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Sample records for azadirachta indica callus

  1. Bioactivity of Neem (Azadirachta indica) callus extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.M.

    2008-04-01

    This study was conducted in order to explore the possibility of utilizing plant tissue culture techniques for production of secondary metabolites from callus culture of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and to investigate the bioactivity of the established callus extract in comparison with the extract from the intact leaves. The presence of secondary metabolites in the extracts was detected by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Both the callus and leaf extracts eluted five fraction of compounds and it were observed that callus extract had a good resolution. various extract concentration (5.10. and 20 mg/ml) were determined for the rate and extent of inhibition kinetics against staphylococcus aureus. Escherichia coli, and candida albicans. Results showed that callus extract of A. indica wiped out all viable cells of C. albicans within 18 hours and the subsequent concentration 5 and 10 mg/ m1 retard the growth after 24 h. A higher concentration of 20 mg/ ml had the same effect on S. aureus after 6 h and the E. coli cells were completely inhibited by the extracts after 24 h. Similar kinetics were showed by leaf extract but in slight rate as compared to the callus extract. In general both extract posses antimicrobial activity with notable efficient rates. For assaying of the inhibitory effect on some phyto pathogens the effect of different concentrations of the callus and leaf extracts on the radial growth of Drechslera rostrata. Fusarium oxysporum and Alterneria alternata were in vitro assessed. Obvious inhibitory effect was observed on the mycelia radial growth of the three treated fungi. The level of inhibition increased with the increase of te extract concentration. The maximum inhibitory effect (84%) was recorded with Drechslera rostrata when inoculated in media contain 20 mg/ ml of callus while the inhibition rate of mycelia growth of the same species reaches 61% when inoculated in a medium contain the same concentration of the neem leaf extract. The subsequent

  2. Azadirachta Indica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fine Print

    ABSTRACT. Medicinal plants are part of human society to combat diseases. Azadirachta indica evidently has great medicinal potentials. This work was undertaken to investigate the morphological and some enzymatic effect of A. indica extract on the tissues of the liver. Twenty four (24) adult Wistar rats of both sexes, ...

  3. contributory pharmacological effects of azadirachta indica leaf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three crude extracts from Azadirachta indica leaves were assessed on various signs and symptoms of infection in vivo and in vitro. The methanolic and diethylether extracts have significant antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-aggregatory activities, while the chloroform extract did not show appreciable effect.

  4. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF NEEM (Azadirachta indica), FALSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    Abstract. A study to evaluate the insecticidal properties of some plants was undertaken. Powder and aqueous extracts of Neem, Azadirachta indica, False sesame, Ceratotheca sesamoides and the Physic nut, Jatropha curcas were evaluated as grain protectants against the cowpea seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus.

  5. Azadirachta indica Mediated Bioactive Lyocell Yarn: Chemical and Colour Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with preparing aesthetic textiles using methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves. The extract with metallic and natural mordents was utilized to create various shades on lyocell yarn using exhaust technique of dyeing. Aesthetic values of dyed yarns were analyzed in terms of colourimetric parameters, that is, CIE L*  a*  b* and colour fastness. The attachment of Azadirachta indica compounds has been confirmed by using infrared spectroscopy (IR analysis. The dyed samples exhibit moderate to good fastness properties. The study showed that lyocell yarn treated at 15% (owf methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves can be utilized as effective bioactive textiles. Azadirachta indica is an alternative to synthetic antimicrobial agents. This bioactive yarn can be used in fashion as well as in medicinal industry.

  6. Toxic effects of neem products (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... Key words: Azadirachta indica (neem), Aedes aegypti (mosquito), LC50, ... constitute a major problem of public health and lead to ... of Coleoptera Epilachnus varivestus and caused sterility .... with a balm of Canada.

  7. (CI 42053) from an aqueous solution using Azadirachta indica leaf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-05

    Nov 5, 2008 ... ... 42053) from an aqueous solution using Azadirachta indica leaf powder as a low- ... and biodegradable effective adsorbents. They were ob- tained from ... pesticide. The trees are also known as an air purifier. The medicinal.

  8. from an aqueous solution using Azadirachta indica leaf powder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf powder was used as an adsorbent for the removal of textile dye from aqueous solution. The adsorption of dye on A. indica was found to be dependent on contact time, dye concentration and amount of adsorbent. Spectrophotometric technique was used for the measurement of concentration of ...

  9. The effect of aqueous extract of neem ( Azadirachta indica ) leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal plants are part of human society to combat diseases. Azadirachta indica evidently has great medicinal potentials. This work was undertaken to investigate the morphological and some enzymatic effect of A. indica extract on the tissues of the liver. Twenty four (24) adult Wistar rats of both sexes, average weight, ...

  10. Azadirachta indica (Neem) Seed Extracts: A Supplement for Culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of Neem seed extracts (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) was tested against Aspergillus niger isolated from soil to determine whether the neem seed extracts will inhibit or enhance the growth of Aspergillus niger . Three different concentrations of neem seed extracts were prepared 10%, 20% and 50%.

  11. Neem ( Azadirachta indica a. Juss) fruit yield determination in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined fruit yield of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) in the guinea savanna of Nigeria at Makurdi. Fifteen mature neem trees which had no overlapping canopies and had not been previously pruned were purposively selected out of 207 stands growing at the study site. All ripped fruits felling from the ...

  12. Toxic effects of neem products ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment and comparative analysis of the properties of aqueous extracts of seed kernel of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) was carried out on Aedes aegypti larvae. The aim of this work was to evaluate lethal effects of neem products (1% Suneem, formulated neem oil and neem powder) on A. aegypti larvae. Assays ...

  13. Larvaecidal effects of aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica (neem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of crude aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica (neem) against the larvae of Anopheles mosquito was investigated. Exposure of the larvae to undiluted extracts of seed oil, leaf and bark for 12 hours led to 100, 98, and 48% mortality, respectively. Dilution of these extracts also resulted in mortality of the larvae.

  14. (BST) and some bioassays using Neem ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of Neem (Azadirachta indica A.Juss) and Wild custard-apple (Annona senegalensis Pers) were extracted using ethanol and extracts were screened for bioactivity against brine shrimp larvae. The bioactive extracts in the brine shrimp test (BST) were investigated for correlation with aphid nematode and ...

  15. Assessment of the insecticidal potency of neem ( Azadirachta Indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potency of aqueous and methanolic extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed kernel, in inhibiting and disrupting development of Anopheles mosquito was assessed in the laboratory. Different concentrations of aqueous and methanolic extracts were tested on eggs, larvae and pupae. Both extracts were found ...

  16. Performance of broiler chickens fed neem ( Azadirachta indica ) leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and ninety-two day-old marshal broilers were used in an eight weeks feeding trial to evaluate the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf meal on growth performance and haematological parameters of broiler chickens. The birds were randomly assigned into four (4) groups of forty eight (48) birds each in a ...

  17. Hypoglycemic Effects Of Whole And Fractionated Azadirachta Indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypoglycemic Effects Of Whole And Fractionated Azadirachta Indica (Neem) Seed Oils On Alloxan-Induced Diabetes In New Zealand White Rabbits. ... The data suggests that the whole neem seed oil and the acidic portion of the neem seed oil could be of benefit in controlling the blood sugar in subjects presenting with ...

  18. Safety evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) derived pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Boersma, M.G.; Alink, G.M.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The neem tree, Azadirachta indica, provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides and could be applied to protect stored seeds against insects. However in addition to possible beneficial health effects, such as blood sugar lowering properties, anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory,

  19. ( Azadirachta Indica ) Leaf Extracts on the Rot Fungus ( Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The storage lifespan of kola nuts is challenged by the problem of decay of nuts in storage as a result of the attack by the rot fungus (Fusarium spp). The effect of the neem leaf (Azadirachta indica) extracts on the rot fungus was investigated in order to aid extended kola nuts storage. The aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of ...

  20. Effects of Dietary Neem ( Azadirachta indica ) Leaf Extract on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of dietary neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract (NLE) on egg production, egg quality characteristics and blood indices of laying hens were investigated. Dry matter content of fresh neem leaves was determined and used to determine the quantity of the fresh leaves to be extracted to correspond with the required ...

  1. Photooxygenation of Nimonol, a Tetranortriterpenoid from Azadirachta indica. A. Juss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kasinath

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Nimonol (1, a tetranortriterpenoid isolated from the leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae, upon photolysis undergoes both Diels-Alder and ene reactions with singlet oxygen at different sites leading to 14,15,20,21-diepoxy-23-nimonolactone (3, along with nimonolide (4, which have been well-characterised. The novelty of the reported reactions lies in hitherto unreported formation of an α-epoxide in the ring D in tetranortriterpenoids. The photoproduct 4 exhibited antifeedancy comparable to that of azadirachtin-A, the most potent antifeedant constituent isolated from neem.

  2. Neem (Azadirachta indica): prehistory to contemporary medicinal uses to humankind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Venugopalan Santhosh; Navaratnam, Visweswaran

    2013-07-01

    The divine tree neem (Azadirachta indica) is mainly cultivated in the Indian subcontinent. Neem has been used extensively by humankind to treat various ailments before the availability of written records which recorded the beginning of history. The world health organization estimates that 80% of the population living in the developing countries relies exclusively on traditional medicine for their primary health care. More than half of the world's population still relies entirely on plants for medicines, and plants supply the active ingredients of most traditional medical products. The review shows the neem has been used by humankind to treat various ailments from prehistory to contemporary.

  3. Is a Combine Therapy of Aqueous Extract of Azadirachta indica Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Herbal medication is commonly employed in treatment of diseases. Aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica leaf (A. indica) is commonly used in treatment of malaria by Nigerians. Most often, aqueous extract of A. indica leaf is taken in combination with chloroquine in order to cure malaria infection without ...

  4. Anti-inflammatory polysaccharides of Azadirachta indica seed tegument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia de Paulo Pereira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Meliaceae, or Indian neem is a plant used to treat inûammatory disorders. Total polysaccharide (TPL and FI (fractioned by ion exchange chromatography from the seed tegument of A. indica were evaluated in models of acute inflammation (paw edema/peritonitis using Wistar rats. Paw edema (measured by hydroplethysmometry was induced s.c. by Λ-carrageenan (300 µg, histamine (100 µg, serotonin (20 µg, compound 48/80 (10 µg, prostaglandin (PGE2 30 µg or L-arginine (15 µg. Peritonitis (analyzed for leukocyte counts/protein dosage was induced i.p. by carrageenan (500 mg or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP 50 ng. Animals were treated i.v. with TPL (1 mg/kg or FI (0.01, 0.1, 1 mg/kg 30 min before stimuli. FI toxicity (at 0.1 mg/kg, i.v. for seven days was analyzed by the variation of body/organ mass and hematological/biochemical parameters. TPL extraction yielded 1.3%; FI, presenting high carbohydrate and low protein content, at 0.1 mg/kg inhibited paw edema induced by carrageenan (77%, serotonin (54%, PGE2 (69% and nitric oxide (73%, and the peritonitis elicited by carrageenan (48% or fMLP (67%, being well tolerated by animals. FI exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity, revealing to be important active component in traditionally prepared remedies to treat inflammatory states.

  5. An Improved Genome Assembly of Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraja M. Krishnan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., an evergreen tree of the Meliaceae family, is known for its medicinal, cosmetic, pesticidal and insecticidal properties. We had previously sequenced and published the draft genome of a neem plant, using mainly short read sequencing data. In this report, we present an improved genome assembly generated using additional short reads from Illumina and long reads from Pacific Biosciences SMRT sequencer. We assembled short reads and error-corrected long reads using Platanus, an assembler designed to perform well for heterozygous genomes. The updated genome assembly (v2.0 yielded 3- and 3.5-fold increase in N50 and N75, respectively; 2.6-fold decrease in the total number of scaffolds; 1.25-fold increase in the number of valid transcriptome alignments; 13.4-fold less misassembly and 1.85-fold increase in the percentage repeat, over the earlier assembly (v1.0. The current assembly also maps better to the genes known to be involved in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway. Together, the data represent an improved assembly of the A. indica genome.

  6. Antifungal activity of neem (Azadirachta indica: Meliaceae extracts against dermatophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Iván Ospina Salazar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the antifungal activity of methanolic extracts from neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., several bioassays were conducted following M38-A2 broth microdilution method on 14 isolates of the dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum. Neem extracts were obtained through methanol-hexane partitioning of mature green leaves and seed oil. Furthermore, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analyses were carried out to relate the chemical profile with their content of terpenoids, of widely known antifungal activity. The antimycotic Terbinafine served as a positive control. Results showed that there was total growth inhibition of the dermatophytes isolates at minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC between 50 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL for leaves extract, and between 625 μg/mL and 2500 μg/mL for seed oil extract. The MIC of positive control (Terbinafine ranged between 0.0019 μg/mL and 0.0313 μg/mL. Both neem leaves and seed oil methanol extracts exhibited different chromatographic profiles by HPLC, which could explain the differences observed in their antifungal activity. This analysis revealed the possible presence of terpenoids in both extracts, which are known to have biological activity. The results of this research are a new report on the therapeutic potential of neem to the control of dermatophytosis.  Actividad antifúngica de extractos de neem (Azadirachta indica: Meliaceae sobre hongos dermatofitos Se determinó la actividad antifúngica de extractos metanólicos de la especie Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae, conocida comúnmente como neem, empleando el método de microdilución en caldo M38-A2 de referencia para hongos filamentosos y dermatofitos. Se evaluaron 14 aislamientos de los dermatofitos Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis y Epidermophyton floccosum. Los extractos de neem fueron obtenidos mediante partici

  7. Antimicrobial activity screening of isolated flavonoids from Azadirachta indica leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QUDSIA KANWAL

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activities of two flavonoids, namely genistein 7-O-glucoside (1 and (–-epi-catechin (2, isolated from Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem leaves, were evaluated against five fungal species, viz: Alternaria alternata (Fr. Keissler, Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius, Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi Goid. and Penicillium citrii, and four bacterial species, viz. Lactobacillus sp., Escherichia coli, Azospirillium lipoferum and Bacillus sp. Six concentrations, viz. 100, 300, 500, 700, 900 and 1000 ppm of each of the two flavonoids were employed using malt extract agar medium. All the concentrations of both the test compounds significantly suppressed fungal as well as bacterial growth. The highest concentration (1000 ppm of both fractions 1 and 2 reduced the growth of the different test fungal species by 83–99 % and 82–95 %, respectively. Compound 1 was highly effective against Lactobacillus sp., against which its various concentrations reduced the bacterial growth by 52–99.8 %. Compound 2 was highly effective against A. lipoferum and Bacillus sp., resulting in 94–100 % and 73–99% reduction in bacterial growth, respectively.

  8. Azadirachtin biosynthesis induction in Azadirachta indica A. Juss cotyledonary calli with elicitor agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rodrigues

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of cell and plant tissues culture techniques to produce economically important active metabolites has been growing. Among these substances, azadirachtin (AZA, produced by the neem tree (Azadirachta indica, has received considerable attention due to its bioinsecticide action. The main goal of this work was to analyze the AZA levels in neem cotyledonary calli. The calli were grown in agitated Woody Plant Medium (WPM liquid medium, supplemented with glucose (Gl, hydrolyzed casein (HC and methyl jasmonate (MeJ as elicitor agent. An interaction was observed between these substances, depending on in vitro cultivation time with orbital agitation. The highest concentrations (average of 0.2470 µg g-1 of AZA were produced in the first and second weeks of culture when the cell mass was grown in a medium with 2% Gl v/v, 500 mg L-1 HC and 100 µM of MeJ. This corresponded to approximately 57% of the AZA content stored in the donor plants seeds, used as a source of explants to induce in vitro callus formation. It was concluded that the nutrition, as well as the concentration of MeJ as signal transduction of secondary metabolism in neem cells, might influence the AZA content produced in vitro.

  9. In vitro clonal propagation of the neem tree ( Azadirachta indica A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro clonal propagation of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) M Shahin-uz-zaman, M Ashrafuzzaman, MS Haque, LN Luna. Abstract. A study was conducted with root and shoot tip explants of neem to develop an efficient protocol of regeneration. Shoot tips and root tips from 10 - 20 days old seedlings of neem ...

  10. Effect of leaf extract of Azadirachta indica and plant ash on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seedlings of Vigna unguiculata L. Walp attacked by the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus were treated with water extracts of fresh leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss and plant ash separately. The extract was found to exhibit an insecticidal effect. It has an antifeedant and growth regulating effects on the pulse beetle.

  11. Effects of an aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica on the groCulex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The neem tree Azadirachta indica Juss (Meliaceae) is one of the most studied plant species for pest control, including mosquitoes. However, the effect of aqueous neem seed extracts (ANSE) on each of the 4 instars of mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) is unknown. In order to determine the effect of ...

  12. Insecticidal properties of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica): it’s for the birds!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    New Scientist (6 June 1985, p. 10) reported that Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), the Indian neem tree, would be a ’new’ wonder plant. Its medical properties have been known for ages to local people and western botanists (e.g. Garcia de Orta, 1567). In India about 14 million trees, typically planted

  13. Efficacité des extraits de neem ( Azadirachta indica ) et de papayer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacité des extraits de neem ( Azadirachta indica ) et de papayer ( Carica papaya ) dans ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... non traité, un témoin traité avec un insecticide homologué à base de cartap, six traitements ...

  14. Ageing increases the sensitivity of neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds to imbibitional stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neya, O.; Golovina, E.A.; Nijsse, J.; Hoekstra, F.A.

    2004-01-01

    Imbibitional stress was imposed on neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds by letting them soak for 1 h in water at unfavourable, low temperatures before further incubation at 30degreesC. Sensitivity to low imbibition temperatures increased with a decrease in seed moisture content (MC). To investigate a

  15. Is oxidative stress involved in the loss of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed viability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sacandé, M.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Aelst, van A.C.; Vos, de C.H.R.

    2000-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) is a valuable multipurpose tree of tropical arid and semi-arid regions. The use of its seeds is hindered by their short storage longevity. The possible causes of rapid loss of viability were investigated on different seed lots during exposure to 32% and 75% RH at 20°C.

  16. The extraction of proteins from the neem seed ( Indica azadirachta A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Techniques for maximizing the extraction of protein from the neem seed (Indica azadirachta A. Juss) were investigated. Extractants used were sodium chloride and sodium sulphate solutions of varying concentration and pH. Maximum extractions of 17.86 g of extractable protein was obtained from 1 kg of crude protein, using ...

  17. Biosorptive behavior of Mango (Mangifera indica) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) barks for Cs-134 from aqueous solutions: A radiotracer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Shuddhodan P.; Diwakar Tiwari; Prasad, S.K.; Dubey, R.S.; Manisha Mishra

    2005-01-01

    The role of dead biomasses in the removal of heavy metal toxic ions has received an increased attention due to their large abundance and low cost solids. In line with much interest we tried to employ such solids viz., Mango (Mangifera indica) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark samples in the removal of one of the important fission fragment viz., strontium and indeed these are found to be quite promishing for such studies. In addition to their good uptake behavior, these solids are also found to be fairly stable towards ionizing radiations. Here, an attempt has been made to study for the removal behavior of Mangifera indica and Azadirachta indica bark samples for 134 Cs. The barks of Mangifera indica and Azadirachta indica were obtained from the vast region of Banaras Hindu University campus. Bark samples were dried at room temperature and then crushed and washed repeatedly by double distilled water and again dried at room temperature. The sorption of Cs(I) on these bark samples were carried out as a function of sorptive concentration (1.0 x 10 -2 to 1.0 x 10 -8 mol dm -3 ) at constant temperature 298 K and pH∼6.0. Quantitatively, it was observed that the amount of Cs(I) adsorbed on these solids increased from 0.175 x 10 -9 to 0.051 x 10 -3 mol g -1 for Mangifera indica and from 0.310 x 10 -9 to 0.102 x 10 -3 mol g -1 for Azadirachta indica with the increase in sorptive concentration from 1.0 x 10 -8 to 1.0 x 10 -2 mol dm -3 . However, the percent sorption decreased from 17.5 to 5.1% for Magifera indica and from 31.0 to 10.2% for Azadirachta indica for the corresponding increase in sorptive concentration. This decrease in percent sorption is likely due to the lesser number of surface active sites, available for higher number of sorptive species. Further, the concentration dependence data were utilized for analysing the adsorption isotherm and it was found that these are fitted well for Freundlich adsorption isotherm to its linearized logarithmic form (Log a e

  18. Larvicidal activity of neem oil (Azadirachta indica formulation against mosquitoes

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    Dua Virendra K

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of botanical origin have been reported as useful for control of mosquitoes. Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae and its derived products have shown a variety of insecticidal properties. The present paper discusses the larvicidal activity of neem-based biopesticide for the control of mosquitoes. Methods Larvicidal efficacy of an emulsified concentrate of neem oil formulation (neem oil with polyoxyethylene ether, sorbitan dioleate and epichlorohydrin developed by BMR & Company, Pune, India, was evaluated against late 3rd and early 4th instar larvae of different genera of mosquitoes. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations (0.5–5.0 ppm of the formulation along with untreated control. Larvicidal activity of the formulation was also evaluated in field against Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes mosquitoes. The formulation was diluted with equal volumes of water and applied @ 140 mg a.i./m2 to different mosquito breeding sites with the help of pre calibrated knapsack sprayer. Larval density was determined at pre and post application of the formulation using a standard dipper. Results Median lethal concentration (LC50 of the formulation against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was found to be 1.6, 1.8 and 1.7 ppm respectively. LC50 values of the formulation stored at 26°C, 40°C and 45°C for 48 hours against Ae. aegypti were 1.7, 1.7, 1.8 ppm while LC90 values were 3.7, 3.7 and 3.8 ppm respectively. Further no significant difference in LC50 and LC90 values of the formulation was observed against Ae. aegypti during 18 months storage period at room temperature. An application of the formulation at the rate of 140 mg a.i./m2 in different breeding

  19. Antibacterial Activity of Azadirachta indica, Pongamia pinnata, Psidium guajava, and Mangifera indica and their mechanism of action against Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodiba, Dikonketso Cathrine; Prasad, Preety; Srivastava, Ajay; Crampton, Brigdet; Lall, Namrita Sharan

    2018-01-01

    Curative plants have reportedly been used to make chewing sticks/toothbrushes intended for the treatment of oral diseases. The in vitro antibacterial activities of Azadirachta indica , Pongamia pinnata , Psidium guajava , and Mangifera indica were evaluated against Streptococcus mutans , along with the cytotoxicity and antioxidant and synergistic potentials. The effect of M. indica on the expression of crucial virulence genes spaP and gtfB of S. mutans was determined. The antibacterial activity was determined using a modified microdilution method. The antioxidant potential was evaluated using diphenyl picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Griess reagent, and nitroblue tetrazolium calorimetric assays. The synergistic activity was investigated using a modified checkerboard method, while the cytotoxicity was determined according to a cell proliferation 2,3-Bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide salt assay. Reverse transcription was the chosen method for determining the difference in expression of the spaP and gtfB genes after treatment with the plant sample. M. indica and A. indica had the highest antibacterial activity at concentrations of 0.3 mg/ml and 6.25 mg/ml, respectively. A. indica had the best free radical scavenging of DPPH, exhibiting 50% inhibition at 28.72 μg/ml; while M. indica showed better superoxide scavenging potential than the positive control quercetin. Both M. indica and A. indica had adequate activity against the nitric oxide-free radical (12.87 and 18.89 μg/ml, respectively). M. indica selectively reduced the expression of the gtfB gene, indicating a mechanism involving Glucotranferases, specifically targeting bacterial attachment. Mangifera indica and Azadirachta indica had very good antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and moderate toxicity against Vero cells M. indica had the best antioxidant capacity overall M. indica reduced the expression of gtfB gene at 0.5 mg/ml. Abbreviations used : AA: Ascorbic acid; BHI

  20. THE USE OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA EXTRACT TO DECREASE OF ALTERNARIA PORRI DISEASE ON ONION

    OpenAIRE

    Loso Winarto; Novia Chairuman

    2013-01-01

    Purple spot caused by Alternaria porri a major disease in the onion crop in the world. The disease is also widespread in the onion crop in Indonesia. This research aim was to know the effect of mimba leaf (Azadirachta indica) extract concentration to decrease of Alternaria porri on onion (Allium ascalonicum L).This research conducted at Research Garden of the Center of Agricultural Technology Assessment of North Sumatra Province, from October 2010 until January 2011.The researc...

  1. Biological Control of Anthracnose Disease of Tomato Using Ethanolic Extracts of Azadirachta Indica and Nicotiana Tabacum

    OpenAIRE

    Opeyemi, Bankole Samuel; Temidayo, Bankole Ruth; Babalola, Yetunde Oyinkansade; Emmanuel, Ilerioluwa Busayo; Ojubolamo, Motunrayo Temitope; Folake, Awotedu Bolakale

    2018-01-01

    Tomato is a commercially important vegetable throughout the whole world and its availability all the year is grossly affected by anthracnose disease, hence, the need for an effective bio-control that is affordable and user friendly. This study therefore investigated the inhibitory effect of ethanol extracts of Azadirachta indica and Tabacum nicotianaon the mycelium growth of fungi associated with anthracnose disease of tomato. Tomatoes that showed black circular lesions with concentric ring a...

  2. Study on the acaricidal effects of Azadirachta indica and Phytolacca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ta indica (neem) and Phytolacca dodecandra (locally known endod in Ethiopia) on. Amblyomma ... Even though, the use of acaricdes is still the basic procedure for controlling most ticks and ecto- ..... The insecticidal and acaricidal action of.

  3. Strengthening of antioxidant defense by Azadirachta indica in alloxan-diabetic rat tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta Shailey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Azadirachta indica has been reported to correct altered glycaemia in diabetes. Objective: The aqueous extract of A. indica leaf and bark has been evaluated for its effect on antioxidant status of alloxan diabetic rats and compared with insulin treatment. Materials and Methods: The oral effective dose of A. indica leaf (500 mg/kg body weight and A. indica bark (100 mg/kg body weight were given once daily for 21 days to separate groups of diabetic rats. At the end of the experimental period blood glucose level and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GR, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD, and membrane lipid peroxidation were determined in different fractions of liver and kidney tissues. Results: Diabetic rats showed high blood glucose (P<0.01, increased level of malondialdehyde (P<0.05 and a significant decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Treatment with insulin, A. indica leaf extract (AILE, and A. indica bark extract (AIBE restored the above altered parameters close to the control ones. Conclusions: Both AILE and AIBE were found significantly effective in reducing hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress. The findings suggest further investigations for the possible use of A. indica as alternative medicine to prevent long-term complications of diabetes.

  4. Physical and strength properties of Azadirachta indica , (a. Juss ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 160 test samples were used from three trees randomly selected from the study area. Preparations of test samples, actual testing and determination of different properties were carried out following standard methods. All strength property values were adjusted to 12% moisture content. Results showed A. indica to ...

  5. Neem ( Azadirachta indica a. juss) seedling growth as influenced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF), specifically, Glomus moseae and cow dung on the growth of Neem (Azadiracchta indica, A. Juss) seedlings was investigated at the forestry quarters, Lagos Street, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. The study included three treatments: the cow dung, mycorrhizal treatments ...

  6. Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Neem, margosa. Meliaceae. Mahogany family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Parrotta; A. N. Chaturvedi

    1994-01-01

    AzadirachJa indica A. Juss., commonly known as neem in English and Hindi and margosa and paraiso de India in Spanish, is a medium-sized to large tree characterized by its short, straight bole, furrowed, dark-brown to gray bark. and dense, rounded crown of pinnate leaves. Native to south Asia, neem is widely planted and naturalized in semiarid areas throughout Asia and...

  7. Atividade de extrato aquoso de folhas de nim (Azadirachta indica sobre Spodoptera frugiperda Activity of neem tree (Azadirachta indica leaves aqueous extract on Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Teixeira Prates

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A lagarta-do-cartucho do milho (Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith tem sido controlada com inseticidas sintéticos. Uma das caracteristicas do nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss é sua atividade inseticida contra pragas, como sucedâneo aos sintéticos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade inseticida do extrato aquoso das folhas do nim sobre a lagarta-do-cartucho do milho, em laboratório. Bioensaios com diferentes concentrações de extrato em dieta artificial, tendo o inseticida chlorpyrifos como testemunha, revelaram, 15 dias após infestação com larvas, eficiência equivalente entre as concen- trações 3,60 a 10,00 mg mL-1. A análise de Probit mostrou CL50 = 2,67 mg mL-1; o extrato aquoso das folhas de nim apresenta, portanto, efeito inseticida sobre a lagarta-do-cartucho do milho.The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith has been controlled with synthetic insecticides bringing risk to the environment. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss is reported to be a natural alternative to synthetic insecticides against many insect species. The objective of this work was to evaluate the activity of neem leaves aqueous extract on fall armyworm, in laboratory. Bioassays carried out using artificial feed with various extract concentrations, and chlorpyrifos as control, indicated, 15 days after larvae infestation, similar efficiency in concentrations from 3.60 to 10.00 mg mL-1. Probit analysis showed LC50 = 2.67 mg mL-1. Hence, aqueous extract from neem leaves are active against fall armyworm.

  8. A draft of the genome and four transcriptomes of a medicinal and pesticidal angiosperm Azadirachta indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Neeraja M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Azadirachta indica (neem tree is a source of a wide number of natural products, including the potent biopesticide azadirachtin. In spite of its widespread applications in agriculture and medicine, the molecular aspects of the biosynthesis of neem terpenoids remain largely unexplored. The current report describes the draft genome and four transcriptomes of A. indica and attempts to contextualise the sequence information in terms of its molecular phylogeny, transcript expression and terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. A. indica is the first member of the family Meliaceae to be sequenced using next generation sequencing approach. Results The genome and transcriptomes of A. indica were sequenced using multiple sequencing platforms and libraries. The A. indica genome is AT-rich, bears few repetitive DNA elements and comprises about 20,000 genes. The molecular phylogenetic analyses grouped A. indica together with Citrus sinensis from the Rutaceae family validating its conventional taxonomic classification. Comparative transcript expression analysis showed either exclusive or enhanced expression of known genes involved in neem terpenoid biosynthesis pathways compared to other sequenced angiosperms. Genome and transcriptome analyses in A. indica led to the identification of repeat elements, nucleotide composition and expression profiles of genes in various organs. Conclusions This study on A. indica genome and transcriptomes will provide a model for characterization of metabolic pathways involved in synthesis of bioactive compounds, comparative evolutionary studies among various Meliaceae family members and help annotate their genomes. A better understanding of molecular pathways involved in the azadirachtin synthesis in A. indica will pave ways for bulk production of environment friendly biopesticides.

  9. A draft of the genome and four transcriptomes of a medicinal and pesticidal angiosperm Azadirachta indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The Azadirachta indica (neem) tree is a source of a wide number of natural products, including the potent biopesticide azadirachtin. In spite of its widespread applications in agriculture and medicine, the molecular aspects of the biosynthesis of neem terpenoids remain largely unexplored. The current report describes the draft genome and four transcriptomes of A. indica and attempts to contextualise the sequence information in terms of its molecular phylogeny, transcript expression and terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. A. indica is the first member of the family Meliaceae to be sequenced using next generation sequencing approach. Results The genome and transcriptomes of A. indica were sequenced using multiple sequencing platforms and libraries. The A. indica genome is AT-rich, bears few repetitive DNA elements and comprises about 20,000 genes. The molecular phylogenetic analyses grouped A. indica together with Citrus sinensis from the Rutaceae family validating its conventional taxonomic classification. Comparative transcript expression analysis showed either exclusive or enhanced expression of known genes involved in neem terpenoid biosynthesis pathways compared to other sequenced angiosperms. Genome and transcriptome analyses in A. indica led to the identification of repeat elements, nucleotide composition and expression profiles of genes in various organs. Conclusions This study on A. indica genome and transcriptomes will provide a model for characterization of metabolic pathways involved in synthesis of bioactive compounds, comparative evolutionary studies among various Meliaceae family members and help annotate their genomes. A better understanding of molecular pathways involved in the azadirachtin synthesis in A. indica will pave ways for bulk production of environment friendly biopesticides. PMID:22958331

  10. Review Of Usability Of Azadirachta Indica As A Biopesticide For Better Organic Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasant Rambhau Damal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Azadirachta Indica Neem has some sort of well-developed root system that may well extract nutrients with lower soil levels which makes a crucial agent with erosion Control because it can be virtually drought-resistant. As these it can be effective as some sort of dune fixation tree. Indian farmers use Neem cake as a natural manure together with soil amendment the idea expands the productivity of nitrogen fertilizers just by limiting the charge of nitrification together with hampering pests these as nematodes fungi together with insects. This paper provides the brief assessment of literature to know the biopesticide benefits together with functions of Neem.

