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Sample records for azalea rhododendron simsii

  1. Reproduction in Flame Azalea (Rhododendron calendulaceum, Ericaceae): A Rare Case of Insect Wing Pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Mary Jane; Allison, Suzanne E; Wolfe, Lorne M

    2015-08-01

    Although many angiosperms are serviced by flying pollinators, reports of wings as pollen vectors are rare. Flame azalea (Rhododendron calendulaceum) is visited by diverse insects, yet previous observations suggested that only butterfly wings may transfer pollen to stigmas. We used an experimental approach to determine whether butterfly wings are the primary vehicle of pollination in flame azalea. Over two seasons of observations, only butterflies (Papilio glaucus and Speyeria cybele) contacted both anthers and stigmas, yet because of differences in wing-flapping behavior, P. glaucus transferred pollen most efficiently. In contrast, bee species specialized either on pollen or nectar but did not contact both anthers and stigmas. A field experiment revealed that flowers excluding butterflies experienced almost complete fruit failure, whereas fruit set in open flowers did not differ from those that were hand pollinated. Additionally, butterflies had 56-fold more azalea pollen on their wings than bodies, while azalea stigmas bore both pollen and wing scales. These results suggest that plants with many visitors contacting reproductive organs may still specialize on a single guild of visitors for pollination and that wing-borne pollen transfer is a key mode of flame azalea pollination. PMID:26655157

  2. Effect of different fertilization on the growth and nutrition of azalea (Rhododendron L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Zenia Michałojć; Michał Koter

    2012-01-01

    A study on azalea (Rhododendron L.), 'Kilian' and 'Persil', was conducted in 2009–2010. Plants were grown in pots in the open air, in a peat substrate with a pH of 4.8. The effect of the following fertilization methods was studied: I – traditional fertilization (single fertilizers were applied in 2 rates); II – a slow-release fertilizer (Hortiform pH); III – combined fertilization (¼ of the rate of nutrients was applied in the form of single fertilizers and ¾ in the form of Hortif...

  3. Phylogeographic analysis and environmental niche modeling of widespread shrub Rhododendron simsii in China reveals multiple glacial refugia during the last glacial maximum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong LI; Hai-Fei YAN; Xue-Jun GE

    2012-01-01

    The phylogeography of common and widespread species can help us to understand the history of local flora and vegetation.Here,we study the semi-evergreen shrub Rhododendron simsii Planch.,which is found in most areas of current evergreen broad leaved forest in China.Two noncoding chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) regions(rpl20-rps12 and trnL-F) and three amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) primer sets (E-AAC/M-CTA,E-AGC/M-CTA and E-AGG/M-CAT) were used to examine the phylogeographic pattern in relation to past (last glacial maximum) and present distributions based on ecological niche modeling.The cpDNA data revealed four phylogeographic groups (East,South,West,and North groups) corresponding to geographic regions.Molecular dating suggests that lineage diversification within species likely occurred during the mid-to-late Pleistocene.In contrast,the four main cpDNA phylogeographic groups were not supported by the AFLP dataset.The highest likelihood of the AFLP data was obtained when samples were clustered into three groups (K =3).However,these groupings did not correspond to separate geographic regions supported by cpDNA data.Both mismatch distribution analysis and environmental niche modeling (ENM) indicated that multiple glacial refugia were maintained across the range of Rhododendron simsii during the last glacial maximum,contrary to the previous hypothesis that subtropical broad leaved evergreen forests were forced to retreat southward as far as 25°N.The discordance between the patterns revealed by cpDNA and AFLP data indicate that localized postglacial range expansions may facilitate extensive gene flow between the major glacial refugia.

  4. Effect of different fertilization on the growth and nutrition of azalea (Rhododendron L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenia Michałojć

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A study on azalea (Rhododendron L., 'Kilian' and 'Persil', was conducted in 2009–2010. Plants were grown in pots in the open air, in a peat substrate with a pH of 4.8. The effect of the following fertilization methods was studied: I – traditional fertilization (single fertilizers were applied in 2 rates; II – a slow-release fertilizer (Hortiform pH; III – combined fertilization (¼ of the rate of nutrients was applied in the form of single fertilizers and ¾ in the form of Hortiform pH. The slow-release fertilizer Hortiform pH and combined fertilization were applied once in each study year when filling the pots with growing medium. Fertilizers were applied at the basic rate (D1 and at a twice higher rate (D2. In the first year of cultivation, the study showed no significant effect of fertilization method on shoot length in both azalea cultivars, whereas in the second year the longest shoots were found after application of the slow-release fertilizer Hortiform pH. In both years of the study, significantly longer shoots were found in the cultivar 'Persil' after application of the lower fertilizer rate (D1 than after application of the higher fertilizer rate (D2. On the other hand, the study showed that the fertilizer rate had no effect on shoot length in 'Kilian'. After application of the higher fertilizer rate, a higher content of nitrogen and potassium as well as a lower content of phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium were determined in the leaves of both cultivars. The study found the following percentages to be the optimal nutrient content in azalea leaves: 1.88 – 2.20% N; 1.0 – 1.7% K; and 0.60% – 1.20% Ca, while the phosphorus content of 0.09 – 0.25% and the magnesium content of 0.14 – 0.25% were shown to be the lower limit for optimal plant nutrition. After the end of the growing season, a low content of all nutrients in the medium was found in both study years, irrespective of the applied fertilizer rate and fertilization

  5. Hydroponic Screening for Iron Deficiency Tolerance in Evergreen Azaleas

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    Sonia DEMASI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Evergreen azaleas grow in acid soil and suffer from iron deficiency when cultivated in substrate with pH higher than 6.0. In order to select tolerant plants, 11 azalea genotypes were tested for 21 days in alkaline solution (pH 9, buffered with sodium hydrogen carbonate (1 g·l-1. Leaf damage, root length and mortality rate were recorded. While leaf damage and mortality rate allowed to discriminate genotypes, root development appeared not directly linked to iron deficiency tolerance. Rhododendron ‘Juko’, R. scabrum, R. macrosepalum ‘Hanaguruma’, R. x pulchrum ‘Oomurasaki’, and R. x pulchrum ‘Sen-e-oomurasaki’ resulted iron efficient genetic resources, useful for azalea cultivation and gardening in calcareous soils. On the contrary, R. obtusum ‘Kirin’, R. tosaense, R.x mucronatum ‘Fujimanyo’ and R. obtusum ‘Susogo-no-ito’ resulted iron deficiency sensitive genotypes. R. x mucronatum ‘Ryukyushibori’ and R. indicum ‘Kinsai’ showed intermediate responses.

  6. Fungi and fungi-like Oomycetes isolated from affected leaves of rhododendron

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    Maria Kowalik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to identify fungi and fungi-like Oomycetes occurring on affected leaves of rhododendron Rhododendron L. Mycological analyses were carried out on 200 leaves collected from green areas of Kraków from May till September 2005. Isolated fungi-like Oomycetes belonged to 67 taxa. The most frequently found fungi included: Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Coelophoma empetri, Nigrospora sphaerica, Pestalotia sydowiana, Phialophora cyclaminis, Phomopsis archeri, Septoria azalea and Sordaria fimicola. Among fungi-like organisms Phytophthora cinnamomi and P. citricola were isolated.

  7. Tropism in azalea and lily flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, M.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Nakamura, T.; Yamashita, M.

    Flowers have coevolved with pollinator animals. Some flowers have the up-down directional features in their form and orientation, which results the higher success of pollination under the influence of gravity. Azalea, Rhododendron pulchrum, flower responds against gravity, and orients the specific petal at its top. This petal with honey mark guides pollinator animals to nectary of the flower. Pistil and stamen bend upward by sensing gravity, and increase probability of their contact with pollinator. There was large sediment amyloplast found in sectioned tissue of style. In addition to this action of gravity, phototropic response was also observed at lesser degree, while the gravitational cue was removed by the 3D-clinorotation of the plant. In contrast to azalea, pistil of lily flower senses light in order to determine the direction of bending. Lily, Lilium cv. 'Casablanca', tepals open horizontally or slightly inclined downward. After its anthesis, pistil and stamen start to bend upward by light. Gravity induced no tropic response at all, evidenced by the experiment conducted under dark. Sediment amyloplast was not found in lily style. Phototropic response of pistil and stamen in lily was activated by blue light even at lower energy density. On the other hand, red light was not effective to induce the tropic response even with substantial energy density. This action spectrum of light agreed with those for the phototropism shown in coleoptile of monocotyledonous plants. Because the tropism of style was not hindered at removal of stigma, reception site for incident light is neither restricted to stigma nor its close vicinity, but distributes through style. The process of lily pistil elongation was analyzed in details to identify the site of its initiation and propagation of bending movement through the anthesis period. Elongation started at basal part of pistil and propagated towards its top after opening of perianth. Steep bending occurred at the basal zone of

  8. Ecology and Control of Rhododendron (Rhododendron ponticum L.) in Turkish Eastern Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) Forests

    OpenAIRE

    ESEN, DERYA

    2000-01-01

    Purple-flowered rhododendron (Rhododendron ponticum L.) and yellow-flowered rhododendron (R. flavum Don.) are two dominant shrub species of the eastern beech (Fagus orientalis L.) understories in the eastern and western Black Sea Region (BSR), respectively. These invasive woody species significantly reduce beech growth and can preclude tree regeneration. The ecological consequence is an aging beech overstory with little or no regeneration to replace the mature trees. Great rhododendron (R. ...

  9. Diversity of fungi colonizing and damaging leaves of pontic azalea Azalea pontica

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    Maria Kowalik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed at verifi cation of fungi species colonizing phyllosphere of pontic azalea Azalea pontica L. and at comparison of the fungi species composition: – in the natural stand in the Kołacznia nature reserve, – in arboretum collections at Bolestraszyce and Rogów. 600 fragments of healthy, infected and fallen leaves of pontic azalea were collected for mycological analyses. The species forming the largest number of colonies identified from the healthy leaves were: A. alternata, Ph. cyclaminis, E. nigrum, Ph. medicaginis and B. cinerea, from infected leaves: A. alternata, E. nigrum, Ph. cyclaminis, S. fi micola, T. viride and A. phaeospermum, whereas: E. nigrum, A. alternata, S. fi micola, Ph. cyclaminis and B. cinerea were isolated from the fallen leaves, which indicates that a majority of fungi persistently colonize the leaves during vegetation period and damage them, which leads to defoliation. Colonization of pontic azalea phyllosphere in arboreta by more numerous fungi colonies and species than under conditions of natural sites evidences their increased pressure in the arboreta environment.

  10. Aplicação de extratos brutos de flores de quaresmeira e azaléia e da casca de feijão preto em volumetria ácido-base. Um experimento para cursos de análise quantitativa Application of crude extracts of Tibouchina granulosa and Rhododendron sinsii flowers and Phasealus vulgares grains skin in acid - base titration. A quantitative laboratory experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márlon Herbert Flora Barbosa Soares

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Crude extract of Tibouchina granulosa, Rhododendron simsii and Phaseolus vulgaris L. were prepared and used as alternative indicators in quantitative analysis teaching in standardization of NaOH solutions and in the determination of acetic acid contents in vinegar. Effect of using such natural extracts as indicators was very attractive to the students and the quantitative results were compared with conventional indicators with good agreement. Concepts of data statistics can successfully be discussed using the interest revived by the use of natural indicators.

  11. Ploidy analysis of azalea flower colour sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schepper, S; De Loose, M; Van Bockstaele, E; Debergh, P

    2001-01-01

    Flower colour variegation is not only a phenomenon of importance to horticulture, the phenotype involved is also often used as a scientific model system for the study of complex gene regulation processes. In the course of such studies on azalea, we observed a correlation between flower colour patterns, flower morphology and somatic polyploidy. Using high-resolution flow cytometry of nuclear DNA, the ploidy level was determined in flowers of different azalea sport families. Sports exhibiting variegated flowers with broad (> 7mm), differently coloured, petal edges (picotee type) proved to be tetraploid in the petal edge while diploid in the rest of the flower tissue. Neither flower colour pattern nor ploidy differences are chimeral in origin, but seem to be correlated with the topographic location of the cells within the flower tissue, i.e. the margin of the petals. The possible role of gene dosage effects and cell size involved in the remarkable correlation between somatic polyploidy, (flavonoid) gene expression and the flower morphology is discussed. PMID:15954634

  12. 不同pH值对杜鹃插条成活的影响%Effects of different pH on growth of Rhododendron simsii cutting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明银; 张媚; 陈娟

    2010-01-01

    以西鹃和毛鹃为材料,使用珍珠岩配格里克营养液和复合营养土为培养基质,5个介于4.0~6.0 间不同pH值梯度处理,5周后统计插条成活数、新生根数、新生芽数、新生叶数.研究结果显示,当pH值为5.0时,西鹃和毛鹃插条的成活、发芽、发叶、发根等指标显著优于其他几种处理;当pH值大于5.0时,随着pH值的增高插条成活率降低;而pH值小于5.0时,随着pH值的降低插条成活率降低.效果排序为:pH值5.0>pH值5.5>pH值4.5>pH值6.0>pH值4.0.在相同条件下,西鹃适应性好于毛鹃,复合营养土优于珍珠岩配格里克营养液.

  13. Azalea's Worst Nightmare: The Strawberry Rootworm, Paria fargariae Wilcox

    Science.gov (United States)

    The strawberry rootworm (SRW), Paria fargariae Wilcox, is an emergent pest of azaleas in commercial production nurseries in the southeastern US. Larvae feed on roots but do minimal damage. Adults feed at night and make small holes in the foliage. Severe damage has been reported in many nurseries, es...

  14. Chemical and Hot Water Treatments to Eliminate Rhizoctonia From Azalea Stem Cuttings: Failures and Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azalea web blight is an annual problem on some evergreen azalea cultivars grown in containerized nursery production in the southern and eastern United States. The binucleate Rhizoctonia species, which cause the disease, are spread on new shoot growth harvested for propagation. Rhizoctonia can be eli...

  15. Allelopathic activity of saponins exctracted from Rhododendron luteum Sweet

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    Iryna M. Yezhel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Article deals with allelopathic activity of saponins exctracted from Rhododendron luteumSweet leaves. Investigations show nonlinear correlation between saponins concetration and growth of the roots of test-cultures.

  16. Allelopathic activity of saponins exctracted from Rhododendron luteum Sweet

    OpenAIRE

    Iryna M. Yezhel

    2013-01-01

    Article deals with allelopathic activity of saponins exctracted from Rhododendron luteumSweet leaves. Investigations show nonlinear correlation between saponins concetration and growth of the roots of test-cultures.

  17. The genus Rhododendron L. in Indochina and Siam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleumer, H.

    1958-01-01

    In the course of my recent revision of the genus Rhododendron in Malaysia it has become evident, that the subsect. Irrorata, regarded as purely South Eastern Asiatic up to now, is also represented in the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra, whilst the subsect. Euvireya, outside of its large Malaysian area,

  18. Chemical and hot water treatments to control Rhizoctonia AG P infesting stem cuttings of azalea

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the southern and eastern U.S., azalea 'Gumpo' stems cut during the spring for propagation may be infested with Rhizoctonia spp. Multiple methods were evaluated for the purpose of eliminating Rhizoctonia spp. from stem cuttings to prevent spread into the propagation house. Stems were inoculated w...

  19. Dynamics of DNA methylation and Histone H4 acetylation during floral bud differentiation in azalea

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    Valledor Luis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to control the timing of flowering is a key strategy for planning production in ornamental species such as azalea, however it requires a thorough understanding of floral transition. Floral transition is achieved through a complex genetic network and regulated by multiple environmental and endogenous cues. Dynamic changes between chromatin states facilitating or inhibiting DNA transcription regulate the expression of floral induction pathways in response to environmental and developmental signals. DNA methylation and histone modifications are involved in controlling the functional state of chromatin and gene expression. Results The results of this work indicate that epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone H4 acetylation have opposite and particular dynamics during the transition from vegetative to reproductive development in the apical shoots of azalea. Global levels of DNA methylation and histone H4 acetylation as well as immunodetection of 5-mdC and acetylated H4, in addition to a morphological study have permitted the delimitation of four basic phases in the development of the azalea bud and allowed the identification of a stage of epigenetic reprogramming which showed a sharp decrease of whole DNA methylation similar to that is defined in other developmental processes in plants and in mammals. Conclusion The epigenetic control and reorganization of chromatin seem to be decisive for coordinating floral development in azalea. DNA methylation and H4 deacetylation act simultaneously and co-ordinately, restructuring the chromatin and regulating the gene expression during soot apical meristem development and floral differentiation.

  20. The New Real: Iggy Azalea and the Reality Performance

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    Tara Morrissey

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Questions of realness, authenticity, and legitimacy, are deeply invested in a politics of identity that polices the purity of its central categories. The creative potential of performative modes such as rap performance and reality television is thus complicated by expectations of authenticity that are frequently embroiled in broader projects of identity delineation and regulation. This paper considers correlations between hip hop culture’s ethos of realness and authenticity, and the ‘real’ as manifested in the cultural phenomenon of reality television, for the ways in which they are bound by but also strive to reconfigure the limits of realness. With particular attention to the work and self-styling of Australian female rapper Iggy Azalea, I emphasise the tension between performance and authenticity, and point to the ostensibly disparate subcultural forms of hip hop and reality television as distinctly engaged in the renegotiation of this tension. I invoke the critical imperatives of whiteness theory to critique the normative channels of realness that remain at the forefront of hip hop’s self-conceptualisation and general promotion, in particular the role of gender and race in the construction of hip hop authenticity. I then examine reality television and its relationship with shame and intimacy as crucial to understanding its devalued status in studies of television and popular culture more broadly. Ultimately, I propose the explorations of ‘real’ in these works as indicative of a contemporary shift in the evaluation and justification of authenticity that points to a revised appreciation of the power of performativity.

  1. Analysis of Flavonoid Aglycons in Rhododendron of Sichuan Liangshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hongxia; DING Mingyu; WU Zhuping

    2001-01-01

    An aqueous solution of the extracts from Rhododendron leaves from Sichuan Liangshan was extracted with solvents of increasing polarity,petroleum ether,ethyl ether,ethyl acetate and butanol.The main flavonoid aglycons extracted into the ethyl ether phase are the subject of this study.The flavonoid aglycons-mycetin,quercetin,kaempferol and farrerol,were separated and identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC),high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometer/mass spectrometer (LC/MS/MS).A simple and rapid HPLC method was developed for quantitative determination of quercetin and kaempferol in Rhododendron leaves,ethanol extracts and Jinjuan oral liquid drug (Liquor Jinjuan).The analysis of quercetin is useful for quality control of medicinal materials and Liquor Jinjuan products.

  2. Rhododendron javanicum (Blume Benn. AND Rhododendron sessilifolium J.J. Sm. GERMINATION AND SEEDLINGS DEVELOPMENT ON DIFFERENT GROWING MEDIA AND FERTILIZERS APPLICATION

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    Wiguna Rahman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Growing medium is one of the most important factor for ex situ conservation of Rhododendron. Study on different growing media available locally were conducted for germinating and developing the seedlings of Rhododendron javanicum and R. sessilifolium. Tree fern roots medium was suitable for germination and developing Rhododendron javanicum and R. sessilifolium seedlings. Growing medium for bigger seedlings using "Cibodas compost" was better than "Cibodas compost and rice husk" for the development of Rhododendron seedlings. Fertilizer application did not showed significant effect on R. sessilifolium seedlings. However, low concentration of fertilizer was recommended rather than high concentration of fertilizer. Some fertilizers at different applications were tested on the development of R. sessilifolium seedlings.

  3. Assessment of trace element levels in Rhododendron honeys of Black Sea Region, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhododendron and multi-flower honeys obtained from Black Sea Region of Turkey (12 Rhododendron and 8 multi-flower honeys) were studied to determine the presence of the 14 trace elements such as Cu, Cd, Pb, Co, Cr, Ni, Al, Se, Zn, Mn, Fe, K, Ca and Mg. Trace element determination was performed by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after microwave digestion. The results revealed that Rhododendron honeys exhibited higher concentrations of Cu, Co, Cr, Ni, Se, Zn, Ca and Mg but lower concentrations of Al, Mn, Fe and K than in the multi-flower honeys. Trace element levels in analyzed honey samples were generally lower than literature values

  4. Enraizamento de estacas de azaléia tratadas com concentrações de ANA em diferentes substratos Rooting of azalea cuttings treats with NAA concentrations and differents substrates

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    Munir Mauad

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available De acordo com a necessidade de aumentar a produção de mudas de azaléia por meio da propagação vegetativa, em menor intervalo de tempo, foi proposto estudar os efeitos de diferentes substratos e concentrações de ANA (ácido naftalenoacético. O experimento foi conduzido em esquema fatorial 3X4 com três substratos (areia grossa lavada, casca de arroz carbonizada e húmus e quatro concentrações de ANA na forma de pó (0; 2,5; 5,0 e 7,5%. Utilizaram-se estacas de 100 mm de comprimento retiradas da porção apical do ramo, sem gema apical e com corte em bisel na parte superior, deixando um par de folhas cortadas ao meio. Essas foram colocadas para enraizar em bandejas de isopor de 128 células, por um período de 90 dias, nas quais avaliaram-se: comprimento, superficie, volume e diâmetro radicular e a porcentagem de estacas enraizadas, sobreviventes, mortas e número de brotos. Pode-se concluir que a maior porcentagem de enraizamento foi obtida no substrato de casca de arroz carbonizada e com ANA na concentração de 5%.In agreement with to enhancement scion production ofRhododendron x simsii Planch trough the vegetative propagation in shorter time, it was intended to study the effects of different substrates and NAA concentration. The experiment was in factorial design 3x4 with three substrates (sand, hush rice and humus and four NAA concentrations in the powder form (0; 2.5; 5.0 and 7.5%. The cuttings used had 100 mm length without apical meristem with two leaves cut in half. Those were put to rooting in trays of 128 cells, for 90 days in which were evaluated: length, surface, volume and root diameter and percentage of rooted, surviving and dead cuttings and number the buds. It can be conclued that the greatest of rooting was obtained in the substrates hush rice and the 5% of NAA.

  5. Variation in Rhododendron arboreum Sm. complex (Ericaceae): insights from exomorphology, leaf anatomy and pollen morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Subhasis Panda; Indranil Kirtania

    2016-01-01

    Rhododendron arboreum Sm., placed under the genus Rhododendron L. in the family Ericaceae Juss. consists of c. 1000 species, of these c. 102 species occur in India. R. arboreum Sm. is restricted to a few South Eastern Asian countries. In India, the species is distributed in the Himalayas, North Eastern India and hill tops of South Western Ghats. Detailed investigations of the genus were studied by several workers but nobody studied variation in R. arboreum complex. A few workers described pol...

  6. The Inhibitory Effect of Rhododendron maximum L. (Ericaceae) Thickets on Mycorrhizal Colonization of Canopy Tree Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, John F.

    1998-01-01

    THE INHIBITORY EFFECT OF RHODODENDRON MAXIMUM L. (ERICACEAE) THICKETS ON MYCORRHIZAL COLONIZATION OF CANOPY TREE SEEDLINGS John F. Walker (ABSTRACT) Thickets of Rhododendron maximum (Rm) in the southern Appalachians impose severe limitations on the regeneration of hardwood and coniferous seedlings. Interactions between Rm thickets and ectomycorrhizal colonization were examined to explain seedling inhibition. Experimental blocks were established in and out of Rm thickets in a mature,...

  7. Separation of the bioclimatic spaces of Himalayan tree rhododendron species predicted by ensemble suitability models

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    Sailesh Ranjitkar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The tree rhododendrons include the most widely distributed Himalayan Rhododendron species belonging to the subsection Arborea. Distributions of two members of this sub-species were modelled using bioclimatic data for current conditions (1950–2000. A subset of the least correlated bioclimatic variables was used for ecological niche modelling (ENM. We used an ENM ensemble method in the BiodiversityR R-package to map the suitable climatic space for tree rhododendrons based on 217 point location records. Ensemble bioclimatic models for tree rhododendrons had high predictive power with bioclimatic variables, which also separated the climatic spaces for the two species. Tree rhododendrons were found occurring in a wide range of climate and the distributional limits were associated with isothermality, temperature ranges, temperature of the wettest quarter, and precipitation of the warmest quarter of the year. The most suitable climatic space for tree rhododendrons was predicted to be in western Yunnan, China, with suitability declining towards the west and east. Its occurrence in a wide range of climatic settings with highly dissected habitats speaks to the adaptive capacity of the species, which might open up future options for their conservation planning in regions where they are listed as threatened.

  8. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of Rhododendron arboreum bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Muhammad; Ali, Sajid; Muhammad, Naveed; Gillani, Syed N; Shah, Muhmmad R; Khan, Haroon; Maione, Francesco

    2016-07-01

    Rhododendron arboreum Smith. (Ericaceae), an evergreen small tree, is one of the 1000 species that belongs to genus Rhododendron distributed worldwide. In folk medicine, as various parts of this plant exhibit medicinal properties, it is used in the treatment of different ailments.The present study was designed to evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of methanolic extract of R. arboreum bark, followed by activity-guided fractionation of n-hexane, n-butanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions.The ethyl acetate fraction (200 mg/kg i.p.) showed the maximum analgesic effect (82%) in acetic acid-induced writhing, followed, to a less extent, by crude extract and chloroform fraction both at a dose of 200 mg/kg i.p. (65.09% and 67.89%, respectively). In carrageenan-induced mouse paw oedema, the crude extract and its related fractions displayed in a dose-dependent manner (50-200 mg/kg i.p.) an anti-inflammatory activity for all time-courses (1-5 hrs). For the active extract/fractions (200 mg/kg i.p.), the maximum effect was observed 5 h after carrageenan injection. These evidences were also supported by in vitro lipoxygenase inhibitory properties. In conclusion, R. arboreum crude methanolic extract and its fractions exhibited anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects. For these reasons, this plant could be a promising source of new compounds for the management of pain and inflammatory diseases. PMID:25501256

  9. Analysis of anthocyanins and flavonols in petals of 10 Rhododendron species from the Sygera Mountains in Southeast Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Zhang, Liang-Ying; Wang, Shu-Li; Niu, Xin-Yu

    2016-07-01

    Flower color is one of the major ornamental characteristics of the genus Rhododendron, but few studies on flower color in alpine Rhododendron have been reported. In our study, the flower colors and the pigment constituents of petals from 10 Rhododendron species sampled in the Sygera Mountains of Southeast Tibet were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(2)). The color analysis showed that the 10 Rhododendron species could be divided into five color groupings: yellow, red, red-purple, purple-violet, and purple. A total of 5 anthocyanin compounds and 23 flavonol compounds were tentatively identified and quantified. There were obvious differences in the composition of anthocyanin and flavonol among the petals of the 10 Rhododendron species. The color parameter L* decreased as the TA (total anthocyanin) content increased in the red-purple group. However, there was no obvious correlation between the L* value and the TA content in the other sampled Rhododendron species. In this study, the TA values of most of the Rhododendron species were quite low, but the TF (total flavonol) content was high. These results indicate the existence of copigmentation effects in these 10 Rhododendron species. PMID:27058775

  10. Antioxidant Activities and Phytochemicals of Leaf Extracts from 10 Native Rhododendron Species in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yang Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhododendron, one of the most famous ornamental plants in the world, is traditionally a medicinal plant. However, the potential bioactivities of native Rhododendron in Taiwan have not been completely studied. In this study, the results revealed that Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum exhibited the best antioxidant activities among 10 native Rhododendron species in Taiwan. Furthermore, based on a bioactivity-guided isolation principle, nine specific phytochemicals were isolated and identified as (2R,3S-catechin (1, (2R,3R-epicatechin (1′, (2R,3R-dihydromyricetin 3-O-β-l-arabinopyranoside (2, (2S,3S-taxifolin 3-O-β-l-arabinopyranoside (2′, (2R,3R-taxifolin 3-O-β-l-arabinopyranoside (3, myricetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3′, rutin (4, hyperoside (5, and quercitrin (6. Of these compounds, 2 and 3 were found to be major bioactive compounds, and their concentrations in the n-butanol (BuOH fraction were determined to be 52.0 and 67.3 mg per gram, respectively. These results demonstrated that methanolic extracts of Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum leaves have excellent antioxidant activities and great potential as a source for natural health products.

  11. Variation in Rhododendron arboreum Sm. complex (Ericaceae: insights from exomorphology, leaf anatomy and pollen morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhasis Panda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhododendron arboreum Sm., placed under the genus Rhododendron L. in the family Ericaceae Juss. consists of c. 1000 species, of these c. 102 species occur in India. R. arboreum Sm. is restricted to a few South Eastern Asian countries. In India, the species is distributed in the Himalayas, North Eastern India and hill tops of South Western Ghats. Detailed investigations of the genus were studied by several workers but nobody studied variation in R. arboreum complex. A few workers described pollen morphology of Ericaceae including Rhododendron, but they did not study different subspecies of R. arboreum. No detailed investigation on leaf anatomy was also reported. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the contribution of leaf anatomy and pollen morphology along with herbarium and field based exomorphological data to delimit infraspecific variations in R. arboreum complex.

  12. Exposure to ultraviolet-B radiation increases cold hardiness in Rhododendron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The change in the cold hardiness of Rhododendron (cv. English Roseum) following chronic exposure to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (280–320 nm) was studied. Leaf disks removed from UV-B-exposed plants exhibited a greater tolerance to freezing temperatures than plants that received no UV-B exposure. Visual browning and percent phenolic leakage indicated that UV-B-exposed leaf disks were killed al -11°C. while control disks were killed at -8°C. Ultraviolet-induced production of phenolic compounds may be involved in increasing cold hardiness of Rhododendron leaf tissues

  13. Temperature effects on the onset of sporulation by Phytophthora ramorum on rhododendron Cunningham’s White

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of temperature and moist period on the onset of sporangia production by Phytophthora ramorum on Rhododendron ‘Cunningham’s White’ was examined with misted detached leaves held in humid chambers. Following wound-inoculation with sporangia, leaves were preincubated at 20°C for either 24 or...

  14. The influence of thidiazuron on shoot regeneration from leaf explants of fifteen cultivars of Rhododendron

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavingerová, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2009), s. 797-799. ISSN 0006-3134 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : plant growth regulators * tissue culture * Rhododendron Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.656, year: 2009

  15. Assessing atmospheric concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by evergreen Rhododendron maximum next to a contaminated stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Viet D.; Walters, David; Lee, Cindy M.

    2016-01-01

    Conifers are often used as an “air passive sampler”, but few studies have focused on the implication of broadleaf evergreens to monitor atmospheric semivolatile organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, we used Rhododendron maximum (rhododendron) growing next to a contaminated stream to assess atmospheric PCB concentrations. The study area was located in a rural setting and approximately 2 km downstream of a former Sangamo-Weston (S-W) plant. Leaves from the same mature shrubs were collected in late fall 2010, and winter and spring 2011. PCBs were detected in the collected leaves suggesting that rhododendron can be used as air passive samplers in rural areas where active sampling is impractical. Estimated ΣPCB (47 congeners) concentrations in the atmosphere decreased from fall 2010 to spring 2011 with concentration means at 3990, 2850, and 931 pg m-3 in fall 2010, winter 2011, and spring 2011, respectively. These results indicate that the atmospheric concentrations at this location continue to be high despite termination of active discharge from the former S-W plant. Leaves had a consistent pattern of high concentrations of tetra- and penta-CBs similar to the congener distribution in polyethylene (PE) passive samplers deployed in the water column suggesting that volatilized PCBs from the stream were the primary source of contaminants in rhododendron leaves.

  16. Assessing atmospheric concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls by evergreen Rhododendron maximum next to a contaminated stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Viet D; Walters, David M; Lee, Cindy M

    2016-09-01

    Conifers are often used as an air passive sampler, but few studies have focused on the implication of broadleaf evergreens to monitor atmospheric semivolatile organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In the present study, the authors used Rhododendron maximum (rhododendron) growing next to a contaminated stream to assess atmospheric PCB concentrations. The present study area was located in a rural setting and approximately 2 km downstream of a former capacitor plant. Leaves from the same mature shrubs were collected in late fall 2010 and winter and spring 2011. Polychlorinated biphenyls were detected in the collected leaves, suggesting that rhododendron can be used as air passive samplers in rural areas where active sampling is impractical. Estimated ΣPCB (47 congeners) concentrations in the atmosphere decreased from fall 2010 to spring 2011 with concentration means at 3990 pg m(-3) , 2850 pg m(-3) , and 931 pg m(-3) in fall 2010, winter 2011, and spring 2011, respectively. These results indicate that the atmospheric concentrations at this location continue to be high despite termination of active discharge from the former industrial source. Leaves had a consistent pattern of high concentrations of tetra-CBs and penta-CBs similar to the congener distribution in polyethylene passive samplers deployed in the water column, suggesting that volatilized PCBs from the stream were the primary source of contaminants in rhododendron leaves. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2192-2198. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:26889751

  17. Rhododendron tomentosum (Ledum palustre). A review of traditional use based on current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dampc, Anna; Luczkiewicz, Maria

    2013-03-01

    Rhododendron tomentosum Harmaja (previously: Ledum palustre) is a fragrant evergreen shrub found in peaty soils in northern Europe, Asia and North America, commonly referred to as wild rosemary, marsh tea, marsh rosemary or northern Labrador tea. At least since the eighteenth century it has been used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of various ailments, such as rheumatism, cough, cold and insect bites, as well as a repellent. The essential oil of wild rosemary with the rich polyphenolic fraction possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal and insecticidal potential, demonstrated by in vivo and in vitro studies. In addition, recent scientific research reported the promising antidiabetic, antioxidant and anticancer properties. This review summarizes the information concerning taxonomy, botany, ecology, chemical composition, biological activities, toxicology and traditional and contemporary application of Rhododendron tomentosum plants. PMID:23352748

  18. Influence of tree water potential in inducing flowering in Rhododendron arboreum in the central Himalayan region

    OpenAIRE

    Tewari A; Bhatt J; Mittal A

    2016-01-01

    Rise in temperature has been reported as the principal cause of variation in flowering phenology in several tree species around the globe. In this study, we hypothesized that not only temperature but also rainfall periodicity, soil moisture and the related changes of twig water potential (ψ) in winter and early spring are important drivers of bud expansion and flowering in Rhododendron arboreum in central Himalayas. To this purpose, phenological and physiological variables (flowering time, fl...

  19. Diversity of fungi associated with Rhododendron argyrophyllum and R. floribundum hair roots in Sichuan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Zheng; Bo Gao; Lifu Sun; Yanhong Bing; Kequan Pei

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the fungal associates of Rhododendron argyrophyllum and R. floribundum in Sichuan Province. A total of 41 fungal taxa were identified from hair roots based on ITS sequence analyses belonging to the following orders: Helotiales, Eurotiales, Pezizales, and Pleosporales in Ascomycetes, Sebacinales and Agaricales, Erythrobasidiales, and Filobasidiales in Basidiomycetes. Fungal diversity was rich, including ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM), ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and other root-associated ...

