伴有耐寒、早的小灌丛杜鹃花属花粉,而在后者中则见有大量蕨类孢子.阔叶落叶林带的孢粉组

  7. Investigation and Analysis of the Wild Resources of Poisonous Seed Plants from Yunlong Reservoir Area in Yunnan%云南云龙水库库区野生有毒种子植物资源调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽梅; 赵昶灵; 杨生超; 李孙文

    2008-01-01

    云南云龙水库库区野生有毒种子植物共有103种,隶属于50科82属,占该区全部种子植物种的23.1%;其种数和科数分别占全国有毒植物的7.9%和35.7%.优势科为Asclepiadaceae,Compositae,Ericaceae,Leguminosae,Lolanaceae和Ranunculaceae,优势属为Anemone,Carpesium,Ranunculus和Rhododendron.最主要的生态型是草本.该区有毒种子植物种数在海拔2010 m最多,丰富度指数也表明2010m处的有毒种子植物最丰富,但有些有毒种子植物却广泛分布在较宽的海拔范围内.水库完成蓄水后,将有61.17%野生有毒种子植物被永久淹没.该区有毒植物基本属于"有毒类",最主要的毒性部位为全草,但通常仅一个器官的毒性最大.基础教育、及时建立相关法律制度、扩大人工种植面积和加强市场管理应是保护和开发该区野生有毒种子植物资源的有效措施.本研究结果可为库区周边生态环境保护和该区有毒种子植物资源的科学保护和利用提供基本信息.%In the area of Yunlong reservoir in Yunnan province,there were 103 species of poisonous seed plants which belonged to 50 families and 82 genera.The percentage of the poisonous seed Dlants to the total seed plants in this area was 23.1%,and the percentages of the species number and family number of the poisonous plants to those of the poisonous plants in whole China were 7.9% and 35.7% respectively.The preponderant families of the poisonous plants were Asclepiadaceae, Compositae,Ericaceae, Leguminosae, Lolanaceae and Ranunculaceae,and the preponderant genera were Anemone,Carpesium,Ranunculus and Rhododendron.The most dominant ecotype of the poisonous Dlants was herbage.The species number in the altitude of 2010 m was the maximum,which was also reflected by the maximum abundant index. But some poisonous seed plants diffusely distributed in a wide range of altitudes.After the water-storing of reservoir was fulfilled completely,61.17% of the poisonous seed

  8. Anthropogenic influence on forest landscape in the Khumbu valley, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingua, Emanuele; Garbarino, Matteo; Urbinati, Carlo; Carrer, Marco

    2013-04-01

    High altitude Himalayan regions are geo-dynamically very active and very sensitive to natural and anthropogenic disturbances due to their steep slopes, variations of precipitations with elevation and short growing periods. Nonetheless, even in this remote region human pressure is often the most important factor affecting forest landscape. In the last decades the firewood demand has increased each year between September to December. The increase in the number of tourists, mountaineering, guides, porters, carpenters, lodges lead to a peak in the use of fuelwood. In order to understand anthropogenic impacts on forest, resources landscape and stand scale dynamics were analyzed in the Sagarmatha National Park (SNP) and its Buffer Zone in the Khumbu Valley (Nepal, Eastern Himalaya). Biological and historical data sources were employed, and a multi-scale approach was adopted to capture the influence of human activities on the distribution of tree species and forest structure. Stand structure and a range of environmental variables were sampled in 197 20x20 m square plots, and land use and anthropogenic variables were derived in a GIS environment (thematic maps and IKONOS, Landsat and Terra ASTER satellite images). We used multivariate statistical analyses to relate forest structure, anthropogenic influences, land uses, and topography. Fuel wood is the prime source of energy for cooking (1480-1880 Kg/person/year) and Quercus semecarpifolia, Rhododendron arboreum and Pinus wallichiana, among the others, are the most exploited species. Due to lack of sufficient energy sources deforestation is becoming a problem in the area. This might be a major threat causing soil erosion, landslides and other natural hazards. Among the 25 species of trees that were found in the Buffer Zone Community Forests of SNP, Pinus wallichiana, Lyonia ovalifolia, Quercus semecarpifolia and Rhododendron arboreum are the dominant species. The total stand density ranged from 228 to 379 tree/ha and the

  9. Species Diversity and Population Status of Threatened Plants in Different Landscape Elements of the Rohtang Pass,Western Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.N.Singh; Gopichand; Amit Kumar; Brij Lal; N.P.Todaria

    2008-01-01

    This paper highlights the quantitative estimates of plant species diversity and ecosysterns of the Rohtang Pass,which is one of the most preferred visiting spots by tourists in Himachal Pradesh(H.P.),India.In spite of high pressure of anthropogenic activities.the Rohtang Pass still harbours a variety of flowering plants with economic value,including various medicinal herbs.In order to observe species diversity in different landscape elements(LSEs),ground surveys were conducted in nine unique LSEs within the elevation range between 3624 m and 4332 m.Plant community structure in each LSE was studied using stratified random sampling where a total 56 quadrats of 1 m2 in size for herbs and 7 quadrats of 25 m2 for shrubs were made.Of the total 50 plant species belonging to 15 families recorded in different random quadrats.24 species were found of medicinal value.Maximum species richness (18)and value of Shannon diversity (H'=2.2648)were observed on northeast-facing slope in Picrorhiza kurrooa dominated LSE in moist area.followed by Rheum emodi LSE(species richness=17 and H'=2.4141)distributed on south-facing slope.Maximum values of species richness and Shannon diversity in Rheum emodf LSE were observed between 8~12 and 1.4797~2.1911. respectively. Rhododendron anthopogon dominated LSE on northwest-facing slope was found least diverse in terms of species richness where the Simpson index of dominance(D)was 0.4205.The species were equal in abundance in P.kurrooa LSE on east-facing slope and Pleurospermum candollii LSE on north-facing slope,showing the maximum similarity in terms of species distribution between the two LSEs.Low turnover of species across common LSEs gives an idea regarding their limited distribution.Five species of threatened category according to the IUCN criteria were observed in seven LSEs.The largest population of threatened medicinal plants was recorded on northeast and northwest-facing slopes where population density of Bergenia stracheyi(29

  10. Habitat associations of woody plant species in Baishanzu subtropical broad-leaved evergreen forest%百山祖常绿阔叶林木本植物的生境相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 骆争荣; 周荣飞; 许大明; 哀建国; 丁炳扬

    2011-01-01

    Both unified neutral theory and niche theory have played an important role in understanding the mechanisms of species coexistence in tropical rain forests. Using Toms-translation tests, we examined the relationships between microtopography (elevation, convexity, and slope) and the distribution of 89 wood species with >5 individuals and diameter at breast height (DBH) > 1.0 cm in a 5-ha permanent plot in a subtropical broad-leaved evergreen forest in Baishanzu, Zhejiang Province. We classified plants into three growth stages (sapling, juvenile and mature stages) based on their diameter-classes, and compared relationships between microtopography and the distribution of plants in different growth stages for each species.Species with less than 40 individuals always showed few associations with their habitats, while most common species in the 89 studied showed significant associations with their habitats. The majority of species exhibited shifts in habitat preference among growth stages; the exceptions were Rhododendron latoucheae,Cyclobalanopsis stewardiana and Cleyera pachyphylla, whose associations with habitats were similar at all stages. Our study suggests that topographical differentiation is important for maintaining species diversity in this subtropical broad-leaved evergreen forest, and that habitat associations of species change ontogenetically.%中性理论和生态位理论在解释热带雨林中物种共存机制上发挥了重要作用.本文通过Torus-translation榆测方法对百山祖常绿阔叶林5 ha样地中DBH≥1 cm、个体数大于5的89种木本植物与4个根据地形和物种组成划分的小生境进行了关联性分析.同时按植物的胸径径级大小将其分为幼树期、生长期、成熟期3个生长阶段,并分别分析了植物在这3个生长阶段与生境的关联性.结果表明:89个木本植物中,没有表现出显著的生境相关件的物种多是稀有种或是个体数较少的物种,而大部分的常见

  11. Community dynamics of a montane Fagus engleriana-Cyclobalanopsis multiervis mixed forest in Shennongjia, Hubei, China%湖北神农架山地米心水青冈-多脉青冈混交林的群落动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛结林; 熊高明; 邓龙强; 赵常明; 申国珍; 谢宗强

    2012-01-01

    Montane evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forests are some of the main vegetation types in China. Specifically, the Fagus-Cyclobalanopsis mixed forest is a dominant forest community in the mountainous region of Shennongjia. Using three datasets (2001, 2006, and 2010) from a permanent 120 m × 80 m plot in the montane evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest in Shengnongjia, we analyzed the dynamics of tree species composition and community structure for individual trees (DBH ≥ 4 cm). We found that total species number increased from 81 in 2001 to 84 in 2006, and then decreased to 83 in 2010. Dominant species remained constant throughout the study period, including Cyclobalanopsis multiervis, Fagus engleriana, Rhododendron hypoglaucum and Lithocarpus henryi. Stem number and basal area followed the same trend with an initial increase, followed by a decline. The mortality and recruitment of this survey plot changed substantially over the nine-year study period. Although an ice storm in 2008 had some impact on the community, the species richness and community structure did not alter significantly and the community appeared to be in a state of dynamic equilibrium with strong resilience to external disturbances.%常绿落叶阔叶混交林是我国北亚热带的地带性植被类型,在神农架山地其优势类型为水青冈-青冈混交林.本研究基于对120 m×80 rn的永久样地的2001、2006、2010年3次调查数据,从物种组成、数量特征、群落结构等方面分析了神农架山地米心水青冈-多脉青冈(Fagus engleriana-Cyclobalanopsis multiervis)混交林群落的动态特征.结果表明:群落的物种组成变化不大,在2001年、2006年和2010年分别为81、84和83种;优势成分以多脉青冈、米心水青冈、粉白杜鹃(Rhododendron hypoglaucum)和灰柯(Lithocarpus henryi)为主,但常绿树种重要值有增加的趋势;树木生长速率有加快的趋势;常绿树种的动态性强于落叶树

  12. 深圳医疗花园植物群落的生态效益研究%Ecological Benefits of Plant Community in Shenzhen Healing Garden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美仙; 杨帆; 徐艳; 刘燕

    2016-01-01

    As a medical construction subsidiary of the green spaces,healing garden has become a new form of garden in recent years.How to construct the healing garden is still an issue to be studied.In this paper,20 plant communities that were constituted by individual plants with high ecological benefits in five parks and green spaces in three affiliated hospitals were selected as research objectives to screening suitable plant communities by constructing evaluation system targeted at health protection functions.Four plant communities with high ecological benefits were recommended,including Delonix regia-Syzyglum hancei,Ficus benjamina ‘variegata’,Furcraea foetida,and grasses that demonstrated the functions of decreasing temperature,increasing humidity,fixing carbon and oxygin,releasing oxygen anion in the air,and bacteriostasis,respectively.Five plant communities demonstrated high comprehensive ecological benefits were proposed:Litchi chinensis + Plumeria rubra ‘Acutifolia’,Michelia figo + Nandina domestica +Rhododendron pulchrum,Al pinia sanderae ‘Variegata’ + Cordvline f ruticosa + Alocasia macrorrhiza + Stromanthe sanguinea + Iris tectorum + Phalaris arundinacea ‘ picta’ + Axonopus compressus.The results would provide references for the plant community arrangement in the construction of healing garden and other green spaces in Shenzhen.%医疗花园作为医疗建筑附属绿地近年成为一种新兴的园林形式.如何科学地营建医疗花园依然是待解的问题,其中的植物应用无疑是核心问题之一.以深圳市5个公园及3个医院附属绿地中单种生态效益较高的植物所构成的20个植物群落为研究对象,通过构建以卫生防护功能为目标的评价体系,筛选医疗花园适用植物群落.提出凤凰木(Delonix regia)-红车(Syzyglumhancei)+‘花叶’垂榕(Ficus benjamina ‘variegata’)+万年麻(Furcraea oetida)-草坪等4个植物群落分别在降温增湿、固碳释氧、空气中负离子

  13. The Implementation of the Slope Afforestation of Poly Forest Whisper Villa Project in Guangzhou Science Town%广州科学城保利林语山庄边坡支护绿化工程的实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏龙

    2013-01-01

    This thesis mainly introduced the design and construction of the slope afforestation of Poly Forest Whisper Villa Project in Guangzhou Science Town. Given full consideration of the local construction conditions and environment, this project applies appropriate vegetation species and construction process. The major vegetation species is Wedelia trilobata planted in fiber-packed soil in arrays. Other species include Bougainvillea glabra, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Schefflera arboricola, Rhododendron pulchrum, Ficus benjamina, Eucalyptus tereticornis. In this case, the stability of the slope is effectively improved with less soil erosion. Meanwhile, the vegetation species are also integrated into the surrounding garden landscape perfectly.%文章主要介绍了广州科学城保利林语山庄边坡支护绿化设计方案与施工方法。本次工程突出优点是充分考虑了当地施工条件和环境,采用了恰当的植被品种和施工工艺。主要植物选用南美蟛蜞菊,施工工艺采用纤维袋装土列阵方法种植,其他植物选用簕杜鹃、大红花、鹅掌藤、锦绣杜鹃、垂叶榕、细叶桉等,有效地提高了边坡的稳定性,防止了水土流失,并与园林景观融为一体。

  14. Assessment of fuel resource diversity and utilization patterns in Askot Wildlife Sanctuary in Kumaun Himalaya, India, for conservation and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samant, Sher S.; Dhar, Uppeandra; Rawal, Ranbeer S. [G.B. Pant Inst. of Himalayan Environment and Development, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2000-07-01

    A general decrease in abundance of wood plant species used as sources of fuel suggests that more detailed information is urgently needed on species-level trends and their conservation. Such studies have not been carried out so far in India and elsewhere; we therefore quantified the species-wise extraction of fuel from a site (Gori Ganga Valley) in Askot Wildlife Sanctuary in the Kumaun Himalaya. In all, 31 species (26 trees and 5 shrubs) were used as fuel, of which 14 were native to the Himalaya. Utilisation patterns, distributions, probabilities of use (PU), resources use indices (RUI), preferences and availabilities in forest communities of these species were determined. Use pattern did not vary much amongst low altitude villages (Similarity: 52-74%), whereas along the vertical (elevational) gradient it varied considerably (Similarity: 15-31%). Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz, Pinus roxburghii Sarg., Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus, Macaranga pustulata King ex Hk. F., Quercus lanuginosa Don, Engelhardtia spicata Bl. and Mallotus philippensis (Lamk.) Muell. contributed most to collections, while Pyracantha crenulata (Don) Roem., Syzygium cuminii (L.) Skeels, Alnus nepalensis Don and Bauhinia vahlii Wt. and Arn. were in lesser demand. W. fruticosa, P. roxburghii, M. pustulata, Casearia elliptica Willd., E. spicata, M. philippensis, Q. leucotrichophora and Phoebe lanceolata (Nees) Nees showed high values of PU and RUI, indicating high pressure. Higher density of P. roxburghii, Rhododendron arboreum Sm., Q. lanuginosa, Q. leucotrichophora, Lyonia ovalifolia (Wall.) Drude, C. elliptica and M. pustulata amongst trees and Maesa indica A.DC., P. crenulata and W. fruticosa amongst shrubs exhibited high density but the remaining species showed low density indicating the possible depletion. Intensive management of natural habitats of species highly-referred for fuel, diversification of choice of species from natives to non-natives, large scale propagation of highly