  11. Vegetative fallows and potential value of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) in the tropics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radwanski, S.A.; Wickens, G.E.

    1981-01-01

    Research into the systems of agriculture based on vegetative fallows should begin from enquiries into the shrubs and trees most efficient in restoring soil productivity and providing essential products. Azadirachta indica, of the semiarid regions is an outstanding example of a species which is not only an efficient soil ameliorant, but also provides products that are highly competitive in price and quality with petroleum-based synthetics. The launching of a research and development programme leading to the exploitation of this tree is proposed. Several projects that could be studied in such a programme are briefly outlined.

  12. Activity of neem tree (Azadirachta indica) leaves aqueous extract on Spodoptera frugiperda

    OpenAIRE

    Prates, Hélio Teixeira; Viana, Paulo Afonso; Waquil, José Magid

    2003-01-01

    A lagarta-do-cartucho do milho (Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith)) tem sido controlada com inseticidas sintéticos. Uma das caracteristicas do nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) é sua atividade inseticida contra pragas, como sucedâneo aos sintéticos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade inseticida do extrato aquoso das folhas do nim sobre a lagarta-do-cartucho do milho, em laboratório. Bioensaios com diferentes concentrações de extrato em dieta artificial, tendo o inseticida chlor...

  13. Transmission blocking effects of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel limonoids on Plasmodium berghei early sporogonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapanelli, Sofia; Chianese, Giuseppina; Lucantoni, Leonardo; Yerbanga, Rakiswendé Serge; Habluetzel, Annette; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio

    2016-10-01

    Azadirachta indica, known as neem tree and traditionally called "nature's drug store" makes part of several African pharmacopeias and is widely used for the preparation of homemade remedies and commercial preparations against various illnesses, including malaria. Employing a bio-guided fractionation approach, molecules obtained from A. indica ripe and green fruit kernels were tested for activity against early sporogonic stages of Plasmodium berghei, the parasite stages that develop in the mosquito mid gut after an infective blood meal. The limonoid deacetylnimbin (3) was identified as one the most active compounds of the extract, with a considerably higher activity compared to that of the close analogue nimbin (2). Pure deacetylnimbin (3) appeared to interfere with transmissible Plasmodium stages at a similar potency as azadirachtin A. Considering its higher thermal and chemical stability, deacetylnimbin could represent a suitable alternative to azadirachtin A for the preparation of transmission blocking antimalarials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. THE USE OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA EXTRACT TO DECREASE OF ALTERNARIA PORRI DISEASE ON ONION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loso Winarto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purple spot caused by Alternaria porri a major disease in the onion crop in the world. The disease is also widespread in the onion crop in Indonesia. This research aim was to know the effect of mimba leaf (Azadirachta indica extract concentration to decrease of Alternaria porri on onion (Allium ascalonicum L.This research conducted at Research Garden of the Center of Agricultural Technology Assessment of North Sumatra Province, from October 2010 until January 2011.The research used non factorial Block Randomized Design (BRD and four replications.The treatment consisted of six levels of Azadirachta indica which is dissolved in one litre of water each treatment. The number of replication are four each treatment. Treatment applied were 0 g plot-1 (control; 100 g plot-1; ; 150 g plot-1 ; 200 g plot-1 ; 250 g plot-1 ; 300 g plot-1 . The results showed that mimba leaf extract significantly affect the intensity of the purple spot disease and onion production.

  15. Behavioural responses of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2005-01-01

    The impact of three different doses of botanical insecticide derived from the syringa tree, Melia azedarach and the neem tree, Azadirachta indica was tested on the behaviour of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus). Both botanical insecticides had a significant impact on larval

  16. Field evaluation of the efficacy of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. in cotton production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.; Haagsma, R.; Zannou, E.; Gbehounou, G.; Déguénon, J.M.; Vodouhe, S.; Kossou, D.; Huis, van A.

    2015-01-01

    Neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) alone and combined with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (isolate Bb11) was applied to control cotton pests. The efficacy of these treatments was compared with that of synthetic insecticides applied either in a calendar-based

  17. In vitro azadirachtin production by hairy root cultivation of Azadirachta indica in nutrient mist bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Smita; Srivastava, A K

    2012-01-01

    Azadirachtin, a well-known biopesticide is a secondary metabolite conventionally extracted from the seeds of Azadirachta indica. The present study involved in vitro azadirachtin production by developing hairy roots of A. indica via Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of A. indica explants. Liquid culture of hairy roots was established in shake flask to study the kinetics of growth and azadirachtin production. A biomass production of 13.3 g/L dry weight (specific growth rate of 0.7 day(-1)) was obtained after 25 days of cultivation period with an azadirachtin yield of 3.3 mg/g root biomass. To overcome the mass transfer limitation in conventionally used liquid-phase reactors, batch cultivation of hairy roots was carried out in gas-phase reactors (nutrient spray and nutrient mist bioreactor) to investigate the possible scale-up of A. indica hairy root culture. The nano-size nutrient mist particles generated from the nozzle of the nutrient mist bioreactor could penetrate till the inner core of the inoculated root matrix, facilitating uniform growth during high-density cultivation of hairy roots. A biomass production of 9.8 g/L dry weight with azadirachtin accumulation of 2.8 mg/g biomass (27.4 mg/L) could be achieved in 25 days of batch cultivation period, which was equivalent to a volumetric productivity of 1.09 mg/L per day of azadirachtin.

  18. Biosorptive behavior of mango (Mangifera indica) and neem (Azadirachta indica) barks for 134Cs from aqueous solutions. A radiotracer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, S.P.; Tiwari, D.; Prasad, S.K.; Dubey, R.S.; Mishra, M.

    2007-01-01

    The role of dead biomasses viz., mango (Mangifera indica) and neem (Azadirachta indica) bark samples are assessed in the removal behavior of, one of important fission fragments, Cs(I) from aqueous solutions employing a radiotracer technique. The batch type studies were carried out to obtain various physico-chemical data. It is to be noted that the increase in sorptive concentration (from 1.0 x 10 -8 to 1.0 x 10 -2 mol x dm -3 ), temperature (from 298 to 328 K) and pH (2.6 to 10.3) apparently favor the uptake of Cs(I) by these two bark samples. The concentration dependence data obeyed Freundlich adsorption isotherm and the uptake follows first order rate law. Thermodynamic data evaluation and desorption experiments reveal the adsorption to be irreversible and endothermic in nature proceeding through ion-exchange and surface complexation for both dead biomasses. Both bark samples showed a fairly good radiation stability in respect of adsorption uptake of Cs(I) when irradiated with a 300 mCi (Ra- Be) neutron source having an integral neutron flux of ∼ 3.85 x 10 6 n x cm -2 x s -1 and associated with a nominal γ-dose of ∼ 1.72 Gy x h -1 . (author)

  19. Colour and spreadability of Neem (Azadirachta Indica A. juss) ointment and cream formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawiyyah, Azierah; Shamsul Anuar, Mohd

    2018-04-01

    Herbal plants are a major source of raw material for traditional medicines. Recently there has been an increase of interest to study the therapeutic potential of herbal plants as herbal care products. In this study, a preliminary study on the formulation of neem (Azadirachta Indica) ointment and cream have been conducted. The neem leaves were extracted and formulated into ointment and cream. The raw neem extract is added into the ointment and cream bases at four different concentrations (0% w/w, 0.5% w/w, 1% w/w and 2% w/w) and stored at three different storage temperatures (4°C, 25°C and 45°C). The semambu ointment and cream formulated were evaluated in terms of their colour and spreadability. It has been found that the extract content and storage temperature influence the colour and spreadability of the formulated neem ointment and cream.

  20. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Azadirachta indica leaf extract and its antimicrobial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Pragyan; Das, Bhagyalaxmi; Mohanty, Abhipsa; Mohapatra, Sujata

    2017-11-01

    In this study, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles was done using leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica. The flavonoids and terpenoids present in the extract act as both reducing and capping agent. Microbes ( Escherichia coli and Gram-positive bacteria) were isolated from borewell water using selective media. The silver nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria and E. coli. However the silver nanoparticles were more effective against E. coli as compared to Gram-positive bacteria. Various techniques were used to characterize synthesized silver nanoparticles such as DLS and UV-visible spectrophotometer. The absorbance peak was in the range of 420-450 nm, that varied depending upon the variation in the concentration of neem extract. This is a very rapid and cost-effective method for generation of silver nanoparticle at room temperature, however, its exact dose in water purification has to be determined.

  1. Photooxidation of nimbin and salannin, tetranortriterpenoids from the neem tree (Azadirachta indica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, A.P.; Johnson, S.; Morgan, E.D.; Simmonds, M.S.J.; Blaney, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    Nimbin and salannin, major triterpenoids accompanying azadirachtin in extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds, were photooxidized by UV light in the presence of oxygen to more polar, unstable intermediates that rearranged on silica gel to two final products in which the furan ring had been oxidized to isomeric hydroxybutenolides. The isomeric hydroxybutenolides were also readily formed when a crude extract of triterpenoids from neem seeds was irradiated, and both isomers of salannin have been isolated from seeds. Photooxidation of nimbin and salannin proceeded much faster than that of azadirachtin. All photoproducts showed some biological activity against Spodoptera littoralis, Locusta migratoria, and Schistocerca gregaria. Isonimbinolide was as potent as azadirachtin at inhibiting feeding in all three species, and it also inhibited the growth of S. littoralis. Isosalanninolide showed potent antifeedant and growth inhibitory activity against S. littoralis

  2. An endophytic fungus from Azadirachta indica A. Juss. that produces azadirachtin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusari, Souvik; Verma, Vijay C; Lamshoeft, Marc; Spiteller, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Azadirachtin A and its structural analogues are a well-known class of natural insecticides having antifeedant and insect growth-regulating properties. These compounds are exclusive to the neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, from where they are currently sourced. Here we report for the first time, the isolation and characterization of a novel endophytic fungus from A. indica, which produces azadirachtin A and B in rich mycological medium (Sabouraud dextrose broth), under shake-flask fermentation conditions. The fungus was identified as Eupenicillium parvum by ITS analysis (ITS1 and ITS2 regions and the intervening 5.8S rDNA region). Azadirachtin A and B were identified and quantified by LC-HRMS and LC-HRMS(2), and by comparison with the authentic reference standards. The biosynthesis of azadirachtin A and B by the cultured endophyte, which is also produced by the host neem plant, provides an exciting platform for further scientific exploration within both the ecological and biochemical contexts.

  3. Anthelmintic potential of Calotropis procera, Azadirachta indica and Punica granatum against Gastrothylax indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Rama; Kaur, Kiranjeet; Suri, Mansi; Bagai, Upma

    2016-12-01

    Anthelmintic activity of both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Calotropis procera flowers, Azadirachta indica leaves and Punica granatum fruit peel in comparison with albendazole was evaluated through in vitro studies by the worm motility inhibition assay. Significant anthelmintic effects (p granatum ethanolic and aqueous extracts respectively, whereas it was 29.23 μg/ml ± 4.51 for albendazole. The mean mortality index (MI) was 1.0 and 0.90 for C. procera , 0.90 for A. indica and 0.73 and 0.80 for P. granatum ethanolic and aqueous extracts respectively whereas for albendazole it was 1.0. Percent mean worm motility inhibition (%WMI) was observed to be between 70 and 100 % for different extracts.Various concentrations (5-5000 μg/ml) of all the plant extracts and albendazole were used to detect their cytotoxic effects against HeLa cell line to determine CC-50 by MTT assay. CC-50 values, of all the plant extracts were determined to be >1000 μg/ml and for albendazole it was found to be >10 μM. All the three plants can be potential sources for novel anthelmintics.

  4. Azadirachtin production by hairy root cultivation of Azadirachta indica in a modified stirred tank reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Smita; Srivastava, A K

    2012-11-01

    Present investigation involves hairy root cultivation of Azadirachta indica in a modified stirred tank reactor under optimized culture conditions for maximum volumetric productivity of azadirachtin. The selected hairy root line (Az-35) was induced via Agrobacterium rhizogenes LBA 920-mediated transformation of A. indica leaf explants (Coimbatore variety, India). Liquid culture of the hairy roots was developed in a modified Murashige and Skoog medium (MM2). To further enhance the productivity of azadirachtin, selected growth regulators (1.0 mg/l IAA and 0.025 mg/l GA(3)), permeabilizing agent (0.5 % v/v DNBP), a biotic elicitor (1 % v/v Curvularia (culture filtrate)) and an indirectly linked biosynthetic precursor (50 mg/l cholesterol) were added in the growth medium on 15th day of the hairy root cultivation period in shake flask. Highest azadirachtin production (113 mg/l) was obtained on 25th day of the growth cycle with a biomass of 21 g/l DW. Further, batch cultivation of hairy roots was carried out in a novel liquid-phase bioreactor configuration (modified stirred tank reactor with polyurethane foam as root support) to investigate the possible scale-up of the established A. indica hairy root culture. A biomass production of 15.2 g/l with azadirachtin accumulation in the hairy roots of 6.4 mg/g (97.28 mg/l) could be achieved after 25 days of the batch cultivation period, which was ~27 and ~14 % less biomass and azadirachtin concentration obtained respectively, in shake flasks. An overall volumetric productivity of 3.89 mg/(l day) of azadirachtin was obtained in the bioreactor.

  5. The effectiveness of mimba oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss spray disinfectant on alginate impression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanoem EH

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alginate impression contaminated by saliva and blood could potentially cause cross contamination. To prevent this, the impression has to be disinfected by disinfectant liquid, such as mimba oil. Mimba oil (Azadirachta indica A.Juss has some chemical content, such as azadirachtin, which is a phenol group used as antibacterial and antimalaria, nimbolide used as antibacterial and antimalarial, and nimbidin used as antibacterial and antifungal. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to find out the most effective concentration of mimba oil as disinfectant to decrease microorganism colony on alginate impression. Methods: Thirty six samples were taken from 9 respondents. This alginate impression was divided into 4 groups: group 1 sprayed with sterile aquadest (as control group, group 2 sprayed with mimba oil 50% for 30 seconds, group 3 sprayed with mimba oil 75% for 30 seconds, group 4 sprayed with mimba oil 100% for 30 seconds. The microorganism colony was counted by colony counter. The sample data then were analyzed with Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and was tested with Kruskal Wallis test and Mann Whitney test for further analysis. Results: There was significant difference among each group, p = 0.01 (p < 0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, usage of 50% concentration of mimba oil as disinfectant is effective to decrease microorganism colony on alginate impression.Latar belakang: Cetakan alginat yang terkontaminasi saliva dan darah dapat berpotensi terjadinya infeksi silang. Untuk mencegah hal tersebut, cetakan didisinfeksi dengan bahan disinfektan cair seperti minyak mimba. Minyak mimba (Azadirachta indica A.Juss memiliki beberapa kandungan kimia, antara lain Azadirachtin yang merupakan kelompok fenol yang memmiliki efek antibakteri dan antimalaria, nimbolide memiliki efek antibakteri dan antimalaria sedangkan nimbidin memiliki efek antibakteri dan antijamur. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan konsentrasi yang paling

  6. Process variables in biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, A. [VIT University, School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering (India); Raichur, Ashok M. [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Materials Engineering (India); Chandrasekaran, N.; Prathna, T. C.; Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amit.mookerjea@gmail.co [VIT University, School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering (India)

    2010-01-15

    Owing to widespread applications, synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles is recently attracting considerable attention. Increasing environmental concerns over chemical synthesis routes have resulted in attempts to develop biomimetic approaches. One of them is synthesis using plant parts, which eliminates the elaborate process of maintaining the microbial culture and often found to be kinetically favourable than other bioprocesses. The present study deals with investigating the effect of process variables like reductant concentrations, reaction pH, mixing ratio of the reactants and interaction time on the morphology and size of silver nanoparticles synthesized using aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves. The formation of crystalline silver nanoparticles was confirmed using X-ray diffraction analysis. By means of UV spectroscopy, Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy techniques, it was observed that the morphology and size of the nanoparticles were strongly dependent on the process parameters. Within 4 h interaction period, nanoparticles below 20-nm-size with nearly spherical shape were produced. On increasing interaction time (ageing) to 66 days, both aggregation and shape anisotropy (ellipsoidal, polyhedral and capsular) of the particles increased. In alkaline pH range, the stability of cluster distribution increased with a declined tendency for aggregation of the particles. It can be inferred from the study that fine tuning the bioprocess parameters will enhance possibilities of desired nano-product tailor made for particular applications.

  7. Azadirachta indica leaf powder as a biosorbent for Ni(II) in aqueous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Krishna G., E-mail: krishna2604@sify.com [Department of Chemistry, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam (India); Sarma, Jyotirekha [Department of Chemistry, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam (India); Sarma, Arunima [Department of Chemistry, Morigaon College, Morigaon 782105, Assam (India)

    2009-06-15

    Azadirachta indica leaves are converted to a fine powder for use as a biosorbent for the removal of metal ions in aqueous solution. In this work, the adsorptive interactions between Ni(II) and the powder were studied under a variety of conditions involving variations in pH, Ni(II) concentration, biosorbent amount, interaction time and temperature, all in single batch processes. The experimental data have been interpreted on the basis of existing mathematical models of equilibrium kinetics and thermodynamics. The biosorption of Ni(II) increased in the pH range of 2.0-5.0 with {approx}92.6% adsorption at pH 5.0 for the highest amount of the biosorbent (4 g/L). The biosorption followed second-order kinetics and intra-particle diffusion was likely to have significant influence in controlling the process. The Langmuir monolayer adsorption capacity varied from 2.4 to 9.1 mg/g and the equilibrium coefficient from 1.09 to 2.78 L/g with strong indication that the Ni(II) ions were held on the biosorbent surface by formation of an adsorption complex. The thermodynamic parameters showed the process to be exothermic in nature supported by appropriate ranges of values of enthalpy change, entropy change and Gibbs energy change.

  8. Progress on Azadirachta indica Based Biopesticides in Replacing Synthetic Toxic Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Suman; Kanwar, Rupinder K; Sehgal, Alka; Cahill, David M; Barrow, Colin J; Sehgal, Rakesh; Kanwar, Jagat R

    2017-01-01

    Over the years, extensive use of commercially available synthetic pesticides against phytophagous insects has led to their bioaccumulation in the environment causing increased resistance and reduction in soil biodiversity. Further, 90% of the applied pesticides enter the various environmental resources as a result of run-off, exposing the farmers as well as consumers of the agricultural produce to severe health issues. Therefore, growing attention has been given toward the development of alternate environmentally friendly pesticides/insecticides that would aid an efficient pest management system and also prevent chronic exposures leading to diseases. One such strategy is, the use of neem plant's (Binomial name: Azadirachta indica ) active ingredients which exhibit agro-medicinal properties conferring insecticidal as well as immunomodulatory and anti-cancer properties. The most prominent constituent of neem is azadirachtin, which has been established as a pivotal insecticidal ingredient. It acts as an antifeedant, repellent, and repugnant agent and induces sterility in insects by preventing oviposition and interrupting sperm production in males. This review discusses, key neem pesticidal components, their active functional ingredients along with recent strategies on employing nanocarriers, to provide controlled release of the active ingredients and to improve their stability and sustainability.

  9. Neem (Azadirachta indica a. Juss) components: candidates for the control of Crinipellis perniciosa and Phytophthora ssp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende Ramos, Alessandra; Lüdke Falcão, Loeni; Salviano Barbosa, Guilherme; Helena Marcellino, Lucilia; Silvano Gander, Eugen

    2007-01-01

    Witches' broom and pod rot are the two most devastating diseases of cocoa in South America and Africa, respectively. Their control by means of phytosanitation and chemical fungicides is labor-intensive, costly and, in many cases, environmentally undesirable. Therefore efforts are made in order to identify alternative, environmentally safe and cost-efficient methods for the control of these pathogens. Promising candidates are components of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica), that have been used for centuries in Asia as insecticides, fungicides, anticonceptionals in popular medicine. Here we report about tests on the effect of various concentrations of extracts from neem leaves on growth of mycelia of Crinipellis and Phytophthora and on germination of spores of Crinipellis. We show a 35% growth reduction of mycelia of Phytophthora on neem leaf extract media, whereas growth of mycelia of Crinipellis was not affected, even at the highest concentration of neem leaf extracts used (35%). However, the most dramatic effect of neem leaf extracts is observed on Crinipellis spore germination, here the extracts (20-35%) reduced germination almost completely. Based on these results, we believe that the neem tree might be a source for the production, on small and medium scale, of an effective and cheap formulation for the control of Crinipellis and Phytophthora.

  10. Efecto insecticida del extracto de semillas de Neem (Azadirachta indica sobre Collaria scenica, Stal (Hemiptera: Miridae

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    Daniel Villamil Montero

    2012-07-01

    Abstract. This work was developed with the objetive to evaluate the insecticidal effect of the Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss seeds against grass bug nymphs Collaria scenica Stal. For that, an extract was prepared from green fruits of Neem by rotaevaporación. The extract was diluted in three ppm concentrations corresponding to treatments. Using thin-layer chromatography we identified the presence of Azaridactina. DCA essay was carried out with 4 treatments and 5 repetitions that included the three extract concentrations and a control. In each repetition were used 15 nymphs, randomly placed in plastic boxes with food and the corresponding concentration. Every day an extract application was made and recorded mortality percentage, number of exuviae and number of individuals who came to adulthood in each treatment. The results were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Games-Howell for each variable. The three concentrations of Neem seed extract had a negative effect on the development of the bugs. The more concentrated treatment (250 ppm was the most effective, showing a 97% mortality, fewer exuvias and and fewer adults in the end of the experiment.

  11. Effect of elicitors and precursors on azadirachtin production in hairy root culture of Azadirachta indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Smita; Srivastava, A K

    2014-02-01

    The present study involved strategies for enhancement in in vitro azadirachtin (commercially used biopesticide) production by hairy root cultivation of Azadirachta indica. Improvement in the azadirachtin production via triggering its biosynthetic pathway in plant cells was carried out by the exogenous addition of precursors and elicitors in the growth medium. Among the different abiotic stress inducers (Ag(+), Hg(+2), Co(+2), Cu(+2)) and signal molecules (methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid) tested, salicylic acid at 15 mg l(-1) of concentration was found to enhance the azadirachtin yield in the hairy roots to the maximum (up to 4.95 mg g(-1)). Similarly, among the different biotic elicitors tested (filter-sterilized fungal culture filtrates of Phoma herbarium, Alternaria alternata, Myrothecium sp., Fusarium solani, Curvularia lunata, and Sclerotium rolfsii; yeast extract; and yeast extract carbohydrate fraction), addition of filter-sterilized fungal culture filtrate of C. lunata (1 % v/v) resulted in maximum azadirachtin yield enhancement in hairy root biomass (up to 7.1 mg g(-1)) with respect to the control (3.3 mg g(-1)). Among all the biosynthetic precursors studied (sodium acetate, cholesterol, squalene, isopentynyl pyrophosphate, mavalonic acid lactone, and geranyl pyrophosphate), the overall azadirachtin production (70.42 mg l(-1) in 25 days) was found to be the highest with cholesterol (50 mg l(-1)) addition as an indirect precursor in the medium.

  12. Progress on Azadirachta indica Based Biopesticides in Replacing Synthetic Toxic Pesticides

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    Suman Chaudhary

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, extensive use of commercially available synthetic pesticides against phytophagous insects has led to their bioaccumulation in the environment causing increased resistance and reduction in soil biodiversity. Further, 90% of the applied pesticides enter the various environmental resources as a result of run-off, exposing the farmers as well as consumers of the agricultural produce to severe health issues. Therefore, growing attention has been given toward the development of alternate environmentally friendly pesticides/insecticides that would aid an efficient pest management system and also prevent chronic exposures leading to diseases. One such strategy is, the use of neem plant's (Binomial name: Azadirachta indica active ingredients which exhibit agro-medicinal properties conferring insecticidal as well as immunomodulatory and anti-cancer properties. The most prominent constituent of neem is azadirachtin, which has been established as a pivotal insecticidal ingredient. It acts as an antifeedant, repellent, and repugnant agent and induces sterility in insects by preventing oviposition and interrupting sperm production in males. This review discusses, key neem pesticidal components, their active functional ingredients along with recent strategies on employing nanocarriers, to provide controlled release of the active ingredients and to improve their stability and sustainability.

  13. Progress on Azadirachta indica Based Biopesticides in Replacing Synthetic Toxic Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Suman; Kanwar, Rupinder K.; Sehgal, Alka; Cahill, David M.; Barrow, Colin J.; Sehgal, Rakesh; Kanwar, Jagat R.

    2017-01-01

    Over the years, extensive use of commercially available synthetic pesticides against phytophagous insects has led to their bioaccumulation in the environment causing increased resistance and reduction in soil biodiversity. Further, 90% of the applied pesticides enter the various environmental resources as a result of run-off, exposing the farmers as well as consumers of the agricultural produce to severe health issues. Therefore, growing attention has been given toward the development of alternate environmentally friendly pesticides/insecticides that would aid an efficient pest management system and also prevent chronic exposures leading to diseases. One such strategy is, the use of neem plant's (Binomial name: Azadirachta indica) active ingredients which exhibit agro-medicinal properties conferring insecticidal as well as immunomodulatory and anti-cancer properties. The most prominent constituent of neem is azadirachtin, which has been established as a pivotal insecticidal ingredient. It acts as an antifeedant, repellent, and repugnant agent and induces sterility in insects by preventing oviposition and interrupting sperm production in males. This review discusses, key neem pesticidal components, their active functional ingredients along with recent strategies on employing nanocarriers, to provide controlled release of the active ingredients and to improve their stability and sustainability. PMID:28533783

  14. Larvicidal effects of a neem (Azadirachta indica oil formulation on the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

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    Knols Bart GJ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Larviciding is a key strategy used in many vector control programmes around the world. Costs could be reduced if larvicides could be manufactured locally. The potential of natural products as larvicides against the main African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s was evaluated. Methods To assess the larvicidal efficacy of a neem (Azadirachta indica oil formulation (azadirachtin content of 0.03% w/v on An. gambiae s.s., larvae were exposed as third and fourth instars to a normal diet supplemented with the neem oil formulations in different concentrations. A control group of larvae was exposed to a corn oil formulation in similar concentrations. Results Neem oil had an LC50 value of 11 ppm after 8 days, which was nearly five times more toxic than the corn oil formulation. Adult emergence was inhibited by 50% at a concentration of 6 ppm. Significant reductions on growth indices and pupation, besides prolonged larval periods, were observed at neem oil concentrations above 8 ppm. The corn oil formulation, in contrast, produced no growth disruption within the tested range of concentrations. Conclusion Neem oil has good larvicidal properties for An. gambiae s.s. and suppresses successful adult emergence at very low concentrations. Considering the wide distribution and availability of this tree and its products along the East African coast, this may prove a readily available and cheap alternative to conventional larvicides.

  15. Chromatographic evaluation and antimicrobial activity of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Meliaceae leaves hydroalcoholic extracts

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    Priscila D. Alves

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica is an Indian tree well known for its several pharmacological activities, including antimicrobial activity. More than 300 composites have already been isolated and azadirachtin (AZA is its main active component. In the present work, Neem leaves hydroalcoholic extracts were prepared by percolation in 96% ethanol different concentrations (50%, 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% (v/v. The presence of AZA was tested by TLC by eluting the extracts and a standard solution of AZA through a chromatographic plate developed with anisaldehyde/sulfuric acid solution followed by heating. By HPLC, extracts elution took place on a C18 column, water:acetonitrile (60:40 as mobile phase, 1.0 mL/min flow rate and detection at λ217 nm. The extracts did not display AZA spots or peaks, however, they were tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and a mold fungus. The extracts were tested in different increasing concentrations, in order to detect a dose-dependent relationship of the activity. Despite the absence of AZA, the 70% and 80% (v/v ethanol extracts showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus. However, this activity was not dose-dependent according to Tukey's test (q0,05;3;7.

  16. Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Azadirachta indica against house dust mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifah, Azima Laili; Awang, Siti Hazar; Ming, Ho Tze; Abidin, Suhaili Zainal; Omar, Maizatul Hashima

    2011-10-01

    To examine the acaricidal effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus leaf extract (lemongrass) and ethanolic Azadirachta indica leaf extract (neem) against house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus). Twenty-five adults mites were placed onto treated filter paper that is soaked with plant extract and been tested at different concentrations (50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50%, 6.25% and 3.13%) and exposure times (24hrs, 48hrs, 72hrs and 96 hrs). All treatments were replicated 7 times, and the experiment repeated once. The topical and contact activities of the two herbs were investigated. Mortalities from lemongrass extract were higher than neem for both topical and contact activities. At 50 % concentration, both 24 hrs topical and contact exposures to lemongrass resulted in more than 91% mortalities for both species of mites. At the same concentration and exposure time, neem resulted in topical mortalities of 40.3% and 15.7% against D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae respectively; contact mortalities were 8.0% and 8.9% against the 2 mites, respectively. There was no difference in topical mortalities of D. pteronyssinus from exposure to concentrations of lemongrass and neem up to 12.50%; lemongrass was more effective than neem at the higher concentrations. Generally, topical mortalities of D. farinae due to lemongrass are higher than that due to neem. Contact mortalities of lemongrass are always higher that neem against both species of mites.

  17. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss Oil to Tackle Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

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    Paola Del Serrone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss oil (NO was assayed against forty-eight isolates of Escherichia coli by standardised disc diffusion test and microdilution test. By molecular biology characterization, fourteen isolates resulted in diarrheagenic E. coli with sixteen primer pairs that specifically amplify unique sequences of virulence genes and of 16S rRNA. The NO showed biological activity against all isolates. The bacterial growth inhibition zone by disc diffusion method (100 µL NO ranged between 9.50 ± 0.70 and 30.00 ± 1.00 mm. The antibacterial activity was furthermore determined at lower NO concentrations (1 : 10–1 : 10,000. The percent of growth reduction ranged between 23.71 ± 1.00 and 99.70 ± 1.53. The highest bacterial growth reduction was 1 : 10 NO concentration with 50 µL of bacterial suspension (ca. 1 × 106 CFU/mL. There is significant difference between the antibacterial activities against pathogenic and nonpathogenic E. coli, as well as NO and ciprofloxacin activities. Viable cells after the different NO concentration treatments were checked by molecular biology assay using PMA dye. On the basis of the obtained results, NO counteracts E. coli and also influences the virulence of E. coli viable cells after NO treatment. The NO metabolomic composition was obtained using fingerprint HPTLC.

