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Sample records for azadirachta indica formulation

  1. Larvicidal activity of neem oil (Azadirachta indica formulation against mosquitoes

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    Dua Virendra K

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of botanical origin have been reported as useful for control of mosquitoes. Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae and its derived products have shown a variety of insecticidal properties. The present paper discusses the larvicidal activity of neem-based biopesticide for the control of mosquitoes. Methods Larvicidal efficacy of an emulsified concentrate of neem oil formulation (neem oil with polyoxyethylene ether, sorbitan dioleate and epichlorohydrin developed by BMR & Company, Pune, India, was evaluated against late 3rd and early 4th instar larvae of different genera of mosquitoes. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations (0.5–5.0 ppm of the formulation along with untreated control. Larvicidal activity of the formulation was also evaluated in field against Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes mosquitoes. The formulation was diluted with equal volumes of water and applied @ 140 mg a.i./m2 to different mosquito breeding sites with the help of pre calibrated knapsack sprayer. Larval density was determined at pre and post application of the formulation using a standard dipper. Results Median lethal concentration (LC50 of the formulation against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was found to be 1.6, 1.8 and 1.7 ppm respectively. LC50 values of the formulation stored at 26°C, 40°C and 45°C for 48 hours against Ae. aegypti were 1.7, 1.7, 1.8 ppm while LC90 values were 3.7, 3.7 and 3.8 ppm respectively. Further no significant difference in LC50 and LC90 values of the formulation was observed against Ae. aegypti during 18 months storage period at room temperature. An application of the formulation at the rate of 140 mg a.i./m2 in different breeding

  2. Neurotoxicity of neem commercial formulation (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, M M; Dias, S G; Barbosa, V E

    2013-11-01

    The neurotoxic effects of a commercial formulation of Azadirachta indica A. Juss, also called neem or nim, in adult zebrafish were determined using behavioral models. General activity, anxiety-like effects, and learning and memory in a passive avoidance task were assessed after exposure to 20 or 40 μl/L neem. The results showed that 20 μl/L neem reduced the number of runs. Both neem concentrations increased the number of climbs to the water surface, and 40 μl/L increased the number of tremors. In the anxiety test, the 20 μl/L dose increased the number of entries in the light side compared with controls, but the latency to enter the dark side and the freezing behavior in this side did not changed. In relation to controls, the 40 μl/L neem reduced the latency to enter in the light side, did not change the number of entries in this side and increased freezing behavior in the light side. In the passive avoidance test, pre-training and pre-test neem exposure to 40 μl/L decreased the response to the learning task. Thus, no impairment was observed in this behavioral test. We conclude that neem reduced general activity and increased anxiety-like behavior but did not affect learning and memory.

  3. Azadirachta indica Mediated Bioactive Lyocell Yarn: Chemical and Colour Characterization

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    B. H. Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with preparing aesthetic textiles using methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves. The extract with metallic and natural mordents was utilized to create various shades on lyocell yarn using exhaust technique of dyeing. Aesthetic values of dyed yarns were analyzed in terms of colourimetric parameters, that is, CIE L*  a*  b* and colour fastness. The attachment of Azadirachta indica compounds has been confirmed by using infrared spectroscopy (IR analysis. The dyed samples exhibit moderate to good fastness properties. The study showed that lyocell yarn treated at 15% (owf methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves can be utilized as effective bioactive textiles. Azadirachta indica is an alternative to synthetic antimicrobial agents. This bioactive yarn can be used in fashion as well as in medicinal industry.

  4. Safety evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) derived pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Boersma, M.G.; Alink, G.M.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The neem tree, Azadirachta indica, provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides and could be applied to protect stored seeds against insects. However in addition to possible beneficial health effects, such as blood sugar lowering properties, anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulce

  5. Azadirachta indica: MELIACEAE EXTRACTS AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES

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    Daniel Iván OSPINA SALAZAR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la actividad antifúngica de extractos metanólicos de la especie Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae , conocida comúnmente como neem, empleando el método de microdilución en caldo M38-A2 de referencia para hongos filamentosos y dermatofitos. Se evaluaron 14 aislamientos de los dermatofitos Trichophyton mentagrophytes , Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis y Epidermophyton floccosum. Los extractos de neem fueron obtenidos mediante partición metanol-hexano a partir de aceite de semillas y hojas verdes maduras. Adicionalmente, se analizaron por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (CLAR con el fin de relacionar su perfil químico con el contenido de terpenoides, de conocida actividad antifúngica. Se empleó como control positivo el antimicótico Terbinafina. Los resultados mostraron inhibición total del crecimiento de los aislamientos de dermatofitos a concentraciones mínimas inhibitorias (CMI entre 50 μg/mL y 200 μg/mL para el extracto de hojas y entre 625 μg/mL y 2500 μg/mL para el extracto de aceite de semillas. La CMI encontrada para el control positivo (Terbinafina fluctuó entre 0,0078 μg/mL y 0,0313 μg/mL. Los extractos metanólicos de hojas y aceite de semillas de neem exhibieron diferentes perfiles cromatográficos en CLAR, lo cual podría explicar las diferencias observadas en su actividad antifúngica. Éste análisis químico reveló la posible presencia de compuestos terpenoides en ambos extractos, los cuales se conocen por su actividad biológica. Los resultados de esta investigación son un nuevo aporte sobre el potencial terapéutico del neem para el control de dermatofitosis.

  6. Investigation of in Vitro Anthelmintic activity of Azadirachta Indica Leaves

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    HAQUE RABIU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extract of Azadirachta Indica Leaves was investigated for anthelmintic activity using earthworms (Pheretima posthuma, tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis and roundworms (Ascaridiagalli. Various concentrations (10-70 mg/ml of plant extract were tested in the bioassay. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml was used as reference standard drug whereas distilled water as control. Determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms were recorded. Extract exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at the concentration of 40 mg/ml. The result shows that aqueous extract possesses vermicidal activity and found to be effective as an anthelmintic. Therefore, the anthelmintic activity of the aqueous extract of Azadirachta Indica Leaves has been reported

  7. Antimicrobial Potential Of Azadirachta Indica Against Pathogenic Bacteria And Fungi

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    Mohammad Asif

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Drugs from natural sources are used for treating various diseases since the ancient times. From the literature it is clear that various type of pharmacological and biological activities are associated with Azadirachta indica. Theleave oil of A. indica is known to have good antimicrobial potential. The oil of A. indica leaves, was tested against the different infectious microorganisms [Gram positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria], such as bacterial strains; S. aureus, E. coli, B. cerus, P. vulgaris, S. typhi, K. pneumonae, S. dysenterae and Fungal strains; F. oxysporum, A. flavus, A. fumigates, A. niger, C. albicans, Cladosporium sp., M. canis, M. gypseum, T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, P. notatum and P. citrinum etc.The results showed that level of antimicrobial activities of the A.indica oil depends on both the protein and carbohydrate contents. Generally, the high level of protein and carbohydrate contents of extract had better antimicrobial activities.

  8. REVIEW ON NEEM (AZADIRACHTA INDICA: THOUSAND PROBLEMS ONE SOLUTION

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    Sharma Pankaj

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Neem has become important in the global context today because it offers answers to the major concerns facing mankind. Azadirachta indica is a fast growing evergreen popular tree found commonly in India, Africa and America. This review gives a bird’s eye view mainly on the biological activity and its preventive-promotive medicinal uses and applications over all this review also tell you that how the “neem is the one solution of thousand problems”, like Antiallergenic, antidermatic, antifeedent, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antipyorrhoeic, antiscabic, cardiac, diuretic, insecticidal, larvicidal, nematicidal, spermicidal and other biological activities.

  9. Neem (Azadirachta indica: Prehistory to contemporary medicinal uses to humankind

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    Venugopalan Santhosh Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The divine tree neem (Azadirachta indica is mainly cultivated in the Indian subcontinent. Neem has been used extensively by humankind to treat various ailments before the availability of written records which recorded the beginning of history. The world health organization estimates that 80% of the population living in the developing countries relies exclusively on traditional medicine for their primary health care. More than half of the world's population still relies entirely on plants for medicines, and plants supply the active ingredients of most traditional medical products. The review shows the neem has been used by humankind to treat various ailments from prehistory to contemporary.

  10. Azadirachta indica Attenuates Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity and Oxidative Stress

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    Ahmed E. Abdel Moneim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of methanolic leaves extract of Azadirachta indica (MLEN, 500 mg/kg bwt on cisplatin- (CP- induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. CP (5 mg/kg bwt was injected intraperitoneally and MLEN was given by gastric gavage for 5 days before or after CP injection. After 5 days of CP injection, CP-induced injury of the renal tissue was evidenced (i as histopathological damage of the renal tissue, (ii as increases in serum uric acid, urea, and creatinine, (iii as increases in malondialdehyde (MDA and nitric oxide (NO, (iv as decreases in the level of glutathione and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase, and (v as increase in the expression of nuclear factor kappa B and apoptosis in kidney tissues. However, the oral administration of MLEN to CP-intoxicated rats for 5 days brought back MDA, NO production, and enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants to near normalcy. Moreover, the histological observations evidenced that neem extract effectively rescues the kidney from CP-mediated oxidative damage. Furthermore, PCR results for caspase-3 and caspase-9 and Bax genes showed downregulation in MLEN treated groups. Therefore, Azadirachta indica can be considered a potential candidate for protection of nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin.

  11. Effects of Azadirachta indica on Sheep Infected Naturally with Helminthes

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    F. R. Macedo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica on natural helminthes infection in lambs. Forty, four-month-old entire Santa Ines lambs were grazed on pasture, over a 20 week period. They were divided into 4 treatments: Without drenching (ND, 3 g A. indica/animal (A3, 6 g A. indica/animal (A6 and 9 g A. indica/animal (A9 over 5 consecutive days, with an interval of 25 days between drenchings. Faeces were collected weekly and lamb weight and blood collection were carried out fortnightly. Four weeks after the last drenching all lambs were slaughtered, and worm burdens calculated. No significant differences were observed for lamb performance between treatments. Blood parameters highlighted the progress of the worm infections, with sheep on treatments A6 and A9 ending the experiment showing anemia. There was an increase in the total number of worms associated with increasing levels of neem, especially due to the increase in number of H. contortus in detriment to the number of T. colubriformis for highest levels of neem (A6 and A9. The increasing doses of neem did not improve the control of endoparasites in sheep naturally infected.

  12. Biodegradable Detergents from Azadirachta Indica (neem Seed Oil

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    Alewo Opuada AMEH

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of biodegradable detergent from Azadirachta Indica (neem seed oil was studied in this work. The synthesized detergent was characterised and compared with commercially available detergents. 33g of biodegradable detergent was produced from 30ml of the oil. In the foamability test, the height of liquid and foam of detergent rose to 3cm in a 250ml beaker thus indicating its effectiveness since it compared favourably with the foam heights of commercial detergents. The surface tension of solution of 5g of the synthesized detergent in 100ml of water determined to be 0.00523 N/m was found to be better that of the commercial detergent of same concentration. The oxygen demand for a solution of the synthesized detergents over a five day period found to be 0.4ppm indicated it was biodegradable.

  13. Effort on planting and product development of Azadirachta indica in Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan-ping; PENG Xing-min; ZHENG Yi-xing; LAI Yong-qi

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-four provenances of two species (Azadirachta siamensis and Azadirachta indica) have been introduced to China from South Asia, Southeast Asia and Africa Since 1995. This paper summarizes the researches on the introduction and planting of Azadirachta indica and analyzes the morphological, phenological characteristics, the growth rhythm, pollinating and seed yielding features of the introduced 24 provenances of the two species as well as the variations of filial generation plants. The experiments showed that most of the provenances of A. indica have normal growth and can blossom and fruit in the dry-hot valleys with tropical climate conditions in Yunnan Province, China. The normal regions for A. indica were classified and the selection criteria for superior plants were put forward in this paper, moreover, the major contents of industry planning and technical approaches for A. indica plantation establishment were discussed and the countermeasures to reduce the neem-based pesticide products were also proposed.

  14. Anti-inflammatory polysaccharides of Azadirachta indica seed tegument

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    Lívia de Paulo Pereira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Meliaceae, or Indian neem is a plant used to treat inûammatory disorders. Total polysaccharide (TPL and FI (fractioned by ion exchange chromatography from the seed tegument of A. indica were evaluated in models of acute inflammation (paw edema/peritonitis using Wistar rats. Paw edema (measured by hydroplethysmometry was induced s.c. by Λ-carrageenan (300 µg, histamine (100 µg, serotonin (20 µg, compound 48/80 (10 µg, prostaglandin (PGE2 30 µg or L-arginine (15 µg. Peritonitis (analyzed for leukocyte counts/protein dosage was induced i.p. by carrageenan (500 mg or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP 50 ng. Animals were treated i.v. with TPL (1 mg/kg or FI (0.01, 0.1, 1 mg/kg 30 min before stimuli. FI toxicity (at 0.1 mg/kg, i.v. for seven days was analyzed by the variation of body/organ mass and hematological/biochemical parameters. TPL extraction yielded 1.3%; FI, presenting high carbohydrate and low protein content, at 0.1 mg/kg inhibited paw edema induced by carrageenan (77%, serotonin (54%, PGE2 (69% and nitric oxide (73%, and the peritonitis elicited by carrageenan (48% or fMLP (67%, being well tolerated by animals. FI exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity, revealing to be important active component in traditionally prepared remedies to treat inflammatory states.

  15. An Improved Genome Assembly of Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

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    Neeraja M. Krishnan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., an evergreen tree of the Meliaceae family, is known for its medicinal, cosmetic, pesticidal and insecticidal properties. We had previously sequenced and published the draft genome of a neem plant, using mainly short read sequencing data. In this report, we present an improved genome assembly generated using additional short reads from Illumina and long reads from Pacific Biosciences SMRT sequencer. We assembled short reads and error-corrected long reads using Platanus, an assembler designed to perform well for heterozygous genomes. The updated genome assembly (v2.0 yielded 3- and 3.5-fold increase in N50 and N75, respectively; 2.6-fold decrease in the total number of scaffolds; 1.25-fold increase in the number of valid transcriptome alignments; 13.4-fold less misassembly and 1.85-fold increase in the percentage repeat, over the earlier assembly (v1.0. The current assembly also maps better to the genes known to be involved in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway. Together, the data represent an improved assembly of the A. indica genome.

  16. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF NEEM (Azadirachta indica: MELIACEAE EXTRACTS AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES

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    Daniel Iván OSPINA SALAZAR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the antifungal activity of methanolic extracts from neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., several bioassays were conducted following M38-A2 broth microdilution method on 14 isolates of the dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum. Neem extracts were obtained through methanol-hexane partitioning of mature green leaves and seed oil. Furthermore, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analyses were carried out to relate the chemical profile with their content of terpenoids, of widely known antifungal activity. The antimycotic Terbinafine served as a positive control. Results showed that there was total growth inhibition of the dermatophytes isolates at minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC between 50 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL for leaves extract, and between 625 μg/mL and 2500 μg/mL for seed oil extract. The MIC of positive control (Terbinafine ranged between 0.0019 μg/mL and 0.0313 μg/mL. Both neem leaves and seed oil methanol extracts exhibited different chromatographic profiles by HPLC, which could explain the differences observed in their antifungal activity. This analysis revealed the possible presence of terpenoids in both extracts, which are known to have biological activity. The results of this research are a new report on the therapeutic potential of neem to the control of dermatophytosis. Actividad antifúngica de extractos de neem (Azadirachta indica: Meliaceae sobre hongos dermatofitosSe determinó la actividad antifúngica de extractos metanólicos de la especie Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae, conocida comúnmente como neem, empleando el método de microdilución en caldo M38-A2 de referencia para hongos filamentosos y dermatofitos. Se evaluaron 14 aislamientos de los dermatofitos Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis y Epidermophyton floccosum. Los extractos de neem fueron obtenidos mediante partici

  17. Impact of botanical pesticides derived from Melia azedarach an Azadirachta indica plants on the emission of volatiles that attract parasitoids of the diamondback moth to cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Gols, R.; Hordijk, K.A.; Kfir, R.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2006-01-01

    Herbivorous and carnivorous arthropods use chemical information from plants during foraging. Aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree Melia azedarach and commercial formulations from the neem tree Azadirachta indica, Neemix 4.5®, were investigated for their impact on the flight response of two pa

  18. Impact of botanical pesticides derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica plants on the emission of volatiles that attract parasitoids of the diamondback moth to cabbage plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Gols, R.; Hordijk, C.A.; Kfir, R.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2006-01-01

    Herbivorous and carnivorous arthropods use chemical information from plants during foraging. Aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree Melia azedarach and commercial formulations from the neem tree Azadirachta indica, Neemix 4.5®, were investigated for their impact on the flight response of two pa

  19. Insecticidal Efficacy of Azadirachta indica, Nucleopolyhedrovirus and Chlorantraniliprole Singly or Combined against Field Populations fo Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Eficacia Insecticida de Azadirachta indica, Nucleopolihedrovirus y Clorantraniliprol solo y sus Aplicaciones Integradas contra Poblaciones de Campo de Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The development of resistance in cosmopolitan insect Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) forced the researchers for alternative control measures. In the present study, insecticidal efficacy of formulations of Azadirachta indica, a Nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV), and new anthranilic diamide insecticide (chlorantraniliprole) formulations was determined against 2nd, through 5th larval instars of H. armigera collected from diverse geographical locations in the Punjab province, Pakist...

  20. Effect of Neem Leaves Extract (Azadirachta Indica on Wound Healing

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    Naveen Kumar Chundran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neem leaves (Azadirachta Indica have active ingredients such as nimbidin and sodium nimbidate which possess/possesinganti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties that help in healing process and also contains an excellent nutrition which plays/playing a vital role information of collagen and formation of new capillaries. The aim of this experimental study is to evaluate healing activity of neem leaves. Methods: This experiment was conducted in Pharmacology Lab of Universitas Padjadjaran on October 2012. Twenty seven rats were grouped randomly into 3 groups and 1.5cm of excision wound was created. Negative control group was treated with a topical application of saline solution (sodium chloride0.9%, treatment group with a topical application of neem leaves extract and positive control group had been treated with a topical application of povidone-iodine for 15 days. Healing was assessed by the longest diameter of the raw surface of wound on days 0, 5, 10 and 15. The data were then analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. Results: There was a significant reduction in the longest diameter of wound in group of neem leaves extract, compared with group sodium chloride 0.9%,.and there was no significant difference in the longest diameter of wound between neem leaves, extract and povidone iodine. Conclusions: Neem leaves extract has the same wound healing rate compared to povidone iodine. A further study in human should be conducted in the future

  1. Ageing increases the sensitivity of neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds to imbibitional stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neya, O.; Golovina, E.A.; Nijsse, J.; Hoekstra, F.A.

    2004-01-01

    Imbibitional stress was imposed on neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds by letting them soak for 1 h in water at unfavourable, low temperatures before further incubation at 30degreesC. Sensitivity to low imbibition temperatures increased with a decrease in seed moisture content (MC). To investigate a pos

  2. Insecticidal properties of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica): it’s for the birds!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    New Scientist (6 June 1985, p. 10) reported that Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), the Indian neem tree, would be a ’new’ wonder plant. Its medical properties have been known for ages to local people and western botanists (e.g. Garcia de Orta, 1567). In India about 14 million trees, typically planted

  3. Therapeutics Role of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Their Active Constituents in Diseases Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzohairy, Mohammad A

    2016-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) is a member of the Meliaceae family and its role as health-promoting effect is attributed because it is rich source of antioxidant. It has been widely used in Chinese, Ayurvedic, and Unani medicines worldwide especially in Indian Subcontinent in the treatment and prevention of various diseases. Earlier finding confirmed that neem and its constituents play role in the scavenging of free radical generation and prevention of disease pathogenesis. The studies based on animal model established that neem and its chief constituents play pivotal role in anticancer management through the modulation of various molecular pathways including p53, pTEN, NF-κB, PI3K/Akt, Bcl-2, and VEGF. It is considered as safe medicinal plants and modulates the numerous biological processes without any adverse effect. In this review, I summarize the role of Azadirachta indica in the prevention and treatment of diseases via the regulation of various biological and physiological pathways.

  4. Comparative anti-microbial efficacy of Azadirachta indica irrigant with standard endodontic irrigants: A preliminary study

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    Arindam Dutta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The anti-microbial efficacy of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (SHC and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate were compared with an experimental irrigant formulated from the Neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Materials and Methods: A sample of 36 single rooted anterior teeth with periapical radiolucency and absence of response to vitality tests that required root canal treatment were selected for this study. The test irrigants and their combinations were assigned to five different groups and saline served as the control. Access cavities were prepared using an aseptic technique and samples collected for both anaerobic culture and Gram stained smears, followed by irrigation and sample collection again. The number of organisms were expressed in colony forming units/ml after 72 h of incubation; the smears were analyzed for their microbial loads and tissue clearance and assessed as per defined criteria. Results: Our results found the maximum reduction in microbial loads, when analyzed by culture method, with a combination of SHC and the experimental neem irrigant. Maximum tissue clearance on the Gram Stained smears was also found with the same combination. Conclusion: Neem irrigant has anti-microbial efficacy and can be considered for endodontic use.

  5. Productivity and Composition of Fatty Acids in Chicks fed with Azadirachta indica A. Juss

    OpenAIRE

    Imna Trigueros V; Miguel Ramón C; José Vázquez O; Juan Aguirre M; Carlos Garcia C; Jaime Martínez T

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective. Evaluate the productivity and composition of fatty acids in chicks fed diets enriched with neem Azadirachta indica A. Juss seed flour. Materials and methods. 80 mixed broiler chicks of Arbor Acres stock and levels 0, 1, 3 and 5% neem seed flour added to a commercial diet were evaluated. 20 experimental units were included in each treatment for five weeks. The consumption and weight gain were recorded, as well as the composition of fatty acids in the fat by means of alkaline...

  6. Successive solvent extraction and free radical scavenging activity of Azadirachta indica A. juss

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    Mohammed Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plant-based or plant-derived drugs occupied 30% of the modern system of medicine. Several trees possess a variety of biologically active compounds. Among them, Azadirachta indica, belonging to the family Meliaceae, plays a vital role as it acts as nature′s pharmacy from several centuries of time. In the path of searching for potential antioxidants from plant origin, different parts of Azadirachta indica have been selected. Aim: Successive solvent extracts of leaves, seeds and root barks of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem were studied for their free radical scavenging activity. Materials and Methods: Extraction capacity of different solvents based on their polarity order was compared and the extracts were subjected to 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Statistical Analysis: All values were expressed in mean±SEM and correlation coefficient (R 2 values obtained from dose response curves were expressed for antioxidant results. Results: The results showed that the highest yields was found with the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves, followed by the hydroalcoholic extract of seeds and methanolic extracts of leaves and seeds, respectively. Free radical scavenging activity of various extracts was determined by measuring 1, DPPH free radical scavenging activity. The results were expressed in terms of IC 50 values. The root bark methanol extract was found to exhibit the highest IC 50 of 14.82-μg/mL at the concentration of 25-μg/mL. Conclusion: It is concluded that hydroalcohol and methanol are the best solvents to extract the antioxidant compounds from Azadirachta indica. The root bark methanolic extract was found to have the highest free radical scavenging potential against DPPH radical.

  7. Screening and design of anti-diabetic compounds sourced from the leaves of neem (Azadirachta indica)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is affecting people of all age groups worldwide. Many synthetic medicines available for type 2 diabetes mellitus in the market. However, there is a strong requirement for the development of better anti-diabetes compounds sourced especially from natural sources like medicinal plants. The extracts from the leaves of neem (Azadirachta indica) is traditionally known to have anti-diabetes properties. Therefore, there is an increased interest to identify potential compounds identi...

  8. Dentinal Tubule Disinfection with Propolis & Two Extracts of Azadirachta indica Against Candida albicans Biofilm Formed on Tooth Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy Sinha, Dakshita; Garg, Paridhi; Verma, Anurag; Malik, Vibha; Maccune, Edgar Richard; Vasudeva, Agrima

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study evaluates the disinfection of dentinal tubules using Propolis, Azadirachta indica (alcoholic and aqueous extracts), 2% chlorhexidine gel and calcium hydroxide against Candida albicans biofilm formed on tooth substrate. Materials & Method: One hundred and five human teeth were infected with Candida albicans for 2 days. Samples were divided into 7 groups. Group I- Propolis, Group II- Alcoholic extract of Azadirachta indica, Group III- Aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica, Group IV- 2% Chlorhexidine, Group V- Calcium hydroxide, Group VI- Ethanol and Group VII- Saline (negative control). At the end of 1,3 and 5 days, the antimicrobial efficacy of medicaments against Candida albicans was assessed at the depths of 200 µm and 400 µm. Results: The overall percentage inhibition of fungal growth (at 200 µm and 400 µm depth) was 99.2% with 2% chlorhexidine gel. There was no statistical difference between propolis, alcoholic extract of Azadirachta indica (neem) and 2% chlorhexidine. Conclusion: Propolis and alcoholic extract of Azadirachta indica performed equally well as that of 2% Chlorhexidine. PMID:26962368

  9. Atividade de extrato aquoso de folhas de nim (Azadirachta indica sobre Spodoptera frugiperda Activity of neem tree (Azadirachta indica leaves aqueous extract on Spodoptera frugiperda

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    Hélio Teixeira Prates

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A lagarta-do-cartucho do milho (Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith tem sido controlada com inseticidas sintéticos. Uma das caracteristicas do nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss é sua atividade inseticida contra pragas, como sucedâneo aos sintéticos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade inseticida do extrato aquoso das folhas do nim sobre a lagarta-do-cartucho do milho, em laboratório. Bioensaios com diferentes concentrações de extrato em dieta artificial, tendo o inseticida chlorpyrifos como testemunha, revelaram, 15 dias após infestação com larvas, eficiência equivalente entre as concen- trações 3,60 a 10,00 mg mL-1. A análise de Probit mostrou CL50 = 2,67 mg mL-1; o extrato aquoso das folhas de nim apresenta, portanto, efeito inseticida sobre a lagarta-do-cartucho do milho.The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith has been controlled with synthetic insecticides bringing risk to the environment. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss is reported to be a natural alternative to synthetic insecticides against many insect species. The objective of this work was to evaluate the activity of neem leaves aqueous extract on fall armyworm, in laboratory. Bioassays carried out using artificial feed with various extract concentrations, and chlorpyrifos as control, indicated, 15 days after larvae infestation, similar efficiency in concentrations from 3.60 to 10.00 mg mL-1. Probit analysis showed LC50 = 2.67 mg mL-1. Hence, aqueous extract from neem leaves are active against fall armyworm.

  10. A draft of the genome and four transcriptomes of a medicinal and pesticidal angiosperm Azadirachta indica

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    Krishnan Neeraja M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Azadirachta indica (neem tree is a source of a wide number of natural products, including the potent biopesticide azadirachtin. In spite of its widespread applications in agriculture and medicine, the molecular aspects of the biosynthesis of neem terpenoids remain largely unexplored. The current report describes the draft genome and four transcriptomes of A. indica and attempts to contextualise the sequence information in terms of its molecular phylogeny, transcript expression and terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. A. indica is the first member of the family Meliaceae to be sequenced using next generation sequencing approach. Results The genome and transcriptomes of A. indica were sequenced using multiple sequencing platforms and libraries. The A. indica genome is AT-rich, bears few repetitive DNA elements and comprises about 20,000 genes. The molecular phylogenetic analyses grouped A. indica together with Citrus sinensis from the Rutaceae family validating its conventional taxonomic classification. Comparative transcript expression analysis showed either exclusive or enhanced expression of known genes involved in neem terpenoid biosynthesis pathways compared to other sequenced angiosperms. Genome and transcriptome analyses in A. indica led to the identification of repeat elements, nucleotide composition and expression profiles of genes in various organs. Conclusions This study on A. indica genome and transcriptomes will provide a model for characterization of metabolic pathways involved in synthesis of bioactive compounds, comparative evolutionary studies among various Meliaceae family members and help annotate their genomes. A better understanding of molecular pathways involved in the azadirachtin synthesis in A. indica will pave ways for bulk production of environment friendly biopesticides.

  11. Neem (Azadirachta indica):Prehistory to contemporary medicinal uses to humankind

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Venugopalan Santhosh Kumar; Visweswaran Navaratnam

    2013-01-01

    The divine tree neem (Azadirachta indica) is mainly cultivated in the Indian subcontinent. Neem has been used extensively by humankind to treat various ailments before the availability of written records which recorded the beginning of history. The world health organization estimates that 80%of the population living in the developing countries relies exclusively on traditional medicine for their primary health care. More than half of the world’s population still relies entirely on plants for medicines, and plants supply the active ingredients of most traditional medical products. The review shows the neem has been used by humankind to treat various ailments from prehistory to contemporary.

  12. Insecticidal Efficacy of Azadirachta indica, Nucleopolyhedrovirus and Chlorantraniliprole Singly or Combined against Field Populations fo Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Eficacia Insecticida de Azadirachta indica, Nucleopolihedrovirus y Clorantraniliprol solo y sus Aplicaciones Integradas contra Poblaciones de Campo de Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Waqas Wakil

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of resistance in cosmopolitan insect Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae forced the researchers for alternative control measures. In the present study, insecticidal efficacy of formulations of Azadirachta indica, a Nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV, and new anthranilic diamide insecticide (chlorantraniliprole formulations was determined against 2nd, through 5th larval instars of H. armigera collected from diverse geographical locations in the Punjab province, Pakistan. Azadirachta indica was applied at 5 μL L-1; NPV at 2.1 x 10(5 polyhedral occlusion bodies (POB mL4 and chlorantraniliprole at 0.01 μL L-1, either alone or in combinations with each other. The bioassays were conducted at 27 ± 1 °C and 65 ± 5% relative humidity. The mortality varied greatly among treatments, larval instars, and locations. The combinations of NPV with A. indica and chlorantraniliprole caused higher mortality, pupation and produced an additive effect compared to their application singly in all the tested populations. The population from Rawalpindi was always susceptible while the Gujranwala was the resistant. The results herein suggest that the effectiveness of NPV and A. indica can be improved by the presence of chlorantraniliprole against the larvae of H. armigera.Se determinó la eficacia insecticida de formulaciones de Azadirachta indica, Nucleopolihedrovirus (VPN y el nuevo insecticida diamida antranílico (clorantraniliprol en contra de segundo, tercero, cuarto y quinto estadios larvales de Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae recogidos de diversas ubicaciones geográficas de la provincia de Punjab, Pakistán. Azadirachta indica se aplicó en dosis de 5 μL L-1; VPN en dosis 2.1 x 10(5 POB mL-1 y clorantraniliprol fue 0,01 μL L-1 ya sea solos o en combinaciones. Los bioensayos se realizaron a 27 ± 1 °C y 65 ± 5% de humedad relativa. La mortalidad fue notablemente variada entre los tratamientos, estadios larvales y

  13. Modulatory effects of Azadirachta indica on benzo(a)pyrene-induced forestomach tumorigenesis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subhash Chander Gangar; Rajat Sandhir; Durg Vijay Rai; Ashwani Koul

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the chemopreventive effects of aqueous Azadirachta indica (A indica) leaf extract (AAILE)against benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced forestomach tumorigenesis in Balb/c mice.METHODS: Female Balb/c mice were divided into four groups of 10-12 animals each. For induction of forestomach tumors, starting from d 14 of the experiment, mice of B(a)P and B(a)P+A indica groups were given intra-gastric instillations of B(a)P (40 mg/kg), twice a week for four weeks. Mice of A indica and B(a)P+A indica groups were orally administered with AAILE (100mg/kg), two weeks prior to B(a)P instillations till the end of the experiment. After 22 wk of the first B(a)P instillation, mice were sacrificed and the forestomachs were analyzed for development of tumors, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and histopathology.RESULTS: Tumor incidence was observed to be 100%in mice that received only B(a)P. However, treatment with AAILE reduced the tumor incidence by 58.4%as observed in mice of B(a)P+A indica group when compared to that of B(a)P group. Similarly, the tumor burden and multiplicity were seen to decrease by 87.3% and 69.6% respectively in mice of B(a)P+A indica group when compared to those of B(a)P group.Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that AAILE treatment itself did not cause any abnormalities on the surface architecture of forestomach epithelium.In tumorous forestomach, surface disruption was observed. Over the forestomach tumors of B(a)P group of mice certain rounded structures were seen in addition to closely placed tongue-shaped squamous cells. Interestingly, these rounded structures were not observed in B(a)P + A indica group of mice.Histopathalogically, the tumors were identical and diagnosed to be papillomas. Mice from control and A indica groups of mice did not develop any forestomach tumors and showed normal histo-architecture.CONCLUSION: The present data suggest that A indica exerts chemopreventive effects against B(a)P-induced forestomach tumors in

  14. Isolation and characterization of glucosamine from Azadirachta indica leaves:An evaluation of immunostimulant activity in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Venugopalan Santhosh Kumar; Visweswaran Navaratnam; Aiyalu Rajasekaran; Narenk Nair; Srinivasan Narasimhan; Subramaniam Ramachandran

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the potential immunostimulant activity of glucosamine from Azadirachtaindica leaves in mice. Methods: The hexane, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica leaves were prepared and its immunostimulant activity was studied. The aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica leaves (AEAIL) showed significant (P<0.001) higher immunostimulant activity than other extracts. Hence, isolation of possible phytoconstituent(s) from AEAIL was carried out and glucosamine was isolated. The Azadirachta indica leaves glucosamine (AILG) was administered at 266, 400 and 800 μg/kg of mice, intraperitoneal route weekly for 4 weeks to evaluate immunostimulant activity. The serum interleukin-2 (IL-2) level and histopathological studies on thymus were performed to confirm AILG immunostimulant activity. Results: The administration of above doses of AILG has significantly (P<0.001) increased serum IL-2 levels in mice than control mice. The dose dependent effect on IL-2 was noticed in AILG treated mice. The weight of thymus, liver and kidney were significantly (P<0.001) increased after the AILG treatments compared to control mice. Also, body weight of AILG treated mice showed significant (P<0.001) increment from second week to fourth week than control mice. The proliferation of T-lymphocytes in thymus after the administration of AILG was observed in histopathological study. Conclusion: The glucosamine was isolated from Azadirachta indica leaves aqueous extract and its immunostimulant activity was confirmed in mice.

  15. Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity of Different Fractions of Azadirachta indica A. Juss Seed Extract

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    Zafar Iqbal*, Wasim Babar, Zia ud Din Sindhu, Rao Zahid Abbas and Muhammad Sohail Sajid

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was aimed at determination of anthelmintic activity of different fractions of Azadirachta indica seed prepared from the crude aqueous methanol extract (CAME. For this purpose, eggs and adult Haemonchus contortus were exposed to aqueous, ethyl acetate, chloroform and petroleum spirit fractions of A. indica seeds employing standard bioassays. All the fractions of A. indica seeds exhibited dose and/or time dependent ovicidal and wormicidal effects against H. contortus. The best ovicidal activity was demonstrated by the ethyl acetate fraction with LC50=21.32 µg/ml; whereas, it was 6-14 times lower for the other fractions. Likewise, ethyl acetate fraction @ 50 mg ml-1 exhibited the best wormicidal effects by killing 83% adult H. contortus one hour post-exposure. For in vivo anthelmintic activity faecal egg count reduction test was perform on sheep naturally infected with helminthes. Maximum reduction (98.9% was observed with CAME. Therefore, it is concluded that future studies aimed at identification of active anthelmintic principles of A. indica may be focused on ethyl acetate fraction of the plant.

  16. Anthelmintic efficacy of crude neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder against bovine strongylosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamra, Nirmala; Das, Giridhari; Singh, Priyanka; Haque, Manjurul

    2015-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of crude neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder against strongyle infections in cattle. Based on copro-examination, 30 cattle positive for strongyle infection with at least 250 [eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces] were selected and grouped as A, B and C (10 animals/group). Group A and B were treated respectively with fendendazole and neem leaf powder @ 5 and 500 mg/kg body weight, whereas Group C served as infected untreated control. Faecal sample from each animal of these groups was examined on day 0, 7, 14 and 28 post treatments and EPG was determined. The result showed significant decrease (p neem leaf powder has anthelmintic property and it can further be studied to isolate the active component to produce herbal anthelminthics.

  17. Toxicological evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil: acute and subacute toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yun-xia; Cao, Mei; Shi, Dong-xia; Yin, Zhong-qiong; Jia, Ren-yong; Xu, Jiao; Wang, Chuan; Lv, Cheng; Liang, Xiao-xia; He, Chang-liang; Yang, Zhi-rong; Zhao, Jian

    2013-03-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica), popularly known as traditional medicine is a native plant in India. Neem oil is a vegetable oil derived from seeds or fruits of the neem tree through pressing or solvent extraction, and largely used in popular medicine to have antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, as well as immunemodulatory properties in different animal species. In the present study, acute and 28-day subacute toxicity tests were carried out. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of neem oil were found to be 31.95g/kg. The subacute treatment with neem oil failed to change body weight gain, food and water consumption. Serum biochemistry analysis showed no significant differences in any of the parameters examined under the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. Histopathological exams showed that the target organs of neem oil were testicle, liver and kidneys up to the dose of 1600mg/kg/day.

  18. Biogenic Synthesis of Fluorescent Carbon Dots at Ambient Temperature Using Azadirachta indica (Neem) gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadke, Chinmay; Mewada, Ashmi; Dharmatti, Roopa; Thakur, Mukeshchand; Pandey, Sunil; Sharon, Madhuri

    2015-07-01

    Synthesis of fluorescent Carbon Dots (CDs) from various carbonaceous materials apparently has acquired lots of interest amongst researchers as the corollary of the properties of CDs; which are subsequently getting unveiled. In this study we report the use of Azadirachta indica (Neem) Gum as a novel natural pre-cursor for synthesis of CDs at room temperature. Water soluble CDs of around 5-8 nm were obtained after treatment of the gum with ethanol and NaOH. These CDs exhibited green fluorescence in UV-light (λ = 365 nm). These CDs were found to be stable, having many bio-linkers attached on their surface, making it suitable for drug attachment and hence can serve as potential candidates for applications like drug delivery vehicles as well as for biosensors.

  19. In vitro antifilarial activity of Azadirachta indica aqueous extract through reactive oxygen species enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niladri Mukherjee; Prasanta Saini; Suprabhat Mukherjee; Priya Roy; Santi P. Sinha Babu

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate an aqueous preparation from the Azadirachta indica leaves (AEA) against Setaria cervi (S. cervi), a model filarial parasite. Methods:In vitro efficacy of AEA was evaluated against S. cervi through estimation of relative motility value, dye exclusion test and MTT assay. Visible morphological alterations were monitored using conventional microscopic techniques in microfilariae and haematoxylin-eosin stained sections of AEA-treated adults. Results:Enhancement of reactive oxygen species in S. cervi treated with AEA was established through alteration in the activity of glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and level of superoxide anion and reduced glutathione. Conclusions:In vitro filaricidal activity of AEA is possibly through disturbing redox homeostasis by down-regulating and altering the level of some key antioxidants and regulatory enzymes like reduced glutathione, glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase of S. cervi.

  20. Repellency of the oily extract of neem seeds (Azadirachta indica) against Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gómez, Rebeca; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Villanueva-Jiménez, Juan A; Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia Beatriz; Santizo-Rincón, José Antonio

    2012-03-01

    A crude oil extract of neem seed (Azadirachta indica, Sapindales: Meliaceae) was evaluated for repellency on Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman. Burgerjon's tower was used to spray worker bee pupae with 0.0, 0.3, 0.7, 1.3, 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract concentrations. Sprayed pupae were attached to observation arenas and incubated at 32 ± 2°C and 70 ± 10% RH. The ability of V. destructor to locate and feed on treated and untreated pupae was monitored from 30 min to 72 h after spray. Higher and more stable repellency was achieved with 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract. At the highest concentration, 98% of V. destructor were prevented to settle on bee pupae, resulting in 100% V. destructor mortality at 72 h.

  1. Chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils of Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

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    S S El-Hawary

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Essential oils of Neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (family Meliaceae leaves and flowers were prepared by hydrodistillation method. The chemical composition of the oil samples was investigated by GC/MS. Hydrocarbon constituted 85.36% of the leaves oil .The major compounds were β-Elemene (33.39%, γ- Elemene (9.89%, Germacrene D (9.72%, Caryophyllene (6.8% and Bicyclogermacrene (5.23% while the percent of the oxygenated compounds were (5.04% mainly attributed to sesquiterpene oxide. On the other hand, flowers oil hydrocarbons constituted 63.22% composed mainly of pentacosane (18.58%, tetracosane (10.65%, β-germacrene (9.73%, β- caryophyllene (5.84% and dodecene (4.54% while the percent of the oxygenated compounds were 28.3% mainly attributed to octadecanol (16.7%, verdiflorol (5.32%, farnesol (1.63% and α– terpineol (1.51%. The antioxidant properties determined by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assays, antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative, antifungal and larvicidal activities were promising and in relation with the chemical composition of the essential oils. The results indicated that essential oil of flowers could be especially promising as an inexpensive source of effective antioxidant /antimicrobial /larvicidal agents tantamount to fixed oil of the neem seeds.Industrial relevance. The use of medicinal plants is a universal phenomenon. Natural products from plants are rich source to identify, select and process new drugs for medicinal use. Most of research focused on fixed oil of neem seeds but very little was concerned about volatile oils of leaves and flowers. The diverse biological activities of Neem essential oils can be applied on a large scale as antioxidant, antimicrobial and larvicidal agents comprising many important benefits including their volatility, lower level of risk to the environment than with synthetic ones.Keywords. Azadirachta indica; Neem; essential oil; GC/MS; antioxidant

  2. Repellent Activities of Ocimum basilicum, Azadirachta indica and Eucalyptus citriodora Extracts on Rabbit Skin against Aedes aegypti

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    Koech Peter Kiplang’at

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Vector borne diseases are the major public health problems in developing countries particularly in tropics. Essential oils from plants can provide the safe and biodegradable alternatives to synthetic repellents, but plant-based repellent formulations available in the market are not effective. The purpose of the study was to investigate mosquito repellent activities of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum, Neem (Azadirachta indica and Lemon Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora extracts. Different concentrations of the extracts were tested for mosquito repellency on rabbit skin as the host of Aedes aegypti. Laboratory reared starved females were used for the tests and data collection was done by observational parameters based on frequency of mosquito landing and blood engorgement. Synergised Crude oleoresin extract of Pyrethrum and Ballet mosquito repellent® were included as positive test controls and Vaseline pure petroleum jelly® as a negative test control. The results showed that synergised Pyrethrum oleoresin showed complete protection at 0.1% as compared to Lemon Eucalyptus oil and Sweet Basil oil at 2% and 3% respectively (p<0.05. Neem oil and Ballet did not provide complete protection. The mean percent repellency of 5% Neem oil was 84.21 and that of Ballet was 66.84 (p<0.05. Sweet basil and Lemon Eucalyptus oils can be alternative to Pyrethrum as natural mosquito repellents from plant origin.

  3. The Potential Role of Azadirachta indica Treatment on Cisplatin-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed A Dkhil; Saleh Al-Quraishy; Aref, Ahmed M.; Othman, Mohamed S.; Kamal M. El-Deib; Ahmed E Abdel Moneim

    2013-01-01

    Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (neem, family: Meliaceae) is perhaps the most commonly used traditional medicinal plant of India. In this study we investigated the protective effect of methanolic neem leaves extract (MNLE; 500 mg/Kg bwt) on rats treated with cisplatin (CDDP)-induced hepatotoxicity. Adult rats were randomly divided into four groups. CDDP was given to rats by intraperitoneal injection, while MNLE was given by oral gavage for 5 days after the CDDP injection. The injury and oxidative...

  4. Role of aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica leaves in an experimental model of Alzheimer's disease in rats

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by multiple cognitive deficits, is often accompanied by behavioral disorders and mood changes. Because of the non-availability of proper curative/preventive therapy for AD, the present study was designed to evaluate the possible role of Azadirachta indica in experimental AD in rats. Materials and Methods: Experimental AD in rats was produced by nucleus basalis magnacellularis lesion with ibotenic acid...

  5. Toxicity profile of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica stem bark in male Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anofi; Omotayo; Tom; Ashafal; Latifat; Olubukola; Orekoya; Musa; Toyin; Yakubu

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the loxic implications of ethanolic stem bark extract of Azadirachta indica(A-indica)at 50,100,200 and 300 mg/kg body weight in Wistar rats.Methods:Fifty male rats of Wistar strains were randomly grouped into five(A-F.)of ten animals each.Animals in Group A(control)were orally administered 1 mL of distilled water on daily basis for 21 days while those in Groups B-E received same volume of the extract corresponding to 50,100,200 and 300mg/kg body weight.Results:The extract did not significantly(P>0.05)alter the levels of albumin,total protein,red blood cells and factors relating to it whereas the white blood cell,platelets,serum triacylglycerol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly(P<0.05).In contrast,the final body weights,absolute weights of the liver,kidney,lungs and heart as well as their organ-body weight ratios,serum globulins,total and conjugated bilirubin,serum cholesterol,low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and computed atherogenic index increased significantly.The spleen-body weight ratio,alkaline phosphatase,alanine and aspartate transaminases,sodium,potassium,calcium,feed and water intake were altered at specific doses.Conclusions:Overall,the alterations in the biochemical parameters of toxicity have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the organs of the animals.Therefore,the ethanolic extract of A.indica stem bark at the doses of 50,100,200 and 300 mg/kg body weight may not be completely safe as an oral remedy and should be taken with caution if absolutely necessary.

  6. MORFO-ANATOMIA E HISTOQUÍMICA FOLIAR DE Azadirachta indica A. JUSS (Neem) (MELIACEAE), CULTIVADAS EM GOIÁS

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho Amede, Soraia; Graciano Ribeiro, Alva; Rezende, Maria Helena; Faria, Maria Tereza

    2015-01-01

    O Neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss é uma árvore da família Meliaceae, originária da Índia. Nessas regiões o “Neem”, é considerado uma planta medicinal de relevante importância pelos seus efeitos positivos junto à saúde das plantações, animais e do próprio homem. Muitos compostos ativos já foram isolados de A. indica sendo que o liminóide azadiractina encontrada nas sementes, usado principalmente como repelente e inseticida. Foram registrados na literatura especializada vários trabalhos do pon...

  7. Changes of hemoglobin content and glucose levels in the blood of Rattus norvegicus by water extracts of Azadirachta indica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shori; Amal Bakr

    2012-01-01

    Presently,there is a growing interest in herbal remedies.Neem (Azadirachta indica) has been used in traditional medicine over centuries.In the present study,the effects of water extracts of Azadirachta indica seeds,stems,flowers and bark on the changes of hemoglobin content (Hb) and glucose levels in the blood of Rattus norvegicus were investigated.Different doses of A.indica water extracts of seeds,stems,flowers and bark were injected to the tested animals every 48 h for 14 days.Significant decrease in both hemoglobin content and glucose levels in the blood samples in all groups of injected rats were compared to control group.However,in all groups higher decrease was shown in the rats injected with 1 g·mL-1 ofA.indica water extracts.In addition,the present study showed no significant relationship between decreased hemoglobin content and glucose levels in blood samples,and increased doses injected.In conclusion,A.indica has the potential to decrease both hemoglobin content and blood glucose levels.

  8. Cytotoxic Evaluation of Melia Azedarach in Comparison with, Azadirachta Indica and its Phytochemical Investigation

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    Samineh Jafari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Melia azedarach L. is an important medicinal plant that is used for variety of ailments in Iranian traditional medicine. Azadirachta indica A. Juss is its allied species and possesses similar properties and effects. The present study was undertaken to investigate anticancer activity of these M. azedarach in comparison with A. indica on cancer cell lines and also to evaluate their safety in humans by testing them on normal cell line. The study also aimed to determine the active components that are responsible for medicinal effects of M. azedarach in traditional usages.Methods:In this study, the cytotoxic activity of crude extracts from M. azedarach and A. indica leaves, pulps and seeds as well as three main fractions of their leaf extracts were assayed against HT-29, A-549, MCF-7 and HepG-2 and MDBK cell lines. MTT assay was used to evaluate their cytotoxic activities. Methanol leaf fraction of M. azedarach as the safest leaf fraction in terms of cytotoxicity was subjected for phytochemical study.Results:Results of the present study indicated that seed kernel extract of M. azedarach had the highest cytotoxic activity and selectivity to cancer cell lines (IC50 range of 8.18- 60.10 μg mL-1. In contrast to crude seed extract of A. indica, crude pulp and crude leaf extracts of this plant showed remarkably stronger anti-prolifrative activity (IC50 ranges of 83.45 - 212.16 μg mL-1 and 34.11- 95.51 μg mL-1 respectively than those of M. azedarach (all IC50 values of both plants > 650 μg mL-1. The phytochemical analysis led to the isolation of four flavonol 3-O-glycosides including rutin, kaempferol-3-O-robinobioside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and isoquercetin along with a purin nucleoside, β-adenosine.Conclusions:The anti-prolifrative potentials of extracts from different parts of M. azedarach and A. indica were determined. By comparison, methanol leaf fraction of M. azedarach seems to be safer in terms of cytotoxicity. Our study shows

  9. The effectiveness of mimba oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss spray disinfectant on alginate impression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanoem EH

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alginate impression contaminated by saliva and blood could potentially cause cross contamination. To prevent this, the impression has to be disinfected by disinfectant liquid, such as mimba oil. Mimba oil (Azadirachta indica A.Juss has some chemical content, such as azadirachtin, which is a phenol group used as antibacterial and antimalaria, nimbolide used as antibacterial and antimalarial, and nimbidin used as antibacterial and antifungal. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to find out the most effective concentration of mimba oil as disinfectant to decrease microorganism colony on alginate impression. Methods: Thirty six samples were taken from 9 respondents. This alginate impression was divided into 4 groups: group 1 sprayed with sterile aquadest (as control group, group 2 sprayed with mimba oil 50% for 30 seconds, group 3 sprayed with mimba oil 75% for 30 seconds, group 4 sprayed with mimba oil 100% for 30 seconds. The microorganism colony was counted by colony counter. The sample data then were analyzed with Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and was tested with Kruskal Wallis test and Mann Whitney test for further analysis. Results: There was significant difference among each group, p = 0.01 (p < 0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, usage of 50% concentration of mimba oil as disinfectant is effective to decrease microorganism colony on alginate impression.Latar belakang: Cetakan alginat yang terkontaminasi saliva dan darah dapat berpotensi terjadinya infeksi silang. Untuk mencegah hal tersebut, cetakan didisinfeksi dengan bahan disinfektan cair seperti minyak mimba. Minyak mimba (Azadirachta indica A.Juss memiliki beberapa kandungan kimia, antara lain Azadirachtin yang merupakan kelompok fenol yang memmiliki efek antibakteri dan antimalaria, nimbolide memiliki efek antibakteri dan antimalaria sedangkan nimbidin memiliki efek antibakteri dan antijamur. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan konsentrasi yang paling

  10. Chemopreventive effect of methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica on experimental Trypanosoma brucei induced oxidative stress in dogs

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    Temidayo O Omobowale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The medicinal properties of Azadirachta indica have been harnessed for many years in the treatment of many diseases in both humans and animals. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five apparently healthy dogs weighing between 3 and 8 kg were randomly divided into five groups with five dogs in each group. Ameliorative effect of A. indica on erythrocyte antioxidant status and markers of oxidative stress were assessed. Liver and kidney function tests were also performed. Results: Pre-treatment with methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica (MEAI at different doses did not significantly alter the values of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity in Trypanosoma brucei infection. Although, serum creatinine significantly (P 0.05 difference compared to the values obtained in pre-treated animals. Pre-treatment with 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of A. indica significantly (P < 0.05 decreased serum myeloperoxidase activity at 2 weeks post-infection with T. brucei. Conclusion: From this study, MEAI showed significant ability to attenuate oxidative stress and inflammation during experimental T. brucei infection.

  11. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Oil to Tackle Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Serrone, Paola; Toniolo, Chiara; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) oil (NO) was assayed against forty-eight isolates of Escherichia coli by standardised disc diffusion test and microdilution test. By molecular biology characterization, fourteen isolates resulted in diarrheagenic E. coli with sixteen primer pairs that specifically amplify unique sequences of virulence genes and of 16S rRNA. The NO showed biological activity against all isolates. The bacterial growth inhibition zone by disc diffusion method (100 µL NO) ranged between 9.50 ± 0.70 and 30.00 ± 1.00 mm. The antibacterial activity was furthermore determined at lower NO concentrations (1 : 10-1 : 10,000). The percent of growth reduction ranged between 23.71 ± 1.00 and 99.70 ± 1.53. The highest bacterial growth reduction was 1 : 10 NO concentration with 50 µL of bacterial suspension (ca. 1 × 10(6) CFU/mL). There is significant difference between the antibacterial activities against pathogenic and nonpathogenic E. coli, as well as NO and ciprofloxacin activities. Viable cells after the different NO concentration treatments were checked by molecular biology assay using PMA dye. On the basis of the obtained results, NO counteracts E. coli and also influences the virulence of E. coli viable cells after NO treatment. The NO metabolomic composition was obtained using fingerprint HPTLC.

  12. Process variables in biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves

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    Tripathy, A. [VIT University, School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering (India); Raichur, Ashok M. [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Materials Engineering (India); Chandrasekaran, N.; Prathna, T. C.; Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amit.mookerjea@gmail.co [VIT University, School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering (India)

    2010-01-15

    Owing to widespread applications, synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles is recently attracting considerable attention. Increasing environmental concerns over chemical synthesis routes have resulted in attempts to develop biomimetic approaches. One of them is synthesis using plant parts, which eliminates the elaborate process of maintaining the microbial culture and often found to be kinetically favourable than other bioprocesses. The present study deals with investigating the effect of process variables like reductant concentrations, reaction pH, mixing ratio of the reactants and interaction time on the morphology and size of silver nanoparticles synthesized using aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves. The formation of crystalline silver nanoparticles was confirmed using X-ray diffraction analysis. By means of UV spectroscopy, Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy techniques, it was observed that the morphology and size of the nanoparticles were strongly dependent on the process parameters. Within 4 h interaction period, nanoparticles below 20-nm-size with nearly spherical shape were produced. On increasing interaction time (ageing) to 66 days, both aggregation and shape anisotropy (ellipsoidal, polyhedral and capsular) of the particles increased. In alkaline pH range, the stability of cluster distribution increased with a declined tendency for aggregation of the particles. It can be inferred from the study that fine tuning the bioprocess parameters will enhance possibilities of desired nano-product tailor made for particular applications.

  13. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss Oil to Tackle Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

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    Paola Del Serrone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss oil (NO was assayed against forty-eight isolates of Escherichia coli by standardised disc diffusion test and microdilution test. By molecular biology characterization, fourteen isolates resulted in diarrheagenic E. coli with sixteen primer pairs that specifically amplify unique sequences of virulence genes and of 16S rRNA. The NO showed biological activity against all isolates. The bacterial growth inhibition zone by disc diffusion method (100 µL NO ranged between 9.50 ± 0.70 and 30.00 ± 1.00 mm. The antibacterial activity was furthermore determined at lower NO concentrations (1 : 10–1 : 10,000. The percent of growth reduction ranged between 23.71 ± 1.00 and 99.70 ± 1.53. The highest bacterial growth reduction was 1 : 10 NO concentration with 50 µL of bacterial suspension (ca. 1 × 106 CFU/mL. There is significant difference between the antibacterial activities against pathogenic and nonpathogenic E. coli, as well as NO and ciprofloxacin activities. Viable cells after the different NO concentration treatments were checked by molecular biology assay using PMA dye. On the basis of the obtained results, NO counteracts E. coli and also influences the virulence of E. coli viable cells after NO treatment. The NO metabolomic composition was obtained using fingerprint HPTLC.

  14. Enhanced Nematicidal Activity of Organic and Inorganic Ammonia-Releasing Amendments by Azadirachta indica Extracts.

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    Oka, Yuji; Tkachi, Nadia; Shuker, Shimshon; Yerumiyahu, Uri

    2007-03-01

    The nematicidal activities of ammonium sulfate, chicken litter and chitin, alone or in combination with neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts were tested against Meloidogyne javanica. Soil application of these amendments or the neem extracts alone did not reduce the root galling index of tomato plants or did so only slightly, but application of the amendments in combination with the neem extracts reduced root galling significantly. Soil analysis indicated that the neem extract inhibited the nitrification of the ammonium released from the amendments and extended the persistence of the ammonium concentrations in the soil. In microplot experiments, tomato plants were grown in pots filled with soils from the treated microplots. The galling indices of tomato plants grown in soil treated with ammonium sulfate or chicken litter in combination with the neem extract or a chemical nitrification inhibitor were far lower than those of plants grown in the control soil or in soil treated with chicken litter, neem extract or nitrification inhibitor alone. However, plants grown in the microplots showed only slight reductions in galling, probably because the soil amendments were inadequately mixed compared to their application in the pot experiments. The extended exposure of nematodes to ammonia as a result of nitrification inhibition by the neem extracts appeared to be the cause of the enhanced nematicidal activity of the ammonia-releasing amendments.

  15. Efecto insecticida del extracto de semillas de Neem (Azadirachta indica sobre Collaria scenica, Stal (Hemiptera: Miridae

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    Daniel Villamil Montero

    2012-07-01

    Abstract. This work was developed with the objetive to evaluate the insecticidal effect of the Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss seeds against grass bug nymphs Collaria scenica Stal. For that, an extract was prepared from green fruits of Neem by rotaevaporación. The extract was diluted in three ppm concentrations corresponding to treatments. Using thin-layer chromatography we identified the presence of Azaridactina. DCA essay was carried out with 4 treatments and 5 repetitions that included the three extract concentrations and a control. In each repetition were used 15 nymphs, randomly placed in plastic boxes with food and the corresponding concentration. Every day an extract application was made and recorded mortality percentage, number of exuviae and number of individuals who came to adulthood in each treatment. The results were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Games-Howell for each variable. The three concentrations of Neem seed extract had a negative effect on the development of the bugs. The more concentrated treatment (250 ppm was the most effective, showing a 97% mortality, fewer exuvias and and fewer adults in the end of the experiment.

  16. Productivity and Composition of Fatty Acids in Chicks fed with Azadirachta indica A. Juss

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    Imna Trigueros V

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective. Evaluate the productivity and composition of fatty acids in chicks fed diets enriched with neem Azadirachta indica A. Juss seed flour. Materials and methods. 80 mixed broiler chicks of Arbor Acres stock and levels 0, 1, 3 and 5% neem seed flour added to a commercial diet were evaluated. 20 experimental units were included in each treatment for five weeks. The consumption and weight gain were recorded, as well as the composition of fatty acids in the fat by means of alkaline transesterification. Data was statistically analyzed by a completely random procedure and the measurements were compared with the Tukey test(p≤0.05. Results. The greatest weight gain, consumption and best feed conversion were found in the treatment that contains 1% neem seed flour. It also produced the increase in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic acid (C18:2 Omega-6 and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 omega-3, and the proportion of palmitic acid (C16:0. The consumption of feed diminished when 5% of neem flour was added. Conclusions. It was demonstrated that incorporating 1% neem seed flour in the diet of broiler chicks modifies the consumption of fatty acids without harming its productive behavior.

  17. Chromatographic evaluation and antimicrobial activity of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Meliaceae leaves hydroalcoholic extracts

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    Priscila D. Alves

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica is an Indian tree well known for its several pharmacological activities, including antimicrobial activity. More than 300 composites have already been isolated and azadirachtin (AZA is its main active component. In the present work, Neem leaves hydroalcoholic extracts were prepared by percolation in 96% ethanol different concentrations (50%, 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% (v/v. The presence of AZA was tested by TLC by eluting the extracts and a standard solution of AZA through a chromatographic plate developed with anisaldehyde/sulfuric acid solution followed by heating. By HPLC, extracts elution took place on a C18 column, water:acetonitrile (60:40 as mobile phase, 1.0 mL/min flow rate and detection at λ217 nm. The extracts did not display AZA spots or peaks, however, they were tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and a mold fungus. The extracts were tested in different increasing concentrations, in order to detect a dose-dependent relationship of the activity. Despite the absence of AZA, the 70% and 80% (v/v ethanol extracts showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus. However, this activity was not dose-dependent according to Tukey's test (q0,05;3;7.

  18. A new shampoo based on neem (Azadirachta indica) is highly effective against head lice in vitro.

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    Heukelbach, Jörg; Oliveira, Fabíola A S; Speare, Richard

    2006-09-01

    Because topical compounds based on insecticidal chemicals are the mainstay of head lice treatment, but resistance is increasing, alternatives, such as herbs and oils are being sold to treat head lice. To test a commercial shampoo based on seed extract of Azadirachta indica (neem tree) for its in vitro effect, head lice (n=17) were collected from school children in Australia and immersed in Wash-Away Louse shampoo (Alpha-Biocare GmbH, Germany). Vitality was evaluated for more than 3 h by examination under a dissecting microscope. Positive and negative controls were a commercially available head lice treatment containing permethrin 1% (n=19) and no treatment (n=14). All lice treated with the neem shampoo did not show any vital signs from the initial examination after immersion at 5-30 min; after 3 h, only a single louse showed minor signs of life, indicated by gut movements, a mortality of 94%. In the permethrin group, mortality was 20% at 5 min, 50% at 15 min, and 74% after 3 h. All 14 head lice of the negative control group survived during the observation period. Our data show that Wash-Away Louse is highly effective in vitro against head lice. The neem shampoo was more effective than the permethrin-based product. We speculate that complex plant-based compounds will replace the well-defined chemical pediculicides if resistance to the commonly used products further increases.

  19. Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Azadirachta indica against house dust mites

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    Azima Laili Hanifah; Siti Hazar Awang; Ho Tze Ming; Suhaili Zainal Abidin; Maizatul Hashima Omar

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the acaricidal effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus leaf extract (lemongrass) and ethanolic Azadirachta indica leaf extract (neem) against house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus). Methods: Twenty-five adults mites were placed onto treated filter paper that is soaked with plant extract and been tested at different concentrations (50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50%, 6.25% and 3.13%) and exposure times (24hrs, 48hrs, 72hrs and 96 hrs). All treatments were replicated 7 times, and the experiment repeated once. The topical and contact activities of the two herbs were investigated.Results:Mortalities from lemongrass extract were higher than neem for both topical and contact activities. At 50 % concentration, both 24 hrs topical and contact exposures to lemongrass resulted in more than 91% mortalities for both species of mites. At the same concentration and exposure time, neem resulted in topical mortalities of 40.3% and 15.7% against D. pteronyssinus and D.farinae respectively; contact mortalities were 8.0% and 8.9% against the 2 mites, respectively. There was no difference in topical mortalities of D. pteronyssinus from exposure to concentrations of lemongrass and neem up to 12.50%; lemongrass was more effective than neem at the higher concentrations. Conclusions: Generally, topical mortalities of D. farinae due to lemongrass are higher than that due to neem. Contact mortalities of lemongrass are always higher that neem against both species of mites.

  20. EFECTO ANTIALIMENTARIO DE LOS EXTRACTOS DE SUSPENSIONES CELULARES DE Azadirachta indica SOBRE Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith EN CONDICIONES DE LABORATORIO ANTIFEEDANT EFFECT OF CELL SUSPENSION EXTRACTS OF Azadirachta indica ON Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS

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    Jacqueline Capataz Tafur

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Los extractos de neem (Azadirachta indica y sus ingredientes activos como la azadiractina, presentan acción antialimentaria e inhibición del desarrollo de muchos insectos. El objetivo de este estudio fue examinar el efecto antialimentario de los extractos de suspensiones celulares de neem elicitadas a diferentes condiciones de luz y temperatura. Los extractos fueron aplicados en discos de hojas de maíz y sometidas a bioensayos en larvas de segundo instar de Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith (Lepidptera: Noctuidae. Los extractos intracelulares y del medio de cultivo de las suspensiones celulares de A. indica mostraron efecto biológico sobre larvas de S. frugiperda L2, con valores del 100 % de índice antialimentario para los extractos intracelulares de suspensiones de A. indica elicitadas a 15 °C y oscuridad, y del 39,3% para extractos extracelulares (medio de cultivo de suspensiones elicitadas a 35 °C y oscuridad.Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica and their active ingredients as azadirachtin, present an action and inhibition of the development of many insects. In this study, the antifeedant effect of cell suspension extracts elicited to different conditions of light and temperature was examined. The extracts were applied in corn leaves disks and submitted to bioassays in larvae of second instar of Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. The intracellular extracts and the culture media (supernatant of the cell suspensions of A. indica showed a biological effect on larvae of S. frugiperda L2, with values of the 100 % of antifeeding index for the intracellular extracts of cells elicited to 15 °C and darkness, and 39,3% of antifeeding index for extracellular extracts (medium of cultivation of elicited suspensions to 35°C , and darkness.

  1. EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTICANDIDIAL EFFICACY OF AQUEOUS AND ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF NEEM (AZADIRACHTA INDICA AN IN VITRO STUDY

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    Kudalkar Mithun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are part and parcel of humans since the dawn of civilization. In recent years, multiple drug resistance has developed due to indiscriminate use of synthetic drugs. This drives the need to screen medicinal plants for novel bioactive compounds as plant based drugs are biodegradable, safe and have fewer side effects. Neem (Azadirachta indica is perhaps the most commonly used traditional medicinal plant of India. Almost all parts of the plant are endowed with medicinal properties. Several pharmacological activities and medicinal applications of various parts of Neem have been documented in the ancient literature. Teeth and their supporting structures are subject to infections by Streptococcus species, a number of facultative anaerobes like Enterococcus faecalis, and opportunistic pathogens like Candida albicans. Literature shows that Neem is a powerful agent that inhibits the increase and establishment of microorganisms that cause infectious diseases in the oral cavity.In the present study we have evaluated the antimicrobial potential of Neem leaf aqueous and alcohol extracts. To determine the inhibitory effect of Azadirachta indica (aqueous and alcoholic extract of neem on Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. The activity of Azadirachta indica against Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis was tested by serial broth dilution method and was expressed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the aqueous neem extract to all the organisms was 7.5%. The MIC of the alcoholic neem extract for E. faecalis, S.mutans, C. albicans were 1.88%, 7.5%, and 3.75% respectively.