  20. Antidiarrheal potential of standardized extract of Rhododendron arboreum Smith flowers in experimental animals

    OpenAIRE

    Neeraj Verma; Singh, Anil P.; Amresh Gupta; Sahu, P. K.; Rao, Ch V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To investigate standardized ethyl acetate fraction of Rhododendron arboreum (EFRA) flowers for antidiarrheal activity in experimental animals. Materials and Methods : A simple sensitive high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was used for the determination of hyperin in EFRA. The standardized fraction was investigated for castor oil, magnesium sulfate-induced diarrhea, measurement of gastrointestinal transit using charcoal and castor oil-induced enteropooling...

  1. The Impact of Microbial Biotransformation of Catechin in Enhancing the Allelopathic Effects of Rhododendron formosanum

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chao-Min; Li, Tsai-Chi; Jhan, Yun-Lian; Weng, Jen-Hsien; Chou, Chang-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Rhododendron formosanum is distributed widely in the central mountains in Taiwan and the major allelopathic compound in the leaves has been identified as (-)-catechin, which is also a major allelochemical of an invasive spotted knapweed in North America. Soil microorganisms play key roles in ecosystems and influence various important processes, including allelopathy. However, no microorganism has been identified as an allelochemical mediator. This study focused on the role of microorganisms i...

  2. Suboptimal Light Conditions Influence Source-Sink Metabolism during Flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaens, Annelies; De Keyser, Ellen; Pauwels, Els; De Riek, Jan; Gobin, Bruno; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine

    2016-01-01

    Reliance on carbohydrates during flower forcing was investigated in one early and one late flowering cultivar of azalea (Rhododendron simsii hybrids). Carbohydrate accumulation, invertase activity, and expression of a purported sucrose synthase gene (RsSUS) was monitored during flower forcing under suboptimal (natural) and optimal (supplemental light) light conditions, after a cold treatment (7°C + dark) to break flower bud dormancy. Post-production sucrose metabolism and flowering quality was also assessed. Glucose and fructose concentrations and invertase activity increased in petals during flowering, while sucrose decreased. In suboptimal light conditions RsSUS expression in leaves increased as compared to optimal light conditions, indicating that plants in suboptimal light conditions have a strong demand for carbohydrates. However, carbohydrates in leaves were markedly lower in suboptimal light conditions compared to optimal light conditions. This resulted in poor flowering of plants in suboptimal light conditions. Post-production flowering relied on the stored leaf carbon, which could be accumulated under optimal light conditions in the greenhouse. These results show that flower opening in azalea relies on carbohydrates imported from leaves and is source-limiting under suboptimal light conditions. PMID:26973689

  3. Sanitation Can Be A Foundation Disease Management Tool: Potential Of Spreading Binucleate Rhizoctonia from Nursery Propagation Floors To Trays Containing Azalea Stem Cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binucelate Rhizoctonia spp. (BNR), the cause of web blight, are present all year on container-grown azaleas in the southern U.S. BNR can be eliminated during vegetative propagation by submerging stem cuttings in 50°C water for 21 minutes. The objective was to evaluate risk of rooting trays being con...

  4. Preliminary phytochemical studies of the leaf extracts of Rhododendron arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Solomon Kiruba; Mony Mahesh; Zachariah Miller Paul; Solomon Jeeva

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the secondary metabolites present in the leaf extracts of Rhododendron arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg. Methods: Phytochemical screening of the leaf extract was done to determine the phytochemical constituents in the various solvents studied.Results:nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg. confirm the existence of secondary metabolites such as phenols, saponins and tannins. Conclusions: The study suggests that the leaf extracts of R. arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg. can be best utilized in developing bioactive compounds against pathogenic infection. The phytochemical study carried out on the leaf extracts of R. arboreum Sm. ssp.

  5. Phytochemical analysis of the flower extracts of Rhododendron arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kiruba S; Mahesh M; Nisha SR; Miller Paul Z; Jeeva S

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the preliminary phytochemical screening of the flower extracts of Rhododendron arboreum (R. arboreum) Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg. Methods: The preliminary phytochemical screening was performed by the standard methods as described by Harborne. Results: The phytochemical analysis carried out on the flowers of R. arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg showed the presence of phenols, saponins, steroids, tannin, xanthoprotein and coumarin. Conclusions:The present study suggested that the flower extracts of R. arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg possess significant phytochemical constituents and it can be used as antimicrobial agents against clinically isolated pathogens.

  6. Determination of active ingredients of Rhododendron dauricum L. by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuhua; Lou, Changgang; Fang, Yuzhi; Ye, Jiannong

    2002-01-11

    High-performance capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection was employed to analyse active ingredients of Rhododendron dauricum L., an important crude herb frequently used in Chinese medicines. Farrerol, quercetin, syringic acid, vanillic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid are major important active ingredients. Operated in a wall-jet configuration, a 300-microm diameter carbon-disk electrode was used as the working electrode, which exhibits a good response at +950 mV (vs. saturated calomel electrodes) for six analytes. Under the optimum conditions, the analytes were baseline separated within 16 min in a borax buffer (pH 8.7). Notably, excellent linearity was obtained over two orders of magnitude with detection limits (S/N=3) ranged from 9 x 10(-7) to 3.0 x 10(-6) M for all analytes. This method was successfully used in the analysis of Rhododendron dauricum L. with relatively simple extraction procedures, and the assay results were satisfactory. PMID:11820277

  7. Effect of elevation and latitude on spring phenology of Rhododendron at Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, East Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailesh Ranjitkar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mountainous terrain in East corner of Nepal is good location for phenological studies. Spring phenology in Rhododendron arboreum Sm. was monitored around Ghunsa river valley in Kanchenjunga Conservation Area of Nepal. Observations were carried our following the crown density method; flowering events of the selected species were recorded in 15-days interval. Flowering activity including duration of flowering and synchrony were determined. In addition, expected difference in flower onset time in two consecutive monitoring plots was determined. Elevation, latitude and longitude were regressed against flower onset to determine effect of each variable on flower onset. Delay in flower onset with rise in elevation, North latitude and West longitude was found in the results of the regression. Full bloom phase was found highly synchronized throughout the elevation gradient with contraction of flowering duration. High synchrony also indicates that the reproductive timing might plastic enough to cope with short-term change in environment.

  8. Characterisation and fate of grayanatoxins in mad honey produced from Rhododendron ponticum nectar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtoglu, Arzum Bahar; Yavuz, Recep; Evrendilek, Gulsun Akdemir

    2014-10-15

    Mad honey from Rhododendron ponticum nectar is produced in a large quantity in the western Black Sea region of Turkey and causes poisoning due to consumption of grayanatoxins (GTX I and III). There are a few studies about characterisation of GTXs in mad honey produced from R.ponticum. This study quantified basic properties including concentrations of GTX I and GTX III in mad honey samples collected in three consecutive years. Although the chemical composition of mad honey varied annually depending on the production year, mean GTX I and GTX III contents were estimated at 20.4±1.69 and 8.20±1.93mg/kg, respectively. The concentrations of GTXs did not change significantly during storage of 6months. PMID:24837920

  9. Activity of Flavanones Isolated from Rhododendron hainanense against Plant Pathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Zhao, Jie; Gao, Kun

    2016-05-01

    In a search for naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds in medicinal plants and herbs, seven flavanones were isolated from the aerial parts of Rhododendron hainanense and were tested for their antimicrobial activities against six bacteria and six plant pathogenic fungi. Within the series of flavanones tested, farrerol (1) displayed moderate antibacterial activities against Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Erwinia carotovora, with MICs ranging from 15.6 to 125 μg/mL. Furthermore, farrerol (1) exhibited excellent inhibitory activities against six plant pathogenic fungi: Fusarium oxysporum f sp. niveum, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Penicillium italicum, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum f sp. cubenserace and Phytophthora melonis, with EC50 values of 9, 18, 35, 39, 46 and 66 μg/mL, respectively. This is the first report on farrerol with anti-plant pathogenic fungal activities. PMID:27319130

  10. Vegetative propagation by cuttings of azaléia tree (Rhododendron thomsonii HOOK. f.)/
    Propagação vegetativa de estaquia de azaléia arbórea (Rhododendron Thomsonii HOOK. f.)

    OpenAIRE

    Henrique Soares Koehler; Katia Christina Zuffellato-Ribas; Michele Fernanda Bortolini; Aurea Portes Ferriani

    2006-01-01

    Rhododendron thomsonii (Ericaceae) is a chinese ornamental hardwood species. The seeds are used just for hybrids production, therefore, vegetative propagation is an appropriate way for large scale plant production. The rooting potential was evaluated in cuttings collected in spring/2004 from stock plants localized in Curitiba, Paraná. The stem cuttings were produced with 12 cm long, right cut upper and bevel bellow, with two half leaves and treated with sodium hypochlorite for ten minutes and...

  11. Rododendro (Rhododendron L.) genties augalų mikobiotos tyrimai Vytauto Didžiojo universiteto Kauno botanikos sode

    OpenAIRE

    Snieškienė, Vilija

    2013-01-01

    2006–2012 m. buvo tiriami Vytauto Didžiojo universiteto Kauno botanikos sodo ekspozicijose ir kolekcijose auginami Rhododendron genties augalai, kurių antžeminė dalis pažeista. 2006–2010 m. iš Rhododendron brachicarpum ir R. maximum rizosferos buvo išskirta ir identifikuota 30 mikroskopinių grybų rūšių, priklausančių 13 genčių. Dažniausiai rizosferoje aptikta Penicillium, Aspergillus, Trichoderma genčių grybų. Tarp identifikuotų grybų buvo ir potencialūs augalų šaknų puvinių ir vytulių sukėlė...

  12. Photosynthetic response of an alpine plant, Rhododendron delavayi Franch, to water stress and recovery: the role of mesophyll conductance

    OpenAIRE

    Yanfei eCai; Jihua eWang; Shifeng eLi; Lu eZhang; Lvchun ePeng; Weijia eXie; Feihu eLiu

    2015-01-01

    Rhododendron delavayi Franch is an evergreen shrub or small tree with large scarlet flowers that makes it highly attractive as an ornamental species. The species is native to southwest China and southeast Asia, especially the Himalayan region, showing good adaptability and tolerance to drought. To understand the water stress coping mechanisms of R. delavayi, we analysed the plant’s photosynthetic performance during water stress and recovery. In particular, we looked at the regulation of stoma...

  13. The photoprotective role of thermonastic leaf movements in Rhododendron maximum: potential implications to early spring carbon gain

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Raymond Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    Rhododendron maximum L. is a dominant subcanopy species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. R. maximum undergo distinct thermonastic leaf movements (TLM). The purpose of these movements has not yet been determined. Previous studies have suggested TLM are a photoprotective mechanism for the dynamic light environment of the subcanopy in a deciduous forest during winter. The present study aimed to determine the effects of restricting TLM on photoinhibition, net photosynthesis, and other gas...

  14. Adipogenic Activity of Wild Populations of Rhododendron groenlandicum, a Medicinal Shrub from the James Bay Cree Traditional Pharmacopeia

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Rapinski; Lina Musallam; John Thor Arnason; Pierre Haddad; Alain Cuerrier

    2015-01-01

    The traditional medicinal plant, Labrador tea (Rhododendron groenlandicum (Oeder) Kron & Judd; Ericaceae), present in the pharmacopoeia of the Cree of Eeyou Istchee, has shown glitazone-like activity in the 3T3-L1 adipogenesis bioassay. This activity has been attributed to phenolic compounds, which have been shown to vary in this plant as a function of insolation parameters. The goal of this study was to determine if these changes in phenolic content were pharmacologically significant. Leaves...

  15. Toxicity of Rhododendron anthopogonoides Essential Oil and Its Constituent Compounds towards Sitophilus zeamais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhi Liu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The screening of several Chinese medicinal plants for insecticidal principles showed that essential oil of Rhododendron anthopogonoides flowering aerial parts possessed significant toxicity against maize weevils, Sitophilus zeamais. A total of 37 components were identified in the essential oil and the main constituents of the essential oil were 4-phenyl-2-butanone (27.22%, nerolidol (8.08%, 1,4-cineole (7.85%, caryophyllene (7.63% and γ-elemene (6.10%, followed by α-farnesene (4.40% and spathulenol (4.19%. Repeated bioactivity-directed chromatographic separation on silica gel columns led us to isolate three compounds, namely 4-phenyl-2-butanone, 1,4-cineole, and nerolidol. 4-Phenyl-2-butanone shows pronounced contact toxicity against S. zeamais (LD50 = 6.98 mg/adult and was more toxic than either 1,4-cineole or nerolidol (LD50 = 50.86 mg/adult and 29.30 mg/adult, respectively against the maize weevils, while the crude essential oil had a LD50 value of 11.67 mg/adult. 4-Phenyl-2-butanone and 1,4-cineole also possessed strong fumigant toxicity against the adults of S. zeamais (LC50 = 3.80 mg/L and 21.43 mg/L while the crude essential oil had a LC50 value of 9.66 mg/L.

  16. Influence of tree water potential in inducing flowering in Rhododendron arboreum in the central Himalayan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tewari A

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rise in temperature has been reported as the principal cause of variation in flowering phenology in several tree species around the globe. In this study, we hypothesized that not only temperature but also rainfall periodicity, soil moisture and the related changes of twig water potential (ψ in winter and early spring are important drivers of bud expansion and flowering in Rhododendron arboreum in central Himalayas. To this purpose, phenological and physiological variables (flowering time, flower bud size and twig water potential were monitored over two years in a wild population of R. arboreum (Uttarakhand, India and related with environmental variables (rainfall, soil moisture and temperature. Results showed that a rise in twig ψ to -0.7MPa, one week after moderate winter precipitation resulted in flower bud enlargement. In both years flowering was triggered after twig ψ reached the threshold of -0.5 Mpa, though the starting date differed between years. Floral bud size was correlated positively with twig ψ (r = 0.43, df =162, p < 0.001 and soil moisture (r = 0.61, df = 71, p < 0.001, while temperature did not influence flower bud size, soil moisture and twig ψ. Flower bud size increment was related with increase in twig ψ and soil moisture. Based on our results, we concluded that water availability plays an important role in inducing flowering in R. arboreum.

  17. Antidiarrheal potential of standardized extract of Rhododendron arboreum Smith flowers in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Verma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To investigate standardized ethyl acetate fraction of Rhododendron arboreum (EFRA flowers for antidiarrheal activity in experimental animals. Materials and Methods : A simple sensitive high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC method was used for the determination of hyperin in EFRA. The standardized fraction was investigated for castor oil, magnesium sulfate-induced diarrhea, measurement of gastrointestinal transit using charcoal and castor oil-induced enteropooling. Results : The concentration of hyperin in flowers of R. arboreum was found to be 0.148% by HPTLC. Oral administration of EFRA at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg exhibited dose-dependent and significant (P<0.05-0.001 antidiarrheal potential in castor oil and magnesium sulfate-induced diarrhea. EFRA at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg also produced significant (P<0.05-0.001 dose-dependent reduction in propulsive movement in castor oil-induced gastrointestinal transit using charcoal meal in rats. EFRA was found to possess an antienteropooling in castor oil-induced experimental animals by reducing both weight and volume of intestinal content significantly. Conclusion : These findings demonstrate that standardized ethyl acetate fraction of R. arboreum flowers has potent antidiarrheal activity thus justifying its traditional use in diarrhea and have great potential as a source for natural health products.

  18. In Vitro Propagation of R. maddeni Hook. F. an Endangered Rhododendron Species of Sikkim Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal Kumar SINGH

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A protocol is described for rapid and large scale propagation of an endangered, important Sikkim Himalayan rhododendron (R. maddeni Hook. f. by in vitro culture of cotyledonary nodes from 15 days old seedlings. Several cytokinin types were evaluated for their effect on shoot multiplication from cotyledonary nodes. Maximum numbers of shoot (12.00 �0.58 were observed on the AM containing 7 mg/l 2iP, 0.1 mg/l IAA after eight weeks of culture. Incorporation of 0.1 mg/l IAA in the medium during the first subculture after establishment and initiation of shoot buds significantly improved the shoot elongation. Regenerated shoots were separated and rooted on same strength AM medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/l of IBA alone for three weeks. Well-developed complete plantlets were transferred on to specially made plastic cup containing soilrite. The rooted plantlets were hardened and successfully established in greenhouse, the plants were transferred to field site at Pangthang arboretum of the Institute and the �Rare & Threatened Plant Conservation Park� of Zoological Park, Gangtok, Sikkim.

  19. Identification of Highly Potent and Selective α-Glucosidase Inhibitors with Antiglycation Potential, Isolated from Rhododendron arboreum

    OpenAIRE

    Rabia Raza; Zaitoon Ilyas; Sajid Ali; Muhammad Nisar; Muhammad Younas Khokhar; Jamshed Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    This study explored antidiabetic potential of eight known pure compounds, isolated from the bark of Rhododendron arboreum. Invitro studies of these compounds against α and β-glucosidases revealed them as very potent and selective inhibitors of α-glucosidase. Compound 7 (3-O-acetylursolic acid) was found to be the most potent inhibitor of α-glucosidase with 3.3±0.1µM IC 50 value which was many folds higher than standard inhibitor acarbose. Antiglycation studies of compounds showed that all com...

  20. The impact of microbial biotransformation of catechin in enhancing the allelopathic effects of Rhododendron formosanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Min; Li, Tsai-Chi; Jhan, Yun-Lian; Weng, Jen-Hsien; Chou, Chang-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Rhododendron formosanum is distributed widely in the central mountains in Taiwan and the major allelopathic compound in the leaves has been identified as (-)-catechin, which is also a major allelochemical of an invasive spotted knapweed in North America. Soil microorganisms play key roles in ecosystems and influence various important processes, including allelopathy. However, no microorganism has been identified as an allelochemical mediator. This study focused on the role of microorganisms in the allelopathic effects of R. formosanum. The microorganism population in the rhizosphere of R. formosanum was investigated and genetic analysis revealed that the predominant genera of microorganisms in the rhizosphere of R. formosanum were Pseudomonas, Herbaspirillum, and Burkholderia. The dominant genera Pseudomonas utilized (-)-catechin as the carbon source and catalyzed the conversion of (-)-catechin into protocatechuic acid in vitro. The concentrations of allelochemicals in the soil were quantified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry. The concentration of (-)-catechin in the soil increased significantly during the extreme rainfall in the summer season and suppressed total bacterial populations. Protocatechuic acid accumulation was observed while total bacterial populations increased abundantly in both laboratory and field studies. Allelopathic interactions were tested by evaluating the effects of different allelochemicals on the seed germination, radicle growth, and photosynthesis system II of lettuce. Protocatechuic acid exhibited higher phytotoxicity than (-)-catechin did and the effect of (-)-catechin on the inhibition of seed germination was enhanced by combining it with protocatechuic acid at a low concentration. This study revealed the significance of the allelopathic interactions between R. formosanum and microorganisms in the rhizosphere. These findings demonstrate that knowledge regarding the precise biotransformation

  1. Changes in UV-B radiation screening effectiveness with leaf age in Rhododendron maximum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined how ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B; 300 nm) screening effectiveness changes with leaf age in Rhododendron maximum growing in a shaded understory by measuring depth of penetration and epidermal transmittance with a fibre-optic microprobe. Depth of penetration (and epidermal transmittance) of UV-B decreased with leaf age in 1- to 4-year-old leaves, averaging 62 (32), 52 (22), 45 (16) and 48 μm (13%), respectively. Epidermal thickness increased with age in 1- to 4-year-old leaves due to a thickening of the cuticle from an average of 20 to 29μm. Ultraviolet-B-absorbing compound concentrations increased with age from 1–3 to 1–5 A300 cm−2 leaf area. Concentrations of UV-B-absorbing compounds (area basis) were a strong predictor of depth of penetration (r2 = 0.82) and epidermal transmittance (r2 = 0.95) of UV-B in mature (1–4 year-old) foliage. Chlorophyll concentrations (area basis) increased in leaves up to 3 years of age. Current-year leaves (30 d old) were exceptional in that while they were particularly effective at screening UV-B (depth of penetration and epidermal transmittance averaged 39μm and 5%, respectively) they had relatively low concentrations of UV-B-absorbing compounds (1.3 A300 cm−2). Our findings show that UV-B-screening effectiveness is not necessarily related to absorbing compound concentrations on a whole-leaf basis, possibly due to anatomical changes within the epidermis that occur with leaf age. (author)

  2. Modelization of the Current and Future Habitat Suitability of Rhododendron ferrugineum Using Potential Snow Accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Komac

    Full Text Available Mountain areas are particularly sensitive to climate change. Species distribution models predict important extinctions in these areas whose magnitude will depend on a number of different factors. Here we examine the possible impact of climate change on the Rhododendron ferrugineum (alpenrose niche in Andorra (Pyrenees. This species currently occupies 14.6 km2 of this country and relies on the protection afforded by snow cover in winter. We used high-resolution climatic data, potential snow accumulation and a combined forecasting method to obtain the realized niche model of this species. Subsequently, we used data from the high-resolution Scampei project climate change projection for the A2, A1B and B1 scenarios to model its future realized niche model. The modelization performed well when predicting the species's distribution, which improved when we considered the potential snow accumulation, the most important variable influencing its distribution. We thus obtained a potential extent of about 70.7 km(2 or 15.1% of the country. We observed an elevation lag distribution between the current and potential distribution of the species, probably due to its slow colonization rate and the small-scale survey of seedlings. Under the three climatic scenarios, the realized niche model of the species will be reduced by 37.9-70.1 km(2 by the end of the century and it will become confined to what are today screes and rocky hillside habitats. The particular effects of climate change on seedling establishment, as well as on the species' plasticity and sensitivity in the event of a reduction of the snow cover, could worsen these predictions.

  3. Chapter 21. chlorine dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Submerging terminal leafy cuttings of Rhododendron L. 'Gumpo White' ('Gumpo White' azalea) in 50 °C water for 21 min was previously shown to eliminate binucleate Rhizoctonia species, the cause of azalea web blight, from plant tissues. Prior to considering commercial use of this practice, a better un...

  4. Isolation, characterisation and antibacterial activity studies of coumarins from Rhododendron lepidotum Wall. ex G. Don, Ericaceae Estudos de isolamento, caracterização e atividade antibacteriana de cumarinas de Rhododendron lepidotum Wall. ex G. Don, Ericaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel-U-Rehman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Six coumarins daphnin (1, daphnetin (2, daphnetin glucoside (3, rhodonetin (4, rhodonin (5 and umbelliferone (6 were isolated from the methanolic extract of Rhododendron lepidotum Wall. ex G. Don, Ericaceae (aerial part. The compounds and their acetyl derivatives were screened for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC-29213, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus ATCC-15187, Escherichia coli ATCC-8739, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC-9027 by microdilution method as compared to the reference ciprofloxacin. Compound 2 displayed the best antibacterial activity with MIC 125 μg/mL against S. aureus ATCC-29213 and MRSA ATCC-15187 followed by 4 which exhibited the MIC value of 250 μg/mL against all the four tested strains. All molecules showed better antibacterial activity than their acyl derivatives.Seis cumarinas dafinina (1, dafinetina (2, dafinetina glicosídeo (3, rodonetina (4, rodonina (5 e umbeliferona (6 foram isoladas do extrato metanólico das partes aéreas de Rhododendron lepidotum Wall. ex G. Don, Ericaceae. Os compostos e seus derivados acetilados foram testados para verificar sua atividade antibacteriana contra Staphylococcus aureus ATCC-29213, Escherichia coli resistente à meticilina, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC-15187, ATCC-8739, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC-9027, pelo método de microdiluição, usando ciprofloxacina como referência. A substância 2 apresentou a melhor atividade antibacteriana com o MIC 125 μg/mL contra S. aureus ATCC-29213 e MRSA ATCC-15187 seguido pela substância 4, que apresentou o valor de CIM de 250 μg/mL contra as quatro cepas testadas. Todas as moléculas apresentaram melhor atividade antibacteriana do que seus derivados acetilados.

  5. Distribution of insoluble polysaccharides in the shoot apex of Rhododendron arboreum Linn. during the annual growth cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant K. Badola

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Starch grains occur all over the dormant shoot apex of Rhododendron arboreum except in the bud scales. They are abundant in the peripheral, rib and pith meristem cells. as well as in the youngest leaf primordia. Tannin is present in the entire dormant bud hut for the cells of the apical meristem and leaf primordia. Gradually, tannin degradation into numerous globules occurs. This is concomitant with the disappearance of starch grains and indicates the earliest structural manifestation of spring awakening by meristematic activity in the buds. The weak affinity of tannin globules to PAS is due to their hydrolysis which releases glucose for metabolic activities. Thus, a parallelism seems to exist between the metabolism of tannins and starch in relation to the various phases of bud development.

  6. Identification of Highly Potent and Selective α-Glucosidase Inhibitors with Antiglycation Potential, Isolated from Rhododendron arboreum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Raza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored antidiabetic potential of eight known pure compounds, isolated from the bark of Rhododendron arboreum. Invitro studies of these compounds against α and β-glucosidases revealed them as very potent and selective inhibitors of α-glucosidase. Compound 7 (3-O-acetylursolic acid was found to be the most potent inhibitor of α-glucosidase with 3.3±0.1µM IC 50 value which was many folds higher than standard inhibitor acarbose. Antiglycation studies of compounds showed that all compounds were also very active antiglycation agents. The studied biological properties of these compounds suggest that they are therapeutically interesting and important tools for treatment of diabetes.

  7. Effects of high concentrations of calcium salts in the substrate and its pH on the growth of selected rhododendron cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Giel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available For proper growth and development, rhododendrons need acidic soils, whereas calcium carbonate (CaCO3 in the substrate markedly limits their growth. In this study, we analysed the reactions of rhododendrons to high concentrations of calcium salts and pH in the substrate. We used 4-month-old seedlings of Rhododendron 'Cunningham's White' and 1.5-year-old seedlings and rooted cuttings of R. 'Cunningham's White' and R. 'Catawbiense Grandiflorum'. Their reactions depended mostly on calcium salt type added to the substrate (sulphate or carbonate. An increase in concentrations of phenolic compounds was detected mostly in roots of the plants grown in a substrate with a high calcium carbonate content. Addition of calcium salts to the substrate caused a significant rise in total nonstructural carbohydrates in leaves and roots of the studied plants. As compared to the control, an increase in substrate pH in the variant with calcium carbonate limited the activity of acid phosphatase, while lowering of substrate pH in the variant with calcium sulphate, significantly increased its activity. Along with the rise in substrate pH, a remarkable increase was observed in the activity of nonspecific dehydrogenase (DHA in the substrate with CaCO3, as compared to the control. Unfavourable soil conditions (high calcium content and alkaline pH caused a decrease in assimilation of minerals by the studied plants (mostly phosphorus and manganese. Our results show that the major factor limiting rhododendron growth is an increase in substrate pH, rather than an increase in the concentration of calcium ions.

  8. 云南杜鹃属两新变种%Two New Varieties of Genus Rhododendron from Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高连明; 李德铢

    2001-01-01

    @@ 光叶香缅树 新变种 longisepalum R. C. Fang et C. H. Yang Rhododendron tutcherae Hemsl. & Wilson var. Glabrifoliu m L.M. Gao & D.Z. Li, var. Nov.   A typo recedit lamina glabra, petiolo glabro, pedicello glabro vel sparsim pubes centibus.   Yunnan(云南):Pingbian(屏边), Daweishan(大围山), Shuiweic heng(水围城),in evergreen broad-leaved forest(常绿阔叶林内), alt.1 930 m, 2000 -06-26, L. M. Gao 200135. (高连明200135) (holotype, KUN). Paratype: Pingbian (屏边), Laojianshan(老尖山), alt.1 940 m,1954-10-12, K.M. Feng 4 919 (冯国楣 4919)(KUN);Wenshan (文山),in forest (林内), alt. 2 000 m, 1933-01- 23, H. T. Tsai 51627 (蔡希陶51627),(KUN). Viet Nam(越南): Lao Cai (老街), alt.6 400 ft,1992-05-01, K.D. Rushforth, 2067(E.)

  9. Photosynthetic response of an alpine plant, Rhododendron delavayi Franch, to water stress and recovery: the role of mesophyll conductance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfei eCai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhododendron delavayi Franch is an evergreen shrub or small tree with large scarlet flowers that makes it highly attractive as an ornamental species. The species is native to southwest China and southeast Asia, especially the Himalayan region, showing good adaptability and tolerance to drought. To understand the water stress coping mechanisms of R. delavayi, we analysed the plant’s photosynthetic performance during water stress and recovery. In particular, we looked at the regulation of stomatal (gs and mesophyll conductance (gm, and maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax. After four days of water stress treatment, the net CO2 assimilation rate (AN declined slightly while gs and gm were not affected and stomatal limitation (SL was therefore negligible. At this stage mesophyll conductance limitation (MCL and biochemical limitation (BL constituted the main limitation factors. After eight days of water stress treatment, AN, gs and gm had decreased notably. At this stage SL increased markedly and MCL even more so, while BL remained relatively constant. After re-watering, the recovery of AN, gs and gm was rapid, although remaining below the levels of the control plants, while Vcmax fully regained control levels after three days of re-watering. MCL remained the main limitation factor irrespective of the degree of photosynthetic recovery. In conclusion, in our experiment MCL was the main photosynthetic limitation factor of R. delavayi under water stress and during the recovery phase, with the regulation of gm probably being the result of interactions between the environment and leaf anatomical features.

  10. Adipogenic Activity of Wild Populations of Rhododendron groenlandicum, a Medicinal Shrub from the James Bay Cree Traditional Pharmacopeia

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    Michel Rapinski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional medicinal plant, Labrador tea (Rhododendron groenlandicum (Oeder Kron & Judd; Ericaceae, present in the pharmacopoeia of the Cree of Eeyou Istchee, has shown glitazone-like activity in the 3T3-L1 adipogenesis bioassay. This activity has been attributed to phenolic compounds, which have been shown to vary in this plant as a function of insolation parameters. The goal of this study was to determine if these changes in phenolic content were pharmacologically significant. Leaves were harvested in 2006 throughout the James Bay region of Northern Quebec and ethanol extracts were tested in vitro using the 3T3-L1 murine cell line adipogenesis bioassay. This traditional medicinal plant was found active in the assay. However, there was no detectable spatial pattern in the accumulation of intracellular triglycerides, suggesting that such patterns previously observed in the phenolic profile of Labrador tea were not pharmacologically significant. Nonetheless, a reduction in the adipogenic activity was observed and associated with higher concentrations of quercetin for which selected environmental variables did not appropriately explain its variation.

  11. Structure Elucidation of Procyanidins Isolated from Rhododendron formosanum and Their Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Bacterial Activities

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    Chao-Min Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rhododendron formosanum is an endemic species distributed in the central mountains of Taiwan. In this study, the biological activities of major procyanidins isolated from the leaf extract of R. formosanum were investigated. Four compounds, including two procyanidin dimers, procyanidin A1 (1 and B3 (2, and two procyanidin trimmers, procyanidin C4 (4 and cinnamtannin D1 (5, were isolated and identified on the basis of spectroscopic data. The structure of a new procyanidin dimer, rhodonidin A (3, was elucidated by 2D-NMR, CD spectrum and MS. The procyanidin trimmers and rhodonidin A are reported for the first time in Ericaceae. The biological activities of these procyanidins were evaluated using anti-bacterial and anti-oxidative assays. Only the new compound 3 demonstrated strong anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus at an MIC value of 4 μg/mL. All compounds showed pronounced antioxidant activities and the activities are enhanced as the amount of OH groups in procyanidins increased. In conclusion, the pleiotropic effects of procyanidins isolated from the leaves of R. formosanum can be a source of promising compounds for the development of future pharmacological applications.

  12. Vegetative propagation by cuttings of azaléia tree (Rhododendron thomsonii HOOK. f./ Propagação vegetativa de estaquia de azaléia arbórea (Rhododendron Thomsonii HOOK. f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Soares Koehler

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhododendron thomsonii (Ericaceae is a chinese ornamental hardwood species. The seeds are used just for hybrids production, therefore, vegetative propagation is an appropriate way for large scale plant production. The rooting potential was evaluated in cuttings collected in spring/2004 from stock plants localized in Curitiba, Paraná. The stem cuttings were produced with 12 cm long, right cut upper and bevel bellow, with two half leaves and treated with sodium hypochlorite for ten minutes and current water for five minutes. The cuttings basis were dipped in IBA treatments (0, 1000, 2000, 4000mgL-1 in alcoholic solutions and talc (0, 1000, 2000, 4000 mgKg-1, totalling eight treatments with four replications of nine cuttings. Mean separation were made using a pair wise design (4X2 in a association between dosage and application ways. The cuttings were planted in vermiculite medium and maintained in greenhouse for 70 days. The evaluation included percentage of rooting, callus cuttings (without root with callus, alive and dead cuttings. No rooting was verified in cuttings collected in this season. The variance analysis showed no interactions between dosage and application ways.Rhododendron thomsonii (Ericaceae é uma espécie lenhosa, ornamental originária da China cujas sementes são utilizadas exclusivamente para produção de híbridos, sendo a propagação vegetativa uma ferramenta viável para a produção de mudas em larga escala. Com a finalidade de avaliar o enraizamento desta espécie para estacas colhidas na primavera (setembro/2004, foram selecionadas plantas-matrizes adultas situadas no Município de Curitiba – PR. As estacas semilenhosas foram obtidas com comprimento aproximado de 12cm, cortadas em bisel na parte inferior e em corte reto na parte superior, com duas folhas reduzidas à metade. O tratamento fitossanitário foi realizado utilizando-se imersão das estacas em hipoclorito de sódio 0,5% (10 minutos seguida de lavagem em

  13. Insect-flower interaction network structure is resilient to a temporary pulse of floral resources from invasive Rhododendron ponticum.