  18. Effectiveness of Azadirachta indica (neem) mouthrinse in plaque and gingivitis control: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, K; Vandana, K L

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of Azadirachta indica (neem)-based herbal mouthrinse in improving plaque control and gingival health. Literature search was accomplished using electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and EMBASE) and manual searching, up to February 2015, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) presenting clinical data for efficacy of neem mouthrinses when used alone or as an adjunct to mechanical oral hygiene as compared to chlorhexidine mouthrinses for controlling plaque and gingival inflammation in patients with gingivitis. Of the total 206 articles searched, three randomized controlled trials evaluating neem-based herbal mouthrinses were included. Due to marked heterogeneity observed in study characteristics, meta-analysis was not performed. These studies reported that neem mouthrinse was as effective as chlorhexidine mouthrinse when used as an adjunct to toothbrushing in reducing plaque and gingival inflammation in gingivitis patients. However, the quality of reporting and evidence along with methods of studies was generally flawed with unclear risk of bias. Despite the promising results shown in existing randomized controlled trials, the evidence concerning the clinical use of neem mouthrinses is lacking and needs further reinforcement with high-quality randomized controlled trials based on the reporting guidelines of herbal CONSORT statement. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Process variables in biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, A.; Raichur, Ashok M.; Chandrasekaran, N.; Prathna, T. C.; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2010-01-01

    Owing to widespread applications, synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles is recently attracting considerable attention. Increasing environmental concerns over chemical synthesis routes have resulted in attempts to develop biomimetic approaches. One of them is synthesis using plant parts, which eliminates the elaborate process of maintaining the microbial culture and often found to be kinetically favourable than other bioprocesses. The present study deals with investigating the effect of process variables like reductant concentrations, reaction pH, mixing ratio of the reactants and interaction time on the morphology and size of silver nanoparticles synthesized using aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves. The formation of crystalline silver nanoparticles was confirmed using X-ray diffraction analysis. By means of UV spectroscopy, Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy techniques, it was observed that the morphology and size of the nanoparticles were strongly dependent on the process parameters. Within 4 h interaction period, nanoparticles below 20-nm-size with nearly spherical shape were produced. On increasing interaction time (ageing) to 66 days, both aggregation and shape anisotropy (ellipsoidal, polyhedral and capsular) of the particles increased. In alkaline pH range, the stability of cluster distribution increased with a declined tendency for aggregation of the particles. It can be inferred from the study that fine tuning the bioprocess parameters will enhance possibilities of desired nano-product tailor made for particular applications.

  20. EFECTO ANTIALIMENTARIO DE LOS EXTRACTOS DE SUSPENSIONES CELULARES DE Azadirachta indica SOBRE Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith EN CONDICIONES DE LABORATORIO ANTIFEEDANT EFFECT OF CELL SUSPENSION EXTRACTS OF Azadirachta indica ON Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS

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    Jacqueline Capataz Tafur

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Los extractos de neem (Azadirachta indica y sus ingredientes activos como la azadiractina, presentan acción antialimentaria e inhibición del desarrollo de muchos insectos. El objetivo de este estudio fue examinar el efecto antialimentario de los extractos de suspensiones celulares de neem elicitadas a diferentes condiciones de luz y temperatura. Los extractos fueron aplicados en discos de hojas de maíz y sometidas a bioensayos en larvas de segundo instar de Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith (Lepidptera: Noctuidae. Los extractos intracelulares y del medio de cultivo de las suspensiones celulares de A. indica mostraron efecto biológico sobre larvas de S. frugiperda L2, con valores del 100 % de índice antialimentario para los extractos intracelulares de suspensiones de A. indica elicitadas a 15 °C y oscuridad, y del 39,3% para extractos extracelulares (medio de cultivo de suspensiones elicitadas a 35 °C y oscuridad.Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica and their active ingredients as azadirachtin, present an action and inhibition of the development of many insects. In this study, the antifeedant effect of cell suspension extracts elicited to different conditions of light and temperature was examined. The extracts were applied in corn leaves disks and submitted to bioassays in larvae of second instar of Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. The intracellular extracts and the culture media (supernatant of the cell suspensions of A. indica showed a biological effect on larvae of S. frugiperda L2, with values of the 100 % of antifeeding index for the intracellular extracts of cells elicited to 15 °C and darkness, and 39,3% of antifeeding index for extracellular extracts (medium of cultivation of elicited suspensions to 35°C , and darkness.

  1. Effect of Azadirachta indica leaves extract on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats:Role of antioxidants, free radicals and myeloperoxidase

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    Ghatule RR

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the healing effects of extract of dried leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neem on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Neem tree is known as ‘arishtha ’ in Sanskrit, meaning ‘reliever of sicknesses ’. Methods: 50% ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves was administered orally, once daily for 14 days in rats after the induction of colitis with acetic acid and 500 mg/kg dose of extract was found to have an optimal effect against acetic acid-induced colonic damage score, weight and adhesions (Macroscopic. Effect of Azadirachta indica extract was then further studied on various physical (mucous/blood in stool, food and water intake and body weight changes, colonic mucosal damage and inflammation (microscopic, antibacterial and biochemical parameters viz. i antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione and ii free radicals (nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation and myeloperoxidase (acute inflammatory marker activities in acetic acid-induced colitis. Results: Azadirachta indica extract decreased colonic mucosal damage and inflammation (macroscopic and microscopic, mucous/bloody diarrhea, fecal frequency and increased body weight. Azadirachta indica extract showed intestinal antibacterial activity and enhanced the antioxidants but decreased free radicals and myeloperoxidase activities. Acute toxicity study indicated no mortality or other ANS or CNS related adverse effects even with 5.0 g/kg dose (10 times of effective dose indicating its safety. Conclusions: Azadirachta indica seemed to be safe and effective in colitis by its predominant effect on promoting antioxidant status and decreasing intestinal bacterial load, free radicals and myeloperoxidase responsible for tissue damage and delayed healing.

  2. Isolation, screening and characterization of uranium microremediable actinomycetes from fallen leaves of Azadirachta indica in Western Ghats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.J.; Padmavathy, S.

    2014-01-01

    Microremediation of harmful radioactive waste such as uranium has been carried out by the endophytic actinomycetes strains isolated from the unnoticed fallen leaves of commonly available medicinal plant Azadirachta indica, which are considered as unique source. Among six actinobacteria isolates, one microbe (A5) effectively removed uranium in 12 h at temperature 30 deg C and pH 8-9. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis support the classification of the isolate A5 as a new strain which was named as Streptomyces sp. MINIYAA7 (Genbank accession number KF909129). (author)

  3. Isolation, screening and characterization of uranium microremediable actinomycetes from fallen leaves of Azadirachta indica in Western Ghats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M. J.; Padmavathy, S. [Nirmala College for Women, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu (India). Department of Botany

    2014-12-15

    Microremediation of harmful radioactive waste such as uranium has been carried out by the endophytic actinomycetes strains isolated from the unnoticed fallen leaves of commonly available medicinal plant Azadirachta indica, which are considered as unique source. Among six actinobacteria isolates, one microbe (A5) effectively removed uranium in 12 h at temperature 30 deg C and pH 8-9. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis support the classification of the isolate A5 as a new strain which was named as Streptomyces sp. MINIYAA7 (Genbank accession number KF909129). (author)

  4. ESTIMACIÓN DE VARIABLES DE OPERACIÓN DE UN BIORREACTOR CON CÉLULAS DE Azadirachta indica A. Juss ESTIMATION OF OPERATION VARIABLES OF A BIOREACTOR WITH Azadirachta indica A. Juss. CELLS

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    Walter Muñoz Cruz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron las variables de operación de un biorreactor de tanque agitado para el cultivo de células en suspensión de Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Se utilizó carboximetilcelulosa, CMC 0,7 % p/v, para estimar el coeficiente de transferencia de oxígeno, kLa, entre 120 - 400 rpm y entre 0,05 - 0,6 vvm, obteniéndose valores de 0,5 - 8,0 h-1. El kLa para suspensiones de A. indica en erlenmeyers fue de 0,6 - 1,2 h-1. Con los resultados anteriores se definieron las condiciones de operación del biorreactor y se evaluó el crecimiento de células de A. indica a 200 rpm y 0,2 vvm de aire, alcanzando 9,2 g cel secas/l. El crecimiento celular no fue limitado por el suministro de oxígeno. Los tamaños de aglomerados celulares cultivados en erlenmeyers con bafles agitados magnéticamente y en biorreactor fueron similares, pero menores que los obtenidos en erlemeyers con agitación orbital. El presente estudio establece parámetros para la operación de biorreactores con A. indica y confirma que los medios con CMC pueden utilizarse para estimar variables operacionales en biorreactores.Operation variables of a stirred tank bioreactor were studied in order to culture cell suspension of Azadirachta indica A. Juss Carboximethylcelulose, CMC 0,7 % w/v, was used to estimate the coefficient of oxygen transfer, kLa, between 120 - 400 rpm and 0,05 - 0,6 vvm, obtaining values of 0,5 - 8,0 h-1. The kLa for suspension cultures of A. indica in erlenmeyers was 0,6 - 1,2 h-1. Based upon the previous results, the operation conditions of the bioreactor were defined and cell growth of A. indica was evaluated at 200 rpm and 0,2 vvm of air, reaching 9,2 g dry cell/l. Celular growth was not limited by dissolved oxygen. The sizes of cell agglomerates magnetically stirred in erlemeyers with bafles and in the bioreactor were similar, but smaller that those obtained in erlenmeyers with orbital agitation. The present study establishes parameters for operation of bioreactors

  5. Moisture Dependence of physical Properties and Specific Heat Capacity of Neem (Azadirachta Indica A. Juss Kernels

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    A. Dauda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of moisture content on the physical properties and specific heat capacity of Neem (Azadirachta Indica A. Juss nut kernels. The major, intermediate and minor axial dimensions of the kernels increased from 1.04 to 1.23cm, 0.42 to 0.6cm, and 0.32 to 0.45cm respectively, as the moisture content increased from 5.2 to 44.9 % (db. The arithmetic and geometric mean diameters determined at the same moisture level were significantly different from each other, with the arithmetic mean diameter being higher. In the above moisture range, one thousand kernel weight, true density, porosity, sphericity, roundness and surface area all increased linearly from 0.0987 to 0.1755kg, 632 to 733kgm-3, 6.42 to 32.14%, 41.3 to 47.5%, 22 to 36% and 13 to 24cm2 respectively, while bulk density decreased from 591.4 to 497.4kgm-3 with increase in moisture content. Angle of repose increased from 21.22 to 29.8o with increase in moisture content. The Static coefficient of friction on ply wood with grains parallel to the direction of movement ranged from 0.41 to 0.61, it ranged from 0.19 to 0.24 on on fiber glass, 0.28 to .038 on hessian bag material and 0.25 to 0.33 on galvanized steel sheet. The specific heat of the seed varied from 2738.1- 4345.4J/kg/oC in the above moisture range.

  6. Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach seeds inhibit folliculogenesis in albino rats

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    J.K. Roop

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The seed oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem is used in traditional medicine for its antidiabetic, spermicidal, antifertility, antibacterial, and wound healing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the quantitative aspects of follicular development in cyclic female albino rats (135 ± 10 g; 8 groups with 6 animals in each group after oral administration of polar (PF and non-polar (NPF fractions of A. indica seed extract at 3 and 6 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 and Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek seed extract at 24 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 for 18 days. The extracts were prepared using a flash evaporator at 35°C and then dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on a per kg body weight basis. There was a significant reduction (P = 0.05 in the number of normal single layered follicles (A. indica: 0.67 ± 0.33 and 4.67 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF, and 3.33 ± 1.67 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF vs control: 72.67 ± 9.14 and M. azedarach: 0.60 ± 0.40 and 1.80 ± 1.2 after 24 mg/kg PF and NPF, respectively, vs control: 73.40 ± 7.02 and follicles in various stages (I-VII of follicular development in all treatment groups. These extracts also significantly reduced (P = 0.05 the total number of normal follicles in the neem (14.67 ± 5.93 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF and 3.67 ± 0.88 and 5.33 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF and dharek (13.00 ± 3.58 and 14.60 ± 2.25 after 24 mg/kg NPF and PF treatments compared to control (216.00 ± 15.72 and 222.20 ± 19.52, respectively. Currently, indiscriminate use of persistent and toxic rodenticides to control rodent populations has created serious problems such as resistance and environmental contamination. Therefore, it becomes necessary to use ecologically safe and biologically active botanical substances that are metabolized and are not passed on to the next trophic level, and that interfere with the reproductive potential particularly growth and differentiation of

  7. Efficient callus formation and plant regeneration of goosegrass [Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemets, A I; Klimkina, L A; Tarassenko, L V; Blume, Y B

    2003-02-01

    Efficient methods in totipotent callus formation, cell suspension culture establishment and whole-plant regeneration have been developed for the goosegrass [ Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.] and its dinitroaniline-resistant biotypes. The optimum medium for inducing morphogenic calli consisted of N6 basal salts and B5 vitamins supplemented with 1-2 mg l(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 2 mg l(-1) glycine, 100 mg l(-1) asparagine, 100 mg l(-1) casein hydrolysate, 30 g l(-1) sucrose and 0.6% agar, pH 5.7. The presence of organogenic and embryogenic structures in these calli was histologically documented. Cell suspension cultures derived from young calli were established in a liquid medium with the same composition. Morphogenic structures of direct shoots and somatic embryos were grown into rooted plantlets on medium containing MS basal salts, B5 vitamins, 1 mg l(-1) kinetin (Kn) and 0.1 mg l(-1) indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 3% sucrose, 0.6% agar, pH 5.7. Calli derived from the R-biotype of E. indica possessed a high resistance to trifluralin (dinitroaniline herbicide) and cross-resistance to a structurally non-related herbicide, amiprophosmethyl (phosphorothioamidate herbicide), as did the original resistant plants. Embryogenic cell suspension culture was a better source of E. indica protoplasts than callus or mesophyll tissue. The enzyme solution containing 1.5% cellulase Onozuka R-10, 0.5% driselase, 1% pectolyase Y-23, 0.5% hemicellulase and N(6) mineral salts with an additional 0.2 M KCl and 0.1 M CaCl(2) (pH 5.4-5.5) was used for protoplast isolation. The purified protoplasts were cultivated in KM8p liquid medium supplemented with 2 mg l(-1) 2,4-D and 0.2 mg l(-1) Kn.

  8. Post-Harvest Deterioration of Cassava and its Control Using Extracts of Azadirachta Indica and Aframomum Melegueta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Okigbo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-harvest deterioration is the most important cause of loss in cassava production and this is mainly as a result of microbial invasion of the tubers. This research was therefore carried out to identify and control the organisms responsible for post-harvest deterioration of cassava tubers. Ethanolic and water extractions of Azadirachta Indica (A. Juss leaves and Aframomum melegueta (Schumann seeds were used as antifungal agents and the susceptibility of four of the isolated pathogenic fungi to them was observed in culture. The tested organisms were Aspergillus niger Van Tiegh, Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat, Fusarium solani (Mart. Sacc and Penicillium oxalicum Currie and Thom. All tested organisms showed different degrees of inhibitions by the extracts with A. niger being the most inhibited by ethanolic extraction of A. melegueta. The overall result showed that A. indica was more active on the organisms though it’s effects and that of A. melegueta were not significantly different (P>0.05.

  9. Attenuation of nonenzymatic glycation, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by chloroform leaf extract of Azadirachta indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Rosa Martha Pérez; Gómez, Yolanda Gómez Y.; Guzman, Mónica Damián

    2011-01-01

    Background: The hypoglycemic effects of hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of leaves of Azadirachta indica (AI) were evaluated by oral administration in streptozotocin-induced severe diabetic rats (SD). Materials and Methods: The effect of chronic oral administration of the extract for 28 days was evaluated in streptozotozin diabetic rats. Lipid peroxidation, glycogen content of liver and skeletal muscles, insulin, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels were determined. In addition, advanced glycation end product formation (AGEs) was evaluated. Results: The most active extracts were obtained with chloroform. Chloroform extract from AI shows increased levels of SOD, GSH, GSSG and CAT, hepatic glycogen content, glucose-6-phosphatase and insulin plasma levels, which also decreased the glucokinase (GK), lipid peroxidation and insulin resistance. The chloroform extract exhibited significant inhibitory activity against advanced glycation end product formation with an IC50 average range of 79.1 mg/ml. Conclusion: Azadirachta indica can improve hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinema in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats and, therefore, AI can be potentially considered to be an antidiabetic-safe agent. PMID:21969798

  10. PELATIHAN MEMBUAT SABUN MANDI ANTI BAKTERI ALAMI DARI DAUN MIMBA (Azadirachta indica A.Juss DI DESA PENARUKAN KERAMBITAN TABANAN

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    Sri Rahayu Santi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The activity of the community service about the manner of making nature antibacterial soap from Neem leaf (Azadirachta indica A Juss was conducted on the 24st of October 2010 to the PKK members of Penarukan village, Kerambitan subdistrict, Tabanan Regency. Making nature antibacterial soap has very simple formulaic techniquee. The soap was made by using many chemicals, among others : coconut oil, 32% sodium hydroxide, dextrin, surfactant, dyes, parfume, as well as antibacterial agent from Nemm leaf (Azadirachta indica A Juss. The result of this activity and evaluation showed that the antimicrobial soap product is as good as ordinary soap, having full of foam, not hot without iritation, because it is properly laboratory tested. All of participants showed their enthusiasm during activity and they will try to make soap. This was showed by the evaluation report saying that all participants understand about making soap and they want to try at home. This public service made people interested to improve their knowledge, skill, and possibility to open of new entrepreneur in village so that it can be vacancy and increase income to community.

  11. Impact of botanical pesticides derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica plants on the emission of volatiles that attract parasitoids of the diamondback moth to cabbage plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Gols, R.; Hordijk, C.A.; Kfir, R.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2006-01-01

    Herbivorous and carnivorous arthropods use chemical information from plants during foraging. Aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree Melia azedarach and commercial formulations from the neem tree Azadirachta indica, Neemix 4.5®, were investigated for their impact on the flight response of two

  12. Use of Lignins from Sugarcane Bagasse for Assembling Microparticles Loaded with Azadirachta indica Extracts for Use as Neem-Based Organic Insecticides

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Eveline S.; Perlatti, Bruno; Silva, Everton M. da; Matos, Andreia P.; Silva, Maria Fátima G. F. da; Fernandes, João B.; Zuin, Vânia G.; Silva, Caio M. P. da; Forim, Moacir R.

    2017-01-01

    Microcapsules of sugarcane bagasse lignin loaded with organic extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) were prepared and evaluated as potential bioinsecticides. Lignins were extracted and modified by oxidation and acetylation reactions providing different biopolymers. Afterwards, they were characterized through several analytical techniques. The formulations were initially prepared as colloidal suspension of lignin nanoparticles, which were then spray-dried. The products were submitted to qualit...

  13. Impact of botanical pesticides derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica on the biology of two parasitoid species of the diamondback moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of two botanical pesticides was tested on two species of parasitoids, Cotesia plutellae and Diadromus collaris. Aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree, Melia azedarach and commercial formulations from the neem tree, Azadirachta indica, Neemix 4.5 were investigated in the laboratory

  14. Production of the biopesticide azadirachtin by hairy root cultivation of Azadirachta indica in liquid-phase bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Smita; Srivastava, Ashok K

    2013-11-01

    Batch cultivation of Azadirachta indica hairy roots was carried out in different liquid-phase bioreactor configurations (stirred-tank, bubble column, bubble column with polypropylene basket, and polyurethane foam disc as root supports) to investigate possible scale-up of the A. indica hairy root culture for in vitro production of the biopesticide azadirachtin. The hairy roots failed to grow in the conventional bioreactor designs (stirred tank and bubble column). However, modified bubble column reactor (with polyurethane foam as root support) configuration facilitated high-density culture of A. indica hairy roots with a biomass production of 9.2 g l(-1)dry weight and azadirachtin yield of 3.2 mg g(-1) leading to a volumetric productivity of azadirachtin as 1.14 mg l(-1) day(-1). The antifeedant activity in the hairy roots was also evaluated by no choice feeding tests with known concentrations of the hairy root powder and its solvent extract separately on the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria. The hairy root powder and its solvent extract demonstrated a high level of antifeedant activity (with an antifeedant index of 97 % at a concentration of 2 % w/v and 83 % at a concentration of 0.05 % (w/v), respectively, in ethanol).

  15. Analysis of anti-bacterial and anti oxidative activity of Azadirachta indica bark using various solvents extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raid Al Akeel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medications have been used for relief of symptoms of disease. Regardless of the great advances observed in current medicine in recent decades, plants still make a significant contribution to health care. An alarming increase in bacterial strains resistant to a number of antimicrobial agents demands that a renewed effort be made to seek antibacterial agents effective against pathogenic bacteria resistant to or less sensitive to current antibiotics. Anti-bacterial activity of Azadirachta indica stem bark was tested against pathogenic Salmonella paratyphi and Salmonella typhi using various solvent extracts. The in vitro anti-bacterial activity was performed by agar well diffusion method and the results were expressed as the average diameter of zone of inhibition of bacterial growth around the well. The ethanol and methanol extracts showed better anti-bacterial activity with zone of inhibition (20–25 mm when compared with other tested extracts and standard antibiotic Erythromycin (15 mcg with zone of inhibition (13–14 mm. Using Fisher’s exact test of significance difference was found between two Salmonella strains sensitivity patterns against tested extracts (P ⩽ 0.035. Extracts of A. indica stem bark also exhibited significant antioxidant activity, thus establishing the extracts as an antioxidant. The results obtained in this study give some scientific support to the A. indica stem bark for further investigation of compounds and in future could be used as drug.

  16. UJI EFEKTIVITAS LARVASIDA DAUN MIMBA (Azadirachta indica TERHADAP LARVA LALAT Sarcophaga PADA DAGING UNTUK UPAKARA YADNYA DI BALI

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    i wayan karta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cara mengusir lalat daging pada sarana upacara yadnya di Bali belum efektif, sehingga diperlukan cara alternatif menggunakan daun mimba (Azadirachta indica. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mendeskripsikan efektivitas larvasida daun mimba terhadap larva lalat Sarchopaga pada daging yang digunakan sebagai sarana upakara di Bali. Kelompok perlakuan ini yaitu penggunaan daun mimba 25% sebagai larvasida, kelompok kontrol positif yaitu penggunaan minuman bersoda, dan kelompok kontrol negatif yaitu tidak mendapat perlakuan. Hasil uji Kruskal Wallis diperoleh hasil nilai probabilitas p (0,000 < α (0,05 yang menunjukkan adanya perbedaan jumlah kematian larva pada perlakuan rebusan daun mimba 25 %, kontrol negatif dan kontrol positif. Perlakuan daun mimba konsentrasi 25% memberikan jumlah kematian larva yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan terhadap kontrol positif dengan perbedaan persentase sebesar 60%. Daun mimba lebih efektif sebagai larvasida jika dibandingkan dengan minuman bersoda.  Perebusan daging dengan menambahkan daun mimba dapat digunakan untuk menghindari pembusukan yang disebarkan oleh lalat daging (Sarchopaga.

  17. Enhanced production of azadirachtin by hairy root cultures of Azadirachta indica A. Juss by elicitation and media optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satdive, Ramesh K; Fulzele, Devanand P; Eapen, Susan

    2007-02-01

    Azadirachtin is one of the most potent biopesticides so far developed from a plant sources. Influence of different culture media and elicitation on growth and production of azadirachtin by hairy root cultures of Azadirachta indica was studied. Out of the three media tested, namely Ohyama and Nitsch, Gamborg's and Murashige and Skoog's basal media, hairy roots cultured on Ohyama and Nitsch's basal medium produced maximum yield of azadirachtin (0.0166% dry weight, DW). Addition of biotic elicitor enhanced the production of azadirachtin by approximately 5-fold (0.074% DW), while signal compounds such as jasmonic acid and salicylic acid showed a approximately 6 (0.095% DW) and approximately 9-fold (0.14% DW) enhancement, respectively, in the production of azadirachtin as compared to control cultures on Ohyama and Nitsch medium. Extracts from hairy roots were found to be superior to those from the leaves for antifeedant activity against the larvae of Spodoptera litura.

  18. COMPARACIÓN DEL EFECTO HIPOGLICEMIANTE DE LAS PLANTAS Azadirachta indica Y Eucalyptus camaldulensis EN CÉLULAS SANGUÍNEAS HUMANAS | COMPARISON OF THE HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT BETWEEN THE PLANTS Azadirachta indica AND Eucalyptus camaldulensis IN HUMAN BLOOD CELLS

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    Nubilde Martínez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the most widely used medicinal plants by people are those that possess hypoglycemic effect, such as Azadirachta indica and Eucalyptus camaldulensis, which are widely distributed in Venezuela. The purpose of this research was to compare the hypoglycemic effect of A. indica and E. camaldulensis using aqueous solutions of each plant, in human blood cells in a normoglycemic medium. Aqueous solutions were used in concentrations of 6.4% m / v, in dosages of 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.175, 0.5, 0.7 and 1.4 g/dL, for each plant, and the concentration of glucose was measured at 0, 90, 210, 300 and 600 sec. Insulin (Humulin® in concentrations of 0.1, 1 and 10 nM, was used as a control to compare its effect against aqueous solutions. Results were analyzed using analysis of variance and comparison of means by the Tukey test. The results indicated that there was a greater hypoglycemic effect for the A. indica aqueous solution compared to the control (p = 0.0074, this effect was shown to be significant (p = 0.0349 in the higher doses 0.7 and 1.4 g/dL. Additionally, there was a notable increase hypoglycemic effect from 210 sec-600 sec (p < 0.0001. The aqueous solution of E. camaldulensis showed erratic behavior and lower effect than the control, without evidence of hypoglycemic effect. It is concluded that the hypoglycemic effect of aqueous extracts of A. indica was evidenced while was not observed in those of E. camaldulensis.

  19. Elemental contents in leaves and bark of neem (Azadirachta Indica) - a versatile medicinal plant by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, A.N.; Verma, Kavita; Choudhury, R.P.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Azadirachta Indica, commonly known as neem touches the daily life of every Indian as all of its parts are widely used. Neem leaves are used as insecticide and antiseptic whereas its extracts and oil are clinically effective in curing eczema and other skin diseases. Fresh leaves and bark of Neem (Azadirachta Indica) collected from different locations in Roorkee were analyzed for 7 minor (Al, Ca, CI, K, Mg, Na and P) and 15 trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hg, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sm, Th, V and Zn) elements by short (1 min) and long (7 h) neutron irradiation neutron followed by high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. Also Ni, Cu, Cd and Pb were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). P was determined by counting the β-activity from 32 P using an end-window GM counter. Peach leaves (SRM 1547) from NIST, USA and Mixed Polish Herbs (MPH-2) from INCT, Poland were analyzed for data validation. Most elemental contents varied in a wide range. However, mean and median values in most cases are comparable. Elemental contents of V, Cr, Mn, Fe and Zn in leaves have been particularly attributed to its use in the treatment of diabetes. Linear correlations were observed between K and CI (r =0.96) and Rb and Cs (r = 0.97) in Neem leaves. Leaves were particularly enriched in K, Mg, Zn and Rb whereas bark was enriched in Ca, Mn and Fe. Petroleum ether extract of dried Neem leaves was analyzed for organic constituents; 1,1,2,3-tetramethyl cyclopropane, methyl phenyl sulfone, n-hexanedecanoic acid and 9,12,15-octadecatrienal in soluble fraction and bicyclo octa 1,3,5 triene 7-(3-butenyl) and 2-hydroxymethyl 1-methoxy 9,10 anthracenediene in insoluble fraction. Compounds were separated by column and thin layer chromatography and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)

  20. [Nutrient dynamics in forest plantations of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) established for restoration of degraded lands in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez-Flórez, Claudia Patricia; León-Peláez, Juan Diego; Osorio-Vega, Nelson Walter; Restrepo-Llano, Manuel Fernando

    2013-06-01

    Nutrient dynamics in forest plantations of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) established for restoration of degraded lands in Colombia. Azadirachta indica is a tree species which use is steadily increasing for restoration of tropical and subtropical arid and degraded lands throughout the world. The objective of this research study was to evaluate the potential of these plantations as an active restoration model for the recovery of soils under desertification in arid lands of Colombia. Litter traps and litter-bags were installed in twenty 250m2 plots. Green leaves and soil samples inside and outside this species plantations were taken, and their elemental concentrations were determined. Litterfall, leaf litter decomposition and foliar nutrient resorption were monitored for one year. The annual contributions of organic material, such as fine litterfall, represented 557.54kg/ha, a third of which was A. indica leaves. The greatest potential returns of nutrients per foliar litterfall were from Ca (4.6kg/ha) and N (2.4kg/ha), and the smallest potential returns came from P (0.06kg/ha). A total of 68% of the foliar material deposited in litter-bags disappeared after one year. The greatest release of nutrients was that of K (100%), and the least was that of N (40%). P was the most limiting nutrient, with low edaphic availability and high nutrient use efficiency from Vitousek's index (IEV = 3176) and foliar nutrient resorption (35%). Despite these plantations are young, and that they have not had forestry management practices, as an active restoration model, they have revitalized the biogeochemical cycle, positively modifying the edaphic parameters according to the increases in organic material, P and K of 72%, 31% and 61%, respectively. Furthermore, they improved the stability of aggregates and the microbe respiration rates. The forest plantation model with exotic species has been opposed by different sectors; however, it has been acknowledged that these projects derive many

  1. Biosorptive behaviour of Mango (Mangifera indica) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark for Hg2+, Cr3+ and Cd2+ toxic ions from aqueous solutions: a radiotracer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Diwakar; Mishra, Shuddhodan P.; Mishra, Manisha; Dubey, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    Biosorption of Hg 2+ and Cr 3+ on dead biomass Mango (Mangifera indica) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark has been assessed at micro to tracer level concentrations from aqueous solutions employing the 'radiotracer technique'. A high level of uptake of metal ions on these solid surfaces occurs within ca. 4 h of contact time reaching apparent saturation. The increase of sorptive concentration (10 -8 to 10 -2 mol dm -3 ), temperature (293-323 K) and pH (ca. 3 to 10) favoured the removal process of these ions; but in the case of Hg 2+ on Neem bark, there was seemingly no temperature effect. The uptake process follows first order rate law and obeys the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. Added anions and cations in the bulk solution inhibit to some extent the removal of these toxic ions. Similarly the inhibition in the uptake was also observed when both biomasses were irradiated by neutron and γ-rays prior to being employed as sorbents. No significant sorption of Cd 2+ was observed on these dead biomass solid surfaces under various physical-chemical conditions

  2. Therapeutic and Safety Evaluation of Combined Aqueous Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Khaya senegalensis in Chickens Experimentally Infected with Eimeria Oocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Gotep

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coccidiosis is a disease of economic importance in poultry causing morbidity and mortality. Reports show that Azadirachta indica and Khaya senegalensis have been used individually in the treatment of avian coccidiosis. We thus investigated the efficacy and safety of the combined aqueous extracts of these plants for the treatment of experimentally induced coccidiosis in broiler chickens using oocyst count, oxidative stress biomarkers, serum biochemistry, histology, and haematological parameters. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and steroids in both extracts. In addition, alkaloids and flavonoids were present in Azadirachta indica. There was significant (p<0.05 dose dependent decrease in oocyst count across the treatment groups with 400 mg/kg of the combined extract being the most efficacious dose. Immunomodulatory and erythropoietic activity was observed. There were decreased intestinal lesions and enhanced antioxidant activity across the treatment groups compared to the negative control. Administration of the combined extract did not cause damage to the liver as ALT, AST, and ALP levels were significantly reduced in the uninfected chickens treated with the extracts compared to control suggesting safety at the doses used. The combined aqueous extracts of K. senegalensis stem bark and Azadirachta indica leaves were ameliorative in chickens infected with coccidiosis.

  3. Comparative Status of Sequestered Carbon Stock of Azadirachta indica and Conocarpus erectus at the University of Karachi Campus, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Ajani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon sequestration by trees is one of the most cost-effective and efficient methods to remove carbon dioxide from atmosphere since trees remove and store carbon at higher rates compared to other land covers. Carbon storage by trees typically ranges from 1 to 8 MgC ha-1 yr-1.The carbon is sequestered in different parts of the trees as biomass. The measurements of biomass provide reasonably accurate estimate of the amount of carbon that was removed from lower troposphere over the years. Therefore, the present study investigates and compares the carbon stock of native Azadirachta indica and exotic Conocarpus erectus, which are extensively cultivated in the campus of the University of Karachi, Pakistan. The above-ground and below-ground biomass of 327 trees of A. indica and 253 trees of C. erectus were estimated by using non-destructive method. The average carbon content of A. indica is calculated to be 662.32 + 1144.81 Kg while that of C. erectus is 192.70 + 322.60 Kg. The independent t-test analysis showed significant difference (p < 0.001 between the means of the carbon content of both the species. The carbon contents of two different species were also correlated with bole’s diameter at breast height (DBH and tree’s height. The analysis demonstrated greater correlation between the carbon content and the DBH of both the species compared to that with their height. The study will help to understand the carbon sequestration potential of two different types of species for planting particularly in urban area of the world.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTVolume-5, Issue-2, March-May 2016, Page: 89-97

  4. Green synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles from the leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elumalai, K. [Department of Physics, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608002 (India); Velmurugan, S., E-mail: drvelmurganphy@gmail.com [Department of Engineering Physics (FEAT), Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608 002 (India)

    2015-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Phenolic acid and flavonoid compounds play a major role in bioreduction reaction confirmed by FT-IR. • PL spectrum identified peaks were located in the range of the blue-violet spectrum. • XRD pattern confirmed ZnO hexagonal phase (wurtzite structure). • The result of (AFM) images depicted polycrystalline with porous nature of ZnO NPs. • Antimicrobial activities of green synthesized ZnO NPs were more potent than Bare ZnO and leaf of A. indica. - Abstract: The synthesis of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles is an expanding research area due to the potential applications in the development of novel technologies. Especially, biologically synthesized nanomaterial has become an important branch of nanotechnology. The present work, described the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using leaf aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (L.) and its antimicrobial activities. The nanoparticles was obtain characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis. In this study we also investigated antimicrobial activity of green synthesized ZnO NPs. The results depicted concentration of ZnO NPs was increased (50, 100, 200 μg/mL) and also increase in antimicrobial activities was due to the increase of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration from the surface of ZnO. However, green synthesized ZnO NPs was more potent than Bare ZnO and leaf of A. indica. Finally concluded the zinc oxide nanoparticles exhibited an interesting antimicrobial activity with both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial and yeast at micromolar concentration.