  15. 18SrRNA作为植物实时荧光定量PCR 内参基因的探究%The Exploration of 18S rRNA for Quantitative RT-PCR as Reference Gene in Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓馥; 王晶; 史宏伟; 徐洪伟

    2016-01-01

    Real time fluorescence quantitative PCR ( qRT-PCR ) has been widely used for gene expression analysis ,and the choice of reference genes plays a key role for the quantitative analysis of qRT-PCR data correction.Here,18S rRNA was employed as reference gene to explore that if its expression abundance is suitable for wheat , medicago and rhododendron .The results showed that the expression abundance of 18 S rRNA in these three plants were too high with Ct values less than 15 , which will have an effect on the quantitative accuracy of the target gene .Therefore ,18 S rRNA is not the appropriate reference gene for these three plants when target gene expression is low .%实时荧光定量PCR( real time fluorescence quantitative PCR ,qRT-PCR)已广泛用于基因表达分析,而内参基因的选择对qRT-PCR定量分析的数据校正起关键作用。以18S rRNA作为小麦、苜蓿和杜鹃qRT-PCR的内参基因,探究其表达丰度是否适合作为这3种植物的内参基因。结果表明18S rRNA在这3种植物中的表达丰度均过高,Ct值均小于15,影响目的基因定量的准确性。因此,在目的基因的表达量低时,18S rRNA不宜作为这3种植物的内参基因。

  16. Study on Numberical Classification of Plant Community in Xuefeng Mountain(Huaihua Area)%雪峰山(怀化段)植物群落的数量分类研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁莉

    2012-01-01

    对雪峰山(怀化段)的植物群落采用数学模糊聚类分析,结果表明:(1)模糊聚类分析方法是一种理想的植物群落分类方法,可得到比较客观、合理的分类结果;(2)雪峰山(怀化段)的植物群落大致可分为4种类型,分别是:①马尾松—映山红+白栎—白茅+鹅观草群丛;②杉木—苎麻+茶—香石竹+蓼群丛;③杜仲—香樟—柴胡+野菊花群丛;④野百合+早熟禾群丛。%Plant community in Xuefeng Mountain(Huaihua Area)was analyzed by fuzzy classification,The resulted show that(1) The method of fuzzy classification based on fuzzy mathematics was a ideal categorizing method of plant community,Lt could get objective and reasonable categorizing resules;(2)the plant communities in Xuefeng Mountain(Huaihua Area) could be divided into about four types:①Ass.Pinus massoniana-Rhododendron simsii+Quercus fabri-Imperata spp.+Roegneria kamoji;②Ass.Cuninghamia lanceolata-Boehmeria nivea+Camellia sinensis-Dianthus caryophyllus+Polygonum spp.;③ Ass.Eucommia ulmoides-Cinnamomum camphora-Bupleurum chinense+Chrysanthemum indicum;④Ass.Lilium brownie+Poa annua.

  17. Flower litters of alpine plants affect soil nitrogen and phosphorus rapidly in the eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinniu; Xu, Bo; Wu, Yan; Gao, Jing; Shi, Fusun

    2016-10-01

    Litters of reproductive organs have rarely been studied despite their role in allocating nutrients for offspring reproduction. This study determines the mechanism through which flower litters efficiently increase the available soil nutrient pool. Field experiments were conducted to collect plant litters and calculate biomass production in an alpine meadow of the eastern Tibetan Plateau. C, N, P, lignin, cellulose content, and their relevant ratios of litters were analyzed to identify their decomposition features. A pot experiment was performed to determine the effects of litter addition on the soil nutrition pool by comparing the treated and control samples. The litter-bag method was used to verify decomposition rates. The flower litters of phanerophyte plants were comparable with non-flower litters. Biomass partitioning of other herbaceous species accounted for 10-40 % of the aboveground biomass. Flower litter possessed significantly higher N and P levels but less C / N, N / P, lignin / N, and lignin and cellulose concentrations than leaf litter. The litter-bag experiment confirmed that the flower litters of Rhododendron przewalskii and Meconopsis integrifolia decompose approximately 3 times faster than mixed litters within 50 days. Pot experiment findings indicated that flower litter addition significantly increased the available nutrient pool and soil microbial productivity. The time of litter fall significantly influenced soil available N and P, and soil microbial biomass. Flower litters fed the soil nutrition pool and influenced nutrition cycling in alpine ecosystems more efficiently because of their non-ignorable production, faster decomposition rate, and higher nutrient contents compared with non-flower litters. The underlying mechanism can enrich nutrients, which return to the soil, and non-structural carbohydrates, which feed and enhance the transitions of soil microorganisms.

  18. The use of sustainable 'biochar compost' for remediation of contaminated land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Aoife; Street-Perrott, Alayne; Eastwood, Daniel; Brackenbury, Sion

    2014-05-01

    South Wales (UK) has a long industrial history which, since the collapse of the coal-mining industry, has left a large number of contaminated former colliery sites. Bio-remediation of these areas by re-vegetation with native grasses aims to prevent erosion and leaching of pollutants into drainage waters. However, acid pH, low organic-matter content and unsuitable soil structure have limited the success of re-vegetation and prompted research into the development of artificial soils. This study aims to assess the value of creating an artificial soil cover by adding "biochar compost" to the top 10cm of a large volume of contaminated colliery spoil (high in As and Cu) to be moved during construction of a flood-alleviation barrage in Cwm Dulais (Swansea). It is proposed to use biochar, manufactured from chipped biomass sourced from a local stand of invasive Rhododendron ponticum using a BiGchar 1000 fast pyrolysis-gasification unit, in combination with locally produced BSI PAS100-certified Pteridium aquilinum (bracken) compost, to remediate a large area (2.3ha) of landscaped colliery waste and re-establish a cover of native grasses suitable for sheep grazing. Pot and field trials are being used to determine the most appropriate biochar:compost mix. In a 90-day outdoor pot trial, a commercial acid-grassland seed mix was grown in screened (grass samples are being analysed for nutrients, heavy metals and metalloids by elemental analysis (EA) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). These results will be compared with grass samples collected from Cwm Dulais. Initial findings suggest that addition of biochar compost improved grass growth compared with unamended colliery spoil.

  19. Birdlime in Western Myanmar: Preparation, Use, and Conservation Implications for an Endemic Bird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven G. Platt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Birdlimes are adhesive entangling compounds that passively capture birds by binding them to a substrate and rendering flight feathers useless. We investigated birdlime use among indigenous Chin hunters during a wildlife survey of Natma Taung National Park (NTNP in western Myanmar (May-June 2011. We found that birdlime is prepared from the sap of various banyan trees (Ficus spp. collected during the annual dry season (December-May. Birdlime is prepared by boiling sap to remove water, and the finished product is a readily malleable and extremely adhesive compound known locally as nghet phan te kaw (“bird glue”. Hunters employ four principal strategies when using birdlime: 1 limed sticks are placed at waterholes and springs; 2 limed sticks are placed in fruiting trees or nocturnal roost sites; 3 limed sticks are positioned at prominent vantage points and hunters mimic vocalizations to attract birds; 4 small insects (possibly termites are affixed to a limed pole and serve as bait to attract birds. Large numbers (>200 of birds can reportedly be captured during a single day by hunters using birdlime. At least 186 (63.9% of 291 species of birds occurring in Natma Taung National Park are thought to be vulnerable to this non-selective hunting strategy. The endangered white-browed nuthatch (Sitta victoriae Rippon Sittidae, a poorly-studied endemic species restricted to high elevation Oak-Rhododendron forest in NTNP, is vulnerable to birdliming, although the impact of hunting on populations remains unclear. We recommend that future investigations determine the sustainability of the Chin bird harvest by relating hunter off-take to recruitment and survivorship of nuthatches. If conservation action is deemed prudent, management plans should be developed in close collaboration with local Chin communities.

  20. Forest structure, diversity and regeneration potential along altitudinal gradient in Dhanaulti of Garhwal Himalaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, S.; Rajwar, G.S.; Kumar, M.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: The aim of the present study was to understatnd the forest composition, structure, diversity and regeneration potential along altitudinal gradient. Area of study: The study was carried out in Dhanaulti forest which falls under temperate region of Garhwal Himalaya in Uttarakhand state, India. Material and Methods: Vegetation analysis was carried out using 10 quadrats at each altitude using a quadrate size of 10×10 m2. In each quadrate, categories of trees >30 cm cbh were considered as trees, 10-30cm cbh as saplings and <10 cm cbh as seedlings. The data were quantitatively analyzed. Main results: In upper and middle altitudes, Cedrus deodara was reported dominant tree whereas, in lower altitude Quercus leucotrichophora was reported dominant. Tree density was highest in lower altitude which reduced middle and upper altitudes whereas, total basal cover increased with increasing altitude. The increasing total basal cover with altitude could be because of the presence of Cedrus deodara trees having higher girth classes. In tree, sapling and seedling layers, diversity (H) and equitabiltiy (EC) decreased with increasing altitude. However, concentrations of dominace (CD) and beta diversity (BD have shown reverse trend with H and EC which increased with increasing altitudes, in each layer of tree, sapling and seedling. The distribution pattern of most species in all layers of trees, saplings and seedlings was contagious. The regeneration potential of the species has shown that some of the species in the absence of tree layer are still regenerating particularly, Rhododendron arboreum, Benthamidia capitata, Neolitsea pallens etc. It indicates that most of the species are shifting upward as they are getting suitable conditions. Research highlights: Altitude influence species composition, diversity and regeneration potential of species. (Author)

  1. Ecological studies of plants for the control of environmental pollution. IV. Growth of various plant species as influenced by soil applied cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, J.W.; Kim, B.W.

    1975-03-01

    The relations of the growth response of plants, i.e. 4 species of crops, 12 species of roadside trees and 5 species of horticultural plants to cadmium (Cd) were studied in pot cultures. Growth in dry weight of corn, soybeans, barley, and wheat plants was decreased with an increase in Cd concentration. Damage to corn plants caused by Cd treatment was more or less recovered when it was grown in soil with calcium, but the other three crops did not recover. Although crop plants used here absorbed a small amount of Cd through the roots, the Cd content in the shoots was directly proportionate to the concentration of Cd added to the soil. Additions of calcium and sulfur to soil were sufficient to change the soil pH. The chlorosis on leaves caused by Cd treatment was observed in 2 species such as Euonymus japonica and Rhododendron yedoense out of 5 species of the horticultural plants, especially at 50 ppm of Cd. Euonymus japonica had symptoms of chlorosis and defoliation, and at higher concentrations the symptoms were more severe. At 200 ppm of Cd little damage was observed in Pinus koraiensis and Ginkgo biloba, but severe chlorosis was observed in Robinia pseudoacacia and Sabina chinensis, Buxus koreana, Abies holophylla and Platanus orientalis. Nevertheless, those plants that had serious damage at 200 ppm of Cd showed weakened symptoms by adding calcium to the soil. There were many Cd tolerant species out of the plants used in this experiment, such as Crassula falcata, Chrysanthemum morifolium, Hibiscus syriacus, Ligustrum ovalifolium, Liriodendron tulipeferia, and Lespedeza crytobotrys.

  2. Involvement of estrogen receptor-βin farrerol inhibition of rat thoracic aorta vascular Smooth muscle cell proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qun-yi LI; Li CHEN; Yan-hui ZHU; Meng ZHANG; Yi-ping WANG; Ming-wei WANG

    2011-01-01

    AIm:TO investigate the effect of farrerol,a major active component isolated from a traditional Chinese herb"Man-shan-hong"(the dried Ieaves of Rhododendron dauncum L)on fetal bovine serum(FBS)-induced proliferation of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs)of rat thoracic aorta.Methods:VSMCs proliferation,DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression were studied using the MTT assay,bromodeoxyuridine(BrdU)incorporation and flow cytometry,respectively.The mRNA levels of cell cycle proteins were quantified using real-time RT-PCR, and the phosphorylation of ERKl/2 was determined using Western blotting.Reporter gene and receptor binding assays were employed to study the interaction between farrerol and estrogen receptors(ERs).Results:FarreroI(0.3-10 μmol/L)inhibited VSMC proliferation and DNA synthesis induced by 5%FBS in a concentration-dependent manner.The effects were associated with G,cell cycle arrest.down-regulation of cell cycle proteins and reduction in FBS-induced ERKl/2 phosphorylation.Using a reporter gene.it was found that farrerol(3 μmol/L)induced 2.1-fold transcription of ER.In receptor binding assays, farrerol inhibited the binding of [3H]estradiol for ERa and ERβ with IC50 values of 57 μmol/L and 2.7 μmol/L, respectively.implying that farrerol had a higher affinity for ERl3.Finally,the inhibition of VSMC proliferation by farrerol(3 μmol/L)was abolished by the specific ERβ antagonist PHTPP(5 μmol/L).Conclusion:FarreroI acts as a functional phytoestrogen to inhibit FBS-induced VSMC proliferation, mainly via interaction with ERβ,which may be helpful in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases related to abnormal VSMCs proliferation.

  3. 杜鹃花液剂干燥技术研究%Study on Drying Technology of R. obtusum Liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂明丽; 夏晶晖

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究化学液剂对杜鹃花(Rhododendron obtusum)干燥的效果.[方法]测定6种液剂处理后杜鹃花的失水率、感官分值.[结果]甘油替代花中水分具有维持植物材料刚性效果,又能起到保色的作用;亚硫酸可抑制色素氧化,防止花朵褐变,提高了花材的观赏价值.2%甘油+6%柠檬酸+2%亚硫酸钠混合液为最佳处理配方,48 h为最佳浸泡时间.[结论]该研究可为杜鹃花干花制作提供参考.%[Objective] The aim was to study the drying effect of chemical liquid on R. obtusum. [Method] The water loss rate and sensory scores of R.obtusum treated by six liquids were detected. [ Result] Glycerin could not only maintain the rigidity of flower, but also keep the color from fading. Sulfite could slow down the oxidation of pigment and stop the flower from browning, thus improving the ornamental values of flowers. The best formula was the mixture of 2% glycerin, 6% citric acid, 2% sodium sulfite and 90% water, and the ideal soaking time was 48 h. [ Conclusion ] The study can provide reference for preparing dry flower of R.obtusum.

