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Sample records for azalea rhododendron simsii

  1. Separation of Sperm Cells of Rhododendron simsii%杜鹃精细胞的分离

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉红; 于金金; 吴晓琛; 田惠桥

    2013-01-01

    The mature pollen of Rhododendron simsii is bicellular, containing one vegetative cell and one germ cell, with the sperm cells forming in pollen tube. Semi vitro technique was used in style pollinated to make pollen tube sprout from style. Then the pollen tube burst by osmotic shock method and released a pair of sperm cells which connected to vegetative nucleus. The sperm cells separated kept activities proved by FDA method. A fairly large number of separated sperm cells could be collected by micromanipulator.%  杜鹃成熟花粉为二胞型,含一个营养细胞和一个生殖细胞,其精细胞在花粉管中形成。应用半离体技术培养杜鹃已授粉花柱,使花粉管从花柱中长出,再用渗透压冲击法促使花粉管破裂,释放出一对与营养核相连的精细胞。分离的精细胞经FDA方法检测,证明具活性。用显微操作仪可收集数量较多的分离精细胞。

  2. Reproduction in Flame Azalea (Rhododendron calendulaceum, Ericaceae): A Rare Case of Insect Wing Pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Mary Jane; Allison, Suzanne E; Wolfe, Lorne M

    2015-08-01

    Although many angiosperms are serviced by flying pollinators, reports of wings as pollen vectors are rare. Flame azalea (Rhododendron calendulaceum) is visited by diverse insects, yet previous observations suggested that only butterfly wings may transfer pollen to stigmas. We used an experimental approach to determine whether butterfly wings are the primary vehicle of pollination in flame azalea. Over two seasons of observations, only butterflies (Papilio glaucus and Speyeria cybele) contacted both anthers and stigmas, yet because of differences in wing-flapping behavior, P. glaucus transferred pollen most efficiently. In contrast, bee species specialized either on pollen or nectar but did not contact both anthers and stigmas. A field experiment revealed that flowers excluding butterflies experienced almost complete fruit failure, whereas fruit set in open flowers did not differ from those that were hand pollinated. Additionally, butterflies had 56-fold more azalea pollen on their wings than bodies, while azalea stigmas bore both pollen and wing scales. These results suggest that plants with many visitors contacting reproductive organs may still specialize on a single guild of visitors for pollination and that wing-borne pollen transfer is a key mode of flame azalea pollination. PMID:26655157

  3. Effect of different fertilization on the growth and nutrition of azalea (Rhododendron L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Zenia Michałojć; Michał Koter

    2012-01-01

    A study on azalea (Rhododendron L.), 'Kilian' and 'Persil', was conducted in 2009–2010. Plants were grown in pots in the open air, in a peat substrate with a pH of 4.8. The effect of the following fertilization methods was studied: I – traditional fertilization (single fertilizers were applied in 2 rates); II – a slow-release fertilizer (Hortiform pH); III – combined fertilization (¼ of the rate of nutrients was applied in the form of single fertilizers and ¾ in the form of Hortif...

  4. Effect of different fertilization on the growth and nutrition of azalea (Rhododendron L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenia Michałojć

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A study on azalea (Rhododendron L., 'Kilian' and 'Persil', was conducted in 2009–2010. Plants were grown in pots in the open air, in a peat substrate with a pH of 4.8. The effect of the following fertilization methods was studied: I – traditional fertilization (single fertilizers were applied in 2 rates; II – a slow-release fertilizer (Hortiform pH; III – combined fertilization (¼ of the rate of nutrients was applied in the form of single fertilizers and ¾ in the form of Hortiform pH. The slow-release fertilizer Hortiform pH and combined fertilization were applied once in each study year when filling the pots with growing medium. Fertilizers were applied at the basic rate (D1 and at a twice higher rate (D2. In the first year of cultivation, the study showed no significant effect of fertilization method on shoot length in both azalea cultivars, whereas in the second year the longest shoots were found after application of the slow-release fertilizer Hortiform pH. In both years of the study, significantly longer shoots were found in the cultivar 'Persil' after application of the lower fertilizer rate (D1 than after application of the higher fertilizer rate (D2. On the other hand, the study showed that the fertilizer rate had no effect on shoot length in 'Kilian'. After application of the higher fertilizer rate, a higher content of nitrogen and potassium as well as a lower content of phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium were determined in the leaves of both cultivars. The study found the following percentages to be the optimal nutrient content in azalea leaves: 1.88 – 2.20% N; 1.0 – 1.7% K; and 0.60% – 1.20% Ca, while the phosphorus content of 0.09 – 0.25% and the magnesium content of 0.14 – 0.25% were shown to be the lower limit for optimal plant nutrition. After the end of the growing season, a low content of all nutrients in the medium was found in both study years, irrespective of the applied fertilizer rate and fertilization

  5. Phylogeographic analysis and environmental niche modeling of widespread shrub Rhododendron simsii in China reveals multiple glacial refugia during the last glacial maximum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong LI; Hai-Fei YAN; Xue-Jun GE

    2012-01-01

    The phylogeography of common and widespread species can help us to understand the history of local flora and vegetation.Here,we study the semi-evergreen shrub Rhododendron simsii Planch.,which is found in most areas of current evergreen broad leaved forest in China.Two noncoding chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) regions(rpl20-rps12 and trnL-F) and three amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) primer sets (E-AAC/M-CTA,E-AGC/M-CTA and E-AGG/M-CAT) were used to examine the phylogeographic pattern in relation to past (last glacial maximum) and present distributions based on ecological niche modeling.The cpDNA data revealed four phylogeographic groups (East,South,West,and North groups) corresponding to geographic regions.Molecular dating suggests that lineage diversification within species likely occurred during the mid-to-late Pleistocene.In contrast,the four main cpDNA phylogeographic groups were not supported by the AFLP dataset.The highest likelihood of the AFLP data was obtained when samples were clustered into three groups (K =3).However,these groupings did not correspond to separate geographic regions supported by cpDNA data.Both mismatch distribution analysis and environmental niche modeling (ENM) indicated that multiple glacial refugia were maintained across the range of Rhododendron simsii during the last glacial maximum,contrary to the previous hypothesis that subtropical broad leaved evergreen forests were forced to retreat southward as far as 25°N.The discordance between the patterns revealed by cpDNA and AFLP data indicate that localized postglacial range expansions may facilitate extensive gene flow between the major glacial refugia.

  6. Protective Effect and Mechanism of Total Flavones from Rhododendron simsii Planch on Endothelium-Dependent Dilatation and Hyperpolarization in Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion and Correlation to Hydrogen Sulphide Release in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We for the first time investigated the effect and mechanism of the total flavones of Rhododendron simsii Planch (TFR, a widely-used Chinese herb for a thousand years, on vasodilatation and hyperpolarization in middle cerebral artery (MCA of rats subject to global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (CIR. TFR (11~2700 mg/L evoked dose-dependent vasodilation and hyperpolarization in MCA of both sham and CIR that were partially inhibited by 30 μM N-nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester and 10 μM indomethacin and further attenuated by endogenous H2S synthese-CSE inhibitor PPG (100 μM or Ca2+-activated potassium channel (Kca inhibitor TEA (1 mM. In whole-cell patch clamp recording, TFR remarkably enhanced the outward current that was inhibited by TEA. CIR increased CSE mRNA expression and the contents of H2S that were further increased by TFR. We conclude that, in MCA of CIR rats, TFR induces non-NO and non-PGI2-mediated effects of vasodilatation and hyperpolarization involving Kca and increases CSE mRNA expression level in endothelial cells and H2S content in the cerebrum. These findings suggest that the response induced by TFR is potentially related to endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor mediated by the endogenous H2S and promote the use of TFR in protection of brain from ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  7. Hydroponic Screening for Iron Deficiency Tolerance in Evergreen Azaleas

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    Sonia DEMASI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Evergreen azaleas grow in acid soil and suffer from iron deficiency when cultivated in substrate with pH higher than 6.0. In order to select tolerant plants, 11 azalea genotypes were tested for 21 days in alkaline solution (pH 9, buffered with sodium hydrogen carbonate (1 g·l-1. Leaf damage, root length and mortality rate were recorded. While leaf damage and mortality rate allowed to discriminate genotypes, root development appeared not directly linked to iron deficiency tolerance. Rhododendron ‘Juko’, R. scabrum, R. macrosepalum ‘Hanaguruma’, R. x pulchrum ‘Oomurasaki’, and R. x pulchrum ‘Sen-e-oomurasaki’ resulted iron efficient genetic resources, useful for azalea cultivation and gardening in calcareous soils. On the contrary, R. obtusum ‘Kirin’, R. tosaense, R.x mucronatum ‘Fujimanyo’ and R. obtusum ‘Susogo-no-ito’ resulted iron deficiency sensitive genotypes. R. x mucronatum ‘Ryukyushibori’ and R. indicum ‘Kinsai’ showed intermediate responses.

  8. Tropism in azalea and lily flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, M.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Nakamura, T.; Yamashita, M.

    Flowers have coevolved with pollinator animals. Some flowers have the up-down directional features in their form and orientation, which results the higher success of pollination under the influence of gravity. Azalea, Rhododendron pulchrum, flower responds against gravity, and orients the specific petal at its top. This petal with honey mark guides pollinator animals to nectary of the flower. Pistil and stamen bend upward by sensing gravity, and increase probability of their contact with pollinator. There was large sediment amyloplast found in sectioned tissue of style. In addition to this action of gravity, phototropic response was also observed at lesser degree, while the gravitational cue was removed by the 3D-clinorotation of the plant. In contrast to azalea, pistil of lily flower senses light in order to determine the direction of bending. Lily, Lilium cv. 'Casablanca', tepals open horizontally or slightly inclined downward. After its anthesis, pistil and stamen start to bend upward by light. Gravity induced no tropic response at all, evidenced by the experiment conducted under dark. Sediment amyloplast was not found in lily style. Phototropic response of pistil and stamen in lily was activated by blue light even at lower energy density. On the other hand, red light was not effective to induce the tropic response even with substantial energy density. This action spectrum of light agreed with those for the phototropism shown in coleoptile of monocotyledonous plants. Because the tropism of style was not hindered at removal of stigma, reception site for incident light is neither restricted to stigma nor its close vicinity, but distributes through style. The process of lily pistil elongation was analyzed in details to identify the site of its initiation and propagation of bending movement through the anthesis period. Elongation started at basal part of pistil and propagated towards its top after opening of perianth. Steep bending occurred at the basal zone of

  9. Diversity of fungi colonizing leaves of Rhododendron (Rhododendron L. cuttings

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    Barbara Kierpiec-Baran

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rhododendrons (Rhododendron L. are shrubs whose attractiveness is determined by their multi-coloured flowers and evergreen leaves. Necroses visible on the leaves of rhododendron cuttings diminish the suitability of nursery material for marketing. These symptoms are most frequently caused by fungi. The investigations were conducted in 2010–2011 in an ornamental shrub nursery to identify fungi colonizing the phyllosphere of rhododendron cuttings and causing leaf necroses. The material for analysis consisted of leaves of 11 rhododendron cultivars. 550 leaves were collected from 110 half-year-old cuttings for mycological analysis. Over 350 fungal colonies belonging to 15 species were isolated from the leaves of rhododendron cuttings. The dominants included: Pestalotiopsis sydowiana, Trichoderma koningii and Alternaria alternata. The influents included: Aspergillus brasiliensis, Mucor hiemalis f. hiemalis, Epicoccum nigrum, Sordaria fimicola and Umbelopsis isabellina. A large majority of the fungi preferred the phyllosphere environment of Yakushima rhododendron (R. yakushimanum cultivars ‘Sneezy’ and ‘Golden Torch’ as well as of the large-flowered cultivars ‘Flautando’, ‘Dominik’, and ‘Simona’. The phyllosphere of the large-flowered cultivars ‘Bernstein’, ‘Nova Zembla’, and ‘Goldbuckett’ was a reservoir for many fungal colonies and fungi species. The cultivars less susceptible to colonization by fungi and the most promising for planting in green areas and home gardens are the large-flowered cultivars ‘Bernstein’, ‘Nova Zembla’, ‘Goldbuckett’, ‘Rasputin’, and ‘Roseum Elegans’.

  10. Aplicação de extratos brutos de flores de quaresmeira e azaléia e da casca de feijão preto em volumetria ácido-base. Um experimento para cursos de análise quantitativa Application of crude extracts of Tibouchina granulosa and Rhododendron sinsii flowers and Phasealus vulgares grains skin in acid - base titration. A quantitative laboratory experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Márlon Herbert Flora Barbosa Soares; Éder Tadeu Gomes Cavalheiro; Patrícia Alexandra Antunes

    2001-01-01

    Crude extract of Tibouchina granulosa, Rhododendron simsii and Phaseolus vulgaris L. were prepared and used as alternative indicators in quantitative analysis teaching in standardization of NaOH solutions and in the determination of acetic acid contents in vinegar. Effect of using such natural extracts as indicators was very attractive to the students and the quantitative results were compared with conventional indicators with good agreement. Concepts of data statistics can successfully be di...

  11. A New Oidiodendron maius Strain Isolated from Rhododendron fortunei and its Effects on Nitrogen Uptake and Plant Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiangying; Chen, Jianjun; Zhang, Chunying; Pan, Dongming

    2016-01-01

    A new mycorrhizal fungal strain was isolated from hair roots of Rhododendron fortunei Lindl. grown in Huading Forest Park, Zhejiang Province, China. Morphological characterization and internal transcribed spacer rDNA analysis suggested that it belongs to Oidiodendron maius Barron, and we designated it as strain Om19. Methods for culturing Om19 were established, and the ability of Om19 to form mycorrhizae on R. fortunei was evaluated in a peat-based substrate. Microscopic observations showed hyaline hyphae on the surface of hair roots and crowded hyphal complexes (hyphal coils) inside root cortical cells of R. fortunei after inoculation, indicating that the roots were well colonized by Om19. In a second experiment, fresh and dry weight of R. fortunei 2 months after Om19 inoculation were greater than uninoculated plants, and the total nitrogen absorbed by plants inoculated with Om19 was greater than the uninoculated controls. qRT-PCR analysis of five genes related to N uptake and metabolism (two nitrate transporters, an ammonium transporter, glutamine synthetase, and glutamate synthase) showed that these genes were highly upregulated with twofold to ninefold greater expression in plants inoculated with Om19 compared to uninoculated plants. In the third experiment, Om19 was inoculated into the peat-based substrate for growing Formosa azalea (Rhododendron indica ‘Formosa’). ‘Formosa’ azalea plants grown in the inoculated substrate had larger canopies and root systems compared to uninoculated plants. Our results show that Om19 could be an important microbial tool for improving production of Rhododendron plants. PMID:27602030

  12. 部分野生杜鹃杂交授粉后花粉管生长状况分析%Analysis of pollen tube growth after pollination in some wild Rhododendron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿兴敏; 张超仪; 尹增芳

    2014-01-01

    以映山红(Rhododendron simsii)及锦绣杜鹃(Rhododendron pulchrum)为母本,分别与杜鹃属15种杜鹃进行杂交授粉试验,观察授粉后花粉在柱头上萌发与花粉管生长状况,分析杜鹃远缘杂交组合的亲和性。结果显示,所有父本花粉都能在映山红及锦绣杜鹃柱头表面附着并萌发,花粉管生长情况和异常花粉管的比率因父本不同而情况各异。与锦绣杜鹃组合相比,映山红组合花粉管到达花柱底部速度快、数量多,异常花粉管比率低,部分锦绣杜鹃杂交组合,花粉管在花柱中、上部生长受阻,表明映山红组合种间杂交亲和性较高。亲和性较差的杂交组合,花粉管生长易出现扭曲、螺旋、膨大、破裂以及胼胝质过多沉积等现象,但自交与种内杂交组合也存在各种花粉管生长异常状况。结果表明,花粉管异常的类型与杂交亲和性无直接联系,但异常花粉管出现的比率与杂交亲和性相关。%Rhododendron simsii and Rhododendron pulchrum as maternal parent were crossed with 15 wild Rhododendron species. In order to make clear the interspecific cross compatibility and pre -fertilization barriers, the growth of pollen tube on the stigma and into the style was observed under the epifluorescence microscopy. The results showed that pollens of all cross combinations could be attached and germinated on stigmas of R. simsii and R. pulchrum, however pollen tube growth and the ratio of abnormal pollen tubes were different due to varied male parents. Different abnormalities of arrested pollen tube tips have been detected, including colied, spiralling, swollen, burst, heavy callose deposition on the wall and so on. The growth rate of pollen tube was more rapidly among cross combinations with better cross compatibility such as self - pollination and intraspecific hybridization of R. simsii, and their pollen tubes reached the bottom of style canal more than the cross

  13. Ecology and Control of Rhododendron (Rhododendron ponticum L.) in Turkish Eastern Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) Forests

    OpenAIRE

    ESEN, DERYA

    2000-01-01

    Purple-flowered rhododendron (Rhododendron ponticum L.) and yellow-flowered rhododendron (R. flavum Don.) are two dominant shrub species of the eastern beech (Fagus orientalis L.) understories in the eastern and western Black Sea Region (BSR), respectively. These invasive woody species significantly reduce beech growth and can preclude tree regeneration. The ecological consequence is an aging beech overstory with little or no regeneration to replace the mature trees. Great rhododendron (R. ...

  14. 不同pH值对杜鹃插条成活的影响%Effects of different pH on growth of Rhododendron simsii cutting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明银; 张媚; 陈娟

    2010-01-01

    以西鹃和毛鹃为材料,使用珍珠岩配格里克营养液和复合营养土为培养基质,5个介于4.0~6.0 间不同pH值梯度处理,5周后统计插条成活数、新生根数、新生芽数、新生叶数.研究结果显示,当pH值为5.0时,西鹃和毛鹃插条的成活、发芽、发叶、发根等指标显著优于其他几种处理;当pH值大于5.0时,随着pH值的增高插条成活率降低;而pH值小于5.0时,随着pH值的降低插条成活率降低.效果排序为:pH值5.0>pH值5.5>pH值4.5>pH值6.0>pH值4.0.在相同条件下,西鹃适应性好于毛鹃,复合营养土优于珍珠岩配格里克营养液.

  15. 不同花色杜鹃花色素成分与稳定性分析研究%Analysis on Components and Stability of Anthocyanidin from Rhododendron with Different Color

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴亮芳; 温秀芳; 罗向东

    2013-01-01

    [目的]全面分析不同花色杜鹃花的色素成分与稳定性.[方法]以4种不同花色的杜鹃花花瓣(浅红、紫色、白色和粉红色)为试材,对其花色素提取液进行紫外-可见光光谱扫描检测、特征显色反应和稳定性分析.[结果]试验表明,杜鹃不同花色色素不含叶绿素和类胡萝卜素;粉色、浅红色和紫色杜鹃花色素主要由花色素苷和类黄酮化合物组成;白色杜鹃花色素则含非红色的类黄酮化合物以及其他化合物,其花色素不具备邻二酚羟基或邻三酚羟基结构,揭示了杜鹃花色呈现差异的内在本质.紫外-可见光光谱扫描的结果表明,不同花色素溶液中的花色素种类与含量不同.稳定性研究表明,食品添加剂、低价金属离子对色素色泽无不良影响,但碱性环境、氧化还原剂以及Fe3+、Al3+均对其稳定性影响较大,探明了有利于杜鹃花色素稳定的环境条件.[结论]研究可为杜鹃花色素的分离鉴定奠定基础,同时也为天然杜鹃花色素的科学利用提供理论依据.%[Objective] To fully analyze the components and stability of anthocyanidin from Rhododendron with different color.[Method] Four kinds of azaleas petal with different color (white,pink,light red and purple Rhododendron) were used to investigate the anthocyanidin component and its stability using UV-visible spectroscopy technique and characteristic color reaction.[Result] The results indicated that there is no chlorophyll and carotenoids in the pigment extracts of azaleas.The flower-pigment extracts of pink,light red and purple Rhododendron composed principally of anthocyanins and flavonoids.There are only some non red flavonoids and some other compounds in the extracts of white flower,and it has no structure of pyrocatechol hydroxylation and pyrogallol hydroxylation.These results indicated the essence of flower color was that there were different flower pigments types and different chemical

  16. The New Real: Iggy Azalea and the Reality Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Morrissey

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Questions of realness, authenticity, and legitimacy, are deeply invested in a politics of identity that polices the purity of its central categories. The creative potential of performative modes such as rap performance and reality television is thus complicated by expectations of authenticity that are frequently embroiled in broader projects of identity delineation and regulation. This paper considers correlations between hip hop culture’s ethos of realness and authenticity, and the ‘real’ as manifested in the cultural phenomenon of reality television, for the ways in which they are bound by but also strive to reconfigure the limits of realness. With particular attention to the work and self-styling of Australian female rapper Iggy Azalea, I emphasise the tension between performance and authenticity, and point to the ostensibly disparate subcultural forms of hip hop and reality television as distinctly engaged in the renegotiation of this tension. I invoke the critical imperatives of whiteness theory to critique the normative channels of realness that remain at the forefront of hip hop’s self-conceptualisation and general promotion, in particular the role of gender and race in the construction of hip hop authenticity. I then examine reality television and its relationship with shame and intimacy as crucial to understanding its devalued status in studies of television and popular culture more broadly. Ultimately, I propose the explorations of ‘real’ in these works as indicative of a contemporary shift in the evaluation and justification of authenticity that points to a revised appreciation of the power of performativity.

  17. Dynamics of DNA methylation and Histone H4 acetylation during floral bud differentiation in azalea

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    Valledor Luis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to control the timing of flowering is a key strategy for planning production in ornamental species such as azalea, however it requires a thorough understanding of floral transition. Floral transition is achieved through a complex genetic network and regulated by multiple environmental and endogenous cues. Dynamic changes between chromatin states facilitating or inhibiting DNA transcription regulate the expression of floral induction pathways in response to environmental and developmental signals. DNA methylation and histone modifications are involved in controlling the functional state of chromatin and gene expression. Results The results of this work indicate that epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone H4 acetylation have opposite and particular dynamics during the transition from vegetative to reproductive development in the apical shoots of azalea. Global levels of DNA methylation and histone H4 acetylation as well as immunodetection of 5-mdC and acetylated H4, in addition to a morphological study have permitted the delimitation of four basic phases in the development of the azalea bud and allowed the identification of a stage of epigenetic reprogramming which showed a sharp decrease of whole DNA methylation similar to that is defined in other developmental processes in plants and in mammals. Conclusion The epigenetic control and reorganization of chromatin seem to be decisive for coordinating floral development in azalea. DNA methylation and H4 deacetylation act simultaneously and co-ordinately, restructuring the chromatin and regulating the gene expression during soot apical meristem development and floral differentiation.

  18. Allelopathic activity of saponins exctracted from Rhododendron luteum Sweet

    OpenAIRE

    Iryna M. Yezhel

    2013-01-01

    Article deals with allelopathic activity of saponins exctracted from Rhododendron luteumSweet leaves. Investigations show nonlinear correlation between saponins concetration and growth of the roots of test-cultures.

  19. Allelopathic activity of saponins exctracted from Rhododendron luteum Sweet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna M. Yezhel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Article deals with allelopathic activity of saponins exctracted from Rhododendron luteumSweet leaves. Investigations show nonlinear correlation between saponins concetration and growth of the roots of test-cultures.

  20. The genus Rhododendron L. in Indochina and Siam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleumer, H.

    1958-01-01

    In the course of my recent revision of the genus Rhododendron in Malaysia it has become evident, that the subsect. Irrorata, regarded as purely South Eastern Asiatic up to now, is also represented in the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra, whilst the subsect. Euvireya, outside of its large Malaysian area,

  1. Analysis of Flavonoid Aglycons in Rhododendron of Sichuan Liangshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hongxia; DING Mingyu; WU Zhuping

    2001-01-01

    An aqueous solution of the extracts from Rhododendron leaves from Sichuan Liangshan was extracted with solvents of increasing polarity,petroleum ether,ethyl ether,ethyl acetate and butanol.The main flavonoid aglycons extracted into the ethyl ether phase are the subject of this study.The flavonoid aglycons-mycetin,quercetin,kaempferol and farrerol,were separated and identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC),high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometer/mass spectrometer (LC/MS/MS).A simple and rapid HPLC method was developed for quantitative determination of quercetin and kaempferol in Rhododendron leaves,ethanol extracts and Jinjuan oral liquid drug (Liquor Jinjuan).The analysis of quercetin is useful for quality control of medicinal materials and Liquor Jinjuan products.

  2. Enraizamento de estacas de azaléia tratadas com concentrações de ANA em diferentes substratos Rooting of azalea cuttings treats with NAA concentrations and differents substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Mauad

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available De acordo com a necessidade de aumentar a produção de mudas de azaléia por meio da propagação vegetativa, em menor intervalo de tempo, foi proposto estudar os efeitos de diferentes substratos e concentrações de ANA (ácido naftalenoacético. O experimento foi conduzido em esquema fatorial 3X4 com três substratos (areia grossa lavada, casca de arroz carbonizada e húmus e quatro concentrações de ANA na forma de pó (0; 2,5; 5,0 e 7,5%. Utilizaram-se estacas de 100 mm de comprimento retiradas da porção apical do ramo, sem gema apical e com corte em bisel na parte superior, deixando um par de folhas cortadas ao meio. Essas foram colocadas para enraizar em bandejas de isopor de 128 células, por um período de 90 dias, nas quais avaliaram-se: comprimento, superficie, volume e diâmetro radicular e a porcentagem de estacas enraizadas, sobreviventes, mortas e número de brotos. Pode-se concluir que a maior porcentagem de enraizamento foi obtida no substrato de casca de arroz carbonizada e com ANA na concentração de 5%.In agreement with to enhancement scion production ofRhododendron x simsii Planch trough the vegetative propagation in shorter time, it was intended to study the effects of different substrates and NAA concentration. The experiment was in factorial design 3x4 with three substrates (sand, hush rice and humus and four NAA concentrations in the powder form (0; 2.5; 5.0 and 7.5%. The cuttings used had 100 mm length without apical meristem with two leaves cut in half. Those were put to rooting in trays of 128 cells, for 90 days in which were evaluated: length, surface, volume and root diameter and percentage of rooted, surviving and dead cuttings and number the buds. It can be conclued that the greatest of rooting was obtained in the substrates hush rice and the 5% of NAA.

  3. Molecular evidence for natural hybridization between Rhododendron spiciferum and R.spinuliferum (Ericaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Jun YAN; Lian-Ming GAO; De-Zhu LI

    2013-01-01

    Rhododendron ×duclouxii is morphologically intermediate between Rhododendron spiciferum and Rhododendron spinuliferum,and was suspected to be a natural hybrid between these species.In this study,the nuclear ribosomal intemal transcribed spacer (ITS) and chloroplast trnL-F regions of 34 accessions of R.× duclouxii and its putative parents were analyzed for evidence of hybridization.The results from molecular data supported by morphology demonstrated that R.× duclouxii represents a natural hybrid between R.spiciferum and R.spinuliferum.It also implies that the hybridization between R.spiciferum and R.spinuliferum is bidirectional,and that populations of R.×duclouxii represent hybrid swarms from backcrossing or selfing of F1 plants.The study is important for understanding the speciation processes in the genus since it demonstrates for the first time the existence of a natural homoploid hybrid in Rhododendron subgenus Rhododendron.

  4. Assessment of trace element levels in Rhododendron honeys of Black Sea Region, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhododendron and multi-flower honeys obtained from Black Sea Region of Turkey (12 Rhododendron and 8 multi-flower honeys) were studied to determine the presence of the 14 trace elements such as Cu, Cd, Pb, Co, Cr, Ni, Al, Se, Zn, Mn, Fe, K, Ca and Mg. Trace element determination was performed by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after microwave digestion. The results revealed that Rhododendron honeys exhibited higher concentrations of Cu, Co, Cr, Ni, Se, Zn, Ca and Mg but lower concentrations of Al, Mn, Fe and K than in the multi-flower honeys. Trace element levels in analyzed honey samples were generally lower than literature values

  5. Sanitation Can Be A Foundation Disease Management Tool: Potential Of Spreading Binucleate Rhizoctonia from Nursery Propagation Floors To Trays Containing Azalea Stem Cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binucelate Rhizoctonia spp. (BNR), the cause of web blight, are present all year on container-grown azaleas in the southern U.S. BNR can be eliminated during vegetative propagation by submerging stem cuttings in 50°C water for 21 minutes. The objective was to evaluate risk of rooting trays being con...

  6. An unusual bioactive oleanane triterpenoid from Rhododendron campanulatum D.Don

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mudasir Ahmad Tantry; Reehana Khan; Seema Akbar; Abdul Rouf Dar; Abdul Sami Shawl; Mohammad Sarwar Alam

    2011-01-01

    An unusual oleanane triterpene (1) was isolated from aerial parts of Rhododendron campanulatum. The compound had shown prominent antibacterial and immunomodulatory activities. The structure of the compound was determined by spectroscopic data including ID and 2D NMR spectral analysis.

  7. Titulações espectrofotométricas de sistemas ácido-base utilizando extrato de flores contendo antocianinas Spectrophotometric titrations of acid-base systems using flower extracts containig anthocyanins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Souza Cortes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering the attraction of the students' attention by the changes in the colors of vegetable crude extracts caused by the variation of the pH of the medium, the use of these different colors in order to demonstrate principles of spectrophotometric acid-base titrations using the crude extracts as indicators is proposed. The experimental setup consisted of a simple spectrophotometer, a homemade flow cell and a pump to propel the fluids along the system. Students should be stimulated to choose the best wavelength to monitor the changes in color during the titration. Since the pH of the equivalence point depends on the system titrated, the wavelength must be properly chosen to follow these changes, demonstrating the importance of the correct choice of the indicator. When compared with the potentiometric results, errors as low as 2% could be found using Rhododendron simsii (azalea or Tibouchina granulosa (Glory tree, quaresmeira as sources of the crude extracts.

  8. The Inhibitory Effect of Rhododendron maximum L. (Ericaceae) Thickets on Mycorrhizal Colonization of Canopy Tree Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, John F.

    1998-01-01

    THE INHIBITORY EFFECT OF RHODODENDRON MAXIMUM L. (ERICACEAE) THICKETS ON MYCORRHIZAL COLONIZATION OF CANOPY TREE SEEDLINGS John F. Walker (ABSTRACT) Thickets of Rhododendron maximum (Rm) in the southern Appalachians impose severe limitations on the regeneration of hardwood and coniferous seedlings. Interactions between Rm thickets and ectomycorrhizal colonization were examined to explain seedling inhibition. Experimental blocks were established in and out of Rm thickets in a mature,...

  9. Variation in Rhododendron arboreum Sm. complex (Ericaceae): insights from exomorphology, leaf anatomy and pollen morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Subhasis Panda; Indranil Kirtania

    2016-01-01

    Rhododendron arboreum Sm., placed under the genus Rhododendron L. in the family Ericaceae Juss. consists of c. 1000 species, of these c. 102 species occur in India. R. arboreum Sm. is restricted to a few South Eastern Asian countries. In India, the species is distributed in the Himalayas, North Eastern India and hill tops of South Western Ghats. Detailed investigations of the genus were studied by several workers but nobody studied variation in R. arboreum complex. A few workers described pol...

  10. Separation of the bioclimatic spaces of Himalayan tree rhododendron species predicted by ensemble suitability models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailesh Ranjitkar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The tree rhododendrons include the most widely distributed Himalayan Rhododendron species belonging to the subsection Arborea. Distributions of two members of this sub-species were modelled using bioclimatic data for current conditions (1950–2000. A subset of the least correlated bioclimatic variables was used for ecological niche modelling (ENM. We used an ENM ensemble method in the BiodiversityR R-package to map the suitable climatic space for tree rhododendrons based on 217 point location records. Ensemble bioclimatic models for tree rhododendrons had high predictive power with bioclimatic variables, which also separated the climatic spaces for the two species. Tree rhododendrons were found occurring in a wide range of climate and the distributional limits were associated with isothermality, temperature ranges, temperature of the wettest quarter, and precipitation of the warmest quarter of the year. The most suitable climatic space for tree rhododendrons was predicted to be in western Yunnan, China, with suitability declining towards the west and east. Its occurrence in a wide range of climatic settings with highly dissected habitats speaks to the adaptive capacity of the species, which might open up future options for their conservation planning in regions where they are listed as threatened.

  11. Effects of prescribed burning, mechanical and chemical treatments to curtail rhododendron dominance and reduce wildfire fuel loads

    OpenAIRE

    Harrell III, Charles Wesley

    2006-01-01

    Rosebay rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum L.) is an ericaceous shrub commonly found in riparian areas of the Appalachian Mountains. After more than a century of fire exclusion in the U.S., the distribution of R. maximum and its dominance of forest understories have increased. Rhododendron expansion has caused a decline in overstory regeneration and the potential for dangerous fuel conditions around suburban structures near the wildland-urban interface. The purpose of this study was to det...

  12. Maximum sustainable xylem sap tensions in Rhododendron and other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombie, D S; Milburn, J A; Hipkins, M F

    1985-01-01

    The acoustic technique was used in conjunction with the pressure chamber to determine the tensions causing cavitation of xylem sap in leaves of five woody angiosperms (Acer pseudoplatanus L., Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn., Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Fraxinus excelsior L. and Rhododendron ponticum L.) and three species of herbs (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill., Plantago major L. and Ricinus communis L.). The results showed leaves of most species to suffer considerably from cavitation at sap tensions of 1.6-3 MPa. Two of the herbs, Lycopersicum and Ricinus, cavitated extensively at sap tensions below 1 MPa. Additional evidence is presented that clicks, detected by acoustic amplification, are caused by cavitation of sap in the xylem conduits. A rapid method is suggested for the determination of sap tensions in cavitating leaves and which is suitable for surveys of the critical sap tension in a large number of species.

  13. Cold hardiness increases with age in juvenile Rhododendron populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev eArora

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Winter survival in woody plants is controlled by environmental and genetic factors that affect the plant's ability to cold acclimate. Because woody perennials are long-lived and often have a prolonged juvenile (pre-flowering phase, it is conceivable that both chronological and physiological age factors influence adaptive traits such as stress tolerance. This study investigated annual cold hardiness (CH changes in several hybrid Rhododendron populations based on Tmax, an estimate of the maximum rate of freezing injury (ion leakage in cold-acclimated leaves from juvenile progeny. Data from F2 and backcross populations derived from R. catawbiense and R. fortunei parents indicated significant annual increases in Tmax ranging from 3.7 to to 6.4 C as the seedlings aged from 3 to 5 years old. A similar yearly increase (6.7° C was observed in comparisons of 1- and 2-year-old F1 progenies from a R. catawbiense x R. dichroanthum cross. In contrast, CH of the mature parent plants (> 10 years old did not change significantly over the same evaluation period. In leaf samples from a natural population of R. maximum, CH evaluations over two years resulted in an average Tmax value for juvenile 2- to 3- year- old plants that was 9.2 C lower than the average for mature (~30 years old plants. . A reduction in CH was also observed in three hybrid rhododendron cultivars clonally propagated by rooted cuttings (ramets - Tmax of 4-year-old ramets was significantly lower than the Tmax estimates for the 30- to 40-year-old source plants (ortets. In both the wild R. maximum population and the hybrid cultivar group, higher accumulation of a cold-acclimation responsive 25kDa leaf dehydrin was associated with older plants and higher CH. The feasibility of identifying hardy phenotypes at juvenile period and research implications of age-dependent changes in CH are discussed.

  14. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of Rhododendron arboreum bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Muhammad; Ali, Sajid; Muhammad, Naveed; Gillani, Syed N; Shah, Muhmmad R; Khan, Haroon; Maione, Francesco

    2016-07-01

    Rhododendron arboreum Smith. (Ericaceae), an evergreen small tree, is one of the 1000 species that belongs to genus Rhododendron distributed worldwide. In folk medicine, as various parts of this plant exhibit medicinal properties, it is used in the treatment of different ailments.The present study was designed to evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of methanolic extract of R. arboreum bark, followed by activity-guided fractionation of n-hexane, n-butanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions.The ethyl acetate fraction (200 mg/kg i.p.) showed the maximum analgesic effect (82%) in acetic acid-induced writhing, followed, to a less extent, by crude extract and chloroform fraction both at a dose of 200 mg/kg i.p. (65.09% and 67.89%, respectively). In carrageenan-induced mouse paw oedema, the crude extract and its related fractions displayed in a dose-dependent manner (50-200 mg/kg i.p.) an anti-inflammatory activity for all time-courses (1-5 hrs). For the active extract/fractions (200 mg/kg i.p.), the maximum effect was observed 5 h after carrageenan injection. These evidences were also supported by in vitro lipoxygenase inhibitory properties. In conclusion, R. arboreum crude methanolic extract and its fractions exhibited anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects. For these reasons, this plant could be a promising source of new compounds for the management of pain and inflammatory diseases. PMID:25501256

  15. Antioxidant Activities and Phytochemicals of Leaf Extracts from 10 Native Rhododendron Species in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yang Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhododendron, one of the most famous ornamental plants in the world, is traditionally a medicinal plant. However, the potential bioactivities of native Rhododendron in Taiwan have not been completely studied. In this study, the results revealed that Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum exhibited the best antioxidant activities among 10 native Rhododendron species in Taiwan. Furthermore, based on a bioactivity-guided isolation principle, nine specific phytochemicals were isolated and identified as (2R,3S-catechin (1, (2R,3R-epicatechin (1′, (2R,3R-dihydromyricetin 3-O-β-l-arabinopyranoside (2, (2S,3S-taxifolin 3-O-β-l-arabinopyranoside (2′, (2R,3R-taxifolin 3-O-β-l-arabinopyranoside (3, myricetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3′, rutin (4, hyperoside (5, and quercitrin (6. Of these compounds, 2 and 3 were found to be major bioactive compounds, and their concentrations in the n-butanol (BuOH fraction were determined to be 52.0 and 67.3 mg per gram, respectively. These results demonstrated that methanolic extracts of Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum leaves have excellent antioxidant activities and great potential as a source for natural health products.

  16. Variation in Rhododendron arboreum Sm. complex (Ericaceae: insights from exomorphology, leaf anatomy and pollen morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhasis Panda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhododendron arboreum Sm., placed under the genus Rhododendron L. in the family Ericaceae Juss. consists of c. 1000 species, of these c. 102 species occur in India. R. arboreum Sm. is restricted to a few South Eastern Asian countries. In India, the species is distributed in the Himalayas, North Eastern India and hill tops of South Western Ghats. Detailed investigations of the genus were studied by several workers but nobody studied variation in R. arboreum complex. A few workers described pollen morphology of Ericaceae including Rhododendron, but they did not study different subspecies of R. arboreum. No detailed investigation on leaf anatomy was also reported. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the contribution of leaf anatomy and pollen morphology along with herbarium and field based exomorphological data to delimit infraspecific variations in R. arboreum complex.

  17. Assessing atmospheric concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls by evergreen Rhododendron maximum next to a contaminated stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Viet D; Walters, David M; Lee, Cindy M

    2016-09-01

    Conifers are often used as an air passive sampler, but few studies have focused on the implication of broadleaf evergreens to monitor atmospheric semivolatile organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In the present study, the authors used Rhododendron maximum (rhododendron) growing next to a contaminated stream to assess atmospheric PCB concentrations. The present study area was located in a rural setting and approximately 2 km downstream of a former capacitor plant. Leaves from the same mature shrubs were collected in late fall 2010 and winter and spring 2011. Polychlorinated biphenyls were detected in the collected leaves, suggesting that rhododendron can be used as air passive samplers in rural areas where active sampling is impractical. Estimated ΣPCB (47 congeners) concentrations in the atmosphere decreased from fall 2010 to spring 2011 with concentration means at 3990 pg m(-3) , 2850 pg m(-3) , and 931 pg m(-3) in fall 2010, winter 2011, and spring 2011, respectively. These results indicate that the atmospheric concentrations at this location continue to be high despite termination of active discharge from the former industrial source. Leaves had a consistent pattern of high concentrations of tetra-CBs and penta-CBs similar to the congener distribution in polyethylene passive samplers deployed in the water column, suggesting that volatilized PCBs from the stream were the primary source of contaminants in rhododendron leaves. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2192-2198. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:26889751

  18. Pollen development in Rhododendron in relation to winter dormancy and bloom time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirgorodskaya, Olga E; Koteyeva, Nuria K; Volchanskaya, Alexandra V; Miroslavov, Evgeny A

    2015-09-01

    Microsporogenesis and microgametogenesis of Rhododendron ledebourii (semi-deciduous), Rhododendron luteum (deciduous), and Rhododendron catawbiense (evergreen) were studied by light and electron microscopies in order to determine the stages of pollen development in relation to period of winter dormancy and bloom time throughout an annual growth cycle. Development of generative organs starts in June in R. ledebourii and in July in R. luteum and R. catawbiense and reaches completion about 11 months later. R. luteum and R. catawbiense microspores undergo meiosis at the end of the August and spend winter at the vacuolization stage. Mitosis with the formation of bicellular pollen grain occurs shortly before flowering at the beginning of June. R. ledebourii develops two types of flowers which differ in the timing of microgametogenesis. The first type is characterized by early microspore meiosis and mitosis leading to development of bicellular pollen grains by the end of August, and is prone to fall blooming during warm autumn temperatures. Microspores of the second flower type have a more prolonged vacuolization stage with mitosis and subsequent bicellular pollen grains occurring in November. By winter, flower buds in R. ledebourii are more advanced developmentally than in R. catawbiense and R. luteum, and bloom about 1 month earlier. The different strategies of pollen development identified both within and between these three Rhododendron species were recognized which are not associated with leaf drop during winter but appear to be related to the time of spring flowering and the frequency of autumn flowering. PMID:25643916

  19. Assessing atmospheric concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by evergreen Rhododendron maximum next to a contaminated stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Viet D.; Walters, David; Lee, Cindy M.

    2016-01-01

    Conifers are often used as an “air passive sampler”, but few studies have focused on the implication of broadleaf evergreens to monitor atmospheric semivolatile organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, we used Rhododendron maximum (rhododendron) growing next to a contaminated stream to assess atmospheric PCB concentrations. The study area was located in a rural setting and approximately 2 km downstream of a former Sangamo-Weston (S-W) plant. Leaves from the same mature shrubs were collected in late fall 2010, and winter and spring 2011. PCBs were detected in the collected leaves suggesting that rhododendron can be used as air passive samplers in rural areas where active sampling is impractical. Estimated ΣPCB (47 congeners) concentrations in the atmosphere decreased from fall 2010 to spring 2011 with concentration means at 3990, 2850, and 931 pg m-3 in fall 2010, winter 2011, and spring 2011, respectively. These results indicate that the atmospheric concentrations at this location continue to be high despite termination of active discharge from the former S-W plant. Leaves had a consistent pattern of high concentrations of tetra- and penta-CBs similar to the congener distribution in polyethylene (PE) passive samplers deployed in the water column suggesting that volatilized PCBs from the stream were the primary source of contaminants in rhododendron leaves.

  20. Suboptimal Light Conditions Influence Source-Sink Metabolism during Flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaens, Annelies; De Keyser, Ellen; Pauwels, Els; De Riek, Jan; Gobin, Bruno; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine

    2016-01-01

    Reliance on carbohydrates during flower forcing was investigated in one early and one late flowering cultivar of azalea (Rhododendron simsii hybrids). Carbohydrate accumulation, invertase activity, and expression of a purported sucrose synthase gene (RsSUS) was monitored during flower forcing under suboptimal (natural) and optimal (supplemental light) light conditions, after a cold treatment (7°C + dark) to break flower bud dormancy. Post-production sucrose metabolism and flowering quality was also assessed. Glucose and fructose concentrations and invertase activity increased in petals during flowering, while sucrose decreased. In suboptimal light conditions RsSUS expression in leaves increased as compared to optimal light conditions, indicating that plants in suboptimal light conditions have a strong demand for carbohydrates. However, carbohydrates in leaves were markedly lower in suboptimal light conditions compared to optimal light conditions. This resulted in poor flowering of plants in suboptimal light conditions. Post-production flowering relied on the stored leaf carbon, which could be accumulated under optimal light conditions in the greenhouse. These results show that flower opening in azalea relies on carbohydrates imported from leaves and is source-limiting under suboptimal light conditions. PMID:26973689

  1. Suboptimal light conditions influence source-sink metabolism during flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelies eChristiaens

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reliance on carbohydrates during flower forcing was investigated in one early and one late flowering cultivar of azalea (Rhododendron simsii hybrids. Carbohydrate accumulation, invertase activity, and expression of a purported sucrose synthase gene (RsSUS was monitored during flower forcing under suboptimal (natural and optimal (supplemental light light conditions, after a cold treatment (7°C + dark to break flower bud dormancy. Post-production sucrose metabolism and flowering quality was also assessed. Glucose and fructose concentrations and invertase activity increased in petals during flowering, while sucrose decreased. In suboptimal light conditions RsSUS expression in leaves increased as compared to optimal light conditions, indicating that plants in suboptimal light conditions have a strong demand for carbohydrates. However, carbohydrates in leaves were markedly lower in suboptimal light conditions compared to optimal light conditions. This resulted in poor flowering of plants in suboptimal light conditions. Post-production flowering relied on the stored leaf carbon, which could be accumulated under optimal light conditions in the greenhouse. These results show that flower opening in azalea relies on carbohydrates imported from leaves and is source-limiting under suboptimal light conditions.

  2. Diversity of fungi associated with Rhododendron argyrophyllum and R. floribundum hair roots in Sichuan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Zheng; Bo Gao; Lifu Sun; Yanhong Bing; Kequan Pei

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the fungal associates of Rhododendron argyrophyllum and R. floribundum in Sichuan Province. A total of 41 fungal taxa were identified from hair roots based on ITS sequence analyses belonging to the following orders: Helotiales, Eurotiales, Pezizales, and Pleosporales in Ascomycetes, Sebacinales and Agaricales, Erythrobasidiales, and Filobasidiales in Basidiomycetes. Fungal diversity was rich, including ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM), ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and other root-associated ...

  3. Antidiarrheal potential of standardized extract of Rhododendron arboreum Smith flowers in experimental animals

    OpenAIRE

    Neeraj Verma; Singh, Anil P.; Amresh Gupta; Sahu, P. K.; Rao, Ch V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To investigate standardized ethyl acetate fraction of Rhododendron arboreum (EFRA) flowers for antidiarrheal activity in experimental animals. Materials and Methods : A simple sensitive high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was used for the determination of hyperin in EFRA. The standardized fraction was investigated for castor oil, magnesium sulfate-induced diarrhea, measurement of gastrointestinal transit using charcoal and castor oil-induced enteropooling...

  4. Influence of tree water potential in inducing flowering in Rhododendron arboreum in the central Himalayan region

    OpenAIRE

    Tewari A; Bhatt J; Mittal A

    2016-01-01

    Rise in temperature has been reported as the principal cause of variation in flowering phenology in several tree species around the globe. In this study, we hypothesized that not only temperature but also rainfall periodicity, soil moisture and the related changes of twig water potential (ψ) in winter and early spring are important drivers of bud expansion and flowering in Rhododendron arboreum in central Himalayas. To this purpose, phenological and physiological variables (flowering time, fl...