  2. EXTRATO AQUOSO DE Azadirachta indica A. Juss NO CONTROLE DE Alphitobius diaperinus Panzer

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    GIOLO, Rafael

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the major sectors of the Brazilian economy is the poultry industry, with high productivity of chicken. However, one of the factors that may affect this branch of production is the presence of pests on the farm, like the beetle Alphitobius diaperinus (mealworm, an insect of the family Tenebrionidae, originating from West Africa. From the literature, we observe the insecticidal activity of the leaf extract of neem (Azadirachta indica in beetles mealworm thus helping to control and reduce this which is one of the major problems of modern poultry production . Neem has been known for over 5,000 years and has the control action of about 430 species of pests that occur in the world. Thus, this study aimed to test different doses of aqueous extract of neem leaves as a natural alternative to control this insect population. The following concentrations were analyzed: 1/20 ( w /v , 1/6 , 67 ( w / v , 1/3 , 33 ( w / v to the dried sheet, the control and treatment of water in concentration of 1/2 ( w / v with fresh leaves, sprayed directly on the insects. Treatments showed no significant differences in mortality of insects except for the 504 hours of the test, showing not technically feasible method to control this pest. Um dos maiores setores da economia brasileira é a avicultura de corte, com alta produtividade de carne de frango. Porém, um dos fatores que podem afetar esse ramo da produção é a presença de pragas da granja, como o besouro Alphitobius diaperinus (cascudinho, um inseto da família Tenebrionidae, originário do oeste africano. A partir da literatura, se observa a ação inseticida do extrato de folhas de nim (Azadirachta indica em besouros cascudinhos, portanto ajudando a controlar e reduzir este que é um dos grandes problemas da avicultura moderna. O nim é conhecido há mais de 5.000 anos e apresenta ação no controle de cerca de 430 espécies de pragas que ocorrem no mundo. Dessa maneira, o presente trabalho teve como

  3. ESTIMACIÓN DE VARIABLES DE OPERACIÓN DE UN BIORREACTOR CON CÉLULAS DE Azadirachta indica A. Juss ESTIMATION OF OPERATION VARIABLES OF A BIOREACTOR WITH Azadirachta indica A. Juss. CELLS

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    Walter Muñoz Cruz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron las variables de operación de un biorreactor de tanque agitado para el cultivo de células en suspensión de Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Se utilizó carboximetilcelulosa, CMC 0,7 % p/v, para estimar el coeficiente de transferencia de oxígeno, kLa, entre 120 - 400 rpm y entre 0,05 - 0,6 vvm, obteniéndose valores de 0,5 - 8,0 h-1. El kLa para suspensiones de A. indica en erlenmeyers fue de 0,6 - 1,2 h-1. Con los resultados anteriores se definieron las condiciones de operación del biorreactor y se evaluó el crecimiento de células de A. indica a 200 rpm y 0,2 vvm de aire, alcanzando 9,2 g cel secas/l. El crecimiento celular no fue limitado por el suministro de oxígeno. Los tamaños de aglomerados celulares cultivados en erlenmeyers con bafles agitados magnéticamente y en biorreactor fueron similares, pero menores que los obtenidos en erlemeyers con agitación orbital. El presente estudio establece parámetros para la operación de biorreactores con A. indica y confirma que los medios con CMC pueden utilizarse para estimar variables operacionales en biorreactores.Operation variables of a stirred tank bioreactor were studied in order to culture cell suspension of Azadirachta indica A. Juss Carboximethylcelulose, CMC 0,7 % w/v, was used to estimate the coefficient of oxygen transfer, kLa, between 120 - 400 rpm and 0,05 - 0,6 vvm, obtaining values of 0,5 - 8,0 h-1. The kLa for suspension cultures of A. indica in erlenmeyers was 0,6 - 1,2 h-1. Based upon the previous results, the operation conditions of the bioreactor were defined and cell growth of A. indica was evaluated at 200 rpm and 0,2 vvm of air, reaching 9,2 g dry cell/l. Celular growth was not limited by dissolved oxygen. The sizes of cell agglomerates magnetically stirred in erlemeyers with bafles and in the bioreactor were similar, but smaller that those obtained in erlenmeyers with orbital agitation. The present study establishes parameters for operation of bioreactors

  4. Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach seeds inhibit folliculogenesis in albino rats

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    Roop J.K.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The seed oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem is used in traditional medicine for its antidiabetic, spermicidal, antifertility, antibacterial, and wound healing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the quantitative aspects of follicular development in cyclic female albino rats (135 ± 10 g; 8 groups with 6 animals in each group after oral administration of polar (PF and non-polar (NPF fractions of A. indica seed extract at 3 and 6 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 and Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek seed extract at 24 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 for 18 days. The extracts were prepared using a flash evaporator at 35°C and then dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on a per kg body weight basis. There was a significant reduction (P = 0.05 in the number of normal single layered follicles (A. indica: 0.67 ± 0.33 and 4.67 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF, and 3.33 ± 1.67 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF vs control: 72.67 ± 9.14 and M. azedarach: 0.60 ± 0.40 and 1.80 ± 1.2 after 24 mg/kg PF and NPF, respectively, vs control: 73.40 ± 7.02 and follicles in various stages (I-VII of follicular development in all treatment groups. These extracts also significantly reduced (P = 0.05 the total number of normal follicles in the neem (14.67 ± 5.93 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF and 3.67 ± 0.88 and 5.33 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF and dharek (13.00 ± 3.58 and 14.60 ± 2.25 after 24 mg/kg NPF and PF treatments compared to control (216.00 ± 15.72 and 222.20 ± 19.52, respectively. Currently, indiscriminate use of persistent and toxic rodenticides to control rodent populations has created serious problems such as resistance and environmental contamination. Therefore, it becomes necessary to use ecologically safe and biologically active botanical substances that are metabolized and are not passed on to the next trophic level, and that interfere with the reproductive potential particularly growth and differentiation of

  5. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF HERBAL GEL OF MAGNIFERA INDICA LINN

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    Gaikwad D.D

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available To formulate Magnifera indica Linn bark extract in to a gel. Ethanolic extract of dried bark of Magnifera indica Linn were subjected to priliminery phytochemical evaluation studies. Different gel formulations of ethanolic extract of Magnifera indica linn (2% w/v were prepared using polymers carbopol 934 & HPMC by varying their concentration. These formulation were evaluated for physical parameters, drug contains, Ph, viscosity, Extrudability, Spread ability, primary skin irritation, study.Keywords:

  6. Post-Harvest Deterioration of Cassava and its Control Using Extracts of Azadirachta Indica and Aframomum Melegueta

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    R. N. Okigbo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-harvest deterioration is the most important cause of loss in cassava production and this is mainly as a result of microbial invasion of the tubers. This research was therefore carried out to identify and control the organisms responsible for post-harvest deterioration of cassava tubers. Ethanolic and water extractions of Azadirachta Indica (A. Juss leaves and Aframomum melegueta (Schumann seeds were used as antifungal agents and the susceptibility of four of the isolated pathogenic fungi to them was observed in culture. The tested organisms were Aspergillus niger Van Tiegh, Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat, Fusarium solani (Mart. Sacc and Penicillium oxalicum Currie and Thom. All tested organisms showed different degrees of inhibitions by the extracts with A. niger being the most inhibited by ethanolic extraction of A. melegueta. The overall result showed that A. indica was more active on the organisms though it’s effects and that of A. melegueta were not significantly different (P>0.05.

  7. PELATIHAN MEMBUAT SABUN MANDI ANTI BAKTERI ALAMI DARI DAUN MIMBA (Azadirachta indica A.Juss DI DESA PENARUKAN KERAMBITAN TABANAN

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    Sri Rahayu Santi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The activity of the community service about the manner of making nature antibacterial soap from Neem leaf (Azadirachta indica A Juss was conducted on the 24st of October 2010 to the PKK members of Penarukan village, Kerambitan subdistrict, Tabanan Regency. Making nature antibacterial soap has very simple formulaic techniquee. The soap was made by using many chemicals, among others : coconut oil, 32% sodium hydroxide, dextrin, surfactant, dyes, parfume, as well as antibacterial agent from Nemm leaf (Azadirachta indica A Juss. The result of this activity and evaluation showed that the antimicrobial soap product is as good as ordinary soap, having full of foam, not hot without iritation, because it is properly laboratory tested. All of participants showed their enthusiasm during activity and they will try to make soap. This was showed by the evaluation report saying that all participants understand about making soap and they want to try at home. This public service made people interested to improve their knowledge, skill, and possibility to open of new entrepreneur in village so that it can be vacancy and increase income to community.

  8. Ameliorative effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Azadirachta indica on renal histologic alterations in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwole Busayo, Akinola; Laura, Zatta; Olufunke Olubusola, Dosumu; Oluwafunmike Sharon, Akinola; Luciana, Dini; Ezekiel Ademola, Caxton-Martins

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (AIE) on the microanatomy of the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (161-190 g) were randomly assigned to one of five treatment groups of six animals each: control, diabetic, diabetic + AIE, diabetic + metformin, AIE only. Diabetes was induced with a single intraperitoneal dose of streptozotocin (70 mg/kg body weight). AIE and metformin were administered orally for 50 days (50 d) at 500 mg/kg bw/d and 350 mg/kg bw/d, respectively. Blood glucose was estimated by glucose oxidase method; plasma urea and creatinine were assayed; and paraffin sections of the kidney were stained by periodic acid-Schiff technique. Untreated diabetic rats exhibited marked hyperglycemia. Renal histopathology of these animals showed features of diabetic nephropathy, with nodular glomerulosclerosis and vacuolation of proximal tubule cells (Armanni-Ebstein phenomenon). These feature were absent in the diabetic rats treated with AIE. Besides, plasma urea and creatinine were not significantly different from the control in this group (p > 0.05), in contrast to the untreated diabetic rats, where significant increases in these markers (p < 0.05). These findings showed that the leaf extract of Azadirachta indica ameliorates hyperglycemia and diabetic nephropathy in rats.

  9. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF GUAVA (PSIDIUM GUAJAVA L.) AND NEEM (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. JUSS.)EXTRACTS AGAINST FOOD BORNE PATHOGENS AND SPOILAGE BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antibacterial properties of guava (Psidium guajava) and neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts against a number of common food borne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Screening for antibacterial activity was determined by disc diffusion assay against 21...

  10. Production of the biopesticide azadirachtin by hairy root cultivation of Azadirachta indica in liquid-phase bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Smita; Srivastava, Ashok K

    2013-11-01

    Batch cultivation of Azadirachta indica hairy roots was carried out in different liquid-phase bioreactor configurations (stirred-tank, bubble column, bubble column with polypropylene basket, and polyurethane foam disc as root supports) to investigate possible scale-up of the A. indica hairy root culture for in vitro production of the biopesticide azadirachtin. The hairy roots failed to grow in the conventional bioreactor designs (stirred tank and bubble column). However, modified bubble column reactor (with polyurethane foam as root support) configuration facilitated high-density culture of A. indica hairy roots with a biomass production of 9.2 g l(-1)dry weight and azadirachtin yield of 3.2 mg g(-1) leading to a volumetric productivity of azadirachtin as 1.14 mg l(-1) day(-1). The antifeedant activity in the hairy roots was also evaluated by no choice feeding tests with known concentrations of the hairy root powder and its solvent extract separately on the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria. The hairy root powder and its solvent extract demonstrated a high level of antifeedant activity (with an antifeedant index of 97 % at a concentration of 2 % w/v and 83 % at a concentration of 0.05 % (w/v), respectively, in ethanol).

  11. Pharmacodynamic evaluation for antiplasmodial activity of Holarrhena antidysentrica (Kutaja) and Azadirachta indica (Neemb) in Plasmodium berghei infected mice model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jadhav Priyanka; Lal Hingorani; Kshirsagar Nilima

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in-vivo anti-plasmodial activity of aqueous extracts of plants selected based on the symptomology mentioned in Ayurveda. Methods: The aqueous extracts of Holarrhena antidysentrica (H. antidysentrica) (Kutaja) and Azadirachta indica (A. indica) (Neemb) for their antiplasmodial potential in Plasmodium berghei (P. berghei) infected mice was assessed using Peters four day suppressive test. Both the extracts were administered at 2 dose levels, full dose (1 000 mg/d) and minimized dose (200 mg/d). 106 P. berghei infected RBCs were injected on day ’0’ and treated from day ’0’ till day ’3’ post-infection. Tail blood smears were collected, giemsa stained and analyzed. The mice were observed for survival and parasitemia was assessed till 50% of mice in control survived. Results: It was observed that the percentage of parasitemia increased gradually in all the groups, with maximum in control group (Day 3-35, Day 9-46.98) and minimum in Chloroquine arm (Day 3-14.06, Day 9-19.92). The percentage of parasitemia was compared using Mann-Whitney U test depicting that all test groups exhibited reduction in parasitemia as compared to control (P-value<0.002 for all groups). These groups showed similar percentage of survival as Chloroquine. Conclusions: The present investigation demonstrated the anti-plasmodial effects of H. antidysentrica and A. indica, which are two most commonly used medicinal plants in Ayurved for treatment of fever.

  12. The use of an extract of Hypericum perforatum and Azadirachta indica in a neuropathic patient with advanced diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iabichella, Maria Letizia; Caruso, Claudio; Lugli, Marzia

    2014-11-06

    The successful use of an extract of Hypericum flowers (Hypericum perforatum) and nimh oil (Azadirachta indica; Hyperoil) in foot wounds with exposed bone in a patient with bilateral advanced diabetic ulcers, has been reported previously. It was hypothesised that this amelioration was linked with the improved glycaemic control and peripheral microvascular circulation. In this case report, the surprisingly successful outcome of another patient using Hyperoil for infection damaged diabetic foot, without prior use of surgical procedure, is described. The patient had no macrovascular pattern impairment. Diabetic foot healing paralleled with controlled local infection and enhanced glycaemic control. The outcome of this patient suggests that the effectiveness of this inexpensive therapy using Hyperoil for diabetic foot is not only linked with the presence of severe microvascular disorder, but also with the appropriate local treatment for ulcer being a must for its recovery.

  13. Evaluation of the Antibacterial Efficacy of Azadirachta Indica, Commiphora Myrrha, Glycyrrhiza Glabra Against Enterococcus Faecalis using Real Time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Suresh; Rajan, Mathan; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu; Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Shravya, Yarramreddy; Rajeswari, Kalaiselvam

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare the antibacterial efficacy of Azadirachta indica (Neem), Commiphora myrrha (Myrrh), Glycyrrhiza glabra (Liquorice) with 2% Chlorhexidine (CHX) against E. faecalis by using Real Time PCR Materials and Methods: A total of fifty teeth specimens (n=50) were inoculated with E. faecalis for 21 days. Specimens were divided into five groups (Group 1: Myrrh, Group 2: Neem, Group 3: Liquorice, Group 4: 2% CHX and Group 5: Saline (negative control)). The intracanal medicaments were packed inside the tooth. After 5 days, the remaining microbial load was determined by using real time PCR Results: Threshold cycle (Ct) values of Myrrh extract, Neem extract, Liquorice Extract, 2% CHX and saline were found to be 30.94, 23.85, 21.38, 30.93 and 17.8 respectively Conclusion: Myrrh extract showed inhibition of E.faecalis equal to that of 2% CHX followed by Neem, Liquorice and Saline PMID:27386000

  14. [Nutrient dynamics in forest plantations of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) established for restoration of degraded lands in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez-Flórez, Claudia Patricia; León-Peláez, Juan Diego; Osorio-Vega, Nelson Walter; Restrepo-Llano, Manuel Fernando

    2013-06-01

    Nutrient dynamics in forest plantations of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) established for restoration of degraded lands in Colombia. Azadirachta indica is a tree species which use is steadily increasing for restoration of tropical and subtropical arid and degraded lands throughout the world. The objective of this research study was to evaluate the potential of these plantations as an active restoration model for the recovery of soils under desertification in arid lands of Colombia. Litter traps and litter-bags were installed in twenty 250m2 plots. Green leaves and soil samples inside and outside this species plantations were taken, and their elemental concentrations were determined. Litterfall, leaf litter decomposition and foliar nutrient resorption were monitored for one year. The annual contributions of organic material, such as fine litterfall, represented 557.54kg/ha, a third of which was A. indica leaves. The greatest potential returns of nutrients per foliar litterfall were from Ca (4.6kg/ha) and N (2.4kg/ha), and the smallest potential returns came from P (0.06kg/ha). A total of 68% of the foliar material deposited in litter-bags disappeared after one year. The greatest release of nutrients was that of K (100%), and the least was that of N (40%). P was the most limiting nutrient, with low edaphic availability and high nutrient use efficiency from Vitousek's index (IEV = 3176) and foliar nutrient resorption (35%). Despite these plantations are young, and that they have not had forestry management practices, as an active restoration model, they have revitalized the biogeochemical cycle, positively modifying the edaphic parameters according to the increases in organic material, P and K of 72%, 31% and 61%, respectively. Furthermore, they improved the stability of aggregates and the microbe respiration rates. The forest plantation model with exotic species has been opposed by different sectors; however, it has been acknowledged that these projects derive many

  15. Antidermatophytic Activites Of Azadirachta Indica : An In Vitro And In Vivo Study

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    Ranganathan S

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The leaf and seed extracts of Azadirachta indicia were tested for antifungl activity against dermatophytes by in vitro and vivo tests. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of neem seed extract was found to be lower than that neem leaf when tested against different species of Trichophyton and Epidermophyton floccosum. Experimental lesion in guinea pigs healed better after treatment with neem seed extract when compared to untreated control animals.

  16. Therapeutic and Safety Evaluation of Combined Aqueous Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Khaya senegalensis in Chickens Experimentally Infected with Eimeria Oocysts

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    J. G. Gotep

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coccidiosis is a disease of economic importance in poultry causing morbidity and mortality. Reports show that Azadirachta indica and Khaya senegalensis have been used individually in the treatment of avian coccidiosis. We thus investigated the efficacy and safety of the combined aqueous extracts of these plants for the treatment of experimentally induced coccidiosis in broiler chickens using oocyst count, oxidative stress biomarkers, serum biochemistry, histology, and haematological parameters. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and steroids in both extracts. In addition, alkaloids and flavonoids were present in Azadirachta indica. There was significant (p<0.05 dose dependent decrease in oocyst count across the treatment groups with 400 mg/kg of the combined extract being the most efficacious dose. Immunomodulatory and erythropoietic activity was observed. There were decreased intestinal lesions and enhanced antioxidant activity across the treatment groups compared to the negative control. Administration of the combined extract did not cause damage to the liver as ALT, AST, and ALP levels were significantly reduced in the uninfected chickens treated with the extracts compared to control suggesting safety at the doses used. The combined aqueous extracts of K. senegalensis stem bark and Azadirachta indica leaves were ameliorative in chickens infected with coccidiosis.

  17. Therapeutic and Safety Evaluation of Combined Aqueous Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Khaya senegalensis in Chickens Experimentally Infected with Eimeria Oocysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotep, J. G.; Tanko, J. T.; Forcados, G. E.; Muraina, I. A.; Ozele, N.; Dogonyaro, B. B.; Oladipo, O. O.; Makoshi, M. S.; Akanbi, O. B.; Kinjir, H.; Samuel, A. L.; Onyiche, T. E.; Ochigbo, G. O.; Aladelokun, O. B.; Ozoani, H. A.; Viyoff, V. Z.; Dapuliga, C. C.; Atiku, A. A.; Okewole, P. A.; Shamaki, D.; Ahmed, M. S.; Nduaka, C. I.

    2016-01-01

    Coccidiosis is a disease of economic importance in poultry causing morbidity and mortality. Reports show that Azadirachta indica and Khaya senegalensis have been used individually in the treatment of avian coccidiosis. We thus investigated the efficacy and safety of the combined aqueous extracts of these plants for the treatment of experimentally induced coccidiosis in broiler chickens using oocyst count, oxidative stress biomarkers, serum biochemistry, histology, and haematological parameters. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and steroids in both extracts. In addition, alkaloids and flavonoids were present in Azadirachta indica. There was significant (p < 0.05) dose dependent decrease in oocyst count across the treatment groups with 400 mg/kg of the combined extract being the most efficacious dose. Immunomodulatory and erythropoietic activity was observed. There were decreased intestinal lesions and enhanced antioxidant activity across the treatment groups compared to the negative control. Administration of the combined extract did not cause damage to the liver as ALT, AST, and ALP levels were significantly reduced in the uninfected chickens treated with the extracts compared to control suggesting safety at the doses used. The combined aqueous extracts of K. senegalensis stem bark and Azadirachta indica leaves were ameliorative in chickens infected with coccidiosis. PMID:26989496

  18. Green synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles from the leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elumalai, K. [Department of Physics, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608002 (India); Velmurugan, S., E-mail: drvelmurganphy@gmail.com [Department of Engineering Physics (FEAT), Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608 002 (India)

    2015-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Phenolic acid and flavonoid compounds play a major role in bioreduction reaction confirmed by FT-IR. • PL spectrum identified peaks were located in the range of the blue-violet spectrum. • XRD pattern confirmed ZnO hexagonal phase (wurtzite structure). • The result of (AFM) images depicted polycrystalline with porous nature of ZnO NPs. • Antimicrobial activities of green synthesized ZnO NPs were more potent than Bare ZnO and leaf of A. indica. - Abstract: The synthesis of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles is an expanding research area due to the potential applications in the development of novel technologies. Especially, biologically synthesized nanomaterial has become an important branch of nanotechnology. The present work, described the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using leaf aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (L.) and its antimicrobial activities. The nanoparticles was obtain characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis. In this study we also investigated antimicrobial activity of green synthesized ZnO NPs. The results depicted concentration of ZnO NPs was increased (50, 100, 200 μg/mL) and also increase in antimicrobial activities was due to the increase of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration from the surface of ZnO. However, green synthesized ZnO NPs was more potent than Bare ZnO and leaf of A. indica. Finally concluded the zinc oxide nanoparticles exhibited an interesting antimicrobial activity with both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial and yeast at micromolar concentration.

  19. EXTRATO AQUOSO DE FOLHAS DE Azadirachta indica A. Juss NO CONTROLE DE Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE EM MILHO ARMAZENADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Toller Borsonaro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work had as objective to test different dosages of aqueous extract of leaves of neem(Azadirachta indica as natural alternative and of easy application in the control of Sitophilus zeamais in grains of corn, seeing it is one of main stored corn pests. Were evaluated the following concentrations: 10%, 20%, 30% and witness. They were applied directly on the mass of grains and the insects with a pressurized pulverizer model Guarany PCP-1P in the dosage of 0,56 mL for dish. The treatments did not present significant difference as the reduction of weight of grains, but there was significant difference in relation to the population control. As for this parameter, the aqueous extract of leaves of neem in concentration 30,3%, can be considered an alternative treatment against S. zeamais in stored corn grains.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo testar diferentes dosagens de extrato aquoso de folhas de Nim (Azadirachta indica A Juss como alternativa natural e de fácil aplicação no controle de Sitophilus zeamais Mots.(Coleoptera: Curculionidae em grãos de milho (Zea mays L., visto que esta é uma das principais pragas do milhoarmazenado. Avaliaram-se as seguintes concentrações: 10%, 20%, 30,3%, além do tratamento testemunha. Foram aplicados diretamente sobre a massa de grãos e sobre os insetos com um pulverizador pressurizado modelo Guarany PCP-1P na dosagem de 0,56 mL por placa. Os tratamentos não apresentaram diferença significativa quanto à redução de peso de grãos, mas houve diferença significativa em relação ao controle populacional. Quanto a este parâmetro, o extrato aquoso de folhas de Nim na concentração 30,3%, pode ser considerado um tratamento alternativo no controle de S. zeamais em grãos de milho armazenado.

  20. The potential role of Azadirachta indica treatment on cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dkhil, Mohamed A; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Aref, Ahmed M; Othman, Mohamed S; El-Deib, Kamal M; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2013-01-01

    Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (neem, family: Meliaceae) is perhaps the most commonly used traditional medicinal plant of India. In this study we investigated the protective effect of methanolic neem leaves extract (MNLE; 500 mg/Kg bwt) on rats treated with cisplatin (CDDP)-induced hepatotoxicity. Adult rats were randomly divided into four groups. CDDP was given to rats by intraperitoneal injection, while MNLE was given by oral gavage for 5 days after the CDDP injection. The injury and oxidative stress caused by CDDP on the liver and the effect of MNLE were evaluated by measuring (a) histological changes, (b) tissue biochemical oxidant and antioxidant parameters, and (c) investigating apoptosis markers immunohistochemically and by real time PCR. After treatment with MNLE, the histological damage and apoptosis induction caused by cisplatin were improved. Malondialdehyde and nitric oxide were significantly decreased; the antioxidant system, namely, glutathione content, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly elevated. In conclusion, MNLE may have a potential role when combined with cisplatin in chemotherapy to alleviate cisplatin-induced damage and oxidative stress in liver.

  1. The Potential Role of Azadirachta indica Treatment on Cisplatin-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Dkhil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (neem, family: Meliaceae is perhaps the most commonly used traditional medicinal plant of India. In this study we investigated the protective effect of methanolic neem leaves extract (MNLE; 500 mg/Kg bwt on rats treated with cisplatin (CDDP-induced hepatotoxicity. Adult rats were randomly divided into four groups. CDDP was given to rats by intraperitoneal injection, while MNLE was given by oral gavage for 5 days after the CDDP injection. The injury and oxidative stress caused by CDDP on the liver and the effect of MNLE were evaluated by measuring (a histological changes, (b tissue biochemical oxidant and antioxidant parameters, and (c investigating apoptosis markers immunohistochemically and by real time PCR. After treatment with MNLE, the histological damage and apoptosis induction caused by cisplatin were improved. Malondialdehyde and nitric oxide were significantly decreased; the antioxidant system, namely, glutathione content, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly elevated. In conclusion, MNLE may have a potential role when combined with cisplatin in chemotherapy to alleviate cisplatin-induced damage and oxidative stress in liver.

  2. Protective Effect of Aqueous Crude Extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaves on Plasmodium berghei-Induced Renal Damage in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somsak, Voravuth; Chachiyo, Sukanya; Jaihan, Ubonwan; Nakinchat, Somrudee

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem in the world because it can cause of death in patients. Malaria-associated renal injury is associated with 45% of mortality in adult patients hospitalized with severe form of the disease. Therefore, new plant extracts to protect against renal injury induced by malaria infection are urgently needed. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of aqueous crude extract of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves on renal injury induced by Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection in mice. ICR mice were injected intraperitoneally with 1 × 10(7) parasitized erythrocytes of PbANKA, and neem extracts (500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg) were given orally for 4 consecutive days. Plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels were subsequently measured. Malaria-induced renal injury was evidenced as marked increases of BUN and creatinine levels. However, the oral administration of neem leaf extract to PbANKA infected mice for 4 days brought back BUN and creatinine levels to near normalcy, and the highest activity was observed at doses of 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg. Additionally, no toxic effects were found in normal mice treated with this extract. Hence, neem leaf extract can be considered a potential candidate for protection against renal injury induced by malaria.

  3. In vitro bioactivity and antimicrobial tuning of bioactive glass nanoparticles added with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, M; Ruby Priscilla, S; Kavitha, K; Manivasakan, P; Rajendran, V; Kulandaivelu, P

    2014-01-01

    Silica and phosphate based bioactive glass nanoparticles (58SiO2-33CaO-9P2O5) with doping of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder and silver nanoparticles were prepared and characterised. Bioactive glass nanoparticles were produced using sol-gel technique. In vitro bioactivity of the prepared samples was investigated using simulated body fluid. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of prepared glass particles reveals amorphous phase and spherical morphology with a particle size of less than 50 nm. When compared to neem doped glass, better bioactivity was attained in silver doped glass through formation of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface, which was confirmed through XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. However, neem leaf powder doped bioactive glass nanoparticles show good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and less bioactivity compared with silver doped glass particles. In addition, the biocompatibility of the prepared nanocomposites reveals better results for neem doped and silver doped glasses at lower concentration. Therefore, neem doped bioactive glass may act as a potent antimicrobial agent for preventing microbial infection in tissue engineering applications.

  4. Effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) on the Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Dairy Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravva, Subbarao V; Korn, Anna

    2015-07-10

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) shed in cattle manure can survive for extended periods of time and intervention strategies to control this pathogen at the source are critical as produce crops are often grown in proximity to animal raising operations. This study evaluated whether neem (Azadirachta indica), known for its antimicrobial and insecticidal properties, can be used to amend manure to control EcO157. The influence of neem materials (leaf, bark, and oil) on the survival of an apple juice outbreak strain of EcO157 in dairy manure was monitored. Neem leaf and bark supplements eliminated the pathogen in less than 10 d with a D-value (days for 90% elimination) of 1.3 d. In contrast, nearly 4 log CFU EcO157/g remained after 10 d in neem-free manure control. The ethyl acetate extractable fraction of neem leaves was inhibitory to the growth of EcO157 in LB broth. Azadirachtin, a neem product with insect antifeedant properties, failed to inhibit EcO157. Application of inexpensive neem supplements to control pathogens in manure and possibly in produce fields may be an option for controlling the transfer of foodborne pathogens from farm to fork.

  5. Neem (Azadirachta indica L.) leaf extract deteriorates oocyte quality by inducing ROS-mediated apoptosis in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaube, Shail K; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G; Tiwari, Meenakshi; Prasad, Shilpa; Tripathi, Anima; Pandey, Ajai K

    2014-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica L.) leaf has been widely used in ayurvedic system of medicine for fertility regulation for a long time. The molecular mechanism by which neem leaf regulates female fertility remains poorly understood. Animal studies suggest that aqueous neem leaf extract (NLE) induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) - mediated granulosa cell apoptosis. Granulosa cell apoptosis deprives oocytes from nutrients, survival factors and cell cycle proteins required for the achievement of meiotic competency of follicular oocytes prior to ovulation. Under this situation, follicular oocyte becomes more susceptible towards apoptosis after ovulation. The increased level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) inside the follicular fluid results in the transfer of H2O2 from follicular fluid to the oocyte. The increased level of H2O2 induces p53 activation and over expression of Bax protein that modulates mitochondrial membrane potential and trigger cytochrome c release. The increased cytosolic cytochrome c level induces caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities that trigger destruction of structural and specific proteins leading to DNA fragmentation and thereby oocyte apoptosis. Based on these animal studies, we propose that NLE induces generation of ROS and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis both in granulosa cells as well as in follicular oocyte. The induction of apoptosis deteriorates oocyte quality and thereby limits reproductive outcome in mammals.

  6. Algicidal effects of aqueous leaf extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica on Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp. de Brébission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Ahii Chia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of synthetic algaecides for the control of algae produces by-products that are sometimes toxic to the environment. There is a need for natural and cheap alternatives to synthetic algaecides. In the present study, we investigated the potential of aqueous crude extract of Azadirachta indica to inhibit the growth of Scenedesmus quadricauda. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of groups of bioactive compounds that are capable of inhibiting microalgal growth. Chlorophyll a concentration, dry weight production and cell density of microalga decreased with increasing crude extract concentration. After three days of exposure, the 1000 mg/L extract concentration resulted in complete growth inhibition and cell lysis. Furthermore, the ability of S. quadricauda to form multi-celled coenobial structures was compromised in a concentration dependent manner. In general, catalase and peroxidase activities of the microalga were upregulated with increasing extract concentration. These results imply that aqueous neem extract may provide a cheap and ecofriendly alternative for the control of microalgae in aquatic ecosystems.

  7. Effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica on the Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Dairy Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbarao V. Ravva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157 shed in cattle manure can survive for extended periods of time and intervention strategies to control this pathogen at the source are critical as produce crops are often grown in proximity to animal raising operations. This study evaluated whether neem (Azadirachta indica, known for its antimicrobial and insecticidal properties, can be used to amend manure to control EcO157. The influence of neem materials (leaf, bark, and oil on the survival of an apple juice outbreak strain of EcO157 in dairy manure was monitored. Neem leaf and bark supplements eliminated the pathogen in less than 10 d with a D-value (days for 90% elimination of 1.3 d. In contrast, nearly 4 log CFU EcO157/g remained after 10 d in neem-free manure control. The ethyl acetate extractable fraction of neem leaves was inhibitory to the growth of EcO157 in LB broth. Azadirachtin, a neem product with insect antifeedant properties, failed to inhibit EcO157. Application of inexpensive neem supplements to control pathogens in manure and possibly in produce fields may be an option for controlling the transfer of foodborne pathogens from farm to fork.

  8. Evaluation of the antibacterial potential of Moringa oleifera and Azadirachta indica against some pathogenic microbes: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Priadarshini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of petroleum ether and chloroform leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica and Moringa oleifera were studied against Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae for varying concentration of extracts of 200mg/ml, 150mg/ml, 100mg/ml, 50mg/ml and 25mg/ml, using disc diffusion method. It was compared with gentamycin 150mg/ml as standard. The petroleum ether extract showed maximum and equal inhibition on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis, followed by Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli in a descending order in both the extracts. Salmonella typhimurium was found to be resistant to petroleum ether extract of both plants. The chloroform extract showed maximum inhibition on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and equal zone of inhibition was shown by Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhimurium where as minimum zone of inhibition was recorded in Escherichia coli. Overall chloroform leaf extract exhibited better antimicrobial potential against pathogens. Results indicate the potential of these plants for further work on isolation and characterization of the active principle responsible for antibacterial activity and its exploitation as therapeutic agent

  9. De novo adventitious root formations in mini-cuttings of Azadirachta indica in response to different rooting media and auxin treatments

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    Gehlot A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss is a multipurpose Indian tree important to local economy. Conservation of the genetic resources of neem is essential for the adaptability of this tree species to projected climate change impacts. Here, the effect of type and concentration of auxins in different rooting media on adventitious root formation (ARF in mini-cuttings of Azadirachta indica is depicted. Three different rooting media (i.e., sand, vermiculite and soil were used, and the experiment was established using three types of auxin (IBA, IAA and NAA and 6 concentration treatment combinations (100, 250, 500, 750, 1000 and 1500 mg l-1, in a complete randomized block design (CRBD. Significant effects of different auxin types, concentration treatments and rooting media on adventitious root formation of neem mini-cuttings were observed. Mini-cuttings were assessed for rooting percentage, number of roots, root length and number of leaves. IBA resulted in higher rooting percentage (90%, number of roots (149.56, root length (14.83 cm and number of leaves per rooted mini-cuttings (12.78, when growing in sand. The determination of proper rooting protocols and the use of mini-cuttings were proved important for improving mass propagation of A. indica.

  10. Repellent activity of Eucalyptus and Azadirachta indica seed oil against the filarial mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera:Culicidae) in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shyamapada Mandal

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the repellent activity of Eucalyptus and Azadirachta indica (A. indica) seed oil against filarial mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) from Purulia district of the West Bengal state, India. Methods: The repellent activity of Eucalyptus and A. indica seed oils (using coconut oil base) against Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquito were evaluated in indoor conditions. Three concentrations, 0%, 50% and 100% (v/v) of both the agents were considered in the studies. The protection percentage was determined, and the protection time was recorded. Results: The test oils showed excellent repellent action against Cx. quinquefasciatus. The A. indica seed oil provided 90.26% and 88.83% protection, and the Eucalyptus oil 93.37% and 92.04%, at concentrations 50% and 100% (v/v), respectively, with the protection time up to 240 min. There was no bite within 120 min and 180 min, respectively, due to the action of Eucalyptus andA. indica seed oil, and thus 100% protection from the bite of Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquito was achieved. Conclusions: The present study clearly demonstrates the potential of Eucalyptus and A. indica seed oils as topical repellents against Cx. quinquefasciatus, the mosquito vector of filariasis.

  11. Removal of fluoride by thermally activated carbon prepared from neem (Azadirachta indica) and kikar (Acacia arabica) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Asha; Yadav, J P

    2008-03-01

    The present investigation deals with fluoride removal from aqueous solution by thermally activated neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves carbon (ANC) and thermally activated kikar (Acacia arabica) leaves carbon (AKC) adsorbents. In this study neem leaves carbon and kikar leaves carbon prepared by heating the leaves at 400 degrees C in electric furnace was found to be useful for the removal of fluoride. The adsorbents of 0.3 mm and 1.0 mm sizes of neem and kikar leaves carbon was prepared by standard sieve. Batch experiments done to see the fluoride removal properties from synthetic solution of 5 ppm to study the influence of pH, adsorbent dose and contact time on adsorption efficiency The optimum pH was found to be 6 for both adsorbents. The optimum dose was found to be 0.5g/100 ml forANC (activated neem leaves carbon) and 0.7g/100 ml forAKC (activated kikar leaves carbon). The optimum time was found to be one hour for both the adsorbent. It was also found that adsorbent size of 0.3 mm was more efficient than the 1.0 mm size. The adsorption process obeyed Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The straight line of log (qe-q) vs time at ambient temperature indicated the validity of langergren equation consequently first order nature of the process involved in the present study. Results indicate that besides intraparticle diffusion there maybe other processes controlling the rate which may be operating simultaneously. All optimized conditions were applied for removal of fluoride from four natural water samples.

  12. Neem tree (Azadirachta indica) extract specifically suppresses the growth of tumors in H22-bearing Kunming mice.

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    He, Zhenxiang; Jiang, Cuihua; Zhang, Jian; Yin, Zhiqi; Yin, Zengfang; Zhu, Yunfeng; Fu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Recently, neem tree (Azadirachta indica) extract (NTE) has been reported to have various antitumor activities against gastric, breast, prostate, and skin cancer, respectively. The current study was designed to evaluate the effect of NTE on hepatic cancer in a mouse model. The possible side effects elicited by NTE were also evaluated. The components in NTE were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). H22 cells-bearing Kumming mice were generated by injecting H22 cells subcutaneously into the right forelimb armpit of the mice. Then the mice were treated daily for 27 days with NTE (150, 300, and 600 mg/kg body weight) by intragastric administration, using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, 1%) as blank control and cyclophosphamide (CTX, 20 mg/kg) as positive control. The antitumor effect of NTE was evaluated by assessment of survival rate, body weight, tumor volume and weight, tumor histology, thymus and spleen indexes, and liver histology. The tumor weight and volume in groups of NTE and CTX were significantly lower than those in the CMC group. The survival rate in the NTE group receiving the high dose (600 mg/kg) was significantly higher than that in the CTX and CMC groups. Compared with CTX, NTE was observed to have a tumor-specific cytotoxicity without impairing the normal liver tissue. Additionally, the higher indexes of thymus and spleen indicated that NTE could facilitate the growth of immune organs. The results indicate that NTE is a promising candidate for the antitumor treatment with high efficacy and safety.

  13. Extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem Leaf Induces Apoptosis in 4T1 Breast Cancer BALB/c Mice

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    Fauziah Othman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Azadirachta indica (Neem has been used traditionally for many centuries.Some impressive therapeutic qualities have been discovered. However, the therapeuticeffect of neem leaf extract in 4T1 breast cancer has not been documented. The purposeof the present study is to investigate the therapeutic effect of ethanolic Neem leaf extractin an in vivo 4T1 breast cancer model in mice.Materials and Methods: A total of 84 female BALB/c mice were divided randomly into7 groups (3 non-cancerous groups and 4 cancerous groups consisting of 12 mice pergroup. The 3 non-cancerous groups were normal mice treated with 0.5% of Tween 20 inphosphate buffer saline (PBS (NC, 250 mg/kg Neem (N250 or 500 mg/kg Neem (N500.The 4 cancerous groups were; cancer controls treated with 0.5% of Tween 20 in PBS(CC, and cancerous mice treated with 0.5 μg/mL tamoxifen citrate (CT, 250 mg/kg Neemleaf extract (CN 250 or 500 mg/kg Neem leaf extract (CN 500. Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assays were used to evaluate apoptosis(cell death in the breast cancer tissues. SPSS software, version 14 was used for statisticalanalysis. Statistical significance was defined as p<0.05. Non parametric analysis ofvariance (ANOVA was performed with the Kruskal Wallis test for the TUNEL assays.Parametric data among the groups was compared using ANOVA.Results: TUNEL assays showed that the CN 250 and CN 500 groups had a higher incidenceof apoptosis compared with the cancer controls.Conclusion: The findings showed that neem leaf extract induces apoptosis in 4T1 breastcancer BALB/c mice.

  14. Comparative transcripts profiling of fruit mesocarp and endocarp relevant to secondary metabolism by suppression subtractive hybridization in Azadirachta indica (neem).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narnoliya, Lokesh K; Rajakani, Raja; Sangwan, Neelam S; Gupta, Vikrant; Sangwan, Rajender S

    2014-05-01

    Azadirachta indica (neem) is a medicinally important plant that is valued for its bioactive secondary metabolites. Higher levels of the bioactive phytochemicals are accumulated in fruits than in other tissues. In the present study, a total of 387 and 512 ESTs, respectively, from endocarp and mesocarp of neem fruits were isolated and analyzed. Out of them 318 ESTs (82.17%) clones from endocarp and 418 ESTs (81.64%) from mesocarp encoded putative proteins that could be classified into three major gene ontology categories: biological process, molecular function and cellular component. From the analyses of contigs, 73 unigenes from the forward subtracted library and 35 unigenes from the reverse subtracted library were obtained. The ESTs from mesocarp encoded cytochrome P450 enzymes, which indicated hydroxylation to be a major metabolic event and that biogeneration of hydroxylated neem fruit phytochemicals was differentially regulated with developmental stage-specificity of synthesis. Through this study, we present the first report of any gene expression data in neem tissues. Neem hydroxy-methyl glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (NHMGR) gene was used as expressing control vis-a-vis subtracted tissues. NHMGR was present in fruit, endocarp and mesocarp tissues, but absent in subtractive libraries, revealing that it was successfully eliminated during subtraction. Eight genes of interest from subtracted libraries were profiled for their expression in fruit, mesocarp and endocarp. Expression profiles validated the quality of the libraries and functional diversity of the tissues. The subtractive cDNA library and EST database described in this study represent a valuable transcript sequence resource for future research aimed at improving the economically important medicinal plant.

  15. Toxicity profile of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica stem bark in male Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anofi Omotayo Tom Ashafa; Latifat Olubukola Orekoya; Musa Toyin Yakubu

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the toxic implications of ethanolic stem bark extract of Azadirachtaindica (A. indica) at 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight in Wistar rats. Methods: Fifty male rats of Wistar strains were randomly grouped into five (A-E) of ten animals each. Animals in Group A (control) were orally administered 1 mL of distilled water on daily basis for 21 days while those in Groups B-E received same volume of the extract corresponding to 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight. Results: The extract did not significantly (P>0.05) alter the levels of albumin, total protein, red blood cells and factors relating to it whereas the white blood cell, platelets, serum triacylglycerol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly (P<0.05). In contrast, the final body weights, absolute weights of the liver, kidney, lungs and heart as well as their organ-body weight ratios, serum globulins, total and conjugated bilirubin, serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and computed atherogenic index increased significantly. The spleen-body weight ratio, alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate transaminases, sodium, potassium, calcium, feed and water intake were altered at specific doses. Conclusions: Overall, the alterations in the biochemical parameters of toxicity have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the organs of the animals. Therefore, the ethanolic extract of A. indica stem bark at the doses of 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight may not be completely safe as an oral remedy and should be taken with caution if absolutely necessary.

  16. Effect of lower doses of vanadate in combination with Azadirachta indica leaf extract on hepatic and renal antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upreti, Jaya; Ali, Shakir; Basir, Seemi Farhat

    2013-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate short-term (21 days) effects of oral administration of Azadirachta indica leaf extract and vanadate, separately and in combination, on the activities of antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Vanadate is a remarkable antidiabetic agent and shows insulin mimetic effect. However, severe toxicity is associated with vanadate when used in high concentration while at lower concentration the hypoglycemic property of vanadate is reduced. So, we used a low dose of vanadate in combination with A. indica leaf extract and evaluated their effect on the antioxidant defense system. Streptozotocin-diabetic rats were treated separately with insulin, vanadate (0.6 mg/ml), A. indica, and with combined dose of vanadate (0.2 mg/ml) and A. indica. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed and serum glucose levels and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were determined in cytosolic fraction of liver and kidney. Diabetic rats showed hyperglycemic condition and alteration in antioxidant enzyme activities. Treatment with antidiabetic compounds resulted in the reduction of glucose levels and restoration of enzyme activities to normal. Results showed that combined treatment of vanadate and A. indica leaf extract was the most effective in normalizing altered antioxidant enzyme system.

  17. ESTABLECIMIENTO DEL SISTEMA DE REGENERACION POR EMBRIOGÉNESIS SOMÁTICA DE Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

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    Maria D. Artigas R

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Azadirachta indica, es una planta con múltiples aplicaciones tanto forestal como farmacológica. Por ende, el establecimiento del sistema de cultivo in vitro por embriogénesis somática ofrece diversas y variadas ventajas, tales como obtener plantas altamente productivas en metabolitos. En este estudio, se utilizaron secciones foliares y cotiledonares, inducidas en medios MS (1962 suplementados con: BAP sólo y combinado con ANA/2,4-D, TDZ sólo y con ABA. La regeneración fue con MS sólo o con K + AIA y BAP + AIA. Como resultado se estableció un sistema eficiente con secciones de cotiledones, observándose organogénesis a bajas concentraciones de BAP, mientras a altos niveles de BAP (2,5 mg.L-1, así como  con TDZ + ABA (0,02 + 1mg.L-1 respectivamente favorecieron la embriogénesis somática primaria y secundaria en un 96 % y 71 % respectivamente. La regeneración fue 71 % con MS, mientras que el enraizamiento fue de 86,67 % con MS½, obteniéndose plantas completas a corto plazo. ABSTRACTAzadirachta indica, is a plant with multiple forest and pharmacological application. Therefore, the establishment of in vitro culture system for somatic embryogenesis offers several distinct advantages such as obtaining highly productive plant metabolites. In this study, were used sections cotyledon and leaf, induced on MS medium (1962 supplemented with: BAP alone and combined with NAA / 2,4-D, TDZ alone and ABA. Regeneration was with MS alone or with K + BAP + IAA and IAA. As a result was established an efficient system with cotyledon sections, being observed organogenesis at low concentrations of BAP, while high levels of BAP (2.5 mg.L-1 with 96 % and TDZ + ABA (0.02 + 1mg.L-1 with 71 %, favoring the primary and secondary somatic embryogenesis. Regeneration was 71 % with MS; rooting was 86.67 % with MS½, presenting whole plants obtained short term.RESUMOAzadirachta indica, é uma planta com várias aplicaçãos florestas e farmacológicas. Por

  18. In vivo and in vitro effectiveness of Azadirachta indica-synthesized silver nanocrystals against Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium falciparum, and their potential against malaria mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Samidoss, Christina Mary; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Suresh, Udaiyan; Roni, Mathath; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Dinesh, Devakumar; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Paulpandi, Manickam; Wei, Hui; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Pavela, Roman; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-06-01

    Malaria transmission is a serious emergence in urban and semiurban areas worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. Malaria is transmitted through the bites of Anopheles mosquitoes. The extensive employ of synthetic pesticides leads to negative effects on human health and the environment. Recently, plant-synthesized nanoparticles have been proposed as highly effective mosquitocides. In this research, we synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the Azadirachta indica seed kernel extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNP were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry, SEM, EDX, XRD and FTIR spectroscopy. The A. indica seed kernel extract was toxic against Anopheles stephensi larvae and pupae, LC50 were 232.8ppm (larva I), 260.6ppm (II), 290.3ppm (III), 323.4ppm (IV), and 348.4ppm (pupa). AgNP LC50 were 3.9ppm (I), 4.9ppm (II), 5.6ppm (III), 6.5ppm (IV), and 8.2ppm (pupa). The antiplasmodial activity of A. indica seed kernel extract and AgNP was evaluated against CQ-resistant (CQ-r) and CQ-sensitive (CQ-s) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. IC50 of A. indica seed kernel extract were 63.18μg/ml (CQ-s) and 69.24μg/ml (CQ-r). A. indica seed kernel-synthesized AgNP achieved IC50, of 82.41μg/ml (CQ-s) and 86.12μg/ml (CQ-r). However, in vivo anti-plasmodial experiments conducted on Plasmodium berghei infecting albino mice showed moderate activity of the A. indica extract and AgNP. Overall, this study showed that the A. indica-mediated fabrication of AgNP is of interest for a wide array of purposes, ranging from IPM of mosquito vectors to the development of novel and cheap antimalarial drugs.

  19. In vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Oily Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Aqueous Extracts of Nicotiana tabacum on Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Goats

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    Richard Zapata Salas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematodes are the most common parasites found in ruminants in the world. These parasites cause parasitic gastroenteritis and have a negative effect on productivity. Nematode control has been based on the use of anthelmintic chemicals—against which nematodes have developed a certain degree of resistance—which have been rated as residual substances in goat products that may cause adverse effects on the final consumer. As a result, the study of plant components has been proposed as a sustainable alternative to control nematodosis in goats. The anthelmintic potential of aqueous extracts of Nicotiana tabacum and oily extracts of Azadirachta indica on gastrointestinal nematodes affecting the goat chain was evaluated in vitro in this study. Nematicidal activity tests were performed on stool samples from goats with a high parasite load (trichostrongyles, by performing dose/ response curves. Percent inhibition in egg hatch for the aqueous extract of N. tabacum and the oily extract of A. indica was 99% and 80%, respectively. Extracts showed an effect on larva 3 (infective stage, with a mean lethal time of 8 ± 1 minutes for extracts of N. Tabacum, and of 8 ± 1 minutes for extract of A. indica. The in vitro results of the nematicidal activity show that N. tabacum and A. indica extracts can be a promising alternative for controlling nematodes in ruminants.

  20. Sublethal effect of neem extract on mediterranean fruit fly adults Efeito subletal de extratos de Azadirachta indica Sobre adultos de Ceratitis capitata

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    Márcio Alves Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The sublethal effect of extracts of Azadirachta indica on Ceratitis capitata was evaluated. Two pairs of flies were treated in plastic tubes with cotton placed in plastic cages. An artificial diet (hydrolyzed protein + sugar was provided ad libitum. The extracts affected significantly the longevity of C. capitata. The pre-oviposition period were not significantly affected by the extracts. The A. indica branches extracted with dichloromethane (888 ppm affected significantly the fecundity and fertility, reducing the number of eggs laid to approximately 80 % and the egg hatching by 30 % at the 8th day. Therefore, the neem branches extracted with dichloromethane affected the reproduction of C. capitata.Neste estudo, avaliou-se o efeito subletal de extratos de Azadirachta indica sobre Ceratitis capitata. Os tratamentos em um tubo plástico com algodão foram expostos para dois casais numa gaiola plástica. Nessa gaiola, também foi fornecida dieta artificial (proteína hidrolisada + açúcar ad libitum. Os extratos afetaram significativamente a longevidade de C. capitata. O período de pré-oviposição não foi significativamente afetado pelos extratos. Em contrapartida, o extrato de ramos em diclorometano (888 ppm afetou a fecundidade e a fertilidade, reduzindo em 80% o número de ovos colocados e a viabilidade dos ovos em 30%, no 8º dia. Portanto, o extrato de ramos em diclorometano afeta a reprodução de C. capitata.

  1. Combination of Nicotiana tabacum and Azadirachta indica: A Novel Substitute to Contain Prevalence of Levamisole and Ivermectin-Resistant Haemonchus contortus in Ovine

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    Kareem Khoshnow Hamad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study was aimed at exploring the activity of combined crude aqueous methanol extracts (CAMEs of Nicotiana (N. tabacum leaves and Azadirachta (A. indica seed kernels to control levamisole (LEV and ivermectin (IVM-resistant Haemonchus (H. contortus in sheep. The in vivo fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT demonstrated rampancy of resistance among H. contortus populations against LEV and IVM. There was a significant difference (P<0.05 between groups treated with the combined plant extracts compared to other groups treated with solitary N. tabacum and A. indica. The recorded FECR% at low (1+1g kg-1 BW and high (2+2g kg-1 BW doses was 52.71 and 94.59, respectively for the combined extracts, whilst for N. tabacum at low (2g kg-1 BW and high (4g kg-1 BW doses, the FECR% was 87.5 and 88.6, respectively. Moreover, the FECR% for A. indica was 45.62 and 85.14 at low (2g kg-1 BW and high (4g kg-1 BW doses, respectively. There was a dose and time dependent ovicidal and adulticidal activity of CAMEs with estimated LC50 values of 0.523, 0.566 and 1.169 μg ml-1 for the combined extracts, solitary N. tabacum and A. indica, respectively in egg hatch assay (in vitro test. The estimated LC50 values in adult motility test (in vitro test 10 hours post-exposure were 0.17, 0.20 and 0.80 mg ml-1 for the combined extracts, sole N. tabacum and A. indica, respectively. Accordingly, the aforementioned combined extracts at high dose were more efficacious than solitary N. tabacum and A. indica and, thus, can be used to restrict rampancy of LEV and IVM-resistant H. contortus populations parasitized in sheep.

  2. 印楝Azadirachta Indica A.Juss的冷驯化与抗冻蛋白的研究%On Cold-Acclimation and Antifreeze Proteins of Azadirachta Indica A.Juss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖; 杨光伟

    2012-01-01

    The micropropagation system has been established through plant tissue culture technology with traditional herbal plant Azadirachta Indica A. Juss as material before cold acclimation process is carried out; in vivo antifreeze proteins of neem have been investigated and analyzed. The main results are as follows: ①After cold acclimation, total amount of neem protein increases and several new proteins produce. However, with the cold treatment for too long a time, amount of the neem cold-induced proteins decrease, and even some of them are degradated. ②The stability of antifreeze proteinfrom neem is related to the time of cold treatment in cold acclimation. The shortest time for antifreeze protein production is two weeks in 5℃ , and the cold resistant limit of neem is in 5℃ for 20 days. When the temperature drops below 0℃ , AFPs are accumulated in the first days of cold treatment(0~ 15 d). However, while the treatment time i.s prolonged, Antifreeze protein are degradated and dismissed on the 30th day. ③ Purified antifreeze protein is obtained, and the relative molecular mass is around 36 KD.%采用木本植物材料——印楝,通过组织培养建立快繁体系,然后对其进行冷驯化处理,并分析检测印楝植物体内抗冻蛋白.主要结果如下:①冷驯化处理后印楝的总蛋白一些表现为量的增加同时会有新的蛋白产生.但脱驯化或处理时间过长时,抗冻蛋白在量的表达上会有逐渐减少或消失的现象.②在对印楝的冷驯化中,发现不同的温度处理后蛋白稳定存在的时间不同.抗冻蛋白出现的最早时期为5℃处理2周左右,印楝能耐受的稳定最低温为5℃,所持续的最长时间约为20 d.在0℃低温处理后,虽然在处理初期(0~15 d)也有抗冻蛋白的产生,但随处理时间的延长,这种差异逐渐减少,在处理30 d时完全消失.③得到了分离纯化的抗冻蛋白,其相对分子质量约为3.6×104.

  3. Anti-juvenile activity of Azadirachta indica extract on the development and morphometry of filaria vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Preeti; Mohan, Lalit; Srivastava, Chand N

    2009-10-01

    Efficacy of extracts of Ageratum conyzoides, Argemone mexicana, and Azadirachta indica were tested against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Petroleum ether extracts of A. conyzoides and A. mexicana with LC(50) values 425.60 and 267.90 ppm and 140.15 and 137.70 ppm after a period of 24 and 48 h, respectively, were found effective. However, the methanol extract of A. indica with LC(50) values 21.95 and 11.30 ppm after 24 and 48 h of exposure, respectively, was the most competent larvicide. The methanol extract of A. indica, being the most potent extract was therefore studied for its impact on the developmental scenario of the mosquito. It had a significant effect on the life cycle of the vector, C. quinquefasciatus. Hatching was delayed and its rate was reduced compared to control. Larval and pupal development was arrested resulting in decreased pupal transformation and adult emergence. Larval and pupal periods were prolonged with appearance of larval-pupal and pupal-adult intermediates, with an overall increase in the developmental period. Disrupted egg shells, dechitinized body walls, and distorted intestines were observed, indicating clearly the anti-juvenile potential of the extract. The growth index was considerably reduced.

  4. Report: In vivo anticoccidial effects of Azadirachta indica and Carica papaya L. with salinomycin drug as a dietary feed supplement in broiler chicks.

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    Hema, Srinivasan; Arun, Thangavel; Senthilkumar, Balakrishnan; Senbagam, Duraisamy; Sureshkumar, Muthusamy

    2015-07-01

    A total of thirty suspected broiler chicks were screened for coccidiosis, of them 25 chicks were found to be infected with coccidiosis viz. Eimeria tenella (15) Eimeria maxima (5) Eimeria necatrix (6) and Eimeria mitis (4). The anticoccidial efficacy of Azadirachta indica and Carica papaya with Salinomycin as a dietary feed supplement on the representative E. tenella (25 x 10³ oocyst) infection challenged in broiler chicks was studied in six groups for the period of six weeks. A. indica and C. papaya leaves were administered in powder form at the concentration of 0.1% and 0.2% respectively. The Oocysts per gram (OPG) count were observed on 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th day of post inoculation (DPI). The challenged experimental chicks revealed haemorrhage, thickening of mucosa, cores of blood and ballooning of caecum. The experimental group T5 chicks treated with A. indica were analyzed to possess the maximum weight gain (2.003), better feed conversion ratio (FCR) (2.32), OPG count (5.87), livability percentage (88) and the lesion score (3.33). Chi-square test analysis revealed no significant differences among the treated groups and the performance parameters. Therefore, this study concludes that plant sources used as a remedial curate for coccidiosis is a perforated growth in the commercial broiler industries.

  5. Chemopreventive Effects of Azadirachta indica on Cancer Marker Indices and Ultrastructural Changes During 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine-Induced Colon Carcinogenesis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Sun, Bo; Wu, Peiwei; Wei, Xi

    2015-09-01

    The present study elucidated the prospective of Azadirachta indica supplementation, if any, in affording chemoprevention by modulating the altered cancer markers and ultrastructural changes in DMH-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in rats. The rats were segregated into four groups viz., normal control, DMH treated, A. indica treated, and DMH+AI treated. Initiation and induction of colon carcinogenesis were achieved through weekly subcutaneous injections of DMH (30 mg/kg body weight) for both 10 and 20 weeks. A. indica extract was supplemented to rats at a dose rate of 100 mg/kg body weight of animals thrice a week on alternative days, ad libitum for two different time durations of 10 and 20 weeks. The study observed a significant increase in the number of aberrant crypt foci in colons of DMH-treated rats at both the time intervals which were decreased significantly upon AI supplementation. Also, a significant increase was seen in the enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase, which, however, was moderated upon AI administration to DMH-treated rats. Changes in the ultrastructural architecture of colonic cells were apparent following both the treatment schedules of DMH; however, the changes were prominent following 20 weeks of DMH treatment. The most obvious changes were seen in the form of altered nuclear shape and disruption of cellular integrity, which were appreciably improved upon AI supplementation. In conclusion, the study shows the chemopreventive abilities of AI against DMH-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in rats.

  6. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaji, Prashant; Jagtap, Kiran; Lau, Himani; Bansal, Nandita; Thajuraj, S.; Sondhi, Priti

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: Successful root canal treatment involves the complete elimination of microorganism from the root canal and the three-dimensional obturation of the canal space. Enterococcus faecalis is the most commonly found bacteria in failed root canal. Chemical irrigation of canals along with biomechanical preparation helps in the elimination of microorganisms. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica extract, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Materials and Methods: The bacterial E. faecalis (ATCC) culture was grown overnight in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth and inoculated in Mueller–Hinton agar plates. Antibacterial inhibition was assessed using agar well diffusion method. All five study irrigants were added to respective wells in agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Bacterial inhibition zone around each well was recorded. Results were tabulated and statistically analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software for Windows, version 19.0. (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY. Results: Highest inhibitory zone against E. faecalis was seen in NaOCl fallowed by M. citrifolia and A. indica extract, and the least by A. vera extract. Conclusion: Tested herbal medicine (A. indica extract, M. citrifolia, A. vera) showed inhibitory zone against E. faecalis. Hence, these irrigants can be used as root canal irrigating solutions. PMID:27382533

  7. A Brief Review on Insecticidal Function of Azadirachta Indica%印楝的杀虫作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何玲; 王李斌

    2012-01-01

    印楝目前为国际上公认的杀虫植物,以其应用范围广,杀虫效果显著,生物活性物质含量高和易提取等特点受到广泛关注。文章从其对靶标的主要活性成分、作用方式、害虫控制、作用机理等方面综述了近年来的研究进展。%Acknowledged as the most potential insecticidal plant in the world , Azadirachta indica A.Juss.has features of widely-applied areas, marked effect, high effective ingredients and easy abstraction.Advances in study on the effective components, modes of action, insect control and function mechanism in recent years are discussed in this paper.

  8. Bio-green synthesis of Ag-GO, Au-GO and Ag-Au-GO nanocomposites using Azadirachta indica: its application in SERS and cell viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hareesh, K.; Williams, J. F.; Dhole, N. A.; Kodam, K. M.; Bhoraskar, V. N.; Dhole, S. D.

    2016-07-01

    Silver-graphene oxide, Gold-graphene oxide, Silver-Gold-graphene oxide nanocomposites were synthesized from Neem leaves (Azadirachta indica) extract using a bio-green one-pot method. The synthesized bio-green nanocomposites were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, x-ray diffractogram, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The results indicated the decoration of ˜10 nm of silver, ˜20 nm of gold and ˜15 nm of silver-gold nanoparticles on a graphene oxide sheet. The synthesized nanocomposites showed enhancement in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy with alizarin and also enhancement in cell viability of Chang liver cell lines which may be due to a synergetic effect of nanoparticles and graphene oxide.

  9. Characteristics of tomato plants treated with leaf extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (L.)) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium (Jacquin)): a greenhouse experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Molina, Joaquín Adolfo; Nuricumbo-Zarate, Ibis Harumy; Hernández-Díaz, Javier; Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio; Dendooven, Luc; Ruíz-Valdiviezo, Víctor Manuel

    2014-09-01

    Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A.) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium) leaves were used as insect repellent during organic cultivation of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) and were compared with untreated plants or plants treated with lambda-cyhalothrin (chemical treatment). The best developed tomato plants were found in the Gliricidia treatment, while difference between other treatments were small. The number of different species of macrofauna found on tomato plants were similar in different treatments, except for corn rootworm (Diabrotica spp.) found in the Gliricidia treatment, but not in other treatments. It was found that leaf extract of G. sepium stimulated tomato growth and altered the leaf and fruit characteristics. This was most likely due to its action as a growth regulator and/or an inductor of changes in the tomato growth regulation, but not due to its action as an insect repellent. Consequently, leaf extract of G. sepium could be used to stimulate tomato development.

  10. Comparison of antimicrobial efficacy of propolis, Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica (Neem) and 5% sodium hypochlorite on Candida albicans biofilm formed on tooth substrate: An in-vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Shashi Prabha; Sinha, Dakshita Joy; Garg, Paridhi; Singh, Udai Pratap; Mishra, Chandrakar Chaman; Nagpal, Rajni

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Endodontic infections are polymicrobial in nature. Candida albicans is the most common fungus isolated from failed endodontic cases. The constant increase in antibiotic resistant strains and side-effects caused by synthetic drugs has prompted researchers to look for herbal alternatives such as propolis, Morinda citrifolia and Azadirachta indica (Neem) etc., since, the gold standard for irrigation, i.e., sodium hypochlorite has many disadvantages. Materials and Methods: Extracted human mandibular premolars were biomechanically prepared, vertically sectioned, placed in tissue culture wells exposing the root canal surface to C. albicans grown on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar to form a biofilm. At the end of 2 days, all groups were treated with test solutions and control for 10 min and evaluated for Candida growth and number of colony forming units. The readings were subjected to statistical analysis using analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey tests. Results: Sodium hypochlorite and propolis groups exhibited highest antimicrobial efficacy against C. albicans with no statistically significant difference. It was followed by the A. indica (Neem) group. M. citrifolia had limited antifungal action followed by the negative control group of saline. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, propolis can be used as an effective antifungal agent similar to that of sodium hypochlorite, although long-term in vivo studies are warranted. PMID:24347888

  11. Comparison of antimicrobial efficacy of propolis, Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica (Neem and 5% sodium hypochlorite on Candida albicans biofilm formed on tooth substrate: An in-vitro study

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    Shashi Prabha Tyagi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Endodontic infections are polymicrobial in nature. Candida albicans is the most common fungus isolated from failed endodontic cases. The constant increase in antibiotic resistant strains and side-effects caused by synthetic drugs has prompted researchers to look for herbal alternatives such as propolis, Morinda citrifolia and Azadirachta indica (Neem etc., since, the gold standard for irrigation, i.e., sodium hypochlorite has many disadvantages. Materials and Methods: Extracted human mandibular premolars were biomechanically prepared, vertically sectioned, placed in tissue culture wells exposing the root canal surface to C. albicans grown on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar to form a biofilm. At the end of 2 days, all groups were treated with test solutions and control for 10 min and evaluated for Candida growth and number of colony forming units. The readings were subjected to statistical analysis using analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey tests. Results: Sodium hypochlorite and propolis groups exhibited highest antimicrobial efficacy against C. albicans with no statistically significant difference. It was followed by the A. indica (Neem group. M. citrifolia had limited antifungal action followed by the negative control group of saline. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, propolis can be used as an effective antifungal agent similar to that of sodium hypochlorite, although long-term in vivo studies are warranted.

  12. Production of Limonoids with Insect Antifeedant Activity in a Two-Stage Bioreactor Process with Cell Suspension Culture of Azadirachta indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Rivera, Andrés; Chicaiza-Finley, Diego; Hoyos, Rodrigo A; Orozco-Sánchez, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    Neem tree (Azadirachta indica) cell suspension culture is an alternative for the production of limonoids for insect control that overcomes limitations related to the supply of neem seeds. To establish conditions for cell growth and azadiracthin-related limonoid production, the effect of different sucrose concentrations, nitrate and phosphate in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, and the addition of one precursor and three elicitors was evaluated in shake flasks. The process was scaled up to a 3-l stirred tank bioreactor in one- and two-stage batch cultivation. In shake flasks, more than fivefold increase in the production of limonoids with the modified MS medium was observed (increase from 0.77 to 4.52 mg limonoids/g dry cell weight, DCW), while an increase of more than fourfold was achieved by adding the elicitors chitosan, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid together (increase from 1.03 to 4.32 mg limonoids/g DCW). In the bioreactor, the volumetric production of limonoids was increased more than threefold with a two-stage culture in day 18 (13.82 mg limonoids/l in control single-stage process and 41.44 mg/l in two-stage process). The cultivation and operating mode of the bioreactor reported in this study may be adapted and used in optimization and process plant development for production of insect antifeedant limonoids with A. indica cell suspension cultures.