  4. Factors Affecting Diet Variation in the Pyrenean Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus muta pyrenaica: Conservation Implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo García-González

    Full Text Available The Pyrenean rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta pyrenaica lives at one of the southernmost limits of the ptarmigan range. Their small population sizes and the impacts of global changes are limiting factors in the conservation of this threatened subspecies. An effective conservation policy requires precise basic knowledge of a species' food and habitat requirements, information that is practically non-existent for this Pyrenean population. Here, we describe the diet of a ptarmigan population in the Eastern Pyrenees, the environmental factors influencing its variability and the relationship between diet floristic composition and quality. Diet composition was determined by microhistological analysis of faeces and diet quality was estimated from free-urate faecal N content. Our results show that grouse diet is based mainly on arctic-alpine shrubs of the Ericaceae family, as well as dwarf willows (Salix spp. and Dryas octopetala. The most frequently consumed plant species was Rhododendron ferrugineum, but its abundance in the diet was negatively related to the diet nitrogen content. Conversely, the abundance of Salix spp., grass leaves and arthropods increased the nitrogen content of the diet. Seasonality associated with snow-melting contributed the most to variability in the Pyrenean ptarmigan diet, differentiating winter from spring/summer diets. The latter was characterised by a high consumption of dwarf willows, flowers, arthropods and tender forb leaves. Geographic area and sex-age class influenced diet variability to a lesser extent. Current temperature increases in the Pyrenees due to global warming may reduce the persistence and surface area of snow-packs where preferred plants for rock ptarmigan usually grow, thus reducing food availability. The high consumption of Rh. ferrugineum characterised the diet of the Pyrenean population. Given the toxicity of this plant for most herbivores, its potential negative effect on Pyrenean ptarmigan populations

  5. 湖南的新记录植物(六)%Some newly recorded plants from Hunan Province of China(Ⅵ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文新; 刘克明; 蔡秀珍; 田建平; 胡光万

    2004-01-01

    报道了湖南植物分布新记录,其中新记录属2个,即假木豆属(Dendrolobium(Wight et Arn.) Benth.)和排钱树属(Phyllodium Desv.);新记录种20个,即鹰爪花(Artabotrys hexapetalus (Linn. f.) Bhandari)、岩生碎米荠(Cardamine calcicola W. W. Smith.)、山芥碎米荠( Cardamine griffithii Hook. f. et Thons.)、白花碎米荠(Cardamine leucantha (Tausch) O. E. Schulz)、紫彩绣球(Hydrangea sargentiana Rehd.)、狭叶黄檀(Dalbergia stenophylla Prain)、假木豆(Dendrolobium triangulare (Retz.) Schindl.)、排钱树(Phyllodium pulchellum (L. ) Desv.)、华野豌豆(Vicia chinensis Franch.)、绿萼凤仙花(Impatiens chlorosepala Hand.-Mazz.)、岩谷杜鹃(Rhododendron rupivalleculatum Tam.)、革叶铁榄(Sinosideroxylon wightianum (Hook. et Arn.) Aubr.)、宁波木犀(Osmanthus cooperi Hemsl.)、天人草(Comanthosphace japonica (Miq.) S. Moore)、华南野靛棵(Mananthes austrosinensis (H. S. Lo) C. Y. Wu et C. C. Hu)、东亚磨芋(Amorphophallus kiusianus (Makino) Makino)、齿唇兰(Anoectochilus lanceolatus Lindl.)、圆叶石豆兰(Bulbophyllum drymoglossum Maxim. ex Okubo)、毛杓兰(Cypripedium franchetii E. H. Wilson)、绿花斑叶兰(Goodyyera viridiflora (Bl.) Bl.);新记录变种1个,即异果崖豆藤(Millettia dielsiana Harms var. heterocarpa (Chun ex T. Chen)Z. Wei).

  6. Shrub encroachment in Arctic tundra: Betula nana effects on above- and below-ground litter decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Jennie R; Buckeridge, Kate M; van de Weg, Martine J; Shaver, Gaius R; Schimel, Joshua P; Gough, Laura

    2017-03-06

    Rapid arctic vegetation change as a result of global warming includes an increase in the cover and biomass of deciduous shrubs. Increases in shrub abundance will result in a proportional increase of shrub litter in the litter community, potentially affecting carbon turnover rates in arctic ecosystems. We investigated the effects of leaf and root litter of a deciduous shrub, Betula nana, on decomposition, by examining species-specific decomposition patterns, as well as effects of Betula litter on the decomposition of other species. We conducted a two-year decomposition experiment in moist acidic tundra in northern Alaska, where we decomposed three tundra species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Rhododendron palustre, and Eriophorum vaginatum) alone and in combination with Betula litter. Decomposition patterns for leaf and root litter were determined using three different measures of decomposition (mass loss, respiration, extracellular enzyme activity). We report faster decomposition of Betula leaf litter compared to other species, with support for species differences coming from all three measures of decomposition. Mixing effects were less consistent among the measures, with negative mixing effects shown only for mass loss. In contrast, there were few species differences or mixing effects for root decomposition. Overall, we attribute longer-term litter mass loss patterns in to patterns created by early decomposition processes in the first winter. We note numerous differences for species patterns between leaf and root decomposition, indicating that conclusions from leaf litter experiments should not be extrapolated to below-ground decomposition. The high decomposition rates of Betula leaf litter aboveground, and relatively similar decomposition rates of multiple species below, suggest a potential for increases in turnover in the fast-decomposing carbon pool of leaves and fine roots as the dominance of deciduous shrubs in the Arctic increases, but this outcome may be tempered

  7. Genetic Diversity Caused by Environmental Stress in Natural Populations of Niupidujuan as Revealed by RAPD Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Ying-da; XING Ming; YANG Zhi-yong; LIU Yan-fei; CHEN Xia

    2011-01-01

    Multiplex environmental factors are generally expected to have significant effects on genetic diversity of plant populations.In this study,randomly amplified polymorphic DNA(RAPD) technique was used to reveal the genetic diversity in the same species of four populations collected from Niupidujuan(Rhododendron chrysanthum) at different altitudes,an endangered species,endemic to Northeast China.Initially,twenty informative and reproducible primers were chosen for final RAPD analysis.A total of 152 clear bands were obtained,including 143 polymorphic ones.With the help of POPGENE software,the poly rate was calculated to be 94.07% and the evenness of amplified bands for every primer was 6.8.Additionally,the mean observed number of alleles was 1.7265 with an effective number of 1.3608.An examination of the gene indicated a diversity of 0.2162 with an information diversity index of 0.3313.For these data,the clustering blurred analysis was performed with the aid of NTSYS-pc software to define the Nei's gene diversity and the Shannon information diversity index of the four plant populations.The relationships between the genetic diversity indexes on the one hand and the geographic and climatic factors on the other hand were estimated by the Pearson correlation with SPSS 11.0 software.The results of the correlation analysis show that there were significant(P<0.05) or highly significant(P<0.01) correlations between each of the genetic diversity indexes and the different temperature which were mainly caused by the altitude different populations located.These data highlight the importance of native populations in shaping the spatial genetic structure in Niupidujuan.

  8. The botanical legacy of Thomas Hardwicke’s journey to Srinagar in 1796

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Turner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1796, Thomas Hardwicke travelled through northern India between what is now Fatehgarh in Uttar Pradesh and Srinagar in Uttarakhand. Hardwicke collected and described plants encountered and had many of the plants illustrated from life. He published an account of the journey in 1799 including a list of plant species. I review the names validated in the original paper, and also those published subsequently by Sir James Edward Smith and William Roxburgh based partly or wholly on the material or drawings acquired by Hardwicke on the journey to Srinagar. The large collection of Hardwicke plant drawings now held in the British Library, and a smaller set in the Botany Library of the Natural History Museum, are considered in relation to the application and typification of plant names related to Hardwicke’s botanical exploration in India. The names of seven plant species were validly published in the 1799 paper (Androsace rotundifolia Hardw., Ficus laminosa Hardw., Justicia thyrsiformis Roxb. ex Hardw., Linum trigynum Roxb. ex Hardw., Lonicera quinquelocularis Hardw., Salvia integrifolia Roxb. ex Hardw. and Volkameria bicolor Hardw., plus one new combination (Echites antidysentericus (L. Roxb. ex Hardw.. As concluded by Britten more than a century ago, Ficus laminosa is the correct name for the fig variously referred to F. saemocarpa Miq. or F. squamosa Roxb. Smith based Rhododendron arboreum Sm. and Bignonia undulata Sm. on Hardwicke plants. At least a dozen Roxburgh names, including Crataegus integrifolia Roxb., Gardenia tetrasperma Roxb. and Morus serrata Roxb., are based, at least partly, on Hardwicke’s collections. In total, 23 names are lectotypified here and one neotype is designated.

  9. Habitat correlates of the red panda in the temperate forests of Bhutan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangay Dorji

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic activities and associated global climate change are threatening the biodiversity in the Himalayas against a backdrop of poor knowledge of the region's threatened species. The red panda (Ailurus fulgens is a threatened mammal confined to the eastern Himalayas, and because of Bhutan's central location in the distributional range of red pandas, its forests are integral to the long-term viability of wild populations. Detailed habitat requirements of the red panda are largely speculative, and there is virtually no ecological information available on this species in Bhutan. Between 2007 and 2009, we established 615 presence/absence plots in a systematic sampling of resident habitat types within Jigme Dorji and Thrumshingla National Parks, Bhutan, to investigate broad and fine-scale red panda habitat associations. Additional locality records of red pandas were obtained from interviewing 664 park residents. Red pandas were generally confined to cool broadleaf and conifer forests from 2,110-4,389 m above sea level (asl, with the majority of records between 2,400-3,700 m asl on south and east-facing slopes. At a finer scale, multivariate analysis revealed that red pandas were strongly associated with old growth Bhutan Fir (Abies densa forest dominated by a dense cover of Yushania and Arundanaria bamboo with a high density of fallen logs and tree stumps at ground level; a high density of trees, dead snags, and rhododendron shrubs in the mid-storey; and locations that were close to water. Because Bhutan's temperate forests that encompass prime red panda habitat are also integral to human subsistence and socio-economic development, there exists an inadvertent conflict between the needs of people and red pandas. As such, careful sustainable management of Bhutan's temperate forests is necessary if a balance is to be met between the socioeconomic needs of people and the conservation goals for red pandas.

  10. The study on coenological characteristics of Fagus hayatae community in Qizimei mountain natural reserve%七姊妹山自然保护区台湾水青冈林群落学特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何俊; 汪正祥; 雷耘; 李中强; 张柳; 满金山

    2008-01-01

    台湾水青冈(Fagus hayatae)属国家Ⅱ级保护植物,主要分布于台湾北部山地,在大陆分布很少.采用Braun-Blanquet(1964)、Fujiwara(1987)的植物社会学调查办法并结合典型样方法,对分布在七姊妹山自然保护区的原始台湾水青冈林群落学特征进行了分析.结果表明:七姊妹山的台湾水青冈群落有植物68种,分属34科、48属;植物区系成分以北温带和东亚分布类型占优势,分别有10属和9属,占所有属的22.22%和20%,热带成分和温带成分所占比例大体接近;重要值分析表明,台湾水青冈具有明显优势,马银花(Rhododendron ovatum)和小叶青冈(Cyclobalanopsis gracilis)为次优势种;除物种丰富度外,其他多样性指数基本表现为草本层>乔木层>灌木层.群落结构呈倒金字塔形,属于哀退型群落,需加强对其保护.

  11. Estimating density of a rare and cryptic high-mountain Galliform species, the Buff-throated Partridge Tetraophasis szechenyii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of abundance or density are essential for wildlife management and conservation. There are few effective density estimates for the Buff-throated Partridge Tetraophasis szechenyii, a rare and elusive high-mountain Galliform species endemic to western China. In this study, we used the temporary emigration N-mixture model to estimate density of this species, with data acquired from playback point count surveys around a sacred area based on indigenous Tibetan culture of protection of wildlife, in Yajiang County, Sichuan, China, during April-June 2009. Within 84 125-m radius points, we recorded 53 partridge groups during three repeats. The best model indicated that detection probability was described by covariates of vegetation cover type, week of visit, time of day, and weather with weak effects, and a partridge group was present during a sampling period with a constant probability. The abundance component was accounted for by vegetation association. Abundance was substantially higher in rhododendron shrubs, fir-larch forests, mixed spruce-larch-birch forests, and especially oak thickets than in pine forests. The model predicted a density of 5.14 groups/km², which is similar to an estimate of 4.7 - 5.3 groups/km² quantified via an intensive spot-mapping effort. The post-hoc estimate of individual density was 14.44 individuals/km², based on the estimated mean group size of 2.81. We suggest that the method we employed is applicable to estimate densities of Buff-throated Partridges in large areas. Given importance of a mosaic habitat for this species, local logging should be regulated. Despite no effect of the conservation area (sacred on the abundance of Buff-throated Partridges, we suggest regulations linking the sacred mountain conservation area with the official conservation system because of strong local participation facilitated by sacred mountains in land conservation.

  12. Nitrogen deposition but not climate warming promotes Deyeuxia angustifolia encroachment in alpine tundra of the Changbai Mountains, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Shengwei; Jin, Yinghua; Xu, Jiawei; Wu, Zhengfang; He, Hongshi; Du, Haibo; Wang, Lei

    2016-02-15

    Vegetation in the alpine tundra area of the Changbai Mountains, one of two alpine tundra areas in China, has undergone great changes in recent decades. The aggressive herb species Deyeuxia angustifolia (Komarov) Y. L. Chang, a narrow-leaf small reed, was currently encroaching upon the alpine landscape and threatening tundra biota. The alpine tundra of the Changbai Mountains has been experiencing a warmer climate and receiving a high load of atmospheric nitrogen deposition. In this study, we aimed to assess the respective roles of climate warming and atmospheric nitrogen deposition in promoting the upward encroachment of D. angustifolia. We conducted experiments for three years to examine the response of D. angustifolia and a native alpine shrub, Rhododendron chrysanthum, to the conditions in which temperature and nitrogen were increased. Treatments consisting of temperature increase, nitrogen addition, temperature increase combined with nitrogen addition, and controls were conducted on the D. angustifolia communities with three encroachment levels (low, medium, and high levels). Results showed that 1) D. angustifolia grew in response to added nutrients but did not grow well when temperature increased. R. chrysanthum showed negligible responses to the simulated environmental changes. 2) Compared to R. chrysanthum, D. angustifolia could effectively occupy the above-ground space by increasing tillers and growing rapidly by efficiently using nitrogen. The difference in nitrogen uptake abilities between the two species contributed to expansion of D. angustifolia. 3) D. angustifolia encroachment could deeply change the biodiversity of tundra vegetation and may eventually result in the replacement of native biota, especially with nitrogen addition. Our research indicated that nutrient perturbation may be more important than temperature perturbation in promoting D. angustifolia encroachment upon the nutrient- and species-poor alpine tundra ecosystem in the Changbai

  13. Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMeeking, Gavin R.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Baker, Stephen; Carrico, Christian M.; Chow, Judith C.; Collett, Jr., Jeffrey L.; Hao, Wei Min; Holden, Amanda S.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Malm, William C.; Moosmuller, Hans; Sullivan, Amy P.; Wold, Cyle E.

    2009-05-15

    We characterized the gas- and speciated aerosol-phase emissions from the open combustion of 33 different plant species during a series of 255 controlled laboratory burns during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiments (FLAME). The plant species we tested were chosen to improve the existing database for U.S. domestic fuels: laboratory-based emission factors have not previously been reported for many commonly-burned species that are frequently consumed by fires near populated regions and protected scenic areas. The plants we tested included the chaparral species chamise, manzanita, and ceanothus, and species common to the southeastern US (common reed, hickory, kudzu, needlegrass rush, rhododendron, cord grass, sawgrass, titi, and wax myrtle). Fire-integrated emission factors for gas-phase CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2-4} hydrocarbons, NH{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 3} and particle-phase organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and NH{sub 4}{sup +} generally varied with both fuel type and with the fire-integrated modified combustion efficiency (MCE), a measure of the relative importance of flaming- and smoldering-phase combustion to the total emissions during the burn. Chaparral fuels tended to emit less particulate OC per unit mass of dry fuel than did other fuel types, whereas southeastern species had some of the largest observed EF for total fine particulate matter. Our measurements often spanned a larger range of MCE than prior studies, and thus help to improve estimates for individual fuels of the variation of emissions with combustion conditions.