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    Erin Jo Tiedeken

    Full Text Available Invasive alien plants can compete with native plants for resources, and may ultimately decrease native plant diversity and/or abundance in invaded sites. This could have consequences for native mutualistic interactions, such as pollination. Although invasive plants often become highly connected in plant-pollinator interaction networks, in temperate climates they usually only flower for part of the season. Unless sufficient alternative plants flower outside this period, whole-season floral resources may be reduced by invasion. We hypothesized that the cessation of flowering of a dominant invasive plant would lead to dramatic, seasonal compositional changes in plant-pollinator communities, and subsequent changes in network structure. We investigated variation in floral resources, flower-visiting insect communities, and interaction networks during and after the flowering of invasive Rhododendron ponticum in four invaded Irish woodland sites. Floral resources decreased significantly after R. ponticum flowering, but the magnitude of the decrease varied among sites. Neither insect abundance nor richness varied between the two periods (during and after R. ponticum flowering, yet insect community composition was distinct, mostly due to a significant reduction in Bombus abundance after flowering. During flowering R. ponticum was frequently visited by Bombus; after flowering, these highly mobile pollinators presumably left to find alternative floral resources. Despite compositional changes, however, network structural properties remained stable after R. ponticum flowering ceased: generality increased, but quantitative connectance, interaction evenness, vulnerability, H'2 and network size did not change. This is likely because after R. ponticum flowering, two to three alternative plant species became prominent in networks and insects increased their diet breadth, as indicated by the increase in network-level generality. We conclude that network structure

  14. 井冈山猴头杜鹃群落特征的研究%Studies on the community characteristics of Rhododendron simiarum in Jinggang Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓贤兰; 吴杨; 刘玉成; 钟娟

    2011-01-01

    以井冈山猴头杜鹃(Rhododendron simiarum)群落5个样地调查资料为基础,对该群落的物种组成、区系成分、群落结构和物种多样性进行了研究,结果表明:群落有维管植物30科43属50种,其中蕨类植物有5科6属6种,裸子植物4科4属4种,被子植物21科33属40种.区系分析显示该植物区系起源古老,地理成分复杂,以热带性成分为主,温带性成分占有一定的比例.群落为复层异龄结构,猴头杜鹃、甜槠(Castanopsis eyrei)、福建柏Fokienia hodginsii)、台湾松(Pinus taiwanensis)、薯豆(Elaeocarpus japonicus)和白豆杉(Pseudotaxus chienii)为群落的建群种.除Pielou指数外,群落物种多样性指数较低,各样地间多样性指数测值变幅较大;测度猴头杜鹃群落物种多样性时,各种多样性指数基本表现出相同的趋势;总体来看,猴头杜鹃群落物种多样性在群落不同层次的变化规律为:灌木层>乔木层>草本层.%Based on data collected from five plots of Rhododendron simiarum in the Jinggang Mountain, the species and floral composition, the community structure and the species diversity were analyzed. Results showed that there were 50 vascular plant species belonging to 43 genera and 30 families, among them, 6 plant species belonging to 6 genera and 5 families were pteridophyte, 4 plant species belonging to 4 genera and 4 families were gymnosperm, and 40 plant species belonging to 33 genera and 21 families were angiosperm. The floristic analysis showed the flora is ancient and geographical elements are complex, tropical elements are obvious with a certain proporiton of temperate-zone elements. The structures of Rhododendron simiarum community are many storied all-aged forest,. The constructive species are Rhododendron simiarum, Fokienia hodginsii, Castanopsis eyrei, Pinus taiwanensis, Elaeocarpus japonicus and Pseudotaxus chienii. The species diversity index in Rhododendron simiarum was low with high variations among

  15. Ascotricha bosei, a New Record of Endophytic Fungus from Rhododendron aureum in China%Ascotricha bosei——分离自牛皮杜鹃的中国新记录种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽莉; 吕国忠; 赵志慧; 杨晓贺

    2007-01-01

    Ascotricha bosei was isolated as an endophytic fungus from the fresh leaves of Rhododendron aureum collected from Changbai Mountains, Jilin province. It was characterized by geniculate terminal hairs and discoid ascospores. It was reported for the first time in China.%自吉林省长白山植物牛皮杜鹃(Rhododendron aureum)叶片上分离到1株内生真菌,经鉴定为鲍氏刺囊壳(Ascotricha bosei).该菌的典型特征是子囊壳外壁着生曲膝状附属丝和产生碟形子囊孢子.该菌为我国首次报道.

  16. Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur histogenetisch bedingten Sternmusterbildung in der Petalenfärbung bei Camellia L., Myosotis L., Pelargonium L. Herit. ex Ait., Phlox L., Rhododendron L., Saintpaulia H. Wendl., Verbena L.

    OpenAIRE

    Plaschil, Sylvia

    1997-01-01

    Histogenetisch bedingte Sternmusterungen an Petalen treten in verschiedenen Pflanzengattungen auf und konnten bei Camellia, Pelargonium, Phlox, Rhododendron, Saintpaulia und Verbena nachgewiesen werden, sie sind aber auch bei Myosotis und Petunia bekannt. Die Sternmusterungen entstehen bei den untersuchten Sorten durch Anthocyandefektmutation in einer bestimmten Sproßscheitelschicht und den abstammenden Geweben, in Abhängigkeit von der gewebespezifischen Farbstoffbildung im Blütenblatt, dem W...

  17. ヤマツツジ(Rhododendron kaempferi Planch.)における花弁内アントシアニン構成の地域変異

    OpenAIRE

    宮島, 郁夫; 高橋, 龍; 嬉野, 健次; 松田, 鹿徳

    2000-01-01

    Although there were few differences of flower colors among these groups, large number of individuals of Rhododendron kaempferi in southern Kyushu showed vivid red color whereas the almost all individuals in Tohoku district showed relatively somber red. It was unable to distinguish the individuals of northern Kyushu from those of southern Kyushu by anthocyanin constitutions of the petals. However, the latter individuals showed wider variations in the anthocyanin constitutions than the former. ...

  18. Epidemiology of intoxication of domestic animals by plants in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortinovis, Cristina; Caloni, Francesca

    2013-08-01

    This review focuses on some of the most important poisonous plants in Europe and provides an overview of the poisoning episodes that have occurred in European countries. Poisoning of livestock and companion animals by plants is a relatively common occurrence. In Europe livestock and horses are commonly poisoned by Datura stramonium (Jimson weed), Senecio spp. (ragworts and groundsels), Quercus spp. (oak), Taxus baccata (European yew), Nerium oleander (oleander), Pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern), Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust) and Rhododendron spp. (rhododendrons and azaleas). Poisoning may occur when the fresh plant is ingested in pasture or when it contaminates hay or silage. In pets, the greatest majority of plant poisonings are the result of ingestion of house or garden plants, such as Cycas revoluta (Sago palm), Ricinus communis (castor bean), Allium spp., Euphorbia pulcherrima (poinsettia), Lilium spp., Convallaria majalis (Lily of the valley), Pyracantha spp. (firethorn), Rhododendron spp. (rhododendrons and azaleas), Melia azedarach (Chinaberry tree), Taxus baccata (European yew) and Nerium oleander (oleander). PMID:23570777

  19. Analysis of trace in Rhododendron ferrigineum leaves for monitoring of urban atmospheric pollution by x-ray fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation Excitation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was perform the biomonitoring of the atmospheric pollution in Campinas City (SP), applying the Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation Excitation technique. For this were performed the elemental analysis of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se and Pb in Rhododendron ferrigineum leaves, employed here as bioindicator from environmental pollution in order to evaluate the effects of spatial and climatic contribution on the elemental concentration on the vegetable. Urban and rural sites were sampling in different seasons. The collected leaves were divided in two parts, one of them was washed by detergent and deionized water, in order to quantify the losses due the washing, and the second one was not washed, following the both parts of material were dried in stove, crushed and so the samples were submitted to an nitric-perchloric digestion. The samples were preconcentrated with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC), and the suspension was separated by filtration in cellulose membrane, then the samples were analyzed with X-ray tube and synchrotron radiation excitations. The results obtained shown that the vehicle flow can be associated to the distribution of the elements in the Rhododendrom ferrigineum leaves therefore the climatic contribution was not conclusive. (author)

  20. Cloud immersion alters microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations in Rhododendron catawbiense and Abies fraseri seedlings in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Daniel M; Smith, William K

    2008-03-01

    The high altitude spruce-fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poiret.-Picea rubens Sarg.) forests of the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA, experience frequent cloud immersion. Recent studies indicate that cloud bases may have risen over the past 30 years, resulting in less frequent forest cloud immersion, and that further increases in cloud base height are likely in the event of continued climate warming. To assess the impact of this trend on the regeneration of high altitude spruce-fir forests and the migration of plant communities, in particular the encroachment of spruce-fir forests and Rhododendron catawbiense Michx. islands into adjacent grass bald communities, we investigated effects of cloud immersion on photosynthetic parameters of seedlings of Abies fraseri and R. catawbiense in a grass bald site and A. fraseri in a forest understory. Although photosynthetic photon flux was 4.2 to 19.4-fold greater during clear conditions, cloud immersion had no effect on photosynthesis in A. fraseri at either site, whereas it reduced photosynthesis of R. catawbiense by about 40%. However, cloud immersion increased mean leaf fluorescence by 7.1 to 12.8% in both species at both sites. Cloud immersion increased mean relative humidity from 65 to 96%, reduced transpiration by 95% and reduced mean leaf-to-air temperature difference from 6.6 to 0.5 degrees C. PMID:18171662

  1. Dispersal Behavior of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) Under Laboratory Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ruan, Chuanqing; Liu, Bo; Wu, Zhenquan; Li, Tao; Hu, Hanqing; Fan, Guocheng; Duan, Yongping; David G Hall

    2014-01-01

    Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is the vector of huanglongbing (HLB), the most devastating disease of citrus worldwide. Knowledge of ACP dispersal behavior in locating host plants may contribute to our understanding of the spread of HLB within and between citrus trees. We conducted research in laboratory to evaluate ACP host plant finding behavior. In a free-choice situation, ACP adults initially settled at equal rates among seedlings of Rhododendron simsii (non host pl...

  2. 广东南岭国家级自然保护区南华杜鹃群落学研究%Community Characteristics of Rhododendron simiarum in Nanling National Nature Reserve, Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董安强; 梁耀; 胡明锋; 刘宗君; 王发国; 邢福武

    2012-01-01

    通过样方调查,对广东南岭国家级自然保护区管理局秤架管理处辖区内海拔1500m左右的南华杜鹃(Rhododendron simiarum)的物种组成、群落结构和物种多样性进行分析.结果表明,在1 600m2的样地内共有维管束植物52科79属121种(变种),以泛热带成分为主,热带和温带成分也有一定的比例,表现出较为明显的过渡性质;群落组成以南华杜鹃为绝对优势种,其优势地位非常明显;群落分为乔木层、灌木层和草本层3层,层间植物稀少;按Raunkiaer标准,群落内的种群频度为1%~20%的种类占优势,为总种数的60%;南华杜鹃种群中,大龄树占优势,表明该地的南华杜鹃种群处于衰退阶段,Shannon - Wiener指数、Simpson指数和均匀度指数等均表现出相同的趋势,为乔木层>草本层>灌木层.%Based on a field investigation, the floristic composition, structure, physiognomy and species diversity of a Rhododendron simiarum community in Nanling National Nature Reserve of Guangdong Province were analyzed. Results showed that there were 121 vascular species, belonging to 79 genera and 52 families. Pantropic elements were the dominant, followed by tropical and temperate elements which showed obvious transitional characteristics. The community was obviously dominated by Rhododendron, simiarum. The vertical structure of the community was composed of arbor,shrub and herb layers, and interlayer species were poor. According to the Raunkiaer Frequency Law,species in 1% -20% occurrence frequency dominated the community, accounting for 60% of the total species. Young trees of the Rhododendron simiarum population were less, indicating that the population was in the state of being degraded. The diversity indices, such as Simpson dominance index, Shannon-Wiener index and Pielou evenness index, showed similar trend, with arbor layer > liana layer > herb layer > shrub layer in the community.

  3. Rhizoctonia damping-off stem canker and root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizoctonia solani has been reported to cause damping-off and root rot of rhododendrons and azaleas. Damping-off often includes groups of dying and dead seedlings. Decline of rooted plants in containers results from both root rot and stem necrosis below or above the soil line. Root rot is usually no...

  4. Photosynthetic Ecophysiology of Three Species of Genus Rhododendron%三种高山杜鹃的光合生理生态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨婷; 许琨; 严宁; 李树云; 胡虹

    2013-01-01

    对大白花杜鹃(Rhododendron decorum)、云南杜鹃(R.yunnanense)和红棕杜鹃(R.rubiginosum)进行了气体交换、叶片性状等研究,以期了解三种杜鹃的光合生理特性及其对环境的适应.结果表明,三种杜鹃的光饱和光合速率(Pmax)与RuBP饱和最大羧化速率(Vcmax)、光饱和最大电子传递速率(Jmax)和气孔导度(gs)呈极显著正相关(P≤0.01),但仅Vcmax存在显著的种间差异,说明三种杜鹃的光合能力主要受Vcmax影响.叶氮含量、叶片氮在电子传递和在Rubisco中的分配均显著影响Vcmax和Jmax.大白花杜鹃的LSP最低,LCP较高,对强光和弱光利用能力都不强,光适应范围较窄.云南杜鹃LCP最低,LSP和Pmax相对较高,对弱光或较强的光照均能利用,光照适应范围相对最广,光合适应能力最强;红棕杜鹃LSP和LCP均为最高,对强光环境的适应性最强.%To understand the photosynthetic characteristics of three species of genus Rhododendron ( R. decorum, R. yunnanense and R. rubiginosum) , their gas exchanges and related leaf traits were investigated. The results showed that among the three species, light-saturated photosynthetic rate (Pmax) was significantly correlated to maximum rate of RuBP-mediated carboxylation (Vc max), maximum electron transport rate (Jmax) and stotnatal conductance (gs) respec-tively (P≤0.01), but only the value for Vc max of three species was significantly different suggesting that photosynthesis of the three species was primarily limited by the Vc max leaf nitrogen content, partitioning coefficients for leaf nitrogen in bioenergetics and in Rubisco were significantly related to Vc max and Jmax. R. decorum had a lower light saturation point (LSP) and higher light compensation point (LCP), a narrow range of light adaptability than the others. R. yunnanense showed the lowest LCP across species, but relatively high LSP, Pmax and a wider range of light adaptability. R. rubi-ginosum had the highest LCP and LSP

  5. Inhibition of in vitro adhesion and virulence of Porphyromonas gingivalis by aqueous extract and polysaccharides from Rhododendron ferrugineum L. A new way for prophylaxis of periodontitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löhr, G; Beikler, T; Hensel, A

    2015-12-01

    The effect of an aqueous extract from the leaves of Rhododendron ferrugineum (RF) was investigated for its capacity of inhibiting the adhesion of Porphyromonas gingivalis cells to epithelial buccal KB cells. RF was characterized by HPLC (12.1% taxifolin-3-O-β-l-arabinopyranoside, 1.6% hyperoside, 0.9% isoquercitrin, 1.6% chlorogenic acid and a tannin content of 8.7%). Additionally raw polysaccharides (RPS) were obtained from the leaves of R. ferrugineum by aqueous extraction. RF and RPS interacted in a dose-dependent manner (max. 25% reduction at 1mg/ml each) with the adhesion of P. gingivalis by influencing bacterial outer membrane proteins. On protein level a time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of Arg-gingipain activity by RF was observed, while the Lys-gingipain activity remained unaltered. In addition, RF and RPS inhibited the bacterial hemagglutinin. RF affected the P. gingivalis adhesion also by interacting with KB cells in pre-incubation assays of the eukaryotic host cells, leading to reduced bacterial adhesion of about 75%. Gene expression analysis by RT-PCR indicated significant downregulation for arginine-specific gingipain rgpA by RF, while lysin-specific gingipain kgp and fimbrillinA fimA were strongly upregulated. Moreover, pre-incubation with RF abolished the P. gingivalis induced expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNFα in KB cells. Results of this study indicate that an aqueous extract from R. ferrugineum combines cytoprotective and antimicrobial effects by both downregulating the expression of pro-inflammatory genes and inhibiting the adhesion of P. gingivalis. Thus RF may be potential candidate for the development of an adjunctive antimicrobial approach in the prevention of periodontal diseases. PMID:26522852

  6. Simultaneous estimation of three triterpenoids-ursolic acid, β-sitosterol and lupeol from flowers, leaves and formulations of Rhododendron arboreum Smith. using validated HPTLC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Shilajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper enfolds a rapid and sensitive high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC method for the simultaneous estimation of three triterpenoids namely ursolic acid, β-sitosterol and lupeol from the leaves, flowers and herbal formulations of Rhododendron arboreum Smith., an ethnomedicinal Himalayan tree. All the three phytoconstituents have high therapeutic value. Aims and Objectives: The main aim is to separate, resolve and simultaneously quantitate the three markers-ursolic acid, β-sitosterol and lupeol from R. arboreum using normal phase HPTLC. Materials and Methods: Separation was performed on TLC aluminium plates precoated with silica 60 F 254 followed by detection of ursolic acid, β-sitosterol and lupeol carried out by derivatizing the plate with 10% methanolic sulphuric acid reagent followed by heating at 110΀C for 7 min. Camag TLC scanner 4 equipped with winCATS software was used for densitrometric scanning at 366 nm. The proposed method was further validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy and sensitivity as per the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH guidelines. Results: A good linear relationship was obtained for the calibration plots with r 2 = 0.999, 0.993 and 0.995 for ursolic acid, β-sitosterol and lupeol, respectively. Accuracy of the method was checked by recovery study conducted at three different levels with the average recovery between 95% and 98% for all the three markers. Conclusion: The developed method can be used for the assessment of the quality of botanicals in terms of bioactive content.

  7. Phytoplasma infections in Rhododendron hybridum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přibylová, Jaroslava; Špak, Josef; Fránová, Jana

    Bologna: IPWG - International Phytoplasmologist Working Group, 2014 - (Bertaccini, A.), s. 137-142 ISBN 978-88-909922-0-9 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12074 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Electron microscopy * PCR * phytoplasma * sequencing Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  8. 环境因子和植物生长调节剂对高山杜鹃开花的影响%The Effects of the environment factors and plant growth regulators on Flowering of Rhododendron lapponicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲彦婷; 唐焕伟; 阎凤霞; 张兴

    2013-01-01

      研究了不同温度、光照、植物生长调节剂浓度对高山杜鹃生长和开花的影响,结果表明:高山杜鹃花蕾萌动到开花的过程中,适宜光照强度2000~3000lux,最佳温度范围是23~25℃;对供试品种而言,最佳赤霉素浓度范围是1.0~1.5mg/L.%Effect of different temperatures and light levels and plant growth regulators on growth and flowering of Rhododendron lapponicum were studied. The results indicated that suitable light levels were 2000~3000lux, temperature in a-best -of- range is 23~25℃ and the best concentration of GA3 was 1.0~1.5mg/L for the tested varieties.

  9. 正交试验法优选闹羊花总黄酮提取工艺%Orthogonal Test for Optimization of Flavoneextraction Technology from Rhododendron Molle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱仁发; 胡发丁

    2011-01-01

    The extracting condition on flavonoids from Rhododendron molle was optimized by orthogonal test design methods and UV--spectrophotometry was used for the determination of flavonoids. Effects of ethanol contents, extraction time, extraction times and ratio of liquid to material on flavonoids contents were investigated. The optimum extracting conditions were 70% alcohol as solvent, ratio of liquid to material 25:1, extracting times 2, each extracting time 30min.%为从闹羊花中提取总黄酮,采用正交试验法研究闹羊花总黄酮的提取工艺,考察了浸提用醇的体积分数、浸提时间、浸提次数、液料比4个因素对闹羊花总黄酮提取率的影响.确立了闹羊花总黄酮最优提取条件为:70%乙醇溶液作溶剂;液料比25:1;浸提2次,每次30min.

  10. Herbivory in relation to leaf development during leaf expansion in Rhododendron latoucheae (Ericaceae)%鹿角杜鹃展叶期叶片发育与虫食动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志国; 蔡永立; 李恺; 孙灿

    2009-01-01

    叶片虫食主要发生在展叶期间,虽然展叶期只是一个短暂的阶段,却可能是了解植食性昆虫和植物之间相互关系的关键.为了解展叶期叶片属性的变化及其与虫食的关系,研究通过野外观察和室内分析,测定福建梅花山亚热带常绿阔叶林中鹿角杜鹃(Rhododendron latoucheae)幼树展叶期间叶片属性(叶片氮、可溶性糖、叶绿素含量、含水量、单宁含量、硬度)和叶片虫食率的日变化动态,并分析它们之间的相互关系.结果表明,(1)叶片在爆芽27 d后完成展叶,平均展叶率14.06%,(2)可溶性糖、叶绿素和叶片硬度随叶片的展开上升缓慢,在展叶完成几天内后迅速上升;N含量、含水量和单宁含量在展叶期间含量较高,叶片展开后迅速下降.(3)虫食率随着叶片的发育逐渐上升,在第9天达到峰值(0.55%),并在接近展叶完成时迅速下降.(4)叶片虫食率同N含量、含水量、单宁含量正相关,而与叶绿素含量、可溶性糖含量、和叶片硬度负相关.

  11. In Vitro Rapid Propagation System and in Vitro Germplasm Peservation of Rhododendron schlippenbachii Maxim.%大字杜鹃离体快繁体系建立及种质试管保存研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雯雯; 马秋月; 朱俊义; 顾地周

    2009-01-01

    The tender buds of Rhododendron schlippenbachii Maxim, were used as explants in the experiment. Uniform Design was used-for screening the most suitable culture medium for shoots regeneration immediately at base of tender buds, rooting and in vitro germplasm preservation. The results showed that DR +2-ip3.00 mg ·L~(-1) was the most suitable for shoots regeneration, the rate of regeneration was more than 95.5% ; MS(modified) + IAAO. 50 mg ·L~(-1) + IBAO. 10 mg ·L~(-1) + KTO. 10 mg ·L~(-1) for rooting, the rate of rooting was more than 99% ; N-68 + B_92. 30 mg ·L~(-1) + phloridzin 1. 50 mg ·L~(-1) for germplasm preservation in vitro for 30 months. Stems each with one node were cut from regenerated shoots and cultured for propagation, and a 65 -fold proliferation rate was achieved within 28 days. The method of "defering growth with dwarfing" was utilized for in vitro germplasm peservation at normal temperature. In vitro culture and in vitro germplasm peservation system of R. schlippenbachii Maxim, has been successfully established.%以大字杜鹃新生嫩芽为外植体,应用均匀设计法筛选其最适合的嫩芽基部直接再生芽苗、生根及种质试管保存的培养基,结果表明,最适合的基部直接再生芽苗诱导培养基为:DR+2-ip3.00 mg·L~(-1),诱导率达95.5%以上;生根培养基:Ms(改良)+IAA 0.50 mg·L~(-1)+IBA 0.10 mg·L~(-1)+KT 0.10 mg·L~(-1),生根率达99%以上;试管保存培养基:N-68+B_92.30 mg·L~(-1)+根皮苷1.50 mg·L~(-1),保存时间可达30个月以上.以再生植株的茎节为材料进行快繁的结果表明,在28 d的一个培养周期内增殖倍数平均达65以上.常温条件下,采取"矮化延缓生长"的方法在试管内保存种质资源,建立了大字杜鹃的离体培养和种质试管保存体系.

  12. Effect of Low Light Stress on Physiological Characteristics and Ultrastructure of Rhododendron hybridum Leaves%弱光胁迫对西洋杜鹃生理特性和叶片超微结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶巧静; 吴月燕; 付涛; 项锡娜; 李波

    2015-01-01

    绿体被膜破损缺失严重,基粒片层解体,仅存少量无序的片层结构,空洞化程度严重,部分细胞甚至成为空细胞。【结论】综合各指标变化情况,西洋杜鹃可以耐受4000 lx的低光强,而12000~16000 lx光强的光照条件比较适合西洋杜鹃的生长。%Objective]Rhododendron hybridum is a famous ornamental species with flowers and tree crowns. The species has beautiful flowers with gorgeous flower colors,and long florescence,thus,it is a common urban afforestation tree species and indoor potted flowers. R. hybridum belongs to the weak light plant. In this study,we investigated the tolerance mechanism of Rhododendron to weak light to find the suitable light intensity for its growth,so as to provide theoretical basis for cultivation production. [Method]A series of pot experiments were conducted to study the effects of weak light on physiological characteristics and leaves’submicroscopic structure of R. hybridum with different intensity treatments of low light ( 16 000 ,12 000 ,8 000 ,4 000 and 500 lx ) . [Results]The results indicated that in all of the treatments,the amount of leaves and blooms increased with the treatment time of days,but the amount was fewer with the decreased light intensity. The leaves gradually lost green and turned red,leaf margin became shrunk and withered with the decreased light intensity. R. hybridum grew best at the light intensity of 12 000 lx. The content of chlorophyll overall showed a rising trend when the light intensity was above 8000 lx,but gradually reduced when the light intensity was less than 8 000 lx. After 90 days,the chlorophyll contents under less than 8000 lx were significantly lower than that before the treatment( P<0. 05 ) . The photosynthetic rate of all treatments decreased significantly first,then rising,and declined subsequently,and was directly proportional to the light intensity by the end of the experiment. The malondialdehyde (MDA) contents increased

  13. Physiological changes and heat tolerance comparison of five Rhododendron species under high-temperature stress%高温胁迫下五种杜鹃花属植物的生理变化及其耐热性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乐华; 孙宝腾; 周广; 王书胜; 李晓花; 单文

    2011-01-01

    高温是制约分布于较高海拔地区杜鹃花迁地保育与园林应用的重要因子.为探讨杜鹃花属植物的 高温致伤机理,该实验以隶属不同亚属的白花杜鹃、羊踯躅、毛棉杜鹃、红滩杜鹃及红棕杜鹃4年生实生苗为 材料,通过人工气候箱的盆栽实验,研究了30℃、38℃高温胁迫下其叶片生理生化指标的变化,并利用隶属 函数法及系统聚类分析法对其种间耐热性进行了综合评价.结果表明:高温胁迫下,5种杜鹃叶片的过氧化 氢酶(CAT)、抗坏血酸过氧化物酶(APX)活性及脯氨酸(Pro)、过氧化氢(H2O2)、丙二醛(MDA)含量均随着 胁迫温度的升高而增大;超氧化物歧化酶( SOD)活性在30℃轻度胁迫时均小幅度上升,而38℃重度胁迫时 下降.2个高温条件下,SOD、CAT的变化幅度与杜鹃种间耐热性总体呈正相关,而H2 O2、MDA增幅与种间 耐热性呈负相关;Pro增幅在30℃轻度胁迫时与种间耐热性呈负相关,而38℃重度胁迫时与耐热性呈正相 关;APX增幅与种间耐热性的相关性较弱.隶属函数与聚类分析综合评判得出5种杜鹃耐热性强弱顺序为:白花杜鹃>羊踯躅、毛棉杜鹃>红滩杜鹃>红棕杜鹃,与其田间耐热性表现一致.%High temperature is the important constraining factor of Rhododendron in ex situ conservation and landscape application. In order to reveal the injury of mechanism of five Rhododendron species under high-temperature stress,R. Mucronatum,R. Molle,R. Moulmainense,R. Chihsinianum and R. Rubiginosum which belong to different subg. Rhododendron were used in the experiment Four years-old seedlings of these five species were planted in artificial climate chambers and their changes of physiological and biochemical index were determined under high-temperature of 30 ℃ and 38 ℃ stress,and the heat tolerance was comprehensively evaluated with fuzzy subordinate function and system cluster analysis. The results showed that

  14. Un espiguero habitante de la glorieta de las azaleas

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Patricia Arango Gutiérrez; Luisa HerreraEstrada; Natalia Yépes Jaramillo; Catalina Guarín Cardona

    2006-01-01

    Introducción.El género Sporophila es un grupo de pájaros de la familia Fringillidae, caracterizados por su pequeño tamaño y su robusto pico cónico. Se distribuyen principalmente en ambientes de pastizales y arbustos, en zonas tropicales o subtropicales del Nuevo Mundo. Dentro de las numerosas especies del género, un grupo de ellas, llamadas "capuchinos", representa un verdadero desafío para la investigación y la conservación. Lo integran las especies más pequeña...

  15. The first detection of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii' in Rhododendron hybridum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přibylová, Jaroslava; Petrzik, Karel; Špak, Josef

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 124, č. 1 (2009), s. 181-185. ISSN 0929-1873 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500510558 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Electron microscopy * 16SrVI Clover proliferation group * Phytoplasma Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.931, year: 2009

  16. Comparing necrosis of Rhododendron leaf tissue inoculated with Phytophthora ramorum sporangia or zoospores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora species produce sporangia that either germinate directly or release zoospores depending upon environmental conditions. Phytophthora ramorum is no exception producing abundant sporangia that are disseminated by wind and rain. Past research involving inoculation trials or screening host...

  17. Aster Yellows Subgroup 16SrI-C Phytoplasma in Rhododendron hybridum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přibylová, Jaroslava; Špak, Josef; Fránová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 161, 7-8 (2013), s. 590-593. ISSN 0931-1785 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12074 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : electron microscopy * PCR * phytoplasma Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.921, year: 2013

  18. Intracellular colonization of Rhododendron and Vaccinium roots by Cenococcum geophilum, Geomyces pannorum and Meliniomyces variabilis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vohník, Martin; Fendrych, M.; Albrechtová, Jana; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2007), s. 407-414. ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05OC081; GA ČR(CZ) GD206/03/H137 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : dark septate endophytes * ericoid mycorrhiza * ectomycorrhiza Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.989, year: 2007

  19. Potential of bioenergy production from garden wastes in West Lake scenic spots of Hangzhou, China%杭州西湖风景名胜区园林废弃物生产生物能源潜力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史琰; 郑楠; 唐宇力; 范丽琨; 郭克俭; 范星; 葛滢; 常杰

    2012-01-01

    在当前我国景区节能减排目标难以达到的情况下,发展生物能源将为此提供一个途径.本文以杭州西湖风景名胜区为案例,分析园林管理所获得的可用生物量及其生产生物能源的潜力.通过实地测定和问卷调查,研究表明:单位绿地面积园林废弃生物量为(4.60±3.12)t·hm-2·a-1;道路区域绿地的单位面积废弃物产量最高,干重平均值为5.96t·hm-2·a-1;产生绿化废弃物的主要植物种类有香樟(Cinnamomum camphora)、桂(Osmanthus fragrans)、杜鹃(Rhododendron simsii)等;园林废弃物总量干重为3402 t·a-1,可产生能量6.3×1010 kJ·a-1,理论上可以抵消景区40%的电能消耗;园林废弃物转化为生物能源适宜采用固体成型生物燃料技术;利用园林废弃物生产生物能源替代化石燃料每年可减排CO2 4177 t.开发利用景区园林废弃物生产生物能源,可实现减轻环境压力和增加生物能源供应的双赢.%The development of bioenergy may provide a solution to achieve the reduction targets for scenic spot emissions. This paper provides a synthesis of questionnaire survey and experimental data to assess the potential of garden waste biomass for renewable energy production in West Lake of Hangzhou. Our results showed that the waste dry biomass from greenspace reaches 4. 60 ±3.12 t · hm-2 · a-1. The garden waste dry biomass from greenspace in the road area was 5. 96 t · hm-2 · a-1 which was higher than the other area. The main species of the garden wastes were Cinnamomum camphora, Osmanthus fragrans and Rhododendron simsii. The total amount of dry biomass from scenic wastes was estimated at 3402 t · a-1. The total potential biofuel produced as scenic waste biomass was estimated at 6. 3×1010 kJ · a-1 , which accounts for 40% of the energy consumption for the West Lake. The wood pellets production bioenergy system was the best way for the garden waste biofinery. The emission reduction of using garden

  20. Relative sensitivity of greenhouse pot plants to long-term exposures of NO- and NO2-containing air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxe, H

    1994-01-01

    Thirty-five cultivars of pot plants of 20 families were exposed for 50-64 days in a greenhouse facility to either 1 microl litre(-1) NO with 0.5 microl litre(-1) NO2, or 1 microl litre(-1) NO2 with 0.1 microl litre(-1) NO for 15 h each day, with air which was free from these gases as the reference. A sensitivity ranking of the pot plants was compiled, with the highest priority on visible injuries, followed by growth reductions, primarily as a response to the NO-dominated exposures, simulating the NOx-polluted environment in direct-fired, CO2-enriched greenhouses. This treatment reduced the leaf dry weight more than the number and area of the leaves. Twenty-two cultivars were significantly injured, while two (Hibicus sp, Epipremnum pinnatum, green) were significantly improved. The NOx-sensitivity of pot plants was highest in cultivars with variegated, small or narrow leaves, and in the Moraceae family. Nine cultivars (Ficus elastica 'Robusta', F. benjamina, F. pumila 'Sonny', Dieffenbachia maculata 'Camilla', F. elastica 'Tineke', Epipremnum pinnatum 'Marble Queen', Begonia elatior 'Nelson', Cyclamen persica, Poinsettia 'Mini') were specifically sensitive to the NO-containing exposure; six were specifically sensitive to the NO2-containing exposure (F. elastica 'Robusta', Asparagus den. 'Sprengeri', Hedera helix 'Shamrock', Aspledium nidus, Aster novo-belgii, Hypoestes phyl. 'Betina'); and 12 (Soleirolia soleirolii, Asparagus den. 'Sprengeri', H. helix 'Ester', Codiaeum 'Pictum', Rosa 'Minimo Red', F. benjamina 'Starlight', Saintpaulia ionantha 'light blue', F. pumila, Rhododendron simsii, H. helix 'Shamrock', Hibiscus sp., E. pinnatum) were equally sensitive to mixtures dominated by either gas, as measured by at least one response parameter. PMID:15091658

  1. BBGD: an online database for blueberry genomic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews Benjamin F

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blueberry is a member of the Ericaceae family, which also includes closely related cranberry and more distantly related rhododendron, azalea, and mountain laurel. Blueberry is a major berry crop in the United States, and one that has great nutritional and economical value. Extreme low temperatures, however, reduce crop yield and cause major losses to US farmers. A better understanding of the genes and biochemical pathways that are up- or down-regulated during cold acclimation is needed to produce blueberry cultivars with enhanced cold hardiness. To that end, the blueberry genomics database (BBDG was developed. Along with the analysis tools and web-based query interfaces, the database serves both the broader Ericaceae research community and the blueberry research community specifically by making available ESTs and gene expression data in searchable formats and in elucidating the underlying mechanisms of cold acclimation and freeze tolerance in blueberry. Description BBGD is the world's first database for blueberry genomics. BBGD is both a sequence and gene expression database. It stores both EST and microarray data and allows scientists to correlate expression profiles with gene function. BBGD is a public online database. Presently, the main focus of the database is the identification of genes in blueberry that are significantly induced or suppressed after low temperature exposure. Conclusion By using the database, researchers have developed EST-based markers for mapping and have identified a number of "candidate" cold tolerance genes that are highly expressed in blueberry flower buds after exposure to low temperatures.

  2. Protective effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Rhododendron arboreum flowers against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in experimental models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Verma

    2011-01-01

    Result and Discussion: The substantially elevated serum enzymatic activities of SGOT, SGPT, SALP, γ-GT, and bilirubin due to CCl 4 treatment were restored toward normal in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, the decreased activities of GST and glutathione reductase were also restored toward normal. In addition, ethyl acetate fraction also significantly prevented the elevation of hepatic malondialdehyde formation and depletion of reduced glutathione content in the liver of CCl 4 -intoxicated rats in a dose-dependent manner. Silymarin used as standard reference also exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity on post-treatment against CCl 4 -induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that ethyl acetate fraction has a potent hepatoprotective action against CCl 4 -induced hepatic damage in rats.

  3. Testate Amoebae Communities in the Rhizosphere of Rhododendron ponticum (Ericaceae) in an Evergreen Broadleaf Forest in Southern Spain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vohník, Martin; Burdíková, Zuzana; Wilkinson, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 51, Sp. iss.3 (2012), s. 259-269. ISSN 0065-1583 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:67985823 Keywords : testate amoebae * Ericaceae * rhizosphere Subject RIV: EF - Botanics; ED - Physiology (FGU-C) Impact factor: 0.984, year: 2012

  4. Leachate Concentrations of Ammonium, Nitrate, and Phosphorus as Affected by Nutrient Release From Four Different Types of Controlled-Release Fertilizers and Crop Development of Containerized Azaleas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concentrations of ammonium, nitrate, and phosphorus in irrigation leachate were measured weekly over a 47-week period from a low-fertility, acid-based substrate into which four types of 12-month controlled-release fertilizers (Osmocote, Nutricote, Polyon, or Multicote) were incorporated. Containers ...