  13. Nutrient dynamics associated with leaf litter decomposition of three agroforestry tree species (Azadirachta indica, Dalbergia sissoo, and Melia azedarach) of Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahmood Hossain; Mohammad Raqibul Hasan Siddique; Md. Saidur Rahman; Md. Zaber Hossain; Md. Mahedi Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Azadirachta indica A.Juss,Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.,and Melia azedarach L.are little studied species in nutrient return capabilities from leaf litter decomposition to maintenance of the soil fertility despite their importance in agroforestry practices of Bangladesh.A leaf litter decomposition experiment was conducted using a litterbag technique to assess the nutrient return efficiency of these species.The decomposition rate of leaf liter was highest for M.azedarach and lowest for D.sissoo.Rainfall and temperature of study sites showed a significant (p<0.05) positive relationship with the rate of leaf litter decomposition.The highest decay constant was observed for M.azedarach (6.67).Nitrogen and Phosphorus concentration in leaf litter showed a decreased trend sharply at the end of the first month,whereas rapid decrease of Potassium concentration was reported within 10 days.Conversely,higher concentration of nutrient was observed at the later stages of decomposition.All three species showed a similar pattern of nutrient release (K > N> P) during the decomposition process of leaf litter.Among the studied species,D.sissoo was best in terms of N and P return and A.indica was best in terms of K return.

  14. Screening of efficient arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for Azadirachta indica under nursery condition: a step towards afforestation of semi-arid region of western India

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    K. Banerjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To optimize nursery practices for efficient plant production procedures and to keep up to the ever growing demand of seedlings, identification of the most suitable species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, specific for a given tree species, is clearly a necessary task. Sixty days old seedlings of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss raised in root trainers were inoculated with six species of AMF and a mixed inoculum (consortia and kept in green house. Performances of the treatments on this tree species were evaluated in terms of growth parameters like plant height shoot collar diameter, biomass and phosphorous uptake capabilities. Significant and varied increase in the growth parameters and phosphorous uptake was observed for most of the AMF species against control. Consortia culture was found to be the best suited AMF treatment for A.indica, while Glomus intraradices and Glomus mosseae were the best performing single species cultures. It is the first time in the state of Gujarat that a wide variety of AMF species, isolated from the typical semi-arid region of western India, were tested for the best growth performance with one of the most important tree species for the concerned region.

  15. Assessment of Blood Chemistry, Weight Gain and Linear Body Measurements of Pre-Puberal Buck Rabbits Fed Different Levels of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Leaf Meals Evaluación de Química Sanguínea, Ganancia de Peso y Mediciones Corporales Lineales de Conejos Pre-Púberes Alimentados con Diferentes Niveles de Harina de Hojas de Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

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    I.P Ogbuewu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A 16 week feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. leaf meal (NLM on body weight gain, linear body measurements and blood chemistry of pre-puberal buck rabbits. Four treatment diets were formulated to contain the NLM at inclusion levels of 0 (control, 5, 10 and 15%. Thirty six crossbred New Zealand white × Chinchilla pre-puberal buck rabbits aged 5 to 6 mo were divided into four groups of nine rabbits and each group was further replicated into three of three rabbits each. The rabbits were randomly assigned to the four dietary treatments. Lymphocyte count of rabbits fed control diet (8.32 × 10(9 mm-3 was significantly higher than the group fed 15% NLM (4.60 × 10(9 mm-3. The mean cell hemoglobin (MCH and mean cell volume (MCV of the control bucks were significantly (p 0.05 among the treatment groups. The results suggest that buck rabbits could tolerate up to 15% dietary inclusion of NLM without deleterious effects on body weight gain, linear body measurements and some hematological parameters.Se realizó un ensayo de alimentación de 16 semanas para investigar el efecto de harina de hojas de neem Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (NML sobre ganancia de peso, mediciones corporales lineales y química sanguínea de conejos machos pre-púberes. Se formularon cuatro dietas con niveles de inclusión de NLM de 0 (control, 5, 10, y 15%. Treinta y seis conejos híbridos New Zealand white × Chinchilla, pre-púberes, de 5 a 6 meses, se distribuyeron en cuatro grupos de nueve conejos, y cada grupo fue repetido en tres grupos de tres conejos cada uno. Los conejos se asignaron aleatoriamente a las cuatro dietas tratamiento. El recuento de linfocitos de los conejos alimentados con la dieta control (8,32 × 10(9 mm-3 fue significativamente mayor que el grupo alimentado con 15% NLM (4,60 × 10(9 mm-3. La hemoglobina celular media (MCH y el volumen celular medio (MCV de los conejos control fueron

  16. To evaluate the antigingivitis and antipalque effect of an Azadirachta indica (neem mouthrinse on plaque induced gingivitis: A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial

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    Anirban Chatterjee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Azadirachta indica (neem, a Meliaceae family tree, has been used in India for several decades for the treatment of several diseases in medicine and dentistry. Neem has been considered to have antiseptic activity, but still its use for the treatment of gingivitis and periodontitis is not very clear. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of neem based mouth rinse regarding its antigingivitis effect. Materials and Methods: Forty five subjects with plaque induced gingivitis were selected for the study. They were equally divided into three groups. Group I patients were asked to rinse with 15 ml of neem mouthwash twice daily, group II with 15 ml of chlorhexidine mouthwash twice daily, and group III with 15 ml of saline twice daily. The three groups were asked to perform the routine oral hygiene procedures thought out the study period. Bleeding on probing and gingivitis were evaluated by Muhlemann and Son′s Sulcus bleeding index (1971 and Loe and Sillness gingival index (1963, respectively, at base line, after every week till one month. Results: Our result showed that an A. indica mouthrinse is equally effective in reducing periodontal indices as Chlorhexidine. The results demonstrated a significant reduction of gingival, bleeding, and plaque indices in both groups over a period of 21 days as compared to placebo. Conclusion: A. indica-based mouth rinse is equally efficacious with fewer side effects as compared to chlorhexidine and may be used as an adjunct therapy in treating plaque induced gingivitis.

  17. Biosorptive behaviour of Mango (Mangifera indica) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark for Hg{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+} and Cd{sup 2+} toxic ions from aqueous solutions: a radiotracer study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Diwakar; Mishra, Shuddhodan P. [Nuclear and Radiochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India); Mishra, Manisha; Dubey, R.S. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India)

    1999-04-01

    Biosorption of Hg{sup 2+} and Cr{sup 3+} on dead biomass Mango (Mangifera indica) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark has been assessed at micro to tracer level concentrations from aqueous solutions employing the 'radiotracer technique'. A high level of uptake of metal ions on these solid surfaces occurs within ca. 4 h of contact time reaching apparent saturation. The increase of sorptive concentration (10{sup -8} to 10{sup -2} mol dm{sup -3}), temperature (293-323 K) and pH (ca. 3 to 10) favoured the removal process of these ions; but in the case of Hg{sup 2+} on Neem bark, there was seemingly no temperature effect. The uptake process follows first order rate law and obeys the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. Added anions and cations in the bulk solution inhibit to some extent the removal of these toxic ions. Similarly the inhibition in the uptake was also observed when both biomasses were irradiated by neutron and {gamma}-rays prior to being employed as sorbents. No significant sorption of Cd{sup 2+} was observed on these dead biomass solid surfaces under various physical-chemical conditions.

  18. Allelopathic effect of aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. on lettuce, soybeans, maize, beans and Bidens pilosaEfeito alelopático de extrato aquoso de folhas de Azadirachta indica A. Juss. em alface, soja, milho, feijão e picão-preto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Maria Pilatti

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The family Meliaceae has been identified as one of the most promising for biological control, as most species have biologically active compounds. Among the species, the Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss is that stands out most for its efficiency and low toxicity, and it is utilized to control insects, fungi and nematodes. The aim of this work was to verify the allelopathic potential of aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Neem on germination of lettuce, soybeans, maize, beans and Bidens pilosa, as a way to control this weed. The extract was obtained by grinding 200g/L of fresh leaves of the Neem (considered extract 100% and diluting in distilled water at concentrations of 80, 60, 40, and 20%, and a control with only water. The seeds were kept in the germination chamber at a temperature of 25°C, with photoperiod of 12 hours of light. The aqueous extract affected the germination percentage and average length root of lettuce, with values of 1% and 0.1, cm respectively. For the soybeans, the extract influenced negatively the average time of germination and average speed of germination. There was a drastic reduction of the average root length at higher concentration for soybean, corn and beans. For Bidens pilosa all the parameters analyzed were negatively affected, which means sensitivity to the extract. The bioassay performed in the laboratory showed that the aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Azadirachta indica has allelopathic effect on all species.A família Meliaceae foi identificada como um dos grupos mais promissores para o controle biológico, pois a maioria das espécies possui compostos biologicamente ativos. Dentre as espécies, o Nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. é a que mais se destaca pela sua alta eficiência e baixa toxidade, empregada no controle de insetos, fungos e nematóides. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o potencial alelopático do extrato aquoso de folhas frescas de Nim sobre a germinação de alface, soja, milho, feij

  19. Eficiência do nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss como barreira natural ao ataque de Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae sobre o mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King The efficiency of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss as natural barrier to attack by Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae on the Brazilian mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King

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    Maria Clese Alves Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A eficiência da espécie Azadirachta indica como barreira natural ao ataque da Hypsipyla grandella sobre o mogno em diferentes arranjos e densidades de plantio foi, avaliada. O estudo foi realizado numa área de pastagem degradada em Vigia, PA. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso em esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo, com cinco repetições, sendo as formas de cultivo do mogno as parcelas, e as épocas de avaliação (meses as subparcelas. A barreira natural formada pelo nim não evitou o ataque de H. grandella sobre o mogno, mas retardou e minimizou o ataque em plantios mistos. Para o maior controle do ataque de H. grandella, o mogno não deve ser plantado simultaneamente com o nim, mas um ano após o plantio do nim, quando este apresenta mais de três metros de altura, formando uma barreira natural mais eficaz ao ataque desta praga.The efficiency of Azadirachta indica as natural barrier against the attack by Hypsipyla grandellaon mahogany in different arrangements and planting densities was evaluated. The study was carried out in degraded pasture in Vigia, Pará. The experimental design was a randomized block in split plot in time with five replications, the forms of cultivation of mahogany as plots and the evaluation periods (months as the subplots. The natural barrier formed by neem did not prevent the attack of H. grandella on mahogany, but delayed and minimized the attack in mixed plantings. It is recommended that mahogany should not be planted simultaneously with the neem, but a year after planting the neem, when it has more than three meters in height, forming a natural barrier more effective to pest attack.

  20. Larvicidal effects of a neem (Azadirachta indica) oil formulation on the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okumu, F.O.; Knols, B.G.J.; Fillinger, U.

    2007-01-01

    Background - Larviciding is a key strategy used in many vector control programmes around the world. Costs could be reduced if larvicides could be manufactured locally. The potential of natural products as larvicides against the main African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s was evaluated. Method

  1. Morphological effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed oil with known azadirachtin concentrations on the oocytes of semi-engorged Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedio, R N; Nunes, P H; Anholeto, L A; Oliveira, P R; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2015-02-01

    The concern about the harmful effects caused by synthetic pesticides has led to the search for safe and ecological alternatives for pest control. In this context, the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) stands out due to its repellent properties and effects on various arthropods, including ticks. For this reason, this study aimed to demonstrate the potential of neem as a control method for Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, important vectors of diseases in the veterinary point of view. For this, R. sanguineus semi-engorged females were subjected to treatment with neem seed oil enriched with azadirachtin, its main compound, and ovaries were assessed by means of morphological techniques in conventional light microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Neem demonstrated a clear dose-dependent effect in the analyzed samples. The observed oocytes presented, especially in the groups treated with higher concentrations of neem oil, obvious signs of cytoplasmic disorganization, cellular vacuolization, nuclear and nucleolar irregularity, dilation in mitochondrial cristae, alterations in mitochondrial matrix, and swelling of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Intracellular microorganisms were observed in all analyzed groups, reinforcing the importance of ticks in the transmission of pathogens. A greater quantity of microorganisms was noted as the concentration of neem increased, indicating that the damaged oocytes may be more susceptible for their development. Such morphological alterations may promote future damages in reproductive performance of these animals and demonstrate the potential of neem seed oil for the control of R. sanguineus ticks, paving the way for new, cheaper, and safer methods of control.

  2. Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf dietary effects on the immunity response and disease resistance of Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer challenged with Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpur, Allah Dad; Ikhwanuddin, Mhd

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed to address the possible evaluation of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf-supplemented diets on innate immune response in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer fingerlings against Vibrio harveyi infection. Fish were fed for two weeks diets containing six graded levels of neem leaf at 0 g, 1 g, 2 g, 3 g, 4 g and 5 g per kg feed. Fish fed neem leaf-supplemented diet displayed significant differences (p neem leaf-supplemented diet. Various innate immune parameters were examined pre-challenge and post-challenge. Fish was injected intraperitoneally with a lethal dose of V. harveyi containing 10(8) cells mL(-1). Supplementation of neem leaf diet significantly increased phagocytic activity, superoxide anion production, serum lysozyme, serum bactericidal activity, serum anti-protease activity throughout the experimental period when compared with the control group. Dietary doses of neem leaf diet significantly influenced the immune parameters, haematological parameters and blood biochemical indices of treated fish. The results suggested that fish fed neem leaf-supplemented diet improved the immune system and increased survival rate in L. calcarifer fingerlings against V. harveyi infection.

  3. Effect of Neem Leaf Extract (Azadirachta indica on c-MycOncogene Expression in 4T1 Breast Cancer Cells of BALB/c Mice

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    Chong Pei Pei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths in women both worldwide and in Malaysia. Azadirachta indica (A. Juss, commonly known as neem, is one of the most versatile medicinal plants that has gained worldwide prominence due to its medicinal properties. However, the anticancer effect of ethanolic neem leaf extract against breast cancer has not been documented. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of neem leaf extract on c-Myc oncogene expression in 4T1 breast cancer BALB/c mice.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, A total of 48 female BALB/c mice were divided randomly into four groups of 12 mice per group: i.cancer control (CC treated with 0.5% Tween 20 in PBS, ii. 0.5 μg/mL tamoxifen citrate (CT, iii. 250 mg/kg neem leaf extract (C250, and iv. 500 mg/kg neem leaf extract (C500. In situ reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (in situ RT-PCR was applied to evaluate suppression of c-Myc oncogene expression in breast cancer tissue.Results: The C500 group showed significant (p<0.05 suppression of c-Myc oncogene expression compared to the CC group.Conclusion: c-Myc was found to be down regulated under the effect of 500 mg/kg ethanolicneem leaf extract.

  4. Effects of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on midgut cells of predatory larvae Ceraeochrysa claveri (Navás, 1911) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudeler, Elton Luiz; dos Santos, Daniela Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    The effects of ingested neem oil, a botanical insecticide obtained from the seeds of the neem tree, Azadirachta indica, on the midgut cells of predatory larvae Ceraeochrysa claveri were analyzed. C. claveri were fed on eggs of Diatraea saccharalis treated with neem oil at a concentration of 0.5%, 1% and 2% during throughout the larval period. Light and electron microscopy showed severe damages in columnar cells, which had many cytoplasmic protrusions, clustering and ruptured of the microvilli, swollen cells, ruptured cells, dilatation and vesiculation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, development of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, enlargement of extracellular spaces of the basal labyrinth, intercellular spaces and necrosis. The indirect ingestion of neem oil with prey can result in severe alterations showing direct cytotoxic effects of neem oil on midgut cells of C. claveri larvae. Therefore, the safety of neem oil to non-target species as larvae of C. claveri was refuted, thus the notion that plants derived are safer to non-target species must be questioned in future ecotoxicological studies.

  5. Morphological alterations in the synganglion and integument of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks exposed to aqueous extracts of neem leaves (Azadirachta indica A. JUSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedio, R N; Nunes, P H; Anholeto, L A; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2014-12-01

    Currently, the necessity of controlling infestation by ticks, especially by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has led researchers and public health managers around the world to search for new and more efficient control methods. This way, we can highlight neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) leaf, bark, and seed extracts, which have been very effective on tick control, and moreover causing less damage to the environment and to the host. This study showed the potential of neem as a control method for R. sanguineus through morphological and morphometric evaluation of the integument and synganglion of females, in semiengorged stage. To attain this, routine techniques of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and morphometry of the cuticle and subcuticle of the integument were applied. Expressive morphological alterations were observed in both organs, presenting a dose-dependent effect. Integument epithelial cells and nerve cells of the synganglion showed signs of cell vacuolation, dilated intercellular boundaries, and cellular disorganization, alterations not previously reported in studies with neem. In addition, variations in subcuticle thickness were also observed. In general, the effects of neem are multiple, and affect the morphology and physiology of target animals in various ways. The results presented in this work are the first evidence of its effects in the coating and nervous system of ticks, thus allowing an indication of neem aqueous extracts as a potential control method of the brown dog tick and opening new perspectives on acaricide use.

  6. Bioefficacy and mode-of-action of some limonoids of salannin group from Azadirachta indica A. Juss and their role in a multicomponent system against lepidopteran larvae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Opender Koul; Gurmeet Singh; Rajwinder Singh; Jasbir Singh; W M Daniewski; Stanislaw Berlozecki

    2004-12-01

    Biological activities of the salannin type of limonoids isolated from Azadirachta indica A. Juss were assessed using the gram pod borer Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) and the tobacco armyworm Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Inhibition of larval growth was concomitant with reduced feeding by neonate and third instar larvae. All three compounds exhibited strong antifeedant activity in a choice leaf disc bioassay with 2.0, 2.3 and 2.8 g/cm2 of 3-O-acetyl salannol, salannol and salannin, respectively deterring feeding by 50% in S. litura larvae. In nutritional assays, all three compounds reduced growth and consumption when fed to larvae without any effect on efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), suggesting antifeedant activity alone. No toxicity was observed nor was there any significant affect on nutritional indices following topical application, further suggesting specific action as feeding deterrents. When relative growth rates were plotted against relative consumption rates, growth efficiency of the H. armigera fed diet containing 3-O-acetyl salannol, salannol or salannin did not differ from that of starved control larvae (used as calibration curve), further confirming the specific antifeedant action of salannin type of limonoids. Where the three compounds were co-administered, no enhancement in activity was observed. Non-azadirachtin limonoids having structural similarities and explicitly similar modes of action, like feeding deterrence in the present case, have no potentiating effect in any combination.

  7. Toxicity of Neem Leaf Extracts (Azadirachta indica A. Juss on Some Haematological, Ionoregulatory, Biochemical and Enzymological Parameters of Indian Major Carp, Cirrhinus mrigala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saravanan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the median lethal concentration (LC 50 of neem leaf extract to Cirrhinus mrigala for 24 h was found to be 1.035 g l-l. During the study period, the haematological parameters including Hb, Hct, RBC, MCV, MCH and MCHC levels were significantly decreased in neem leaf extract exposed fish when compared to the control fish whereas WBC count was increased. Similarly, plasma Na+ and Cl- levels were significantly lower and K+ level were significantly higher when compared to the control. In biochemical study, elevated plasma glucose and induced protein levels were noticed. The enzymes, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT activities were increased significantly in gill, liver and muscle of treated fish compared to that of their control groups. The results of the present investigation suggest that neem leaf extracts affects the hematological, ionoregulatory, biochemical and enzymological parameters of fish and alterations of these parameters can be useful in environmental biomonitoring of neem based products in freshwater environment.Keywords: Azadirachta indica, Acute toxicity, Cirrhinus mrigala, Haematology, Ion regulation, Biochemical and Enzymological parameters.

  8. Rendimento e Características Físicas dos Óleos de Nim (Azadirachta indica e Mamona (Ricinus communis

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    Juarez Benigno Paes

    Full Text Available A pesquisa objetivou avaliar o rendimento e a viscosidade de óleos de nim (Azadirachta indica e mamona (Ricinus communis. Os frutos de nim foram coletados no Núcleo de Pesquisa do Semiárido, em Patos, Paraíba, e os de mamona, às margens do Rio Espinharas, Patos e em Igaracy, Paraíba. Os frutos foram beneficiados no Laboratório de Tecnologia de Produtos Florestais, em Patos. Foram retiradas amostras de sementes para a determinação do teor de umidade e do rendimento em óleos. Os óleos foram extraídos com álcool etílico absoluto e empregados no preparo de soluções com os óleos de nim e mamona. Determinaram-se a densidade e a viscosidade das soluções. A mamona teve menor teor de umidade e rendimento em óleo que o nim. A densidade e a viscosidade do óleo de nim foram menores que o da mamona. Uma maior quantidade de óleos de mamona proporcionou aumento na densidade e na viscosidade das soluções preparadas.

  9. Morphological and biochemical changes in Azadirachta indica from coal combustion fly ash dumping site from a thermal power plant in Delhi, India.

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    Qadir, Sami Ullah; Raja, Vaseem; Siddiqui, Weqar A

    2016-07-01

    The foliar and biochemical traits of Azadirachta indica A. Juss from fly ash (FA) dumping site in Badarpur thermal power plant (BTPP) New Delhi, India was studied. Three different experimental sites were selected at different distances from the thermal power plant. Ambient suspended particulate matter (SPM) and plant responses such as leaf pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids), total chlorophyll, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal index (SI), stomatal conductance (SC), intercellular carbon dioxide concentration [CO2]i, net photosynthetic rate (NPR), nitrogen, nitrate, nitrate reductase activity, proline, protein, reducing sugar and sulphur content were measured. Considerable reduction in pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids), and total chlorophyll was observed at fly ash dumping site. Fly ash stress revealed the inhibitory effect on Nitrate reductase activity (NRA), Nitrate, soluble protein, and reducing sugar content, whereas stimulatory effect was found for the stomatal index, nitrogen, proline, antioxidants and sulphur content in the leaves. Under fly ash stress, stomatal conductance was low, leading to declining in photosynthetic rate and increase in the internal CO2 concentration of leaf. Single leaf area (SLA), leaf length and leaf width also showed a declining trend from control to the polluted site. Antioxidant enzymes increased in leaves reflecting stress and extenuation of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  10. Effect of feeding Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Acacia (Acacia senegal) tree foliage on nutritional and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats.

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    Hailemariam, Samson; Urge, Mengistu; Menkir, Sissay

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of dried foliage of Acacia senegal and Neem (Azadirachta indica) tree supplementations on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth, and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats. Twenty male intact short-eared Somali goat yearlings with an average live weight of 16.2 ± 1.08 (Mean ± SD) were assigned to four treatment groups, which comprised a basal diet of hay alone (T1) and supplementation with the tree foliages. Supplements consisted Neem tree (T2), A. senegal (T3) and the mixture of the two (1:1 ratio; T4) dried foliages. The crude protein (CP) content of Neem tree foliage, A. senegal, and their mixture were 16.92, 17.5 and 17.01 % of dry matter (DM), respectively. Total DM intake and digestibility of DM and organic matter were significantly (P goats supplemented with Neem tree (72 %) and A. senegal (67 %). The final body weights were higher (P goats supplemented with A. Senegal. An average daily body weight (BW) gain was higher (P grass hay encouraged a better utilization of nutrients and animal performance as compared to goats fed on a basal diet of grass hay only.

  11. In vitro activity of neem (Azadirachta indica) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) on three pre-parasitic stages of susceptible and resistant strains of Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) circumcincta.

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    Al-Rofaai, A; Rahman, W A; Sulaiman, S F; Yahaya, Z S

    2012-08-13

    Anthelmintic resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes is considered as one of the main limiting factors causing significant economic losses to the small ruminant industry. The anthelmintic properties of some plants are among the suggested alternative solutions to control these parasitic worms. The present study investigated the anthelmintic activity of neem (Azadirachta indica) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaf extracts against the susceptible and resistant strains of one of the most important nematodes in small ruminants, Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) circumcincta. Three different in vitro tests: egg hatch test, larval development assay, and larval paralysis assay were used to determine the efficiency of neem and cassava extracts on three pre-parasitic stages of T. circumcincta. The LC(50) was determined for the most potent extract in each plant as well as the phytochemical tests, total tannin quantification and cytotoxicity on peripheral blood mononuclear cells of goats. The results revealed a high anthelmintic activity of neem methanol extract (NME) and cassava methanol extract (CME) on both strains of T. circumcincta without significant differences between the strains. The first stage larvae were more sensitive with the lowest LC(50) at 7.15 mg/ml and 10.72 mg/ml for NME and CME, respectively, compared with 44.20mg/ml and 56.68 mg/ml on eggs and 24.91 mg/ml and 71.96 mg/ml on infective stage larvae.

  12. Efeito de extratos aquosos de Azadirachta indica, Melia azedarach e Aspidosperma pyrifolium no desenvolvimento e oviposição de Plutella xylostella Effect of aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica (A. Juss, Melia azedarach (L. and Aspidosperma pyrifolium (Mart. on the development and oviposition of Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae

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    Adalci Leite Torres

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados a CL50 e o efeito de extratos aquosos de plantas na biologia, oviposição e período embrionário de Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae. Para determinação da CL50 foram utilizadas concentrações entre 0,03 e 0,8 % para amêndoas de Azadirachta indica (A. Juss. 0,5 e 7,0 % para casca de Aspidosperma pyrifolium (Mart. e 0,5 e 12,5 % para frutos de Melia azedarach (L., obtendo-se as CL50 de 0,06; 2,17 e 2,90%, respectivamente. Verificou-se que os extratos aquosos de todas as espécies vegetais afetaram o desenvolvimento do inseto, principalmente na fase larval. Na fase de pupa, os extratos reduziram a massa e a viabilidade. Houve deformação de adultos para os extratos de A. pyrifolium e M. azedarach e o de A. indica causou maior porcentagem. Todos os extratos possuem efeito tóxico para ovos de P. xylostella, sendo dependente do aumento da concentração. Nos extratos da casca de A. pyrifolium, do fruto de M. azedarach e da amêndoa de A. indica observa-se ação ovicida quando usados na concentração letal de lagartas de primeiro ínstar da praga. Em observações do ovo de P. xylostella com auxílio de um microscópio eletrônico de varredura, verificou-se a existência de microporos onde pode ocorrer a penetração do produto ovicida, além da constatação da textura rugosa da casca do ovo que pode reter ou fixar os extratos.The effects of aqueous extracts of plants on the biology, preference for oviposition and embryonic period of Plutella xylostella were evaluated. Concentrations between 0.03 and 0.8 % for kernel of Azadirachta indica, 0.5 and 7.0% for peel of Aspidosperma pyrifolium and 0.5 and 12.5% for fruits of Melia azedarach were used, with LC50 values of 0.06; 2.17 and 2.90%, respectively, being obtained. It was verified that the aqueous extracts of all of the appraised vegetable species affected the development of the insect, mainly in the larval phase. In the pupae phase, the extracts reduced the

  13. Preclinical evaluation of the supercritical extract of azadirachta indica (neem) leaves in vitro and in vivo on inhibition of prostate cancer tumor growth.

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    Wu, Qiang; Kohli, Manish; Bergen, H Robert; Cheville, John C; Karnes, R Jeffrey; Cao, Hong; Young, Charles Y F; Tindall, Donald J; McNiven, Mark A; Donkena, Krishna Vanaja

    2014-05-01

    Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, has gained worldwide prominence because of its medical properties, namely antitumor, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antifungal, and antibacterial activities. Despite these promising results, gaps remain in our understanding of the molecular mechanism of action of neem compounds and their potential for use in clinical trials. We investigated supercritical extract of neem leaves (SENL) for the following: molecular targets in vitro, in vivo efficacy to inhibit tumor growth, and bioactive compounds that exert antitumor activity. Treatment of LNCaP-luc2 prostate cancer cells with SENL suppressed dihydrotestosterone-induced androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen levels. SENL inhibited integrin β1, calreticulin, and focal adhesion kinase activation in LNCaP-luc2 and PC3 prostate cancer cells. Oral administration of SENL significantly reduced LNCaP-luc2 xenograft tumor growth in mice with the formation of hyalinized fibrous tumor tissue, reduction in the prostate-specific antigen, and increase in AKR1C2 levels. To identify the active anticancer compounds, we fractionated SENL by high-pressure liquid chromatography and evaluated 16 peaks for cytotoxic activity. Four of the 16 peaks exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against prostate cancer cells. Mass spectrometry of the isolated peaks suggested the compounds with cytotoxic activity were nimbandiol, nimbolide, 2',3'-dihydronimbolide, and 28-deoxonimbolide. Analysis of tumor tissue and plasma samples from mice treated with SENL indicated 28-deoxonimbolide and nimbolide as the bioactive compounds. Overall, our data revealed the bioactive compounds in SENL and suggested that the anticancer activity could be mediated through alteration in androgen receptor and calreticulin levels in prostate cancer.

  14. Comparison of Two Adsorbent Based de-Bittering Procedures for Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Tea- Effect on Polyphenols, Anti-Oxidant Capacity, Color and Volatile Profile.

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    Datta, Abhinandya; Grün, Ingolf U; Kwasniewski, Misha T; Fernando, Lakdas N

    2017-03-01

    Bitterness reduction, especially of foods and beverages containing phytonutrients, is one of the biggest challenges in the food industry because bitterness has a deleterious effect on the taste profile of foods and beverages. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is a medicinal tree, indigenous to the Indian-subcontinent, whose medicinal properties have led to it being heralded as the tree which is the "panacea for all diseases". However, neem leaf is extremely bitter, in large part due to its limonoid content, making it unpalatable. The objective of this study was to apply two adsorbent based strategies, namely solid phase extraction (SPE) and Amberlite XAD-16 (AMB) resin, to achieve de-bittering of neem tea and to determine the effects of the de-bittering on the bio-active, color and volatile properties. The solid SPE treatment completely removed the flavonol, quercetin, from neem tea while in Amberlite XAD-16 treated tea (AMB) it was only insignificantly (p > 0.05) reduced. We also observed decreases in total phenolic content and consequently anti-oxidant activities after de-bittering. A 62% mean reduction of limonoid aglycones indicated diminished levels of bitterness. The loss of phenolics lead to a visually appreciable color changes in the treated teas. The de-bittering also leads to a loss of sesquiterpenes, ketones and acids from neem tea. In conclusion, we found that while SPE cartridges were more efficient in removing bitterness, they caused a greater reduction in bio-active compounds than AMB XAD-16 resins, which may ultimately affect the health properties of neem tea.

  15. DETERMINACIÓN DE LA DL50 y TL50 DE EXTRACTOS ETANÓLICOS DE SUSPENSIONES CELULARES DE Azadirachta indica SOBRE Spodoptera frugiperda DETERMINATION OF THE LD50 AND THE LT50 ETHANOL’S EXTRACTS OF CELLULAR SUSPENSIONS FROM Azadirachta indica OVER Spodoptera frugiperda

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    Paula Andrea Trujillo Ruiz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La obtención in vitro de metabolitos secundarios de neem surge como una alternativa para la posible producción industrial de biocidas. Para la búsqueda de propuestas dirigidas al control de Spodoptera frugiperda, se evaluó la eficiencia de extractos etanólicos de suspensiones celulares de Azadirachta indica para determinar la DL50 y el TL50 sobre la fase larval del segundo ínstar (L2. Se probaron cuatro concentraciones de los extractos (2.500, 5.000, 10.000 y 30.000 ppm y el testigo (alcohol 96% para determinar la mortalidad en el tiempo (0, 12, 18, 25, 40 h. Se determinó una DL50 a las 12 h de 2.256 ppm (R² = 88,54%, a las 18 h de 3.928 ppm (R² = 90,3 %, a las 25 h de 2.818 ppm (R² = 90,3 % y a las 40 h de 1.064 ppm (R² =90,3 %. Las dosis de 5.000 ppm, 10.000 ppm y 30.000 ppm, no presentaron diferencia estadística en su acción letal, pero fueron efectivas en el control del insecto.The production in vitro of secondary metabolites from neem arises like an alternative for the possible industrial processing of biocidas. In the search of alternatives for the control of Spodoptera frugiperda, were evaluated ethanolic extracts of cellular suspensions from Azadirachta indica in order to determine the DL 50 and the TL50 on the larval state of the second “instar” (L2. Four concentrations of the extracts (2.500, 5.000, 10.000, and 30.000 ppm and the control (alcohol 96% to determine mortality in the time (0, 12, 18, 25, 40 hours were compared. It was determined a DL50 at the 12 hours of 2.256 ppm, (R2 = 88, 54%, at the 18 hours of 3.928 ppm, (R2 = 90,30%, at the 25 hours of 2.818 ppm, (R2 = 90,30% and at the 40 hours of 1.064 ppm, (R2 =90,30%. The doses of 5.000 ppm, 10.000 ppm and 30.000 ppm, didn't present differences statistically significant in their lethal action, but were effective in the insect control.

  16. EFECTO DE LA RELACIÓN AGITACIÓN-AIREACIÓN SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO CELULAR Y LA PRODUCCIÓN DE AZADIRACTINA EN CULTIVOS CELULARES DE AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. JUSS AGITATION-AERATION RELATION EFFECTS ON CELL CULTURE OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. JUSS NEEM ON AZADIRACHTIN PRODUCTION IN A STIRRED TANK BIOREACTOR

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    Juan Carlos Bedoya Pérez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la producción de azadiractina a partir de células de Azadirachta indica A. Juss, establecidas en un biorreactor sometido a variaciones en la velocidad de agitación y el caudal del aire suministrado al medio de cultivo. Además, se determinó el efecto del oxigeno disuelto en el medio de cultivo, sobre el crecimiento celular y la producción del metabolito, mediante la estimación del coeficiente de transferencia de oxígeno (kLa, la velocidad de transferencia de oxígeno (OTR, la velocidad de consumo de oxígeno (OUR y el consumo celular específico de oxígeno (SOUR. Los resultados mostraron que el crecimiento celular y la producción de azadiractina, están fuertemente influenciados por las condiciones de mezclado presentes en el biorreactor, indicando un alto grado de sensibilidad de las células al estrés hidrodinámico. Por otra parte, se evidenció que los valores de kLa y OTR aumentaron al incrementar la velocidad de agitación y aireación, lo que favoreció la transferencia de masa, mientras que ocurrió lo contrario con la OUR y la SOUR, posiblemente debido a la pérdida de la viabilidad celular, al incrementar los esfuerzos cortantes dentro del biorreactor.It was evaluated the production of azadiractin from cells of Azadirachta indica A. Juss, established in a biorreactor submitted to variations in the speed of agitation and the air flow provided to the culture medium. Besides, it was determined the effect of the oxygen dissolved in the culture medium, on cellular growth and production of the metabolite, by means of estimating the oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa , oxygen transfer rate (OTR, oxygen uptake rate (OUR, and the cellular specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR. The results showed that the cellular growth and azadiractin production, are strongly influenced by the mixed conditions in the biorreactor, indicating a high degree of sensitivity of cells to the hydrodinamic stress. On the other hand, it was evident that k

  17. Efeito dos extratos aquoso e oleoso de Nim [Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae] na produção de patulina em maçãs contaminadas por Penicillium expansum Effect of aqueous and oily extracts of Neem [Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae] on patulin production in apples contaminated with Penicillium expansum

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    Carla Cristina Arroteia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A Região Sul do Brasil é grande produtora de maçã, sendo 80% destinada ao consumo in natura. As micotoxinas são metabólitos secundários de fungos presentes na cadeia alimentar como contaminantes, causando diversos efeitos toxicológicos e imunológicos. Considerando que a patulina seja uma micotoxina produzida por Penicillium expansum, principal contaminante da maçã propôs-se investigar a ação de extratos aquoso e oleoso de Nim (Azadirachta indica em maçã artificialmente contaminada. Foram testados dois tipos de extratos: o extrato aquoso obtido de maceração de folhas de Nim nas concentrações de 5, 10, 20 e 30%, e o extrato oleoso comercial (DalNeem®, obtido de sementes de Nim, nas concentrações de 0,125, 0,25, 0,5, 1, 2 e 5%. Os extratos aquosos não alteram a produção da patulina em maçãs contaminadas artificialmente por P. expansum, mas o extrato oleoso obtido das sementes da planta diminuiu acentuadamente a produção de patulina, inclusive em concentrações inferiores a 0,5%.The South region of Brazil is a major apple producer, where 80% is destined to the "in natura" consumption. The mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites present as contaminants in the food chain, causing several toxicological and immunological effect. Patulin is a mycotoxin mainly produced by Penicillium expansum and well known as the main contaminant in apples. Due to this contamination, the aim of this work was to access the effect of Neem extract (Azadirachta indica on artificially contaminated apples. Two types of Neem extracts were tested: the aqueous extracts of Neem leafs at 5, 10, 20 and 30% concentrations, and commercial seed oil of Neem (DalNeem® at 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5% in water. Although the addition of Neem aqueous extracts in artificially contaminated apples with P. expansum was unable to affect the patulin production, the Neem seed oil extract at concentrations as lower as 0.5%, caused a pronounced diminution over

  18. The effect of sub-lethal doses of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae oil on the midgut of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae Efeito de doses subletais do óleo de Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae no mesêntero de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae

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    Antonia Railda Roel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, is one of the major field pests for maize production. It is mainly controlled by means of synthetic, and more recently by resistant cultivar of maize expressing Bt toxins. The neem tree, Azadirachta indica, is a plant that can potentially control insects with the advantage of being food and environmental safe. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of neem oil on the development and survival of S. frugiperda caterpillars by assessing histological alterations caused on their midgut. Newly hatched caterpillars were submitted to three neem oil concentrations: 0.006; 0.05; 0.4%, which were added to their artificial diet. Ten 3rd instar caterpillars, taken from each treatment, were submitted to histological analysis. The alimentary canals from the specimens were fixed in Baker for 12 hours, desiccated and diaphanized in alcohol/xylol (1:1 and xylol. After placing the samples in paraffin, they were sliced in 8 µm sections and stained with hematoxylin-eosin stain. The neem oil added to the diet of S. frugiperda caused total mortality at dose of 0.4% whilst still in the first instars, prolonged the larval and pupal stages, and reduced the pupal weight. Histo-physiological alterations such as degeneration of the epithelial lining of the midgut and in the peritrophic matrix were found at all concentrations of neem oil.A lagarta-do-cartucho, Spodoptera frugiperda, é a mais importante praga da cultura do milho. Esta é usualmente, controlada por inseticidas sintéticos e mais atualmente por meio de variedades resistentes de milho com a toxina Bt. O nim Azadirachta indica é planta com potencial no controle de insetos, que possui as vantagens de segurança alimentar e ambiental. Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar o efeito do óleo do nim no desenvolvimento e sobrevivência de lagartas de S. frugiperda em decorrência das alterações no mesêntero. As lagartas recém nascidas foram submetidas a tr

  19. Development and evaluation of antimicrobial herbal formulations containing the methanolic extract of Samadera indica for skin diseases.

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    Viswanad, Vidya; Aleykutty, N A; Jayakar, B; Zacharia, Subin Mary; Thomas, Litha

    2012-04-01

    Samadera indica Gaetrn (Simaroubaceae) is claimed to possess various pharmacological activities like antioxidant, antifungal, antitumor, antiviral, and so on, but its taste is bitter. The aim of the present study is to investigate the toxicity of the methanolic extract and to develop suitable herbal formulations of the methanolic extract of Samadera indica, having efficient antimicrobial activity. The methanolic extract prepared from the dried leaves of Samadera indica by continuous hot percolation, were used to examine the toxicity, according to the OECD 423 guidelines, in Swiss Albino mice. Topical formulations were prepared by incorporating Samadera indica (5% w / w) in an emulsifying ointment and a carbopol gel base and evaluated for physical parameters and in-vitro antimicrobial activity (S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans). The study reveals that no animals under the study showed any clinical signs of toxicity or mortality when administered a dose of 5 - 2000 mg / kg body weight. Therefore, the maximum tolerated dose of the methanolic extract of Samadera indica was above 2000 mg / kg body weight. The formulated ointment and gel had acceptable physical parameters that showed that they were compatible with the skin, and in addition to this, these formulations passed the short-term stability studies. The in-vitro antimicrobial activity studies showed that the formulated ointment showed significantly strong (p gel. Thus, the present study concludes that the formulated ointment and gel are safe and efficient antimicrobial formulations for the topical delivery of the methanolic extract of Samadera indica.

  20. Toxic effects of the neem oil (Azadirachta indica) formulation on the stink bug predator, Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

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    Zanuncio, José Cola; Mourão, Sheila Abreu; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Ramalho, Francisco S.; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of neem oil on mortality, survival and malformations of the non-target stink bug predator, Podisus nigrispinus. Neurotoxic and growth inhibitor insecticides were used to compare the lethal and sublethal effects from neem oil on this predator. Six concentrations of neem oil were topically applied onto nymphs and adults of this predator. The mortality rates of third, fourth, and fifth instar nymphs increased with increasing neem oil concentrations, suggesting low toxicity to P. nigrispinus nymphs. Mortality of adults was low, but with sublethal effects of neem products on this predator. The developmental rate of P. nigrispinus decreased with increasing neem oil concentrations. Longevity of fourth instar nymphs varied from 3.74 to 3.05 d, fifth instar from 5.94 to 4.07 d and adult from 16.5 and 15.7 d with 0.5 and 50% neem doses. Podisus nigrispinus presented malformations and increase with neem oil concentrations. The main malformations occur in wings, scutellum and legs of this predator. The neem oil at high and sub lethal doses cause mortality, inhibits growth and survival and results in anomalies on wings and legs of the non-traget predator P. nigrispinus indicating that its use associated with biological control should be carefully evaluated. PMID:27596436

  1. 不同林龄杂交楝(Azadirachta indica× Melia azedarach)人工林土壤水土保持功能研究%Soil and Water Conservation Functions of Azadirachta indica×Melia azedarach Plantation at Different Ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成向荣; 虞木奎; 周卫兵; 何祯祥

    2012-01-01

    为了明确林龄对杂交楝(印楝×苦楝)人工林土壤水土保持功能的影响,通过测定土壤持水能力、渗透能力和抗蚀能力来综合评价不同林龄杂交楝人工林保持水土功能.结果表明,随着杂交楝林龄增加,林地土壤孔隙结构得到改善、持水性能增加、渗透能力增大,提高了土壤水稳性指数,增加了土壤抗蚀性,土壤水土保持功能得到增强.3年生杂交楝林分的土壤持水性能、渗透能力和抗蚀性与1年生林分之间无显著差异,5年生杂交楝林地各指标均比1年生和3年生林分有显著提高.5年生杂交楝林地的土壤最大持水量、总孔隙度、非毛管孔隙度、平均渗透速率和水稳性指数分别比1年生林地增加18.6%、11.4%、19.8%、45%、30.1%.因此,种植杂交楝可以在短期内提高林分的土壤水土保持功能,在山地丘陵地区值得大力发展杂交楝.%In order to evaluate the effect of forest age of Azadirachta indica×Melia azedarach (hybrid neem tree) plantation on soil and water conservation function, soil water-holding capacity, infiltration capacity and erosion resistance of hybrid neem plantation in different ages were studied. The results showed that soil pore structure, soil water-holding capacity, infiltration capacity, and soil erosion resistance increased with the increase of hybrid neem stand age, soil and water conservation function was further enhanced. Soil water-holding capacity, infiltration capacity, and soil erosion resistance were not significant difference between 3-year-old and 1-year-old hybrid neem stands, however, these variables of the 5-year-old hybrid neem stand were significantly higher than that of 1-year-old and 3-year-old stands. Compared to 1-year-old stand, maximal soil water-holding capacity, total porosity, non-capillary porosity, the average infiltration rate and water stability index of the 5-year-old hybrid neem stand increased by 18.6%, 11.4%, 19.8%, 45

  2. Development and evaluation of antimicrobial herbal formulations containing the methanolic extract of Samadera indica for skin diseases

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    Vidya Viswanad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Samadera indica Gaetrn (Simaroubaceae is claimed to possess various pharmacological activities like antioxidant, antifungal, antitumor, antiviral, and so on, but its taste is bitter. The aim of the present study is to investigate the toxicity of the methanolic extract and to develop suitable herbal formulations of the methanolic extract of Samadera indica, having efficient antimicrobial activity. The methanolic extract prepared from the dried leaves of Samadera indica by continuous hot percolation, were used to examine the toxicity, according to the OECD 423 guidelines, in Swiss Albino mice. Topical formulations were prepared by incorporating Samadera indica (5% w / w in an emulsifying ointment and a carbopol gel base and evaluated for physical parameters and in-vitro antimicrobial activity (S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. The study reveals that no animals under the study showed any clinical signs of toxicity or mortality when administered a dose of 5 - 2000 mg / kg body weight. Therefore, the maximum tolerated dose of the methanolic extract of Samadera indica was above 2000 mg / kg body weight. The formulated ointment and gel had acceptable physical parameters that showed that they were compatible with the skin, and in addition to this, these formulations passed the short-term stability studies. The in-vitro antimicrobial activity studies showed that the formulated ointment showed significantly strong (p < 0.05 activity against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans than the formulated gel. Thus, the present study concludes that the formulated ointment and gel are safe and efficient antimicrobial formulations for the topical delivery of the methanolic extract of Samadera indica.

  3. In vitro and in vivo effects of neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) products on larvae of the sheep nose bot fly (Oestrus ovis L. Díptera: Oestridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda-Palacios, R; Servín, R; Ramírez-Orduña, J M; Ascencio, F; Dorchies, P; Angulo-Valadez, C E

    2014-02-24

    Two studies were carried out in order to test the effects of neem tree extracts (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on sheep bot fly larvae (Oestrus ovis L. Diptera: Oestridae). First, aqueous extracts from neem seeds (ASNE) at 0, 5 y 10% (w/v) concentrations were tested on larval mortality in vitro. In a second study, the effect of oral administration with neem seed meal (0, 100 y 200mg/kg) and neem leaves (1% of diet) on number of larvae found at necropsy and larval development was evaluated in experimentally O. ovis-infected sheep. Results in Experiment 1 showed a significant (P<0.05) effect of ASNE on time to L1 mortality in a dosis-dependent manner. In Experiment 2, oral administration of seeds or leaves did not affect the number of larvae found at necropsy of the sheep, but interfered with larval development and there was a tendency to reduce larval weight at the end of the infection period (55d).

  4. Evaluation of wound healing activity of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves on incision and excision wound models in Wister albino rats

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    H. N. Nagesh

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The study revealed promising wound healing activity of ethanolic extract of A. indica and provides a scientific rationale for the traditional use in the management of wounds. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(6.000: 1178-1182

  5. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activity of a New Tablets Formulation from Tamarindus indica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Amado, Jesús Rafael; Lafourcade Prada, Ariadna; Escalona Arranz, Julio Cesar; Pérez Rosés, Renato; Morris Quevedo, Humberto; Keita, Hady; Puente Zapata, Edgar; Pinho Fernandes, Caio; Tavares Carvalho, José Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Hepatotoxic chemicals damage liver cells primarily by producing reactive oxygen species. The decoction of the leaves of Tamarindus indica L. is used for liver disorders. In this work we evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of a tablet formulation of this plant. Thirty-five Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 7). First group (I) is control group, fed with standard diet. Groups II to V (hepatotoxic groups) were subjected to a subcutaneous injection of CCl4 (0.5 mL/kg). Group II was negative control, fed with standard diet; group III was subjected to administration of Silymarin 150 mg/kg and groups IV and V were treated with tablets in dose of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, respectively. Lipid peroxidation and the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and reduced glutathione were evaluated. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamine transferase, alkaline phosphatase, and a lipid profile were evaluated too. The tablets inhibit lipid peroxidation. The redox balance (SOD-CAT-GSH) remains normal in the experimental groups treated with tablets. The liver function using dose of 200 mg/kg of tablets was better than the other experimental groups. These results justify, scientifically, the ethnobotanical use of the leaves of Tamarindus indica L.

  6. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activity of a New Tablets Formulation from Tamarindus indica L.

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    Jesús Rafael Rodriguez Amado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatotoxic chemicals damage liver cells primarily by producing reactive oxygen species. The decoction of the leaves of Tamarindus indica L. is used for liver disorders. In this work we evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of a tablet formulation of this plant. Thirty-five Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=7. First group (I is control group, fed with standard diet. Groups II to V (hepatotoxic groups were subjected to a subcutaneous injection of CCl4 (0.5 mL/kg. Group II was negative control, fed with standard diet; group III was subjected to administration of Silymarin 150 mg/kg and groups IV and V were treated with tablets in dose of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, respectively. Lipid peroxidation and the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and reduced glutathione were evaluated. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamine transferase, alkaline phosphatase, and a lipid profile were evaluated too. The tablets inhibit lipid peroxidation. The redox balance (SOD-CAT-GSH remains normal in the experimental groups treated with tablets. The liver function using dose of 200 mg/kg of tablets was better than the other experimental groups. These results justify, scientifically, the ethnobotanical use of the leaves of Tamarindus indica L.

  7. Effect of pest controlling neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium Jacquin) leaf extracts on emission of green house gases and inorganic-N content in urea-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Bautista, Joaquín; Fernández-Luqueño, Fabián; López-Valdez, Fernando; Mendoza-Cristino, Reyna; Montes-Molina, Joaquín A; Gutierrez-Miceli, F A; Dendooven, L

    2009-07-01

    Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Gliricidia sepium Jacquin, locally known as 'mata-raton', are used to control pests of maize. Their application, however, is known to affect soil microorganisms. We investigated if these extracts affected emissions of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), important greenhouse gases, and dynamics of soil inorganic N. Soil was treated with extracts of neem, mata-raton or lambda-cyhalothrin, used as chemical control. The soil was amended with or without urea and incubated at 40% and 100% water holding capacity (WHC). Concentrations of ammonium (NH4+), nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitrate (NO3(-)) and emissions of CH4, CO2 and N2O were monitored for 7d. Treating urea-amended soil with extracts of neem, mata-raton or lambda-cyhalothrin reduced the emission of CO2 significantly compared to the untreated soil with the largest decrease found in the latter. Oxidation of CH4 was inhibited by extracts of neem in the unamended soil, and by neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin in the urea-amended soil compared to the untreated soil. Neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin reduced the N2O emission from the unamended soil incubated at 40%WHC compared to the untreated soil. Extracts of neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin had no significant effect on dynamics of NH4(+), NO2(-) and NO(3)(-). It was found that emission of CO2 and oxidation of CH4 was inhibited in the urea-amended soil treated with extracts of neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin, but ammonification, N2O emission and nitrification were not affected.

  8. Eficacia del extracto de las hojas del NeemAzadirachta indica A. Juss en el control de nemátodos gastrointestinales en ovino Pelibuey - Efficiency of the Neem Azadirachta indica A. Juss leaf extract in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in Pelibuey sheep

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    Dublín, Devon Ronald, MVZ (Tesista

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenCon el objetivo de evaluar el efecto del extracto acuoso de las hojas de Neem (Azadirachtina indica A. Juss sobre los nemátodos gastrointestinales en ovinos, se llevó a cabo un experimento en la colonia de ovino de CENPALAB.AbstractWith the objective of evaluating the effects of the watery extract of Neem (Azadirachtina indica A. Juss leaves on gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep, an experiment in the ovine colony of CENPALAB was carried out.

  9. Physiologic and Metabolic Benefits of Formulated Diets and Mangifera indica in Fluoride Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karn, Sanjay S; Narasimhacharya, A V R L

    2015-06-01

    Fluorosis is a major health problem affecting normal physiological and metabolic functions in people living in endemic fluoride areas. The present work was aimed at investigating the role of basal, high carbohydrate low protein (HCLP) and high protein low carbohydrate (HPLC) diets and Mangifera indica fruit powder as a food supplement in fluoride-induced metabolic toxicity. Exposure to fluoride resulted in elevation of plasma glucose levels, ACP, ALP, SGPT, SGOT, and hepatic G-6-Pase activities, plasma and hepatic lipid profiles with decreased plasma protein, HDL-C, hepatic glycogen content and hexokinase activity in basal, HCLP and HPLC diet fed albino rats. However among the three diets tested, HPLC diet was found to be relatively, a better metabolic regulator. All the three formulated diets (basal, HCLP and HPLC) supplemented with mango fruit powder (5 and 10 g), decreased plasma glucose content, ACP, ALP, SGPT, SGOT and hepatic G-6-Pase activities and plasma as well as hepatic lipid profiles. These diets also elevated the hepatic glycogen content and hexokinase activities. These effects however, were prominent with the HPLC diet supplemented with mango fruit powder and, among the two doses of mango fruit powder, the higher dose (10 g) yielded more promising results. It is surmised that the micronutrients and phytochemicals present in the diets and the mango fruit could be responsible for attenuation of fluoride-induced metabolic toxicity.

  10. Analysis of Fruit Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition of Seed Kernel Oil in Azadirachta indica ×Melia azedarach%杂交楝果实含油量及籽油脂肪酸组成分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱春玲; 周卫兵; 何祯祥

    2012-01-01

    The fruit oil content of 7-years-old hybrid neem tree which was produced from Azadirachta indica A. Juss and Melia azedarach by somatic hybridization technology, and the fatty acid composition of seed kernel oil were analyzed. Results showed lower oil content in fruit peel and fruit pulp, i.e. 1.65 % and 1.53 %, respectively. However, high oil content (39.20 % ) in seed kernel was found. Seed kernel oil was analyzed by GC-MS and six kinds of fatty acids were determined. There were linoleic acid( C18 : 2) 67.00 % , oleic acid ( C18 : 1 ) 18.03 % , palmitic acid ( C16 : 0 ) 8.96 %, stearic acid ( C18 : 0 ) 3.94 %, arachidic acid (C20:0)0.35 % and unknown fatty acid 1.72 %. The content of unsaturated fatty acid of seed kernel oil was 85.03%. Compared with the M. azedarach, the oil content of hybrid neem tree seed kernel was 1.6 percentage points higher.%对印楝和苦楝2个亲本采用体细胞融合技术杂交形成的7年生杂交楝进行了果实含油量测定,并对其籽油进行了脂肪酸组成分析。结果表明:果皮和果肉含油量较低,分别为1.65%和1.53%;种仁含油量较高,为39.20%。种仁经提取获得籽油后进行甲酯化处理,再进行GC—MS分析,共检测出6种脂肪酸。它们是亚油酸(C18:2)67.00%、油酸(C18:1)18.03%、棕榈酸(C16:0)8.96%、硬脂酸(C18:0)3.94%、花生酸(C20:0)0.35%和未知脂肪酸1.72%;其中不饱和脂肪酸占85.03%。杂交楝种仁含油量比苦楝高出1.6个百分点。

  11. 氮素对印楝愈伤组织和悬浮细胞培养的影响%Effects of Nitrogen on Azadirachta indica A. Juss Callus and Suspension Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩广建; 李兴林; 别振宇; 张国运

    2015-01-01

    通过改变印楝组织培养基中硝态氮与铵态氮物质的量比,并与培养物的生物量、可溶性蛋白含量、印楝素、柠檬苦素含量相关联,探讨了 MS 培养基中氮素对印楝愈伤组织和悬浮细胞培养的影响.实验结果表明:在印楝的愈伤组织培养过程中,当硝态氮与铵态氮物质的量比为 4:1 时,生物量、可溶性蛋白含量、印楝素以及柠檬苦素含量均达到最大积累量;在悬浮细胞培养的过程中,当硝态氮与铵态氮物质的量比为 3:1 时,可溶性蛋白含量、印楝素以及柠檬苦素含量达到最高,而在 2:1 时生物量达到最大.因此,印楝组织培养的不同阶段应该采用不同形式氮素比例的培养基,只有这样才能获得最佳的目标培养物.%To study the effects of nitrogen in MS medium on neem(Azadirachta indica A. Juss)tissue culture,we deter-mined the biomass,soluble protein content,azadirachtin and limonoid contents of neem callus and suspension cells in the end of their cultures by changing the ratio between nitrate and ammonium. The results indicate,that while culturing callus, the four measurement indicators reached the maximum accumulation when the ratio of nitrate to ammonium was 4:1;while culturing suspension cells,the soluble protein contain,azadirachtin and limonoids contains got their maximum whenthe ratio of nitrate to ammonium was 3:1,but the maximum biomass was obtained when the ratio was 2:1. In conclusion,the ratio between nitrate and ammonium in the MS medium should be corresponded with the objects being cultured at different peri-ods.Only in this way,can we get the best target cultures.

  12. Comparative Antioxidant Activity of Water Extract of ,em>Azadiractha indica Stem Bark and Telfairia occidentalis Leaf

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    C.P. Anokwuru

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of Azadirachta indica stem bark and Telfairia occidentalis leaf aqueous extract was studied. The Total Phenolic Content (TPC was determined using folin Ciocalteu method while the Total Flavonoid Content (TFC was determined using aluminum chloride method. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazine (DPPH inhibition. Telfairia occidentalis extracted more phenols (11.32g GAE/ 100g than Azadirachta indica stem bark (10.74g GAE/100g but not significantly different (p<0.05. Azadirachta indica stem bark extracted more flavonoid content (5.21g QE/100g than Telfairia occidentalis leaf (0.96g QE/100g. Azadirachta indica stem bark inhibited more free radicals (83% than Telfairia occidentalis leaf (65%. This study showed that Azadirachta indica stem bark had higher antioxidant activity compared to Telfairia occidentalis leaf.

  13. Use of Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill extracts from Brazilian Caatinga as an alternative of natural moisturizer in cosmetic formulations

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    Gabriel Azevedo de Brito Damasceno

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was the obtainment of Opuntia fícus-indica (L. Mill extract for the development of cosmetic formulations and in vivo evaluation of its moisturizing effects. The formulations were tested for preliminary and accelerated stability. Organoleptic characteristics, pH values and rheological behavior were assessed. The evaluation of moisturizing efficacy of the emulsions formulated with 3.0% of Polyacrylamide (and C13-14 Isoparaffin (and Laureth-7 containing 1.0 and 3.0% of O. ficus-indica hydroglycolic extract (EHG001 was performed using the capacitance method (Corneometer(r and the transepidermal water loss - TEWL evaluation (Tewameter(r. The emulsions formulated were stable, exhibiting pseudoplastic and thixotropic behavior. The results of evaluation of moisturizing efficacy showed increased skin hydration after five hours by mainly increasing the skin barrier effect. The formulations containing 1.0 and 3.0% of EHG001 enhanced the skin barrier effect by reducing TEWL up to four hours after application. The results observed suggest that O. ficus-indica hydroglycolic extract may act through a humectant and occlusion mechanism.

  14. ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF POLYHERBO-MINERAL FORMULATION JATYADI TAILA - A REVIEW

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    Singh Baljinder

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Jatyadi taila is a Polyherbo-mineral ayurvedic preparation which is used for topical application on the burns and scalds. In ayurveda Jatyadi taila is an extremely useful as wound healer as it possesses antimicrobial activity. It is also useful in various skin afflictions. This formulation chiefly contains the plants Curcuma longa, Azadirachta indica, Symplocos racemosa, Jasminum auriculatum, Sesame indicum, Copper which individually have been successfully shown antimicrobial activity scientifically. This review explains the antimicrobial potential of each ingredient present in this polyherbo-mineral ayurvedic formulation and needs a scientific exploration so as to document its therapeutic effectiveness.

  15. Comparative Antioxidant Activity of Water Extract of ,em>Azadiractha indica Stem Bark and Telfairia occidentalis Leaf

    OpenAIRE

    C.P. Anokwuru; O. Ajibaye; A. Adesuyi

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of Azadirachta indica stem bark and Telfairia occidentalis leaf aqueous extract was studied. The Total Phenolic Content (TPC) was determined using folin Ciocalteu method while the Total Flavonoid Content (TFC) was determined using aluminum chloride method. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazine (DPPH) inhibition. Telfairia occidentalis extracted more phenols (11.32g GAE/ 100g) than Azadirachta indica stem bark (10.74g GAE/100g) but ...

  16. Studies on Application of the Extract from Azadirachta indica A.Juss for Control of Plutella xylostella L.Larvae%印楝素对小菜蛾幼虫的防治效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄春萍; 李琪; 程晋伟; 陈洁; 宗浩

    2012-01-01

    为了研究无公害生物农药对小菜蛾的防治效果,采用固-液连续萃取法提取印楝(Azadirachta india A.Juss)种仁的活性物质,减压浓缩后得到粗提物,得率13.8%;应用高效液相色谱测得浸膏中楝素的含量为17 mg/g.室内毒力测定结果表明该提取物对小菜蛾(Plutella xylostella L.)幼虫具有较强的毒杀作用;用不同稀释倍数的种仁甲醇粗提物对小菜蛾幼虫进行了拒食作用的测定,试虫的拒食率分别达到37.5%、47.6%和61.9%.结果表明印楝提取物对小菜蛾幼虫具有较好的防治效果.%The toxieity of the extract from neem tree (Azadiachta Mica A.Juss) to the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L. ) was evaluated in laboratory to study the application of the pollution-free biological pesticides. The extracting rate of the methanol extract from neem kernel was 13.8 % ,and the azadiraehtin obtained was 17 mg/g by HPLC. In a laboratory study, the methanol extract was effective against the diamondback moth larvae. The antifeedant effect of the diamondback moth larvae on the extract from neem tree was determined. The antifeedant rate of the different concentrations against the diamondback moth larvae were 37.5 %, 46.7 % and 61.9 %, respectively, 24 h after treated by feeding method. The results showed that the extract from the neem had strong control of the diamondback moth.

  17. Standardization of some herbal antidiabetic drugs in polyherbal formulation

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    Harinarayan Singh Chandel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ayurvedic formulations are used to treat a wide variety of diseases including diabetes mellitus Standardization of herbal formulation is essential in order to assess the quality of drugs. The present paper reports standardization of eight herbal anti-diabetic drugs−Momordica charantia (seeds, Syzigium cumini (seeds, Trigonella foenum (seeds, Azadirachta indica (leaves, Emblica offi cinalis (fruits, Curcuma longa (rhizomes, Gymnema sylvestre (leaves, Pterocarpus marsupium (heart-wood individually and in polyherbal marketed samples of Baidyanath Madhumehari Churna Material and Methods: Shivayu Madhuhari Churna, Meghdut Madhushoonya Churna and were compared to the in-house preparation for physicochemical properties. Results and Conclusions: The limits obtained from the different physicochemical parameters of the individual eight herbal drugs and the marketed formulations could be used as reference standard for standardization of the anti-diabetic drugs in a quality control laboratory.

  18. First results of the application of a new Neemazal powder formulation in hydroponics against different pest insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Edmund; Kleeberg, Hubertus

    2002-01-01

    NeemAzal PC (0.5% Azadirachtin) is a new standardised powder formulation from the seed kernels of the tropical Neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) with an inert carrier. First experiments with beans--as a model-system for hydroponics--show that active ingredient is taken up by the plants through the roots and is transported efficiently with the plant sap to the leaves. After application of NeemAzal PC solution (0.01-1%) to the roots sucking (Aphis fabae Hom., Aphididae) and free feeding (Heliothis armigera Lep., Noctuidae) pest insects can be controlled efficiently. The effects are concentration and time dependent.

  19. Effect of formulated root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria fluorescent pseudomonads R62 and R81 on Vigna mungo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Sarma, M V R K; Saharan, Krishna; Srivastava, Rashmi; Kumar, Lalit; Sahai, Vikram; Bisaria, V S; Sharma, A K

    2012-02-01

    In the present investigation, the effect of three beneficial organisms (root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica (Pi) and pseudomonads strains R62 and R81) and their four different consortia (Pi+R62, Pi+R81, R62+R81, Pi+R62+R81) was investigated on the plant Vigna mungo through their inorganic carrier-based (talcum powder and vermiculite) formulations. All the treatments resulted in significant increase in growth parameters under glasshouse as well as field conditions and showed a consistency in their performance on moving from glasshouse to field conditions. In glasshouse conditions, a maximum increase of 4.5-fold in dry root weight and 3.9-fold in dry shoot weight compared to control was obtained with vermiculite-based consortium formulation of Pi+R81. In field studies using vermiculite as carrier, a maximum enhancement of 3.2-fold in dry root weight, 3.0-fold in dry shoot weight, 8.4-fold in number of nodules and 4.0-fold in number of pods in comparison to control was obtained with the bio-inoculant formulation containing consortium of Pi+R81. The same treatment also caused the highest improvement of 1.9-fold in nitrogen content and 1.7-fold in phosphorus content, while the highest increase of 1.4-fold in potassium content was obtained with Pi alone.

  20. 接种量与通气比对印楝悬浮细胞生长及印楝素产量的影响%Effects of Inoculum Size and Compression/ventilation Ratio on Growth of Azadirachta indica Suspension Cells and Azadirachin Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云竹; 钟秋平

    2015-01-01

    为印楝悬浮细胞扩大培养提供依据,利用5 L 气升式发酵罐,以印楝悬浮细胞作种子细胞,研究接种量与通气比对印楝悬浮细胞生长和印楝素产量的影响。结果表明:在反应器中,印楝悬浮细胞生长和印楝素产量呈偶联型;种子细胞适宜接种量和通气比分别为60 g/L 和0.2 vvm,在此条件下,悬浮培养基质中的 pH 呈先降后升的变化趋势,细胞干重和印楝素产量分别为11.41 g DW/L 和8.32 mg/g,添加复合诱导子后48 h 印楝素产量最大,达94.78 mg/L。%The effects of inoculum size and compression/ventilation ratio on growth of A.indica suspension cells and A.indica yield were analyzed when A.indica suspension cells was cultured in 5 L airilift ferment reactor to provide a reference for enlarging culture of A.indica suspension cells.The results showed that growth of A.indica suspension cells and A.indica yield in the airilift ferment reactor represent a coupled type.The optimum inoculum size and compression/ventilation ratio for A.indica suspension cells is 60 g/L and 0.2 vvm respectively.The cell dry weight and azadirachin yield are 11.41 g DW/L and 8.32 mg/g under the optimum culture conditions respectively.Adding compound inductors can improve azadirachin yield significantly and the azadirachin yield reaches 94.78 mg/L after 48 h.