  14. Plant Pb Contents in Elevation Zones of the Changbai Mountain National Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Jun-Hong; CUI Bao-Shan; DENG Wei; WANG Qing-Gai; DING Qiu-Yi

    2007-01-01

    Typical plants and soils of four elevation zones,mountain tundra(Zone A),Betula ermanii forest(Zone B),mountain dark coniferous forest(Zone C),and mountain coniferous and broad-leaf forest(Zone D),along the vertical gradient of the northern mountain slope of the Changbai Mountain National Nature Reserve,Jilin Province,China,were sampled to study the relationship between plant and soil Pb,and to compare the Pb levels in typical plant types within the same elevation zone.The Pb contents in the soil and plant samples were measured by using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer.The results showed that the average plant Pb contents of the four plant elevation zones were lower than the average worldwide level.except for Zone B,Compared with the average level in China or the average worldwide level,the soil Pb levels of the four plant zones were higher,with Zones D and B having the lowest and highest averages,respectively.Plant Pb levels fluctuated from the upper to the lower zones,in a pattern of low-high-low-high,which was the same as that of the soils in the four zones.Furthermore.plant Pb was closely related to soll Pb.Depending on the plant species and plant parts,large differences were found in the Pb levels of typical plants within each zone.In Zone A,Vaccinium uliginosum and Rhododendron redowskianum had higher Pb levels than the other plants.In Zone C,the Pb levels in the branches of both plant species were higher than those in the leaves,which was contrary to Zone D.In Zone B,the Pb levels in the plant parts varied greatly with plant species.

  15. SPECIES DIVERSITY OF FLOOR BRYOPHYTE COMMUNITIES IN FOPING NATURE RESERVE%佛坪国家自然保护区地面生苔藓植物物种多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李粉霞; 王幼芳; 詹琪芳; 徐波; 翟德逞; 党高弟

    2006-01-01

    通过对秦岭南坡佛坪国家自然保护区地面生苔藓植物的调查,采用相似性系数、重要值、多样性指数对其进行物种多样性的研究.结果表明:29个样地内地面生苔藓植物共33科69属189种,包括苔类植物7科8属15种和藓类植物26科61属174种,其中青藓科是最优势的科.落叶阔叶栎(Quercus)林下地面生苔藓植物的物种多样性最高,其次是落叶阔叶桦(Betula)林带、竹林、针叶林和沟谷岩石,杜鹃(Rhododendron)灌丛带的最低.落叶阔叶栎林带和落叶阔叶桦林带的种相似性最高,杜鹃灌丛与其它植被带的种相似性都很低.研究表明秦岭南坡的佛坪国家自然保护区内,低山地区的落叶阔叶栎林带是该地区苔藓植物多样性的分布中心,是物种多样性保护的关键地带;亚高山地区杜鹃灌丛带的苔藓植物物种多样性虽然不高,但种类明显不同于别的地带,所以也应是苔藓植物多样性保护值得注意的地带.

  16. 粤东桥溪村风水林群落特征初探%Investigation on the community characteristics and species diversity of Qiaoxi Geomantic Forest in Meizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨期和; 潘素芳; 赖万年; 杨和生; 况伟

    2015-01-01

    The detailed investigation on the tree layer,shrub layer and herb layer were carried out to analyze the char-acteristics and plant diversity through setting up samples in Qiaoxi Village Geomantic Forest in MeiZhou City,East-ern part of Guangdong Povince,South China.In this geomantic forest,3 standard sample plots covered an area of 1 000 m2 (50 m×20 m)were set up to investigate the plants in the tree layers,and the distance between 3 adjacent sample plots was 50-55 m.In each standard plot,3 standard samples covered 4 m2 (2 m×2 m)were randomly set to investigate the plants in the shrub layer and herb layer.It was found that there were 67 species of vascular plants belonging to 54 genera and 37 families in the sample area of 3 000 m2 .There were 4 species of ferns belonging to 4 four genera in 4 families,3 species of gymnosperms belonging to 3 genera in 3 families,and 60 species belonging to 47 genera in 30 families.The floristic components were dominated by tropical elements and the proportion of tropical genus was 74.08% in the total number of genera.The families including Lauraceae,Fagaceae and Hamamelidaceae were dominant families,and Altingia gracilipes ,Rhododendron championae ,Itea chinensis and Altingia chinensis were the dominant tree species in this forest.The vegetation type was evergreen broadleaved forest,and the life form was dominated by phanerophytes,which accounted for 73.13% in the total species,in these phanerophytes,the me-sophanerophyte life form was the most,which accounted for about 43% in the total species.The proportion of lianas was 17.91%.The tree layer can be divided into three sub-layers,but the individuals at height of 6-9.9 m number were the most.There lacked seedling reserve of Pinus massoniana ,Cunninghamia lanceolata ,Altingia gracilipes , Itea chinensis and Altingia chinensis ,which indicated their populations were declining,while there were relatively e-nough seedling reserve of Rhododendron championae and Helicia cochinchinensis

  17. 湖南桃源洞国家级自然保护区南方铁杉种群结构与生存分析%Structure and Survival Analysis of Tsuga chinensis Populations in Taoyuandong National Nature Reserve,Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁巧玲; 刘忠成; 王蕾; 蔡松辰; 石祥刚; 曾茂生; 廖文波

    2016-01-01

    Two T.chinensis communities,from Niushiping and Lishuzhou in Taoyuandong National Nature Reserve,are studied by using the methods of plots for the composition and structure of the communities, using Shannon-Weiner index,Simpson index and Pielou index for species diversity of every layers and u-sing diameter class frequency distribution of T.chinensis to analyze the age class frequency distribution and the regeneration of the target population.The results are as follows:(1)since the evergreen plants are dominant,the physiognomy of the two communities show some seasonal changes of dark green in summer and light yellow-green in autumn and winter.(2)Twenty-six species in 21 genera of 13 families compose the T.chinensis community of Niushiping and the T.chinensis community of Lishuzhou contains 22 fami-lies,30 genera with 36 species.Their proportions of temperate genera of seed plants are higher than that of tropical genera,which shows the subtropical montane property of geographical elements.(3)The verti-cal structure of above two communities can be divided into three layers,i.e.tree layer,shrub layer and herb layer and the tree layer includes three sub-layers,i.e.upper layer,middle layer and lower layer.(4) Shannon-Wiener index and Simpson index arrange as lower layer of tree > middle layer of tree > shrub layer > upper layer of tree in both communities,and Pielou index of middle layer of tree and lower layer of tree is higher than that of upper layer of tree and shrub layer in both communities.(5)The dominant pop-ulations of the T.chinensis community in Niushiping are Rhododendron ovatum,T.chinensis,Camellia cuspidata and Rhododendron latoucheae while the dominant populations of the T.chinensis community in Lishuzhou are Schimaargentea,T.chinensis,Rhododendronlatoucheae and Rhododendronhypoblemato-sum.(6)According to the age frequency distribution and the survival analysis,the T.chinensis popula-tion from Niushiping is a declining population and unable to regenerate

  18. Plant Community and Ecological Environment in Truffle Producing Area of Miyi, Panzhihua, Sichuan%四川攀枝花米易县块菌产区植物群落及生态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小林; 柳成益; 唐平; 杨梅; 清源; 贾定洪; 郑林用

    2014-01-01

    调查了四川省攀枝花市米易县块菌产区的植物群落及生态环境情况.结果表明,米易县块菌产区的优势物种共有蕨类植物3科3属3种及种子植物29科52属64种,其中裸子植物2科3属3种,双子叶植物25科41属51种,单子叶植物4科11属13种,.该区域植物群落结构表现一定多样性,主要优势植物为云南松(Pinusyunnanensis)、云南油杉(Keteleeria evelyniana)、青冈(Cyclobalanopsis glauca)、桤木(Alnus cremastogyne)等乔木,马桑(Coriaria nepalensis)、杜鹃(Rhododendron simsii、南烛(Vaccinium bracteatum)、羊耳菊(Inula cappa)、紫茎泽兰(Ageratina adenophora)、地果(Ficus tikoua)等灌木及草本,蕨萁(Botrychium virginianum)、蕨(Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn var.latiusculum)及翠云草(Selaginella uncinata)等蕨类植物.该区域块菌的寄主主要为栓皮栎(Quercus variabilis、青冈、云南松、槲栎(Quercus aliena、白栎(Quercus fabri)、厚皮香(Ternstroemia gymnanthera)及刺叶高山栎(Quercus spinosa等.影响样地分布的植物种类主要为云南油杉、青冈、小叶青冈(Cyclobalanopsis gracilis)、桤木、黄果悬钩子(Rubus xanthocarpus)、凉山悬钩子(Rubus fockeanus)、厚皮香、羊耳菊、紫茎泽兰、地果、蕨萁及蕨等植物;影响样地分布的主要生态因子依次为坡度、乔灌木盖度、郁闭度及植被盖度.

  19. Assessment on Effect of Fallen Woods on Soil Fertility in Tsuga longibracteata Forest in Tianbaoyan National Nature Reserve%天宝岩长苞铁杉林倒木对土壤肥力质量的影响评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游惠明; 何东进; 蔡昌棠; 刘进山; 洪伟; 游巍斌; 王磊; 肖石红; 胡静

    2013-01-01

    Fuzzy mathematics and factor analysis were selected to study the relationship between fallen woods and soil fertility in the Tsuga longibracteata forest in Tianbaoyan National Nature Reserve, Fujian, China. The results showed that the surface mineral soil under fallen woods had higher soil fertility than forest floor soil, and the soil fertility index decreased with the decrease of elevation and increased with the increase of decay-classes, while the class IV were slightly lower than adjacent classes; soil fertility quality under fallen woods were significantly higher than forest floor soil fertility quality in T. longibracteata + Rhododendron simiarum forest, and lower in T. longibracteata pure forest. This research revealed the influence law of fallen woods on soil fertility, and provided scientific basis for selection and retention of logs in the research processes of fallen woods in regeneration. Fig 2, Tab 5, Ref 29%以天宝岩长苞铁杉林的倒木-土壤系统为研究对象,采用因子分析方法与模糊评价方法,探讨分析倒木接触处土壤及空旷处土壤的肥力质量.结果表明:研究区长苞铁杉林分内倒木的覆盖有利于提高土壤肥力,其肥力指数随海拔降低呈下降趋势,且随腐烂等级的升高,土壤肥力指数升高,其中,第Ⅳ腐烂等级倒木接触处土壤肥力较邻近腐烂等级出现降低趋势;长苞铁杉+猴头杜鹃林内倒木接触处土壤的肥力显著高于空旷地,长苞铁杉纯林内倒木接触处土壤的肥力指数低于空旷地土壤.研究揭示了倒木存在对森林土壤肥力质量的影响规律,可为后期在长苞铁杉林内开展倒木更新研究时的倒木选择与保留提供科学依据.

  20. Evergreen shrub traits and peatland carbon cycling under high nutrient load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmola, Tuula; Bui, Vi; Bubier, Jill L.; Wang, Meng; Murphy, Meaghan; Moore, Tim R.

    2016-04-01

    The reactive nitrogen (N) assimilated by plants is usually invested in chlorophyll to improve light harvesting capacity and in soluble proteins such as Rubisco to enhance carbon (C) assimilation. We studied the effects of simulated atmospheric N deposition on different traits of two evergreen shrubs Chamaedaphne calyculata and Rhododendron groenlandicum in a nutrient-poor Mer Bleue Bog, Canada that has been fertilized with N as NO3 and NH4 (2-8 times ambient annual wet deposition) with or without phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) for 7-12 years. We examined how nutrient addition influences the plant performance at leaf and canopy level and linked the trait responses with ecosystem C cycling. At the leaf level, we measured physiological and biochemical traits: CO2 exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence, an indicator of plant stress in terms of light harvesting capacity; and to study changes in photosynthetic nutrient use efficiency, we also determined the foliar chlorophyll, N, and P contents. At the canopy level, we examined morphological and phenological traits: growth responses and leaf longevity during two growing seasons. Regardless of treatment, the majority of leaves showed no signs of stress in terms of light harvesting capacity. The plants were N saturated: with increasing foliar N content, the higher proportion of N was not used in photosynthesis. Foliar net CO2 assimilation rates did not differ significantly among treatments, but the additions of N, P, and K together resulted in higher respiration rates. The analysis of the leaf and canopy traits showed that the two shrubs had different strategies: C. calyculata was more responsive to nutrient additions, more deciduous-like, whereas R. groenlandicum maintained evergreen features under nutrient load, shedding its leaves even later in the season. In all, simulated atmospheric N deposition did not benefit the photosynthetic apparatus of the dominant shrubs, but resulted in higher foliar respiration

  1. Adaptability Evaluation on Tested Tree Species in The Middle Mountain Regions of Semi-arid Valleys in The Upper Minjiang River%岷江上游半干旱河谷中山区试验树种适应性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超; 程秦明; 冯正波; 邵慧敏

    2011-01-01

    The survival percentage,growth and adaptability of the ten tested tree species,which were cultivated at altitudes of 1 800 m~2 000 m in Dagou areas of Maoxian county,Sichuan,had been evaluated in this paper.The results revealed that the survival percentage of the tested tree species was affected by the heredity,ecological habit of its own,natural surroundings and interferences of mankind activities under the set and concrete habitat conditions.Acer davidii,Betula luminifera,Ailanthus altissima,Aesculus wilsonii were proved to be very adaptive to the local surroundings and can be used as materials restoring the local vegetation by means of measuring the high growth and making sure the differential sequence of tree species mentioned above,further combined field survey on the character of anti-adversity.Rhododendron davidii,Prunus davidiana,Liquidambar acalycina,Juglans cathayensis were proved to be adaptive to the local surroundings,but further study and observation were needed in order to ascertain the usage scheme.On the other hand,Ginkgo biloba and Davidia involucrate were proved that they couldn't be used as forestation materials.%本文评价了四川茂县大沟地区海拔1800~2000m的区段10个供试树种的成活率、生长量和适应性。结果表明:在设定的具体生境条件下,供试树种的成活率受到自身遗传、生态习性及其自然环境与人类活动干扰的影响,通过对高生长量的测试确定了上述树种的生长量差异序列,并进一步结合对抗逆性的现场调查确定青榨槭、光皮桦、臭椿、天师栗很适应当地的环境,可以作为当地植被恢复的材料使用;腺果杜鹃、山桃、枫香、野核桃适宜当地环境,但尚需作进一步研究观察,以便确定使用方案;而银杏与珙桐不能作为营林材料利用。

  2. Effect of Forest Fire on Vegetation in Tahe Forestry Bureau%塔河林业局林火对植被的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙明学; 贾炜玮

    2009-01-01

    针对大兴安岭地区塔河林业局不同林型下,不同火烧强度的火烧迹地的森林植被更新及恢复情况进行了调查研究.结果表明:(1)针叶林过火迹地上,落叶松幼苗较少,阔叶树萌条更新强度同火烧程度成正比;火烧前生长有白桦、赤杨的林地上,火烧后阔叶树成为主导树种,林相完全发生变化.(2)重度火烧下有利于天然更新,促使白桦、山杨萌生.中度火烧最初形成以杨桦为优势树种的阔叶林,后逐渐演变为针阔混交林.轻度火烧有利于针叶林的更新.(3)火烧后不同林型下灌木草本植被种类变化不同.从盖度方面来看,杜鹃落叶松林型中林下灌木草本更新最为良好.%This paper studied the regeneration and restoration of vegetation in the burned area of different forest types and fire intensities. The results showed that there are few larch seedlings in the burned area of coniferous forest and the sprout of broad-leaved tree is positive related with burned intensity. In the burned area of birch and alder stand, the broad-leaved trees have become the dominant species. Severely burning is benefit for natural regeneration and promoting the sprout of birth and alder. The forest in moderately burned area is mainly composed by birch and alder at first and become mixed forest finally. The lightly burning is benefit for the regeneration of conifer forest. The kind of shrubbery and herbage is different in different forest after fire. The regeneration in the forest of Ass. Rhododendron dauricum, Larix gmelinii is the best.