  5. 4种药剂对杜鹃冠网蝽的药效试验和毒力测定%Effect and toxicity of four pesticides on Stephanitis pyriodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄昊; 司嘉怡; 袁准; 曾颖; 曾爱平

    2014-01-01

    为有效防治杜鹃主要害虫杜鹃冠网蝽,选择37%高氯·马、1.8%阿维菌素、5%吡虫啉·氯氰菊酯复配乳油以及10%吡虫啉4种药剂,进行室内毒力测定及药效试验。结果表明:4种药剂对杜鹃冠网蝽均有较好的防治效果,药后5天的防治效果均达到100%,其中5%吡虫啉·氯氰菊酯复配乳油1000倍液,药后1天、2天和3天对杜鹃冠网蝽的防效分别达到93.3%、98.9%、100%。4种药剂的毒力排序为5%吡虫啉·氯氰菊酯复配乳油>37%高氯·马>1.8%阿维菌素>10%吡虫啉。%In order to control of Stephanitis pyriodes which is the main pest of Rhododendron simsii,37% beta-cyper-methrin malathion,1.8% avermectin,5% imidacloprid·cypermethrin and 10% imidacloprid were selected for toxico-logical test and laboratory experiments on Stephanitis pyriodes. The results showed that,all of the four pesticides were suit for controlling of Stephanitis pyriodes,the control effect of four pesticides were 100% after 5 days sprayed. The control effect of 5%imidacloprid and cypermethrin mixtures EC diluted by 1 000 times were 93.3%,98.9%and 100%after 1 day,2 days and 3 days sprayed respectively. The toxicity of four pesticides was 5% imidacloprid·cypermethrin>37%beta-cypermethrin malathion>1.8% avermectin>10% imidacloprid.

  6. Induction of Intracellular Ca2+ and pH Changes in Sf9 Insect Cells by Rhodojaponin-III, A Natural Botanic Insecticide Isolated from Rhododendron molle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Bo Zhang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies on intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i and intracellular pH (pHi have been carried out due to their importance in regulation of different cellular functions. However, most of the previous studies are focused on human or mammalian cells. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the effect of Rhodojaponin-III (R-III on [Ca2+]i and pHi and the proliferation of Sf9 cells. R-III strongly inhibited Sf9 cells proliferation with a time- and dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry established that R-III interfered with Sf9 cells division and arrested them in G2/M. By using confocal scanning technique, effects of R-III on intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i and intracellular pH (pHi in Sf9 cells were determined. R-III induced a significant dose-dependent (1, 10, 100, 200 μg/mL increase in [Ca2+]i and pHi of Sf9 cells in presence of Ca2+-containing solution (Hanks and an irreversible decrease in the absence of extra cellular Ca2+. We also found that both extra cellular Ca2+ and intracellular Ca2+ stores contributed to the increase of [Ca2+]i, because completely treating Sf9 cells with CdCl2 (5 mM, a Ca2+ channels blocker, R-III (100 μg/mL induced a transient elevation of [Ca2+]i in case of cells either in presence of Ca2+ containing or Ca2+ free solution. In these conditions, pHi showed similar changes with that of [Ca2+]i on the whole. Accordingly, we supposed that there was a certain linkage for change of [Ca2+]i, cell cycle arrest, proliferation inhibition in Sf9 cells induced by R-III.

  7. 十六味杜鹃花丸中丁香酚含量的GC测定法%Content measuring of eugenol as a quality control index in sixteen azalea pills by GC Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 岳秀峰

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]To establish the control index of intrinsic quality, and improve the drug quality standard. [Methods]The content of eugenol was determined by gas chromatography method. [Results] The content of eugenol showed good linear relationship in the range of 50-500 μg, the regression equation was Y = 1 215. 3 X- 42. 233, R = 1. 000, the average recovery ratio was 99.23% , RSD was 0.53%. [Conclusion]The method is simple, sensible and accurate, and the study has lay the foundation of further improving the drug quality standard.%目的 建立内在质量监控指标,提高药品质量标准.方法 采用气相色谱法测定丁香酚的含量.结果 丁香酚在50~500μg范围内呈良好线性关系,回归方程y=1215.3 X-42.233.R=1.000,平均回收率为99.23%,RSD为0.53%.结论 该方法简便、灵敏、准确,为进一步提高该药的质量标准打下了基础.

  8. Evaluation of irradiated essential oils to control of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae); Avaliacao de produtos naturais irradiados para o controle de Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) e Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potenza, Marcos Roberto

    2004-07-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of irradiated essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus sp., Azadirachta indica, Cymbopogon nardus, Cupressus sempervirens, Cymbopogons citratus and Juniperus communis and aqueous, hexanic and ethanolic irradiated extracts of Solanum paniculatum, Dahlia pinnata, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nephrolepis pectinata, Ruta graveolens, Ficus elastica, Lavandula angustifolia, Rhododendron simsii, Agave angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Allamanda cathartica, Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Pennisetum purpureum, Annona squamosa, Coffea arabica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, in order to identify new substances to integrated pest management (IPM) and to observe possible effects of gamma radiation about extracts and essential oils efficiency such as increase, reduction, activation and inactivation of the same to the pest control. It evaluated the effect of contact on Sitophilus zeamais and by ingestion in Blattella germanica. To irradiation was used an experimental irradiator of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell 220. The essential oils were submitted increasing doses of gamma radiation: 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 kGy. The bioassay with B. germanica demonstrated efficiency between 22.0 e 30.0% and between 30.0 and 42.0%, respectively, to irradiated essential oils of E. citriodora and E. globulus and they demonstrated too repellency to the nymphs. The gamma radiation used promoted changes in essential oils of E. citriodora e E. globulus that they began to show efficiency on B. germanica nymphs besides a significant reduction of repellency. Essential oils of Pinus sp., A. indica, C. sempervirens and J. communis did not display efficiency. The essential oils of C. nardus, and C. citratus had low efficiency. The gamma radiation increased the efficiency of ethanolic extract of D. Pinnata with dose of 7.5 kGy, showing 48.0% of efficiency on B. germanica nymphs. The gamma radiation showed adverse effect on the aqueous extract of R. Graveolens

  9. 高原湿地纳帕海周边山地不同植被类型枯落物持水特性%Water Holding Characteristics of Litters of Different Species in Mountainous Area of Napahai Plateau Wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆梅; 田昆; 赖建东; 赵一鹤; 魏江舟

    2011-01-01

    The water holding capacity was characterized for the litters from eight plantation types in the mountainous area of Napahai Plateau Wetland. The results show that, for all the eight plantation types, the semi-decomposed and decomposed layer had higher litter storage and water reserving capacity than the freshly-littered layer. The litter storage decreased from highwood, shrub to waste grassland. Specifically, the litter storages of natural Picea asperata Mast, mixed forest of Pinus densata Mast and Rhododendron simsii Planch, mixed forest of Salix cupularis Rehd and Betula platyphylla Suk, Crataegus pinnatifida Bge and waste grassland demonstrated a capacity of 36.60, 30.67, 26.63, 25.61 and 5. 30 t/hm2 , respectively. Comparatively, mixed forest of Salix cupularis Rehd and Betula platyphylla Suk had the highest water holding capacity, and seriously human-disturbed Pinus densata Mast had the lowest. The water holding capacity of the litters increased rapidly during the initial first hour, and then slightly increased after 6~10 hour saturation. The highest water absorption rates were observed in the first 30 minute saturation time, and thereafter the rates decreased substantially. Water loss rates were similar for all the litters, showing a linear decreasing trend. Systematic analysis indicated that the litter of mixed forest of Salix cupularis Rehd and Betula platyphylla Suk had the highest water holding capacity, the strongest flood-adjusting capacity, the most ideal water loss process and the highest water supply capacity, and the best hydro-ecological effect among the eight plantation types.%对高原湿地纳帕海周边山地8种不同植被类型枯落物持水特性进行了研究.结果表明,(1)8种植被类型枯落物储量和总持水量均表现出半分解+分解层>未分解层的变化趋势;枯落物储量呈现从乔木林到灌木林和荒草地逐渐降低的总体趋势;高山柳+白桦混交林最大总持水量最大,受人为干扰较为

  10. Evaluation of irradiated essential oils to control of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of irradiated essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus sp., Azadirachta indica, Cymbopogon nardus, Cupressus sempervirens, Cymbopogons citratus and Juniperus communis and aqueous, hexanic and ethanolic irradiated extracts of Solanum paniculatum, Dahlia pinnata, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nephrolepis pectinata, Ruta graveolens, Ficus elastica, Lavandula angustifolia, Rhododendron simsii, Agave angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Allamanda cathartica, Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Pennisetum purpureum, Annona squamosa, Coffea arabica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, in order to identify new substances to integrated pest management (IPM) and to observe possible effects of gamma radiation about extracts and essential oils efficiency such as increase, reduction, activation and inactivation of the same to the pest control. It evaluated the effect of contact on Sitophilus zeamais and by ingestion in Blattella germanica. To irradiation was used an experimental irradiator of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell 220. The essential oils were submitted increasing doses of gamma radiation: 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 kGy. The bioassay with B. germanica demonstrated efficiency between 22.0 e 30.0% and between 30.0 and 42.0%, respectively, to irradiated essential oils of E. citriodora and E. globulus and they demonstrated too repellency to the nymphs. The gamma radiation used promoted changes in essential oils of E. citriodora e E. globulus that they began to show efficiency on B. germanica nymphs besides a significant reduction of repellency. Essential oils of Pinus sp., A. indica, C. sempervirens and J. communis did not display efficiency. The essential oils of C. nardus, and C. citratus had low efficiency. The gamma radiation increased the efficiency of ethanolic extract of D. Pinnata with dose of 7.5 kGy, showing 48.0% of efficiency on B. germanica nymphs. The gamma radiation showed adverse effect on the aqueous extract of R. Graveolens

  11. 喀斯特山区9种常见树木叶片在防火期的阻火性分析%Fire Resistance of Leaves During Fire Prevention Period of Nine Common Tree Species in Karst Mountain Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁琴; 陶建平; 邓锋; 王微; 方文; 何平

    2015-01-01

    Objective]Guizhou province of China is one of the most typical karst regions in the world,at the same time,its fire disturbance is highly representative in the national forest fires. With the fragile karst environment plus severe forest fire disturbance,the fire prevention is particularly important and urgent in the Karst mountain regions of Guizhou province. Among the many fire prevention measures,the biological firebreak with its versatile,and long-term advantage, has attracted much attention of scholars and managers. The primary task of biological firebreak is to select the appropriate pyrophyte ( the plants with good fire resistance) . However,there is few study focus on the pyrophyte selection for karst mountain regions. On the other hand,with regard to pyrophyte selection,there is no uniform evaluation method up to now. It’s necessary to select appropriate fire-resistant tree species which are also suitable for growing in karst mountain regions,[Method]we investigated 9 common tree species from karst mountain regions of northwest Guizhou. Based on the measurements of four leaf traits ( benzene -alcohol extract content,ash content,ignition time and heat value) during fire prevention period,we used the Principal Component Analysis ( PCA) ,combined with the Weighted-Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution ( W-TOPSIS) ,to analyze the fire resistance.[Result]The Viburnum foetidum var. ceanothoides’s and Castanea seguinii’s benzene-alcohol extractive content were 2. 12 and 1. 97 times higher than Murica nana’s; The ash content of M. nana’s and V. foetidum var. ceanothoides’were the highest,and Castanea seguinii’s,Vaccinium pseudorobustum ’s and Ligustrum quihoui ’s were the lowest; The ignition time of L. quihoui, Castanea seguinii and Cotoneaster glaucophyllus var. glaucophyllus were the longest, and Puracantha fortuneana, Cunninghamia lanceolata and Rhododendron simsii were the shortest;The highest heat value were

  12. Enraizamento de estacas de azaléia Rhododendron indicum: cultivar terra nova tratadas com ácido indolbutírico, com o uso ou não de fixador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Tadeu Vilela de Resende

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento teve como objetivo avaliar o enraizamento de estacas de Azaléia – cultivar Terra Nova – tratadas com ácido indol-butírico, com o uso ou não de gelatina como fixador. Foram avaliados os tratamentos 1,5 g AIB/L; 1,5 g AIB/L e fixador; 2,0 g AIB/L; 2,0 g AIB/L e fixador; 2,5 g AIB/L; 2,5 g AIB/L e fixador. Não foram detectadas diferenças significativas para doses de ácido indol-butírico e uso ou não de fixador para as características de enraizamento avaliadas.

  13. 亚高山森林林窗对凋落物分解过程中半纤维素动态的影响%Effects of forest gap on hemicellulose dynamics during foliar litter decomposition in an subal-pine forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晗; 吴福忠; 杨万勤; 徐李亚; 倪祥银; 何洁; 胡义

    2015-01-01

    forest. Methods A field litterbag experiment was conducted in an subalpine fir (Abies faxoniana) forest in a transitional area located in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River and the eastern Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. Litterbags containing cypress (Sabina saltuaria), red birch (Betula albosinensis), larch (Larix mastersiana), azalea (Rhododendron lapponicum) and fir (Abies faxoniana) were placed on forest floor from the gap center to under the closed canopy. Samples of litterbags were retrieved at the stages of snow formation, snow cover, and snowmelt as well as during the growing season. Hemicellulose contents of the remaining litter were measured. Important findings After one-year decomposition, all five types of foliar litter exhibited a tendency of hemicellulose accumulation. The needle-leaved litter and broad-leaved litter showed greater hemicellulose losses at the snow cover and snowmelt stages, respectively. Greater hemicellulose losses in the gap center and under the canopy were observed at both snow cover and snowmelt stages. In contrast, there was less litter hemicellulose accumulation in the gap center during the growing season. Statistical analysis of the resulting data indicated that both environmental factors and litter quality were significantly correlated with the litter hemicellulose losses. Our results suggested that forest gap enhanced the hemicellulose losses in winter and constrained the hemicellulose accumulation during growing season, implying that the formation of forest gap in subalpine forest promoted hemicellulose degradation during litter decomposition.

  14. 八ヶ岳周辺におけるウラジロモミ林の組成と環境要因

    OpenAIRE

    長岡, 総子; 奥田, 重俊

    1999-01-01

    Species composition and environmental factors of the Abies homolepis forest are investigated around Mt. Yatsugatake in Central Japan. Based on the phytosociological classification, Abies homolepis forests in this area are classified into two communities: Rhododendron wadanum-Abies homolepis and Lonicera demissa-Abies homolepis communities. The former is differentiated by Rhododendron wadanum, Acer distylum, Arachniodes mutica, Fagus crenata and Fagus japonica; the latter, by Lonicera demissa,...

  15. Rhizoctonia web blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizoctonia web blight, caused by several Rhizoctonia spp., is an important disease of evergreen azaleas and other ornamental plants in nurseries. The primary pathogens causing web blight are binucleate Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups (AG) (= Ceratobasidium D.P. Rogers, teleomorph). In southern AL an...

  16. 7 CFR 301.92-2 - Restricted, regulated, and associated articles; lists of proven hosts and associated plant taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... articles: (1) Nursery stock, decorative trees without roots, unprocessed wood and wood products, and plant... (≡Rhamnus purshiana) Cascara Fraxinus excelsior European ash *Griselinia littoralis Griselinia *Hamamelis... (including azalea)—includes all species, hybrids, and cultivars *Rosa gymnocarpa Wood rose *Salix caprea...

  17. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF TREE AND SHRUB SPECIES AND RESPONSE OF BLACK CHERRY FOLIAGE TO OZONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants of 12 species were exposed to 0.20 ppm of ozone for 5 hr periodically throughout the growing season of 1976. Species exhibiting symptoms, in approximate descending order of susceptibility, were Hinodegiri azalea, black cherry, American sycamore, hybrid poplar, yellow popla...

  18. Six new alien phytophagous insect species recorded in Slovenia in 2011:

    OpenAIRE

    SELJAK, Gabrijel

    2012-01-01

    Six alien phytophagous insects found in 2011 in Slovenia for the first time are presented: Dichromothrips corbetti (Thysanoptera, Thripidae), Aleuroclava aucubae and Pealius azaleae (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae), Ceroplastes ceriferus (Hemiptera, Coccidae), Cydalima perspectalis (Lepidoptera, Crambidae) and Aproceros leucopoda (Hymenoptera, Argidae). Pathways of their introduction and spread as well as their potential phytosanitary and environmental impacts are briefly discussed. Članek obravna...

  19. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 October 2011 - 30 November 2011

    KAUST Repository

    Abreu, Aluana Gonçalves

    2012-02-01

    This article documents the addition of 139 microsatellite marker loci and 90 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Aglaoctenus lagotis, Costus pulverulentus, Costus scaber, Culex pipiens, Dascyllus marginatus, Lupinus nanus Benth, Phloeomyzus passerini, Podarcis muralis, Rhododendron rubropilosum Hayata var. taiwanalpinum and Zoarces viviparus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Culex quinquefasciatus, Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum Hay. ssp. morii (Hay.) Yamazaki and R. pseudochrysanthum Hayata. This article also documents the addition of 48 sequencing primer pairs and 90 allele-specific primers for Engraulis encrasicolus. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Chemical, Physical, and Biological Factors Influencing Nutrient Availability and Plant Growth in a Pine Tree Substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Brian Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Pine tree substrate (PTS) produced from freshly harvested loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees has potential for replacing or reducing the use of aged pine bark (PB) and peat moss as container substrates for horticulture crop production. The objective of this work was to determine the factors influencing nutrient availability in PTS compared to PB or peat substrates. Chapter two reports data on the response of japanese holly and azalea to fertilizer rate when grown in PTS and PB. This stud...

  1. Effect of applied synthetic auxin on root growth in plantlet propagation by cuttage and tissue culture; Sashiki to soshiki baiyo ni okeru gosei auxin rui no shiyo koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, K.; Yoshihara, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    The effect of synthetic plant hormone 4-C1-IAA and TFIBA on root growth in plantlet propagation was clarified by the cuttage and the issue culture of strawberry seedling production. A periwinkle, vine, and azalea are the effect of 4-C1-IAA on root growth, and a promotion effect was recognized for rooting and root elongation. The concentration of 4-C1-IAA in which the growth promotion effect of a root most appears varies depending on the species of a plant. The concentration of a periwinkle was 20 ppm, and that of an azalea was 2000 ppm. The growth promotion effect of a root in 4-C1-IAA and TFIBA was compared with IBA for an azalea. The result showed that 4-C1-IAA is the same in the effect as IBA and that TFIBA is higher than for IBA. The growth of a vine`s terminal bud was promoted by the effect of TFIBA on root growth, and the callus occurring when IBA was treated was not formed. The rooting of a strawberry was promoted by the effect of TFIBA on root growth. The combined use of TFIBA and BA promotes the growth of a side bud and forms a multi-bud plant. However, rooting was inhibited. The callus caused by the effect of BA on root growth could be suppressed through the combined use with TFIBA. 6 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. A revision of the history of the Colletotrichum acutatum species complex in the Nordic countries based on herbarium specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundelin, Thomas; Strømeng, Gunn Mari; Gjærum, Halvor B.;

    2015-01-01

    seven plant hosts (three cherry species, apple, raspberry and rhododendron). This is the first time herbarium specimens have been used to study these pathogens under Nordic conditions. Differences in the ITS sequences suggest the presence of different genotypes within the complex, indicating a well...

  3. Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) : [luuletused] / R. W. Stedingh ; tlk. ja saatesõna: Jüri Talvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stedingh, R. W.

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) ; Rubus spectabilis ; Rododendron (Rhododendron macrophyllum) ; Lysuchitum americanum ; Tulp (Tulipa gesneriana) ; Kanada hani (Branta canadensis) ; Metsorava pärastlõuna (Sciurus carolinensis) ; Ohakalind (Spinus tristis) ; Shakespeare'i mälestusmärk (kogust "Stanley pargi süit")

  4. Diagnostic values and utility of immunological, morphological, and molecular methods for in planta detection of phytophthora ramorum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kox, L.F.F.; Brouwershaven, van I.R.; Vossenberg, van de B.T.L.H.; Beld, van den H.E.; Bonants, P.J.M.; Gruyter, de J.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, six methods for the detection of Phytophthora ramorum in planta were compared using naturally infested rhododendron plant material. The methods included two immunological methods, one an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the other using a lateral flow format (LFD). Three m

  5. „A. FATU” BOTANICAL GARDEN IASSY – THE GREENHOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEODORESCU GEORGETA

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In Iassy, „A. Fatu” Botanical garden’s Greenhouse complex (20 buildings with a total area of 3800 sq.m hosts a remarcable fund of exotic plants (2700 taxa, native especially in subtropical, tropical and ecuatorial areas, on every continent.This paper presents some of the plant collections grown in this space. It comes out that, by number, diversity and value (scientific/decorative of the taxa, many collections – azaleas and camelias, carnivorous plant, palm trees, bromelias, orchids, cicads, crotons, ficuses – have a unicum value in the country.

  6. クサグモ個体群の生息場所選択について

    OpenAIRE

    高, 明均; 三浦, 正

    1985-01-01

    The habitat choice of population in spider,Agelenna limbata Thorell, was investigated in the expenmental farm of Shimane University. There were more individuals inhabited in box-tree(Ilex crenata Thumb.) than those lived in the trees of cherry or azalea (Rhododendeon indicum). The box-tree generally has many twigs, therefore, it is assumed that the tree form of box-tree would facilitate a making nest by spiders and a escaping an attack of bird. The population density of spider per hill of bo...

  7. „A. FATU” BOTANICAL GARDEN IASSY – THE GREENHOUSE

    OpenAIRE

    TEODORESCU GEORGETA

    2004-01-01

    In Iassy, „A. Fatu” Botanical garden’s Greenhouse complex (20 buildings with a total area of 3800 sq.m) hosts a remarcable fund of exotic plants (2700 taxa), native especially in subtropical, tropical and ecuatorial areas, on every continent.This paper presents some of the plant collections grown in this space. It comes out that, by number, diversity and value (scientific/decorative) of the taxa, many collections – azaleas and camelias, carnivorous plant, palm trees, bromelias, orchids, cicad...

  8. Influence of ozone on selected woody ornamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, F.A.; Coppolino, J.B.

    1971-01-01

    Approximately 900 plants of 24 woody ornamental species were exposed to 25 pphm ozone for 8 hr at 24 C, 75% relative humidity, and 1400 ft-c of light. Cercis canadensis, Cotoneaster divaricata, C. horizontalis, Forsythia intermedia spectabilis Lynwood Gold, Gleditsia triacanthos inermis, Rhododendron kaempheri Camp fire, R. kurume Snow, R. catawbiense album, R. nova zembla, R. roseium elegans, Sorbus aucuparia, Syringa vulgaris, and Viburnum carlesi were sensitive. The most common symptoms were brown to black necrotic stipples on the upper leaf surface and premature defoliation. Interveinal necrotic and chlorotic flecks occurred infrequently. Current leaves of intermediate age were most sensitive. Euonymous alatus compacta, Hedra helix, Juniperus communis depressa plumosa, Pachysandra terminalis, Pieris japonica, Pyracantha coccinea lalandi, Rhododendron caroliniana, R. mollis, Taxus cuspidata, T. media hicksi, and Vinca minor were resistant.

  9. Changes in thermal infrared spectra of plants caused by temperature and water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, Maria F.; Groen, Thomas A.; Hecker, Christoph A.; Skidmore, Andrew K.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental stress causes changes in leaves and the structure of plants. Although physiological adaptations to stress by plants have been explored, the effect of stress on the spectral properties in the thermal part of the electromagnetic spectrum (3-16 μm) has not yet been investigated. In this research two plant species (European beech, Fagus sylvatica and rhododendron, Rhododendron cf. catawbiense) that both grow naturally under temperature limited conditions were selected, representing deciduous and evergreen plants respectively. Besides TIR spectra, Leaf Water Content (LWC) and cuticle thickness were measured as possible variables that can explain the changes in TIR spectra. The results demonstrated that both species, when exposed to either water or temperature stress, showed significant changes in their TIR spectra. The changes in TIR in response to stress were similar within a species, regardless of the stress imposed on them. However, changes in TIR spectra differed between species. For rhododendron emissivity in TIR increased under stress while for beech it decreased. Both species showed depletion of Leaf Water Content (LWC) under stress, ruling LWC out as a main cause for the change in the TIR spectra. Cuticle thickness remained constant for beech, but increased for rhododendron. This suggests that changes in emissivity may be linked to changes in the cuticle thickness and possibly the structure of cuticle. It is known that spectral changes in this region have a close connection with microstructure and biochemistry of leaves. We propose detailed measurements of these changes in the cuticle to analyze the effect of microstructure on TIR spectra.

  10. Roční průběh základních fluorescenčních parametrů dvou stálezelených rostlin

    OpenAIRE

    SVIDENSKÁ, Silvie

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis was to attain information of annual variation of basic chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in two evergreen overwintering plants: Picea omorica and Rhododendron x hybridum. Here, I measured F0, FM, FV/FM and NPQ in dark adapted samples under controlled light conditions and under ambient temperature corresponding to that in field. At first, the principles of photosynthesis and of chlorophyll fluorescene are described. In the second part the results are sumarized...

  11. Estaquillas leñosas de fácil enraizamiento: estudio del esclerénquima

    OpenAIRE

    González, Elena; Díaz, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio histológico de las siguientes especies leñosas de fácil enraizamiento: Aucuba japonica Thumb, Buddleja japonica Hemsley, Buxus sempervirens L., Citrus aurantium L., Citrus limon (L.) Burm, fil., Cydonia oblonga Miller, Erica arborea L., Escallonia rubra (Ruiz & Pavón) Pers., Euonymus japonicus L. fil., Forsythia viridissima Lindl., Hydrangea macrophylla Ser., Morus alba L. Populus nigra L., Rhododendron ponticum L., Salix atrocinerea Brot., Salix viminalis L., Sambuc...

  12. Photosynthetic limitation of several representative subalpine species in the Catalan Pyrenees in summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernàndez-Martínez, J; Fleck, I

    2016-07-01

    Information on the photosynthetic process and its limitations is essential in order to predict both the capacity of species to adapt to conditions associated with climate change and the likely changes in plant communities. Considering that high-mountain species are especially sensitive, three species representative of subalpine forests of the Central Catalan Pyrenees: mountain pine (Pinus uncinata Mill.), birch (Betula pendula Roth) and rhododendron (Rhododendron ferrugineum L.) were studied under conditions associated with climate change, such as low precipitation, elevated atmospheric [CO2 ] and high solar irradiation incident at Earth's surface, in order to detect any photosynthetic limitations. Short-term high [CO2 ] increased photosynthesis rates (A) and water use efficiency (WUE), especially in birch and mountain pine, whereas stomatal conductance (gs ) was not altered in either species. Birch showed photosynthesis limitation through stomatal closure related to low rainfall, which induced photoinhibition and early foliar senescence. Rhododendron was especially affected by high irradiance, showing early photosynthetic saturation in low light, highest chlorophyll content, lowest gas exchange rates and least photoprotection. Mountain pine had the highest A, photosynthetic capacity (Amax ) and light-saturated rates of net CO2 assimilation (Asat ), which were maintained under reduced precipitation. Furthermore, maximum quantum yield (Fv /Fm ), thermal energy dissipation, PRI and SIPI radiometric index, and ascorbate content indicated improved photoprotection with respect to the other two species. However, maximum velocity of carboxylation of RuBisco (Vcmax ) indicated that N availability would be the main photosynthetic limitation in this species. PMID:26833754

  13. Structure, Composition and Dominance � Diversity Relations in Three Forest Types of a Part of Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary, Central Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Prasad SEMWAL

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant diversity assessment was carried out on the basis of species richness, tree crown cover and dominance-diversity pattern in different forests of Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary (KWLS, Central Himalaya, India during 2006-2009. The maximum tree species richness (10 spp. was observed in Rhododendron arboreum Sm. dominated mixed forest and minimum in Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus. forest (8 spp.. Maximum tree density (170 trees/ha and high importance value index (89.68 was found in Q. semecarpifolia Sm. forest. Mixed Rhododendron arboreum Sm. forest showed high tree diversity (H=0.96, while shrub were found highest in Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus forest (H=0.62 and herb diversity in Q. semecarpifolia Sm.forest (H=0.73 respectively Maximum tree crown cover (82% was observed in Rhododendron arboreum Sm. dominated mixed forest while minimum tree crown cover (58% was observed in Q. semecarpifolia Sm. forest. In general random distribution pattern (A/F ratio was observed in all three types of forest. Alterations of land use pattern and population pressure are found to be main cause of increase in resources exploitation and that ultimately decreases species richness and diversity. Agro-forestry, alternate use of sites for resources and providing a recovery period to the forests are some of the strategies suggested for forest conservation, management and sustainable utilization of resources by the local people.

  14. Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Insecticidal Activities of Hedychium Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanniah Rajasekaran

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been documented, and their use as “biocides” is gaining popularity. The aims of this study were to analyze the chemical composition and assess the biological activities of Hedychium essential oils. Oils from 19 Hedychium species and cultivars were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS techniques. The antifungal and insecticidal activities of these oils were tested against Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides, and three insects, the azalea lace bug (Stephanitis pyrioides, the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti, and the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta. Hedychium oils were rich in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, especially 1,8-cineole (0.1%–42%, linalool (<0.1%–56%, a-pinene (3%–17%, b-pinene (4%–31%, and (E-nerolidol (0.1%–20%. Hedychium oils had no antifungal effect on C. gloeosporioides, C. fragariae, and C. acutatum, but most Hedychium oils effectively killed azalea lace bugs. The oils also show promise as an adult mosquito repellent, but they would make rather poor larvicides or adulticides for mosquito control. Hedychium oils acted either as a fire ant repellent or attractant, depending on plant genotype and oil concentration.

  15. A comparative study of antigens of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates from patients and soil of ornamental plants in the immunodiffusion test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staib, F; Folkens, U; Tompak, B; Abel, T; Thiel, D

    1978-11-01

    The strikingly frequent and constant presence of Aspergillus fimigatus in the soil of potted ornamental plants kept in private houses and hospitals has been the reason for studying the antigens of the strains found from the diagnostic and epidemiological angles. Culture-filtrate antigens of A. fumigatus strains isolated from the soil of 4 different ornamental plants, epiphyllum (Epiphyllum truncatum), orange tree (Citrus sinensis), Alpine rose (Azalea indica) and Christmas flower (Euphorbia pulcherrima), were compared, in the immunodiffusion test, with antigens of A. fumigatus strains from aspergillosis patients prepared in an identical way. When tested against 8 different sera from different aspergillosis patients there was a good coincidence of results. Control sera from patients suffering from diseases other than aspergillosis, no false-positive reactions could be observed. The findings are discussed in respect of diagnosis and epidemiology. PMID:83753

  16. Effect of Sanding on Surface Properties of Medium Density Fiberboard

    OpenAIRE

    Nadir Ayrilmis, Zeki Candan, Turgay Akbulut, Ozgur Balkiz

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of sanding on the surface properties of the medium density fiberboard (MDF) panels made from Rhododendron ponticum L. wood. The MDF panels were sanded with different sizes of the sand paper grit: 60-, 60+80- or 60+80+120-grit. Surface absorption and surface roughness of the MDF panels were determined based on EN 382-1 standard and ISO 4287 by using a fi ne stylus profi lometer, respectively. Sessile water drop technique was used to...

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Tree Species in Mixed Forests of Mandal Catchments, Garhwal Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balwant KUMAR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 14 tree species were identified in the study sites, among which Quercus leucotrichophora Hook. F. (Banj oak, Rhododendron arboreum Smith (Burans, Lyonia ovalifolia Drude (Ayar and Pyrus pashia Buch-Hemp (Mehal are the predominant tree species. A quantitative analysis of tree species indicates that on the basis of their canopy cover, tree density and total base area, these study sites fall within the category of disturbed forest. The uncontrolled lopping for timber, firewood and leaf fodder and the absence of saplings and seedlings are some of the major factors responsible for the declining of forests in the Himalayan region.

  18. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON WHOLE TREE VERTICAL TENSILE STRENGTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihua CHEN; Xinxiao YU; Dongsheng ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the vertical tensile strength of whole tree roots under the same soil and landform conditions.The experiments show that the shape of a root system's distribution affects the vertical tensile strength of roots.Rhododendron trees have horizontal root systems,so the whole roots were pulled out in the experiment process.Populous purdomii has vertical roots,so the experiment continued quite a long time.Abies fabric has both vertical and horizontal main roots,so the P-S curve shows a multi-peak shape.

  19. Biochar as a biosecurity tool for the management of invasive and/or infected plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Philip J. E.; Fielding, J. James; Alayne Street-Perrott, F.; Doerr, Stefan H.; Brackenbury, Sion

    2014-05-01

    Control of invasive alien/native plants and diseased trees is often achieved using labour-intensive mechanical methods, incurring high costs and significant carbon debt. Disposal of cleared biomass may be heavily regulated. The commonly used method, burning, wastes a potentially valuable resource. Biochar may offer a safe, cost-effective solution to the problem of disposal. Large areas of Wales are covered by bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) (37x103 ha) or invasive Rhododendron ponticum (area not yet quantified). Clearance of these plants is often necessary for agriculture or maintenance of biodiversity (bracken), or to curb the rapid dispersal of the fungus-like pathogen Phytophthora ramorum from rhododendron (the principal host) into commercial timber stands, notably Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi). In addition, ash dieback (the fungal disease Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus aka Chalara fraxinea) is now spreading aggressively in common ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior) in the UK. Pilot-scale experiments are being conducted using a BiGchar 1000 mobile, fast pyrolysis -gasification unit, focussing on chipped rhododendron, Japanese larch and common ash feedstocks. Preliminary results of these experiments will be presented. The biochars produced are being subjected to a range of physical and chemical analyses. Levels of micro- and macro-nutrients retained from the original feedstocks are being evaluated. Organic and inorganic contaminants are also being compared with those in the respective feedstocks. Biochar produced from R. ponticum comprised C 63.7-85.9%, H 0.4-0.8%, N 0.4-0.8%, S 0.27-1.79% and O 4.1-27.4%, with most of the mineral nutrients being retained from the original feedstock, especially Mn. Larch biochar comprised C 84.1-91.7%, H 1.8-3.1%, N 0.3-0.8%, S 0.42-0.69% and O 4.1-10.7%. Heavy-metal concentrations were below recommended limits (International Biochar Initiative, 2012), although R. ponticum growing on highly acidified soils showed some tendency to bio

  20. Dominance and diversity studies of tree species in lesser Himalayan forest of Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. BISHT

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Bisht AS, Bhatt AB. 2016. Dominance and diversity studies of tree species in lesser Himalayan forest of Uttarakhand, India. Biodiversitas 17: 70-77. For the present investigation single mountain, approach was applied. This is a supplement the basic approach and extends the gradients further downward in to the forest belt. Vegetational analysis of nine stands covering all the four aspects of the study site of Pauri Garhwal district of Uttarakhand, India has been undertaken. In seven trees, species were encountered. East aspect is characteristics by highest density of Cupressus torulosa while west aspect comprised of Cedrus deodara, Myrica esculenta, Pinus. roxbugrhii, Quercus. leucotrichophora and Rhododendron arboreum, i.e. high diversity with low dominance Cupressus torulosa and Cedrus deodara dominated the north aspect. In general, influence of higher anthropogenic pressure on Quercus species is an important factor for leads to gradual replacement of oak species by Pinus roxburghii in all the aspects.