  5. Toxicidade de extratos de nim (Azadirachta indica ao ácaro-vermelho-do-cafeeiro Oligonychus ilicis Toxicity of neem extracts (Azadirachta indica to the coffee red mite Oligonychus ilicis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Abreu Mourão

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a toxicidade aguda e crônica de extratos de óleo de torta, de sementes e de folhas de Azadirachta indica A. Juss (nim a fêmeas do ácaro-vermelho-do-cafeeiro Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae. A mortalidade e a taxa instantânea de crescimento populacional de fêmeas adultas desse ácaro foram avaliadas em discos de folhas de cafeeiro com 3,5 cm de diâmetro, impregnados com resíduo seco dos extratos de nim e flutuando em água. As concentrações dos extratos de óleo de torta, sementes e folhas de nim que mataram 50% e 99% dos indivíduos de O. ilicis, após 72 horas de exposição, foram de 0,02, 15,9 e 121,4 mg/mL e de 10,9, 520,9 e 277,4 mg/mL, respectivamente. A taxa instantânea de crescimento populacional de O. ilicis diminuiu, linearmente, com o aumento da concentração dos extratos de óleo de torta, sementes e folhas de nim até 0,075, 15 e 144 mg/mL, respectivamente, a partir das quais as populações desse ácaro foram extintas.The objective of this work was to study the toxicity of extracts of oil cake, seeds and leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem to the coffee red mite Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae. Concentration-mortality and instantaneous rate of populational growth were determined for adult females of the red mite on disks of coffee with 3.5 cm diameter, floating on water and impregnated with dry residues of the neem extracts. Concentrations of these extracts which caused 50% mortality of the individuals of O. ilicis were 0.02, 15.9 and 121.4 mg/mL; while 99% mortality of this mite was reached with 10.9, 520.9 and 277.4 mg/mL for oil cake, seeds and leaves extracts, respectively. The instantaneous rate of populational growth of O. ilicis dropped as the extract doses increased up to 0.075, 15 and 144 mg/mL for oil cake, seeds and leaves extracts, respectively.

  6. Effect of fruit and leaves of Meliaceae plants (Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach) on the development of Lutzomyia longipalpis larvae (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) under experimental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Coelho, Cláudia A; Souza, Nataly A; Gouveia, Cheryl; Silva, Vanderlei C; Gonzalez, Marcelo S; Rangel, Elizabeth F

    2009-09-01

    This no-choice, laboratory study focuses on the feeding of dried, ground, homogeneous powdered, unprocessed fruit and leaves of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach to Lutzomyia longipalpis larvae to determine the effects on their mortality and metamorphosis. A. indica and M. azedarach fruit and leaves significantly increased larval mortality in comparison to larvae fed the untreated, standard diet. A. indica fruit and leaves blocked the molting of the larvae to the fourth instar, resulting in them remaining as third instars until the end of the experiment. M. azedarach fruit also blocked the molting of larvae, which remained permanently in the fourth instar. Feeding M. azedarach leaves resulted in greater molt inhibition. All insects in this group stopped their development as second-instar larvae. No antifeedant effect was detected for any experimental treatment. The results indicate that nontoxic, unprocessed materials obtained from A. indica and M. azedarach are potent development inhibitors of L. longipalpis larvae.

  7. Synergistic Effect of Azadirachta Indica Extract and Iodide Ions on the Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminium in Acid Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arab, S. T.; Al- Turkustani, A. M.; Al- Dhahiri, R. H. [King Abd El- Aziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2008-06-15

    The synergistic action caused by iodide ions on the corrosion inhibition of aluminium (Al) in 0.5 M HCl in the presence of Azadirachta Indica (AZI) plant extract has been investigated using potintiodynamic polarization and impedance techniques. It is found that AZI extract inhibits the corrosion of aluminium in 0.5 M HCl. The inhibition efficiency increases with the increase in AZI extract concentration, until 24% v/v of AZI extract, then Inh.% is decreased with father increase in AZI extract concentration. The adsorption of this extract in the studied concentration is found to obey Frewendlish adsorption isotherm. The addition of iodide ions enhances the inhibition efficiency to a considerable extent. The increase in Inh.% values in presence of fixed concentration of iodide ions indicates that AZI extract forms an insoluble complex at lower AZI extract concentrations by undergoing a joint adsorption. But at higher concentrations of AZI extract, competitive adsorption is found between iodide ions and the formed complex leading to less Inh.%. The Inh.% decreased in presence of iodide ions with AZI extract than in presence of AZI extract alone at all studied iodide concentrations. The synergism parameter S {sub θ} is defined and calculated from surface coverage values. This parameter in the case of AZI extract is found to be more than unity, indicating that the enhanced inhibition efficiency caused by the addition of iodide ions.

  8. GROWTH AND MINERAL NUTRITION OF NEEM (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. AND CINNAMOMUM (Melia azedarach Linn. SUBMITTED TO SALINITY

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    Antonio Lucineudo de Oliveira Freire

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the effects of soil salinity on growth and nutrient and sodium accumulation in neem (Azadirachta indica and cinnamomum (Melia azedarach. The experimental delineation was completely randomized in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, with two species (neem and cinnamomum, four salinity levels (electrical conductivity 0.49 (non saline soil, 4.15, 6.33 and 10.45 dS m-1 and four replications. Initially, plants were grown in tubes, and 60 days after emergence, they were transferred to pots containing 3 kg of substrate [soil + manure (2:1], according to the saline treatment. After 45 days, plant height, dry matter (leaves, stem, shoot (stem + leaves, roots and total and N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and Na+ shoot accumulation were evaluated. Salinity reduced the plant height in both species, but the effect was more pronounced in neem. Increases in soil salinity caused an increase in the accumulation of Na + and reduced the accumulation of nutrients in shoots of both species, especially in neem. The cinnamomum was more tolerant to salinity levels of soils than neem.

  9. Performance and carcass characteristics of guinea fowl fed on dietary Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder as a growth promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M K; Singh, S K; Sharma, R K; Singh, B; Kumar, Sh; Joshi, S K; Kumar, S; Sathapathy, S

    2015-01-01

    The present work aimed at studying growth pattern and carcass traits in pearl grey guinea fowl fed on dietary Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder (NLP) over a period of 12 weeks. Day old guinea fowl keets (n=120) were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, each with 3 replicates. The first treatment was designated as control (T0) in which no supplement was added to the feed, while in treatments T1, T2 and T3, NLP was provided as 1, 2 and 3 g per kg of feed, respectively. The results revealed a significant increase in body weight at 12 weeks; 1229.7 for T1, 1249.8 for T2, and 1266.2 g T3 compared to 1220.0 g for the control group (Pratio (FCR) of the treated groups over the control, showing that feeding NLP to the treated groups has lowered their residual feed efficiency. The results of the study demonstrate the beneficial effects of supplementing NLP on body weight gain and dressed yield in the treated groups in guinea fowl. NLP is, therefore, suggested to be used as a feed supplement in guinea fowl for higher profitability.

  10. In vitro bioactivity and antimicrobial tuning of bioactive glass nanoparticles added with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, M; Ruby Priscilla, S; Kavitha, K; Manivasakan, P; Rajendran, V; Kulandaivelu, P

    2014-01-01

    Silica and phosphate based bioactive glass nanoparticles (58SiO2-33CaO-9P2O5) with doping of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder and silver nanoparticles were prepared and characterised. Bioactive glass nanoparticles were produced using sol-gel technique. In vitro bioactivity of the prepared samples was investigated using simulated body fluid. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of prepared glass particles reveals amorphous phase and spherical morphology with a particle size of less than 50 nm. When compared to neem doped glass, better bioactivity was attained in silver doped glass through formation of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface, which was confirmed through XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. However, neem leaf powder doped bioactive glass nanoparticles show good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and less bioactivity compared with silver doped glass particles. In addition, the biocompatibility of the prepared nanocomposites reveals better results for neem doped and silver doped glasses at lower concentration. Therefore, neem doped bioactive glass may act as a potent antimicrobial agent for preventing microbial infection in tissue engineering applications.

  11. Effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica on the Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Dairy Manure

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    Subbarao V. Ravva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157 shed in cattle manure can survive for extended periods of time and intervention strategies to control this pathogen at the source are critical as produce crops are often grown in proximity to animal raising operations. This study evaluated whether neem (Azadirachta indica, known for its antimicrobial and insecticidal properties, can be used to amend manure to control EcO157. The influence of neem materials (leaf, bark, and oil on the survival of an apple juice outbreak strain of EcO157 in dairy manure was monitored. Neem leaf and bark supplements eliminated the pathogen in less than 10 d with a D-value (days for 90% elimination of 1.3 d. In contrast, nearly 4 log CFU EcO157/g remained after 10 d in neem-free manure control. The ethyl acetate extractable fraction of neem leaves was inhibitory to the growth of EcO157 in LB broth. Azadirachtin, a neem product with insect antifeedant properties, failed to inhibit EcO157. Application of inexpensive neem supplements to control pathogens in manure and possibly in produce fields may be an option for controlling the transfer of foodborne pathogens from farm to fork.

  12. In Vitro Bioactivity and Antimicrobial Tuning of Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles Added with Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaf Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, M.; Ruby Priscilla, S.; Kavitha, K.; Manivasakan, P.; Rajendran, V.; Kulandaivelu, P.

    2014-01-01

    Silica and phosphate based bioactive glass nanoparticles (58SiO2-33CaO-9P2O5) with doping of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder and silver nanoparticles were prepared and characterised. Bioactive glass nanoparticles were produced using sol-gel technique. In vitro bioactivity of the prepared samples was investigated using simulated body fluid. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of prepared glass particles reveals amorphous phase and spherical morphology with a particle size of less than 50 nm. When compared to neem doped glass, better bioactivity was attained in silver doped glass through formation of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface, which was confirmed through XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. However, neem leaf powder doped bioactive glass nanoparticles show good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and less bioactivity compared with silver doped glass particles. In addition, the biocompatibility of the prepared nanocomposites reveals better results for neem doped and silver doped glasses at lower concentration. Therefore, neem doped bioactive glass may act as a potent antimicrobial agent for preventing microbial infection in tissue engineering applications. PMID:25276834

  13. Algicidal effects of aqueous leaf extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica on Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp. de Brébission

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    Mathias Ahii Chia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of synthetic algaecides for the control of algae produces by-products that are sometimes toxic to the environment. There is a need for natural and cheap alternatives to synthetic algaecides. In the present study, we investigated the potential of aqueous crude extract of Azadirachta indica to inhibit the growth of Scenedesmus quadricauda. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of groups of bioactive compounds that are capable of inhibiting microalgal growth. Chlorophyll a concentration, dry weight production and cell density of microalga decreased with increasing crude extract concentration. After three days of exposure, the 1000 mg/L extract concentration resulted in complete growth inhibition and cell lysis. Furthermore, the ability of S. quadricauda to form multi-celled coenobial structures was compromised in a concentration dependent manner. In general, catalase and peroxidase activities of the microalga were upregulated with increasing extract concentration. These results imply that aqueous neem extract may provide a cheap and ecofriendly alternative for the control of microalgae in aquatic ecosystems.

  14. Increased production of azadirachtin from an improved method of androgenic cultures of a medicinal tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Priyanka; Chaturvedi, Rakhi

    2011-07-01

    Present report is the first direct evidence of azadirachtin production in androgenic haploid cultures of Azadirachta indica, a woody medicinal tree. Anther cultures at early-late-uninucleate stage of microspores were established on MS medium with BAP (5 μM), 2,4-D (1 μM) and NAA (1 μM) containing 12% sucrose. The calli, induced, were further multiplied on 2,4-D and Kinetin media. Shoots, differentiated on BAP (2.2 μM) + NAA (0.05 μM) medium, were elongated on MS + BAP (0.5 μM) and multiplied on MS + BAP (1 μM) + CH (250 mg/l). Thereafter, the shoots were rooted on ¼ MS + IBA (0.5 μM). Cytological analysis of the calli and regenerants have confirmed their haploid status with the chromosome number as 2n = x = 12. The haploid cell lines and leaves from in vitro grown plantlets were analyzed for azadirachtin by RP-HPLC and mass spectroscopy. Maximum azadirachtin (728.41 μg/g DW) was detected in calli supporting best shoot proliferation while least (49 μg/g DW) was observed in an undifferentiated line from maintenance medium. This study has brought us a step closer to develop genetically pure lines that could serve as new and attractive alternative ways of homogeneous controlled production of high value compounds, round the year, independent of geographical and climatic barrier.

  15. Sustainable production of azadirachtin from differentiated in vitro cell lines of neem (Azadirachta indica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mithilesh; Chaturvedi, Rakhi

    2013-01-01

    Azadirachtin has high industrial demand due to its immediate application as an ecofriendly, biodegradable biopesticide and also due to its various other significant bioactivities. To date, the only commercially feasible way to produce azadirachtin is extraction from seeds, but their availability is very limited as the tree flowers only once a year and only one-third of the fruits are collected due to operational problems. Further, due to the strict out-breeding nature of the plant, the seeds are highly heterozygous, resulting in inconsistent metabolite production. Therefore, in the present study, to achieve sustainable production of azadirachtin, dedifferentiated and redifferentiated calli derived from various explants of neem—zygotic embryo, leaf and ovary—were investigated for their potential to biosynthesize azadirachtin. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the in vitro cell lines showed the presence of azadirachtin in all the samples tested, the content of which in cultured cells varied with explant source and cell differentiation response. The presence of azadirachtin in samples was further confirmed by positive electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy. The zygotic embryo cultures of neem accumulated much higher amounts of azadirachtin than leaf and ovary cultures. Furthermore, organized in vitro callus cultures (redifferentiated) supported higher azadirachtin biosynthesis, while unorganized callus cultures (dedifferentiated) supported the least. The maximum azadirachtin content of 2.33 mg g−1 dry weight was obtained from redifferentiated immature zygotic embryo cultures.

  16. Atividade do óleo de Eucalyptus citriodora e Azadirachta indica no controle de Colletotrichum acutatum em morangueiro Eucalyptus citriodora and Azadirachta indica oil activity in the control of Colletotrichum acutatum, in strawberry crop

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    Cláudia Regina Dias-Arieira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A flor-preta é uma das doenças mais importantes do morangueiro e a busca por alternativas de controle tem sido uma constante, principalmente em áreas de cultivo orgânico. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência, in vitro e in vivo, dos óleos de Eucalyptus citriodora e Azadirachta indica no controle de Colletotrichum acutatum em morangueiro. No experimento in vitro determinou-se a inibição do crescimento micelial quando o fungo foi submetido aos extratos nas concentrações de 0; 0,25; 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5%. No campo, avaliou-se o controle da doença com a aplicação dos óleos nas concentrações de 0, 0,5 e 1,0%, pulverizados em intervalos de 7, 15 e 30 dias, em plantas inoculadas com suspensão de 10(6 conídios/mL. As avaliações foram realizadas semanalmente, observando-se a ocorrência e tamanho de lesões no pedúnculo e nos frutos, abortamento floral, produtividade, e ocorrência natural da doença. In vitro todos os tratamentos apresentaram redução significativa do crescimento micelial do fungo quando comparados ao controle. No campo, apenas o óleo de nim apresentou efeito significativo, reduzindo o abortamento floral e a ocorrência de frutos doentes advindos de flores inoculadas. Porém, maior ocorrência natural de doença foi observada quando a dosagem de 1,0% foi aplicada semanalmente.Anthracnose is one of the most important diseases in strawberry crop, and the search for control alternatives has been frequent, especially in organic cultivation areas. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo efficiency of Eucaliptus citriodora and Azadirachta indica oil on the control of Colletotrichum acutatum in strawberry. In the in vitro experiment, mycelial growth inhibition was determined when the fungus was subjected to extracts at the following concentrations: 0; 0.25; 0.5; 1.0; and 1.5%. In the field, the disease control was evaluated through oil spraying at 0, 0.5 and 1.0% concentrations at intervals of

  17. Chemical characterization of Azadirachta indica grafted on Melia azedarach and analyses of azadirachtin by HPLC-MS-MS (SRM) and meliatoxins by MALDI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forim, Moacir Rossi; Cornélio, Vivian Estevam; da Silva, M Fátima das G F; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Fernandes, João B; Vieira, Paulo C; Matinez, Sueli Souza; Napolitano, Michael P; Yost, Richard A

    2010-01-01

    Melia azedarach adapted to cool climates was selected as rootstocks for vegetative propagation of Azadirachta indica. Cleft grafting of A. indica on M. azedarach rootstock showed excellent survival. Little is known about the chemistry of grafting. The roots, stems, leaves and seeds of this graft were examined in order to verify if grafted A. indica would produce limonoids different from those found in non-grafted plants. Intact matured fruits were also studied to verify if they were free of meliatoxins. After successive chromatographic separations the extracts afforded several limonoids. HPLC-MS/MS and MALDI-MS were used to develop sensitive methods for detecting azadirachtin on all aerial parts of this graft and meliatoxins in fruits, respectively. The stem afforded the limonoid salannin, which was previously found in the oil seeds of A. indica. Salannin is also found in the root bark of M. azedarach. Thus, the finding of salannin in this study suggests that it could have been translocated from the M. azedarach rootstock to the A. indica graft. HPLC-MS/MS analyses showed that azadirachtin was present in all parts of the fruits, stem, flowers and root, but absent in the leaves. The results of MALDI-MS analyses confirmed the absence of meliatoxins in graft fruits. This study showed that A. indica grafted onto M. azedarach rootstock produces azadirachtin, and also that its fruits are free of meliatoxins from rootstocks, confirming that this graft forms an excellent basis for breeding vigorous Neem trees in cooler regions.

  18. Insecticidal Efficacy of Azadirachta indica, Nucleopolyhedrovirus and Chlorantraniliprole Singly or Combined against Field Populations fo Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Eficacia Insecticida de Azadirachta indica, Nucleopolihedrovirus y Clorantraniliprol solo y sus Aplicaciones Integradas contra Poblaciones de Campo de Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Waqas Wakil

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of resistance in cosmopolitan insect Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae forced the researchers for alternative control measures. In the present study, insecticidal efficacy of formulations of Azadirachta indica, a Nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV, and new anthranilic diamide insecticide (chlorantraniliprole formulations was determined against 2nd, through 5th larval instars of H. armigera collected from diverse geographical locations in the Punjab province, Pakistan. Azadirachta indica was applied at 5 μL L-1; NPV at 2.1 x 10(5 polyhedral occlusion bodies (POB mL4 and chlorantraniliprole at 0.01 μL L-1, either alone or in combinations with each other. The bioassays were conducted at 27 ± 1 °C and 65 ± 5% relative humidity. The mortality varied greatly among treatments, larval instars, and locations. The combinations of NPV with A. indica and chlorantraniliprole caused higher mortality, pupation and produced an additive effect compared to their application singly in all the tested populations. The population from Rawalpindi was always susceptible while the Gujranwala was the resistant. The results herein suggest that the effectiveness of NPV and A. indica can be improved by the presence of chlorantraniliprole against the larvae of H. armigera.Se determinó la eficacia insecticida de formulaciones de Azadirachta indica, Nucleopolihedrovirus (VPN y el nuevo insecticida diamida antranílico (clorantraniliprol en contra de segundo, tercero, cuarto y quinto estadios larvales de Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae recogidos de diversas ubicaciones geográficas de la provincia de Punjab, Pakistán. Azadirachta indica se aplicó en dosis de 5 μL L-1; VPN en dosis 2.1 x 10(5 POB mL-1 y clorantraniliprol fue 0,01 μL L-1 ya sea solos o en combinaciones. Los bioensayos se realizaron a 27 ± 1 °C y 65 ± 5% de humedad relativa. La mortalidad fue notablemente variada entre los tratamientos, estadios larvales y

  19. Removal of fluoride by thermally activated carbon prepared from neem (Azadirachta indica) and kikar (Acacia arabica) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Asha; Yadav, J P

    2008-03-01

    The present investigation deals with fluoride removal from aqueous solution by thermally activated neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves carbon (ANC) and thermally activated kikar (Acacia arabica) leaves carbon (AKC) adsorbents. In this study neem leaves carbon and kikar leaves carbon prepared by heating the leaves at 400 degrees C in electric furnace was found to be useful for the removal of fluoride. The adsorbents of 0.3 mm and 1.0 mm sizes of neem and kikar leaves carbon was prepared by standard sieve. Batch experiments done to see the fluoride removal properties from synthetic solution of 5 ppm to study the influence of pH, adsorbent dose and contact time on adsorption efficiency The optimum pH was found to be 6 for both adsorbents. The optimum dose was found to be 0.5g/100 ml forANC (activated neem leaves carbon) and 0.7g/100 ml forAKC (activated kikar leaves carbon). The optimum time was found to be one hour for both the adsorbent. It was also found that adsorbent size of 0.3 mm was more efficient than the 1.0 mm size. The adsorption process obeyed Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The straight line of log (qe-q) vs time at ambient temperature indicated the validity of langergren equation consequently first order nature of the process involved in the present study. Results indicate that besides intraparticle diffusion there maybe other processes controlling the rate which may be operating simultaneously. All optimized conditions were applied for removal of fluoride from four natural water samples.

  20. Application of neem (Azadirachta indica) as biological pesticides in cocoa seed (Theobroma cacao) storage using various local adsorbent media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardiyani, S. A.; Sunawan; Pawestri, A. E.

    2018-03-01

    Cocoa seeds are recalcitrant (the water content is more than 40%) that require special handling. The use of adsorbent media to reduce the decrease in the quality of cocoa seeds and extend their shelf life in this storage has not been widely done. Local adsorbent media such as sawdust, sand and ash have the potential to maintain the viability of cocoa seeds. The objective of this research was to determine the interaction of the application of neem (Azadirachta indica) as biological pesticides and the use of various natural adsorbent media in the storage of cocoa seeds (Theobroma cacao). It was an experimental study with a factorial design composed of three factors. The first factor was the medium adsorbent type for the storage of cocoa seed, which consists of three levels (river sand, ash, and sawdust). The second factor was the concentration of neem leaves for pre-storage treatment with three levels (10, 20, and 30%). The third factor was the storage time (10 and 20 days). The results of the study indicated that the combination of the three factors showed a significant interaction in the height of the plant and the diameter of the stem of the seedling at 28 days after sowing. The fresh weight of the seedlings of the seeds that were stored in ash media gave a better result than the seedlings of seeds that had been stored in the river sand and the sawdust as adsorbent media. The application of 20% extract of neem leaves gave the best influence for the seeds that were stored for 20 days.

  1. Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaf powder as a biosorbent for removal of Cd(II) from aqueous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Arunima [Department of chemistry, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam (India); Bhattacharyya, Krishna G. [Department of chemistry, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam (India)]. E-mail: krishna2604@sify.com

    2005-10-17

    A biosorbent, Neem leaf powder (NLP), was prepared from the mature leaves of the Azadirachta indica (Neem) tree by initial cleaning, drying, grinding, washing to remove pigments and redrying. The powder was characterized with respect to specific surface area (21.45 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}), surface topography and surface functional groups and the material was used as an adsorbent in a batch process to remove Cd(II) from aqueous medium under conditions of different concentrations, NLP loadings, pH, agitation time and temperature. Adsorption increased from 8.8% at pH 4.0 to 70.0% at pH 7.0 and 93.6% at pH 9.5, the higher values in alkaline medium being due to removal by precipitation. The adsorption was very fast initially and maximum adsorption was observed within 300 min of agitation. The kinetics of the interactions was tested with pseudo first order Lagergren equation (mean k {sub 1} = 1.2 x 10{sup -2} min{sup -1}), simple second order kinetics (mean k {sub 2} = 1.34 x 10{sup -3} g mg{sup -1} min{sup -1}), Elovich equation, liquid film diffusion model (mean k = 1.39 x 10{sup -2} min{sup -1}) and intra-particle diffusion mechanism. The adsorption data gave good fits with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and yielded Langmuir monolayer capacity of 158 mg g{sup -1} for the NLP and Freundlich adsorption capacity of 18.7 L g{sup -1}. A 2.0 g of NLP could remove 86% of Cd(II) at 293 K from a solution containing 158.8 mg Cd(II) per litre. The mean values of the thermodynamic parameters, {delta}H, {delta}S and {delta}G, at 293 K were -73.7 kJ mol{sup -1}, -0.24 J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1} and -3.63 kJ mol{sup -1}, respectively, showing the adsorption process to be thermodynamically favourable. The results have established good potentiality for the Neem leaf powder to be used as a biosorbent for Cd(II)

  2. Efeito de Extratos Aquosos de Azadirachta indica na Sobrevivência de Diatraea saccharalis e do Parasitóide Cotesia flavipes

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    Fábio Mazzonetto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de extratos aquosos de Azadirachta indica na sobrevivência de Diatraea saccharalis e do parasitóide Cotesia flavipes. Para a obtenção do extrato vegetal de A. indica, as folhas secas em estufa de circulação forçada de ar (40oC durante 48h, posteriormente trituradas em moinho de facas até obtenção do pó. Os extratos foram obtidos a partir da adição de 0,5; 1,0; 2,0; 3,0 e 5,0g do pó vegetal em 100ml de água destilada formando respectivamente as concentrações. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos (testemunha, 0,5%, 1%, 2%, 3% e 5% de extrato aquoso de A. indica e 40 repetições. Para a análise estatística utilizou-se o método de Kaplan-Meier e o teste de Log-Rank na obtenção e comparação das curvas de sobrevivência. Já para a análise dos dados de emergência de adultos do parasitóide C. flavipes foi utilizado o teste de Scott-Knott ao nível de 5% de probabilidade.  As lagartas D. saccharalis apresentaram um menor tempo de sobrevivência quando expostas as dietas artificiais contendo as diferentes concentrações do extrato aquoso de A. indica.  A utilização de extrato aquoso de A. indica afetou negativamente a emergência de adultos de C. flavipes, importante parasitóide de D. saccharalis, quando submetidos ao parasitismo de lagartas tratadas com extrato aquoso de folhas deste vegetal.

  3. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaji, Prashant; Jagtap, Kiran; Lau, Himani; Bansal, Nandita; Thajuraj, S; Sondhi, Priti

    2016-01-01

    Successful root canal treatment involves the complete elimination of microorganism from the root canal and the three-dimensional obturation of the canal space. Enterococcus faecalis is the most commonly found bacteria in failed root canal. Chemical irrigation of canals along with biomechanical preparation helps in the elimination of microorganisms. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica extract, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The bacterial E. faecalis (ATCC) culture was grown overnight in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth and inoculated in Mueller-Hinton agar plates. Antibacterial inhibition was assessed using agar well diffusion method. All five study irrigants were added to respective wells in agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Bacterial inhibition zone around each well was recorded. Results were tabulated and statistically analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software for Windows, version 19.0. (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY. Highest inhibitory zone against E. faecalis was seen in NaOCl fallowed by M. citrifolia and A. indica extract, and the least by A. vera extract. Tested herbal medicine (A. indica extract, M. citrifolia, A. vera) showed inhibitory zone against E. faecalis. Hence, these irrigants can be used as root canal irrigating solutions.

  4. Screening of efficient arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for Azadirachta indica under nursery condition: a step towards afforestation of semi-arid region of western India

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    K. Banerjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To optimize nursery practices for efficient plant production procedures and to keep up to the ever growing demand of seedlings, identification of the most suitable species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, specific for a given tree species, is clearly a necessary task. Sixty days old seedlings of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss raised in root trainers were inoculated with six species of AMF and a mixed inoculum (consortia and kept in green house. Performances of the treatments on this tree species were evaluated in terms of growth parameters like plant height shoot collar diameter, biomass and phosphorous uptake capabilities. Significant and varied increase in the growth parameters and phosphorous uptake was observed for most of the AMF species against control. Consortia culture was found to be the best suited AMF treatment for A.indica, while Glomus intraradices and Glomus mosseae were the best performing single species cultures. It is the first time in the state of Gujarat that a wide variety of AMF species, isolated from the typical semi-arid region of western India, were tested for the best growth performance with one of the most important tree species for the concerned region.

  5. Trypanosoma brucei Inhibition by Essential Oils from Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Traditionally Used in Cameroon (Azadirachta indica, Aframomum melegueta, Aframomum daniellii, Clausena anisata, Dichrostachys cinerea and Echinops giganteus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamte, Stephane L Ngahang; Ranjbarian, Farahnaz; Campagnaro, Gustavo Daniel; Nya, Prosper C Biapa; Mbuntcha, Hélène; Woguem, Verlaine; Womeni, Hilaire Macaire; Ta, Léon Azefack; Giordani, Cristiano; Barboni, Luciano; Benelli, Giovanni; Cappellacci, Loredana; Hofer, Anders; Petrelli, Riccardo; Maggi, Filippo

    2017-07-06

    Essential oils are complex mixtures of volatile components produced by the plant secondary metabolism and consist mainly of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes and, to a minor extent, of aromatic and aliphatic compounds. They are exploited in several fields such as perfumery, food, pharmaceutics, and cosmetics. Essential oils have long-standing uses in the treatment of infectious diseases and parasitosis in humans and animals. In this regard, their therapeutic potential against human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) has not been fully explored. In the present work, we have selected six medicinal and aromatic plants ( Azadirachta indica , Aframomum melegueta , Aframomum daniellii , Clausena anisata , Dichrostachys cinerea , and Echinops giganteus ) traditionally used in Cameroon to treat several disorders, including infections and parasitic diseases, and evaluated the activity of their essential oils against Trypanosma brucei TC221. Their selectivity was also determined with Balb/3T3 (mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line) cells as a reference. The results showed that the essential oils from A. indica , A . daniellii , and E. giganteus were the most active ones, with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) values of 15.21, 7.65, and 10.50 µg/mL, respectively. These essential oils were characterized by different chemical compounds such as sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, monoterpene hydrocarbons, and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Some of their main components were assayed as well on T. brucei TC221, and their effects were linked to those of essential oils.

  6. Preconditioning with Azadirachta indica ameliorates cardiorenal dysfunction through reduction in oxidative stress and extracellular signal regulated protein kinase signalling

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    Temidayo Olutayo Omóbòwálé

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Together, A. indica and vitamin C prevented IRI-induced cardiorenal dysfunction via reduction in oxidative stress, improvement in antioxidant defence system and increase in the ERK1/2 expressions. Therefore, A. indica can be a useful chemopreventive agent in the prevention and treatment of conditions associated with intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion injury.

  7. Biosorptive behaviour of Mango (Mangifera indica) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark for Hg{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+} and Cd{sup 2+} toxic ions from aqueous solutions: a radiotracer study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Diwakar; Mishra, Shuddhodan P. [Nuclear and Radiochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India); Mishra, Manisha; Dubey, R.S. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India)

    1999-04-01

    Biosorption of Hg{sup 2+} and Cr{sup 3+} on dead biomass Mango (Mangifera indica) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark has been assessed at micro to tracer level concentrations from aqueous solutions employing the 'radiotracer technique'. A high level of uptake of metal ions on these solid surfaces occurs within ca. 4 h of contact time reaching apparent saturation. The increase of sorptive concentration (10{sup -8} to 10{sup -2} mol dm{sup -3}), temperature (293-323 K) and pH (ca. 3 to 10) favoured the removal process of these ions; but in the case of Hg{sup 2+} on Neem bark, there was seemingly no temperature effect. The uptake process follows first order rate law and obeys the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. Added anions and cations in the bulk solution inhibit to some extent the removal of these toxic ions. Similarly the inhibition in the uptake was also observed when both biomasses were irradiated by neutron and {gamma}-rays prior to being employed as sorbents. No significant sorption of Cd{sup 2+} was observed on these dead biomass solid surfaces under various physical-chemical conditions.