  1. Effects of combined leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina and Azadirachta indica on hepatic morphology and hepatotoxicity markers in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats%扁桃斑鸠菊及非洲印楝叶的提取物对链脲佐菌素致糖尿病大鼠肝脏形态学及肝毒性标志物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oluwole Busayo Akinola; Gabriel Olaiya Omotoso; Oluwafunmike Sharon Akinola; Olufunke Olubusola Dosumu; EstherTomiAdewoye

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究扁桃斑鸠菊及非洲印楝叶的提取物对链脲佐菌素致糖尿病大鼠肝脏形态学、肝脏氧化性应激标志物及部分肝脏酶类的影响.方法:大鼠腹腔注射链脲佐菌素致糖尿病.不同治疗组大鼠分别口服扁桃斑鸠菊及非洲印楝叶的提取物(500mg/kg)或二甲双胍(150 mg/kg),疗程8周,每周测量大鼠的血糖水平及体质量变化.8周后麻醉处死大鼠.取肝组织制成切片,希夫染色法染色,并测量肝匀浆中丙二醛和谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶的含量;下腔静脉采血,分离血浆,检测血浆中丙氨酸氨基转移酶和天冬氨酸氨基转移酶的活性.结果:二甲双胍及植物提取物均能显著改善糖尿病大鼠的血糖水平,且与糖尿病模型组相比,治疗组的体质量明显增加(P<0.05).光学显微镜下,各组大鼠的肝脏形态学无明显差别.植物提取物治疗组大鼠的血浆丙氨酸氨基转移酶及天冬氨酸氨基转移酶的活性与正常对照组相比无明显变化(P>0.05),而丙二醛含量明显下降(P<0.05).结论:扁桃斑鸠菊及非洲印楝叶的提取物对糖尿病大鼠有明显的降糖作用,而肝脏形态学及肝毒性标志物没有明显变化.%Objectives: In this work,we studied liver morphology,markers of hepatic oxidative stress and some liver enzymes in diabetic rats treated with the combined leaf extract (CLE) of Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf) and Azadirachta indica (neem).Methods: Diabetes was induced in fasted male Wistar rats with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ).Oral CLE (500 mg/kg body weight) and metformin (150 mg/kg body weight) were administered to different groups of diabetic rats for eight weeks.Blood glucose and change in body weight were estimated weekly.All animals were sacrificed under anaesthesia after eight weeks.Hepatic sections were stained with periodic acid-Schiff.Liver samples were homogenized and assayed for contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and

  2. Antidiabetic Properties of Azardiracta indica and Bougainvillea spectabilis: In Vivo Studies in Murine Diabetes Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Menakshi; Kothiwale, Sandeepkumar K; Tirmale, Amruta R; Bhargava, Shobha Y; Joshi, Bimba N

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic syndrome characterized by an increase in the blood glucose level. Treatment of diabetes is complicated due to multifactorial nature of the disease. Azadirachta indica Adr. Juss and Bougainvillea spectabilis are reported to have medicinal values including antidiabetic properties. In the present study using invivo diabetic murine model, A. indica and B. spectabilis chloroform, methanolic and aqueous extracts were investigated for the biochemical parameters important for controlling diabetes. It was found that A. indica chloroform extract and B. spectabilis aqueous, methanolic extracts showed a good oral glucose tolerance and significantly reduced the intestinal glucosidase activity. Interestingly, A. indica chloroform and B. spectabilis aqueous extracts showed significant increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and hepatic, skeletal muscle glycogen content after 21 days of treatment. In immunohistochemical analysis, we observed a regeneration of insulin-producing cells and corresponding increase in the plasma insulin and c-peptide levels with the treatment of A. indica chloroform and B. spectabilis aqueous, methanolic extracts. Analyzing the results, it is clear that A. indica chloroform and B. spectabilis aqueous extracts are good candidates for developing new neutraceuticals treatment for diabetes.

  3. Antidiabetic Properties of Azardiracta indica and Bougainvillea spectabilis: In Vivo Studies in Murine Diabetes Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menakshi Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic syndrome characterized by an increase in the blood glucose level. Treatment of diabetes is complicated due to multifactorial nature of the disease. Azadirachta indica Adr. Juss and Bougainvillea spectabilis are reported to have medicinal values including antidiabetic properties. In the present study using in vivo diabetic murine model, A. indica and B. spectabilis chloroform, methanolic and aqueous extracts were investigated for the biochemical parameters important for controlling diabetes. It was found that A. indica chloroform extract and B. spectabilis aqueous, methanolic extracts showed a good oral glucose tolerance and significantly reduced the intestinal glucosidase activity. Interestingly, A. indica chloroform and B. spectabilis aqueous extracts showed significant increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and hepatic, skeletal muscle glycogen content after 21 days of treatment. In immunohistochemical analysis, we observed a regeneration of insulin-producing cells and corresponding increase in the plasma insulin and c-peptide levels with the treatment of A. indica chloroform and B. spectabilis aqueous, methanolic extracts. Analyzing the results, it is clear that A. indica chloroform and B. spectabilis aqueous extracts are good candidates for developing new neutraceuticals treatment for diabetes.

  4. Formulário do perfil psicossocial do paciente anoftálmico com indicação de prótese ocular Questionnaire of the psychosocial profile of the patient with anophthalmia with indication of ocular prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Nicodemo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O paciente anoftálmico pode apresentar sentimentos de inferioridade e rejeição. Conhecer suas necessidades e expectativas contribui para uma melhor forma de intervenção técnica. OBJETIVO: Elaborar um formulário do perfil psicossocial do paciente anoftálmico com indicação de prótese ocular. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se o estudo exploratório para a elaboração do formulário, realizado por entrevista direcionada por um roteiro, seguida de anotações do que foi dito pelos entrevistados, com pacientes adultos do Centro de Prótese Buco-Maxilo-Facial da FOSJC - UNESP. O roteiro da entrevista constou de 14 itens diretamente relacionados ao delineamento futuro do perfil. Cada item do roteiro de entrevista originou questões do formulário, que foi pré-testado por duas vezes, constituindo sua versão final. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes relataram, no estudo exploratório, sentimentos desagradáveis com a perda do olho; timidez nos relacionamentos; expectativas diante da cirurgia e do uso da prótese; desejos de receber explicações e de opinarem no tratamento. O formulário do perfil psicossocial do paciente anoftámico com indicação de prótese ocular ficou constituído de 43 questões e foi dividido em 5 blocos para favorecer a compreensão dos aspectos inquiridos, facilitar tanto a tabulação de resultados como a discussão, e ainda auxiliar a seleção de questões de acordo com o objetivo do pesquisador ou do profissional. CONCLUSÃO: Concluiu-se que o questionário foi passível de ser elaborado; pode ser aplicado na íntegra ou a partir da seleção de blocos e fornece um panorama da história relacionada à problemática vivida por estes pacientes, desde a perda do globo ocular até a reparação pela confecção da prótese.The patient with anophthalmia may present feelings of inferiority and rejection. Knowing his/her needs and expectations contribute to a better technical intervention. PURPOSE: To elaborate a questionnaire of the

  5. A 90-day subchronic toxicity study of neem oil, a Azadirachta indica oil, in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Cao, M; Shi, D-X; Yin, Z-Q; Jia, R-Y; Wang, K-Y; Geng, Y; Wang, Y; Yao, X-P; Yang, Z-R; Zhao, J

    2013-09-01

    To determine the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of exposure and target organs of neem oil for establishing safety criteria for human exposure, the subchronic toxicity study with neem oil in mice was evaluated. The mice (10 per sex for each dose) was orally administered with neem oil with the doses of 0 (to serve as a control), 177, 533 and 1600 mg/kg/day for 90 days. After the treatment period, observation of reversibility or persistence of any toxic effects, mice were continuously fed without treatment for the following 30 days. During the two test periods, the serum biochemistry, organ weight and histopathology were examined. The results showed that the serum biochemistry and organ coefficient in experimental groups had no statistical difference compared with those of the control group. At the 90th day, the histopathological examinations showed that the 1600 mg/kg/day dose of neem oil had varying degrees of damage on each organ except heart, uterus and ovarian. After 30-day recovery, the degree of lesions to the tissues was lessened or even restored. The NOAEL of neem oil was 177 mg/kg/day for mice and the target organs of neem oil were determined to be testicle, liver and kidneys.

  6. Biochemical studies in experimentally Escherichia coli infected broiler chicken supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica leaf extract

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    Vikash Sharma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An experimental study was conducted on 192-day-old broiler chicks for evaluating the effect of 10% neem leaf extract (NLE supplementationon biochemical parameters in chickens experimentally infected with Escherichia coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml at 7 days of age. Materials and Methods: The 192-day-old broiler chicks were procured. These chicks were divided into two groups (A and B containing 96 birds each on the 1st day. Diet of all the chicks of Group A was supplemented with 10%NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were given feed and water devoid of NLE supplementation throughout the experiment. After rearing for 1 week, chicks of both the groups (A and B were again divided into two subgroups (Group A into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 of 54 and 42 birds, respectively. At the age of 7 days all the chicks of groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Blood samples were collected from six chicks from each group at day 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 days post-infection and serum was separated for biochemical studies. Results: There was a significant increase in serum alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activities, globulin concentration and a decrease in total protein (TP, albumin concentrations, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity in both the infected groups. However, the changes in biochemical values, i.e., ALT, AST, LDH, ALP, TP, albumin, and globulin wereof lower magnitude in NLE supplemented group suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. Conclusions: Fromthe present study, it is reasonable to conclude that significant increase in the value of ALT, AST, LDH, globulin, and significant decrease in the value of ALP, TP, and albumin was of lower magnitude in supplemented infected group (A1 as compared to non-supplemented infected group (B1 suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE.

  7. Action of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on cocoon spinning in Ceraeochrysa claveri (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudeler, Elton Luiz; Garcia, Ana Silvia Gimenes; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Santos, Daniela Carvalho

    2013-11-01

    Neem oil is a biopesticide that disturbs the endocrine and neuroendocrine systems of pests and may interfere with molting, metamorphosis and cocoon spinning. The cocoon serves protective functions for the pupa during metamorphosis, and these functions are dependent on cocoon structure. To assess the changes in cocoon spinning caused by neem oil ingestion, Ceraeochrysa claveri larvae, a common polyphagous predator, were fed with neem oil throughout the larval period. When treated with neem oil, changes were observed on the outer and inner surfaces of the C. claveri cocoon, such as decreased wall thickness and impaired ability to attach to a substrate. These negative effects may reduce the effectiveness of the mechanical and protective functions of cocoons during pupation, which makes the specimen more vulnerable to natural enemies and environmental factors.

  8. In vitro production of azadirachtin from cell suspension cultures of Azadirachta indica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Sujanya; B Poornasri Devi; Isha Sai

    2008-03-01

    The present study aimed to elucidate the effect of nutritional alteration on biomass content and azadirachtin production in cell suspensions of the elite neem variety crida-8. Variations in total nitrogen availability in the medium in terms of different ratios of nitrate:ammonium showed that the ratio 4:1 revealed a profound effect, leading to a 1.5-fold increase in the total extracellular azadirachtin production (5.59 mg/l) over the standard MS medium. Reduction in sucrose (15 mg/l) in the medium exhibited a reduction in biomass and absence of azadirachtin, whereas total phosphate reduction raised intracellular azadirachtin production (6.98 mg/l). An altered medium with a nitrate:ammonium ratio of 4:1 coupled with complete elimination of phosphate enhanced biomass by 36% (59.36 g/l).

  9. Pretreatment and Process to Control Mycotoxin in Sustainable Feed Production Using Extracts of Neem (Azadirachta indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Idayu Muhamad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By some recent estimates, mycotoxins affect as much as 25% of the world’s food crops each year. These highly toxic, naturally occurring compounds are by products (metabolites of the growth of fungi or moulds. Mycotoxins can result in significant economic loss for crop producers and broiler producers since it represent an ongoing risk to profitability. Factors that contribute to mycotoxin contamination of food and feed include environmental, socio-economic and food production. Environmental conditions especially high humidity and temperatures favour fungal proliferation resulting in contamination of food and feed. The resulting implications include immuno-suppression, impaired growth, various cancers and death depending on the type, period and amount of exposure. Mycotoxin concerns have grown during the last few decades because of their implications to human and animal health, productivity, economics of their management and trade. This has led to development of maximum tolerated limits for mycotoxins in various countries. This paper highlights the use of naturally derived aflatoxin inhibitors from Azadirachtin compound of neem oil, and tray drying in controlling moisture content to inhibit the aflatoxin contamination in pretreated soy based animal feed. High moisture content found in soy based animal feed increases the risk of fungal growth during storage. Neem extract has shown potential as an effective feed additive to minimize the growth of fungi and possibly reduce the risk of toxic effects from mycotoxin production. Preservation methods by means of tray drying have also shown positive results towards the control of fungal growth.

  10. Neem (Azadirachta indica) Seed Cake/Kernel as Protein Source in Ruminants Feed

    OpenAIRE

    Aruwayo, A.; S.A. Maigandi

    2013-01-01

    Ruminant production that is very popular in Nigeria livestock production faces series of problems, chief among them is the shortage of protein supply in adequate amount for optimum performance of the animals. The forages, which constitute the bulk of the source of feed for these animals, fluctuate in supply with poor nutrient content especially during the dry season of the year. The convectional protein concentrates which boost the protein supply faces intense competition from man. It has bec...

  11. Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Azadirachta indica against house dust mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azima Laili Hanifah

    2011-10-01

    Conclusions: Generally, topical mortalities of D. farinae due to lemongrass are higher than that due to neem. Contact mortalities of lemongrass are always higher that neem against both species of mites.

  12. Efek Antibakteri Ekstrak Daun Mimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss terhadap Bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus Secara In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uli Ayini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Budidaya udang windu di Indonesia telah berkembang pesat. Salah satu kendala budidaya udang adalah penyakit Vibriosis yang disebabkan oleh bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efek antibakeri ekstrak daun mimba terhadap bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode dilusi untuk mengetahui efek antibakteri ekstrak daun mimba terhadap bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus secara in vitro. Konsentrasi ekstrak yang digunakan (% yaitu: 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5; 10; 12,5 dan sebagai kontrol terdiri dari kontrol positif, dan kontrol negatif. Pengumpulan data untuk menentukan MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration dilakukan dengan membandingkan kejernihan kultur di medium TSB 2% pada berbagai konsentrasi yang berbeda, dengan kontrol positif dan kontrol negatif. Penentuan MBC (Minimum Bacterisidal Concentration dilakukan dengan melihat ada tidaknya dan jumlah koloni bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus yang muncul pada medium subkultur TSA 2% setelah inkubasi 24 jam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan nilai MIC yaitu konsentrasi 5%, hal ini ditunjukkan dengan tabung yang mulai jernih. Nilai MBC ekstrak daun mimba terhadap bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus adalah konsentrasi 12,5% ditandai dengan sudah tidak munculnya  koloni bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus. Berdasarkan penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa ekstrak daun mimba dapat memberikan efek antibakteri terhadap bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus secara in vitro.Tiger shrimp cultivation in Indonesia has been growing rapidly. The main obstacle is the shrimp farming vibriosis disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio algynoliticus. The aim of this research was to determine the effects of neem leaf extract antibakeri against Vibrio algynoliticus. This study used a dilution method to determine the antibacterial effect of neem leaf extract against Vibrio algynoliticus bacteria in vitro. The concentration of the extract used (%: 0; 2.5; 5; 7.5; 10; 12.5 and as a control consisting of a positive control, and negative control. Data collection to determine the MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration was done by comparing the clarity of culture in TSB medium 2% on a variety of different concentrations, the positive control and a negative control. Determination MBC (Minimum Bacterisidal Concentration was done by looking at the presence or absence and the number of colonies of bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus that appears in the subculture medium TSA 2% after 24 h incubation. The results showed that the value of MIC was 5%, as shown by the tube began to clear. Value of MBC of neem leaf extract against Vibrio alginolyticus was characterized by a concentration of 12.5% has been no emergence of bacterial colonies Vibrio alginolyticus. Based on the research, it concluded that neem leaf extract can provide antibacterial effect against bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus in vitro.

  13. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss Oil: A Natural Preservative to Control Meat Spoilage

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    Paola Del Serrone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant-derived extracts (PDEs are a source of biologically-active substances having antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of neem oil (NO as a preservative of fresh retail meat. The antibacterial activity of NO against Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Lactobacillus curvatus and L. sakei was assessed in a broth model system. The bacterial growth inhibition zone (mm ranged from 18.83 ± 1.18 to 30.00 ± 1.00, as was found by a disc diffusion test with 100 µL NO. The bacterial percent growth reduction ranged from 30.81 ± 2.08 to 99.70 ± 1.53 in the broth microdilution method at different NO concentrations (1:10 to 1:100,000. Viable bacterial cells were detected in experimentally-contaminated meat up to the second day after NO treatment (100 µL NO per 10 g meat, except for C. maltaromaticum, which was detected up to the sixth day by PCR and nested PCR with propidium monoazide (PMA™ dye. In comparison to the previously published results, C. maltaromaticum, E. coli, L. curvatus and L. sakei appeared more susceptible to NO compared to neem cake extract (NCE by using a broth model system.

  14. Development of shampoo, soap and ointment formulated by green synthesised silver nanoparticles functionalised with antimicrobial plants oils in veterinary dermatology: treatment and prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansod, Sunita Dashrath; Bawaskar, Manisha Subrashrao; Gade, Aniket Krishnarao; Rai, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Many scientists have focused their research on the role of nanotechnology for the control of human pathogens, but there are also many topical pathogens present in animals, which infect animals and transfer to humans. Topical therapy is extremely important for the management of dermatological condition in animals. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the efficacy of biogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in combination with herbal oils against animal skin infections which may be responsible for causing infections in human beings. Here, the authors synthesised and characterised the AgNPs from Azadirachta indica. The oils were extracted from medicinal plants including Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon martini, Eucalyptus globules, A. indica and Ocimum sanctum and the antifungal and antibacterial activity of plant oils along with AgNPs were evaluated. An excision wound model was used for the study of wound healing activity in rabbits. AgNPs functionalised oil has demonstrated remarkable antimicrobial activity against pathogens present on the skin of animals. The nano-functionalised antimicrobial oils were used in the formulation of shampoo, soap and ointment for veterinary dermatology. Antimicrobial products of plant origin with AgNPs are valuable, safe and have a specific role in controlling diseases. The authors believe that this approach will be a good alternative therapy to solve the continuous antibiotic resistance developed by many bacterial pathogens and will be utilised in various animal contacting areas in medicine.

  15. Development of phytovesicles containing triterpenoids from Samadera indica

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    Vidya Viswanad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Samadera indica belonging to Simaroubaceae family is being used traditionally for many diseases including arthritis, edema, itching, skin diseases, constipation, and general debility. Objective: The effectiveness of any drug delivery system depends upon its ability to deliver the active components at therapeutic level. In this study, a novel phyto vesicular formulation for the enhanced topical delivery of methanol extract of S. indica in order to treat skin infections was developed. Materials and Methods: The methanol extract fraction of leaves of S. indica which showed more antifungal activity was purified to separate an antifungal compound. Phytovesicles were formulated using the more antifungal fraction in order to treat topical and deep seated fungal infections. Pytovesicles were prepared using 1:2 molar ratio of antifungal triterpenoid from S. indica (AFTSI-phosphatidylcholine by film hydration method. Results and Discussion: Chloroform 100% fraction of methanol extract of S. indica showed more activity against the fungus Candida albicans. Further purification gave a fraction with minimum inhibitory concentration value of 15.6 mg/ml against C. albicans and showed positive test for triterpenoids. The fraction was named as AFTSI. A compound (20 mg was isolated from this fraction at an R F value. The phytovesicle gel formulated using AFTSI showed enhanced skin permeability and antifungal activity. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that the phytovesicular gel developed using methanol extract of S. indica would be beneficial for treating deep seated fungal infections.

  16. Development and Evaluation of Polyherbal Gel Formulation for Wound Healing Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Suchit S. Bharad; Subhash V. Deshmane; Kailash R. Biyani

    2016-01-01

    The plant Azadirachta indica belonging to family Meliaceae traditionally used in Ayurvedic system as insect repellant, antibacterial, anti-microbial effect, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory and also strengthens the body’s overall immune responses Symplocos racemosa Roxb belonging to family Styraceae posses Antioxidant activity. Vitex Negundo Linn posses’ Antimicrobial activity, Antibacterial activity, Tinospora Cordifolia belonging to family Menispermaceae curative of dermatosis, Cu...

  17. NEEM: UNUSUALLY VERSATILE PLANT GENUS AZADIRACHTA WITH MANY USEFUL AND SO FAR INSUFFICIENTLY EXPLOITED PROPERTIES FOR AGRICULTURE, MEDICINE, AND INDUSTRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, H E; Langner, S S; Leithold, G; Schmutterer, H

    2014-01-01

    Neem plants (Rutales: Meliaceae) are well known for their multitude of human benefits in various fields. Specifically well investigated are the Indian neem tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss., the Thai neem A. siamensis Val., the originally Malaysian/Philippinean neem A. excelsa (Jack) and, as a close relative, the Persian lilac, Melia azedarach. The major and most active natural products are azadirachtin, salannin, nimbin and marrangin from Azadirachta species, and azadirachtin analogues like meliantriol from Melia species. Neem fruits, leaves, bark, and roots have specific virtues. They have been traditionally exploited for a considerable part of human history and are documented in Sanskrit texts. Due to human activity in trade and travel both at land and sea, the plant species has been distributed around the globe and is cultivated in many tropical, and subtropical regions. A multitude of natural products of neem have been isolated, chemically characterized or identified, and investigated for their properties in the management of insects, Acarina, Crustacea, nematodes, bacteria, fungi, viruses and soil fertility (for reviews see Kraus, 2002; Schmutterer, 2002A; Rembold, 2002; Koul, 2004; Schmutterer and Huber, 2005; Kleeberg and Strang, 2009; Hummel et al., 2008, 2011, 2012). Neem products are virtually nontoxic, compatible with beneficial insects, pollinators and bees. They are environmentally benign, sustainable, renewable, and of a price affordable for developed countries. In conclusion, neem is a prime example of a natural resource with many beneficial applications in agriculture, human and veterinary medicine. So far, its use is practically free of resistance problems which are frustratingly prevalent in many areas of synthetic insecticide and drug development. Investigating more neem applications will increase future human welfare and health while being of general ecological benefit to the planet.

  18. Effects of Azardirachta indica on Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Cytokines in Diabetic Deep Wound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Manish Kumar; Gangwar, Mayank; Singh, Surya Kumar; Goel, Raj Kumar

    2015-06-01

    A chronic, unhealed diabetic wound is one of the severe complications of diabetes mellitus. Azadirachta indica has been reported to have antidiabetic and antiapoptotic properties. The present work incorporates the healing potential of 50 % ethanol A. indica leaves extract against deep surgical wounds in streptozotocin-induced mild diabetic rats. A. indica leaves extract (500 mg/kg) was administered orally, once daily for ten days. Serum glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides as well as body weight, food, and water intake, and tissue antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione), free radicals (lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide), myeloperoxidase, total collagens (hydroxyproline, hexuronic acid and hexosamine), protein, vascular endothelial growth factor, and cytokines (tumor necrotic factor-α and interleukin-1β) were estimated. Histology was done for connective tissue formation and inflammatory and healing in deep granulation tissue after A. indica leaves extract treatment. Diabetic rats showed an increase in serum glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides levels, food and water intake, and granular tissue free radicals, myeloperoxidase, and cytokines, but a decrease in body weight, total collagen, and vascular endothelial growth factor levels. A. indica leaves extract reversed the increased serum glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides, food and water intake, and tissue free radicals, myeloperoxidase and, cytokines, but increased body weight, tissue antioxidants, total collagen, and vascular endothelial growth factor contents. The results thus indicated an improvement in wound healing by A. indica leaves extract in diabetic rats through enhanced angiogenesis mediated through the inhibition of hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and down- and upregulation of inflammatory mediators and growth factor expression.

  19. Mangifera Indica (Mango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K A Shah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangifera indica, commonly used herb in ayurvedic medicine. Although review articles on this plant are already published, but this review article is presented to compile all the updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities, which were performed widely by different methods. Studies indicate mango possesses antidiabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-viral, cardiotonic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory properties. Various effects like antibacterial, anti fungal, anthelmintic, anti parasitic, anti tumor, anti HIV, antibone resorption, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antidiarrhoeal, antiallergic, immunomodulation, hypolipidemic, anti microbial, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective have also been studied. These studies are very encouraging and indicate this herb should be studied more extensively to confirm these results and reveal other potential therapeutic effects. Clinical trials using mango for a variety of conditions should also be conducted.

  20. Prediction of biological activity spectra of a few phytoconstituents of Azadirachta indicia A. Juss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Pramely

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The use of drug substances derived from plants, fungi, bacteria, and marine organisms are ‘‘Mother Nature Gift’’ for diseases of mankind. Many of these are discovered serendipitously and have a long tradition in medicine. Till date, the use of natural products, their semi synthetic and synthetic derivatives have been mostly confined to their ethnic use. But it has been well known that each substance has a wide spectrum of biological activities as evident from some new uses of many old drugs. PASS (Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substances has been employed as a strong potential tool to predict the biological activity spectrum of synthetic substances for the discovery of new drugs. But the potential of PASS to predict the biological activity spectra of natural products is still underestimated. The present study was therefore undertaken to investigate and correlate the biological activity spectrum of the main phytoconstituent of Azadirachta indica with their reported biological activities in order to evaluate the applicability of PASS. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  1. Anthelmintic Activity of a Herbal Formulation Against Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep

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    Muhammad Arfan Zaman*§, Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Nisar Khan and Ghulam Muhammad1

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of a herbal formulation (HF based on aqueous extracts of leaves of Azadirachta indica and Nicotiana tabacum, flowers of Calotropis procera and seeds of Trachyspermum ammi. In vitro, eggs and adult Haemonchus contortus were exposed to different concentrations of HF following the standard procedures of egg hatch test (EHT; 50 to 0.024414 mg ml-1 and adult motility assay (AMA; 200-0.1953125mg ml-1, respectively. The reference drugs used in the study were oxfendazole (0.0056704 to 0.0000027 mg ml-1 and levamisole (1.50 mg ml-1 for EHT and AMA, respectively. In vivo, pre and post-treatment (4 mg, 2 mg and 500 µg kg-1 body weight fecal egg counts were determined following standard fecal egg count reduction test in sheep naturally parasitized with mixed species of gastrointestinal nematodes. In EHT, LC50 values of HF and oxfendazole (reference drug were 275.1 and 0.016 µg ml-1, respectively. In AMA, 100% mortality of H. contortus was observed 6 hr post-exposure to 3.125-200 mg ml-1 concentrations of HF and 2 hr post-exposure to levamisole. In vivo, maximum (96.2% fecal egg count (EPG reduction was recorded in sheep treated with HF @ 4 mg kg-1 body weight; whereas, 89.3% reduction in EPG was recorded in sheep treated with levamisole @ 7.5 mg kg-1 body weight. A graded dose response was noted in all the tests used in the present study to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of HF. Therefore, HF seems to be promising as an anthelmintic for animals. Large scale trials on efficacy and safety, however, are recommended before the HF is considered for commercialization in crude form.

  2. Desenvolvimento e mortalidade larval de Spodoptera frugiperda em folhas de milho tratadas com extrato aquoso de folhas de Azadirachta indica Larval development and mortality of Spodoptera frugiperda fed on corn leaves treated with aqueous extract from Azadirachta indica leaves

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    Paulo Afonso Viana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito do extrato aquoso de folhas de nim sobre o desenvolvimento e a mortalidade de lagartas recém-eclodidas de Spodoptera frugiperda. Para constatação do efeito de contato e de ingestão, as lagartas foram pulverizadas e as folhas de milho submersas no extrato (10 mg.mL-1 em laboratório e/ou pulverizadas no campo com um pulverizador de CO2. Partes de folhas de milho tratadas foram colocadas em copos plásticos para alimentar as lagartas e trocadas a cada dois dias. Adjuvantes foram adicionados ao extrato visando melhorar sua aderência às superfícies tratadas. Os parâmetros avaliados foram a mortalidade e o desenvolvimento larval. As folhas de milho submergidas e pulverizadas com o extrato causaram elevada mortalidade (100% e prejudicaram o desenvolvimento das lagartas sobreviventes. Na avaliação realizada 10 dias após a aplicação, o espalhante adesivo e o óleo de soja misturados ao extrato melhoraram a eficiência deste. A mortalidade das lagartas ocorreu três dias após a aplicação do extrato e a sua pulverização diretamente sobre o inseto não prejudicou o desenvolvimento larval. O extrato aquoso de nim mostrou-se com potencial para o controle de S. frugiperda.The effect of aqueous extracts from neem leaves and spraying adjuvants were evaluated on development and mortality of neonate S. frugiperda larvae. Corn leaves were dipped in the aqueous extract (10 mg.mL-1 in the laboratory and/or sprayed in the field with a CO2 sprayer and placed in plastic cup for larvae rearing. The treated corn leaves were replaced every other day. Corn leaves submerged and sprayed with the extract caused high larval mortality (100% and showed a negative effect on the larval development. The spreading agent and soybean oil mixed with neem extract improved larval mortality at the end of the 10-day period. The aqueous extract caused lethal effect on S. frugiperda larvae after three days of the application and sprayed directly on the larvae did not inhibit the larval development. The neem aqueous extract showed good potential to be used as a control agent for S. frugiperda.

  3. Immuno-pathological studies on broiler chicken experimentally infected with Escherichia coli and supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica leaf extract

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    Vikash Sharma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of neem leaf extract (NLE supplementation on immunological response and pathology of different lymphoid organs in experimentally Escherichia coli challenged broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: For this study, we procured 192-day-old broiler chicks from local hatchery and divided them into Groups A and Group B containing 96 birds each on the first day. Chicks of Group A were supplemented with 10% NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were not supplemented with NLE throughout the experiment. At 7th day of age, chicks of Group A were divided into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 with 54 and 42 chicks, respectively, and chicks of Groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 colony-forming units/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Six chicks from each group were sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection; blood was collected and thorough post-mortem examination was conducted. Tissue pieces of spleen and bursa of Fabricius were collected in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological examination. Serum was separated for immunological studies. Result: E. coli specific antibody titer was significantly higher in Group A1 in comparison to Group B1. Delayed-type hypersensitivity response against 2,4 dinirochlorobenzene (DNCB antigen was significantly higher in Group A1 as compared to Group B1. Pathological studies revealed that E. coli infection caused depletion of lymphocytes in bursa of Fabricius and spleen. Severity of lesions in Group A1 was significantly lower in comparison to Group B1. Conclusion: 10% NLE supplementation enhanced the humoral as well as cellular immune responses attributed to its immunomodulatory property in experimentally E. coli infected broiler chicken.

  4. Avaliação química de geléias de manga formuladas com diferentes níveis de cascas em substituição à polpa Chemical evaluation of mango (Mangifera indica L jams formulated with different levels of peels in substitution to pulp

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    Clarissa Damiani

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste estudo, avaliar a qualidade de geléias formuladas com níveis de 0 %, 25 %, 50 %, 75 % e 100 % de cascas em substituição à polpa de manga (Mangifera indica L. cv. Haden. Os critérios de qualidade utilizados foram os teores de umidade, cinzas, proteínas, lipídios, carboidratos totais, açúcares totais, açúcares redutores, sacarose, vitamina C, fibra insolúvel, pectina, acidez titulável e sólidos solúveis nas polpas e cascas das mangas e nos diferentes tratamentos. Observou-se que nos tratamentos com substituição da polpa por cascas encontraram-se teores significativamente maiores de proteínas, fibras insolúveis e sacarose e menores valores calóricos, acidez titulável, carboidratos totais e açúcares totais em relação ao controle. Os tratamentos foram semelhantes em relação ao teor de vitamina C e sólidos solúveis. Com a elevação dos níveis de cascas em substituição à polpa observou-se aumento do teor de cinzas, fibras insolúveis e sacarose e redução dos açúcares redutores. Concluiu-se que a substituição parcial ou total de polpa por cascas de manga na formulação melhora o valor nutricional e funcional das geléias apesar da diminuição do valor calórico, com benefícios econômicos e ambientais.The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of jams formulated with peel levels of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% in substitution to mango pulp (Mangifera indica L. cv. Haden. The quality criteria were moisture, ashes, proteins, fat, total carbohydrate, total sugars, reducing sugars, sucrose, vitamin C, insoluble fiber, pectin, titrable fruit acidity, soluble solids contents and pH in the mango pulp, mango peels and different treatments. It was observed that in the treatments with substitution of pulp by peels, the contents of proteins, insoluble fiber and sucrose were significantly higher than the control. The caloric values, titrable fruit acidity, total carbohydrate and total sugars were

  5. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical analysis of Tamarindus indica Linn. stem

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    Naveena Kodlady

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarindus indica Linn. fruits (Chincha are extensively used in culinary preparations in Indian civilization. Its vast medicinal uses are documented in Ayurvedic classics and it can be used singly or as a component of various formulations. Besides fruit, the Kasta (wood of T. indica L. is also important and used to prepare Kshara (alkaline extract an Ayurvedic dosage form. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical details of Chincha Kasta are not available in authentic literature including API (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. The study is an attempt in this direction. T. indica L. stem with heartwood was selected and morphological, microscopic and physicochemical standardization characters along with TLC finger print, and fluorescence analysis were documented. Transverse section of stem showed important characters such as phelloderm, stone cells layer, fiber groups, calcium oxalate, crystal fibers, and tylosis in heartwood region. Four characteristic spots were observed under UV long wave, in thin layer chromatography with the solvent combination of toluene: ethyl acetate (8:2. The study can help correct identification and standardization of this plant material.

  6. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical analysis of Tamarindus indica Linn. stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodlady, Naveena; Patgiri, B J; Harisha, C R; Shukla, V J

    2012-01-01

    Tamarindus indica Linn. fruits (Chincha) are extensively used in culinary preparations in Indian civilization. Its vast medicinal uses are documented in Ayurvedic classics and it can be used singly or as a component of various formulations. Besides fruit, the Kasta (wood) of T. indica L. is also important and used to prepare Kshara (alkaline extract) an Ayurvedic dosage form. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical details of Chincha Kasta are not available in authentic literature including API (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India). The study is an attempt in this direction. T. indica L. stem with heartwood was selected and morphological, microscopic and physicochemical standardization characters along with TLC finger print, and fluorescence analysis were documented. Transverse section of stem showed important characters such as phelloderm, stone cells layer, fiber groups, calcium oxalate, crystal fibers, and tylosis in heartwood region. Four characteristic spots were observed under UV long wave, in thin layer chromatography with the solvent combination of toluene: ethyl acetate (8:2). The study can help correct identification and standardization of this plant material.

  7. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Effects of Azadrichcta indica Leaf Extract on Fever-Induced Albino Rats (Wistar

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    O.J. Olorunfemi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic effect of the crude ethanol extract of Azadirachta indica leaves on experimental rat model at three different dose levels- 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, respectively. Hot plate test were used to assess analgesic activity, formalin induced inflammation was used for anti-inflammatory study and baker’s yeast was used to induce pyrexia. Acute toxicity test was also performed in rats after administration of the extract orally at high dose level (4 g/kg. In addition, ethanol extract obtained from Azadirachta indica leaves at different doses and different periods of study showed significant effect (p<0.05 compared to control. For analgesic study, the extract at 100 mg/kg showed a slow but time dependent effect, at 200 mg/kg, its effect was noticed in all the periods although still time dependent and at 300 mg/kg, the effect was significant in all the periods and long-lasting at the final minutes (90 min with values expressed in mean±SEM of 14.0±1.41 which was significant (*p<0.05 compared to control and all other groups. The anti-inflammatory study of the ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica showed a time and dose dependent effect at different periods. It’s effect was noticed in all doses but was most significant (**p<0.05 in group 4 which was given 300 mg/kg of the extract with a value of 40.6±8.80 expressed in mean±SEM compared to control and all other groups. The extract at all dose showed significant effect (*p<0.05 over control. Its effect was time and dose-dependent. However, the extract attenuated the pain, fever and inflammation induced in the rats at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, respectively dose levels but its significant protective effect was noticed at higher doses than low doses and at a longer period of time. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was observed at 4 g/kg dose level.

  8. New early indica variety Zhongyouzao 3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGFasong; HUPeisong; TANGShaoqing; LUOJu

    1997-01-01

    Rice variety Zhongyouzao 3 was developed by CNRRI and Hunan Rice Research Institute,Hunan Province, from the cross 84-240/Hongtu 5 made in 1986. The 84-240 is the second season indica line with superior grain quality and multl-reslstance to rice pests, and the Hongtu 5 is early indica variety with highyielding.

  9. Tamarindus indica and its health related effects

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    Pinar Kuru

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tamarindus [Tamarindus indica L. (T. indica], belongs to the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae, commonly known as Tamarind tree, is one of the fruit tree species that is used as traditional medicine. The aim of this article is to review the current literatue on health related effect of T. indica. Literature review about this plant was conducted between 2003 and 2014 through Pubmed and Google. The keywords Tamarind, T. indica were used for search. Only the health related articles selected. Tamarind tree is found especially in the Indian subcontinent, Africa, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria and most of the tropical countries. It is preferred to be used for abdominal pain, diarrhea and dysentery, some bacterial infections and parasitic infestations, wound healing, constipation and inflammation. It is a rich source of most of the essential amino acids and phytochemicals, and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antivenomic, antioxidant, antimalarial, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, antiasthmatic, laxative and anti-hyperlipidemic activity. T. indica has ameliorative effects on many diseases. It can also be preferred as a nutritious support for malnourished patients as it is cheap and easy to access. Those effects should be clarified with further research.

  10. Tamarindus indica and its health related effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pinar Kuru

    2014-01-01

    Tamarindus [Tamarindus indica L. (T. indica)], belongs to the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae), commonly known as Tamarind tree, is one of the fruit tree species that is used as traditional medicine. The aim of this article is to review the current literatue on health related effect of T. indica. Literature review about this plant was conducted between 2003 and 2014 through Pubmed and Google. The keywords Tamarind, T. indica were used for search. Only the health related articles selected. Tamarind tree is found especially in the Indian subcontinent, Africa, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria and most of the tropical countries. It is preferred to be used for abdominal pain, diarrhea and dysentery, some bacterial infections and parasitic infestations, wound healing, constipation and inflammation. It is a rich source of most of the essential amino acids and phytochemicals, and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antivenomic, antioxidant, antimalarial, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, antiasthmatic, laxative and anti-hyperlipidemic activity. T. indica has ameliorative effects on many diseases. It can also be preferred as a nutritious support for malnourished patients as it is cheap and easy to access. Those effects should be clarified with further research.

  11. Immunomodulatory effects of a polysaccharide from Tamarindus indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreelekha, T T; Vijayakumar, T; Ankanthil, R; Vijayan, K K; Nair, M K

    1993-04-01

    A polysaccharide isolated and purified from Tamarindus indica shows immunomodulatory activities such as phagocytic enhancement, leukocyte migration inhibition and inhibition of cell proliferation. These properties suggest that this polysaccharide from T. indica may have some biological applications.

  12. Biosynthesis of Anti-Proliferative Gold Nanoparticles Using Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum Strain Isolated from Neem (A. indica) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Ejaz Ahmad; Ahmad, Absar; Julius, Anju; Syed, Asad; Khan, Shadab; Kharat, Mahesh; Pai, Kalpana; Kadoo, Narendra; Gupta, Vidya

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a simple, rapid, environment friendly approach for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) fungal endophyte, which based upon morphological and cultural characteristics was eventually identified as Fusarium oxysporum. The aqueous precursor (HAuCl4) solution when reacted with endophytic fungus resulted in the biosynthesis of abundant amounts of well dispersed gold nanoparticles of 10-40 nm with an average size of 22nm. These biosynthesized gold nanoparticles were then characterized by standard analytical techniques such as UV-Visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Cytotoxic activity of these nanoparticles was checked against three different cell types including breast cancer (ZR-75-1), Daudi (Human Burkitt's lymphoma cancer) and normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), where it was found that our gold nanoparticles are anti-proliferative against cancer cells but completely safe toward normal cells. In addition to this, assessment of toxicity toward human RBC revealed less than 0.1 % hemolysis as compared to Triton X-100 suggesting safe nature of our biosynthesized gold nanoparticles on human cells. Also, our nanoparticles exhibited no anti-fungal (against Aspergillus niger) or anti-bacterial [against Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis & Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli & Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria] activity thus suggesting their non-toxic, biocompatible nature. The present investigation opens up avenues for ecofriendly, biocompatible nanomaterials to be used in a wide variety of application such as drug delivery, therapeutics, theranostics and so on.

  13. The effect of different concentrations of Neem (Azadiractha indica leaves extract on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans (In vitro

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    Sri Kavi Subramaniam

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Neem plant has a history for treating gum and teeth problems and this plant is used for oral care in India. The active component (Azadirachta indica has been proven to exhibit antibacterial properties. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of different concentrations of Neem leaves extract on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans. Neem leaves extract at concentrations of 10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% was prepared. Fifty milliliters of each concentration were dropped into holes of 6 millimeters in diameter on a MHA agar that has been inoculated with Streptococcus mutans. Distilled water was used as a control. After 24 hours of incubation, the inhibition diameters were measured and analyzed. The statistical results of the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA illustrated that the different concentrations of Neem extract had a significant influence on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans. This was followed with the Least Significant Difference (LSD which implied that there were significant differences between all the concentrations of Neem leaves extract used in this experiment. The conclusion of this study was that Neem leaves extract exhibited antibacterial effect towards Streptococcus mutans and different concentration of Neem leaves extract influenced the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans.

  14. Expression of indica rice resistant sources to Brown planthopper(BPH) in indica-japonica hybrids and their utillzation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGTibin; XUSuoshun; GUFulin

    1992-01-01

    We studied the genetic mode in transferring BPH-resistance genes from indica varieties to japonica varieties January 1988 to December 1989 in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province. Indica varieties selected on a basis of BPH-resistance genes, i.e., Yankeng 2 (japonica), 02428 (japonica), 40316 (indica-japonica progeny),

  15. Impact of botanical extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica on populations of Plutella xylostella and its natural enemies: A field test of laboratory findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2006-01-01

    Differences between results from ecological laboratory studies and what actually happens in the field can be large. Therefore, field experiments are essential to validate laboratory findings. In previous laboratory trials we investigated the impact of aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree, Mel

  16. Ethanolic Neem (Azadirachta indica Leaf Extract Prevents Growth of MCF-7 and HeLa Cells and Potentiates the Therapeutic Index of Cisplatin

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    Chhavi Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to gain insight into the antiproliferative activity of ethanolic neem leaves extract (ENLE alone or in combination with cisplatin by cell viability assay on human breast (MCF-7 and cervical (HeLa cancer cells. Nuclear morphological examination and cell cycle analysis were performed to determine the mode of cell death. Further, to identify its molecular targets, the expression of genes involved in apoptosis, cell cycle progression, and drug metabolism was analyzed by RT-PCR. Treatment of MCF-7, HeLa, and normal cells with ENLE differentially suppressed the growth of cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner through apoptosis. Additionally, lower dose combinations of ENLE with cisplatin resulted in synergistic growth inhibition of these cells compared to the individual drugs (combination index <1. ENLE significantly modulated the expression of bax, cyclin D1, and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP 1A1 and CYP 1A2 in a time-dependent manner in these cells. Conclusively, these results emphasize the chemopreventive ability of neem alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic treatment to reduce the cytotoxic effects on normal cells, while potentiating their efficacy at lower doses. Thus, neem may be a prospective therapeutic agent to combat gynecological cancers.

  17. Effects of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on the replacement of the midgut epithelium in the lacewing Ceraeochrysa claveri during larval-pupal metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudeler, Elton Luiz; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Santos, Daniela Carvalho Dos

    2014-06-01

    Larvae of the lacewing Ceraeochrysa claveri were fed on eggs of Diatraeasaccharalis treated with neem oil at concentrations of 0.5%, 1% and 2% throughout the larval period. Pupae obtained from treated larvae were used in the study at five days after the completion of cocoon spinning to investigate the effects of neem oil on the replacement of the midgut epithelium during the larval-pupal transition. We observed that the old larval epithelium was shed into the midgut lumen and transformed into the yellow body. Old cells from the yellow body were destroyed by apoptosis and autophagy and were not affected by neem oil. However, neem oil did affect the new pupal epithelium. Cells from treated pupae showed cellular injuries such as a loss of microvilli, cytoplasmic vacuolization, an increase of glycogen stores, deformation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and dilation of the perinuclear space. Additionally, the neem oil treatment resulted in the release of cytoplasmic protrusions, rupture of the plasma membrane and leakage of cellular debris into the midgut lumen, characteristics of cell death by necrosis. The results indicate that neem oil ingestion affects the replacement of midgut epithelium, causing cytotoxic effects that can alter the organism's physiology due to extensive cellular injuries.

  18. 印楝扦插繁殖技术研究%Study on the Cutting Propagation of Neem Tree (Azadirachta indica )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何雪香; 苏海; 廖仿炎; 徐金柱; 陈贰

    2006-01-01

    2002~2005年,开展了印楝扦插繁殖试验,对影响生根成活率的基质、插穗材料、生根剂、扦插季节、扦插后管理等因子进行了研究.结果表明,较佳的扦插技术组合为:塑料杯育苗以无菌黄心土∶河沙(3∶1)作为基质,苗床育苗以等量的黄心土和河沙混合为基质,扦插前一天用10 g/L高锰酸钾液消毒,在春季和夏季采集当年生刚木质化或半木质化枝条和萌芽条作为插穗,用1 g/L吲哚丁酸生根粉处理插条后扦插,插后育苗床注意保温保湿,生根率可达80%以上.

  19. Study on the Rapid Tissue Culture Propagation of Neem (Azadirachta indica)%印楝快繁技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽华; 何雪香; 王振师; 龚峥

    2006-01-01

    试验以印楝实生苗的嫩枝为材料,对印楝的初代培养、丛生芽诱导和生根、再生植株炼苗等进行系统研究,通过单因素和正交试验筛选出各阶段的最适培养条件:(1)初代培养基为MS+6-BA 0.5 mg/L+NAA 0.05 mg/L+蔗糖30 g/L;(2)丛生芽诱导培养基为MS改+6-BA 0.4~1.0 mg/L+KT 0.5~1.5 mg/L+NAA 0.05~0.2 mg/L+蔗糖30 g/L;(3)生根培养基为1/2 MS+IBA 0.3 mg/L+PG 3 μmol/L+糖20 g/L.

  20. Comparison of antimicrobial efficacy of propolis, Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, triphala, green tea polyphenols and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus fecalis biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paridhi Garg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Endodontic infections are polymicrobial in nature. Enterococcus fecalis is the most common micro-organism isolated from failed endodontic cases. The constant increase in antibiotic resistant strains and side effects caused by synthetic drugs has prompted researchers to look for herbal alternatives since the gold standard for irrigation i.e., sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl has many disadvantages. Objective: The present study was aimed to explore newer irrigation solutions, which would probably be as effective as NaOCl. Materials and Methods: Extracted human single rooted premolar teeth were biomechanically prepared, vertically sectioned, placed in tissue culture wells exposing the root canal surface to E. fecalis is grown on Mueller Hinton agar plates to form a biofilm for 6 weeks. At the end of 6 th week, all seven groups were treated with 3 ml of test solutions and control for 10 minutes and evaluated for E. fecalis growth and number of colony forming units. Results: Propolis, NaOCl and triphala showed no statistically significant difference, whereas all the other inter-group differences were statistically significant (Tukey′s honest significant difference (HSD (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Propolis and triphala were found to be as efficacious as NaOCl. The use of herbal alternatives as root canal irrigation solutions might prove to be advantageous considering several unfavorable properties of NaOCl.

  1. Effects of a botanical larvicide derived from Azadirachta indica (the neem tree) on oviposition behaviour in Anopheles gambiae s.s. mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, A.F.V.; Adongo, E.A.; Vulule, J.; Githure, J.

    2011-01-01

    More focus is given to mosquito larval control due to the necessity to use several control techniques together in integrated vector management programmes. Botanical products are thought to be able to provide effective, sustainable and cheap mosquito larval control tools. However, bio-larvicides like

  2. Variability in permeability and integrity of cell membrane and depletion of food reserves in neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds from trees of differ-ent age classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Devendra Kumar; Dhruv Kumar Mishra

    2014-01-01

    We quantified cell membrane permeability (electrical conduc-tivity-EC, water soluble sugar-WSS, and amino acids-AA) and integrity (phospholipids,α-tocopherol and lipid peroxidation) along with food reserve deterioration (total proteins, total sugar, and total starch) of neem seeds collected from various mother tree age classes and stored for 65 days in airtight plastic containers at ambient room temperature (35±5°C). Results show that the activities were higher in fresh seeds (EC 267.56-2950.01 µS/g, WSS 19.96-19.48 mg/g and AA 5.40-5.35 mg/g) and declined with increasing duration of storage period (EC 153.37-195.17 µS/g, WSS 3.13-4.17 mg/g and AA 4.29-4.49 mg/g after 35 days and EC 144.02-161.56 µS/g, WSS 2.06-2.40 mg/g and AA 3.98-4.27 mg/g after 65 days of storage). Phospholipids andα-tocopherol were higher in fresh seed (0.073-0.093 OD at 710 nm and 0.080-0.105 OD, respectively) and declined as storage duration in-creased (0.033-0.042 OD at 710 nm and 00.0010-0.0020 OD, respec-tively). Dead seeds showed reduced amounts of phospholipids and minimum activity ofα- tocopherol (antioxidants). The level of MDA was lower in fresh seeds (0.0066-0.0087 OD at 600-535 nm) and increased as storage duration increased (0.0248-0.0268 OD after 65 days of stor-age). The higher amount of MDA indicated that seeds died due to rancid-ity of the oil inside the seed. Neem seed cake was assessed for deteriora-tion of food reserves (total proteins, total sugar, and total starch), concen-trations of which were higher in fresh seed and declined as storage dura-tion increased. Germination was higher in fresh seeds and after 65 days, no germination was received perhaps due to deterioration of biochemi-cals in seeds. Patterns of seed deterioration were similar across all seed lots.

  3. Efficacy Of Leaf Extract Of Neem Azadirachta Indica Against Shoot Dieback Disease Of Two Species Of Ficus In Atbara Town-Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham S. Dawood

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A widespread stem canker and dieback diseases threatened different plant genera in Sudan. It was highly spread among different Ficus species. This research was carried out in Atbara town north Khartoum. The causal agents of this disease were Isolated from the infected shoot system of Ficus bengalensis and F. retusa. Morphological identification and relative densities of the isolated fungi were carried out with the help of authentic manuals of fungi. Biocontrol experiment was conducted for the most prevalent pathogenic fungus using aqueous neem extract in both cold and hot water. The results showed that the fungal isolates belong to three genera Aspergillus spp. Aspergillus niger A. terrus and A. flavus Botryosphaeria sp. and Botrytis sp. The most prevalent mycoflora was Botryosphaeria sp. relative density range 35-45 the second one was A.niger 20 then Botrytis sp. 15 A. flavus 10 and A.terreus 2-8. The efficacy of aqueous cold and hot extracts of neem leaf on the growth of Botryosphaeria sp. showed that the hot extract is effective than the cold one and the inhibition percentage were 100 and 65 respectively on the 14th days.

  4. Efficacy Of Leaf Extract Of Neem Azadirachta Indica Against Shoot Dieback Disease Of Two Species Of Ficus In Atbara Town-Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Elham S. Dawood

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A widespread stem canker and dieback diseases threatened different plant genera in Sudan. It was highly spread among different Ficus species. This research was carried out in Atbara town north Khartoum. The causal agents of this disease were Isolated from the infected shoot system of Ficus bengalensis and F. retusa. Morphological identification and relative densities of the isolated fungi were carried out with the help of authentic manuals of fungi. Biocontrol experiment was conducte...

  5. Activated charcoal-mediated RNA extraction method for Azadirachta indica and plants highly rich in polyphenolics, polysaccharides and other complex secondary compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Rajakani, Raja; Narnoliya, Lokesh; Sangwan, Neelam Singh; Sangwan, Rajender Singh; Gupta, Vikrant

    2013-01-01

    Background High quality RNA is a primary requisite for numerous molecular biological applications but is difficult to isolate from several plants rich in polysaccharides, polyphenolics and other secondary metabolites. These compounds either bind with nucleic acids or often co-precipitate at the final step and many times cannot be removed by conventional methods and kits. Addition of vinyl-pyrollidone polymers in extraction buffer efficiently removes polyphenolics to some extent, but, it faile...

  6. Use of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss Oil in The Control of Musca domestica L.(Diptera:Muscidae in Poultry Breeding Farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Flávia S Rovida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pest infestation, in general such as flies, is a problem faced by poultry workers in poultry breeding farms. Control of these populations is desirable, due to the damage they cause and, most times, it is done through chemical management, with insecticide application. Musca domestica is one of the species with the greatest ability to develop resistance to insecticides, and the digestive system, especially the midgut, is one of the most vulnerable organs to structural alteration, because in it there is production of digestive enzymes and absorption of nutrients. Damage caused by use of synthetic insecticides reactivated studies with bioinsecticides for being one of the most selective options in pest control. Furthermore, they do not cause environmental alterations such as food, soil, water poisoning and they are practically nontoxic to mammals. Among vegetable species with insecticidal activities that have been used a lot, we have neem, subtropical plant that shows low residual power and lower risk of intoxication for mammals and poultry. Thus the objectives that guided this work, was the observation of morphological alteration in M. domestica larvae and malformation of pupae after the use of neem, powder and emulsifiable oil at different concentrations (0,5%, 1%, 1,5% were tested. Following, after the applications, the midgut of flies in larval stage was isolated, processed and analyzed under light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. As in most dipterous, the cell types found were columnar cells and regenerative cells, which showed alterations such as: coalescing vacuoles, intercellular spaces, formation of cytoplasmic protrusions, broken microvilli, rough endoplasmic reticulum and dilated mitochondria. The statistical analysis registered for pupa malformation showed significant results in comparison to control, but there was no difference among treatments. The different concentrations of neem oil contributed in altering morphological and ultrastructurally the midgut in M. domestica larvae, interrupting its development. These results showed that in poultry breeding farms, neem oil can be a pratical alternative to the control of M. domestica.

  7. Post-natal development of rats` offspring treated with the ethanol extract of Neem leaves (Azadirachta indica A. Juss during pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Carla Lima da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Teratogenicity and developmental abnormalities in the offspring of female rats that ingested ethanol extract of Neem plants during pregnancy and lactation period were assessed. Twenty-four female Wistar rats were randomly distributed in control group and in three experimental groups and treated during the 4th, 5th, and 6th day of pregnancy. After birth, the lactating females received, by gavage, 65, 135 and 200 mg kg-1 of Neem ethanol extract, during 15 days. Results show, there was no significant difference in body mass index of neonatal rats in the 4 groups evaluated, whereas mean rate of offspring survival was 79.4%. Hair growth, incisor teeth eruption, ear detachment, eyelid opening, and spontaneous ambulation were similar for all groups. Likewise, physical development and development of motor activity, ambulation, and postural reflexes were similar for all groups. The administration of Neem ethanol extract did not cause any reproductive or systemic toxicity in animals. Results show that, Neem ethanol extract safe at doses 65, 135 and 200 mg kg-1 in pregnant or lactating rats.

  8. Vegetative propagation of Aesculus indica through stem cuttings treated with plant growth regulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mumtaz Majeed; M.A.Khan; A.H.Mughal

    2009-01-01

    Cuttage propagation of Aesculus indica was tested by treatments with different concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) @ 2000, 4000 (ppm), indolebutyric acid (IBA) @ 2000, 4000 (ppm) and naphthlcetic acid (NAA) @ 2000, 4000 (ppm) in dry formulation in the Forest Nursery, Faculty of Forestry, SKUAST-K, Shalimar. The cuttings treated with IBA @ 4000 ppm and IBA @ 2000 ppm had a sprouting rate of 75% and 50%, respectively, which was significantly higher than that of control and other treatments. The highest rooting rate (50%) was recorded in the cuttings with the application of IBA @ 4000 ppm. The cuttings treated with IBA @ 2000 ppm had 25% rooting rate. All other treatments along with control (talc powder) failed to induce rooting. It was concluded that IBA @ 4000 ppm was a better-applied concentration for vegetative propagation of A. indica under Kashmir conditions.

  9. Tamarindus indica and its health related effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pinar; Kuru

    2014-01-01

    Tamarindus[Tamarindus indica L.(T.Indira)],belongs to the family Leguminosae(Fabaceae),commonly known as Tamarind tree,is one of the fruit tree species that is used as traditional medicine.The aim of this article is to review the current literatue on health related effect of T.indir.a.Literature review about this plant was conducted between 2003 and 2014 through Pubmed and Google.The keywords Tamarind,T.indica were used for search.Only the health related articles selected.Tamarind tree is found especially in the Indian subcontinent,Africa,Pakistan,Bangladesh,Nigeria and most of the tropical countries.It is preferred to be used for abdominal pain,diarrhea and dysentery,some bacterial infections and parasitic infestations,wound healing,constipation and inflammation.It is a rich source of most of the essential amino acids and phytochemicals,and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic,antimicrobial,antivenomic,antioxidant,antimalarial,cardioprotective,hepatoprotective,antiasthmatic,laxative and anti-hyperlipidemir activity.T.indica has ameliorative effects on many diseases.It can also be preferred as a nutritious support for malnourished patients as it is cheap and easy to access.Those effects should be clarified with further research.

  10. Tamarindus indica: Extent of explored potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadoriya, Santosh Singh; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Narwaria, Jitendra; Rai, Gopal; Jain, Alok Pal

    2011-01-01

    Tamarindus is a monotypic genus and belongs to the subfamily Caesalpinioideae of the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae), Tamarindus indica L., commonly known as Tamarind tree is one of the most important multipurpose tropical fruit tree species in the Indian subcontinent. Tamarind fruit was at first thought to be produced by an Indian palm, as the name Tamarind comes from a Persian word "Tamar-I-hind," meaning date of India. Its name "Amlika" in Sanskrit indicates its ancient presence in the country. T.indica is used as traditional medicine in India, Africa, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria,and most of the tropical countries. It is used traditionally in abdominal pain, diarrhea and dysentery, helminthes infections, wound healing, malaria and fever, constipation, inflammation, cell cytotoxicity, gonorrhea, and eye diseases. It has numerous chemical values and is rich in phytochemicals, and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic activity, antimicrobial activity, antivenomic activity, antioxidant activity, antimalarial activity, hepatoprotective activity, antiasthmatic activity, laxative activity, and anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Every part of the plant from root to leaf tips is useful for human needs. Thus the aim of the present review is to describe its morphology, and explore the phytochemical constituents, commercial utilization of the parts of the plant, and medicinal and pharmacologic activities so that T. indica's potential as multipurpose tree species can be understood.

  11. Investigation of cream and ointment on antimicrobial activity of Mangifera indica extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amgad A Awad El-Gied

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have curative properties due to the presence of various complex chemical substance of different composition, which are found as secondary plant metabolites in one or more parts of these plants. Mangifera indica Linn (MI L. is a species of mango in the Anacardiaceae family. Phytoconstituents in the seed extracts may be responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the plant. The purpose of the study was to formulate and evaluate the antimicrobial herbal ointment and cream from extracts of the seeds of mango (MI L. The formulated ointments containing oleaginous-based showed the best formulation compared to the emulsion water in oil type, the ointment and cream bases in different concentration 1%, 5% and 10%. The formulated ointment and cream of MI L. were subjected to evaluation of Uniformity of Weight, measurement of pH, viscosity, Spreadability, Acute skin irritation study, stability study and antimicrobial activity. Our study shows that MI has high potential as an antimicrobial agent when formulated as ointment and creams for topical use. Thus, the present study concludes that the formulated formulations of the MI are safe and efficient carriers, with potent antimicrobial activity.

  12. Investigation of cream and ointment on antimicrobial activity of Mangifera indica extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad El-Gied, Amgad A; Abdelkareem, Abdelkareem M; Hamedelniel, Elnazeer I

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants have curative properties due to the presence of various complex chemical substance of different composition, which are found as secondary plant metabolites in one or more parts of these plants. Mangifera indica Linn (MI L.) is a species of mango in the Anacardiaceae family. Phytoconstituents in the seed extracts may be responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the plant. The purpose of the study was to formulate and evaluate the antimicrobial herbal ointment and cream from extracts of the seeds of mango (MI L.) The formulated ointments containing oleaginous-based showed the best formulation compared to the emulsion water in oil type, the ointment and cream bases in different concentration 1%, 5% and 10%. The formulated ointment and cream of MI L. were subjected to evaluation of Uniformity of Weight, measurement of pH, viscosity, Spreadability, Acute skin irritation study, stability study and antimicrobial activity. Our study shows that MI has high potential as an antimicrobial agent when formulated as ointment and creams for topical use. Thus, the present study concludes that the formulated formulations of the MI are safe and efficient carriers, with potent antimicrobial activity.

  13. Antiarthritic activity of a polyherbal formulation against Freund's complete adjuvant induced arthritis in Female Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petchi, R. Ramesh; Parasuraman, S.; Vijaya, C.; Gopala Krishna, S. V.; Kumar, M. Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To formulate a polyherbal formulation and evaluate its antiarthritic activity against Freund's complete adjuvant induced arthritis in Female Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Glycosmis pentaphylla, Tridax procumbens, and Mangifera indica are well-known plants available throughout India and they are commonly used for the treatment of various diseases including arthritis. The polyherbal formulation was formulated using the ethanol extracts of the stem bark of G. pentaphylla, whole plant of T. procumbens, and leaves of M. indica. The polyherbal formulation contains the ethanol extracts of G. pentaphylla, T. procumbens, and M. indica in the ratio of 2:2:1. The quality of the finished product was evaluated as per the World Health Organization's guidelines for the quality control of herbal materials. Arthritis was induced in female Wistar rats using Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), and the antiarthritic effect of polyherbal formulation was studied at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg. The effects were compared with those of indomethacin (10 mg/kg). At the end of the study, blood samples were collected for biochemical and hematological analysis. The radiological examination was carried out before terminating the study. Results: Polyherbal formulation showed significant antiarthritic activity at 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively, and this effect was comparable with that of indomethacin. The antiarthritic activity of polyherbal formulation is supported by biochemical and hematological analysis. Conclusion: The polyherbal formulation showed signinicant antiarthritic activity against FCA-induced arthritis in female Wistar rats. PMID:26229343

  14. Production and Characterization of Cosmetic Nanoemulsions Containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill Extract as Moisturizing Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cesar de Azevedo Ribeiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to produce and characterize an oil in water (O/W nanoemulsion containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill hydroglycolic extract, as well as evaluate its preliminary and accelerated thermal stability and moisturizing efficacy. The formulations containing 0.5% of xanthan gum (FX and 0.5% of xanthan gum and 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica Mill extract (FXE were white, homogeneous and fluid in aspect. Both formulations were stable during preliminary and accelerated stability tests. FX and FXE presented a pH compatible to skin pH (4.5–6.0; droplet size varying from 92.2 to 233.6 nm; a polydispersion index (PDI around 0.200 and a zeta potential from −26.71 to −47.01 mV. FXE was able to increase the water content of the stratum corneum for 5 h after application on the forearm. The O/W nanoemulsions containing 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill extract presented suitable stability for at least for 60 days. Besides, this formulation was able to increase the water content of stratum corneum, showing its moisturizing efficacy.

  15. Production and characterization of cosmetic nanoemulsions containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) mill extract as moisturizing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Renato Cesar de Azevedo; Barreto, Stella Maria de Andrade Gomes; Ostrosky, Elissa Aarantes; da Rocha-Filho, Pedro Alves; Veríssimo, Lourena Mafra; Ferrari, Márcio

    2015-02-02

    This study aimed to produce and characterize an oil in water (O/W) nanoemulsion containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill hydroglycolic extract, as well as evaluate its preliminary and accelerated thermal stability and moisturizing efficacy. The formulations containing 0.5% of xanthan gum (FX) and 0.5% of xanthan gum and 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica MILL extract (FXE) were white, homogeneus and fluid in aspect. Both formulations were stable during preliminary and accelerated stability tests. FX and FXE presented a pH compatible to skin pH (4.5-6.0); droplet size varying from 92.2 to 233.6 nm; a polydispersion index (PDI) around 0.200 and a zeta potential from -26.71 to -47.01 mV. FXE was able to increase the water content of the stratum corneum for 5 h after application on the forearm. The O/W nanoemulsions containing 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill extract presented suitable stability for at least for 60 days. Besides, this formulation was able to increase the water content of stratum corneum, showing its moisturizing efficacy.

  16. Development of mango (Mangifera indica L. energy drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Julio Márquez Cardozo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two hydrocolloids, pectin and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, was evaluated in mango beverage stability (Mangifera indica L. formulated and developed with caffeine at a concentration of 30 mg/100 mL. The physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of color, acidity, viscosity, total soluble solids, pH, flavor, aroma and texture were studied every three days over a 12-day period. The beverages were packaged in high-density polyethylene containers with a 250 mL capacity and were stored at 5 °C and 90% RH for the duration of the experimentation period. The drinks with added pectin showed greater stability and lower acidity values than the control, but higher values than those prepared with CMC. The drinks made with CMC had a significantly higher viscosity at a 95% confidence level than those made with pectin or the control beverages. The treatment that showed the lowest browning index was the one added with pectin. Concerning the sensory evaluation, the drinks showed significant differences at a 95% confidence level; the drink made with pectin was the most widely accepted. It was concluded that the most stable drinks were those made with pectin because they presented the lowest height in millimeters of precipitate solids over the storage period. No off-flavors in beverages were perceived by the judges.