  1. 4,4,6a,6b,11,12,14b-Heptamethyl-16-oxo-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,6a,6b,7,8,9,10,11,12,12a,14a,14b-octadecahydro-12b,8a-(epoxymethanopicen-3-yl acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nisar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C32H48O4, which was extracted from the bark of Rhododendron arboreum, consists of five fused rings to which an acetate and seven methyl groups are attached. The A, D and E rings adopt chair conformations, the B ring is in a distorted chair and the C ring is in a half-chair conformation. The five-membered ring formed by the lactone group, which bridges from the A/B to the B/C ring junctions, is an approximate envelope with the C atom of the methyne group as the flap [displacement from the other four atoms = 0.753 (2 Å]. There are no identified directional interactions in the crystal structure.

  2. Toxic Plant Resources in Panxi Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yun; SU Chunjiang; ZHENG Yuanchang

    2007-01-01

    Panxi Area is abundant in plant resources, among which toxic plants are of great value in terms of exploitation. This paper is an initiative study (via field as well as literature investigation) of the categories, distributions, and reserves of toxic plant resources in Panxi Area. The study reveals that there are 51 families (210 species) of toxic plants evenly distributed in Panxi Area, of which more than 40 species grow in all counties in the area, and more than 14 species total a reserve more than 1.0×105kg. These toxic plants are of great applications to medicine, gardening, biopesticide industry, environmental engineering, and oil manufacturing. Rhododendron molle, Anisodus acutangulus, Arisaema erubesocens, Stellera chamaejasme, Rhytolacca acinosa, Rheum officinale, and Azadiralta indica etc are the typical toxic plants with great value of exploitation in Panxi Area.

  3. A DNA microarray for the authentication of toxic traditional Chinese medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carles, Maria; Cheung, Matthew Kin; Moganti, Shanti; Dong, Tina T; Tsim, Karl W; Ip, Nancy Y; Sucher, Nikolaus J

    2005-06-01

    A silicon-based DNA microarray was designed and fabricated for the identification of toxic traditional Chinese medicinal plants. Species-specific oligonucleotide probes were derived from the 5S ribosomal RNA gene of Aconitum carmichaeli, A. kusnezoffi, Alocasia macrorrhiza, Croton tiglium, Datura inoxia, D. metel, D. tatula, Dysosma pleiantha, Dy. versipellis, Euphorbia kansui, Hyoscyamus niger, Pinellia cordata, P. pedatisecta, P. ternata, Rhododendron molle, Strychnos nux-vomica, Typhonium divaricatum and T. giganteum and the leucine transfer RNA gene of Aconitum pendulum and Stellera chamaejasme. The probes were immobilized via dithiol linkage on a silicon chip. Genomic target sequences were amplified and fluorescently labeled by asymmetric polymerase chain reaction. Multiple toxic plant species were identified by parallel genotyping. Chip-based authentication of medicinal plants may be useful as inexpensive and rapid tool for quality control and safety monitoring of herbal pharmaceuticals and neutraceuticals. PMID:15971136

  4. Phytochemicals and biological activities of poisonous genera of Ericaceae in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Jiang, Rui; Liu, Zizhen; Liu, Weirui; Xie, Meng; Wei, Shengli; She, Gaimei

    2014-03-01

    The family Ericaceae is comprised of about 70 genera of which about 20 are found throughout China. Of these Ledum, Rhododendron, Enkianthus, Pieris, Craibiodendron, Gaultheria, Vaccinium, and Leucothoe are regarded as poisonous. Many species of these poisonous genera are used as Chinese herbal medicines for the treatment of, for example, inflammation, asthma, and coughs. Modem research has demonstrated that the toxic ingredients of these poisonous genera are chiefly tetracyclic diterpenes, which have adverse effects on the digestive, cardiovascular and nervous systems. Because various species of these poisonous genera also have medicinal functions, extensive studies of these plants have led to the identification of many kinds of compound. This paper compiles 306 compounds from the eight poisonous genera, reported in 141 references. PMID:24689229

  5. Plant regeneration from petiole segments of some species in tissue culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Klimaszewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration ability of 21 plant species belonging to 14 families was tested. The method of tissue culture in vitro was applied, on basic MS medium with an addition of growth regulators from the auxin and cytokinin groups. From among the investigated plant groups Peperomia scandens and Caladium × hortulanum were capable of plant regeneration, Passiilora coerulea regenerated shoots, Hedera helix, Begonia glabra, Coleus blumei, Fuchsia hybrida, Passiflora suberosa and Peperomia eburnea formed callus and roots, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, Pelargonium grandiflorum, P. peltatum, P. radula, Coleus shirensis and Magnolia soulangeana produced callus, Philodendron scandens, Rhododendron smirnovii, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Coprosma baueri, Cestrum purpureum and Solanum rantonnetii did not exhibit any regeneration reactions.

  6. Natural Mongolian Pine Forests in the Great Xing'an Mountains, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Zhiqiang; Liu Tong; Zhou Lin

    2003-01-01

    Based upon 134 reléves, the vegetation of the forests with Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) of the Great Xing'an Mountains in the northeast China was classified into 3 communities, 7 types and 4 subtypes by numerical cluster analysis. 1) The Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica-Populus davidiana-community was found on relatively dry sites. It was subdivided into a Quercus mongolica-type, consisting of a Adenophora tetraphylla subtype, a Pulsatilla dahurica subtype, and a pure type; 2) The Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica-Rhododendron dauricum-community occurred on medium dry sites. It included a Calamagrostis angustifolia type, consisting of a Cladonia arbuscula subtype, a pure subtype, and a Rubus idaeus-type; 3) The Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica-Ledum palustre-community was found on periodically wet sites. It included a Picea koraiensis type, a Vaccinium uliginosum type, and a pure type.

  7. Preliminary Survey on Native Orchids of Hkakabo-razi National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hkakabo-razi is rich in biodiversity of flora and fauna which is situated in Northern Kachin State. Total area of Hkakabo-razi is 1472 sq miles and is the biggest National Park in Myanmar. Abundance of wild orchids, rhododendrons, ferns, trees, temperate and sub-tropical wild flowers grow well naturally in primary dense forests of this area. This area is habitat of CITES Appendis (I) listed orchid Paphiopedilum wardii and other uncommon and unusual native wild orchids. Three biological expeditions in 1997, 1998 and 2000 undertook the task of surveying the flora and fauna of this region jointlyh co-sponsored by Forest Department of Myanmar and Wildlife Conservation Society from United States. In this presentation, the native orchids of this area were described and presented as the preliminary result of above three biological expeditions conducted in Hkakabo-razi National Park.

  8. Interspecific differences in foliar 1 PAHs load between Scots pine, birch, and wild rosemary from three polish peat bogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mętrak, Monika; Aneta, Ekonomiuk; Wiłkomirski, Bogusław; Staszewski, Tomasz; Suska-Malawska, Małgorzata

    2016-08-01

    Pine needles are one of the most commonly used bioindicators of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment. Therefore, the main objective of the current research was the assessment of PAHs accumulation potential of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles in comparison to wild rosemary (Rhododendron tomentosum Harmaja) and birch (Betula spp.) leaves. Our study was carried out on three peat bogs subjected to different degree of anthropopression, which gave us also the opportunity to identify local emission sources. Pine needles had the lowest accumulation potential from all the studied species. The highest accumulation potential, and hence carcinogenic potential, was observed for wild rosemary leaves. As far as emission sources are concerned, the most pronounced influence on atmospheric PAHs loads had traditional charcoal production, resulting in great influx of heavy PAHs. Observed seasonal changes in PAHs concentrations followed the pattern of winter increase, caused mainly by heating season, and summer decrease, caused mainly by volatilization of light PAHs. PMID:27393196

  9. Habitat Ecology of Himalayan Musk Deer (Moschus chrysogaster in Manaslu Conservation Area, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuxiang Meng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster is an endangered species found in the Himalayan region of Nepal. This research was conducted in the Manaslu Conservation Area to explore the deers general population status, distribution, habitat preference and conservation threats. Musk deer are distributed within the altitudinal range of 3128-4039 m spanning 35.43 km2, with the most potential habitat in the Prok VDC (Village Development Committee. Within this area the Musk deer highly preferred altitudes between 3601-3800 m, with a 21-30 slope, 26-50% crown cover and 26-50% ground cover. There are significant differences in the use of different habitat types in terms of altitude, slope, crown cover, ground cover and topography. The preferred tree species were Abies spectabilis, Betula utilis and Rhododendron species. Poaching of deer for their musk is the major conservation threat.

  10. Structure and Metabolic-Flow Analysis of Molecular Complexity in a (13) C-Labeled Tree by 2D and 3D NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Takanori; Ohishi, Risa; Shino, Amiu; Kikuchi, Jun

    2016-05-10

    Improved signal identification for biological small molecules (BSMs) in a mixture was demonstrated by using multidimensional NMR on samples from (13) C-enriched Rhododendron japonicum (59.5 atom%) cultivated in air containing (13) C-labeled carbon dioxide for 14 weeks. The resonance assignment of 386 carbon atoms and 380 hydrogen atoms in the mixture was achieved. 42 BSMs, including eight that were unlisted in the spectral databases, were identified. Comparisons between the experimental values and the (13) C chemical shift values calculated by density functional theory supported the identifications of unlisted BSMs. Tracing the (13) C/(12) C ratio by multidimensional NMR spectra revealed faster and slower turnover ratios of BSMs involved in central metabolism and those categorized as secondary metabolites, respectively. The identification of BSMs and subsequent flow analysis provided insight into the metabolic systems of the plant. PMID:27060701

  11. Effectiveness of electron beam irradiation in the control of some soilborne pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam (EB) irradiation was tested against Botrytis cinerea, Pythium ultimum and Phytophthora citricola the most dangerous pathogens causing stem and root rot of seedlings, cuttings and older plants. In the laboratory trials cultures of 3 species were irradiated with doses 0 (control), 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 kGy whereas peat was treated with 10, 15 and 25 kGy. P. citricola was the most sensitive species for irradiation. In greenhouse trials 15 kGy irradiation of peat protected chrysanthemum cuttings against B. cinerea and P. ultimum as well as rhododendron young plants against P. citricola. Irradiation of peat did not influence the growth and development of the tested plants. (authors)

  12. La diversité naturelle des espèces ligneuses en tant que source de plantes ornementales et utilitaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena De Belder

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural diversity of woody species as a source of ornamental plants.The collection of the Kalmthout Arboretum contains 4 000 plants, representing 170 généra of woody plants and 240 généra of herbaceous plants. An additional 6 000 plants are kept on the site of Hemelrijk, in Essen. The material originated partly from other institutions but also from collecting trips in Japan, South and North Corea, Russia and China. A part of thèse introductions was evaluated or used for hybridizing with a view to produce woody plant cultivars of ornamental value, especially in the généra Hamamelis, Hydrangea, Prunus, Malus, Pyrus and Rhododendron. A large number of thèse new cultivars are now grown in commercial nurseries in Europe, North America and Japan.

  13. Deli Bal Zehirlenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAVU?, Umut Yücel; I?IK, Bünyamin; TEK?N, O?uz

    2010-01-01

    Deli Bal Zehirlenmesi, grayanotoksin içeren özellikle Ericaceae ve Sapindaceae ailesinin çiçek ve yaprakla-rında bulunan rhododendron polen ve nektarlarından üretilmiş balın tüketilmesi sonucu görülen bir zehirlenme türüdür. Genellikle orta ya? ve üzeri insanlar, alternatif tedavi yöntemi olarak bal tüketmektedir. Türkiye’de özellikle Karadeniz ve Güneydo?u Anadolu bölgelerinde, ayrıca Japonya, Nepal, Brezilya, Kuzey Amerika ve Avrupa’nın çe?itli bölgelerinde de Deli Bal Zehirlenm...

  14. Dispersion pattern interspecific association and population status of threatened plants on submontane and montane zones of Mount Gede-Pangrango National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIHERMANTO

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mount Gede-Pangrango National Park has an attractive landscape view of mount summits with its crater, genuine flora and fauna of tropical rainforest, and a mild weather. Exploitation is forbidden in the area, but in reality encroachments occur, which will lead to changes in plant population status, particularly for threatened species. The aims of the research were investigate the populations status, dispersion pattern and possible interspecific associations of threatened plant species occurred in the sub montane and montane zones of the Mount Gede-Pangrango National Park. Most of the threatened species occurred in the park had clumped distributions and only one of those showed a regular dispersion, namely Symplocos costata. It should be realized that populations with a clumped dispersion tend to provide over or under estima-tion of abundance, indicating the need for a larger sampling unit to cover. Based on the association tests conducted, three species (Antidesma tetrandrum, Pinanga coronata, and Castanopsis javanica were significantly associated with Saurauia bracteosa, while Altingia excelsa and A. tetrandrum with Symplocos costata, as they had association indices more 0.3 using Jaccard Index. Pinanga coronata seems to be relatively closely associated with Saurauia cauliflora, Altingia excelsa with S. bracteosa, and Castanopsis javanica with S. costata. In contrast, Pinanga javana, Calamus adspersus, and Rhododendron album had low degrees of association, indicating their low abundance and co-occurrence with other species. Seven species of threatened plants were recorded in the Mount Gede-Pangrango: 5 of which had been proposed to change in their status. They were Calamus adspersus from vulnerable (V changed into vulnerable (V UD2., Lithocarpus indutus from vulnerable changed into critically endangered, Pinanga javana from endangered changed into vulnerable, Rhododendron album from vulnerable changed into endangered, and Saurauia bracteosa

  15. Retrieval of leaf area index in different plant species using thermal hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neinavaz, Elnaz; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Groen, Thomas A.

    2016-09-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important variable of terrestrial ecosystems because it is strongly correlated with many ecosystem processes (e.g., water balance and evapotranspiration) and directly related to the plant energy balance and gas exchanges. Although LAI has been accurately predicted using visible and short-wave infrared hyperspectral data (0.3-2.5 μm), LAI estimation using thermal infrared (TIR, 8-14 μm) measurements has not yet been addressed. The novel approach of this study is to evaluate the retrieval of LAI using TIR hyperspectral data. The leaf area indices were destructively acquired for four plant species: Azalea japonica, Buxussempervirens, Euonymus japonicus, and Ficus benjamina. Canopy emissivity spectral measurements were obtained under controlled laboratory conditions using a MIDAC (M4401-F) spectrometer. The LAI retrieval was assessed using a partial least squares regression (PLSR), artificial neural networks (ANNs), and narrow band indices calculated from all possible combinations of waveband pairs for three vegetation indices including simple difference, simple ratio, and normalized difference. ANNs retrieved LAI more accurately than PLSR and vegetation indices (0.67 methods compared to the univariate technique (e.g., narrow band vegetation indices) when hyperspectral thermal data is utilized. We thus demonstrated for the first time the potential of hyperspectral thermal data to accurately retrieve LAI.

  16. Molecular and phytochemical investigation of Angelica dahurica and Angelica pubescentis essential oils and their biological activity against Aedes aegypti, Stephanitis pyrioides, and Colletotrichum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabanca, Nurhayat; Gao, Zengping; Demirci, Betul; Techen, Natascha; Wedge, David E; Ali, Abbas; Sampson, Blair J; Werle, Chris; Bernier, Ulrich R; Khan, Ikhlas A; Baser, Kemal Husnu Can

    2014-09-01

    In this study, Angelica dahurica and Angelica pubescentis root essential oils were investigated as pest management perspectives, and root samples were also analyzed genetically using the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a DNA barcode marker. A. pubescentis root essential oil demonstrated weak antifungal activity against Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum fragariae, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, whereas A. dahurica root essential oil did not show antifungal activity. Conversely, A. dahurica root essential oil demonstrated better biting deterrent and insecticidal activity against yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, and azalea lace bugs, Stephanitis pyrioides, than A. pubescentis root oil. The major compounds in the A. dahurica oil were found as α-pinene (46.3%), sabinene (9.3%), myrcene (5.5%), 1-dodecanol (5.2%), and terpinen-4-ol (4.9%). α-Pinene (37.6%), p-cymene (11.6%), limonene (8.7%), and cryptone (6.7%) were the major compounds found in the A. pubescentis oil. In mosquito bioassays, 1-dodecanol and 1-tridecanol showed antibiting deterrent activity similar to the positive control DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) at 25 nmol/cm(2) against Ae. aegypti, whereas only 1-tridecanol showed repellent activity in human-based cloth patch bioassay with minimum effective dosages (MED) of 0.086 ± 0.089 mg/cm(2) (DEET = 0.007 ± 0.003 mg/cm(2)). In larval bioassays, 1-tridecanol was more toxic with an LC50 value of 2.1 ppm than 1-dodecanol having an LC50 value of 5.2 ppm against 1-day-old Ae. aegypti larvae. 1-Dodecanol and 1-tridecanol could be useful for the natural mosquito control agents. PMID:25133520

  17. Studies of Minerals, Organic and Biogenic Materials through Time-Resolved Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Christopher S.; Abedin, M. Nurul; Ismail, Syed; Sharma, Shiv K.; Misra, Anupam K.; Nyugen, Trac; Elsayed-Ali, hani

    2009-01-01

    A compact remote Raman spectroscopy system was developed at NASA Langley Research center and was previously demonstrated for its ability to identify chemical composition of various rocks and minerals. In this study, the Raman sensor was utilized to perform time-resolved Raman studies of various samples such as minerals and rocks, Azalea leaves and a few fossil samples. The Raman sensor utilizes a pulsed 532 nm Nd:YAG laser as excitation source, a 4-inch telescope to collect the Raman-scattered signal from a sample several meters away, a spectrograph equipped with a holographic grating, and a gated intensified CCD (ICCD) camera system. Time resolved Raman measurements were carried out by varying the gate delay with fixed short gate width of the ICCD camera, allowing measurement of both Raman signals and fluorescence signals. Rocks and mineral samples were characterized including marble, which contain CaCO3. Analysis of the results reveals the short (approx.10-13 s) lifetime of the Raman process, and shows that Raman spectra of some mineral samples contain fluorescence emission due to organic impurities. Also analyzed were a green (pristine) and a yellow (decayed) sample of Gardenia leaves. It was observed that the fluorescence signals from the green and yellow leaf samples showed stronger signals compared to the Raman lines. Moreover, it was also observed that the fluorescence of the green leaf was more intense and had a shorter lifetime than that of the yellow leaf. For the fossil samples, Raman shifted lines could not be observed due the presence of very strong short-lived fluorescence.

  18. Chemical taxonomy of red-flowered wild Camellia species based on floral anthocyanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Bin; Hashimoto, Fumio; Shimizu, Keiichi; Sakata, Yusuke

    2013-01-01

    This study uses anthocyanins in the red flowers of section Camellia as taxonomic markers to investigate the phenetic relationships among 33 wild species from China, Taiwan, and Japan. The 25 anthocyanins from section Camellia produced 38 pigment patterns that serve as phenetic markers. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated that the attachment of one or two glucoses to the cyanidin-core structure at the 3- or the 3- and 5-positions, respectively, was the most influential pattern against the first factor, Z₁. In addition, two alternative pigment patterns, acylated or non-acylated, and the structural isomerism (cis- or trans-) of the p-coumaroyl group were relatively significant patterns. Ward's minimum-variance cluster analysis (WMVCA) produced a dendrogram that consisted of two sub-clusters. One sub-cluster (A) was constructed by species that have mainly two types of anthocyanins: 3,5-di-O-β-glucosides (Camellia saluenensis) and sambubioside of cyanidin (Camellia reticulata). The other sub-cluster (B) was made up of the 3-O-β-glucosides of cyanidin (Camellia japonica) and delphinidin (Camellia hongkongensis), with a higher proportion of the 3-O-β-galactosides (Camellia mairei and Camellia boreali-yunnanica). The former group showed a higher proportion of acylation, over 63%, but with the exception of Camellia azalea. The latter group showed less than 52% acylation, but with the exception of C. hongkongensis and C. boreali-yunnanica. PCA and WMVCA indicated that the greater the amount of di-O-glycosides and acylation, the more primitive anthocyanin traits the species possess. Based on these results, in conjunction with geographical and literary information, the data suggest that the Xinan district is the site/center of origin for the red-flowered Camellia species of which both C. saluenensis and C. reticulata have the most primitive anthocyanin traits. PMID:23122772

  19. Phylogenetic tree-informed microRNAome analysis uncovers conserved and lineage-specific miRNAs in Camellia during floral organ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hengfu; Fan, Zhengqi; Li, Xinlei; Wang, Jiangying; Liu, Weixin; Wu, Bin; Ying, Zhen; Liu, Liping; Liu, Zhongchi; Li, Jiyuan

    2016-04-01

    In plants, miRNAs are endogenous small RNAs derived from single-stranded precursors with hairpin structures. The evolution of miRNAs and their targets represents one of the most dynamic circuits directing gene expression, which may play fundamental roles in shaping the development of distinct plant organs. Here we performed high-throughput small RNA sequencing in five organ types of Camellia azalea to capture the spatial profile of small non-coding RNA. In total we obtained >227 million high-quality reads and identified 175 miRNAs with mature and precursor sequences. We aligned the miRNAs to known miRNA databases and revealed some conserved as well as 'newly evolved' miRNA genes. Twelve miRNAs were identified to be specific in the genus Camellia, supporting the lineage-specific manner of expansion of 'young' miRNAs. Through differential expression analysis, we showed that many miRNAs were preferentially abundant in certain organ types. Moreover, hierarchical clustering analysis revealed distinctive expression patterns of tissue-specific miRNAs. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis of targets of stamen- and carpel-specific miRNA subclusters showed that miRNA-target regulatory circuits were involved in many important biological processes, enabling their proper specification and organogenesis, such as 'DNA integration' and 'fruit development'. Further, quantitative PCR of key miRNAs and their target genes revealed anti-correlated patterns, and uncovered the functions of key miRNA-target pairs in different floral organs. Taken together, this work yielded valuable information on miRNA-target regulation in the control of floral organ development and sheds light on the evolution of lineage-specific miRNAs in Camellia. PMID:26951373

  20. Relative abundance of an invasive alien plant affects insect-flower interaction networks in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Jane C.; Casey, Leanne M.

    2014-02-01

    Invasive alien flowering plants may affect native plant pollinator interactions and have knock on impacts on populations of native plants and animals. The magnitude of these impacts, however, may be modified by the relative abundance of the invasive plant and the number of flowers it presents.We tested this by examining the structure of insect-flower interaction networks in six sites with increasing levels of invasion by Rhododendron ponticum in Ireland.Neither flower-visiting insect abundance, species richness nor diversity were related to R. ponticum flower abundance, but the composition of insect communities was. The total number of flowers in a site increased with the relative abundance of R. ponticum flowers but the number of co-flowering native plant species in these sites was low (interaction networks relatively small.As a result, changes in interaction network properties (connectance, interaction evenness and network level specialisation), which correlated with R. ponticum flower abundance, were a result of the small network size rather than due to changes in the resilience of networks.Overall, we conclude that the impacts of invasive alien plants on native plant-pollinator interactions are not only species specific, but site specific, according to the abundance of flowers produced by both the invasive and the native plants.

  1. Invasive plant integration into native plant-pollinator networks across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilà, Montserrat; Bartomeus, Ignasi; Dietzsch, Anke C; Petanidou, Theodora; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Stout, Jane C; Tscheulin, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    The structure of plant-pollinator networks has been claimed to be resilient to changes in species composition due to the weak degree of dependence among mutualistic partners. However, detailed empirical investigations of the consequences of introducing an alien plant species into mutualistic networks are lacking. We present the first cross-European analysis by using a standardized protocol to assess the degree to which a particular alien plant species (i.e. Carpobrotus affine acinaciformis, Impatiens glandulifera, Opuntia stricta, Rhododendron ponticum and Solanum elaeagnifolium) becomes integrated into existing native plant-pollinator networks, and how this translates to changes in network structure. Alien species were visited by almost half of the pollinator species present, accounting on average for 42 per cent of the visits and 24 per cent of the network interactions. Furthermore, in general, pollinators depended upon alien plants more than on native plants. However, despite the fact that invaded communities received more visits than uninvaded communities, the dominant role of alien species over natives did not translate into overall changes in network connectance, plant linkage level and nestedness. Our results imply that although supergeneralist alien plants can play a central role in the networks, the structure of the networks appears to be very permeable and robust to the introduction of invasive alien species into the network. PMID:19692403

  2. Invasive plant integration into native plant–pollinator networks across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilà, Montserrat; Bartomeus, Ignasi; Dietzsch, Anke C.; Petanidou, Theodora; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Stout, Jane C.; Tscheulin, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The structure of plant–pollinator networks has been claimed to be resilient to changes in species composition due to the weak degree of dependence among mutualistic partners. However, detailed empirical investigations of the consequences of introducing an alien plant species into mutualistic networks are lacking. We present the first cross-European analysis by using a standardized protocol to assess the degree to which a particular alien plant species (i.e. Carpobrotus affine acinaciformis, Impatiens glandulifera, Opuntia stricta, Rhododendron ponticum and Solanum elaeagnifolium) becomes integrated into existing native plant–pollinator networks, and how this translates to changes in network structure. Alien species were visited by almost half of the pollinator species present, accounting on average for 42 per cent of the visits and 24 per cent of the network interactions. Furthermore, in general, pollinators depended upon alien plants more than on native plants. However, despite the fact that invaded communities received more visits than uninvaded communities, the dominant role of alien species over natives did not translate into overall changes in network connectance, plant linkage level and nestedness. Our results imply that although supergeneralist alien plants can play a central role in the networks, the structure of the networks appears to be very permeable and robust to the introduction of invasive alien species into the network. PMID:19692403

  3. An investigation of Turkish honeys: their physico-chemical properties, antioxidant capacities and phenolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Zehra; Yildiz, Oktay; Sahin, Huseyin; Turumtay, Emine Akyuz; Silici, Sibel; Kolayli, Sevgi

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated some physico-chemical and biochemical characteristics of different honey types belonging to Turkish flora. Sixty-two honey samples were examined on the basis of pollen analyses, including 11 unifloral honeys (chestnut, heather, chaste tree, rhododendron, common eryngo, lavender, Jerusalem tea, astragalus, clover and acacia), two different honeydew honeys (lime and oak), and 7 different multifloral honeys. Electrical conductivity, moisture, Hunter color values, HMF, proline, diastase number, and sugar analyses of the honey samples were assessed for chemical characterization. Some phenolic components were analyzed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) to determine honeys' phenolic profiles. Total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity were measured as antioxidant determinants. The study results confirm that physico-chemical and biological characteristics of honeys are closely related to their floral sources, and that dark-colored honeys such as oak, chestnut and heather, have a high therapeutic potential. PMID:25766810

  4. 5种园林植物的抗旱性比较研究%Comparative study on drought resistances of five species of garden plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑛

    2013-01-01

    采用自然干旱胁迫方法,测定上海南园公园5种园林植物的9项生理生化指标,分析干旱胁迫下植物的生理反应,并用模糊数学隶属函数值法对植物抗旱性进行综合评价.结果表明:在自然干旱胁迫下,5种园林植物抗旱性由强到弱的排序为:八宝景天、马蔺、香茅、红叶石楠、杜鹃.%Under natural drought stress,5 species of garden plants in Shanghai Nanyuan Park were determined in terms of 9 physiological and biochemical indexes,their physiological reactions were analyzed and their drought resistances were comprehensively evaluated by a fuzzy mathematics membership function method.The results indicated that the descending order of the plants in drought resistance was Sedum spectabile,Iris lactea var.chinensis,Cymbopogon citrates,Photinia serrulata and Rhododendron pulchrum.

  5. Diversity and regeneration status of Sarkot Van Panchyat in Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nazir A. Pala; A. K. Negi; Yogesh Gokhale; Jahangeer A. Bhat; N. P. Todaria

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the floristic composition,phytosociological and regeneration status of Sarkot Van Panchyat (community forest) in Chamoli district of Garhwal Himalaya.A total of 52 plant species of 46 genera and 26families were recorded,which included 12 trees,18 shrubs and 22 herb species.Quercus leucotrichophora was dominant tree species in sapling and seedling layers,followed by Lyonia ovalifolia and Rhododendron arboreum.Out of 12 tree species,7 species in seedling stage and 8 species in sapling stage were recorded in the study area.The 44.41% species in the study area showed good regeneration status,16.66% species were fairly regenerating,and 8.33% species showed poor regeneration status,while 33% species were not regenerating.Number of individuals from lower girth classes (0-10 cm and 10-30 cm) showed decreasing trend with the increase in size of girth class.Shannon index (H) for trees,shrubs and herbs was recorded as 1.82,2.24 and 2.41 respectively.Simpsons index (CD) was recorded as 0.21,0.12and 0.12 for trees,shrubs and herbs respectively.The forest should be divided into compartments for better management purpose and each compartment should be closed for five years to assist regeneration and enrichment planting may also be carried out for sustainable management.

  6. Effects of three different biochars on aggregate stability, organic carbon mobility and micronutrient bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, William; Riby, Philip; Waterson, James

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated both beneficial and detrimental effects on soil properties from biochar incorporation. Several biochars, with different feedstock origins, were evaluated for their effectiveness at improving soil quality of a sandy agricultural soil. A pot trial was used to investigate aggregate stability and microbial activity, pore water trace element mobility and micronutrient concentrations in grain of spring wheat after incorporation of three biochars. The feedstocks for biochar production were selected because they were established UK waste products, namely oversize woody material from green waste composting facilities, and rhododendron and soft wood material from forest clearance operations. Biochars were incorporated into the soil at a rate of 5% v/v. Aggregate stability was improved following addition of oversize biochar whilst microbial activity increased in all treatments. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in soil pore water from biochar-treated soils were raised, whilst micronutrient concentrations in wheat grain grown in the treated soils were significantly reduced. It was concluded that incorporation of biochar to temperate agricultural soils requires caution as it may result in reductions of essential grain micronutrients required for human health, whilst the effect on aggregate stability may be linked to organic carbon functional groups on biochar surfaces and labile carbon released from the char into the soil system. PMID:27444723

  7. On the patterns of abundance and diversity of macrolichens of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hans Raj Negi

    2000-12-01

    A total of 3211 colonies of macrolichens, from twelve 50 m × 10 m plots distributed across four macrohabitat (vegetation) types between 1500 m–3700 m in the Chopta-Tunganath landscape of the Garhwal Himalaya, yielded 13 families with 15 genera and 85 species. Lobaria retigera stood out as a broad-niched generalist species with moderate levels of abundance in all the three major microhabitats, viz. rock, soil and wood across 83% of all the plots sampled, whereas Umbilicaria indica emerged as an abundantly occurring specialist confined to rock substrates. Heterodermia incana and Leptogium javanicum appeared to be rare members of the community as they were encountered only once during the field survey. Woody microhabitats turned out to be richer than rock and soil substrates for macrolichens. Amongst the macrohabitats, middle altitude (2500–2800 m) Quercus forest was richest in species and genera followed by high altitude (2900–3200 m) Rhododendron forest, higher altitude grasslands (3300–3700 m) and then the lower elevation (1500 m) Quercus forest. Species, genus and family level alpha- as well as beta-diversities were significantly correlated with each other, implying that higher taxonomic ranks such as genera may be used as surrogates for species thus facilitating cost- and time-effective periodic monitoring of the biodiversity of macrolichens. Dynamics of the diversity of lichen communities in relation to various forms of environmental disturbance including livestock grazing and tourism as dominant land use activities in the higher Himalaya need further research.

  8. Plant poisoning in domestic animals: epidemiological data from an Italian survey (2000-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caloni, F; Cortinovis, C; Rivolta, M; Alonge, S; Davanzo, F

    2013-06-01

    An Italian epidemiological study based on the human Poison Control Centre of Milan (Centro Antiveleni di Milano (CAV)) data related to domestic animal poisoning by exposure to plants, was carried out in collaboration with the Veterinary Toxicology Section of the University of Milan. It encompasses a 12-year period, from the beginning of 2000 to the end of 2011. Calls related to toxic plants accounted for 5.7 per cent of total inquiries (2150) received by CAV. The dog was the most commonly poisoned species (61.8 per cent of calls) followed by the cat (26 per cent). Little information was recorded for other species. Most exposures (73.8 per cent) resulted in mild to moderate clinical signs. The outcome was reported in only 53.7 per cent of cases, and fatal poisoning accounted for 10.6 per cent of these cases. Glycoside, alkaloid, oxalate, toxalbumin, saponin, terpene and terpenoid-containing plants were recorded and found to be responsible for intoxication. Cycas revoluta, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Hydrangea macrophylla, Nerium oleander, Rhododendron species and Prunus species were the plants most frequently involved. Epidemiological data from this Italian survey provide useful information on animal exposure to plants and confirm the importance of plants as causative agents of animal poisoning. PMID:23716536

  9. Relative impact of mate versus pollinator availability on pollen limitation and outcrossing rates in a mass-flowering species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmas, C E L; Escaravage, N; Cheptou, P-O; Charrier, O; Ruzafa, S; Winterton, P; Pornon, A

    2015-01-01

    Plant mating systems are driven by several pre-pollination factors, including pollinator availability, mate availability and reproductive traits. We investigated the relative contributions of these factors to pollination and to realized outcrossing rates in the patchily distributed mass-flowering shrub Rhododendron ferrugineum. We jointly monitored pollen limitation (comparing seed set from intact and pollen-supplemented flowers), reproductive traits (herkogamy, flower size and autofertility) and mating patterns (progeny array analysis) in 28 natural patches varying in the level of pollinator availability (flower visitation rates) and of mate availability (patch floral display estimated as the total number of inflorescences per patch). Our results showed that patch floral display was the strongest determinant of pollination and of the realized outcrossing rates in this mass-flowering species. We found an increase in pollen limitation and in outcrossing rates with increasing patch floral display. Reproductive traits were not significantly related to patch floral display, while autofertility was negatively correlated to outcrossing rates. These findings suggest that mate limitation, arising from high flower visitation rates in small plant patches, resulted in low pollen limitation and high selfing rates, while pollinator limitation, arising from low flower visitation rates in large plant patches, resulted in higher pollen limitation and outcrossing rates. Pollinator-mediated selfing and geitonogamy likely alleviates pollen limitation in the case of reduced mate availability, while reduced pollinator availability (intraspecific competition for pollinator services) may result in the maintenance of high outcrossing rates despite reduced seed production. PMID:24942604

  10. Ethnomedicine in Himalaya: a case study from Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshhetri Hari B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional plant use in Nepal has been documented for millennia. The importance of plants as medicine has not diminished in any way in recent times, and traditional medicines are still the most important health care source for the vast majority of the population. This paper examines the ethnobotany and traditional use of plants extracted from the vulnerable alpine zone in the Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal. The results of this ethnobotanical study indicate that a very large number of plant species is used as traditional medicines. There were 107, 59, 44 and 166 species of ethnomedicinal importance in surveyed areas of Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang district respectively. Of these, 84 common species, used at least in two districts, were selected to enumerate their ethnomedicinal properties. The 84 species belonged to 75 genera and 39 families. The commonest species in this pharmacopoeia were: Allium wallichii, Cordyceps sinensis, Dactylorhiza hatagirea, and Rheum australe. A total of 21 species were most common in three districts and 59 in two districts. The genera Aconitum, Allium, Arisaema, Berberis, Corydalis, Gentiana, Hippophae, Juniperus and Rhododendron each possessed two species with ethnomedicinal use. Labiatae was the most medicinally important family with five species used, followed by Araceae, Compositae, Liliaceae, Polygonaceae, Ranunculaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Umbelliferae, each contributing four species.