  5. Phytochemical analysis of the flower extracts of Rhododendron arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kiruba S; Mahesh M; Nisha SR; Miller Paul Z; Jeeva S

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the preliminary phytochemical screening of the flower extracts of Rhododendron arboreum (R. arboreum) Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg. Methods: The preliminary phytochemical screening was performed by the standard methods as described by Harborne. Results: The phytochemical analysis carried out on the flowers of R. arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg showed the presence of phenols, saponins, steroids, tannin, xanthoprotein and coumarin. Conclusions:The present study suggested that the flower extracts of R. arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg possess significant phytochemical constituents and it can be used as antimicrobial agents against clinically isolated pathogens.

  6. Preliminary phytochemical studies of the leaf extracts of Rhododendron arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Solomon Kiruba; Mony Mahesh; Zachariah Miller Paul; Solomon Jeeva

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the secondary metabolites present in the leaf extracts of Rhododendron arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg. Methods: Phytochemical screening of the leaf extract was done to determine the phytochemical constituents in the various solvents studied.Results:nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg. confirm the existence of secondary metabolites such as phenols, saponins and tannins. Conclusions: The study suggests that the leaf extracts of R. arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg. can be best utilized in developing bioactive compounds against pathogenic infection. The phytochemical study carried out on the leaf extracts of R. arboreum Sm. ssp.

  7. Effects of Litter on the Seedling Regeneration and Seed Germination of Rhododendron agastum%凋落物对迷人杜鹃幼苗更新和种子萌发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周艳; 陈训; 韦小丽; 伍庆; 李朝婵

    2015-01-01

    促进迷人杜鹃幼苗的天然更新。%Objective]The“One Hundred Mile Azalea Forest”is the largest Rhododendron forest in China so far. Rhododendron agastum is an important protected species in the natural reserve“One Hundred Mile Azalea Forest”in Guizhou province,and has important ecological,scientific and cultural value.[Method]In field investigations in a forest of Rh. agastum,we found that there were a 1ot of litter but rare seedlings in the forest. Aiming at this problem,the effects of litter coverage on seedling regeneration of Rh. agastum communities were investigated in the One Hundred Mile Azalea Forest. The physical effects of litter coverage on seed germination and seedling growth were investigated in artificial simulation experiments in which different seed-sowing positions and different thicknesses of litter were applied. The biochemical effect of litter on seed germination was investigated by irrigating Rh. agastum seeds with litter leachates that were prepared by extraction of litter with diethyl ether,ethyl acetate,or n-butanol. [Result]Our results indicated that a thick litter layer suppressed seedling regeneration under natural conditions. The maximum seedling number was observed for litter less than 4 cm thick,and the number of seedlings gradually decreased with increased litter thickness. Sowing patterns and litter depth had a significant influence on the germination and seedling emergence. The seed germination rate of the control ( without litter) was highest. Seeds sown on the litter surface had much lower germination rate or failed to germination. With the increase of litter thickness,the seed germination rate and seedling emergence rate decreased. No matter which kind of extract processing of three kinds of leachates,high concentrations inhibited seed germination,most notably for the diethyl ether fraction at the concentration of 12 mg·mL -1 . In this concentration,the germination rate and seedling height of Rh. agastum were

  8. Determination of active ingredients of Rhododendron dauricum L. by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuhua; Lou, Changgang; Fang, Yuzhi; Ye, Jiannong

    2002-01-11

    High-performance capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection was employed to analyse active ingredients of Rhododendron dauricum L., an important crude herb frequently used in Chinese medicines. Farrerol, quercetin, syringic acid, vanillic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid are major important active ingredients. Operated in a wall-jet configuration, a 300-microm diameter carbon-disk electrode was used as the working electrode, which exhibits a good response at +950 mV (vs. saturated calomel electrodes) for six analytes. Under the optimum conditions, the analytes were baseline separated within 16 min in a borax buffer (pH 8.7). Notably, excellent linearity was obtained over two orders of magnitude with detection limits (S/N=3) ranged from 9 x 10(-7) to 3.0 x 10(-6) M for all analytes. This method was successfully used in the analysis of Rhododendron dauricum L. with relatively simple extraction procedures, and the assay results were satisfactory. PMID:11820277

  9. Effect of elevation and latitude on spring phenology of Rhododendron at Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, East Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailesh Ranjitkar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mountainous terrain in East corner of Nepal is good location for phenological studies. Spring phenology in Rhododendron arboreum Sm. was monitored around Ghunsa river valley in Kanchenjunga Conservation Area of Nepal. Observations were carried our following the crown density method; flowering events of the selected species were recorded in 15-days interval. Flowering activity including duration of flowering and synchrony were determined. In addition, expected difference in flower onset time in two consecutive monitoring plots was determined. Elevation, latitude and longitude were regressed against flower onset to determine effect of each variable on flower onset. Delay in flower onset with rise in elevation, North latitude and West longitude was found in the results of the regression. Full bloom phase was found highly synchronized throughout the elevation gradient with contraction of flowering duration. High synchrony also indicates that the reproductive timing might plastic enough to cope with short-term change in environment.

  10. Proanthocyanidins Extracted from Rhododendron pulchrum Leaves as Source of Tyrosinase Inhibitors: Structure, Activity, and Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Wei-Ming; Wang, Rui; Wei, Man-Kun; Zou, Zheng-Rong; Deng, Rong-Gen; Liu, Wei-Sheng; Peng, Yi-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the structure, anti-tyrosinase activity, and mechanism of proanthocyanidins extracted from Rhododendron pulchrum leaves. Results obtained from mass spectra of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) revealed that proanthocyanidins were complex mixtures of procyanidins, prodelphinidins, propelargonidins, and their derivatives, among which procyanidins were the main components. The anti-tyrosinase analysis results indicated that the mixtures were reversible and mixed competitive inhibitors of tyrosinase. Interactions between proanthocyanidins with substrate (L-tyrosine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) and with copper ions were the important molecular mechanisms for explaining their efficient inhibition. This research would provide scientific evidence for the use of R. pulchrum leaf proanthocyanidins as new novel tyrosinase inhibitors. PMID:26713623

  11. Proanthocyanidins Extracted from Rhododendron pulchrum Leaves as Source of Tyrosinase Inhibitors: Structure, Activity, and Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ming Chai

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the structure, anti-tyrosinase activity, and mechanism of proanthocyanidins extracted from Rhododendron pulchrum leaves. Results obtained from mass spectra of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS revealed that proanthocyanidins were complex mixtures of procyanidins, prodelphinidins, propelargonidins, and their derivatives, among which procyanidins were the main components. The anti-tyrosinase analysis results indicated that the mixtures were reversible and mixed competitive inhibitors of tyrosinase. Interactions between proanthocyanidins with substrate (L-tyrosine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and with copper ions were the important molecular mechanisms for explaining their efficient inhibition. This research would provide scientific evidence for the use of R. pulchrum leaf proanthocyanidins as new novel tyrosinase inhibitors.

  12. Adipogenic Activity of Wild Populations of Rhododendron groenlandicum, a Medicinal Shrub from the James Bay Cree Traditional Pharmacopeia

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Rapinski; Lina Musallam; John Thor Arnason; Pierre Haddad; Alain Cuerrier

    2015-01-01

    The traditional medicinal plant, Labrador tea (Rhododendron groenlandicum (Oeder) Kron & Judd; Ericaceae), present in the pharmacopoeia of the Cree of Eeyou Istchee, has shown glitazone-like activity in the 3T3-L1 adipogenesis bioassay. This activity has been attributed to phenolic compounds, which have been shown to vary in this plant as a function of insolation parameters. The goal of this study was to determine if these changes in phenolic content were pharmacologically significant. Leaves...

  13. Photosynthetic response of an alpine plant, Rhododendron delavayi Franch, to water stress and recovery: the role of mesophyll conductance

    OpenAIRE

    Yanfei eCai; Jihua eWang; Shifeng eLi; Lu eZhang; Lvchun ePeng; Weijia eXie; Feihu eLiu

    2015-01-01

    Rhododendron delavayi Franch is an evergreen shrub or small tree with large scarlet flowers that makes it highly attractive as an ornamental species. The species is native to southwest China and southeast Asia, especially the Himalayan region, showing good adaptability and tolerance to drought. To understand the water stress coping mechanisms of R. delavayi, we analysed the plant’s photosynthetic performance during water stress and recovery. In particular, we looked at the regulation of stoma...

  14. The photoprotective role of thermonastic leaf movements in Rhododendron maximum: potential implications to early spring carbon gain

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Raymond Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    Rhododendron maximum L. is a dominant subcanopy species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. R. maximum undergo distinct thermonastic leaf movements (TLM). The purpose of these movements has not yet been determined. Previous studies have suggested TLM are a photoprotective mechanism for the dynamic light environment of the subcanopy in a deciduous forest during winter. The present study aimed to determine the effects of restricting TLM on photoinhibition, net photosynthesis, and other gas...

  15. 生长激素对杜鹃红山茶扦插效果的影响%Effect of plant growth regulators on the cutting propagation of Camellia azalea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛克娜; 殷爱华; 张学平; 柯欢

    2011-01-01

    研究了不同扦插时期和不同植物生长激素对杜鹃红山茶扦插繁殖效果的影响.结果表明:杜鹃红山茶的春季和夏季扦插无显著性差异,而植物生长激素处理对杜鹃红山茶的成活率、平均生根数、平均根长、平均抽梢次数和平均苗高有显著影响(p<0.05).在13种激素处理中,效果最好的是0.5 g/L的混合植物生长激素组合(80%IBA+20%NAA).植物生长激素组合(80%IBA+20%NAA)的扦插效果优于NAA和IBA单独使用.%The effect of cutting period and plant growth regulators on the cutting propagation of Camellia azalea was studied in this paper. The results showed that there was no significant difference between spring cuttings and summer cuttings of C.azalea, while the plant growth regulators caused significant difference among the survival rate, average root number and average root length as well as the steckling height of C. azalea' s cuttings (p <0.05 ). Among the thirteen plant growth regulators treatment, the optimal one was mixed plant growth regulators (80% IBA + 20% NAA) treatment with concentration of 0.5 g/L, which was better than that of NAA and IBA alone.

  16. Chapter 21. chlorine dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Submerging terminal leafy cuttings of Rhododendron L. 'Gumpo White' ('Gumpo White' azalea) in 50 °C water for 21 min was previously shown to eliminate binucleate Rhizoctonia species, the cause of azalea web blight, from plant tissues. Prior to considering commercial use of this practice, a better un...

  17. Melanogenesis Inhibitory Activity of Rhododendron Weyrichii in Mouse B16 Melanoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Jin Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, to evaluate the usefulness of Rhododendron weyrichii Maxim.as a whitening agent, the whitening effects of its extracts were investigated in alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH-induced B16F10 melanoma cells. No toxicity was noted in either B16F10 melanoma cells or HaCaT keratinocyte cells that were exposed to the hot water or 70% ethanol extracts of R. weyrichii Maxim. (RW-H and RW-E, respectively.Moreover, both the RW-H and RW-E extracts dose-dependently inhibited α-MSH-induced melanin production in B16F10 melanoma cells, with inhibitory effects of 52.5% and 51.6%, respectively, at a concentration of 200μg/mL. The RW-H and RW-E extracts also inhibitedintracellular tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent fashion. Western blot analyses showed that the RW-H and RW-E extracts decreased tyrosinase, tyrosinase-relatedprotein-1, and tyrosinase-relatedprotein-2 expression.Additionally,we found that ρ-coumaric acid-containing RW-H and RW-E extracts could be used as hypopigmentation agentssince they suppress melanogenesis. Collectively, our results suggest that RW-H and RW-E extracts have the potential to serve as functional cosmetic agents, including whitening agents.

  18. Influence of tree water potential in inducing flowering in Rhododendron arboreum in the central Himalayan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tewari A

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rise in temperature has been reported as the principal cause of variation in flowering phenology in several tree species around the globe. In this study, we hypothesized that not only temperature but also rainfall periodicity, soil moisture and the related changes of twig water potential (ψ in winter and early spring are important drivers of bud expansion and flowering in Rhododendron arboreum in central Himalayas. To this purpose, phenological and physiological variables (flowering time, flower bud size and twig water potential were monitored over two years in a wild population of R. arboreum (Uttarakhand, India and related with environmental variables (rainfall, soil moisture and temperature. Results showed that a rise in twig ψ to -0.7MPa, one week after moderate winter precipitation resulted in flower bud enlargement. In both years flowering was triggered after twig ψ reached the threshold of -0.5 Mpa, though the starting date differed between years. Floral bud size was correlated positively with twig ψ (r = 0.43, df =162, p < 0.001 and soil moisture (r = 0.61, df = 71, p < 0.001, while temperature did not influence flower bud size, soil moisture and twig ψ. Flower bud size increment was related with increase in twig ψ and soil moisture. Based on our results, we concluded that water availability plays an important role in inducing flowering in R. arboreum.

  19. In Vitro Propagation of R. maddeni Hook. F. an Endangered Rhododendron Species of Sikkim Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal Kumar SINGH

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A protocol is described for rapid and large scale propagation of an endangered, important Sikkim Himalayan rhododendron (R. maddeni Hook. f. by in vitro culture of cotyledonary nodes from 15 days old seedlings. Several cytokinin types were evaluated for their effect on shoot multiplication from cotyledonary nodes. Maximum numbers of shoot (12.00 �0.58 were observed on the AM containing 7 mg/l 2iP, 0.1 mg/l IAA after eight weeks of culture. Incorporation of 0.1 mg/l IAA in the medium during the first subculture after establishment and initiation of shoot buds significantly improved the shoot elongation. Regenerated shoots were separated and rooted on same strength AM medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/l of IBA alone for three weeks. Well-developed complete plantlets were transferred on to specially made plastic cup containing soilrite. The rooted plantlets were hardened and successfully established in greenhouse, the plants were transferred to field site at Pangthang arboretum of the Institute and the �Rare & Threatened Plant Conservation Park� of Zoological Park, Gangtok, Sikkim.

  20. Toxicity of Rhododendron anthopogonoides Essential Oil and Its Constituent Compounds towards Sitophilus zeamais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhi Liu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The screening of several Chinese medicinal plants for insecticidal principles showed that essential oil of Rhododendron anthopogonoides flowering aerial parts possessed significant toxicity against maize weevils, Sitophilus zeamais. A total of 37 components were identified in the essential oil and the main constituents of the essential oil were 4-phenyl-2-butanone (27.22%, nerolidol (8.08%, 1,4-cineole (7.85%, caryophyllene (7.63% and γ-elemene (6.10%, followed by α-farnesene (4.40% and spathulenol (4.19%. Repeated bioactivity-directed chromatographic separation on silica gel columns led us to isolate three compounds, namely 4-phenyl-2-butanone, 1,4-cineole, and nerolidol. 4-Phenyl-2-butanone shows pronounced contact toxicity against S. zeamais (LD50 = 6.98 mg/adult and was more toxic than either 1,4-cineole or nerolidol (LD50 = 50.86 mg/adult and 29.30 mg/adult, respectively against the maize weevils, while the crude essential oil had a LD50 value of 11.67 mg/adult. 4-Phenyl-2-butanone and 1,4-cineole also possessed strong fumigant toxicity against the adults of S. zeamais (LC50 = 3.80 mg/L and 21.43 mg/L while the crude essential oil had a LC50 value of 9.66 mg/L.

  1. Antidiarrheal potential of standardized extract of Rhododendron arboreum Smith flowers in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Verma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To investigate standardized ethyl acetate fraction of Rhododendron arboreum (EFRA flowers for antidiarrheal activity in experimental animals. Materials and Methods : A simple sensitive high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC method was used for the determination of hyperin in EFRA. The standardized fraction was investigated for castor oil, magnesium sulfate-induced diarrhea, measurement of gastrointestinal transit using charcoal and castor oil-induced enteropooling. Results : The concentration of hyperin in flowers of R. arboreum was found to be 0.148% by HPTLC. Oral administration of EFRA at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg exhibited dose-dependent and significant (P<0.05-0.001 antidiarrheal potential in castor oil and magnesium sulfate-induced diarrhea. EFRA at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg also produced significant (P<0.05-0.001 dose-dependent reduction in propulsive movement in castor oil-induced gastrointestinal transit using charcoal meal in rats. EFRA was found to possess an antienteropooling in castor oil-induced experimental animals by reducing both weight and volume of intestinal content significantly. Conclusion : These findings demonstrate that standardized ethyl acetate fraction of R. arboreum flowers has potent antidiarrheal activity thus justifying its traditional use in diarrhea and have great potential as a source for natural health products.

  2. Identification of Highly Potent and Selective α-Glucosidase Inhibitors with Antiglycation Potential, Isolated from Rhododendron arboreum

    OpenAIRE

    Rabia Raza; Zaitoon Ilyas; Sajid Ali; Muhammad Nisar; Muhammad Younas Khokhar; Jamshed Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    This study explored antidiabetic potential of eight known pure compounds, isolated from the bark of Rhododendron arboreum. Invitro studies of these compounds against α and β-glucosidases revealed them as very potent and selective inhibitors of α-glucosidase. Compound 7 (3-O-acetylursolic acid) was found to be the most potent inhibitor of α-glucosidase with 3.3±0.1µM IC 50 value which was many folds higher than standard inhibitor acarbose. Antiglycation studies of compounds showed that all com...

  3. POLLEN AND SEED SURFACE MORFOLOGY IN SOME REPRESENTATIVES OF THE GENUS RHODODENDRON SUBSECT. RHODORASTRUM (ERICACEAE IN THE RUSSIAN FAR EAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Koksheeva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Comparative study of pollen and seed morphology of three species of Rhododendron L. subsect. Rhodorastrum (Maxim. Cullen (Rh. dauricum L., Rh. mucronolatum Turcz., Rh. sichotense Pojark. is performed. Results of discriminant analysis of the total of morphometric characters of pollen and seeds have proved the distinctness of all three species from each other. Differences of polen are observed in the type of sculpture (granulate, rugulate, microrugulate and in the diameter of tetrads. The coefficient of elongation of the exotesta cells is established as a valuable morphometric character

  4. Rhizospheric Bacterial Community of Endemic Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Ssp. delavayi along Eastern Himalayan Slope in Tawang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Rajal; Yadav, Archana; Gupta, Vijai K.; Singh, Bhim P.; Handique, Pratap J.; Saikia, Ratul

    2016-01-01

    Information on rhizosphere microbiome of endemic plants from high mountain ecosystems against those of cultivated plantations is inadequate. Comparative bacterial profiles of endemic medicinal plant Rhododendron arboreum Sm. subsp. delavayi rhizosphere pertaining to four altitudinal zonation Pankang Thang (PTSO), Nagula, Y-junction and Bum La (Indo-China border; in triplicates each) along cold adapted Eastern slope of Himalayan Tawang region, India is described here. Significant differences in DGGE profile between below ground bulk vs. rhizospheric community profile associated with the plant was identified. Tagged 16S amplicon sequencing from PTSO (3912 m) to Bum La (4509 m), revealed that soil pH, total nitrogen (TN), organic matter (OM) significantly influenced the underlying bacterial community structure at different altitudes. The relative abundance of Acidobacteria was inversely related to pH, as opposed to TN which was positively correlated to Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria abundance. TN was also the significant predictor for less abundant taxonomic groups Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, and Nitrospirae. Bum La soil harbored less bacterial diversity compared to other sites at lower altitudes. The most abundant phyla at 3% genetic difference were Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria amongst others. Analysis of similarity indicated greater similarity within lower altitudinal than higher altitudinal group (ANOSIM, R = 0.287, p = 0.02). Constraining the ordination with the edaphic factor explained 83.13% of variation. Unique phylotypes of Bradyrhizobium and uncultured Rhizobiales were found in significant proportions at the four regions. With over 1% relative abundance Actinobacteria (42.6%), Acidobacteria (24.02%), Proteobacteria (16.00%), AD3 (9.23%), WPS-2 (5.1%), and Chloroflexi (1.48%) dominated the core microbiome. PMID:27642287

  5. Ice nucleation activity in various tissues of Rhododendron flower buds: their relevance to extraorgan freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya eIshikawa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wintering flower buds of cold hardy Rhododendron japonicum cooled slowly to subfreezing temperatures are known to undergo extraorgan freezing, whose mechanisms remain obscure. We revisited this material to demonstrate why bud scales freeze first in spite of their lower water content, why florets remain deeply supercooled and how seasonal adaptive responses occur in regard to extraorgan freezing in flower buds. We determined ice nucleation activity (INA of various flower bud tissues of using a test tube-based assay. Irrespective of collection sites, outer and inner bud scales that function as ice sinks in extraorgan freezing had high INA levels whilst florets that remain supercooled and act as a water source lacked INA. The INA level of bud scales was not high in late August when flower bud formation was ending, but increased to reach the highest level in late October just before the first autumnal freeze. The results support the following hypothesis: the high INA in bud scales functions as the subfreezing sensor, ensuring the primary freezing in bud scales at warmer subzero temperatures, which likely allows the migration of floret water to the bud scales and accumulation of icicles within the bud scales. The low INA in the florets helps them remain unfrozen by deep supercooling. The INA in the bud scales was resistant to grinding and autoclaving at 121°C for 15 min, implying the intrinsic nature of the INA rather than of microbial origin, whilst the INA in stem bark was autoclaving labile. Anti-nucleation activity (ANA was implicated in the leachate of autoclaved bud scales, which suppresses the INA at millimolar levels of concentration and likely differs from the colligative effects of the solutes. The tissue INA levels likely contribute to the establishment of freezing behaviors by ensuring the order of freezing in the tissues: from the primary freeze to the last tissue remaining unfrozen.

  6. Ice nucleation activity in various tissues of Rhododendron flower buds: their relevance to extraorgan freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Masaya; Ishikawa, Mikiko; Toyomasu, Takayuki; Aoki, Takayuki; Price, William S

    2015-01-01

    Wintering flower buds of cold hardy Rhododendron japonicum cooled slowly to subfreezing temperatures are known to undergo extraorgan freezing, whose mechanisms remain obscure. We revisited this material to demonstrate why bud scales freeze first in spite of their lower water content, why florets remain deeply supercooled and how seasonal adaptive responses occur in regard to extraorgan freezing in flower buds. We determined ice nucleation activity (INA) of various flower bud tissues using a test tube-based assay. Irrespective of collection sites, outer and inner bud scales that function as ice sinks in extraorgan freezing had high INA levels whilst florets that remain supercooled and act as a water source lacked INA. The INA level of bud scales was not high in late August when flower bud formation was ending, but increased to reach the highest level in late October just before the first autumnal freeze. The results support the following hypothesis: the high INA in bud scales functions as the subfreezing sensor, ensuring the primary freezing in bud scales at warmer subzero temperatures, which likely allows the migration of floret water to the bud scales and accumulation of icicles within the bud scales. The low INA in the florets helps them remain unfrozen by deep supercooling. The INA in the bud scales was resistant to grinding and autoclaving at 121(∘)C for 15 min, implying the intrinsic nature of the INA rather than of microbial origin, whilst the INA in stem bark was autoclaving-labile. Anti-nucleation activity (ANA) was implicated in the leachate of autoclaved bud scales, which suppresses the INA at millimolar levels of concentration and likely differs from the colligative effects of the solutes. The tissue INA levels likely contribute to the establishment of freezing behaviors by ensuring the order of freezing in the tissues: from the primary freeze to the last tissue remaining unfrozen. PMID:25859249

  7. 6,8-Di-C-methyl-flavonoids with neuroprotective activities from Rhododendron fortunei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yongji; Zeng, Hong; He, Meijun; Qian, Huiqin; Wu, Zhaodi; Luo, Zengwei; Xue, Yongbo; Yao, Guangmin; Zhang, Yonghui

    2016-07-01

    Six 6,8-di-C-methyl-flavonoids, (2R,3R)-6,8-di-C-methyl-5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavanonol 7-O-β-d-gluco-pyranoside (1), (2R,3R)-6,8-di-C-methyl-5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavanonol 7-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (2), 6,8-di-C-methylkaempferol 7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3), (2R)-farrerol (4a), (2R/2S)-farrerol 7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (5), and (2R/2S)-farrerol 7-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (6), and four known analogues, farrerol (4b), (2R,3R)-6,8-di-C-methyldihydrokae-mpferol (7), 6,8-di-C-methylkaempferol 7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (8), and 6,8-di-C-methylkaempferol (9), were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Rhododendron fortunei. The structures of compounds 1-9 were determined by spectroscopic analyses (HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR, and CD) and chemical methods. Compounds 1-9 were evaluated for their neuroprotective effects on the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and amyloid β peptide (Aβ), respectively. Compounds 1-3 and 5-9 exhibited significant neuroprotective effects against H2O2-induced SH-SY5Y cell apoptosis, and compound 8 exhibited the strongest activity with a improvement of cell viability by about 30% at the concentration of 10μM. Compounds 1-9 showed significant neuroprotective effects against Aβ-induced SH-SY5Y cell apoptosis. PMID:27345941

  8. Modelization of the Current and Future Habitat Suitability of Rhododendron ferrugineum Using Potential Snow Accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Komac

    Full Text Available Mountain areas are particularly sensitive to climate change. Species distribution models predict important extinctions in these areas whose magnitude will depend on a number of different factors. Here we examine the possible impact of climate change on the Rhododendron ferrugineum (alpenrose niche in Andorra (Pyrenees. This species currently occupies 14.6 km2 of this country and relies on the protection afforded by snow cover in winter. We used high-resolution climatic data, potential snow accumulation and a combined forecasting method to obtain the realized niche model of this species. Subsequently, we used data from the high-resolution Scampei project climate change projection for the A2, A1B and B1 scenarios to model its future realized niche model. The modelization performed well when predicting the species's distribution, which improved when we considered the potential snow accumulation, the most important variable influencing its distribution. We thus obtained a potential extent of about 70.7 km(2 or 15.1% of the country. We observed an elevation lag distribution between the current and potential distribution of the species, probably due to its slow colonization rate and the small-scale survey of seedlings. Under the three climatic scenarios, the realized niche model of the species will be reduced by 37.9-70.1 km(2 by the end of the century and it will become confined to what are today screes and rocky hillside habitats. The particular effects of climate change on seedling establishment, as well as on the species' plasticity and sensitivity in the event of a reduction of the snow cover, could worsen these predictions.

  9. Occurrence Investigation and Control Measures of Rhododendron Pests in Quanzhou City%泉州市杜鹃花害虫发生调查与防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑月琼; 陈达嵩

    2011-01-01

    The occurrences of rhododendron pests in Quanzhou city were investigated.The results showed that the main pests of rhododendron were leaf pests,including stephanitis pyriodes,Trialeurodes vaporariorum,rhododendron sawfly,snail,thrips and aphid.Among which,S.pyriodes,T.vaporariorum and rhododendron sawfly occurred widely and seriously,and the occurrences of snail,thrips and aphid were sporadic.This paper described the occurrence characteristic of the main pests mentioned above,and then summarized a set of effective control measures.%对泉州市杜鹃花发生情况进行调查,结果表明:目前泉州市杜鹃花害虫以叶部害虫为主,有杜鹃冠网蝽、温室白粉虱、杜鹃叶蜂、蜗牛、蓟马与蚜虫,其中杜鹃冠网蝽、温室白粉虱与杜鹃叶蜂发生普遍且严重,其次是蜗牛,蓟马与蚜虫则零星发生。该文描述了以上主要害虫的发生特点,并总结出一系列有效防治方法。

  10. Photosynthesis Light Response Characteristics of Camellia azalea and Fitting of Application Models%杜鹃红山茶的光响应特性及其最适模型筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张方秋; 杨会肖; 徐斌; 潘文

    2015-01-01

    Camellia azalea is a Camellia species endemic to China, and only confined to the E, huangzhang Nature Reserve in Yangchun City of Guangdong Province. It is widely used for landscapes because of its perfect form and the characteristics to bloom year-round . The reports on fitting of photosynthesis light-response curve model of C.azalea were seldom. Six typical models of light-response curve of leaf net photosynthesis, such as Binomial regressions model, Non-rectangular hyperbola model, Rectangular hyperbola model, Modified rectangular hyperbola model, Exponential model and Modified exponential model, were used to fit the photosynthesis light response curves of C. azalea. The results showed that there was a nonlinear relationship between photosynthesis rate and light intensity. Modified rectangular hyperbola model provided a best fit for the photosynthetic light-response curve. Except the Binomial regressions model, the estimated data from the photosynthesis light-response curve of C. azalea by the other models all were close to the measured values, and only the Modified rectangular hyperbola model could fit the data under photoinhibition. However, only the photosynthetic parameters estimated by Modified rectangular hyperbola model were fitting well with the measured values, and the correlation coefficient (R2) is 0.998. The estimated Pmax, Isat, Ic , Rd and initial quantum efficiency (α) of C. azalea were 5.56 μmol·m-2·s-1, 1 327.30 μmol·m-2·s-1, 29.44 μmol·m-2·s-1, 1.909 μmol·m-2·s-1 and 0.065 respectively. These data indicated that C. azalea is a sun plant, with strong light energy utilization ability, and has a certain shade tolerance and a wide range of adaptation to illumination.%杜鹃红山茶(Camellia azalea)是我国特有的山茶原生种,仅见于广东省阳春市鹅凰嶂自然保护区内,其树形优美、四季开花,在园林绿化中具有广泛的应用。鉴于当前对杜鹃红山茶光响应曲线模

  11. Isolation, characterisation and antibacterial activity studies of coumarins from Rhododendron lepidotum Wall. ex G. Don, Ericaceae Estudos de isolamento, caracterização e atividade antibacteriana de cumarinas de Rhododendron lepidotum Wall. ex G. Don, Ericaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel-U-Rehman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Six coumarins daphnin (1, daphnetin (2, daphnetin glucoside (3, rhodonetin (4, rhodonin (5 and umbelliferone (6 were isolated from the methanolic extract of Rhododendron lepidotum Wall. ex G. Don, Ericaceae (aerial part. The compounds and their acetyl derivatives were screened for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC-29213, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus ATCC-15187, Escherichia coli ATCC-8739, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC-9027 by microdilution method as compared to the reference ciprofloxacin. Compound 2 displayed the best antibacterial activity with MIC 125 μg/mL against S. aureus ATCC-29213 and MRSA ATCC-15187 followed by 4 which exhibited the MIC value of 250 μg/mL against all the four tested strains. All molecules showed better antibacterial activity than their acyl derivatives.Seis cumarinas dafinina (1, dafinetina (2, dafinetina glicosídeo (3, rodonetina (4, rodonina (5 e umbeliferona (6 foram isoladas do extrato metanólico das partes aéreas de Rhododendron lepidotum Wall. ex G. Don, Ericaceae. Os compostos e seus derivados acetilados foram testados para verificar sua atividade antibacteriana contra Staphylococcus aureus ATCC-29213, Escherichia coli resistente à meticilina, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC-15187, ATCC-8739, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC-9027, pelo método de microdiluição, usando ciprofloxacina como referência. A substância 2 apresentou a melhor atividade antibacteriana com o MIC 125 μg/mL contra S. aureus ATCC-29213 e MRSA ATCC-15187 seguido pela substância 4, que apresentou o valor de CIM de 250 μg/mL contra as quatro cepas testadas. Todas as moléculas apresentaram melhor atividade antibacteriana do que seus derivados acetilados.

  12. A simple method for extracting DNA from rhododendron plants infected with Phytophthora spp. for use in PCR

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    Trzewik Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the numerous protocols that describe the extraction of DNA, those relating to the isolation of DNA from infected plants, are rare. This study describes a rapid and reliable method of extracting a high quality and quantity of DNA from rhododendron leaves artificially infected with Phytophthora cactorum, P. cambivora, P. cinnamomi, P. citrophthora, and P. plurivora. The use of the modified Doyle and Doyle protocol (1987 allowed us to obtain high quantity and quality DNA (18.26 μg from 100 mg of the fresh weight of infected leaves at the ratios of A260/280 and A260/230 - 1.83 and 1.72, respectively, suitable for conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR and real-time PCR amplifications.

  13. Distribution of insoluble polysaccharides in the shoot apex of Rhododendron arboreum Linn. during the annual growth cycle

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    Hemant K. Badola

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Starch grains occur all over the dormant shoot apex of Rhododendron arboreum except in the bud scales. They are abundant in the peripheral, rib and pith meristem cells. as well as in the youngest leaf primordia. Tannin is present in the entire dormant bud hut for the cells of the apical meristem and leaf primordia. Gradually, tannin degradation into numerous globules occurs. This is concomitant with the disappearance of starch grains and indicates the earliest structural manifestation of spring awakening by meristematic activity in the buds. The weak affinity of tannin globules to PAS is due to their hydrolysis which releases glucose for metabolic activities. Thus, a parallelism seems to exist between the metabolism of tannins and starch in relation to the various phases of bud development.

  14. Identification of Highly Potent and Selective α-Glucosidase Inhibitors with Antiglycation Potential, Isolated from Rhododendron arboreum

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    Rabia Raza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored antidiabetic potential of eight known pure compounds, isolated from the bark of Rhododendron arboreum. Invitro studies of these compounds against α and β-glucosidases revealed them as very potent and selective inhibitors of α-glucosidase. Compound 7 (3-O-acetylursolic acid was found to be the most potent inhibitor of α-glucosidase with 3.3±0.1µM IC 50 value which was many folds higher than standard inhibitor acarbose. Antiglycation studies of compounds showed that all compounds were also very active antiglycation agents. The studied biological properties of these compounds suggest that they are therapeutically interesting and important tools for treatment of diabetes.

  15. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of the Plants of Caragana and Rhododendron%锦鸡儿属和杜鹃属植物抗乙酰胆碱酯酶活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨中铎; 任晋; 薛鹏辉

    2012-01-01

    目的:从产自甘肃的锦鸡儿属和杜鹃属植物中筛选出对乙酰胆碱酯酶具有高抑制活性的植物提取物.方法:锦鸡儿属植物经乙醇提取,碱酸处理,乙酸乙酯萃取后,得到多酚提取物.杜鹃属植物经乙醇提取,硅胶柱层析进行粗分后,得到粗分离组分.总多酚组分和粗分离组分采用薄层色谱生物自显影法初步筛选其乙酰胆碱酯酶抑制活性,再用改良的Ellman法进一步测定其对乙酰胆碱酯酶的抑制率.结果:锦鸡儿属中柠条锦鸡儿(Caragana korshinskii)的抑制活性最强,在终浓度为100μg·mL-1时,抑制率超过50%.杜鹃属中,头花杜鹃(Rhododendron capitatum),千里香杜鹃(Rhododendron thymifolium),烈香杜鹃(Rhododendron anthopogonoides)的抑制活性最强,它们的粗分离组分在终浓度为100μg· mL-1时,抑制率大于60%.结论:柠条锦鸡儿(Caragana korshinskii),头花杜鹃(Rhododendron capitatum),千里香杜鹃(Rhododendron thymifolium),烈香杜鹃(Rhododendron anthopogonoides)提取物的抑制活性最强,说明其含有抑制乙酰胆碱酯酶的成分,为进一步跟踪分离得到活性化合物奠定基础.%Objective: To screen acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of the plants of Caragana and Rhododendron which were collected from gansu. Methods: The Plants of Caragana were extracted by ethanol and treated with base and hydro-chloric acid, and then extracted by ethyl acetate to obtain the total polyphenol fractions. The Plants of Rhododendron were extracted by ethanol, after a initial separation of silica gel column chromatography, the crude fractions were ob-tained. The AChE inhibitory activity was tested by TLC bioautographic method and modified Ellmans colorimetric method in 96 -well microplates. Results; The results indicated that Caragana korshinskii, Rhododendron capitatum, Rhododen-dron thymifolium, Rhododendron anthopogonoides were demonstrated to have significant activity , and their inhibition ra-tio was

  16. 迎红杜鹃物候及生长节律的研究%Phenology and Growth Rhythm of Rhododendron mucronulatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩红娟; 谭梦; 曹玉峰

    2015-01-01

    以乡土树种兴安杜鹃作为对照,对迎红杜鹃物候及生长节律进行了试验研究,结果表明:有效积温达到324~631℃时这2种杜鹃正值开花时节,兴安杜鹃的花期要比迎红杜鹃长1周;当有效积温达到529℃时这2种杜鹃开始进入营养生长阶段。不同光照条件对迎红杜鹃和兴安杜鹃生长量影响显著,2种杜鹃在3种不同光照条件下均以半光照的年高生长量最大,迎红杜鹃为20.34 cm,兴安杜鹃为15.38 cm。%Taking Rhododendrondauricum (the native tree species)as CK,phenology and growth rhythm of Rho-dodendronmucronulatum were studied.Result shows that when the effective accumulated temperature reached 324-631 ℃,two Rhododendron are in process of blooming.Florescence of Rhododendrondauricum is one week longer than that of Rhododendron mucronulatum.When the effective temperature reached 5 2 9 ℃,both of Rhododendron began to enter the vegetative growth stage.Different lighting conditions affect significantly the growth of Rhododen-dron mucronulatum and Rhododendrondauricum.The annual height growths with half-light condition of both Rho-dodendronsimsii are the largest under three light conditions:Rhododendronmucronulatum is 20.34 cm;Rhododen-drondauricum is 15.38 cm.

  17. 青海省海北州杜鹃花科杜鹃花属植物种类形态特征及发展前景%Morphological Characteristics and Development Prospects of Plant Species of Rhododendron Genus,Ericaceae Family in Haibei State of Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    扈晓途

    2012-01-01

    There are four species belonging to Rhododendron genus,Ericaceae family in Haibei State,such as Rdodendron przewalskii Maxim.,Rhododendron anthopogonlides Maxim.,Rhododendron capitatum Maxim.and Rhododendron thymifolium Maxim..The morphological characteristics,pharmacological properties,production and sales as well as development prospects of Rhododendron genus were introduced.%青海省海北州境内的杜鹃花科杜鹃花属植物有4种,即青海杜鹃、烈香杜鹃、头花杜鹃、百里香杜鹃。介绍了杜鹃花属植物的形态特征、药理性能、功效、产销情况及发展前景。

  18. Adipogenic Activity of Wild Populations of Rhododendron groenlandicum, a Medicinal Shrub from the James Bay Cree Traditional Pharmacopeia

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    Michel Rapinski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional medicinal plant, Labrador tea (Rhododendron groenlandicum (Oeder Kron & Judd; Ericaceae, present in the pharmacopoeia of the Cree of Eeyou Istchee, has shown glitazone-like activity in the 3T3-L1 adipogenesis bioassay. This activity has been attributed to phenolic compounds, which have been shown to vary in this plant as a function of insolation parameters. The goal of this study was to determine if these changes in phenolic content were pharmacologically significant. Leaves were harvested in 2006 throughout the James Bay region of Northern Quebec and ethanol extracts were tested in vitro using the 3T3-L1 murine cell line adipogenesis bioassay. This traditional medicinal plant was found active in the assay. However, there was no detectable spatial pattern in the accumulation of intracellular triglycerides, suggesting that such patterns previously observed in the phenolic profile of Labrador tea were not pharmacologically significant. Nonetheless, a reduction in the adipogenic activity was observed and associated with higher concentrations of quercetin for which selected environmental variables did not appropriately explain its variation.

  19. Structure Elucidation of Procyanidins Isolated from Rhododendron formosanum and Their Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Bacterial Activities

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    Chao-Min Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rhododendron formosanum is an endemic species distributed in the central mountains of Taiwan. In this study, the biological activities of major procyanidins isolated from the leaf extract of R. formosanum were investigated. Four compounds, including two procyanidin dimers, procyanidin A1 (1 and B3 (2, and two procyanidin trimmers, procyanidin C4 (4 and cinnamtannin D1 (5, were isolated and identified on the basis of spectroscopic data. The structure of a new procyanidin dimer, rhodonidin A (3, was elucidated by 2D-NMR, CD spectrum and MS. The procyanidin trimmers and rhodonidin A are reported for the first time in Ericaceae. The biological activities of these procyanidins were evaluated using anti-bacterial and anti-oxidative assays. Only the new compound 3 demonstrated strong anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus at an MIC value of 4 μg/mL. All compounds showed pronounced antioxidant activities and the activities are enhanced as the amount of OH groups in procyanidins increased. In conclusion, the pleiotropic effects of procyanidins isolated from the leaves of R. formosanum can be a source of promising compounds for the development of future pharmacological applications.

  20. 云南杜鹃属两新变种%Two New Varieties of Genus Rhododendron from Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高连明; 李德铢

    2001-01-01

    @@ 光叶香缅树 新变种 longisepalum R. C. Fang et C. H. Yang Rhododendron tutcherae Hemsl. & Wilson var. Glabrifoliu m L.M. Gao & D.Z. Li, var. Nov.   A typo recedit lamina glabra, petiolo glabro, pedicello glabro vel sparsim pubes centibus.   Yunnan(云南):Pingbian(屏边), Daweishan(大围山), Shuiweic heng(水围城),in evergreen broad-leaved forest(常绿阔叶林内), alt.1 930 m, 2000 -06-26, L. M. Gao 200135. (高连明200135) (holotype, KUN). Paratype: Pingbian (屏边), Laojianshan(老尖山), alt.1 940 m,1954-10-12, K.M. Feng 4 919 (冯国楣 4919)(KUN);Wenshan (文山),in forest (林内), alt. 2 000 m, 1933-01- 23, H. T. Tsai 51627 (蔡希陶51627),(KUN). Viet Nam(越南): Lao Cai (老街), alt.6 400 ft,1992-05-01, K.D. Rushforth, 2067(E.)

  1. Photosynthetic response of an alpine plant, Rhododendron delavayi Franch, to water stress and recovery: the role of mesophyll conductance

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    Yanfei eCai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhododendron delavayi Franch is an evergreen shrub or small tree with large scarlet flowers that makes it highly attractive as an ornamental species. The species is native to southwest China and southeast Asia, especially the Himalayan region, showing good adaptability and tolerance to drought. To understand the water stress coping mechanisms of R. delavayi, we analysed the plant’s photosynthetic performance during water stress and recovery. In particular, we looked at the regulation of stomatal (gs and mesophyll conductance (gm, and maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax. After four days of water stress treatment, the net CO2 assimilation rate (AN declined slightly while gs and gm were not affected and stomatal limitation (SL was therefore negligible. At this stage mesophyll conductance limitation (MCL and biochemical limitation (BL constituted the main limitation factors. After eight days of water stress treatment, AN, gs and gm had decreased notably. At this stage SL increased markedly and MCL even more so, while BL remained relatively constant. After re-watering, the recovery of AN, gs and gm was rapid, although remaining below the levels of the control plants, while Vcmax fully regained control levels after three days of re-watering. MCL remained the main limitation factor irrespective of the degree of photosynthetic recovery. In conclusion, in our experiment MCL was the main photosynthetic limitation factor of R. delavayi under water stress and during the recovery phase, with the regulation of gm probably being the result of interactions between the environment and leaf anatomical features.

  2. Vegetative propagation by cuttings of azaléia tree (Rhododendron thomsonii HOOK. f./ Propagação vegetativa de estaquia de azaléia arbórea (Rhododendron Thomsonii HOOK. f.

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    Henrique Soares Koehler

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhododendron thomsonii (Ericaceae is a chinese ornamental hardwood species. The seeds are used just for hybrids production, therefore, vegetative propagation is an appropriate way for large scale plant production. The rooting potential was evaluated in cuttings collected in spring/2004 from stock plants localized in Curitiba, Paraná. The stem cuttings were produced with 12 cm long, right cut upper and bevel bellow, with two half leaves and treated with sodium hypochlorite for ten minutes and current water for five minutes. The cuttings basis were dipped in IBA treatments (0, 1000, 2000, 4000mgL-1 in alcoholic solutions and talc (0, 1000, 2000, 4000 mgKg-1, totalling eight treatments with four replications of nine cuttings. Mean separation were made using a pair wise design (4X2 in a association between dosage and application ways. The cuttings were planted in vermiculite medium and maintained in greenhouse for 70 days. The evaluation included percentage of rooting, callus cuttings (without root with callus, alive and dead cuttings. No rooting was verified in cuttings collected in this season. The variance analysis showed no interactions between dosage and application ways.Rhododendron thomsonii (Ericaceae é uma espécie lenhosa, ornamental originária da China cujas sementes são utilizadas exclusivamente para produção de híbridos, sendo a propagação vegetativa uma ferramenta viável para a produção de mudas em larga escala. Com a finalidade de avaliar o enraizamento desta espécie para estacas colhidas na primavera (setembro/2004, foram selecionadas plantas-matrizes adultas situadas no Município de Curitiba – PR. As estacas semilenhosas foram obtidas com comprimento aproximado de 12cm, cortadas em bisel na parte inferior e em corte reto na parte superior, com duas folhas reduzidas à metade. O tratamento fitossanitário foi realizado utilizando-se imersão das estacas em hipoclorito de sódio 0,5% (10 minutos seguida de lavagem em

  3. Insect-flower interaction network structure is resilient to a temporary pulse of floral resources from invasive Rhododendron ponticum.

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    Erin Jo Tiedeken

    Full Text Available Invasive alien plants can compete with native plants for resources, and may ultimately decrease native plant diversity and/or abundance in invaded sites. This could have consequences for native mutualistic interactions, such as pollination. Although invasive plants often become highly connected in plant-pollinator interaction networks, in temperate climates they usually only flower for part of the season. Unless sufficient alternative plants flower outside this period, whole-season floral resources may be reduced by invasion. We hypothesized that the cessation of flowering of a dominant invasive plant would lead to dramatic, seasonal compositional changes in plant-pollinator communities, and subsequent changes in network structure. We investigated variation in floral resources, flower-visiting insect communities, and interaction networks during and after the flowering of invasive Rhododendron ponticum in four invaded Irish woodland sites. Floral resources decreased significantly after R. ponticum flowering, but the magnitude of the decrease varied among sites. Neither insect abundance nor richness varied between the two periods (during and after R. ponticum flowering, yet insect community composition was distinct, mostly due to a significant reduction in Bombus abundance after flowering. During flowering R. ponticum was frequently visited by Bombus; after flowering, these highly mobile pollinators presumably left to find alternative floral resources. Despite compositional changes, however, network structural properties remained stable after R. ponticum flowering ceased: generality increased, but quantitative connectance, interaction evenness, vulnerability, H'2 and network size did not change. This is likely because after R. ponticum flowering, two to three alternative plant species became prominent in networks and insects increased their diet breadth, as indicated by the increase in network-level generality. We conclude that network structure

  4. 高山杜鹃花期和蕾期生理指标变化的研究%Change of Physiological Indexes of Rhododendron lapponicum in the Flowering and Bud Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲彦婷; 孟凡娟; 唐焕伟

    2012-01-01

      本实验选取高山杜鹃的花期和蕾期叶片为研究材料。通过对超氧化物岐化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)、可溶性糖、总糖、丙二醛含量等各项指标的测定,分析不同高山杜鹃不同时期叶片各指标的变化规律,为杜鹃属植物的进一步研究提供理论基础。%  This study selected the leaves of the flowering and bud stage of Rhododendron lapponicum as the main research material. The determination of the Rhododendron lapponicum SOD, POD, soluble sugar,total sugar and other indicators of the determination, we analyse the change rule of Physiological Indexes of Rhododen-dron lapponicum in the Flowering and Bud Stage.It provides theo-retical basis for further research on the Rhododendron plant.