  8. In vitro assay of the inhibitory effect of neem callus and leaf extracts on some phytopathogenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gaali, E.; Mukhtar, I.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of different concentrations of neem (Azadirachta indica) callus and leaf extracts on the radial growth of drechslera rostrata, fusarium oxysporum and alterneria alternata was assessed. Obvious inhibitory effect was observed on the mycelia radial growth of the three treated fungi. The level of inhibition increased with the increase of the extract concentration. The maximum inhibitory effect (84%) was recorded with drechslera rostrata when inoculated in media containing 20 mg/ml of neem callus extract, while the inhibition rate of the mycelial growth of the same species reached 61% when inoculated in a medium containing the same concentration of neem leaf extract. The subsequent concentrations of the callus and leaf extracts gave similar trends of inhibition on the fungi cultured on extract amended agar plates. (Author)

  9. Azadirachta indica plant-assisted green synthesis of Mn3O4 nanoparticles: Excellent thermal catalytic performance and chemical sensing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jitendra Kumar; Srivastava, Pratibha; Ameen, Sadia; Akhtar, M Shaheer; Singh, Gurdip; Yadava, Sudha

    2016-06-15

    The leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) plant was utilized as reducing agent for the green synthesis of Mn3O4 nanoparticles (NPs). The crystalline analysis demonstrated the typical tetragonal hausmannite crystal structure of Mn3O4, which confirmed the formation of Mn3O4 NPs without the existence of other oxides. Green synthesized Mn3O4 NPs were applied for the catalytic thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and as working electrode for fabricating the chemical sensor. The excellent catalytic effect for the thermal decomposition of AP was observed by decreasing the decomposition temperature by 175 °C with single decomposing step. The fabricated chemical sensor based on green synthesized Mn3O4 NPs displayed high, reliable and reproducible sensitivity of ∼569.2 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) with reasonable limit of detection (LOD) of ∼22.1 μM and the response time of ∼10 s toward the detection of 2-butanone chemical. A relatively good linearity in the ranging from ∼20 to 160 μM was detected for Mn3O4 NPs electrode based 2-butanone chemical sensor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Rendimento e Características Físicas dos Óleos de Nim (Azadirachta indica e Mamona (Ricinus communis

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    Juarez Benigno Paes

    Full Text Available A pesquisa objetivou avaliar o rendimento e a viscosidade de óleos de nim (Azadirachta indica e mamona (Ricinus communis. Os frutos de nim foram coletados no Núcleo de Pesquisa do Semiárido, em Patos, Paraíba, e os de mamona, às margens do Rio Espinharas, Patos e em Igaracy, Paraíba. Os frutos foram beneficiados no Laboratório de Tecnologia de Produtos Florestais, em Patos. Foram retiradas amostras de sementes para a determinação do teor de umidade e do rendimento em óleos. Os óleos foram extraídos com álcool etílico absoluto e empregados no preparo de soluções com os óleos de nim e mamona. Determinaram-se a densidade e a viscosidade das soluções. A mamona teve menor teor de umidade e rendimento em óleo que o nim. A densidade e a viscosidade do óleo de nim foram menores que o da mamona. Uma maior quantidade de óleos de mamona proporcionou aumento na densidade e na viscosidade das soluções preparadas.

  11. Toxicity of Neem Leaf Extracts (Azadirachta indica A. Juss on Some Haematological, Ionoregulatory, Biochemical and Enzymological Parameters of Indian Major Carp, Cirrhinus mrigala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saravanan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the median lethal concentration (LC 50 of neem leaf extract to Cirrhinus mrigala for 24 h was found to be 1.035 g l-l. During the study period, the haematological parameters including Hb, Hct, RBC, MCV, MCH and MCHC levels were significantly decreased in neem leaf extract exposed fish when compared to the control fish whereas WBC count was increased. Similarly, plasma Na+ and Cl- levels were significantly lower and K+ level were significantly higher when compared to the control. In biochemical study, elevated plasma glucose and induced protein levels were noticed. The enzymes, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT activities were increased significantly in gill, liver and muscle of treated fish compared to that of their control groups. The results of the present investigation suggest that neem leaf extracts affects the hematological, ionoregulatory, biochemical and enzymological parameters of fish and alterations of these parameters can be useful in environmental biomonitoring of neem based products in freshwater environment.Keywords: Azadirachta indica, Acute toxicity, Cirrhinus mrigala, Haematology, Ion regulation, Biochemical and Enzymological parameters.

  12. Effect of feeding Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Acacia (Acacia senegal) tree foliage on nutritional and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemariam, Samson; Urge, Mengistu; Menkir, Sissay

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of dried foliage of Acacia senegal and Neem (Azadirachta indica) tree supplementations on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth, and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats. Twenty male intact short-eared Somali goat yearlings with an average live weight of 16.2 ± 1.08 (Mean ± SD) were assigned to four treatment groups, which comprised a basal diet of hay alone (T1) and supplementation with the tree foliages. Supplements consisted Neem tree (T2), A. senegal (T3) and the mixture of the two (1:1 ratio; T4) dried foliages. The crude protein (CP) content of Neem tree foliage, A. senegal, and their mixture were 16.92, 17.5 and 17.01 % of dry matter (DM), respectively. Total DM intake and digestibility of DM and organic matter were significantly (P senegal (67 %). The final body weights were higher (P Senegal. An average daily body weight (BW) gain was higher (P senegal (8.3 kg) among the supplemented groups, all of which are higher than the control (4.9 kg). It is concluded that the supplementation with tree foliage, especially with A. senegal tree foliage, on grass hay encouraged a better utilization of nutrients and animal performance as compared to goats fed on a basal diet of grass hay only.

  13. Morphological effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed oil with known azadirachtin concentrations on the oocytes of semi-engorged Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedio, R N; Nunes, P H; Anholeto, L A; Oliveira, P R; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2015-02-01

    The concern about the harmful effects caused by synthetic pesticides has led to the search for safe and ecological alternatives for pest control. In this context, the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) stands out due to its repellent properties and effects on various arthropods, including ticks. For this reason, this study aimed to demonstrate the potential of neem as a control method for Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, important vectors of diseases in the veterinary point of view. For this, R. sanguineus semi-engorged females were subjected to treatment with neem seed oil enriched with azadirachtin, its main compound, and ovaries were assessed by means of morphological techniques in conventional light microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Neem demonstrated a clear dose-dependent effect in the analyzed samples. The observed oocytes presented, especially in the groups treated with higher concentrations of neem oil, obvious signs of cytoplasmic disorganization, cellular vacuolization, nuclear and nucleolar irregularity, dilation in mitochondrial cristae, alterations in mitochondrial matrix, and swelling of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Intracellular microorganisms were observed in all analyzed groups, reinforcing the importance of ticks in the transmission of pathogens. A greater quantity of microorganisms was noted as the concentration of neem increased, indicating that the damaged oocytes may be more susceptible for their development. Such morphological alterations may promote future damages in reproductive performance of these animals and demonstrate the potential of neem seed oil for the control of R. sanguineus ticks, paving the way for new, cheaper, and safer methods of control.

  14. Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf dietary effects on the immunity response and disease resistance of Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer challenged with Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpur, Allah Dad; Ikhwanuddin, Mhd

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed to address the possible evaluation of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf-supplemented diets on innate immune response in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer fingerlings against Vibrio harveyi infection. Fish were fed for two weeks diets containing six graded levels of neem leaf at 0 g, 1 g, 2 g, 3 g, 4 g and 5 g per kg feed. Fish fed neem leaf-supplemented diet displayed significant differences (p growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to the control group fed without neem leaf-supplemented diet. Various innate immune parameters were examined pre-challenge and post-challenge. Fish was injected intraperitoneally with a lethal dose of V. harveyi containing 10(8) cells mL(-1). Supplementation of neem leaf diet significantly increased phagocytic activity, superoxide anion production, serum lysozyme, serum bactericidal activity, serum anti-protease activity throughout the experimental period when compared with the control group. Dietary doses of neem leaf diet significantly influenced the immune parameters, haematological parameters and blood biochemical indices of treated fish. The results suggested that fish fed neem leaf-supplemented diet improved the immune system and increased survival rate in L. calcarifer fingerlings against V. harveyi infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of Apoptosis and Autophagy Inducing Potential of Berberis aristata, Azadirachta indica, and Their Synergistic Combinations in Parental and Resistant Human Osteosarcoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Pracheta; Raman, Sukanya; Chowdhury, Rajdeep; Lohitesh, K.; Saini, Heena; Mukherjee, Sudeshna; Paul, Atish

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is a multifactorial disease and hence can be effectively overcome by a multi-constituently therapeutic strategy. Medicinal plant extracts represent a perfect example of such stratagem. However, minimal studies have been done till date that portray the effect of extraction techniques on the phyto-constituent profile of plant extracts and its impact on anticancer activity. In the present study, we have evaluated the anticancer potential of methanolic extracts of Berberis aristata root and Azadirachta indica seeds prepared by various extraction techniques in human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells. Soxhlation extract of B. aristata (BAM-SX) and sonication extract of A. indica (AIM-SO) were most effective in inducing apoptosis in parental drug sensitive, as well as resistant cell type developed by repeated drug exposure. Generation of reactive oxygen species and cell cycle arrest preceded caspase-mediated apoptosis in HOS cells. Interestingly, inhibition of autophagy enhanced cell death suggesting the cytoprotective role of autophagy. Combination studies of different methanolic extracts of BAM and AIM were performed, among which, the combination of BAM-SO and AIM-SO (BAAISO) was found to show synergism (IC50 10.27 µg/ml) followed by combination of BAM-MC and AIM-MC (BAAIMC) with respect to other combinations in the ratio of 1:1. BAAISO also showed synergism when it was added to cisplatin-resistant HOS cells (HCR). Chromatographic profiling of BAM-SX and AIM-SO by high performance thin layer chromatography resulted in identification of berberine (Rf 0.55), palmitine (Rf 0.50) in BAM-SX and azadirachtin A (Rf 0.36), azadirachtin B (Rf 0.56), nimbin (Rf 0.80), and nimbolide (Rf 0.43) in AIM-SO. The cytotoxic sensitivity obtained can be attributed to the above compounds. Our results highlight the importance of extraction technique and subsequent mechanism of action of multi-constituential B. aristata and A. indica against both sensitive and drug refractory HOS cells. PMID

  16. Evaluation of Apoptosis and Autophagy Inducing Potential of Berberis aristata, Azadirachta indica, and Their Synergistic Combinations in Parental and Resistant Human Osteosarcoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pracheta Sengupta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a multifactorial disease and hence can be effectively overcome by a multi-constituently therapeutic strategy. Medicinal plant extracts represent a perfect example of such stratagem. However, minimal studies have been done till date that portray the effect of extraction techniques on the phyto-constituent profile of plant extracts and its impact on anticancer activity. In the present study, we have evaluated the anticancer potential of methanolic extracts of Berberis aristata root and Azadirachta indica seeds prepared by various extraction techniques in human osteosarcoma (HOS cells. Soxhlation extract of B. aristata (BAM-SX and sonication extract of A. indica (AIM-SO were most effective in inducing apoptosis in parental drug sensitive, as well as resistant cell type developed by repeated drug exposure. Generation of reactive oxygen species and cell cycle arrest preceded caspase-mediated apoptosis in HOS cells. Interestingly, inhibition of autophagy enhanced cell death suggesting the cytoprotective role of autophagy. Combination studies of different methanolic extracts of BAM and AIM were performed, among which, the combination of BAM-SO and AIM-SO (BAAISO was found to show synergism (IC50 10.27 µg/ml followed by combination of BAM-MC and AIM-MC (BAAIMC with respect to other combinations in the ratio of 1:1. BAAISO also showed synergism when it was added to cisplatin-resistant HOS cells (HCR. Chromatographic profiling of BAM-SX and AIM-SO by high performance thin layer chromatography resulted in identification of berberine (Rf 0.55, palmitine (Rf 0.50 in BAM-SX and azadirachtin A (Rf 0.36, azadirachtin B (Rf 0.56, nimbin (Rf 0.80, and nimbolide (Rf 0.43 in AIM-SO. The cytotoxic sensitivity obtained can be attributed to the above compounds. Our results highlight the importance of extraction technique and subsequent mechanism of action of multi-constituential B. aristata and A. indica against both sensitive and drug refractory HOS

  17. Efeito de extratos aquosos de Azadirachta indica, Melia azedarach e Aspidosperma pyrifolium no desenvolvimento e oviposição de Plutella xylostella Effect of aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica (A. Juss, Melia azedarach (L. and Aspidosperma pyrifolium (Mart. on the development and oviposition of Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalci Leite Torres

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados a CL50 e o efeito de extratos aquosos de plantas na biologia, oviposição e período embrionário de Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae. Para determinação da CL50 foram utilizadas concentrações entre 0,03 e 0,8 % para amêndoas de Azadirachta indica (A. Juss. 0,5 e 7,0 % para casca de Aspidosperma pyrifolium (Mart. e 0,5 e 12,5 % para frutos de Melia azedarach (L., obtendo-se as CL50 de 0,06; 2,17 e 2,90%, respectivamente. Verificou-se que os extratos aquosos de todas as espécies vegetais afetaram o desenvolvimento do inseto, principalmente na fase larval. Na fase de pupa, os extratos reduziram a massa e a viabilidade. Houve deformação de adultos para os extratos de A. pyrifolium e M. azedarach e o de A. indica causou maior porcentagem. Todos os extratos possuem efeito tóxico para ovos de P. xylostella, sendo dependente do aumento da concentração. Nos extratos da casca de A. pyrifolium, do fruto de M. azedarach e da amêndoa de A. indica observa-se ação ovicida quando usados na concentração letal de lagartas de primeiro ínstar da praga. Em observações do ovo de P. xylostella com auxílio de um microscópio eletrônico de varredura, verificou-se a existência de microporos onde pode ocorrer a penetração do produto ovicida, além da constatação da textura rugosa da casca do ovo que pode reter ou fixar os extratos.The effects of aqueous extracts of plants on the biology, preference for oviposition and embryonic period of Plutella xylostella were evaluated. Concentrations between 0.03 and 0.8 % for kernel of Azadirachta indica, 0.5 and 7.0% for peel of Aspidosperma pyrifolium and 0.5 and 12.5% for fruits of Melia azedarach were used, with LC50 values of 0.06; 2.17 and 2.90%, respectively, being obtained. It was verified that the aqueous extracts of all of the appraised vegetable species affected the development of the insect, mainly in the larval phase. In the pupae phase, the extracts reduced the

  18. Azadirachta indica reduces black sigatoka in east african highland banana by direct antimicrobial effects against Mycosphaerella fijiensis without inducing resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumakech, Alfred; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs; Collinge, David B.

    2017-01-01

    inoculation (DAI). Pathogenesis-related genes (PR-1 and PR-3) and non-expressor of PR-genes (NPR1B) were up-regulated in the resistant cultivar. The genes analysed responded at late time points to M. fijiensis inoculation in both extract-treated and control plants in the susceptible cv. Musakala. On the other...... hand, A. indica and C. annuum completely inhibited mycelial growth of M. fijiensis at 30% (w/v). These findings suggest that the effect of plant extracts on Black Sigatoka is strongly associated with the direct antimicrobial effects....

  19. Dinámica de nutrientes en plantaciones forestales de Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae establecidas para restauración de tierras degradadas en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Flórez-Flórez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Nim ha sido ampliamente empleada en procedimientos de restauración, por lo tanto se evaluó el potencial de sus plantaciones para restaurar tierras secas degradadas por sobrepastoreo, vía reactivación del ciclo biogeoquímico. En 20 parcelas de 250m², se instalaron trampas de hojarasca y litter-bags. Se tomaron muestras de hojas maduras y de suelos dentro y fuera de las plantaciones, y se determinaron sus contenidos elementales. Fueron monitoreados la caída de hojarasca, la descomposición de hojarasca y la reabsorción de nutrientes foliares durante un año. Los aportes anuales de hojarasca fina representaron 557.54kg/ha (33% hojas de Nim. Los mayores retornos potenciales de nutrientes vía foliar fue- ron de Ca (4.6kg/ha y N (2.4kg/ha y los menores de P (0.06kg/ha. El 68% del material se descompuso tras un año. La mayor liberación de nutrientes fue de K (100% y la menor de N (40%. El P fue el nutriente más limitante, con baja disponibilidad edáfica y alta eficiencia en su uso según el Índice de Vitousek (IEV=3 176 y la reabsorción foliar (35%. Estas plantaciones juveniles demostraron efectividad en la reactivación del ciclo biogeoquímico, que mejoraron parámetros edáficos, según incrementos de materia orgánica, P y K; 72%, 31% y 61%, respectiva- mente. Además mejoraron la estabilidad de agregados y las tasas de respiración microbiana.

  20. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of azadirachtin from dried entire fruits of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae) and its determination by a validated HPLC-PDA method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Joelma Abadia Marciano; Brito, Lucas Ferreira; Caetano, Karen Lorena Ferreira Neves; de Morais Rodrigues, Mariana Cristina; Borges, Leonardo Luiz; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Azadirachta indica A. Juss., also known as neem, is a Meliaceae family tree from India. It is globally known for the insecticidal properties of its limonoid tetranortriterpenoid derivatives, such as azadirachtin. This work aimed to optimize the azadirachtin ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and validate the HPLC-PDA analytical method for the measurement of this marker in neem dried fruit extracts. Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to investigate the effect of process variables on the UAE. Three independent variables, including ethanol concentration (%, w/w), temperature (°C), and material-to-solvent ratio (gmL(-1)), were studied. The azadirachtin content (µgmL(-1)), i.e., dependent variable, was quantified by the HPLC-PDA analytical method. Isocratic reversed-phase chromatography was performed using acetonitrile/water (40:60), a flow of 1.0mLmin(-1), detection at 214nm, and C18 column (250×4.6mm(2), 5µm). The primary validation parameters were determined according to ICH guidelines and Brazilian legislation. The results demonstrated that the optimal UAE condition was obtained with ethanol concentration range of 75-80% (w/w), temperature of 30°C, and material-to-solvent ratio of 0.55gmL(-1). The HPLC-PDA analytical method proved to be simple, selective, linear, precise, accurate and robust. The experimental values of azadirachtin content under optimal UAE conditions were in good agreement with the RSM predicted values and were superior to the azadirachtin content of percolated extract. Such findings suggest that UAE is a more efficient extractive process in addition to being simple, fast, and inexpensive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ethnobotanical uses of neem (Azadirachta indica A.Juss.; Meliaceae) leaves in Bali (Indonesia) and the Indian subcontinent in relation with historical background and phytochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujarwo, Wawan; Keim, Ary P; Caneva, Giulia; Toniolo, Chiara; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2016-08-02

    Neem (Azadirachta indica; Meliaceae) is widely known for its cold pressed seed oil, mainly used as insecticide, but also for cosmetic, medicinal and agricultural uses. The seed oil is widely employed in the Indian subcontinent, and the leaves seem to have a lower relevance, but the ethnobotanical information of Bali (Indonesia) considers the utilisation of leaves for medicinal properties. We report ethnopharmacological information about current uses of neem, in particular of the leaves, besides the insecticidal one, we discuss on the historical background of their uses. Ethnobotanical data were collected using both literature and scientific references and semi-structured interviews with 50 informants (ages ranged between 14 and 76 years old) through the snowball method in thirteen aga (indigenous Balinese) villages, following Ethic code procedures. The informants were asked to specify: which part of the plant was used, and how that plant part was used. Plant specimens were collected, identified and made into herbarium voucher. In consideration of the high variability and complex chemical constituent of neem, a HPTLC analysis of neem leaves coming from both the Indonesian island of Bali and the Indian subcontinent was carried out. The data on the medical use of traditional preparations from leaves of neem display a wide spectrum of applications. In the Indian subcontinent, neem leaves are used to treat dental and gastrointestinal disorders, malaria fevers, skin diseases, and as insects repellent, while the Balinese used neem leaves as a diuretic and for diabetes, headache, heartburn, and stimulating the appetite. Differences in utilisation cannot be related to chemical differences and other constituents besides limonoids must be investigated and related to the multipurpose activity of neem. This study revealed that neem leaves are believed to treat diabetes in both Balinese and Indian communities. Limonoids can not be considered the only responsible of digestive

  2. EFECTO DE LA RELACIÓN AGITACIÓN-AIREACIÓN SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO CELULAR Y LA PRODUCCIÓN DE AZADIRACTINA EN CULTIVOS CELULARES DE AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. JUSS AGITATION-AERATION RELATION EFFECTS ON CELL CULTURE OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. JUSS NEEM ON AZADIRACHTIN PRODUCTION IN A STIRRED TANK BIOREACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Bedoya Pérez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la producción de azadiractina a partir de células de Azadirachta indica A. Juss, establecidas en un biorreactor sometido a variaciones en la velocidad de agitación y el caudal del aire suministrado al medio de cultivo. Además, se determinó el efecto del oxigeno disuelto en el medio de cultivo, sobre el crecimiento celular y la producción del metabolito, mediante la estimación del coeficiente de transferencia de oxígeno (kLa, la velocidad de transferencia de oxígeno (OTR, la velocidad de consumo de oxígeno (OUR y el consumo celular específico de oxígeno (SOUR. Los resultados mostraron que el crecimiento celular y la producción de azadiractina, están fuertemente influenciados por las condiciones de mezclado presentes en el biorreactor, indicando un alto grado de sensibilidad de las células al estrés hidrodinámico. Por otra parte, se evidenció que los valores de kLa y OTR aumentaron al incrementar la velocidad de agitación y aireación, lo que favoreció la transferencia de masa, mientras que ocurrió lo contrario con la OUR y la SOUR, posiblemente debido a la pérdida de la viabilidad celular, al incrementar los esfuerzos cortantes dentro del biorreactor.It was evaluated the production of azadiractin from cells of Azadirachta indica A. Juss, established in a biorreactor submitted to variations in the speed of agitation and the air flow provided to the culture medium. Besides, it was determined the effect of the oxygen dissolved in the culture medium, on cellular growth and production of the metabolite, by means of estimating the oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa , oxygen transfer rate (OTR, oxygen uptake rate (OUR, and the cellular specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR. The results showed that the cellular growth and azadiractin production, are strongly influenced by the mixed conditions in the biorreactor, indicating a high degree of sensitivity of cells to the hydrodinamic stress. On the other hand, it was evident that k

  3. Transmission blocking activity of a standardized neem (Azadirachta indica) seed extract on the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei in its vector Anopheles stephensi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The wide use of gametocytocidal artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) lead to a reduction of Plasmodium falciparum transmission in several African endemic settings. An increased impact on malaria burden may be achieved through the development of improved transmission-blocking formulations, including molecules complementing the gametocytocidal effects of artemisinin derivatives and/or acting on Plasmodium stages developing in the vector. Azadirachtin, a limonoid (tetranortriterpenoid) abundant in neem (Azadirachta indica, Meliaceae) seeds, is a promising candidate, inhibiting Plasmodium exflagellation in vitro at low concentrations. This work aimed at assessing the transmission-blocking potential of NeemAzal®, an azadirachtin-enriched extract of neem seeds, using the rodent malaria in vivo model Plasmodium berghei/Anopheles stephensi. Methods Anopheles stephensi females were offered a blood-meal on P. berghei infected, gametocytaemic BALB/c mice, treated intraperitoneally with NeemAzal, one hour before feeding. The transmission-blocking activity of the product was evaluated by assessing oocyst prevalence, oocyst density and capacity to infect healthy mice. To characterize the anti-plasmodial effects of NeemAzal® on early midgut stages, i.e. zygotes and ookinetes, Giemsa-stained mosquito midgut smears were examined. Results NeemAzal® completely blocked P. berghei development in the vector, at an azadirachtin dose of 50 mg/kg mouse body weight. The totally 138 examined, treated mosquitoes (three experimental replications) did not reveal any oocyst and none of the healthy mice exposed to their bites developed parasitaemia. The examination of midgut content smears revealed a reduced number of zygotes and post-zygotic forms and the absence of mature ookinetes in treated mosquitoes. Post-zygotic forms showed several morphological alterations, compatible with the hypothesis of an azadirachtin interference with the functionality of the microtubule

  4. Transmission blocking activity of a standardized neem (Azadirachta indica seed extract on the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei in its vector Anopheles stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito Fulvio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The wide use of gametocytocidal artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT lead to a reduction of Plasmodium falciparum transmission in several African endemic settings. An increased impact on malaria burden may be achieved through the development of improved transmission-blocking formulations, including molecules complementing the gametocytocidal effects of artemisinin derivatives and/or acting on Plasmodium stages developing in the vector. Azadirachtin, a limonoid (tetranortriterpenoid abundant in neem (Azadirachta indica, Meliaceae seeds, is a promising candidate, inhibiting Plasmodium exflagellation in vitro at low concentrations. This work aimed at assessing the transmission-blocking potential of NeemAzal®, an azadirachtin-enriched extract of neem seeds, using the rodent malaria in vivo model Plasmodium berghei/Anopheles stephensi. Methods Anopheles stephensi females were offered a blood-meal on P. berghei infected, gametocytaemic BALB/c mice, treated intraperitoneally with NeemAzal, one hour before feeding. The transmission-blocking activity of the product was evaluated by assessing oocyst prevalence, oocyst density and capacity to infect healthy mice. To characterize the anti-plasmodial effects of NeemAzal® on early midgut stages, i.e. zygotes and ookinetes, Giemsa-stained mosquito midgut smears were examined. Results NeemAzal® completely blocked P. berghei development in the vector, at an azadirachtin dose of 50 mg/kg mouse body weight. The totally 138 examined, treated mosquitoes (three experimental replications did not reveal any oocyst and none of the healthy mice exposed to their bites developed parasitaemia. The examination of midgut content smears revealed a reduced number of zygotes and post-zygotic forms and the absence of mature ookinetes in treated mosquitoes. Post-zygotic forms showed several morphological alterations, compatible with the hypothesis of an azadirachtin interference with the functionality

  5. Infection of Early and Young Callus Tissues of Indica Rice BPT 5204 Enhances Regeneration and Transformation Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. MANIMARAN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and reproducible method to develop transgenic plants with enhanced transformation efficiency using Agrobacterium has been developed for the elite indica rice variety BPT 5204. Different rice calli aged from 3 to 30 d were co-cultivated with pre-incubated Agrobacterium suspension culture (LBA4404: pSB1, pCAMBIA1301 and incubated in dark for 3 d. Based on the transient GUS gene expression analysis, 6-day-old young calli showed high transformation frequency followed by 21-day-old ones. Thus, both 6- and 21-day-old calli were used for assessing the stable transformation efficiency. It was observed that the 6-day-old young transformed calli showed about 2-fold higher regeneration frequency when compared with 21-day-old calli. The transformation efficiency was enhanced for young calli to 5.9% compared with 0.8% of the 21-day-old calli. Molecular and genetic analysis of transgenic plants (T0 revealed the presence of 1–2 copies of T-DNA integration in transformants and it follows Mendalian ratio in T1 transgenic plants. From the present study, it was concluded that the development of transgenic rice plants in less duration with high regeneration and transformation efficiency was achieved in BPT 5204 by using 6-day-old young calli as explants.

  6. Larvicidal properties of Lepidagathis alopecuroides and Azadirachta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-05-02

    May 2, 2006 ... Comparative analysis of the larvicidal properties of aqueous extracts of leaves of Lepidagathis alopecuroides and Azadirachta indica (neem) was carried out on Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. Assays showed that L. alopecuroides was more toxic to both larvae, while C. quinquefasciatus ...

  7. Hidrólise do óleo de Azadirachta indica em água subcrítica e determinação da composição dos triacilglicerídeos e ácidos graxos por cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução a alta temperatura e cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução acoplada à espectrometria de massas Hydrolysis of Azadirachta indica oil using subcritical water and determination of triacylglycerides and fat acids by HT-HRGC-FID and HRGC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Sebastião da Silva Pinto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of modern analytical tools plays an important role in quality control. The main purpose of this study was to explore the use of subcritical water as a versatile analytical tool, employed simultaneously as a reagent and solvent, as well as the application of high temperature-high resolution gas chromatography (HT-HRGC to develop a procedure for the analysis of triacylglycerides and fatty acids in Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Neem oil without the need for solvents, chemical reagents, or catalytic agents. The developed method presented satisfactory results and is in agreement with the concepts of Green Analytical Chemistry (GAC.

  8. Assessment of Blood Chemistry, Weight Gain and Linear Body Measurements of Pre-Puberal Buck Rabbits Fed Different Levels of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Leaf Meals Evaluación de Química Sanguínea, Ganancia de Peso y Mediciones Corporales Lineales de Conejos Pre-Púberes Alimentados con Diferentes Niveles de Harina de Hojas de Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P Ogbuewu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A 16 week feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. leaf meal (NLM on body weight gain, linear body measurements and blood chemistry of pre-puberal buck rabbits. Four treatment diets were formulated to contain the NLM at inclusion levels of 0 (control, 5, 10 and 15%. Thirty six crossbred New Zealand white × Chinchilla pre-puberal buck rabbits aged 5 to 6 mo were divided into four groups of nine rabbits and each group was further replicated into three of three rabbits each. The rabbits were randomly assigned to the four dietary treatments. Lymphocyte count of rabbits fed control diet (8.32 × 10(9 mm-3 was significantly higher than the group fed 15% NLM (4.60 × 10(9 mm-3. The mean cell hemoglobin (MCH and mean cell volume (MCV of the control bucks were significantly (p 0.05 among the treatment groups. The results suggest that buck rabbits could tolerate up to 15% dietary inclusion of NLM without deleterious effects on body weight gain, linear body measurements and some hematological parameters.Se realizó un ensayo de alimentación de 16 semanas para investigar el efecto de harina de hojas de neem Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (NML sobre ganancia de peso, mediciones corporales lineales y química sanguínea de conejos machos pre-púberes. Se formularon cuatro dietas con niveles de inclusión de NLM de 0 (control, 5, 10, y 15%. Treinta y seis conejos híbridos New Zealand white × Chinchilla, pre-púberes, de 5 a 6 meses, se distribuyeron en cuatro grupos de nueve conejos, y cada grupo fue repetido en tres grupos de tres conejos cada uno. Los conejos se asignaron aleatoriamente a las cuatro dietas tratamiento. El recuento de linfocitos de los conejos alimentados con la dieta control (8,32 × 10(9 mm-3 fue significativamente mayor que el grupo alimentado con 15% NLM (4,60 × 10(9 mm-3. La hemoglobina celular media (MCH y el volumen celular medio (MCV de los conejos control fueron

  9. Hypoglycemic Effect of Combination of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. and Gynura procumbens (Lour. Merr. Ethanolic Extracts Standardized by Rutin and Quercetin in Alloxan-induced Hyperglycemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggit Listyacahyani Sunarwidhi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Exploration of plant combinations could be an alternative approach for diabetes treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of combination of A. indica and G. procumbens ethanolic extract s in alloxan - induce d diabetic rats. Metho ds : Powder of A. indica and G. procumbens leaves were macerated with ethanol 70%. Determination of rutin in A. indica and quercetin in G. procumbens w ere performed by TLC - densitometry. Hyperglycemia in rats was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate at a single dose of 150 mg/kgBW. The rats were treated with 3 dosage variation of combinations for 15 days. Hypoglycemic effect was evaluated by estimating the blood glucose levels and the rats pancreas histological study . Results: A. i ndica contained 2. 90 ±0.15% of rutin and G. procumbens contained 18.86±0.86% of quercetin. Combination at the ratio of 50mg/kgBW A. indica : 112.5mg/kgBW G. procumbens showed the highest hypoglycemic effect: 68 . 74±4 . 83% (preprandial and 73 . 9 1 ±3 . 18% (postprandial. Histolog ical studies indicated that this combination improved the mor ph ology of the islets of Langerhans and β cells. It also increased insulin expression and decreased the elevated - glucose concentrations . Conclusion: This study showed that combination of both extracts has better hypoglycemic effect than the single treatment of A. indica or G. procumbens . Combination of both extracts was potential to develo p as a blood glucose - lowering agent for diabetic patients.