  11. A role of periaqueductal grey NR2B-containing NMDA receptor in mediating persistent inflammatory pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Qi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG is a structure known for its roles in pain transmission and modulation. Noxious stimuli potentiate the glutamate synaptic transmission and enhance glutamate NMDA receptor expression in the PAG. However, little is known about roles of NMDA receptor subunits in the PAG in processing the persistent inflammatory pain. The present study was undertaken to investigate NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG and their modulation to the peripheral painful inflammation. Noxious stimuli induced by hind-paw injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA caused up-regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG, while NR2A-containing NMDA receptors were not altered. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed that NMDA receptor mediated mEPSCs were increased significantly in the PAG synapse during the chronic phases of inflammatory pain in mice. PAG local infusion of Ro 25-6981, an NR2B antagonist, notably prolonged the paw withdrawal latency to thermal radian heat stimuli bilaterally in rats. Hyperoside (Hyp, one of the flavonoids compound isolated from Rhododendron ponticum L., significantly reversed up-regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG and exhibited analgesic activities against persistent inflammatory stimuli in mice. Our findings provide strong evidence that up-regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG involves in the modulation to the peripheral persistent inflammatory pain.

  12. Classification of 7 monofloral honey varieties by PTR-ToF-MS direct headspace analysis and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhfried, Erna; Sánchez del Pulgar, José; Bobba, Marco; Piro, Roberto; Cappellin, Luca; Märk, Tilmann D; Biasioli, Franco

    2016-01-15

    Honey, in particular monofloral varieties, is a valuable commodity. Here, we present proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry, PTR-ToF-MS, coupled to chemometrics as a successful tool in the classification of monofloral honeys, which should serve in fraud protection against mispresentation of the floral origin of honey. We analyzed 7 different honey varieties from citrus, chestnut, sunflower, honeydew, robinia, rhododendron and linden tree, in total 70 different honey samples and a total of 206 measurements. Only subtle differences in the profiles of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the headspace of the different honeys could be found. Nevertheless, it was possible to successfully apply 6 different classification methods with a total correct assignment of 81-99% in the internal validation sets. The most successful methods were stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and probabilistic neural network (PNN), giving total correct assignments in the external validation sets of 100 and 90%, respectively. Clearly, PTR-ToF-MS/chemometrics is a powerful tool in honey classification. PMID:26592598

  13. IN-VIVO NITRATE REDUCTASE ACTIVITY IN THE MYRICA ESCULENTA BUCH. HAM. D.DON SEEDLINGS UNDER NURSERY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Chaukiyal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Myrica esculenta locally known as kafal, is a dioecious, moderate sized, evergreen tree species. It is a characteristic associate of Quercus leucotrichophora and Rhododendron species between 1000-2200 m above sea level and valued for its wild edible fruits used in different preparations. An experiment was conducted under pot culture conditions to study the effects of different nitrogen fertilizer doses (i.e. 20; 40; 20 and control without fertilizer on the in-vivo nitrate reductase activity (NRA in different plant parts. Nitrogen doses were applied in two equal split between fifteen days intervals. Monthly nitrate reductase activity was estimated in different plant parts viz., leaf, stem and root for a period of twelve months. It was observed that maximum NRA was recorded in the 80 kg N/ha followed by 40 kg N/ha, 20 kg N/ha and minimum in control treatment in different plant parts as well as in total plant also. On the seasonal NRA a higher NR activity was recorded during rainy followed by summer and lowest in winter season. Seasonal effects were significantly different as compared to seasons x treatments. However, on monthly analysis basis, months and treatment effects in leaf, stem, root and total plant NR activity was significantly different among each other. However, for all the parameters studied months x treatments were found significantly different at 5% level.

  14. Apoptosis induced by farrerol in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells through the mitochondrial-mediated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enli; Liang, Taigang; Wang, Xiaojian; Ban, Shurong; Han, Lingge; Li, Qingshan

    2015-09-01

    Farrerol, a typical flavanone isolated from the Chinese medicinal plant Rhododendron dauricum L., has been found to show various biological activities. However, to the best of our knowledge, its inhibitory actions against cancer cells have not been reported as yet. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of farrerol on human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. Farrerol showed a 50% inhibition of SGC-7901 cell growth at a concentration of 40.4 μmol/l for 24 h according to MTT assays. The cell morphology results indicated that SGC-7901 cells treated with farrerol showed several features of apoptotic cell death, which was also confirmed by the Annexin-V FITC/PI double-staining assay. Further studies showed that farrerol treatment induced the attenuation of mitochondrial membrane potential, accompanied by the release of Cyt-c and the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Furthermore, farrerol decreased the gene expression of Bcl-2, whereas the gene expression level of Bax was found to increase after farrerol treatment. These combined results indicated that farrerol can induce apoptosis through a mitochondrial-mediated pathway. PMID:26061993

  15. Allelopathy on bark of downed logs of Chamaecyparis Obtusa sieb. and Zucc. var. formosana (Hayata) Rehder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Mei-Hwei; Lai, Wen-Rong; Hsieh, Chin-Lin; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung

    2007-06-01

    Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. and Zucc. var. formosana (Hayata) Rehder is the dominant species in the temperate forest of Yuanyang Lake Nature Reserve (YYL), Taiwan. Although downed logs of C. obstusa var. formosana occupy only a small percentage of the forest floor area in YYL, they are important regeneration substrates. Seedlings of this species often grow without competition on the new downed logs, and a few broadleaf trees grow with them. We hypothesized that the bark of the newly fallen logs possesses allelopathic potential that provides a habitat especially suitable for seedling establishment. Eight different seeds including those from Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce), Bidens pilosa (an invasive weed), and six species in YYL were planted on the bark of the downed logs in an incubator for germination tests. Two dominant species in the forest of YYL, C. obtusa var. formosana and Rhododendron formosanum, were able to grow normally, but the others, Pieris taiwanensis, Barthea formosana, Chamaecyparis formosensis, Miscanthus transmorrisonensis, lettuce, and B. pilosa were growth inhibited. A bioactivity-guided isolation was designed to isolate allelochemicals from the bark. Salicylic acid, one of the inhibiting substances, was isolated and identified by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), and infrared (IR). Bioassay of salicylic acid confirmed a phytotoxic effect. The results suggest that the dominance of C. obtusa var. formosana seedlings on bark could be partly due to allelopathy. PMID:17476467

  16. Carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium stoichiometry of plants and litter in boreal peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Moore, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    Ecological stoichiometry, dealing with the balance of multiple elements during ecological processes and interactions, provides an integrative framework linking the biogeochemical patterns at a global scale to physiological constraints that operate at cellular or organismal levels. Unlike the well-explained and constrained carbon:nitrogen:phosphorus (C:N:P) ratios in marine plankton (e.g. Redfield ratio), terrestrial ecosystems have evoked less attention. We examined the leaf-level C:N:P:potassium (K) stoichiometry of the dominant vascular plants (deciduous, evergreen, forb and graminoid) and Sphagnum mosses from four boreal bogs in eastern Canada. A generally convergent C:N:P:K stoichiometric ratio (632:14:1:9, mass ratio) in current year's leaves (or capitula of Sphagnum mosses) was observed in the fast growing season (June to July), indicating N and P co-limitation. With ~50% of N, P and K being resorbed during leaf senescence, the C:nutrients ratios in the matures leaves (C:N:P:K = 826:17:1:6) of two dominant evergreen species (Chamaedaphne calyculata and Rhododendron groenlandicum) were increased in senesced leaves (C:N:P:K = 964:15:1:5) whereas no substantial changes were observed in N:P:K ratios. The dramatic imbalance between litter and soil microbes stoichiometry (C:N:P = 31:3:1) governs the overall nutrient cycling and C sequestration in peatland ecosystems. Overall, N and P seem to co-limit both plant growth and microbial activity in ombrotrophic bogs.

  17. Community dynamics of a montane Fagus engleriana–Cyclobalanopsis multiervis mixed forest in Shennongjia, Hubei, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jielin Ge

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Montane evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forests are some of the main vegetation types in China. Specifically, the Fagus–Cyclobalanopsis mixed forest is a dominant forest community in themountainous region of Shennongjia. Using three datasets (2001, 2006, and 2010 from a permanent 120 m ×80 m plot in the montane evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest in Shengnongjia, we analyzedthe dynamics of tree species composition and community structure for individual trees (DBH ≥ 4 cm. We found that total species number increased from 81 in 2001 to 84 in 2006, and then decreased to 83 in 2010. Dominant species remained constant throughout the study period, including Cyclobalanopsis multiervis, Fagus engleriana, Rhododendron hypoglaucum and Lithocarpus henryi. Stem number and basal area followed the same trend with an initial increase, followed by a decline. The mortality and recruitment of this survey plot changed substantially over the nine-year study period. Although an ice storm in 2008 had some impact on the community, the species richness and community structure did not alter significantly and the community appeared to be in a state of dynamic equilibrium with strong resilience to external disturbances.

  18. Toxic compounds in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-07-01

    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food. PMID:24214851

  19. Recent and Holocene climate change controls on vegetation and carbon accumulation in Alaskan coastal muskegs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteet, Dorothy M.; Nichols, Jonathan E.; Moy, Christopher M.; McGeachy, Alicia; Perez, Max

    2016-01-01

    Pollen, spore, macrofossil and carbon data from a peatland near Cordova, Alaska, reveal insights into the climate-vegetation-carbon interactions from the initiation of the Holocene, c. the last 11.5 ka, to the present (1 ka = 1000 calibrated years before present where 0 = 1950 CE). The Holocene period is characterized by early deposition of gyttja in a pond environment with aquatics such as Nuphar polysepalum and Potamogeton, and a significant regional presence of Alnus crispa subsp. sinuata. Carbon accumulation (50 g/m2/a) was high for a short interval in the early Holocene when Sphagnum peat accumulated, but was followed by a major decline to 13 g/m2/a from 7 to 3.7 ka when Cyperaceae and ericads such as Rhododendron (formerly Ledum) groenlandicum expanded. This shift to sedge growth is representative of many peatlands throughout the south-central region of Alaska, and indicates a drier, more evaporative environment with a large decline in carbon storage. The subsequent return to Sphagnum peat after 4 ka in the Neoglacial represents a widespread shift to moister, cooler conditions, which favored a resurgence of ericads, such as Andromeda polifolia, and increased carbon accumulation rate. The sustained Alnus expansion visible in the top 10 cm of the peat profile is correlative with glacial retreat and warming of the region in the last century, and suggests this colonization will continue as temperature increases and ice melts.

  20. Survey of microfungi in the Landschaftspark Duisburg-Nord (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, M; Nerat, N; Ale-Agha, N

    2011-01-01

    During an excursion in the Landschaftspark Duisburg-Nord in 2009 and 2010 we were able to collect and identify more than 100 specimens of microfungi on different parts of cultivated and wild plant species. We found parasitic and saprophytic microfungi on trees, bushes and herbaceous plants. Some of them have been observed only rarely until now. Most of the collected microfungi species belong to the classes of Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes - for example Leptosphaeria modesta (Desm.) Rabenh. on Knautia cf. arvensis (L.) Coult., Ramularia urticae Ces. on Urtica dioica L., Stigmina glomerulosa (Sacc.) S. Hughes on Juniperus communis L., Pseudomassaria corni (Sowerby) Arx on Cornus alba L., Mollisia discolor (Mont.) W. Phillips on Cornus alba L., Botryosphaeria quercuum (Schwein.) Sacc. on Quercus robur L., Peronospora cytisi Rostr. on Laburnum anagyroides Med., Microsphaera guarinonii Briosi and Cavara on Laburnum anagyroides Med., Brachysporium dingleyae S. Hughes on Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl and Rhododendron spec., Mamiania fimbriata (Pers.) Ces. and De Not. on Carpinus betulus L., Atopospora betulina (Fr.) Petr. on Betula pendula Roth, Septoria robiniae (Lib.) Desm. (=Phloeospora robiniae (Lib.) Höhn.) on Robinia pseudoacacia L., Chalara hughesii Nag Raj and W.B. Kendr. on Quercus robur L.. All specimens are located in the Herbarium ESS, Mycotheca Parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha. PMID:22702187

  1. Identification of five active ingredients and content determination of piperine in Shiwuwei Heyaowan pills by TLC and HPLC%十五味黑药丸中4种活性成分的定性鉴别及胡椒碱的含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡婧; 易凡力; 刘松青

    2011-01-01

    目的 对十五味黑药丸中4种主要中药成分进行定性鉴别并测定胡椒碱的含量.方法 采用薄层色谱法 (thin layer chromatography,TLC)对方中藏木香、荜茇、黑胡椒、干姜、烈香杜鹃进行定性鉴别;采用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)测定胡椒碱的含量.色谱柱:Phenomenex Luna C18(2)(4.6 mm×150 mm,5 μm),流动相∶甲醇-水(74∶26),流速0.8 ml/min,检测波长343 nm,柱温35 ℃.结果 采用TLC均能检出3批十五味黑药丸中的去氢木香内酯、胡椒碱及烈香杜鹃和干姜药材,该鉴别方法专属性强、薄层色谱斑点清晰,阴性对照无干扰;胡椒碱的HPLC色谱峰与其他色谱峰分离良好,进样量在0.021 056~0.105 28 μg范围内呈良好线性关系(r=0.999 8),平均加样回收率(n=9)为97.76%,3个批次(010624、021008、030323)9个样品中胡椒碱的含量平均值为1.64 mg/丸.结论 建立的十五味黑药丸质量标准可用于藏木香、荜茇、黑胡椒、干姜、烈香杜鹃5种中药的成分鉴别及组方中胡椒碱的含量测定.%Objective To identify five active ingredients (Inula racemosa, Piper longum, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale and Rhododendron anthopogonoides) and determine the content of piperine in traditional Tibetan medicine pills-Shiwuwei Heiyaowan. Methods Three batches of Shiwuwei Heiyaowan pills were dissolved in ethyl ether or absolute ethyl alcohol as the sample solutions. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was utilized to identify Inula racemosa, Piper longum, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale and Rhododendron anthopogonoides in Shiwuwei Heiyaowan pills. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to determine the content of piperine. In HPLC, the chromatographic column is Phenomenex Luna C18 (2) (4.6 mm × 150 mm, 5 μm); the mobile phase is methanol-water (74: 26); the flow rate is 0.8 ml/min; the detection wavelength is 343 nm; the column temperature is 35 ℃. Results In TLC, dehydrocostunolide lactone (the

  2. Rare and endangered plants in Mount Jinggangshan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of rare, endangered, and protected plant species is of importance in assessing the status of local biodiversity and the environment as well as developing strategies for nature conservation and management. The abundance and distribution of rare and endangered plants in the Mount Jinggangshan region were investigated as well as the community characteristics of important woody species. The resultsdemonstrate that rare and endangered species have high conservation value and significant importance in systematics and biogeography. This area contains two endangered bryophyte species and 199 species of vascular plants. Among them, 50 species are included in the IUCN Red List of Threatened species, 160 species in the China Species Red List, 49 species in the List of Wild Plants Under State Protection (First Batch, and 90 species in the Appendices of CITES. The variety and abundance of rare and endangered species in this area are equivalent to those for Mount Emei and higher than those for Mount Wuyi and MountTaibai. Many perfectly preserved communities, covering a large area, exist in the Mount Jinggangshan vicinity, and are dominated by rare and endangered species, such as Abies beshanzuensis var. ziyuanensis,Corylus chinensis, Pseudotaxus chienii, Taxus wallichiana var. mairei, Fokienia hodginsii, Amentotaxus argotaenia, Phoebe bournei, Pieris japonica, Rhododendron jinggangshanicum, etc. The communities where some important rare and endangered plants occur are described in detail and suggestions are made for their protection.

  3. Cloning and Sequence Analyzing of Chalcone Synthase Gene in Loropetalum chinense var.Rubrum%红花檵木CHS基因的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许威; 于晓英; 陈己任; 符红艳; 胡博文; 陈彦斌; 李达

    2013-01-01

    查尔酮合酶(chalcone synthase,CHS)是进入类黄酮和花色素苷次生代谢的第1个关键酶.根据植物查尔酮合成酶保守区序列设计引物,以红花檵木Loropetalurn chinense var.Rubrum)大叶红的嫩叶为材料,用RT-PCR方法,分离得到了一个查尔酮合成酶基因的eDNA(GenBank登录号为JQ609678),将该基因命名为Lc vrCHS1.该序列长927 bp,编码232个氨基酸残基.其核苷酸序列与GenBank已登录的同样来源的核桃、山茶属植物CHS序列同源性达83%,与其他科植物(绣球花、葡萄、桃、马铃薯、甘草、领春木属)CHS序列同源性也达到80%以上;其编码的氨基酸序列与山茶属、葡萄、鳄梨、洋梨、沙梨、映山红CHS基因编码的氨基酸序列同样具有高度同源性,同源性高达98%.%Chalcone synthase (chalcone synthase, CHS) is the key enzyme that catalyzes the first step in flavonoids biosynthesis and anthocyanins secondary metabolites. A full-length cDNA encoding CHS was cloned from the young leaves of Loropetalurn chinense var. rubrum by RT-PCR using specific primers based on the highly conserved sequences of plant CHS that had already known. Blast search revealed that it was a new gene, and was named as LcvrCHSl (GenBank accession: JQ609678). The sequence was 927 bp, encoding 232 amino acid residues. It had 83% sequence homology with walnut and camellia that had been logged in GenBank; with other genus plants (hydrangea, grapes, peaches, potatoes, licorice, Euptelea genus), CHS sequence homology was also more than 80%; with other plants (camellia, grapes, avocados, bartlett pear, sand pear, azalea), CHS sequence also had high homology, up to 98% homology.

  4. Species Diversity and Population Status of Threatened Plants in Different Landscape Elements of the Rohtang Pass,Western Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.N.Singh; Gopichand; Amit Kumar; Brij Lal; N.P.Todaria

    2008-01-01

    This paper highlights the quantitative estimates of plant species diversity and ecosysterns of the Rohtang Pass,which is one of the most preferred visiting spots by tourists in Himachal Pradesh(H.P.),India.In spite of high pressure of anthropogenic activities.the Rohtang Pass still harbours a variety of flowering plants with economic value,including various medicinal herbs.In order to observe species diversity in different landscape elements(LSEs),ground surveys were conducted in nine unique LSEs within the elevation range between 3624 m and 4332 m.Plant community structure in each LSE was studied using stratified random sampling where a total 56 quadrats of 1 m2 in size for herbs and 7 quadrats of 25 m2 for shrubs were made.Of the total 50 plant species belonging to 15 families recorded in different random quadrats.24 species were found of medicinal value.Maximum species richness (18)and value of Shannon diversity (H'=2.2648)were observed on northeast-facing slope in Picrorhiza kurrooa dominated LSE in moist area.followed by Rheum emodi LSE(species richness=17 and H'=2.4141)distributed on south-facing slope.Maximum values of species richness and Shannon diversity in Rheum emodf LSE were observed between 8~12 and 1.4797~2.1911. respectively. Rhododendron anthopogon dominated LSE on northwest-facing slope was found least diverse in terms of species richness where the Simpson index of dominance(D)was 0.4205.The species were equal in abundance in P.kurrooa LSE on east-facing slope and Pleurospermum candollii LSE on north-facing slope,showing the maximum similarity in terms of species distribution between the two LSEs.Low turnover of species across common LSEs gives an idea regarding their limited distribution.Five species of threatened category according to the IUCN criteria were observed in seven LSEs.The largest population of threatened medicinal plants was recorded on northeast and northwest-facing slopes where population density of Bergenia stracheyi(29

  5. Anthropogenic influence on forest landscape in the Khumbu valley, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingua, Emanuele; Garbarino, Matteo; Urbinati, Carlo; Carrer, Marco

    2013-04-01

    High altitude Himalayan regions are geo-dynamically very active and very sensitive to natural and anthropogenic disturbances due to their steep slopes, variations of precipitations with elevation and short growing periods. Nonetheless, even in this remote region human pressure is often the most important factor affecting forest landscape. In the last decades the firewood demand has increased each year between September to December. The increase in the number of tourists, mountaineering, guides, porters, carpenters, lodges lead to a peak in the use of fuelwood. In order to understand anthropogenic impacts on forest, resources landscape and stand scale dynamics were analyzed in the Sagarmatha National Park (SNP) and its Buffer Zone in the Khumbu Valley (Nepal, Eastern Himalaya). Biological and historical data sources were employed, and a multi-scale approach was adopted to capture the influence of human activities on the distribution of tree species and forest structure. Stand structure and a range of environmental variables were sampled in 197 20x20 m square plots, and land use and anthropogenic variables were derived in a GIS environment (thematic maps and IKONOS, Landsat and Terra ASTER satellite images). We used multivariate statistical analyses to relate forest structure, anthropogenic influences, land uses, and topography. Fuel wood is the prime source of energy for cooking (1480-1880 Kg/person/year) and Quercus semecarpifolia, Rhododendron arboreum and Pinus wallichiana, among the others, are the most exploited species. Due to lack of sufficient energy sources deforestation is becoming a problem in the area. This might be a major threat causing soil erosion, landslides and other natural hazards. Among the 25 species of trees that were found in the Buffer Zone Community Forests of SNP, Pinus wallichiana, Lyonia ovalifolia, Quercus semecarpifolia and Rhododendron arboreum are the dominant species. The total stand density ranged from 228 to 379 tree/ha and the

  6. Comparative Study on Structure and Special Pattern of Different Tsuga longibracteata Communities in Tianbaoyan National Nature Reserve%天宝岩自然保护区长苞铁杉不同群落结构与空间格局比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严绍裕

    2013-01-01

    用群落数量统计学方法对永安天宝岩国家级自然保护区长苞铁杉纯林、长苞铁杉猴头杜鹃混交林和长苞铁杉青冈混交林的群落结构及空间格局进行比较,结果表明:随着径级数的增大,长苞铁杉纯林和长苞铁杉青冈混交林个体数量分布呈持续减少趋势,分享度持续下降;长苞铁杉猴头杜鹃混交林个体数量随径级数增大呈现先增加后下降再增加再下降的双峰结构,分享度先增加后减少再增加再下降;3种群落乔木层高度级分布趋势相似,随着高度级增加基本呈现先增后减的双峰结构,均在Ⅳ级达到最大值,长苞铁杉纯林的分享度呈现先增后减再增再减的双峰结构,长苞铁杉青冈混交林和长苞铁杉猴头杜鹃混交林呈先增加后减少的单峰结构;长苞铁杉纯林种群空间格局在10 m×10 m、10 m×20m和20 m×30 m 3种尺度下主要为聚集分布,但随着取样尺度的增加,长苞铁杉种群在纯林中呈现分散趋势.%The community structure and spatial pattern of the Tsuga longibracteata pure forest,the forest of Tsuga longibrceata mixed with Rhododendron sp.,the forest of Tsuga longibracteata mixed with Cryptomeriafortunei from Yong'an Tianbaoyan National Nature Reserve were studied by means of the Community Mathematics and Applied Statistics methods.The results showed that the number of individuals together with the share rate in the Tsuga longibracteata pure forest and the Tsug alongibracteata-Cryptomeriafortunei mixed forest were reduced continuously along with the DBH increase; while the number of individuals together with the share rate in the Tsuga longibracteata-Cryptomeria fortunei mixed forest changed with a double-peak form,i.e.,in up-down-up-down curve along with the increase of DBH scale.The height-scale distribution of the arbor tree layer in the three communities was similar.The share rate of the forest also changed with a double-peak form,i.e.,in up

  7. Plant Pb Contents in Elevation Zones of the Changbai Mountain National Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Jun-Hong; CUI Bao-Shan; DENG Wei; WANG Qing-Gai; DING Qiu-Yi

    2007-01-01

    Typical plants and soils of four elevation zones,mountain tundra(Zone A),Betula ermanii forest(Zone B),mountain dark coniferous forest(Zone C),and mountain coniferous and broad-leaf forest(Zone D),along the vertical gradient of the northern mountain slope of the Changbai Mountain National Nature Reserve,Jilin Province,China,were sampled to study the relationship between plant and soil Pb,and to compare the Pb levels in typical plant types within the same elevation zone.The Pb contents in the soil and plant samples were measured by using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer.The results showed that the average plant Pb contents of the four plant elevation zones were lower than the average worldwide level.except for Zone B,Compared with the average level in China or the average worldwide level,the soil Pb levels of the four plant zones were higher,with Zones D and B having the lowest and highest averages,respectively.Plant Pb levels fluctuated from the upper to the lower zones,in a pattern of low-high-low-high,which was the same as that of the soils in the four zones.Furthermore.plant Pb was closely related to soll Pb.Depending on the plant species and plant parts,large differences were found in the Pb levels of typical plants within each zone.In Zone A,Vaccinium uliginosum and Rhododendron redowskianum had higher Pb levels than the other plants.In Zone C,the Pb levels in the branches of both plant species were higher than those in the leaves,which was contrary to Zone D.In Zone B,the Pb levels in the plant parts varied greatly with plant species.

  8. Environmental and Physiological Controls on Plant Leaf Wax δD from Western Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, M. A.; Bush, R. T.; Cartagena Sierra, A.; Cheah, D.; Costello, C.; Muldoon, T.; Tillema, M.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen isotope ratios of leaf waxes are increasingly used to reconstruct past hydroclimate, but the interpretation of these signatures from ancient sedimentary archives relies on a thorough understanding of the drivers of isotope variability in modern environments. These studies are particularly valuable in the arctic and subarctic, regions particularly vulnerable to rapid climate change, but where modern vegetation is understudied compared to proxy applications reliant on vegetation. Here we present δD values from leaf wax compounds of tundra vegetation in the Kangerlussuaq area of western Greenland. We collected samples along a transect that follows 12 sites from the base of the Greenland Ice Sheet, around a small lake ('Bird Lake') and to the town of Kangerlussuaq, along the Sandflugtdalen ('Flying Sand Valley'). We collected a variety of common tundra species in these locations including dwarf shrubs (e.g. Betula nana, Rhododendron lapponica, and Salix glauca), forbs and graminoids (e.g. Calamagrostis lapponica and Eriophorum angustifolium), and horsetails (Equisetum arvense) to study possible interspecies isotopic variability. We measured leaf and stem waters of these plants to help constrain potential drivers of leaf wax n-alkane δD values across this transect. Results are discussed relative to local climate parameters and modelled precipitation values to elucidate source water contributions modified by evaporation and transpiration. This survey of δD values from leaf wax compounds and plant waters in western Greenland will extend stable isotope calibrations to tundra vegetation and provide insights into the use of sedimentary leaf wax compounds for reconstruction of paleohydroclimate.

  9. Relaxation of Rat Aorta by Farrerol Correlates with Potency to Reduce Intracellular Calcium of VSMCs

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    Xiaojiang Qin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Farrerol, isolated from Rhododendron dauricum L., has been proven to be an important multifunctional physiologically active component, but its vasoactive mechanism is not clear. The present study was performed to observe the vasoactive effects of farrerol on rat aorta and to investigate the possible underlying mechanisms. Isolated aortic rings of rat were mounted in an organ bath system and the myogenic effects stimulated by farrerol were studied. Intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]in was measured by molecular probe fluo-4-AM and the activities of L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (LVGC were studied with whole-cell patch clamp in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs. The results showed that farrerol significantly induced dose-dependent relaxation on aortic rings, while this vasorelaxation was not affected by NG-nitro-l-arginine methylester ester or endothelium denudation. In endothelium-denuded aortas, farrerol also reduced Ca2+-induced contraction on the basis of the stable contraction induced by KCl or phenylephrine (PE in Ca2+-free solution. Moreover, after incubation with verapamil, farrerol can induce relaxation in endothelium-denuded aortas precontracted by PE, and this effect can be enhanced by ruthenium red, but not by heparin. With laser scanning confocal microscopy method, the farrerol-induced decline of [Ca2+]in in cultured VSMCs was observed. Furthermore, we found that farrerol could suppress Ca2+ influx via LVGC by patch clamp technology. These findings suggested that farrerol can regulate the vascular tension and could be developed as a practicable vasorelaxation drug.

  10. The botanical legacy of Thomas Hardwicke’s journey to Srinagar in 1796

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    Ian M. Turner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1796, Thomas Hardwicke travelled through northern India between what is now Fatehgarh in Uttar Pradesh and Srinagar in Uttarakhand. Hardwicke collected and described plants encountered and had many of the plants illustrated from life. He published an account of the journey in 1799 including a list of plant species. I review the names validated in the original paper, and also those published subsequently by Sir James Edward Smith and William Roxburgh based partly or wholly on the material or drawings acquired by Hardwicke on the journey to Srinagar. The large collection of Hardwicke plant drawings now held in the British Library, and a smaller set in the Botany Library of the Natural History Museum, are considered in relation to the application and typification of plant names related to Hardwicke’s botanical exploration in India. The names of seven plant species were validly published in the 1799 paper (Androsace rotundifolia Hardw., Ficus laminosa Hardw., Justicia thyrsiformis Roxb. ex Hardw., Linum trigynum Roxb. ex Hardw., Lonicera quinquelocularis Hardw., Salvia integrifolia Roxb. ex Hardw. and Volkameria bicolor Hardw., plus one new combination (Echites antidysentericus (L. Roxb. ex Hardw.. As concluded by Britten more than a century ago, Ficus laminosa is the correct name for the fig variously referred to F. saemocarpa Miq. or F. squamosa Roxb. Smith based Rhododendron arboreum Sm. and Bignonia undulata Sm. on Hardwicke plants. At least a dozen Roxburgh names, including Crataegus integrifolia Roxb., Gardenia tetrasperma Roxb. and Morus serrata Roxb., are based, at least partly, on Hardwicke’s collections. In total, 23 names are lectotypified here and one neotype is designated.

  11. Forest structure, diversity and regeneration potential along altitudinal gradient in Dhanaulti of Garhwal Himalaya

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    Sushil Saha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The aim of the present study was to understatnd the forest composition, structure, diversity and regeneration potential along altitudinal gradient. Area of study: The study was carried out in Dhanaulti forest which falls under temperate region of Garhwal Himalaya in Uttarakhand state, India. Material and Methods: Vegetation analysis was carried out using 10 quadrats at each altitude using a quadrate size of 10×10 m2. In each quadrate, categories of trees >30 cm cbh were considered as trees, 10-30cm cbh as saplings and <10 cm cbh as seedlings. The data were quantitatively analyzed. Main results: In upper and middle altitudes, Cedrus deodara was reported dominant tree whereas, in lower altitude Quercus leucotrichophora was reported dominant. Tree density was highest in lower altitude which reduced middle and upper altitudes whereas, total basal cover increased with increasing altitude. The increasing total basal cover with altitude could be because of the presence of Cedrus deodara trees having higher girth classes. In tree, sapling and seedling layers, diversity (H and equitabiltiy (EC decreased with increasing altitude. However, concentrations of dominace (CD and beta diversity (BD have shown reverse trend with H and EC which increased with increasing altitudes, in each layer of tree, sapling and seedling. The distribution pattern of most species in all layers of trees, saplings and seedlings was contagious. The regeneration potential of the species has shown that some of the species in the absence of tree layer are still regenerating particularly, Rhododendron arboreum, Benthamidia capitata, Neolitsea pallens etc. It indicates that most of the species are shifting upward as they are getting suitable conditions. Research highlights: Altitude influence species composition, diversity and regeneration potential of species. Key words: Distribution pattern; tree diversity; regeneration; mountains; temperate; Himalaya.

  12. Evaluation of the antidiabetic potential of selected medicinal plant extracts from the Canadian boreal forest used to treat symptoms of diabetes: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbilas, Despina; Martineau, Louis C; Harris, Cory S; Adeyiwola-Spoor, Danielle C A; Saleem, Ammar; Lambert, Jennifer; Caves, Dayna; Johns, Timothy; Prentki, Marc; Cuerrier, Alain; Arnason, John T; Bennett, Steffany A L; Haddad, Pierre S

    2009-06-01

    Among the Cree of northern Quebec, the disproportionately high rate of diabetic complications is largely due to the cultural inadequacy of modern therapies for type 2 diabetes. To establish culturally adapted antidiabetic treatments, our team identified several candidate plant species used by the Cree to treat symptoms of diabetes. An initial study focused on 8 species and revealed that most possess significant in vitro antidiabetic activity. The purpose of the present study was to assess a further 9 species identified through the ethnobotanical survey. Crude plant extracts were screened for (i) potentiation of basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by skeletal muscle cells (C2C12) and adipocytes (3T3-L1); (ii) potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells (betaTC); (iii) potentiation of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells; (iv) protection against glucose toxicity and glucose deprivation in PC12-AC neuronal precursor cells; and (v) diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) oxygen free radical scavenging. Four species potentiated basal glucose uptake in muscle cells or adipocytes, one species being as potent as metformin. Adipogenesis was accelerated by 4 species with a potency roughly half that of rosiglitazone. Five species protected PC12-AC cells against glucose toxicity and 4 protected against glucose deprivation. Five species exhibited antioxidant activity comparable to ascorbic acid. However, no species increased insulin secretion. The present study revealed that Gaultheria hispidula, Rhododendron tomentosum, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea exhibit a promising profile of antidiabetic potential and are good candidates for more in-depth evaluation. PMID:19526043

  13. Biology and integrated control of Pestalotiopsis on container-grown ericaceous crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuilken, Mark P; Hopkins, K E

    2004-02-01

    Pestalotiopsis isolates obtained from the foliage, stem-base and roots of diseased container-grown ericaceous crops (Calluna, Erica, Pieris and Rhododendron) collected from UK nurseries were identified as Pestalotiopsis sydowiana (Bresad) B Sutton on the basis of conidia morphology. Inoculum sources of the pathogen included diseased stock plants, crop debris, nursery soils, used growing media, pots and floor covering, and dust collected from greenhouse walkways. Isolates were not host-specific and infected other species of ericaceous plants, with typical symptoms including browning of foliage, stems and roots, and the presence of black or greenish black acervuli on diseased tissue. The optimum temperature for growth of three selected isolates of the pathogen was 20-25 degrees C, with little or no growth occurring below 5 or above 30 degrees C. Growth occurred over pH 2.6-8.6, with optimum at 5.5. Decreases in matric potential from -0.3 to -4.0 MPa reduced growth, which was totally inhibited at -6.5 MPa. Greenhouse trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of disease management methods (irrigation, flooring/pot disinfection and fungicide application) on control of the pathogen on potted plants of C vulgaris. Disease incidence and foliar browning caused by P sydowiana were less on fungicide-treated (five-spray programme of alternating prochloraz and carbendazim) potted plants watered by sub-irrigation compared with watering from overhead. Single and combined treatments of flooring/pot disinfection (hydrogen peroxide/peracetic acid) and the five-spray fungicide programme significantly reduced disease incidence and severity compared with dipping pots in water. The combined disinfection and fungicide programme significantly reduced disease incidence and severity, compared to disinfection or fungicide application alone. The importance of these findings for the integrated control of P sydowiana on ericaceous plant nurseries is discussed. PMID:14971679

  14. Birdlime in Western Myanmar: Preparation, Use, and Conservation Implications for an Endemic Bird

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    Steven G. Platt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Birdlimes are adhesive entangling compounds that passively capture birds by binding them to a substrate and rendering flight feathers useless. We investigated birdlime use among indigenous Chin hunters during a wildlife survey of Natma Taung National Park (NTNP in western Myanmar (May-June 2011. We found that birdlime is prepared from the sap of various banyan trees (Ficus spp. collected during the annual dry season (December-May. Birdlime is prepared by boiling sap to remove water, and the finished product is a readily malleable and extremely adhesive compound known locally as nghet phan te kaw (“bird glue”. Hunters employ four principal strategies when using birdlime: 1 limed sticks are placed at waterholes and springs; 2 limed sticks are placed in fruiting trees or nocturnal roost sites; 3 limed sticks are positioned at prominent vantage points and hunters mimic vocalizations to attract birds; 4 small insects (possibly termites are affixed to a limed pole and serve as bait to attract birds. Large numbers (>200 of birds can reportedly be captured during a single day by hunters using birdlime. At least 186 (63.9% of 291 species of birds occurring in Natma Taung National Park are thought to be vulnerable to this non-selective hunting strategy. The endangered white-browed nuthatch (Sitta victoriae Rippon Sittidae, a poorly-studied endemic species restricted to high elevation Oak-Rhododendron forest in NTNP, is vulnerable to birdliming, although the impact of hunting on populations remains unclear. We recommend that future investigations determine the sustainability of the Chin bird harvest by relating hunter off-take to recruitment and survivorship of nuthatches. If conservation action is deemed prudent, management plans should be developed in close collaboration with local Chin communities.