  5. 井冈山猴头杜鹃群落特征的研究%Studies on the community characteristics of Rhododendron simiarum in Jinggang Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓贤兰; 吴杨; 刘玉成; 钟娟

    2011-01-01

    以井冈山猴头杜鹃(Rhododendron simiarum)群落5个样地调查资料为基础,对该群落的物种组成、区系成分、群落结构和物种多样性进行了研究,结果表明:群落有维管植物30科43属50种,其中蕨类植物有5科6属6种,裸子植物4科4属4种,被子植物21科33属40种.区系分析显示该植物区系起源古老,地理成分复杂,以热带性成分为主,温带性成分占有一定的比例.群落为复层异龄结构,猴头杜鹃、甜槠(Castanopsis eyrei)、福建柏Fokienia hodginsii)、台湾松(Pinus taiwanensis)、薯豆(Elaeocarpus japonicus)和白豆杉(Pseudotaxus chienii)为群落的建群种.除Pielou指数外,群落物种多样性指数较低,各样地间多样性指数测值变幅较大;测度猴头杜鹃群落物种多样性时,各种多样性指数基本表现出相同的趋势;总体来看,猴头杜鹃群落物种多样性在群落不同层次的变化规律为:灌木层>乔木层>草本层.%Based on data collected from five plots of Rhododendron simiarum in the Jinggang Mountain, the species and floral composition, the community structure and the species diversity were analyzed. Results showed that there were 50 vascular plant species belonging to 43 genera and 30 families, among them, 6 plant species belonging to 6 genera and 5 families were pteridophyte, 4 plant species belonging to 4 genera and 4 families were gymnosperm, and 40 plant species belonging to 33 genera and 21 families were angiosperm. The floristic analysis showed the flora is ancient and geographical elements are complex, tropical elements are obvious with a certain proporiton of temperate-zone elements. The structures of Rhododendron simiarum community are many storied all-aged forest,. The constructive species are Rhododendron simiarum, Fokienia hodginsii, Castanopsis eyrei, Pinus taiwanensis, Elaeocarpus japonicus and Pseudotaxus chienii. The species diversity index in Rhododendron simiarum was low with high variations among

  6. Optimization of ISSR Amplification Conditions for Rhododendron Shanii%都支杜鹃ISSR扩增条件的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜亮; 赵凯

    2011-01-01

    Factors that affect ISSR PCR amplification, such as Mg2 + concentration, dNTP concentration, were optimized by using the genomic DNA of a rare and endangered species Rhododendron shanii as material, on the foundation of optimization, 8 primers were selected. The optimal annealing temperature of every primer was selected by using gradient PCR instrument. The optimized result indicates that at least in certain scope template DNA dosage and Taq DNA polymerase affect little on the result of PCR reaction, relatively, Mg^2 + concentration and dNTP concentration have significant effects to the result, The suitable 15ul PCR reaction should contain 20ng template DNA, 0.3μM primer, 1.5ul buffer ( Mg2 + free) 0.5U Taq DNA polymerase, 1.5 mM MgCl2 and 0.1 mM dNTP.%对珍稀濒危物种都支杜鹃的ISSR扩增体系中的Mg^2+浓度、dNTP浓度、Taq酶含量和底物含量进行优化,并在优化后的基础上筛选出8条效果较好的引物,在梯度PCR仪中设置温度梯度,找到这些引物的最佳退火温度。优化结果表明,至少在一定的范围内底物浓度和Taq酶含量对PCR反应结果影响不大,相对而言,dNTP浓度和Mg2+浓度对反应结果的影响更加显著。优化后的15 ul PCR反应体系中包括20 ng模板DNA、0.3 μM引物、1.5 ul Buffer(Mg^2+ free),0.5 U Taq酶、1.5 mM MgCl2和0.1 mM dNTP。

  7. Uniform Design for Optimizating Regeneration Shoots Directly from Tender Leaves and Plant Regeneration System of Rhododendron chrysanthum Pall.%基于均匀设计优化牛皮杜鹃嫩叶直接再生芽苗及植株再生体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉梅; 姜云天; 孙智慧

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The experimental was aimed to screen the optimum regeneration shoot induction media and rooting media for tender leaves of Rhododendron chrysanthum Pall.[Method] The tender leaves of Rhododendron chrysanthum Pall were taken as explants to select the optimum bud induction media and rooting media through uniform design and the screening results were verified.[Result] The optimum media for regeneration shoot of Rhododendron chrysanthum Pall contained 1/4 MS,3.70 mg/L ZT, 0.02 mg/L IAA and 1.00 mg/L KT and its induction rate was 95.5% and the rooting media contained modified MS, 0.10 mg/L IAA and 0.07 mg/L NAA and its rooting rate was 98%. [Conclusion] Through this experiment, regeneration systems for regeneration shoot and regenerated plant from tender leaves of Rhododendron chrysanthum Pall were created successfully.

  8. Ascotricha bosei, a New Record of Endophytic Fungus from Rhododendron aureum in China%Ascotricha bosei——分离自牛皮杜鹃的中国新记录种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽莉; 吕国忠; 赵志慧; 杨晓贺

    2007-01-01

    Ascotricha bosei was isolated as an endophytic fungus from the fresh leaves of Rhododendron aureum collected from Changbai Mountains, Jilin province. It was characterized by geniculate terminal hairs and discoid ascospores. It was reported for the first time in China.%自吉林省长白山植物牛皮杜鹃(Rhododendron aureum)叶片上分离到1株内生真菌,经鉴定为鲍氏刺囊壳(Ascotricha bosei).该菌的典型特征是子囊壳外壁着生曲膝状附属丝和产生碟形子囊孢子.该菌为我国首次报道.

  9. Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur histogenetisch bedingten Sternmusterbildung in der Petalenfärbung bei Camellia L., Myosotis L., Pelargonium L. Herit. ex Ait., Phlox L., Rhododendron L., Saintpaulia H. Wendl., Verbena L.

    OpenAIRE

    Plaschil, Sylvia

    1997-01-01

    Histogenetisch bedingte Sternmusterungen an Petalen treten in verschiedenen Pflanzengattungen auf und konnten bei Camellia, Pelargonium, Phlox, Rhododendron, Saintpaulia und Verbena nachgewiesen werden, sie sind aber auch bei Myosotis und Petunia bekannt. Die Sternmusterungen entstehen bei den untersuchten Sorten durch Anthocyandefektmutation in einer bestimmten Sproßscheitelschicht und den abstammenden Geweben, in Abhängigkeit von der gewebespezifischen Farbstoffbildung im Blütenblatt, dem W...

  10. ヤマツツジ(Rhododendron kaempferi Planch.)における花弁内アントシアニン構成の地域変異

    OpenAIRE

    宮島, 郁夫; 高橋, 龍; 嬉野, 健次; 松田, 鹿徳

    2000-01-01

    Although there were few differences of flower colors among these groups, large number of individuals of Rhododendron kaempferi in southern Kyushu showed vivid red color whereas the almost all individuals in Tohoku district showed relatively somber red. It was unable to distinguish the individuals of northern Kyushu from those of southern Kyushu by anthocyanin constitutions of the petals. However, the latter individuals showed wider variations in the anthocyanin constitutions than the former. ...

  11. Ring-widths of the above tree-line shrub Rhododendron reveal the change of minimum winter temperature over the past 211 years in Southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yingfeng; Xu, Jianchu; Yang, Jinchao; Li, Zongshan; Gebrekirstos, Aster; Liang, Eryuan; Zhang, Shibao; Yang, Yang; Yang, Yongping; Yang, Xuefei

    2016-08-01

    Changes in minimum winter temperature (MWT) and their potential effects on plant growth and development have been gaining increased scientific attention. To better understand these changes across long temporal scales, the present study used dendroclimatological techniques to assess variations in MWT in Southwestern China. Using data from Rhododendron species distributed in areas above the tree-line, a regional composite chronology was generated for a 341-year period. Based on the significant negative correlation between MWT values and ring-width, the most reliable parts of this chronological data were then used to reconstruct MWT values for the past 211 years. This reconstructed MWT series showed decadal to multi-decadal fluctuations. Three distinct cold periods prevailed during 1823-1858, 1882-1891 and 1922-1965, while four warm intervals occurred in 1800-1822, 1858-1881, 1892-1921 and 1966-2011. Our reconstructed MWT reveals a warming trend over the most recent eight decades, which is in agreement with instrumental observations. However, the MWT values and rate of warming over the past seven decades did not exceed those found in the reconstructed temperature data for the past 211 years. Spatial correlations reveal that the MWT in Southwest China is strongly associated with regional temperatures in the Eastern and Central Himalaya, Northern China, and the Indian Peninsula. Larger scale climate oscillations of the Western Pacific and Northern Indian Ocean as well as the North Atlantic Oscillation probably influenced the region's temperature in the past.

  12. Cloud immersion alters microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations in Rhododendron catawbiense and Abies fraseri seedlings in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Daniel M; Smith, William K

    2008-03-01

    The high altitude spruce-fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poiret.-Picea rubens Sarg.) forests of the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA, experience frequent cloud immersion. Recent studies indicate that cloud bases may have risen over the past 30 years, resulting in less frequent forest cloud immersion, and that further increases in cloud base height are likely in the event of continued climate warming. To assess the impact of this trend on the regeneration of high altitude spruce-fir forests and the migration of plant communities, in particular the encroachment of spruce-fir forests and Rhododendron catawbiense Michx. islands into adjacent grass bald communities, we investigated effects of cloud immersion on photosynthetic parameters of seedlings of Abies fraseri and R. catawbiense in a grass bald site and A. fraseri in a forest understory. Although photosynthetic photon flux was 4.2 to 19.4-fold greater during clear conditions, cloud immersion had no effect on photosynthesis in A. fraseri at either site, whereas it reduced photosynthesis of R. catawbiense by about 40%. However, cloud immersion increased mean leaf fluorescence by 7.1 to 12.8% in both species at both sites. Cloud immersion increased mean relative humidity from 65 to 96%, reduced transpiration by 95% and reduced mean leaf-to-air temperature difference from 6.6 to 0.5 degrees C. PMID:18171662

  13. Analysis of trace in Rhododendron ferrigineum leaves for monitoring of urban atmospheric pollution by x-ray fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation Excitation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was perform the biomonitoring of the atmospheric pollution in Campinas City (SP), applying the Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation Excitation technique. For this were performed the elemental analysis of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se and Pb in Rhododendron ferrigineum leaves, employed here as bioindicator from environmental pollution in order to evaluate the effects of spatial and climatic contribution on the elemental concentration on the vegetable. Urban and rural sites were sampling in different seasons. The collected leaves were divided in two parts, one of them was washed by detergent and deionized water, in order to quantify the losses due the washing, and the second one was not washed, following the both parts of material were dried in stove, crushed and so the samples were submitted to an nitric-perchloric digestion. The samples were preconcentrated with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC), and the suspension was separated by filtration in cellulose membrane, then the samples were analyzed with X-ray tube and synchrotron radiation excitations. The results obtained shown that the vehicle flow can be associated to the distribution of the elements in the Rhododendrom ferrigineum leaves therefore the climatic contribution was not conclusive. (author)

  14. 接种ERM的杜鹃在高温胁迫下生理指标变化%Changes ofRhododendronYoung Plants Inoculated with ERM Fungi in Physiological Indexes under High Temperature Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗倩; 何颖; 宋卓达; 郁书君

    2016-01-01

    By measuring the heat resistance ofRhododendron "Danzhuang" inoculating with ERM fungi under high temperature stress, this paper tested some physiological indexes ofRhododendron"Danzhuang". The results showed that the inoculation rates in sterilized substrates were higher than non-sterilized substrates. Inoculation with ERM fungi could reduce the damage degree of high temperature stress on the leaves of Rhododendron"Danzhuang", the young plants of sterilized substrates grew better than non-sterilized substrates. Under high-temperature stress, inoculation with ERM fungi could increase the antioxidant enzyme activity of the leaves, while there was little effect on the accumulation of membrane lipid peroxidant and ERM fungi could improve the heat resistance ofRhododendron "Danzhuang" to some extent.%为研究ERM真菌对杜鹃品种“淡妆”(Rhododendron“Danzhuang”)的抗热性是否有促进作用,测定高温胁迫下接种ERM真菌的杜鹃品种“淡妆”叶片生理指标的变化,结果表明:基质灭菌处理的侵染率比基质不灭菌处理的侵染率高,均高于不接种处理;接种ERM真菌能降低高温胁迫对杜鹃品种“淡妆”叶片的伤害程度,其中基质灭菌的处理表现优于基质不灭菌的处理。高温胁迫下,接种ERM真菌提高了杜鹃叶片的抗氧化酶活性,而对膜脂过氧化作用的产物积累影响较小,在一定程度上可以提高杜鹃“淡妆”的抗热性。

  15. 广东南岭国家级自然保护区南华杜鹃群落学研究%Community Characteristics of Rhododendron simiarum in Nanling National Nature Reserve, Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董安强; 梁耀; 胡明锋; 刘宗君; 王发国; 邢福武

    2012-01-01

    通过样方调查,对广东南岭国家级自然保护区管理局秤架管理处辖区内海拔1500m左右的南华杜鹃(Rhododendron simiarum)的物种组成、群落结构和物种多样性进行分析.结果表明,在1 600m2的样地内共有维管束植物52科79属121种(变种),以泛热带成分为主,热带和温带成分也有一定的比例,表现出较为明显的过渡性质;群落组成以南华杜鹃为绝对优势种,其优势地位非常明显;群落分为乔木层、灌木层和草本层3层,层间植物稀少;按Raunkiaer标准,群落内的种群频度为1%~20%的种类占优势,为总种数的60%;南华杜鹃种群中,大龄树占优势,表明该地的南华杜鹃种群处于衰退阶段,Shannon - Wiener指数、Simpson指数和均匀度指数等均表现出相同的趋势,为乔木层>草本层>灌木层.%Based on a field investigation, the floristic composition, structure, physiognomy and species diversity of a Rhododendron simiarum community in Nanling National Nature Reserve of Guangdong Province were analyzed. Results showed that there were 121 vascular species, belonging to 79 genera and 52 families. Pantropic elements were the dominant, followed by tropical and temperate elements which showed obvious transitional characteristics. The community was obviously dominated by Rhododendron, simiarum. The vertical structure of the community was composed of arbor,shrub and herb layers, and interlayer species were poor. According to the Raunkiaer Frequency Law,species in 1% -20% occurrence frequency dominated the community, accounting for 60% of the total species. Young trees of the Rhododendron simiarum population were less, indicating that the population was in the state of being degraded. The diversity indices, such as Simpson dominance index, Shannon-Wiener index and Pielou evenness index, showed similar trend, with arbor layer > liana layer > herb layer > shrub layer in the community.

  16. Anatomy Features and Environment Flexibility of Rhododendron shanii Fang%都支杜鹃茎、叶解剖特征与环境的适应性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂芹; 刘艳然

    2012-01-01

    利用光学显微解剖技术,对生长于大别山区的都支杜鹃(Rhododendron shanii Fang)的茎、叶进行了解剖学与环境适应性之间的关系研究.结果表明:叶的上表皮具有厚的角质膜、复表皮、气孔缺失;下表皮被毛,气孔分布密集,气孔突出;叶肉中栅栏组织和纤维丰富,且纤维呈束存在,并形成了叶肉中的支撑系统,海绵组织内具有发达的通气组织;茎中木栓宽广,次生韧皮部与次生木质部厚度比是1/5,次生木质部中管孔直径狭窄、管密孔集,绝大多数为管胞,同时木纤维十分丰富.上述结构的特异性均表明茎和叶在诸多方面表现为结构与环境的统一性,是特殊综合生态环境长期作用的结果.复表皮、主脉周韧维管束、次生木质部缺少导管等这些特征均说明都支杜鹃在系统分类中应处于较原始的地位.%The relationships between the anatomy and the adaptation to the environment for stems and leaves of Rhododendron shanii Fang growing in the Dabie Mountain area were studied by means of optical microdissection technology. The results show that there are thick cuticle and multiple epidermis and stomatal absence on the leaves' epidermis; there are hair and distribution of prominent stomatal are serried under epidermis of leaves; there are abundance of palisade tissue and fibre in mesophyll, the fibre constitutes fiber bundle forming the skeleton system of mesophyll. Cork is wide in stem, the thickness ratio is 1/5 between the secondary phloem and secondary xylem; Most of pores with pores diameter stenosis and over disperse are the tracheid and moreover fibre is very rich in secondary xylem. All these features indicate that stems and leaves have unity of structure and environment in many aspects, such structural features results from adapting to environments. These features with multiple epidermis and amphicribral bundle of the main vein and vessel deficiency etc suggests that R. shanii is

  17. Photosynthetic Ecophysiology of Three Species of Genus Rhododendron%三种高山杜鹃的光合生理生态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨婷; 许琨; 严宁; 李树云; 胡虹

    2013-01-01

    对大白花杜鹃(Rhododendron decorum)、云南杜鹃(R.yunnanense)和红棕杜鹃(R.rubiginosum)进行了气体交换、叶片性状等研究,以期了解三种杜鹃的光合生理特性及其对环境的适应.结果表明,三种杜鹃的光饱和光合速率(Pmax)与RuBP饱和最大羧化速率(Vcmax)、光饱和最大电子传递速率(Jmax)和气孔导度(gs)呈极显著正相关(P≤0.01),但仅Vcmax存在显著的种间差异,说明三种杜鹃的光合能力主要受Vcmax影响.叶氮含量、叶片氮在电子传递和在Rubisco中的分配均显著影响Vcmax和Jmax.大白花杜鹃的LSP最低,LCP较高,对强光和弱光利用能力都不强,光适应范围较窄.云南杜鹃LCP最低,LSP和Pmax相对较高,对弱光或较强的光照均能利用,光照适应范围相对最广,光合适应能力最强;红棕杜鹃LSP和LCP均为最高,对强光环境的适应性最强.%To understand the photosynthetic characteristics of three species of genus Rhododendron ( R. decorum, R. yunnanense and R. rubiginosum) , their gas exchanges and related leaf traits were investigated. The results showed that among the three species, light-saturated photosynthetic rate (Pmax) was significantly correlated to maximum rate of RuBP-mediated carboxylation (Vc max), maximum electron transport rate (Jmax) and stotnatal conductance (gs) respec-tively (P≤0.01), but only the value for Vc max of three species was significantly different suggesting that photosynthesis of the three species was primarily limited by the Vc max leaf nitrogen content, partitioning coefficients for leaf nitrogen in bioenergetics and in Rubisco were significantly related to Vc max and Jmax. R. decorum had a lower light saturation point (LSP) and higher light compensation point (LCP), a narrow range of light adaptability than the others. R. yunnanense showed the lowest LCP across species, but relatively high LSP, Pmax and a wider range of light adaptability. R. rubi-ginosum had the highest LCP and LSP

  18. 美容杜鹃花挥发油化学成分GC-MS分析%Analysis on Volatile Oil from Rhododendron calophytum Franch by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田萍; 付先龙; 庄平; 白洁; 陈放

    2010-01-01

    采用气相色谱-质谱联用技术结合计算机标准谱库检索对由水蒸气蒸馏法获得的美容杜鹃(Rhododendron calophytum Franch.)花挥发油化学成分进行鉴定,并通过总离子流色谱图的面积归化法计算各成分的相对含量.从美容杜鹃花挥发油中共鉴定出54种化合物,其含量占挥发油总量的69.07%.所鉴定的组分与文献报道的杜鹃属其它种类挥发油成分及含量有明显不同,首次从杜鹃属植物中分离得到芳樟醇.除芳樟醇(Linalool,8.06%)外,其它一些主要成分有N-苯基-1-萘胺(1-naphthalenamine,n-phenyl)11.41%、亚麻酸甲酯(Linolenic acid,methyl ester)6.00%、棕榈酸(Palmitic acid Linalool)8.06%5.68%,1-辛烯-3-醇(1-octen-3-01)5.49%、邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(Dibutyl phthalate)4.87%、正二十一烷(Heneicosane)2.75%、1-壬烯-3-醇(1-nonen-3-ol)2.71%、α-松油醇(α-Terpineol)1.54%.

  19. Different distribution patterns between putative ercoid mycorrhizal and other fungal assemblages in roots of Rhododendron decorum in the Southwest of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifu Sun

    Full Text Available Fungal diversity within plant roots is affected by several factors such as dispersal limitation, habitat filtering, and plant host preference. Given the differences in life style between symbiotic and non-symbiotic fungi, the main factors affecting these two groups of fungi may be different. We assessed the diversity of root associated fungi of Rhododendron decorum using internal transcribed spacer (ITS sequencing and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP analysis, and our aim was to evaluate the role of different factors in structuring ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM and non-ericoid mycorrhizal (NEM fungal communities. Thirty-five fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs were found in roots of R. decorum, of which 25 were putative ERM fungal species. Of the two main groups of known ERM, helotialean fungi were more abundant and common than sebacinalean species. Geographic and host patterning of the fungal assemblages were different for ERM and NEM. The distribution of putative ERM fungal terminal restriction fragments (TRFs showed that there were more common species within ERM than in the NEM fungal assemblages. Results of Mantel tests indicated that the composition of NEM fungal assemblages correlated with geographic parameters while ERM fungal assemblages lacked a significant geographic pattern and instead were correlated with host genotype. Redundancy analysis (RDA showed that the NEM fungal assemblages were significantly correlated with latitude, longitude, elevation, mean annual precipitation (MAP, and axis 2 of a host-genetic principle component analysis (PCA, while ERM fungal assemblages correlated only with latitude and axis 1 of the host-genetic PCA. We conclude that ERM and NEM assemblages are affected by different factors, with the host genetic composition more important for ERM and geographic factors more important for NEM assemblages. Our results contribute to understanding the roles of dispersal limitation, abiotic

  20. Simultaneous estimation of three triterpenoids-ursolic acid, β-sitosterol and lupeol from flowers, leaves and formulations of Rhododendron arboreum Smith. using validated HPTLC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Shilajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper enfolds a rapid and sensitive high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC method for the simultaneous estimation of three triterpenoids namely ursolic acid, β-sitosterol and lupeol from the leaves, flowers and herbal formulations of Rhododendron arboreum Smith., an ethnomedicinal Himalayan tree. All the three phytoconstituents have high therapeutic value. Aims and Objectives: The main aim is to separate, resolve and simultaneously quantitate the three markers-ursolic acid, β-sitosterol and lupeol from R. arboreum using normal phase HPTLC. Materials and Methods: Separation was performed on TLC aluminium plates precoated with silica 60 F 254 followed by detection of ursolic acid, β-sitosterol and lupeol carried out by derivatizing the plate with 10% methanolic sulphuric acid reagent followed by heating at 110΀C for 7 min. Camag TLC scanner 4 equipped with winCATS software was used for densitrometric scanning at 366 nm. The proposed method was further validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy and sensitivity as per the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH guidelines. Results: A good linear relationship was obtained for the calibration plots with r 2 = 0.999, 0.993 and 0.995 for ursolic acid, β-sitosterol and lupeol, respectively. Accuracy of the method was checked by recovery study conducted at three different levels with the average recovery between 95% and 98% for all the three markers. Conclusion: The developed method can be used for the assessment of the quality of botanicals in terms of bioactive content.

  1. Characteristics of Pollen Germination and Storage ofRhododendron ovatum%马银花花粉萌发和贮藏特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华; 宋绪忠

    2015-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on characteristics of pollen germination and storage ofRhododendron ovatumwith different culture solution and temperature, storage duration and temperature, thawing methods after storage under -80℃. The results showed that pollen germination rate topped to 80% with culture medium of 100 g/L sucrose+100 mg/L boric acid +100 mg/L GA3 at 25℃ for 4 hours. The experiments indicated that pollen germination rate and growth of pollen tubes were promoted significantly by GA3. The germination rate kept high 15 days later under each tested storage temperature. The pollen was inactivation 45 days after storage at room temperature. But the pollen germination rate kept 36.11% after storage at 3.3℃ for 45 days. Pollen(stored at -80℃) thawed with 30℃ aqueous bath for 2 minutes had better effect of germination rate.%采用不同培养液、不同培养温度不同贮藏时间和温度、-80℃超低温贮藏花粉不同解冻方法对马银花(Rhododendronovatum)的花粉萌发特性及贮藏特性进行研究,结果表明:在25℃下,用100 g/L蔗糖+100 mg/L硼酸+100 mg/L GA3的离体培养液,培养4h花粉萌发率高,可达80%,GA3能促进花粉萌发和花粉管生长;各贮藏温度下的花粉贮藏15 d萌发率都保持在高水平,但室温贮藏花粉45 d失活,3.3℃贮藏花粉45 d萌发率可保持在36.11%,可作为生产应用的贮藏温度;-80℃贮藏的花粉采用30℃水浴解冻2 min效果较好。

  2. 桃叶杜鹃菌根显微结构及侵染情况%Study on microstructure and infections of Rhododendron annae mycorrhiza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧静; 刘仁阳; 陈训

    2012-01-01

    By using the acid fuchsin staining, the roots of Rhododendron annae Franch were dyed and squashed, which grows in Guizhou province, and the microstructure and mycorrhizal colonization were observed. The results show that the lateral roots of ferine R. annae have complex structure, were enwrap by dense hypase to form hyphal sheath on the outside of the roots and there was no root hair; There wtre intracellular hyphal knots which are the unique and typical structure of ericoid mycorrhiza, there also were a few septate hypha and fasciculate hyphae structure. Wild plant infection index was higher, the indexes differences of the infected roots in different regions were remarkable, the indexes of Luchonghuang mycorrhiza of adult flowering plant were higher than Fangjiaping's; In different seasons, the rates in spring were higher than that in summer; The indexes of flowering adult tree were obviously less than that young tree. Sowing seedlings' index was lower. The infection indexes of 2-year-old sowing seedlings showed a rising trend compared with that of 1-year-old.%采用酸性品红染色法对贵州不同地域分布的桃叶杜鹃根系染色压片,对其菌根进行显微结构及菌根侵染情况观察.结果表明,野生桃叶杜鹃菌根结构复杂,根外被密集的菌丝包被形成菌丝鞘,无根毛,在菌根中具有杜鹃花类菌根特有典型结构菌丝结,也有穿梭于细胞间的有隔菌丝和束状菌丝等结构.野生植株菌根侵染指标较高;不同地域的菌根侵染指标差异显著,贵阳鹿冲关成年开花植株高于百里杜鹃方家坪成年开花植株;不同季节侵染指标两地春季高于夏季.分布于百里杜鹃的开花成年树侵染指标明显低于幼树.播种苗侵染指标较低,2a播种苗侵染指标较1a呈上升趋势.

  3. 杜鹃花种质资源遗传多样性的SRAP分析%SRAP analysis of genetic relationships among Rhododendron species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖政; 苏家乐; 刘晓青; 李畅; 何丽斯; 陈尚平

    2016-01-01

    采用SRAP分子标记分析了30个杜鹃花物种的遗传多样性。20对引物共检测到306个位点,平均每对引物扩增出15�3个位点,多态位点百分率为100%。物种水平的Nei’ s基因多样性指数( H)为0�352,Shannon’ s信息指数( I)为0�525,相似系数在0�543至0�761之间,表明参试的30份杜鹃花材料具有较高的遗传多样性。主坐标分析( PCA)结果和UPGMA法构建的系统树显示,30份杜鹃花材料可分为5类,其中云锦杜鹃和光枝杜鹃、井岗山杜鹃和皱叶杜鹃、迎红杜鹃和兴安杜鹃、露珠杜鹃和大果杜鹃分别聚为一组,结果与基于表型特征的分类基本一致,表明SRAP标记具有较准确的鉴别能力,是进行杜鹃花属植物遗传多样性分析的有效分子标记。%Genetic diversity across 30 species of Rhododendron was analyzed using SRAP molecular markers. A total of 306 polymorphic bands were generated using 20 pairs of SRAP primers and the polymorphism percentage was 100%. Each pair of primers generated 15�3 bands on average. At the species level, Nei’ s gene diversity ( H) was 0�352, Shan⁃non’ s information index ( I) was 0�525 and the similarity coefficient ranged from 0�543 to 0�761, indicative of a high ge⁃netic diversity among 30 species. Principal component analysis and the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean ( UPGMA) cluster analysis reveal that the 30 species were divided into 5 groups. R. fortunei Lindl. and R. haoful Chun et Fang, R. jinggangshanicum Tam and R. denudatum Levl., R. mucronulatum Turcz. and R. dauricum L., R. irroratum Franch and R. sinonuttallii Balf. f. et Forrest were clustered together, respectively, consistent with the classification based on phenotypic characteristic. The result suggests that the SRAP is an effective molecular marker to analyze the Rhododen⁃dron genetic diversity.

  4. Comparative study on Rhododendron and its distribution in W-Sichuan and SE-Tibet%川西与藏东南地区杜鹃花属植物及其分布的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄平; 王飞; 邵慧敏

    2013-01-01

    Pattern of Rhododendron and its group quantity,geographical distribution type and vertical distribution were studied by the comparative biology between the both areas of W-Sichuan and SE-Tibet of Qinghai-Tibet plateau.The re-sults showed that there were characteristics of Rhododendron for more original,large groups and high-class in taxology in W-Sichuan where there was a wider relationship between E-China and Mt.N-Hengduans,and a lower vertical distri-bution for the groups and endemic species.And the results also showed that there were those for much younger,smaller, endemic and low-class groups in SE-Tibet where there was a maj or relationship between Mt.N-Hengduans and a higher vertical distribution for them.Phenomena of the vertical substitution is obvious between the close groups of Rhododen-dron in both of the two areas.For the above characteristics and phenomena we can conclude these closely relation and correspond to three historical nodes and events about the warm-moist climate in the last Cretaceous Period,the gradual raise of Tibet Plateau in a long time before or after Oligocene in the Tertiary Period and the rapid raise of the plateau with the glacier happen in the Quaternary Period.Thereby it is opened out that the course and characters dissimilate in the flora and their vertical distribution of Rhododendron from the east to the west China under the common background of the bio-geology.And base on it,three different core areas can be drawn,W-Sichuan-NE-Yunnan,NW-W-Yunnan and SE-S-Tibet in the modern distribution center of Rhododendron in the wide Sino-Himalaya flora region.%通过青藏高原的川西地区与藏东南地区杜鹃花属植物类群及其数量、地理分布型与垂直分布格局的研究,借助比较生物学的研究方法,揭示这两个重要区域分布的杜鹃花属植物类群及其分布格局的异同。结果表明:青藏高原东部区域的川西地区杜鹃花属植物具有较原始类群多、较高分类等

  5. Discuss on the Rhododendron geographical distribution types and their cause of formation in China%中国杜鹃花属植物地理分布型及其成因的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄平

    2012-01-01

    A distribution type system which involves the 7 sects and 49 subsects was established,according to the pro duction of the botanical taxology and geography,especially the Rhododendron distribution and their change and rule of the modern and historical environment from the east of China to Himalayas, based on the distribution type of the 3 subgenus class . The results showed that the system brought forth the Rhododendron distribution status about the 4 basic units of geography from the east to the west of China, especially the position and number distribution of these sects and subsects of different size, character and evolution degree which belong to subgen. Rhododendron and sub gen. Hymenanthes and showed the profound effect to the Rhododendron distribution pattern from the east to the west where the topography was from lower to higher and the change of the biologic geology history was from the steadier state to the un-steadiest state. It was seen that the distribution area or the mass distribution area, the sects and subsects were the larger, wider,more original and to belong to subgen. Hymenanthes,leaning to the Mt. Narrow Hengdu-ans or their east area, which were the smaller, narrower and endemic, younger and to belong to subgen. Rhododen dron, lean to the Mt. (Narrow) Hengduans and their west. At the same time, the mass distribution area of Rhododen dron was the barrier to disturb the pervasion and transfer for some taxa in the west-Sichuan Mountains, Mt. Narrow Hengduans and Mt. Himalayas where are important in the modern Rhododendron distribution area and pattern of for mation in China. It would be a principal axis for the change of the groups and its distribution types under Rhododen dron in China that the geographic environment changes from the east to the west.%依据植物分类学和地理学研究成果,尤其是从中国东部到西端喜玛拉雅杜鹃花类群分布及其现代与历史环境变化和规律,在已有的3个亚属级分布型

  6. 叶片表皮指纹在杜鹃花属分类中的意义%Significance of the leaf epidermis fingerprint for taxonomy of Genus Rhododendron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀伟; 毛子军

    2006-01-01

    本实验于2004年在东北林业大学进行.用指甲油印记法在光学显微镜下观察了杜鹃花属6个种(牛皮杜鹃 Rh.aureaum,兴安杜鹃 Rh. Dauricum,照白杜鹃 Rh.micranthum,迎红杜鹃 Rh.mucronulatum,苞叶杜鹃 Rh.Redowskianum和大字杜鹃 Rh.schlippenbachii)的表皮指纹特征.对叶片的形态特征包括叶片下表皮气孔类型、保卫细胞和副卫细胞的特征、叶片两面的普通细胞(形状和垂周壁特征)和表皮毛进行了较详细的描述.所研究的6种杜鹃花中,有3种气孔类型,其中兴安杜鹃、照白杜鹃、和迎红杜鹃为单细胞型气孔(Pericytic型),苞叶杜鹃为不规则型气孔(Anomocytic型),牛皮杜鹃和大字杜鹃是平轴式气孔(Diacytic式).不同种间,单细胞型和平轴式气孔的副卫细胞类型在形状和表面特征上有所不同.普通表皮细胞的表面观为从四边形、六边形,多边形或不规则型,垂周壁呈平直或弯曲状.兴安杜鹃、照白杜鹃和迎红杜鹃3种的叶片两面均有腺鳞.所有这些叶片特点表明上述6种杜鹃花的表皮指纹具有种的特性.图4表2参29.%Leaf epidermal fingerprints of six species of Rhododendron ( Rh. Aureaum, Rh. dauricum, Rh. micranthum, Rh. Mucronulatum,Rh. Redowskianum, Rh. schlippenbachii) were observed by optical microscope with nail polish expression method in Key Laboratory of Forest Plant Ecology of MinistryEducation China in Northeast Forestry University in 2004. The leaf morphological features including of stomata types, characters of guard cells, subsidiary cells in lower epidermis were observed. And ordinary cells (in shape and anticlinal walls feature) as well as the trichomes in both sides of the leaves are described in detail. The results showed that there were three types of stoma in six investigated Rhododendron species, from which Pericytic stomata type exists in three species (Rh. dauricum, Rh. micranthum, and Rh.mucronulatum), Anomocytic stomatal type in Rh

  7. 环境因子和植物生长调节剂对高山杜鹃开花的影响%The Effects of the environment factors and plant growth regulators on Flowering of Rhododendron lapponicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲彦婷; 唐焕伟; 阎凤霞; 张兴

    2013-01-01

      研究了不同温度、光照、植物生长调节剂浓度对高山杜鹃生长和开花的影响,结果表明:高山杜鹃花蕾萌动到开花的过程中,适宜光照强度2000~3000lux,最佳温度范围是23~25℃;对供试品种而言,最佳赤霉素浓度范围是1.0~1.5mg/L.%Effect of different temperatures and light levels and plant growth regulators on growth and flowering of Rhododendron lapponicum were studied. The results indicated that suitable light levels were 2000~3000lux, temperature in a-best -of- range is 23~25℃ and the best concentration of GA3 was 1.0~1.5mg/L for the tested varieties.

  8. 正交试验法优选闹羊花总黄酮提取工艺%Orthogonal Test for Optimization of Flavoneextraction Technology from Rhododendron Molle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱仁发; 胡发丁

    2011-01-01

    The extracting condition on flavonoids from Rhododendron molle was optimized by orthogonal test design methods and UV--spectrophotometry was used for the determination of flavonoids. Effects of ethanol contents, extraction time, extraction times and ratio of liquid to material on flavonoids contents were investigated. The optimum extracting conditions were 70% alcohol as solvent, ratio of liquid to material 25:1, extracting times 2, each extracting time 30min.%为从闹羊花中提取总黄酮,采用正交试验法研究闹羊花总黄酮的提取工艺,考察了浸提用醇的体积分数、浸提时间、浸提次数、液料比4个因素对闹羊花总黄酮提取率的影响.确立了闹羊花总黄酮最优提取条件为:70%乙醇溶液作溶剂;液料比25:1;浸提2次,每次30min.

  9. Cinnamtannin D1 from Rhododendron formosanum Induces Autophagy via the Inhibition of Akt/mTOR and Activation of ERK1/2 in Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Tzong-Der; Tsai, Shang-Jie; Wang, Chao-Min; Jhan, Yun-Lian; Ho, Chi-Tang; Chou, Chang-Hung

    2015-12-01

    In our previous study, ursolic acid present in the leaves of Rhododendron formosanum was found to possess antineoplastic activity. We further isolated and unveiled a natural product, cinnamtannin D1 (CNT D1), an A-type procyanidin trimer in R. formosanum also exhibiting anticancer efficacy that induced G1 arrest (83.26 ± 3.11% for 175 μM CNT D1 vs 69.28 ± 1.15% for control, p non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells. We found that CNT D1-mediated autophagy was via the noncanonical pathway, being beclin-1-independent but Atg5 (autophagy-related genes 5)-dependent. Inhibition of autophagy with a specific inhibitor enhanced cell death, suggesting a cytoprotective function for autophagy in CNT D1-treated NSCLC cells. Moreover, CNT D1 inhibited the Akt/mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and activated the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway, resulting in induction of autophagy.

  10. Two new plant varieties from Putuo Island,Zhejiang Province%发现于浙江普陀山岛的2个植物新变种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李根有; 陈征海; 胡军飞; 金水虎; 马丹丹; 欧丹燕

    2010-01-01

    报道了发现于浙江普陀山岛的2个植物新分类群,分别是桑科Moraceae薜荔Ficus pumila的新变种小果薜荔Ficus pumila Linn.var.microcarpa G.Y.Li et Z.H.Chen和杜鹃花科Eriaceae映山红Rhododendron simsii的新变种普陀杜鹃Rhododendron simsii Planch.var.putuoense G.Y.Li et Z.H.Chen.小果薜荔与原变种薜荔Ficus pumila var.pumila的区别是隐花果较小,椭圆形或宽椭圆形,稀近球形,长2.0~4.0 cm,直径1.7~2.6 cm,顶端钝;果枝之叶明显较小,叶缘通常反卷.普陀杜鹃与原变种映山红Rhododendron simsii var.simsii的区别是花冠紫色.

  11. 太白山自然保护区金背杜鹃菌根调查研究%A Study on Rhododendron clementiae Forrest ex W.W. Smilh Subsp.aureodorsale W.P.Fang' Mycorrhizae in the Nature Preserve of the Taibai Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴重华; 王吉忍; 杨俊秀; 胡崇德

    2000-01-01

    首次报道了在太白山自然保护区巴山冷杉林下采到的金背杜鹃(Rhododendron clementinae Forrest ex W.W. Smith subsp. aureodorsale W. P. Fang)共生真菌3种:卷缘网褶菌(Poxillus involotes (Botsch) Fr.)、亚褐环粘盖牛肝(Suillus subluteus (Peck) Snell ex Slipp & Snell.)、黄粉牛肝菌(Pulveroboletus ravenelii Berk. et Curt.),且这3种与金背杜鹃形成外生菌根.

  12. Photosynthetic Characteristic on Exposure to Higher Light of Shade-developed Rhododendron fortunei Saplings%光照增强对林下云锦杜鹃树苗光合作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯世省; 张云生

    2014-01-01

    研究了林下(L)云锦杜鹃(Rhododendron fortunei)树苗对林窗(H)和林缘(M)不同强度光照的生理响应。夏季将林下发育成熟的云锦杜鹃树苗分别转移到林窗(L-H)和林缘(L-M)后,云锦杜鹃的最大光化学效率和表观量子效率立即降低,随后L-H植株恢复缓慢,而L-M植株快速恢复并接近原来的水平,表明L-H植株发生了严重的光抑制;转移后一个月,与L-H植株相比,L-M具有较高的光合能力,这与两者之间实际量子效率、叶氮含量、比叶重和叶绿素含量等的差异有关;L-M植株还具有较高的对光能的化学利用效率和较低的非光化学淬灭;林下云锦杜鹃对强光的适应状况取决于其所处环境的光照强度,要适应增强的光照并避免严重的光抑制,转移前后光照强度的差异不能过大,否则将导致严重的光能过剩;林下云锦杜鹃适宜的转移生境是林缘。%Experiments were conducted on the physiological response of understory-developed (L)Rhododendron fortunei saplings exposed to higher light (H: canopy gap, M: forest edge) in the summer. The result demonstrated that the maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and apparent quantum yield (AQY) decreased immediately and was followed by a slow recovery in L-H leaves and a rapid recovery in L-M leaves, indicating that photoinhibition in L-H leaves was greater than that in L-M leaves. Their difference had correlated with real quantum efficiency of PSII (PhiPSII), leaf N content (Narea), leaf mass per unit area (LMA) and chlorophyll content. L-M leaves had greater photo chemical quenching coefficient (qP) and lower non-photo chemical quenching coefficient (qN), compared to L-H leaves. The experiment demonstrated that the physiological acclimation on exposure to higher light depended on the degree of light. In conclusion, forest edge was proved to be optimal for photosynthesis of shade-developed leaves of

  13. 无土盆栽花卉的最佳水位线研究%The optimal drainage line of potted flowers of soilless culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金龙新; 李青峰

    2005-01-01

    @@ Water is the source of life. China ranks No.13 among the water shortage countries. The most of the water is utilized in agriculture, while the utilization rate of irrigation water is only 40%, so it is very important to study on the theory and technology on high efficient water utilization. The purpose for this study is to find out the optimal drainage line on potted flowers through the analysis of experimental results of Aglaonema modestum and Rhododendron simsii Planch in different drainage lines.

  14. Aplicação de extratos brutos de flores de quaresmeira e azaléia e da casca de feijão preto em volumetria ácido-base. Um experimento para cursos de análise quantitativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares Márlon Herbert Flora Barbosa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude extract of Tibouchina granulosa, Rhododendron simsii and Phaseolus vulgaris L. were prepared and used as alternative indicators in quantitative analysis teaching in standardization of NaOH solutions and in the determination of acetic acid contents in vinegar. Effect of using such natural extracts as indicators was very attractive to the students and the quantitative results were compared with conventional indicators with good agreement. Concepts of data statistics can successfully be discussed using the interest revived by the use of natural indicators.

  15. Herbivory in relation to leaf development during leaf expansion in Rhododendron latoucheae (Ericaceae)%鹿角杜鹃展叶期叶片发育与虫食动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志国; 蔡永立; 李恺; 孙灿

    2009-01-01

    叶片虫食主要发生在展叶期间,虽然展叶期只是一个短暂的阶段,却可能是了解植食性昆虫和植物之间相互关系的关键.为了解展叶期叶片属性的变化及其与虫食的关系,研究通过野外观察和室内分析,测定福建梅花山亚热带常绿阔叶林中鹿角杜鹃(Rhododendron latoucheae)幼树展叶期间叶片属性(叶片氮、可溶性糖、叶绿素含量、含水量、单宁含量、硬度)和叶片虫食率的日变化动态,并分析它们之间的相互关系.结果表明,(1)叶片在爆芽27 d后完成展叶,平均展叶率14.06%,(2)可溶性糖、叶绿素和叶片硬度随叶片的展开上升缓慢,在展叶完成几天内后迅速上升;N含量、含水量和单宁含量在展叶期间含量较高,叶片展开后迅速下降.(3)虫食率随着叶片的发育逐渐上升,在第9天达到峰值(0.55%),并在接近展叶完成时迅速下降.(4)叶片虫食率同N含量、含水量、单宁含量正相关,而与叶绿素含量、可溶性糖含量、和叶片硬度负相关.

  16. 2003~2012年我国高山杜鹃研究现状和发展趋势文献分析%Analysis on the Literature in Research Status and Development Trend on Rhododendron hybrids in China During 2003-2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪海霞; 吴彤; 邢震; 禄树晖

    2015-01-01

    调查我国高山杜鹃研究现状,为分析其发展趋势提供参考依据。通过文献检索,采用文献计量学等统计方法系统分析了我国高山杜鹃研究的动态及热点内容。分析结果表明,近10年来我国对高山杜鹃的研究总体呈现上升趋势,但2005及2008年间研究有所减少,这可能与高山杜鹃的市场发展有关。文献类型以期刊论文为主,占91.28%;而学术论文占8.27%。文献来源主要为中国花卉报、中国花卉园艺和安徽农业科技,共占文献总量的20.18%,其中中国花卉报占11.48%。研究的前十项热点内容依次为基础研究、群落特征及保护、育种研究、资源及应用、栽培技术、观赏性状、发展现状、组织培养技术、激素的影响。%Research Status on Rhododendron hybrids in China were investigated to provide references for Develop‐ment Trend on Rhododendron hybrids .The research literature on Dynamic and hot content in China were analyzed by bibliometric statistical methods .The results showed that nearly 10 years of research on Rhododendron hybrids overall upward trend ,but the study between 2005 and 2008 shrank somewhat ,which may be related to Rhododen‐dron hybrids on market development .Document type to journal articles ,accounting for 91 .28% ;while 8 .27%papers .Flowers are mainly Chinese literature sources reported that the China flower gardening ,and Anhui Agricul‐tural science and technology ,literature accounted for 20 .18% of the total ,which accounted for 11 .48% of China Flower reported .Top ten hot contents of the study were the basis of research ,community characteristics and protection , breeding research , resources and applications , cultivation techniques , ornamental characteristics , development status ,tissue culture techniques ,the impact of hormones .

  17. 几种植物对入侵害虫悬铃木方翅网蝽的适合性评价%Evaluation of suitability of several plants to invasive pest,sycamore lace bug,Corythucha ciliata(Say)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安红柳; 邱国强; 李传仁

    2011-01-01

    The 2nd instar nymphs, 4th instar nymphs and adults of Corythucha ciliata (Say) were fed on 4 kinds of young leaves (Platanus acerifolia, Broussonetia papyrifera, Castanea mollissima, Rhododendron simsii ) in the laboratory, and the results indicated that sycamore lace bugs could feed, develop and oviposite on sycamore leaves,but not in the other three leaves and died within 2 ~ 7 days. The analysis suggest that Broussonetia papyrifera,Castanea mollissima and Rhododendron simsii are not the host plants of sycamore lace bug.%实验条件下用二球悬铃木、构树、板栗、杜鹃等4种植物的幼嫩叶片饲养悬铃木方翅网蝽2龄若虫、4龄若虫和成虫,观察该虫发育、存活、寿命和产卵量,结果表明,在悬铃木叶片上悬铃木方翅网蝽能取食、发育或产卵,在其他3种植物叶片上存活时间仅2~7d左右,不能取食、发育或产卵.证实构树、板栗和杜鹃不是悬铃木方翅网蝽的寄主植物.