  17. A New Stigmasterol Ester from Aeschynomene indica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jia-yuan; TAN Xiao; LU Wen-jie; YA Qi-kang

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents of Aeschynomene indica.Methods The constituents were isolated and purified by means of silica gel column chromatography and recrytallization,and the structures were elucidated by physicochemical properties and spectral analyses.Results Twelve compounds were obtained and elucidated as stigmasterol tritriacontanate (1),monotetracontane (2),taraxerol (3),stigmasterol (4),stearic acid (5),heptatriacontanoic acid (6),arachidic acid (7),ursolic acid acetate (8),quercetin (9),myricetin (10),myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside (11),and rutoside (12).Conclusion All the compounds are isolated from this plant for the first time and compound 1 is a new one.

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, Ivica; Dedysh, Svetlana N.; Liesack, Werner; Stott, Matthew B.; Alam, Maqsudul; Murrell, J. Colin; Dunfield, Peter F.

    2010-01-01

    Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica is an aerobic, acidophilic, exopolysaccharide-producing, N2-fixing soil bacterium. It is a generalist chemoorganotroph that is phylogenetically closely related to facultative and obligate methanotrophs of the genera Methylocella and Methylocapsa. Here we report the full genome sequence of this bacterium. PMID:20601475

  19. Genome Polymorphisms Between Indica and Japonica Revealed by RFLP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Song-wen; LIU Xia; XU Cai-guo; SHI Li-li; ZHANG Xin; DING De-liang; WANG Yong

    2007-01-01

    Revealing the genome polymorphisms between indica and japonica subspecies; RFLP markers, which are located across 12 chromosomes of rice, were used to analyze indica-japonica differentiation in different rice varieties. At the same time, genome sequence variations of screened loci were analyzed by bioinformatics method. Twenty-eight RFLP probes, which can classify indica-japonica rice, were confirmed. Subspecies genome polymorphisms of screened loci were found by analyzing the publication of the genome sequences data of rice. The study indicated that these screened markers can be used for classifying indica-japonica subspecies. With the publication of the genome sequences of rice, marker polymorphisms between indica and japonica subspecies can be revealed by genome differentiation.

  20. Resistência de Eleusine indica aos inibidores de ACCase Eleusine indica resistance to ACCase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Vidal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as causas da ineficácia no controle de plantas daninhas destaca-se a resistência delas aos herbicidas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a suspeita de resistência de Eleusine indica a inibidores de acetil-CoA carboxilase (ACCase e investigar a ocorrência de resistência cruzada entre os inibidores de ACCase. Biótipo de Eleusine indica originado do Mato Grosso com suspeita de resistência aos herbicidas inibidores de ACCase foi avaliado em casa de vegetação na sua suscetibilidade para diversos produtos do grupo dos ariloxifenoxipropionatos e cicloexanodionas. Estudos de resposta à dose confirmaram que o biótipo era 18 vezes mais insensível ao sethoxydim do que biótipo suscetível nunca aspergido com herbicidas. Também se constatou resistência cruzada ao fenoxaprop, cyhalofop, propaquizafop e butroxydim. Não se observou resistência cruzada aos produtos fluazifop, haloxyfop, quizalofop e clethodim.Among the causes for weed control inefficacy, the worst one is resistance to herbicides. The objectives of this work were to evaluate an Eleusine indica biotype suspected of resistance to ACCase inhibitors and to investigate the occurrence of cross- resistance to several ACCase inhibitors. One biotype of Eleusine indica originated from Mato Grosso with suspected resistance to ACCase inhibitors was evaluated in a greenhouse in relation to its susceptibility to several products of the ariloxyphenoxypropionate and cyclohexanedione groups. Studies on dose response confirmed that the suspected biotype was 18 times more insensitive to sethoxydim than the susceptible biotype that had never been treated with herbicides. Cross-resistance was confirmed for fenoxaprop, cyhalofop, propaquizafop and butroxydim. No cross-resistance was observed with fluazifop, haloxyfop, quizalofop, and clethodim.

  1. ANTIFERTILITY EFFECT OF LINDENBERGIA INDICA (70% EtOH) EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Purohit, Ashok; Vyas, Surendra K.

    2003-01-01

    Oral feeding of 70% EtOH extract of Lindenbergia indica to female rats at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight and 1000 mg / kg body weight caused significant reduction of serum cholesterol, HDL – cholesterol, triglycerides & phospholipids (P≤ 0.05 to P≤ 0.001). Where as the protein levels were not reduced significantly. Fertility test showed 100% negative results. The negative fertility reflects the arrest of Oogenesis & depletion of estrogen level. Further Lindenbergia indica reflects antiestr...

  2. Molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum bark and Canna indica root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum Linn. (Punicaceae and Canna indica Linn. (Cannaceae against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was studied. The molluscicidal activity of P. granatum bark and C. indica root was found to be both time and dose dependent. The toxicity of P. granatum bark was more pronounced than that of C. indica. The 24 h LC50 of the column-purified root of C. indica was 6.54 mg/l whereas that of the column-purified bark of P. granatum was 4.39 mg/l. The ethanol extract of P. granatum (24 h LC50: 22.42 mg/l was more effective than the ethanol extract of C. indica (24 h LC50: 55.65 mg/l in killing the test animals. P. granatum and C. indica may be used as potent molluscicides since the concentrations used to kill the snails were not toxic for the fish Colisa fasciatus, which shares the same habitat with the snail L. acuminata.

  3. Genetic analysis of Karnal bunt (Neovossia indica) resistance in wheat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Kumar; O P Luthra; V Chawla; N R Yadav; R Kumar; A Khar

    2003-03-01

    Embryos excised from seeds of six generations (P1, P2, F1, BC1, BC2 and F2) of a cross WH 283 × WH 533 were cultured on modified MS medium already inoculated with secondary sporidia of Neovossia indica. Significant variations for callusing response (CR) (54.55–75.55%) were observed among generations but the presence or absence of N. indicia did not affect callusing response. A clear inhibition zone (IZ) was formed around each embryo showing callusing. The diameter of IZ varied significantly among generations and was maximum in the resistant genotype, WH 283 (3.60 cm). Fresh weight and dry weight of calli, initiated from embryo cultured and inoculated with N. indica, varied significantly among generations. Coefficient of infection as well as percentage of infection reflected the overdominance of susceptibility. Generation mean analysis showed that the three parameter model was adequate for diameter of IZ only. Six-parameter model showed that additive (in presence of N. indica), additive and additive × dominance (in absence of N. indica) effects were also significant. Complementary type of epistasis for fresh weight of calli and dominance, and dominance × dominance effects for dry weight of calli were observed in the presence of N. indica. Magnitude of additive effects was higher for diameter of IZ in three parameter model. Therefore, selection might assist in improving this trait and thus indirectly help in attaining the resistance towards N. indica.

  4. Crystallization Formulation Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Crystallization Formulation Lab fills a critical need in the process development and optimization of current and new explosives and energetic formulations. The...

  5. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF MANGIFERA INDICA L. VAR. THOTAPURI AND MANGIFERA INDICA L. VAR. NEELAM ROOT CRUDE EXTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Pet ether, ethyl acetate and ethanolic extracts of Mangifera indica L. Var. Thotapuri and Mangifera indica L. Var. Neelam were taken for anthelmintic activity against Indian earthworm Pheritima posthuma. Various concentrations of both extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for evoked response, paralysis and time for death of worms. Piperazine citrate was used as a reference standard and distilled water as a control group. Dose dependent activity was observed in both ...

  6. A review on ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Fumaria indica (Fumitory)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prakash Chandra Gupta; Nisha Sharma; Ch V Rao

    2012-01-01

    Fumaria indica (Hausskn.) Pugsley (Fumariaceae), known as “Fumitory”, is an annual herb found as a common weed all over the plains of India and Pakistan. The whole plant is widely used in traditional and folkloric systems of medicine. In traditional systems of medicine, the plant is reputed for its anthelmintic, diuretic, diaphoretic, laxative, cholagogue, stomachic and sedative activities and is used to purify blood and in liver obstruction in ethnopharmacology. The whole plant is ascribed to possess medicinal virtues in Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine and is also used in preparation of important Ayurvedic medicinal preparations and polyherbal liver formulations. The review reveals that phytochemical constituents of wide range have been separated from the plants and it possesses important pharmacological activities like smooth muscle relaxant, spasmogenic and spasmolytic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, neuropharmacological and antibacterial activities. The separation of hepatoprotective and antifungal constituents from this plant was also reported newly. This review highlights the traditional, ethnobotanical, phytochemical, pharmacological information available on Fumaria indica, which might be helpful for scientists and researchers to find out new chemical entities responsible for its claimed traditional uses.

  7. A review on ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Fumaria indica (Fumitory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Chandra Gupta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Fumaria indica (Hausskn. Pugsley (Fumariaceae, known as “Fumitory”, is an annual herb found as a common weed all over the plains of India and Pakistan. The whole plant is widely used in traditional and folkloric systems of medicine. In traditional systems of medicine, the plant is reputed for its anthelmintic, diuretic, diaphoretic, laxative, cholagogue, stomachic and sedative activities and is used to purify blood and in liver obstruction in ethnopharmacology. The whole plant is ascribed to possess medicinal virtues in Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine and is also used in preparation of important Ayurvedic medicinal preparations and polyherbal liver formulations. The review reveals that phytochemical constituents of wide range have been separated from the plants and it possesses important pharmacological activities like smooth muscle relaxant, spasmogenic and spasmolytic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, neuropharmacological and antibacterial activities. The separation of hepatoprotective and antifungal constituents from this plant was also reported newly. This review highlights the traditional, ethnobotanical, phytochemical, pharmacological information available on Fumaria indica, which might be helpful for scientists and researchers to find out new chemical entities responsible for its claimed traditional uses.

  8. A Mangifera indica L. extract could be used to treat neuropathic pain and implication of mangiferin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Suárez, Bárbara B; Garrido, Gabino; Delgado, Rene; Bosch, Fe; del C Rabí, María

    2010-12-09

    It has been accepted that neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and glial activation are involved in the central sensitization underlying neuropathic pain. Vimang is an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L. traditionally used in Cuba for its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. Several formulations are available, and also for mangiferin, its major component. Preclinical studies demonstrated that these products prevented tumor necrosis factor α -induced IκB degradation and the binding of nuclear factor κB to DNA, which induces the transcription of genes implicated in the expression of some mediators and enzymes involved in inflammation, pain, oxidative stress and synaptic plasticity. In this paper we propose its potential utility in the neuropathic pain treatment. This hypothesis is supported in the cumulus of preclinical and clinical evidence around the extract and mangiferin, its major component, and speculates about the possible mechanism of action according to recent advances in the physiopathology of neuropathic pain.

  9. A Mangifera indica L. Extract Could Be Used to Treat Neuropathic Pain and Implication of Mangiferin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del C. Rabí

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been accepted that neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and glial activation are involved in the central sensitization underlying neuropathic pain. Vimang is an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L. traditionally used in Cuba for its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. Several formulations are available, and also for mangiferin, its major component. Preclinical studies demonstrated that these products prevented tumor necrosis factor α -induced IκB degradation and the binding of nuclear factor κB to DNA, which induces the transcription of genes implicated in the expression of some mediators and enzymes involved in inflammation, pain, oxidative stress and synaptic plasticity. In this paper we propose its potential utility in the neuropathic pain treatment. This hypothesis is supported in the cumulus of preclinical and clinical evidence around the extract and mangiferin, its major component, and speculates about the possible mechanism of action according to recent advances in the physiopathology of neuropathic pain.

  10. EVALUATION OF HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF AN INDIAN FRUIT: DILLENIA INDICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Munmee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The fruit of DiIlenia indica has been an integral part of the Assamese cuisine and it is claimed that this fruit can control blood sugar when consumed on a regular basis. A randomized clinical trial was carried out on 40 patients in Government Ayurvedic College and Hospital, Guwahati, Assam, India. The study revealed the hypoglycemic activity of Dillenia indica in type 2 diabetes patients, following standardized approach. The fruit powder of Dillenia indica used in this trial showed significant hypoglycemic effect (p < 0.001. The result of the clinical trial has been highly encouraging with the mean blood sugar both FBS and PPBS of the patients being reduced gradually overtime without any unwanted effect.

  11. Microscopic evaluation and physiochemical analysis of Dillenia indica leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S Kumar; V Kumar; Om Prakash

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study detail microscopic evaluation and physiochemical analysis of Dillenia indica (D. indica) leaf. Methods: Fresh leaf sample and dried power of the leaf were studied macroscopically and microscopically. Preliminary phytochemical investigation of plant material was done. Other WHO recommended parameters for standardizations were also performed. Results: The detail microscopy revealed the presence of anomocytic stomata, unicellular trichome, xylem fibres, calcium oxalate crystals, vascular bundles, etc. Leaf constants such as stomatal number, stomatal index, vein-islet number and veinlet termination numbers were also measured. Physiochemical parameters such as ash values, loss on drying, extractive values, percentage of foreign matters, swelling index, etc. were also determined. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of steroids, terpenoids, glycosides, fatty acids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and carbohydrates. Conclusions: The microscopic and physiochemical analysis of the D. indica leaf is useful in standardization for quality, purity and sample identification.

  12. The anti-inflammatory activity of standard aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L. as evident in inhibition of Group IA sPLA2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa; Shivalingaiah, Sudharshan

    2016-03-01

    The standard aqueous stem bark extract is consumed as herbal drink and used in the pharmaceutical formulations to treat patients suffering from various disease conditions in Cuba. This study was carried out to evaluate the modulatory effect of standard aqueous bark extract of M. indica on Group IA sPLA2. M. indica extract, dose dependently inhibited the GIA sPLA2 (NN-XIa-PLA2) activity with an IC50 value 8.1 µg/ml. M. indica extract effectively inhibited the indirect hemolytic activity up to 98% at ~40 µg/ml concentration and at various concentrations (0-50 µg/ml), it dose dependently inhibited the edema formation. When examined as a function of increased substrate and calcium concentration, there was no relieve of inhibitory effect on the GIA sPLA2. Furthermore, the inhibition was irreversible as evidenced from binding studies. It is observed that the aqueous extract ofM. indica effectively inhibits sPLA2 and it is associated inflammatory activities, which substantiate their anti-inflammatory properties. The mode of inhibition could be due to direct interaction of components present in the extract, with sPLA2 enzyme. Further studies on understanding the principal constituents, responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity would be interesting to develop this into potent anti-inflammatory agent.

  13. Antioxidant Activity of the Successive Extracts of Aesculus indica Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guno Sindhu Chakraborthy

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Plants are the best source of active secondary metabolites which are beneficial to mankind. Many plant origin drugs have been reported with biological properties like Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, hypoglycemic agents and many more. The successive extracts of Aesculus indica leaves were screened for in vitro antioxidant properties using the standard procedures. The successive extracts such as petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol and water and 50% crude methanol extracts exhibited IC 50 values of respectively in DPPH and respectively in nitric oxide radical inhibition assays. The values are comparable with the standards such as ascorbic acid and quercetin. The Aesculus indica leaves are showing significant antioxidant activity.

  14. IT Supporting Strategy Formulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.

    2005-01-01

    This overview approaches information and communication technology (ICT) for competitive intelligence from the perspective of strategy formulation. It provides an ICT architecture for supporting the knowledge processes producing relevant knowledge for strategy formulation. To determine what this arch

  15. Torsion formulation of gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lledo, M A; Sommovigo, L, E-mail: Maria.Lledo@ific.uv.e, E-mail: Luca.Sommovigo@mfn.unipmn.i [Departament de Fisica Teorica, Universitat de Valencia, and IFIC (Centro mixto CSIC-UVEG) C/Dr Moliner, 50, E-46100 Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)

    2010-03-21

    We explain precisely what it means to have a connection with torsion as a solution of the Einstein equations. While locally the theory remains the same, the new formulation allows for topologies that would have been excluded in the standard formulation of gravity. In this formulation it is possible to couple arbitrary torsion to gauge fields without breaking the gauge invariance.

  16. Synthesis of gold nanostructures using fruit extract of Garcinia Indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaprabha, M.; Pattabi, Manjunatha

    2016-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles having different shapes are synthesized using extract of fresh fruit rinds of Garcinia Indica. The onset of growth and formation of gold nanostructures is confirmed from UV-Vis spectroscopy. Morphological studies are done using FESEM. Size dependent catalytic activity is evaluated with the model reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol.

  17. Development of bioanalytical parameters for standardization of Azadiracta indica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dinesh K Patel; S P Dhanabal

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop noval bioanalytical parameters for standardization of Azadiracta indica (A. indica) extract. Methods: In the present investigation, preliminary phytochemical analysis, total phenol, flavonoid, solubility test, heavy metal analysis, antimicrobial study and quantitative analysis through HPTLC method were performed. Results: Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of carbohydrate, tannin, steroid, triterpenoid, glycoside, saponin and flavonoid in the extract. Loss on drying, total ash and solubility in water was found to be 4.60%, 5.61% and 91.0%. Total flavonoid and phenol content was found to be 1.8% and 14.08% w/w. The content of quercetin, rutin and gallic acid in A. indica was found to be 0.93%, 1.22% and 0.33% w/w respectively. Further the level of heavy metal content and microrganism were found to be in the safe level. Conclusions: In future, these bioanalytical parameters could be used as important tool for the standardization of A. indica extract.

  18. Some factors involved in microprojectile-mediated indica rice transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUERui; QIUXiaohui; YANMeixian; HUANGDanian; CAOShouyun; TIANWenzhong

    1997-01-01

    Immature embryos and calli derived from immature or mature embryos of the 16 indica rice varieties have been transformed by using particle bombardment. To improve growth state of subcultured calli, we set up a variety of parameters to optimize the important tactors involved in Biolistic system, and added various hormones, mannitol, and MES to CC or NB medium.

  19. Antidiabetic Activity of Polyherbal Formulation in Streptozotocin – Nicotinamide Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petchi, Rajendran Ramesh; Vijaya, Chockalingam; Parasuraman, Subramani

    2014-01-01

    Glycosmis pentaphylla, Tridax procumbens, and Mangifera indica are well-known plants available throughout India and they are commonly used for the treatment of various diseases including diabetes mellitus. The antidiabetic activity of the individual plant parts is well known, but the synergistic or combined effects are unclear. The concept of polyherbalism has been highlighted in Sharangdhar Samhita, an Ayurvedic literature dating back to 1300 AD. Polyherbal formulations enhance the therapeutic action and reduce the concentrations of single herbs, thereby reducing adverse events. The aim of the present study is to formulate a polyherbal formulation and evaluate its antidiabetic potential in animals. The polyherbal formulation was formulated using the ethanol extracts of the stem bark of G. pentaphylla, whole plant of T. procumbens, and leaves of M. indica. The polyherbal formulation contains the ethanol extracts of G. pentaphylla, T. procumbens, and M. indica in the ratio of 2:2:1. The quality of the finished product was evaluated as per the World Health Organization's guidelines for the quality control of herbal materials. The quality testing parameters of the polyherbal formulation were within the limits. Fingerprint analysis of the polyherbal formulation showed effective separation at 366 nm, and it revealed that the active compound present in the polyherbal formulation and the active compounds present in all the three extracts were the same. The acute toxicity studies of the polyherbal formulation did not show any toxic symptoms in doses up to 2000 mg/kg over 14 days. The oral antidiabetic activity of the polyherbal formulation (250 and 500 mg/kg) was screened against streptozotocin (50 mg/kg; i.p.) + nicotinamide (120 mg/kg; i.p.) induced diabetes mellitus in rats. The investigational drug was administered for 21 consecutive days, and the effect of the polyherbal formulation on blood glucose levels was studied at regular intervals. At the end of the study, the

  20. Explosive Formulation Pilot Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Pilot Plant for Explosive Formulation supports the development of new explosives that are comprised of several components. This system is particularly beneficial...

  1. Formulations in first encounters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hak (Tony); F. de Boer (Fijgje)

    1994-01-01

    markdownabstractThe paper describes and compares the use and function of the formulation--decision pair in three types of diagnostic interviewing. The investigatory type of interviewing, which typically occurs in the medical interview, is characterized by the absence of formulations. In the explora

  2. Ethnobotany and phytopharmacology of Leea indica: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal drug therapy is the most trusted system of medicine in countries like India, where people strongly believe in Ayurveda as herbs are the part of rural Indian lifestyle. Most of the diseases which have no medicine in allopathic system can be cured successfully by using traditional medicines. Leea indica, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant is the sole member of the family Leeaceae, which is closely related to the economically important grape family, Vitaceae. It is widely distributed from Southern Asia to Northern Oceania. The plant parts are enriched with various bioactive compounds such as gallic acid, quercitrin, β-amyrin, β-sitosterol and lupeol, etc. Traditionally, it is used to treat itchy skin, fever, diarrhea, and body aches. The current review attempts to encompass the available literature on Leea indica with respect to its phytochemistry, traditional uses and gist of its various pharmacological activities.

  3. Phytochemistry, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of Eleusine indica (sambau)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberahim, Rashidah; Yaacob, Wan Ahmad; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    Goose grass also known as Eleusine indica (EI) is a local medicinal plant that displays antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. The present study is to determine the phytochemical constituents, cytotoxicity and antiviral activities for both crude extract and fraction obtained from the plant. The crude extract contained more secondary metabolites compared to the hexane fraction as gauged using standard phytochemical tests. Cytotoxicity screening against Vero cells using MTT assay showed that the CC50 values for crude extract and hexane fraction were 2.07 and 5.62 mg/ml respectively. The antiviral activity towards Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) was determined using plaque reduction assay. The selective indices (SI = CC50 / EC50) for both methanol extract and hexane fraction were 12.2 and 6.2 respectively. These results demonstrate that the extract prepared from E. indica possesses phytochemical compound that was non cytotoxic to the cell with potential antiviral activity.

  4. Ethnobotany and phytopharmacology of Leea indica: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Garima Mishra; Ratan Lal Khosa; Pradeep Singh; Mohd Adil Tahseen

    2016-01-01

    Herbal drug therapy is the most trusted system of medicine in countries like India, where people strongly believe in Ayurveda as herbs are the part of rural Indian lifestyle. Most of the diseases which have no medicine in allopathic system can be cured successfully by using traditional medicines. Leea indica, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant is the sole member of the family Leeaceae, which is closely related to the economically important grape family, Vitaceae. It is widel...

  5. Bioactive limonoids from the leaves of Azaridachta indica (Neem).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, Maria J; Malafronte, Nicola; Vassallo, Antonio; Braca, Alessandra; Cotugno, Roberta; Vasaturo, Michele; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio

    2014-03-28

    Eight new limonoids (1-8) and one new phenol glycoside (9), along with six known compounds, were isolated from the leaves of Azaridachta indica. The structures of 1-9 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. Compounds isolated were assayed for their cytotoxicity against different cancer cell lines. Moreover, their ability to interact with the molecular chaperone Hsp90, affecting its biological activity, was tested.

  6. Characterization of crystalline structures in Opuntia ficus-indica

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras-Padilla, Margarita; Rivera-Muñoz, Eric M.; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Elsa; del López, Alicia Real; Rodríguez-García, Mario Enrique

    2014-01-01

    This research studies the crystalline compounds present in nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes. The identification of the crystalline structures was performed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The crystalline structures identified were calcium carbonate (calcite) [CaCO3], calcium-magnesium bicarbonate [CaMg(CO3)2], magnesium oxide [MgO], calcium oxalate monohydrate [Ca(C2O4)•(H2O)], potassium peroxydiphosph...

  7. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia Ficus-Indica) as a Holographic Material

    OpenAIRE

    Santa Toxqui-López; Ana L. Padilla-Velasco; Arturo Olivares-Pérez

    2012-01-01

    The nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) releases a substance through its mucilage, which comes from the degradation of pectic substances and chlorophyll. Combined in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix, this substance can be used as a recording medium. The resulting extract material has excellent photosensitizer properties, is easy to handle, has a low cost, and low toxicity. This material has the property of self-developing, and it can be used in holographic applications. The polyvinyl alcohol and ex...

  8. MADHUCA INDICA: A REVIEW OF ITS MEDICINAL PROPERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra K. Patel*, Narendra K. Prajapati and B.K. Dubey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Medicines obtained from plant source are known as an herbal medicine, and the herbal medicine are one which make human healthy without causing any of harmful effect. Madhuca Indica is a plant of Indian origin having tremendous therapeutic potential but is not fully utilized. It is hidden from the eyes of the researchers and other botanist. Madhuca Indica has several pharmacological activity, and potential to provide health to the society. It is used as Anti diabetic, antiulcer, hepato protective, anti pyretic, anti fertility, analgesic, anti oxidant, swelling, inflammation, piles, emetic, dermatological, laxative, tonic, anti burn, anti earth worm, wound healing headache and many more problems. Here is a misconception about mahua tree that it is used as liquor and harmful for health, but this is what after the fermentation process, so the present review deals with the general and chemical profile of Madhuca Indica and its economic importance including medicinal and other uses, and tried to emphasize the most potent activity.

  9. Acute toxicity and hepatotoxicokinetic studies of Tamarindus indica extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Ngene, Augustine A; Anaga, Aruh O; Chigor, Vincent N; Henrietta, Igbinosa I; Okoh, Anthony I

    2011-08-31

    Tamarindus indica is widely used as a food and beverage and in traditional medicine. The apparent lack of dose standardization in herbal medicine necessitates the evaluation of the lethality T. indica on Artemia salina nauplii and chicken embryos via in vitro and in vivo techniques. Furthermore, hepatotoxicokinetics of the crude extract and fractions on Wister rats was also assessed. At concentrations of 200, 20 and 2 µg/mL, crude extract and fractions showed brine shrimp death percentages ranging from 86.70% to 3.30% and the sub-fractions showed death percentage ranges of 46.70% to 3.30%. Calculated LD₅₀ values ranged from 832 µg/mL to 5,019 µg/mL. Dosing Wister rats with 25% and 50% concentration of LD₅₀ determined for crude extract and fractions on chicken embryos showed an elevation in the ALT and AST levels in the serum. Brine shrimps and chicken embryos showed a positive correlation, with R² values of 0.541 and 0.588 (P ≤ 0.05) for fractions and subfractions, respectively, as media for the lethality assay. Dose standardization in folk herbal medicine is imperative as T. indica used as food and medicine has been shown to be toxic at high doses. Brine shrimp and chicken embryos may be comparably used as medium for toxicity assay.

  10. A review of the natural enemies of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Daniel; Frank, J Howard; Rodrigues, Jose Carlos V; Peña, Jorge E

    2012-08-01

    A review of all the available information about the natural enemies reported in association with the red palm mite, Raoiella indica is presented. Twenty-eight species of predatory arthropods, including mites and insects, have been reported in association with R. indica in Asia, Africa and the Neotropics. In addition, pathogenic fungi associated with R. indica in the Caribbean have been reported. The available literature indicates that each site has a different natural enemy complex with only one predator species, Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), present in all the geographical areas. The phytoseiids, Amblyseius caudatus Berlese, Amblyseius channabasavanni Gupta and A. largoensis, were regarded as important natural enemies of R. indica, and their predatory efficiency was studied in some detail. Among the predatory insects the coccinellids Stethorus keralicus Kapur and Telsimia ephippiger Chapin were reported as major predators of R. indica. The known distribution, abundance and relative importance of each species reported in association with R. indica are discussed.

  11. Formulation techniques for nanofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Solorio, Carlos I; Payán-Rodríguez, Luis A; García-Cuéllar, Alejandro J; Ramón-Raygoza, E D; L Cadena-de-la-Peña, Natalia; Medina-Carreón, David

    2013-11-01

    Fluids with suspended nanoparticles, commonly known as nanofluids, may be formulated to improve the thermal performance of industrial heat transfer systems and applications. Nanofluids may show enhanced thermal and electrical properties such as thermal conductivity, viscosity, heat transfer coefficient, dielectric strength, etc. However, stability problems may arise as nanoparticles usually have the tendency to agglomerate and sediment producing deterioration in the increment of these properties. In this review, we discuss patents that report advances in the formulation of nanofluids including: production methods, selection of components (nanoparticles, base fluid and surfactants), their chemical compositions and morphologies, and characterization techniques. Finally, current and future directions in the development of nanofluid formulation are discussed.

  12. Microarray analyses during early and later stages of the Arabidopsis/Piriformospora indica interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Khabat Vahabi; Irena Sherameti; Madhunita Bakshi; Anna Mrozinska; Anatoli Ludwig; Ralf Oelmüller

    2015-01-01

    Colonization of the roots of different plant species by Piriformospora indica results in better plant performance and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. An increase of the biomass and seed yield is other beneficial effect of P. indica for the host plants. The interaction of P. indica with Arabidopsis thaliana roots is a unique model system to study symbiotic relationships. We describe a co-cultivation system which allows us to investigate the effects of fungal exudates on the root transcrip...

  13. In vitro antibacterial activity in seed extracts of Manilkara zapota, Anona squamosa, and Tamarindus indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Vijay; Seshadri, Sriram

    2010-01-01

    Extracts prepared from seeds of Manilkara zapota, Anona squamosa, and Tamarindus indica were screened for their antibacterial activity by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. Acetone and methanol extracts of T. indica seeds were found active against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. MIC values of potent extracts against susceptible organisms ranged from 53-380 μg/mL. Methanol extract of T. indica and acetone extract of M. zapota seeds were found to be bactericidal.

  14. Assessment of strategy formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acur, Nuran; Englyst, Linda

    2006-01-01

    . Practical implications – The integration of three different strategy assessment approaches has been made to obtain a holistic, multi-perspective reflection on strategy formulation. Such reflection is assumed to enable managers to proactively evaluate the potential outcome and performance of their chosen......Purpose – Today, industrial firms need to cope with competitive challenges related to innovation, dynamic responses, knowledge sharing, etc. by means of effective and dynamic strategy formulation. In light of these challenges, the purpose of the paper is to present and evaluate an assessment tool...... for strategy formulation processes that ensures high quality in process and outcome. Design/methodology/approach – A literature review was conducted to identify success criteria for strategy formulation processes. Then, a simple questionnaire and assessment tool was developed and used to test the validity...

  15. Antidiarrhoeal efficacy ofMangifera indica seed kernel on Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajan S; Suganya H; Thirunalasundari T; Jeeva S

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To examine the antidiarrhoeal activity of alcoholic and aqueous seed kernel extract of Mangifera indica (M. indica) on castor oil-induced diarrhoeal activity inSwiss albino mice.Methods:Mango seed kernels were processed and extracted using alcohol and water. Antidiarrhoeal activity of the extracts were assessed using intestinal motility and faecal score methods.Results:Aqueous and alcoholic extracts ofM. indica significantly reduced intestinal motility and faecal score inSwiss albino mice.Conclusions:The present study shows the traditional claim on the use of M. indica seed kernel for treating diarrhoea inSouthern parts of India.

  16. Genetic Structure and Indica/Japonica Component Changes in Major Inbred Rice Varieties in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ping; YUAN Xiao-ping; XU Qun; WANG Cai-hong; YU Han-yong; WANG Yi-ping; TANG Sheng-xiang

    2013-01-01

    We used 39 SSR markers to analyze the genetic structure of 304 major Chinese inbred rice varieties,and to compare changes in the indica or japonica components in these varieties that have been widely cultivated from the 1950s to the 1990s in China.The genetic structure analysis showed that these rice varieties were distinctly divided into two populations,indica and japonica.The sub-structure of indica varieties was more complex than that of japonica ones.Among the various lines,late-season indica and early season japonica varieties had simpler genetic backgrounds.The seasonal ecotypes were not quite consistent with the subtypes of genetic structure.Twelve SSR loci with specific differentiation between indica and japonica were used to calculate the indica/japonica components.The differences in indica/japonica components among the five decades were not significant,except for late-season indica varieties in the 1990s,which had a significantly higher japonica component.These results will help to understand the genetic structure of the major Chinese inbred rice varieties and will be useful for indica-japonica hybrid breeding in China.

  17. Crescimento, esporulação e viabilidade de fungos entomopatogênicos em meios contendo diferentes concentrações do óleo de nim (Azadirachta indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques Renata Paro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A associação de extratos de origem vegetal com fungos entomopatogênicos pode aumentar a eficiência do controle biológico de pragas, reduzir custos e impactos ambientais. No presente trabalho, avaliou-se, através da concentração inibitória mínima, o efeito do óleo de nim (NIM-I-GO sobre o crescimento, esporulação e viabilidade de Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana e Paecilomyces farinosus. Utilizou-se o meio BDA, contendo diferentes concentrações de óleo de nim (C1: 5% de óleo de nim, e sucessivamente concentrações iguais a fraction one-half da concentração anterior, até C11: 0,0048% de óleo de nim. O óleo de nim reduziu o crescimento de colônias de B. bassiana e P. farinosus, que não diferiram significativamente do controle apenas na concentração C11, mas para M. anisopliae o mesmo efeito foi observado com 0,039% de óleo de nim (C8. A esporulação também foi significativamente reduzida pelo óleo de nim, exceto na concentração C11 para B. bassiana; contudo, não se verificou efeito do óleo na viabilidade de esporos dos fungos.

  18. 印楝细胞培养物控制黄粉虫幼虫的研究%Controling the Larvae of Tenebrio molitor with Cultured Extracts of Azadirachta indica Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴林; 赵娜; 韩广建; 曹雪飞

    2014-01-01

    为了探究印楝细胞培养物控制害虫的效果,本文通过诱导幼叶、继代培养获得印楝的松散型愈伤组织,再经振荡培养获得悬浮细胞培养物;然后采用二氯甲烷溶剂浸提愈伤组织、悬浮培养物及悬浮培养细胞,制备相应的浸提液;用二氯甲烷分别将这些浸提液稀释成含0.003%印楝素A 的控虫工作液,用其分别处理黄粉虫幼虫,在12,d内,考察其控虫效果.结果表明:3种浸提液的致死效应明显高于阴性对照,其中,第9天的最大致死率达到20%,但它们要明显低于0.003%印楝素乳油农药的处理;3种浸提液对幼虫的虫体质量、拒食和趋避作用等方面效果较好,均达到印楝乳油杀虫剂的控虫水平.印楝细胞培养物经一步浸提后,直接用于控虫制剂的生产,可以节约分离、提纯印楝素等生产性成本.%To explore the pest control effect of neem cultures,relaxed callus was induced and subcultured from young neem leaves,from which suspension cells were obtained by shaking the culture. The callus,suspension cultures and suspension cells were turned into insecticidal solution by using dichloromethane dissolvent.The three kinds of solution were later di-luted into their working solutions with 0.003%Azadirachtin by using dichloromethane;and then those solutions were applied to Tenebrio molitor larvae,one by one. In 12,days,their pest control effects were observed. The results indicated that all the three kinds of dichloromethane extracts had a lethal rate against Tenebrio molitor larvae higher than that of the negative con-trol. The maximum lethal rate of the extracts reached 20%when cultured for 9,days,but the lethal rate was lower than that of 0.003%Azadirachtin EC. The extracts all gave good performance in dealing with the body weight,antifeeding and repellent rate of the larvae,and they all reached the pesticide control level of Azadirachtin Emulsion. In conclusion,neem cell cultures,by one step extraction,can be directly used as pest control agent.This method can lower the production cost of Azadirachtin separation and purification.

  19. 广东引种印楝树的主要病虫害种类及其防治技术%Diseases and Insect Pests on Neem Trees (Azadirachta indica A.Juss) and Their Control in Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何雪香; 周丽华; 秦长生; 徐金柱; 陈贰; 苏海; 翁抗美; 蓝锦欣

    2009-01-01

    文章从生产实际需要出发,总结近年来对印楝的病虫害观察和防治试验结果,介绍在广东省人工栽培印楝主要病虫害种类及其防治对策,以期在今后发展种植印楝时提供参考.

  20. 碳基固体酸催化印楝树油与甲醇的酯交换反应%Transesterification of Azadirachta Indica Oil with Methanol Catalyzed by Cardon-Based Solid Acid Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江文辉; 文鹤林

    2009-01-01

    制备了碳基固体酸催化剂,用红外光谱分析、元素分析、XRD分析和热重分析对所制备的催化剂进行了定性定量研究;用碳基固体酸催化印楝油与申醇的酯交换反应,研究了相关因素对反应的影响,用高效液相色谱法分析反应中TG、DG、MG和FAME的含量,结果表明,用碳基固体酸催化印楝树油与甲醇的酯交换反应非常有效,最佳反应条件(油酯与甲醇的物质的量比率固定在1∶12)是:催化剂用量为油酯质量的10%,反应温度为120℃,反应时间为8 h,反应原料中脂肪酸质量分数不大于10%,水的质量分数不大于5%,酯交换率可达95%.这种催化剂循环使用10次,酯交换率没有下降.

  1. Formulations and nebulizer performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Riordan, Thomas G

    2002-11-01

    To deliver a drug by nebulization, the drug must first be dispersed in a liquid (usually aqueous) medium. After application of a dispersing force (either a jet of gas or ultrasonic waves), the drug particles are contained within the aerosol droplets, which are then inhaled. Some drugs readily dissolve in water, whereas others need a cosolvent such as ethanol or propylene glycol. Some drugs are delivered as suspensions, and the efficiency of nebulizers can be different for solutions and suspensions. Solutions are delivered more efficiently with most devices. In general, conventional ultrasonic nebulizers should not be used to aerosolize suspensions, because of low efficiency. Newer strategies to improve the delivery of non-water-soluble drugs include the use of liposomes and the milling of the drug into very small "nanoparticles." In addition to the active therapeutic ingredient and solvents, drug formulations may include buffers (the solubility of some medications is influenced by pH), stabilizers, and, in the case of multi-dose preparations, antibacterial agents. Though formulations are designed to optimize drug solubility and stability, changes in formulation can also affect inhaled mass, particle size, and treatment time, though the differences between nebulizer brands probably have a greater impact than differences in formulation. Ultrasonic and jet nebulizers may damage protein and other complex agents through heat or shear stress. Additives to multi-dose formulations, especially antimicrobial and chelating agents, may cause adverse events, so there is a trend towards single-use, preservative-free vials.

  2. Chemical and biological investigations of Dillenia indica Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Most. Nazma Parvin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of four compounds namely, lupeol (1, betulinaldehyde (2, betulinic acid (3 and stigmasterol (4 were isolated from the stem extract of Dillenia indica Linn. The structures of the isolated compounds (1-4 were established by extensive spectroscopic studies. The crude methanolic extracts and its n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane and chloroform soluble partitionates demonstrated weak antimicrobial activity against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and fungi. The extractives revealed significant cytotoxic activity when tested by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. In addition, the extractives exhibited significant free radical scavenging activity when compared with the standard drug ascorbic acid.

  3. Protective potential of Tamarindus indica against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Naveed; Azam Khan, Mir; Khan, Taous; Ahmad, Waqar

    2014-01-13

    Abstract Context: Gentamicin is an antibiotic that is effective against Gram-negative microorganisms. However, its clinical applications are often limited due to nephrotoxic effects. Objective: This study investigated the protective effects of aqueous-ethanol extract of Tamarindus indica L. (Leguminosae) fruits against gentamicin-induced renal toxicity. Materials and methods: A daily dose of 200 mg/kg of 70% aqueous-ethanol extract derived from T. indica was employed in male rabbits as a co-therapy with gentamicin (80 mg/kg) for a period of three weeks. Serum and urinary renal function parameters and histological assessments were carried out and compared with one way analysis of variance (Graphpad prism version 5.00, Graphpad Software, San Diego, CA). Results: The results showed that gentamicin-treated animals had significantly elevated blood urea nitrogen (54.1 ± 2.6 mg/dl), serum creatinine (4.0 ± 0.1 mg/dl), serum uric acid (2.3 ± 0.1 mg/dl) and urinary protein excretion (3.8 ± 0.3 mg/dl) with a fall in body weight (10 ± 1%), creatinine clearance (0.7 ± 0.09 ml/min), serum potassium (3.4 ± 0.1 mEq/l), serum calcium (7.6 ± 0.2 mg/dl), urinary volume (126 ± 9 ml/24 h) and urinary lactate dehydrogenase secretion (103.1 ± 4.2 U/l). However, animals treated by co-therapy with gentamicin and T. indica had significantly improved renal structure and function. Discussion and conclusion: Co-therapy of 200 mg/kg/d of T. indica for a period of three weeks successfully prevented functional and morphological derangements caused by gentamicin as assessed by different renal function parameters and histological examinations.

  4. Formulation of Automotive Lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, D.; Brown, A. J.; Jilbert, D.; Lamb, G.

    The formulation of lubricants for current light- and heavy-duty vehicles (passenger cars and trucks) and also motorcycles/small engines is described in terms of engine types and meeting European, US and Japanese emission control requirements. Trends in the formulation of lubricants are discussed and the importance of high and low 'SAPS' for future developments emphasised. Specification and evaluation of lubricant performance for light-vehicle gasoline and diesel, and also heavy-duty diesel engines are described. Emphasis is given to diesel engine cleanliness by soot and deposit control and the effect of emission controls on lubricant formulation. The lubricant requirements for motorcycle and small engines, primarily two-stroke cycle, and their specifications are described.

  5. Antioxidant, free radical scavenging and invitro cytotoxic studies of ethanolic extract of Leucas indica var lavandulifolia and Leucas indica var nagalapuramiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramalingam Ramani; Sushruthi Sudini; Bindu Madhavi Boddupalli; Ravinder Nath Anisetti

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The main focus of the study is to determine antioxidant, free radical scavenging and cytotoxic effect of ethanolic extract of whole plant of Leucas indica var lavandulifolia and Leucas indica var nagalapuramiana using various in vitro assay methods as well as to estimate the amount of total phenol and flavonoid contents. Methods: Leucas indica var lavandulifolia and Leucas indica var nagalapuramiana were collected in February 2008 from Thirumala hills and standard procedure from the literature were used to estimate the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity. Results: The results suggest that both the extracts can be considered as a valuable source of antioxidants products as the obtained values are more or less near to the used standard compound. Conclusions: The characterization of leucas for antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities are new to literature in this context this extensive in vitro study of the selected two species of leucas for antioxidant activity will be a valuable study for further in vivo activities.

  6. Lubrication in tablet formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jennifer; Wen, Hong; Desai, Divyakant

    2010-05-01

    Theoretical aspects and practical considerations of lubrication in tablet compression are reviewed in this paper. Properties of the materials that are often used as lubricants, such as magnesium stearate, in tablet dosage form are summarized. The manufacturing process factors that may affect tablet lubrication are discussed. As important as the lubricants in tablet formulations are, their presence can cause some changes to the tablet physical and chemical properties. Furthermore, a detailed review is provided on the methodologies used to characterize lubrication process during tablet compression with relevant process analytical technologies. Finally, the Quality-by-Design considerations for tablet formulation and process development in terms of lubrication are discussed.

  7. FLUORIDE SORPTION USING MORRINGA INDICA-BASED ACTIVATED CARBON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Karthikeyan, S. Siva Ilango

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Batch adsorption experiments using activated carbon prepared from Morringa Indica bark were conducted to remove fluoride from aqueous solution. A minimum contact time of 25 min was required for optimum fluoride removal. The influence of adsorbent, dose, pH, co-ions (cations and anions on fluoride removal by the activated carbon has been experimentally verified. The adsorption of fluoride was studied at 30 C, 40 C and 50 C. The kinetics of adsorption and adsorption isotherms at different temperatures were studied. The fluoride adsorption obeyed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and followed a pseudo first order kinetic model. The thermodynamic studies revealed that the fluoride adsorption by Morringa Indica is an endothermic process indicating an increase in sorption rate at higher temperatures. The negative values of G indicate the spontaneity of adsorption. SEM and XRD studies confirmed the surface morphological characteristics of the adsorbent and the deposition of fluoride on the surface of the material.

  8. Potential antianxiety activity of Fumaria indica: A preclinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gireesh K Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the view of diverse CNS modulating properties of Fumaria indica, present study was planned to evaluate its putative anxiolytic activity in behavioural models of rats, followed by elucidation of mechanism of observed activity through biochemical estimations. Materials and Methods: Effects of seven daily 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg oral doses of a Fumaria indica extract (FI was compared with those of an acute oral dose (5 mg/kg of lorazepam in a battery of rat models consisting of open-field, elevated plus and zero maze, social interaction, and novelty induced feeding tests. Results: Dose dependant antianxiety effects of FI observed in all tests were qualitatively similar to those of the reference anxiolytic drug. Although FI treatments did not alter the concentrations of noradrenaline and serotonin in hippocampus and hypothalamus, concentrations of both these monoamines were dose dependently elevated in prefrontal cortex of FI treated animals. Flunitrazepam binding in brain frontal cortex was also elevated by the extract. Moreover, higher levels of brain expressions of the cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10 observed in animals with prior experience on elevated plus maze were almost completely reversed by the lowest dose of FI tested in the behavioral models. Conclusion: Taken together, these observations strongly suggest that FI is a functionally novel type of antianxiety agent, and that inhibition of cytokine expressions in the brain could be involved in its mode of action.

  9. In vitro plant development and root colonization of Coleus forskohlii by Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aparajita; Tripathi, Swati; Varma, Ajit

    2014-03-01

    The present study was conducted for optimization of in vitro substrates under aseptic conditions for interaction of Piriformospora indica with the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. It aims to test the effects of different substrates on P. indica colonization as well as growth parameters of the in vitro raised C. forskohlii. Interaction of in vitro C. forskohlii with root endophyte P. indica under aseptic condition resulted in increase in growth parameters in fungus colonized plants. It was observed that P. indica promoted the plant's growth in all irrespective of substrates used for co-culture study. The growth was found inferior in liquid compared to semisolid medium as well as there was problem of hyperhydricity in liquid medium. P. indica treated in vitro plantlets were better adapted for establishment under green house compared to the non treated plants due to fungal intervention.

  10. Liposomal paclitaxel formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudelka, Stěpán; Turánek, Jaroslav

    2012-11-10

    Over the past three decades, taxanes represent one of the most important new classes of drugs approved in oncology. Paclitaxel (PTX), the prototype of this class, is an anti-cancer drug approved for the treatment of breast and ovarian cancer. However, notwithstanding a suitable premedication, present-day chemotherapy employing a commercial preparation of PTX (Taxol®) is associated with serious side effects and hypersensitivity reactions. Liposomes represent advanced and versatile delivery systems for drugs. Generally, both in vivo mice tumor models and human clinical trials demonstrated that liposomal PTX formulations significantly increase a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of PTX which outperform that for Taxol®. Liposomal PTX formulations are in various stages of clinical trials. LEP-ETU (NeoPharm) and EndoTAG®-1 (Medigene) have reached the phase II of the clinical trials; Lipusu® (Luye Pharma Group) has already been commercialized. Present achievements in the preparation of various liposomal formulations of PTX, the development of targeted liposomal PTX systems and the progress in clinical testing of liposomal PTX are discussed in this review summarizing about 30 years of liposomal PTX development.

  11. Independent domestication of Asian rice followed by gene flow from japonica to indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ching-chia; Kawahara, Yoshihiro; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Wu, Jianzhong; Matsumoto, Takashi; Itoh, Takeshi

    2012-05-01

    Results from studies on the domestication process of Asian rice Oryza sativa have been controversial because of its complicated evolutionary history. Previous studies have yielded two alternative hypotheses about the origin(s) of the two major groups of O. sativa: japonica and indica. One study proposes a single common wild ancestor, whereas the other suggests that there were multiple domestication events of different types of wild rice. Here, we provide clear evidence of the independent domestication of japonica and indica obtained via high-throughput sequencing and a large-scale comparative analysis of two wild rice accessions (W1943 and W0106) and two cultivars (a japonica cultivar called "Nipponbare" and an indica cultivar called "Guangluai-4"). The different domestication processes of the two cultivar groups appear to have led to distinct patterns of molecular evolution in protein-coding regions. The intensity of purifying selection was relaxed only in the japonica group, possibly because of a bottleneck effect. Moreover, a genome-wide comparison between Nipponbare, Guangluai-4, and another indica cultivar (93-11) suggests multiple hybridization events between japonica and indica, both before and after the divergence of the indica cultivars. We found that a large amount of genomic DNA, including domestication-related genes, was transferred from japonica to indica, which might have been important in the development of modern rice. Our study provides an overview of the dynamic process of Asian rice domestication, including independent domestication events and subsequent gene flow.

  12. RICD: A rice indica cDNA database resource for rice functional genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qifa

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Oryza sativa L. indica subspecies is the most widely cultivated rice. During the last few years, we have collected over 20,000 putative full-length cDNAs and over 40,000 ESTs isolated from various cDNA libraries of two indica varieties Guangluai 4 and Minghui 63. A database of the rice indica cDNAs was therefore built to provide a comprehensive web data source for searching and retrieving the indica cDNA clones. Results Rice Indica cDNA Database (RICD is an online MySQL-PHP driven database with a user-friendly web interface. It allows investigators to query the cDNA clones by keyword, genome position, nucleotide or protein sequence, and putative function. It also provides a series of information, including sequences, protein domain annotations, similarity search results, SNPs and InDels information, and hyperlinks to gene annotation in both The Rice Annotation Project Database (RAP-DB and The TIGR Rice Genome Annotation Resource, expression atlas in RiceGE and variation report in Gramene of each cDNA. Conclusion The online rice indica cDNA database provides cDNA resource with comprehensive information to researchers for functional analysis of indica subspecies and for comparative genomics. The RICD database is available through our website http://www.ncgr.ac.cn/ricd.

  13. Utilization of Anting-Anting (Acalypha indica) Leaves as Antibacterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batubara, Irmanida; Wahyuni, Wulan Tri; Firdaus, Imam

    2016-01-01

    Anting-anting (Acalypha indica) plants is a species of plant having catkin type of inflorescence. This research aims to utilize anting-anting as antibacterial toward Streptococcus mutans and degradation of biofilm on teeth. Anting-anting leaves were extracted by maceration technique using methanol, chloroform, and n-hexane. Antibacterial and biofilm degradation assays were performed using microdilution technique with 96 well. n-Hexane extracts of anting-anting leaves gave the best antibacterial potency with minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration value of 500 μg/mL and exhibited good biofilm degradation activity. Fraction of F3 obtained from fractionation of n-hexane's extract with column chromatography was a potential for degradation of biofilm with IC50 value of 56.82 μg/mL. Alkaloid was suggested as antibacterial and degradation of biofilm in the active fraction.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Péres-Roses, Renato; Urdaneta-Laffita, Imilci; Camacho-Pozo, Miladis Isabel; Rodríguez-Amado, Jesús; Licea-Jiménez, Irina

    2010-07-01

    Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts.

  15. Biosynthesis of Yttrium oxide nanoparticles using Acalypha indica leaf extract

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Kannan; M Sundrarajan

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the synthesis of Yttrium oxide (Y2O3) nanoparticles was carried out from Acalypha indica leaf extract. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer and transmission electron microscope for structural confirmation. The studies clearly indicate that the synthesized Y2O3 nanoparticle is a crystalline material with a particle size from 23 to 66 nm. Further analysis was carried out by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, to provide the evidence for the presence of Y–O–Y and O–Y–O stretchings in the synthesized Y2O3 nanoparticles. Thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry analyses gave the thermal stability of Y2O3 nanoparticles. The results of the antibacterial studies conducted by using the synthesized Y2O3 revealed an increasing rate of antibacterial behaviour with pathogens.

  16. Microwave optimization of mucilage extraction from Opuntia ficus indica Cladodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felkai-Haddache, Lamia; Dahmoune, Farid; Remini, Hocine; Lefsih, Khalef; Mouni, Lotfi; Madani, Khodir

    2016-03-01

    In this study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica Cladodes were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of three extraction factors on the yield of mucilage were examined. The results indicated that the optimum extraction conditions were determined as follows: microwave power X1, 700 W; extraction time X2, 5.15 minand ratio water/raw material X3, 4.83 mL/g at fixed pH 11. Under these optimal extraction conditions, mucilage yield was found to be Y, 25.6%. A comparison between the model results and experimental data gave a high correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.88), adjusted coefficient (Radj=0.83) and low root mean square error (RMSE=2.45) and showed that the two models were able to predict a mucilage yield by green extraction microwave process.

  17. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia Ficus-Indica as a Holographic Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santa Toxqui-López

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica releases a substance through its mucilage, which comes from the degradation of pectic substances and chlorophyll. Combined in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix, this substance can be used as a recording medium. The resulting extract material has excellent photosensitizer properties, is easy to handle, has a low cost, and low toxicity. This material has the property of self-developing, and it can be used in holographic applications. The polyvinyl alcohol and extract from the nopal cactus was deposited by a gravity technique on a glass substrate, which dried to form a photosensitive emulsion. We show experimental results on a holographic grating using this material, written by a He-Cd laser (442 nm. We obtained diffraction gratings by transmission with a diffraction efficiency of approximately 32.3% to first order.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Escalona-Arranz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS. Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts.

  19. Actividad antimicrobiana de Waltheria indica y Acacia farnesiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidia M. Rojas Hernández

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre las plantas medicinales empleadas en Tierra Caliente, estado de Guerrero, México, se encuentran el Güinar (Waltheria indica L., Esterculiaceae y el Huizache (Acacia farnesiana L. Willd, Mimosaceae. En ambas, la infusión de la raíz se usa popularmente para las diarreas. Con la finalidad de validar las propiedades que se les atribuyen a estas especies vegetales, el presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana in vitro de los extractos acuosos y etanólicos preparados con las raíces de ambas plantas. A estos extractos, se les determinó el rendimiento de sólidos solubles totales y se les realizó el análisis fitoquímico general. La actividad antimicrobiana se evaluó frente a 25 cultivos bacterianos, dos cepas de hongos filamentosos y 13 cepas de siete especies de levaduras del género Candida. En ambas plantas, los extractos etanólicos tuvieron mayor actividad que los acuosos. Los extractos etanólicos de estas especies vegetales afectaron el crecimiento de siete cepas bacterianas, lo cual correspondió al 28 % de los cultivos evaluados. Esta actividad fue bacteriostática y bactericida para los dos extractos, a los que se les determinaron las Concentraciones Mínimas Inhibitoria (CMI y Bactericida (CMB frente a los cultivos sensibles. Solo se detectó actividad antifúngica por el extracto de W. indica sobre la cepa de C. utilis. La acción sobre bacterias enteropatógenas in vitro valida el uso de estas plantas en medicina tradicional y reafirma la necesidad de estudios toxicológicos para asegurar la inocuidad de su uso.

  20. Preliminary study on the genes related to the fertility of indica/japonica hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Studying the sterility of indica/japonica hybrid was a prerequisite for the utilization of heterosis in high yield rice breeding. In 1986, Ikehashi et al found that wide compatibility varieties, which possessed S5-n allele, couldovercome the sterility of indica/japonica hybrids, and thesterilitv was mainly caused by allelic interaction at S-5 lo-cus. Further studies indicated that the sterility could notbe completely overcome just by S5-n. There were must beother loci responsible for the sterility of indica/ japonicahybrids.

  1. Determination of anthelmintic activity of the leaf and bark extract of Tamarindus Indica linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent.

  2. Determination of anthelmintic activity of the leaf and bark extract of tamarindus indica linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S S; Dey, Monalisha; Ghosh, A K

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent.

  3. Systematic Equation Formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    2007-01-01

    A tutorial giving a very simple introduction to the set-up of the equations used as a model for an electrical/electronic circuit. The aim is to find a method which is as simple and general as possible with respect to implementation in a computer program. The “Modified Nodal Approach”, MNA, and th......, and the “Controlled Source Approach”, CSA, for systematic equation formulation are investigated. It is suggested that the kernel of the P Spice program based on MNA is reprogrammed....

  4. Influence of calcium phosphate nanoparticles, Piriformospora indica and Glomus mosseae on growth of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Mansi; Bawskar, Manisha; Rathod, Dnyaneshwar; Nagaonkar, Dipali; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (G. mosseae) and endosymbiont (P. indica) colonized Zea mays were treated with calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaPNPs) and evaluated for their plant growth promotion efficiency. It was observed that CaPNPs in combination with both G. mosseae and P. indica are more potent plant growth promoter than independent combinations of CaPNPs + G. mosseae, CaPNPs + P. indica or CaPNPs alone. The fluorimetric studies of treated plants revealed that CaPNPs alone and in combination with P. indica can enhance vitality of Zea mays by improving chlorophyll a content and performance index of treated plants. Hence, we conclude that CaPNPs exhibit synergistic growth promotion, root proliferation and vitality improvement properties along with endosymbiotic and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, which after further field trials can be developed as a cost-effective nanofertilizer with pronounced efficiency.

  5. Phytochemical screening and evaluation of cytotoxic and hypoglycemic properties of Mangifera indica peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiha Chowdhury

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: This current research affirms prominent cytotoxic and moderate hypoglycemic potential of M. indica peel. Further bioactivity guided isolation of phytoconstituents and investigation on higher animals can lead to development of new drug molecules.

  6. The origins of an important cactus crop, Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae): new molecular evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, M Patrick

    2004-11-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica is a long-domesticated cactus crop that is important in agricultural economies throughout arid and semiarid parts of the world. The biogeographic and evolutionary origins of this species have been obscured through ancient and widespread cultivation and naturalization. The origin of O. ficus-indica is investigated through the use of Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of nrITS DNA sequences. These analyses support the following hypotheses: that O. ficus-indica is a close relative of a group of arborescent, fleshy-fruited prickly pears from central and southern Mexico; that the center of domestication for this species is in central Mexico; and that the taxonomic concept of O. ficus-indica may include clones derived from multiple lineages and therefore be polyphyletic.

  7. Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Fruit Extract as Natural Indicator in Acid-Base Titration

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj A. Suva

    2014-01-01

    In routine experiments synthetic indicators are the choice of acid base titrations. But there are some limitations like environmental pollution, availability and higher cost which leads to search for natural compounds as an acid base indicator was started. The present work highlights theexploit of the methanolic and aqueous extract of the fruit of Opuntia ficus indica plants as a natural acid base indicator in acid base titrations. Opuntia ficus indica plant was identified and fruits were was...

  8. A novel 'green' synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles (SNP) using Dillenia indica fruit extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Susmita; Saikia, Jyoti P; Buragohain, Alak K

    2013-02-01

    In the present research we have defined a novel green method of silver nanoparticles synthesis using Dillenia indica fruit extract. D. indica is an edible fruit widely distributed in the foothills of Himalayas and known for its antioxidant and further predicted for cancer preventive potency. The maximum absorbance of the colloidal silver nanoparticle solution was observed at 421 nm when examined with UV-vis spectrophotometer.

  9. Preliminary studies on rice quality of japonica-indica hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhenyu; ZHANGYunkang; WUJianli

    1997-01-01

    It has been proved that high yield combinations can be obtained via hybridization between indica and japonica rice. However, people have worried about the quality of this kind of rice for a long time. Our researches were mainly based on the mating pattern of “japonica male sterile line/indica restorer line” to generate and select elite japonicalinous crosses. Ricequality is shown in table 1 and 2.

  10. Proteomic analysis of an unsequenced plant--Mangifera indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renuse, Santosh; Harsha, H C; Kumar, Praveen; Acharya, Pradip Kumar; Sharma, Jyoti; Goel, Renu; Kumar, Ghantasala S Sameer; Raju, Rajesh; Prasad, T S Keshava; Slotta, Tracey; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2012-10-22

    Mangifera indica (Mango) is an important fruit crop in tropical countries with India being the leading producer in the world. Substantial research efforts are being devoted to produce fruit that have desirable characteristics including those that pertain to taste, hardiness and resistance to pests. Characterization of the genome and proteome of mango would help in the improvement of cultivars. As the mango genome has not yet been sequenced, we employed a mass spectrometry-based approach followed by database searches of mango-derived ESTs and proteins along with proteins from six other closely related plant species to characterize its proteome. In addition to this, de novo sequencing followed by homology-based protein identification was also carried out. The LC-MS/MS analysis of the mango leaf proteome was performed using an accurate mass quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. This integrative approach enabled the identification of 1001 peptides that matched to 538 proteins. To our knowledge, this study is the first high-throughput analysis of mango leaf proteome and could pave the way for further genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic studies.

  11. Assessment of Tamarindus indica Extracts for Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony I. Okoh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic and aqueous (hot and cold extracts of the fruit pulp, stem bark and leaves of Tamarindus indica were evaluated for antibacterial activity, in vitro, against 13 Gram negative and 5 Gram positive bacterial strains using agar well diffusion and macro broth dilution techniques, simultaneously. The fruit pulp extracts exhibited a wide spectrum of activity; the cold water extract against 95.5% of the test bacterial strains; and the hot water and ethanolic extracts against 90.9% and 86.4%, respectively. In contrast the cold water extract of the leaves and stem bark, each was active against 16.7%; while the ethanolic extract of each was active against 75% of the test strains. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC ranged from 7.81 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051 to 31.25 mg/mL against Escherichia coli ATCC 11775; and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC ranged from 125 mg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 to 250 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051.

  12. Assessment of Tamarindus indica extracts for antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Obiiyeke, Grace E; Chigor, Vincent N; Okoh, Anthony I

    2011-01-01

    Ethanolic and aqueous (hot and cold) extracts of the fruit pulp, stem bark and leaves of Tamarindus indica were evaluated for antibacterial activity, in vitro, against 13 Gram negative and 5 Gram positive bacterial strains using agar well diffusion and macro broth dilution techniques, simultaneously. The fruit pulp extracts exhibited a wide spectrum of activity; the cold water extract against 95.5% of the test bacterial strains; and the hot water and ethanolic extracts against 90.9% and 86.4%, respectively. In contrast the cold water extract of the leaves and stem bark, each was active against 16.7%; while the ethanolic extract of each was active against 75% of the test strains. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged from 7.81 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051 to 31.25 mg/mL against Escherichia coli ATCC 11775; and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranged from 125 mg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 to 250 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051.

  13. Biosorption of aqueous chromium(VI) by Tamarindus indica seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, G S; Bhuptawat, Hitendra Kumar; Chaudhari, Sanjeev

    2006-05-01

    The effectiveness of low cost agro-based materials namely, Tamarindus indica seed (TS), crushed coconut shell (CS), almond shell (AS), ground nut shell (GS) and walnut shell (WS) were evaluated for Cr(VI) removal. Batch test indicated that hexavalent chromium sorption capacity (q(e)) followed the sequence q(e)(TS) > q(e)(WS) > q(e)(AS) > q(e)(GS) > q(e)(CS). Due to high sorptive capacity, tamarind seed was selected for detailed sorption studies. Sorption kinetic data followed first order reversible kinetic fit model for all the sorbents. The equilibrium conditions were achieved within 150 min under the mixing conditions employed. Sorption equilibria exhibited better fit to Freundlich isotherms (R>0.92) than Langmuir isotherm (R approximately = 0.87). Hexavalent chromium sorption by TS decreased with increase in pH, and slightly reduced with increase in ionic strength. Cr(VI) removal by TS seems to be mainly by chemisorption. Desorption of Cr(VI) from Cr(VI) laden TS was quite less by distilled water and HCl. Whereas with NaOH, maximum desorption achieved was about 15.3%. When TS was used in downflow column mode, Cr(VI) removal was quite good but head loss increased as the run progressed and was stopped after 200 h.

  14. Piriformospora indica Stimulates Root Metabolism of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehmel, Nadine; Mönchgesang, Susann; Herklotz, Siska; Krüger, Sylvia; Ziegler, Jörg; Scheel, Dierk

    2016-07-08

    Piriformospora indica is a root-colonizing fungus, which interacts with a variety of plants including Arabidopsis thaliana. This interaction has been considered as mutualistic leading to growth promotion of the host. So far, only indolic glucosinolates and phytohormones have been identified as key players. In a comprehensive non-targeted metabolite profiling study, we analyzed Arabidopsis thaliana's roots, root exudates, and leaves of inoculated and non-inoculated plants by ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/(ESI)-QTOFMS) and gas chromatography/electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/EI-QMS), and identified further biomarkers. Among them, the concentration of nucleosides, dipeptides, oligolignols, and glucosinolate degradation products was affected in the exudates. In the root profiles, nearly all metabolite levels increased upon co-cultivation, like carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, glucosinolates, oligolignols, and flavonoids. In the leaf profiles, we detected by far less significant changes. We only observed an increased concentration of organic acids, carbohydrates, ascorbate, glucosinolates and hydroxycinnamic acids, and a decreased concentration of nitrogen-rich amino acids in inoculated plants. These findings contribute to the understanding of symbiotic interactions between plant roots and fungi of the order of Sebacinales and are a valid source for follow-up mechanistic studies, because these symbioses are particular and clearly different from interactions of roots with mycorrhizal fungi or dark septate endophytes.

  15. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF STACHYTARPHETA INDICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.N. Krishna Kumar*, S.D.Preethi, E. Chandana and Jyoti Bala Chauhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of aqueous and methanolic root extracts of Stachytarpheta indica Vahl. was assessed. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoides, tannins and reducing sugars. The antibacterial properties of both the aqueous and methanolic extracts were studied against clinically important bacteria viz., Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter aerogens by disc diffusion method. The aqueous extract showed significant activity against all the presently investigated species of bacteria which is comparable with standard antibiotic streptomycin. At the concentrations of 50-100µg /disc, aqueous extract showed significant zone of inhibition against E. coli, (14 mm, B. cereus (13 mm, P. aeruginosa, (17 mm, and E. aerogens (7 mm. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC have been determined. The MIC values observed was 20, 30, 5 and 25µg/ml (for aqueous extract and 40, 35, 20 and 30µg/ml (for methanolic extract against E. coli, B. cereus, P. aeruginosa, and E. aerogens respectively. Further isolation of active compound responsible for the activity could be the potential sources of new antimicrobial agents.

  16. Anticonvulsant potentials of ethanolic extract of Eleusine indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ette Okon Ettebong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the anticonvulsant potentials of ethanolic extract of Eleusine indica. Methods: Albino Wistar mice were separated into five groups with six animals in each group and thereafter pretreated with distilled water, various doses of the extract (200–600 mg/kg and standard drug diazepam (0.5 mg/kg. Thirty minutes later, pentylenetetrazole (70 mg/kg, aminophylline (280 mg/kg and isoniazid (250 mg/kg were used to induce convulsions by intraperitoneal administration. These mice were then placed in plexiglas cages and monitored for the occurrence of seizures over a thirty-minute time period. The latency of convulsions, duration of tonic convulsions and mortality protection were recorded. Data obtained were analyzed using GraphPad InStat 3.10. Results: The results showed that the extract exhibited a dose-dependent increase in the latency of clonic convulsions and decrease in duration of tonic convulsions as compared to the control and these effects were statistically significant (P < 0.001. The extract also provided protection against the mortality which was similar to that produced by the standard drug diazepam. Conclusions: The significant increase in the latency of clonic convulsions and decrease in duration of tonic convulsions caused by the extract show anticonvulsant activity and corroborate with the claims of the traditional use of the plant as an anticonvulsant remedy.