  15. Catchment nitrogen saturation drives ecological change in an alpine lake in SW China (eastern margin of Tibet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, N. J.; Hu, Z.; Yang, X.; Zhang, E.

    2011-12-01

    There is substantial evidence for recent (last ca. 120 years) ecological change in remote arctic and alpine lakes (increased productivity, altered biological structure). Initially, these changes were attributed to global warming which has altered the heat budgets of these lakes (stronger stratification, longer ice free periods). The emphasis on temperature, however, ignores that global environmental change is driven by a range of multiple stressors (e.g. altered biogeochemical cycles, land cover change). One of the characteristics of the observed change in remote lakes is the expansion of small species of the planktonic diatom genus Cyclotella. It is increasingly obvious that the recent success of this diatom genus is driven by other factors (nutrients, light, mixing depth) as much as temperature. SE Asia is a major hotspot for the emission of reactive nitrogen as a result of intensive agriculture and fossil fuel combustion. In this study we report recent ecological change in a small, oligotrophic alpine lake (ShadeCo; altitude 4423 m) located in Sichuan Province (SW China), one of many relatively unstudied alpine lakes on the eastern margin of Tibet. The lake is located above the tree-line and there is no cultural land-use; the catchment vegetation is dominated by alpine shrub (predominantly Rhododendron). We used a multi-proxy palaeolimnological approach (diatom, geochemical and stable isotope analyses of a 210-Pb dated core) coupled with regional long-term climate data to understand the pronounced 20th century changes in the diatom record, notably an expansion of Cyclotella spp from around 1920. This initial increase is coincident with warming in SW China but the maximum Cyclotella abundance occurs in in the 1970s and 1980s, a period of regional cooling and major changes in catchment-lake biogeochemistry as indicated by geochemical analyses. The possible drivers of the observed changes (nitrogen deposition, temperature) at this site are discussed in the context

  16. Pollen transfer in fragmented plant populations: insight from the pollen loads of pollinators and stigmas in a mass-flowering species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmas, Chloé E L; Fort, Thomas L C; Escaravage, Nathalie; Pornon, André

    2016-08-01

    Pollinator and/or mate scarcity affects pollen transfer, with important ecological and evolutionary consequences for plant reproduction. However, the way in which the pollen loads transported by pollinators and deposited on stigmas are affected by pollination context has been little studied. We investigated the impacts of plant mate and visiting insect availabilities on pollen transport and receipt in a mass-flowering and facultative autogamous shrub (Rhododendron ferrugineum). First, we recorded insect visits to R. ferrugineum in plant patches of diverse densities and sizes. Second, we analyzed the pollen loads transported by R. ferrugineum pollinators and deposited on stigmas of emasculated and intact flowers, in the same patches. Overall, pollinators (bumblebees) transported much larger pollen loads than the ones found on stigmas, and the pollen deposited on stigmas included a high proportion of conspecific pollen. However, comparing pollen loads of emasculated and intact flowers indicated that pollinators contributed only half the conspecific pollen present on the stigma. At low plant density, we found the highest visitation rate and the lowest proportion of conspecific pollen transported and deposited by pollinators. By contrast, at higher plant density and lower visitation rate, pollinators deposited larger proportion of conspecific pollen, although still far from sufficient to ensure that all the ovules were fertilized. Finally, self-pollen completely buffered the detrimental effects on pollination of patch fragmentation and pollinator failure. Our results indicate that pollen loads from pollinators and emasculated flowers should be quantified for an accurate understanding of the relative impacts of pollinator and mate limitation on pollen transfer in facultative autogamous species. PMID:27547345

  17. Factors Affecting Diet Variation in the Pyrenean Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus muta pyrenaica: Conservation Implications.

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    Ricardo García-González

    Full Text Available The Pyrenean rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta pyrenaica lives at one of the southernmost limits of the ptarmigan range. Their small population sizes and the impacts of global changes are limiting factors in the conservation of this threatened subspecies. An effective conservation policy requires precise basic knowledge of a species' food and habitat requirements, information that is practically non-existent for this Pyrenean population. Here, we describe the diet of a ptarmigan population in the Eastern Pyrenees, the environmental factors influencing its variability and the relationship between diet floristic composition and quality. Diet composition was determined by microhistological analysis of faeces and diet quality was estimated from free-urate faecal N content. Our results show that grouse diet is based mainly on arctic-alpine shrubs of the Ericaceae family, as well as dwarf willows (Salix spp. and Dryas octopetala. The most frequently consumed plant species was Rhododendron ferrugineum, but its abundance in the diet was negatively related to the diet nitrogen content. Conversely, the abundance of Salix spp., grass leaves and arthropods increased the nitrogen content of the diet. Seasonality associated with snow-melting contributed the most to variability in the Pyrenean ptarmigan diet, differentiating winter from spring/summer diets. The latter was characterised by a high consumption of dwarf willows, flowers, arthropods and tender forb leaves. Geographic area and sex-age class influenced diet variability to a lesser extent. Current temperature increases in the Pyrenees due to global warming may reduce the persistence and surface area of snow-packs where preferred plants for rock ptarmigan usually grow, thus reducing food availability. The high consumption of Rh. ferrugineum characterised the diet of the Pyrenean population. Given the toxicity of this plant for most herbivores, its potential negative effect on Pyrenean ptarmigan populations

  18. Estimating density of a rare and cryptic high-mountain Galliform species, the Buff-throated Partridge Tetraophasis szechenyii

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    Yu Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of abundance or density are essential for wildlife management and conservation. There are few effective density estimates for the Buff-throated Partridge Tetraophasis szechenyii, a rare and elusive high-mountain Galliform species endemic to western China. In this study, we used the temporary emigration N-mixture model to estimate density of this species, with data acquired from playback point count surveys around a sacred area based on indigenous Tibetan culture of protection of wildlife, in Yajiang County, Sichuan, China, during April-June 2009. Within 84 125-m radius points, we recorded 53 partridge groups during three repeats. The best model indicated that detection probability was described by covariates of vegetation cover type, week of visit, time of day, and weather with weak effects, and a partridge group was present during a sampling period with a constant probability. The abundance component was accounted for by vegetation association. Abundance was substantially higher in rhododendron shrubs, fir-larch forests, mixed spruce-larch-birch forests, and especially oak thickets than in pine forests. The model predicted a density of 5.14 groups/km², which is similar to an estimate of 4.7 - 5.3 groups/km² quantified via an intensive spot-mapping effort. The post-hoc estimate of individual density was 14.44 individuals/km², based on the estimated mean group size of 2.81. We suggest that the method we employed is applicable to estimate densities of Buff-throated Partridges in large areas. Given importance of a mosaic habitat for this species, local logging should be regulated. Despite no effect of the conservation area (sacred on the abundance of Buff-throated Partridges, we suggest regulations linking the sacred mountain conservation area with the official conservation system because of strong local participation facilitated by sacred mountains in land conservation.

  19. Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMeeking, Gavin R.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Baker, Stephen; Carrico, Christian M.; Chow, Judith C.; Collett, Jr., Jeffrey L.; Hao, Wei Min; Holden, Amanda S.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Malm, William C.; Moosmuller, Hans; Sullivan, Amy P.; Wold, Cyle E.

    2009-05-15

    We characterized the gas- and speciated aerosol-phase emissions from the open combustion of 33 different plant species during a series of 255 controlled laboratory burns during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiments (FLAME). The plant species we tested were chosen to improve the existing database for U.S. domestic fuels: laboratory-based emission factors have not previously been reported for many commonly-burned species that are frequently consumed by fires near populated regions and protected scenic areas. The plants we tested included the chaparral species chamise, manzanita, and ceanothus, and species common to the southeastern US (common reed, hickory, kudzu, needlegrass rush, rhododendron, cord grass, sawgrass, titi, and wax myrtle). Fire-integrated emission factors for gas-phase CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2-4} hydrocarbons, NH{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 3} and particle-phase organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and NH{sub 4}{sup +} generally varied with both fuel type and with the fire-integrated modified combustion efficiency (MCE), a measure of the relative importance of flaming- and smoldering-phase combustion to the total emissions during the burn. Chaparral fuels tended to emit less particulate OC per unit mass of dry fuel than did other fuel types, whereas southeastern species had some of the largest observed EF for total fine particulate matter. Our measurements often spanned a larger range of MCE than prior studies, and thus help to improve estimates for individual fuels of the variation of emissions with combustion conditions.

  20. Ecological studies of plants for the control of environmental pollution. IV. Growth of various plant species as influenced by soil applied cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, J.W.; Kim, B.W.

    1975-03-01

    The relations of the growth response of plants, i.e. 4 species of crops, 12 species of roadside trees and 5 species of horticultural plants to cadmium (Cd) were studied in pot cultures. Growth in dry weight of corn, soybeans, barley, and wheat plants was decreased with an increase in Cd concentration. Damage to corn plants caused by Cd treatment was more or less recovered when it was grown in soil with calcium, but the other three crops did not recover. Although crop plants used here absorbed a small amount of Cd through the roots, the Cd content in the shoots was directly proportionate to the concentration of Cd added to the soil. Additions of calcium and sulfur to soil were sufficient to change the soil pH. The chlorosis on leaves caused by Cd treatment was observed in 2 species such as Euonymus japonica and Rhododendron yedoense out of 5 species of the horticultural plants, especially at 50 ppm of Cd. Euonymus japonica had symptoms of chlorosis and defoliation, and at higher concentrations the symptoms were more severe. At 200 ppm of Cd little damage was observed in Pinus koraiensis and Ginkgo biloba, but severe chlorosis was observed in Robinia pseudoacacia and Sabina chinensis, Buxus koreana, Abies holophylla and Platanus orientalis. Nevertheless, those plants that had serious damage at 200 ppm of Cd showed weakened symptoms by adding calcium to the soil. There were many Cd tolerant species out of the plants used in this experiment, such as Crassula falcata, Chrysanthemum morifolium, Hibiscus syriacus, Ligustrum ovalifolium, Liriodendron tulipeferia, and Lespedeza crytobotrys.

  1. Habitat correlates of the red panda in the temperate forests of Bhutan.

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    Sangay Dorji

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic activities and associated global climate change are threatening the biodiversity in the Himalayas against a backdrop of poor knowledge of the region's threatened species. The red panda (Ailurus fulgens is a threatened mammal confined to the eastern Himalayas, and because of Bhutan's central location in the distributional range of red pandas, its forests are integral to the long-term viability of wild populations. Detailed habitat requirements of the red panda are largely speculative, and there is virtually no ecological information available on this species in Bhutan. Between 2007 and 2009, we established 615 presence/absence plots in a systematic sampling of resident habitat types within Jigme Dorji and Thrumshingla National Parks, Bhutan, to investigate broad and fine-scale red panda habitat associations. Additional locality records of red pandas were obtained from interviewing 664 park residents. Red pandas were generally confined to cool broadleaf and conifer forests from 2,110-4,389 m above sea level (asl, with the majority of records between 2,400-3,700 m asl on south and east-facing slopes. At a finer scale, multivariate analysis revealed that red pandas were strongly associated with old growth Bhutan Fir (Abies densa forest dominated by a dense cover of Yushania and Arundanaria bamboo with a high density of fallen logs and tree stumps at ground level; a high density of trees, dead snags, and rhododendron shrubs in the mid-storey; and locations that were close to water. Because Bhutan's temperate forests that encompass prime red panda habitat are also integral to human subsistence and socio-economic development, there exists an inadvertent conflict between the needs of people and red pandas. As such, careful sustainable management of Bhutan's temperate forests is necessary if a balance is to be met between the socioeconomic needs of people and the conservation goals for red pandas.

  2. Canopy Composition and Topographic Controls on Root Cohesion in Landslide-Prone Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, T. C.; Ford, C. R.; Hwang, T.; Vose, J.; Band, L. E.

    2009-12-01

    Steep, forested landscapes are commonly the source of devastating shallow landslides and debris flows. The magnitude and frequency of these slides is dependent on the distribution of steep slopes, the frequency of prolonged and/or intense precipitation, and the resistive properties of soil and roots. Most studies of the human influence on shallow landslide frequency focus on the effects of forestry and associated road building. Humans also influence the species composition of forests through management and introductions of exotic species. Forest composition affects the magnitude of root reinforcement of largely cohesionless colluvial soils that resist landsliding. We investigated how topographically controlled changes in forest composition affected the distribution of root reinforcement along a catenery sequence in a forested catchment, southern Appalachian Mountains, North Carolina. The magnitude of reinforcement is estimated based on the vertical distribution and tensile strength of roots from soil pits dug downslope of fifteen native woody species. Root tensile strengths from different hardwood tree species were similar and consistently higher than the only native shrub species measured (Rhododendron maximum). Roots were stronger in trees found on noses relative to those in hollows coincident with the variability in cellulose content. This cellulose variability is likely an ecophysiologic response to differences in soil moisture potential along our catena. For all species, roots were concentrated close to the soil surface, with the majority of R. maximum roots located in the shallow, O-horizon. R. maximum had lower mean root cohesion than trees because of a lower root tensile force and a shallow rooting structure. Our results highlight the need to quantify how changes in canopy composition, particularly the expansion of R. maximum due to fire suppression, affect shallow landslide potential. We suggest that a combination of simple topographic analysis and leaf

  3. Effects of non-native Melilotus albus on pollination and reproduction in two boreal shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellman, Katie V; Schneller, Laura C; Mulder, Christa P H; Carlson, Matthew L

    2015-10-01

    The establishment of abundantly flowered, highly rewarding non-native plant species is expected to have strong consequences for native plants through altered pollination services, particularly in boreal forest where the flowering season is short and the pollinator pool is small. In 18 boreal forest sites, we added flowering Melilotus albus to some sites and left some sites as controls in 2 different years to test if the invasive plant influences the pollination and reproductive success of two co-flowering ericaceous species: Vaccinium vitis-idaea and Rhododendron groenlandicum. We found that M. albus increased the pollinator diversity and tended to increase visitation rates to the focal native plant species compared to control sites. Melilotus albus facilitated greater seed production per berry in V. vitis-idaea when we added 120 plants compared to when we added 40 plants or in control sites. In R. groenlandicum, increasing numbers of M. albus inflorescences lowered conspecific pollen loads and percentage of flowers pollinated; however, no differences in fruit set were detected. The number of M. albus inflorescences had greater importance in explaining R. groenlandicum pollination compared to other environmental variables such as weather and number of native flowers, and had greater importance in lower quality black spruce sites than in mixed deciduous and white spruce sites for explaining the percentage of V. vitis-idaea flowers pollinated. Our data suggest that the identity of new pollinators attracted to the invaded sites, degree of shared pollinators between invasive and native species, and variation in resource limitation among sites are likely determining factors in the reproductive responses of boreal native plants in the presence of an invasive. PMID:26071209

  4. Electroencephalographic and behavioral effects of intracerebroventricular or intraperitoneal injections of toxic honey extract in adult Wistar rats and GAERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuru, Pinar; Torun, Merve; Halac, Hande Melike; Temiz, Gozde; Iskender, Ece; Karamahmutoglu, Tugba; Idrizoglu, Medine Gulcebi; Onat, Filiz Yilmaz

    2014-12-01

    Toxic honey, containing grayanotoxin, is obtained from nectar and polen of rhododendron. Consumed in excess it produces seizures and convulsions. In order to investigate whether the toxic honey extract can be used as a seizure model, we examined the electroencephalographic (EEG) and motor effects of intracerebroventricular (icv) or intraperitoneal (ip) injection of toxic honey extract in Wistar rats or in genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS). Male Wistar rats or GAERS were stereotaxically implanted with bilateral cortical recording electrodes in all ip groups and cannula in the icv groups. Based on the previous study, an extract was obtained from the non-toxic and toxic honey. After the injection of the non-toxic or toxic honey extract, seizure stages and changes in EEG were evaluated from 9 am to noon. The icv administration of toxic honey extract produced stage 4 seizures and bilateral cortical spikes within 30-60 min and these effects disappeared after 120 min in Wistar rats or GAERS. The mean of bilateral cortical spike acitivity in EEG of Wistar rats was 804.2 ± 261.0 s in the 3-h period. After the icv administration of toxic honey extract to GAERS, the mean duration of spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs) in GAERS significantly decreased during the first 60 min and then returned to baseline level. Ip injection of toxic honey extract caused no seizure and no change in EEG in either GAERS or Wistars. These results suggest that the icv administration of toxic honey extract can be used as a seizure model. PMID:25120202

  5. Ecological gradients driving the distribution of four Ericaceae in boreal Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiffault, Nelson; Grondin, Pierre; Noël, Jean; Poirier, Véronique

    2015-05-01

    Understory species play a significant role in forest ecosystem dynamics. As such, species of the Ericaceae family have a major effect on the regeneration of tree species in boreal ecosystems. It is thus imperative to understand the ecological gradients controlling their distribution and abundance, so that their impacts can be taken into account in sustainable forest management. Using innovative analytical techniques from landscape ecology, we aimed to position, along ecological gradients, four Ericaceae found in the boreal forest of Quebec (Canada) (Rhododendron groenlandicum, Kalmia angustifolia, Chamaedaphne calyculata, and Vaccinium spp), to regionalize these species into landscape units relevant to forest management, and to estimate the relative importance of several ecological drivers (climate, disturbances, stand attributes, and physical environment) that control the species distribution and abundance. We conducted our study in boreal Quebec, over a study area covering 535,355 km(2). We used data from 15,339 ecological survey plots and forest maps to characterize 1422 ecological districts covering the study region. We evaluated the relative proportion of each ericaceous species and explanatory variables at the district level. Vegetation and explanatory variables matrices were used to conduct redundancy, cluster, and variation partitioning analyses. We observed that ericaceous species are mainly distributed in the western part of the study area and each species has a distinct latitudinal and longitudinal gradient distribution. On the basis of these gradients, we delimited 10 homogeneous landscape units distinct in terms of ericaceous species abundance and environmental drivers. The distribution of the ericaceous species along ecological gradients is closely related to the overlaps between the four sets of explanatory variables considered. We conclude that the studied Ericaceae occupy specific positions along ecological gradients and possess a specific

  6. Floristic diversity in relation to geomorphological and climatic factors in the subalpinealpine belt of the Rodna Mountains (the Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coldea, G.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the GLORIA-EUROPE project, the floristic diversity, frequency and species coverage in relation to the main ecological gradients (altitude,aspect were studied in the alpine pasture (Primulo-Caricetum curvulae, Oreochloo-Juncetum trifidi and subalpine dwarf shrub communities (Rhododendro myrtifolii - Vaccinetum of the four summits from the Pietrosul Rodnei massif (Romanian Carpathians. Floristic diversity is higher in the plant communities from lower altitude summits (Golgota, Gropile, while it decreases in communities, to higher summits (Buhaiescu, Rebra. For each 100 m increase in the altitude of subalpine-alpine summits, a decrease of approximately 10% was found in the number of vascular plant species. Arctic-Alpine species (Carex curvula, ¡uncus trifidus, Hieracium alpinum, Oreochloa disticha, etc. and a Carpatho-Balkanic regional species (Rhododendron myrtifolium have the highest frequency and coverage in these plant communities. In northern and eastern slope areas, where the vegetation cover is 15-30% lower than on western and southern slopes and the soil temperature is generally 1-3°C lower during the vegetative season (June-August, the mean number of species per square meter is 25% higher than in southern and western slope areas.

    [fr] Dans le cadre du projet GLORIA EUROPE on a étudié la diversité floristique, la fréquence et le recouvrement des espèces, par rapport aux principaux gradients écologiques (altitude, exposition, au sein des associations de prés alpins (Primulo-Caricetum curvulae, Oreochloo-Juncetum trifidi et des buissons subalpins de petite taille (Rhododendro myrtifolii - Vaccinietum, sur quatre sommets dans le massif Pietrosul Mare (Les Carpates Roumaines. La diversité floristique est plus grande chez les associations de plantes des sommets avec des altitudes plus basses (Golgota, Gropile et elle s'abaisse chez les associations des sommets plus hauts (Buhaiescu

  7. 粤东桥溪村风水林群落特征初探%Investigation on the community characteristics and species diversity of Qiaoxi Geomantic Forest in Meizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨期和; 潘素芳; 赖万年; 杨和生; 况伟

    2015-01-01

    The detailed investigation on the tree layer,shrub layer and herb layer were carried out to analyze the char-acteristics and plant diversity through setting up samples in Qiaoxi Village Geomantic Forest in MeiZhou City,East-ern part of Guangdong Povince,South China.In this geomantic forest,3 standard sample plots covered an area of 1 000 m2 (50 m×20 m)were set up to investigate the plants in the tree layers,and the distance between 3 adjacent sample plots was 50-55 m.In each standard plot,3 standard samples covered 4 m2 (2 m×2 m)were randomly set to investigate the plants in the shrub layer and herb layer.It was found that there were 67 species of vascular plants belonging to 54 genera and 37 families in the sample area of 3 000 m2 .There were 4 species of ferns belonging to 4 four genera in 4 families,3 species of gymnosperms belonging to 3 genera in 3 families,and 60 species belonging to 47 genera in 30 families.The floristic components were dominated by tropical elements and the proportion of tropical genus was 74.08% in the total number of genera.The families including Lauraceae,Fagaceae and Hamamelidaceae were dominant families,and Altingia gracilipes ,Rhododendron championae ,Itea chinensis and Altingia chinensis were the dominant tree species in this forest.The vegetation type was evergreen broadleaved forest,and the life form was dominated by phanerophytes,which accounted for 73.13% in the total species,in these phanerophytes,the me-sophanerophyte life form was the most,which accounted for about 43% in the total species.The proportion of lianas was 17.91%.The tree layer can be divided into three sub-layers,but the individuals at height of 6-9.9 m number were the most.There lacked seedling reserve of Pinus massoniana ,Cunninghamia lanceolata ,Altingia gracilipes , Itea chinensis and Altingia chinensis ,which indicated their populations were declining,while there were relatively e-nough seedling reserve of Rhododendron championae and Helicia cochinchinensis

  8. Insect herbivory patterns on leaves of 11 plant species in the evergreen broad-leaved forests of Tiantong National Forest Park, Zhejiang%浙江天童常绿阔叶林中11种常绿乔灌木叶片虫食状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏伟; 蔡永立; 李恺; 江红; 田玉鹏

    2006-01-01

    为探讨昆虫对植物叶片的取食行为和伤害方式,作者选择浙江天童常绿阔叶林内的11种常绿乔灌木为对象,对叶片虫食状类型和格局进行分析.结果如下:(1)共发现16种虫食状类型,每种植物叶片虫食状类型数在10-13种之间,每种虫食状出现频率在0.5-28.7%之间.缘食状出现频率最高(28.7%),虫瘿和泡状出现频率最低(0.5%).(2)叶片虫食状分布格局可分为3种类型,即一种虫食状占绝对优势的单优格局,如马银花(Rhododendron ovatum)和檵木(Loropetalum chinense);两种虫食状(缘食状和顶食状)共占优势的双优格局,仅有木荷(Schima superba);3种及3种以上虫食状占优势的多优格局(其余8种植物).(3)叶片虫食状多样性指数变化在1.57-2.23之间,最高为苦槠(Castanopsis sclerophylla),最低为马银花;乔木的多样性指数(2.040)高于灌木(1.882),优势种多样性指数高于伴生种,但差异均不显著;多样性指数反映了虫食状类型和出现频率的综合差异.(4)16种虫食状类型中有8对显著正相关,4对显著负相关,可能反映出不同类型昆虫取食植物的趋同和差异.

  9. 上海植物园典型群落景观美景度评价%Scenic Beauty Evaluation of Typical Plant Communities in Shanghai Botanical Garden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙启臻; 吴泽民

    2012-01-01

    Based on the comprehensive field survey on plant communities of Shanghai Botanical Garden, the study made the landscape aesthetic evaluation for 33 typical communities using scenic beauty evaluation (SBE) . The results indicated that the aesthetic value of the plant communities was - 1.38 -1.37. Sixteen communities were valued≥0, all of which included almost deciduous species and had 3 layers in vertical structure. The major canopy species of the communities with higher aesthetic value were Koelreteria paniculata, Salix madthudana, Sapium sebiferum, Cinnamomum camphora, Ginkgo biloba, Diospyros kaki, Albizzia julibrissin, etc; and the major understory species were colorful leaf or flower species such as Loropetarum chinense var. rublum, Malus spp. , Rhododendron spp. , Cerasus lannesiana. The factors affecting scenic beauty of plant communities include species composition, colors, vertical structure, harmonization between communities and ambient environment, health conditions of trees and canopy line change. The plant communities in city botanical garden provides a key basis for green space establishment in urban area, so it was proposed to pay close attention to the effects of botanical garden in city greening.%在全面调查上海植物园植物群落的基础上,采用美景度评判法(SBE)对33个典型群落进行美学价值评价,结果表明其美景度值为-1.38~1.37。得分值≥0的有16个群落,其建群树种几乎全为落叶阔叶树、且多为3层结构,得分较高的群落建群树种主要包括栾树、旱柳、乌桕、香樟、银杏、柿树、合欢等,下层以彩叶或观花树种如红花檀木、海棠、杜鹃、日本晚樱、八仙花等为主。影响群落景观关学特点的因素主要有树种组成、色彩、垂直结构、群落与周围环境的协调度、树木的健康状况及林冠线变化度等。植物园的植物群落关景度评价是构建城市绿地群落的重要参考。

  10. Impacts of traditional land use practices on soil organic carbon and nitrogen pools of mountain ecosystems in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Anjana; Katzensteiner, Klaus

    2010-05-01

    Crop production, animal husbandry and forestry are three closely interlinked components of land use systems in the mountains of Nepal. Forests are the major source of fuel wood, construction materials, fodder and litter. The latter is used as a bedding material for livestock and forms an important component of farmyard manure. In addition forest grazing by cattle is a common practice. Excessive extraction of biomass from the forest leads to a decline of soil organic matter and nutrient contents. On the landscape scale these negative effects will partly be compensated by positive effects on soil organic matter and nutrient stocks of arable soils. The experimental data base for a quantification of such effects at the scale of communities is however poor, in particular for Nepal. Understanding the impact of subsistence farming on ecosystems is imperative in order to recommend successful and sustainable land management practices. The aim of our study is to quantify effects of land use on carbon and nitrogen pools and fluxes for mountain communities in Nepal. Results of a case study in the buffer zone area of the Sagarmatha National Park are presented. The potential vegetation comprises mixed forests of Quercus semicarpifolia, Rhododendron arboreum and Tsuga dumosa. Carbon and nitrogen stocks in soil and vegetation were quantified for three different land use types, namely: forest with low human impact, forests with high human impact and agricultural land. The scale of disturbance of the forests has been classified by visual estimation considering the percentage of litter raked, number of lopped trees, and grazing intensity assessed by signs of trampling and the number of trails. After stratification of the community area, 20 plots of 10 m radius were established (17 forest plots, 3 plots for arable land) where biometric data of the vegetation were determined and sub-samples were taken for chemical analyses. Organic layers (litter remaining after litter raking) and soil

  11. Long term adjustment of canopy root depth and strength: Implications catchment hydrology and slope stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, T. C.; Taehee, H.; Band, L.; Vose, J.

    2007-12-01

    The species composition of southern Appalachian forests is changing rapidly due to fire suppression, residential expansion and introduced parasites, such as the woody adelgid. Changes in the distribution and age of tree and understory species cause changes in rooting characteristics and therefore the stability of slopes. Roots increase soil cohesive strength and fail in tension during debris flows. The amount of root reinforcement to the soil mass is dependent on the number, size and tensile strength of the roots. We have characterized how changes in the composition of southern Appalachian forests, particularly the expansion of Rhododenron maximum due to fire suppression, may affect the potential for slope failure. We measured the vertical distribution and tensile strength of roots for fifteen individual trees and two mixed species locations in the Coweeta Hydrological Laboratory, North Carolina. The individual pits were chosen to capture variations in species (10 species total), topographic position (nose, side slope, hollow), and age (a range of DBH between 5 cm and 60 cm). Root tensile strengths from different hardwood species were very similar, while rhododendron, a woody shrub, has considerably weaker roots. Roots are concentrated close to the soil surface (at least 70% of biomass occurs within 50 cm of the surface) and variations in this pattern occur primarily as a function of age. R. maximum roots are shallower and weaker than tree roots, which when coupled with low transpiration rates, lowers the total cohesive strength and makes them susceptible to high pore pressure events. We have investigated the potential for mapping R. maximum based on the ratio of near-infrared to red within leaf-off color infrared images. When we combine the remotely-sensed distribution of R. maximum with the root cohesion data from individual pits, we can produce a realistic spatial distribution of root cohesion for southern Appalachian forests. The spatial distribution of root

  12. Dynamics of the evergreen understory at Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Marion Mcnamara

    Much attention today is directed toward vegetation dynamics and related issues of biotic diversity. Both environmental gradients and disturbance/land use history are important determinants of both the distributional pattern and the dynamics of many plant species. The southern Appalachian Mountains constitute a region of high plant and animal diversity and rapidly increasing development pressure with its consequent changes in land use. The remaining forested areas commonly include a significant evergreen understory (undergreen) composed of ericaceous shrubs, predominately Rhododendron maximum , which is believed to be expanding and exerting an inhibitory effect on the establishment of other species, thus impacting forest structure and composition. This study was an attempt to characterize this forest component, temporally and spatially, at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, North Carolina, in terms of a variety of topographic gradients as well as long-term (century) and short-term (decade) disturbance history, verify expansion, develop a surrogate soil moisture index for use in an explanatory model for undergreen pattern, and examine the feasibility of predicting the pattern of undergreen at one time based on knowledge of topographic relationships gained at an earlier time. A GIS was used for visual and areal comparisons; logistic regression was used for developing spatiotemporal explanatory models. Results indicate that aspect, stream proximity, and elevation are all important in explaining distributional pattern and dynamics of the undergreen at Coweeta, with R. maximum showing preference for moister areas and its common associate, Kalmia latifolia found more frequently in drier areas. The influence of these environmental factors differs between the larger Coweeta Basin, the site of experimental manipulations at the small watershed level since the 1930's, and the physically similar Dryman Fork Basin, relatively undisturbed since that time. There is an apparent

  13. Gap phase regeneration recruitment of mixed conifer-broadleaf forests in Wolong Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan YANG; Jianping GE; Lijuan LIU; Yi DING; Yingchun TAN

    2009-01-01

    Wolong Nature Reserve is the largest reserve for protecting the endangered wild giant panda. Due to historical factors, even in many sections of the core protection area, the forests have been seriously destroyed and natural forests are poorly restored. However, the relative importance of the determinants for recruitment of communities under disturbance is rarely explored. In our study the endogenous and exterior factors in a forest gap that affect the conifer-broad-leaved mixed forest regeneration were investigated near Wuyipeng, one of the observation stations at Wolong, to explore which determinant had the greatest effect on gap regeneration and to discover the recruitment of seedling establishment in forest gaps. With a linear sampling method, environmental factors, gap characteristics and recruitment of new individuals were measured and examined in every forest gap along three sampling lines. Data of environmental factors in the gaps were collected for a Pearson correlation analysis in order to explore the disturbance and prepro-cessed characteristics of the gaps, using principal component analysis in SPSS. Correlation analysis was applied to further explore the relationship between changes in the gaps and the response of the regenerating seedlings. The results show that a range of natural and human disturbances affected the pattern and characteristics of the forest gaps in this area. The richness in the composition of the seedlings was higher than that of gap makers, but the order of dominance of the composition was different between seedlings and gap makers. The success of dominant species in establishing themselves was affected by different environmental factors. For instance, the establishment of Betula spp. was correlated significantly with topographic factors, while that of Abies faxoniana was affected by soil characteristics and that of Rhododendron spp. correlated significantly with topographic factors and characteristics of gap makers. Moreover, all

  14. Effect of Forest Fire on Vegetation in Tahe Forestry Bureau%塔河林业局林火对植被的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙明学; 贾炜玮

    2009-01-01

    针对大兴安岭地区塔河林业局不同林型下,不同火烧强度的火烧迹地的森林植被更新及恢复情况进行了调查研究.结果表明:(1)针叶林过火迹地上,落叶松幼苗较少,阔叶树萌条更新强度同火烧程度成正比;火烧前生长有白桦、赤杨的林地上,火烧后阔叶树成为主导树种,林相完全发生变化.(2)重度火烧下有利于天然更新,促使白桦、山杨萌生.中度火烧最初形成以杨桦为优势树种的阔叶林,后逐渐演变为针阔混交林.轻度火烧有利于针叶林的更新.(3)火烧后不同林型下灌木草本植被种类变化不同.从盖度方面来看,杜鹃落叶松林型中林下灌木草本更新最为良好.%This paper studied the regeneration and restoration of vegetation in the burned area of different forest types and fire intensities. The results showed that there are few larch seedlings in the burned area of coniferous forest and the sprout of broad-leaved tree is positive related with burned intensity. In the burned area of birch and alder stand, the broad-leaved trees have become the dominant species. Severely burning is benefit for natural regeneration and promoting the sprout of birth and alder. The forest in moderately burned area is mainly composed by birch and alder at first and become mixed forest finally. The lightly burning is benefit for the regeneration of conifer forest. The kind of shrubbery and herbage is different in different forest after fire. The regeneration in the forest of Ass. Rhododendron dauricum, Larix gmelinii is the best.