  18. In Vitro Rapid Propagation System and in Vitro Germplasm Peservation of Rhododendron schlippenbachii Maxim.%大字杜鹃离体快繁体系建立及种质试管保存研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雯雯; 马秋月; 朱俊义; 顾地周

    2009-01-01

    The tender buds of Rhododendron schlippenbachii Maxim, were used as explants in the experiment. Uniform Design was used-for screening the most suitable culture medium for shoots regeneration immediately at base of tender buds, rooting and in vitro germplasm preservation. The results showed that DR +2-ip3.00 mg ·L~(-1) was the most suitable for shoots regeneration, the rate of regeneration was more than 95.5% ; MS(modified) + IAAO. 50 mg ·L~(-1) + IBAO. 10 mg ·L~(-1) + KTO. 10 mg ·L~(-1) for rooting, the rate of rooting was more than 99% ; N-68 + B_92. 30 mg ·L~(-1) + phloridzin 1. 50 mg ·L~(-1) for germplasm preservation in vitro for 30 months. Stems each with one node were cut from regenerated shoots and cultured for propagation, and a 65 -fold proliferation rate was achieved within 28 days. The method of "defering growth with dwarfing" was utilized for in vitro germplasm peservation at normal temperature. In vitro culture and in vitro germplasm peservation system of R. schlippenbachii Maxim, has been successfully established.%以大字杜鹃新生嫩芽为外植体,应用均匀设计法筛选其最适合的嫩芽基部直接再生芽苗、生根及种质试管保存的培养基,结果表明,最适合的基部直接再生芽苗诱导培养基为:DR+2-ip3.00 mg·L~(-1),诱导率达95.5%以上;生根培养基:Ms(改良)+IAA 0.50 mg·L~(-1)+IBA 0.10 mg·L~(-1)+KT 0.10 mg·L~(-1),生根率达99%以上;试管保存培养基:N-68+B_92.30 mg·L~(-1)+根皮苷1.50 mg·L~(-1),保存时间可达30个月以上.以再生植株的茎节为材料进行快繁的结果表明,在28 d的一个培养周期内增殖倍数平均达65以上.常温条件下,采取"矮化延缓生长"的方法在试管内保存种质资源,建立了大字杜鹃的离体培养和种质试管保存体系.

  19. Effects of Storage Temperature and Time on Seed Germination of Rhododendron delavayi%贮藏温度与时间对马缨杜鹃种子萌发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪娟; 赵雁鸣; 李佳蔓; 赵月明; 何承忠

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the suitable method for short-term storage of Rhododendron delavayi seeds, the germination tests of seeds,collected from 4 populations of R.delavayi and stored under different temperatures for 30 d and 310 d were conducted.The results showed that,after 30 d of storage under room temperature,4℃and-20℃,the differences of seeds germination rate were not significant,but significant differences appeared in ger-mination potential,and the seeds germination potential was highest when they were stored at room temperature. Simultaneously,the differences of seeds germination rate between collection populations were statistically signifi-cant,but was not significant in seeds germination potential.Among four populations,Maxiongshan population seeds held the highest germination rate and germination potential.Therefore,room temperature storage was more suitable for R.delavayi seeds to store about 30 d.After 310 d of storage at room temperature,4℃and -20℃,the differ-ences of seed germination rate and germination potential all were significant,and seeds stored at 4℃had the high-est germination rate and germination potential.However,the differences of seed germination rate and germination potential between collection populations were not significant.Furthermore,with the extension of storage time,the seed germination rate showed a decrease trend,but germination potential of seeds stored at 4℃for 310 d were sig-nificant higher than that of the seeds stored at 4℃for 30 d.Thus,it was concluded that 4℃was the suitable storage for R.delavayi seeds to store about 310 d.%为探讨马缨杜鹃种子适宜的短期贮藏技术,对采自4个居群的马缨杜鹃种子进行不同温度下贮藏30 d和310 d的发芽试验。结果表明,贮藏30 d时,常温、冷藏(4℃)和冷冻(-20℃)条件下的种子发芽率差异不显著,但发芽势差异显著,常温贮藏下发芽势最高;不同居群种子发芽率差异显著,发芽

  20. Molecular analysis and inoculation effect of mycorrhizal fungi isolated from hair roots of Rhododendron pulchrum%锦绣杜鹃菌根真菌rDNA ITS序列分析及接种效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈真; 杨兵; 张春英; 郁书君; 罗卿权

    2011-01-01

    利用rDNA ITS序列对锦绣杜鹃菌根真菌的16个菌株进行了分类分析.根据菌株ITS序列全长计算各菌株间序列相似度和遗传距离,并与GenBank中最相似菌株序列构建系统发育树.结果表明:16个菌株在系统树上聚为3个大分支.其中7个菌株在支持率为100%的基础上与树粉孢属真菌Oidiodendron sp.聚为一类;2个菌株与未鉴定的杜鹃花科植物根系真菌unidentified root associated fungi聚为一类,支持率为100%;其他7个菌株在98%的支持率上与几种未命名的欧石楠类菌根真菌聚为一大类.根据锥虫蓝染色压片检测结果,16个菌株的云锦杜鹃接种苗根系内均观察到菌根侵染细胞,初步确定16个菌株均为杜鹃花类菌根真菌.16个菌株均对云锦杜鹃的生长表现为有益作用,接种幼苗的平均株高和平均干重均高于对照.%Sixteen strains of ericoid mycorrhizal endophytes isolated from hair roots of Rhododendron pulchrum were classified with rDNA ITS sequenc. The sequence similarities and genetic distances among the strains were calculated based on the rDNA ITS sequences from 16 strains, and neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree were produced by the ITS sequences of the 16 strains and known ericoid mycorrhizal strains from GenBank. The result showed that 16 strains could be divided into three groups in the phylogenetic tree. Seven strains were identified as Oidiodendron sp., two strains were clustered with several unidentified root-associated mycorrhizal fungi of Ericaceae plants and the other seven strains were grouped with several unnamed ericoid mycorrhizal fungi. Based on the results of fresh mount of hair roots stained with trypan blue, 16 fungal strains were initially identified as ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM) fungi with typical ericoid mycorrhizal coils in epidermal cells of hair roots. All the 16 mycorrhizal strains showed obviously beneficial to growth of the seedlings, and the average height and biomass of the

  1. Effect of Low Light Stress on Physiological Characteristics and Ultrastructure of Rhododendron hybridum Leaves%弱光胁迫对西洋杜鹃生理特性和叶片超微结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶巧静; 吴月燕; 付涛; 项锡娜; 李波

    2015-01-01

    绿体被膜破损缺失严重,基粒片层解体,仅存少量无序的片层结构,空洞化程度严重,部分细胞甚至成为空细胞。【结论】综合各指标变化情况,西洋杜鹃可以耐受4000 lx的低光强,而12000~16000 lx光强的光照条件比较适合西洋杜鹃的生长。%Objective]Rhododendron hybridum is a famous ornamental species with flowers and tree crowns. The species has beautiful flowers with gorgeous flower colors,and long florescence,thus,it is a common urban afforestation tree species and indoor potted flowers. R. hybridum belongs to the weak light plant. In this study,we investigated the tolerance mechanism of Rhododendron to weak light to find the suitable light intensity for its growth,so as to provide theoretical basis for cultivation production. [Method]A series of pot experiments were conducted to study the effects of weak light on physiological characteristics and leaves’submicroscopic structure of R. hybridum with different intensity treatments of low light ( 16 000 ,12 000 ,8 000 ,4 000 and 500 lx ) . [Results]The results indicated that in all of the treatments,the amount of leaves and blooms increased with the treatment time of days,but the amount was fewer with the decreased light intensity. The leaves gradually lost green and turned red,leaf margin became shrunk and withered with the decreased light intensity. R. hybridum grew best at the light intensity of 12 000 lx. The content of chlorophyll overall showed a rising trend when the light intensity was above 8000 lx,but gradually reduced when the light intensity was less than 8 000 lx. After 90 days,the chlorophyll contents under less than 8000 lx were significantly lower than that before the treatment( P<0. 05 ) . The photosynthetic rate of all treatments decreased significantly first,then rising,and declined subsequently,and was directly proportional to the light intensity by the end of the experiment. The malondialdehyde (MDA) contents increased

  2. Physiological changes and heat tolerance comparison of five Rhododendron species under high-temperature stress%高温胁迫下五种杜鹃花属植物的生理变化及其耐热性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乐华; 孙宝腾; 周广; 王书胜; 李晓花; 单文

    2011-01-01

    高温是制约分布于较高海拔地区杜鹃花迁地保育与园林应用的重要因子.为探讨杜鹃花属植物的 高温致伤机理,该实验以隶属不同亚属的白花杜鹃、羊踯躅、毛棉杜鹃、红滩杜鹃及红棕杜鹃4年生实生苗为 材料,通过人工气候箱的盆栽实验,研究了30℃、38℃高温胁迫下其叶片生理生化指标的变化,并利用隶属 函数法及系统聚类分析法对其种间耐热性进行了综合评价.结果表明:高温胁迫下,5种杜鹃叶片的过氧化 氢酶(CAT)、抗坏血酸过氧化物酶(APX)活性及脯氨酸(Pro)、过氧化氢(H2O2)、丙二醛(MDA)含量均随着 胁迫温度的升高而增大;超氧化物歧化酶( SOD)活性在30℃轻度胁迫时均小幅度上升,而38℃重度胁迫时 下降.2个高温条件下,SOD、CAT的变化幅度与杜鹃种间耐热性总体呈正相关,而H2 O2、MDA增幅与种间 耐热性呈负相关;Pro增幅在30℃轻度胁迫时与种间耐热性呈负相关,而38℃重度胁迫时与耐热性呈正相 关;APX增幅与种间耐热性的相关性较弱.隶属函数与聚类分析综合评判得出5种杜鹃耐热性强弱顺序为:白花杜鹃>羊踯躅、毛棉杜鹃>红滩杜鹃>红棕杜鹃,与其田间耐热性表现一致.%High temperature is the important constraining factor of Rhododendron in ex situ conservation and landscape application. In order to reveal the injury of mechanism of five Rhododendron species under high-temperature stress,R. Mucronatum,R. Molle,R. Moulmainense,R. Chihsinianum and R. Rubiginosum which belong to different subg. Rhododendron were used in the experiment Four years-old seedlings of these five species were planted in artificial climate chambers and their changes of physiological and biochemical index were determined under high-temperature of 30 ℃ and 38 ℃ stress,and the heat tolerance was comprehensively evaluated with fuzzy subordinate function and system cluster analysis. The results showed that

  3. 不同激素及扦插基质对兴安杜鹃嫩枝扦插成活率的影响%Effects of different hormone treatments and cutting media on suvival rate of green branch cutting in Rhododendron dauricum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周金梅; 宫敬利; 建德锋

    2012-01-01

    In order to select breeding methods which could improve survival rate of green branch cutting in Rhododendron dauricum, green branch cutting propagation test of R. dauricum was carried out by using three kinds of hormone treatments and three kinds of cutting media. The results show that the green branch treated in 150 mg/L IB A for 30 s before cutting has the highest rooting rate, and the rooting rate can be up to 90% in the mixture medium of sand and peat (the volume rate of 1 : 2).%为了筛选能提高兴安杜鹃嫩枝扦插成活率的繁殖方法,采用3种不同的激素处理和3种不同扦插基质对兴安杜鹃进行了嫩枝扦插繁殖试验.结果表明:扦插前采用150 mg/L的IBA激素处理嫩枝30 s,扦插后的生根率最高;而采用沙子+腐殖土(体积比为1∶2)的扦插基质可使扦插生根率达到90%.

  4. Physiological and Biochemical Effects of High Temperature Stress on the Seedlings of Two Rhododendron Species of Subgenus Hymenanthes%高温胁迫对两种常绿杜鹃亚属植物幼苗生理生化特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乐华; 周广; 孙宝腾; 李晓花; 王书胜; 单文

    2011-01-01

    为探明常绿杜鹃亚属植物高温致伤的生理机制,以猴头杜鹃(Rhododendron simiarum Hance)、井冈山杜鹃(R.jinggangshanicum Tam)四年生实生苗为材料,通过人工气候箱中的盆栽实验,研究了不同程度的高温胁迫对两种常绿亚属杜鹃幼苗叶片生理生化特性的影响.结果表明:(1)两种杜鹃叶片的丙二醛(MDA)、过氧化氢(H2O2)及脯氨酸(Pro)、可溶性蛋白质含量均随胁迫温度的升高而增大;猴头杜鹃的H2O2、可溶性蛋白含量及增幅均明显小于井冈山杜鹃,而MDA、Pro的增幅则因胁迫温度而异.(2)两种杜鹃叶片抗坏血酸(AsA)含量均随胁迫温度的升高而降低,但猴头杜鹃的降幅小于井冈山杜鹃.(3)高温胁迫下,猴头杜鹃除过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性增幅略小外,超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)及抗坏血酸过氧化物酶(APX)增幅均大于井冈山杜鹃.可见,随着胁迫温度的升高两种杜鹃叶片膜脂过氧化作用加重,而猴头杜鹃较井冈山杜鹃具有更强的酶促和非酶促清除活性氧能力.%To illuminate the injury mechanism of Rhododendron Subgenus Hymenanthes under high temperature stress,4-year-old seedlings of R. simiarum Hance and R. jinggangshanicum Tam were planted in artificial climate chambers and their physiological and biochemical changes were determined under different high temperature stress. The results showed that: (1)The contents of maiondialdehyde(MDA), hydrogen peroxide(H202) ,proline( Pro)and soluble protein in leaves of both species increased when the temperature increased. The contents and changes of H202 and soluble protein in R.simiarum leaves increased less than those in R. jinggangshanicum,whereas the changes of MDA and Pro in both species were independent of temperature. (2)The contents of ascorbic acid(AsA)in leaves of the two species were negatively correlated with temperature,with R. simiarum decreased less than R. jinggangshanicum.(3) The activities of

  5. 5种杜鹃幼苗对高温胁迫的生理生化响应及耐热性综合评价%Physiological-biochemical response of five species in Rhododendron L.to high temperature stress and comprehensive evaluation of their heat tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯红; 刘向平; 张乐华; 凌家慧; 李立

    2011-01-01

    Using four-year-old seedlings of five species belonging to five subgenera in Rhododendron L. as experimental materials, contents of malondialdeyde (MDA) , hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and proline (Pro) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) , catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were determined and analyzed under condition of artificial simulated high temperature ( 30 t and 38 T ) , and correlation and principal component analyses of above indexes were also conducted. On this basis, comprehensive evaluation of heat tolerance of the five species was performed by subordinate function method, and comprehensive evaluation results were tested by means of the established optimum regression equation. The determination results show that compared to the control (22 t ) , contents of MDA, H2O2, Pro and activities of CAT, APX of the five species seedlings all increase with rising of stress temperature, and SOD activity appears the trend of less increasing under 30 CC condition while decreasing under 38 t condition. CAT activity has extremely significant positive correlation with contents of H2O2 and Pro and APX activity (P<0. 01 ) , and APX activity has significant positive or negative correlations respectively with Pro content and SOD activity (P<0.05 ). Six single indexes tested of allspecies are converted into three independent comprehensive indexes with an accumulative contribution rate of 87.52% by principal component analysis. According to the comprehensive evaluation value (D), heat tolerance of the five species can be divided into four classes; heat tolerance of R. mucronatum (Blume) G. Don is the strongest, that of R. moulmainense Hook. f. and R. molle (Blume) G. Don is stronger, that of R. chihsinianum Chun et Fang is weaker, and that of R. rubiginosum Franch. is the weakest. The heat tolerance of the five species can be predicted using the optimum regression equation established and the prediction value order is completely in accordance with D value

  6. 接种ERM真菌对桃叶杜鹃幼苗的促生效应及生理生化影响%Effects of Inoculation with ERM Fungi Isolates on the Growth and Physio-biochemical Properties of Rhododendron annae seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧静; 韦小丽; 何跃军; 刘仁阳; 陈训

    2013-01-01

    通过12个不同ERM真菌菌株接种2年生无菌实生桃叶杜鹃幼苗,研究接种对幼苗生长势与生物量的影响,分析ERM菌株对内源激素含量与氧化酶活性的变化.结果表明:接种显著提高桃叶杜鹃幼苗的苗高、地径、叶面积、主根长和生物量.接种苗苗高比对照增加29.47% ~ 73.68%,地径比对照增加11.16%~70.09%,总生物量比对照增长3.86%~61.22%;地上部分干质量增幅最高值为99.69%,地下部分干质量增幅最高值为27.27%.ERM菌株显著提高接种苗地上和地下部分吲哚乙酸(IAA)、赤霉素(GA3)、玉米素核苷(ZR)、脱落酸(ABA)含量和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性,降低了丙二醛(MDA)含量.ERM真菌可能是通过分泌激素或刺激植株分泌激素,几种激素物质的协调配合来促进桃叶杜鹃幼苗的生长.从综合接种效应来看,TY29,TY35,TY12,TY18,TY14和TY02是培育桃叶杜鹃菌根苗优良备选菌株.%Twelve ericoid mycorrhiza (ERM) fungal isolates were used to inoculate 2-year-old Rhododendron annae Franch.seedlings to study effects of the inoculations on the plant growth potential,biomass and endogenous hormones contents and enzyme activity.The results showed that the inoculations with ERM significantly increased height,diameter,leaf area,mainroot length and biomass of the seedlings.The height increased by 29.47%-73.68% than that control,and diameter increased by 11.16% ~70.09%.The total biomass increased by 3.86%-61.22%,of which the highest increase in shoot dry weight was 99.69%,and and the highest increase in underground part dry weight was 27.27%.The contents of indole acetic acid (IAA),gibberellin (GA3),zeatin riboside (ZR),abscisic acid (ABA) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD),peroxidase (POD),catalase (CAT) in the inoculated seedlings with ERM were significantly higher than those in non-inoculated plants,while the

  7. [Selection of winter plant species for wetlands constructed as sewage treatment systems and evaluation of their wastewater purification potentials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-hua; Wu, Xiao-fu; Chen, Ming-li; Jiang, Li-juan; Li, Ke-lin; Lei, Dian; Wang, Hai-bin

    2010-08-01

    In order to establish an evaluation system for selection of winter wetland plants possessing high wastewater purification potentials in subtropics areas, designed sewage treatment experiments were carried out by introducing into the constructed wetlands 25 species of winter wetland plants. Cluster analysis was performed by including harmful environment-resistant enzyme and substrate enzyme activities into the commonly applied plant screening and assessment indexes system. The obtained results indicated that there were significant differences among the tested winter plants in their root length and vigor, leaf malonaldehyde (MDA), biomass, average nitrogen and phosphorus concentration and uptake, and urease and phosphoric acid enzyme activities in the root areas. Based on the established evaluation system, the tested plants were clustered into 3 groups. The plants in the 1st group possessing high purification potentials are Oenanthe javanica, Brassicacapestris, Juncus effusu, Saxifragaceae, Iris pseudoacorus, Osmanthus fragrans and Iris ensata; those in the 2nd group possessing moderate purification potentials are Brassica oleracea var acephala, Calendula officinalis, Aucuba japonica, Ligustrum lucidu, Beta vulgaris, Rhododendron simsii and Ilex latifolia; and those in the 3rd group with low purification potentials are Brassica oleracea var acephala, Calistephus chinensis, Rosa chinensis, Antirrhinums, Liriope palatyphylla, Zephyranthes candida, Fatshedera lizei, Petunia hybrida, Ilex quihoui, Dianthus caryophyllus and Loropetalum chinensis.

  8. Environ: E00635 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00635 Rhododendron leaf Crude drug Rhodotoxin (Grayanotoxin) [CPD:C09103], Aseboto...xin II [CPD:C09063], Ursolic acid [CPD:C08988], Rhododendrin [CPD:C09965] Rhododendron metternichii [TAX:66907], Rhododendron... brachycarpum [TAX:118365], Rhododendron metternichii [TAX:66907] Ericaceae (heath family) Rhododendron... metternichii, Rhododendron brachycarpum, Rhododendron metternichii l...eaf (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Ericaceae (heath family) E00635 Rhododendron leaf ...

  9. BBGD: an online database for blueberry genomic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews Benjamin F

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blueberry is a member of the Ericaceae family, which also includes closely related cranberry and more distantly related rhododendron, azalea, and mountain laurel. Blueberry is a major berry crop in the United States, and one that has great nutritional and economical value. Extreme low temperatures, however, reduce crop yield and cause major losses to US farmers. A better understanding of the genes and biochemical pathways that are up- or down-regulated during cold acclimation is needed to produce blueberry cultivars with enhanced cold hardiness. To that end, the blueberry genomics database (BBDG was developed. Along with the analysis tools and web-based query interfaces, the database serves both the broader Ericaceae research community and the blueberry research community specifically by making available ESTs and gene expression data in searchable formats and in elucidating the underlying mechanisms of cold acclimation and freeze tolerance in blueberry. Description BBGD is the world's first database for blueberry genomics. BBGD is both a sequence and gene expression database. It stores both EST and microarray data and allows scientists to correlate expression profiles with gene function. BBGD is a public online database. Presently, the main focus of the database is the identification of genes in blueberry that are significantly induced or suppressed after low temperature exposure. Conclusion By using the database, researchers have developed EST-based markers for mapping and have identified a number of "candidate" cold tolerance genes that are highly expressed in blueberry flower buds after exposure to low temperatures.

  10. Leachate Concentrations of Ammonium, Nitrate, and Phosphorus as Affected by Nutrient Release From Four Different Types of Controlled-Release Fertilizers and Crop Development of Containerized Azaleas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concentrations of ammonium, nitrate, and phosphorus in irrigation leachate were measured weekly over a 47-week period from a low-fertility, acid-based substrate into which four types of 12-month controlled-release fertilizers (Osmocote, Nutricote, Polyon, or Multicote) were incorporated. Containers ...

  11. Potential of bioenergy production from garden wastes in West Lake scenic spots of Hangzhou, China%杭州西湖风景名胜区园林废弃物生产生物能源潜力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史琰; 郑楠; 唐宇力; 范丽琨; 郭克俭; 范星; 葛滢; 常杰

    2012-01-01

    在当前我国景区节能减排目标难以达到的情况下,发展生物能源将为此提供一个途径.本文以杭州西湖风景名胜区为案例,分析园林管理所获得的可用生物量及其生产生物能源的潜力.通过实地测定和问卷调查,研究表明:单位绿地面积园林废弃生物量为(4.60±3.12)t·hm-2·a-1;道路区域绿地的单位面积废弃物产量最高,干重平均值为5.96t·hm-2·a-1;产生绿化废弃物的主要植物种类有香樟(Cinnamomum camphora)、桂(Osmanthus fragrans)、杜鹃(Rhododendron simsii)等;园林废弃物总量干重为3402 t·a-1,可产生能量6.3×1010 kJ·a-1,理论上可以抵消景区40%的电能消耗;园林废弃物转化为生物能源适宜采用固体成型生物燃料技术;利用园林废弃物生产生物能源替代化石燃料每年可减排CO2 4177 t.开发利用景区园林废弃物生产生物能源,可实现减轻环境压力和增加生物能源供应的双赢.%The development of bioenergy may provide a solution to achieve the reduction targets for scenic spot emissions. This paper provides a synthesis of questionnaire survey and experimental data to assess the potential of garden waste biomass for renewable energy production in West Lake of Hangzhou. Our results showed that the waste dry biomass from greenspace reaches 4. 60 ±3.12 t · hm-2 · a-1. The garden waste dry biomass from greenspace in the road area was 5. 96 t · hm-2 · a-1 which was higher than the other area. The main species of the garden wastes were Cinnamomum camphora, Osmanthus fragrans and Rhododendron simsii. The total amount of dry biomass from scenic wastes was estimated at 3402 t · a-1. The total potential biofuel produced as scenic waste biomass was estimated at 6. 3×1010 kJ · a-1 , which accounts for 40% of the energy consumption for the West Lake. The wood pellets production bioenergy system was the best way for the garden waste biofinery. The emission reduction of using garden

  12. Relative sensitivity of greenhouse pot plants to long-term exposures of NO- and NO2-containing air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxe, H

    1994-01-01

    Thirty-five cultivars of pot plants of 20 families were exposed for 50-64 days in a greenhouse facility to either 1 microl litre(-1) NO with 0.5 microl litre(-1) NO2, or 1 microl litre(-1) NO2 with 0.1 microl litre(-1) NO for 15 h each day, with air which was free from these gases as the reference. A sensitivity ranking of the pot plants was compiled, with the highest priority on visible injuries, followed by growth reductions, primarily as a response to the NO-dominated exposures, simulating the NOx-polluted environment in direct-fired, CO2-enriched greenhouses. This treatment reduced the leaf dry weight more than the number and area of the leaves. Twenty-two cultivars were significantly injured, while two (Hibicus sp, Epipremnum pinnatum, green) were significantly improved. The NOx-sensitivity of pot plants was highest in cultivars with variegated, small or narrow leaves, and in the Moraceae family. Nine cultivars (Ficus elastica 'Robusta', F. benjamina, F. pumila 'Sonny', Dieffenbachia maculata 'Camilla', F. elastica 'Tineke', Epipremnum pinnatum 'Marble Queen', Begonia elatior 'Nelson', Cyclamen persica, Poinsettia 'Mini') were specifically sensitive to the NO-containing exposure; six were specifically sensitive to the NO2-containing exposure (F. elastica 'Robusta', Asparagus den. 'Sprengeri', Hedera helix 'Shamrock', Aspledium nidus, Aster novo-belgii, Hypoestes phyl. 'Betina'); and 12 (Soleirolia soleirolii, Asparagus den. 'Sprengeri', H. helix 'Ester', Codiaeum 'Pictum', Rosa 'Minimo Red', F. benjamina 'Starlight', Saintpaulia ionantha 'light blue', F. pumila, Rhododendron simsii, H. helix 'Shamrock', Hibiscus sp., E. pinnatum) were equally sensitive to mixtures dominated by either gas, as measured by at least one response parameter. PMID:15091658

  13. Protective effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Rhododendron arboreum flowers against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in experimental models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Verma

    2011-01-01

    Result and Discussion: The substantially elevated serum enzymatic activities of SGOT, SGPT, SALP, γ-GT, and bilirubin due to CCl 4 treatment were restored toward normal in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, the decreased activities of GST and glutathione reductase were also restored toward normal. In addition, ethyl acetate fraction also significantly prevented the elevation of hepatic malondialdehyde formation and depletion of reduced glutathione content in the liver of CCl 4 -intoxicated rats in a dose-dependent manner. Silymarin used as standard reference also exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity on post-treatment against CCl 4 -induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that ethyl acetate fraction has a potent hepatoprotective action against CCl 4 -induced hepatic damage in rats.

  14. Cellulose Dynamics during Foliar Litter Decomposition in an Alpine Forest Meta-Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yue

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the dynamics and relative drivers of cellulose degradation during litter decomposition, a field experiment was conducted in three individual ecosystems (i.e., forest floor, stream, and riparian zone of an alpine forest meta-ecosystem on the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Four litter species (i.e., willow: Salix paraplesia, azalea: Rhododendron lapponicum, cypress: Sabina saltuaria, and larch: Larix mastersiana that had varying initial litter chemical traits were placed separately in litterbags and then incubated on the soil surface of forest floor plots or in the water of the stream and riparian zone plots. Litterbags were retrieved five times each year during the two-year experiment, with nine replicates each time for each treatment. The results suggested that foliar litter lost 32.2%–89.2% of the initial dry mass depending on litter species and ecosystem type after two-year’s incubation. The cellulose lost 60.1%–96.8% of the initial mass with degradation rate in the order of stream > riparian zone > forest floor. Substantial cellulose degradation occurred at the very beginning (i.e., in the first pre-freezing period of litter decomposition. Litter initial concentrations of phosphorus (P and lignin were found to be the dominant chemical traits controlling cellulose degradation regardless of ecosystems type. The local-scale environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and nutrient availability were important moderators of cellulose degradation rate. Although the effects of common litter chemical traits (e.g., P and lignin concentrations on cellulose degradation across different individual ecosystems were identified, local-scale environmental factors such as temperature and nutrient availability were found to be of great importance for cellulose degradation. These results indicated that local-scale environmental factors should be considered apart from litter quality for generating a reliable predictive framework for the drivers

  15. 十六味杜鹃花丸中丁香酚含量的GC测定法%Content measuring of eugenol as a quality control index in sixteen azalea pills by GC Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 岳秀峰

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]To establish the control index of intrinsic quality, and improve the drug quality standard. [Methods]The content of eugenol was determined by gas chromatography method. [Results] The content of eugenol showed good linear relationship in the range of 50-500 μg, the regression equation was Y = 1 215. 3 X- 42. 233, R = 1. 000, the average recovery ratio was 99.23% , RSD was 0.53%. [Conclusion]The method is simple, sensible and accurate, and the study has lay the foundation of further improving the drug quality standard.%目的 建立内在质量监控指标,提高药品质量标准.方法 采用气相色谱法测定丁香酚的含量.结果 丁香酚在50~500μg范围内呈良好线性关系,回归方程y=1215.3 X-42.233.R=1.000,平均回收率为99.23%,RSD为0.53%.结论 该方法简便、灵敏、准确,为进一步提高该药的质量标准打下了基础.

  16. 4种药剂对杜鹃冠网蝽的药效试验和毒力测定%Effect and toxicity of four pesticides on Stephanitis pyriodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄昊; 司嘉怡; 袁准; 曾颖; 曾爱平

    2014-01-01

    为有效防治杜鹃主要害虫杜鹃冠网蝽,选择37%高氯·马、1.8%阿维菌素、5%吡虫啉·氯氰菊酯复配乳油以及10%吡虫啉4种药剂,进行室内毒力测定及药效试验。结果表明:4种药剂对杜鹃冠网蝽均有较好的防治效果,药后5天的防治效果均达到100%,其中5%吡虫啉·氯氰菊酯复配乳油1000倍液,药后1天、2天和3天对杜鹃冠网蝽的防效分别达到93.3%、98.9%、100%。4种药剂的毒力排序为5%吡虫啉·氯氰菊酯复配乳油>37%高氯·马>1.8%阿维菌素>10%吡虫啉。%In order to control of Stephanitis pyriodes which is the main pest of Rhododendron simsii,37% beta-cyper-methrin malathion,1.8% avermectin,5% imidacloprid·cypermethrin and 10% imidacloprid were selected for toxico-logical test and laboratory experiments on Stephanitis pyriodes. The results showed that,all of the four pesticides were suit for controlling of Stephanitis pyriodes,the control effect of four pesticides were 100% after 5 days sprayed. The control effect of 5%imidacloprid and cypermethrin mixtures EC diluted by 1 000 times were 93.3%,98.9%and 100%after 1 day,2 days and 3 days sprayed respectively. The toxicity of four pesticides was 5% imidacloprid·cypermethrin>37%beta-cypermethrin malathion>1.8% avermectin>10% imidacloprid.

  17. Induction of Intracellular Ca2+ and pH Changes in Sf9 Insect Cells by Rhodojaponin-III, A Natural Botanic Insecticide Isolated from Rhododendron molle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Bo Zhang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies on intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i and intracellular pH (pHi have been carried out due to their importance in regulation of different cellular functions. However, most of the previous studies are focused on human or mammalian cells. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the effect of Rhodojaponin-III (R-III on [Ca2+]i and pHi and the proliferation of Sf9 cells. R-III strongly inhibited Sf9 cells proliferation with a time- and dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry established that R-III interfered with Sf9 cells division and arrested them in G2/M. By using confocal scanning technique, effects of R-III on intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i and intracellular pH (pHi in Sf9 cells were determined. R-III induced a significant dose-dependent (1, 10, 100, 200 μg/mL increase in [Ca2+]i and pHi of Sf9 cells in presence of Ca2+-containing solution (Hanks and an irreversible decrease in the absence of extra cellular Ca2+. We also found that both extra cellular Ca2+ and intracellular Ca2+ stores contributed to the increase of [Ca2+]i, because completely treating Sf9 cells with CdCl2 (5 mM, a Ca2+ channels blocker, R-III (100 μg/mL induced a transient elevation of [Ca2+]i in case of cells either in presence of Ca2+ containing or Ca2+ free solution. In these conditions, pHi showed similar changes with that of [Ca2+]i on the whole. Accordingly, we supposed that there was a certain linkage for change of [Ca2+]i, cell cycle arrest, proliferation inhibition in Sf9 cells induced by R-III.

  18. Forest Gaps Inhibit Foliar Litter Pb and Cd Release in Winter and Inhibit Pb and Cd Accumulation in Growing Season in an Alpine Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie He

    Full Text Available The release of heavy metals (such as Pb and Cd from foliar litter play an important role in element cycling in alpine forest ecosystems. Although natural forest gaps could play important roles in the release of heavy metals from foliar litter by affecting the snow cover during the winter and solar irradiation during the growing season, few studies have examined these potential roles. The objectives of this study were to document changes in Pb and Cd dynamics during litter decomposition in the center of gaps and under closed canopies and to investigate the factors that controlled these changes during the winter and growing seasons.Senesced foliar litter from six dominant species, including Kangding willow (Salix paraplesia, Masters larch (Larix mastersiana, Mingjiang fir (Abies faxoniana, Alpine azalea (Rhododendron lapponicum, Red birch (Betula albosinensis and Mourning cypress (Sabina saltuaria, was placed in litterbags and incubated between the gap center and closed canopy conditions in an alpine forest in the eastern region of the Tibetan Plateau. The litterbags were sampled at the snow formation stage, snow coverage stage, snow melt stage and during the growing season. The Pb and Cd concentrations in the sampled foliar litter were determined by acid digestion (HNO3/HClO4.Over one year of decomposition, Pb accumulation and Cd release from the foliar litter occurred, regardless of the foliar litter species. However, Pb and Cd were both released from the foliar litter during the winter and accumulated during the growing season. Compared with the gap center and the canopy gap edge, the extended gap edge and the closed canopy showed higher Pb and Cd release rates in winter and higher Pb and Cd accumulation rates during the growing season, respectively. Statistical analyses indicate that the dynamics of Pb were significantly influenced by frequent freeze-thaw cycles in winter and appropriate hydrothermal conditions during the growing season, the

  19. Analysis on Phylogenesis of Rhododendron L. Plant Located in Hundred Rhododendron Protection Zone of Guizhou and Flowering Characteristics in Molecular Level%贵州百里杜鹃保护区杜鹃属植物系统发育与开花习性的分子水平分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王孜昌; 陈训; 任竹梅; 周家维; 陈翔; 安淼; 高贵龙; 黄家勇; 罗在柒

    2010-01-01

    应用trnL-F序列分析方法,对贵州百里杜鹃自然保护区内的杜鹃属进行了系统发育关系与开花性状研究和分析.从分子水平分析了杜鹃花属中马银花亚属、映山红亚属、杜鹃亚属、糙叶杜鹃亚属、常绿杜鹃亚属等5个亚属的系统发育关系;从常绿杜鹃亚属的参试物种中分析了3个不同颜色的聚合群及之间的系统发育关系;从遗传物质的重组和分离的视角对红色、白色和粉色不同聚合群的生殖关系提出了两个假设.

  20. Evaluation of irradiated essential oils to control of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae); Avaliacao de produtos naturais irradiados para o controle de Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) e Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potenza, Marcos Roberto

    2004-07-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of irradiated essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus sp., Azadirachta indica, Cymbopogon nardus, Cupressus sempervirens, Cymbopogons citratus and Juniperus communis and aqueous, hexanic and ethanolic irradiated extracts of Solanum paniculatum, Dahlia pinnata, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nephrolepis pectinata, Ruta graveolens, Ficus elastica, Lavandula angustifolia, Rhododendron simsii, Agave angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Allamanda cathartica, Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Pennisetum purpureum, Annona squamosa, Coffea arabica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, in order to identify new substances to integrated pest management (IPM) and to observe possible effects of gamma radiation about extracts and essential oils efficiency such as increase, reduction, activation and inactivation of the same to the pest control. It evaluated the effect of contact on Sitophilus zeamais and by ingestion in Blattella germanica. To irradiation was used an experimental irradiator of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell 220. The essential oils were submitted increasing doses of gamma radiation: 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 kGy. The bioassay with B. germanica demonstrated efficiency between 22.0 e 30.0% and between 30.0 and 42.0%, respectively, to irradiated essential oils of E. citriodora and E. globulus and they demonstrated too repellency to the nymphs. The gamma radiation used promoted changes in essential oils of E. citriodora e E. globulus that they began to show efficiency on B. germanica nymphs besides a significant reduction of repellency. Essential oils of Pinus sp., A. indica, C. sempervirens and J. communis did not display efficiency. The essential oils of C. nardus, and C. citratus had low efficiency. The gamma radiation increased the efficiency of ethanolic extract of D. Pinnata with dose of 7.5 kGy, showing 48.0% of efficiency on B. germanica nymphs. The gamma radiation showed adverse effect on the aqueous extract of R. Graveolens

  1. 高原湿地纳帕海周边山地不同植被类型枯落物持水特性%Water Holding Characteristics of Litters of Different Species in Mountainous Area of Napahai Plateau Wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆梅; 田昆; 赖建东; 赵一鹤; 魏江舟

    2011-01-01

    The water holding capacity was characterized for the litters from eight plantation types in the mountainous area of Napahai Plateau Wetland. The results show that, for all the eight plantation types, the semi-decomposed and decomposed layer had higher litter storage and water reserving capacity than the freshly-littered layer. The litter storage decreased from highwood, shrub to waste grassland. Specifically, the litter storages of natural Picea asperata Mast, mixed forest of Pinus densata Mast and Rhododendron simsii Planch, mixed forest of Salix cupularis Rehd and Betula platyphylla Suk, Crataegus pinnatifida Bge and waste grassland demonstrated a capacity of 36.60, 30.67, 26.63, 25.61 and 5. 30 t/hm2 , respectively. Comparatively, mixed forest of Salix cupularis Rehd and Betula platyphylla Suk had the highest water holding capacity, and seriously human-disturbed Pinus densata Mast had the lowest. The water holding capacity of the litters increased rapidly during the initial first hour, and then slightly increased after 6~10 hour saturation. The highest water absorption rates were observed in the first 30 minute saturation time, and thereafter the rates decreased substantially. Water loss rates were similar for all the litters, showing a linear decreasing trend. Systematic analysis indicated that the litter of mixed forest of Salix cupularis Rehd and Betula platyphylla Suk had the highest water holding capacity, the strongest flood-adjusting capacity, the most ideal water loss process and the highest water supply capacity, and the best hydro-ecological effect among the eight plantation types.%对高原湿地纳帕海周边山地8种不同植被类型枯落物持水特性进行了研究.结果表明,(1)8种植被类型枯落物储量和总持水量均表现出半分解+分解层>未分解层的变化趋势;枯落物储量呈现从乔木林到灌木林和荒草地逐渐降低的总体趋势;高山柳+白桦混交林最大总持水量最大,受人为干扰较为

  2. Evaluation of irradiated essential oils to control of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of irradiated essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus sp., Azadirachta indica, Cymbopogon nardus, Cupressus sempervirens, Cymbopogons citratus and Juniperus communis and aqueous, hexanic and ethanolic irradiated extracts of Solanum paniculatum, Dahlia pinnata, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nephrolepis pectinata, Ruta graveolens, Ficus elastica, Lavandula angustifolia, Rhododendron simsii, Agave angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Allamanda cathartica, Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Pennisetum purpureum, Annona squamosa, Coffea arabica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, in order to identify new substances to integrated pest management (IPM) and to observe possible effects of gamma radiation about extracts and essential oils efficiency such as increase, reduction, activation and inactivation of the same to the pest control. It evaluated the effect of contact on Sitophilus zeamais and by ingestion in Blattella germanica. To irradiation was used an experimental irradiator of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell 220. The essential oils were submitted increasing doses of gamma radiation: 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 kGy. The bioassay with B. germanica demonstrated efficiency between 22.0 e 30.0% and between 30.0 and 42.0%, respectively, to irradiated essential oils of E. citriodora and E. globulus and they demonstrated too repellency to the nymphs. The gamma radiation used promoted changes in essential oils of E. citriodora e E. globulus that they began to show efficiency on B. germanica nymphs besides a significant reduction of repellency. Essential oils of Pinus sp., A. indica, C. sempervirens and J. communis did not display efficiency. The essential oils of C. nardus, and C. citratus had low efficiency. The gamma radiation increased the efficiency of ethanolic extract of D. Pinnata with dose of 7.5 kGy, showing 48.0% of efficiency on B. germanica nymphs. The gamma radiation showed adverse effect on the aqueous extract of R. Graveolens

  3. 喀斯特山区9种常见树木叶片在防火期的阻火性分析%Fire Resistance of Leaves During Fire Prevention Period of Nine Common Tree Species in Karst Mountain Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁琴; 陶建平; 邓锋; 王微; 方文; 何平

    2015-01-01

    Objective]Guizhou province of China is one of the most typical karst regions in the world,at the same time,its fire disturbance is highly representative in the national forest fires. With the fragile karst environment plus severe forest fire disturbance,the fire prevention is particularly important and urgent in the Karst mountain regions of Guizhou province. Among the many fire prevention measures,the biological firebreak with its versatile,and long-term advantage, has attracted much attention of scholars and managers. The primary task of biological firebreak is to select the appropriate pyrophyte ( the plants with good fire resistance) . However,there is few study focus on the pyrophyte selection for karst mountain regions. On the other hand,with regard to pyrophyte selection,there is no uniform evaluation method up to now. It’s necessary to select appropriate fire-resistant tree species which are also suitable for growing in karst mountain regions,[Method]we investigated 9 common tree species from karst mountain regions of northwest Guizhou. Based on the measurements of four leaf traits ( benzene -alcohol extract content,ash content,ignition time and heat value) during fire prevention period,we used the Principal Component Analysis ( PCA) ,combined with the Weighted-Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution ( W-TOPSIS) ,to analyze the fire resistance.[Result]The Viburnum foetidum var. ceanothoides’s and Castanea seguinii’s benzene-alcohol extractive content were 2. 12 and 1. 97 times higher than Murica nana’s; The ash content of M. nana’s and V. foetidum var. ceanothoides’were the highest,and Castanea seguinii’s,Vaccinium pseudorobustum ’s and Ligustrum quihoui ’s were the lowest; The ignition time of L. quihoui, Castanea seguinii and Cotoneaster glaucophyllus var. glaucophyllus were the longest, and Puracantha fortuneana, Cunninghamia lanceolata and Rhododendron simsii were the shortest;The highest heat value were

  4. 遮阴对迷人杜鹃种子萌发和芽苗生长的影响%Effects of Shade on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth in Rhododendron agastum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周艳; 韦小丽; 李朝婵; 陈训

    2015-01-01

    为给迷人杜鹃的抚育管理提供参考,采用盆栽法人工模拟光照条件,探索不同遮阴处理对迷人杜鹃种子萌发和芽苗生长的影响试验。结果表明:迷人杜鹃种子萌发率和萌发指数在30%遮阴处理时达到最大,分别为90.00%和2.46;随着光照的减弱而逐渐减小,在80%遮阴处理下最小,为40%和0.27。弱光照对种子萌发进程有一定的延迟作用,萌发活力指数随着光照的减弱而减小。不同遮阴处理的迷人杜鹃芽苗具有较大的形态学可塑性,30%遮阴处理的芽苗胚根长、胚轴长、芽苗活力指数和幼叶宽均最大,分别比全光照提高60.71%、29.91%、52.26%和33.33%;80%遮阴处理最小,分别比全光照降低59.09%、54.88%、74.32%和66.67%。随着遮阴度的增加,幼苗的根系活力降低,而总叶绿素含量先上升后降低,根系活力以30%遮阴处理最大,为3.49 mg/(g·h);MDA 含量以80%遮阴处理最大,为13.42 nmol/g FW;叶绿素含量以50%遮阴处理最大,为75.32μg/g。遮阴度为30%的光照环境有利于迷人杜鹃盆栽育苗。%To provide references for the R.agastum tending management,a pot culture experiment with artificial simulation of light conditions was conducted to explore the effects of different shading treatments on seed germination and seedling growth of R.agastum.Results:The seed germination rate and germination index of 30% shading treatment were the highest,respectively 90.00% and 2.46,and gradually decreased with decreasing light intensity,then reached the minimum at 80% shading treatment, respectively 40% and 0.27.Weak light put off seed germination process in certain degree,germination vigor index decreased with weakening light intensity.R.agastum with different shading treatment had great morphological plasticity,radical length,hypocotyl length,vigor index and young leaf width of 30%shading treatment were the highest,which were respectively 60.71%,29.91%,52.26% and 33.33%higher than full light treatment,that of 80% shading treatment were the lowest,59.09%,54.88%, 74.32% and 66.67% lower than full light treatment respectively.With increasing the shading degree, seedling root vigor decreased,while total chlorophyll content first increased and then decreased,root vigor of 30% shading treatment was the highest[3.49 mg/(g·h)],MDA content of 80% shading treatment was the highest(13.42 nmol/g FW),chlorophyll content of 50% shading treatment was the highest(75.32μg/g).30% shading treatment was beneficial for pot culture of seedlings of R.agastum.

  5. 云锦杜鹃ERM真菌接种效应研究及优良菌株筛选%Effects of colonization with different ericoid mycorrhizal fungi on Rhododendron fortunei and selection of superior ERM fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春英; 陈真; 于芳; 尹丽娟

    2010-01-01

    研究了15个不同类型的ERM菌株对云锦杜鹃幼苗生长的影响.结果表明:供试菌株均能侵染幼苗根系,侵染率为33%~72%;云锦杜鹃对ERM菌根的依赖性较强,所有供试菌株对接种幼苗的生长均表现为积极的正效应,12个菌株接种苗干重显著高于对照,且不同菌株接种苗生长量差异明显.

  6. 亚高山森林林窗对凋落物分解过程中半纤维素动态的影响%Effects of forest gap on hemicellulose dynamics during foliar litter decomposition in an subal-pine forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晗; 吴福忠; 杨万勤; 徐李亚; 倪祥银; 何洁; 胡义

    2015-01-01

    forest. Methods A field litterbag experiment was conducted in an subalpine fir (Abies faxoniana) forest in a transitional area located in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River and the eastern Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. Litterbags containing cypress (Sabina saltuaria), red birch (Betula albosinensis), larch (Larix mastersiana), azalea (Rhododendron lapponicum) and fir (Abies faxoniana) were placed on forest floor from the gap center to under the closed canopy. Samples of litterbags were retrieved at the stages of snow formation, snow cover, and snowmelt as well as during the growing season. Hemicellulose contents of the remaining litter were measured. Important findings After one-year decomposition, all five types of foliar litter exhibited a tendency of hemicellulose accumulation. The needle-leaved litter and broad-leaved litter showed greater hemicellulose losses at the snow cover and snowmelt stages, respectively. Greater hemicellulose losses in the gap center and under the canopy were observed at both snow cover and snowmelt stages. In contrast, there was less litter hemicellulose accumulation in the gap center during the growing season. Statistical analysis of the resulting data indicated that both environmental factors and litter quality were significantly correlated with the litter hemicellulose losses. Our results suggested that forest gap enhanced the hemicellulose losses in winter and constrained the hemicellulose accumulation during growing season, implying that the formation of forest gap in subalpine forest promoted hemicellulose degradation during litter decomposition.