  3. The capacity of 16 ornamental plants on purifying indoor formaldehyde pollution and their physiological response to formaldehyde stress%16种室内观赏植物对甲醛净化效果及生理生化变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安雪; 李霞; 潘会堂; 罗竞男; 张启翔

    2010-01-01

    采用气体密封舱熏气法模拟居室装修后的甲醛污染环境,对16种常见室内观赏植物进行甲醛熏气处理,以熏气12 h后植物单位叶面积吸收甲醛的量作为指标评价了不同植物对甲醛气体的净化能力,同时测定了熏气后植物的外观形态变化和叶片的SPAD值、相对电导率、丙二醛含量及POD活性等指标.结果显示,被测植物在一定程度上均可以有效吸收甲醛,单位面积吸收量从大到小依次为香石竹(Dianthus caryophyllus)、瑞典常春藤(Lsodon amethystoides)、蚊净香草(Saivia spp.)、比利时杜鹃(Rhododendron hybrida)、柠檬(Citrus limon)、袖珍椰子(Chamaedorea elegans)、龟背竹(Monstera deliciosa)、冷水花(Pilea cadierei)、长寿花(Kalanchoe blossfeldiana)、'粉冠军'(Anthurium spp.)、巢蕨(Neottopteris nidus)、吊竹梅(Zebrina pendula)、栀子花(Gardenia jasminoides var. grandiflora)、百合竹(Dracaena reflex)、口红花(Aeschynanthus radicans)、孔雀竹芋(Calathea makoyana).不同植物在甲醛熏气后表现出不同程度的受害反应和生理生化指标的变化,综合分析结果表明香石竹、瑞典常春藤、蚊净香草、袖珍椰子、冷水花、巢蕨等对甲醛的综合净化能力和抗性较好.

  4. Nest distribution and nest habitat of the Tibetan Partridge (Perdix hodgsoniae) near Lhasa, Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsering Dorge; Gran Hgstedt; Terje Lislevand

    2014-01-01

    Background:Little is hitherto known about the breeding ecology of the Tibetan Partridge (Perdix hodgsoniae) which is endemic to the Tibetan plateau. Here we describe nest densities, inter-nest distances and general nest site characteristics in this gallinaceous bird species and explore the possibilities that certain shrub and plant types are preferred as nest surroundings. Method:A total of 56 nests were found over three breeding seasons near Lhasa, Tibet. Nest site characteristics were compared with random control plots and the proportions of specific plant species covering nests were compared with their estimated general occurrence in the study area. Results:Nest density in the two years with highest search effort was estimated at 1.43/km2 and 1.04/km2 but was clearly higher in the part of the study area facing north (1.86–2.35/km2) than that facing south (0.11–0.34/km2). The average nearest neighbour distance of nests was about 300 m. Nests were situated in relatively lush vegetation and covered by a total of eight shrub species and three herbs. In contrast to previous reports, Caragana shrub did not constitute an important part of the nest habitat. The flowering, non-thorny bush Potentil a fruticosa was significantly over-represented as nest cover, while Rhododendron nivale was similarly under-represented. Nest bush foliage covered a larger area of ground, and the shrub surrounding nests was generally denser, than in control samples. Also, nests were placed closer to paths and in areas with lower densities of Yak (Bos grunniens) dung than in control samples. Except that soil temperatures were lower on nest sites than on control sites, micro-climate variables measured in this study did not differ between nest sites and control plots. Conclusions:Opportunity for nest concealment is probably an important quality of the nest habitat in Tibetan Partridges, yet it is unclear why the species should prefer P. fruticosa as nest cover. It is possible that nest sites

  5. Gap phase regeneration recruitment of mixed conifer-broadleaf forests in Wolong Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan YANG; Jianping GE; Lijuan LIU; Yi DING; Yingchun TAN

    2009-01-01

    Wolong Nature Reserve is the largest reserve for protecting the endangered wild giant panda. Due to historical factors, even in many sections of the core protection area, the forests have been seriously destroyed and natural forests are poorly restored. However, the relative importance of the determinants for recruitment of communities under disturbance is rarely explored. In our study the endogenous and exterior factors in a forest gap that affect the conifer-broad-leaved mixed forest regeneration were investigated near Wuyipeng, one of the observation stations at Wolong, to explore which determinant had the greatest effect on gap regeneration and to discover the recruitment of seedling establishment in forest gaps. With a linear sampling method, environmental factors, gap characteristics and recruitment of new individuals were measured and examined in every forest gap along three sampling lines. Data of environmental factors in the gaps were collected for a Pearson correlation analysis in order to explore the disturbance and prepro-cessed characteristics of the gaps, using principal component analysis in SPSS. Correlation analysis was applied to further explore the relationship between changes in the gaps and the response of the regenerating seedlings. The results show that a range of natural and human disturbances affected the pattern and characteristics of the forest gaps in this area. The richness in the composition of the seedlings was higher than that of gap makers, but the order of dominance of the composition was different between seedlings and gap makers. The success of dominant species in establishing themselves was affected by different environmental factors. For instance, the establishment of Betula spp. was correlated significantly with topographic factors, while that of Abies faxoniana was affected by soil characteristics and that of Rhododendron spp. correlated significantly with topographic factors and characteristics of gap makers. Moreover, all

  6. 天目杜鹃组培苗生根培养体系的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高航洋; 张启香; 胡恒康; 张振茹; 黄坚钦

    2011-01-01

    以天目杜鹃Rhododendron fortunei组培苗的不定芽为外植体,采用单因子实验从基本培养基、生长素以及蔗糖质量浓度对其适宜培养条件进行了筛选。结果表明:在1/2WPM(wood planty medium)基本培养基中,天目杜鹃组培苗的生根率、平均根长及平均根数显著高于MS(Murashige and Skoog),1/2MS和1/4MS培养基(P〈0.05),分别为100%,0.49 cm和18.9条。添加生长素萘乙酸(NAA)和吲哚丁酸(IBA)均可以促进天目杜鹃组培苗生根,在添加2.0 mg.L-1NAA的1/2MS培养基中的组培苗生根率、平均根长与平均根数均与其余处理间存在显著性差异,分别为100%,0.4 cm和9.0条;其中在添加0.5 mg.L-1IBA的1/2MS培养基中的组培苗生根率、平均根长与平均根数均与其余处理间存在显著性差异,分别为100%,0.38 cm和8.0条;附加5 g.L-1蔗糖的1/2MS培养基中组培苗的生根率、平均根长及平均根数显著高于培养基中附加0,10,15,20,25以及30 g.L-1蔗糖(P〈0.05),分别为90.67%,0.36 cm和7.2条。天目杜鹃组培苗最适生根培养基为1/2WPM+0.5 mg.L-1 IBA+5.0 g.L-1蔗糖。

  7. 开化王山采种基地森林群落数量分类与多样性研究%Community Type, Size Distribution and Species Diversity Analysis of Kaihua Wangshan Seed Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾琪; 方腾; 汪良义; 程清明; 陈声文; 唐群儿; 陈建华

    2011-01-01

    在浙江开化王山阔叶林采种基地群落学调查基础上,根据每个样地内重要值大于1.0的102种木本植物的具体数据,对3 1个样地群落类型进行聚类分析,并对各样地木本植物的物种多样性和物种丰富度指数进行分析.结果表明:(1)王山采种基地木本植物群落类型主要可分为甜槠林、拟赤杨林、短尾柯林、乌楣栲林、木荷林、马银花林、红楠林、钩栲林、杉木林9个类型,总体以常绿落叶林为主,也有少量常绿落叶阔叶混交林和人工杉木林.(2)物种多样性指数(Shannon-Weiner指数)和物种丰富度整体表现出相似趋势,即乔木层>灌木层;不同群落类型中乔灌两层的多样性指数有一定差异.%Cluster method is used to classify 31 plots via analyzing the importance value of 102 tree species, while biodiversity analysis are also used to clarify the development status of these forest plots. The results showed that (1) Communities of Wangshan forest can be classified into nine groups, the most dominant species are Castanopsis eyrei, Alniphyllum fortunei, lithocarpus harlandii, Castanopsis jucunda, Schima superba, Rhododendron ovatum, Machilus thunbergii, Castanopsis tibetana and Cunninghamia lanceolate respectively, most of them are belonged to evergreen broad-leafed forest, some of them are mixed evergreen & deciduous forest or man-made forest. (2) Species diversity and species richness indexes are larger in tree layer than that in ground layer and varied between different forest community types. This study will give advanced understanding in the status of Wangshan forest and provide some reference on forest management.

  8. Identifying leaf traits that signal stress in TIR spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago Acevedo, Maria F.; Groen, Thomas A.; Hecker, Christoph A.; Skidmore, Andrew K.

    2017-03-01

    Plants under constant water and temperature stress experience a chain of reactions that in the long term alter their leaf traits (morphology, anatomy and chemistry). The use of these traits as proxies for assessing plant stress was so far mainly based on conventional laboratory methods, which are expensive and time-consuming. Remote sensing methods based on spectral changes can detect changes in pigments and productivity using the visible and near infrared. However, the use of infrared spectra, where changes in the spectra are associated with physical changes of the leaf, is still incipient. In this study plants of Rhododendron cf. catawbiense, were exposed to low temperatures and low soil water content during a six months experiment. The spectral response in the infrared region 1.4-16 μm, microstructural variables, leaf water content, leaf area and leaf molecules such as lignin and cellulose concentrations were measured in individual leaves after the period of stress. This study revealed that under cold conditions plants have most changes in leaf water content, lignin and cellulose concentrations and leaf area, while under drought conditions the most striking change is water loss. These leaf trait modifications are also correlated with changes in thermal infrared spectra, showing their potential as proxies for detecting plant stress in this species. A multinomial model allows the estimation of the stress treatments imposed on these plants from their infrared spectra. This model reveals a group of 15 bands in the SWIR and MWIR between 2.23 and 7.77 μm, which show relatively large changes, and had an overall accuracy of 87%. Finally, individual partial least squares regression models show that lignin, cellulose, leaf water content and leaf area are the leaf traits reacting significantly to long-term stress and that are also generating measurable changes in the infrared spectra. Although these models are based on laboratory data, the congruence of the identified

  9. Dynamics of the evergreen understory at Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Marion Mcnamara

    Much attention today is directed toward vegetation dynamics and related issues of biotic diversity. Both environmental gradients and disturbance/land use history are important determinants of both the distributional pattern and the dynamics of many plant species. The southern Appalachian Mountains constitute a region of high plant and animal diversity and rapidly increasing development pressure with its consequent changes in land use. The remaining forested areas commonly include a significant evergreen understory (undergreen) composed of ericaceous shrubs, predominately Rhododendron maximum , which is believed to be expanding and exerting an inhibitory effect on the establishment of other species, thus impacting forest structure and composition. This study was an attempt to characterize this forest component, temporally and spatially, at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, North Carolina, in terms of a variety of topographic gradients as well as long-term (century) and short-term (decade) disturbance history, verify expansion, develop a surrogate soil moisture index for use in an explanatory model for undergreen pattern, and examine the feasibility of predicting the pattern of undergreen at one time based on knowledge of topographic relationships gained at an earlier time. A GIS was used for visual and areal comparisons; logistic regression was used for developing spatiotemporal explanatory models. Results indicate that aspect, stream proximity, and elevation are all important in explaining distributional pattern and dynamics of the undergreen at Coweeta, with R. maximum showing preference for moister areas and its common associate, Kalmia latifolia found more frequently in drier areas. The influence of these environmental factors differs between the larger Coweeta Basin, the site of experimental manipulations at the small watershed level since the 1930's, and the physically similar Dryman Fork Basin, relatively undisturbed since that time. There is an apparent

  10. Nest distribution and nest habitat of the Tibetan Partridge (Perdix hodgsoniae) near Lhasa, Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsering; Dorge; G?ran; H?gstedt; Terje; Lislevand

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is hitherto known about the breeding ecology of the Tibetan Partridge(Perdix hodgsoniae)which is endemic to the Tibetan plateau. Here we describe nest densities, inter-nest distances and general nest site characteristics in this gallinaceous bird species and explore the possibilities that certain shrub and plant types are preferred as nest surroundings.Method: A total of 56 nests were found over three breeding seasons near Lhasa, Tibet. Nest site characteristics were compared with random control plots and the proportions of specific plant species covering nests were compared with their estimated general occurrence in the study area.Results: Nest density in the two years with highest search effort was estimated at 1.43/km2 and 1.04/km2 but was clearly higher in the part of the study area facing north(1.86–2.35/km2) than that facing south(0.11–0.34/ km2). The average nearest neighbour distance of nests was about 300 m. Nests were situated in relatively lush vegetation and covered by a total of eight shrub species and three herbs. In contrast to previous reports, Caragana shrub did not constitute an important part of the nest habitat. The flowering, non-thorny bush Potentilla fruticosa was significantly over-represented as nest cover, while Rhododendron nivale was similarly under-represented. Nest bush foliage covered a larger area of ground, and the shrub surrounding nests was generally denser, than in control samples. Also, nests were placed closer to paths and in areas with lower densities of Yak(Bos grunniens) dung than in control samples.Except that soil temperatures were lower on nest sites than on control sites, micro-climate variables measured in this study did not differ between nest sites and control plots.Conclusions: Opportunity for nest concealment is probably an important quality of the nest habitat in Tibetan Partridges, yet it is unclear why the species should prefer P. fruticosa as nest cover. It is possible that nest sites are

  11. [A phylogenetic analysis of plant communities of Teberda Biosphere Reserve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulakov, A A; Egorov, A V; Onipchenko, V G

    2016-01-01

    develop under conditions of winter snow accumulation were more,even at the both.scale, i.e., contained more diverse and distantly related plant species compared with random samples. (Scheuchzerio-Caricetea fuscae) aquatic communities in cold (Montio-Cardaminetea), sedge meadows (Carici rupestris-Kobresietea bellardii), and communities, in which shrubs and predominated (juniper and rhododendron elfin woods, class Loiseleurio-Vaccinietea), have been studied only at the larger scale and showed significant evenness of species composition, i.e., were phylogenetically more diverse compared with random samples.