  10. Effect of pest controlling neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium Jacquin) leaf extracts on emission of green house gases and inorganic-N content in urea-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Bautista, Joaquín; Fernández-Luqueño, Fabián; López-Valdez, Fernando; Mendoza-Cristino, Reyna; Montes-Molina, Joaquín A; Gutierrez-Miceli, F A; Dendooven, L

    2009-07-01

    Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Gliricidia sepium Jacquin, locally known as 'mata-raton', are used to control pests of maize. Their application, however, is known to affect soil microorganisms. We investigated if these extracts affected emissions of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), important greenhouse gases, and dynamics of soil inorganic N. Soil was treated with extracts of neem, mata-raton or lambda-cyhalothrin, used as chemical control. The soil was amended with or without urea and incubated at 40% and 100% water holding capacity (WHC). Concentrations of ammonium (NH4+), nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitrate (NO3(-)) and emissions of CH4, CO2 and N2O were monitored for 7d. Treating urea-amended soil with extracts of neem, mata-raton or lambda-cyhalothrin reduced the emission of CO2 significantly compared to the untreated soil with the largest decrease found in the latter. Oxidation of CH4 was inhibited by extracts of neem in the unamended soil, and by neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin in the urea-amended soil compared to the untreated soil. Neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin reduced the N2O emission from the unamended soil incubated at 40%WHC compared to the untreated soil. Extracts of neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin had no significant effect on dynamics of NH4(+), NO2(-) and NO(3)(-). It was found that emission of CO2 and oxidation of CH4 was inhibited in the urea-amended soil treated with extracts of neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin, but ammonification, N2O emission and nitrification were not affected.

  11. indica rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... fresh weight, regeneration, proline level and total protein content in salt sensitive indica rice cv. IR 64. For callus ... INTRODUCTION. Salinity is one of the ... Proline is reported to reduce the enzyme denaturation caused due.

  12. Características dendrométricas de um povoamento de nim indiano (Azadirachta indica A. Juss no semiárido paraibano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Tibério de Alencar Moreira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O Nim (Azadirachia indica A. Juss é uma espécie de múltiplo uso que pertence a família Meliaceae. Por possuir múltiplos usos, o nim tem despertado a atenção e seus produtos têm sido cada vez mais utilizados na área de agricultura. No entanto, aspectos dendrométricos relacionados ao crescimento da espécie ainda são escassos. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o crescimento da espécie nim plantada em região semiárida do Nordeste brasileiro em dois diferentes espaçamentos. A coleta de dados foi realizada em duas áreas localizadas na Fazenda Laranjeiras, localizada no município de São José de Espinharas, Estado da Paraíba. No plantio-1 o espaçamento usado foi de 5 m x 5 m semeado no ano de 1996, em uma área de 2100 m2 e no plantio-2 o espaçamento usado foi de 4 m x 4 m em 1998, em uma área de 1600 m2. As variáveis medidas foram: DNB-Diâmetro a 0,30 cm do nível do solo (cm, HF-Altura do fuste comercial (m, HT-Altura total (m e DC-Diâmetro de copa (m. A partir destes dados foram calculados o volume cilíndrico (m3/ha, volume real (m3/ha, volume empilhado (st/ha e a área basal (m2/ha. O crescimento do nim indiano na região semiárida paraibana apresentou comportamento semelhante ao de outras áreas experimentais estudadas. Quando se pretende produzir madeira com finalidade energética o espaçamento mais indicado, entre os dois avaliados, é o de menor espaçamento.

  13. administration of extracts of Vernonia amygdalina and Azadirachta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... This study evaluated the effect of co-administration of extracts of Vernonia amygdalina Del. (VA) and. Azadirachta indica Linn.(AI) on haemapoietic and immunological indices of normal and diabetic rats. White blood cells which were non-significantly decreased (p>0.05) in diabetic control rats relative to the.

  14. field assessment of the nematicidal properties of neem (azadirachta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iya beji

    AZADIRACHTA INDICA) ... yield of treated tomato plants. Key Words: Neem, Nematicidal Properties, Root Knot Nematode, Tomato. .... Means with the same letter in the same column do not differ significantly at P = 0.05 according to Duncan`s multiple ...

  15. Influence of extraction methods on the hepatotoxicity of Azadirachta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of extraction methods: Cold aqueous (CA) hot aqueous (HA) and alcoholic extraction (AE) methods on the hepatotoxic effect of Azadirachta indica bark extract (ABC) was investigated using albino rats. A total of forty eight rats were divided into three groups of sixteen rats equally for the extraction methods.

  16. Effects Of Exposure To Sublethal Concentrations Of Azadirachta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physiological impairment on the fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus when exposed to sublethal concentrations of Azadirachta Indica was investigated. The fish were exposed to concentrations of 1.25, 2.50, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 ML -1 for the period of 12 weeks. The crude protein content decreased with increased concentration ...

  17. callus culture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    steve

    flavonoids, anthocyanins, and other phenolic com-pounds. (Blando et al. .... TP content of the callus were estimated according to the method of. Slinkard and ..... quantification of phenolic compounds in grapes by HPLC-PDA-ESI-. MS on a ...

  18. In vitro and ex vivo activity of an Azadirachta indica A.Juss. seed kernel extract on early sporogonic development of Plasmodium in comparison with azadirachtin A, its most abundant constituent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Nisha; Chianese, Giuseppina; Abay, Solomon Mequanente; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Esposito, Fulvio; Lupidi, Giulio; Bramucci, Massimo; Quassinti, Luana; Christophides, George; Habluetzel, Annette; Lucantoni, Leonardo

    2016-12-15

    NeemAzal ® (NA) is a quantified extract from seed kernels of neem, Azadirachta indica A.Juss. (Meliaceae), with a wide spectrum of biological properties, classically ascribed to its limonoid content. NA contains several azadirachtins (A to L), azadirachtin A (AzaA) being its main constituent. AzaA has been shown to inhibit microgamete formation of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei, and NA was found to completely inhibit the transmission of Plasmodium berghei to Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes when administered to gametocytemic mice at a corresponding AzaA dose of 50mg/kg before exposure to mosquitoes. The present study was aimed at i) assessing the pharmacodynamics and duration of action of NA and AzaA against P. berghei exflagellation in systemic circulation in mice and ii) elucidating the transmission blocking activity (TBA) of the main NA constituents. The NA and AzaA pharmacodynamics on exflagellation were assessed through ex vivo exflagellation assays, while TBA of NA constituents was evaluated through in vitro ookinete development assay. Pharmacodynamics experiments: Peripheral blood from P. berghei infected BALB/c mice with circulating mature gametocytes, were treated i.p. with 50mg/kg and 100mg/kg pure AzaA and with NeemAzal ® (Trifolio-M GmbH) at the corresponding AzaA concentrations. The effect magnitude and duration of action of compounds was estimated by counting exflagellation centers, formed by microgametocytes in process of releasing flagellated gametes, at various time points after treatment in ex vivo exflagellation tests. Ookinete Development Assay: The direct effects of NeemAzal ® and AzaA on ookinete development were measured by fluorescence microscopy after incubation of gametocytemic blood with various concentrations of test substances in microplates for 24h. The exflagellation tests revealed an half-life of NA anti-plasmodial compounds of up to 7h at a NA dose corresponding to 100mg/kg equivalent dose of AzaA. The ookinete

  19. Azadirachta indica, Vernonia amygdalina and Go

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... Full Length Research Paper. Comparative ... tree (1-3 m high) that grows throughout tropical Africa and has ... plants that places them at advantage position over and ... ses such as diabetes mellitus (Tiwari and Rao, 2002).

  20. et du neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 nov. 2015 ... Mots clés : tomate ; ravageurs, extraits végétaux, activité insecticide. ABSTRACT. Objective: ... obtained with the decis unlike Lippia that has been mitigated. Indeed, neem extract can be recommended as an alternative against ...

  1. 'Geed-hindi' - Melia azadirachta l. - a most common cultivated tree in Somalia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmi, S.M.A.

    1980-01-01

    M. azadirachta (Azadirachta indica), also known as 'meri-meri', a straight-stemmed evergreen exotic which grows to 18 m height, tolerates 250 mm annual rainfall and dry or saline soils. Primary uses are in shelterbelts and as a soil binder; the timber is used for building, fuelwood (at 10 yr old) and charcoal; the fruits (from 5 yr old) yield oil; and the tree has medicinal uses.

  2. EFICIÊNCIA DOS ÓLEOS DE NIM (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. E MAMONA (Ricinus communis L. NA RESISTÊNCIA DA MADEIRA DE SUMAÚMA (Ceiba pentandra (L. Gaerth. A FUNGOS XILÓFAGOS EM SIMULADORES DE CAMPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to evaluate the efficiency of neem (Azadirachta indica and castor oil plant (Ricinus communis oils for the improvement of Ceiba pentandra wood resistance to xilophagous fungi in soil bed condition (field simulator. The neem and castor oil plant oils were extracted with absolute ethyl alcohol and employed in the preparation of oil solutions. Wood samples with dimensions of 1.5 x 0.5 x 15 cm (radial x tangential x longitudinal were treated to reach a nominal retention of 10 to 16 kg of solution/m³ of wood. The samples were submitted to the action of natural micro-flora of three soils; forest, agricultural use and natural pasture soils, for 180 days. Among the tested soils, the agricultural presented greater biological activity, which damaged the samples even more. Among the tested solutions, the pure neem oil provided increased protection to samples. The prepared solutions using neem and castor oil plant oils did not protect the wood from the attack of xylophagous fungi existing in the ground.

  3. (Tongkat Ali) for callus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-12-06

    Dec 6, 2010 ... The induction of callus cultures using leaf, petiole, rachis, stem, tap root, fibrous root, cotyledon and ... other countries of the South-East Asia region and widely distributed ..... Indian ginseng plantlets from stem callus. Plant Cell ...

  4. Callus remodelling model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miodowska, Justyna; Bielski, Jan; Kromka-Szydek, Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the healing process of the callus using bone remodelling approach. A new mathematical model of bone remodelling is proposed including both underload and overload resorption, as well as equilibrium and bone growth states. The created model is used to predict the stress-stimulated change in the callus density. The permanent and intermittent loading programs are considered. The analyses indicate that obtaining a sufficiently high values of the callus density (and hence the elasticity) modulus is only possible using time-varying load parameters. The model predictions also show that intermittent loading program causes delayed callus healing. Understanding how mechanical conditions influence callus remodelling process may be relevant in the bone fracture treatment and initial bone loading during rehabilitation.

  5. Toxic effects of neem products (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... *Corresponding author. E-mail. E-mail: raymondndione@yahoo.fr. Phone: (221) ... others related compounds in neem products exhibit various modes of action .... microscope "Motic" connected to a computer, permitting us to get ..... Bacillus sphaericus Neide as a pathogen of mosquitoes. J. Invert. Pathol., 7: ...

  6. Efficacy of two selected plant extracts Azadirachta indica and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result of the study showed that Ageratum conizoides at 100g with 100cl of water had the best performance while the control had the least performance in terms of insect density, number of insect perforations and plant weight of both vegetables. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) revealed that there was no significant ...

  7. Repellent Action of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Seed Oil Cream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    hemorrahagic fever (DHF) and filariasis, are serious public health problems in tropical ... mosquito bites is one of the main strategies to control or minimize incidence .... The neem seed kernel yields an acrid bitter greenish yellow to brown fixed.

  8. Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (English: Margosa or Neem tree; Hindi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (English: Margosa or Neem tree; Hindi: Neem) ofMeliaceae a large evergreen tree with spreading crown and brownish bark is either pLanted or se(f-sown. Leaves are compound and the LeafLets are somewhat oblique with toothed margin. Flowers are small and white and borne on branched inflorescence. Fruit is about ...

  9. Oil and Azadirachtin contents of neem ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to quantify and evaluate the level of Azadirachtin in neem seed kernel from ten ecotypes in Sudan over two seasons and establish relationship to the agro-ecological attributes. Extraction was done in two replicates using 12 g. After extraction, separation and concentration to 10 ml the samples quantified ...

  10. Physico-Chemical Stability Studies of Neem (Azadirachta indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    because of its cosmetic advantage at concentrations (0%w/w – 10.0% w/w) with .... pH Determination:- Determinations were made on 20g batches of the cream ... crystalline alteration can lead to a pronounced reduction in the drug delivery.

  11. Effect of Neem Extracts (Azadirachta indica) on Bacteria Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science (March, 2012), 20(1): 64-67. ISSN 0794- ... extracts showed antibacterial activity against all the test bacteria used. The zone of ... is due to regular gum massage or preventing plaque building or ...

  12. Effects of Azadirachta indica leaf aqeous extract on the antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Original Paper ... compared with A while C and D were decreased compared wth B. Plasma and homogenate MDA were ..... 2017), thereby maintaining the cell membrane ... DCN revised the .... Aging processes of edible vegetable oils.

  13. (Azadirachta indica) seed extract for tick control in Small

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Matayo David

    ... extract for tick control in Small East African and Toggenburg female goat kids in Tanzania ... adoption rate by the local traditional small-scale resource poor farmers, etc.) (de Castro ..... SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North California. Saxena, R.C. ...

  14. Evaluation of Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf meal on performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and twenty (120), Shikka brown layers already 10 months in lay were divided into 4 groups of 30 birds each and randomly assigned to the 4 treatment diets in a completely randomized design (CRD). Eggs were collected twice daily and internal characteristics of the eggs measured. At the end of the feeding ...

  15. Effect of water treated and urea treated neem ( Azadirachta indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a study to evaluate the carcass haematological and biochemical characteristics of broiler birds fed graded levels of water and urea-treated neem kernel cake (NKC), 300 day-old broilers (Cobb, 500) were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments for 56 days. Water and feed were fed adlibitum. The diets were ...

  16. The effect of pesticides and aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-08-31

    Aug 31, 2014 ... Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effects of foliar application of Jatropha and neem ..... Aqueous jatropha seed extract 80g / L (T2) Aqueous jatropha seed extract ..... Makkar HPS, Becker K, Sporer F, Wink M, 1997.

  17. Micropropagation and genetic transformation of Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merr.: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Jha, Sumita

    2016-11-01

    This review provides an in-depth and comprehensive overview of the in vitro culture of Tylophora species, which have medicinal properties. Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merr. is a climbing perennial vine with medicinal properties. The tissue culture and genetic transformation of T. indica, which has been extensively studied, is reviewed. Micropropagation using nodal explants has been reported in 25 % of all publications. Leaf explants from field-grown plants has been the explant of choice of independent research groups, which reported direct and callus-mediated organogenesis as well as callus-mediated somatic embryogenesis. Protoplast-mediated regeneration and callus-mediated shoot organogenesis has also been reported from stem explants, and to a lesser degree from root explants of micropropagated plants in vitro. Recent studies that used HPLC confirmed the potential of micropropagated plants to synthesize the major T. indica alkaloid tylophorine prior to and after transfer to field conditions. The genetic integrity of callus-regenerated plants was confirmed by RAPD in a few reports. Tissue culture is an essential base for genetic transformation studies. Hairy roots and transgenic T. indica plants have been shown to accumulate tylophorine suggesting that in vitro biology and transgenic methods are viable ways of clonally producing valuable germplasm and mass producing compounds of commercial value. Further studies that investigate the factors affecting the biosynthesis of Tylophora alkaloids and other secondary metabolites need to be conducted using non-transformed as well as transformed cell and organ cultures.

  18. Responses of some selected Malaysian rice genotypes to callus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-01-17

    Jan 17, 2011 ... embryogenic callus culture (Yin et al., 1993). In this study, overall, the callus from the MS medium had a good texture. Furthermore, some genotypes also produced better callus in other concentrations of 2,4-D treatment, however, the quality of callus was not as good as those in. 10 µM 2,4-D. Notably, the ...

  19. Callus induction, regeneration and transformation of sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-22

    Mar 22, 2012 ... dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), yeast extract and coconut water .... transformed (control) plantlets using CTAB method (Doyle and .... Embryogenic Sugarcane Callus by Image Analysis.

  20. Regeneration of Stevia Plant Through Callus Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, R. M.; Shah, R. R.

    2009-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni that conventionally propagated by seed or by cuttings or clump division which has a limitation of quality and quantity seed material. In present study, callus culture technique was tried to achieve rapid plant multiplication for quality seed material. Callus induction and multiplication medium was standardized from nodal as well as leaf sagments. It is possible to maintain callus on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 6-benzyl amino purine and naphthalene acetic acid. Maximum callus induction was obtained on Murashige and Skoog medium incorporated with 6-benzyl amino purine (2.0-3.0 mg/l) and naphthalene acetic acid (2.0 mg/l) treatments. However, Murashige and Skoog medium containing 2.0 mg/l 6-benzyl amino purine+2.0 mg/l naphthalene acetic acid was found to be the best for callus induction. Higher regeneration frequency was noticed with Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l 6-benzyl amino purine+0.2 mg/l naphthalene acetic acid. Regenerated plants were rooted better on ¼ Murashige and Skoog strength supplemented with 0.1 mg/l indole-3-butyric acid. The rooted plantlets were hardened successfully in tera care medium with 63 per cent survival rate. The developed protocol can be utilized for mass production of true to type planting material on large scale independent of season, i.e. external environmental conditions. PMID:20177455

  1. opuntia ficus-indica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15], the composition of phenolic compounds of cladodes of O. ficus-indica is found to be: total ... hydroxide and ascorbic acid (BDH, England); D-catechin, hydrochloric acid, ... on the reduction of phosphotungstate-phosphomolybdate complex by ...

  2. Factors influencing callus induction and plant regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2012-01-12

    ). Effect of basal medium on callus induction and plant regeneration. Three different kinds of basal mediums (MS, N6 and SH) were used to investigate their effects on callus induction and regeneration. Significant differences ...

  3. Callus regeneration from stem explants of Pseudarthira viscida (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... regeneration frequency have come from tissue culture work done in ... Table 1. In vitro responses from stem callus of Psudarthria viscida Wight & Arn. Growth .... plantlets regeneration from cotyledonary callus of Tomato.

  4. In vitro clonal propagation of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    2202, Bangladesh. 2Department of Crop Botany, Bangladesh Agricultural University, ... However, comer- cialization of neem products (oil and azadirachtin) is greatly hindered by the limitation of natural resources. (Isman ...

  5. Physical properties of neem (Azadirachta indica seeds and kernels relevant in the design of processing machineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Balami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine some physical properties of neem seeds and kernels such as axial dimensions, true density, bulk density, surface area, sphericity, moisture content, coefficient of friction, angle of repose and porosity that are relevant in the design of processing machineries. Results shows that the seeds and kernels have major, intermediate and minor diameter values of 13.641.15 mm, 6.800.41 mm and 5.540.44 mm and 9.321.13 mm, 4.320.63 mm and 3.380.35 mm respectively. The true density, bulk density, surface areas and the sphericity determined were 379.0015.16 kg/m3, 39.2930.001 kg/m3, 169.9331.15 mm2, 0.640.043 for the seed while for the kernel were 930.038.53 kg/m3, 534.8910.99 kg/m3, 70.6313.98 mm2, 0.610.044 respectively at an average moisture content of 13.80 % for the seed and 11.9 % for the kernel on wet basis. The coefficient of friction determined on three different structural surfaces namely plywood, glass and mild steel for the seeds were 0.38, 0.42 and 0.33 respectively at an angle of repose of 34.52o while that of the kernels were 0.49, 0.56 and 0.43 respectively at an angle of repose of 42.47°. The mean porosity obtained for the seed and kernel were 89.62 % and 42.47 % respectively.

  6. Inhibition of Citrinin Production in Penicillium citrinum Cultures by Neem [Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Kemmelmeier

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of different concentrations of aqueous neem leaf extract (3.12 to 50 mg/mL on growth and citrinin production in three isolates of Penicillium citrinum was investigated under laboratory conditions. Mycotoxin production by the isolates was suppressed, depending on the concentration of the plant extract added to culture media at the time of spore inoculation. Citrinin production in fungal mycelia grown for 21 days in culture media containing 3.12 mg/mL of the aqueous extract of neem leaf was inhibited by approximately 80% in three isolates of P. citrinum. High-performance liquid chromatography was performed to confirm the spectrophotometric results. Vegetative growth was assessed, but neem extract failed to inhibit it. Neem leaf extract showed inhibition of toxin production without retardation in fungal mycelia growth.

  7. Biochemical studies in experimentally Escherichia coli infected broiler chicken supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikash Sharma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An experimental study was conducted on 192-day-old broiler chicks for evaluating the effect of 10% neem leaf extract (NLE supplementationon biochemical parameters in chickens experimentally infected with Escherichia coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml at 7 days of age. Materials and Methods: The 192-day-old broiler chicks were procured. These chicks were divided into two groups (A and B containing 96 birds each on the 1st day. Diet of all the chicks of Group A was supplemented with 10%NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were given feed and water devoid of NLE supplementation throughout the experiment. After rearing for 1 week, chicks of both the groups (A and B were again divided into two subgroups (Group A into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 of 54 and 42 birds, respectively. At the age of 7 days all the chicks of groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Blood samples were collected from six chicks from each group at day 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 days post-infection and serum was separated for biochemical studies. Results: There was a significant increase in serum alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activities, globulin concentration and a decrease in total protein (TP, albumin concentrations, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity in both the infected groups. However, the changes in biochemical values, i.e., ALT, AST, LDH, ALP, TP, albumin, and globulin wereof lower magnitude in NLE supplemented group suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. Conclusions: Fromthe present study, it is reasonable to conclude that significant increase in the value of ALT, AST, LDH, globulin, and significant decrease in the value of ALP, TP, and albumin was of lower magnitude in supplemented infected group (A1 as compared to non-supplemented infected group (B1 suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE.

  8. Progress on Azadirachta indica Based Biopesticides in Replacing Synthetic Toxic Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhary, Suman; Kanwar, Rupinder K.; Sehgal, Alka; Cahill, David M.; Barrow, Colin J.; Sehgal, Rakesh; Kanwar, Jagat R.

    2017-01-01

    Over the years, extensive use of commercially available synthetic pesticides against phytophagous insects has led to their bioaccumulation in the environment causing increased resistance and reduction in soil biodiversity. Further, 90% of the applied pesticides enter the various environmental resources as a result of run-off, exposing the farmers as well as consumers of the agricultural produce to severe health issues. Therefore, growing attention has been given toward the development of alte...

  9. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Oil: A Natural Preservative to Control Meat Spoilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Serrone, Paola; Toniolo, Chiara; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived extracts (PDEs) are a source of biologically-active substances having antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of neem oil (NO) as a preservative of fresh retail meat. The antibacterial activity of NO against Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Lactobacillus curvatus and L. sakei was assessed in a broth model system. The bacterial growth inhibition zone (mm) ranged from 18.83 ± 1.18 to 30.00 ± 1.00, as was found by a disc diffusion test with 100 µL NO. The bacterial percent growth reduction ranged from 30.81 ± 2.08 to 99.70 ± 1.53 in the broth microdilution method at different NO concentrations (1:10 to 1:100,000). Viable bacterial cells were detected in experimentally-contaminated meat up to the second day after NO treatment (100 µL NO per 10 g meat), except for C. maltaromaticum, which was detected up to the sixth day by PCR and nested PCR with propidium monoazide (PMA™) dye. In comparison to the previously published results, C. maltaromaticum, E. coli, L. curvatus and L. sakei appeared more susceptible to NO compared to neem cake extract (NCE) by using a broth model system. PMID:28231186

  10. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss Oil: A Natural Preservative to Control Meat Spoilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Del Serrone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant-derived extracts (PDEs are a source of biologically-active substances having antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of neem oil (NO as a preservative of fresh retail meat. The antibacterial activity of NO against Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Lactobacillus curvatus and L. sakei was assessed in a broth model system. The bacterial growth inhibition zone (mm ranged from 18.83 ± 1.18 to 30.00 ± 1.00, as was found by a disc diffusion test with 100 µL NO. The bacterial percent growth reduction ranged from 30.81 ± 2.08 to 99.70 ± 1.53 in the broth microdilution method at different NO concentrations (1:10 to 1:100,000. Viable bacterial cells were detected in experimentally-contaminated meat up to the second day after NO treatment (100 µL NO per 10 g meat, except for C. maltaromaticum, which was detected up to the sixth day by PCR and nested PCR with propidium monoazide (PMA™ dye. In comparison to the previously published results, C. maltaromaticum, E. coli, L. curvatus and L. sakei appeared more susceptible to NO compared to neem cake extract (NCE by using a broth model system.

  11. Larvicidal effects of a neem (Azadirachta indica) oil formulation on the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okumu, F.O.; Knols, B.G.J.; Fillinger, U.

    2007-01-01

    Background - Larviciding is a key strategy used in many vector control programmes around the world. Costs could be reduced if larvicides could be manufactured locally. The potential of natural products as larvicides against the main African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s was evaluated.

  12. Combined effect of Azadirachta indica and the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema glaseri against subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadarkarai Murugan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory study has been conducted on the bioactivities of entomopathogenic nematodes and neem seed kernel extract (NSKE against worker termites of Reticulitermes flavipes. Neem at various concentrations did not affect the survivability of nematodes, whereas neem had considerable impact on the survivability of worker termites and this may be due to the presence of active neem compounds (Azadirachtin, salanin etc.. Mortality was 40% on 4th day at lower concentration of 1.0% NSKE treatment; whereas mortality has been increased to 70% at higher concentration (4.0% on 4th day. There was 100% mortality after the combined treatment with 4.0% NSKE + 600 infective juvenile Steinernema glaseri, even at the first day of the experiment. In the present experiment, neem extract does not affected the survival of the nematodes. Hence, nematode and neem extract can be used for soil-insect control particularly for the subterranean termites.

  13. Sustainable production of azadirachtin from differentiated in vitro cell lines of neem (Azadirachta indica)

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Mithilesh; Chaturvedi, Rakhi

    2013-01-01

    Azadirachtin has high industrial demand due to its immediate application as an ecofriendly, biodegradable biopesticide and also due to its various other significant bioactivities. To date, the only commercially feasible way to produce azadirachtin is extraction from seeds, but their availability is very limited as the tree flowers only once a year and only one-third of the fruits are collected due to operational problems. Further, due to the strict out-breeding nature of the plant, the seeds ...

  14. In vitro production of azadirachtin from cell suspension cultures of Azadirachta indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujanya, S; Devi, B Poornasri; Sai, Isha

    2008-03-01

    The present study aimed to elucidate the effect of nutritional alteration on biomass content and azadirachtin production in cell suspensions of the elite neem variety crida-8. Variations in total nitrogen availability in the medium in terms of different ratios of nitrate: ammonium showed that the ratio 4:1 revealed a profound effect, leading to a 1.5-fold increase in the total extracellular azadirachtin production (5.59 mg/l) over the standard MS medium. Reduction in sucrose (15 mg/l) in the medium exhibited a reduction in biomass and absence of azadirachtin, whereas total phosphate reduction raised intracellular azadirachtin production (6.98 mg/l). An altered medium with a nitrate: ammonium ratio of 4:1 coupled with complete elimination of phosphate enhanced biomass by 36% (59.36 g/l).

  15. Efek Antibakteri Ekstrak Daun Mimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss terhadap Bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus Secara In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uli Ayini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Budidaya udang windu di Indonesia telah berkembang pesat. Salah satu kendala budidaya udang adalah penyakit Vibriosis yang disebabkan oleh bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efek antibakeri ekstrak daun mimba terhadap bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode dilusi untuk mengetahui efek antibakteri ekstrak daun mimba terhadap bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus secara in vitro. Konsentrasi ekstrak yang digunakan (% yaitu: 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5; 10; 12,5 dan sebagai kontrol terdiri dari kontrol positif, dan kontrol negatif. Pengumpulan data untuk menentukan MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration dilakukan dengan membandingkan kejernihan kultur di medium TSB 2% pada berbagai konsentrasi yang berbeda, dengan kontrol positif dan kontrol negatif. Penentuan MBC (Minimum Bacterisidal Concentration dilakukan dengan melihat ada tidaknya dan jumlah koloni bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus yang muncul pada medium subkultur TSA 2% setelah inkubasi 24 jam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan nilai MIC yaitu konsentrasi 5%, hal ini ditunjukkan dengan tabung yang mulai jernih. Nilai MBC ekstrak daun mimba terhadap bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus adalah konsentrasi 12,5% ditandai dengan sudah tidak munculnya  koloni bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus. Berdasarkan penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa ekstrak daun mimba dapat memberikan efek antibakteri terhadap bakteri Vibrio alginolyticus secara in vitro.Tiger shrimp cultivation in Indonesia has been growing rapidly. The main obstacle is the shrimp farming vibriosis disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio algynoliticus. The aim of this research was to determine the effects of neem leaf extract antibakeri against Vibrio algynoliticus. This study used a dilution method to determine the antibacterial effect of neem leaf extract against Vibrio algynoliticus bacteria in vitro. The concentration of the extract used (%: 0; 2.5; 5; 7.5; 10; 12.5 and as a control consisting of a positive control, and negative control. Data collection to determine the MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration was done by comparing the clarity of culture in TSB medium 2% on a variety of different concentrations, the positive control and a negative control. Determination MBC (Minimum Bacterisidal Concentration was done by looking at the presence or absence and the number of colonies of bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus that appears in the subculture medium TSA 2% after 24 h incubation. The results showed that the value of MIC was 5%, as shown by the tube began to clear. Value of MBC of neem leaf extract against Vibrio alginolyticus was characterized by a concentration of 12.5% has been no emergence of bacterial colonies Vibrio alginolyticus. Based on the research, it concluded that neem leaf extract can provide antibacterial effect against bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus in vitro.

  16. Efek Antibakteri Ekstrak Daun Mimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) terhadap Bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus Secara In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Uli Ayini; Siti Harnina B.; Titis Candra Dewi

    2014-01-01

    Budidaya udang windu di Indonesia telah berkembang pesat. Salah satu kendala budidaya udang adalah penyakit Vibriosis yang disebabkan oleh bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efek antibakeri ekstrak daun mimba terhadap bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode dilusi untuk mengetahui efek antibakteri ekstrak daun mimba terhadap bakteri Vibrio algynoliticus secara in vitro. Konsentrasi ekstrak yang digunakan (%) yaitu: 0; 2,5; 5; 7,...

  17. The effect of neem ( Azadirachta indica ) leaf meal on the growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental birds were randomly distributed into four treatments. Each treatment was sub-divided into three replicates of sixteen (16) birds. Medications were administered only to the birds in treatment 1(control group) while vaccination was administered across the treatment during the course of the experiment. Growth ...

  18. Pemanfaatan Azadirachtin dari Mimba (Azadirachta Indica A. Juss) untuk Sediaan Anti Semut

    OpenAIRE

    Hartanto, Eddy Sapto; Hutajulu, Tiurlan Farida

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the use of natural plant source insecticides is one of the best choice due to its characteristic, which is safer and easily degradable by nature (biodegradable) compared to synthetic materials. One of plant sources which consists of active components for insecticides is neem plant. The extraction of seed (a1) and leaf of neem (a2) produce neem's active compound was conducted by using Effective Microorganism. The efficacy test of the neem seed and leaf was conducted by using extra...