  7. Identificação de pigmentos naturais de espécies vegetais utilizando-se cromatografia em papel

    OpenAIRE

    Okumura Fabiano; Soares Márlon Herbert Flora Barbosa; Cavalheiro Éder Tadeu Gomes

    2002-01-01

    The use of natural dyes to demonstrate principles of paper chromatography is proposed. Extraction of the coloring compounds were performed in order to obtain the aglycone form of the anthocyanins present in the crude extracts. Separations were carried out on chromatographic paper with BAW (butanol/acetic acid/water) as mobile phase and the results compared with literature data. The crude extracts were obtained from Tibouchina granulosa, Rododhendron simsii, Impatiens walleriana flowers which ...

  8. Identificação de pigmentos naturais de espécies vegetais utilizando-se cromatografia em papel Identification of natural pigments from vegetal species using paper chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiano Okumura; Márlon Herbert Flora Barbosa Soares; Éder Tadeu Gomes Cavalheiro

    2002-01-01

    The use of natural dyes to demonstrate principles of paper chromatography is proposed. Extraction of the coloring compounds were performed in order to obtain the aglycone form of the anthocyanins present in the crude extracts. Separations were carried out on chromatographic paper with BAW (butanol/acetic acid/water) as mobile phase and the results compared with literature data. The crude extracts were obtained from Tibouchina granulosa, Rododhendron simsii, Impatiens walleriana flowers which ...

  9. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF TREE AND SHRUB SPECIES AND RESPONSE OF BLACK CHERRY FOLIAGE TO OZONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants of 12 species were exposed to 0.20 ppm of ozone for 5 hr periodically throughout the growing season of 1976. Species exhibiting symptoms, in approximate descending order of susceptibility, were Hinodegiri azalea, black cherry, American sycamore, hybrid poplar, yellow popla...

  10. Six new alien phytophagous insect species recorded in Slovenia in 2011:

    OpenAIRE

    SELJAK, Gabrijel

    2012-01-01

    Six alien phytophagous insects found in 2011 in Slovenia for the first time are presented: Dichromothrips corbetti (Thysanoptera, Thripidae), Aleuroclava aucubae and Pealius azaleae (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae), Ceroplastes ceriferus (Hemiptera, Coccidae), Cydalima perspectalis (Lepidoptera, Crambidae) and Aproceros leucopoda (Hymenoptera, Argidae). Pathways of their introduction and spread as well as their potential phytosanitary and environmental impacts are briefly discussed. Članek obravna...

  11. 八ヶ岳周辺におけるウラジロモミ林の組成と環境要因

    OpenAIRE

    長岡, 総子; 奥田, 重俊

    1999-01-01

    Species composition and environmental factors of the Abies homolepis forest are investigated around Mt. Yatsugatake in Central Japan. Based on the phytosociological classification, Abies homolepis forests in this area are classified into two communities: Rhododendron wadanum-Abies homolepis and Lonicera demissa-Abies homolepis communities. The former is differentiated by Rhododendron wadanum, Acer distylum, Arachniodes mutica, Fagus crenata and Fagus japonica; the latter, by Lonicera demissa,...

  12. A Study on the Technique System of Tissue Culture in Rhododendron Hybrind(Ⅰ)——Selection of Medium and Explant%西洋杜鹃组织培养技术体系研究(Ⅰ)——基本培养基和外植体的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟宇; 张健; 罗承德; 陈其兵

    2001-01-01

    实验以不同季节的茎尖(含茎段)为材料,采用不同基本培养基,研究确定西洋杜鹃组织培养适合的基本培养基类型,植株再生的可能途径,以及适宜的培养条件。结果表明:①低盐分浓度及高比值NH4+/NO3-的基本培养基Read培养基适合西洋杜鹃;②最适外植体为摘花芽后萌发的顶芽茎尖;③最佳取材时间为3~5月;④培养条件:温度25±2℃,光照16h/黑暗8h,光照强度1500~2500lx。%In view of studying the suitable type of medium, probable way of explant regeneration and suitable condition of culture for tissue culture in R.hybridn, a experimentation was established in which shoot tip from different seasons and a series of different medium were employed. The results are as follows: ①Read medium with low mineral salt concentration and high ration of NH4+/NO3- is suitable for R.hybridn microculture; ②The optimal explants are shoot tips of end buds excised from R.hybridn in 3~5 months; ③All the cultures are kept under the temperature of 25±2℃, illuminated for 16 hours per day, and light intensity was 1500~2500lx.

  13. Chemical, Physical, and Biological Factors Influencing Nutrient Availability and Plant Growth in a Pine Tree Substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Brian Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Pine tree substrate (PTS) produced from freshly harvested loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees has potential for replacing or reducing the use of aged pine bark (PB) and peat moss as container substrates for horticulture crop production. The objective of this work was to determine the factors influencing nutrient availability in PTS compared to PB or peat substrates. Chapter two reports data on the response of japanese holly and azalea to fertilizer rate when grown in PTS and PB. This stud...

  14. Official Zhang Flower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Tucked away at the highest elevation of any city in the world, Lhasa is filled with flowers bathed in warm sunlight. Whether in Barkor Street or in snaking alleys, one finds flowers in full bloom. They include the famous Gal-sang flower, azaleas, to be found in the mountains, Rho-diola which is used as a medicinal herb, and a kind of flower known as High Commissioner Zhang.

  15. Effect of applied synthetic auxin on root growth in plantlet propagation by cuttage and tissue culture; Sashiki to soshiki baiyo ni okeru gosei auxin rui no shiyo koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, K.; Yoshihara, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    The effect of synthetic plant hormone 4-C1-IAA and TFIBA on root growth in plantlet propagation was clarified by the cuttage and the issue culture of strawberry seedling production. A periwinkle, vine, and azalea are the effect of 4-C1-IAA on root growth, and a promotion effect was recognized for rooting and root elongation. The concentration of 4-C1-IAA in which the growth promotion effect of a root most appears varies depending on the species of a plant. The concentration of a periwinkle was 20 ppm, and that of an azalea was 2000 ppm. The growth promotion effect of a root in 4-C1-IAA and TFIBA was compared with IBA for an azalea. The result showed that 4-C1-IAA is the same in the effect as IBA and that TFIBA is higher than for IBA. The growth of a vine`s terminal bud was promoted by the effect of TFIBA on root growth, and the callus occurring when IBA was treated was not formed. The rooting of a strawberry was promoted by the effect of TFIBA on root growth. The combined use of TFIBA and BA promotes the growth of a side bud and forms a multi-bud plant. However, rooting was inhibited. The callus caused by the effect of BA on root growth could be suppressed through the combined use with TFIBA. 6 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. An evaluation of suspended sediments and turbidity in Cow Creek, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtiss, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    During a 6-month period from December 1980 through May 1981, samples were collected from Cow Creek near Azalea, Oreg., and analyzed for suspended sediment, particle-size distribution, and turbidity. Of the estimated suspended-sediment discharge of 4,270 tons for the 1981 water year, 95 percent (4,050 tons) was transported during a major storm event, December 2-4, 1980. The 1981 water year suspended-sediment discharge of 4,270 tons is well below the average annual suspended-sediment discharge of 22,000 tons reported earlier by Curtiss (1974). A clay-sediment transport curve was used in conjunction with the flow-duration curve to estimate average annual clay discharge of 3,700 tons for Cow Creek near Azalea. Turbidity in Cow Creek near Azalea is estimated to be equal to or less than 15 NTU (nephelometric turbidity units) 90 percent of the time. A method for predicting turbidity values in a hypothetical impoundment is presented in this report. This method utilizes a suspended-sediment transport curve of the fine (Cow Creek basin.

  17. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 October 2011 - 30 November 2011

    KAUST Repository

    Abreu, Aluana Gonçalves

    2012-02-01

    This article documents the addition of 139 microsatellite marker loci and 90 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Aglaoctenus lagotis, Costus pulverulentus, Costus scaber, Culex pipiens, Dascyllus marginatus, Lupinus nanus Benth, Phloeomyzus passerini, Podarcis muralis, Rhododendron rubropilosum Hayata var. taiwanalpinum and Zoarces viviparus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Culex quinquefasciatus, Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum Hay. ssp. morii (Hay.) Yamazaki and R. pseudochrysanthum Hayata. This article also documents the addition of 48 sequencing primer pairs and 90 allele-specific primers for Engraulis encrasicolus. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Diagnostic values and utility of immunological, morphological, and molecular methods for in planta detection of phytophthora ramorum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kox, L.F.F.; Brouwershaven, van I.R.; Vossenberg, van de B.T.L.H.; Beld, van den H.E.; Bonants, P.J.M.; Gruyter, de J.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, six methods for the detection of Phytophthora ramorum in planta were compared using naturally infested rhododendron plant material. The methods included two immunological methods, one an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the other using a lateral flow format (LFD). Three m

  19. Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) : [luuletused] / R. W. Stedingh ; tlk. ja saatesõna: Jüri Talvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stedingh, R. W.

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) ; Rubus spectabilis ; Rododendron (Rhododendron macrophyllum) ; Lysuchitum americanum ; Tulp (Tulipa gesneriana) ; Kanada hani (Branta canadensis) ; Metsorava pärastlõuna (Sciurus carolinensis) ; Ohakalind (Spinus tristis) ; Shakespeare'i mälestusmärk (kogust "Stanley pargi süit")

  20. "Win with Katie McGee": The First Governor of Girls' State Looks Back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsh, Sarah Wilmoth

    2003-01-01

    Rhododendron Girls' State, a 5-day West Virginia citizenship and leadership program, offers female high school students the opportunity to directly experience the campaign and electoral process. Katie McGee White discusses her experiences as the first Girls' State governor in 1941, her love of politics, and how she encouraged her students to be…

  1. A revision of the history of the Colletotrichum acutatum species complex in the Nordic countries based on herbarium specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundelin, Thomas; Strømeng, Gunn Mari; Gjærum, Halvor B.;

    2015-01-01

    seven plant hosts (three cherry species, apple, raspberry and rhododendron). This is the first time herbarium specimens have been used to study these pathogens under Nordic conditions. Differences in the ITS sequences suggest the presence of different genotypes within the complex, indicating a well...

  2. クサグモ個体群の生息場所選択について

    OpenAIRE

    高, 明均; 三浦, 正

    1985-01-01

    The habitat choice of population in spider,Agelenna limbata Thorell, was investigated in the expenmental farm of Shimane University. There were more individuals inhabited in box-tree(Ilex crenata Thumb.) than those lived in the trees of cherry or azalea (Rhododendeon indicum). The box-tree generally has many twigs, therefore, it is assumed that the tree form of box-tree would facilitate a making nest by spiders and a escaping an attack of bird. The population density of spider per hill of bo...

  3. „A. FATU” BOTANICAL GARDEN IASSY – THE GREENHOUSE

    OpenAIRE

    TEODORESCU GEORGETA

    2004-01-01

    In Iassy, „A. Fatu” Botanical garden’s Greenhouse complex (20 buildings with a total area of 3800 sq.m) hosts a remarcable fund of exotic plants (2700 taxa), native especially in subtropical, tropical and ecuatorial areas, on every continent.This paper presents some of the plant collections grown in this space. It comes out that, by number, diversity and value (scientific/decorative) of the taxa, many collections – azaleas and camelias, carnivorous plant, palm trees, bromelias, orchids, cicad...

  4. „A. FATU” BOTANICAL GARDEN IASSY – THE GREENHOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEODORESCU GEORGETA

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In Iassy, „A. Fatu” Botanical garden’s Greenhouse complex (20 buildings with a total area of 3800 sq.m hosts a remarcable fund of exotic plants (2700 taxa, native especially in subtropical, tropical and ecuatorial areas, on every continent.This paper presents some of the plant collections grown in this space. It comes out that, by number, diversity and value (scientific/decorative of the taxa, many collections – azaleas and camelias, carnivorous plant, palm trees, bromelias, orchids, cicads, crotons, ficuses – have a unicum value in the country.

  5. Identificação de pigmentos naturais de espécies vegetais utilizando-se cromatografia em papel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okumura Fabiano

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural dyes to demonstrate principles of paper chromatography is proposed. Extraction of the coloring compounds were performed in order to obtain the aglycone form of the anthocyanins present in the crude extracts. Separations were carried out on chromatographic paper with BAW (butanol/acetic acid/water as mobile phase and the results compared with literature data. The crude extracts were obtained from Tibouchina granulosa, Rododhendron simsii, Impatiens walleriana flowers which are wildely found in Brazil and Phaseolus vulgaris L. grains skin which is the principal ingredient of the world famous "feijoada". Such species were chosen in order to attract the students attention since they are present in their quotidian, in agreement with the new proposals for Brazilian education.

  6. Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Insecticidal Activities of Hedychium Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanniah Rajasekaran

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been documented, and their use as “biocides” is gaining popularity. The aims of this study were to analyze the chemical composition and assess the biological activities of Hedychium essential oils. Oils from 19 Hedychium species and cultivars were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS techniques. The antifungal and insecticidal activities of these oils were tested against Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides, and three insects, the azalea lace bug (Stephanitis pyrioides, the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti, and the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta. Hedychium oils were rich in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, especially 1,8-cineole (0.1%–42%, linalool (<0.1%–56%, a-pinene (3%–17%, b-pinene (4%–31%, and (E-nerolidol (0.1%–20%. Hedychium oils had no antifungal effect on C. gloeosporioides, C. fragariae, and C. acutatum, but most Hedychium oils effectively killed azalea lace bugs. The oils also show promise as an adult mosquito repellent, but they would make rather poor larvicides or adulticides for mosquito control. Hedychium oils acted either as a fire ant repellent or attractant, depending on plant genotype and oil concentration.

  7. Influence of ozone on selected woody ornamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, F.A.; Coppolino, J.B.

    1971-01-01

    Approximately 900 plants of 24 woody ornamental species were exposed to 25 pphm ozone for 8 hr at 24 C, 75% relative humidity, and 1400 ft-c of light. Cercis canadensis, Cotoneaster divaricata, C. horizontalis, Forsythia intermedia spectabilis Lynwood Gold, Gleditsia triacanthos inermis, Rhododendron kaempheri Camp fire, R. kurume Snow, R. catawbiense album, R. nova zembla, R. roseium elegans, Sorbus aucuparia, Syringa vulgaris, and Viburnum carlesi were sensitive. The most common symptoms were brown to black necrotic stipples on the upper leaf surface and premature defoliation. Interveinal necrotic and chlorotic flecks occurred infrequently. Current leaves of intermediate age were most sensitive. Euonymous alatus compacta, Hedra helix, Juniperus communis depressa plumosa, Pachysandra terminalis, Pieris japonica, Pyracantha coccinea lalandi, Rhododendron caroliniana, R. mollis, Taxus cuspidata, T. media hicksi, and Vinca minor were resistant.

  8. Changes in thermal infrared spectra of plants caused by temperature and water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, Maria F.; Groen, Thomas A.; Hecker, Christoph A.; Skidmore, Andrew K.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental stress causes changes in leaves and the structure of plants. Although physiological adaptations to stress by plants have been explored, the effect of stress on the spectral properties in the thermal part of the electromagnetic spectrum (3-16 μm) has not yet been investigated. In this research two plant species (European beech, Fagus sylvatica and rhododendron, Rhododendron cf. catawbiense) that both grow naturally under temperature limited conditions were selected, representing deciduous and evergreen plants respectively. Besides TIR spectra, Leaf Water Content (LWC) and cuticle thickness were measured as possible variables that can explain the changes in TIR spectra. The results demonstrated that both species, when exposed to either water or temperature stress, showed significant changes in their TIR spectra. The changes in TIR in response to stress were similar within a species, regardless of the stress imposed on them. However, changes in TIR spectra differed between species. For rhododendron emissivity in TIR increased under stress while for beech it decreased. Both species showed depletion of Leaf Water Content (LWC) under stress, ruling LWC out as a main cause for the change in the TIR spectra. Cuticle thickness remained constant for beech, but increased for rhododendron. This suggests that changes in emissivity may be linked to changes in the cuticle thickness and possibly the structure of cuticle. It is known that spectral changes in this region have a close connection with microstructure and biochemistry of leaves. We propose detailed measurements of these changes in the cuticle to analyze the effect of microstructure on TIR spectra.

  9. How endangered is sexual reproduction of high-mountain plants by summer frosts? Frost resistance, frequency of frost events and risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Ladinig, Ursula; Hacker, Jürgen; Neuner, Gilbert; Wagner, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    In temperate-zone mountains, summer frosts usually occur during unpredictable cold spells with snow-falls. Earlier studies have shown that vegetative aboveground organs of most high-mountain plants tolerate extracellular ice in the active state. However, little is known about the impact of frost on reproductive development and reproductive success. In common plant species from the European Alps (Cerastium uniflorum, Loiseleuria procumbens, Ranunculus glacialis, Rhododendron ferrugineum, Saxif...

  10. Photosynthetic limitation of several representative subalpine species in the Catalan Pyrenees in summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernàndez-Martínez, J; Fleck, I

    2016-07-01

    Information on the photosynthetic process and its limitations is essential in order to predict both the capacity of species to adapt to conditions associated with climate change and the likely changes in plant communities. Considering that high-mountain species are especially sensitive, three species representative of subalpine forests of the Central Catalan Pyrenees: mountain pine (Pinus uncinata Mill.), birch (Betula pendula Roth) and rhododendron (Rhododendron ferrugineum L.) were studied under conditions associated with climate change, such as low precipitation, elevated atmospheric [CO2 ] and high solar irradiation incident at Earth's surface, in order to detect any photosynthetic limitations. Short-term high [CO2 ] increased photosynthesis rates (A) and water use efficiency (WUE), especially in birch and mountain pine, whereas stomatal conductance (gs ) was not altered in either species. Birch showed photosynthesis limitation through stomatal closure related to low rainfall, which induced photoinhibition and early foliar senescence. Rhododendron was especially affected by high irradiance, showing early photosynthetic saturation in low light, highest chlorophyll content, lowest gas exchange rates and least photoprotection. Mountain pine had the highest A, photosynthetic capacity (Amax ) and light-saturated rates of net CO2 assimilation (Asat ), which were maintained under reduced precipitation. Furthermore, maximum quantum yield (Fv /Fm ), thermal energy dissipation, PRI and SIPI radiometric index, and ascorbate content indicated improved photoprotection with respect to the other two species. However, maximum velocity of carboxylation of RuBisco (Vcmax ) indicated that N availability would be the main photosynthetic limitation in this species. PMID:26833754

  11. Structure, Composition and Dominance � Diversity Relations in Three Forest Types of a Part of Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary, Central Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Prasad SEMWAL

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant diversity assessment was carried out on the basis of species richness, tree crown cover and dominance-diversity pattern in different forests of Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary (KWLS, Central Himalaya, India during 2006-2009. The maximum tree species richness (10 spp. was observed in Rhododendron arboreum Sm. dominated mixed forest and minimum in Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus. forest (8 spp.. Maximum tree density (170 trees/ha and high importance value index (89.68 was found in Q. semecarpifolia Sm. forest. Mixed Rhododendron arboreum Sm. forest showed high tree diversity (H=0.96, while shrub were found highest in Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus forest (H=0.62 and herb diversity in Q. semecarpifolia Sm.forest (H=0.73 respectively Maximum tree crown cover (82% was observed in Rhododendron arboreum Sm. dominated mixed forest while minimum tree crown cover (58% was observed in Q. semecarpifolia Sm. forest. In general random distribution pattern (A/F ratio was observed in all three types of forest. Alterations of land use pattern and population pressure are found to be main cause of increase in resources exploitation and that ultimately decreases species richness and diversity. Agro-forestry, alternate use of sites for resources and providing a recovery period to the forests are some of the strategies suggested for forest conservation, management and sustainable utilization of resources by the local people.

  12. Why measure patient satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskind, Patty; Fossey, Leslie; Brill, Kari

    2011-01-01

    A practice that consistently and continuously measures patient perceptions will be more efficient and effective in its daily operations. With pay-for-performance requirements on the horizon and consumer rating sites already publicizing impressions from physician encounters, a practice needs to know how it is performing through the eyes of the patients. Azalea Orthopedics has used patient feedback to coach its physicians on better patient communication. The Orthopaedic Institute has used patient satisfaction results to reduce wait times and measure the return on investment from its marketing efforts. Patient survey results that are put to work can enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of practice operations as well as position the practice for increased profitability. PMID:21506460

  13. 我国网络慈善组织人才困境与对策--以“格桑花”为例%The Talent Dilemma and Countermeasures of Network Charity Organization In China---Taking the“Sims Azalea” for example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕

    2013-01-01

    How to optimize human resources management is directly related to organization in the future, this article use“Sims Azalea western student network” as an example, and analyze the dilemma encountered in the process of human resource management of network charity organization, and try to put forward the corresponding countermeasures.%如何优化人力资源管理直接关系到组织未来,本文以“格桑花西部助学网”为例,分析网络慈善组织发展过程中遇到的人力资源管理困境,并提出相应对策。

  14. Effect of Sanding on Surface Properties of Medium Density Fiberboard

    OpenAIRE

    Nadir Ayrilmis, Zeki Candan, Turgay Akbulut, Ozgur Balkiz

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of sanding on the surface properties of the medium density fiberboard (MDF) panels made from Rhododendron ponticum L. wood. The MDF panels were sanded with different sizes of the sand paper grit: 60-, 60+80- or 60+80+120-grit. Surface absorption and surface roughness of the MDF panels were determined based on EN 382-1 standard and ISO 4287 by using a fi ne stylus profi lometer, respectively. Sessile water drop technique was used to...

  15. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON WHOLE TREE VERTICAL TENSILE STRENGTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihua CHEN; Xinxiao YU; Dongsheng ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the vertical tensile strength of whole tree roots under the same soil and landform conditions.The experiments show that the shape of a root system's distribution affects the vertical tensile strength of roots.Rhododendron trees have horizontal root systems,so the whole roots were pulled out in the experiment process.Populous purdomii has vertical roots,so the experiment continued quite a long time.Abies fabric has both vertical and horizontal main roots,so the P-S curve shows a multi-peak shape.

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Tree Species in Mixed Forests of Mandal Catchments, Garhwal Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balwant KUMAR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 14 tree species were identified in the study sites, among which Quercus leucotrichophora Hook. F. (Banj oak, Rhododendron arboreum Smith (Burans, Lyonia ovalifolia Drude (Ayar and Pyrus pashia Buch-Hemp (Mehal are the predominant tree species. A quantitative analysis of tree species indicates that on the basis of their canopy cover, tree density and total base area, these study sites fall within the category of disturbed forest. The uncontrolled lopping for timber, firewood and leaf fodder and the absence of saplings and seedlings are some of the major factors responsible for the declining of forests in the Himalayan region.

  17. The diversity of soil culturable fungi in the three alpine shrub grasslands of Eastern Qilian Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junzhong ZHANG; Baiying MAN; Benzhong FU; Li LIU; Changzhi HAN

    2013-01-01

    To understand the diversity of culturable fungi in soil at alpine sites,Rhododendron fruticosa shrubland,Salix cupularis fruticosa shrubland,and Dasiphoru fruticosa shrubland of the Eastern Qilian Mountains were selected to investigate.Three methods,including traditional culturing,rDNA intemal transcribed spacer (ITS)sequence analysis,and economical efficiency analysis,were carried out to estimate the diversity of soil culturable fungi of these three alpine shrublands.A total of 35 strains of culturable fungi were cultured by dilution plate technique and were analyzed by rDNA ITS sequence.The diversity indices such as species abundance (S),Shannon-Wiener index (H),Simpson dominance index (D),and Pielou evenness index (J) of Rhododendron fruticosa shrubland,Salix cupularis fruticosa shrubland,and Dasiphoru fruticosa shrubland were ranged between 16 and 17,2.66-2.71,0.92,0.95-0.97 respectively.The results showed that the diversity of soil fungi were abundant in these three types of alpine shrub grasslands,while further study should be done to explore their potential value.

  18. 抑制烟草花叶病毒侵染的植物提取物的筛选%Selecting materials of antiviral activity to tobacco mosaic virus infection from some plant extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马学萍; 孔宝华; 叶敏; 段云晖

    2007-01-01

    Ethanol extracts from thirty-three kinds of plant were tested for inhibiting Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) infection by using half leaf technique on Nicotiana glutinosa.The results showed that the extracts of Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G.Don and Eucalyptus maideni F.V.Muell performed better inhibitory activities to TMV infection comparing other plant species.The inhibition percentage were 89.7%and 78.3%,respectively.The extracts of Cuscuta chinensis Lam.,Rosa moyesii Hemsl.et wils,Morus alba L.,Callistemon rigidus R.Br,R.simsii planch,Osmanthus fragrans (Thunb)Lour,Dianthus chinensis L.,Ehretia coryltfolia C.H.Wight,Brassica juncea(L.) Czern.et coss,Aloe vera(L.) Burm.f.showed inhibitory effect as well.The inhibition percentage all of them were over 50%.%用半叶枯斑法,在心叶烟上测试了33种植物乙醇提取物水溶液对烟草花叶病毒(Tobacco mosaic virus,TMV)侵染的抑制效果.结果表明,雪松、桉树提取物能较好地抑制病毒(TMV)侵染, 抑制率达到89.7%,78.3%;此外,菟丝子、红花蔷薇、桑、红千层、杜鹃、桂花、香石竹、滇厚朴、荠菜、芦荟等植物提取物也具有抑制烟草花叶病毒(TMV)侵染的效果,抑制率均在50%以上.

  19. Retrieval of leaf area index in different plant species using thermal hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neinavaz, Elnaz; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Groen, Thomas A.

    2016-09-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important variable of terrestrial ecosystems because it is strongly correlated with many ecosystem processes (e.g., water balance and evapotranspiration) and directly related to the plant energy balance and gas exchanges. Although LAI has been accurately predicted using visible and short-wave infrared hyperspectral data (0.3-2.5 μm), LAI estimation using thermal infrared (TIR, 8-14 μm) measurements has not yet been addressed. The novel approach of this study is to evaluate the retrieval of LAI using TIR hyperspectral data. The leaf area indices were destructively acquired for four plant species: Azalea japonica, Buxussempervirens, Euonymus japonicus, and Ficus benjamina. Canopy emissivity spectral measurements were obtained under controlled laboratory conditions using a MIDAC (M4401-F) spectrometer. The LAI retrieval was assessed using a partial least squares regression (PLSR), artificial neural networks (ANNs), and narrow band indices calculated from all possible combinations of waveband pairs for three vegetation indices including simple difference, simple ratio, and normalized difference. ANNs retrieved LAI more accurately than PLSR and vegetation indices (0.67 values of LAI (LAI ⩾ 5.5). The study showed the significance of using PLSR and ANNs as multivariate methods compared to the univariate technique (e.g., narrow band vegetation indices) when hyperspectral thermal data is utilized. We thus demonstrated for the first time the potential of hyperspectral thermal data to accurately retrieve LAI.

  20. Q89 环境生物学和生态学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    有害藻华(HAB)的发生、生态学影响和对策=The occurrence, ecological effects of HAB and countermeasures against it;高寒沙区植被人工修复与种子植物物种多样性的变化=Changes of plant species diversity in the process of human-induced vegetation restoration in sandy lands of Qinghai-Tibet plateau;绵粉蚧危害的花椒树对异色瓢虫的招引作用=The bunge prickly-ash tree damaged by a mealybug, Phenacoccus azaleae attracting the ladybug, Harmonia axyridis;毛竹林经营干扰、林下植物与冠层螨类之间的关系= Relation between management disturbance and undergrowth and canopy mites in PhyUostachys pubescens forests;西部高寒温地系统的草地资源保护与优化利用模式研究=Meadow conservation and optimal utilization of the alpine wetland in the Western China。

  1. Biochar as a biosecurity tool for the management of invasive and/or infected plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Philip J. E.; Fielding, J. James; Alayne Street-Perrott, F.; Doerr, Stefan H.; Brackenbury, Sion

    2014-05-01

    Control of invasive alien/native plants and diseased trees is often achieved using labour-intensive mechanical methods, incurring high costs and significant carbon debt. Disposal of cleared biomass may be heavily regulated. The commonly used method, burning, wastes a potentially valuable resource. Biochar may offer a safe, cost-effective solution to the problem of disposal. Large areas of Wales are covered by bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) (37x103 ha) or invasive Rhododendron ponticum (area not yet quantified). Clearance of these plants is often necessary for agriculture or maintenance of biodiversity (bracken), or to curb the rapid dispersal of the fungus-like pathogen Phytophthora ramorum from rhododendron (the principal host) into commercial timber stands, notably Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi). In addition, ash dieback (the fungal disease Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus aka Chalara fraxinea) is now spreading aggressively in common ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior) in the UK. Pilot-scale experiments are being conducted using a BiGchar 1000 mobile, fast pyrolysis -gasification unit, focussing on chipped rhododendron, Japanese larch and common ash feedstocks. Preliminary results of these experiments will be presented. The biochars produced are being subjected to a range of physical and chemical analyses. Levels of micro- and macro-nutrients retained from the original feedstocks are being evaluated. Organic and inorganic contaminants are also being compared with those in the respective feedstocks. Biochar produced from R. ponticum comprised C 63.7-85.9%, H 0.4-0.8%, N 0.4-0.8%, S 0.27-1.79% and O 4.1-27.4%, with most of the mineral nutrients being retained from the original feedstock, especially Mn. Larch biochar comprised C 84.1-91.7%, H 1.8-3.1%, N 0.3-0.8%, S 0.42-0.69% and O 4.1-10.7%. Heavy-metal concentrations were below recommended limits (International Biochar Initiative, 2012), although R. ponticum growing on highly acidified soils showed some tendency to bio

  2. Comparison Study on Soil Nutrients of Hundred-mile Rhododedron Forest Zone before and after the Mining Subsidence%百里杜鹃林区采煤塌陷前后土壤养分状况对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文博; 田凡; 廖小锋; 谢元贵; 张东凯

    2014-01-01

    [目的]揭示采煤塌陷对贵州百里杜鹃林区土壤养分的影响。[方法]在选取典型对比样地的基础上,对百里杜鹃林区不同层次土壤进行了分层对比分析。[结果]结果表明,采煤塌陷后,百里杜鹃林区土壤酸性减弱,向中性趋近;土壤有机质含量有降低的趋势;土壤全量养分(全氮、全磷、全钾)含量有所提高;有效氮(铵态氮、硝态氮)含量总体提高,但速效磷、速效钾含量明显降低。[结论]采煤塌陷打破了百里杜鹃林区土壤养分的平衡,尤其是减少了有效磷、有效钾的供应。%Objective The aim was to re-veal the impact mechanism of coal min-ing collapse on soil nutrient of Hun-dred-mile Rhododendron Forest Zone of Guizhou. [Method]The soil of different levels were analyzed comparatively based on typical contrast plots. [Result] The results were summarized as follows, for the soil of Hundred-mile Rhododen-dron Forest Zone,after the occurrence of coal mining subsidence, the soil acidity was weaker than before, and tended to be neutral;the soil organic matter took a tendency to decrease;the soil total nutrient content (total nitro-gen,total phosphorus and total potassi-um) improved to some extent;and the soil available nitrogen content (ammoni-um nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen) over-all improved,but the content of avail-able phosphorus and available potassium significantly decreased. [Conclusion] G enerally speaking,coal m ining col-lapse broke the balance of soil nutrients of Hundred-mile Rhododendron Forest Zone of Guizhou,especially cased the decrease of available phosphorous and available potassium.

  3. AMS radiocarbon dating of wood trunks in the pumiceous deposits of the Kikai-Akahoya eruption in Yakushima Island, SW Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, Mitsuru, E-mail: okuno@fukuoka-u.ac.jp [Department of Earth System Science, Faculty of Science, Fukuoka University, 814-0180 Fukuoka (Japan); AIG Collaborative Research Institute for International Study on Eruptive History and Informatics, Fukuoka University, 814-0180 Fukuoka (Japan); Nakamura, Toshio [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, 464-8602 Nagoya (Japan); Geshi, Nobuo [Geological Survey of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Science and Technology, 305-8567 Tsukuba (Japan); Kimura, Katsuhiko [Division of Environment System Management, Faculty of Symbiotic System Science, Fukushima University, 960-1296 Fukushima (Japan); Saito-Kokubu, Yoko [Tono Geoscience Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 959-31 Jorinji, Toki, Gifu 509-5102 (Japan); Kobayashi, Tetsuo [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 890-0065 Kagoshima (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Radiocarbon dating using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was performed on numerous wood trunks from pumiceous deposits along the Nagata, Isso and Miyanoura rivers on the northern side of Yakushima Island, 60 km south of Kyushu Island. The obtained {sup 14}C dates were around 6.5 ka BP, which, in combination with the geological characteristics of the pumiceous deposits indicates that these specimens were buried during the Kikai-Akahoya (K-Ah) eruption from the Kikai caldera. However, the fact that they are not charred suggests that the origin of these deposits are not pyroclastic flows. Fourteen taxa (Pinus subgen. Diploxylon, Tsuga, Cryptomeria, Chamaecyparis, Myrica, Castanea, Castanopsis, Quercus subgen. Cyclobalanopsis, Trochodendron, Phellodendron, Lagerstroemia, Rhododendron, Myrsine and Symplocos) were identified through anatomical characteristics. This is the first discovery of forest species on the Yakushima Island before the devastating eruption.

  4. Atrioventricular block induced by mad-honey intoxication: confirmation of diagnosis by pollen analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagli, Kumral Ergun; Tufekcioglu, Omac; Sen, Nihat; Aras, Dursun; Topaloglu, Serkan; Basar, Nur; Pehlivan, Sevil

    2009-01-01

    An unusual type of food poisoning, mad-honey intoxication, can be observed in the Black Sea region of Turkey and various other parts of the world. It can occur after ingestion of grayanotoxin-contaminated honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum and other plant species, chiefly of the Ericaceae and Sapindaceae families. Mad-honey intoxication can result in severe cardiac complications, such as complete atrioventricular block. The diagnosis is generally reached on the basis of the patient's history of honey intake. In this report, we describe the case of a patient who had mad-honey-related complete atrioventricular block; in this instance, the diagnosis was confirmed by a pollen analysis of the suspect honey.

  5. La diversité naturelle des espèces ligneuses en tant que source de plantes ornementales et utilitaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena De Belder

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural diversity of woody species as a source of ornamental plants.The collection of the Kalmthout Arboretum contains 4 000 plants, representing 170 généra of woody plants and 240 généra of herbaceous plants. An additional 6 000 plants are kept on the site of Hemelrijk, in Essen. The material originated partly from other institutions but also from collecting trips in Japan, South and North Corea, Russia and China. A part of thèse introductions was evaluated or used for hybridizing with a view to produce woody plant cultivars of ornamental value, especially in the généra Hamamelis, Hydrangea, Prunus, Malus, Pyrus and Rhododendron. A large number of thèse new cultivars are now grown in commercial nurseries in Europe, North America and Japan.

  6. 氮沉降对长白山苔原植被影响的试验研究%Experimental Study on the Effects of Nitrogen Deposition on the Tundra Vegetation of the Changbai Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳英华; 许嘉巍; 宗盛伟; 王鹏

    2014-01-01

    为了探讨氮沉降增加对苔原植被的影响,特别是对草本植物侵入苔原的作用,在长白山高山苔原带进行了连续4 a的人工氮沉降模拟实验,测定3种设定的氮沉降水平下牛皮杜鹃(Rhododendron chrysanthum)、笃斯越橘(Vaccinium uliginosum)和小叶章(Deyeuxia angustifolia)的生长状况和群落结构变化。研究结果表明:①与牛皮杜鹃、笃斯越橘等苔原本地种相比,氮沉降量增加更有利于侵入的小叶章生长;牛皮杜鹃生长对氮沉降量变化响应微弱,氮沉降量增加能明显抑制笃斯越橘的生长。②无小叶章侵入的牛皮杜鹃和笃斯越橘斑块在不同氮沉降量条件下,群落结构变化不明显,氮沉降增加不是小叶章侵入苔原带的直接原因。③在小叶章侵入牛皮杜鹃和笃斯越橘斑块后,氮沉降量增加强化了小叶章的竞争能力,逐渐取代牛皮杜鹃或笃斯越橘,成为优势种,推动高山苔原向高山草甸转化。因此,随着氮沉降量的不断增加,长白山苔原带将面临退化与草甸化。%In order to explore the effects of increased nitrogen deposition on alpine tundra vegetation change, es-pecially the herb invasion, in Changbai Mountains, the experiments of simulated increased nitrogen deposition were conducted over four years in the alpine tundra zone of the Changbai Mountains. The experiment included three nitrogen deposition treatments. The changes of growth and community structure were measured for Rho⁃dodendron chrysanthum, Vaccinium uliginosum and Deyeuxia angustifolia. The main results were as follows:1) Compared to the Rhododendron chrysanthum, Vaccinium uliginosum and other tundra native species, the in-crease of nitrogen deposition is more conducive to the growth of Deyeuxia angustifolia, it was no significant re-sponse to increase of nitrogen deposition for growth of Rhododendron chrysanthum, it was significantly sup-pressed by increase

  7. Preliminary Survey on Native Orchids of Hkakabo-razi National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hkakabo-razi is rich in biodiversity of flora and fauna which is situated in Northern Kachin State. Total area of Hkakabo-razi is 1472 sq miles and is the biggest National Park in Myanmar. Abundance of wild orchids, rhododendrons, ferns, trees, temperate and sub-tropical wild flowers grow well naturally in primary dense forests of this area. This area is habitat of CITES Appendis (I) listed orchid Paphiopedilum wardii and other uncommon and unusual native wild orchids. Three biological expeditions in 1997, 1998 and 2000 undertook the task of surveying the flora and fauna of this region jointlyh co-sponsored by Forest Department of Myanmar and Wildlife Conservation Society from United States. In this presentation, the native orchids of this area were described and presented as the preliminary result of above three biological expeditions conducted in Hkakabo-razi National Park.

  8. Interspecific differences in foliar 1 PAHs load between Scots pine, birch, and wild rosemary from three polish peat bogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mętrak, Monika; Aneta, Ekonomiuk; Wiłkomirski, Bogusław; Staszewski, Tomasz; Suska-Malawska, Małgorzata

    2016-08-01

    Pine needles are one of the most commonly used bioindicators of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment. Therefore, the main objective of the current research was the assessment of PAHs accumulation potential of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles in comparison to wild rosemary (Rhododendron tomentosum Harmaja) and birch (Betula spp.) leaves. Our study was carried out on three peat bogs subjected to different degree of anthropopression, which gave us also the opportunity to identify local emission sources. Pine needles had the lowest accumulation potential from all the studied species. The highest accumulation potential, and hence carcinogenic potential, was observed for wild rosemary leaves. As far as emission sources are concerned, the most pronounced influence on atmospheric PAHs loads had traditional charcoal production, resulting in great influx of heavy PAHs. Observed seasonal changes in PAHs concentrations followed the pattern of winter increase, caused mainly by heating season, and summer decrease, caused mainly by volatilization of light PAHs. PMID:27393196

  9. Natural Mongolian Pine Forests in the Great Xing'an Mountains, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Zhiqiang; Liu Tong; Zhou Lin

    2003-01-01

    Based upon 134 reléves, the vegetation of the forests with Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) of the Great Xing'an Mountains in the northeast China was classified into 3 communities, 7 types and 4 subtypes by numerical cluster analysis. 1) The Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica-Populus davidiana-community was found on relatively dry sites. It was subdivided into a Quercus mongolica-type, consisting of a Adenophora tetraphylla subtype, a Pulsatilla dahurica subtype, and a pure type; 2) The Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica-Rhododendron dauricum-community occurred on medium dry sites. It included a Calamagrostis angustifolia type, consisting of a Cladonia arbuscula subtype, a pure subtype, and a Rubus idaeus-type; 3) The Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica-Ledum palustre-community was found on periodically wet sites. It included a Picea koraiensis type, a Vaccinium uliginosum type, and a pure type.

  10. Inhibition of enzymatic browning and protection of sulfhydryl enzymes by thiol compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, O; Ozawa, T

    2000-06-01

    In a reaction between (-)-epicatechin (EC) and 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME), catalyzed by partially purified polyphenol oxidase (PPO) extracted from the style of Rhododendron mucronatum, 2'-(2-hydroxyethylthio)-(-)-epicatechin (2'-HETEC), 5'-(2-hydroxyethylthio)-(-)-epicatechin (5'-HETEC), and 2',5'-bis(2-hydroxyethylthio)-(-)-epicatechin (2',5'-HETEC) were formed. The rate of formation of 2',5'-HETEC from 5'-HETEC was faster than that from 2'-HETEC. In the absence of 2ME, the concentration of EC decreased rapidly and the reaction mixture turned brown; 2'-, 5'-, and 2',5'-HETEC, especially 2'-substituted HETECs. reacted more slowly. These data indicate that 2ME acts both as an inhibitor of the polymerization of O-quinone, presumably by binding to it and as a reductant involved in the conversion of O-quinone to O-dihydroxyphenol, Inhibition of enzymatic browning by other thiol compounds such as cysteine and dithiothreitol was also investigated.

  11. Plant regeneration from petiole segments of some species in tissue culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Klimaszewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration ability of 21 plant species belonging to 14 families was tested. The method of tissue culture in vitro was applied, on basic MS medium with an addition of growth regulators from the auxin and cytokinin groups. From among the investigated plant groups Peperomia scandens and Caladium × hortulanum were capable of plant regeneration, Passiilora coerulea regenerated shoots, Hedera helix, Begonia glabra, Coleus blumei, Fuchsia hybrida, Passiflora suberosa and Peperomia eburnea formed callus and roots, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, Pelargonium grandiflorum, P. peltatum, P. radula, Coleus shirensis and Magnolia soulangeana produced callus, Philodendron scandens, Rhododendron smirnovii, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Coprosma baueri, Cestrum purpureum and Solanum rantonnetii did not exhibit any regeneration reactions.

  12. Habitat Ecology of Himalayan Musk Deer (Moschus chrysogaster in Manaslu Conservation Area, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuxiang Meng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster is an endangered species found in the Himalayan region of Nepal. This research was conducted in the Manaslu Conservation Area to explore the deers general population status, distribution, habitat preference and conservation threats. Musk deer are distributed within the altitudinal range of 3128-4039 m spanning 35.43 km2, with the most potential habitat in the Prok VDC (Village Development Committee. Within this area the Musk deer highly preferred altitudes between 3601-3800 m, with a 21-30 slope, 26-50% crown cover and 26-50% ground cover. There are significant differences in the use of different habitat types in terms of altitude, slope, crown cover, ground cover and topography. The preferred tree species were Abies spectabilis, Betula utilis and Rhododendron species. Poaching of deer for their musk is the major conservation threat.

  13. Utilization of Rhododend ron L .in Garden in Northern Area of China%杜鹃花属植物在北方园林中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘影; 赵禹宁

    2015-01-01

    我国杜鹃花属植物资源非常丰富。杜鹃属植物大多株形优美、花大而艳,具有极高的观赏价值。我省杜鹃属植物共有6种1变种,其中4种为栽培种,对几种杜鹃的特点及其在园林中的应用进行探讨。%There are abundance of Rhododendron L .tree spices in China ,and most of them are of good‐looking branch structure ,and the bloom of them are of large‐size and brilliant ,so most of them have ornamental value .The are 6 spices and 1 variety in Heilongjiang province ,and 4 of them are cultivated‐spices .In this paper ,different taints and utilizing are discussed .

  14. A DNA microarray for the authentication of toxic traditional Chinese medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carles, Maria; Cheung, Matthew Kin; Moganti, Shanti; Dong, Tina T; Tsim, Karl W; Ip, Nancy Y; Sucher, Nikolaus J

    2005-06-01

    A silicon-based DNA microarray was designed and fabricated for the identification of toxic traditional Chinese medicinal plants. Species-specific oligonucleotide probes were derived from the 5S ribosomal RNA gene of Aconitum carmichaeli, A. kusnezoffi, Alocasia macrorrhiza, Croton tiglium, Datura inoxia, D. metel, D. tatula, Dysosma pleiantha, Dy. versipellis, Euphorbia kansui, Hyoscyamus niger, Pinellia cordata, P. pedatisecta, P. ternata, Rhododendron molle, Strychnos nux-vomica, Typhonium divaricatum and T. giganteum and the leucine transfer RNA gene of Aconitum pendulum and Stellera chamaejasme. The probes were immobilized via dithiol linkage on a silicon chip. Genomic target sequences were amplified and fluorescently labeled by asymmetric polymerase chain reaction. Multiple toxic plant species were identified by parallel genotyping. Chip-based authentication of medicinal plants may be useful as inexpensive and rapid tool for quality control and safety monitoring of herbal pharmaceuticals and neutraceuticals. PMID:15971136

  15. Toxic Plant Resources in Panxi Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yun; SU Chunjiang; ZHENG Yuanchang

    2007-01-01

    Panxi Area is abundant in plant resources, among which toxic plants are of great value in terms of exploitation. This paper is an initiative study (via field as well as literature investigation) of the categories, distributions, and reserves of toxic plant resources in Panxi Area. The study reveals that there are 51 families (210 species) of toxic plants evenly distributed in Panxi Area, of which more than 40 species grow in all counties in the area, and more than 14 species total a reserve more than 1.0×105kg. These toxic plants are of great applications to medicine, gardening, biopesticide industry, environmental engineering, and oil manufacturing. Rhododendron molle, Anisodus acutangulus, Arisaema erubesocens, Stellera chamaejasme, Rhytolacca acinosa, Rheum officinale, and Azadiralta indica etc are the typical toxic plants with great value of exploitation in Panxi Area.

  16. Dominance and diversity studies of tree species in lesser Himalayan forest of Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. BISHT

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Bisht AS, Bhatt AB. 2016. Dominance and diversity studies of tree species in lesser Himalayan forest of Uttarakhand, India. Biodiversitas 17: 70-77. For the present investigation single mountain, approach was applied. This is a supplement the basic approach and extends the gradients further downward in to the forest belt. Vegetational analysis of nine stands covering all the four aspects of the study site of Pauri Garhwal district of Uttarakhand, India has been undertaken. In seven trees, species were encountered. East aspect is characteristics by highest density of Cupressus torulosa while west aspect comprised of Cedrus deodara, Myrica esculenta, Pinus. roxbugrhii, Quercus. leucotrichophora and Rhododendron arboreum, i.e. high diversity with low dominance Cupressus torulosa and Cedrus deodara dominated the north aspect. In general, influence of higher anthropogenic pressure on Quercus species is an important factor for leads to gradual replacement of oak species by Pinus roxburghii in all the aspects.

  17. 4,4,6a,6b,11,12,14b-Heptamethyl-16-oxo-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,6a,6b,7,8,9,10,11,12,12a,14a,14b-octadecahydro-12b,8a-(epoxymethanopicen-3-yl acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nisar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C32H48O4, which was extracted from the bark of Rhododendron arboreum, consists of five fused rings to which an acetate and seven methyl groups are attached. The A, D and E rings adopt chair conformations, the B ring is in a distorted chair and the C ring is in a half-chair conformation. The five-membered ring formed by the lactone group, which bridges from the A/B to the B/C ring junctions, is an approximate envelope with the C atom of the methyne group as the flap [displacement from the other four atoms = 0.753 (2 Å]. There are no identified directional interactions in the crystal structure.