  12. Niche of Tree Layer Dominant Population of Two Community Types in Xingdoushan Nature Reserve%星斗山自然保护区两种群落类型乔木层优势种的生态位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈斯; 艾训儒; 姚兰; 林勇; 黄伟

    2016-01-01

    用双向指示种分析法(TWINSPAN)将星斗山自然保护区常绿落叶阔叶混交林划分为两个群落类型,即亮叶水青冈+多脉青冈-翅柃(Fagus lucida+Cyclobalanopsis multinervis-Eurya alata)群落(群落Ⅰ)和川陕鹅耳枥+交让木+包槲柯-翅柃(Carpinus fargesiana+Daphniphyllum macropodum+Lithocarpus cleistocarpus-Eurya alata)群落(群落Ⅱ),以重要值(Ⅳ)为资源位,分析群落乔木层优势种的生态位宽度和生态位重叠.结果显示:群落Ⅰ中交让木(Daphniphyllum macropodum)与川陕鹅耳枥(Carpinus fargesiana)之间的生态位重叠值较大,为了更好的适应群落内部环境和利用种间资源,它们在垂直结构上发生了分化;齿缘吊钟花(Enkianthus serrulatus)与长蕊杜鹃(Rhododendron stamineum)之间的生态位重叠值为0.898,由于在乔木层中占据同一个层次,为了争夺群落间共有的营养和空间资源发生了激烈的竞争;群落Ⅱ中交让木与亮叶桦(Betula luminifera)之间的生态位重叠值最大,它们在垂直结构上发生了分化;交让木与多脉青冈(Cyclobalanopsis multinervis)之间的生态位重叠较大,它们在乔木层中占据同一个层次,竞争较激烈.

  13. Impacts of traditional land use practices on soil organic carbon and nitrogen pools of mountain ecosystems in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Anjana; Katzensteiner, Klaus

    2010-05-01

    Crop production, animal husbandry and forestry are three closely interlinked components of land use systems in the mountains of Nepal. Forests are the major source of fuel wood, construction materials, fodder and litter. The latter is used as a bedding material for livestock and forms an important component of farmyard manure. In addition forest grazing by cattle is a common practice. Excessive extraction of biomass from the forest leads to a decline of soil organic matter and nutrient contents. On the landscape scale these negative effects will partly be compensated by positive effects on soil organic matter and nutrient stocks of arable soils. The experimental data base for a quantification of such effects at the scale of communities is however poor, in particular for Nepal. Understanding the impact of subsistence farming on ecosystems is imperative in order to recommend successful and sustainable land management practices. The aim of our study is to quantify effects of land use on carbon and nitrogen pools and fluxes for mountain communities in Nepal. Results of a case study in the buffer zone area of the Sagarmatha National Park are presented. The potential vegetation comprises mixed forests of Quercus semicarpifolia, Rhododendron arboreum and Tsuga dumosa. Carbon and nitrogen stocks in soil and vegetation were quantified for three different land use types, namely: forest with low human impact, forests with high human impact and agricultural land. The scale of disturbance of the forests has been classified by visual estimation considering the percentage of litter raked, number of lopped trees, and grazing intensity assessed by signs of trampling and the number of trails. After stratification of the community area, 20 plots of 10 m radius were established (17 forest plots, 3 plots for arable land) where biometric data of the vegetation were determined and sub-samples were taken for chemical analyses. Organic layers (litter remaining after litter raking) and soil

  14. How endangered is sexual reproduction of high-mountain plants by summer frosts? Frost resistance, frequency of frost events and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladinig, Ursula; Hacker, Jürgen; Neuner, Gilbert; Wagner, Johanna

    2013-03-01

    In temperate-zone mountains, summer frosts usually occur during unpredictable cold spells with snow-falls. Earlier studies have shown that vegetative aboveground organs of most high-mountain plants tolerate extracellular ice in the active state. However, little is known about the impact of frost on reproductive development and reproductive success. In common plant species from the European Alps (Cerastium uniflorum, Loiseleuria procumbens, Ranunculus glacialis, Rhododendron ferrugineum, Saxifraga bryoides, S. moschata, S. caesia), differing in growth form, altitudinal distribution and phenology, frost resistance of reproductive and vegetative shoots was assessed in different reproductive stages. Intact plants were exposed to simulated night frosts between -2 and -14 °C in temperature-controlled freezers. Nucleation temperatures, freezing damage and subsequent reproductive success (fruit and seed set, seed germination) were determined. During all reproductive stages, reproductive shoots were significantly less frost resistant than vegetative shoots (mean difference for LT50 -4.2 ± 2.7 K). In most species, reproductive shoots were ice tolerant before bolting and during fruiting (mean LT50 -7 and -5.7 °C), but were ice sensitive during bolting and anthesis (mean LT50 around -4 °C). Only R. glacialis remained ice tolerant during all reproductive stages. Frost injury in reproductive shoots usually led to full fruit loss. Reproductive success of frost-treated but undamaged shoots did not differ significantly from control values. Assessing the frost damage risk on the basis of summer frost frequency and frost resistance shows that, in the alpine zone, low-statured species are rarely endangered as long as they are protected by snow. The situation is different in the subnival and nival zone, where frost-sensitive reproductive shoots may become frost damaged even when covered by snow. Unprotected individuals are at high risk of suffering from frost damage, particularly

  15. 上海植物园典型群落景观美景度评价%Scenic Beauty Evaluation of Typical Plant Communities in Shanghai Botanical Garden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙启臻; 吴泽民

    2012-01-01

    Based on the comprehensive field survey on plant communities of Shanghai Botanical Garden, the study made the landscape aesthetic evaluation for 33 typical communities using scenic beauty evaluation (SBE) . The results indicated that the aesthetic value of the plant communities was - 1.38 -1.37. Sixteen communities were valued≥0, all of which included almost deciduous species and had 3 layers in vertical structure. The major canopy species of the communities with higher aesthetic value were Koelreteria paniculata, Salix madthudana, Sapium sebiferum, Cinnamomum camphora, Ginkgo biloba, Diospyros kaki, Albizzia julibrissin, etc; and the major understory species were colorful leaf or flower species such as Loropetarum chinense var. rublum, Malus spp. , Rhododendron spp. , Cerasus lannesiana. The factors affecting scenic beauty of plant communities include species composition, colors, vertical structure, harmonization between communities and ambient environment, health conditions of trees and canopy line change. The plant communities in city botanical garden provides a key basis for green space establishment in urban area, so it was proposed to pay close attention to the effects of botanical garden in city greening.%在全面调查上海植物园植物群落的基础上,采用美景度评判法(SBE)对33个典型群落进行美学价值评价,结果表明其美景度值为-1.38~1.37。得分值≥0的有16个群落,其建群树种几乎全为落叶阔叶树、且多为3层结构,得分较高的群落建群树种主要包括栾树、旱柳、乌桕、香樟、银杏、柿树、合欢等,下层以彩叶或观花树种如红花檀木、海棠、杜鹃、日本晚樱、八仙花等为主。影响群落景观关学特点的因素主要有树种组成、色彩、垂直结构、群落与周围环境的协调度、树木的健康状况及林冠线变化度等。植物园的植物群落关景度评价是构建城市绿地群落的重要参考。

  16. Fifty Years of Botanical Gardens in China%中国植物园五十年

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺善安

    2002-01-01

    概述了中国140多个植物园过去50年发展的历史过程、分布和特征,以及植物园在研究、保护、展示和利用生物多样性等方面的功能.评述了中国植物园早期在经济作物烟草、药用植物薯蓣和野生果树资源研究中对社会和经济发展的贡献,以及近年来在种子科学、物种保护、经济植物引种驯化和育种等方面的理论和应用研究成果.介绍了中国植物园活植物收集的现状.其中木兰科、姜科、苏铁类、药用植物、猕猴桃属和杜鹃属等收集圃的建设已属世界领先.介绍了植物园科普和旅游的发展和中国植物园特有的盆景艺术园和硅化木收集园.%The development, distribution and features of one hundred and forty botanical gardens (BGs) in China are reported and their functions on research, conservation, display and utilization of biodiversity are summarized in this paper. The contributions to the social and economic development in the early stage of Chinese BGs with the researches of economic plant (tobacco), medicinal plant (yam) and wild fruit tree resources are evaluated. The theoretical and applied achievements in recent years in seed science, plant conservation, economic plant introduction, acclimatization and breeding are also described. A general scope of living plant collections in Chinese BGs is presented and the outstanding ones, including Magnoliaceae, Zingiberaceae, Cycadaceae, medicinal plants, Actinidia and Rhododendron are particularly mentioned. With special reference to Chinese penjing art garden and silicified wood garden, the development of scientific popularization and tourism in BGs is reviewed.

  17. Assessing seedbank recruitment windows of opportunity in thaw slump thermokarsts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, D. C.; Bret-Harte, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    Tall shrub thickets (>1m) of birch and willow have been observed in stabilized lobes of thaw slump thermokarsts (gullies cause by thawed permafrost) in the Low Arctic near Toolik Lake, Alaska. We tested whether there are differences in seedling recruitment and establishment in thermokarsts vs outside the disturbance by comparing in-situ seedling presence, greenhouse germination of natural seedbanks, and cohort age groups of willow (Salix spp.) and birch in two 50m transects sampled in thermokarst lobes of different age: one young lobe of 7 y.a. at Lake NE-14, and one older lobe of 22 y.a. at Lake I-minus 1 vs. two transects outside the lobes. Young thermokarsts may provide germination windows of opportunity for fast growing species like graminoids and deciduous shrubs. In-situ seedling observations generally agreed with expectations. Fifteen times as many live seedlings were observed in the young lobe vs. outside, composed mainly of graminoids and willows, and five times more seedlings were observed inside the older lobe vs. outside, including 25% birch. Germination trials of seedbanks, as expected, showed a reverse trend. The smaller seedbanks in the young lobe had far fewer germinants than outside: over 49 times more seedlings germinated in the outside seedbank compared to the thermokarst, and were composed mainly of longer-lived evergreen shrubs in the genera Ledum and Rhododendron. The older lobe, by contrast, showed seven times greater germination than outside and was composed mainly of graminoids. Birch made up only 5%, reflecting variation in species composition between sites. ANOVA of seedbank germination across sites showed unit increase in number of germinated seeds was negatively correlated to percent cover of bare soil, positively correlated to the amount of organic matter present in the surface soil as reflected in sample volume, and positively correlated to thaw depth. Reverse trends in germination trials vs. presence of live seedlings may be

  18. Fungal Planet description sheets: 154-213.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Guarro, J; Cheewangkoon, R; van der Bank, M; Swart, W J; Stchigel, A M; Cano-Lira, J F; Roux, J; Madrid, H; Damm, U; Wood, A R; Shuttleworth, L A; Hodges, C S; Munster, M; de Jesús Yáñez-Morales, M; Zúñiga-Estrada, L; Cruywagen, E M; de Hoog, G S; Silvera, C; Najafzadeh, J; Davison, E M; Davison, P J N; Barrett, M D; Barrett, R L; Manamgoda, D S; Minnis, A M; Kleczewski, N M; Flory, S L; Castlebury, L A; Clay, K; Hyde, K D; Maússe-Sitoe, S N D; Chen, Shuaifei; Lechat, C; Hairaud, M; Lesage-Meessen, L; Pawłowska, J; Wilk, M; Sliwińska-Wyrzychowska, A; Mętrak, M; Wrzosek, M; Pavlic-Zupanc, D; Maleme, H M; Slippers, B; Mac Cormack, W P; Archuby, D I; Grünwald, N J; Tellería, M T; Dueñas, M; Martín, M P; Marincowitz, S; de Beer, Z W; Perez, C A; Gené, J; Marin-Felix, Y; Groenewald, J Z

    2013-12-01

    Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Camarosporium aloes, Phaeococcomyces aloes and Phoma aloes from Aloe, C. psoraleae, Diaporthe psoraleae and D. psoraleae-pinnatae from Psoralea, Colletotrichum euphorbiae from Euphorbia, Coniothyrium prosopidis and Peyronellaea prosopidis from Prosopis, Diaporthe cassines from Cassine, D. diospyricola from Diospyros, Diaporthe maytenicola from Maytenus, Harknessia proteae from Protea, Neofusicoccum ursorum and N. cryptoaustrale from Eucalyptus, Ochrocladosporium adansoniae from Adansonia, Pilidium pseudoconcavum from Greyia radlkoferi, Stagonospora pseudopaludosa from Phragmites and Toxicocladosporium ficiniae from Ficinia. Several species were also described from Thailand, namely: Chaetopsina pini and C. pinicola from Pinus spp., Myrmecridium thailandicum from reed litter, Passalora pseudotithoniae from Tithonia, Pallidocercospora ventilago from Ventilago, Pyricularia bothriochloae from Bothriochloa and Sphaerulina rhododendricola from Rhododendron. Novelties from Spain include Cladophialophora multiseptata, Knufia tsunedae and Pleuroascus rectipilus from soil and Cyphellophora catalaunica from river sediments. Species from the USA include Bipolaris drechsleri from Microstegium, Calonectria blephiliae from Blephilia, Kellermania macrospora (epitype) and K. pseudoyuccigena from Yucca. Three new species are described from Mexico, namely Neophaeosphaeria agaves and K. agaves from Agave and Phytophthora ipomoeae from Ipomoea. Other African species include Calonectria mossambicensis from Eucalyptus (Mozambique), Harzia cameroonensis from an unknown creeper (Cameroon), Mastigosporella anisophylleae from Anisophyllea (Zambia) and Teratosphaeria terminaliae from Terminalia (Zimbabwe). Species from Europe include Auxarthron longisporum from forest soil (Portugal), Discosia pseudoartocreas from Tilia (Austria), Paraconiothyrium polonense and P. lycopodinum from Lycopodium

  19. Insecticidal activities and chemical components of alcohol extract from leaves of Rhodendron dauricum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Mo-long; WANG Tian-miao

    2011-01-01

    The extract from leaves of Rhododendron dauricum L. was extracted with 95% alcohol by common method for studying its insecticidal activities. The chemical components of the alcohol extract and relative contents were analyzed by GC-MS. The insecticidal activities of the alcohol extract were tested on the 2nd-3rd instar larvae of Lymantria dispar L. for five days. Five concentrations of the extract samples were designed as 50, 10, 5, 1, and 0.5 g·L-1. The results show that the alcohol extracts from leaves of R. dauricum exhibited insecticidal activities against larvae of L. dispar. The corrected mortality of larvae of L. dispar for was over 50% for both contact toxicity and stomach toxicity at the extract concentration of ≥ 5 g·L-1 after five days of application. The insecticidal activity in contact toxicity is more effect than stomach toxicity for the alcohol extract. Twenty compounds, with total GC relative contents of 93.81% in the alcohol extract from leaves of R. dauricum were identified. The main chemical components in the cxtract are: (1) 4,5-Dihydro-5-oxo-3-(p-tolyl) isoxazole, with a relative content of 40.03%; (2) 1,3-Benzenediol, 5-methyl-2-(3,7,11-trimethyl-2,6,10-dodecatrienyl)-, (E,E)-, the relative content 18.27%; (3) 3,6-Diphenyl-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-l,8-acridinedione, the relative content 3.89%;(4) 6H-[l ,2,4]Triazolo[1,5-a]indole, 4a,5,7,8,8a,9-hexahydro-9-methylene-, the relative content 2.99%; (5) 7-Amino-4-methyl-l,8-naphthyridino2-ol, the relative content 2.64%; (6) 4-Methyl-2,6-dihydroxyquinoline, the relative content 2.63%; (7) 2,4,6-Triaminoquilazoline, the relative content 2.27%; (8) 2(1H)-Quinolinone,4-hydroxy-1-methyl-, the relative content 2.02%.