  19. EVALUACIÓN DEL EXTRACTO ACUOSO DE SEMILLA DE NEEM (Azadirachta indica COMO GARRAPATICIDA EN BOVINO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Antonio Hurtado

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de conocer el efecto garrapaticida del extracto acuoso de la semilla de Neem (EASN, se seleccionaron 28 terneros (lactantes mestizos, con fines de doble propósito, del hato bovino de la ESPAM MFL; estos fueron divididos en cuatro grupos a los cuales se les aplicó los siguientes tratamientos (T: 4% de EASN (T1, 5% EASN (T2, 6% EASN (T3 y Amitraz 1 mL/L (T4, siendo este el control. Para la obtención del biopreparado (EASN se aplicó los procesos de: molienda, pesaje, preparación y colado. Se utilizó el diseño completamente al azar, teniendo como factor único el efecto de tratamientos, con una prueba de medias de Tukey al 5%, para conocer las diferencias estadísticas entre estos. La variable de respuesta (cantidad de garrapatas se cuantificó mediante observación directa del número de garrapatas vivas antes de aplicarse y tres días post aplicación del EASN. Los resultados demostraron un efecto significativo entre los tratamientos con un comportamiento similar de efectividad en T2 y T3 con respecto al control (T4. La relación costo-beneficio más acorde se obtuvo en los T1 y T2. Se concluye que el EASN al 5% puede ser utilizado como control biológico efectivo de la garrapata en terneros, que además de presentar un bajo costo económico también representa una nula incidencia de contaminación ambiental.

  20. Production of parthenolide in organ and callus cultures of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, callusing capacity and weight of callus of different explants under different treatments were also determined. Parthenolide content was determined in the explants as well as in callus using RP-HPLC on Luna C18 column and SPD-10A UV detector. The mobile phase used was acetonitrile: water (55 : 45) and the ...

  1. Callus and cell suspension cultures of carnation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1972-01-01

    Callus cultures of carnation, Dianthus caryophyllus L. ev. G. J. Sim, were grown on a synthetic medium of half strength Murashige and Skoog salts, 3 % sucrose, 100 mg/l of myo-inositol, 0.5 mg/l each of thiamin, HCl, pyridoxin, HCl and nicotinic acid and 10 g/l agar. Optimal concentrations...

  2. Concentration on Callus Induction in Sugarcane

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protocols for in vitro micro propagation of sugarcane through callus culture from foliage leaves (Bugun et al., ... protocol for specific genotypes. Sucrose is the most important type of sugar produced from sugarcane. ... laboratories via plant tissue culture technique. (Lorenzo and Ganzalez, 1998). This allows for an extended ...

  3. NEEM: UNUSUALLY VERSATILE PLANT GENUS AZADIRACHTA WITH MANY USEFUL AND SO FAR INSUFFICIENTLY EXPLOITED PROPERTIES FOR AGRICULTURE, MEDICINE, AND INDUSTRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, H E; Langner, S S; Leithold, G; Schmutterer, H

    2014-01-01

    Neem plants (Rutales: Meliaceae) are well known for their multitude of human benefits in various fields. Specifically well investigated are the Indian neem tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss., the Thai neem A. siamensis Val., the originally Malaysian/Philippinean neem A. excelsa (Jack) and, as a close relative, the Persian lilac, Melia azedarach. The major and most active natural products are azadirachtin, salannin, nimbin and marrangin from Azadirachta species, and azadirachtin analogues like meliantriol from Melia species. Neem fruits, leaves, bark, and roots have specific virtues. They have been traditionally exploited for a considerable part of human history and are documented in Sanskrit texts. Due to human activity in trade and travel both at land and sea, the plant species has been distributed around the globe and is cultivated in many tropical, and subtropical regions. A multitude of natural products of neem have been isolated, chemically characterized or identified, and investigated for their properties in the management of insects, Acarina, Crustacea, nematodes, bacteria, fungi, viruses and soil fertility (for reviews see Kraus, 2002; Schmutterer, 2002A; Rembold, 2002; Koul, 2004; Schmutterer and Huber, 2005; Kleeberg and Strang, 2009; Hummel et al., 2008, 2011, 2012). Neem products are virtually nontoxic, compatible with beneficial insects, pollinators and bees. They are environmentally benign, sustainable, renewable, and of a price affordable for developed countries. In conclusion, neem is a prime example of a natural resource with many beneficial applications in agriculture, human and veterinary medicine. So far, its use is practically free of resistance problems which are frustratingly prevalent in many areas of synthetic insecticide and drug development. Investigating more neem applications will increase future human welfare and health while being of general ecological benefit to the planet.

  4. Complete genome sequence of Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, Ivica; Dedysh, Svetlana N; Liesack, Werner; Stott, Matthew B; Alam, Maqsudul; Murrell, J Colin; Dunfield, Peter F

    2010-09-01

    Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica is an aerobic, acidophilic, exopolysaccharide-producing, N(2)-fixing soil bacterium. It is a generalist chemoorganotroph that is phylogenetically closely related to facultative and obligate methanotrophs of the genera Methylocella and Methylocapsa. Here we report the full genome sequence of this bacterium.

  5. Production of friable embryogenic callus and regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generation of embryogenic callus is a key step in genetic engineering of many crop species, including cassava. Protocols for generation of friable embryogenic callus (FEC) have been lacking for Ugandan cassava genotypes, thereby delaying their genetic engineering for agronomic and other desirable traits. The objective ...

  6. Establishment of the callus and cell suspension culture of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work was the optimization of the conditions of callus and cell suspension culture of Elaeagnus angustifolia for the production of condensed tannins. The effects of different conditions on the callus growth and the production of condensed tannins were researched. The leaf tissue part of E. angustifolia was ...

  7. Hot callusing for propagation of American beech by grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Carey; Mary E. Mason; Paul Bloese; Jennifer L. Koch

    2013-01-01

    To increase grafting success rate, a hot callus grafting system was designed and implemented as part of a multiagency collaborative project to manage beech bark disease (BBD) through the establishment of regional BBD-resistant grafted seed orchards. Five years of data from over 2000 hot callus graft attempts were analyzed using a logistic regression model to determine...

  8. Azadirachtin derivatives from seed kernels of Azadirachta excelsa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanokmedhakul, Somdej; Kanokmedhakul, Kwanjai; Prajuabsuk, Thirada; Panichajakul, Sanha; Panyamee, Piyanan; Prabpai, Samran; Kongsaeree, Palangpon

    2005-07-01

    Three new azadirachtin derivatives, named azadirachtins O-Q (1-3), along with the known azadirachtin B (4), azadirachtin L (5), azadirachtin M (6) 11alpha-azadirachtin H (7), 11beta-azadirachtin H (8), and azadirachtol (9) were isolated from seed kernels of Azadirachta excelsa. Their structures were established by spectroscopic techniques, and the structure of 3 was confirmed by X-ray analysis. Compounds 1-7 and 9 exhibited toxicity to the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) with an LD50 of 0.75-1.92 microg/g body weight, in 92 h.

  9. Effect of applied pressure on callus formation and its relevance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... effect of applied pressure on callus formation, cell differentiation and its importance in grafting. Callus was formed earlier in pressure-free explants. The importance of applied pressure in graft formation was indicated by the fusion of callus cells in capped explant experiments. Where callus grew from the edges, a cambium ...

  10. Regenerative callus induction and biochemical analysis of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhurva P. Gauchan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Stevia Leaves are the principal source of stevioside, which is estimated to be 100-300 times sweeter than table sugar. Stevioside has clinical significance as they are reported to maintain glucose levels in human blood. Owing to the difficulties in propagation of stevia through seeds and vegetative methods, callus culture has been an efficient alternative for generation of stevioside. The aim of this study is to develop an efficient and standardized protocol for maximum induction and multiplication of callus from a leaf. Callus culture was established from leaves in MS basal media fortified with various combinations (BAP, NAA, 2,4-D, KN, IBA and concentrations of phytohormones. The best callusing (100% was recorded in MS media supplemented with (2,4-D 1.0mg/l + NAA 1.0mg/l. The callus was harvested after 4 weeks and screened for the presence of various bioactive compounds. The qualitative results showed that the extracts of callus contained bioactive compounds like flavonoids, glycosides, phenol, tannins, sterols and saponins thereby making callus one of the sources for extraction of various secondary metabolites.

  11. A computational technique to measure fracture callus in radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Trevor J; Madey, Steven M; Fitzpatrick, Dan C; Byrd, Gregory D; Sanderson, Jason M; Bottlang, Michael

    2010-03-03

    Callus formation occurs in the presence of secondary bone healing and has relevance to the fracture's mechanical environment. An objective image processing algorithm was developed to standardize the quantitative measurement of periosteal callus area in plain radiographs of long bone fractures. Algorithm accuracy and sensitivity were evaluated using surrogate models. For algorithm validation, callus formation on clinical radiographs was measured manually by orthopaedic surgeons and compared to non-clinicians using the algorithm. The algorithm measured the projected area of surrogate calluses with less than 5% error. However, error will increase when analyzing very small areas of callus and when using radiographs with low image resolution (i.e. 100 pixels per inch). The callus size extracted by the algorithm correlated well to the callus size outlined by the surgeons (R2=0.94, p<0.001). Furthermore, compared to clinician results, the algorithm yielded results with five times less inter-observer variance. This computational technique provides a reliable and efficient method to quantify secondary bone healing response. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Myostatin (GDF-8) Deficiency Increases Fracture Callus Size, Sox-5 Expression, and Callus Bone Volume

    OpenAIRE

    Kellum, Ethan; Starr, Harlan; Arounleut, Phonepasong; Immel, David; Fulzele, Sadanand; Wenger, Karl; Hamrick, Mark W.

    2008-01-01

    Myostatin (GDF-8) is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth and mice lacking myostatin show increased muscle mass. We have previously shown that myostatin deficiency increases bone strength and biomineralization throughout the skeleton, and others have demonstrated that myostatin is expressed during the earliest phase of fracture repair. In order to determine the role of myostatin in fracture callus morphogenesis, we studied fracture healing in mice lacking myostatin. Adult wild-type ...

  13. Callus induction and plant regeneration of Ulex europaeus

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez,Ingrid; Dorta,Fernando; Cuadros-Inostroza,Álvaro; Peña-Cortés,Hugo

    2012-01-01

    A callus induction and plant regeneration protocol was developed from leaf and thorn explants for the plant Ulex europaeus. Explants were incubated on 2% sucrose half-strength Murashige and Skoog Medium (MS) with various combinations of plant growth regulators and antioxidants. The best frequency of callus and shoot formation was obtained with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) 1 mg/l x kinetin (Kin) 0.2 mg/l (DK Medium; callus induction) and zeatin (Z) 1 mg/l (DK medium; shoot induction)...

  14. Mangifera Indica (Mango)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, K. A.; Patel, M. B.; Patel, R. J.; Parmar, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    Mangifera indica, commonly used herb in ayurvedic medicine. Although review articles on this plant are already published, but this review article is presented to compile all the updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities, which were performed widely by different methods. Studies indicate mango possesses antidiabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-viral, cardiotonic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory properties. Various effects like antibacterial, anti fungal, anthelmintic, anti parasitic, anti tumor, anti HIV, antibone resorption, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antidiarrhoeal, antiallergic, immunomodulation, hypolipidemic, anti microbial, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective have also been studied. These studies are very encouraging and indicate this herb should be studied more extensively to confirm these results and reveal other potential therapeutic effects. Clinical trials using mango for a variety of conditions should also be conducted. PMID:22228940

  15. (Neovossia indica ) resistance in wheat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Screening and multiplication of different wheat varieties under laboratory conditions using in vitro culture techniques may speed up the resistance breeding programmes. Hence, the present investigations were planned to study the nature and magnitude of gene effects of inhibition zone formed by the wheat embryos, callus-.

  16. Hyperplastic callus formation in osteogenesis imperfecta. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchardt, A.J.; Wagner, A.A.; Basse, P.

    1994-01-01

    We report a case of bilateral hyperplastic callus formation as a complication of fracture in a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta. The clinical and radiographic findings and the differential diagnosis are discussed. (orig.)

  17. Hyperplastic callus formation in osteogenesis imperfecta. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchardt, A.J. (Depts. of Radiology and Pediatric Orthopedic Surgery, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark)); Wagner, A.A. (Depts. of Radiology and Pediatric Orthopedic Surgery, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark)); Basse, P. (Depts. of Radiology and Pediatric Orthopedic Surgery, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark))

    1994-09-01

    We report a case of bilateral hyperplastic callus formation as a complication of fracture in a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta. The clinical and radiographic findings and the differential diagnosis are discussed. (orig.).

  18. Enhancement of callus induction and regeneration efficiency from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... efficiency from embryo cultures of Datura stramonium ... cycle (callus induction and plant regeneration) for Datura stramonium by adjusting carbon sources and ... induction and development in various species, it is not.

  19. Establishment of the callus and cell suspension culture of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... Full Length Research Paper. Establishment of the callus ... study provided an efficient way for E. angustifolia cell suspension culture to produce secondary metabolite. .... was also observed that in these treatments the stem.

  20. Optimization of callus induction and regeneration system for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... 2Plant Biotechnology, NIGAB, National Agriculture Research Center Park Road Islamabad, Pakistan. Accepted 30 June ... transformation. MATERIALS AND METHODS ... Surface sterilization and callus induction. Seeds were ...

  1. GABA shunt in the callus cells derived from soybean cotyledon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, M; Nakano, Y; Kitaoka, S [Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan). Coll. of Agriculture

    1975-01-01

    In the growing callus cells from soybean cotyledon, the activities of glutamate decarboxylase and GABA transaminase were increased in the early phase of the callus growth on the Miller agar medium. Succinate dehydrogenase activity was also changed in a similar manner. From these and the additional evidences that GABA transaminase was probably localized in the mitochondria, it has been made clear that the GABA shunt (GABA by-pass pathway) is operative and contributes to the respiratory metabolism in growing callus cells. Feeding young callus cells with GABA-U-/sup 14/C for 24 hr actually resulted in finding 53% of the taken up radioactivity in released carbon dioxide. Considerable parts of the taken up radioactivity were found in amino acids and proteins which should have been formed via the GABA shunt also.

  2. Establishment of callus from Opuntia robusta Wendl., a wild and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    coco santos

    2013-04-22

    Apr 22, 2013 ... plants produce tender cladodes, consumed as vegetable and fruits (prickly pear) .... The highest callus amount was obtained in media supplemented ... CO2 during carboxylation and decarboxylation reactions, improves the ...

  3. Hyperplastic callus formation in osteogenesis imperfecta: CT and MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieker, O.; Kreitner, K.F.; Karbowski, A.

    1998-01-01

    Hyperplastic callus formation is a noteworthy condition in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta because it often mimicks osteosarcoma on radiography. The findings of CT and MRI in hyperplastic callus formation have not been reported. In the presented case, MRI demonstrated contrast enhancement and edema of the surrounding soft tisssue, consistent with benign as well as malignant disease. Computed tomography showed a calcified rim of the lesion which may be a useful feature to rule out osteosarcoma in this condition. (orig.)

  4. CALLUS INDUCTION FROM 15 CARNATION (DIANTHUS CARYOPHYLLUS L.) CULTIVARS

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth regulators (PGRs) were used to induce callus in 15 carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.; Caryophyllaceae) cultivars: Orange Sherbert, Avalanche, Magenta, La France, Stripe Red, Marie, Concerto PVP, Snap, Lucky Pierot, Cinnamon Tea, White Love, Siberia, Magesta, Spark Bruno, and Honono no Estejo. Seeds were initially sown on autoclaved moistened filter paper and internodes of surface-sterilized seedlings were used as explants. Most callus was induced in the presence of 0.5 mg/L α-n...

  5. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of callus culture and leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The callus culture extract (CCE) gave the lowest MIC value of 0.78 mg/ mL for most of the bacteria and fungi and the lowest MBC values of 0.78 mg/ mL and 1.56 mg/ mL against bacteria and fungi, respectively. ... Keywords: Crotalaria retusa; In vitro propagation; Callus culture; Antimicrobial activity; Antioxidant activity ...

  6. Experimental study upon the effect of irradiation on callus formation of fracture. Observation of vascular alteration and callus formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saigusa, F [Nippon Dental Coll., Tokyo

    1981-02-01

    Irradiation effects on callus formation after bone fracture were studied in rats with fractured right lower extremity. Follow-up study was continued for 112 days since 3000 rad was irradiated to the fractured site 3 days after bone fracture. Callus formation was noted in both of the outer and inner part (bone marrow) of the diaphysis before 14 days after bone fracture, but it was slow and sparse compared with that of non-irradiated group. Callus formation tended to disappear gradually from the outside of the diaphysis after 28 days after bone fracture. Strong disturbance was found in the surrounding vascular system at this time. Inside of the diaphysis, callus formation was restricted the end of the fracture, where lamellar calluses fused together. Changes in vascular system remained until 56 days after bone fracture. Vascular distribution was most dense 28 days after bone fracture. In many of the calluses which have established fusion, findings suggested excessive calcification in the trabeculae. Vascular distribution at this time was sparse, vascular formation was markedly suppressed in the bone marrow, and very little vascular formation was found in the fractured edges of the bone.

  7. Desenvolvimento e mortalidade larval de Spodoptera frugiperda em folhas de milho tratadas com extrato aquoso de folhas de Azadirachta indica Larval development and mortality of Spodoptera frugiperda fed on corn leaves treated with aqueous extract from Azadirachta indica leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Afonso Viana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito do extrato aquoso de folhas de nim sobre o desenvolvimento e a mortalidade de lagartas recém-eclodidas de Spodoptera frugiperda. Para constatação do efeito de contato e de ingestão, as lagartas foram pulverizadas e as folhas de milho submersas no extrato (10 mg.mL-1 em laboratório e/ou pulverizadas no campo com um pulverizador de CO2. Partes de folhas de milho tratadas foram colocadas em copos plásticos para alimentar as lagartas e trocadas a cada dois dias. Adjuvantes foram adicionados ao extrato visando melhorar sua aderência às superfícies tratadas. Os parâmetros avaliados foram a mortalidade e o desenvolvimento larval. As folhas de milho submergidas e pulverizadas com o extrato causaram elevada mortalidade (100% e prejudicaram o desenvolvimento das lagartas sobreviventes. Na avaliação realizada 10 dias após a aplicação, o espalhante adesivo e o óleo de soja misturados ao extrato melhoraram a eficiência deste. A mortalidade das lagartas ocorreu três dias após a aplicação do extrato e a sua pulverização diretamente sobre o inseto não prejudicou o desenvolvimento larval. O extrato aquoso de nim mostrou-se com potencial para o controle de S. frugiperda.The effect of aqueous extracts from neem leaves and spraying adjuvants were evaluated on development and mortality of neonate S. frugiperda larvae. Corn leaves were dipped in the aqueous extract (10 mg.mL-1 in the laboratory and/or sprayed in the field with a CO2 sprayer and placed in plastic cup for larvae rearing. The treated corn leaves were replaced every other day. Corn leaves submerged and sprayed with the extract caused high larval mortality (100% and showed a negative effect on the larval development. The spreading agent and soybean oil mixed with neem extract improved larval mortality at the end of the 10-day period. The aqueous extract caused lethal effect on S. frugiperda larvae after three days of the application and sprayed directly on the larvae did not inhibit the larval development. The neem aqueous extract showed good potential to be used as a control agent for S. frugiperda.

  8. Comparative Status of Sequestered Carbon Stock of Azadirachta indica and Conocarpus erectus at the University of Karachi Campus, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Amber Ajani; Zafar Iqbal Shams

    2016-01-01

    Carbon sequestration by trees is one of the most cost-effective and efficient methods to remove carbon dioxide from atmosphere since trees remove and store carbon at higher rates compared to other land covers. Carbon storage by trees typically ranges from 1 to 8 MgC ha-1 yr-1.The carbon is sequestered in different parts of the trees as biomass. The measurements of biomass provide reasonably accurate estimate of the amount of carbon that was removed from lower troposphere over the years. There...

  9. Antimicrobial effectiveness of Neem (Azadirachta indica and Babool (Acacia nilotica on Streptococcus mutans: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Pandya Sajankumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is an exponential growth in the field of herbal medicine because of their natural origin, easy availability, efficacy, and safety. Aim: To compare the antimicrobial effectiveness of Neem and Babool on Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: An in vitro study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of 5%, 10%, and 50% of Neem and Babool aqueous extract with 5%, 10%, and 50% of 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash on S. mutans. The ditch plate method was used to test the antimicrobial activity. Ditches were prepared on blood agar plates with the help of punch having 7 mm diameter. The plates were left for 1 h at room temperature and then incubated at 37°C for 48 h and examined for zone of inhibition. Results: Inhibitory effect of 5% Neem is significantly better than 5% Babool and 5% chlorhexidine mouthwash (P < 0.05. At 10% and 50%, Neem and Babool are significantly better than chlorhexidine mouthwash (P < 0.05. Inhibitory effect of Babool increases as the concentration increases (P < 0.05. The inhibitory effect of 5% and 50% chlorhexidine mouthwash is better than 10% chlorhexidine mouthwash (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Aqueous extract of Neem exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity compared with Babool and chlorhexidine mouthwash.

  10. Studies on activated carbon derived from neem (azadirachta indica) bio-waste, and its application as supercapacitor electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sultan; Parvaz, M.; Johari, Rahul; Rafat, M.

    2018-04-01

    The present study reports the preparation of quasi solid-state supercapacitor employing activated carbon (AC) electrodes and gel polymer electrolyte (GPE). AC was derived from Neem leaves by means of chemical activation using zinc chloride as activating agent. GPE was prepared using solution-cast technique and comprises of LiClO 4 salt, dispersed in EC:PC (1:1 vol.) and entrapped in PVdF-HFP solution. Extensive physical and electrochemical characterization of synthesized AC and GPE was done. AC was characterized using the techniques of SEM, TEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopy, TGA and BET tests while GPE was characterized by electrochemical stability window (ESW) and conductivity test. The fabricated supercapacitor cell was tested using standard electrochemical characterization techniques. It was found that the fabricated cell offers high values of specific capacitance (74.41 F g‑1), specific energy (10.33 Wh kg‑1) and specific power (4.66 kW kg‑1). These results demonstrate the suitability of prepared AC as promising electrode material for supercapacitor applications.

  11. Trial of Neem Oil (Azadirachta Indica) as Basic Compound of Electric Liquid Vaporizer Against Aedes Aegypti Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Diptyanusa, Ajib; Satoto, Tri Baskoro Tunggul; Hadianto, Tridjoko

    2017-01-01

    Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF), commonly caused by Aedes aegypti mosquito bites, has been one of the worlds major concern for progressively increasing incidence. To prevent further increase in DHF incidence, an effective yet safe vector control method is needed. One of the most common method of vector control in Indonesia is using electric liquid vaporizer. Basic compounds which are less toxic to humans and less resistance-producing to mosquitoes are preferred, without neglecting its ability ...

  12. Immuno-pathological studies on broiler chicken experimentally infected with Escherichia coli and supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikash Sharma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of neem leaf extract (NLE supplementation on immunological response and pathology of different lymphoid organs in experimentally Escherichia coli challenged broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: For this study, we procured 192-day-old broiler chicks from local hatchery and divided them into Groups A and Group B containing 96 birds each on the first day. Chicks of Group A were supplemented with 10% NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were not supplemented with NLE throughout the experiment. At 7th day of age, chicks of Group A were divided into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 with 54 and 42 chicks, respectively, and chicks of Groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 colony-forming units/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Six chicks from each group were sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection; blood was collected and thorough post-mortem examination was conducted. Tissue pieces of spleen and bursa of Fabricius were collected in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological examination. Serum was separated for immunological studies. Result: E. coli specific antibody titer was significantly higher in Group A1 in comparison to Group B1. Delayed-type hypersensitivity response against 2,4 dinirochlorobenzene (DNCB antigen was significantly higher in Group A1 as compared to Group B1. Pathological studies revealed that E. coli infection caused depletion of lymphocytes in bursa of Fabricius and spleen. Severity of lesions in Group A1 was significantly lower in comparison to Group B1. Conclusion: 10% NLE supplementation enhanced the humoral as well as cellular immune responses attributed to its immunomodulatory property in experimentally E. coli infected broiler chicken.

  13. Immuno-pathological studies on broiler chicken experimentally infected with Escherichia coli and supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikash; Jakhar, K K; Dahiya, Swati

    2016-07-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of neem leaf extract (NLE) supplementation on immunological response and pathology of different lymphoid organs in experimentally Escherichia coli challenged broiler chickens. For this study, we procured 192-day-old broiler chicks from local hatchery and divided them into Groups A and Group B containing 96 birds each on the first day. Chicks of Group A were supplemented with 10% NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were not supplemented with NLE throughout the experiment. At 7(th) day of age, chicks of Group A were divided into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 with 54 and 42 chicks, respectively, and chicks of Groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 10(7) colony-forming units/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Six chicks from each group were sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection; blood was collected and thorough post-mortem examination was conducted. Tissue pieces of spleen and bursa of Fabricius were collected in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological examination. Serum was separated for immunological studies. E. coli specific antibody titer was significantly higher in Group A1 in comparison to Group B1. Delayed-type hypersensitivity response against 2,4 dinirochlorobenzene (DNCB) antigen was significantly higher in Group A1 as compared to Group B1. Pathological studies revealed that E. coli infection caused depletion of lymphocytes in bursa of Fabricius and spleen. Severity of lesions in Group A1 was significantly lower in comparison to Group B1. 10% NLE supplementation enhanced the humoral as well as cellular immune responses attributed to its immunomodulatory property in experimentally E. coli infected broiler chicken.

  14. The effects of callus age, UV irradiation and incubation time on trans-resveratol production in grapevine callus culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, N.; Kunter, B.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the effects of callus age, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and incubation time were investigated for the induction of trans-resveratrol production in callus cultures of Kalecik karası (Clone 12) Vitis vinifera L. grape cultivar. Part of leaves (~1 cm 2 ) were taken from one year old grapevines grown in greenhouse and then were cultured in Gamborg B-5 media including 2% saccarose, 0.8% agar, 1.0 μM BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) and 0.1 μM 2, 4-D (2, 4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid). After the second subculture, 12 and 15 days old callus tissues were exposed to 254 nm UV light at 10 cm distance from the source for 10 and 15 min. Trans-resveratrol was measured at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation by using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Trans-resveratrol concentration of control callus ranged from 0.56 to 0.96 μg g fw -1 . The highest trans-resveratrol production was obtained from 12 and 15 days-old callus irradiated for 10 min. at the 48th hours of incubation (2.42 μg g fw -1 ). Considering the highest value of trans-resveratrol concentration in controls and experiments, it was determined that UV irraditation in Kalecik karası elicitated the trans-resveratrol production by 2.5 times. (author) [tr

  15. Factors controlling phenol content on Theobroma cacao callus culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiñones-Galvez, Janet; HernándezTorre, Martha de la; Quirós Molina, Yemeys; Capdesuñer Ruiz, Yanelis; Trujillo Sánchez, Reinaldo

    2016-01-01

    Theobroma cacao L. is known in folk medicine as an antiseptic, diuretic and antiparasitic. Foods derived from this plant are rich in natural products of high added value, including phenolic compounds. As in vitro cultivation handle is an alternative source for the production of these metabolites. The present study was conducted to obtain phenolic compounds from callus culture with embryogenic structures. Culture conditions (agitation, light and glucose) were established to increase the concentration of phenols in calluses and elicitors to achieve the increase in callus and excretion into the culture area. The accumulation of phenolic compounds was favored with the additional supplement of glucose, growth in agitation and darkness. The addition of random hydroxylated cyclodextrins allowed the increase in the specific yield of phenols and biomass. (author)

  16. CALLUS INDUCTION FROM 15 CARNATION (DIANTHUS CARYOPHYLLUS L. CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth regulators (PGRs were used to induce callus in 15 carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.; Caryophyllaceae cultivars: Orange Sherbert, Avalanche, Magenta, La France, Stripe Red, Marie, Concerto PVP, Snap, Lucky Pierot, Cinnamon Tea, White Love, Siberia, Magesta, Spark Bruno, and Honono no Estejo. Seeds were initially sown on autoclaved moistened filter paper and internodes of surface-sterilized seedlings were used as explants. Most callus was induced in the presence of 0.5 mg/L α-naphthaleneacetic acid used together with 1 mg/L 6-benzyladenine or 1 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on basal Murashige and Skoog medium. Callus is not a desirable method to clonally propagate important germplasm but can serve as one possible way of deriving periclinal mutants as a result of somaclonal variation.

  17. Effects of auxins and cytokinins on tomato callus from anthers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina H. Rogozińska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out on growth substance requirements of tomato callus derived from anthers for culture in vitro. Linsmaier and Skoog (1965 medium was used with various levels of auxins (IAA and NAA and cytokinins (K and BAP. The results show that cytokinin is an absolute requirement for callus growth irrespective of the auxin level. The optimum concentration of auxin in combination with cytokinin was found to be 5 μM of NAA or 25 μM of IAA, with 5 μM of K or BAP. Callus growth on media with NAA and cytokinin was superior to that on IAA, amounting to 6.05 g per piece on medium with 5 μM of NAA and BAP. Tissues grown on this medium have the highest water content. At the onset of culture the tissue is characterized by weak growth and attains its maximal increase in fresh weight after 6 weeks.

  18. Diversity in Zanonia indica (Cucurbitaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.; Duyfjes, B.E.E.

    2007-01-01

    A revision of the monotypic genus Zanonia L. is presented. The only and widely distributed species Z. indica comprises two subspecies, the typical one, and the newly described subsp. orientalis W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes. Subspecies orientalis also contains a distinct variety, var. paludosa W.J. de

  19. Hyperplastic callus formation in osteogenesis imperfecta: CT and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieker, O.; Kreitner, K.F. [Klinik fuer Radiologie, Johannes-Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz (Germany); Karbowski, A. [Orthopaedische Abtl., Krankenhaus der Augustinerinnen, Koeln (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Hyperplastic callus formation is a noteworthy condition in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta because it often mimicks osteosarcoma on radiography. The findings of CT and MRI in hyperplastic callus formation have not been reported. In the presented case, MRI demonstrated contrast enhancement and edema of the surrounding soft tisssue, consistent with benign as well as malignant disease. Computed tomography showed a calcified rim of the lesion which may be a useful feature to rule out osteosarcoma in this condition. (orig.) With 2 figs., 18 refs.

  20. 21 CFR 358.510 - Corn and callus remover active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corn and callus remover active ingredients. 358.510 Section 358.510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... USE Corn and Callus Remover Drug Products § 358.510 Corn and callus remover active ingredients. The...

  1. Induction and multiplication of callus from endosperm of Cycas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The usage of medicinal plants in traditional medication has gained the attraction from global and local markets, mainly to cure diseases or simply for health maintenance. Callus cultures were initiated from the endosperm of the medicinal plant Cycas revoluta, cultured on half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium ...

  2. Regeneration from embryogenic callus and suspension cultures of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ehab

    2012-04-25

    Apr 25, 2012 ... Micropropagation, through seed culture has been studied in C. martinii ... Effect of 2,4-D on total and embryogenic callus production ... ethanol for 1 min, followed by immersion in 20% Clorox (NaOCl ... Three flasks from each treatment were cultured. ... shaker at 110 rpm. ...... Plants cultivated in bioreactor of.

  3. Plant regeneration system from cotyledons-derived calluses cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    Sep 26, 2011 ... The objective of this study was to successfully establish plant regeneration system with cotyledons of. Stylosanthes guianensis Sw. cv. 'Reyan 2' as explants. In this study, the following results were obtained; (1) the highest rates of callus induction on medium MS with 3.0 mg L-1 2, 4-D with cotyledons.

  4. Observation of antioxidant activity of leaves, callus and suspension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... Antioxidant activity and phenolic compound was found in Justicia gendarussa via total phenolic content (TPC) and α,α-diphenyl-β-pycrilhydrazil hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging assays. The assays were applied on aqueous and methanolic extracts of leaves, callus culture and cell suspension culture.

  5. callus induction and proliferation from cotyledon explants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2013-07-19

    Jul 19, 2013 ... between the tested cytokinins and the 2,4-D in callus induction and growth index. Similar results have also been obtained in soybean (Glycine max L.) (Sairam et al., 2003). In contrast to this finding, calli were reportedly induced from cotyledon explants on MS basal medium containing 2,4-D in combination ...

  6. Optimization of callus induction and plant regeneration from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient regeneration system was developed using germinating seeds of two cultivars of sweet sorghum, Sorghum bicolor 'Yuantian No.1' and 'M81E', as explants. We tested different media supplements effects on callus induction. The effects of combinations of 2,4-D, KT, sucrose, agar and proline at different ...