  15. The use of sustainable 'biochar compost' for remediation of contaminated land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Aoife; Street-Perrott, Alayne; Eastwood, Daniel; Brackenbury, Sion

    2014-05-01

    South Wales (UK) has a long industrial history which, since the collapse of the coal-mining industry, has left a large number of contaminated former colliery sites. Bio-remediation of these areas by re-vegetation with native grasses aims to prevent erosion and leaching of pollutants into drainage waters. However, acid pH, low organic-matter content and unsuitable soil structure have limited the success of re-vegetation and prompted research into the development of artificial soils. This study aims to assess the value of creating an artificial soil cover by adding "biochar compost" to the top 10cm of a large volume of contaminated colliery spoil (high in As and Cu) to be moved during construction of a flood-alleviation barrage in Cwm Dulais (Swansea). It is proposed to use biochar, manufactured from chipped biomass sourced from a local stand of invasive Rhododendron ponticum using a BiGchar 1000 fast pyrolysis-gasification unit, in combination with locally produced BSI PAS100-certified Pteridium aquilinum (bracken) compost, to remediate a large area (2.3ha) of landscaped colliery waste and re-establish a cover of native grasses suitable for sheep grazing. Pot and field trials are being used to determine the most appropriate biochar:compost mix. In a 90-day outdoor pot trial, a commercial acid-grassland seed mix was grown in screened (< 20mm) colliery spoil, to which 25%v/v bracken compost (with/without composted manure) was added as a source of organic matter. This application rate of compost (equivalent to 250m3ha-1) was based on a successful coal-tip remediation trial at Ffos-y-Frân (Jarvis & Walton, WRAP Report, 2011). Varying application rates of biochar (0%, 2%, 5%, 10% or 20%v/v) were employed. Additional benefits of adding mycorrhizal inoculant or Trifolium repens (white clover) seed were also tested. Six-fold replication was used, with appropriate controls. The performance of each treatment was assessed from its maximum sward height and final above

  16. Nest distribution and nest habitat of the Tibetan Partridge (Perdix hodgsoniae) near Lhasa, Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsering; Dorge; G?ran; H?gstedt; Terje; Lislevand

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is hitherto known about the breeding ecology of the Tibetan Partridge(Perdix hodgsoniae)which is endemic to the Tibetan plateau. Here we describe nest densities, inter-nest distances and general nest site characteristics in this gallinaceous bird species and explore the possibilities that certain shrub and plant types are preferred as nest surroundings.Method: A total of 56 nests were found over three breeding seasons near Lhasa, Tibet. Nest site characteristics were compared with random control plots and the proportions of specific plant species covering nests were compared with their estimated general occurrence in the study area.Results: Nest density in the two years with highest search effort was estimated at 1.43/km2 and 1.04/km2 but was clearly higher in the part of the study area facing north(1.86–2.35/km2) than that facing south(0.11–0.34/ km2). The average nearest neighbour distance of nests was about 300 m. Nests were situated in relatively lush vegetation and covered by a total of eight shrub species and three herbs. In contrast to previous reports, Caragana shrub did not constitute an important part of the nest habitat. The flowering, non-thorny bush Potentilla fruticosa was significantly over-represented as nest cover, while Rhododendron nivale was similarly under-represented. Nest bush foliage covered a larger area of ground, and the shrub surrounding nests was generally denser, than in control samples. Also, nests were placed closer to paths and in areas with lower densities of Yak(Bos grunniens) dung than in control samples.Except that soil temperatures were lower on nest sites than on control sites, micro-climate variables measured in this study did not differ between nest sites and control plots.Conclusions: Opportunity for nest concealment is probably an important quality of the nest habitat in Tibetan Partridges, yet it is unclear why the species should prefer P. fruticosa as nest cover. It is possible that nest sites are

  17. Nest distribution and nest habitat of the Tibetan Partridge (Perdix hodgsoniae) near Lhasa, Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsering Dorge; Gran Hgstedt; Terje Lislevand

    2014-01-01

    Background:Little is hitherto known about the breeding ecology of the Tibetan Partridge (Perdix hodgsoniae) which is endemic to the Tibetan plateau. Here we describe nest densities, inter-nest distances and general nest site characteristics in this gallinaceous bird species and explore the possibilities that certain shrub and plant types are preferred as nest surroundings. Method:A total of 56 nests were found over three breeding seasons near Lhasa, Tibet. Nest site characteristics were compared with random control plots and the proportions of specific plant species covering nests were compared with their estimated general occurrence in the study area. Results:Nest density in the two years with highest search effort was estimated at 1.43/km2 and 1.04/km2 but was clearly higher in the part of the study area facing north (1.86–2.35/km2) than that facing south (0.11–0.34/km2). The average nearest neighbour distance of nests was about 300 m. Nests were situated in relatively lush vegetation and covered by a total of eight shrub species and three herbs. In contrast to previous reports, Caragana shrub did not constitute an important part of the nest habitat. The flowering, non-thorny bush Potentil a fruticosa was significantly over-represented as nest cover, while Rhododendron nivale was similarly under-represented. Nest bush foliage covered a larger area of ground, and the shrub surrounding nests was generally denser, than in control samples. Also, nests were placed closer to paths and in areas with lower densities of Yak (Bos grunniens) dung than in control samples. Except that soil temperatures were lower on nest sites than on control sites, micro-climate variables measured in this study did not differ between nest sites and control plots. Conclusions:Opportunity for nest concealment is probably an important quality of the nest habitat in Tibetan Partridges, yet it is unclear why the species should prefer P. fruticosa as nest cover. It is possible that nest sites

  18. Cultivable bacterial diversity along the altitudinal zonation and vegetation range of tropical Eastern Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyngwi, Nathaniel A; Koijam, Khedarani; Sharma, D; Joshi, S R

    2013-03-01

    The Northeastern part of India sprawls over an area of 262 379km2 in the Eastern Himalayan range. This constitutes a biodiversity hotspot with high levels of biodiversity and endemism; unfortunately, is also a poorly known area, especially on its microbial diversity. In this study, we assessed cultivable soil bacterial diversity and distribution from lowlands to highlands (34 to 3 990m.a.s.l.). Soil physico-chemical parameters and forest types across the different altitudes were characterized and correlated with bacterial distribution and diversity. Microbes from the soil samples were grown in Nutrient, Muller Hinton and Luria-Bertani agar plates and were initially characterized using biochemical methods. Parameters like dehydrogenase and urease activities, temperature, moisture content, pH, carbon content, bulk density of the sampled soil were measured for each site. Representative isolates were also subjected to 16S rDNA sequence analysis. A total of 155 cultivable bacterial isolates were characterized which were analyzed for richness, evenness and diversity indices. The tropical and sub-tropical forests supported higher bacterial diversity compared to temperate pine, temperate conifer, and sub-alpine rhododendron forests. The 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis revealed that Firmicutes was the most common group followed by Proteobacreria and Bacteroidetes. Species belonging to the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas were the most abundant. Bacterial CFU showed positive but insignificant correlation with soil parameters like pH (r=0.208), soil temperature (r=0.303), ambient temperature (r=0.443), soil carbon content (r=0.525), soil bulk density (r=0.268), soil urease (r=0.549) and soil dehydrogenase (r=0.492). Altitude (r=-0.561) and soil moisture content (r=-0.051) showed negative correlation. Altitudinal gradient along with the vegetation and soil physico-chemical parameters were found to influence bacterial diversity and distribution. This study points out that this is

  19. 哀牢山中山湿性常绿阔叶林枯立木数量及分配规律%Quantity and Distribution of Standing Dead Trees in Montane Moist Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest in Ailao Mountain,Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张树斌; 郑征

    2009-01-01

    以三棵树、锅底塘、山门口和簸箕坝4块样地调查资料为基础,研究了云南哀牢山国家级自然保护区内中山湿性常绿阔叶林枯立木的数量组成、分配格局和生物量特征.结果表明:哀牢山中山湿性常绿阔叶林内枯立木的密度为(68.5±18.0)株/hm2,枯立木占全部乔木的(5.7±0.6)%.枯立木胸径(DBH)分配以小径级为主(5≤DBH<20 cm),此径级的枯立木显著高于另外2个级别(20≤DBH<40 cm和DBH≥40 cm,P<0.05).哀牢山中山湿性常绿阔叶林枯立木的物种组成极其丰富,分属于14科32种,树种组成以壳斗科的腾冲栲(Castanopsis wattii)、硬壳柯(Lithocarpus hancei)和木果柯(Lithocarpus xylocarpus),越桔科的云南越桔(Vaccinium duclouxii),杜鹃花科的珍珠花(Lyonia ovalifolia)和薄叶杜鹃(Rhododendron leptothrium)为主.哀牢山中山湿性常绿阔叶林枯立木贮量较高为(3.9±0.7)t*hm-2,生物量的树种分配以腾冲栲(Castanopsis wattii)和木果柯(Lithocarpus xylocarpus)为主.

  20. Evergreen shrub traits and peatland carbon cycling under high nutrient load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmola, Tuula; Bui, Vi; Bubier, Jill L.; Wang, Meng; Murphy, Meaghan; Moore, Tim R.

    2016-04-01

    The reactive nitrogen (N) assimilated by plants is usually invested in chlorophyll to improve light harvesting capacity and in soluble proteins such as Rubisco to enhance carbon (C) assimilation. We studied the effects of simulated atmospheric N deposition on different traits of two evergreen shrubs Chamaedaphne calyculata and Rhododendron groenlandicum in a nutrient-poor Mer Bleue Bog, Canada that has been fertilized with N as NO3 and NH4 (2-8 times ambient annual wet deposition) with or without phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) for 7-12 years. We examined how nutrient addition influences the plant performance at leaf and canopy level and linked the trait responses with ecosystem C cycling. At the leaf level, we measured physiological and biochemical traits: CO2 exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence, an indicator of plant stress in terms of light harvesting capacity; and to study changes in photosynthetic nutrient use efficiency, we also determined the foliar chlorophyll, N, and P contents. At the canopy level, we examined morphological and phenological traits: growth responses and leaf longevity during two growing seasons. Regardless of treatment, the majority of leaves showed no signs of stress in terms of light harvesting capacity. The plants were N saturated: with increasing foliar N content, the higher proportion of N was not used in photosynthesis. Foliar net CO2 assimilation rates did not differ significantly among treatments, but the additions of N, P, and K together resulted in higher respiration rates. The analysis of the leaf and canopy traits showed that the two shrubs had different strategies: C. calyculata was more responsive to nutrient additions, more deciduous-like, whereas R. groenlandicum maintained evergreen features under nutrient load, shedding its leaves even later in the season. In all, simulated atmospheric N deposition did not benefit the photosynthetic apparatus of the dominant shrubs, but resulted in higher foliar respiration

  1. Insecticidal activities and chemical components of alcohol extract from leaves of Rhodendron dauricum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Mo-long; WANG Tian-miao

    2011-01-01

    The extract from leaves of Rhododendron dauricum L. was extracted with 95% alcohol by common method for studying its insecticidal activities. The chemical components of the alcohol extract and relative contents were analyzed by GC-MS. The insecticidal activities of the alcohol extract were tested on the 2nd-3rd instar larvae of Lymantria dispar L. for five days. Five concentrations of the extract samples were designed as 50, 10, 5, 1, and 0.5 g·L-1. The results show that the alcohol extracts from leaves of R. dauricum exhibited insecticidal activities against larvae of L. dispar. The corrected mortality of larvae of L. dispar for was over 50% for both contact toxicity and stomach toxicity at the extract concentration of ≥ 5 g·L-1 after five days of application. The insecticidal activity in contact toxicity is more effect than stomach toxicity for the alcohol extract. Twenty compounds, with total GC relative contents of 93.81% in the alcohol extract from leaves of R. dauricum were identified. The main chemical components in the cxtract are: (1) 4,5-Dihydro-5-oxo-3-(p-tolyl) isoxazole, with a relative content of 40.03%; (2) 1,3-Benzenediol, 5-methyl-2-(3,7,11-trimethyl-2,6,10-dodecatrienyl)-, (E,E)-, the relative content 18.27%; (3) 3,6-Diphenyl-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-l,8-acridinedione, the relative content 3.89%;(4) 6H-[l ,2,4]Triazolo[1,5-a]indole, 4a,5,7,8,8a,9-hexahydro-9-methylene-, the relative content 2.99%; (5) 7-Amino-4-methyl-l,8-naphthyridino2-ol, the relative content 2.64%; (6) 4-Methyl-2,6-dihydroxyquinoline, the relative content 2.63%; (7) 2,4,6-Triaminoquilazoline, the relative content 2.27%; (8) 2(1H)-Quinolinone,4-hydroxy-1-methyl-, the relative content 2.02%.

  2. Cultivable bacterial diversity along the altitudinal zonation and vegetation range of tropical Eastern Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel A. Lyngwi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Northeastern part of India sprawls over an area of 262 379km² in the Eastern Himalayan range. This constitutes a biodiversity hotspot with high levels of biodiversity and endemism; unfortunately, is also a poorly known area, especially on its microbial diversity. In this study, we assessed cultivable soil bacterial diversity and distribution from lowlands to highlands (34 to 3 990m.a.s.l.. Soil physico-chemical parameters and forest types across the different altitudes were characterized and correlated with bacterial distribution and diversity. Microbes from the soil samples were grown in Nutrient, Muller Hinton and Luria-Bertani agar plates and were initially characterized using biochemical methods. Parameters like dehydrogenase and urease activities, temperature, moisture content, pH, carbon content, bulk density of the sampled soil were measured for each site. Representative isolates were also subjected to 16S rDNA sequence analysis. A total of 155 cultivable bacterial isolates were characterized which were analyzed for richness, evenness and diversity indices. The tropical and sub-tropical forests supported higher bacterial diversity compared to temperate pine, temperate conifer, and sub-alpine rhododendron forests. The 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis revealed that Firmicutes was the most common group followed by Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Species belonging to the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas were the most abundant. Bacterial CFU showed positive but insignificant correlation with soil parameters like pH (r=0.208, soil temperature (r=0.303, ambient temperature (r=0.443, soil carbon content (r=0.525, soil bulk density (r=0.268, soil urease (r=0.549 and soil dehydrogenase (r=0.492. Altitude (r=0.561 and soil moisture content (r=-0.051 showed negative correlation. Altitudinal gradient along with the vegetation and soil physico-chemical parameters were found to influence bacterial diversity and distribution. This study points out

  3. Health Assessment of Fir Forest Community Structure at Mount Sejila in Tibet%西藏色季拉山冷杉群落结构健康评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁云春; 杨小林; 辛福梅; 马和平

    2014-01-01

    选择西藏色季拉山急尖长苞冷杉天然林为研究对象,在海拔梯度上以群丛作为评价的基本单位,进行冷杉群落结构健康评价。对群落物种多样性和群落结构特征因子,采用主成分分析,筛选主要评价指标,结合层次分析法( AHP法)进行健康排序。结果表明,对冷杉林群落结构健康影响最大的因子依次为:年龄结构、灌木层盖度、乔木株数、更新数量、草本种类、郁闭度、草本层盖度、灌木种类、乔木种类和亚层数共10个因子。健康排序次序为急尖长苞冷杉-林芝云杉群丛、急尖长苞冷杉+忍冬群丛、急尖长苞冷杉+杜鹃群丛、急尖长苞冷杉+苔藓群丛。%This article selected the natural forest of Abies georgei var.smithii at MountSejila as research object .The Analytic Hierar-chy Process (AHP method) extracted the most important assessment indexes in many factors ,which belonged to biological diversity and characteristics of the community,used principal component analysis and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method) to arrange healthy indexes.The results show that the greatest impact on the health of the community structure to forest of Fir community followed age structure,shrub coverage,tree quantity,regeneration quantity,herb species,canopy density,herb coverage,shrub species,tree species,and sub-layer.The health sortings were Ass .Abies georgei var.smithii-Picea likiangensis var.linzhiensis,Ass.Abies georgei var.smithii+Lonicera spp.,Ass.Abies georgei var.smithii+Rhododendron spp.and Abies georgei var.smithii+Bryophyta spp.Ass.

  4. Fungal Planet description sheets: 154-213.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Guarro, J; Cheewangkoon, R; van der Bank, M; Swart, W J; Stchigel, A M; Cano-Lira, J F; Roux, J; Madrid, H; Damm, U; Wood, A R; Shuttleworth, L A; Hodges, C S; Munster, M; de Jesús Yáñez-Morales, M; Zúñiga-Estrada, L; Cruywagen, E M; de Hoog, G S; Silvera, C; Najafzadeh, J; Davison, E M; Davison, P J N; Barrett, M D; Barrett, R L; Manamgoda, D S; Minnis, A M; Kleczewski, N M; Flory, S L; Castlebury, L A; Clay, K; Hyde, K D; Maússe-Sitoe, S N D; Chen, Shuaifei; Lechat, C; Hairaud, M; Lesage-Meessen, L; Pawłowska, J; Wilk, M; Sliwińska-Wyrzychowska, A; Mętrak, M; Wrzosek, M; Pavlic-Zupanc, D; Maleme, H M; Slippers, B; Mac Cormack, W P; Archuby, D I; Grünwald, N J; Tellería, M T; Dueñas, M; Martín, M P; Marincowitz, S; de Beer, Z W; Perez, C A; Gené, J; Marin-Felix, Y; Groenewald, J Z

    2013-12-01

    Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Camarosporium aloes, Phaeococcomyces aloes and Phoma aloes from Aloe, C. psoraleae, Diaporthe psoraleae and D. psoraleae-pinnatae from Psoralea, Colletotrichum euphorbiae from Euphorbia, Coniothyrium prosopidis and Peyronellaea prosopidis from Prosopis, Diaporthe cassines from Cassine, D. diospyricola from Diospyros, Diaporthe maytenicola from Maytenus, Harknessia proteae from Protea, Neofusicoccum ursorum and N. cryptoaustrale from Eucalyptus, Ochrocladosporium adansoniae from Adansonia, Pilidium pseudoconcavum from Greyia radlkoferi, Stagonospora pseudopaludosa from Phragmites and Toxicocladosporium ficiniae from Ficinia. Several species were also described from Thailand, namely: Chaetopsina pini and C. pinicola from Pinus spp., Myrmecridium thailandicum from reed litter, Passalora pseudotithoniae from Tithonia, Pallidocercospora ventilago from Ventilago, Pyricularia bothriochloae from Bothriochloa and Sphaerulina rhododendricola from Rhododendron. Novelties from Spain include Cladophialophora multiseptata, Knufia tsunedae and Pleuroascus rectipilus from soil and Cyphellophora catalaunica from river sediments. Species from the USA include Bipolaris drechsleri from Microstegium, Calonectria blephiliae from Blephilia, Kellermania macrospora (epitype) and K. pseudoyuccigena from Yucca. Three new species are described from Mexico, namely Neophaeosphaeria agaves and K. agaves from Agave and Phytophthora ipomoeae from Ipomoea. Other African species include Calonectria mossambicensis from Eucalyptus (Mozambique), Harzia cameroonensis from an unknown creeper (Cameroon), Mastigosporella anisophylleae from Anisophyllea (Zambia) and Teratosphaeria terminaliae from Terminalia (Zimbabwe). Species from Europe include Auxarthron longisporum from forest soil (Portugal), Discosia pseudoartocreas from Tilia (Austria), Paraconiothyrium polonense and P. lycopodinum from Lycopodium

  5. Intraspecific and Interspecific Competition of Pinus yunnanensis Natural Forest%云南松天然林的种内和种间竞争

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小波; 刘万德; 苏建荣; 李帅锋; 郎学东

    2016-01-01

    .[Result]The intraspecific and interspecific competition intensity of P.yunnanensis ac-counted for 80.1 6% and 1 9.84% in the total competition intensity,respectively,indicating that the competitive trees of P.yunnanensis natural forest were mainly come from intraspecific competition.The order of the intraspecific and interspecific competition intensity of the main accompanying species at the community level was:intraspecific >Viburnum cylindricum >P.armandii >Lyonia ovalifolia >Rhododendron decorum >Quercus aliena >Rhododendron delavayi >Alnus nepalensis.[Conclusion]There was a significantly negative correlation between the competition in-dex of P.yunnanensis with the whole forest,accompanying species,intraspecific and the DBH of the objective trees,and nearly conformed to power function (CI =AD -B).The larger the DBH of the objective trees,the smaller the competitive trees in P.yunnanensis natural forest.The results predicted by the model is that when the DBH of P.yunnanensis is larger than 20 cm,the competitions will be less in intensity.The medium and young forests of P. yunnanensis with DBH below 20 cm should be the focus of tending and management.

  6. The Species Composition and Community Structure of 1-ha Quercus serrata var.brevipetiolata Forest in Baotianman National Nature Reserve%宝天曼短柄枹林1公顷样地物种组成与群落结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙迎迎; 袁志良; 朱学灵; 庄静静; 殷卫抗; 郭建荣; 叶永忠

    2012-01-01

    To understand the formation and maintenance mechanism of species diversity in Baotianman Natural Reserve,a 1-ha forest permanent dynamic plot of Quercus serrata var. brevipetiolata was established in Baotianman National Nature Reserve in 2009 following the standard census procedure of the Centre for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS). In the plot,all free-standing trees at least 1 cm in diameter at breast height (DBH,1. 3 m above ground) were mapped, tagged, and identified,and their geographic coordinates were recorded following a standard field protocol. The results showed that there were 2 481 genotype individuals,belonging to 71 species,47 genera and 27 families. The stand composition was divided into four main basic layers. The species of the first tree layer included Quercus serrata var. brevipetiolata and Quercus variabilis ; the second tree stratum included Cornus kousa subsp. Chinensis and Sorbus alnifolia ; the shrub layer included Forsythia suspensa and Rhododendron mariesii; the herb layer included Carex duriusata subsp. stenophylloides and so on. Floristic characteristics of the community were very prominent. At the generic level, north temperate areal-type was the main part of genus areal-types. Twenty five north temperate areal-types accounted for 50. 98% of total genera and 10 areal-types of tropical elemerts accounted for 21. 28% of total genera. The species Quercus serrata var. brevipetiolata and Quercus variabilis were obviously dominant species whereas the Quercus variabilis was very poor by the analysis of size-class distributions. Spatial distribution patterns of species were analyzed. Quercus serrata var. brevipetiolata and Quercus variabilis were obviously clumped pattern.%为了深入了解宝天曼自然保护区树种的多样性,参照巴拿马巴罗克罗拉多岛样地的技术规范,于2009年在河南宝天曼国家级自然保护区建立了1块面积为1hm2的短柄枹林永久监测样地.对样地内所有胸径≥1cm的木本植物

  7. 雪灾后粤北山地常绿阔叶林优势树种幼苗更新动态%Dynamics ofdominant tree seedlings in montane evergreen broadleaved forest following a snow disaster in North Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    区余端; 苏志尧; 解丹丹; 柯娴氡; 李镇魁

    2011-01-01

    Effects of a snowstorm on forest disturbance and the canopy changes caused by forest rehabilitation resulted in changes in tree seedling composition. The species and number of tree seedlings vary with the canopy-density dynamics and are embodied in the future species composition and structure of tree layer. With the aim of revealing the seedling regeneration pattern and its response to canopy changes (as indicated by changes in leaf area index [LAI] ) , a 3-year investigation from 2008 to 2010 was undertaken in Chebaling montane evergreen broadleaved forest. The dominant tree seedling dynamics under the recovering canopy was studied by establishing a 2 hm2 sampling area (comprised of fifty 20 m×20 m plots) following the snow storm in 2008. Data from sampling in 2008 identified the top 12 species ranked by their importance as the dominant tree seedling as follows : Castanopsis carlesii, Schima superba, Castanopsis fargesii, Neolitsea chuii, Styrax suberifolia, Alniphyllum fortunei, Cinnamomum porrectum, Randia canthioides, Machilus chinensis,Rhododendron moulmainense , Cinnamomum austrosinensis and Lithocarpus glaber. Dynamic analysis of these 12 species over the 3 years showed that fluctuation was detected in the ranking of the species' importance values, among which 2009 and 2010 shared similar trends while 2008 showed a different trend. Castanopsis carlesii, Schima superba, Randia canthioides and Rhododendron moulmainense showed an increase in their ranking by importance value, whereas Neolitsea chuii,Lithocarpus glaber , Cinnamomum porrectum and Alniphyllum fortunei showed a decrease in their ranking. Styrax suberifolia ,Cinnamomum austrosinensis and M. chinensis showed a decreased and then increased ranking while Castanopsis fargesii showed the opposite trend. The 12 dominant tree seedling species showed notable responses to canopy recovery.Permutation-based MANOVA (PerMANOVA) indicated that a highly significant difference was found in composition and

  8. 西藏色季拉山东麓垂直带土壤碳氮分布特征及其影响因素%Distribution and affecting factors of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen along the altitudinal belt in the eastern Sejila Mountain of Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马和平; 郭其强; 刘合满; 钱登锋

    2013-01-01

    in the following order: Alpine shrub > Sabina salutary forest >Rhododendron iorest>Abies georgei var. smithii forest. And those indicators increased as the increase of elevation. Soil temperature,humidity, pH and vegetation types were variable ecological factors which may regulate soil carbon and nitrogen along elevation. [Conclusion] The results proved the distribution and its influencing factors of soil carbon and nitrogen at different altitudes and laid the foundation for the further study of the forest ecosystems in the eastern Sejila Mountain of Tibet.

  9. Interception of Phytophthora syringae on Citrus fruits imported from California, USA%进境美国加州脐橙中丁香疫霉Phytophthora syringae截获

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗加凤; 刘跃庭; 廖芳; 胡晓红; 刘鹏; 黄国明

    2012-01-01

    Several brown rot fruits have been found from Californian fresh orange sample. Three isolates similar to Phytophthora syringae were obtained from these rot fruits. The colonies grew slowly on PDA and V8 juice agar (V8A). They were stellate, tiled and thin on V8A, but on PDA, the margin was chrysanthemum petaloid; mycelia dense, milk-white-colored. Sporangia and catenulate hyphal swellings formed in sterilizing water and soil extract water in 48h. The isolates were homothallic. Oospores were produced abundantly on PDA and V8A mixed with fresh Citrus fruit tissue or leaf of rhododendron. The isolates were wounded-inoculated on fresh Citrus fruits. Typical brown rot symptoms are apparent on inoculated fruits in 7d. DNA of hyphae was amplified with ITS1/ITS4 primers. In comparision with P. Syringae from NCBIGenBank databases, the sequences had 99% identity. All the results of tests showed that the isolates were Phytophthorasyringae.%从产自美国加利福尼亚州的新鲜脐橙样品中发现多个腐烂病果,通过分离培养得到3个疑似丁香疫霉Phytophthora syringae菌株,对3个菌株进行形态学研究、致病性测定和分子序列比对分析.结果表明病菌在V8A培养基上菌落稀疏、平铺,呈星状,菌丝紧贴培养基生长或埋于基质内生长;在PDA培养基上菌落呈菊花花瓣状,菌丝致密,乳白色;游动孢子囊和菌丝膨大体在无菌水和土壤浸出液中黑暗条件下48h后产生;菌株为同宗配合,卵孢子在带有新鲜脐橙果实组织或杜鹃叶片的V8A培养基中大量产生;创伤接种脐橙果实,7d后接种脐橙出现典型的褐腐症状;通用引物ITS 1/ITS4扩增测序,Blastn分析表明序列与GenBank中P.syringae序列相似性为99%.依据上述研究结果,将分离获得的3株菌鉴定为丁香疫霉Phytophthora syringae,系国内首次截获的一种植物检疫性真菌病害.

  10. What is the role played by organic matter fractions from different sieve-size particles in the development of soil water repellency? A case study using analytical pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Pérez, José A.; González-Vila, Francisco J.; Zavala, Lorena M.; Jordán, Antonio; Jiménez-González, Marco A.

    2014-05-01

    between 20.9% (PP) and 46.9% (QS). Coarser soil fractions (1-2 mm) under PA, PP and HH showed the highest long-chain-even C numbered fatty acids (LCE-FA) in the order PP>PA>HH. No fatty acids were detected neither in sieve fractions 0.25-1, 0.05-0.25 and pyrolysis. Geoderma 191, 24-30. González-Pérez, J.A., González-Vila, F.J., Arias, M.E., Rodríguez, J., de la Rosa, J.M., Marañón, T., Clemente, L. 2011. Geochemical and ecological significance of soil lipids under Rhododendron ponticum stands. Environmental Chemistry Letters 9, 453-464. Gordillo-Rivero, A.J., García-Moreno, J., Jordán, A., Zavala, L.M. 2013. Monitoring fire impacts in s

  11. 用典型植物监测环境中有机氟污染物的可行性%Feasibility to monitor environmental organofluorine pollutants using typical plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鸿; 陈清武; 姚丹; 柴之芳; 沈金灿

    2013-01-01

    In order to assess the feasibility of typical plants as bioindicators for perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) , the residues of 13 PFCs in fresh leaves of moss, camphor tree, masson pine, gladiolus, lichen, alfalfa, silky oak and rhododendron were measured by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Moss, which accumulates PFCs most effectively among the eight, was selected as the environmental bioindicator for PFCs assessment. The total fluorine, extractable organic fluorine and PFCs in moss from 12 locations of six Shenzhen districts, including Bao'an, Nanshan, Futian, Yantian, Luohu and Longgang, were measured by cyclic neutron activation analysis combined with HPLC-MS/MS. Results showed that EOF accounted for 13.4%- 16.5% of TF. They indicated that inorganic fluorine was the main form. Only 0.08%- 0. 15% of EOF was the identified fluorine while more than 99. 8% of EOF required further identification. The sum of perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorohexanoic acid accounted for 88%- 99% of total PFCs, making them the main PFCs species in moss. Total PFCs residues in moss from Bao'an district were significantly higher than those from other districts (P < 0. 01) , which was likely due to the presence of PFCs-related industries, geographical location and climate. The results suggest that moss is a feasible bioindicator for PFCs and its exposure risk in the environment.%为探究用典型植物指示环境中全氟化合物(perfluorinated chemicals,PFCs)污染状况的可行性,采用高效液相色谱-质谱联用(high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry,HPLCMS/MS),分析苔藓、樟树、马尾松、唐菖蒲、地衣、苜蓿、银桦和杜鹃8种植物鲜叶中13种PFCs的残留水平,从中选择富集PFCs能力最强的苔藓为环境生物指示物.结合循环中子活化分析测定深圳市宝安、南山、福田、罗湖、盐田和龙岗6区12

  12. 八大公山常绿落叶阔叶混交林枯立木物种组成、大小级与分布格局%Species composition, size class, and spatial patterns of snags in the Badagongshan (BDGS) mixed evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forest in central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢志军; 刘福玲; 吴浩; 江明喜

    2015-01-01

    枯立木是森林生态系统的重要组成部分,对其数量特征(如物种组成和大小级)与分布格局的研究是认识这个特殊类群的起点.本文以湖南八大公山25 ha森林动态监测样地常绿落叶阔叶混交林为研究对象,以该样地第一次木本植物(DBH≥1 cm)调查数据为基础,分析了枯立木的物种组成、径级结构、分布格局以及生境关联.结果表明,样地内共有枯立木(DBH≥1 cm,高度≥130 cm,完全死亡)8,947株.其中,1 cm≤ DBH <5 cm枯立木4,258株(47.59%),5 cm ≤ DBH <10 cm枯立木2,132株(23.84%),10 cm ≤ DBH <30 cm枯立木2,377株(26.57%),DBH≥30 cm枯立木180株(2%);平均DBH为8.0 cm,最大DBH为83.5 cm.从分布格局来看,0-50 m的尺度上,样地内枯立木主要呈现聚集分布,但在接近40 m的尺度上,逐渐变为随机分布.利用多元回归树(multivariate regression tree,MRT)将样地生境分为3类,运用Torus转换比较某类生境中枯立木密度与物种零分布模型中的期望密度,结果显示枯立木在山谷中分布较少,山脊较多,而在山坡生境则呈现随机分布.鉴定到种的枯立木有724株(8.1%),隶属于26科84种;其中,杜鹃花科、壳斗科和樟科枯立木最多.在物种水平上,多脉青冈(Cyclobalanopsis multinervis)、长蕊杜鹃(Rhododendron stamineum)和黄丹木姜子(Litsea elongata)枯立木最多;而优势树种亮叶水青冈(Fagus lucida)的枯立木并不多见.

  13. Cultivable bacterial diversity along the altitudinal zonation and vegetation range of tropical Eastern Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel A. Lyngwi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Northeastern part of India sprawls over an area of 262 379km² in the Eastern Himalayan range. This constitutes a biodiversity hotspot with high levels of biodiversity and endemism; unfortunately, is also a poorly known area, especially on its microbial diversity. In this study, we assessed cultivable soil bacterial diversity and distribution from lowlands to highlands (34 to 3 990m.a.s.l.. Soil physico-chemical parameters and forest types across the different altitudes were characterized and correlated with bacterial distribution and diversity. Microbes from the soil samples were grown in Nutrient, Muller Hinton and Luria-Bertani agar plates and were initially characterized using biochemical methods. Parameters like dehydrogenase and urease activities, temperature, moisture content, pH, carbon content, bulk density of the sampled soil were measured for each site. Representative isolates were also subjected to 16S rDNA sequence analysis. A total of 155 cultivable bacterial isolates were characterized which were analyzed for richness, evenness and diversity indices. The tropical and sub-tropical forests supported higher bacterial diversity compared to temperate pine, temperate conifer, and sub-alpine rhododendron forests. The 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis revealed that Firmicutes was the most common group followed by Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Species belonging to the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas were the most abundant. Bacterial CFU showed positive but insignificant correlation with soil parameters like pH (r=0.208, soil temperature (r=0.303, ambient temperature (r=0.443, soil carbon content (r=0.525, soil bulk density (r=0.268, soil urease (r=0.549 and soil dehydrogenase (r=0.492. Altitude (r=0.561 and soil moisture content (r=-0.051 showed negative correlation. Altitudinal gradient along with the vegetation and soil physico-chemical parameters were found to influence bacterial diversity and distribution. This study points out

  14. Seasonal Customs of Jeollanam ̄do in South Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geng Ruiqin

    2016-01-01

    dates, chestnut, honey, pine nuts, an beans, etc. In the second lunar month, there are the Laborers’ Day and the Yongdung Festival. On the 1st of the second month, Laborers’ Day, laborers used to be given a day’s rest when people made a kind of dessert known as “Agecake”. However, because no one hires laborers nowadays, this cus-tom has actually disappeared. It is said that on 1st day of the second month, Yongdung Halmoni de-scends from the sky, and returns there on the 15th or 20th day. Yongdung Halmoni is said to be the goddess in charge of wind, so, in fishing areas where wind matters a lot, people will offer sacri-fices to her. It is said that if Yongdung Halmoni descends with her daughter-in-law, the wind throughout the whole year will be too strong to guarantee a good harvest, but good sailings can be counted on if she descends with her daughter. On the 3rd day of the third month, women in Jeollanam-do bring simple cooking equipment to the riverside, and pass a pleasant day there. They mix glutinous rice powder with rhododendron petals to make pancakes which they call “flower pan-cakes”. While they eat, they sing songs about flower pancakes or other folk songs. Around 3 rd day of the third month, butterflies start to appear and “dance”. It is believed that if yellow butter-flies are seen first, the coming year will be smooth, but if white butterflies are seen first, there will be many funerals or other inauspicious things. On the 8 th day of the fourth month the birthday of Sakyamuni, many people go to the temples and hang Buddhist lanterns. The display of lanterns on that day is truly grand. It is attended mainly by women who pray for happiness, safety, good health, success and prosperity for their family members. In the temples, people perform the ritu-al of“circumambulating the stupas”, spending the entire night sleepless walking around the stupas, praising gods’ merits and credits, and repeating their wishes in their hearts. While