  20. Community Species Structure Characteristics of Four Types of Keteleeria cyclolepis Natural Forests in Fujian Province%福建江南油杉4种天然林群落物种结构特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何国生

    2011-01-01

    Community species structure characteristics of four types of Keteleeria cyclolepis natural forests in Fu-jian Province, I. E. , K. Cyclolepis forest, K. Cyclolepis + Castanopsis eyrei forest, Keteleeria cyclolepis + Cyclobanop-sis gilva forest, and Keteleeria cyclolepis + Phyllostachys pubesces forest, were investigated and analyzed by means of typical square sampling method. The results showed that there were two sublayers in the arbor tree layer in all of the four types of Keteleeria cyclolepis natural forests, while K. Cyclolepis mainly occupied the upper part of the arbor tree layer, growing with 16 companion tree species. There were 10 tree species from the community building families of the broadleaved subtropical evergreen forests including Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Magnoliaceae and Theaceae among the companion tree species, accounting for 62. 5% of the total. There were 26 species in the shrub layer of different types of the natural forests, among which 9 shrub species were from the families of Lauraceae, Magnoliaceae and Theaceae, accounting for 34. 6% of the total. There were 7 species respectively in the herb layer and the inter-layer of the vegetation. There were not much differences in the species composition in the shrub and herb layers in different types of the natural forests, but the dominant species in the shrub and herb layers in different types of the natural forests were quite different. The dominant species in shrub layer and herb layer of Keteleeria cyclolepis forest were Itea chinensis and Woodwardia japonica respectively. Asidosasa notata and Rhododendron henryi were the co-dominant species in shrub layer, whereas Dicranopteris dichotoma was the dominant species in the herb layer of Keteleeria cyclolepis + Cyclobanopsis gilva forest type. Rhododendron ovatum and Eurya alata were the co-dominant species in the shrub layer of Keteleeria cyclolepis + Castanopsis eyrei forest and Keteleeria cyclolepis + Phyllostachys pubesces forest types

  1. Effects of streams on lignin degradation during foliar litter decomposition in an alpine forest%高寒森林溪流对凋落叶分解过程中木质素降解的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳楷; 杨万勤; 彭艳; 黄春萍; 张川; 吴福忠

    2016-01-01

    Aims Streams are widely distributed in alpine forests, and litter decomposition in which is an important compo-nent of material cycling across the forest landscape. The leaching and fragmenting effects as well as the unique environmental factors in streams may have significant impacts on lignin degradation during litter decomposition, but studies on this are lacking. Methods Using litterbag methods, we investigated the dynamics of lignin mass remaining and concentration (percent litter mass, %) during the decomposition of four foliar litters, which varied significantly in the initial lit-ter chemical traits, from the dominant species of Salix paraplesia, Rhododendron lapponicum, Sabina saltuaria, and Larix mastersiana under different habitats (forest floor, stream, and riparian zone) in the upper reaches of the Minjiang River. Important findings After two year’s incubation, litter lignin mass remaining for a specific litter species varied significantly (p < 0.05) among habitats, with an order of stream < riparian zone < forest floor. Lignin was de-graded substantially in the early stage of litter decomposition process, and the lignin concentration first decreased and then increased with the proceeding of litter decomposition, but varied significantly (p < 0.05) among different litter species. Lignin mass showed a general trend of decrease across the 2-year decomposition course. In addition, habitat type, decomposition period and microenvironmental factors (e.g., temperature, pH value and nutrient availability) showed substantial influences on lignin degradation rate. These results suggest that the traditional view that lignin was relatively recalcitrant with an increase of concentration in the early stage of litter decomposi-tion is challenged, but the loss of lignin in the early phrase is in line with recent findings about the fate of lignin during litter decomposition. Moreover, the significant differences of lignin degradation rates among different de

  2. Community characteristics of a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Huangshan, Anhui Province, East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Ding

    2016-08-01

    significantly. When the scale was larger than 57,950 m2, the rate of increase declined slightly. Rare species (N = 69, less than 1 ind./ha reached 45.10% of the total number of individuals. Members of Fagaceae and Ericaceae comprised more than half of the total importance values (IV. The IV of Castanopsis eyrei, a constructive species, was 26.25%, and followed by Eurya nitida (7.63%, Rhododendron ovatum (7.6%, Pinus massoniana (6.29% and Loropetalum chinense (4.83%. The mean DBH for all the individuals was 4.10 cm, and small sized trees dominated the plot. The emergent layer was divided into two sub-layers, individuals of C. eyrei were dominant in both layers, while P. massoniana was a subdominant species. Castanopsis eyrei, E. nitida, R. ovatum and P. massoniana had a significant clustered distribution.

  3. Interception of Phytophthora syringae on Citrus fruits imported from California, USA%进境美国加州脐橙中丁香疫霉Phytophthora syringae截获

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗加凤; 刘跃庭; 廖芳; 胡晓红; 刘鹏; 黄国明

    2012-01-01

    Several brown rot fruits have been found from Californian fresh orange sample. Three isolates similar to Phytophthora syringae were obtained from these rot fruits. The colonies grew slowly on PDA and V8 juice agar (V8A). They were stellate, tiled and thin on V8A, but on PDA, the margin was chrysanthemum petaloid; mycelia dense, milk-white-colored. Sporangia and catenulate hyphal swellings formed in sterilizing water and soil extract water in 48h. The isolates were homothallic. Oospores were produced abundantly on PDA and V8A mixed with fresh Citrus fruit tissue or leaf of rhododendron. The isolates were wounded-inoculated on fresh Citrus fruits. Typical brown rot symptoms are apparent on inoculated fruits in 7d. DNA of hyphae was amplified with ITS1/ITS4 primers. In comparision with P. Syringae from NCBIGenBank databases, the sequences had 99% identity. All the results of tests showed that the isolates were Phytophthorasyringae.%从产自美国加利福尼亚州的新鲜脐橙样品中发现多个腐烂病果,通过分离培养得到3个疑似丁香疫霉Phytophthora syringae菌株,对3个菌株进行形态学研究、致病性测定和分子序列比对分析.结果表明病菌在V8A培养基上菌落稀疏、平铺,呈星状,菌丝紧贴培养基生长或埋于基质内生长;在PDA培养基上菌落呈菊花花瓣状,菌丝致密,乳白色;游动孢子囊和菌丝膨大体在无菌水和土壤浸出液中黑暗条件下48h后产生;菌株为同宗配合,卵孢子在带有新鲜脐橙果实组织或杜鹃叶片的V8A培养基中大量产生;创伤接种脐橙果实,7d后接种脐橙出现典型的褐腐症状;通用引物ITS 1/ITS4扩增测序,Blastn分析表明序列与GenBank中P.syringae序列相似性为99%.依据上述研究结果,将分离获得的3株菌鉴定为丁香疫霉Phytophthora syringae,系国内首次截获的一种植物检疫性真菌病害.

  4. 用典型植物监测环境中有机氟污染物的可行性%Feasibility to monitor environmental organofluorine pollutants using typical plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鸿; 陈清武; 姚丹; 柴之芳; 沈金灿

    2013-01-01

    In order to assess the feasibility of typical plants as bioindicators for perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) , the residues of 13 PFCs in fresh leaves of moss, camphor tree, masson pine, gladiolus, lichen, alfalfa, silky oak and rhododendron were measured by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Moss, which accumulates PFCs most effectively among the eight, was selected as the environmental bioindicator for PFCs assessment. The total fluorine, extractable organic fluorine and PFCs in moss from 12 locations of six Shenzhen districts, including Bao'an, Nanshan, Futian, Yantian, Luohu and Longgang, were measured by cyclic neutron activation analysis combined with HPLC-MS/MS. Results showed that EOF accounted for 13.4%- 16.5% of TF. They indicated that inorganic fluorine was the main form. Only 0.08%- 0. 15% of EOF was the identified fluorine while more than 99. 8% of EOF required further identification. The sum of perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorohexanoic acid accounted for 88%- 99% of total PFCs, making them the main PFCs species in moss. Total PFCs residues in moss from Bao'an district were significantly higher than those from other districts (P < 0. 01) , which was likely due to the presence of PFCs-related industries, geographical location and climate. The results suggest that moss is a feasible bioindicator for PFCs and its exposure risk in the environment.%为探究用典型植物指示环境中全氟化合物(perfluorinated chemicals,PFCs)污染状况的可行性,采用高效液相色谱-质谱联用(high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry,HPLCMS/MS),分析苔藓、樟树、马尾松、唐菖蒲、地衣、苜蓿、银桦和杜鹃8种植物鲜叶中13种PFCs的残留水平,从中选择富集PFCs能力最强的苔藓为环境生物指示物.结合循环中子活化分析测定深圳市宝安、南山、福田、罗湖、盐田和龙岗6区12

  5. 八大公山中亚热带山地常绿落叶阔叶混交林物种组成与结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢志军; 鲍大川; 郭屹立; 路俊盟; 王庆刚; 何东; 张奎汉; 徐耀粘; 刘海波; 孟红杰; 黄汉东; 魏新增; 廖建雄; 乔秀娟; 江明喜; 谷志容; 廖春林

    2013-01-01

    山地常绿落叶阔叶混交林在我国主要分布在中亚热带1000~2000 m中山地带。八大公山位于武陵山系北端,中亚热带北缘,具有保护较好的典型山地常绿落叶阔叶混交林。为了研究常绿落叶阔叶混交林动态和川东-鄂西植物多样性形成及维持机制,按照CTFS(Center for Tropical Forest Science)样地建设标准,中国科学院武汉植物园于2010-2011年在湖南八大公山(Badagongshan,BDGS)国家级自然保护区建立了一个25 hm2(500 m×500 m)中亚热带山地常绿落叶阔叶混交林动态监测样地(Forest Dynamic Plot)。本研究以样地内所有胸径(DBH)≥1 cm的木本植物(不含竹藤)为研究对象,分析该样地区系成分、群落组成、垂直结构、径级结构和空间分布。结果表明:八大公山样地属于典型的山地常绿落叶阔叶混交林,植物以泛热带分布科(24.50%)和北温带分布属(24.56%)占优势,包括9种珍稀濒危植物。样地内木本植物合计53科、114属、238种(含种下分类单位),186556株存活个体。落叶树144种,常绿树94种。壳斗科(Fagaceae)、杜鹃花科(Ericaceae)、樟科(Lauraceae)和山茶科(Theaceae)占据优势;个体数超过1000的有38个物种,以常绿树种(63.16%)为主;稀有种(〈25株)103个(占样地物种总数43.28%)。群落垂直结构可分为乔木层(优势树种多脉青冈Cyclobalanopsis multinervis和亮叶水青冈Fagus lucida)、亚乔木层(优势种长蕊杜鹃Rhododendron stamineum和黄丹木姜子Litsea elongata)和灌木层(优势种短柱柃Eurya brevistyla和薄叶山矾Symplocos anomala)。个体数超过1000的树种和稀有种主要来自灌木层。由于生长型限制,样地内树种平均胸径较小(5.41 cm),DBH〈5 cm的个体占优势(68.40%)。主要优势树种的径级结构呈现倒J型。

  6. Photosynthetic and Shade-tolerance Characteristics of Eight Ornamental Plants%8种园林植物耐荫性与光合特性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆銮眉; 阎光宇; 杜晓娜; 卞阿娜

    2011-01-01

    通过测定漳州地区8种园林植物叶片的形态特征、光合作用和光响应曲线,并对测定结果进行方差分析和相关分析,比较分析其耐荫程度.结果表明:试验的8个品种除黄金榕外,其它品种对弱光利用能力较强,具有较强的弱光适应能力;三角梅、锦绣杜鹃、红背桂等植物的耐荫性较强,在园林中可配置在比较郁蔽的林下;黄金榕和悬铃花是喜光植物,能适应较强的光辐射,耐荫能力相对较差,可以配置在林缘或疏林草地中,光照越足,黄金榕的叶色、悬铃花的花都会越鲜艳;花叶假连翘既有一定的耐荫能力,又能适应较强的阳光辐射,对光适应的生态幅度较宽,在园林配置中可根据需要进行布置.桂花和红背桂能更好的利用土壤水分,可配置在相对较干旱的地方.净光合速率Pn与其主要影响因子气孔导度Gs、胞间CO2浓度Ci、蒸腾速率Tr、叶温下蒸汽压亏缺VpdL、光合有效辐射PAR的相关性分析表明,种类不同,其影响因子也不一样,8种园林植物的Pn与Ci呈极显著负相关.此研究为园林中植物的配置提供了一定的理论依据.%The morphological characteristics of plant leaves, photosynthesis and light response were measured, the variance and correlation of the results were analyzed, and the extent of their shade - tolerance were compared for eight ornamental plants in Zhangzhou. The results showed that except for Ficus microcarpa cv. GoldenLeaves, the other varieties had a strong ability to use and adapt to low light. Bougainvillea spectabilis, Rhododendron pulchrum and Excoecaria cochinchinensis had a strong shade - tolerance, so they could be used under buzzed forest cover. Ficus microcarpa cv. GoldenLeaves, and Malvaiscus arboreus var. Penduliflorus were photophilous plants, could adapt to a strong light radiation and had relatively poor shade - tolerant capability, so they could be used in forest edges or grasslands. The more light

  7. 八大公山常绿落叶阔叶混交林枯立木物种组成、大小级与分布格局%Species composition, size class, and spatial patterns of snags in the Badagongshan (BDGS) mixed evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forest in central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢志军; 刘福玲; 吴浩; 江明喜

    2015-01-01

    枯立木是森林生态系统的重要组成部分,对其数量特征(如物种组成和大小级)与分布格局的研究是认识这个特殊类群的起点.本文以湖南八大公山25 ha森林动态监测样地常绿落叶阔叶混交林为研究对象,以该样地第一次木本植物(DBH≥1 cm)调查数据为基础,分析了枯立木的物种组成、径级结构、分布格局以及生境关联.结果表明,样地内共有枯立木(DBH≥1 cm,高度≥130 cm,完全死亡)8,947株.其中,1 cm≤ DBH <5 cm枯立木4,258株(47.59%),5 cm ≤ DBH <10 cm枯立木2,132株(23.84%),10 cm ≤ DBH <30 cm枯立木2,377株(26.57%),DBH≥30 cm枯立木180株(2%);平均DBH为8.0 cm,最大DBH为83.5 cm.从分布格局来看,0-50 m的尺度上,样地内枯立木主要呈现聚集分布,但在接近40 m的尺度上,逐渐变为随机分布.利用多元回归树(multivariate regression tree,MRT)将样地生境分为3类,运用Torus转换比较某类生境中枯立木密度与物种零分布模型中的期望密度,结果显示枯立木在山谷中分布较少,山脊较多,而在山坡生境则呈现随机分布.鉴定到种的枯立木有724株(8.1%),隶属于26科84种;其中,杜鹃花科、壳斗科和樟科枯立木最多.在物种水平上,多脉青冈(Cyclobalanopsis multinervis)、长蕊杜鹃(Rhododendron stamineum)和黄丹木姜子(Litsea elongata)枯立木最多;而优势树种亮叶水青冈(Fagus lucida)的枯立木并不多见.