  17. Characterization of crystalline structures in Opuntia ficus-indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Padilla, Margarita; Rivera-Muñoz, Eric M; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Elsa; del López, Alicia Real; Rodríguez-García, Mario Enrique

    2015-01-01

    This research studies the crystalline compounds present in nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes. The identification of the crystalline structures was performed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The crystalline structures identified were calcium carbonate (calcite) [CaCO3], calcium-magnesium bicarbonate [CaMg(CO3)2], magnesium oxide [MgO], calcium oxalate monohydrate [Ca(C2O4)•(H2O)], potassium peroxydiphosphate [K4P2O8] and potassium chloride [KCl]. The SEM images indicate that calcite crystals grow to dipyramidal, octahedral-like, prismatic, and flower-like structures; meanwhile, calcium-magnesium bicarbonate structures show rhombohedral exfoliation and calcium oxalate monohydrate is present in a drusenoid morphology. These calcium carbonate compounds have a great importance for humans because their bioavailability. This is the first report about the identification and structural analysis of calcium carbonate and calcium-magnesium bicarbonate in nopal cladodes, as well as the presence of magnesium oxide, potassium peroxydiphosphate and potassium chloride in these plants. The significance of the study of the inorganic components of these cactus plants is related with the increasing interest in the potential use of Opuntia as a raw material of products for the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.

  18. Antidiabetic and anticancer activities of Mangifera indica cv. Okrong leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aunyachulee Ganogpichayagrai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes and cancer are a major global public health problem. Plant-derived agents with undesirable side-effects were required. This study aimed to evaluate antidiabetic and anticancer activities of the ethanolic leaf extract of Mangifera indica cv. Okrong and its active phytochemical compound, mangiferin. Antidiabetic activities against yeast α-glucosidase and rat intestinal α-glucosidase were determined using 1 mM of p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside as substrate. Inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic α-amylase was performed using 1 mM of 2-chloro-4 nitrophenol-α-D-maltotroside-3 as substrate. Nitrophenol product was spectrophotometrically measured at 405 nm. Anticancer activity was evaluated against five human cancer cell lines compared to two human normal cell lines using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Mango leaf extract and mangiferin exhibited dose-dependent inhibition against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC 50 of 0.0503 and 0.5813 mg/ml, respectively, against rat α-glucosidase with the IC 50 of 1.4528 and 0.4333 mg/ml, respectively, compared to acarbose with the IC 50 of 11.9285 and 0.4493 mg/ml, respectively. For anticancer activity, mango leaf extract, at ≥200 μg/ml showed cytotoxic potential against all tested cancer cell lines. In conclusion, mango leaf possessed antidiabetic and anticancer potential in vitro.

  19. Anticonvulsant potentials of ethanolic extract ofEleusine indica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ette Okon Ettebong; Edidiong Etukakpan; Augustine Bassey

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To assess the anticonvulsant potentials of ethanolic extract ofEleusine indica. Methods:Albino Wistar mice were separated into five groups with six animals in each group and thereafter pretreated with distilled water, various doses of the extract (200–600 mg/kg) and standard drug diazepam (0.5 mg/kg). Thirty minutes later, pentylenetetrazole (70 mg/kg), aminophylline (280 mg/kg) and isoniazid (250 mg/kg) were used to induce convulsions by intraperitoneal administration. These mice were then placed in plexiglas cages and monitored for the occurrence of seizures over a thirty-minute time period. The latency of convulsions, duration of tonic convulsions and mortality protection were recorded. Data obtained were analyzed using GraphPad InStat 3.10. Results: The results showed that the extract exhibited a dose-dependent increase in the latency of clonic convulsions and decrease in duration of tonic convulsions as compared to the control and these effects were statistically significant (P < 0.001). The extract also provided protection against the mortality which was similar to that produced by the standard drug diazepam. Conclusions: The significant increase in the latency of clonic convulsions and decrease in duration of tonic convulsions caused by the extract show anticonvulsant activity and corroborate with the claims of the traditional use of the plant as an anticonvulsant remedy.

  20. Plutonium Immobilization Project Baseline Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbinghaus, B.

    1999-02-01

    A key milestone for the Immobilization Project (AOP Milestone 3.2a) in Fiscal Year 1998 (FY98) is the definition of the baseline composition or formulation for the plutonium ceramic form. The baseline formulation for the plutonium ceramic product must be finalized before the repository- and plant-related process specifications can be determined. The baseline formulation that is currently specified is given in Table 1.1. In addition to the baseline formulation specification, this report provides specifications for two alternative formulations, related compositional specifications (e.g., precursor compositions and mixing recipes), and other preliminary form and process specifications that are linked to the baseline formulation. The preliminary specifications, when finalized, are not expected to vary tremendously from the preliminary values given.

  1. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Mooers, Cavin [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Bazemore, Gina [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Hight, Kenneth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Lai, Shan Tao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Buechele, Andrew [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Rielley, Elizabeth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Gan, Hao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Cecil, Richard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab

    2013-06-13

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  2. Toxicity of fixed oil and crude extract from sa-dao-thiam, Azadirachta excelsa (Jack seed kernel to Aedes aegypti (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekkarat Kaewnang-O

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The larvicidal activity of various concentrations of fixed oil and crude extract from sa-dao-thiam, Azadirachta excelsa(Jack seed kernel was assayed on an Aedes aegypti (L. test population under controlled laboratory conditions. Concentrationlevels of responses at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hrs were evaluated. The LC50 values of the fixed oil and the crude extract were403.6 and 518.7 ppm, respectively. One hundred percent mortality in 24 hrs-post treatment was achieved at 2,000 and 4,000ppm for the oil and crude extract, respectively. It suggested that the oil is more toxic to Ae. aegypti larvae than the crudeextract. Further investigation suggested the occurrence of molting inhibition of Ae. aegypti larvae by the fixed oil and crudeextract as indicated by the small number of emerged adults. In addition, histological study suggested that damages on theepithelial cells of the midgut could result from the effects of the oil and crude extract. Hypertrophy and degeneration of theepithelial cells were observed, resulting in a presence of some cytoplasmic material in the alimentary canal. Further studiesshould be taken into account to identify their stability and residual activity of these products under field conditions.

  3. NEPHRO-PROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MELIA AZADIRACHTA AGAINST H2O2 INDUCED TOXICITY IN VERO CELL LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Srinivasan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Renal disorders have become very common nowadays, which may also lead to kidney failure. The disorder may be caused by the commonly used chemicals such as acetaminophen, CCl4, streptromycin, H2O2 etc. The objective of this work is to determine the nephroprotective potential of ethanolic extract against H2O2induced toxicity in VERO cell line. Ethanolic extract is known for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial effects, which make it a most sought for herbal medicine. Its characteristic features have identified this compound as a potential hepatoprotective and nephroprotective agent. VERO cells are cells taken from the kidney of an African green monkey, which are used in our study. The matured leaves of Melia Azadirachtawere used to prepare ethanolic extract and the same was used to test for its inhibitory effect in 96 micro plate formats against in VERO cell lines. To study the cytotoxic properties of ethanolic extract against VERO cell line, we have tested the MTT assay with different concentrations in the range of 1000 to 62.5 μg/ml.From the performed assay, the effect of ethanolic extract drug reveals an enhanced activity on in VERO cell lines and that infers Melia Azadirachta, can be used as nephroprotective agent.

  4. Microencapsulation of betalains obtained from cactus fruit (Opuntia ficus-indica) by spray drying using cactus cladode mucilage and maltodextrin as encapsulating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otálora, María Carolina; Carriazo, José Gregorio; Iturriaga, Laura; Nazareno, Mónica Azucena; Osorio, Coralia

    2015-11-15

    The microencapsulation of betalains from cactus fruit by spray drying was evaluated as a stabilization strategy for these pigments. The betalains used as active agent were extracted from purple fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica (BE) and encapsulated with maltodextrin and cladode mucilage MD-CM and only with MD. The microcapsulates were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal analysis (TGA-DSC), tristimulus colorimetry, as well as, their humidity, water activity and dietary fiber content were also determined. The active agent content was measured by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and its composition confirmed by HPLC-ESIMS. A pigment storage stability test was performed at 18 °C and different relative humidities. The addition of CM in the formulation increased the encapsulation efficiency, diminished the moisture content, and allowed to obtain more uniform size and spherical particles, with high dietary fiber content. These microencapsulates are promising functional additive to be used as natural colorant in the food industry.

  5. Anxiolytic activity of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety or depressed mood is associated with low levels of serotonin in the brain. A hydroxycitric acid (HCA, constituent of Garcinia indica (GIA, increases serotonin release from isolated rat brain cortex. Aim: To evaluate the anxiolytic activity of aqueous extract of dried fruits of GIA in mice. Materials and Methods: The anxiolytic-like effects of aqueous extract of dried fruits of GIA were evaluated by using elevated plus maze (EPM, hole board and light/dark exploration models in Swiss albino mice. Control mice were treated with an equal volume of saline, and positive control mice were treated with diazepam (1 mg/kg. Results: GIA administered orally, 30 min before the test in different doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg of body weight, was able to increase significantly (P < 0.05 the time-spent and entries into open arms of the EPM and reduced the time-spent and entries into closed arms versus control. In the hole-board test, treatment with GIA (250 and 500 mg/kg significantly increased the number of head-dips and duration of head dipping (P < 0.05. In the light-dark paradigm test, number of transitions and the time spent in the light box increased with reduction in time spent in the dark box and immobility period significantly (P < 0.05 after treatment with GIA. However, no significant changes in locomotor activity were observed versus control. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that aqueous extract of dried fruits of GIA is an effective anxiolytic agent for behavioural models in mice.

  6. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C

    2005-04-22

    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  7. Evaluation of polyherbal formulation (SJT-HT-03) for antihypertensive activity in albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghelani, Hardik S.; Patel, Bipin M.; Gokani, Rina H.; Rachchh, Manish A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is an incurable pathological condition and lifelong therapy is required. Long term use of conventional synthetic anti-hypertensive drugs is associated with a spectrum of toxic effects. However, therapeutic interventions using herbal drugs for hypertension have gained considerable attention worldwide. Aim: To evaluate the anti-hypertensive activity of polyherbal formulation (SJT-HT-03). Materials and Methods: The polyherbal formulation (SJT-HT-03) comprises of leaves of Aegle marmelos L., fruits of Benincasa hispida Thunb., Garcinia indica Thouars, and flowers of Musa paradiasica L., Rosa indica L., Hibiscus rosa sinensis L. Selected plants as mentioned above were collected, dried and extracted with different solvents. Formulation SJT-HT-03 (250 mg/kg, p.o.), was evaluated using two kidney one clip (2K1C) model and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt-induced hypertension model using the enalapril (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and hydrochlorothiazide (5 mg/kg, p.o.) as a reference standard drug in respective models. Results: SJT-HT-03 significantly reduced (P < 0.001, one-way analysis of variance followed by Turkey's multiple comparison tests) systolic as well as diastolic blood pressure (BP) in 2K1C and DOCA-salt model. Further, SJT-HT-03 has shown a significant reduction (P < 0.01) in angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in serum, clipped kidney as well as in lungs in 2K1C model, whereas significant reduction (P < 0.05) in serum Na+ and increase in serum K+ level in DOCA model. Conclusion: Polyherbal formulation SJT-HT-03 possess significant anti-hypertensive activity by producing direct depressant effect on heart, inhibition of ACE, aldosterone antagonistic as well as diuretic effect and thereby act on multiple targets to achieve optimal effect. PMID:26195912

  8. NAL1 allele from a rice landrace greatly increases yield in modern indica cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Daisuke; Trijatmiko, Kurniawan Rudi; Tagle, Analiza Grubanzo; Sapasap, Maria Veronica; Koide, Yohei; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Tsakirpaloglou, Nikolaos; Gannaban, Ritchel Bueno; Nishimura, Takeshi; Yanagihara, Seiji; Fukuta, Yoshimichi; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Slamet-Loedin, Inez Hortense; Ishimaru, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Nobuya

    2013-12-17

    Increasing crop production is essential for securing the future food supply in developing countries in Asia and Africa as economies and populations grow. However, although the Green Revolution led to increased grain production in the 1960s, no major advances have been made in increasing yield potential in rice since then. In this study, we identified a gene, SPIKELET NUMBER (SPIKE), from a tropical japonica rice landrace that enhances the grain productivity of indica cultivars through pleiotropic effects on plant architecture. Map-based cloning revealed that SPIKE was identical to NARROW LEAF1 (NAL1), which has been reported to control vein pattern in leaf. Phenotypic analyses of a near-isogenic line of a popular indica cultivar, IR64, and overexpressor lines revealed increases in spikelet number, leaf size, root system, and the number of vascular bundles, indicating the enhancement of source size and translocation capacity as well as sink size. The near-isogenic line achieved 13-36% yield increase without any negative effect on grain appearance. Expression analysis revealed that the gene was expressed in all cell types: panicles, leaves, roots, and culms supporting the pleiotropic effects on plant architecture. Furthermore, SPIKE increased grain yield by 18% in the recently released indica cultivar IRRI146, and increased spikelet number in the genetic background of other popular indica cultivars. The use of SPIKE in rice breeding could contribute to food security in indica-growing regions such as South and Southeast Asia.

  9. Induction of root colonization by Piriformospora indica leads to enhanced asiaticoside production in Centella asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheesan, Jisha; Narayanan, Anith K; Sakunthala, Manjula

    2012-04-01

    Centella asiatica (Indian pennywort) has wide application in Indian and Chinese traditional medicines with documented evidence for wound healing and neuroprotective and anti-aging potential. Asiaticoside, a trisaccharide triterpene, is the most medicinally active compound in the plant. β-Amyrin synthase and squalene synthase have been identified as the two key genes in the triterpenoid pathway which regulate the production of asiaticoside in C. asiatica. The paper reports salient findings of our study utilizing the growth-promoting endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica to successfully colonize roots of C. asiatica in vitro cultures for investigating the effect of the mutualistic association on asiaticoside production. Co-cultivation of P. indica resulted in the rapid enhancement of root and shoot biomass of host plant, which was visible after 7 days of culture and continued up to 45 days. P. indica co-cultivation also favored the synthesis of asiaticosides, as evidenced by HPLC analysis which indicated about twofold increase (0.53% (w/w) in leaves and 0.23% (w/w) in whole plant) over control (0.33% (w/w) in leaves and 0.14% (w/w) in whole plant). Real-time PCR results confirmed the strong upregulation of squalene synthase and β-amyrin synthase transcripts in P. indica-challenged plants compared with the control. Our data demonstrate the potential use of P. indica as a means to enhance plant secondary metabolite production in planta with scope for further field evaluation.

  10. TEST OF Morus khunpai AND M.indica HYBRID TOWARDS SILKWORM FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhaedah Muin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of silkworm rearing depends on the availability of qualified mulberry plants. The research is aimed to observe the compatibility of hybrid Morus khunpai and M.indica (KI hybrid for silkworm's feeding. It is related to the cocoon and filament quality. KI hybrids are a result of pollination control male parent M.khunpai and female parent M.indica S-54. The research applied a Randomized Complete Design by measuring variables, i.e.: the percentage of cocoon, number of normal cocoon, cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, cocoon shell ratio and filament length. The result showed that cocoon and filament quality of silkworm fed by mulberry hybrid M.khunpai and M.indica (KI have shown non-significant differences compared with silkworm fed by mulberry parents (M.khunpai and M.indica and the control (M.nigra. This situation showed that there has not been recognised yet as the compatibility of hybrid M.khunpai and M.indica (KI hybrid for silkworm feeding.

  11. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2010-06-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect.

  12. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo

    2010-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect. PMID:22110339

  13. Operator Formulation of Classical Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Jack

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the construction of an operator formulation of classical mechanics which is directly concerned with wave packets in configuration space and is more similar to that of convential quantum theory than other extant operator formulations of classical mechanics. (Author/HM)

  14. Formulation of supergravity without superspace

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, S

    1979-01-01

    Supergravity, the particle theory which unifies under a unique gauge principle the quantum-mechanical concept of spin and space-time geometry, is formulated in terms of quantities defined over Minkowski space-time. 'l'he relation between this formulation and the fonnulation which uses superspace, the space-time supplemented by spinning degrees of freedom, is also briefly discussed.

  15. EVALUATION OF FERMENTED MANGO (Mangifera indica SEED MEAL IN THE PRACTICAL DIET OF NILE TILAPIA, (Oreochromis niloticus FINGERLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Olubodun Obasa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the use of fermented mango (Mangifera indica seed meal (FMS to substitute yellow maize in the practical diet for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings (4.76±0.32 g. Five iso-nitrogeneous (35% crude protein and approximately iso-energetic (3400 ME Kcal/kg dietsin which yellow maize was replaced by FMSat 0% (FMS0/Control diet, 25% (FMS25, 50% (FMS50, 75% (FMS75 and 100% (FMS100 levels were formulated. The fish were fed on the diets at 5% body weight for 84 days. Alkaloids were highest (2.32% among the anti-nutritional factors analyzed in FMS, while oxalate (0.84% was lowest. Potassium was highest (8.91 mg/g among the minerals, while copper was lowest (0.01 mg/g. Weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio were similar (p>0.05 in fish fed diets FMS0 and FMS50. The fish fed diet FMS0 had the highest protein efficiency ratio (1.88. Protein digestibility decreased (p<0.05 as dietary FMS increased, while carbohydrate digestibility gave an inverse relationship. Results obtained show that FMS could replace yellow maize at 50% level without affecting growth, nutrient utilization and apparent protein digestibility in diets for Nile tilapia fingerlings.

  16. Differentiation of Indica-Japonica rice revealed by insertion/deletion (InDel) fragments obtained from the comparative genomic study of DNA sequences between 93-11 (Indica) and Nipponbare (Japonica)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Xingxing; LIU Jing; QIU Yinqiu; ZHAO Wei; SONG Zhiping; LU Baorong

    2007-01-01

    DNA polymorphisms from nucleotide insertion/deletions (InDels) in genomic sequences are the basis for developing InDel molecular markers.To validate the InDel primer pairs on the basis of the comparative genomic study on DNA sequences between an Indica rice 93-11 and a Japonica rice Nipponbare for identifying Indica and Japonica rice varieties and studying wild Oryza species,we studied 49 Indica,43 Japonica,and 24 wild rice accessions collected from ten Asian countries using 45 InDel primer pairs.Results indicated that of the 45 InDel primer pairs,41 can accurately identify Indica and Japonica rice varieties with a reliability of over 80%.The scatter plotting data of the principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that:(i) the InDel primer pairs can easily distinguish Indica from Japonica rice varieties,in addition to revealing their genetic differentiation;(ii) the AA-genome wild rice species showed a relatively close genetic relationship with the Indica rice varieties;and (iii)the non-AA genome wild rice species did not show evident differentiation into the Indica and Japonica types.It is concluded from the study that most of the InDel primer pairs obtained from DNA sequences of 93-11 and Nipponbare can be used for identifying lndica and Japonica rice varieties,and for studying genetic relationships of wild rice species,particularly in terms of the Indica-Japonica differentiation.

  17. Biosynthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles using extracts of tamarindus indica L leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, S. N.; Naranjo, A. M.; Herrera, A. P.

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using an extract of Tamarindus indica L. leaves. Phenols, ketones and carboxyls were present in the leaves of T. indica. These organic compounds that allowed the synthesis of nanoparticles were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and High Pressure Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC). Synthesis of gold nanoparticles was performed with the extract of T. indica leaves and an Au+3 aqueous solutions (HAuCl4) at room temperature with one hour of reaction time. Characterization of gold nanoparticles was performed by UV visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDX. The results indicated the formation of gold nanoparticles with a wavelength of 576nm and an average size of 52±5nm. The EDX technique confirmed the presence of gold nanoparticles with 12.88% in solution.

  18. Development of Microsatellite Markers for Lagerstroemia indica (Lythraceae and Related Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed and characterized to analyze genetic diversity within Lagerstroemia cultivars and related species. Methods and Results: Using simple sequence repeat (SSR-enriched libraries, 11 species-specific polymorphic genomic SSRs were developed from L. indica ‘Hong Die Fei Wu’. All primers were tested on 48 L. indica individuals from China, the United States, and France. The primers amplified four to 12 alleles per locus, including di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.1875 to 0.7609 and 0.2836 to 0.8385, respectively. The primers were also highly cross-transferrable to L. subcostata, L. limii, L. fauriei, L. caudata, and L. speciosa. Conclusions: The new primers will enlarge the bank of SSRs available to genetic research of Lagerstroemia. These SSR markers will facilitate population genetics and molecular marker-assisted selection of L. indica.

  19. Modulatory effect of Mangifera indica against carbon tetrachloride induced kidney damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Adeneye, Adejuwon Adewale; Aiyeola, Sheriff Aboyade; Benebo, Adokiye Senibo

    2015-12-01

    There is little scientific evidence on the local use of Mangifera indica in kidney diseases. This study investigated the reno-modulatory roles of the aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica (MIASE) against CCl4-induced renal damage. Rats were treated intragastrically with 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day MIASE for 7 days before and after the administration of CCl4 (3 ml/kg of 30% CCl4, i.p.). Serum levels of electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl(-), HCO3(-)), urea and creatinine were determined. Renal tissue reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide (SOD) activities were also assessed. The histopathological changes in kidneys were determined using standard methods. In CCl4 treated rats the results showed significant (pMangifera indica may present a great prospect for drug development in the management of kidney disease with lipid peroxidation as its etiology.

  20. Microarray analyses during early and later stages of the Arabidopsis/Piriformospora indica interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khabat Vahabi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Colonization of the roots of different plant species by Piriformospora indica results in better plant performance and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. An increase of the biomass and seed yield is other beneficial effect of P. indica for the host plants. The interaction of P. indica with Arabidopsis thaliana roots is a unique model system to study symbiotic relationships. We describe a co-cultivation system which allows us to investigate the effects of fungal exudates on the root transcriptome before and after the establishment of a physical contact, and during early phases of root colonization. We present a detailed protocol which facilitates easy reproduction of the results (NCBI GEO accession number GSE58771 published by Vahabi et al. (2015 in BMC Plant Biology [1].

  1. Microarray analyses during early and later stages of the Arabidopsis/Piriformospora indica interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Khabat; Sherameti, Irena; Bakshi, Madhunita; Mrozinska, Anna; Ludwig, Anatoli; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    Colonization of the roots of different plant species by Piriformospora indica results in better plant performance and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. An increase of the biomass and seed yield is other beneficial effect of P. indica for the host plants. The interaction of P. indica with Arabidopsis thaliana roots is a unique model system to study symbiotic relationships. We describe a co-cultivation system which allows us to investigate the effects of fungal exudates on the root transcriptome before and after the establishment of a physical contact, and during early phases of root colonization. We present a detailed protocol which facilitates easy reproduction of the results (NCBI GEO accession number GSE58771) published by Vahabi et al. (2015) in BMC Plant Biology [1].

  2. Effect of Tamarindus indica. L on the bioavailability of ibuprofen in healthy human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garba, M; Yakasai, I A; Bakare, M T; Munir, H Y

    2003-01-01

    The influence of Tamarindus indica L fruit extract incorporated in a traditional meal on the bioavailability of Ibuprofen tablets 400 mg dose when given concurrently was studied in 6 healthy human volunteers. There was a statistically significant increase in the plasma levels of Ibuprofen and its metabolites hydroxy-ibuprofen and carboxy-ibuprofen respectively, when the meal containing Tamarindus indica fruit extract was administered with the ibuprofen tablets than when taken under fasting state or with the meal without the fruit extract. The C(max), AUC(0-6 hr) and Ka for ibuprofen increased from 38 +/- 0.70 microg/ml to 42 +/- 0.98 microg/ml (p > 0.05); and 28.03 +/- 2.40 microg/ml x hr to 56.51 +/- 0.16 microg/ml x hr (p Tamarindus indica L. fruit extract significantly increased the bioavailability of Ibuprofen.

  3. Effect of Tamarindus indica L. on the bioavailability of aspirin in healthy human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, A; Yakasai, I A; Aguye, I A

    1996-01-01

    The influence of Tamarindus indica L. fruit extract incorporated in a traditional meal on the bioavailability of aspirin tablets 600 mg dose was studied in 6 healthy volunteers. There was a statistically significant increase in the plasma levels of aspirin and salicylic acid, respectively, when the meal containing Tamarindus indica fruit extract was administered with the aspirin tablets than when taken under fasting state or with the meal without the fruit extract. The Cmax, AUC0-6h and t1/2 for aspirin increased from 10.04 +/- 0.1 mg/ml to 28.62 +/- 0.21 mg/ml (P Tamarindus indica L. fruit extract significantly increased the bioavailability of aspirin.

  4. Mangifera indica and Phaseolus vulgaris in the bioindication of air pollution in Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, J S; Fernandes, E B; Fawcett, W N

    2000-07-01

    In this article are reported the results of a study on the concentration of ascorbic acid (AA) in Mangifera indica as passive monitor and in Phaseolus vulgaris as active monitor with the intention to study the effects of industrial emissions from the Petrochemical Complex of Camaçari (PCC), Bahia, Brazil, on the vegetation. Leaves from M. indica were collected in two sites in the region under direct influence of industrial emissions and in one presumed nonpolluted reference (background) site. Pots with P. vulgaris were exposed in the same sites. The AA increase in the leaves of M. indica from PCC sites indicates a stress situation. The small AA increase in the P. vulgaris exposed in the more polluted site indicates that the active monitor is a sensitive one. The decrease of its leaf area indicates the inability of this species to activate physiological protection mechanisms like an increase in AA production.

  5. Pharmacognostic, Physicochemical and Phytochemical Investigation of Mangifera indica L. var. Kesar leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kalpna Rakholiya; Sumitra Chanda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the morphological and microscopical characters of Mangifera indica L. leaf collected from Gujarat region and its phytochemical and physicochemical analysis. Methods: Microscopic characters and powder analysis was done under microscope. The physiochemical properties such as loss on drying, total ash value, acid insoluble ash value, water soluble ash value, pH, solubility and extractive values of M. indica were carried out. Results: The upper epidermis was irregular, wavy with thick epidermal layer;and prismatic, rosette and cluster types of calcium oxalate crystals were found. In phytochemical analysis, cardiac glycosides and tannins showed maximum amounts. Conclusions: The present study provides pharmacognostical, physicochemical and phytochemical details of the M. indica leaf which are useful in laying down standardization and pharmacopoeia parameters.

  6. Chemical control of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in banana and coconut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Peña, J E

    2012-08-01

    The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst, is a predominant pest of coconuts, date palms and other palm species, as well as a major pest of bananas (Musa spp.) in different parts of the world. Recently, RPM dispersed throughout the Caribbean islands and has reached both the North and South American continents. The RPM introductions have caused severe damage to palm species, and bananas and plantains in the Caribbean region. The work presented herein is the result of several acaricide trials conducted in Puerto Rico and Florida on palms and bananas in order to provide chemical control alternatives to minimize the impact of this pest. Spiromesifen, dicofol and acequinocyl were effective in reducing the population of R. indica in coconut in Puerto Rico. Spray treatments with etoxanole, abamectin, pyridaben, milbemectin and sulfur showed mite control in Florida. In addition, the acaricides acequinocyl and spiromesifen were able to reduce the population of R. indica in banana trials.

  7. Allelopathy in a leguminous mangrove plant, Derris indica: protoplast co-culture bioassay and rotenone effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Aya; Mori, Daisuke; Minagawa, Reiko; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Sasamoto, Hamako

    2015-05-01

    To investigate allelopathic activity of a leguminous mangrove plant, Derris indica, the 'Protoplasts Co-culture Method' for bioassay of allelopathy was developed using suspension culture. A suspension culture was induced from immature seed and sub-cultured in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) basal medium containing 10 μM each of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 6-benzyladenine (BA). The protoplasts were isolated using the separate wells method with 2% each of Cellulase RS, Driselase 20 and Macerozyme R10 in 0.4 M mannitol solution. Protoplast cultures of D. indica revealed that high concentrations of cytokinins, BA and thidiazuron, were effective for cell divisions. The co-cultures of D. indica protoplasts with recipient lettuce protoplasts using 96 multi-well culture plates were performed in MS basal medium containing 0.4 M mannitol solution and 1 μM 2,4-D and 0.1 μM BA. The protoplast density of D. indica used in co-culturing varied from 6 x 10(3) - 10(5) / mL. Very strong inhibitory allelopathic effects of D. indica protoplasts on lettuce protoplast growth were found. A similar strong inhibitory allelopathic activity of dried young leaves on lettuce seedling growth was also observed by using the sandwich method. Rotenone, which is a component of Derris root, dissolved in DMSO, was highly inhibitory on the growth of lettuce protoplasts in culture and this could be one of the causes of the strong allelopathic activity of D. indica.

  8. Novel Formulations for Antimicrobial Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Carmona-Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy.

  9. (1) H and (13) C NMR characterization of new cycloartane triterpenes from Mangifera indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo-Martínez, Carolina; Concepción Lozada, M; Hernández-Ortega, Simón; Villarreal, María Luisa; Gnecco, Dino; Enríquez, Raúl G; Reynolds, William

    2012-01-01

    From the stem bark of Mangifera indica, seven cycloartane-type secondary metabolites were isolated. Compound 1 has been isolated for the first time from M. indica, whereas compounds 2 (2a and 2b, as an epimeric mixture), 3, and 4 are new triterpenoid-type cycloartanes. Unambiguous (13) C and (1) H NMR assignments for these compounds and the known compounds mangiferonic acid (compound 5), isomangiferolic acid (compound 6), ambolic acid (compound 7), and friedelin (compound 8) are reported; the latter because full NMR data for these compounds are not available in the literature.

  10. Antioxidant activities of tamarind (Tamarindus Indica) seed coat extracts using in vitro and in vivo models

    OpenAIRE

    Sandesh, P.; Velu, V.; R. P. Singh

    2014-01-01

    Tamarindus indica seed coat was extracted with methanol, acetone and water and screened for DPPH radical scavenging activities. Methanol extract showed higher activity than other extracts. Treatment of albino rats (Wistar strain) with CCl4 at 1.25 mL/kg of body weight decreased superoxide dismutase (55 %), catalase (73 %) and peroxidase (78 %), while lipid peroxidation increased nearly 2.5 fold in liver. Pretreatment of rats with methanol extract of T. Indica seed coat (TSCE) at 50 mg/kg (as ...

  11. Mantis indica Mukherjee, 1995: a synonym of Statilia nemoralis (Saussure, 1870 (Insecta: Mantodea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chatterjee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mantis indica (Mukherjee, 1995 was erected on the basis of some distinctive characters. Based on morphological characters, it was supposed to belong to the genus Statilia (Roy (1999: 163. However, in the absence of the knowledge of the structure of genitalia, its species status remained confusing. A further study on the structure of genitalia revealed that Mantis indica (Mukherjee, 1995 is undoubtedly a synonym of Statilia nemoralis (Saussure, 1870. A table is provided to compare significant features of related species. Colour photographs of holotype and genitalia of comparable species are also provided.

  12. Nutritional value of Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes from Portuguese ecotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, A M; Pitacas, F.I.; Reis, C.G.; Blasco, M.

    2016-01-01

    The use of Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes as a forage for ruminants has been very important in the semi-arid and arid regions of the world. O. ficus-indica cladodes can be fed to small ruminants especially in periods of the year when there is low quality and quantity of pasture. In Mediterranean regions like South of Portugal during the rainy season the availability of pasture is quantitatively and qualitatively satisfactory, but in critical times of the year the shortage and low nutr...

  13. Systematyc notes and a Detailed description of Opuntia ficus-indica (L) Mill. (CACTACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    J. Antonio Reyes-Agüero; J. Rogelio Aguirre-Rivera; Hernández, Héctor M.

    2005-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica is the cactus species with the highest economic importance worldwide. It is cultivated for its fruits, forage, or as host of the cochineal insect, but only in México their young cladodes are consumed as vegetables. The main goals of this study were: a) to integrate systematic notes about its common nomenclature, origin, reproductive biology and ploidy levels of O. ficus-indica; b) to present a complete botanical description based on specimens collected in north-central Mé...

  14. Formulation of Complex Action Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Nagao, Keiichi; Nielsen, Holger Bech

    2011-01-01

    We formulate a complex action theory which includes operators of coordinate and momentum $\\hat{q}$ and $\\hat{p}$ being replaced with non-hermitian operators $\\hat{q}_{new}$ and $\\hat{p}_{new}$, and their eigenstates ${}_m

  15. Formulation Optimization of Arecoline Patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao-Chu Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The response surface methodology (RSM including polynomial equations has been used to design an optimal patch formulation with appropriate adhesion and flux. The patch formulations were composed of different polymers, including Eudragit RS 100 (ERS, Eudragit RL 100 (ERL and polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP, plasticizers (PEG 400, and drug. In addition, using terpenes as enhancers could increase the flux of the drug. Menthol showed the highest enhancement effect on the flux of arecoline.

  16. Niosomal Formulation Of Orlistat: Formulation And In-Vitro Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMYUKTHA RANI. B

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to prepare Orlistat niosomes from proniosome to improve its poor and variable oral bioavailability. The non-ionic surfactant vesicles are prepared by the reverse phase evaporation technique (slurry method. The slurry of - Cyclodextrin and Span 60 was dried to form a free flowing powder in rotary flash evaporator which could be rehydrated by addition of buffer (0.5% NaCl with 3% SLS at pH 6.0. The lipid mixture consisted of cholesterol, Span 60 and - Cyclodextrin carrier in molar ratios of (0.1:0.9:1 to 0.9:0.1:1 respectively. The niosomal formulations were evaluated for particle size, entrapment efficiency, in-vitro drug release, release kinetics, Interactions and compatibility (FT-IR, surface morphology (SEM, stability studies, conductivity and sedimentation rate, pH density, viscosity. The formulation OT9 which showed higher entrapment efficiency of 44.09% and invitro releases of 94.59% at the end of 12hrs was found to be best among all the 9 formulations. Release was best fitted with Hixson kinetics and it shows that the drug release may follow diffusion mechanism. FT-IR data revealed that, compatible and there were no interactions between the drug and excipients added in the formulation. SEM images of niosomes with various magnifications revealed the mean size of the niosomes were 100 nm with smooth surface. Niosome formulation has showed appropriate stability for 90 days by storing the formulation at room temperature. Thus the niosomal formulations could be a promising delivery system for Orlistat with improved oral bioavailability, stability and for sustained drug release.

  17. Bioavailability of cefuroxime axetil formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donn, K H; James, N C; Powell, J R

    1994-06-01

    Cefuroxime axetil tablets have proved effective for the treatment of a variety of community-acquired infections. A suspension formulation has been developed for use in children. Two studies have been conducted to determine if the cefuroxime axetil formulations are bioequivalent. In the initial randomized, two-period crossover study, 24 healthy men received 250-mg doses of suspension and tablet formulations of cefuroxime axetil every 12 h after eating for seven doses. Each treatment period was separated by 4 days. Comparisons of serum and urine pharmacokinetic parameters indicated that the suspension and tablet formulations of cefuroxime axetil are not bioequivalent. Following the initial bioequivalency study, 0.1 % sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) was added to the suspension to assure the homogeneity of the granules during the manufacturing process. In the subsequent randomized, three-period crossover study, 24 healthy men received single 250-mg doses of three cefuroxime axetil formulations: suspension without SLS, suspension with SLS, and tablet. Again each treatment period was separated by 4 days. Pharmacokinetic analyses demonstrated that while the suspension with SLS and suspension without SLS are bioequivalent, bioequivalence between the suspension with SLS and the tablet was not observed. Thus, the addition of the SLS surfactant to the suspension did not alter the bioavailability of the formulation.

  18. Projeto de caixa de madeira para manga (Mangifera Indica L. Project of wooden boxes for mangoes (Mangifera Indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Janet Teruel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available As perdas de produtos hortícolas no Brasil são significativas e dentre as causas cita-se o uso de caixas inadequadas e ausência da cadeia do frio. Propõe-se um método de projeto de caixas, baseado em simulação computacional, otimização e validação experimental, minimizando o volume de madeira, associado a aspectos estruturais, ergonômicos e distribuição da área de aberturas. Foram projetados e construídos três protótipos de caixas (ripas retas com diferentes configurações e área efetiva de abertura de 54% e 36%. A eficiência do resfriamento de mangas variedade Tommy Atkins (Mangifera Indica L., foi avaliada determinando o tempo de resfriamento, acondicionando as frutas nas caixas de madeira desenvolvidas e de papelão usadas comercialmente, resfriadas com ar forçado à temperatura de 6ºC e umidade relativa média de 85,4±2,1%. Foi aplicado o Método de Elementos Finitos, para dimensionamento e otimização estrutural do modelo com melhor comportamento durante o resfriamento. Todas as caixas de madeira foram submetidas a ensaios de vibração, por duas horas (freqüência de 20 Hz. Não houve diferença significativa no tempo de resfriamento das frutas nas caixas de madeira (38,00±1,70 min, no entanto houve diferença significativa nas caixas de papelão (82,74±29,58 min. O modelo submetido à otimização estrutural (6% área efetiva e duas ripas laterais teve diminuição de volume de 60% e 83% de redução da seção transversal das colunas, com relação às condições iniciais. Não houve incidência de danos de mecânicos nas frutas após a vibração. A simulação computacional e estrutural pode ser ferramenta de apoio para desenvolver projetos de caixas, com grande aproximação, atendendo a critérios geométricos, ergonômicos e térmicos.Losses of horticulture product in Brazil are significant and among the main causes are the use of inappropriate boxes and the absence of a cold chain. A project for boxes

  19. Social Groupwork. A Model for Goal Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Rosamond P.; Gallo, Frank T.

    1978-01-01

    A conceptual model for goal formulation in social groupwork, discussion of existing models and their limitations, and an attempt to formulate an encompassing groupwork model that facilitates goal formulation. (Author/PD)

  20. Four formulations of noncommutative quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Gouba, Laure

    2016-01-01

    Four formulations of noncommutative quantum mechanics are reviewed. These are the canonical, path-integral, Weyl-Wigner and systematic formulations. The four formulations are charaterized by a deformed Heisenberg algebra but differ in mathematical and conceptual overview.

  1. Effect of endophytic fungi Pirifomospora indica on some physiologic traits of strawberry under hydroponic culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R. Rahmani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial endophytes, which are considered as the most important soil microorganisms, increase the yield of their host plants by creating changes in their genetic, physiological and ecological traits. Pirifomospora indica fungus is a member of Sebacinales order, which increases plant biomass and resistance to living and non-living stresses. In this study, effect of different concentrations [0 (control, 80, 160, 250 and 330 spores/ml of endophytic fungus P. indica on plant height, chlorophyll indicator and branching of strawberry, under hydroponic culture, was examined in a completely randomized design with 28 replications. P. indica was inoculated by injecting around roots of strawberry plants. Two months after fungal inoculation, plant height and chlorophyll content was measured by using coulisse and SPAD, respectively. Results showed that maximum chlorophyll content, branching and plant height belongs to 330 spores/ml treatment with 15%, 30% and 24.5% increase as compared to control, respectively. Also, there was no significant difference among 80, 160 and 250 spores/ml treatments, while 330 spores/ml treatment was significantly different from other treatments (P≤ 0.01. Therefore, it can be concluded that high concentrations of fungus P. indica can affect the abovementioned traits and thus could have a positive effect on strawberry plant's growth and yield.

  2. A genetic map and germplasm diversity estimation of Mangifera indica (mango) with SNPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango (Mangifera indica) is often referred to as the “King of Fruits”. As the first steps in developing a mango genomics project, we genotyped 582 individuals comprising six mapping populations with 1054 SNP markers. The resulting consensus map had 20 linkage groups defined by 726 SNP markers with...

  3. Agglutination of pYV+ Yersinia enterocolitica strains by agglutinin from Mangifera indica.

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Agglutination of 271 strains of Yersinia enterocolitica and related species grown at 37 degrees C by a 0.01% dilution of the agglutinin from Mangifera indica was correlated with the presence of the virulence plasmid. The study of YadA mutants suggested that the YadA protein is the target of the plant agglutinin.

  4. Overcoming inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice by developing indica-compatible japonica lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jie; Xu, Xiaomei; Li, Wentao; Zhu, Wenyin; Zhu, Haitao; Liu, Ziqiang; Luan, Xin; Dai, Ziju; Liu, Guifu; Zhang, Zemin; Zeng, Ruizhen; Tang, Guang; Fu, Xuelin; Wang, Shaokui; Zhang, Guiquan

    2016-06-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important staple crop. The exploitation of the great heterosis that exists in the inter-subspecific crosses between the indica and japonica rice has long been considered as a promising way to increase the yield potential. However, the male and female sterility frequently occurred in the inter-subspecific hybrids hampered the utilization of the heterosis. Here we report that the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice is mainly affected by the genes at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci for F1 male sterility and the gene at S5 locus for F1 female sterility. The indica-compatible japonica lines (ICJLs) developed by pyramiding the indica allele (S-i) at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci and the neutral allele (S-n) at S5 locus in japonica genetic background through marker-assisted selection are compatible with indica rice in pollen fertility and in spikelet fertility. These results showed a great promise of overcoming the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility and exploiting the heterosis by developing ICJLs.

  5. [Potential allelopathic effects of Piper nigrum, Mangifera indica and Clausena lansium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guijun; Zhu, Chaohua; Luo, Yanping; Yang, Ye; Wei, Jinju

    2006-09-01

    With Piper nigrum, Mangifera indica and Clausena lansium as the donators, this paper studied their potential allelopathic effects on the germination and growth of Zea mays, Glycine max, Cucurbita moschata, Arachis hypogaea, Raphanus sativus, Echinochloa crusgalli, Digitaria sanguinalis and Stylosanthes guianensis. The results showed that the aqueous extracts of these donators could inhibit the germination and growth of Z. mays, G. max, C. moschata, E. crus-galli and D. sanguinalis at high concentration, but stimulate them at low concentration. In rhizosphere soil of P. nigrum and M. indica, the germination and growth of Z. mays L was stimulated, while A. hypogaea was inhibited. The aqueous extracts of the donators were extracted by ethyl acetate and n-butanol, respectively, and the inhibitory activity of both aqueous and n-butanol fractions from P. nigrum and M. indica on Z. mays, R. sativus and S. guianensis was stronger than that of ethyl acetate fraction, indicating that P. nigrum and M. indica contained the allelochemicals with high polarity.

  6. Renewable energy sources from Michelia champaca and Garcinia indica seed oils: A rich source of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosamani, K.M.; Hiremath, V.B.; Keri, R.S. [P.G. Department of Studies in Chemistry, Karnatak University, Pawate Nagar, Dharwad 580 003 (India)

    2009-02-15

    Michelia champaca and Garcinia indica seeds yielded 45.0% and 45.5% of oil. The fatty acid profiles of both the seed oils were examined. The saponification value (SV), iodine value (IV) and cetane number (CN) of fatty acid methyl esters of both the seed oils were empirically determined. The saponification value (SV) and iodine value (IV) are in good agreement with the experimentally observed values. The fatty acid compositions, iodine value and cetane number were used to predict the quality of fatty acid methyl esters of oil for use as biodiesel. Thus, the fatty acid methyl esters of seed oils of M. champaca and G. indica were found to be the most suitable biodiesel and they meet the major specification of biodiesel standards. The selected plants M. champaca and G. indica have great potential for biodiesel. M. champaca and G. indica seed oils were found to contain keto fatty acids along with the other normal fatty acids, respectively. These fatty acids have been detected and characterized by UV, FTIR, {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, MS, GC techniques and chemical transformations. (author)

  7. Germination and Early Growth Assessment of Tamarindus indica L in Sokoto State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Gwaram Bello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Germination and early growth assessment of Tamarindus indica L. were conducted to determine the suitable medium for germination and seedlings establishment of the species in Sokoto State, Nigeria. The viable seeds of the study species were treated with Conc. H2SO4 for 30 minutes and boiling water for one hour and by soaking in water at room temperature for 12 hours. The treated seeds were placed in Petri dishes containing filter paper for germination assessment. The results indicated 68–95% germination of T. indica seeds within 3–19 days. Conc. H2SO4 treatment gave the highest germination percentage of 95%. T. indica seeds were treated with Conc. H2SO4 for 30 minutes and sown into four (4 different potting mixtures for early growth assessment. Collar diameter, seedlings height, and leaf number were the parameters measured. Seedlings grown in the mixture of river sand and cow dung (2 : 1 had the highest seedlings height and leaf number, while the highest collar diameter was obtained from seedlings grown in the mixture of river sand and poultry droppings (2 : 1. However, growing T. indica in the mixture of river sand and cow dung (2 : 1 after 30 minutes pretreatment was recommended.

  8. Two triterpenes lupanone and lupeol isolated and identified from Tamarindus indica linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Shehla; Azhar, Iqbal; Hasan, M Mohtaseemul; Ali, M S; Ahmed, S Waseemuddin

    2007-04-01

    Tamarindus indica, a useful medicinal plant was subjected to phytochemical investigation. Two triterpenes (lupanone and lupeol) have been isolated from the leaves of this plant. Their structures were elucidated with the help of physico-chemical methods and spectroscopic techniques. The lupanone and lupeol from this plant are being reported for the first time.

  9. Breaking seed coat dormancy with physical and chemical methods in tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) is an important tree crop in Africa and Asia. It is primarily propagated by grafting, which involves the generation of rootstock material. Tamarind seeds have an impermeable seed coat and need scarification for improved germination. In this study, tamarind seeds colle...

  10. Immunoprotective activity and antioxidant properties of cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) extract against chlorpyrifos toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smida, Amani; Ncibi, Saida; Taleb, Jihen; Ben Saad, Anouar; Ncib, Sana; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2017-02-03

    Opuntia ficus indica (family Cactaceae) is a typical Mediterranean plant, mainly used in food and traditional folk medicine. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of Opuntia ficus indica extract against chlorpyrifos (CPF)-induced immunotoxicity in rats. The experimental animals consisted of four groups of Wistar rats (5-6 weeks old) of eight each: a control group, a group treated with CPF (10mg/kg), a group treated with Opuntia ficus indica extract (100mg/kg), and a group treated with cactus extract then treated with CPF. These components were daily administered by gavage for 30days. After treatment, immunotoxicity was estimated by a count of thymocytes, splenocytes, stem cells in the bone marrow, relative weights of thymus and spleen, DNA aspects, and oxidative stress status in these organs. Results showed that CPF could induce thymus atrophy, splenomegaly, and a decrease in the cell number in the bone marrow. It also increased the oxidative stress markers resulting in elevated levels of the lipid peroxidation with a concomitant decrease in the levels of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GPx) in both spleen and thymus, and also degradation of thymocyte and splenocyte DNA. Consistent histological changes were found in the spleen and thymus under CPF treatment. However, administration of Opuntia ficus indica extract was found to alleviate this CPF-induced damage.

  11. M8-An effective medium for anther culture of indica rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEIChuansheng; ZHANGJinyu; WuGuangnan

    1992-01-01

    A new dedifferentiation medium (MS) was developed, which greatly improved the efficiency of anther culture of indica rive. The percentage of green plantlets for anthers inoculated on M8 medium was 40% higher than that on N6 medium in 6 cultivars and it was 2.6%, on average, on M8 medium in more than 20 cultivars and lines,

  12. Studies of Improving the Frequency of Indica Rice Transformation by Biolistic Bombardment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In order to improve the frequency of indica rice transformation by biolistic bombardment, suitable culture conditions for embryonic calli,an optimal selection scheme for resistant calli and seedlings, and optimum bombardment parameters a investigated by using 14 commercially important indica rice cultivars. The main results show that the CC medium with 36g/L mannitol is a scheme subculture medium in which the browning of indica rice calli can be mitigated significantly; The concentration of 30~40mg/L Hyg or 150~200mg/L G418 or 10~20 mg/L Basta is suitable for selection of resistant calli; The transformation parameters of 100μg gold powder absorbing 0.2μg DNA per shot and 900 psi helium pressure and 6 cm bombardment distance and bombarded twice for each plate give the best result; Keeping the target calli on osmotic medium containing 60g/L mannitol from 12 ~24h before bombardment to 24~48h after it can increase the efficiencies of transformation . Furthermore, some transgenic indica rice plants are obtained using this optimized transformation system.

  13. A new coumarin from Wikstroemia indica (L.) C.A.Mey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Chen; Wen Wei Fu; Li Xin Sun; Qia Wang; Wei Qi; Hua Yu

    2009-01-01

    A new coumadn was obtained from the stems and roots of Wikstroemia indica (L.) C.A.Mey.Its structure was elucidated as methyl 3-(2-hydroxy-4-(7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yloxy) phenyl) propanoate by spectroscopic methods.

  14. Developmental Analysis of Genetic Behavior of Brown Rice Width in indica-japonica Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-ming; SHI Chun-hai; YE Shen-hai; QI Yong-bin

    2006-01-01

    The developmental genetic behaviors of brown rice width (BRW) have been studied in indica-japonica hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.), in which seven indica male sterile lines and five japonica restorer lines were applied, by using the developmental genetic models and corresponding statistical approaches for quantitative traits of triploid in cereal crops. The BRW of indica-japonica hybrid rice was co-determined by gene expression of triploid endosperm, cytoplasm, diploid maternal plant and their genotype ×environmental interaction effects. Unconditional analysis showed that the endosperm additive and maternal additive effects were predominant for the development of BRW from early- to late-stage of the grain development, but the endosperm dominant effect together with maternal effect and cytoplasmic effect became the major factor determing the BRW at the ripening stage. Moreover,conditional analysis found that there were new onset and offset of gene expression at different developmental stages of BRW in indica-japonica hybrid rice. Maternal and cytoplasm general heritabilities and their interaction heritabilities were more important compared to other components of heritability for BRW at all the five developmental stages.

  15. The storage characters related to indica/japonica diferentiation of rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@The decline of rice quality and germination ability in the process of storage was a big problem to food production and nanagement. Gas and temperature control was used to decrease storage losing, but selecting germplasm with good storage characters was rare. In practice, it was found that storage characters of indica were better than that of japonica.

  16. Traits Related to Chilling-Induced Photoinhibition in Leaves of indica and japonica Rice (Oryza sativa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Su-qin; JI Ben-hua; JIAO De-mao

    2004-01-01

    Physiological indices related to PS Ⅱ photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and membrane lipid peroxidation were measured in leaves of indica rice cv Shanyou 63 and japonica rice 9516 at different temperatures and light intensities for four days. No obvious changes in Fv/Fm and MDA were observed in both indica and japonica rice at moderate temperature and medium PFD,implying neither photoinhibition nor photooxidation happened in these cases. In indica rice either at medium temperature with higher PFD or at lower temperature with medium PFD Fv/Fm dropped obviously with no changes in MDA contents, and photoinhibition appeared while photooxidation did not occur. However, D1 protein, Fv/Fm, (A+Z)/(A+Z+V), and SOD activities dropped, and O2 -. production and MDA content increased accordingly, as well as both photoinhibition and photooxidation appeared in two rice varieties at lower temperature and higher PFD. Experiment with inhibitors at lower temperature and higher PFD showed that as compared with japonica rice the decrements appeared in D1 protein contents, SOD activities, and (A+Z)/(A+Z+V) ratios, the xanthophyll cycle and non-photochemical quench (qN) were inhibited in a more degree, as well as increments of MDA content were greater, thus exhibiting more distinct photoinhibition and photooxidation in indica rice. It is suggested that Fv/Fm and membrane lipid peroxidation product-MDA were the key indices to predict and diagnose photooxidation.

  17. Acute toxicity of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus seed oils in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukeloua, A; Belkhiri, A; Djerrou, Z; Bahri, L; Boulebda, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD₅₀ values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of these oils. The acute toxicity of their fixed oil were also investigated in mice using the method of Kabba and Berhens. The fixed oil of Pistacia lentiscus and Opuntia ficus indica seeds were extracted and analyzed for its chemical and physical properties such as acid value, free fatty acid percentage (% FFA), iodine index, and saponification value as well as refractive index and density. LD₅₀ values obtained by single doses, orally and intraperitoneally administered in mice, were respectively 43 ± 0,8 ;[40.7- 45.4 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.72 ± 0,1 ;[2.52-2.92] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Opuntia ficus indica ; and 37 ± 1 ;[34.4 - 39.8 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.52 ± 0,2 ;[2.22 - 2.81 ] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Pistacia lentiscus respectively. The yields of seed oil were respectively calculated as 20.25% and 10.41%. The acid and free fatty acid values indicated that the oil has a low acidity.

  18. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF GARCINIA INDICA LINN ALCOHOLIC FRUITS EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar Rawri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The current research was an attempt to reiterate the antioxidant potential of alcoholic fruit extract of Garcinia indica invitro. The fruits of Garcinia indica were collected and shade dried at room temperature. The powdered mass was defatted with petroleum ether then filtered and residue was extracted with ethanol (95% into soxhlet apparatus. The suspension of extract was prepared freshly in normal saline with the help of 0.5% w/v carboxymethylcellulose (CMC. Varying concentration of extract (10, 25, 50 and 100 µg/ml was tested for invitro antioxidant properties. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH assay, reducing power ability, hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay and hydroxyl radical (OH- scavenging activity. The ethanolic fruit extract of Garcinia indica demonstrated antioxidant potential dose dependently with best activity at 100 µg/ml. In conclusion, traditionally claimed medicinal benefits of Garcinia indica might be due to its potent anti-oxidant nature. However, further studies to be carried out on animal models using their biological tissues before exploiting for its clinical benefits.

  19. Cytotoxicity of 5% Tamarindus indica extract and 3% hydrogen peroxide as root canal irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erawati Wulandari

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preparation of root canal is an important stage in endodontic treatment. During conducting preparation, it is always be followed with root canal irrigation that has aim to clean root canal from necrotic tissue remains, grind down dentin powder, micro organism, wet the root canal to make preparation process of root canal easier, and solute root canal content at area that can not be reached by equipment. Flesh of Tamarindus indica (pulpa tamarindorum is used as traditional medicine and it contains vitamin C (antioxidant, protein, fat, glucose, etc. Previous research shows that 5% tamarindus indica extract can clean smear layer but it is more cytotoxicity to cell line BHK–21 than sterilized aquabides. Purpose: This research is to compare cytotoxicity between 5% Tamarindus indica extract with 3% H2O2 as root canal irrigation material. Method: Four teen culture cell line BHK 21 divides into 2 groups. Group 1 is treated with 3% H2O2 and Group 2 is treated with 5% Tamarindus indica extract, for about 2.5 minutes in every group. Then, living and death cell percentage is measured. Data is analyzed with independent t test with significant level of 0.05%. Result: The research showed that death cell in group 1 was 29.3% and in group 2 was 21.1%. There was a significant different (p < 0.05 between group 1 and group 2. Conclusion: Cytotoxicity of 5% Tamarindus indica extract to the cell line BHK–21 is lower than 3% H2O2.

  20. Life cycle of Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on ornamental plants, mostly Arecaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, C; Colmenárez, Y; de Moraes, G J

    2015-02-01

    The red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst, has been primarily found associated with coconut and musaceous plants in the New World. However, it has also been recorded on several other palms, heliconiaceous and zingiberaceous species. This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of different botanical families on which R. indica has been collected in the field and of arecaceous plants of the natural vegetation of the neotropics. In total, ten species of Arecaceae as well as Heliconia psittacorum [Heliconiaceae] and Alpinia purpurata [Zingiberacae] were evaluated, using coconut as a control. The study was carried out under controlled conditions (29 ± 0.5 °C, 60 ± 10% RH and photoperiod 12 h of light). Raoiella indica was able to complete immature development only on coconut, Adonidia merrillii, Ptychosperma macarthurii, H. psittacorum and A. purpurata. Duration of the immature phase (egg-adult) ranged between 21.5 days on coconut to 34.1 days on A. purpurata. Longevity was at least 50% greater and oviposition at least 38% higher on coconut than on other plants. Intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was higher on coconut (0.166) and A. merrillii (0.042), but negative on the other two plant species. Raoiella indica could not reach adulthood on any of the other ten arecaceous species considered in the study. The results suggested R. indica to be a threat to A. merrillii in addition to coconut, but not to other evaluated plants. However, complementary studies should be conducted to investigate whether the experimental procedures adopted in this study could not have prevented the mite from a better performance than it could have been under field conditions, especially in relation to Mauritia flexuosa, one of the dominant arecaceous plants in South America.

  1. Formulations of Amlodipine: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Sheraz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amlodipine (AD is a calcium channel blocker that is mainly used in the treatment of hypertension and angina. However, latest findings have revealed that its efficacy is not only limited to the treatment of cardiovascular diseases as it has shown to possess antioxidant activity and plays an important role in apoptosis. Therefore, it is also employed in the treatment of cerebrovascular stroke, neurodegenerative diseases, leukemia, breast cancer, and so forth either alone or in combination with other drugs. AD is a photosensitive drug and requires protection from light. A number of workers have tried to formulate various conventional and nonconventional dosage forms of AD. This review highlights all the formulations that have been developed to achieve maximum stability with the desired therapeutic action for the delivery of AD such as fast dissolving tablets, floating tablets, layered tablets, single-pill combinations, capsules, oral and transdermal films, suspensions, emulsions, mucoadhesive microspheres, gels, transdermal patches, and liposomal formulations.

  2. Effects of a novel entomopathogenic nematode-infected host formulation on cadaver integrity, nematode yield, and suppression of Diaprepes abbreviatus and Aethina tumida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, Maria G; Tedders, Walker L

    2010-02-01

    An alternative approach to applying entomopathogenic nematodes entails the distribution of nematodes in their infected insect hosts. Protection of the infected host from rupturing, and improving ease of handling, may be necessary to facilitate application. In this study our objective was to test the potential of a new method of formulating the infected hosts, i.e., enclosing the infected host in masking tape. Tenebrio molitor L. cadavers infected with Heterorhabditis indica Poinar, Karunakar and David or Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) were wrapped in tape using an automatic packaging machine; the machine was developed to reduce labor and to standardize the final product. The effects of the tape formulation on the ability to protect the cadavers from mechanical damage, nematode yield, and pest control efficacy were tested. After exposure to mechanical agitation at 7-d-post-infection, S. carpocapsae cadavers in tape were more resistant to rupture than cadavers without tape, yet H. indica cadavers 7-d-post-infection were not affected by mechanical agitation (with or without tape), nor was either nematode affected when 4-d-old cadavers were tested. Experiments indicated that infective juvenile yield was not affected by the tape formulation. Laboratory experiments were conducted measuring survival of the root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.), or the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray, after the application of two H. indica-infected hosts with or without tape per 15 cm pot (filled with soil). A greenhouse experiment was also conducted in a similar manner measuring survival of D. abbreviatus. In all experiments, both the tape and no-tape treatments caused significant reductions in insect survival relative to the control, and no differences were detected between the nematode treatments. Fifteen days post-application, the infected host treatments caused up to 78% control in A. tumida, 91% control in D. abbreviatus in the lab, and 75% in the greenhouse. These

  3. Enzyme expression in indica and japonica rice cultivars under saline stress=Expressão de enzimas em cultivares de arroz indica e japonica sob estresse salino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rodrigues Mendes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The southern State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS is the main rice producer in Brazil with a 60% participation of the national production and 86% participation of the region. Rice culture irrigation system is done by flooding, which leads to soil salinization, a major environmental constraint to production since it alters the plants’ metabolism exposed to this type of stress. The indica cultivar, widely used in RS, has a higher sensitivity to salinity when compared to that of the japonica cultivar in other physiological aspects. Current research analyzes enzymes expression involved in salt-subjected indica and japonica rice cultivars’ respiration. Oryza sativa L. spp. japonica S.Kato (BRS Bojuru, IAS 12-9 Formosa and Goyakuman and Oryza sativa L. spp. indica S. Kato (BRS Taim-7, BRS Atalanta and BRS Querencia were the cultivars employed. Seedlings were transferred to 15 L basins containing 50% Hoagland nutrient solution increased by 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM NaCl, and collected at 14, 28 and 42 days after transfer (DAT. Plant tissues were macerated and placed in eppendorf tubes with Scandálios extractor solution. Electrophoresis was performed in 7% of the polyacrylamide gels in vertical vats. Bands were revealed for the following enzymes systems: esterase, alcohol dehydrogenase, phosphoglucoisomerase, malate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme and alpha amylase. The enzymes expression was greater in subspecies japonica, with more intense bands in proportion to salinity increase. Results show that enzyme systems are involved in the salinity defense mechanisms in O. sativa spp. japonica cultivar.O Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS destaca-se como principal produtor de arroz, participando com 60% da produção nacional e 86% da regional. O sistema de irrigação da cultura é por inundação, que induz o solo à salinização, um dos maiores limitadores ambientais à produção, alterando o metabolismo da plantas expostas a este tipo de estresse. As cultivares

  4. Formulating Policy for Summer Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriot, Helen

    1991-01-01

    Explores issues relating to the formulation of policy for summer programs for language learning, describing one university's experience with student demand, student motivation and progress, course timing and structure, academic staffing, administrative organization, student and staff evaluation, and funding. (three references) (CB)

  5. Hyperbolic Formulation of General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Abrahams, A M; Choquet-Bruhat, Y; York, J W; Abrahams, Andrew; Anderson, Arlen; Choquet-Bruhat, Yvonne; York, James W.

    1998-01-01

    Two geometrical well-posed hyperbolic formulations of general relativity are described. One admits any time-slicing which preserves a generalized harmonic condition. The other admits arbitrary time-slicings. Both systems have only the physical characteristic speeds of zero and the speed of light.

  6. Subspecies characteristics in filial generation of cross between indica and japonica rice under different environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hai; LIU Hongguang; YANG Li; ZHU Chunjie; WANG Jiayu; YANG Qianhua; XU Zhengjin; ZHENG Jiakui

    2007-01-01

    The recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population derived from the cross between "Zhongyouzao8" (hsien or indica) and "Fengjin" (keng or japonica) was grown in Liaoning and Sichuan Provinces to compare the subspecies characteristics under different environments.The results showed that the distribution of Cheng's index was japonicalinous.The population was more japonicalinous in Sichuan than that in Liaoning as a whole.Further analysis indicated that indiea and indica-cline in Sichuan were more indicalinous than those in Liaoning,japonica and japonica-cline in Sichuan were more japonicalinous than those in Liaoning.The effects of environment on six characteristics of Cheng's index were different because of different characters,as well as on the correlations between the six characters,the Cheng's index and the vascular bundle traits.For example,the length of the first and second rachis and leaf pubescence were more japoniealinous in Sichuan than in Liaoning,while the length/width ratio of spikelets and glume color at heading time were more indicalinous in Sichuan than in Liaoning.The vascular bundle characteristics of RILs in different environments changed remarkably.The number of large vascular bundles in panicle neck was less in Sichuan than in Liaoning,while the number of small vascular bundles in panicle neck and second top stem was greater in Sichuan than in Liaoning.The ratio of large to small vascular bundles in panicle neck decreased and the ratio of large vascular bundles between the second top stem and panicle neck increased in Sichuan.Though total trend was the vascular bundle ratio of large to small in indica was greater than that in japonica and the ratio of large vascular bundles in indica was less than that in japonica,it is not appropriate that the vascular bundle ratio of large to small and the ratio of large vascular bundles are regarded as the parameters for subspecies classification in rice.The vascular bundles characteristics from typical indica or

  7. Ameliorating effects of Tamarindus indica fruit extract on anti-tubercular drugs induced liver toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Mohd; Khan, Mohammad Ahmed; Ahmad, Sayeed; Akhtar, Mohd; Mujeeb, Mohd; Ahmad, Aftab; Khan, Shah Alam; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica fruit against combination of two antitubercular drugs viz. Isoniazid and Rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity in rats. In vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of T. indica by DPPH-HPLC method was found to be 81.48%. Treatment with aqueous extract of T. indica significantly reduced the elevated levels of biochemical markers such as SGOT, SGPT, ALP, bilirubin, TBARS and increased the albumin level as well antioxidant activities of SOD, CAT and GSH in intoxicated rats. The biochemical changes were supported by histological observations. Results of this study clearly demonstrate that aqueous extract of T. indica fruit protects against anti tuberculosis induced oxidative liver damage in rats and thus possess significant hepatoprotective activity. Further, it could be suggested that supplementation with this food extract might prove beneficial in the individuals on anti-TB drugs.

  8. Evaluation of some biological parameters of Opuntia ficus indica. 2. Influence of seed supplemented diet on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennouri, Monia; Fetoui, Hamadi; Bourret, Evelyne; Zeghal, Najiba; Guermazi, Fadhel; Attia, Hamadi

    2006-11-01

    The present research was undertaken to evaluate some biological parameters in rats fed with a supplemented diet with Opuntia ficus indica powder seeds. Feed intake and body weight of rats were measured every two days during nine weeks of treatment. Digestibility, feed conversion efficiency and protein efficiency ratio were determined. No difference in digestibility was noticed between the different diets. The results indicated a significant decrease in body weight of rats receiving a diet partially substituted with O. ficus indica powder seeds, probably due to a significant decrease in serum-free thyroxin (FT(4)) compared to the control group. In the treated group, a decrease of glucose concentration in blood and an increase of glycogen in liver and skeletal muscle were noticed. A significant increase in HDL-cholesterol was noted in the group receiving the supplemented diet with O. ficus indica powder seeds. These results suggest that O. ficus indica seeds can be used as a healthy food.

  9. Primer registro de Coccidae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea sobre Duchesnea indica (Rosaceae “frutilla silvestre” en Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patri GONZÁLEZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se da a conocer el primer registro de la Argentina y el mundo del Coccidae Saissetia coffeae (Walker sobre Duchesnea indica (Andrews Focke, frutilla silvestre relacionada con frutilla cultivada (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.