  18. Effectiveness of electron beam irradiation in the control of some soilborne pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam (EB) irradiation was tested against Botrytis cinerea, Pythium ultimum and Phytophthora citricola the most dangerous pathogens causing stem and root rot of seedlings, cuttings and older plants. In the laboratory trials cultures of 3 species were irradiated with doses 0 (control), 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 kGy whereas peat was treated with 10, 15 and 25 kGy. P. citricola was the most sensitive species for irradiation. In greenhouse trials 15 kGy irradiation of peat protected chrysanthemum cuttings against B. cinerea and P. ultimum as well as rhododendron young plants against P. citricola. Irradiation of peat did not influence the growth and development of the tested plants. (authors)

  19. Dispersion pattern interspecific association and population status of threatened plants on submontane and montane zones of Mount Gede-Pangrango National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIHERMANTO

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mount Gede-Pangrango National Park has an attractive landscape view of mount summits with its crater, genuine flora and fauna of tropical rainforest, and a mild weather. Exploitation is forbidden in the area, but in reality encroachments occur, which will lead to changes in plant population status, particularly for threatened species. The aims of the research were investigate the populations status, dispersion pattern and possible interspecific associations of threatened plant species occurred in the sub montane and montane zones of the Mount Gede-Pangrango National Park. Most of the threatened species occurred in the park had clumped distributions and only one of those showed a regular dispersion, namely Symplocos costata. It should be realized that populations with a clumped dispersion tend to provide over or under estima-tion of abundance, indicating the need for a larger sampling unit to cover. Based on the association tests conducted, three species (Antidesma tetrandrum, Pinanga coronata, and Castanopsis javanica were significantly associated with Saurauia bracteosa, while Altingia excelsa and A. tetrandrum with Symplocos costata, as they had association indices more 0.3 using Jaccard Index. Pinanga coronata seems to be relatively closely associated with Saurauia cauliflora, Altingia excelsa with S. bracteosa, and Castanopsis javanica with S. costata. In contrast, Pinanga javana, Calamus adspersus, and Rhododendron album had low degrees of association, indicating their low abundance and co-occurrence with other species. Seven species of threatened plants were recorded in the Mount Gede-Pangrango: 5 of which had been proposed to change in their status. They were Calamus adspersus from vulnerable (V changed into vulnerable (V UD2., Lithocarpus indutus from vulnerable changed into critically endangered, Pinanga javana from endangered changed into vulnerable, Rhododendron album from vulnerable changed into endangered, and Saurauia bracteosa

  20. Studies of Minerals, Organic and Biogenic Materials through Time-Resolved Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Christopher S.; Abedin, M. Nurul; Ismail, Syed; Sharma, Shiv K.; Misra, Anupam K.; Nyugen, Trac; Elsayed-Ali, hani

    2009-01-01

    A compact remote Raman spectroscopy system was developed at NASA Langley Research center and was previously demonstrated for its ability to identify chemical composition of various rocks and minerals. In this study, the Raman sensor was utilized to perform time-resolved Raman studies of various samples such as minerals and rocks, Azalea leaves and a few fossil samples. The Raman sensor utilizes a pulsed 532 nm Nd:YAG laser as excitation source, a 4-inch telescope to collect the Raman-scattered signal from a sample several meters away, a spectrograph equipped with a holographic grating, and a gated intensified CCD (ICCD) camera system. Time resolved Raman measurements were carried out by varying the gate delay with fixed short gate width of the ICCD camera, allowing measurement of both Raman signals and fluorescence signals. Rocks and mineral samples were characterized including marble, which contain CaCO3. Analysis of the results reveals the short (approx.10-13 s) lifetime of the Raman process, and shows that Raman spectra of some mineral samples contain fluorescence emission due to organic impurities. Also analyzed were a green (pristine) and a yellow (decayed) sample of Gardenia leaves. It was observed that the fluorescence signals from the green and yellow leaf samples showed stronger signals compared to the Raman lines. Moreover, it was also observed that the fluorescence of the green leaf was more intense and had a shorter lifetime than that of the yellow leaf. For the fossil samples, Raman shifted lines could not be observed due the presence of very strong short-lived fluorescence.

  1. Do top-down or bottom-up forces determine Stephanitis pyrioides abundance in urban landscapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrewsbury, Paula M; Raupp, Michael J

    2006-02-01

    This study examined the influence of habitat structural complexity on the collective effects of top-down and bottom-up forces on herbivore abundance in urban landscapes. The persistence and varying complexity of urban landscapes set them apart from ephemeral agroecosystems and natural habitats where the majority of studies have been conducted. Using surveys and manipulative experiments. We explicitly tested the effect of natural enemies (enemies hypothesis), host plant quality, and herbivore movement on the abundance of the specialist insect herbivore, Stephanitis pyrioides, in landscapes of varying structural complexity. This herbivore was extremely abundant in simple landscapes and rare in complex ones. Natural enemies were the major force influencing abundance of S. pyrioides across habitat types. Generalist predators, particularly the spider Anyphaena celer, were more abundant in complex landscapes. Predator abundance was related to greater abundance of alternative prey in those landscapes. Stephanitis pyrioides survival was lower in complex habitats when exposed to endemic natural enemy populations. Laboratory feeding trials confirmed the more abundant predators consumed S. pyrioides. Host plant quality was not a strong force influencing patterns of S. pyrioides abundance. When predators were excluded, adult S. pyrioides survival was greater on azaleas grown in complex habitats, in opposition to the observed pattern of abundance. Similarly, complexity did not affect S. pyrioides immigration and emigration rates. The complexity of urban landscapes affects the strength of top-down forces on herbivorous insect populations by influencing alternative prey and generalist predator abundance. It is possible that habitats can be manipulated to promote the suppressive effects of generalist predators.

  2. Retrieval of leaf area index in different plant species using thermal hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neinavaz, Elnaz; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Groen, Thomas A.

    2016-09-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important variable of terrestrial ecosystems because it is strongly correlated with many ecosystem processes (e.g., water balance and evapotranspiration) and directly related to the plant energy balance and gas exchanges. Although LAI has been accurately predicted using visible and short-wave infrared hyperspectral data (0.3-2.5 μm), LAI estimation using thermal infrared (TIR, 8-14 μm) measurements has not yet been addressed. The novel approach of this study is to evaluate the retrieval of LAI using TIR hyperspectral data. The leaf area indices were destructively acquired for four plant species: Azalea japonica, Buxussempervirens, Euonymus japonicus, and Ficus benjamina. Canopy emissivity spectral measurements were obtained under controlled laboratory conditions using a MIDAC (M4401-F) spectrometer. The LAI retrieval was assessed using a partial least squares regression (PLSR), artificial neural networks (ANNs), and narrow band indices calculated from all possible combinations of waveband pairs for three vegetation indices including simple difference, simple ratio, and normalized difference. ANNs retrieved LAI more accurately than PLSR and vegetation indices (0.67 retrieval did not differ significantly between the vegetation indices. The results revealed that wavebands from the 8-12 μm region contain relevant information for LAI estimation, irrespective of the chosen vegetation index. Moreover, they demonstrated that LAI may be successfully predicted from TIR hyperspectral data, even for higher values of LAI (LAI ⩾ 5.5). The study showed the significance of using PLSR and ANNs as multivariate methods compared to the univariate technique (e.g., narrow band vegetation indices) when hyperspectral thermal data is utilized. We thus demonstrated for the first time the potential of hyperspectral thermal data to accurately retrieve LAI.

  3. POLLUTANTS REMOVAL BY SIX POTTED-PLANTS UNDER THE SINGLE OR MIXED BENZENE AND TOLUENE%六种盆栽植物在单一及复合苯/甲苯气体胁迫下的净化效果及应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华; 刘庆阳; 刘艳菊

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the purification of indoor air by potted plants under the condition of single and mixed pollutants, six potted-plants, including Rhododendron hybrids, Ficus elastica , Codiaeum variegatum ,Hemerocallis fulva, Euphorbia pulcherrima and Cymbidium sinense, were chosen to test their removal capacity for benzene and toluene by kinetic fumigation experiments. The result showed that all tested potted-plants could remove indoor benzene and toluene, with a significant variance at different concentrations. The removal capacity of toluene was affected by the presence of benzene. The six pot plants removed benzene and toluene at the most efficient way with 0.64 mg· m -3 benzene and 0.76 mg· m-3 toluene. To achieve the best removal effect, plant species need to be chosen by considering pollutant concentration, fumigation time and pollutant species.%选取杜鹃(Rhododendron hybrids)、橡皮树(Ficus elastica)、变色木(Codiaeum variegatum)、萱草(金娃娃)(Hemerocallis fulva)、一品红(Euphorbia pulcherrima)和国兰(Cymbidium sinense)等6种植物,采用动态熏蒸方式,研究其在6 h熏蒸时间内,分别对3个浓度水平的苯、甲苯以及苯/甲苯复合气体的净化效果.实验结果表明,6种植物对几种有害气体均有净化作用,但不同浓度水平下净化效果有明显差异.植物对甲苯的选择性净化作用会因为苯的介入而受到抑制.实验植物在苯浓度为0.64mg·m-3,甲苯浓度0.76mg·m-3时达到最佳净化效果.兼顾到实际应用中污染物浓度、时间、污染物种类及数量等因素,将植物进行适当合理的搭配可达到稳定的净化效果.

  4. 基于ICD-10的药用植物种类统计分析%Statistical Analysis of Medicinal Plants Based on ICD-10

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨林; 卢大丽; 袁万清; 钱津; 熊源新

    2013-01-01

    A total of 4 258 species of medicinal plants in Guizhou Province, are analyzed according to the Tenth Revision of International Classification of Diseases (ICD - 10) in the current investigation. Dominant families, genera, species of medical plants in Guizhou province are carried out statistical analysis. Twenty one families contain more than 50 species play a role in most diseases. The most proportion of dominant family is Polygonaceae. The genera of the most species including Polygonum, Rubus, Rhododendron etc. The most proportion of dominant genera including Asplenium and Selaginella. Among which 21 species including Aristolo-chia debilis, Polygonum chinense, Croton tiglium and Rhodomyrtus tomentosa etc show curative effect for more than 15 diseases.%根据世界卫生组织ICD-10(《国际疾病分类系统》第十次修订本International Classification of Diseases)的分类内容对贵州4258种药用植物进行了统计分析.对其中涉及疾病最多的科、属、种进行了分析;对重要的科、属、种涉及的疾病也进行了分析.含药用植物种数大于50种的有21科,涉及疾病最多、疾病种类比例最高的科是蓼科Polygonaceae.含药用植物种类最多的属包括蓼属(Polygonum)、悬钩子属(Rubus)、杜鹃花属(Rhododendron)等,涉及疾病种类属的比例最高的是铁角蕨属Asplenium和卷柏属Selaginella.能对15种以上的疾病有疗效的药用植物有21种,包括马兜铃Aristolochia debilis、火炭母Polygonum chinense、巴豆Croton tiglium、桃金娘Rhodomyrtus tomentosa等.

  5. Relative abundance of an invasive alien plant affects insect-flower interaction networks in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Jane C.; Casey, Leanne M.

    2014-02-01

    Invasive alien flowering plants may affect native plant pollinator interactions and have knock on impacts on populations of native plants and animals. The magnitude of these impacts, however, may be modified by the relative abundance of the invasive plant and the number of flowers it presents.We tested this by examining the structure of insect-flower interaction networks in six sites with increasing levels of invasion by Rhododendron ponticum in Ireland.Neither flower-visiting insect abundance, species richness nor diversity were related to R. ponticum flower abundance, but the composition of insect communities was. The total number of flowers in a site increased with the relative abundance of R. ponticum flowers but the number of co-flowering native plant species in these sites was low (<6), making interaction networks relatively small.As a result, changes in interaction network properties (connectance, interaction evenness and network level specialisation), which correlated with R. ponticum flower abundance, were a result of the small network size rather than due to changes in the resilience of networks.Overall, we conclude that the impacts of invasive alien plants on native plant-pollinator interactions are not only species specific, but site specific, according to the abundance of flowers produced by both the invasive and the native plants.

  6. On the patterns of abundance and diversity of macrolichens of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hans Raj Negi

    2000-12-01

    A total of 3211 colonies of macrolichens, from twelve 50 m × 10 m plots distributed across four macrohabitat (vegetation) types between 1500 m–3700 m in the Chopta-Tunganath landscape of the Garhwal Himalaya, yielded 13 families with 15 genera and 85 species. Lobaria retigera stood out as a broad-niched generalist species with moderate levels of abundance in all the three major microhabitats, viz. rock, soil and wood across 83% of all the plots sampled, whereas Umbilicaria indica emerged as an abundantly occurring specialist confined to rock substrates. Heterodermia incana and Leptogium javanicum appeared to be rare members of the community as they were encountered only once during the field survey. Woody microhabitats turned out to be richer than rock and soil substrates for macrolichens. Amongst the macrohabitats, middle altitude (2500–2800 m) Quercus forest was richest in species and genera followed by high altitude (2900–3200 m) Rhododendron forest, higher altitude grasslands (3300–3700 m) and then the lower elevation (1500 m) Quercus forest. Species, genus and family level alpha- as well as beta-diversities were significantly correlated with each other, implying that higher taxonomic ranks such as genera may be used as surrogates for species thus facilitating cost- and time-effective periodic monitoring of the biodiversity of macrolichens. Dynamics of the diversity of lichen communities in relation to various forms of environmental disturbance including livestock grazing and tourism as dominant land use activities in the higher Himalaya need further research.

  7. Leaf architecture and direction of incident light influence mesophyll fluorescence profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Daniel M; Smith, William K; Vogelmann, Thomas C; Brodersen, Craig R

    2005-09-01

    Light propagation and distribution inside leaves have been recognized as important processes influencing photosynthesis. Monochromatic light absorption across the mesophyll was measured using chlorophyll fluorescence generated from illumination of the cut edge (epi-illumination), as well as the adaxial or abaxial surfaces of the leaf. Species were selected that had basic leaf types: laminar leaf with adaxial palisade layer (Rhododendron catawbiense), needle with palisade (Abies fraseri), and needle without palisade (Picea rubens). Fluorescence was more evenly distributed across the mesophyll for adaxially illuminated leaves with a palisade cell layer, as well as for the needles (cylindrical) without palisade, when compared to fluorescence generated by abaxial illumination. Moreover, fluorescence from green light illumination remained high across the mesophyll of adaxially illuminated R. catawbiense, indicating a possible influence of mesophyll structure on internal light distribution beyond that of chlorophyll levels. These data support the idea that light propagation within the mesophyll is associated with asymmetric mesophyll structure, in particular the presence of palisade cell layers. In addition, we propose that the evolution of a more cylindrical leaf form, such as found in conifer species, may be a structural solution to excessive sunlight that replaces the highly differentiated mesophyll found in most laminar-leaved species.

  8. Apoptosis induced by farrerol in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells through the mitochondrial-mediated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enli; Liang, Taigang; Wang, Xiaojian; Ban, Shurong; Han, Lingge; Li, Qingshan

    2015-09-01

    Farrerol, a typical flavanone isolated from the Chinese medicinal plant Rhododendron dauricum L., has been found to show various biological activities. However, to the best of our knowledge, its inhibitory actions against cancer cells have not been reported as yet. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of farrerol on human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. Farrerol showed a 50% inhibition of SGC-7901 cell growth at a concentration of 40.4 μmol/l for 24 h according to MTT assays. The cell morphology results indicated that SGC-7901 cells treated with farrerol showed several features of apoptotic cell death, which was also confirmed by the Annexin-V FITC/PI double-staining assay. Further studies showed that farrerol treatment induced the attenuation of mitochondrial membrane potential, accompanied by the release of Cyt-c and the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Furthermore, farrerol decreased the gene expression of Bcl-2, whereas the gene expression level of Bax was found to increase after farrerol treatment. These combined results indicated that farrerol can induce apoptosis through a mitochondrial-mediated pathway. PMID:26061993

  9. Diversity and regeneration status of Sarkot Van Panchyat in Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nazir A. Pala; A. K. Negi; Yogesh Gokhale; Jahangeer A. Bhat; N. P. Todaria

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the floristic composition,phytosociological and regeneration status of Sarkot Van Panchyat (community forest) in Chamoli district of Garhwal Himalaya.A total of 52 plant species of 46 genera and 26families were recorded,which included 12 trees,18 shrubs and 22 herb species.Quercus leucotrichophora was dominant tree species in sapling and seedling layers,followed by Lyonia ovalifolia and Rhododendron arboreum.Out of 12 tree species,7 species in seedling stage and 8 species in sapling stage were recorded in the study area.The 44.41% species in the study area showed good regeneration status,16.66% species were fairly regenerating,and 8.33% species showed poor regeneration status,while 33% species were not regenerating.Number of individuals from lower girth classes (0-10 cm and 10-30 cm) showed decreasing trend with the increase in size of girth class.Shannon index (H) for trees,shrubs and herbs was recorded as 1.82,2.24 and 2.41 respectively.Simpsons index (CD) was recorded as 0.21,0.12and 0.12 for trees,shrubs and herbs respectively.The forest should be divided into compartments for better management purpose and each compartment should be closed for five years to assist regeneration and enrichment planting may also be carried out for sustainable management.

  10. An investigation of Turkish honeys: their physico-chemical properties, antioxidant capacities and phenolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Zehra; Yildiz, Oktay; Sahin, Huseyin; Turumtay, Emine Akyuz; Silici, Sibel; Kolayli, Sevgi

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated some physico-chemical and biochemical characteristics of different honey types belonging to Turkish flora. Sixty-two honey samples were examined on the basis of pollen analyses, including 11 unifloral honeys (chestnut, heather, chaste tree, rhododendron, common eryngo, lavender, Jerusalem tea, astragalus, clover and acacia), two different honeydew honeys (lime and oak), and 7 different multifloral honeys. Electrical conductivity, moisture, Hunter color values, HMF, proline, diastase number, and sugar analyses of the honey samples were assessed for chemical characterization. Some phenolic components were analyzed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) to determine honeys' phenolic profiles. Total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity were measured as antioxidant determinants. The study results confirm that physico-chemical and biological characteristics of honeys are closely related to their floral sources, and that dark-colored honeys such as oak, chestnut and heather, have a high therapeutic potential. PMID:25766810

  11. Why Do Some Evergreen Species Keep Their Leaves for a Second Winter, While Others Lose Them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Grubb

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In subtropical montane semi-moist forest in SW China (SMSF, a large majority of evergreen tree and tall shrub species was found to have only one cohort of old leaves in early spring. In contrast, almost all species of evergreen tree and tall shrub in warm temperate rain forest (WTRF in Japan and sclerophylls in Mediterranean-climate forest (MSF of the Mediterranean Basin have two or more cohorts of old leaves in early spring; they drop their oldest cohort during or soon after leaf outgrowth in spring. Japanese WTRF has no dry season and MSF a dry summer. SMSF has a dry winter. On four evergreen Rhododendron species from SW China with only one cohort of old leaves in spring when in cultivation in Scotland, the majority of leaves in the senescing cohort fell by the end of December. We hypothesize that with dry winters, there is an advantage to dropping older leaves in autumn, because there is a low chance of appreciable positive assimilation in winter and a high chance of desiccation, reducing the resorption of dry mass and mineral nutrients from ageing leaves. Our hypothesis may be extended to cover evergreens at high altitude or high latitude that experience cold soils in winter.

  12. Distribution and uptake of {sup 137}Cs in relation to alkali metals in a perhumid montane forest ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, J.H. [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: jhchao@mx.nthu.edu.tw; Chiu, C.Y. [Research Center for Biodiversity, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Lee, H.P. [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2008-10-15

    We determined the content of radiocesium ({sup 137}Cs) and alkali metals in soils, plants (2 ferns, a shrub and moss) and rainwater collected in an undisturbed forest ecosystem. The {sup 137}Cs activity and the isotopic ratio of {sup 137}Cs/Cs in the samples were used to interpret the distribution and uptake of {sup 137}Cs and the alkali metals in plants. As a whole, the {sup 137}Cs in plants was assimilated together with K but was not dependent on Cs. Different adaptations of fern species collected in ecological niches cause them to have different {sup 137}Cs/Cs ratios. Diplopterygium glaucum is distributed at the edges of the forest; it usually has shallow organic layers, and the root takes up more stable Cs from mineral layers, leading to lower {sup 137}Cs/Cs ratios than that in the understory Plagiogyria formosana and Rhododendron formosanum species. The steady supply of stable Cs through the uptake by D. glaucum from deep soils may gradually dilute the {sup 137}Cs concentration and thus explain the lower {sup 137}Cs/Cs ratio in the fern samples. The {sup 137}Cs is predicted to be proportional to the Cs content across plant species in the biological cycle once isotopic equilibrium is attained.

  13. Invasive plant integration into native plant-pollinator networks across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilà, Montserrat; Bartomeus, Ignasi; Dietzsch, Anke C; Petanidou, Theodora; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Stout, Jane C; Tscheulin, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    The structure of plant-pollinator networks has been claimed to be resilient to changes in species composition due to the weak degree of dependence among mutualistic partners. However, detailed empirical investigations of the consequences of introducing an alien plant species into mutualistic networks are lacking. We present the first cross-European analysis by using a standardized protocol to assess the degree to which a particular alien plant species (i.e. Carpobrotus affine acinaciformis, Impatiens glandulifera, Opuntia stricta, Rhododendron ponticum and Solanum elaeagnifolium) becomes integrated into existing native plant-pollinator networks, and how this translates to changes in network structure. Alien species were visited by almost half of the pollinator species present, accounting on average for 42 per cent of the visits and 24 per cent of the network interactions. Furthermore, in general, pollinators depended upon alien plants more than on native plants. However, despite the fact that invaded communities received more visits than uninvaded communities, the dominant role of alien species over natives did not translate into overall changes in network connectance, plant linkage level and nestedness. Our results imply that although supergeneralist alien plants can play a central role in the networks, the structure of the networks appears to be very permeable and robust to the introduction of invasive alien species into the network. PMID:19692403

  14. Invasive plant integration into native plant–pollinator networks across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilà, Montserrat; Bartomeus, Ignasi; Dietzsch, Anke C.; Petanidou, Theodora; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Stout, Jane C.; Tscheulin, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The structure of plant–pollinator networks has been claimed to be resilient to changes in species composition due to the weak degree of dependence among mutualistic partners. However, detailed empirical investigations of the consequences of introducing an alien plant species into mutualistic networks are lacking. We present the first cross-European analysis by using a standardized protocol to assess the degree to which a particular alien plant species (i.e. Carpobrotus affine acinaciformis, Impatiens glandulifera, Opuntia stricta, Rhododendron ponticum and Solanum elaeagnifolium) becomes integrated into existing native plant–pollinator networks, and how this translates to changes in network structure. Alien species were visited by almost half of the pollinator species present, accounting on average for 42 per cent of the visits and 24 per cent of the network interactions. Furthermore, in general, pollinators depended upon alien plants more than on native plants. However, despite the fact that invaded communities received more visits than uninvaded communities, the dominant role of alien species over natives did not translate into overall changes in network connectance, plant linkage level and nestedness. Our results imply that although supergeneralist alien plants can play a central role in the networks, the structure of the networks appears to be very permeable and robust to the introduction of invasive alien species into the network. PMID:19692403

  15. 5种园林植物的抗旱性比较研究%Comparative study on drought resistances of five species of garden plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑛

    2013-01-01

    采用自然干旱胁迫方法,测定上海南园公园5种园林植物的9项生理生化指标,分析干旱胁迫下植物的生理反应,并用模糊数学隶属函数值法对植物抗旱性进行综合评价.结果表明:在自然干旱胁迫下,5种园林植物抗旱性由强到弱的排序为:八宝景天、马蔺、香茅、红叶石楠、杜鹃.%Under natural drought stress,5 species of garden plants in Shanghai Nanyuan Park were determined in terms of 9 physiological and biochemical indexes,their physiological reactions were analyzed and their drought resistances were comprehensively evaluated by a fuzzy mathematics membership function method.The results indicated that the descending order of the plants in drought resistance was Sedum spectabile,Iris lactea var.chinensis,Cymbopogon citrates,Photinia serrulata and Rhododendron pulchrum.

  16. Effects of three different biochars on aggregate stability, organic carbon mobility and micronutrient bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, William; Riby, Philip; Waterson, James

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated both beneficial and detrimental effects on soil properties from biochar incorporation. Several biochars, with different feedstock origins, were evaluated for their effectiveness at improving soil quality of a sandy agricultural soil. A pot trial was used to investigate aggregate stability and microbial activity, pore water trace element mobility and micronutrient concentrations in grain of spring wheat after incorporation of three biochars. The feedstocks for biochar production were selected because they were established UK waste products, namely oversize woody material from green waste composting facilities, and rhododendron and soft wood material from forest clearance operations. Biochars were incorporated into the soil at a rate of 5% v/v. Aggregate stability was improved following addition of oversize biochar whilst microbial activity increased in all treatments. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in soil pore water from biochar-treated soils were raised, whilst micronutrient concentrations in wheat grain grown in the treated soils were significantly reduced. It was concluded that incorporation of biochar to temperate agricultural soils requires caution as it may result in reductions of essential grain micronutrients required for human health, whilst the effect on aggregate stability may be linked to organic carbon functional groups on biochar surfaces and labile carbon released from the char into the soil system. PMID:27444723

  17. Identification of five active ingredients and content determination of piperine in Shiwuwei Heyaowan pills by TLC and HPLC%十五味黑药丸中4种活性成分的定性鉴别及胡椒碱的含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡婧; 易凡力; 刘松青

    2011-01-01

    目的 对十五味黑药丸中4种主要中药成分进行定性鉴别并测定胡椒碱的含量.方法 采用薄层色谱法 (thin layer chromatography,TLC)对方中藏木香、荜茇、黑胡椒、干姜、烈香杜鹃进行定性鉴别;采用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)测定胡椒碱的含量.色谱柱:Phenomenex Luna C18(2)(4.6 mm×150 mm,5 μm),流动相∶甲醇-水(74∶26),流速0.8 ml/min,检测波长343 nm,柱温35 ℃.结果 采用TLC均能检出3批十五味黑药丸中的去氢木香内酯、胡椒碱及烈香杜鹃和干姜药材,该鉴别方法专属性强、薄层色谱斑点清晰,阴性对照无干扰;胡椒碱的HPLC色谱峰与其他色谱峰分离良好,进样量在0.021 056~0.105 28 μg范围内呈良好线性关系(r=0.999 8),平均加样回收率(n=9)为97.76%,3个批次(010624、021008、030323)9个样品中胡椒碱的含量平均值为1.64 mg/丸.结论 建立的十五味黑药丸质量标准可用于藏木香、荜茇、黑胡椒、干姜、烈香杜鹃5种中药的成分鉴别及组方中胡椒碱的含量测定.%Objective To identify five active ingredients (Inula racemosa, Piper longum, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale and Rhododendron anthopogonoides) and determine the content of piperine in traditional Tibetan medicine pills-Shiwuwei Heiyaowan. Methods Three batches of Shiwuwei Heiyaowan pills were dissolved in ethyl ether or absolute ethyl alcohol as the sample solutions. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was utilized to identify Inula racemosa, Piper longum, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale and Rhododendron anthopogonoides in Shiwuwei Heiyaowan pills. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to determine the content of piperine. In HPLC, the chromatographic column is Phenomenex Luna C18 (2) (4.6 mm × 150 mm, 5 μm); the mobile phase is methanol-water (74: 26); the flow rate is 0.8 ml/min; the detection wavelength is 343 nm; the column temperature is 35 ℃. Results In TLC, dehydrocostunolide lactone (the

  18. Ethnomedicine in Himalaya: a case study from Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshhetri Hari B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional plant use in Nepal has been documented for millennia. The importance of plants as medicine has not diminished in any way in recent times, and traditional medicines are still the most important health care source for the vast majority of the population. This paper examines the ethnobotany and traditional use of plants extracted from the vulnerable alpine zone in the Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal. The results of this ethnobotanical study indicate that a very large number of plant species is used as traditional medicines. There were 107, 59, 44 and 166 species of ethnomedicinal importance in surveyed areas of Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang district respectively. Of these, 84 common species, used at least in two districts, were selected to enumerate their ethnomedicinal properties. The 84 species belonged to 75 genera and 39 families. The commonest species in this pharmacopoeia were: Allium wallichii, Cordyceps sinensis, Dactylorhiza hatagirea, and Rheum australe. A total of 21 species were most common in three districts and 59 in two districts. The genera Aconitum, Allium, Arisaema, Berberis, Corydalis, Gentiana, Hippophae, Juniperus and Rhododendron each possessed two species with ethnomedicinal use. Labiatae was the most medicinally important family with five species used, followed by Araceae, Compositae, Liliaceae, Polygonaceae, Ranunculaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Umbelliferae, each contributing four species.

  19. Community dynamics of a montane Fagus engleriana–Cyclobalanopsis multiervis mixed forest in Shennongjia, Hubei, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jielin Ge

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Montane evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forests are some of the main vegetation types in China. Specifically, the Fagus–Cyclobalanopsis mixed forest is a dominant forest community in themountainous region of Shennongjia. Using three datasets (2001, 2006, and 2010 from a permanent 120 m ×80 m plot in the montane evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest in Shengnongjia, we analyzedthe dynamics of tree species composition and community structure for individual trees (DBH ≥ 4 cm. We found that total species number increased from 81 in 2001 to 84 in 2006, and then decreased to 83 in 2010. Dominant species remained constant throughout the study period, including Cyclobalanopsis multiervis, Fagus engleriana, Rhododendron hypoglaucum and Lithocarpus henryi. Stem number and basal area followed the same trend with an initial increase, followed by a decline. The mortality and recruitment of this survey plot changed substantially over the nine-year study period. Although an ice storm in 2008 had some impact on the community, the species richness and community structure did not alter significantly and the community appeared to be in a state of dynamic equilibrium with strong resilience to external disturbances.

  20. Mad honey intoxication: A systematic review on the 1199 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silici, Sibel; Atayoglu, A Timucin

    2015-12-01

    Mad honey, produced by honeybees from the nectars of Rhododendron genus (R. ponticum and R. luteum) flowers, is widely used in indigenous medicine, especially in the treatment of hypertension and sexual dysfunction. However, the consumption of this honey can result in intoxication soon after. The diagnosis of honey poisoning and a full understanding of its treatment is important for both effective and immediate treatment, and also for the prevention of unnecessary costs. Upon the evaluation of approximately 34 years of case reports between 1981 and 2014, it was found that the cases of poisoning were more frequently reported in males (75.17%) and between the ages 41 to 65. The most common complaints related to honey poisoning were dizziness, nausea, presyncope and the ECG findings were: sinus bradycardia (79.58%), complete atrioventricular block (45.83%), atrioventricular block (30.91%), ST-segment elevation (22.63%), and nodal rhythm (11.27%), As a result of the evaluation of 1199 cases, it was found that no deaths were reported. The patients were most frequently treated with 0.5 mg atropine (37.79%), 1 mg atropine (49.73%), salin (iv fluid) (65.35%), and generally the patients were discharged within 24 h after recovery.

  1. Toxic compounds in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-07-01

    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food.

  2. Classification of 7 monofloral honey varieties by PTR-ToF-MS direct headspace analysis and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhfried, Erna; Sánchez del Pulgar, José; Bobba, Marco; Piro, Roberto; Cappellin, Luca; Märk, Tilmann D; Biasioli, Franco

    2016-01-15

    Honey, in particular monofloral varieties, is a valuable commodity. Here, we present proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry, PTR-ToF-MS, coupled to chemometrics as a successful tool in the classification of monofloral honeys, which should serve in fraud protection against mispresentation of the floral origin of honey. We analyzed 7 different honey varieties from citrus, chestnut, sunflower, honeydew, robinia, rhododendron and linden tree, in total 70 different honey samples and a total of 206 measurements. Only subtle differences in the profiles of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the headspace of the different honeys could be found. Nevertheless, it was possible to successfully apply 6 different classification methods with a total correct assignment of 81-99% in the internal validation sets. The most successful methods were stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and probabilistic neural network (PNN), giving total correct assignments in the external validation sets of 100 and 90%, respectively. Clearly, PTR-ToF-MS/chemometrics is a powerful tool in honey classification.

  3. IN-VIVO NITRATE REDUCTASE ACTIVITY IN THE MYRICA ESCULENTA BUCH. HAM. D.DON SEEDLINGS UNDER NURSERY CONDITIONS

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    S.P. Chaukiyal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Myrica esculenta locally known as kafal, is a dioecious, moderate sized, evergreen tree species. It is a characteristic associate of Quercus leucotrichophora and Rhododendron species between 1000-2200 m above sea level and valued for its wild edible fruits used in different preparations. An experiment was conducted under pot culture conditions to study the effects of different nitrogen fertilizer doses (i.e. 20; 40; 20 and control without fertilizer on the in-vivo nitrate reductase activity (NRA in different plant parts. Nitrogen doses were applied in two equal split between fifteen days intervals. Monthly nitrate reductase activity was estimated in different plant parts viz., leaf, stem and root for a period of twelve months. It was observed that maximum NRA was recorded in the 80 kg N/ha followed by 40 kg N/ha, 20 kg N/ha and minimum in control treatment in different plant parts as well as in total plant also. On the seasonal NRA a higher NR activity was recorded during rainy followed by summer and lowest in winter season. Seasonal effects were significantly different as compared to seasons x treatments. However, on monthly analysis basis, months and treatment effects in leaf, stem, root and total plant NR activity was significantly different among each other. However, for all the parameters studied months x treatments were found significantly different at 5% level.

  4. A role of periaqueductal grey NR2B-containing NMDA receptor in mediating persistent inflammatory pain

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    Yang Qi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG is a structure known for its roles in pain transmission and modulation. Noxious stimuli potentiate the glutamate synaptic transmission and enhance glutamate NMDA receptor expression in the PAG. However, little is known about roles of NMDA receptor subunits in the PAG in processing the persistent inflammatory pain. The present study was undertaken to investigate NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG and their modulation to the peripheral painful inflammation. Noxious stimuli induced by hind-paw injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA caused up-regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG, while NR2A-containing NMDA receptors were not altered. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed that NMDA receptor mediated mEPSCs were increased significantly in the PAG synapse during the chronic phases of inflammatory pain in mice. PAG local infusion of Ro 25-6981, an NR2B antagonist, notably prolonged the paw withdrawal latency to thermal radian heat stimuli bilaterally in rats. Hyperoside (Hyp, one of the flavonoids compound isolated from Rhododendron ponticum L., significantly reversed up-regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG and exhibited analgesic activities against persistent inflammatory stimuli in mice. Our findings provide strong evidence that up-regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG involves in the modulation to the peripheral persistent inflammatory pain.

  5. Rare and endangered plants in Mount Jinggangshan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of rare, endangered, and protected plant species is of importance in assessing the status of local biodiversity and the environment as well as developing strategies for nature conservation and management. The abundance and distribution of rare and endangered plants in the Mount Jinggangshan region were investigated as well as the community characteristics of important woody species. The resultsdemonstrate that rare and endangered species have high conservation value and significant importance in systematics and biogeography. This area contains two endangered bryophyte species and 199 species of vascular plants. Among them, 50 species are included in the IUCN Red List of Threatened species, 160 species in the China Species Red List, 49 species in the List of Wild Plants Under State Protection (First Batch, and 90 species in the Appendices of CITES. The variety and abundance of rare and endangered species in this area are equivalent to those for Mount Emei and higher than those for Mount Wuyi and MountTaibai. Many perfectly preserved communities, covering a large area, exist in the Mount Jinggangshan vicinity, and are dominated by rare and endangered species, such as Abies beshanzuensis var. ziyuanensis,Corylus chinensis, Pseudotaxus chienii, Taxus wallichiana var. mairei, Fokienia hodginsii, Amentotaxus argotaenia, Phoebe bournei, Pieris japonica, Rhododendron jinggangshanicum, etc. The communities where some important rare and endangered plants occur are described in detail and suggestions are made for their protection.

  6. Cloning and Sequence Analyzing of Chalcone Synthase Gene in Loropetalum chinense var.Rubrum%红花檵木CHS基因的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许威; 于晓英; 陈己任; 符红艳; 胡博文; 陈彦斌; 李达

    2013-01-01

    查尔酮合酶(chalcone synthase,CHS)是进入类黄酮和花色素苷次生代谢的第1个关键酶.根据植物查尔酮合成酶保守区序列设计引物,以红花檵木Loropetalurn chinense var.Rubrum)大叶红的嫩叶为材料,用RT-PCR方法,分离得到了一个查尔酮合成酶基因的eDNA(GenBank登录号为JQ609678),将该基因命名为Lc vrCHS1.该序列长927 bp,编码232个氨基酸残基.其核苷酸序列与GenBank已登录的同样来源的核桃、山茶属植物CHS序列同源性达83%,与其他科植物(绣球花、葡萄、桃、马铃薯、甘草、领春木属)CHS序列同源性也达到80%以上;其编码的氨基酸序列与山茶属、葡萄、鳄梨、洋梨、沙梨、映山红CHS基因编码的氨基酸序列同样具有高度同源性,同源性高达98%.%Chalcone synthase (chalcone synthase, CHS) is the key enzyme that catalyzes the first step in flavonoids biosynthesis and anthocyanins secondary metabolites. A full-length cDNA encoding CHS was cloned from the young leaves of Loropetalurn chinense var. rubrum by RT-PCR using specific primers based on the highly conserved sequences of plant CHS that had already known. Blast search revealed that it was a new gene, and was named as LcvrCHSl (GenBank accession: JQ609678). The sequence was 927 bp, encoding 232 amino acid residues. It had 83% sequence homology with walnut and camellia that had been logged in GenBank; with other genus plants (hydrangea, grapes, peaches, potatoes, licorice, Euptelea genus), CHS sequence homology was also more than 80%; with other plants (camellia, grapes, avocados, bartlett pear, sand pear, azalea), CHS sequence also had high homology, up to 98% homology.

  7. 东北长白山垂直林带下现代表土花粉与植被关系%Pollen Record of Surface Sediments from Vertical Forest Zones of Changbai Mountain, Northeast China and Their Relations to the Modern Vegetation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙湘君; 罗运利; 田军; 吴玉书

    2003-01-01

    Twenty-nine surface samples (mosses) from five vertical distribution vegetation zones inChangbai Mountain, Northeast China have been palynologically analyzed and the results were tested bycorrespondence analysis. The results show that, except a few samples, arboreal pollen is predominant inalmost all pollen assemblages; Pinus and Betula are the main pollen types in quantities and they are foundin all vegetation zones of Changbai Mountain. The highest pollen proportion of Pinus occurs in the mixedconifer and broadleaved forest where Pinus koraiensis is the main component; Betula pollen is found inhigh percentage in both subalpine B. ermanii forest and broadleaved deciduous forest predominated byBetula and Quercus; in the former Betula pollen is accompanied by cold-tolerant shrub such as Rhodo-dendron; whereas in the latter it appears a large amount of fern spores. Pollen assemblage of broadleaveddeciduous forests is marked by high diversity and proportions of deciduous trees and a large number of fernspores. Subalpine conifer forest is distinguished by high percentage of Picea pollen. Although tree pollenis slightly dominated, very few or absent of fern spores and increasing of herb and small shrub pollenproportions, particularly predominance of Rhododendron in herbaceous pollen and occurrence of tundraindicator type-Dryas pollen distinguish pollen assemblages of alpine tundra.%在长白山北坡5个垂直植被带的林下采集29个表土(苔藓)样品进行孢粉分析,同时将其结果作对应分析.结果表明,除个别样品,在长白山垂直植被带的孢粉组合中乔木花粉占优势,其中以松属和桦木属最多,在各植被带均有分布.松属花粉最高含量出现在以红松为主的针阔混交林带的孢粉组合中;桦木属花粉则大量见于亚高山岳桦林带和以栎桦为主的阔叶落叶林带,但前者伴有耐寒、早的小灌丛杜鹃花属花粉,而在后者中则见有大量蕨类孢子.阔叶落叶林带的孢粉组

  8. Community dynamics of a montane Fagus engleriana-Cyclobalanopsis multiervis mixed forest in Shennongjia, Hubei, China%湖北神农架山地米心水青冈-多脉青冈混交林的群落动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛结林; 熊高明; 邓龙强; 赵常明; 申国珍; 谢宗强

    2012-01-01

    Montane evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forests are some of the main vegetation types in China. Specifically, the Fagus-Cyclobalanopsis mixed forest is a dominant forest community in the mountainous region of Shennongjia. Using three datasets (2001, 2006, and 2010) from a permanent 120 m × 80 m plot in the montane evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest in Shengnongjia, we analyzed the dynamics of tree species composition and community structure for individual trees (DBH ≥ 4 cm). We found that total species number increased from 81 in 2001 to 84 in 2006, and then decreased to 83 in 2010. Dominant species remained constant throughout the study period, including Cyclobalanopsis multiervis, Fagus engleriana, Rhododendron hypoglaucum and Lithocarpus henryi. Stem number and basal area followed the same trend with an initial increase, followed by a decline. The mortality and recruitment of this survey plot changed substantially over the nine-year study period. Although an ice storm in 2008 had some impact on the community, the species richness and community structure did not alter significantly and the community appeared to be in a state of dynamic equilibrium with strong resilience to external disturbances.%常绿落叶阔叶混交林是我国北亚热带的地带性植被类型,在神农架山地其优势类型为水青冈-青冈混交林.本研究基于对120 m×80 rn的永久样地的2001、2006、2010年3次调查数据,从物种组成、数量特征、群落结构等方面分析了神农架山地米心水青冈-多脉青冈(Fagus engleriana-Cyclobalanopsis multiervis)混交林群落的动态特征.结果表明:群落的物种组成变化不大,在2001年、2006年和2010年分别为81、84和83种;优势成分以多脉青冈、米心水青冈、粉白杜鹃(Rhododendron hypoglaucum)和灰柯(Lithocarpus henryi)为主,但常绿树种重要值有增加的趋势;树木生长速率有加快的趋势;常绿树种的动态性强于落叶树

  9. Comparative Study on Structure and Special Pattern of Different Tsuga longibracteata Communities in Tianbaoyan National Nature Reserve%天宝岩自然保护区长苞铁杉不同群落结构与空间格局比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严绍裕

    2013-01-01

    用群落数量统计学方法对永安天宝岩国家级自然保护区长苞铁杉纯林、长苞铁杉猴头杜鹃混交林和长苞铁杉青冈混交林的群落结构及空间格局进行比较,结果表明:随着径级数的增大,长苞铁杉纯林和长苞铁杉青冈混交林个体数量分布呈持续减少趋势,分享度持续下降;长苞铁杉猴头杜鹃混交林个体数量随径级数增大呈现先增加后下降再增加再下降的双峰结构,分享度先增加后减少再增加再下降;3种群落乔木层高度级分布趋势相似,随着高度级增加基本呈现先增后减的双峰结构,均在Ⅳ级达到最大值,长苞铁杉纯林的分享度呈现先增后减再增再减的双峰结构,长苞铁杉青冈混交林和长苞铁杉猴头杜鹃混交林呈先增加后减少的单峰结构;长苞铁杉纯林种群空间格局在10 m×10 m、10 m×20m和20 m×30 m 3种尺度下主要为聚集分布,但随着取样尺度的增加,长苞铁杉种群在纯林中呈现分散趋势.%The community structure and spatial pattern of the Tsuga longibracteata pure forest,the forest of Tsuga longibrceata mixed with Rhododendron sp.,the forest of Tsuga longibracteata mixed with Cryptomeriafortunei from Yong'an Tianbaoyan National Nature Reserve were studied by means of the Community Mathematics and Applied Statistics methods.The results showed that the number of individuals together with the share rate in the Tsuga longibracteata pure forest and the Tsug alongibracteata-Cryptomeriafortunei mixed forest were reduced continuously along with the DBH increase; while the number of individuals together with the share rate in the Tsuga longibracteata-Cryptomeria fortunei mixed forest changed with a double-peak form,i.e.,in up-down-up-down curve along with the increase of DBH scale.The height-scale distribution of the arbor tree layer in the three communities was similar.The share rate of the forest also changed with a double-peak form,i.e.,in up

  10. Species Diversity and Population Status of Threatened Plants in Different Landscape Elements of the Rohtang Pass,Western Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.N.Singh; Gopichand; Amit Kumar; Brij Lal; N.P.Todaria

    2008-01-01

    This paper highlights the quantitative estimates of plant species diversity and ecosysterns of the Rohtang Pass,which is one of the most preferred visiting spots by tourists in Himachal Pradesh(H.P.),India.In spite of high pressure of anthropogenic activities.the Rohtang Pass still harbours a variety of flowering plants with economic value,including various medicinal herbs.In order to observe species diversity in different landscape elements(LSEs),ground surveys were conducted in nine unique LSEs within the elevation range between 3624 m and 4332 m.Plant community structure in each LSE was studied using stratified random sampling where a total 56 quadrats of 1 m2 in size for herbs and 7 quadrats of 25 m2 for shrubs were made.Of the total 50 plant species belonging to 15 families recorded in different random quadrats.24 species were found of medicinal value.Maximum species richness (18)and value of Shannon diversity (H'=2.2648)were observed on northeast-facing slope in Picrorhiza kurrooa dominated LSE in moist area.followed by Rheum emodi LSE(species richness=17 and H'=2.4141)distributed on south-facing slope.Maximum values of species richness and Shannon diversity in Rheum emodf LSE were observed between 8~12 and 1.4797~2.1911. respectively. Rhododendron anthopogon dominated LSE on northwest-facing slope was found least diverse in terms of species richness where the Simpson index of dominance(D)was 0.4205.The species were equal in abundance in P.kurrooa LSE on east-facing slope and Pleurospermum candollii LSE on north-facing slope,showing the maximum similarity in terms of species distribution between the two LSEs.Low turnover of species across common LSEs gives an idea regarding their limited distribution.Five species of threatened category according to the IUCN criteria were observed in seven LSEs.The largest population of threatened medicinal plants was recorded on northeast and northwest-facing slopes where population density of Bergenia stracheyi(29

  11. 杜鹃花液剂干燥技术研究%Study on Drying Technology of R. obtusum Liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂明丽; 夏晶晖

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究化学液剂对杜鹃花(Rhododendron obtusum)干燥的效果.[方法]测定6种液剂处理后杜鹃花的失水率、感官分值.[结果]甘油替代花中水分具有维持植物材料刚性效果,又能起到保色的作用;亚硫酸可抑制色素氧化,防止花朵褐变,提高了花材的观赏价值.2%甘油+6%柠檬酸+2%亚硫酸钠混合液为最佳处理配方,48 h为最佳浸泡时间.[结论]该研究可为杜鹃花干花制作提供参考.%[Objective] The aim was to study the drying effect of chemical liquid on R. obtusum. [Method] The water loss rate and sensory scores of R.obtusum treated by six liquids were detected. [ Result] Glycerin could not only maintain the rigidity of flower, but also keep the color from fading. Sulfite could slow down the oxidation of pigment and stop the flower from browning, thus improving the ornamental values of flowers. The best formula was the mixture of 2% glycerin, 6% citric acid, 2% sodium sulfite and 90% water, and the ideal soaking time was 48 h. [ Conclusion ] The study can provide reference for preparing dry flower of R.obtusum.