  8. 映山红开花习性与花粉生活力研究%Study on the Flowering Habit and Pollen Viability of R. arborescens Planch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜志国; 杜绍华; 张晓曼

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨映山红的开花习性及花粉生活力.[方法]以映山红(Rhododendron arborescens)为试验材料.观察映山红(R.simisiiPlanch)开花的习性;采用离体培养基萌发测定法,以及培养基中蔗糖的浓度、培养温度、硼酸、钙离子等因素对花粉萌发和花粉管伸长的影响.[结果]映山红花期4~6月,单花期3~5 d;花紫色,2~6朵簇生于枝端;花萼5裂,长2~4 mm;花冠宽漏斗状,长4~5 cm,5裂;雄蕊7~10,花药紫色;柱头头状.蔗糖浓度为5%时映山红花粉萌发最好;光照条件下25℃时萌发率最高,达70%以上;培养基为20mg/L硼酸+10mg/L氯化钙+5%蔗糖+0.5 g琼脂,萌发率最高达87%;在一定浓度(0~20 mg/L)范围内,钙离子对映山红花粉的萌发率影响不大,主要影响花粉管长度;对花粉萌发率的影响比较明显,浓度间差异均达显著水平,在一定硼酸浓度(0~20 mg/L)范围内,随着硼酸浓度的增加花粉的萌发率上升.[结论]该研究可为今后利用映山红开展人工育种奠定基础.%[ Objective ] To investigate the flowering habit and pollen viability of R. arborescens Planch. [ Method ] R. arborescens Planch as test material, effects of sucrose concentrations, culture temperature, boric acid and Ca2+ on the pollen germination and tube growth were studied through in vitro culture method. [ Result ] The flower season of R. arborescens Planch lasts 4 to 6 months with single flowering phase of 3 - 5 d;purple, 2 -6 flowers cluster in the end of branches; calyx 5-lobed, 2-4 mm in length; funnel-form corolla, 4 -5 cm in length, 5-lobed; 7 -10 stamens, purple anther; capitate stigmas. 5% sucrose was proved to be the best for the germination of pollen, and the germination rate was the highest at 25 ℃ in daylight ( more than 70% ); the optimum combination for the germination of pollen was 20 mg/L boric acid + 10 mg/L CaCl2 +5% sucrose +0.5% agar, under this condition, the germination rate reached as high as

  9. Altitudinal Variation in Aboveground Biomass of Abies georgei var.smithii at Timberline of the Sergyemla Mountains, Southeast Tibet%藏东南色季拉山急尖长苞冷杉林线地带地上生物量随海拔的变化特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新圣; 张林; 孔高强; 罗天祥

    2011-01-01

    Environment becomes harsh with increasing altitude, which has major effects on forest biomass accumulation and its allocation to woody and foliage components.In this study, we compared aboveground biomass and its allocation pattern of Abies georgei[var.smithii along a transect from sub-alpine forest to alpine timberline in the Sergyemla Mountain, southeast Tibet.We estimated different components of aboveground biomass for Abies trees and undergrowth Rhododendron shrubs by using allometric regressions.The aboveground biomass of undergrowth herbs was measured by harvesting in 0.5 m ×0.5 m quadrats.Aboveground biomasses were 181 ~284 t/hm2, 117 ~ 248 t/hm2, 35 ~ 62 t/hm2 and 0.9 ~ 1.5 t/hm2 for whole community, trees, undergrowth shrubs and herbs, respectively.Aboveground biomass of the whole community decreased significantly with increasing elevation, and the decreasing rate was 73.1 t/hm2 per 100 m.Furthermore, the Abies forest stand at higher elevation tended to reduce biomass allocation to non-photosynthesis organs (stem and branch), and to increase the allocation to longlived needles.The increased biomass allocation to long-lived needles at higher elevations may extend the mean residence time of nutrients in plants, and then enhance nutrient use efficiency of dry mass production to adapt to the low temperature environment at alpine timberlines.%从亚高山森林到高山林线,逐渐严酷的生长环境影响了生物量的积累和分配.本研究采用相对生长法和样方收获法估算了藏东南色季拉山急尖长苞冷杉林在禾同海拔(4 190 m,4 270 m和4 326 m)的地上生物量,分析了群落中不同层次地上生物量、各器官生物量及其分配比例随海拔的变化格局.结果表明:1.急尖长苞冷杉群落地上生物量在181~284 t/hm2之间,其中,乔木层在11~-248 t/hm2,灌木层为35~62 t/hm2,草本层为0.9~1.5 t/hm2;2.群落地上生物量随海拔升高急剧降低,降低的平均幅度为73.1 t/(hm2

  10. Niche of the Major Tree Species Populations in Cathaya argyrophylla Forest in Guangxi%广西银杉林主要树种种群生态位分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何忠伟; 胡仁传; 黄日波; 谢强

    2012-01-01

    Using the plots of Cathaya argyrophylla community with different habitats in Guangxi as resource complexes (resource position) , and the species of important value as the state index on resource position the niche breadth (Levins index and Shannon Wiener diversity index), the proportion of niche similarity and niche overlap of the dominant species populations in C. argyrophylla community were quantitatively analyzed. The results show that; 1) The C. argyrophylla, Rhododendron simiarum, Pinus kwangtungensis, Dendropanax hainanensis, Pentaphylax euryoides and Dunnia sinensis have greater important value and wider niche breadth, and they are the dominant species resources in the community, with higher ability in the surveyed habitat and occupy an important position in C. argyrophylla forest. But Micheliafigo, Gordonia axillaris and Clethra bodinieri var. parviflora are on the contrary. 2) There is a larger niche similarity among most of the species in C. argyrophylla forest, the ecological characteristics of them are similar in resource utilization. The species with wider niche breadth will have a bigger niche similar-ity value, while the species with smaller niche width have lower similarity value with other species. 3) The niche o-verlap value is low among the major tree species in C. argyrophylla forest and the competition among main tree species is weak. The species with larger niche breadth have larger niche overlap value and higher probability in occupy or use the same resources with other species, while the species with smaller niche breadth have smaller niche overlap value and lower probability in occupy or use the same resources with other species. 4) C. argyrophylla has a large important value in all the quadrats, so it has great niche breadth value. C. argyrophylla is the dominant species and the constructive species in C. argyrophylla forest community.%以广西银杉林不同生境的样地作为不同资源的综合体(资源位),以各物种的重要

  11. 贵州毕节野生大型经济真菌调查%Wild economic macro-fungi in Bijie District of Guizhou Province, Southwest China.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁; 刘培贵

    2011-01-01

    A field investigation on the wild economic macro-fungi was conducted at 14 locations in the Bijie District of Guizhou Province. A total of 437 fungal specimens were collected and identified, with 100 species ( varieties and forms) of 52 genera and 31 families newly discovered, and 187 species of 86 genera of 44 families retraced from literatures. Family Russulaceae had the largest species number ( 34) , occupying 18.2% of the total, followed by Polyporaceae (17 species and 9. 1% ) , and Agaricaceae ( 14 species and 7.5% ) and Boletaceae ( 14 species and 7. 5% ). Among the economic fungi, 141 taxa were edible, and 46 taxa were medical. Ectomycorthizal fungi reached 96 species, occupying 51. 3% of the total, and the rests were saprotrophic fungi (88 species) , parasitic fungi (2 species) , and entomogenous fungi (1 species) , indicating that in the District, ectomycorrhizal fungi covered more than half of the total, being of significance in stabilizing local forest ecosystems. The analysis on the distribution patterns of the fungi at different altitudes and in different forest types and seasons showed that the species number decreased with increasing altitude but kept stable when the altitude reached a certain level, fungal growth was most prosperous in July-August and September-October, and the ranking of the species number in different forest types was Pinus armandii and Castanea seguinii mixed forest > Camellia spp. + Metasequoia glyptostroboides + Pinus yunnanensis mixed forest > PinuS armandii forest > Rhododendron natural forest. In contrast with the rather rich economic fungi in Bijie, only 16 species (8. 6% of the total) were found in the local markets, suggesting that the exploitation and unitization potential of wild mushrooms in the District was still to be excavated.%通过对贵州毕节地区野外调查,采集并鉴定标本437份,共计发现野生大型经济真菌31科52属100种(含变种、变型),加上文献记载的

  12. Screening of Some Medicinal Plants for Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition and Antioxidant Activity%药用植物中乙酰胆碱酯酶抑制活性和抗氧化活性的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨赟; 刘敏; 李建; 张玉强; 陆亮

    2013-01-01

    plants tested by TLC bioautographic method and modified Ellman's colorimetric method, some medicinal plants had taken on significant anti-acetylcholinesterase activity and DPPH free radical-scavenging activity, such as Leonfice robustum (Maxim. ) Diels, Stephania kwangsiensis H. S. Lo, Toddalia asiatica ( L. ) lam. , Rhododendron mucronatum G. Don and Alangium chinense (Lour. ) Harms. The inhibition rates of the above medicinal plants were (88. 72 ± 1.47)%, (82.25 ± 1.32)%, (77.71 ± 1.61 )%, (77.00 ± 1.38 )% and (75.22 ± 1.28 )% at the concentration of lg · L-1 , respectively; And IC50 value of DPPH free radical-scavenging activity were 153.75, 74.95, 50.00, 10.87, 24.40 mg ·L-1 , respectively. Compared with the the various extracts based on kinds of solvents, dichloromethane fractions of L. robustum and S. kwangsiensis had the higher anti-acetylcholinesterase activity, which IC50 value were 33. 97, 38.79 mg ·L-11 , while IC50 value of DPPH free radical-scavenging activity were 302.95, 79.45 mg ·L-1. Conclusion: Dichloromethane fractions of L. robustum and S. kwangsiensis extracts have shown high AChE inhibitory capacity and antioxidant activity, so they will be further performed bio-guided isolation and purified to obtain active compounds.

  13. 热带雨林的孢粉垂直分布规律——以海南岛现代孢粉雨为例%MODERN POLLEN RAIN IN HAINAN ISLAND, SOUTHERN CHINA: ALTITUDINAL POLLEN DISTRIBUTION IN THE TROPICAL RAIN FOREST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    热带地区环境变化对研究全球气候变化显得越来越重要,热带地区的古环境记录,特别是孢粉记录是恢复过去气候的重要方法.东亚热带地区在冰期-间冰期的气候影响下,生态环境主要表现为山地植被带的垂直升降.因此,定量恢复热带地区第四纪植被垂直移动的幅度,以及作为古气候的替代性指标进行数量化转换是热带地区孢粉研究的关键.然而,我国热带地区现代孢粉雨和植被的关系研究程度较低,给热带第四纪孢粉古生态的恢复和对比带来困难.本研究较系统地总结了海南岛从低地平原到五指山1860m的垂直植被带表土的孢粉散布规律,为热带地区孢粉占环境的重建提供了新的基础数据.研究结果表明,孢粉组合的变化与垂直植被带紧密相关,孢粉的多样性随海拔升高而降低,其中针叶类随海拔升高而增加,蕨类孢子则相应减少.在低地和低山h丘陵,孢粉组合显示出人为干扰的影响,如防风林的主要树种木麻黄(Casuarina)、行道树台湾相思(Acacia richii)和人为砍伐后大面积生长的芒箕(Dicranopteris)群落等在一些孢粉谱中特别高.尽管如此,孢粉组合反映的垂直植被带变化仍然是清楚的,海南岛由下至上可划分出5个表上孢粉组合带:-低地人类强烈干扰带(<400 m):Mallotus,Casuarina,Pinus,Myrica,Palmae,Poaceae,Dicranopteris:-低地丘陵地带(400-800 m):Quercus,Castanopsis,Mallotus,Myrica,Platea,Meliaceae和大量孢子(包括Dicranopteris);-山地下带(800-1200 m):Castanopsis,Quercus,Podocarpus,Dacrydium,Cyathea和单缝孢子;-山地上带(1200-1600 m):Dacrydium,Pinus,Altingia,Quercus,Castanopsis;-山顶带(>1600 m):Pinus,Rhododendron,Dacrydium,Symplocos.%Modern pollen rain study was carded out on the samples collected from Hainan Island, tropical China along analtitudinal gradient from 0-1860 m (from lowland rainforests or savannas to Ericaceae and highland pine forest). The

  14. What is the role played by organic matter fractions from different sieve-size particles in the development of soil water repellency? A case study using analytical pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Pérez, José A.; González-Vila, Francisco J.; Zavala, Lorena M.; Jordán, Antonio; Jiménez-González, Marco A.

    2014-05-01

    in sieve fractions 0.25-1, 0.05-0.25 and <0.05 mm from HH samples nor in PA and PP (0.25-1 mm samples). A significant relation was observed between SOM content and severity of soil WR in QS samples and finer fractions of other samples, which is in agreement with previous findings (GOrdillo-Rivero et al., 2013; Jordán et al., 2011). In contrast, 1-2 mm sieve fractions from PP, PA and HH soils showed high severity of soil WR and relatively low SOM contents. This could be explained by a low degree of evolution of organic residues with higher alkane/alkene CPI values and to the presence of a higher diversity of fatty acid structures. These results suggest that soil WR appears as a consequence of lipid compounds in soil. Some similarities were found in the organic molecular assemblages in PA and PP samples, suggesting a fingerprint of pine residues in PA samples, resulting from ancient pine forests. This finding may be also explained by the existence of exogenous organic inputs associated to fine soil particles from border areas of pine forests. REFERENCES de la Rosa, J.M., González-Pérez, J.A., González-Vila, F.J., Knicker, H., Araújo, M.F. 2011. Characterization of wildfire effects on soil organic matter using analytical pyrolysis. Geoderma 191, 24-30. González-Pérez, J.A., González-Vila, F.J., Arias, M.E., Rodríguez, J., de la Rosa, J.M., Marañón, T., Clemente, L. 2011. Geochemical and ecological significance of soil lipids under Rhododendron ponticum stands. Environmental Chemistry Letters 9, 453-464. Gordillo-Rivero, A.J., García-Moreno, J., Jordán, A., Zavala, L.M. 2013. Monitoring fire impacts in soil water repellency and structure stability during 6 years. Flamma 4, 71-75. Jordán, A., Zavala, L.M., Mataix-Solera, J., Nava, A.L., Alanís, N. 2011. Effect of fire severity on water repellency and aggregate stability on Mexican volcanic soils. Catena 84, 136-147.

  15. Seasonal Customs of Jeollanam ̄do in South Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geng Ruiqin

    2016-01-01

    dates, chestnut, honey, pine nuts, an beans, etc. In the second lunar month, there are the Laborers’ Day and the Yongdung Festival. On the 1st of the second month, Laborers’ Day, laborers used to be given a day’s rest when people made a kind of dessert known as “Agecake”. However, because no one hires laborers nowadays, this cus-tom has actually disappeared. It is said that on 1st day of the second month, Yongdung Halmoni de-scends from the sky, and returns there on the 15th or 20th day. Yongdung Halmoni is said to be the goddess in charge of wind, so, in fishing areas where wind matters a lot, people will offer sacri-fices to her. It is said that if Yongdung Halmoni descends with her daughter-in-law, the wind throughout the whole year will be too strong to guarantee a good harvest, but good sailings can be counted on if she descends with her daughter. On the 3rd day of the third month, women in Jeollanam-do bring simple cooking equipment to the riverside, and pass a pleasant day there. They mix glutinous rice powder with rhododendron petals to make pancakes which they call “flower pan-cakes”. While they eat, they sing songs about flower pancakes or other folk songs. Around 3 rd day of the third month, butterflies start to appear and “dance”. It is believed that if yellow butter-flies are seen first, the coming year will be smooth, but if white butterflies are seen first, there will be many funerals or other inauspicious things. On the 8 th day of the fourth month the birthday of Sakyamuni, many people go to the temples and hang Buddhist lanterns. The display of lanterns on that day is truly grand. It is attended mainly by women who pray for happiness, safety, good health, success and prosperity for their family members. In the temples, people perform the ritu-al of“circumambulating the stupas”, spending the entire night sleepless walking around the stupas, praising gods’ merits and credits, and repeating their wishes in their hearts. While