  10. In vivo biochemical and gene expression analyses of the antioxidant activities and hypocholesterolaemic properties of Tamarindus indica fruit pulp extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chor Yin Lim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tamarindus indica (T. indica is a medicinal plant with many biological activities including anti-diabetic, hypolipidaemic and anti-bacterial activities. A recent study demonstrated the hypolipidaemic effect of T. indica fruit pulp in hamsters. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects have not been fully elucidated. Hence, the aims of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant activities and potential hypocholesterolaemic properties of T. indica, using in vitro and in vivo approaches. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The in vitro study demonstrated that T. indica fruit pulp had significant amount of phenolic (244.9 ± 10.1 mg GAE/extract and flavonoid (93.9 ± 2.6 mg RE/g extract content and possessed antioxidant activities. In the in vivo study, hamsters fed with high-cholesterol diet for ten weeks showed elevated serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C levels. Administration of T. indica fruit pulp to hypercholesterolaemic hamsters significantly lowered serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-C levels but had no effect on the HDL-C level. The lipid-lowering effect was accompanied with significant increase in the expression of Apo A1, Abcg5 and LDL receptor genes and significant decrease in the expression of HMG-CoA reductase and Mtp genes. Administration of T. indica fruit pulp to hypercholesterolaemic hamsters also protected against oxidative damage by increasing hepatic antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant activities and preventing hepatic lipid peroxidation. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: It is postulated that tamarind fruit pulp exerts its hypocholesterolaemic effect by increasing cholesterol efflux, enhancing LDL-C uptake and clearance, suppressing triglyceride accumulation and inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis. T. indica fruit pulp has potential antioxidative effects and is potentially protective against diet-induced hypercholesterolaemia.

  11. Ethanol as a solvent and hot extraction technique preserved the antioxidant properties of tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seed

    OpenAIRE

    Nushrat Yeasmen; Md. Nazrul Islam

    2015-01-01

    The influence of two extraction solvents (ethanol and acetone) and two extraction techniques i.e., hot extraction at 400C and cold extraction at 260C were investigated on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica seed. The antioxidant activity of T. indica was determined by evaluating 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, ferric reducing power assay (FRAP) and ascorbic acid equivalent content (AAC). The tested sample showed appreciabl...

  12. Hepatoprotective activity of the methanolic extract of Tylophora indica (Burm. f. Merill. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujeeb M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The methanolic extract of Tylophora indica leaves was screened for hepatoprotective activity in carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. The degree of protection was measured by estimating biochemical parameters like Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, total protein and level of serum bilirubin (both total and direct. Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg body weight, i.p., was compared with Silymarin (25 mg/kg, i.p. treated animals. Tylophora indica leaves (200 and 300 mg/kg exhibited significant reduction in serum hepatic enzymes when compared to rats treated with carbon tetrachloride alone. Furthermore, histopathological studies were also done to support the study.

  13. Metabolism by grasshoppers of volatile chemical constituents from Mangifera indica and Solanum paniculatum leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Clécio S; Ramos, Natália S M; Da Silva, Rodolfo R; Da Câmara, Cláudio A G; Almeida, Argus V

    2012-12-01

    The chemical volatiles from plant leaves and their biological activities have been extensively studied. However, no studies have addressed plant-chemical volatiles after undergoing the digestive process in host insects. Here we describe for the first time chemical profiles of volatile constituents from Solanum paniculatum and Mangifera indica leaves metabolized by grasshoppers. Both profiles were qualitatively and quantitatively different from the profiles of non-metabolized leaves. The amount of nerolidol, the major constituent of S. paniculatum leaves, decreased and other sesquiterpenes, such as spathulenol, were formed during the digestive process of the grasshopper Chromacris speciosa. In M. indica, the presence of phenylpropanoids was observed (dillapiole, Z-asarone, E-asarone and γ-asarone) in the leaves metabolized by the grasshopper Tropidacris collaris, but these compounds were not found in the non-metabolized leaves.

  14. EVALUATION OF ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF GARCINIA INDICA FRUIT RIND EXTRACTS IN WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatib N.A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia indica choisy (Kokum is known for its food, medicinal and commercial values. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Garcinia indica fruit rind (GIFR for its anti inflammatory activity in rats. The inflammation was induced by carrageenan induced paw odema. The serum enzymes like Acid phoshatase(ACP and Alkaline Phosphatase(ALP were estimated. Both extracts at dose (200 & 400 mg/kg p.o single dose shows significant (P<0.001 anti inflammatory activity in (Carrageenan induced paw odema acute inflammation. The extracts treatment also showed significant (p<0.001 reduction in the levels of serum enzymes ACP & ALP. Similar results were obtained from aspirin (200mg/kg treated group. The result obtained from the present study indicates both aqueous and ethanolic extracts possessing anti inflammatory activity and further study required to establish its mechanism of action.

  15. Effects of Chalkiness on Cooking, Eating and Nutritional Qualities of Rice in Two indica Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qi-hua; ZHOU Xue-biao; YANG Lian-qun; LI Tian

    2009-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of chalkiness on cooking, eating and nutrition qualities of rice using Gangyou 527 (indica hybrid rice) and Zhaiyeqing 8 (conventional indica rice) as materials. Compared with the milled rice without chalkiness, amylose content, final viscosity, setback and consistence increased significantly, while gel consistence, peak viscosity and breakdown decreased remarkably and other RVA values did not have significant changes in the chalky rice of Gangyou 527. The differences in the above indices between the chalky and non-chalky rice was not remarkable in Zhaiyeqing 8. The crude protein content of chalky rice in Zhaiyeqing 8 was significantly lower than that of non-chalky rice, but there was no remarkable change between the chalky and non-chalky rice in Gangyou 527. Glutelin content fell significantly, and albumin, globulin, prolamine and lysine contents did not change significantly in chalky rice compared with non-chalky rice in the two varieties.

  16. The transfer RNA genes in Oryza sativa L.ssp.indica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Xiyin(王希胤); SHI; Xiaoli(史晓黎); HAO; Bailin(郝柏林)

    2002-01-01

    The availability of the draft genome sequence of Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica has made it possible to study the rice tRNA genes. A total of 596 tRNA genes, including 3 selenocysteine tRNA genes and one suppressor tRNA gene are identified in 127551 rice contigs. There are 45 species of tRNA genes and the revised wobble hypothesis proposed by Guthrie and Abelson is perfectly obeyed. The relationship between codon usage and the number of corresponding tRNA genes is discussed. Redundancy may exist in the present list of tRNA genes and novel ones may be found in the future. A set of 33 tRNA genes is discovered in the complete chloroplast genome of Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica. These tRNA genes are identical to those in ssp. japonica identified by us independently from the origional annotation.

  17. Protective effect of Tamarindus indica linn against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimple B

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Protective effect of Tamarindus indica Linn (Caesalpiniaceae was evaluated by intoxicating the rats with paracetamol (1 g/kg p.o. for seven days. The aqueous extracts of different parts of Tamarindus indica such as fruits, leaves (350 mg/kg p.o. and unroasted seeds (700 mg/kg p.o. were administered for 9 days after the third dose of paracetamol. Biochemical estimations such as aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin and total protein were recorded on 4 th and 13 th day. Liver weight variation, thiopentone-induced sleeping time and histopathology were studied on 13 th day. Silymarin (100 mg/kg p.o. was used as a standard. A significant hepatoregenerative effect was observed for the aqueous extracts of tamarind leaves, fruits and unroasted seeds (p< 0.05 as judged from the parameters studied.

  18. Anatomical, chemical, and biochemical characterization of cladodes from prickly pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginestra, Giovanna; Parker, Mary L; Bennett, Richard N; Robertson, Jim; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Narbad, Arjan; Lo Curto, Rosario B; Bisignano, Giuseppe; Faulds, Craig B; Waldron, Keith W

    2009-11-11

    Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes represent the green stem of the plant and are generally used as animal feed or disposed of in landfills. The present work investigated the anatomical and chemical composition of Opuntia cladodes, which form the basis of their pharmacological effects. Glucose and galacturonic acid were the main sugars of Opuntia cladodes, whereas high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed the presence of mainly kaempherol and isorhamnetin glycosides (glucoside and rhamnoside). The presence of high amounts of calcium oxalate crystals was demonstrated by light microscopy on fresh and lyophilized cladodes. No antimicrobial activity was observed even after enzymatic treatment. O. ficus-indica cladodes may retain material tightly associated with cell-wall components, and this property will have the potential to greatly reduce the bioavailability of bioactive compounds.

  19. Modulation of antigenicity of mycelial antigens during developmental cycle of Karnal bunt (Tilletia indica) of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, G; Kumar, A; Singh, A; Garg, G K

    2000-05-01

    Indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were developed using polyclonal antibodies against soluble cytoplasmic (SCA) and insoluble cell wall antigens (ICWA) for monitoring modulation of mycelial antigens during growth cycle of T. indica. With SCA, continuous decrease in ELISA reactivity was observed in maturing fungus cultures, suggesting that SCA were expressed predominantly during early vegetative phase and their decreasing role was apparent as the fungus matures possibly towards sporogenous mycelium. In case of ICWA, the reaction profile showed an increase up to exponential phase of growth probably due to increase in the cell division and branching of mycelium. But later, ICWA antibody reactivity was decreased which may be due to conversion of mycelial phase to sporogenous phase, a quiescent stage of growth. Characterization of changes in antigenic configuration during developmental cycle of Tilletia indica by these antibodies could prove to be useful in identification of developmentally related and virulence marker(s).

  20. Population structure analysis and association mapping of blast resistance in indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) landraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y Y; He, J B; Li, A H; Fang, N Y; He, W W; Dang, L L; Zeng, G Y; Huang, J; Bao, Y M; Zhang, H S

    2016-08-12

    Rice blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most devastating rice diseases worldwide. To understand the genetic diversity of indica landrace accessions and identify simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers that are associated with blast resistance, a population of 276 indica landraces from across the world was constructed. This population was then used to evaluate the blast-resistance phenotype through artificial inoculation under controlled conditions in 2012 and 2013. The genetic diversity and association of the population with resistance were analyzed by examining the phenotype for 160 SSR markers distributed on 12 rice chromosomes. The 276 accessions were classified into seven groups using model- and distance-based cluster analyses. Associations between SSR markers and blast resistance showed that 26 SSR markers were significantly associated with blast resistance in 2012 and 2013 (P rice blast-resistance-breeding programs.

  1. Breeding and application of Jiafuzhan,a new elite early indica rice cultivar in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Houcong; SUN Chuanzhi; CHEN Shuanglong; CHI Xiaowen; LIAO Xinying; ZHANG Weiqing; ZHONG Xinbin; HUANG Huakang; QIU Simi; ZHANG Shi; FANG Yashun; CAI Jinlei; ZHENG Xuan; HUANG Yumin; CHEN Ruming

    2007-01-01

    After 20 years of dedicated research,Jiafuzhan has been successfully developed under the new technologies in breeding high-quality early indica rice cultivars.Its rice quality has almost reached the A-level Editable Rice of Agriculture Department of China,and its average production reaches 400-500 kg/(666.7 m2).This new cultivar also has other characteristics such as enhanced resistance of blast and fallen,steady productivity,and strong adaptability.Jiafuzhan has been put into production of over 11.4×104 hm2 in Fujian Province and has been introduced and extended in other Provinces like Jiangxi,Guangdong,and Guangxi,China.The successes of breeding Jiafuzhan is a solution to the existing perennial problems in the rice industry,such as poor grain quality of big-grain rice and early indica rice,low productivity,and poor blast resistance of elite rice.

  2. Synthesis and paste properties of octenyl succinic anhydride modified early Indica rice starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Xiao-yan; CHEN Qi-he; RUAN Hui; HE Guo-qing; XU Qiong

    2006-01-01

    Octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) modified early Indica rice starch was prepared in aqueous slurry systems using response surface methodology. The paste properties of the OSA starch were also investigated. Results indicated that the suitable parameters for the preparation of OSA starch from early Indica rice starch were as follows: reaction period 4 h, reaction temperature 33.4 ℃, pH of reaction system 8.4, concentration of starch slurry 36.8% (in proportion to water, w/w), amount of OSA 3% (in proportion to starch, w/w). The degree of substitution was 0.0188 and the reaction efficiency was 81.0%. The results of paste properties showed that with increased OSA modification, the starch derivatives had higher paste clarity, decreased retrogradation and better freeze-thaw stability.

  3. By-products of Opuntia ficus-indica as a source of antioxidant dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensadón, Sara; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Goñi, Isabel

    2010-09-01

    Dietary fiber and bioactive compounds are widely used as functional ingredients in processed foods. The market in this field is competitive and the development of new types of quality ingredients for the food industry is on the rise. Opuntia ficus-indica (cactus pear) produces edible tender stems (cladodes) and fruits with a high nutritional value in terms of minerals, protein, dietary fiber and phytochemicals; however, around 20% of fresh weight of cladodes and 45% of fresh weight of fruits are by-products. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the nutritional value of by-products obtained from cladodes and fruits from two varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica, examining their dietary fiber and natural antioxidant compound contents in order to obtain quality ingredients for functional foods and increase the added value of these by-products.

  4. Physicochemical characterization of cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Lorena Pérez; Flores, Fidel Tejera; Martín, Jacinto Darias; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena M; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical characteristics (weight, length, width, thickness, moisture, Brix degree, total fiber, protein, ash, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and Cr) were determined in cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica. The physicochemical characteristics of both species were clearly different. There were important differences between the orange and green fruit pulp of O. ficus indica; the cactus pads of O. dillenii could be differentiated according to the region (North and South). Consumption of cactus pads contributes to the intake of dietary fiber, total phenolic compounds, K, Mg, Mn and Cr. Applying factor and/or discriminant analysis, the cactus pad samples were clearly differentiated according to the species, the fruit pulp color and production region.

  5. Development of Wax-Incorporated Emulsion Gel Beads for the Encapsulation and Intragastric Floating Delivery of the Active Antioxidant from Tamarindus indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitthiphong Soradech

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, tamarind (Tamarindus indica L. seed extracts with potential antioxidant activity and toxicity to cancer cells were developed as functional foods and nutraceutical ingredients in the form of emulsion gel beads. Three extracts were obtained from ethanol and water: TSCH50, TSCH95 and TSCH. All extracts exhibited high potential for superoxide anion scavenging activity over the IC50 range < 5–11 µg/mL and had no toxic effects on normal cells, however, the water extract (TSCH was the most effective due to its free radical scavenging activity and toxicity in mitochondrial membranes of cancer cells. Next a study was designed to develop a new formulation for encapsulation and intragastric floating delivery of tamarind seed extract (TSCH using wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads, which were prepared using a modified ionotropic gelation technique. Tamarind seed extract at 1% (w/w was used as the active ingredient in all formulations. The effect of the types and amounts of wax on the encapsulation efficiency and percentage of the active release of alginate gel beads was also investigated. The results demonstrated that the incorporation of both waxes into the gel beads had an effect on the percentage of encapsulation efficiency (% and the percentage of the active ingredient release. Furthermore, the addition of water insoluble waxes (carnauba and bee wax significantly retarded the release of the active ingredient. The addition of both waxes had a slight effect on drug release behavior. Nevertheless, the increase in incorporated waxes in all formulations could sustain the percentage of active ingredient release. In conclusion, wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads using a modified ionotropic gelation technique could be applied for the intragastric floating delivery and controlled release of functional food and nutraceutical products for their antioxidant and anticancer capacity.

  6. Development of Wax-Incorporated Emulsion Gel Beads for the Encapsulation and Intragastric Floating Delivery of the Active Antioxidant from Tamarindus indica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soradech, Sitthiphong; Petchtubtim, Intira; Thongdon-A, Jeerayu; Muangman, Thanchanok

    2016-03-22

    In this study, tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed extracts with potential antioxidant activity and toxicity to cancer cells were developed as functional foods and nutraceutical ingredients in the form of emulsion gel beads. Three extracts were obtained from ethanol and water: TSCH50, TSCH95 and TSCH. All extracts exhibited high potential for superoxide anion scavenging activity over the IC50 range extract (TSCH) was the most effective due to its free radical scavenging activity and toxicity in mitochondrial membranes of cancer cells. Next a study was designed to develop a new formulation for encapsulation and intragastric floating delivery of tamarind seed extract (TSCH) using wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads, which were prepared using a modified ionotropic gelation technique. Tamarind seed extract at 1% (w/w) was used as the active ingredient in all formulations. The effect of the types and amounts of wax on the encapsulation efficiency and percentage of the active release of alginate gel beads was also investigated. The results demonstrated that the incorporation of both waxes into the gel beads had an effect on the percentage of encapsulation efficiency (%) and the percentage of the active ingredient release. Furthermore, the addition of water insoluble waxes (carnauba and bee wax) significantly retarded the release of the active ingredient. The addition of both waxes had a slight effect on drug release behavior. Nevertheless, the increase in incorporated waxes in all formulations could sustain the percentage of active ingredient release. In conclusion, wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads using a modified ionotropic gelation technique could be applied for the intragastric floating delivery and controlled release of functional food and nutraceutical products for their antioxidant and anticancer capacity.

  7. Growth promotion-related miRNAs in Oncidium orchid roots colonized by the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ye

    Full Text Available Piriformospora indica, an endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, colonizes the roots of a wide range of host plants and establishes various benefits for the plants. In this work, we describe miRNAs which are upregulated in Oncidium orchid roots after colonization by the fungus. Growth promotion and vigorous root development were observed in Oncidium hybrid orchid, while seedlings were colonized by P. indica. We performed a genome-wide expression profiling of small RNAs in Oncidium orchid roots either colonized or not-colonized by P. indica. After sequencing, 24,570,250 and 24744,141 clean reads were obtained from two libraries. 13,736 from 17,036,953 unique sequences showed homology to either 86 miRNA families described in 41 plant species, or to 46 potential novel miRNAs, or to 51 corresponding miRNA precursors. The predicted target genes of these miRNAs are mainly involved in auxin signal perception and transduction, transcription, development and plant defense. The expression analysis of miRNAs and target genes demonstrated the regulatory functions they may participate in. This study revealed that growth stimulation of the Oncidium orchid after colonization by P. indica includes an intricate network of miRNAs and their targets. The symbiotic function of P. indica on Oncidium orchid resembles previous findings on Chinese cabbage. This is the first study on growth regulation and development of Oncidium orchid by miRNAs induced by the symbiotic fungus P. indica.

  8. SSR Marker Analysis on indica-japonica Differentiation of Natural Population of Oryza rufipogon in Yuanjiang, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ya-li; YANG Xiao-xi; ZHAO Feng-ping; XU Ming-hui

    2006-01-01

    By using 19 pairs of primers that could identify two subspecies (indica and japonica) of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.), the indica-japonica differentiation of 56 individuals from the natural population of common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) in Yuanjiang was analyzed by SSR (microsatellite DNAs, or simple sequence repeat). Of the 19 pairs of primers, 17 pairs (89.47%) could amplify only one kind of band type among ail of the individuals, but primers RM251 and RM18 could amplify polymorphic band types. The bands amplified by 16 pairs of primers (84.21%) were identical to the indica-japonica diagnostic bands of relevant locus in cultivated rice, including 11 japonica-like loci and 4 indica-like loci. The bands amplified by the other three pairs of primers (RM18, RM202,RM205) were different from indica or japonica diagnostic bands of cultivated rice. The results showed that according to 19 loci analyzed, 84.21% of SSR loci in genomic DNA of common wild rice in Yuanjiang displayed indica-japonica differentiation and 13.79% of the loci still kept primitive, and most of the detected loci were homogenetic in the natural population.

  9. PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF EUPHORBIACEAE FAMILY PLANT LEAVES- ACALYPHA INDICA L., CROTON BONPLANDIANUM BAILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SATYA PRASAD M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Plants are the most important sources of medicines. Now a day the large number of drugs in use is derived from plants. The important advantages for therapeutic uses of medicinal plants in various ailments are their safety besides being effective, economical and easy availability. The present study investigates the phytochemical, and phrmacological activity of two medicinal plants Acalypha indica L., Croton bonplandianum BAILL Methods: Leaves of two plants from the family Euphorbiaceae - were collected, dried and powdered. The powdered material is subjected to soxhlet extraction using various solvents and allowed to evaporation. The crude extracts thus obtained were used for further investigation of phytochemicals, in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of aqueous, methanol and chloroform extracts from euphorbiaceae plants- Acalypha indica L., Croton bonplandianum BAILL. leaves. Results:The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, amino acids, proteins, tannins, flavanoids, anthrocyanins and β-cyanins, quinones, glycosides and phenols in aqueous, methanol and chloroform extracts. Terpenoids and coumarins are present in aqueous and methanol extracts and absent in chloroform extracts. Alkaloids present only in the chloroform extract. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that presence of high concentration of proteins, sugars, phenol and tannins in methanol extracts of screened plants. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated by DPPH Radical Scavenging Assay. The antioxidant activity was compared with standard antioxidant such as ascorbic acid. All the extracts showed significant antioxidant activity. Methanol extract of Acalypha indica L. has high antioxidant activity and low IC50 value. The plant preparations were also screened individually for antimicrobial activity against three gram negative (E.coli, S.typimurium, S,paratypi and three gram positive (S.epidermis, B.subtilis, S

  10. Antiulcer Activity of Methanol Extract of Erythrina indica Lam. Leaves in Experimental Animals

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    S Sakat Sachin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric ulcer is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorders, which affects approximately 5-10% of people during their life. In recent years, abundant work has been carried out on herbal medicine to clarify their potential efficacy in gastric ulcer prevention or management. Here, present study was carried out to investigate antiulcer activity of methanol extract of Erythrina indica (family: Febaceae leaves in pylorus ligated and indomethacin induced ulceration in the albino rats. Preliminary methanol extract of E. indica was subjected to the acute oral toxicity study according to the OECD guideline no. 423. Based on which, three dose levels i.e. 125, 250 and 500mg/kg were selected for the further study. In pylorus ligation induced ulcer model, various parameters were studied viz. gastric volume, pH, total acidity free acidity, and ulcer index. Ulcer index and percentage inhibition of ulceration was determined for indomethacin induced ulcer model. Ranitidine at 100mg/kg was used as the standard drug. Pretreatment of methanol extract of E. indica leaves showed significant (P< 0.01 decrease in the gastric volume, total acidity and free acidity. However, pH of the gastric juice was significantly (P< 0.05 increased only at higher dose, 500mg/kg. It showed also significant (P< 0.01 decrease in number of ulcers and ulcer score index in pylorus ligation and indomethacin induced ulceration models. The methanol extract of E. indica leaves possess significant antiulcer properties in a dose dependent manner. In conclusion the antiulcer properties of the extract may be attributed to the polyphenolic compounds that are present in it.

  11. Taurine is absent from amino components in fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hatem Salama Mohamed; Al-Khalifa, Abdulrahman Saleh; Brückner, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Juices of edible fruits from Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, commonly named prickly pears or Indian figs, were analysed for amino acids using an automated amino acid analyser run in the high-resolution physiological mode. Emphasis was put on the detection of free taurine (Tau), but Tau could be detected neither in different cultivars of prickly pears from Italy, South Africa and the Near East nor in commercially available prickly pear juices from the market.

  12. Endophytic life strategies decoded by genome and transcriptome analyses of the mutualistic root symbiont Piriformospora indica.

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    Alga Zuccaro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent sequencing projects have provided deep insight into fungal lifestyle-associated genomic adaptations. Here we report on the 25 Mb genome of the mutualistic root symbiont Piriformospora indica (Sebacinales, Basidiomycota and provide a global characterization of fungal transcriptional responses associated with the colonization of living and dead barley roots. Extensive comparative analysis of the P. indica genome with other Basidiomycota and Ascomycota fungi that have diverse lifestyle strategies identified features typically associated with both, biotrophism and saprotrophism. The tightly controlled expression of the lifestyle-associated gene sets during the onset of the symbiosis, revealed by microarray analysis, argues for a biphasic root colonization strategy of P. indica. This is supported by a cytological study that shows an early biotrophic growth followed by a cell death-associated phase. About 10% of the fungal genes induced during the biotrophic colonization encoded putative small secreted proteins (SSP, including several lectin-like proteins and members of a P. indica-specific gene family (DELD with a conserved novel seven-amino acids motif at the C-terminus. Similar to effectors found in other filamentous organisms, the occurrence of the DELDs correlated with the presence of transposable elements in gene-poor repeat-rich regions of the genome. This is the first in depth genomic study describing a mutualistic symbiont with a biphasic lifestyle. Our findings provide a significant advance in understanding development of biotrophic plant symbionts and suggest a series of incremental shifts along the continuum from saprotrophy towards biotrophy in the evolution of mycorrhizal association from decomposer fungi.

  13. Subspecific Characteristics and Classification of Rice Varieties Developed Through Indica and Japonica Crossing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zheng-jin; LI Jin-quan; HUANG Rui-dong; JIANG Jian; CHEN Wen-fu; ZHANG Long-bu

    2005-01-01

    Six characteristics, i.e., hull color, chaff and leaf pubescences, length of 1st and 2nd rachis, grain length/width ratio and phenol reaction, of rice progenies from indica and japonica crossing were studied using the Cheng's index classification method. The results indicated that F1 generations performed more like indica, while F2 generations were approximately in a normal distribution. Both of the rice progenies were more affected by indica and female parents than by japonica and male parents. Among the six Cheng's index traits of the parents and F1 generations, and between the traits and Cheng's indexes, significant correlations (both at α=0.05 and α=0.01) were found in most cases. No significant correlations were found among the 6 Cheng's index traits of F2 generations in most cases, but significant correlations (α=0.01) existed between these traits and Cheng's indexes. The six Cheng's index traits of F2 ranged successively, and many individuals showed over-parent genetics, with the same trends in both direct cross and reciprocal cross. Among the 6 index traits,chaff and leaf pubescences almost presented in a two-peak value, while the others in a mono-peak value. The hull color,phenol reaction and length of 1 st and 2nd rachis were distributed in deviation, with the first two traits presented more in japonica individuals and the last trait more in indica. The grain length/width ratios were nearly in a normal distribution.

  14. Histopathologic Alterations Associated with Syphacia sp. (Nematode) in the Intestine of Nesokia indica

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The present work was undertaken to study the histopathological changes in the intestine of male rat Nesokia indica. Histopathological sections of infected intestine were prepared by fixing small pieces of intestine in buffer formalin for 24 h. The fixed material was washed with 70% alcohol and dehydrated and cleared for paraffin block making by the usual procedure. Sections of 5 to 7 µ thickness were used for the present study. E & H stained serial sections were mounted permanently in DPX...

  15. Growth and predicted productivity of Opuntia ficus-indica for current and elevated carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)); Garcia de Cortazar, V. (Univ. de Chile, Santiago (Chile))

    Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., a prickly pear cactus cultivated worldwide for its fruits and stem segments, can have an annual dry weight productivity exceeding that of many crops. Using a recent introduced environmental productivity index (EPI), the influences of water status, temperature, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on its productivity can be predicted. This investigation calculated the water index, the temperature index, and the PAR index, whose product equals EPI, for 169 sites distributed approximately uniformly across the contiguous USA for present climatic conditions as well as for those associated with an elevated CO{sub 2} concentration of 650 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1}. The effect of elevated CO{sub 2} on growth of O. ficus-indica was directly measured, and low temperature limitations on productivity were considered. The dry weight gain of O. ficus-indica during 6 mo in an environmental growth chamber was 23% greater at 650 compared with 350 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1} CO{sub 2} and increased as the duration of the wet period increased. For closely spaced plants that lead to a high productivity per unit ground area, EPI averaged about 0.10, except in desert regions where the water index lowered EPI, in the far North or South and at high elevations where the temperature index lowered EPI, and in the Northeast and Northwest where the PAR index lowered EPI. The predicted annual dry weight productivity for O. ficus-indica was 12.8 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} yr{sup {minus}1} under current conditions, and 16.3 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} yr{sup {minus}1} under those associated with 650 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1} CO{sub 2}.

  16. Volatile constituents and polyphenol composition of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill from Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    jihane OUMATOU; Saadia ZRIRA; Petretto, Giacomo L.; Bouchta SAIDI; Mariaelena SALARIS; Giorgio PINTORE

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is the extraction and the identification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total phenolic compounds of three Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., species from Morocco, namely Dellahia, Aissa and Shoul. The VOCs were extracted with Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME) associated to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The antioxidant compounds in extracts were determined by liquid- Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS). The study allowed the identifi...

  17. Topical Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Isorhamnetin Glycosides Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica

    OpenAIRE

    Marilena Antunes-Ricardo; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A.; Carlos Martínez-Vitela; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O.

    2015-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) has been widely used in Mexico as a food and for the treatment of different health disorders such as inflammation and skin aging. Its biological properties have been attributed to different phytochemicals such as the isorhamnetin glycosides which are the most abundant flavonoids. Moreover, these compounds are considered a chemotaxonomic characteristic of OFI species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of OFI extract and its isorhamnetin glycosides on d...

  18. First report of Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, Carlos [Universidad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado, Barquisimeto, Estado Lara (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)]. E-mail: carlosvasquez@ucla.edu.ve; Quiros de G, Magally [Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo, Estado Zulia, (Venezuela). Museo de Artropodos; Aponte, Orlando [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Estado Aragua (Venezuela). Inst. de Zoologia Agricola; Sandoval, D. Maria F. [Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Agricultura y Tierras (Venezuela). Servicio Autonomo de Sanidad Agropecuaria

    2008-11-15

    The presence of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst is recorded for the first time in South America. High populations and severe damages caused by this new invasive mite were found on coconut and banana leaves in Sucre (10 deg 27' 47{sup N} and 64 deg 10' 38{sup W}) and Monagas (9 deg 46'60{sup N} and 63 deg 12'0{sup W}) states in northeastern Venezuela. (author)

  19. Statistical Optimization of Media Components for Production of Fibrinolytic Alkaline Metalloproteases from Xenorhabdus indica KB-3

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    Kumar Pranaw

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Xenorhabdus indica KB-3, a well-known protease producer, was isolated from its entomopathogenic nematode symbiont Steinernema thermophilum. Since medium constituents are critical to the protease production, the chemical components of the selected medium (soya casein digest broth were optimized by rotatable central composite design (RCCD using response surface methodology (RSM. The effects of all five chemical components (considered as independent variables, namely tryptone, soya peptone, dextrose, NaCl, and dipotassium phosphate, on protease production (dependent variable were studied, and it was found that tryptone and dextrose had maximum influence on protease production. The protease production was increased significantly by 66.31% under optimal medium conditions (tryptone—5.71, soya peptone—4.9, dextrose—1.45, NaCl—6.08, and dipotassium phosphate—0.47 in g/L. To best of knowledge, there are no reports on optimization of medium component for protease production by X. indica KB-3 using RSM and their application in fibrinolysis. This study will be useful for industrial processes for production of protease enzyme from X. indica KB-3 for its application in the field of agriculture and medicine.

  20. How much Dillenia indica seed predation occurs from Asian elephant dung?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, Nitin; Giam, Xingli; Sharma, Netra Prasad; Sukumar, Raman

    2016-01-01

    Elephants are thought to be effective seed dispersers, but research on whether elephant dung effectively protects seeds from seed predation is lacking. Quantifying rates of seed predation from elephant dung will facilitate comparisons between elephants and alternative dispersers, helping us understand the functional role of megaherbivores in ecosystems. We conducted an experiment to quantify the predation of Dillenia indica seeds from elephant dung in Buxa Reserve, India from December 2012 to April 2013. Using dung boluses from the same dung pile, we compared the number of seeds in boluses that are a) opened immediately upon detection (control boluses), b) made available only to small seed predators (elephant dung between the time of defecation and the median germination date for D. indica. Exposure to larger seed predators and secondary dispersers did not lead to a significant additional reduction in the number of seeds per dung bolus. Our findings suggest that post-dispersal seed predation by small insects (elephants as dispersers of D. indica in a tropical moist forest habitat.

  1. EFEK LAKSATIF JUS DAUN ASAM JAWA (Tamarindus indica Linn. PADA TIKUS PUTIH YANG DIINDUKSI DENGAN GAMBIR

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    Dian Sundari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants tamarind (Tamarindus indica Linn. known to the public as a shade tree and is found in almost all parts of Indonesia. The leaves are called "sinom" in the Java language is also used as a vegetable and medicine Empirically Java acid is used as a remedy gout, ulcers, boils, laxative, fever, menstrual facilitator, inflammation. Laxative effect has been studied (laxative leaf juice tamarind (Tamarindus indica Linn. Intestinal transit method and experimental animals used white rats. The dose tested was 3 doses of juice that is 20%, 40% and 60%, which is given orally. For purposes of comparison (positive control is the granting of four Dulcolax ml/200 g bw., While distilled water as negative control. Two days before the experiment is done, all rats were induced constipation with gambier extract 3 g / kg bw. The experimental results showed that the average ratio of intestinal length traversed by charcoal proanalisa Java acidic juice dose group 60%, 40%, 20%; Dulcolax and distilled water, respectively 49.86%, 60.2%, 18.34%, 75.22% and 2.01%. Showed statistically tamarind juice at doses of 40% has laxative properties, but smaller than the Dulcolax.   Keywords: laxative, white mice, Tamarindus indica Linn., leaves, tamarindjuice

  2. Morpho-anatomical and physicochemical studies of Fumaria indica(Hausskn.)Pugsley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prakash; Chandra; Gupta; Ch; V; Rao

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To study morpho-anatomical characters and physicochemical analysis of Fumaria indica(F.indica)(Hausskn.)Pugsley,(Fumariaceae),an important medicinal plant used extensively for treating a variety of ailments in various system of indigenous medicine.Methods:Evaluation of the different parts of the plant was carried out to determine the morphoanatomical,physicochemical,phytochemical and HPTLC fingerprinting profile of F.indica and other WHO recommended methods were performed for standardization.Results:Morphoanatomical studies showed compound and pinnatifid leaf,4 to 6 cm in length,linear and oblong in shape and anomocytic arrangement of stomata,thin walled parenchymatous cells,scattered,sclerenchymatous,capped vascular bundles and radiating medullary rays.Physicochemical studies showed foreign matter 0.2%,loss on drying 6.8%,total ash 16.77%,alcohol and water soluble extractives 8.92%and 20.26%,respectively,sugar 17.75%,starch 22.97%and tannins 2.37%.Phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate,alkaloids,flavonoids,saponins,tannins and sterol.Thin layer chromatography was carried out with different solvents and the best solvent system was chloroform and methanol in 80:20 ratio and revealed 12 spots with different R_f value under UV light 366λ.Conclusions:The results of the study can serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this plant material for future investigations and applications.

  3. PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACT OF MANGIFERA INDICA ( KOTTTUKONAM VARIKA

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    P.A. Mary Helen*, M.R. Aswathy, K.G. Deepthi R. Mol. Rathi, J. Jaison Joseph and S. Jaya Sree

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available About 6 extract (methanol, acetone, hexane, ethyl acetate, hexane-ethyl acetate, aqueous extraction from the leaves of Mangifera indica was extracted. Hexane-ethyl acetate was characterized by Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectroscopy. Ten constituents from 10 peaks were identified. Terpinyl acetate (5.80% and phytol isomer (5.12% are as the major constituents and the minor constituents like oxirane (3.57%, sabinene (3.24%, beta-pinen (3.34%, beta-myrcene (3.23% , cymene (3.68%, alpha-limonene (2.82%, eucalyptol (1,8-cineo (4.71%, 1,3-benzodioxole, 5-(2-, (3.68% were identified. The antimicrobial activity of different extract was tested against human and plant pathogenic bacteria. Hexane-ethyl acetate extract showed significant role on inhibiting almost all tested pathogenic organisms. Using histochemical reagents such as Phloroglucinol-HCl, Dragendorff reagent was used for the localization of lignin and alkaloids respectively. Mangifera indica showed 100% larvicide activity. The addition of various concentrations of hexane-ethyl acetate extract of Mangifera indica on the L929 cell lines showed cytotoxic activity.

  4. PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACT OF MANGIFERA INDICA ( KOTTUKONAM VARIKA

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    P.A. Mary Helen*, M.R. Aswathy, K.G. Deepthi, R. Rathi Mol , J. Jaison Joseph and S. Jaya Sree

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available About 6 extract (methanol, acetone, hexane, ethyl acetate, hexane-ethyl acetate, aqueous extraction from the leaves of Mangifera indica was extracted. Hexane-ethyl acetate was characterized by Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectroscopy. Ten constituents from 10 peaks were identified. Terpinyl acetate (5.80% and phytol isomer (5.12% are as the major constituents and the minor constituents like oxirane (3.57%, sabinene (3.24%, beta-pinen (3.34%, beta-myrcene (3.23% , cymene (3.68%, alpha-limonene (2.82%, eucalyptol (1,8-cineo (4.71%, 1,3-benzodioxole, 5-(2-, (3.68% were identified. The antimicrobial activity of different extract was tested against human and plant pathogenic bacteria. Hexane-ethyl acetate extract showed significant role on inhibiting almost all tested pathogenic organisms. Using histochemical reagents such as Phloroglucinol-HCl, Dragendorff reagent was used for the localization of lignin and alkaloids respectively. Mangifera indica showed 100% larvicide activity. The addition of various concentrations of hexane-ethyl acetate extract of Mangifera indica on the L929 cell lines showed cytotoxic activity.

  5. Preventive and curative effects of Acalypha indica on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity

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    M Mathew

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of ethanol extract of the leaves of Acalypha indica (Euphorbiaceae was investigated against acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage. Acetaminophen (paracetamol at the rate of 1 g/kg produced liver damage in rats as manifested by the significant (P<0.001 rise in serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, compared to respective control values. Treatment of rats with acetaminophen led to a marked increase in lipid peroxidation as measured by malondialdehyde (MDA. This was associated with a significant reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione (GSH contents. Pretreatment of animals with the plant extract (100 mg/kg orally once daily for 5 days prevented (P<0.01 the acetaminophen-induced rise in serum transaminases (AST and ALT and ALP. Post treatment with five successive doses of the extract (100 mg/kg restricted the hepatic damage induced by the above said Paracetamol (P<0.001. Histological changes around the hepatic central vein were recovered by administration of the drug. Thus, it is evident that these biochemical and histological alterations resulting from acetaminophen administration were inhibited by pre and post treatment with A. indica leaf extract. One notable study of the study was the spontaneous recovery of liver damage within a week after stopping paracetamol. These results indicate that the crude ethanol extract of A. indica exhibits hepatoprotective action through antioxidant effect and validates the traditional use of the plant in hepatic dysfunction.

  6. Variation in Seedling Growth of Tamarindus indica (L.: A Threatening Medicinal Fruit Tree Species in Bangladesh

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    Md. Salim Azad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seedling growth is a precondition for conservation and sustainable use of genetic resources which depends upon understanding of breeding system, genetic inconsistency, and evolutionary forces in forest tree improvement. The aim of this study was to determine variation in seedling growth and age-age correlations of Tamarindus indica at population level in Bangladesh. The study revealed significant (P<0.05 differences of seasonal variation in seedling growth. Height and collar diameter growth showed significant (P<0.05 positive correlation with mean monthly rainfall. The study also revealed significant difference (P<0.05 of seedling growth among T. indica population. PCA illustrated rainfall, height growth, and diameter growth as the main characters in this study which defined drought as an additive character for this species. Cluster analysis of similarity showed how seedlings from 22.67°N latitude (origin separated from others. An increasing trend of age-age correlation was identified in both cases of shoot height and diameter growth. The study concluded that seed collection for either ex situ conservation or seedling production can be done from 22.67°N latitude as seedlings from that area performed better than others, and early clonal selection of T. indica can be done at the age of 9 months.

  7. Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Tamarindus indica Seeds

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    Anupama A Suralkar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effects of methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica (TI seeds on anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in vivo using rat as an animal model at the doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight. The anti-inflammatory activities were investigated by utilizing carrageenan induced paw edema in rat. The analgesic activity was examined against tail immersion method in rats. The results showed that TI significantly (p<0.01 reduced carrageenan induced paw edema in rats. In tail immersion method, methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica has shown significant (p<0.01 increase in reaction time of tail in water maintained at 55°C indicating analgesic activity. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides and flavonoids. These results demonstrated that the methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica (TI seed exhibited significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities.

  8. Hypolipemic and antioxidant activities from Tamarindus indica L. pulp fruit extract in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinello, F; Soares, S M; Franco, J J; Santos, A C; Sugohara, A; Garcia, S B; Curti, C; Uyemura, S A

    2006-06-01

    Dietary modifications may significantly reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, including cholesterol and atherosclerosis. The present study addressed the effects of the crude extract from the pulp fruit of Tamarindus indica L. on lipid serum levels and early atherosclerotic lesions in hypercholesterolemic hamsters in vivo, and the extract's antioxidant action, in vitro. Animals were fed on either chow or atherogenic diet during 10 weeks and concomitantly received either water or T. indica L. extract for drinking. Treatment of hypercholesterolemic hamsters with the T. indica pulp fruit extract (5%) led to a decrease in the levels of serum total cholesterol (50%), non-HDL cholesterol (73%) and triglyceride (60%), and to an increase of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels (61%). In vitro, the extract presented radical scavenging ability, as assessed by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radicals assays, and led to decreased lipid peroxidation in serum, as assessed by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. In vivo, the extract improved the efficiency of the antioxidant defense system, as assessed by the superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Together these results indicate the potential of tamarind extracts in diminishing the risk of atherosclerosis development in humans.

  9. Acute Toxicity and Hepatotoxicokinetic Studies of Tamarindus indica Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony I. Okoh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Tamarindus indica is widely used as a food and beverage and in traditional medicine. The apparent lack of dose standardization in herbal medicine necessitates the evaluation of the lethality T. indica on Artemia salina nauplii and chicken embryos via in vitro and in vivo techniques. Furthermore, hepatotoxicokinetics of the crude extract and fractions on Wister rats was also assessed. At concentrations of 200, 20 and 2 µg/mL, crude extract and fractions showed brine shrimp death percentages ranging from 86.70% to 3.30% and the sub-fractions showed death percentage ranges of 46.70% to 3.30%. Calculated LD50 values ranged from 832 µg/mL to 5,019 µg/mL. Dosing Wister rats with 25% and 50% concentration of LD50 determined for crude extract and fractions on chicken embryos showed an elevation in the ALT and AST levels in the serum. Brine shrimps and chicken embryos showed a positive correlation, with R2 values of 0.541 and 0.588 (P ≤ 0.05 for fractions and subfractions, respectively, as media for the lethality assay. Dose standardization in folk herbal medicine is imperative as T. indica used as food and medicine has been shown to be toxic at high doses. Brine shrimp and chicken embryos may be comparably used as medium for toxicity assay.

  10. Tamarindus indica L. (Fabaceae): patterns of use in traditional African medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havinga, Reinout M; Hartl, Anna; Putscher, Johanna; Prehsler, Sarah; Buchmann, Christine; Vogl, Christian R

    2010-02-17

    To increase the understanding of the ethnopharmacology of a single species, elaboration of dispersed primary data is required. Tamarindus indica L. (Fabaceae), or tamarind, is a common tree, especially in West Africa, with a good potential to contribute to affordable local health care based on traditional medicine (TM). For this single species review, more than 60 references with detailed information on the ethnopharmacology of Tamarindus indica in the African context were selected. It showed that most prominently, the fruits are used as laxative or febrifuge throughout the Sahel and Soudan ecological zones. Tamarind bark and leaves are often involved in the treatment of wounds, especially in central West Africa. While the bark is used to treat diarrhoea in West Africa, the leaves are used for this purpose in East Africa. Our findings suggest a difference in the way tamarind is used between East and West Africa and we assess the similarities of its uses within those regions. This review demonstrates the capability of literature research to reveal knowledge by mining and compiling information from the growing body of primary ethnopharmacologic data, much of which is published in this journal. By creating a specific profile of tamarind in the context of traditional medicine throughout Africa, the authors contribute to the collection of current ethnobotanic species accounts on Tamarindus indica that tend to be qualitative and more general.

  11. Antiulcer effect of the methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica seeds in different experimental models

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    Pankaj Kalra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peptic ulcer is a global health problem of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by mucosal damage secondary to pepsin and gastric acid secretion which occurs due to due to an imbalance between offensive and defensive factors. Objective: The present study was carried out with methanolic extract of the seed coat of Tamarindus indica Linn. to evaluate its antiulcer potential on ibuprofen, alcohol and pyloric ligation induced gastric lesions. Materials and Methods: Doses of 100 mg/kg & 200 mg/kg of methanolic extract wre administered orally to rats of different groups. Ranitidine at a dose of 50 mg/kg was used as a standard drug for these gastric ulcer models. The gastric content was collected and the volume was measured. The ulceration index was determined by examining the inner lining of each stomach. Furthermore, the effect was assessed by free acidity, pepsin activity, total carbohydrate (TC, protein content (PK. Result: The result showed that the methanolic extract of seed coats of Tamarindus indica significantly reduce the total volume of gastric juice, free and total acidity of gastric secretion (P < 0.01 in pylorus ligation induced ulcer model as is comparable with the standard drug ranitidine. There was also a significant reduction in ulcer index (P < 0.01 as compared to control group. Conclusion: The methanolic extracts of seed coat of Tamarindus indica can be used as a new source of antiulcer agent in animals.

  12. Nutritive value and chemical composition of prickly pear seeds (Opuntia ficus indica L.) growing in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad Y

    2011-08-01

    The proximate composition and physico-chemical properties (moisture, crude lipid, crude protein, ash, and crude fiber, peroxide value, saponification value, acidity, relative density and refractive index) of prickly pear seed and corresponding oil were determined. The mineral contents (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Mn and Zn) of samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Minerals determined were: calcium 471.2 mg/kg, potassium 532.7 mg/kg, magnesium 117.3 mg/kg, phosphorus 1,627.5 mg/kg and natrium 71.3 mg/kg. The fatty acid profiles of seed oil from the Opuntia ficus indica were analyzed by gas chromatography. Linoleic acid was established as the major fatty acid (61.01%), followed by oleic (25.52%) and palmitic (12.23%) acids. Both myristic, stearic and arachidonic acids were detected in O. ficus indica seed oil in low amounts. As a result, O. ficus indica seeds are an important source of natural fiber and, given its high linoleic acid content, its oil can be used as a nutraceutic agent.

  13. Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes as feedstock for ethanol production by Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuloyo, Olukayode O; du Preez, James C; García-Aparicio, Maria del Prado; Kilian, Stephanus G; Steyn, Laurinda; Görgens, Johann

    2014-12-01

    The feasibility of ethanol production using an enzymatic hydrolysate of pretreated cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear cactus) as carbohydrate feedstock was investigated, including a comprehensive chemical analysis of the cladode biomass and the effects of limited aeration on the fermentation profiles and sugar utilization. The low xylose and negligible mannose content of the cladode biomass used in this study suggested that the hemicellulose structure of the O. ficus-indica cladode was atypical of hardwood or softwood hemicelluloses. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation procedures using Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 40 and 35 °C, respectively, gave similar ethanol yields under non-aerated conditions. In oxygen-limited cultures K. marxianus exhibited almost double the ethanol productivity compared to non-aerated cultures, although after sugar depletion utilization of the produced ethanol was evident. Ethanol concentrations of up to 19.5 and 20.6 g l(-1) were obtained with K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae, respectively, representing 66 and 70 % of the theoretical yield on total sugars in the hydrolysate. Because of the low xylan content of the cladode biomass, a yeast capable of xylose fermentation might not be a prerequisite for ethanol production. K. marxianus, therefore, has potential as an alternative to S. cerevisiae for bioethanol production. However, the relatively low concentration of fermentable sugars in the O. ficus-indica cladode hydrolysate presents a technical constraint for commercial exploitation.

  14. Isolation and annotation of 10828 putative full length cDNAs from indica rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE; Kabin; ZHANG; Jianwei; XIANG; Yong; FENG; Qi; HAN; Bin

    2005-01-01

    We reported the isolation and identification of 10828 putative full-length cDNAs (FL-cDNA) from an indica rice cultivar, Minghui 63, with the long-term goal to isolate all full-length cDNAs from indica genome. Comparison with the databases showed that 780 of them are new rice cDNAs with no match in japonica cDNA database. Totally, 9078 of the FL-cDNAs contained predicted ORFs matching with japonica FL-cDNAs and 6543 could find homologous proteins with complete ORFs. 53% of the matched FL-cDNAs isolated in this study had longer 5′UTR than japonica FL-cDNAs. In silico mapping showed that 9776 (90.28%) of the FL-cDNAs had matched genomic sequences in the japonica genome and 10046 (92.78%) had matched genomic sequences in the indica genome. The average nucleotide sequence identity between the two subspecies is 99.2%. A majority of FL-cDNAs (90%) could be classified with GO (gene ontology) terms based on homology proteins. More than 60% of the new cDNAs isolated in this study had no homology to the known proteins. This set of FL-cDNAs should be useful for functional genomics and proteomics studies.

  15. Antidiarrheal and thrombolytic effects of methanol extract of Wikstroemia indica (L. C. A. Mey leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Khalilur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Medicinal plants contribute as potential sources of therapeutic uses. Wikstroemia indica, a traditional medicinal plant, has long been used as anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antimalarial, anti-mitotic, antitumor, and anti-HIV in different parts of the world. Aims: The aim was to investigate the antidiarrheal and thrombolytic effect of W. indica leaf extract. Settings and Design: Sample collection, identification, solvent extraction, and crude extract preparations were led to evaluate the antidiarrheal effect in in vivo model and the thrombolytic effect in in vitro model. Materials and Methods: Castor oil-induced diarrhea and enteropooling assays and gastrointestinal motility tests were used to examine the in vivo antidiarrheal activity in Wistar albino rat. In vitro clot lysis model was undertaken to investigate the thrombolytic action of the extract. Data were analyzed using statistical software (Statistical Package for Social Science, SPSS, version 19.0, SPSS Inc., USA. Results: The diarrheal episode was inhibited by 18.64% and 28.96% for the methanol extract at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. The extract significantly (P < 0.05 reduced the intestinal volume and intestinal transit in comparison to control. The extract also reduced the rate of defecation, accumulation of fluid, and transit of charcoal oil. The extract showed a moderate thrombolytic effect compared to the reference control. Conclusion: Methanol extract of W. indica might be triggered the premonition of novel drug discovery in the future due to its antidiarrheal effect in the animal model.

  16. Morpho-anatomical and physicochemical studies of Fumaria indica (Hausskn.) Pugsley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prakash Chandra Gupta; Ch V Rao

    2012-01-01

    To study morpho-anatomical characters and physicochemical analysis ofFumaria indica (F. indica) (Hausskn.) Pugsley, (Fumariaceae), an important medicinal plant used extensively for treating a variety of ailments in various system of indigenous medicine.Methods:Evaluation of the different parts of the plant was carried out to determine the morpho-anatomical, physicochemical, phytochemical and HPTLC fingerprinting profile of F. indica and other WHO recommended methods were performed for standardization. Results: Morpho-anatomical studies showed compound and pinnatifid leaf, 4 to 6 cm in length, linear and oblong in shape and anomocytic arrangement of stomata, thin walled parenchymatous cells, scattered, sclerenchymatous, capped vascular bundles and radiating medullary rays. Physicochemical studies showed foreign matter 0.2%, loss on drying 6.8%, total ash 16.77%, alcohol and water soluble extractives 8.92% and 20.26%, respectively, sugar 17.75%, starch 22.97% and tannins 2.37%. Phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and sterol. Thin layer chromatography was carried out with different solvents and the best solvent system was chloroform and methanol in 80:20 ratio and revealed 12 spots with different Rf value under UV light 366λ. Conclusions: The results of the study can serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this plant material for future investigations and applications.

  17. Optimization of Electroporation Parameters for Immature Embryos of indica Rice(Oryza sativa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Yu-jun; ZHAO Jie

    2008-01-01

    To obtain a suitable condition for electroporation transformation in indica rice.the 10-day-old immature embryos were selected for optimization experiments.The results showed that one pulse at 850 V/cm,950 μF capacitance,200 μL electreporation buffer with 70 mmol/L sodium glutamate,100 μg/mL plasmid,50 pg/mL carrier DNA,20 embryos per cuvette,0°C treatment and CC medium were the best parameters,which not only jmprovecl the transformation efficiency to 30.89%,but also ameliorated the embryo survival ratio to 95.92%.To further verify the practicability of this condition,the embryes from another indica rice variety and a rice type Ⅱ metallothionein-like gene(OsMT2bL)promoter::mgfp5::gusA construct were tested,and specific GUS expression on the embryos was visualized by histochemical staining.The results showed that the GUS expression on the embryos activated by the OsMT2bL promoter was mainly concentrated on the apical point of the plumule whereas the expression driven by CaMV35S promoter was distributed on nearly all areas of the electroporated tissues.These results indicated that the optimized embryo electroporation conditions could be used not only in genetic transformation of indica rice but also in assay of gene regulation on embryos.

  18. Chemical Composition and Vasorelaxant and Antispasmodic Effects of Essential Oil from Rosa indica L. Petals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Majid Rasheed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosa indica L. belongs to the family Rosaceae and is locally known as gulaab. It has different traditional uses in cardiovascular and gastrointestinal disorders but there is no scientific data available in this regard. Therefore, the basic aim of this study was to explore the chemical composition and gastrointestinal and cardiovascular effects of the essential oil obtained from R. indica. The chemical composition of the essential oil was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS technique. The cardiovascular and gastrointestinal effects were investigated using electrophysiological measurements. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil showed various chemical components including acetic acid, mercaptohexyl ester, butanoic acid, 2-methyl-5-oxo-1-cyclopentene-1-yl ester, artemiseole, methyl santonilate, isosteviol, caryophyllene oxide, pentyl phenyl acetate, dihydromyrcene, 1,5-octadecadien, octadecanoic acid, ethyl ester, palmitic acid (2-phenyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl methyl ester, santolina epoxide, and 9-farnesene. The electrophysiological measurements revealed that essential oil was more potent against K+ (80 mM than phenylephrine precontractions using isolated rabbit aorta preparations. In isolated rabbit jejunum preparations, it showed more potency against high K+ induced contractions than spontaneous contractions. Considering these evidences, it can be concluded that R. indica essential oil may work as a complementary and alternative medicine in gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Antioxidant activity, fatty acid profile and tocopherols of Tamarindus indica L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Maria Moreno Luzia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize Tamarindus indica L. seeds regarding its composition and to evaluate its antioxidant potential, fatty acid profile and content of tocopherols. In order to obtain the extract, the dried and crushed seeds were extracted with ethanol for 30 minutes in a 1:3 seeds: ethanol ratio under continuous stirring at room temperature. After that, the mixtures were filtered and subjected to roto-evaporation at 40 ºC in order to determine, through direct weighing, the dry matter yields of the extracts. According to the results, Tamarindus indica L. seeds showed high content of total carbohydrates (71.91% and offered relevant content and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds. Tamarindus indica L. seeds oil presents high oxidative stability (15.83 hours and significant total tocopherol content (57.77 mg.kg-1, besides presenting a higher percentage of unsaturated fatty acids - the main component being linolenic (59.61%, which is considered an essential fatty acid.

  20. An improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of recalcitrant indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shri, Manju; Rai, Arti; Verma, Pankaj Kumar; Misra, Prashant; Dubey, Sonali; Kumar, Smita; Verma, Sikha; Gautam, Neelam; Tripathi, Rudra Deo; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Chakrabarty, Debasis

    2013-04-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of indica rice varieties has been quite difficult as these are recalcitrant to in vitro responses. In the present study, we established a high-efficiency Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation system of rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica) cv. IR-64, Lalat, and IET-4786. Agrobacterium strain EHA-101 harboring binary vector pIG121-Hm, containing a gene encoding for β-glucuronidase (GUS) and hygromycin resistance, was used in the transformation experiments. Manipulation of different concentrations of acetosyringone, days of co-culture period, bacterial suspension of different optical densities (ODs), and the concentrations of L-cysteine in liquid followed by solid co-culture medium was done for establishing the protocol. Among the different co-culture periods, 5 days of co-culture with bacterial cells (OD600 nm = 0.5-0.8) promoted the highest frequency of transformation (83.04 %) in medium containing L-cysteine (400 mg l(-1)). Putative transformed plants were analyzed for the presence of a transgene through genomic PCR and GUS histochemical analyses. Our results also suggest that different cultural conditions and the addition of L-cysteine in the co-culture medium improve the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation frequencies from an average of 12.82 % to 33.33 % in different indica rice cultivars.

  1. An exact approach for aggregated formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Spoorendonk, Simon

    cause an infeasible solution. In this paper, we consider (mixed) integer program formulations and propose a method for ensuring an optimal solution to the original (disaggregated) problem using an aggregated formulation. The method is based on Benders’ decomposition on a combination of the disaggregated...... mathematical formulation and the aggregated formulation. The method allows usage of relaxed aggregated formulations and enables branching on both aggregated and disaggregated variables. Also, the method guarantees an LP bound at least as good as those for the disaggregated and aggregated formulations...

  2. Determination of the thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of neem seeds by inverse problem method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Nnamchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the thermal conductivity and the specific heat capacity of neem seeds (Azadirachta indica A. Juss usingthe inverse method is the main subject of this work. One-dimensional formulation of heat conduction problem in a spherewas used. Finite difference method was adopted for the solution of the heat conduction problem. The thermal conductivityand the specific heat capacity were determined by least square method in conjunction with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm.The results obtained compare favourably with those obtained experimentally. These results are useful in the analysis ofneem seeds drying and leaching processes.

  3. Indicações e perfil epidemiológico dos pacientes submetidos à ceratoplastia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Adam Netto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar o perfil epidemiológico dos pacientes submetidos à ceratoplastia no estado de Santa Catarina e as principais indicações para este procedimento. Métodos: Foi realizado estudo observacional, descritivo e retrospectivo com dados de 1161 pacientes transplantados entre janeiro de 2008 e dezembro de 2010, de acordo com os prontuários obtidos na Central de Notificação, Captação e Distribuição de Órgãos e Tecidos de Santa Catarina. As variáveis registradas foram: idade, sexo, procedência, data do transplante, indicação e olho operado. Resultados: A média de idade foi de 45,51 anos e o sexo masculino foi mais prevalente (54,05%. O ceratocone foi a doença mais frequente (36,09%, seguido por falência do enxerto (15,89%, leucoma (11,92%, ceratopatia bolhosa (11,06%, distrofias (7,77%, úlcera (5,36%, perfuração corneana (5,27%, descemetocele (4,66%, ceratite herpética (1,12% e ectasia corneana (0,86%. A região do estado com maior número de casos foi a Grande Florianópolis (23,75%, sendo o ceratocone a principal indicação (30,91%. Leucoma e perfuração foram as principais indicações em pacientes com idade inferior a 10 anos, ceratocone nos pacientes entre 11 e 50 anos, falência do enxerto entre 51 e 60 anos e ceratopatia bolhosa nos pacientes acima de 61 anos. Conclusão: O ceratocone é a principal indicação para ceratoplastia no estado de Santa Catarina, com a média de idade de 31 anos. A maioria dos pacientes é do sexo masculino e proveniente da Grande Florianópolis.

  4. Phenolic Profiling of Duchesnea indica Combining Macroporous Resin Chromatography (MRC) with HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and ESI-IT-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Mingzhi Zhu; Xia Dong; Mingquan Guo

    2015-01-01

    Duchesnea indica (D. indica) is an important traditional Chinese medicine, and has long been clinically used to treat cancer in Asian countries. It has been described previously as a rich source of phenolic compounds with a broad array of diversified structures, which are the major active ingredients. However, an accurate and complete phenolic profiling has not been determined yet. In the present work, the total phenolic compounds in crude extracts from D. indica were enriched and fractionate...

  5. Perfume formulation: words and chats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellena, Céline

    2008-06-01

    What does it mean to create fragrances with materials from chemistry and/or from nature? How are they used to display their characteristic differences, their own personality? Is it easier to create with synthetic raw materials or with essential oils? This review explains why a perfume formulation corresponds in fact to a conversation, an interplay between synthetic and natural perfumery materials. A synthetic raw material carries a single information, and usually is very linear. Its smell is uniform, clear, and faithful. Natural raw materials, on the contrary, provide a strong, complex and generous image. While a synthetic material can be seen as a single word, a natural one such as rose oil could be compared to chatting: cold, warm, sticky, heavy, transparent, pepper, green, metallic, smooth, watery, fruity... full of information. Yet, if a very small amount of the natural material is used, nothing happens, the fragrance will not change. However, if a large amount is used, the rose oil will swallow up everything else. The fragrance will smell of nothing else except rose! To formulate a perfume is not to create a culinary recipe, with only dosing the ingredients in well-balanced amounts. To formulate rather means to flexibly knit materials together with a lively stitch, meeting or repelling each other, building a pleasant form, which is neither fixed, nor solid, nor rigid. A fragrance has an overall structure, which ranges from a clear sound, made up of stable, unique, and linear items, to a background chat, comfortable and reassuring. But that does, of course, not mean that there is only one way of creating a fragrance!

  6. Extract of the seed coat of Tamarindus indica inhibits nitric oxide production by murine macrophages in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komutarin, T; Azadi, S; Butterworth, L; Keil, D; Chitsomboon, B; Suttajit, M; Meade, B J

    2004-04-01

    The seed coat extract of Tamarindus indica, a polyphenolic flavonoid, has been shown to have antioxidant properties. The present studies investigated the inhibitory effect of the seed coat extract of T. indica on nitric oxide production in vitro using a murine macrophage-like cell line, RAW 264.7, and in vitro and in vivo using freshly isolated B6C3F1 mouse peritoneal macrophages. In vitro exposure of RAW 264.7 cells or peritoneal macrophages to 0.2-200 microg/mL of T. indica extract significantly attenuated (as much as 68%) nitric oxide production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) in a concentration-dependent manner. In vivo administration of T. indica extract (100-500 mg/kg) to B6C3F1 mice dose-dependently suppressed TPA, LPS and/or IFN-gamma induced production of nitric oxide in isolated mouse peritoneal macrophages in the absence of any effect on body weight. Exposure to T. indica extract had no effect on cell viability as assessed by the MTT assay. In B6C3F1 mice, preliminary safety studies demonstrated a decrease in body weight at only the highest dose tested (1000 mg/kg) without alterations in hematology, serum chemistry or selected organ weights or effects on NK cell activity. A significant decrease in body weight was observed in BALB/c mice exposed to concentrations of extract of 250 mg/kg or higher. Oral exposure of BALB/c mice to T. indica extract did not modulate the development of T cell-mediated sensitization to DNFB or HCA as measured by the local lymph node assay, or dermal irritation to nonanoic acid or DNFB. These studies suggest that in mice, T. indica extract at concentrations up to 500 mg/kg may modulate nitric oxide production in the absence of overt acute toxicity.

  7. A Geometric Formulation of Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Freedman, Daniel Z; Van Proeyen, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    The scalar fields of supersymmetric models are coordinates of a geometric space. We propose a formulation of supersymmetry that is covariant with respect to reparametrizations of this target space. Employing chiral multiplets as an example, we introduce modified supersymmetry variations and redefined auxiliary fields that transform covariantly under reparametrizations. The resulting action and transformation laws are manifestly covariant and highlight the geometric structure of the supersymmetric theory. The covariant methods are developed first for general theories (not necessarily supersymmetric) whose scalar fields are coordinates of a Riemannian target space.

  8. Necessity of rethinking oral pediatric formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bar-Shalom, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This commentary reviews the difficulties in formulating oral products for children. The significance of the fragmentation of the pediatric population in terms of development and ability to ingest different dosage formulations is examined. It is postulated that a flexible formulation, acceptable...

  9. Formulation, Preparation, and Characterization of Polyurethane Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Moises L.

    2010-01-01

    Preparation of laboratory-scale polyurethane foams is described with formulations that are easy to implement in experiments for undergraduate students. Particular attention is given to formulation aspects that are based on the main chemical reactions occurring in polyurethane production. This allows students to develop alternative formulations to…

  10. A quantitative documentation of the composition of two powdered herbal formulations (antimalarial and haematinic) using ethnomedicinal information from ogbomoso, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunkunle, Adepoju Tunde Joseph; Oyelakin, Tosin Mathew; Enitan, Abosede Oluwaseyi; Oyewole, Funmilayo Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The safety of many African traditional herbal remedies is doubtful due to lack of standardization. This study therefore attempted to standardize two polyherbal formulations from Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria, with respect to the relative proportions (weight-for-weight) of their botanical constituents. Information supplied by 41 local herbal practitioners was statistically screened for consistency and then used to quantify the composition of antimalarial (Maloff-HB) and haematinic (Haematol-B) powdered herbal formulations with nine and ten herbs, respectively. Maloff-HB contained the stem bark of Enantia chlorantha Oliv. (30.0), Alstonia boonei De Wild (20.0), Mangifera indica L. (10.0), Okoubaka aubrevillei Phelleg & Nomand (8.0), Pterocarpus osun Craib (4.0), root bark of Calliandra haematocephala Hassk (10.0), Sarcocephalus latifolius (J. E. Smith) E. A. Bruce (8.0), Parquetina nigrescens (Afz.) Bullock (6.0), and the vines of Cassytha filiformis L. (4.0), while Haematol-B was composed of the leaf sheath of Sorghum bicolor Moench (30.0), fruit calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (20.0), stem bark of Theobroma cacao L. (10.0), Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss (5.5), Mangifera indica (5.5), root of Aristolochia ringens Vahl. (7.0), root bark of Sarcocephalus latifolius (5.5), Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. (5.5), Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Zepern & Timler (5.5), and seed of Garcinia kola Heckel (5.5). In pursuance of their general acceptability, the two herbal formulations are recommended for their pharmaceutical, phytochemical, and microbial qualities.