  12. Environmental and Physiological Controls on Plant Leaf Wax δD from Western Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, M. A.; Bush, R. T.; Cartagena Sierra, A.; Cheah, D.; Costello, C.; Muldoon, T.; Tillema, M.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen isotope ratios of leaf waxes are increasingly used to reconstruct past hydroclimate, but the interpretation of these signatures from ancient sedimentary archives relies on a thorough understanding of the drivers of isotope variability in modern environments. These studies are particularly valuable in the arctic and subarctic, regions particularly vulnerable to rapid climate change, but where modern vegetation is understudied compared to proxy applications reliant on vegetation. Here we present δD values from leaf wax compounds of tundra vegetation in the Kangerlussuaq area of western Greenland. We collected samples along a transect that follows 12 sites from the base of the Greenland Ice Sheet, around a small lake ('Bird Lake') and to the town of Kangerlussuaq, along the Sandflugtdalen ('Flying Sand Valley'). We collected a variety of common tundra species in these locations including dwarf shrubs (e.g. Betula nana, Rhododendron lapponica, and Salix glauca), forbs and graminoids (e.g. Calamagrostis lapponica and Eriophorum angustifolium), and horsetails (Equisetum arvense) to study possible interspecies isotopic variability. We measured leaf and stem waters of these plants to help constrain potential drivers of leaf wax n-alkane δD values across this transect. Results are discussed relative to local climate parameters and modelled precipitation values to elucidate source water contributions modified by evaporation and transpiration. This survey of δD values from leaf wax compounds and plant waters in western Greenland will extend stable isotope calibrations to tundra vegetation and provide insights into the use of sedimentary leaf wax compounds for reconstruction of paleohydroclimate.

  13. Pollen transfer in fragmented plant populations: insight from the pollen loads of pollinators and stigmas in a mass-flowering species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmas, Chloé E L; Fort, Thomas L C; Escaravage, Nathalie; Pornon, André

    2016-08-01

    Pollinator and/or mate scarcity affects pollen transfer, with important ecological and evolutionary consequences for plant reproduction. However, the way in which the pollen loads transported by pollinators and deposited on stigmas are affected by pollination context has been little studied. We investigated the impacts of plant mate and visiting insect availabilities on pollen transport and receipt in a mass-flowering and facultative autogamous shrub (Rhododendron ferrugineum). First, we recorded insect visits to R. ferrugineum in plant patches of diverse densities and sizes. Second, we analyzed the pollen loads transported by R. ferrugineum pollinators and deposited on stigmas of emasculated and intact flowers, in the same patches. Overall, pollinators (bumblebees) transported much larger pollen loads than the ones found on stigmas, and the pollen deposited on stigmas included a high proportion of conspecific pollen. However, comparing pollen loads of emasculated and intact flowers indicated that pollinators contributed only half the conspecific pollen present on the stigma. At low plant density, we found the highest visitation rate and the lowest proportion of conspecific pollen transported and deposited by pollinators. By contrast, at higher plant density and lower visitation rate, pollinators deposited larger proportion of conspecific pollen, although still far from sufficient to ensure that all the ovules were fertilized. Finally, self-pollen completely buffered the detrimental effects on pollination of patch fragmentation and pollinator failure. Our results indicate that pollen loads from pollinators and emasculated flowers should be quantified for an accurate understanding of the relative impacts of pollinator and mate limitation on pollen transfer in facultative autogamous species. PMID:27547345

  14. Plant Pb Contents in Elevation Zones of the Changbai Mountain National Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Jun-Hong; CUI Bao-Shan; DENG Wei; WANG Qing-Gai; DING Qiu-Yi

    2007-01-01

    Typical plants and soils of four elevation zones,mountain tundra(Zone A),Betula ermanii forest(Zone B),mountain dark coniferous forest(Zone C),and mountain coniferous and broad-leaf forest(Zone D),along the vertical gradient of the northern mountain slope of the Changbai Mountain National Nature Reserve,Jilin Province,China,were sampled to study the relationship between plant and soil Pb,and to compare the Pb levels in typical plant types within the same elevation zone.The Pb contents in the soil and plant samples were measured by using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer.The results showed that the average plant Pb contents of the four plant elevation zones were lower than the average worldwide level.except for Zone B,Compared with the average level in China or the average worldwide level,the soil Pb levels of the four plant zones were higher,with Zones D and B having the lowest and highest averages,respectively.Plant Pb levels fluctuated from the upper to the lower zones,in a pattern of low-high-low-high,which was the same as that of the soils in the four zones.Furthermore.plant Pb was closely related to soll Pb.Depending on the plant species and plant parts,large differences were found in the Pb levels of typical plants within each zone.In Zone A,Vaccinium uliginosum and Rhododendron redowskianum had higher Pb levels than the other plants.In Zone C,the Pb levels in the branches of both plant species were higher than those in the leaves,which was contrary to Zone D.In Zone B,the Pb levels in the plant parts varied greatly with plant species.

  15. Relaxation of Rat Aorta by Farrerol Correlates with Potency to Reduce Intracellular Calcium of VSMCs

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    Xiaojiang Qin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Farrerol, isolated from Rhododendron dauricum L., has been proven to be an important multifunctional physiologically active component, but its vasoactive mechanism is not clear. The present study was performed to observe the vasoactive effects of farrerol on rat aorta and to investigate the possible underlying mechanisms. Isolated aortic rings of rat were mounted in an organ bath system and the myogenic effects stimulated by farrerol were studied. Intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]in was measured by molecular probe fluo-4-AM and the activities of L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (LVGC were studied with whole-cell patch clamp in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs. The results showed that farrerol significantly induced dose-dependent relaxation on aortic rings, while this vasorelaxation was not affected by NG-nitro-l-arginine methylester ester or endothelium denudation. In endothelium-denuded aortas, farrerol also reduced Ca2+-induced contraction on the basis of the stable contraction induced by KCl or phenylephrine (PE in Ca2+-free solution. Moreover, after incubation with verapamil, farrerol can induce relaxation in endothelium-denuded aortas precontracted by PE, and this effect can be enhanced by ruthenium red, but not by heparin. With laser scanning confocal microscopy method, the farrerol-induced decline of [Ca2+]in in cultured VSMCs was observed. Furthermore, we found that farrerol could suppress Ca2+ influx via LVGC by patch clamp technology. These findings suggested that farrerol can regulate the vascular tension and could be developed as a practicable vasorelaxation drug.

  16. Biology and integrated control of Pestalotiopsis on container-grown ericaceous crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuilken, Mark P; Hopkins, K E

    2004-02-01

    Pestalotiopsis isolates obtained from the foliage, stem-base and roots of diseased container-grown ericaceous crops (Calluna, Erica, Pieris and Rhododendron) collected from UK nurseries were identified as Pestalotiopsis sydowiana (Bresad) B Sutton on the basis of conidia morphology. Inoculum sources of the pathogen included diseased stock plants, crop debris, nursery soils, used growing media, pots and floor covering, and dust collected from greenhouse walkways. Isolates were not host-specific and infected other species of ericaceous plants, with typical symptoms including browning of foliage, stems and roots, and the presence of black or greenish black acervuli on diseased tissue. The optimum temperature for growth of three selected isolates of the pathogen was 20-25 degrees C, with little or no growth occurring below 5 or above 30 degrees C. Growth occurred over pH 2.6-8.6, with optimum at 5.5. Decreases in matric potential from -0.3 to -4.0 MPa reduced growth, which was totally inhibited at -6.5 MPa. Greenhouse trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of disease management methods (irrigation, flooring/pot disinfection and fungicide application) on control of the pathogen on potted plants of C vulgaris. Disease incidence and foliar browning caused by P sydowiana were less on fungicide-treated (five-spray programme of alternating prochloraz and carbendazim) potted plants watered by sub-irrigation compared with watering from overhead. Single and combined treatments of flooring/pot disinfection (hydrogen peroxide/peracetic acid) and the five-spray fungicide programme significantly reduced disease incidence and severity compared with dipping pots in water. The combined disinfection and fungicide programme significantly reduced disease incidence and severity, compared to disinfection or fungicide application alone. The importance of these findings for the integrated control of P sydowiana on ericaceous plant nurseries is discussed. PMID:14971679

  17. Genetic Diversity Caused by Environmental Stress in Natural Populations of Niupidujuan as Revealed by RAPD Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Ying-da; XING Ming; YANG Zhi-yong; LIU Yan-fei; CHEN Xia

    2011-01-01

    Multiplex environmental factors are generally expected to have significant effects on genetic diversity of plant populations.In this study,randomly amplified polymorphic DNA(RAPD) technique was used to reveal the genetic diversity in the same species of four populations collected from Niupidujuan(Rhododendron chrysanthum) at different altitudes,an endangered species,endemic to Northeast China.Initially,twenty informative and reproducible primers were chosen for final RAPD analysis.A total of 152 clear bands were obtained,including 143 polymorphic ones.With the help of POPGENE software,the poly rate was calculated to be 94.07% and the evenness of amplified bands for every primer was 6.8.Additionally,the mean observed number of alleles was 1.7265 with an effective number of 1.3608.An examination of the gene indicated a diversity of 0.2162 with an information diversity index of 0.3313.For these data,the clustering blurred analysis was performed with the aid of NTSYS-pc software to define the Nei's gene diversity and the Shannon information diversity index of the four plant populations.The relationships between the genetic diversity indexes on the one hand and the geographic and climatic factors on the other hand were estimated by the Pearson correlation with SPSS 11.0 software.The results of the correlation analysis show that there were significant(P<0.05) or highly significant(P<0.01) correlations between each of the genetic diversity indexes and the different temperature which were mainly caused by the altitude different populations located.These data highlight the importance of native populations in shaping the spatial genetic structure in Niupidujuan.

  18. Characterization of Understory Shrub Expansion in a West Virginia Watershed from 1986 - 2011 Using Landsat Derived Vegetation Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, J. W.; Welsch, D. L.; Epstein, H. E.

    2015-12-01

    Mid and southern Appalachian forests have been heavily influenced by human intervention, with much of the current forest area covered by secondary or tertiary growth following significant past logging or fire. The pre-logging forests of mid Appalachia were mainly comprised of large Quercus spp. and Liriodendron tulipiferia with Pinus rubens and Tsuga canadensis at higher elevations. These species have been supplanted by more mesic species such as Betula alleghaniensis and Acer rubrum. Within these forests, Rhododendron maximum is an abundant evergreen shrub that grows in dense thickets that can alter forest community structure, affect species diversity, lower decomposition rates, and affect forest carbon and nitrogen cycling through altering soil chemistry and physics. The spatial patterns and temporal dynamics of R. maximum within these forests, especially in the mid Appalachians, is not fully conceptualized. An increase in R. maximumspatial coverage could significantly affect basic forest ecosystem processes and be of interest to researchers and forest managers. Using Landsat derived vegetation indices--including Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), and Tasseled Cap Transformations--we quantified the expansion of R. maximum within a topographically complex watershed in West Virginia from 1986-2011. Our array of models show an initial shrub coverage (1986) in our target watershed of between 27.7 - 36.6% and a present-day shrub coverage (2011) of between 41.2 - 42.8%--with a range from 10.2 - 15.1% increase in shrub coverage over the 25 year study window. Averaged model output suggests an increase of 38.4 ha from 1986 to 2011 and a mean NDVI increase of 0.076 for the entire watershed. Furhter spatial analysis will elucidate possible connections and patterns related to distance-from-streams and/or elevation.

  19. 18SrRNA作为植物实时荧光定量PCR 内参基因的探究%The Exploration of 18S rRNA for Quantitative RT-PCR as Reference Gene in Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓馥; 王晶; 史宏伟; 徐洪伟

    2016-01-01

    Real time fluorescence quantitative PCR ( qRT-PCR ) has been widely used for gene expression analysis ,and the choice of reference genes plays a key role for the quantitative analysis of qRT-PCR data correction.Here,18S rRNA was employed as reference gene to explore that if its expression abundance is suitable for wheat , medicago and rhododendron .The results showed that the expression abundance of 18 S rRNA in these three plants were too high with Ct values less than 15 , which will have an effect on the quantitative accuracy of the target gene .Therefore ,18 S rRNA is not the appropriate reference gene for these three plants when target gene expression is low .%实时荧光定量PCR( real time fluorescence quantitative PCR ,qRT-PCR)已广泛用于基因表达分析,而内参基因的选择对qRT-PCR定量分析的数据校正起关键作用。以18S rRNA作为小麦、苜蓿和杜鹃qRT-PCR的内参基因,探究其表达丰度是否适合作为这3种植物的内参基因。结果表明18S rRNA在这3种植物中的表达丰度均过高,Ct值均小于15,影响目的基因定量的准确性。因此,在目的基因的表达量低时,18S rRNA不宜作为这3种植物的内参基因。

  20. Estimating density of a rare and cryptic high-mountain Galliform species, the Buff-throated Partridge Tetraophasis szechenyii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of abundance or density are essential for wildlife management and conservation. There are few effective density estimates for the Buff-throated Partridge Tetraophasis szechenyii, a rare and elusive high-mountain Galliform species endemic to western China. In this study, we used the temporary emigration N-mixture model to estimate density of this species, with data acquired from playback point count surveys around a sacred area based on indigenous Tibetan culture of protection of wildlife, in Yajiang County, Sichuan, China, during April-June 2009. Within 84 125-m radius points, we recorded 53 partridge groups during three repeats. The best model indicated that detection probability was described by covariates of vegetation cover type, week of visit, time of day, and weather with weak effects, and a partridge group was present during a sampling period with a constant probability. The abundance component was accounted for by vegetation association. Abundance was substantially higher in rhododendron shrubs, fir-larch forests, mixed spruce-larch-birch forests, and especially oak thickets than in pine forests. The model predicted a density of 5.14 groups/km², which is similar to an estimate of 4.7 - 5.3 groups/km² quantified via an intensive spot-mapping effort. The post-hoc estimate of individual density was 14.44 individuals/km², based on the estimated mean group size of 2.81. We suggest that the method we employed is applicable to estimate densities of Buff-throated Partridges in large areas. Given importance of a mosaic habitat for this species, local logging should be regulated. Despite no effect of the conservation area (sacred on the abundance of Buff-throated Partridges, we suggest regulations linking the sacred mountain conservation area with the official conservation system because of strong local participation facilitated by sacred mountains in land conservation.

  1. Ecological studies of plants for the control of environmental pollution. IV. Growth of various plant species as influenced by soil applied cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, J.W.; Kim, B.W.

    1975-03-01

    The relations of the growth response of plants, i.e. 4 species of crops, 12 species of roadside trees and 5 species of horticultural plants to cadmium (Cd) were studied in pot cultures. Growth in dry weight of corn, soybeans, barley, and wheat plants was decreased with an increase in Cd concentration. Damage to corn plants caused by Cd treatment was more or less recovered when it was grown in soil with calcium, but the other three crops did not recover. Although crop plants used here absorbed a small amount of Cd through the roots, the Cd content in the shoots was directly proportionate to the concentration of Cd added to the soil. Additions of calcium and sulfur to soil were sufficient to change the soil pH. The chlorosis on leaves caused by Cd treatment was observed in 2 species such as Euonymus japonica and Rhododendron yedoense out of 5 species of the horticultural plants, especially at 50 ppm of Cd. Euonymus japonica had symptoms of chlorosis and defoliation, and at higher concentrations the symptoms were more severe. At 200 ppm of Cd little damage was observed in Pinus koraiensis and Ginkgo biloba, but severe chlorosis was observed in Robinia pseudoacacia and Sabina chinensis, Buxus koreana, Abies holophylla and Platanus orientalis. Nevertheless, those plants that had serious damage at 200 ppm of Cd showed weakened symptoms by adding calcium to the soil. There were many Cd tolerant species out of the plants used in this experiment, such as Crassula falcata, Chrysanthemum morifolium, Hibiscus syriacus, Ligustrum ovalifolium, Liriodendron tulipeferia, and Lespedeza crytobotrys.

  2. Habitat correlates of the red panda in the temperate forests of Bhutan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangay Dorji

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic activities and associated global climate change are threatening the biodiversity in the Himalayas against a backdrop of poor knowledge of the region's threatened species. The red panda (Ailurus fulgens is a threatened mammal confined to the eastern Himalayas, and because of Bhutan's central location in the distributional range of red pandas, its forests are integral to the long-term viability of wild populations. Detailed habitat requirements of the red panda are largely speculative, and there is virtually no ecological information available on this species in Bhutan. Between 2007 and 2009, we established 615 presence/absence plots in a systematic sampling of resident habitat types within Jigme Dorji and Thrumshingla National Parks, Bhutan, to investigate broad and fine-scale red panda habitat associations. Additional locality records of red pandas were obtained from interviewing 664 park residents. Red pandas were generally confined to cool broadleaf and conifer forests from 2,110-4,389 m above sea level (asl, with the majority of records between 2,400-3,700 m asl on south and east-facing slopes. At a finer scale, multivariate analysis revealed that red pandas were strongly associated with old growth Bhutan Fir (Abies densa forest dominated by a dense cover of Yushania and Arundanaria bamboo with a high density of fallen logs and tree stumps at ground level; a high density of trees, dead snags, and rhododendron shrubs in the mid-storey; and locations that were close to water. Because Bhutan's temperate forests that encompass prime red panda habitat are also integral to human subsistence and socio-economic development, there exists an inadvertent conflict between the needs of people and red pandas. As such, careful sustainable management of Bhutan's temperate forests is necessary if a balance is to be met between the socioeconomic needs of people and the conservation goals for red pandas.

  3. Electroencephalographic and behavioral effects of intracerebroventricular or intraperitoneal injections of toxic honey extract in adult Wistar rats and GAERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuru, Pinar; Torun, Merve; Halac, Hande Melike; Temiz, Gozde; Iskender, Ece; Karamahmutoglu, Tugba; Idrizoglu, Medine Gulcebi; Onat, Filiz Yilmaz

    2014-12-01

    Toxic honey, containing grayanotoxin, is obtained from nectar and polen of rhododendron. Consumed in excess it produces seizures and convulsions. In order to investigate whether the toxic honey extract can be used as a seizure model, we examined the electroencephalographic (EEG) and motor effects of intracerebroventricular (icv) or intraperitoneal (ip) injection of toxic honey extract in Wistar rats or in genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS). Male Wistar rats or GAERS were stereotaxically implanted with bilateral cortical recording electrodes in all ip groups and cannula in the icv groups. Based on the previous study, an extract was obtained from the non-toxic and toxic honey. After the injection of the non-toxic or toxic honey extract, seizure stages and changes in EEG were evaluated from 9 am to noon. The icv administration of toxic honey extract produced stage 4 seizures and bilateral cortical spikes within 30-60 min and these effects disappeared after 120 min in Wistar rats or GAERS. The mean of bilateral cortical spike acitivity in EEG of Wistar rats was 804.2 ± 261.0 s in the 3-h period. After the icv administration of toxic honey extract to GAERS, the mean duration of spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs) in GAERS significantly decreased during the first 60 min and then returned to baseline level. Ip injection of toxic honey extract caused no seizure and no change in EEG in either GAERS or Wistars. These results suggest that the icv administration of toxic honey extract can be used as a seizure model. PMID:25120202

  4. Nitrogen deposition but not climate warming promotes Deyeuxia angustifolia encroachment in alpine tundra of the Changbai Mountains, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Shengwei; Jin, Yinghua; Xu, Jiawei; Wu, Zhengfang; He, Hongshi; Du, Haibo; Wang, Lei

    2016-02-15

    Vegetation in the alpine tundra area of the Changbai Mountains, one of two alpine tundra areas in China, has undergone great changes in recent decades. The aggressive herb species Deyeuxia angustifolia (Komarov) Y. L. Chang, a narrow-leaf small reed, was currently encroaching upon the alpine landscape and threatening tundra biota. The alpine tundra of the Changbai Mountains has been experiencing a warmer climate and receiving a high load of atmospheric nitrogen deposition. In this study, we aimed to assess the respective roles of climate warming and atmospheric nitrogen deposition in promoting the upward encroachment of D. angustifolia. We conducted experiments for three years to examine the response of D. angustifolia and a native alpine shrub, Rhododendron chrysanthum, to the conditions in which temperature and nitrogen were increased. Treatments consisting of temperature increase, nitrogen addition, temperature increase combined with nitrogen addition, and controls were conducted on the D. angustifolia communities with three encroachment levels (low, medium, and high levels). Results showed that 1) D. angustifolia grew in response to added nutrients but did not grow well when temperature increased. R. chrysanthum showed negligible responses to the simulated environmental changes. 2) Compared to R. chrysanthum, D. angustifolia could effectively occupy the above-ground space by increasing tillers and growing rapidly by efficiently using nitrogen. The difference in nitrogen uptake abilities between the two species contributed to expansion of D. angustifolia. 3) D. angustifolia encroachment could deeply change the biodiversity of tundra vegetation and may eventually result in the replacement of native biota, especially with nitrogen addition. Our research indicated that nutrient perturbation may be more important than temperature perturbation in promoting D. angustifolia encroachment upon the nutrient- and species-poor alpine tundra ecosystem in the Changbai

  5. Catchment nitrogen saturation drives ecological change in an alpine lake in SW China (eastern margin of Tibet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, N. J.; Hu, Z.; Yang, X.; Zhang, E.

    2011-12-01

    There is substantial evidence for recent (last ca. 120 years) ecological change in remote arctic and alpine lakes (increased productivity, altered biological structure). Initially, these changes were attributed to global warming which has altered the heat budgets of these lakes (stronger stratification, longer ice free periods). The emphasis on temperature, however, ignores that global environmental change is driven by a range of multiple stressors (e.g. altered biogeochemical cycles, land cover change). One of the characteristics of the observed change in remote lakes is the expansion of small species of the planktonic diatom genus Cyclotella. It is increasingly obvious that the recent success of this diatom genus is driven by other factors (nutrients, light, mixing depth) as much as temperature. SE Asia is a major hotspot for the emission of reactive nitrogen as a result of intensive agriculture and fossil fuel combustion. In this study we report recent ecological change in a small, oligotrophic alpine lake (ShadeCo; altitude 4423 m) located in Sichuan Province (SW China), one of many relatively unstudied alpine lakes on the eastern margin of Tibet. The lake is located above the tree-line and there is no cultural land-use; the catchment vegetation is dominated by alpine shrub (predominantly Rhododendron). We used a multi-proxy palaeolimnological approach (diatom, geochemical and stable isotope analyses of a 210-Pb dated core) coupled with regional long-term climate data to understand the pronounced 20th century changes in the diatom record, notably an expansion of Cyclotella spp from around 1920. This initial increase is coincident with warming in SW China but the maximum Cyclotella abundance occurs in in the 1970s and 1980s, a period of regional cooling and major changes in catchment-lake biogeochemistry as indicated by geochemical analyses. The possible drivers of the observed changes (nitrogen deposition, temperature) at this site are discussed in the context

  6. Study on Numberical Classification of Plant Community in Xuefeng Mountain(Huaihua Area)%雪峰山(怀化段)植物群落的数量分类研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁莉

    2012-01-01

    对雪峰山(怀化段)的植物群落采用数学模糊聚类分析,结果表明:(1)模糊聚类分析方法是一种理想的植物群落分类方法,可得到比较客观、合理的分类结果;(2)雪峰山(怀化段)的植物群落大致可分为4种类型,分别是:①马尾松—映山红+白栎—白茅+鹅观草群丛;②杉木—苎麻+茶—香石竹+蓼群丛;③杜仲—香樟—柴胡+野菊花群丛;④野百合+早熟禾群丛。%Plant community in Xuefeng Mountain(Huaihua Area)was analyzed by fuzzy classification,The resulted show that(1) The method of fuzzy classification based on fuzzy mathematics was a ideal categorizing method of plant community,Lt could get objective and reasonable categorizing resules;(2)the plant communities in Xuefeng Mountain(Huaihua Area) could be divided into about four types:①Ass.Pinus massoniana-Rhododendron simsii+Quercus fabri-Imperata spp.+Roegneria kamoji;②Ass.Cuninghamia lanceolata-Boehmeria nivea+Camellia sinensis-Dianthus caryophyllus+Polygonum spp.;③ Ass.Eucommia ulmoides-Cinnamomum camphora-Bupleurum chinense+Chrysanthemum indicum;④Ass.Lilium brownie+Poa annua.

  7. The botanical legacy of Thomas Hardwicke’s journey to Srinagar in 1796

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Turner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1796, Thomas Hardwicke travelled through northern India between what is now Fatehgarh in Uttar Pradesh and Srinagar in Uttarakhand. Hardwicke collected and described plants encountered and had many of the plants illustrated from life. He published an account of the journey in 1799 including a list of plant species. I review the names validated in the original paper, and also those published subsequently by Sir James Edward Smith and William Roxburgh based partly or wholly on the material or drawings acquired by Hardwicke on the journey to Srinagar. The large collection of Hardwicke plant drawings now held in the British Library, and a smaller set in the Botany Library of the Natural History Museum, are considered in relation to the application and typification of plant names related to Hardwicke’s botanical exploration in India. The names of seven plant species were validly published in the 1799 paper (Androsace rotundifolia Hardw., Ficus laminosa Hardw., Justicia thyrsiformis Roxb. ex Hardw., Linum trigynum Roxb. ex Hardw., Lonicera quinquelocularis Hardw., Salvia integrifolia Roxb. ex Hardw. and Volkameria bicolor Hardw., plus one new combination (Echites antidysentericus (L. Roxb. ex Hardw.. As concluded by Britten more than a century ago, Ficus laminosa is the correct name for the fig variously referred to F. saemocarpa Miq. or F. squamosa Roxb. Smith based Rhododendron arboreum Sm. and Bignonia undulata Sm. on Hardwicke plants. At least a dozen Roxburgh names, including Crataegus integrifolia Roxb., Gardenia tetrasperma Roxb. and Morus serrata Roxb., are based, at least partly, on Hardwicke’s collections. In total, 23 names are lectotypified here and one neotype is designated.

  8. Forest structure, diversity and regeneration potential along altitudinal gradient in Dhanaulti of Garhwal Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Saha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The aim of the present study was to understatnd the forest composition, structure, diversity and regeneration potential along altitudinal gradient. Area of study: The study was carried out in Dhanaulti forest which falls under temperate region of Garhwal Himalaya in Uttarakhand state, India. Material and Methods: Vegetation analysis was carried out using 10 quadrats at each altitude using a quadrate size of 10×10 m2. In each quadrate, categories of trees >30 cm cbh were considered as trees, 10-30cm cbh as saplings and <10 cm cbh as seedlings. The data were quantitatively analyzed. Main results: In upper and middle altitudes, Cedrus deodara was reported dominant tree whereas, in lower altitude Quercus leucotrichophora was reported dominant. Tree density was highest in lower altitude which reduced middle and upper altitudes whereas, total basal cover increased with increasing altitude. The increasing total basal cover with altitude could be because of the presence of Cedrus deodara trees having higher girth classes. In tree, sapling and seedling layers, diversity (H and equitabiltiy (EC decreased with increasing altitude. However, concentrations of dominace (CD and beta diversity (BD have shown reverse trend with H and EC which increased with increasing altitudes, in each layer of tree, sapling and seedling. The distribution pattern of most species in all layers of trees, saplings and seedlings was contagious. The regeneration potential of the species has shown that some of the species in the absence of tree layer are still regenerating particularly, Rhododendron arboreum, Benthamidia capitata, Neolitsea pallens etc. It indicates that most of the species are shifting upward as they are getting suitable conditions. Research highlights: Altitude influence species composition, diversity and regeneration potential of species. Key words: Distribution pattern; tree diversity; regeneration; mountains; temperate; Himalaya.

  9. Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMeeking, Gavin R.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Baker, Stephen; Carrico, Christian M.; Chow, Judith C.; Collett, Jr., Jeffrey L.; Hao, Wei Min; Holden, Amanda S.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Malm, William C.; Moosmuller, Hans; Sullivan, Amy P.; Wold, Cyle E.

    2009-05-15

    We characterized the gas- and speciated aerosol-phase emissions from the open combustion of 33 different plant species during a series of 255 controlled laboratory burns during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiments (FLAME). The plant species we tested were chosen to improve the existing database for U.S. domestic fuels: laboratory-based emission factors have not previously been reported for many commonly-burned species that are frequently consumed by fires near populated regions and protected scenic areas. The plants we tested included the chaparral species chamise, manzanita, and ceanothus, and species common to the southeastern US (common reed, hickory, kudzu, needlegrass rush, rhododendron, cord grass, sawgrass, titi, and wax myrtle). Fire-integrated emission factors for gas-phase CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2-4} hydrocarbons, NH{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 3} and particle-phase organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and NH{sub 4}{sup +} generally varied with both fuel type and with the fire-integrated modified combustion efficiency (MCE), a measure of the relative importance of flaming- and smoldering-phase combustion to the total emissions during the burn. Chaparral fuels tended to emit less particulate OC per unit mass of dry fuel than did other fuel types, whereas southeastern species had some of the largest observed EF for total fine particulate matter. Our measurements often spanned a larger range of MCE than prior studies, and thus help to improve estimates for individual fuels of the variation of emissions with combustion conditions.

  10. Plant Community Composition and Structure of Chenab Valley in a Part of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinaba MAJUMDAR

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the vegetation communities and their diversity patterns in Chenab valley, the buffer zone of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR in Chamoli District of Uttarakhand, India. A total of 42 sites were selected randomly based on the landform heterogeneity of the area. Eight forest communities with overlap among vegetation types and also various plant associations were noticed through Principal Component Analysis (PCA following PAST program and two shrub communities identified separately were, Berberis and bamboo. The range of density in various forest communities was from 203-545 trees ha-1 and total basal area from 17.5-71.7 m2 ha-1. The range of species richness of tree layer, shrub layer and herb layer was from 2-14, 1-10 and 4-14 and diversity from 0.693-2.304, 0.514-2.052 and 1.202-2.583, respectively. The distribution pattern of trees, shrubs and herbs shows that the species were evenly distributed in most of the sites and the �-diversity of the present study area is 7.4. Rhododendron and Taxus, the undercanopy species facilitated the regeneration of Chimnobambusa falcata, while the conversion of lower girth class individuals to higher girth class individuals is steady and progressive. Though, evergreen and deciduous species had good population of seedlings and saplings, but the conversion to next girth class was very poor due to the high anthropogenic pressure. The present study reveals that the forest vegetation in Chenab valley is better than that of other parts of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, for which conservation strategies have been discussed in the paper.

  11. Factors Affecting Diet Variation in the Pyrenean Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus muta pyrenaica: Conservation Implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo García-González

    Full Text Available The Pyrenean rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta pyrenaica lives at one of the southernmost limits of the ptarmigan range. Their small population sizes and the impacts of global changes are limiting factors in the conservation of this threatened subspecies. An effective conservation policy requires precise basic knowledge of a species' food and habitat requirements, information that is practically non-existent for this Pyrenean population. Here, we describe the diet of a ptarmigan population in the Eastern Pyrenees, the environmental factors influencing its variability and the relationship between diet floristic composition and quality. Diet composition was determined by microhistological analysis of faeces and diet quality was estimated from free-urate faecal N content. Our results show that grouse diet is based mainly on arctic-alpine shrubs of the Ericaceae family, as well as dwarf willows (Salix spp. and Dryas octopetala. The most frequently consumed plant species was Rhododendron ferrugineum, but its abundance in the diet was negatively related to the diet nitrogen content. Conversely, the abundance of Salix spp., grass leaves and arthropods increased the nitrogen content of the diet. Seasonality associated with snow-melting contributed the most to variability in the Pyrenean ptarmigan diet, differentiating winter from spring/summer diets. The latter was characterised by a high consumption of dwarf willows, flowers, arthropods and tender forb leaves. Geographic area and sex-age class influenced diet variability to a lesser extent. Current temperature increases in the Pyrenees due to global warming may reduce the persistence and surface area of snow-packs where preferred plants for rock ptarmigan usually grow, thus reducing food availability. The high consumption of Rh. ferrugineum characterised the diet of the Pyrenean population. Given the toxicity of this plant for most herbivores, its potential negative effect on Pyrenean ptarmigan populations

  12. Factors Affecting Diet Variation in the Pyrenean Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus muta pyrenaica): Conservation Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Ricardo; Aldezabal, Arantza; Laskurain, Nere Amaia; Margalida, Antoni; Novoa, Claude

    2016-01-01

    The Pyrenean rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta pyrenaica) lives at one of the southernmost limits of the ptarmigan range. Their small population sizes and the impacts of global changes are limiting factors in the conservation of this threatened subspecies. An effective conservation policy requires precise basic knowledge of a species' food and habitat requirements, information that is practically non-existent for this Pyrenean population. Here, we describe the diet of a ptarmigan population in the Eastern Pyrenees, the environmental factors influencing its variability and the relationship between diet floristic composition and quality. Diet composition was determined by microhistological analysis of faeces and diet quality was estimated from free-urate faecal N content. Our results show that grouse diet is based mainly on arctic-alpine shrubs of the Ericaceae family, as well as dwarf willows (Salix spp.) and Dryas octopetala. The most frequently consumed plant species was Rhododendron ferrugineum, but its abundance in the diet was negatively related to the diet nitrogen content. Conversely, the abundance of Salix spp., grass leaves and arthropods increased the nitrogen content of the diet. Seasonality associated with snow-melting contributed the most to variability in the Pyrenean ptarmigan diet, differentiating winter from spring/summer diets. The latter was characterised by a high consumption of dwarf willows, flowers, arthropods and tender forb leaves. Geographic area and sex-age class influenced diet variability to a lesser extent. Current temperature increases in the Pyrenees due to global warming may reduce the persistence and surface area of snow-packs where preferred plants for rock ptarmigan usually grow, thus reducing food availability. The high consumption of Rh. ferrugineum characterised the diet of the Pyrenean population. Given the toxicity of this plant for most herbivores, its potential negative effect on Pyrenean ptarmigan populations should be

  13. 粤东桥溪村风水林群落特征初探%Investigation on the community characteristics and species diversity of Qiaoxi Geomantic Forest in Meizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨期和; 潘素芳; 赖万年; 杨和生; 况伟

    2015-01-01

    The detailed investigation on the tree layer,shrub layer and herb layer were carried out to analyze the char-acteristics and plant diversity through setting up samples in Qiaoxi Village Geomantic Forest in MeiZhou City,East-ern part of Guangdong Povince,South China.In this geomantic forest,3 standard sample plots covered an area of 1 000 m2 (50 m×20 m)were set up to investigate the plants in the tree layers,and the distance between 3 adjacent sample plots was 50-55 m.In each standard plot,3 standard samples covered 4 m2 (2 m×2 m)were randomly set to investigate the plants in the shrub layer and herb layer.It was found that there were 67 species of vascular plants belonging to 54 genera and 37 families in the sample area of 3 000 m2 .There were 4 species of ferns belonging to 4 four genera in 4 families,3 species of gymnosperms belonging to 3 genera in 3 families,and 60 species belonging to 47 genera in 30 families.The floristic components were dominated by tropical elements and the proportion of tropical genus was 74.08% in the total number of genera.The families including Lauraceae,Fagaceae and Hamamelidaceae were dominant families,and Altingia gracilipes ,Rhododendron championae ,Itea chinensis and Altingia chinensis were the dominant tree species in this forest.The vegetation type was evergreen broadleaved forest,and the life form was dominated by phanerophytes,which accounted for 73.13% in the total species,in these phanerophytes,the me-sophanerophyte life form was the most,which accounted for about 43% in the total species.The proportion of lianas was 17.91%.The tree layer can be divided into three sub-layers,but the individuals at height of 6-9.9 m number were the most.There lacked seedling reserve of Pinus massoniana ,Cunninghamia lanceolata ,Altingia gracilipes , Itea chinensis and Altingia chinensis ,which indicated their populations were declining,while there were relatively e-nough seedling reserve of Rhododendron championae and Helicia cochinchinensis

  14. Decontamination Ability of Theaceae Ornamental Plants to Absorb Sulfur Dioxide and Fluoride in Atmosphere%山茶科观赏植物对大气SO2和氟化物的净化能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    萧洪东; 胡羡聪; 赵鸿杰; 殷爱华; 关国材

    2014-01-01

    将11种山茶科观赏植物在佛山市南海区五星(污染区)和高明区云勇林场(相对清洁区)栽培420 d后,观察它们的叶、枝、茎、根等器官对SO2和氟化物的净化能力。结果表明,在不同环境中生长相同时间下,金花茶、杜鹃红山茶、大苞山茶、岑溪软枝油茶、越南油茶、长尾毛蕊茶、普通油茶、香港红山茶、博白大果油茶9种山茶科植物对SO2、氟化物等污染气体均具有较强的抗性和吸收净化能力,而大叶厚皮香、荷木两个品种在污染区的成活率仅为60%、30%,吸附SO2、氟化物的量较少,抗性差,不适宜在SO2、氟化物含量高的环境中栽种;山茶科植物各器官对SO2、氟化物的吸附能力变化较大,植物对SO2的吸附主要表现在叶、根上,为根>叶片>枝>茎,植物对氟化物的吸附主要集中在叶片上;山茶科植物不同品种其器官吸收SO2和氟化物的净化能力不同,可根据不同地区污染情况选用不同的植物。%The purification ability of leaves,branch,trunk and root organs to SO2 and fluoride in air of 11 Theaceae ornamental plants cultivated for 420 d in Wuxing of Nanhai area(pollution area) and Yunyong forest farm of Gaoming area(relatively clean area) in Foshan city was observed.Results showed that under the different conditions and the same cultivation time,Camellia nitidissima, C. azalea,C. granthamiana,C. oleifera,C. vietnamensis,C. caudate,C. oleifera,C. hongkongensis,C. gantocarapa had great ability to absorb air pollutants of SO2 and fluoride. The survival rate of Ternstroemiag ymnanthera var. wightii, Schima spp.ect.in the pollution area was only 60% and 30%, respectively. They had poor ability to absorb air pollutants of SO2 and fluoride,with no appropriate growth in the environment with high contents of SO2 and fluoride.There were large changes of the purification ability of each organ in the adsorption of SO2 and fluoride. The

  15. Impacts of traditional land use practices on soil organic carbon and nitrogen pools of mountain ecosystems in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Anjana; Katzensteiner, Klaus

    2010-05-01

    Crop production, animal husbandry and forestry are three closely interlinked components of land use systems in the mountains of Nepal. Forests are the major source of fuel wood, construction materials, fodder and litter. The latter is used as a bedding material for livestock and forms an important component of farmyard manure. In addition forest grazing by cattle is a common practice. Excessive extraction of biomass from the forest leads to a decline of soil organic matter and nutrient contents. On the landscape scale these negative effects will partly be compensated by positive effects on soil organic matter and nutrient stocks of arable soils. The experimental data base for a quantification of such effects at the scale of communities is however poor, in particular for Nepal. Understanding the impact of subsistence farming on ecosystems is imperative in order to recommend successful and sustainable land management practices. The aim of our study is to quantify effects of land use on carbon and nitrogen pools and fluxes for mountain communities in Nepal. Results of a case study in the buffer zone area of the Sagarmatha National Park are presented. The potential vegetation comprises mixed forests of Quercus semicarpifolia, Rhododendron arboreum and Tsuga dumosa. Carbon and nitrogen stocks in soil and vegetation were quantified for three different land use types, namely: forest with low human impact, forests with high human impact and agricultural land. The scale of disturbance of the forests has been classified by visual estimation considering the percentage of litter raked, number of lopped trees, and grazing intensity assessed by signs of trampling and the number of trails. After stratification of the community area, 20 plots of 10 m radius were established (17 forest plots, 3 plots for arable land) where biometric data of the vegetation were determined and sub-samples were taken for chemical analyses. Organic layers (litter remaining after litter raking) and soil

  16. Health Assessment of Fir Forest Community Structure at Mount Sejila in Tibet%西藏色季拉山冷杉群落结构健康评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁云春; 杨小林; 辛福梅; 马和平

    2014-01-01

    选择西藏色季拉山急尖长苞冷杉天然林为研究对象,在海拔梯度上以群丛作为评价的基本单位,进行冷杉群落结构健康评价。对群落物种多样性和群落结构特征因子,采用主成分分析,筛选主要评价指标,结合层次分析法( AHP法)进行健康排序。结果表明,对冷杉林群落结构健康影响最大的因子依次为:年龄结构、灌木层盖度、乔木株数、更新数量、草本种类、郁闭度、草本层盖度、灌木种类、乔木种类和亚层数共10个因子。健康排序次序为急尖长苞冷杉-林芝云杉群丛、急尖长苞冷杉+忍冬群丛、急尖长苞冷杉+杜鹃群丛、急尖长苞冷杉+苔藓群丛。%This article selected the natural forest of Abies georgei var.smithii at MountSejila as research object .The Analytic Hierar-chy Process (AHP method) extracted the most important assessment indexes in many factors ,which belonged to biological diversity and characteristics of the community,used principal component analysis and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method) to arrange healthy indexes.The results show that the greatest impact on the health of the community structure to forest of Fir community followed age structure,shrub coverage,tree quantity,regeneration quantity,herb species,canopy density,herb coverage,shrub species,tree species,and sub-layer.The health sortings were Ass .Abies georgei var.smithii-Picea likiangensis var.linzhiensis,Ass.Abies georgei var.smithii+Lonicera spp.,Ass.Abies georgei var.smithii+Rhododendron spp.and Abies georgei var.smithii+Bryophyta spp.Ass.

  17. Fungal Planet description sheets: 154-213.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Guarro, J; Cheewangkoon, R; van der Bank, M; Swart, W J; Stchigel, A M; Cano-Lira, J F; Roux, J; Madrid, H; Damm, U; Wood, A R; Shuttleworth, L A; Hodges, C S; Munster, M; de Jesús Yáñez-Morales, M; Zúñiga-Estrada, L; Cruywagen, E M; de Hoog, G S; Silvera, C; Najafzadeh, J; Davison, E M; Davison, P J N; Barrett, M D; Barrett, R L; Manamgoda, D S; Minnis, A M; Kleczewski, N M; Flory, S L; Castlebury, L A; Clay, K; Hyde, K D; Maússe-Sitoe, S N D; Chen, Shuaifei; Lechat, C; Hairaud, M; Lesage-Meessen, L; Pawłowska, J; Wilk, M; Sliwińska-Wyrzychowska, A; Mętrak, M; Wrzosek, M; Pavlic-Zupanc, D; Maleme, H M; Slippers, B; Mac Cormack, W P; Archuby, D I; Grünwald, N J; Tellería, M T; Dueñas, M; Martín, M P; Marincowitz, S; de Beer, Z W; Perez, C A; Gené, J; Marin-Felix, Y; Groenewald, J Z

    2013-12-01

    Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Camarosporium aloes, Phaeococcomyces aloes and Phoma aloes from Aloe, C. psoraleae, Diaporthe psoraleae and D. psoraleae-pinnatae from Psoralea, Colletotrichum euphorbiae from Euphorbia, Coniothyrium prosopidis and Peyronellaea prosopidis from Prosopis, Diaporthe cassines from Cassine, D. diospyricola from Diospyros, Diaporthe maytenicola from Maytenus, Harknessia proteae from Protea, Neofusicoccum ursorum and N. cryptoaustrale from Eucalyptus, Ochrocladosporium adansoniae from Adansonia, Pilidium pseudoconcavum from Greyia radlkoferi, Stagonospora pseudopaludosa from Phragmites and Toxicocladosporium ficiniae from Ficinia. Several species were also described from Thailand, namely: Chaetopsina pini and C. pinicola from Pinus spp., Myrmecridium thailandicum from reed litter, Passalora pseudotithoniae from Tithonia, Pallidocercospora ventilago from Ventilago, Pyricularia bothriochloae from Bothriochloa and Sphaerulina rhododendricola from Rhododendron. Novelties from Spain include Cladophialophora multiseptata, Knufia tsunedae and Pleuroascus rectipilus from soil and Cyphellophora catalaunica from river sediments. Species from the USA include Bipolaris drechsleri from Microstegium, Calonectria blephiliae from Blephilia, Kellermania macrospora (epitype) and K. pseudoyuccigena from Yucca. Three new species are described from Mexico, namely Neophaeosphaeria agaves and K. agaves from Agave and Phytophthora ipomoeae from Ipomoea. Other African species include Calonectria mossambicensis from Eucalyptus (Mozambique), Harzia cameroonensis from an unknown creeper (Cameroon), Mastigosporella anisophylleae from Anisophyllea (Zambia) and Teratosphaeria terminaliae from Terminalia (Zimbabwe). Species from Europe include Auxarthron longisporum from forest soil (Portugal), Discosia pseudoartocreas from Tilia (Austria), Paraconiothyrium polonense and P. lycopodinum from Lycopodium

  18. Adaptability Evaluation on Tested Tree Species in The Middle Mountain Regions of Semi-arid Valleys in The Upper Minjiang River%岷江上游半干旱河谷中山区试验树种适应性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超; 程秦明; 冯正波; 邵慧敏

    2011-01-01

    The survival percentage,growth and adaptability of the ten tested tree species,which were cultivated at altitudes of 1 800 m~2 000 m in Dagou areas of Maoxian county,Sichuan,had been evaluated in this paper.The results revealed that the survival percentage of the tested tree species was affected by the heredity,ecological habit of its own,natural surroundings and interferences of mankind activities under the set and concrete habitat conditions.Acer davidii,Betula luminifera,Ailanthus altissima,Aesculus wilsonii were proved to be very adaptive to the local surroundings and can be used as materials restoring the local vegetation by means of measuring the high growth and making sure the differential sequence of tree species mentioned above,further combined field survey on the character of anti-adversity.Rhododendron davidii,Prunus davidiana,Liquidambar acalycina,Juglans cathayensis were proved to be adaptive to the local surroundings,but further study and observation were needed in order to ascertain the usage scheme.On the other hand,Ginkgo biloba and Davidia involucrate were proved that they couldn't be used as forestation materials.%本文评价了四川茂县大沟地区海拔1800~2000m的区段10个供试树种的成活率、生长量和适应性。结果表明:在设定的具体生境条件下,供试树种的成活率受到自身遗传、生态习性及其自然环境与人类活动干扰的影响,通过对高生长量的测试确定了上述树种的生长量差异序列,并进一步结合对抗逆性的现场调查确定青榨槭、光皮桦、臭椿、天师栗很适应当地的环境,可以作为当地植被恢复的材料使用;腺果杜鹃、山桃、枫香、野核桃适宜当地环境,但尚需作进一步研究观察,以便确定使用方案;而银杏与珙桐不能作为营林材料利用。

  19. Effect of Forest Fire on Vegetation in Tahe Forestry Bureau%塔河林业局林火对植被的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙明学; 贾炜玮

    2009-01-01

    针对大兴安岭地区塔河林业局不同林型下,不同火烧强度的火烧迹地的森林植被更新及恢复情况进行了调查研究.结果表明:(1)针叶林过火迹地上,落叶松幼苗较少,阔叶树萌条更新强度同火烧程度成正比;火烧前生长有白桦、赤杨的林地上,火烧后阔叶树成为主导树种,林相完全发生变化.(2)重度火烧下有利于天然更新,促使白桦、山杨萌生.中度火烧最初形成以杨桦为优势树种的阔叶林,后逐渐演变为针阔混交林.轻度火烧有利于针叶林的更新.(3)火烧后不同林型下灌木草本植被种类变化不同.从盖度方面来看,杜鹃落叶松林型中林下灌木草本更新最为良好.%This paper studied the regeneration and restoration of vegetation in the burned area of different forest types and fire intensities. The results showed that there are few larch seedlings in the burned area of coniferous forest and the sprout of broad-leaved tree is positive related with burned intensity. In the burned area of birch and alder stand, the broad-leaved trees have become the dominant species. Severely burning is benefit for natural regeneration and promoting the sprout of birth and alder. The forest in moderately burned area is mainly composed by birch and alder at first and become mixed forest finally. The lightly burning is benefit for the regeneration of conifer forest. The kind of shrubbery and herbage is different in different forest after fire. The regeneration in the forest of Ass. Rhododendron dauricum, Larix gmelinii is the best.