  11. A Quantitative Documentation of the Composition of Two Powdered Herbal Formulations (Antimalarial and Haematinic Using Ethnomedicinal Information from Ogbomoso, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adepoju Tunde Joseph Ogunkunle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The safety of many African traditional herbal remedies is doubtful due to lack of standardization. This study therefore attempted to standardize two polyherbal formulations from Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria, with respect to the relative proportions (weight-for-weight of their botanical constituents. Information supplied by 41 local herbal practitioners was statistically screened for consistency and then used to quantify the composition of antimalarial (Maloff-HB and haematinic (Haematol-B powdered herbal formulations with nine and ten herbs, respectively. Maloff-HB contained the stem bark of Enantia chlorantha Oliv. (30.0, Alstonia boonei De Wild (20.0, Mangifera indica L. (10.0, Okoubaka aubrevillei Phelleg & Nomand (8.0, Pterocarpus osun Craib (4.0, root bark of Calliandra haematocephala Hassk (10.0, Sarcocephalus latifolius (J. E. Smith E. A. Bruce (8.0, Parquetina nigrescens (Afz. Bullock (6.0, and the vines of Cassytha filiformis L. (4.0, while Haematol-B was composed of the leaf sheath of Sorghum bicolor Moench (30.0, fruit calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (20.0, stem bark of Theobroma cacao L. (10.0, Khaya senegalensis (Desr. A. Juss (5.5, Mangifera indica (5.5, root of Aristolochia ringens Vahl. (7.0, root bark of Sarcocephalus latifolius (5.5, Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. (5.5, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam. Zepern & Timler (5.5, and seed of Garcinia kola Heckel (5.5. In pursuance of their general acceptability, the two herbal formulations are recommended for their pharmaceutical, phytochemical, and microbial qualities.

  12. Effect of coconut palm proximities and Musa spp. germplasm resistance to colonization by Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Irish, Brian M

    2012-08-01

    Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different degrees by R. indica infestation throughout the Caribbean. Genetic resistance in the host and the proximity of natural sources of mite infestation has been suggested as two of the main factors affecting R. indica densities in Musa spp. plantations. Greenhouse experiments were established to try to determine what effect coconut palm proximities and planting densities had on R. indica populations infesting Musa spp. plants. Trials were carried out using potted Musa spp. and coconut palms plants at two different ratios. In addition, fourteen Musa spp. hybrid accessions were evaluated for their susceptibility/resistance to colonization by R. indica populations. Differences were observed for mite population buildup for both the density and germplasm accession evaluations. These results have potential implications on how this important pest can be managed on essential agricultural commodities such as bananas and plantains.

  13. Comparative Analysis of the 100kb Region Containing the Pi-kh Locus Between indica and japonica Rice Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.P. Kumar; V. Dalal; N.K. Singh; T.R. Sharma

    2007-01-01

    We have recently cloned a pathogen inducible blast resistance gene Pi-kh from the indica rice line Tetep using a positional cloning approach. In this study, we carried out structural organization analysis of the Pi-kh locus in both indica and japonica rice lines. A 100 kb region containing 50 kb upstream and 50 kb downstream sequences flanking to the Pi-kh locus was selected for the investigation. A total of 16 genes in indica and 15 genes in japonica were predicted and annotated in this region. The average GC content of indica and japonica genes in this region was 53.15% and 49.3%, respectively. Both indica and japonica sequences were polymorphic for simple sequence repeats having mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, and pentanucleotides. Sequence analysis of the specific blast resistant Pi-kh allele of Tetep and the susceptible Pi-kh allele of the japonica rice line Nipponbare showed differences in the number and distribution of motifs involved in phosphorylation, resulting in the resistance phenotype in Tetep.

  14. Piriformospora indica root colonization triggers local and systemic root responses and inhibits secondary colonization of distal roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Pedrotti

    Full Text Available Piriformosporaindica is a basidiomycete fungus colonizing roots of a wide range of higher plants, including crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies have shown that P. indica improves growth, and enhances systemic pathogen resistance in leaves of host plants. To investigate systemic effects within the root system, we established a hydroponic split-root cultivation system for Arabidopsis. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we show that initial P. indica colonization triggers a local, transient response of several defense-related transcripts, of which some were also induced in shoots and in distal, non-colonized roots of the same plant. Systemic effects on distal roots included the inhibition of secondary P. indica colonization. Faster and stronger induction of defense-related transcripts during secondary inoculation revealed that a P. indica pretreatment triggers root-wide priming of defense responses, which could cause the observed reduction of secondary colonization levels. Secondary P. indica colonization also induced defense responses in distant, already colonized parts of the root. Endophytic fungi therefore trigger a spatially specific response in directly colonized and in systemic root tissues of host plants.

  15. In vitro cytotoxic activity of Aesculus indica against breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7) and phytochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Yamin; Nisa, Sobia; Zia, Muhammad; Waheed, Abdul; Ahmed, Sabbir; Chaudhary, M Fayyaz

    2012-01-01

    Aesculus indica (Linn.) (Sapindaceae) is an ethanobotanically important plant specie traditionally used against rheumatism, skin and vein complaints. Cytotoxic potential of Aesculus indica crude leaf extract and its fractions was investigated against MCF-7 cell line. Crude extract of Aesculus indica was prepared in methanol by maceration technique. Crude extract was fractionated into four organic and one aqueous fraction on polarity basis. MTT assay was used to evaluate the reduction of viability of MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Cell viability was inhibited by Aesculus indica crude extract in a dose dependent manner ranging from 34.2% at 10 μg/ml to 94% at 500μg/ml. Activity was found in an ascending order from hexane showing 29.8% inhibition to aqueous fraction indicating maximum inhibition, 60%. Phytochemical analysis of crude and fractionated extracts revealed presence of flavonoids, saponins, coumarins and tannins upto varying degrees. Methanol and aqueous fraction of methanol extract of Aesculus indica can be good source of cytotoxic compounds.

  16. Relationship of Parental Indica-Japonica Indexes with Yield and Grain Quality Traits of Japonica Hybrid Rice in Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-rong; QIU Fu-lin; HUA Ze-tian; DAI Gui-jin

    2010-01-01

    Taking the main parents (10 male sterile lines and 10 restorer lines) and their 100 combinations of japonica hybrid rice in northern China as materials, the relationships of parental indica-japonica indexes determined by the methods of the Cheng's index as well as simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers with yield and grain quality traits of hybrid rice were studied. For the parents, the Cheng's index (Chi) ranged from 13.5 to 19.3 and the indica index in SSR markers (ADi) were from 0.12 to 0.38. The classification of parents by Chi was not completely consistent with that by ADi. The Chi of male parent was more closely related to hybrid traits than that of female parent, as contrasted to ADi. At the same time, the difference between parents (PD) in Chi was more closely related to hybrid traits than that in ADi. The indica-japonica indexes of parents and their difference between parents appeared quadratic relationship to hybrid traits with the critical extremum. The directions of the correlation of indica-japonica indexes of parents and their differences with hybrid yield traits were on the opposition to those with hybrid grain quality traits. Therefore, the female parent should match the male parent moderately in indica-japonica index to obtain the optimum of hybrid traits, high yield as well as good quality.

  17. Effect of ecological environments on subspecies characteristics and economic traits in filial generations of cross between indica and japonica rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai XU; Wenfu CHEN; Hongguang LIU; Chunjie ZHU; Li YANG; Yanhua GUO; Jiayu WANG; Qianhua YANG; Zhengjin XU; Jiakui ZHENG

    2008-01-01

    Two recombinant inbred lines (RILs) populations, RILSA derived from the cross between "Zhongyouzao8" (indica) and "Toyonihiki" (japonica) rice cultivars, and RILSB derived from the cross between "Qishanzhan" (indica) and "Akihikari" (japonica) rice cultivars, were grown in Liaoning and Sichuan Provinces, China to understand the effects of ecological environments on the subspecies characteristics and economic traits in filial generations of cross between indica and japonica. The results showed that both the subspecies characteristics and economic traits changed significantly. The effects of ecological environments on Cheng's index and six subspecies characteristics were different on the basis of populations or characteristics. The distribution of Cheng's index in RILSA was japonicalinous in Liaoning and Sichuan. The distribution of Cheng's index in RILSB approached to normal distribution in Liaoning, but it wasjaponicalinous in Sichuan. As a whole, the two populations were more japonicalious in Sichuan than in Liaoning. The panicle number, seed setting rate and per-thousand-grain weight were decreased significantly in Sichuan. The grain number per panicle showed no significant change. A significant positive correlation was found between Cheng's index and the economic traits, including six subspe-cies traits. It suggested that the reason that the filial genera-tion of cross between indica and japonica in northern China showed japonieanous subspecies characteristics might be the artificial selection by breeders on the economic traits. In addition, indica-japonica differentiation and the relationship with ecological environments were discussed.

  18. Influence of photoperiod on growth for three desert CAM species. [Agave deserti, Ferocactus acanthodes, Opuntia ficus-indica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

    1989-03-01

    Agave deserti, Ferocactus acanthodes, and Opuntia ficus-indica were maintained in environmental growth chambers under a constant total daily photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) for 1 yr to investigate the effects of photoperiod on growth of these Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species. As the photoperiod was increased from 6 h to 18 h, growth increased 33% for A. deserti, 81% for F. acanthodes, and 50% for O. ficus-indica. Such increases were explained based on PAR saturation of the C{sub 3} photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle utilized by CAM plants during the daytime. In particular, the highest instantaneous PAR occurred for the shortest photoperiod and led to less growth for the same total daily PAR. Also, the total daily net CO{sub 2} uptake which occurred primarily at night, increased 53% as the photoperiod was increased from 6 to 18 h for O. ficus-indica, even though the accompanying night length decreased. The only other observed morphological effect was the sevenfold increase in the number of new cladodes initiated as the photoperiod was increased from 6 h to 18 h for O. ficus-indica. The influence of photoperiod on the daily pattern of net CO{sub 2} uptake and lack of effect of drought on plant survival under long photoperiods for O. ficus-indica differ from previous reports on this and other CAM species.

  19. Formulation Patents and Dermatology and Obviousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Liu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Most patents covering dermatologic products contain patent claims directed to the pharmaceutical formulation of the product. Such patents, known as formulation patents, are vulnerable to attacks based on the legal argument that the formulations covered are obvious over formulations already known prior to the filing of the patent application. Because obviousness is an important concept in patent law, recent court cases concerning obviousness and formulation patents were examined and discussed below. Courts have ruled that patent claims are obvious when features of the claimed formulation are found in the prior art, even if the features or characteristics of the formulation are not explicitly disclosed in the prior art. However, patentees have successfully overcome obviousness challenges where there were unexpected results or properties and/or the prior art taught away from the claimed invention.

  20. Efficient indica and japonica rice identification based on the InDel molecular method: Its implication in rice breeding and evolutionary research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-Rong Lu; Xingxing Cai; Xin Jin

    2009-01-01

    An efficient molecular method for the accurate and efficient identification of indica and japonica rice was created based on the poly-morphisms of insertion/deletion (InDel) DNA fragments obtained from the basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) to the entire genomic sequences of indica (93-11) and japonica rice (Nipponbare). The 45 InDel loci were validated experimentally by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) in 44 typical indica and japonica rice varieties, including 93-11 and Nipponbare. A neutrality test of the data matrix generated from electrophoretic banding patterns of various InDel loci indicated that 34 InDel loci were strongly associated with the differentiation of indica and japonica rice. More extensive analyses involving cultivated rice varieties from 11 Asian countries, and 12 wild Oryza species with various origins confirmed that indica and japonica characteristics could accurately be determined via calculating the average frequency of indica- or japonica-specific alleles on different InDel loci across the rice genome. This method was named as the "InDel molecular index" that combines molecular and statistical methods in determining the indica and japonica characteristics of rice varieties. Compared with the traditional methods based essentially on morphology, the InDel molecular index provides a very accurate, rapid, simple, and efficient method for identifying indica and japonica rice. In addition, the InDel index can be used to determine indica or japonica characteristics of wild Oryza species, which largely extends the utility of this method. The InDel molecular index provides a new tool for the effective selection of appropriate indica or japonica rice germplasm in rice breeding. It also offers a novel model for the study of the origin, evolution, and genetic differentiation of indica and japonica rice adapted to various environmental changes.

  1. A draft sequence of the rice(Oryza sativa ssp. indica) genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The sequence of the rice genome holds fundamental information for its biology, including physiology, genetics, development, and evolution, as well as information on many beneficial phenotypes of economic significance. Using a "whole genome shotgun" approach, we have produced a draft rice genome sequence of Oryza sativa ssp. indica, the major crop rice subspecies in China and many other regions of Asia. The draft genome sequence is constructed from over 4.3 million successful sequencing traces with an accumulative total length of 2214.9 Mb. The initial assembly of the non-redundant sequences reached 409.76 Mb in length, based on 3.30 million successful sequencing traces with a total length of 1797.4 Mb from an indica variant cultivar 93-11, giving an estimated coverage of 95.29% of the rice genome with an average base accuracy of higher than 99%. The coverage of the draft sequence, the randomness of the sequence distribution, and the consistency of BIG-ASSEM- BLER, a custom-designed software package used for the initial assembly, were verified rigorously by comparisons against finished BAC clone sequences from both indica and japanica strains, available from the public databases. Over all, 96.3% of full-length cDNAs, 96.4% of STS, STR, RFLP markers, 94.0% of ESTs and 94.9% unigene clusters were identified from the draft sequence. Our preliminary analysis on the data set shows that our rice draft sequence is consistent with the comman standard accepted by the genome sequencing community. The unconditional release of the draft to the public also undoubtedly provides a fundamental resource to the international scientific communities to facilitate genomic and genetic studies on rice biology.

  2. HSPRO controls early Nicotiana attenuata seedling growth during interaction with the fungus Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Stefan; Camehl, Iris; Gilardoni, Paola A; Oelmueller, Ralf; Baldwin, Ian T; Bonaventure, Gustavo

    2012-10-01

    In a previous study aimed at identifying regulators of Nicotiana attenuata responses against chewing insects, a 26-nucleotide tag matching the HSPRO (ORTHOLOG OF SUGAR BEET Hs1(pro)(-)(1)) gene was found to be strongly induced after simulated herbivory (Gilardoni et al., 2010). Here we characterized the function of HSPRO during biotic interactions in transgenic N. attenuata plants silenced in its expression (ir-hspro). In wild-type plants, HSPRO expression was not only induced during simulated herbivory but also when leaves were inoculated with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 and roots with the growth-promoting fungus Piriformospora indica. Reduced HSPRO expression did not affect the regulation of direct defenses against Manduca sexta herbivory or P. syringae pv tomato DC3000 infection rates. However, reduced HSPRO expression positively influenced early seedling growth during interaction with P. indica; fungus-colonized ir-hspro seedlings increased their fresh biomass by 30% compared with the wild type. Grafting experiments demonstrated that reduced HSPRO expression in roots was sufficient to induce differential growth promotion in both roots and shoots. This effect was accompanied by changes in the expression of 417 genes in colonized roots, most of which were metabolic genes. The lack of major differences in the metabolic profiles of ir-hspro and wild-type colonized roots (as analyzed by liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry) suggested that accelerated metabolic rates were involved. We conclude that HSPRO participates in a whole-plant change in growth physiology when seedlings interact with P. indica.

  3. Hamiltonian formulation of teleparallel gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Rafael; Guzmán, María José

    2016-11-01

    The Hamiltonian formulation of the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity is developed from an ordinary second-order Lagrangian, which is written as a quadratic form of the coefficients of anholonomy of the orthonormal frames (vielbeins). We analyze the structure of eigenvalues of the multi-index matrix entering the (linear) relation between canonical velocities and momenta to obtain the set of primary constraints. The canonical Hamiltonian is then built with the Moore-Penrose pseudoinverse of that matrix. The set of constraints, including the subsequent secondary constraints, completes a first-class algebra. This means that all of them generate gauge transformations. The gauge freedoms are basically the diffeomorphisms and the (local) Lorentz transformations of the vielbein. In particular, the Arnowitt, Deser, and Misner algebra of general relativity is recovered as a subalgebra.

  4. On Hamiltonian formulation of cosmologies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K D Krori; S Dutta

    2000-03-01

    Novello et al [1,2] have shown that it is possible to find a pair of canonically conjugate variables (written in terms of gauge-invariant variables) so as to obtain a Hamiltonian that describes the dynamics of a cosmological system. This opens up the way to the usual technique of quantization. Elbaz et al [4] have applied this method to the Hamiltonian formulation of FRW cosmological equations. This note presents a generalization of this approach to a variety of cosmologies. A general Schrödinger wave equation has been derived and exact solutions have been worked out for the stiff matter era for some cosmological models. It is argued that these solutions appear to hint at their possible relevance in the early phase of cosmological evolution.

  5. Hamiltonian formulation of teleparallel gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The Hamiltonian formulation of the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity (TEGR) is developed from an ordinary second-order Lagrangian, which is written as a quadratic form of the coefficients of anholonomy of the orthonormal frames (vielbeins). We analyze the structure of eigenvalues of the multi-index matrix entering the (linear) relation between canonical velocities and momenta to obtain the set of primary constraints. The canonical Hamiltonian is then built with the Moore-Penrose pseudo-inverse of that matrix. The set of constraints, including the subsequent secondary constraints, completes a first class algebra. This means that all of them generate gauge transformations. The gauge freedoms are basically the diffeomorphisms, and the (local) Lorentz transformations of the vielbein. In particular, the ADM algebra of general relativity is recovered as a sub-algebra.

  6. Liposomal formulations of cytotoxic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janknegt, R

    1996-07-01

    Liposomes are microscopic particles of lipid bilayer membrane that enclose aqueous internal compartments. These drug-delivery systems offer a very interesting opportunity for delivering cytotoxic drugs with equal or improved clinical efficacy and reduced toxicity. The most important clinical application of liposomes until now has been the inclusion of amphotericin B. At the same dose level, liposomal amphotericin B is as effective or slightly less effective than the conventional formulation, but much higher dosages, up to 5-7 mg kg-1day-1, can be given with acceptable toxicity. There are three preparations of cytotoxic drugs in an advanced stage of commercial development. Two of these (Doxil and TLD D99) contain doxorubicin and the other (DaunoXome) contains daunorubicin. The cardiac toxicity of the three preparations under clinical evaluation appears to be low in comparison with conventional doxorubicin or daunorubicin. No direct comparisons between the new formulations are available, so it is not yet possible to make any statements concerning their relative efficacy and toxicity. DaunoXome is the only drug that is approved in any country, and is also the best documented. It is too early to make recommendations concerning the place of these drugs in therapy. The marked increase in concentrations at the site of the tumour has yet to lead to increased therapeutic efficacy. These findings need further investigation. The efficacy of liposomal preparations in Kaposi's sarcoma appears to be similar to that of standard therapy and the clinical tolerance is good. Perhaps combination therapy with other cytotoxic agents could result in improved clinical efficacy. Their cost will probably be high in comparison with standard therapies.

  7. A NEW OXOTIRUCALLOIC ACID FROM THE STEM BARK OF MANGIFERA INDICA VAR. “LANGRA”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari S. H.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Mangifera indica variety “Langra” yielded three new phytoconstituents characterized as n-docosan-18′-one-22′-ol-1′-yl hexanoate, 20(R, 24(R-3-oxotirucalla-cis-1,24- dien-26-oic acid and n-dotriacont-7α-ol-3,13-dione along with β-sitosterol. The structures of these phytoconstituents have been elucidated on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical reactions.

  8. Isolation and characterization of a reserve protein from the seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchoa A.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe here the isolation and characterization of a major albumin from the seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae. This protein has a molecular mass of 6.5 kDa and was isolated by a combination of gel filtration chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. The amino acid composition of this protein was determined and it was shown to have similarities with the amino acid composition of several proteins from the 2S albumin storage protein family. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of this protein is Asp-Pro-Tyr-Trp-Glu-Gln-Arg.

  9. Tamarindus indica L. and Moringa oleifera M. extract administration ameliorates fluoride toxicity in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, R; Swarup, D; Patra, R C; Chandra, Vikas

    2009-11-01

    Aqueous extracts of T. indica fruit pulp (100 mg/kg body weight) and M. oleifera seeds (50 mg/kg body wight) orally once daily for 90 days lowered plasma fluoride concentrations in rabbits receiving fluorinated drinking water (200 mg NaF/ Liter water). Cortical indices and metaphysial width in animals receiving extracts also revealed beneficial effects of plant extracts. Changes in plasma biochemistry suggested less hepatic and renal damages in animals receiving plant extracts along with fluorinated water in comparison to that receiving fluorinated water alone. Preliminary results revealed these plant extracts have some potential to mitigate fluoride toxicity.

  10. Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of a Hydroethanolic Extract of Tamarindus indica Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadoriya, Santosh Singh; Mishra, Vijay; Raut, Sushil; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Jain, Sunil K

    2012-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive potential of a hydroethanolic extract of Tamarindus indica L. leaves (HTI) along with its possible mode of action. The anti-inflammatory activity of HTI was estimated by carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema in male Wistar albino rats. Furthermore, HTI was assessed to determine its effects on membrane stabilization. The antinociceptive action was determined by acetic acid-induced writhing, tail-flick, and the hot plate model. Oral administration of HTI at the dose of 500, 750, and 1000 mg/kg body weight produced significant (Pindica as were mentioned in Indian traditional and folklore practices.

  11. Isolation, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of chitinase from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Dipak N; Datta, Manali; Chaudhary, Anshul; Tomar, Shailly; Sharma, Ashwani Kumar; Kumar, Pravindra

    2009-04-01

    A protein with chitinase activity has been isolated and purified from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds. N-terminal amino-acid sequence analysis of this protein confirmed it to be an approximately 34 kDa endochitinase which belongs to the acidic class III chitinase family. The protein was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method using PEG 4000. The crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P4(1), with two molecules per asymmetric unit. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.6 A.

  12. Quill injury - cause od death of captive indian crested porcupine(Hystrix indica, Kerr, 1792

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Švara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica is a member of the family of Old World porcupines (Hystricidae. Its body is covered with multiple layers of quills, which serve for warning and attack if animal is threatened. However, the literature data on injuries caused by Indian crested porcupine are absent. We describe pathomorphological lesions in an Indian crested porcupine from the Ljubljana Zoo, which died after a fight with a younger male that caused a perforative quill injury of the thoracic wall, followed by septicaemia. Macroscopic, microscopic and bacteriological findings were detailed

  13. Chromosome location of semidwarf gene sd t and sd n in indica rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Great achievements have been made in breeding of semidwarf varieties (indica) since 1960s. Results showed that the dwarf traits widely used at present were controlled by the same recessive major gene, sd 1, thus we faced the potential danger of losing genetic diversity. The low yield of semidwarf varieties newly bred in domestic or abroad may be related to the narrow use of dwarf resource. So it was important to explore, appraise, and use new semidwarf resource. In the last decade, we have found two non allelic semidwarf genes, sd t and sd n. To utilize the new semidwarf genes in breeding efficiently, genetic analysis was necessary.

  14. SUN PROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF Clitoria Ternata Linn, Canna Indica Linn FLOWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. NAIKWADE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunscreen resources mostly obtained from plants in form of natural substances which are ability to absorb ultraviolet ray in the UVA region. This paper evaluates UV absorption ability of flowers from Clitoria ternata Linn (Fabaceae, Canna indica Linn (Scitaminaceae, as an anti-solar agent. Extracts were prepared by maceration with a mixture of distilled water and methanol (1:1. The method is performed by UV spectrophotomety in the range of 200 to 400 nm and results of all the extracts shows effective UV absorption in the given range.

  15. 塔塔在印度发布新款Indica Vista

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔东树

    2008-01-01

    印度的塔塔汽车在印度发布了新款“Indica Vista”。这是掀背车“Indica”的第二代车型。除变更了外观设计、加大了车身尺寸外,还提高了行驶性能和舒适性,整体品质都有所提升。价格为26万~48.8万卢比(约合4万~7、7万元人民币)。

  16. Analysis of seed and maternal genetic effects on cooking quality characters in indica hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIChunhai; ZHUJun

    1994-01-01

    We analysed seed and maternal genetic effects on characters of cooking quality in indica hybrid riceby using the model for quantitative characters of seeds of cereal crops. IncompLete dialiel crosses were made by using six male sterile lines (Zhenshan 97A, Erjiuqing A, Erjiunan 1A, V2OA, Zhe'nan |A and Zhe'nan 3A)as females and three restorer lines (Cezao 2-2, T49 and 26715) as males. Sampled seeds were used to measure the cooking quality characters ncluding amylose content (%), gelatinization temperature (alkali spreading score)and gelconsistency(ram).

  17. Difference and Inheritance of the Sterility Maintenance of CMS in Indica Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jian-hong; XUE Qing-zhong

    2002-01-01

    The inheritance of the sterility maintenance ability was studied for three types of CMS lines (Zhenshan97A, XieqingzaoA and Ⅱ-32A) and several lines in indica rice. The result showed that the abilities to keep the male sterility of the maintainer lines strengthened obviously with the progressive backcrossing. The critical stage to maintain the sterility of CMS lines happened usually in BC5-6 generation. The selection of the recurrent parent gave an obvious influence on the pollen fertility distribution of the later generations. The author has discussed ways of improving of the maintainer lines.

  18. The nerve protection and in vivo therapeutic effect of Acalypha indica extract in frogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernie H. Purwaningsih

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim To demonstrate nerve protection and/or treatment effect of Acalypha indica Linn. extract on nerve paralysis induced by subcutaneus injection of pancuronium bromide on frog’s back.Methods The study was performed on sixty frogs (Bufo melanostictus Schneider that divided into two groups, i.e. the neuro-protection and neuro-therapy group. Each group was divided further into 6 sub-treatment groups: negative control group treated by water and positive control group treated by piracetam, treatment groups received the extracts 200, 300, 400, 500 mg/kgBW. Pancuronium bromide 0.2% (1 : 20 dilutions were injected subcutaneously as muscle relaxant. The protective effect was studied by giving the extract orally, 1 hour prior to injection; while the therapeutic effect of the extract was studied by 10 minute treatment after injecting pancuronium bromide solution. The parameters measured were the onset and duration of paralysis (in minutes and the recovery time (time needed to recover into normal condition.Results The study showed significantly different protective effect of Acalypha indica Linn. root water extract at 400 and 500 mg/KgBW compared to negative control group and positive control group (piracetam (p < 0.05; while the therapeutic effect was obvious at the dose 200-500 mg/KgBW compared to negative control group (p = 0.000. There was no significant difference compared to positive control group (piracetam, except at 300 mg/KgBW (p = 0.012.Conclusion These results have proven that the water extract of Acalypha indica Linn. root has comparable protective and treatment effect on nerves system, as piracetam, but further studies should be performed to provide more evidences particularly pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies on two animal models that commonly used. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:96-102Keywords: Acalypha indica Linn, Bufo melanostictus Schneider, nerve-protection

  19. Triterpenoids from the Roots of Rhaphiolepis indica var. tashiroi and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian-Lih Tsai

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two new triterpenoids, 2α,3β-dihydroxyolean-11,13(18-dien-19β,28-olide (1 and 3β,5β-dihydroxyglutinol (2, together with eight known compounds (3–10 were isolated from the roots of Rhaphiolepis indica var. tashiroi (Rosaceae. The structures of 1–10 were determined by spectroscopic techniques. Among these isolates, 2α,3β-dihydroxyolean-13(18-en-28-oic acid (9 exhibited inhibitory effect on N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP-induced superoxide production, with an IC50 value of 16.50 μM.

  20. THE STRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SPINES FROM THE CACTUS OPUNTIA FICUS-INDICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Gindl-Altmutter,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties and structure of cactus Opuntia ficus-indica spines were characterised in bending and by means of x-ray diffraction. Using spruce wood cell walls for reference, the modulus of elasticity of Opuntia cactus spines was high in absolute terms, but comparable when specific values were considered, which can be explained by similarities in the cell wall structure of both materials. Differently from the modulus of elasticity, the bending strength of cactus spines was unexpectedly high both in absolute and in specific terms. The unique cellulose-arabinan composite structure of cactus spines, together with high cellulose crystallinity, may explain this finding.

  1. PERSISTENCIA DE Salmonella Typhimurium EN NOPAL VERDURA (Opuntia ficus-indica)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Hernández Anguiano; Mateo Vargas Hernández; Carlos A. Eslava Campos; Cristóbal Chaidez Quíroz; Jitu Patel; Patricia Landa Salgado

    2013-01-01

    En este trabajo se evaluó la capacidad de S. entérica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) para persistir en cladodios de nopal verdura (Opuntia ficus-indica) y en suelo, así como determinar si las plantas responden a inoculaciones con la bacteria, y comparar dicha respuesta entre diferentes cladodios (cladodios madre, secundarios in planta, y secundarios cortados). S. Typhimurium persistió en suelo y tejido de nopal hasta por 14 d. La capacidad de la bacteria para persistir en el tejido depe...

  2. Monoamine oxidase B inhibitors from the fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Y N; Choo, Y; Lee, Y C; Moon, Y I; Kim, S D; Choi, J W

    2001-02-01

    Three varieties of methyl citrate and 1-methyl malate were isolated from the fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten Makino through in vitro bioassay-guided isolation for the inhibition on monoamine oxidase(MAO). The IC50 values for MAO-B of 1-monomethyl citrate, 1,3-dimethyl citrate, trimethyl citrate and 1-methyl malate were 0.19, 0.23, 0.61 and 0.25 mM, respectively. However, on MAO-A, their inhibitions showed only marginal activity.

  3. First evidence for the presence of weddellite crystallites in Opuntia ficus indica parenchyma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malainine, Mohamed E; Dufresne, Alain; Dupeyre, Danielle; Vignon, Michel R; Mahrouz, Mostafa

    2003-01-01

    Calcium oxalate crystallites occur very often in the plants tissues and their role is still poorly known. We report here the experimental protocol leading to the isolation of two forms of calcium oxalate crystallites differing in their hydration level in the parenchymal tissues of Opuntia ficus indica (Miller). Whereas the whewellite crystallites are habitual in all Opuntia species, the weddellite form has never been isolated from these species before, which is probably due to their small size (about 1 microm). We have identified these forms using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.

  4. Seed germination and seedling development in the mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbineau, F; Kanté, M; Côme, D

    1986-09-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L., cv Ruby) seeds taken from ripe fruit showed no dormancy. They germinated at temperatures between 5 and 40 degrees C, but germination was most rapid near the upper end of this range (25-40 degrees C). The fresh seeds had a high moisture content (85%, dry weight basis) and quickly died on dehydration. The optimal temperature for growth of the seedlings was close to 30 degrees C. High temperatures (40 degrees C) and temperatures below 15 degrees C were lethal. Growth of the stem occurred in successive flushes separated by rest periods. When the leaves of the preceding flush finished growing, the axis lengthened beneath the apical bud.

  5. Two neutral alleles of improving male gamete abortion in indica-japonica hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@It was difficult to use the pronounced heterosis of indica-japonica hybrids rice due to the panicle sterility caused by male and female gamete abortion. The female gamete abortion in most of subspecific hybrids could be solved by using an abortion-neutral gene S5-n, a wide compatibility gene. The problem of male gamete abortion indicated by distorted segregation of marker genes remained to be studied. Segregation distortion via male gamete had been reported on chromosomes 3, 7, 8, 11, and 12.

  6. Mecanismos de dispersión y resistencia al ayuno en Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez López, José

    2014-01-01

    El ácaro Raoiella indica Hirst es una especie fitófaga obligada que en pocos años ha colonizado amplias zonas de América Tropical y ha causado severos daños, sobre todo a plantas de las familias Arecaceae y Musaceae. El presente trabajo estuvo dirigido a evaluar atributos biológicos de esta especie que permitan explicar su potencial como plaga invasiva. Se estudiaron su capacidad para sobrevivir en ausencia de alimento y sus mecanismos de dispersión, incluyendo el desplazamiento pasivo en e...

  7. 水稻待测粳型亲籼系的亲籼性鉴定%Test on Indica-compatibility of Candidate Indica-compatible Japonica Lines in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈跃进

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The aim was to breed the indica-compatible japonica lines (ICJL). [ Method] The indica-compatibility of 5 candidate ICJLs were tested based on the pollen fertility and spikelet fertility of F1 hybrids with 6 indica testers,6 japonica testers and 6 and middle testers. [ Result] Candidate ICJL G2123, G2417, G2410 and G3005 were grouped into the exceptionally indica-compatible lines based on their high indica-compatibility and low japonica-compatibility. Candidate ICJL G2615 was grouped into the non-compatible lines on their low indicacompatibility and low japonica-compatibility. The testers, fertility identification standards, test methods of pollen fertility and spikelet fertility were discussed when the compatibility of CICJL was tested. The reason of the indica-compatibility in G2417 was analyzed. [ Conclusion] The selfing seed setting rate (spikelet fertihty) of G2417 was 95.1% and the crossing seed setting rate ( spikelet fertility ) of F hybrid between G2417 and indica testers was 94.9%. G2417 had high indica-compatibility and good synthesis-character.%[目的]选育粳型亲籼系.[方法]选用6个籼稻、6个粳稻和6个广亲和测验种,以F1代花粉育性和小穗育性为指标,测定了5个待测粳型亲籼系的亲籼性.[结果]待测粳型亲籼系G2123、G2417、G2410和G3005亲籼、不亲粳,为特异亲籼系;G2615不亲籼,也不亲粳,为不亲和系.同时探讨了粳型亲籼系亲籼性测定时的测验种、育性指标、花粉育性和小穗育性的测定方法,分析了G2417高亲籼性的原因.[结论]G2417自交结实率(小穗育性)95.1%,与6个籼稻测验种杂交的F1代平均结实率(小穗育性)94.9%,是个亲籼性极好、综合性状优良的亲籼系.

  8. From salmon pink to blue natural sensitizers for solar cells: Canna indica L., Salvia splendens, cowberry and Solanum nigrum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Peihui; Niu, Haijun; Zheng, Gang; Bai, Xuduo; Zhang, Milin; Wang, Wen

    2009-11-01

    Study on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with extracts of Canna indica L., Salvia splendens, Solanum nigrum L. as sensitizers is firstly reported in this paper. DSSCs were assembled by using natural dyes extracted from C. indica L., S. splendens, cowberry and S. nigrum L. as sensitizers. The energy conversion efficiency of the cells sensitized with dyes of C. indica L., S. splendens, cowberry and S. nigrum L. was 0.29%, 0.26%, 0.13% and 0.31%, respectively. A novel technique was taken to fabricate TiO 2 electrode films by electrophoresis. We present FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy studies of structures and light absorption of these four kinds of natural dyes. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to analyze the interface resistance of cells. The result indicated that high resistance existed in the interfaces of cell with cowberry extract as sensitizer.

  9. Biosynthesis and characterization of Acalypha indica mediated copper oxide nanoparticles and evaluation of its antimicrobial and anticancer activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraj, Rajeshwari; Rahman, Pattanathu K. S. M.; Rajiv, P.; Narendhran, S.; Venckatesh, R.

    2014-08-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by biological method using aqueous extract of Acalypha indica leaf and characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD, FT-IR, SEM TEM and EDX analysis. The synthesised particles were highly stable, spherical and particle size was in the range of 26-30 nm. The antimicrobial activity of A.indica mediated copper oxide nanoparticles was tested against selected pathogens. Copper oxide nanoparticles showed efficient antibacterial and antifungal effect against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Candida albicans. The cytotoxicity activity of A.indica mediated copper nanoparticles was evaluated by MTT assay against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines and confirmed that copper oxide nanoparticles have cytotoxicity activity.

  10. Essential oils composition of two Sicilian cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) fruits (prickly pear).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Pietro; Sajeva, Maurizio; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Maggio, Antonella; Senatore, Felice

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils composition of the skin, pulp and seeds from fruits of two Sicilian cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (cv. Sanguigna and cv. Surfarina) has been obtained by hydrodistillation and the possible antioxidant, antimicrobial and semiochemical roles have been investigated comparing the data with those reported in the literature. The presence of antioxidants and antimicrobials found in this study increases the spectrum of compounds that have beneficial properties in O. ficus-indica. In addition, several compounds identified in this study have been reported to influence the behaviour of Ceratitis capitata, a phytophagous pest which causes severe damages to several crops including O. ficus-indica and the kairomonal activity of the odour of the fruits seems provided by a blend of compounds found in the various matrices analysed.

  11. Assessment of the potential genotoxic risk of medicinal Tamarindus indica fruit pulp extract using in vivo assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F M V; Leite, M F; Spadaro, A C C; Uyemura, S A; Maistro, E L

    2009-09-01

    Tamarindus indica has been used in folk medicine as an antidiabetic, a digestive aid, and a carminative, among other uses. Currently, there is no information in the toxicology literature concerning the safety of T. indica extract. We evaluated the clastogenic and/or genotoxic potential of fruit pulp extract of this plant in vivo in peripheral blood and liver cells of Wistar rats, using the comet assay, and in bone marrow cells of Swiss mice, using the micronucleus test. The extract was administered by gavage at doses of 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg/kg body weight. Peripheral blood and liver cells from Wistar rats were collected 24 h after treatment, for the comet assay. The micronucleus test was carried out in bone marrow cells from Swiss mice collected 24 h after treatment. The extract made with T. indica was devoid of clastogenic and genotoxic activities in the cells of the rodents, when administered orally at these three acute doses.

  12. Biosynthesis and characterization of Acalypha indica mediated copper oxide nanoparticles and evaluation of its antimicrobial and anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraj, Rajeshwari; Rahman, Pattanathu K S M; Rajiv, P; Narendhran, S; Venckatesh, R

    2014-08-14

    Copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by biological method using aqueous extract of Acalypha indica leaf and characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD, FT-IR, SEM TEM and EDX analysis. The synthesised particles were highly stable, spherical and particle size was in the range of 26-30 nm. The antimicrobial activity of A.indica mediated copper oxide nanoparticles was tested against selected pathogens. Copper oxide nanoparticles showed efficient antibacterial and antifungal effect against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Candida albicans. The cytotoxicity activity of A.indica mediated copper nanoparticles was evaluated by MTT assay against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines and confirmed that copper oxide nanoparticles have cytotoxicity activity.

  13. In vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of methanol extracts of Erythrina indica Lam. leaves and stem bark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kandhasamy Sowndhararajan; Jince Mary Joseph; Dharmar Rajendrakumaran

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the total phenolic content and in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of methanol extracts of leaves and stem bark of Erythrina indica. Methods: Folin-ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity was assayed spectrophotometrically and the degree of enzyme inhibition was determined by measuring the increase in absorbance at 295nm associated with uric acid formation. Results:The methanol extract of stem bark of E. indica contains higher level of total phenolic content (412.8 mg GAE/g extract) and also exhibited higher xanthine oxidase inhibition activity (IC50 52.75μg/mL) than the leaves. Conclusions: It could be concluded that the stem bark of E. indica was highly effective in xanthine oxidase inhibition and might be used for the gout related disorders.

  14. Inoculation effects of endophytic fungus (Piriformospora indica on antioxidant enzyme activity and wheat tolerance under phosphorus deficiency in hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rahmani Iranshahi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Information about the effect of endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica on wheat response to stress conditions is very limited and sometime contradictory. This greenhouse research was conducted in a hydroponic culture to investigate the inoculation effects of mycorrizhal-like fungus, P. indica, on enzymatic and non–enzymatic defense mechanisms of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Niknejad at two levels of phosphorus (P supply (deficient and sufficient. The experiment was factorial, based on a completely randomized design with three replications. Sixty days after applying the treatments, plants were harvested and shoot dry weight and concentration of P, iron, zinc and activity of antioxidant enzymes like catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, guaiacol peroxidase (GPX and chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids contents were measured. Results showed that P-deficiency reduced shoot dry weight and concentration of P and iron and increased concentration of zinc in the shoots. Inoculation of wheat roots with P. indica in P-deficiency condition resulted in significant increasing of shoot dry weight and P concentration. Also, chlorophyll a, b contents and concentration of carotenoids in P-deficiency condition was significantly higher than P-sufficiency condition. Inoculation of P. indica to wheat roots decreased chorophyll a, b contents and concentration of carotenoids. Inoculation of P. indica in P-deficiency condition significantly decreased the activity of GPX and significantly increased the activity of CAT and GPX in P-sufficiency condition. In general, inoculation of fungus P. indica to wheat plant could be recommended as an effective method to alleviate deleterious effects of P-deficiency and increase its tolerance to this stress.

  15. 虫草籼米复合米的研制%Preparation of restructuring indica rice with cordycepin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘方; 程薇; 聂婷婷; 沈汪洋; 姚娣; 晏梦婷; 贾喜午; 陈轩; 周坚; 高虹

    2015-01-01

    以籼米为主要原料,辅以虫草培养基,通过双螺杆挤压技术制备富含虫草素的籼米复合米。选取虫草培养基添加量、水分、套筒温度、螺杆转速四个技术参数为主要因素,研究制备糊化度较低的富含虫草素的籼米复合米(简称虫草复合米)的最佳工艺参数。结果表明,虫草培养基添加量35%、水分40%、套筒温度100℃、螺杆转速250 r/min时,虫草复合米的品质指标较好,其蛋白质、脂肪以及虫草素含量明显高于原籼米。%ABSTRACT:With indica rice as the main raw material ,supplemented with cordyceps culture ,complex indica rice rich in cordycepin was prepared by a twin‐screw .Selecting the cordyceps culture medium content ,moisture content ,barrel tempera‐ture and screw speed as the main factor ,the complex cordycepin indica rice ( called cordycepin indica meters ) with low degree of pasting were obtained .The optimal parameters were as :cordyceps culture media content 35% ,moisture content 40% ,bar‐rel temperature 100℃ and screw speed 250 r/min .Under the conditions ,the quality of restructuring indica rice with cordycepin was good ,and the test data of protein ,fat and cordycepin content were significantly higher than that of the indica rice .

  16. Redescriptions of Oratosquilla indica (Hansen) and Clorida verrucosa (Hansen), with accounts of a new genus and two new species (Crustacea, Stomatopoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manning, Raymond B.

    1976-01-01

    Examination of the syntypes of Oratosquilla indica (Hansen) and Clorida verrucosa (Hansen), originally described from materials collected by the “Siboga” Expedition, has revealed that each of these species is based on two distinct species. A new genus is erected for O. indica and two previously unde

  17. Mitrasacme indica-A New Recorded Species of Loganiaceae in Jiangxi Province%江西马钱科一新记录种——尖帽草

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓绍勇; 原静

    2012-01-01

    A new record of Mitrasacme indica Wight, which belongs to the family of Loganiaceae, is reported in Jiangxi province. This species is a new elements for flora of Jiangxi.%报道了产自南昌的马钱科Loganiaceae尖帽草属Mitrasacme尖帽草Mitrasacme indica Wight,该种系江西首次发现。

  18. Effect of Tamarindus indica fruits on blood pressure and lipid-profile in human model: an in vivo approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftekhar, A S M Maruf; Rayhan, Israt; Quadir, Mohiuddin Abdul; Akhteruzzaman, Sharif; Hasnat, Abul

    2006-04-01

    Fruits of Tamarindus indica were evaluated for their effects on lipid profile, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and body weight in human subjects. Dried and pulverized pulp of T. indica fruits, at a dose of 15 mg/kg body weight, was found to reduce total cholesterol level (p = 0.031) and LDL-cholesterol level (p = 0.004) to a significant extent. Though the fruits exerted no conspicuous effect on body weight and systolic blood pressure, it significantly reduced the diastolic pressure as confirmed by independent sample t-test at 5% significance level.

  19. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of seeds oils and fruit juice of Opuntia Ficus Indica and Opuntia Dillenii from Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazi, Z.; Ramdani, M.; Tahri, M.; Rmili, R.; Elmsellem, H.; El Mahi, B.; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure

    2015-01-01

    This study provides basic information on the mineral composition of the seeds and antioxidant activity in seeds oils and fruit juices of cactus belonging to two species Opuntia ficus indica and Opuntia dillenii, from Morocco (Oujda), in order to evaluate the nutritional value of the Opuntia extracts. Minerals determined from dry seeds of Opuntia ficus indica and Opuntia dillenii were: calcium 480.93 and 408.28; phosphorus 1417.59 and 970.15; potassium 304.51 and 201.96; magnesium: 316.59 and ...

  20. SASTOJCI KATUSOVOG PLODA (OPUNTIA FICUS INDICA) INKORPORIRANI U DIJETETSKE PROIZVODE KOJI SE KORISTE KAO SUPLEMENTI HRANI ILI OTC

    OpenAIRE

    Blazevska, Zagorka; Cvrk, Ramzija; Aleksovski, Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica je vrsta kaktusa koja pripada familiji Cactaceae. Ova familija kaktusa obuhvata oko 200 podvrsta kaktusa koji su rasprostranjeni najviše u Americi. Najčešću kulinarsku primjenu ima Indijska Fig Opuntia (Opuntia ficus indica ), jer se njeni listovi i plodovi koriste kao svježe salate. Plod kaktusa se konzumira zreo u ljetnom periodu. Najviše su rasprostranjeni na zapadnoj hemisferi (Meksiko) i zapadnim dijelovima Amerike, ali mogu se naći i u drugim dijelovima svijeta (Gal...

  1. First record of Hesperolabops nigriceps Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae) on Opuntia ficus-indica in Milpa Alta, Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares-Pérez, Martín; Rodríguez-Leyva, Esteban; Brailovsky, Harry; Ramírez-Alarcón, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    In recent years a species of Hesperolabops has become a problem as a pest of nopalitos, Opuntia ficus-indica, in Milpa Alta, in the south of Mexico City, which is the most important production region of this vegetable in the country. A survey of Hesperolabops in Milpa Alta has resulted in the first report of Hesperolabops nigriceps Reuter. This occurrence should be monitored and considered in future studies in order to avoid misidentification of Hesperolabops spp. Kirkaldy native populations there, and to avoid the confusion of the damage that may be caused on O. ficus-indica.

  2. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of medicinally potent plant Saraca indica: a novel study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugu, Shyam; Nagati, Veerababu; Bhanoori, Manjula

    2016-06-01

    Eco-friendly silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have various applications in modern biotechnology for better outcomes and benefits to the society. In the present study, we report an eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Saraca indica leaf extract. Characterization of S. indica silver nanoparticles (SAgNPs) was carried out by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, Zeta potential, and transmission electron microscopy. SAgNPs showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

  3. An exact approach for aggregated formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Spoorendonk, Simon

    optimality cannot be guaranteed by branching on the aggregated variables. In this presentation, we propose a general method for solving aggregated formulations, such that the solution is optimal to the original problem. The method is based on applying Benders’ decomposition on a combination of the original...... to mathematical formulations with a different solution space than that for the original formulation, i.e., the aggregated formulation may be a relaxation of the original problem. In a branch-and-bound context, variable aggregation can also lead to a formulation where branching is not trivial, for example when...... and aggregated formulations. Put in a branch-and-bound context, branching can be performed on the original variables to ensure optimality. We show how to apply the method on well-known optimization problems....

  4. Effect of the fractions of Tamarindus indica L. (Caesalpiniaceae on experimentally induced hyperglycaemic wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerima Musa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: World Health Organization defines diabetes mellitus as “a metabolic disorder of multiple etiologies, characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both.Objective: The stem-bark extract of Tamarindus indica L. was investigated for its hypoglycaemic action on experimentally induced hyperglycaemic Wistar rats.Methodology: A single dose of alloxan (150 mg/kg IP and fructose (10% w/v ad libitum for 20 days. LD50 and phytochemical screening were conducted using Lorke’s method 1983 and Trease and Evans 1989 respectively.Results: The oral LD50 of the extract was found to be 3,800 mg/kg. The fractions of the extract lowered the elevated blood glucose significantly with the 1000 mg/kg dose at the 8th, 16th, and 24th hours. The 500 mg/kg dose also lowered the glucose level throughout the study but only significantly at the 1st, 16th, and 24th hours. The ethyl acetate fraction also lowered the elevated blood glucose with all the doses used. The 250 mg/kg dose did not show significant decrease in the blood sugar concentration.Conclusion: The fractions of the stem-bark extract of T. indica L. significantly lowered elevated blood glucose concentration (BGL in alloxan and fructose-induced hyperglycaemic Wistar rats.

  5. A Study on Herbal Finish to Prevent Bed Sore Using Mangifera indica and Triphala Dried Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiruthika Deivasigamani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available “Bed sores” owe their name to the observation that patients who were bedridden and not properly repositioned would often develop ulcerations or sores on their skin, typically over bony prominences. These bed sores, which result from prolonged pressure, are also called “decubitus ulcers,” “pressure sores,” “skin breakdown,” and “pressure ulcers.” They are associated with adverse health outcomes and high treatment costs. This study focuses on developing herbal finish to prevent bed sores. For this purpose, functional finishing was utilized to produce a bedsore preventing fabric. Plain weave cotton fabric was dyed by using herbal extracts, dried, and then cured. Two samples in different ratios (1 : 2 and 2 : 1 of two herbal extracts (Mangifera indica and Triphala dried fruits were prepared with and without binder (chitosan. Air permeability, wicking ability, Drop Test for absorbency, and antibacterial properties were examined for those samples. Based on the results, fabric dyed with Mangifera indica and Triphala dried fruits in the ratio of 2 : 1 with chitosan is determined as the most promising combination for the final product.

  6. A search for hepatoprotective activity of fruit extract of Mangifera indica L. against oxidative stress cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourahmad, Jalal; Eskandari, Mohammad Reza; Shakibaei, Rashin; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2010-03-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) and their components are commonly used in folk medicine for many curative effects. The protective effects of different concentrations of aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L. fruit (Mango Extract) (20, 50 and 100 microg/ml) and also gallic acid (100 microM) as a pure compound in the extract were examined against oxidative stress toxicity induced by cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) in isolated rat hepatocytes. The extracts and gallic acid (100 microM) protected the hepatocyte against all oxidative stress markers including cell lysis, ROS generation, lipid peroxidation, glutathione depletion, mitochondrial membrane potential decrease, lysosomal membrane oxidative damage and cellular proteolysis. Mango Extracts (20, 50 and 100 microg/ml) were more effective than gallic acid (100 microM) in protecting hepatocytes against CHP induced lipid peroxidation. On the other hand gallic acid (100 microM) acted more effective than Mango Extracts (20, 50 and 100 microg/ml) at preventing lysosomal membrane damage. In addition H(2)O(2) scavenging effect of all extracts were determined in hepatocytes and compared with gallic acid (100 microM). There were no significance differences (P<0.05) between all plant extracts and gallic acid (100 microM) in H(2)O(2) scavenging activity. These results suggest a hepatoprotective role for Mango Extract against liver injury associated with oxidative stress.

  7. O uso implícito das indicações formais em Ser e Tempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Missaggia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nesse artigo é apresentado o uso do método indicativo-formal em Ser e Tempo. Embora Heidegger não desenvolva nessa obra nenhuma análise que trate especificamente das indicações formais, sua utilização nos parece clara – não somente pelo uso do termo “formale Anzeige” em diversas passagens, mas também pela própria estrutura dos argumentos. Procuramos demonstrar como a compreensão do uso implícito de tal metodologia é fundamental para a compreensão de Ser e Tempo. Primeiramente, é apresentado o caráter indicativo-formal do chamado “círculo hermenêutico”, o qual Heidegger analisa em vários trechos da obra, sempre em relação com seu aspecto metodológico. A seguir, procuramos exemplificar o uso das indicações formais em Ser e Tempo, através dos conceitos utilizados por Heidegger na exposição do modo de ser do Dasein. Tal análise é interessante não somente para confirmar a utilização do novo método na obra, mas também para esclarecer, com um exemplo concreto, como ocorre sua aplicação.

  8. Antioxidant activities of tamarind (Tamarindus Indica) seed coat extracts using in vitro and in vivo models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandesh, P; Velu, V; Singh, R P

    2014-09-01

    Tamarindus indica seed coat was extracted with methanol, acetone and water and screened for DPPH radical scavenging activities. Methanol extract showed higher activity than other extracts. Treatment of albino rats (Wistar strain) with CCl4 at 1.25 mL/kg of body weight decreased superoxide dismutase (55 %), catalase (73 %) and peroxidase (78 %), while lipid peroxidation increased nearly 2.5 fold in liver. Pretreatment of rats with methanol extract of T. Indica seed coat (TSCE) at 50 mg/kg (as tannic acid equivalents) followed by CCl4 treatment, caused restoration of superoxide dismutase, catalase and lipid peroxidation to values close to control while peroxidase was restored to 67 % of the control. Histopathological studies of liver of different groups supported the protective effects of TSCE by restoring the hepatic architecture. These studies could be further extended to exploit its possible application for the preservation of food products as well as a health supplement and neutraceutical.

  9. Bioethanol Production from Indica IR.64 Rice Straw Biomass by Direct Saccharification and Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ario Betha Juanssilfero

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic substances such as agricultural wastes are attractive feed stocks for bioethanol production. Indica IR.64 rice straw is one of abundant agricultural wastes in Indonesia and could be used to bioethanol production. It has several characteristics such as high content of cellulose and hemicelluloses that can be readily hydrolyzed into fermentable sugars. A simple process (the direct saccharification and fermentation process to produce ethanol from rice straw was developed in order to establish an efficient bioethanol production. In this work, no harsh pre-treatment steps were applied and also use a simple one-vat reactor without the risk of losing liberated carbohydrate. The first step in using rice straw for bioethanol production is size reduction through milling and sieving process prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. Direct saccharification and fermentation (DSF of Indica IR.64 rice straw was examined and compared with two type of control (systems devoid of yeast and enzyme. The experiment were carried out under anaerobic condition, where the cellulase crude enzyme and cellulosic substrates (rice straw produced glucose from the cellulose and Saccharomyces cerevisiae directly assimilated the glucose to bioethanol. The faster rate of bioethanol production during DSF by Saccharomyces cerevisiae was obtained within the first 12h. The maximum ethanol concentration, ethanol yield, and theoretical ethanol yield of untreated rice straw were 0.25 g/L, 10 and 14.88%, respectively. Nevertheless, the direct saccharification and fermentation shows the potential for lower cost and higher efficiency for bioethanol production.

  10. Antidiabetic effect of aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, R; Jana, D; Das, U K; Ghosh, D

    2004-05-01

    In Indian traditional system of medicine, herbal remedies are prescribed for the treatment of diseases including diabetes mellitus. In recent years, plants are being effectively tried in a variety of pathophysiological states. Tamarindus indica Linn. is one of them. In the present study, aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica Linn. was found to have potent antidiabetogenic activity that reduces blood sugar level in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male rat. Supplementation of this aqueous extract by gavage at the dose of 80 mg/0.5 ml distilled water/100 g body weight per day in STZ-induced diabetic rat resulted a significant diminution of fasting blood sugar level after 7 days. Continuous supplementation of this extract for 14 days resulted no significant difference in this parameter from control level. Moreover, this supplementation produced a significant elevation in liver and skeletal muscle glycogen content, activity of liver glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in respect to diabetic group. Activities of liver glucose-6-phosphatase, liver and kidney glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activities were decreased significantly in the aqueous extract supplemented group in respect to diabetic group. All these parameters were not resettled to the controlled level after 7 days of this extract supplementation but after 14 days of this supplementation, all the above mentioned parameters were restored to the control level.

  11. In vivo antiplasmodial activities of ethanolic exract and fractions of Eleucine indica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ettebong EO; Nwafor PA; Okokon JE

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the in vivo antiplasmodial activities of the extract and fractions(n-hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate, butanol, aqueous) of the whole plant inPlasmodium berghei berghei infected mice.Methods:Oral administrations of the extract(200,400, and600 mg/kg) ofEleucine indica and fractions(400 mg/kg) were screened in the4-day, repository and curative tests. Chloroquine(5 mg/kg), pyrimethamine(1.2 mg/kg) and artesunate(5 mg/kg) were used as controls. Results:The extract showed significant(P<0.05-0.001) dose-dependent, antiplasmodial activity in the4-day, repository and curative tests and increased the survival times of the infected mice. All the fractions exhibited significant antiplasmodial activity with the highest being ethylacetate fraction.Conclusions:Eleucine indica extract and fractions possess antimalarial activity which confirms the ethnobotanical use of this plant as a malarial remedy and opens a new highway to further investigate its potentials in the on-going fight against malaria.

  12. Opuntia ficus indica extract protects against chlorpyrifos-induced damage on mice liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncibi, Saida; Ben Othman, Mahmoud; Akacha, Amira; Krifi, Mohamed Naceur; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2008-02-01

    This original study investigates the role of Opuntia ficus indica (cactus) cladodes extract against liver damage induced in male SWISS mice by an organophosphorous insecticide, the chlorpyrifos (CPF). Liver damage was evaluated by the measure of its weight and the quantification of some biochemical parameters, such as alanine amino transferase (ALAT), aspartate amino transferase (ASAT), phosphatase alkaline (PAL), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), cholesterol and albumin in serum by spectrophotometric techniques. The experimental approach lasted 48 h and consisted of 6 treatments of six mice each one; (1) control, (2) 10 mg/kg (b.w) CPF, (3) 10mg/kg (b.w) CPF with 100 mg/kg (b.w) cactus, (4) 150 mg/kg (b.w)CPF, (5) 150 mg/kg (b.w) CPF with 1.5 g/kg cactus, (6) 1.5 g/kg cactus. Both chlorpyrifos and cactus were administrated orally via gavages. Our results showed that CPF affects significantly all parameters studied. However, when this pesticide was administrated associated to cactus, we noticed a recovery of all their levels. In the other hand, cactus alone did not affect the studied parameters. These results allow us to conclude firstly that CPF is hepatotoxic and secondly that Opuntia ficus indica stem extract protects the liver and decreases the toxicity induced by this organophosphorous pesticide.

  13. Micromorphology of cactus-pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill) cladodes based on scanning microscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem-Fnayou, Asma; Zemni, Hassène; Nefzaoui, Ali; Ghorbel, Abdelwahed

    2014-01-01

    Cladode ultrastructural features of two prickly and two spineless Opuntia ficus-indica cultivars were examined using environmental scanning electron and atomic force microscopies. Observations focused on cladode as well as spine and glochid surface micromorphologies. Prickly cultivars were characterized by abundant cracked epicuticular wax deposits covering the cladode surface, with an amorphous structure as observed by AFM, while less abundant waxy plates were observed by ESEM on spineless cultivar cladodes. Further AFM observations allowed a rough granular and crystalloid epicuticular wax structure to be distinguished in spineless cultivars. Regarding spine micromorphology, prickly cultivars had strong persistent spines, observed by ESEM as a compact arrangement of oblong epidermal cells with a rough granular structure. However, deciduous spines in spineless cultivars had a broken transversely fissured epidermis covering a parallel arrangement of fibres. Through AFM, the deciduous spine surface presented an irregular hilly and smooth microrelief while persistent spines exhibited rough helical filamentous prints. ESEM and AFM studies of cladode surfaces from prickly and spineless cactus pear cultivars revealed valuable micro-morphological details that ought to be extended to a large number of O. ficus-indica cultivars.

  14. ANTIANXIETY EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF TYLOPHORA INDICA IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

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    Shyamjith Manikkoth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pathological anxiety is one of the most common mental disorders in humans. Anxiolytic drugs, mostly belonging to the benzodiazepine (BDZ group and serotonergic groups are widely used to treat anxiety. However the clinical uses of these established drugs are associated with lot of adverse effects. Therefore the development of new agent possessing anxiolytic effect with minimal or no adverse effects would be of great importance in the treatment of anxiety related disorders. Very high importance is given to the phytoconstituents by the scientific community for a new anxiolytic agent which is devoid of side effects/ minimal adverse effects. In this research work the ethanolic extract of Tylophora indica (300 mg/kg body weight was administered oral for ten days to Wistar albino rats for screening its anxiolytic effect by using Elevated Plus Maze (EPM and Light Dark Arena (LDA test. The results of our study demonstrated that the ethanolic extract of Tylophora indica has significant anxiolytic activity in EPM and LDA models of anxiety.

  15. DILLENIA INDICA (OUTENGA AS ANTI-DIABETIC HERB FOUND IN ASSAM: A REVIW

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    Apurba Talukdar et al

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Dillenia Indica, commonly known as elephant apple and locally known as outenga, is the handsome evergreen tree grows in the moist forest of sub-Himalayan region to Assam. The fruit grows in abundance and due to lack of knowledge and technical knowledge; most of these fruits are wasted. In Assam, traditionally the unripe fruits are used to make curries because of its sour taste and ripe fruits are making pickles. The fruits are generally high in fibre and due to presence of gummy substances, extraction of juice becomes difficult. The plant grows about 15 m tall. Not only the fruits have medicinal values but the leaves and the bark also showed numerous pharmacological activity. The studies showed that the plant possesses various activities like Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, dysentery, Antidiabetic etc. The fruits and the juice of the plant are traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases and one of the major diseases is Diabetes Mellitus. It was also proved from the review of literatures that this plant possesses some antidiabetic properties (Sunil kumar et.al. Thus in this review we gave some emphasise on the traditional and clinical use of Dillenia Indica (outenga or elephant apple as an antidiabetic herb.

  16. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic study of the biosorption of uranium onto Cystoseria indica algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khani, M.H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tarbiat Modares, P.O. Box 14115-111, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nuclear Science Research school, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, P.O. Box 11365, 8486 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mhkhani@modares.ac.ir; Keshtkar, A.R.; Ghannadi, M. [Nuclear Science Research school, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, P.O. Box 11365, 8486 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pahlavanzadeh, H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tarbiat Modares, P.O. Box 14115-111, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-02-11

    Biosorption equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of binding of uranium ions to Cystoseria indica were studied in a batch system with respect to temperature and initial metal ion concentration. Algae biomass exhibited the highest uranium uptake capacity at 15 deg. C at an initial uranium ion concentration of 500 mg l{sup -1} and an initial pH of 4. Biosorption capacity increased from 198 to 233 mg g{sup -1} with an decrease in temperature from 45 to 15 deg. C at this initial uranium concentration. The Langmuir isotherm model were applied to experimental equilibrium data of uranium biosorption depending on temperature. Equilibrium data fitted very well to the Langmuir model C. indica algae in the studied concentration range of Uranium ions at all the temperatures studied. The saturation type kinetic model was applied to experimental data at different temperatures changing from 15 to 45 deg. C to describe the batch biosorption kinetics assuming that the external mass transfer limitations in the system can be neglected and biosorption is chemical sorption controlled. The activation energy of biosorption (E{sub A}) was determined as -6.15 using the Arrhenius equation. Using the thermodynamic equilibrium coefficients obtained at different temperatures, the thermodynamic constants of biosorption ({delta}G{sup o}, {delta}H{sup o} and {delta}S{sup o}) were also evaluated.

  17. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY STUDY OF SARACA INDICA LEAVES EXTRACTS

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    Nayak Sarojini

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available To know the anthelmintic property of leaves of Saraca indica, we used both maceration and soxhelet methods of extraction using solvents like ethanol and methanol. Each extract was tested for its anthelmintic activity by following standard method. The ethanolic and methanolic extracts (obtained from both the methods of extractions of Saraca indica displayed anthelmintic property in a dose-dependant manner. In both the methods of extraction, we found that the ethanolic as well as the methanolic extracts were more potent than the positive control as far as anthelminthic property was concerned. To correlate phytochemical screening with anthelmintic activity, phytochemical evaluation of the extracts was also performed. From our result, it may be mentioned that the ethanolic extract was relatively more potent as an anthelmintic agent due to the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, tannins and flavonoids. On the other hand, the methanolic extract was effective as an anthelmintic agent probably due to the involvement of glycosides and flavonoids. The presence of alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, tannins and flavonoids seems to be the responsible phytochemical constituents for demonstrating anthelmintic activities of our extracts.

  18. Optimized Monitoring of Production of Cellulose Nanowhiskers from Opuntia ficus-indica (Nopal Cactus

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    Horacio Vieyra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of cellulose nanowhiskers (CNWs has grown significantly because they are useful for a wide range of applications. Additional advantage in their design requires that they meet the following characteristics: nontoxicity, abundance, sustainability, renewability, and low cost. To address these requirements, nanowhiskers were prepared from Opuntia ficus-indica (nopal cellulose by acid hydrolysis. Monitoring the process of CNWs preparation is necessary to ensure maximum yield and purity of the end product. In this study, the cellulose preparation was monitored by analyzing microscopic morphology by SEM; the purity degree was determined by fluorescence microscopy as a novel and rapid technique, and FTIR spectroscopy was used for confirmation. The additional parameters that monitored the process were the crystallinity index by X-ray diffraction and the size of the particle by dynamic light scattering (DLS. Nopal cellulose was found to be comparable to commercial microcrystalline cellulose. The use of Opuntia ficus-indica is a viable alternative for the production of highly pure CNWs and the strategy to supervise the preparation process was rapid.

  19. Nucleotide variability in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene from Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, J L; Wickneswari, R; Ismail, B S; Salmijah, S

    2008-02-01

    This study reports the results of the partial DNA sequence analysis of the 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene in glyphosate-resistant (R) and glyphosate-susceptible (S) biotypes of Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn from Peninsular Malaysia. Sequencing results revealed point mutation at nucleotide position 875 in the R biotypes of Bidor, Chaah and Temerloh. In the Chaah R population, substitution of cytosine (C) to adenine (A) resulted in the change of threonine (Thr106) to proline (Pro106) and from C to thymidine (T) in the Bidor R population, leading to serine (Ser106) from Pro106. As for the Temerloh R, C was substituted by T resulting in the change of Pro106 to Ser106. A new mutation previously undetected in the Temerloh R was revealed with C being substituted with A, resulting in the change of Pro106 to Thr106 indicating multiple founding events rather than to the spread of a single resistant allele. There was no point mutation recorded at nucleotide position 875 previously demonstrated to play a pivotal role in conferring glyphosate resistance to E. indica for the Lenggeng, Kuala Selangor, Melaka R populations. Thus, there may be another resistance mechanism yet undiscovered in the resistant Lenggeng, Kuala Selangor and Melaka populations.

  20. Characterization of Calcium Compounds in Opuntia ficus indica as a Source of Calcium for Human Diet

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    Isela Rojas-Molina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of calcium compounds in cladodes, soluble dietary fiber (SDF, and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF of Opuntia ficus indica are reported. The characterization of calcium compounds was performed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and titrimetric methods were used for quantification of total calcium and calcium compounds. Whewellite (CaC2O4·H2O, weddellite (CaC2O4·(H2O2.375, and calcite (CaCO3 were identified in all samples. Significant differences (P≤0.05 in the total calcium contents were detected between samples. CaC2O4·H2O content in cladodes and IDF was significantly higher (P≤0.05 in comparison to that observed in SDF, whereas minimum concentration of CaCO3 was detected in IDF with regard to CaCO3 contents observed in cladodes and SDF. Additionally, molar ratio oxalate : Ca2+ in all samples changed in a range from 0.03 to 0.23. These results support that calcium bioavailability in O. ficus indica modifies according to calcium compounds distribution.