  20. Nest distribution and nest habitat of the Tibetan Partridge (Perdix hodgsoniae) near Lhasa, Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsering; Dorge; G?ran; H?gstedt; Terje; Lislevand

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is hitherto known about the breeding ecology of the Tibetan Partridge(Perdix hodgsoniae)which is endemic to the Tibetan plateau. Here we describe nest densities, inter-nest distances and general nest site characteristics in this gallinaceous bird species and explore the possibilities that certain shrub and plant types are preferred as nest surroundings.Method: A total of 56 nests were found over three breeding seasons near Lhasa, Tibet. Nest site characteristics were compared with random control plots and the proportions of specific plant species covering nests were compared with their estimated general occurrence in the study area.Results: Nest density in the two years with highest search effort was estimated at 1.43/km2 and 1.04/km2 but was clearly higher in the part of the study area facing north(1.86–2.35/km2) than that facing south(0.11–0.34/ km2). The average nearest neighbour distance of nests was about 300 m. Nests were situated in relatively lush vegetation and covered by a total of eight shrub species and three herbs. In contrast to previous reports, Caragana shrub did not constitute an important part of the nest habitat. The flowering, non-thorny bush Potentilla fruticosa was significantly over-represented as nest cover, while Rhododendron nivale was similarly under-represented. Nest bush foliage covered a larger area of ground, and the shrub surrounding nests was generally denser, than in control samples. Also, nests were placed closer to paths and in areas with lower densities of Yak(Bos grunniens) dung than in control samples.Except that soil temperatures were lower on nest sites than on control sites, micro-climate variables measured in this study did not differ between nest sites and control plots.Conclusions: Opportunity for nest concealment is probably an important quality of the nest habitat in Tibetan Partridges, yet it is unclear why the species should prefer P. fruticosa as nest cover. It is possible that nest sites are

  1. Nest distribution and nest habitat of the Tibetan Partridge (Perdix hodgsoniae) near Lhasa, Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsering Dorge; Gran Hgstedt; Terje Lislevand

    2014-01-01

    Background:Little is hitherto known about the breeding ecology of the Tibetan Partridge (Perdix hodgsoniae) which is endemic to the Tibetan plateau. Here we describe nest densities, inter-nest distances and general nest site characteristics in this gallinaceous bird species and explore the possibilities that certain shrub and plant types are preferred as nest surroundings. Method:A total of 56 nests were found over three breeding seasons near Lhasa, Tibet. Nest site characteristics were compared with random control plots and the proportions of specific plant species covering nests were compared with their estimated general occurrence in the study area. Results:Nest density in the two years with highest search effort was estimated at 1.43/km2 and 1.04/km2 but was clearly higher in the part of the study area facing north (1.86–2.35/km2) than that facing south (0.11–0.34/km2). The average nearest neighbour distance of nests was about 300 m. Nests were situated in relatively lush vegetation and covered by a total of eight shrub species and three herbs. In contrast to previous reports, Caragana shrub did not constitute an important part of the nest habitat. The flowering, non-thorny bush Potentil a fruticosa was significantly over-represented as nest cover, while Rhododendron nivale was similarly under-represented. Nest bush foliage covered a larger area of ground, and the shrub surrounding nests was generally denser, than in control samples. Also, nests were placed closer to paths and in areas with lower densities of Yak (Bos grunniens) dung than in control samples. Except that soil temperatures were lower on nest sites than on control sites, micro-climate variables measured in this study did not differ between nest sites and control plots. Conclusions:Opportunity for nest concealment is probably an important quality of the nest habitat in Tibetan Partridges, yet it is unclear why the species should prefer P. fruticosa as nest cover. It is possible that nest sites

  2. Insect herbivory patterns on leaves of 11 plant species in the evergreen broad-leaved forests of Tiantong National Forest Park, Zhejiang%浙江天童常绿阔叶林中11种常绿乔灌木叶片虫食状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏伟; 蔡永立; 李恺; 江红; 田玉鹏

    2006-01-01

    为探讨昆虫对植物叶片的取食行为和伤害方式,作者选择浙江天童常绿阔叶林内的11种常绿乔灌木为对象,对叶片虫食状类型和格局进行分析.结果如下:(1)共发现16种虫食状类型,每种植物叶片虫食状类型数在10-13种之间,每种虫食状出现频率在0.5-28.7%之间.缘食状出现频率最高(28.7%),虫瘿和泡状出现频率最低(0.5%).(2)叶片虫食状分布格局可分为3种类型,即一种虫食状占绝对优势的单优格局,如马银花(Rhododendron ovatum)和檵木(Loropetalum chinense);两种虫食状(缘食状和顶食状)共占优势的双优格局,仅有木荷(Schima superba);3种及3种以上虫食状占优势的多优格局(其余8种植物).(3)叶片虫食状多样性指数变化在1.57-2.23之间,最高为苦槠(Castanopsis sclerophylla),最低为马银花;乔木的多样性指数(2.040)高于灌木(1.882),优势种多样性指数高于伴生种,但差异均不显著;多样性指数反映了虫食状类型和出现频率的综合差异.(4)16种虫食状类型中有8对显著正相关,4对显著负相关,可能反映出不同类型昆虫取食植物的趋同和差异.

  3. Evergreen shrub traits and peatland carbon cycling under high nutrient load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmola, Tuula; Bui, Vi; Bubier, Jill L.; Wang, Meng; Murphy, Meaghan; Moore, Tim R.

    2016-04-01

    The reactive nitrogen (N) assimilated by plants is usually invested in chlorophyll to improve light harvesting capacity and in soluble proteins such as Rubisco to enhance carbon (C) assimilation. We studied the effects of simulated atmospheric N deposition on different traits of two evergreen shrubs Chamaedaphne calyculata and Rhododendron groenlandicum in a nutrient-poor Mer Bleue Bog, Canada that has been fertilized with N as NO3 and NH4 (2-8 times ambient annual wet deposition) with or without phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) for 7-12 years. We examined how nutrient addition influences the plant performance at leaf and canopy level and linked the trait responses with ecosystem C cycling. At the leaf level, we measured physiological and biochemical traits: CO2 exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence, an indicator of plant stress in terms of light harvesting capacity; and to study changes in photosynthetic nutrient use efficiency, we also determined the foliar chlorophyll, N, and P contents. At the canopy level, we examined morphological and phenological traits: growth responses and leaf longevity during two growing seasons. Regardless of treatment, the majority of leaves showed no signs of stress in terms of light harvesting capacity. The plants were N saturated: with increasing foliar N content, the higher proportion of N was not used in photosynthesis. Foliar net CO2 assimilation rates did not differ significantly among treatments, but the additions of N, P, and K together resulted in higher respiration rates. The analysis of the leaf and canopy traits showed that the two shrubs had different strategies: C. calyculata was more responsive to nutrient additions, more deciduous-like, whereas R. groenlandicum maintained evergreen features under nutrient load, shedding its leaves even later in the season. In all, simulated atmospheric N deposition did not benefit the photosynthetic apparatus of the dominant shrubs, but resulted in higher foliar respiration

  4. [A phylogenetic analysis of plant communities of Teberda Biosphere Reserve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulakov, A A; Egorov, A V; Onipchenko, V G

    2016-01-01

    develop under conditions of winter snow accumulation were more,even at the both.scale, i.e., contained more diverse and distantly related plant species compared with random samples. (Scheuchzerio-Caricetea fuscae) aquatic communities in cold (Montio-Cardaminetea), sedge meadows (Carici rupestris-Kobresietea bellardii), and communities, in which shrubs and predominated (juniper and rhododendron elfin woods, class Loiseleurio-Vaccinietea), have been studied only at the larger scale and showed significant evenness of species composition, i.e., were phylogenetically more diverse compared with random samples.

  5. Gap phase regeneration recruitment of mixed conifer-broadleaf forests in Wolong Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan YANG; Jianping GE; Lijuan LIU; Yi DING; Yingchun TAN

    2009-01-01

    Wolong Nature Reserve is the largest reserve for protecting the endangered wild giant panda. Due to historical factors, even in many sections of the core protection area, the forests have been seriously destroyed and natural forests are poorly restored. However, the relative importance of the determinants for recruitment of communities under disturbance is rarely explored. In our study the endogenous and exterior factors in a forest gap that affect the conifer-broad-leaved mixed forest regeneration were investigated near Wuyipeng, one of the observation stations at Wolong, to explore which determinant had the greatest effect on gap regeneration and to discover the recruitment of seedling establishment in forest gaps. With a linear sampling method, environmental factors, gap characteristics and recruitment of new individuals were measured and examined in every forest gap along three sampling lines. Data of environmental factors in the gaps were collected for a Pearson correlation analysis in order to explore the disturbance and prepro-cessed characteristics of the gaps, using principal component analysis in SPSS. Correlation analysis was applied to further explore the relationship between changes in the gaps and the response of the regenerating seedlings. The results show that a range of natural and human disturbances affected the pattern and characteristics of the forest gaps in this area. The richness in the composition of the seedlings was higher than that of gap makers, but the order of dominance of the composition was different between seedlings and gap makers. The success of dominant species in establishing themselves was affected by different environmental factors. For instance, the establishment of Betula spp. was correlated significantly with topographic factors, while that of Abies faxoniana was affected by soil characteristics and that of Rhododendron spp. correlated significantly with topographic factors and characteristics of gap makers. Moreover, all

  6. Long term adjustment of canopy root depth and strength: Implications catchment hydrology and slope stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, T. C.; Taehee, H.; Band, L.; Vose, J.

    2007-12-01

    The species composition of southern Appalachian forests is changing rapidly due to fire suppression, residential expansion and introduced parasites, such as the woody adelgid. Changes in the distribution and age of tree and understory species cause changes in rooting characteristics and therefore the stability of slopes. Roots increase soil cohesive strength and fail in tension during debris flows. The amount of root reinforcement to the soil mass is dependent on the number, size and tensile strength of the roots. We have characterized how changes in the composition of southern Appalachian forests, particularly the expansion of Rhododenron maximum due to fire suppression, may affect the potential for slope failure. We measured the vertical distribution and tensile strength of roots for fifteen individual trees and two mixed species locations in the Coweeta Hydrological Laboratory, North Carolina. The individual pits were chosen to capture variations in species (10 species total), topographic position (nose, side slope, hollow), and age (a range of DBH between 5 cm and 60 cm). Root tensile strengths from different hardwood species were very similar, while rhododendron, a woody shrub, has considerably weaker roots. Roots are concentrated close to the soil surface (at least 70% of biomass occurs within 50 cm of the surface) and variations in this pattern occur primarily as a function of age. R. maximum roots are shallower and weaker than tree roots, which when coupled with low transpiration rates, lowers the total cohesive strength and makes them susceptible to high pore pressure events. We have investigated the potential for mapping R. maximum based on the ratio of near-infrared to red within leaf-off color infrared images. When we combine the remotely-sensed distribution of R. maximum with the root cohesion data from individual pits, we can produce a realistic spatial distribution of root cohesion for southern Appalachian forests. The spatial distribution of root

  7. Insecticidal activities and chemical components of alcohol extract from leaves of Rhodendron dauricum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Mo-long; WANG Tian-miao

    2011-01-01

    The extract from leaves of Rhododendron dauricum L. was extracted with 95% alcohol by common method for studying its insecticidal activities. The chemical components of the alcohol extract and relative contents were analyzed by GC-MS. The insecticidal activities of the alcohol extract were tested on the 2nd-3rd instar larvae of Lymantria dispar L. for five days. Five concentrations of the extract samples were designed as 50, 10, 5, 1, and 0.5 g·L-1. The results show that the alcohol extracts from leaves of R. dauricum exhibited insecticidal activities against larvae of L. dispar. The corrected mortality of larvae of L. dispar for was over 50% for both contact toxicity and stomach toxicity at the extract concentration of ≥ 5 g·L-1 after five days of application. The insecticidal activity in contact toxicity is more effect than stomach toxicity for the alcohol extract. Twenty compounds, with total GC relative contents of 93.81% in the alcohol extract from leaves of R. dauricum were identified. The main chemical components in the cxtract are: (1) 4,5-Dihydro-5-oxo-3-(p-tolyl) isoxazole, with a relative content of 40.03%; (2) 1,3-Benzenediol, 5-methyl-2-(3,7,11-trimethyl-2,6,10-dodecatrienyl)-, (E,E)-, the relative content 18.27%; (3) 3,6-Diphenyl-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-l,8-acridinedione, the relative content 3.89%;(4) 6H-[l ,2,4]Triazolo[1,5-a]indole, 4a,5,7,8,8a,9-hexahydro-9-methylene-, the relative content 2.99%; (5) 7-Amino-4-methyl-l,8-naphthyridino2-ol, the relative content 2.64%; (6) 4-Methyl-2,6-dihydroxyquinoline, the relative content 2.63%; (7) 2,4,6-Triaminoquilazoline, the relative content 2.27%; (8) 2(1H)-Quinolinone,4-hydroxy-1-methyl-, the relative content 2.02%.

  8. Dynamics of the evergreen understory at Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Marion Mcnamara

    Much attention today is directed toward vegetation dynamics and related issues of biotic diversity. Both environmental gradients and disturbance/land use history are important determinants of both the distributional pattern and the dynamics of many plant species. The southern Appalachian Mountains constitute a region of high plant and animal diversity and rapidly increasing development pressure with its consequent changes in land use. The remaining forested areas commonly include a significant evergreen understory (undergreen) composed of ericaceous shrubs, predominately Rhododendron maximum , which is believed to be expanding and exerting an inhibitory effect on the establishment of other species, thus impacting forest structure and composition. This study was an attempt to characterize this forest component, temporally and spatially, at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, North Carolina, in terms of a variety of topographic gradients as well as long-term (century) and short-term (decade) disturbance history, verify expansion, develop a surrogate soil moisture index for use in an explanatory model for undergreen pattern, and examine the feasibility of predicting the pattern of undergreen at one time based on knowledge of topographic relationships gained at an earlier time. A GIS was used for visual and areal comparisons; logistic regression was used for developing spatiotemporal explanatory models. Results indicate that aspect, stream proximity, and elevation are all important in explaining distributional pattern and dynamics of the undergreen at Coweeta, with R. maximum showing preference for moister areas and its common associate, Kalmia latifolia found more frequently in drier areas. The influence of these environmental factors differs between the larger Coweeta Basin, the site of experimental manipulations at the small watershed level since the 1930's, and the physically similar Dryman Fork Basin, relatively undisturbed since that time. There is an apparent

  9. 哀牢山中山湿性常绿阔叶林枯立木数量及分配规律%Quantity and Distribution of Standing Dead Trees in Montane Moist Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest in Ailao Mountain,Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张树斌; 郑征

    2009-01-01

    以三棵树、锅底塘、山门口和簸箕坝4块样地调查资料为基础,研究了云南哀牢山国家级自然保护区内中山湿性常绿阔叶林枯立木的数量组成、分配格局和生物量特征.结果表明:哀牢山中山湿性常绿阔叶林内枯立木的密度为(68.5±18.0)株/hm2,枯立木占全部乔木的(5.7±0.6)%.枯立木胸径(DBH)分配以小径级为主(5≤DBH<20 cm),此径级的枯立木显著高于另外2个级别(20≤DBH<40 cm和DBH≥40 cm,P<0.05).哀牢山中山湿性常绿阔叶林枯立木的物种组成极其丰富,分属于14科32种,树种组成以壳斗科的腾冲栲(Castanopsis wattii)、硬壳柯(Lithocarpus hancei)和木果柯(Lithocarpus xylocarpus),越桔科的云南越桔(Vaccinium duclouxii),杜鹃花科的珍珠花(Lyonia ovalifolia)和薄叶杜鹃(Rhododendron leptothrium)为主.哀牢山中山湿性常绿阔叶林枯立木贮量较高为(3.9±0.7)t*hm-2,生物量的树种分配以腾冲栲(Castanopsis wattii)和木果柯(Lithocarpus xylocarpus)为主.

  10. The capacity of 16 ornamental plants on purifying indoor formaldehyde pollution and their physiological response to formaldehyde stress%16种室内观赏植物对甲醛净化效果及生理生化变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安雪; 李霞; 潘会堂; 罗竞男; 张启翔

    2010-01-01

    采用气体密封舱熏气法模拟居室装修后的甲醛污染环境,对16种常见室内观赏植物进行甲醛熏气处理,以熏气12 h后植物单位叶面积吸收甲醛的量作为指标评价了不同植物对甲醛气体的净化能力,同时测定了熏气后植物的外观形态变化和叶片的SPAD值、相对电导率、丙二醛含量及POD活性等指标.结果显示,被测植物在一定程度上均可以有效吸收甲醛,单位面积吸收量从大到小依次为香石竹(Dianthus caryophyllus)、瑞典常春藤(Lsodon amethystoides)、蚊净香草(Saivia spp.)、比利时杜鹃(Rhododendron hybrida)、柠檬(Citrus limon)、袖珍椰子(Chamaedorea elegans)、龟背竹(Monstera deliciosa)、冷水花(Pilea cadierei)、长寿花(Kalanchoe blossfeldiana)、'粉冠军'(Anthurium spp.)、巢蕨(Neottopteris nidus)、吊竹梅(Zebrina pendula)、栀子花(Gardenia jasminoides var. grandiflora)、百合竹(Dracaena reflex)、口红花(Aeschynanthus radicans)、孔雀竹芋(Calathea makoyana).不同植物在甲醛熏气后表现出不同程度的受害反应和生理生化指标的变化,综合分析结果表明香石竹、瑞典常春藤、蚊净香草、袖珍椰子、冷水花、巢蕨等对甲醛的综合净化能力和抗性较好.

  11. How endangered is sexual reproduction of high-mountain plants by summer frosts? Frost resistance, frequency of frost events and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladinig, Ursula; Hacker, Jürgen; Neuner, Gilbert; Wagner, Johanna

    2013-03-01

    In temperate-zone mountains, summer frosts usually occur during unpredictable cold spells with snow-falls. Earlier studies have shown that vegetative aboveground organs of most high-mountain plants tolerate extracellular ice in the active state. However, little is known about the impact of frost on reproductive development and reproductive success. In common plant species from the European Alps (Cerastium uniflorum, Loiseleuria procumbens, Ranunculus glacialis, Rhododendron ferrugineum, Saxifraga bryoides, S. moschata, S. caesia), differing in growth form, altitudinal distribution and phenology, frost resistance of reproductive and vegetative shoots was assessed in different reproductive stages. Intact plants were exposed to simulated night frosts between -2 and -14 °C in temperature-controlled freezers. Nucleation temperatures, freezing damage and subsequent reproductive success (fruit and seed set, seed germination) were determined. During all reproductive stages, reproductive shoots were significantly less frost resistant than vegetative shoots (mean difference for LT50 -4.2 ± 2.7 K). In most species, reproductive shoots were ice tolerant before bolting and during fruiting (mean LT50 -7 and -5.7 °C), but were ice sensitive during bolting and anthesis (mean LT50 around -4 °C). Only R. glacialis remained ice tolerant during all reproductive stages. Frost injury in reproductive shoots usually led to full fruit loss. Reproductive success of frost-treated but undamaged shoots did not differ significantly from control values. Assessing the frost damage risk on the basis of summer frost frequency and frost resistance shows that, in the alpine zone, low-statured species are rarely endangered as long as they are protected by snow. The situation is different in the subnival and nival zone, where frost-sensitive reproductive shoots may become frost damaged even when covered by snow. Unprotected individuals are at high risk of suffering from frost damage, particularly

  12. 上海植物园典型群落景观美景度评价%Scenic Beauty Evaluation of Typical Plant Communities in Shanghai Botanical Garden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙启臻; 吴泽民

    2012-01-01

    Based on the comprehensive field survey on plant communities of Shanghai Botanical Garden, the study made the landscape aesthetic evaluation for 33 typical communities using scenic beauty evaluation (SBE) . The results indicated that the aesthetic value of the plant communities was - 1.38 -1.37. Sixteen communities were valued≥0, all of which included almost deciduous species and had 3 layers in vertical structure. The major canopy species of the communities with higher aesthetic value were Koelreteria paniculata, Salix madthudana, Sapium sebiferum, Cinnamomum camphora, Ginkgo biloba, Diospyros kaki, Albizzia julibrissin, etc; and the major understory species were colorful leaf or flower species such as Loropetarum chinense var. rublum, Malus spp. , Rhododendron spp. , Cerasus lannesiana. The factors affecting scenic beauty of plant communities include species composition, colors, vertical structure, harmonization between communities and ambient environment, health conditions of trees and canopy line change. The plant communities in city botanical garden provides a key basis for green space establishment in urban area, so it was proposed to pay close attention to the effects of botanical garden in city greening.%在全面调查上海植物园植物群落的基础上,采用美景度评判法(SBE)对33个典型群落进行美学价值评价,结果表明其美景度值为-1.38~1.37。得分值≥0的有16个群落,其建群树种几乎全为落叶阔叶树、且多为3层结构,得分较高的群落建群树种主要包括栾树、旱柳、乌桕、香樟、银杏、柿树、合欢等,下层以彩叶或观花树种如红花檀木、海棠、杜鹃、日本晚樱、八仙花等为主。影响群落景观关学特点的因素主要有树种组成、色彩、垂直结构、群落与周围环境的协调度、树木的健康状况及林冠线变化度等。植物园的植物群落关景度评价是构建城市绿地群落的重要参考。

  13. Cultivable bacterial diversity along the altitudinal zonation and vegetation range of tropical Eastern Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyngwi, Nathaniel A; Koijam, Khedarani; Sharma, D; Joshi, S R

    2013-03-01

    The Northeastern part of India sprawls over an area of 262 379km2 in the Eastern Himalayan range. This constitutes a biodiversity hotspot with high levels of biodiversity and endemism; unfortunately, is also a poorly known area, especially on its microbial diversity. In this study, we assessed cultivable soil bacterial diversity and distribution from lowlands to highlands (34 to 3 990m.a.s.l.). Soil physico-chemical parameters and forest types across the different altitudes were characterized and correlated with bacterial distribution and diversity. Microbes from the soil samples were grown in Nutrient, Muller Hinton and Luria-Bertani agar plates and were initially characterized using biochemical methods. Parameters like dehydrogenase and urease activities, temperature, moisture content, pH, carbon content, bulk density of the sampled soil were measured for each site. Representative isolates were also subjected to 16S rDNA sequence analysis. A total of 155 cultivable bacterial isolates were characterized which were analyzed for richness, evenness and diversity indices. The tropical and sub-tropical forests supported higher bacterial diversity compared to temperate pine, temperate conifer, and sub-alpine rhododendron forests. The 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis revealed that Firmicutes was the most common group followed by Proteobacreria and Bacteroidetes. Species belonging to the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas were the most abundant. Bacterial CFU showed positive but insignificant correlation with soil parameters like pH (r=0.208), soil temperature (r=0.303), ambient temperature (r=0.443), soil carbon content (r=0.525), soil bulk density (r=0.268), soil urease (r=0.549) and soil dehydrogenase (r=0.492). Altitude (r=-0.561) and soil moisture content (r=-0.051) showed negative correlation. Altitudinal gradient along with the vegetation and soil physico-chemical parameters were found to influence bacterial diversity and distribution. This study points out that this is

  14. How endangered is sexual reproduction of high-mountain plants by summer frosts? Frost resistance, frequency of frost events and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladinig, Ursula; Hacker, Jürgen; Neuner, Gilbert; Wagner, Johanna

    2013-03-01

    In temperate-zone mountains, summer frosts usually occur during unpredictable cold spells with snow-falls. Earlier studies have shown that vegetative aboveground organs of most high-mountain plants tolerate extracellular ice in the active state. However, little is known about the impact of frost on reproductive development and reproductive success. In common plant species from the European Alps (Cerastium uniflorum, Loiseleuria procumbens, Ranunculus glacialis, Rhododendron ferrugineum, Saxifraga bryoides, S. moschata, S. caesia), differing in growth form, altitudinal distribution and phenology, frost resistance of reproductive and vegetative shoots was assessed in different reproductive stages. Intact plants were exposed to simulated night frosts between -2 and -14 °C in temperature-controlled freezers. Nucleation temperatures, freezing damage and subsequent reproductive success (fruit and seed set, seed germination) were determined. During all reproductive stages, reproductive shoots were significantly less frost resistant than vegetative shoots (mean difference for LT50 -4.2 ± 2.7 K). In most species, reproductive shoots were ice tolerant before bolting and during fruiting (mean LT50 -7 and -5.7 °C), but were ice sensitive during bolting and anthesis (mean LT50 around -4 °C). Only R. glacialis remained ice tolerant during all reproductive stages. Frost injury in reproductive shoots usually led to full fruit loss. Reproductive success of frost-treated but undamaged shoots did not differ significantly from control values. Assessing the frost damage risk on the basis of summer frost frequency and frost resistance shows that, in the alpine zone, low-statured species are rarely endangered as long as they are protected by snow. The situation is different in the subnival and nival zone, where frost-sensitive reproductive shoots may become frost damaged even when covered by snow. Unprotected individuals are at high risk of suffering from frost damage, particularly

  15. Intraspecific and Interspecific Competition of Pinus yunnanensis Natural Forest%云南松天然林的种内和种间竞争

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小波; 刘万德; 苏建荣; 李帅锋; 郎学东

    2016-01-01

    .[Result]The intraspecific and interspecific competition intensity of P.yunnanensis ac-counted for 80.1 6% and 1 9.84% in the total competition intensity,respectively,indicating that the competitive trees of P.yunnanensis natural forest were mainly come from intraspecific competition.The order of the intraspecific and interspecific competition intensity of the main accompanying species at the community level was:intraspecific >Viburnum cylindricum >P.armandii >Lyonia ovalifolia >Rhododendron decorum >Quercus aliena >Rhododendron delavayi >Alnus nepalensis.[Conclusion]There was a significantly negative correlation between the competition in-dex of P.yunnanensis with the whole forest,accompanying species,intraspecific and the DBH of the objective trees,and nearly conformed to power function (CI =AD -B).The larger the DBH of the objective trees,the smaller the competitive trees in P.yunnanensis natural forest.The results predicted by the model is that when the DBH of P.yunnanensis is larger than 20 cm,the competitions will be less in intensity.The medium and young forests of P. yunnanensis with DBH below 20 cm should be the focus of tending and management.

  16. The Species Composition and Community Structure of 1-ha Quercus serrata var.brevipetiolata Forest in Baotianman National Nature Reserve%宝天曼短柄枹林1公顷样地物种组成与群落结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙迎迎; 袁志良; 朱学灵; 庄静静; 殷卫抗; 郭建荣; 叶永忠

    2012-01-01

    To understand the formation and maintenance mechanism of species diversity in Baotianman Natural Reserve,a 1-ha forest permanent dynamic plot of Quercus serrata var. brevipetiolata was established in Baotianman National Nature Reserve in 2009 following the standard census procedure of the Centre for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS). In the plot,all free-standing trees at least 1 cm in diameter at breast height (DBH,1. 3 m above ground) were mapped, tagged, and identified,and their geographic coordinates were recorded following a standard field protocol. The results showed that there were 2 481 genotype individuals,belonging to 71 species,47 genera and 27 families. The stand composition was divided into four main basic layers. The species of the first tree layer included Quercus serrata var. brevipetiolata and Quercus variabilis ; the second tree stratum included Cornus kousa subsp. Chinensis and Sorbus alnifolia ; the shrub layer included Forsythia suspensa and Rhododendron mariesii; the herb layer included Carex duriusata subsp. stenophylloides and so on. Floristic characteristics of the community were very prominent. At the generic level, north temperate areal-type was the main part of genus areal-types. Twenty five north temperate areal-types accounted for 50. 98% of total genera and 10 areal-types of tropical elemerts accounted for 21. 28% of total genera. The species Quercus serrata var. brevipetiolata and Quercus variabilis were obviously dominant species whereas the Quercus variabilis was very poor by the analysis of size-class distributions. Spatial distribution patterns of species were analyzed. Quercus serrata var. brevipetiolata and Quercus variabilis were obviously clumped pattern.%为了深入了解宝天曼自然保护区树种的多样性,参照巴拿马巴罗克罗拉多岛样地的技术规范,于2009年在河南宝天曼国家级自然保护区建立了1块面积为1hm2的短柄枹林永久监测样地.对样地内所有胸径≥1cm的木本植物

  17. 雪灾后粤北山地常绿阔叶林优势树种幼苗更新动态%Dynamics ofdominant tree seedlings in montane evergreen broadleaved forest following a snow disaster in North Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    区余端; 苏志尧; 解丹丹; 柯娴氡; 李镇魁

    2011-01-01

    Effects of a snowstorm on forest disturbance and the canopy changes caused by forest rehabilitation resulted in changes in tree seedling composition. The species and number of tree seedlings vary with the canopy-density dynamics and are embodied in the future species composition and structure of tree layer. With the aim of revealing the seedling regeneration pattern and its response to canopy changes (as indicated by changes in leaf area index [LAI] ) , a 3-year investigation from 2008 to 2010 was undertaken in Chebaling montane evergreen broadleaved forest. The dominant tree seedling dynamics under the recovering canopy was studied by establishing a 2 hm2 sampling area (comprised of fifty 20 m×20 m plots) following the snow storm in 2008. Data from sampling in 2008 identified the top 12 species ranked by their importance as the dominant tree seedling as follows : Castanopsis carlesii, Schima superba, Castanopsis fargesii, Neolitsea chuii, Styrax suberifolia, Alniphyllum fortunei, Cinnamomum porrectum, Randia canthioides, Machilus chinensis,Rhododendron moulmainense , Cinnamomum austrosinensis and Lithocarpus glaber. Dynamic analysis of these 12 species over the 3 years showed that fluctuation was detected in the ranking of the species' importance values, among which 2009 and 2010 shared similar trends while 2008 showed a different trend. Castanopsis carlesii, Schima superba, Randia canthioides and Rhododendron moulmainense showed an increase in their ranking by importance value, whereas Neolitsea chuii,Lithocarpus glaber , Cinnamomum porrectum and Alniphyllum fortunei showed a decrease in their ranking. Styrax suberifolia ,Cinnamomum austrosinensis and M. chinensis showed a decreased and then increased ranking while Castanopsis fargesii showed the opposite trend. The 12 dominant tree seedling species showed notable responses to canopy recovery.Permutation-based MANOVA (PerMANOVA) indicated that a highly significant difference was found in composition and

  18. 西藏色季拉山东麓垂直带土壤碳氮分布特征及其影响因素%Distribution and affecting factors of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen along the altitudinal belt in the eastern Sejila Mountain of Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马和平; 郭其强; 刘合满; 钱登锋

    2013-01-01

    in the following order: Alpine shrub > Sabina salutary forest >Rhododendron iorest>Abies georgei var. smithii forest. And those indicators increased as the increase of elevation. Soil temperature,humidity, pH and vegetation types were variable ecological factors which may regulate soil carbon and nitrogen along elevation. [Conclusion] The results proved the distribution and its influencing factors of soil carbon and nitrogen at different altitudes and laid the foundation for the further study of the forest ecosystems in the eastern Sejila Mountain of Tibet.

  19. Interception of Phytophthora syringae on Citrus fruits imported from California, USA%进境美国加州脐橙中丁香疫霉Phytophthora syringae截获

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗加凤; 刘跃庭; 廖芳; 胡晓红; 刘鹏; 黄国明

    2012-01-01

    Several brown rot fruits have been found from Californian fresh orange sample. Three isolates similar to Phytophthora syringae were obtained from these rot fruits. The colonies grew slowly on PDA and V8 juice agar (V8A). They were stellate, tiled and thin on V8A, but on PDA, the margin was chrysanthemum petaloid; mycelia dense, milk-white-colored. Sporangia and catenulate hyphal swellings formed in sterilizing water and soil extract water in 48h. The isolates were homothallic. Oospores were produced abundantly on PDA and V8A mixed with fresh Citrus fruit tissue or leaf of rhododendron. The isolates were wounded-inoculated on fresh Citrus fruits. Typical brown rot symptoms are apparent on inoculated fruits in 7d. DNA of hyphae was amplified with ITS1/ITS4 primers. In comparision with P. Syringae from NCBIGenBank databases, the sequences had 99% identity. All the results of tests showed that the isolates were Phytophthorasyringae.%从产自美国加利福尼亚州的新鲜脐橙样品中发现多个腐烂病果,通过分离培养得到3个疑似丁香疫霉Phytophthora syringae菌株,对3个菌株进行形态学研究、致病性测定和分子序列比对分析.结果表明病菌在V8A培养基上菌落稀疏、平铺,呈星状,菌丝紧贴培养基生长或埋于基质内生长;在PDA培养基上菌落呈菊花花瓣状,菌丝致密,乳白色;游动孢子囊和菌丝膨大体在无菌水和土壤浸出液中黑暗条件下48h后产生;菌株为同宗配合,卵孢子在带有新鲜脐橙果实组织或杜鹃叶片的V8A培养基中大量产生;创伤接种脐橙果实,7d后接种脐橙出现典型的褐腐症状;通用引物ITS 1/ITS4扩增测序,Blastn分析表明序列与GenBank中P.syringae序列相似性为99%.依据上述研究结果,将分离获得的3株菌鉴定为丁香疫霉Phytophthora syringae,系国内首次截获的一种植物检疫性真菌病害.

  20. 八大公山常绿落叶阔叶混交林枯立木物种组成、大小级与分布格局%Species composition, size class, and spatial patterns of snags in the Badagongshan (BDGS) mixed evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forest in central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢志军; 刘福玲; 吴浩; 江明喜

    2015-01-01

    枯立木是森林生态系统的重要组成部分,对其数量特征(如物种组成和大小级)与分布格局的研究是认识这个特殊类群的起点.本文以湖南八大公山25 ha森林动态监测样地常绿落叶阔叶混交林为研究对象,以该样地第一次木本植物(DBH≥1 cm)调查数据为基础,分析了枯立木的物种组成、径级结构、分布格局以及生境关联.结果表明,样地内共有枯立木(DBH≥1 cm,高度≥130 cm,完全死亡)8,947株.其中,1 cm≤ DBH <5 cm枯立木4,258株(47.59%),5 cm ≤ DBH <10 cm枯立木2,132株(23.84%),10 cm ≤ DBH <30 cm枯立木2,377株(26.57%),DBH≥30 cm枯立木180株(2%);平均DBH为8.0 cm,最大DBH为83.5 cm.从分布格局来看,0-50 m的尺度上,样地内枯立木主要呈现聚集分布,但在接近40 m的尺度上,逐渐变为随机分布.利用多元回归树(multivariate regression tree,MRT)将样地生境分为3类,运用Torus转换比较某类生境中枯立木密度与物种零分布模型中的期望密度,结果显示枯立木在山谷中分布较少,山脊较多,而在山坡生境则呈现随机分布.鉴定到种的枯立木有724株(8.1%),隶属于26科84种;其中,杜鹃花科、壳斗科和樟科枯立木最多.在物种水平上,多脉青冈(Cyclobalanopsis multinervis)、长蕊杜鹃(Rhododendron stamineum)和黄丹木姜子(Litsea elongata)枯立木最多;而优势树种亮叶水青冈(Fagus lucida)的枯立木并不多见.

  1. 用典型植物监测环境中有机氟污染物的可行性%Feasibility to monitor environmental organofluorine pollutants using typical plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鸿; 陈清武; 姚丹; 柴之芳; 沈金灿

    2013-01-01

    In order to assess the feasibility of typical plants as bioindicators for perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) , the residues of 13 PFCs in fresh leaves of moss, camphor tree, masson pine, gladiolus, lichen, alfalfa, silky oak and rhododendron were measured by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Moss, which accumulates PFCs most effectively among the eight, was selected as the environmental bioindicator for PFCs assessment. The total fluorine, extractable organic fluorine and PFCs in moss from 12 locations of six Shenzhen districts, including Bao'an, Nanshan, Futian, Yantian, Luohu and Longgang, were measured by cyclic neutron activation analysis combined with HPLC-MS/MS. Results showed that EOF accounted for 13.4%- 16.5% of TF. They indicated that inorganic fluorine was the main form. Only 0.08%- 0. 15% of EOF was the identified fluorine while more than 99. 8% of EOF required further identification. The sum of perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorohexanoic acid accounted for 88%- 99% of total PFCs, making them the main PFCs species in moss. Total PFCs residues in moss from Bao'an district were significantly higher than those from other districts (P < 0. 01) , which was likely due to the presence of PFCs-related industries, geographical location and climate. The results suggest that moss is a feasible bioindicator for PFCs and its exposure risk in the environment.%为探究用典型植物指示环境中全氟化合物(perfluorinated chemicals,PFCs)污染状况的可行性,采用高效液相色谱-质谱联用(high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry,HPLCMS/MS),分析苔藓、樟树、马尾松、唐菖蒲、地衣、苜蓿、银桦和杜鹃8种植物鲜叶中13种PFCs的残留水平,从中选择富集PFCs能力最强的苔藓为环境生物指示物.结合循环中子活化分析测定深圳市宝安、南山、福田、罗湖、盐田和龙岗6区12

  2. 映山红开花习性与花粉生活力研究%Study on the Flowering Habit and Pollen Viability of R. arborescens Planch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜志国; 杜绍华; 张晓曼

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨映山红的开花习性及花粉生活力.[方法]以映山红(Rhododendron arborescens)为试验材料.观察映山红(R.simisiiPlanch)开花的习性;采用离体培养基萌发测定法,以及培养基中蔗糖的浓度、培养温度、硼酸、钙离子等因素对花粉萌发和花粉管伸长的影响.[结果]映山红花期4~6月,单花期3~5 d;花紫色,2~6朵簇生于枝端;花萼5裂,长2~4 mm;花冠宽漏斗状,长4~5 cm,5裂;雄蕊7~10,花药紫色;柱头头状.蔗糖浓度为5%时映山红花粉萌发最好;光照条件下25℃时萌发率最高,达70%以上;培养基为20mg/L硼酸+10mg/L氯化钙+5%蔗糖+0.5 g琼脂,萌发率最高达87%;在一定浓度(0~20 mg/L)范围内,钙离子对映山红花粉的萌发率影响不大,主要影响花粉管长度;对花粉萌发率的影响比较明显,浓度间差异均达显著水平,在一定硼酸浓度(0~20 mg/L)范围内,随着硼酸浓度的增加花粉的萌发率上升.[结论]该研究可为今后利用映山红开展人工育种奠定基础.%[ Objective ] To investigate the flowering habit and pollen viability of R. arborescens Planch. [ Method ] R. arborescens Planch as test material, effects of sucrose concentrations, culture temperature, boric acid and Ca2+ on the pollen germination and tube growth were studied through in vitro culture method. [ Result ] The flower season of R. arborescens Planch lasts 4 to 6 months with single flowering phase of 3 - 5 d;purple, 2 -6 flowers cluster in the end of branches; calyx 5-lobed, 2-4 mm in length; funnel-form corolla, 4 -5 cm in length, 5-lobed; 7 -10 stamens, purple anther; capitate stigmas. 5% sucrose was proved to be the best for the germination of pollen, and the germination rate was the highest at 25 ℃ in daylight ( more than 70% ); the optimum combination for the germination of pollen was 20 mg/L boric acid + 10 mg/L CaCl2 +5% sucrose +0.5% agar, under this condition, the germination rate reached as high as

  3. Community characteristics of a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Huangshan, Anhui Province, East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Ding

    2016-08-01

    significantly. When the scale was larger than 57,950 m2, the rate of increase declined slightly. Rare species (N = 69, less than 1 ind./ha reached 45.10% of the total number of individuals. Members of Fagaceae and Ericaceae comprised more than half of the total importance values (IV. The IV of Castanopsis eyrei, a constructive species, was 26.25%, and followed by Eurya nitida (7.63%, Rhododendron ovatum (7.6%, Pinus massoniana (6.29% and Loropetalum chinense (4.83%. The mean DBH for all the individuals was 4.10 cm, and small sized trees dominated the plot. The emergent layer was divided into two sub-layers, individuals of C. eyrei were dominant in both layers, while P. massoniana was a subdominant species. Castanopsis eyrei, E. nitida, R. ovatum and P. massoniana had a significant clustered distribution.

  4. Characteristics of Variation of Soil Temperature in Shrub Meadow Area of Lhasa%拉萨灌丛草甸区土壤温度变化特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩玉玲; 王兆锋; 张镱锂; 冯永军

    2016-01-01

    Soil temperature is one important environmental factor affecting soil formation and plant growth,especially in the alpine environment. The studies on plateau soil temperature may help researchers understand how soil heat is conducted during the freezing and thawing process as well as how fragile the ecosystem of an alpine region is. However,so far the studies on soil temperature of alpine regions are not so helpful and instead affect proper characterization of the variation of soil temperature,because they are often conducted in fields different in vegetation,topography,latitude and longitude,etc. This study was laid out in a typical shrub meadow area of the Lhasa River Valley on a mountain slope uniform in natural conditions, including vegetation type,slope degree and aspect. The slope is covered dominantly with Rhododendron primuliflorum,making the total vegetation coverage up to 82%. The soil on the slope is of the type of sub-alpine shrub meadow soil,slightly acidic. Nine monitoring points were distributed over the slope from elevation of 4 000 m to 4 800 m with a gradient of 100 m;and in each point 2 temperature recorders(The Onset HOBO Company of USA;The type is U23-003;Operation range Internal sensors:-40 °C to 100 °C) were placed,each with 4 temperature sensors placed at the depth of 5,10,20and 30 cm,separately. Data were collected once an hour from October 5,2013 to September 15,2014. As the monitoring points at 4 000 m,4 400 m and 4 700 m were damaged owning to unknown causes,only the data collected from the points at 4 100,4 200,4 300,4 500,4 600 and 4 800 m were analyzed with the typical statistical method for characteristics of the variation of soil temperature with elevation and soil depth gradients. Results show that(1)in a year,the daily mean soil temperature within the 0~30 cm soil layer followed a cosine function curve,fluctuating within the range from -9.05 °C to 14.21 °C and averaging 2.94 °C;it rose at a rate of 0.11 °C d-1 and fell at a

  5. What is the role played by organic matter fractions from different sieve-size particles in the development of soil water repellency? A case study using analytical pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Pérez, José A.; González-Vila, Francisco J.; Zavala, Lorena M.; Jordán, Antonio; Jiménez-González, Marco A.

    2014-05-01

    in sieve fractions 0.25-1, 0.05-0.25 and <0.05 mm from HH samples nor in PA and PP (0.25-1 mm samples). A significant relation was observed between SOM content and severity of soil WR in QS samples and finer fractions of other samples, which is in agreement with previous findings (GOrdillo-Rivero et al., 2013; Jordán et al., 2011). In contrast, 1-2 mm sieve fractions from PP, PA and HH soils showed high severity of soil WR and relatively low SOM contents. This could be explained by a low degree of evolution of organic residues with higher alkane/alkene CPI values and to the presence of a higher diversity of fatty acid structures. These results suggest that soil WR appears as a consequence of lipid compounds in soil. Some similarities were found in the organic molecular assemblages in PA and PP samples, suggesting a fingerprint of pine residues in PA samples, resulting from ancient pine forests. This finding may be also explained by the existence of exogenous organic inputs associated to fine soil particles from border areas of pine forests. REFERENCES de la Rosa, J.M., González-Pérez, J.A., González-Vila, F.J., Knicker, H., Araújo, M.F. 2011. Characterization of wildfire effects on soil organic matter using analytical pyrolysis. Geoderma 191, 24-30. González-Pérez, J.A., González-Vila, F.J., Arias, M.E., Rodríguez, J., de la Rosa, J.M., Marañón, T., Clemente, L. 2011. Geochemical and ecological significance of soil lipids under Rhododendron ponticum stands. Environmental Chemistry Letters 9, 453-464. Gordillo-Rivero, A.J., García-Moreno, J., Jordán, A., Zavala, L.M. 2013. Monitoring fire impacts in soil water repellency and structure stability during 6 years. Flamma 4, 71-75. Jordán, A., Zavala, L.M., Mataix-Solera, J., Nava, A.L., Alanís, N. 2011. Effect of fire severity on water repellency and aggregate stability on Mexican volcanic soils. Catena 84, 136-147.

  6. Seasonal Customs of Jeollanam ̄do in South Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geng Ruiqin

    2016-01-01

    dates, chestnut, honey, pine nuts, an beans, etc. In the second lunar month, there are the Laborers’ Day and the Yongdung Festival. On the 1st of the second month, Laborers’ Day, laborers used to be given a day’s rest when people made a kind of dessert known as “Agecake”. However, because no one hires laborers nowadays, this cus-tom has actually disappeared. It is said that on 1st day of the second month, Yongdung Halmoni de-scends from the sky, and returns there on the 15th or 20th day. Yongdung Halmoni is said to be the goddess in charge of wind, so, in fishing areas where wind matters a lot, people will offer sacri-fices to her. It is said that if Yongdung Halmoni descends with her daughter-in-law, the wind throughout the whole year will be too strong to guarantee a good harvest, but good sailings can be counted on if she descends with her daughter. On the 3rd day of the third month, women in Jeollanam-do bring simple cooking equipment to the riverside, and pass a pleasant day there. They mix glutinous rice powder with rhododendron petals to make pancakes which they call “flower pan-cakes”. While they eat, they sing songs about flower pancakes or other folk songs. Around 3 rd day of the third month, butterflies start to appear and “dance”. It is believed that if yellow butter-flies are seen first, the coming year will be smooth, but if white butterflies are seen first, there will be many funerals or other inauspicious things. On the 8 th day of the fourth month the birthday of Sakyamuni, many people go to the temples and hang Buddhist lanterns. The display of lanterns on that day is truly grand. It is attended mainly by women who pray for happiness, safety, good health, success and prosperity for their family members. In the temples, people perform the ritu-al of“circumambulating the stupas”, spending the entire night sleepless walking around the stupas, praising gods’ merits and credits, and repeating their wishes in their hearts. While