  7. Explant age, auxin concentrations and media type affect callus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of explant age of oil palm (Elaeis huineensis) embryo axes, 15 and 18 weeks after anthesis (WAA), media type (Eeuwens and Murashige and Skoog) supplemented with various concentrations of 2,4-D on callus production employing standard in vitro techniques were investigated. The results of the study showed ...

  8. Effects of plant growth regulators on callus induction from Cananga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cananga odorata callus was initiated from petals of the C. odorata flowers on MS medium and B5 vitamins containing 30 g/L sugar and 3 g/L agar. The medium was also supplemented with different concentrations of 1-naphtalene acetic acid (NAA), and combinations of NAA with 6-benzylaminpurine (BAP) as the plant ...

  9. Effect of plant growth regulators on callus induction and plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of different concentrations and combinations of growth regulators on callus induction and plant regeneration of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivar Diamant. The tuber segments were used as explants and cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium ...

  10. Callus induction via different growth regulators from cotyledon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars KK-1 and Hassan-2K on MS and B5 media containing different combinations and concentrations of growth regulators. Different MS and B5 callusing media containing varying level of 2, 4-D (2 and 4 mg/l), NAA (0.50 ...

  11. Improved embryogenic callus induction and plant regeneration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pramod Pantha

    2016-09-28

    Sep 28, 2016 ... solidified with 4.0 g l-1. Gelzan (Phyto Technology Laboratory). Pantha et al. 2167. Callus induction was performed under dark at 28°C (Isotemp. Incubator, Fisher Scientific, Hanover Park, IL, USA). Primary shoots from seed were removed 10 days after inoculation and subculture was done 3 weeks after ...

  12. Production of friable embryogenic callus and regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2015-06-03

    Jun 3, 2015 ... Generation of embryogenic callus is a key step in genetic engineering of many crop species, including cassava. ... CBSD is caused by two Ipomovirus; Cassava .... through a 1 mm2 pore-sized steel wire mesh using a spatula.

  13. Optimization of embryogenic-callus induction and embryogenesis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of embryogenic-callus induction and embryogenesis of Glycyrrhiza glabra. Fu Chunhua, Cheng Lei, Lu Gan, Maoteng Li, Ying Yang, Longjiang Yu. Abstract. Glabridin is a major biologically active flavonoid isolated specifically from the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra, which has many pharmacological activities.

  14. Shoot Differentiation in Callus Cultures of Datura Innoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1973-01-01

    promoted shoot differentiation. Gibberellic acid inhibited shoot formation weakly, but inhibited proper leaf blade formation. Root differentiation was rare. The callus cultures of Datura innoxia grew rapidly (100-fold in 4 weeks) on a slightly modified Murashige and Skoog medium (0.5 mg/l thiamin · HCl, p...

  15. Genotype dependent callus induction and shoot regeneration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to observe the effect of genotype, hormone and culture conditions on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) callus induction and indirect plant regeneration. Calli were obtained from hypocotyl and cotyledon explants of five different sunflower genotypes; Trakya 80, Trakya 129, Trakya 259, Trakya 2098 and ...

  16. Effect of plant growth regulators on callus induction and plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... toum state and later spread to other part of the country ..... Effect of different concentrations of IBA and MS salt strength on rooting percentage, ... study for tissue culture of potato can get enough callus and plant regeneration efficiency to perform transgenic operation. Moreover, as the potentiality of shoot ...

  17. Sugar alcohols-induced oxidative metabolism in cotton callus culture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar alcohols (mannitol and sorbitol) may cause oxidative damage in plants if used in higher concentration. Our present experiment was undertaken to study physiological and metabolic responses in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) callus against mannitol and sorbitol higher doses. Both markedly declined mean values of ...

  18. Callus induction via different growth regulators from cotyledon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-17

    Jun 17, 2011 ... NAA, naphthylacetic acid α; BAP, benzyl aminopurine; µM, micro mole. Chickpeas are a good source of zinc, folate and are very high in dietary fiber and thus, .... auxin, the callus inductions rates increased and induction time decreased ..... clonal variation and giving birth to traits of agronomic importance.

  19. Growth, proline and ion accumulation in sugarcane callus cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calli obtained from two sugarcane cultivars (R570 and CP59-73) were exposed to different osmotic stress intensities followed by a period of stress relief. Relative rate growth, callus water content and changes in organic and inorganic solutes were determined at the end of stress and relief periods. After the stress period, ...

  20. Stimulation of reserpine biosynthesis in the callus of Rauvolfia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    So enhancing this alkaloid in the already available system is a beneficial approach. Tryptophan is the starting material in the biosynthesis of reserpine. Callus was induced from leaf explants of Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. on MS medium supplemented with the combination of 9 μM 2,4-D and 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/l tryptophan.

  1. Metabolomic homeostasis shifts after callus formation and shoot regeneration in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Alka; Ray, Kamalika; Sadhna, Sadhna; Pandey, Arun Kumar; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2017-01-01

    Plants can regenerate from a variety of tissues on culturing in appropriate media. However, the metabolic shifts involved in callus formation and shoot regeneration are largely unknown. The metabolic profiles of callus generated from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cotyledons and that of shoot regenerated from callus were compared with the pct1-2 mutant that exhibits enhanced polar auxin transport and the shr mutant that exhibits elevated nitric oxide levels. The transformation from cotyledon to callus involved a major shift in metabolite profiles with denser metabolic networks in the callus. In contrast, the transformation from callus to shoot involved minor changes in the networks. The metabolic networks in pct1-2 and shr mutants were distinct from wild type and were rewired with shifts in endogenous hormones and metabolite interactions. The callus formation was accompanied by a reduction in the levels of metabolites involved in cell wall lignification and cellular immunity. On the contrary, the levels of monoamines were upregulated in the callus and regenerated shoot. The callus formation and shoot regeneration were accompanied by an increase in salicylic acid in wild type and mutants. The transformation to the callus and also to the shoot downregulated LST8 and upregulated TOR transcript levels indicating a putative linkage between metabolic shift and TOR signalling pathway. The network analysis indicates that shift in metabolite profiles during callus formation and shoot regeneration is governed by a complex interaction between metabolites and endogenous hormones. PMID:28481937

  2. Callus induction and flavonoid production on the immature seed of Stelechocarpus burahol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibah, N. A.; Moeljopawiro, S.; Dewi, K.; Indrianto, A.

    2018-03-01

    Stelechocarpus burahol [(Bl.) Hook. f. & Th.] is one of the medicinal plants. In vitro callus induction studies on S. burahol were carried out to determine phytohormone requirement for optimum callus induction. Immature seed explants were cultured on MS medium by adding different kinds and different concentrations of plant growth regulators (picloram and 2,4-D) under light and dark conditions. The results showed that callus formation was initiated on the 18,50th to the 55th days. The best condition for optimum callus induction was found on MS medium, which was supplemented with 7.5 mg/L picloram and was maintained in the dark condition. The callus induction varied from 60% to 100%. The callus that produced the highest flavonoid was grown on the medium with the addition of 10 mg/L of 2,4-D. In conclusion, the results represented a suitable medium for S.burahol callus induction.

  3. Callus induction and plant regeneration from different explant types of Miscanthus x ogiformis Honda 'Giganteus'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger Bæksted; Petersen, Karen Koefoed

    1996-01-01

    . The explants were cultured on urashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 4.5, 13.6, 22.6 or 31.7 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Three types of callus were formed but only one was embryogenic and regenerated plants. Callus induction and formation of embryogenic callus depended on the type and developmental......-propagated shoots and older leaves of greenhouse-grown plants. Immature inflorescences smaller than 2.5 cm produced a higher percentage of embryogenic callus than larger more mature inflorescences. Embryogenic callus derived from immature inflorescences had the highest regeneration capacity. Differences in 2......,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations had no significant effect on callus induction, embryogenic callus formation and plant regeneration....

  4. ANTIHEPATOTOXIC ACTICITY OF COCCINIA INDICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, V.; Rao, K.N.V.; Devi, M.; Padmaha, N.; Lakshmi, P. Manju; Srividya, T.; Vadivukarasi, G.

    2001-01-01

    Aqueous, light petroleum, chloroform, alcohol, benzene and acetone extracts of the leaves of Coccinia indica. (Family: Cucurbitaceae) were screened for antihepatotoxic activity. The extracts were given after the liver was damaged with Ccl4 Liver function was assessed based on liver to body weight ratio pentobarbitone sleep time, serum levels of transaminase (SGPT, SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (SALP and bilirubin. Alcohol and light petroleum was found to have good anti-hepatotoxic activity. PMID:22557027

  5. Embryogenic callus formation, growth and regeneration in callus and suspension cultures of Miscanthus x ogiformis Honda 'Giganteus' as affected by proline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger Bæksted; Krogstrup, Peter; Hansen, Jürgen

    1997-01-01

    .6 M 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Shoot apices and leaves from in vitro-propagated shoots, and immature inflorescences from greenhouse-grown plants were used as explants for callus induction and formation. Suspension cultures initiated from embryogenic callus of immature inflorescences were used...

  6. Metabolic changes associated with shoot formation in tobacco callus cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grady, K.L.

    1982-08-01

    Callus tissue derived from Nicotiana tabacum L. stem pith parenchyma cells was grown either on medium which maintains the callus in an undifferentiated state, or on medium which induces the formation of shoots. Two complementary types of studies were performed with the goal of establishing metabolic markers for the initiation of shoot formation: one designed to characterize the flow of radioactive sucrose into various metabolic pools, and one which allowed measurement of intermediary metabolite concentrations. In the former, callus tissue was incubated in (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose for periods up to one hour, and patterns of metabolite labelling in tissue grown on shoot-forming and non-shoot-forming media were compared. In the latter studies, tissue was grown for an entire subculture period on non-shoot-forming medium labelled with (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose, then subcultured to labelled non-shoot-forming or shoot-forming media, and sampled at intervals during the first week of growth. 189 references.

  7. [Flavonoid glycosides from callus cultures of Dysosma versipellis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ri-Dao; Duan, Rui-Gang; Zou, Jian-Hua; Li, Jun-Wei; Liu, Xiao-Yue; Wang, Hai-Yan; Li, Qiu-Hong; Dai, Jun-Gui

    2016-01-01

    Various chromatographic techniques, including silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20, preparative thin-layer chromatography, and preparative HPLC, were employed to isolate the chemical constituents from callus cultures of Dysosma versipellis. Structures of the compounds were elucidated based on UV, IR, MS and NMR spectroscopic data analysis. Totally, seven flavonoid glycosides were isolated from the 95% ethanol extract of the callus cultures and identified as kaempferol-3-O-[6″-(3″'-methoxy)-malonyl]-β-D-glucopyranoside(1), kaempferol-3-O-(6″-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside(2), kaempferide-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(3), kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(4), isoquercitrin(5), quercetin-4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(6) and kaempferol-3-(6″-malonyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside(7), respectively.All these compounds were isolated from callus cultures of D. versipellis for the first time.Compounds 1, 2, 3, 6 and 7 were firstly obtained from plant materials of D. versipellis, and compound 1 was a new compound. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. Metabolic changes associated with shoot formation in tobacco callus cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, K.L.

    1982-08-01

    Callus tissue derived from Nicotiana tabacum L. stem pith parenchyma cells was grown either on medium which maintains the callus in an undifferentiated state, or on medium which induces the formation of shoots. Two complementary types of studies were performed with the goal of establishing metabolic markers for the initiation of shoot formation: one designed to characterize the flow of radioactive sucrose into various metabolic pools, and one which allowed measurement of intermediary metabolite concentrations. In the former, callus tissue was incubated in [U- 14 C]sucrose for periods up to one hour, and patterns of metabolite labelling in tissue grown on shoot-forming and non-shoot-forming media were compared. In the latter studies, tissue was grown for an entire subculture period on non-shoot-forming medium labelled with [U- 14 C]sucrose, then subcultured to labelled non-shoot-forming or shoot-forming media, and sampled at intervals during the first week of growth. 189 references

  9. Morphohistobiochemical characteristics of embryogenic and nonembryogenic callus cultures of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A; Debata, B K; Mukherjee, P S; Malik, S K

    2001-01-01

    Ipomoea batatas callus culture raised in a medium supplemented with 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) alone or 2,4-D in combination with benzyl adenine, were found to be embryogenic. Supplementation of exogenous chemicals, such as 5 g/l NaCI or 0.7 g/l proline together with a mild dose of 0.2 mg/l 2,4-D, enhanced somatic embryogenesis significantly in all the genotypes tested. Morphological, growth, physiological, histological, and biochemical characteristics of the embryogenic callus were different from the nonembryogenic callus. The former was compact, slow growing, and nodular compared with the fast growing, fragile, nonembryogenic callus. The embryogenic callus tissue had more dry matter, protein and reducing sugar contents compared with the less embryogenic callus. The somatic embryogenic response remained steady in the cultures for up to 96 weeks.

  10. Study on the secondary metabolic regulation of callus of Panax quinquefolium L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Meiping; Wang Yi; Sun Chunyu; Li Xianggao

    2003-01-01

    The effects of precursors with different kind, concentration, growth phase, time and different ATP, nicotinic acid concentration on the callus growth and saponin formation with the buds of Panax quinquefolium L. has been studied. The results showed that 0.1% mevalonic acid inhibited the callus growth but promoted the saponin formation; L-leucine of 100 mg/L had no obvious effects on callus growth, but promoted the saponin formation; Mg(Ac) 2 of 444 mg/L promoted both the callus growth and saponin content. The optimum time for precursor feeding is at the beginning of regeneration. The optimum time for mevalonic acid is 6h; ATP of 160 mg/L promoted both the callus growth and saponin formation. Nicotinic acid of 1.0 mg/L promoted callus growth and saponin formation. With 4000 Gy of 60 Co γ-rays, the saponin content has been increased 1 time compared with nonirradiation

  11. Callus features of regenerate fracture cases in femoral lengthening in achondroplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devmurari, Kamlesh N.; Song, Hae Ryong; Modi, Hitesh N.; Venkatesh, K.P.; Ju, Kim Seung; Song, Sang Heon

    2010-01-01

    We studied the callus features seen in cases of regenerate fracture in femoral lengthening using a monolateral fixator in achondroplasia to determine whether callus types and shapes can predict the probability of callus fracture. The radiographs of 28 cases of femoral lengthening in 14 patients, 14 cases of callus fracture, and 14 cases without callus fracture were retrospectively analyzed by four observers and classified into different shapes and types in concordance with the Ru Li classification. The average lengthening of 9.4 cm (range 7.5-11.8 cm) was achieved, which was 41% (range 30-55%) of the original length and the average timing of callus fracture was 470 days (range 440-545 days) after surgery in the callus fracture group. While the average lengthening of 9.1 cm (range 8-9.7 cm) was achieved, this was 30% (range 28-32%) of the original length in the group of patients without callus fracture. The callus was atypically shaped, there was a 48% average (range 30-72%) reduction of the callus width compared with the natural width of the femur, and a lucent pathway was present in all cases of regenerate fracture. A lucent pathway was seen in all fracture cases with concave, lateral, and atypical shapes, and there was more than 30% lengthening and 30% reduction of the callus width compared with the natural width of the femur, which are the warning signs for regenerate fractures. These signs help the surgeon to predict the outcome and guide him in planning for any additional interventions. The Ru Li classification is an effective method for the evaluation of the chance of callus fracture. (orig.)

  12. Callus features of regenerate fracture cases in femoral lengthening in achondroplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devmurari, Kamlesh N.; Song, Hae Ryong; Modi, Hitesh N.; Venkatesh, K.P.; Ju, Kim Seung; Song, Sang Heon [Korea University Medical College, Institute for Rare Diseases and Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul (Korea)

    2010-09-15

    We studied the callus features seen in cases of regenerate fracture in femoral lengthening using a monolateral fixator in achondroplasia to determine whether callus types and shapes can predict the probability of callus fracture. The radiographs of 28 cases of femoral lengthening in 14 patients, 14 cases of callus fracture, and 14 cases without callus fracture were retrospectively analyzed by four observers and classified into different shapes and types in concordance with the Ru Li classification. The average lengthening of 9.4 cm (range 7.5-11.8 cm) was achieved, which was 41% (range 30-55%) of the original length and the average timing of callus fracture was 470 days (range 440-545 days) after surgery in the callus fracture group. While the average lengthening of 9.1 cm (range 8-9.7 cm) was achieved, this was 30% (range 28-32%) of the original length in the group of patients without callus fracture. The callus was atypically shaped, there was a 48% average (range 30-72%) reduction of the callus width compared with the natural width of the femur, and a lucent pathway was present in all cases of regenerate fracture. A lucent pathway was seen in all fracture cases with concave, lateral, and atypical shapes, and there was more than 30% lengthening and 30% reduction of the callus width compared with the natural width of the femur, which are the warning signs for regenerate fractures. These signs help the surgeon to predict the outcome and guide him in planning for any additional interventions. The Ru Li classification is an effective method for the evaluation of the chance of callus fracture. (orig.)

  13. Effects of Low Dose DD Radiation on Callus Growth of Lithospermum erythrorhizon S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H.Y.; Kim, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of low dose DD-radiation on the callus growth of Lithospermum erythrorhizon S. cultured on different medium and lighting condition was investigated. The 8 Gy irradiation stimulated callus growth on LS medium supplemented with BA 2 mg/L and NAA 2mg/L, however, the growth of callus was more effective on LS medium supplemented with BA 1 mg/L and NAA 1 mg/L under 16 hrs day light

  14. Locked plating of distal femur fractures leads to inconsistent and asymmetric callus formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Trevor J; Henderson, Chris E; Madey, Steven M; Fitzpatrick, Dan C; Marsh, J Lawrence; Bottlang, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Locked plating constructs may be too stiff to reliably promote secondary bone healing. This study used a novel imaging technique to quantify periosteal callus formation of distal femur fractures stabilized with locking plates. It investigated the effects of cortex-to-plate distance, bridging span, and implant material on periosteal callus formation. Retrospective cohort study. One Level I and one Level II trauma center. Sixty-four consecutive patients with distal femur fractures (AO types 32A, 33A-C) stabilized with periarticular locking plates. Osteosynthesis using indirect reduction and bridge plating with periarticular locking plates. Periosteal callus size on lateral and anteroposterior radiographs. Callus size varied from 0 to 650 mm2. Deficient callus (20 mm2 or less) formed in 52%, 47%, and 37% of fractures at 6, 12, and 24 weeks postsurgery, respectively. Callus formation was asymmetric, whereby the medial cortex had on average 64% more callus (P=0.001) than the anterior or posterior cortices. A longer bridge span correlated minimally with an increased callus size at Week 6 (P=0.02), but no correlation was found at Weeks 12 and 24 postsurgery. Compared with stainless steel plates, titanium plates had 76%, 71%, and 56% more callus at Week 6 (P=0.04), Week 12 (P=0.03), and Week 24 (P=0.09), respectively. Stabilization of distal femur fractures with periarticular locking plates can cause inconsistent and asymmetric formation of periosteal callus. A larger bridge span only minimally improves callus formation. The more flexible titanium plates enhanced callus formation compared with stainless steel plates.

  15. Investigation of radiosensitivity and growth dynamics for callus tissues Crepis Capillaris, Haplopappus gracilis, Phasolium vulgaris exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatsek, Eh.; Glinkova, E.; Ismailova, Eh.N.

    1983-01-01

    Radiosensitivity of three kinds of callus tissues (Crepis capillaris, Haplopappus gracilis, Phasolium vulgaris) manifested in the change of fresh weight after γ-irradiation has been investigated. Irradiated callus arowth showed decrease with increasing doses. It is shown that the radiosensitivity of ''young'' callus tissues is determined by the kind of the plant. Callus of Phaseolis has been found to have the highest radioresistance, while that of Crepis has the lowest one. Radiosensitivity of ''old'' callus tissues is the same for all kinds. Potential mechanism of radiosensitivity of callus tissUes are discussed

  16. Shoot regeneration of callus culture from irradiated sheed of piper nigrum L by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishak; Hutabarat, D.

    1988-01-01

    Shoot regeneration was obtained from callus that induced by irradiated seed with 25 and 50 Gy of gamma-rays and then on M.S. medium containing NAA 1 ppm and 2-ip 0.5 ppm. Irradiated seed with a dose of 25 Gy produced normal root and failed to produce shoot, but rice callus. Irradiated seed with a dose of 50 Gy pruduce callus only. Shoot differentiation occured after the callus were cultured on M.S., medium containing 2-ip 1 ppm and Kinetin 2.5 ppm. (authors). 9 refs, 3 figs

  17. Factors Associated With Callus in Patients with Diabetes, Focused on Plantar Shear Stress During Gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamatani, Masako; Mori, Taketoshi; Oe, Makoto; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Takehara, Kimie; Amemiya, Ayumi; Ohashi, Yumiko; Ueki, Kohjiro; Kadowaki, Takashi; Sanada, Hiromi

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to identify whether plantar shear stress in neuropathic patients with diabetes with callus is increased compared with those without callus. The differences in foot deformity, limited joint mobility, repetitive stress of walking, and ill-fitting shoes between patients with callus and those without callus were also determined. Subjects were recruited from the Diabetic Foot Outpatient Clinic. A newly developed in-shoe measurement system, which has flexible and thin insoles, enabled measurement of both plantar pressure and shear stress simultaneously when subjects walked as usual on a 10 m walkway. It was found that plantar shear stress adjusted for weight during the push-off phase was increased by 1.32 times in patients with callus compared with those without callus (mean ± SD: 0.0500 ± 0.0160 vs 0.0380 ± 0.0144, P = .031). Moreover, hallux valgus deformity, reduction in dorsiflexion of the ankle joint and increase in plantar flexion were showed in feet with callus. Increased plantar shear stress may be caused by gait change that patients having callus push off with the metatarsal head instead of the toe as a result of foot deformity and limited joint mobility. It was found that plantar shear stress adjusted for weight during the push-off phase was increased in patients with callus compared with those without callus by using the newly developed measurement system. These results suggest that reduction of plantar shear stress during the push-off phase can prevent callus formation in neuropathic patients with diabetes. © 2016 Diabetes Technology Society.

  18. Plant regeneration from leaf-derived callus in Plectranthus barbatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAMA

    2013-05-01

    May 1, 2013 ... produces an ancient root-derived drug traditionally used in the treatment of ... has opened up vistas for bio medical research. The fasciculated ... stored mainly in the cytoplasmic vesicles of cork cells in ... After screening of suitable ..... vitro of embryos and plantlets in stem tissue cultures of Tylophora indica.

  19. Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation of popular Indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various parameters critical to rice transformation were optimized including callus induction medium, bacterial concentration, co-cultivation conditions, concentration of the plant growth regulator 2,4-D and the concentration of acetosyringone. The transformed lines were analyzed using PCR for marker sequence and gusA ...

  20. [Factors affecting bone regeneration in Ilizarov callus distraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, B; Krieger, M; Schneider, T; Menkhaus, S; Fischer, J; Rüther, W

    1995-12-01

    We evaluated the X-rays of 36 patients who underwent 50 callus distractions. With the aid of a computerized digitalisation system for analogue films, the relative X-ray density of the distraction area was calculated for each X-ray. These relative X-ray densities were figured graphically for the duration of treatment for each patient. In the consolidation phase, the graph of each patient had a logarithmic relationship. The gradients of the logarithmic density curves were considered an indicator of the quantity of new bone formation. These gradients were correlated to the following clinical parameters: age of the patient, beginning of distraction after corticotomy, average speed of distraction, average weight bearing during the distraction and consolidation phase, location of corticotomy (distal femur versus proximal tibia) and diclofenac medication. Except for the location of the corticotomy and diclofenac, all parameters had an influence on osteoneogenesis by callus distraction. The parameters affecting new bone formation the most were the age of the patient and weight bearing. Patients aged under 18 years (p = 0.005), beginning of distraction later than 8 days (p = 0.109), an average distraction speed below 1 mm/day (p = 0.079), and average weight bearing of more than 30 kg (p = 0.068 for the distraction phase and p = 0.089 for the consolidation phase) showed a quantitatively higher rate of new bone formation by callus distraction than the patients in the other groups. Patients with a shorter leg due to poliomyelitis and one patient with an amniotic leg tie showed a slower increase in X-ray density graphs than the other patients.

  1. Effective salt criteria in callus-cultured tomato genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Mahmut; Tipirdamaz, Rukiye; Demir, Yavuz

    2010-01-01

    Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+, and proline contents, the rate of lipid peroxidation level in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) and chlorophyll content, and the changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD: EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT: EC 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APX: EC 1.11.1.11), and glutathione reductase (GR: EC 1.6.4.2), in tissues of five tomato cultivars in salt tolerance were investigated in a callus culture. The selection of effective parameters used in these tomato genotypes and to find out the use of in vitro tests in place of in vivo salt tolerance tests were investigated. As a material, five different tomato genotypes during a 10-day time period were used, and 150 mM NaCl was applied at callus plant tissue. The exposure to NaCl induced a significant increase in MDA content in both salt-resistant and salt-sensitive cultivars. But the MDA content was higher in salt-sensitive cultivars. The chlorophyll content was more decreased in salt-sensitive than in salt-resistant ones. The proline amount was more increased in salt-sensitive than in salt-resistant ones. It has been reported that salt-tolerant plants, besides being able to regulate the ion and water movements, also exhibit a strong antioxidative enzyme system for effective removal of ROS. The degree of damage depends on the balance between the formation of ROS and its removal by the antioxidative scavenging system that protects against them. Exclusion or inclusion of Na+, Cl-, K+, and Ca2+, antioxidant enzymes and MDA concentration play a key protective role against stress, and this feature at the callus plant tissue used as an identifier for tolerance to salt proved to be an effective criterion.

  2. Isoprene derivatives from the leaves and callus cultures of Vaccinium corymbosum var. bluecrop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migas, Piotr; Cisowski, Wojciech; Dembińska-Migas, Wanda

    2005-01-01

    The phytochemical analysis of Vaccinium corymbosum var bluecrop leaves and callus biomass revealed ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, alpha-amyrin and beta-amyrin in both plant materials. Beta-sitosterol was determined only in callus biomass. The structure of isolated compounds was elucidated by TLC co-chromatography with standards and with spectroscopic methods (1H NMR, 13C NMR, EI-MS).

  3. Shear Stress-Normal Stress (Pressure) Ratio Decides Forming Callus in Patients with Diabetic Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Takehara, Kimie; Ohashi, Yumiko; Suzuki, Ryo; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Kadowaki, Takashi; Sanada, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Callus is a risk factor, leading to severe diabetic foot ulcer; thus, prevention of callus formation is important. However, normal stress (pressure) and shear stress associated with callus have not been clarified. Additionally, as new valuables, a shear stress-normal stress (pressure) ratio (SPR) was examined. The purpose was to clarify the external force associated with callus formation in patients with diabetic neuropathy. Methods. The external force of the 1st, 2nd, and 5th metatarsal head (MTH) as callus predilection regions was measured. The SPR was calculated by dividing shear stress by normal stress (pressure), concretely, peak values (SPR-p) and time integral values (SPR-i). The optimal cut-off point was determined. Results. Callus formation region of the 1st and 2nd MTH had high SPR-i rather than noncallus formation region. The cut-off value of the 1st MTH was 0.60 and the 2nd MTH was 0.50. For the 5th MTH, variables pertaining to the external forces could not be determined to be indicators of callus formation because of low accuracy. Conclusions. The callus formation cut-off values of the 1st and 2nd MTH were clarified. In the future, it will be necessary to confirm the effect of using appropriate footwear and gait training on lowering SPR-i. PMID:28050567

  4. In vitro salt stress induced production of gymnemic acid in callus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is presented in this investigation. The highest efficiency of callus formation was observed in the medium containing different concentrations of 2,4-D. The gymnemic acid content increased with increasing concentration of 2,4-D along with NaCl. Key words: In vitro, Gymnema sylvestre, callus culture, gymnemic acid, salt ...

  5. Interaction of callus selection media and stress duration for in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Callus culture is a novel approach addressing cultured cells as selection units independent of whole plant. Natural variations for drought tolerance existing among cell lines can be exploited in vitro in the presence of suitable concentration of osmoticum and stress duration. The study was aimed to standardized callus ...

  6. Morphological Characterization and Identification of Coffea liberica Callus of Somatic Embryogenesis Propagation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitria Ardiyani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Compared with other types of coffee, Liberica coffee is more difficult to be propagates using clonal methods. Meanwhile, demand for planting materials and consumption of this type of coffee is increasing lately. The objective of this paper is to present results of the work on morpological characterization of Liberica coffee (Coffea liberica callus produced by somatic embryogenesis propagation. This research used C. liberica Arruminensis clone. This clone was one of Liberica coffee clones which had superior taste. Main activitis carried out in this experiment were explant sterilization, explant induction and histological analysis on the callus produced. The result of this research showed that non embryogenic callus was higher (72% than embryogenic callus (28%. The callus description can be used to identify type and characteristic of the callus. Therefore, it can be a parameter to choose type of callus for propagation material. This is important because choosing the right callus is determine of the succesfully process of Liberica somatic embryogenesis. Keywords: somatic embryogenesis, Liberica, embryogenic, non-embryogenic

  7. Shear Stress-Normal Stress (Pressure Ratio Decides Forming Callus in Patients with Diabetic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi Amemiya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Callus is a risk factor, leading to severe diabetic foot ulcer; thus, prevention of callus formation is important. However, normal stress (pressure and shear stress associated with callus have not been clarified. Additionally, as new valuables, a shear stress-normal stress (pressure ratio (SPR was examined. The purpose was to clarify the external force associated with callus formation in patients with diabetic neuropathy. Methods. The external force of the 1st, 2nd, and 5th metatarsal head (MTH as callus predilection regions was measured. The SPR was calculated by dividing shear stress by normal stress (pressure, concretely, peak values (SPR-p and time integral values (SPR-i. The optimal cut-off point was determined. Results. Callus formation region of the 1st and 2nd MTH had high SPR-i rather than noncallus formation region. The cut-off value of the 1st MTH was 0.60 and the 2nd MTH was 0.50. For the 5th MTH, variables pertaining to the external forces could not be determined to be indicators of callus formation because of low accuracy. Conclusions. The callus formation cut-off values of the 1st and 2nd MTH were clarified. In the future, it will be necessary to confirm the effect of using appropriate footwear and gait training on lowering SPR-i.

  8. Influence of gamma radiation and fast neutrons on the growth of Haplopappus gracilis (Nutt) A. Gray callus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.; Wajda, L.; Korzonek, M.; Polska Akademia Nauk, Krakow. Inst. Fizjologii Roslin)

    1979-01-01

    The sensitivity of the callus of Haplopappus gracilis to gamma radiation and fast neutrons was studied. High doses of radiation cause inhibition of callus growth. At small doses the effect is less pronounced. Stimulation of callus growth was seen. Apart from morphological changes, ionizing radiations lowered the fresh weight ratio of the callus. The RBE value for 5.5 MeV neutrons depended on the dose rate of radiation and the combination of growth medium. (author)

  9. Proliferation Potential of 18-Month-Old Callus of Ananas comosus L. cv. Moris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. De Silva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Differential effect of plant growth regulators and additives in proliferation of 18-month-old calli of Ananas comosus L. cv. Moris were assessed in vitro. The proliferation of callus relied on the growth regulators and additives. Of the different auxins supplemented in the Murashige and Skoog (MS media, 32.22 μM α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA gave the highest mean fresh weight of callus (46.817 g. Medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D was inferior to NAA, while b-naphthoxy acetic acid (BNOA and p-chlorophenoxy acetic acid (4-CPA were not effective in proliferating 18-months old callus. Addition of casein hydrolysate and coconut water to NAA supplemented medium showed better proliferation and production of callus. However, in terms of callus production, NAA at 32.22 μM was economically better.

  10. Strontium Is Incorporated into the Fracture Callus but Does Not Influence the Mechanical Strength of Healing Rat Fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüel, Annemarie; Olsen, Jakob; Birkedal, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    in callus bone mineral content (P\\0.05). However, after 8 weeks of healing, no difference was found in either callus volume or bone mineral content. SrR did not influence maximum load or stiffness of the fractures after either 3 or 8 weeks of healing. EDX showed that Sr was incorporated into the callus...

  11. Embryogenesis in gamma-irradiated habituated ovular callus of the 'Shamouti' orange as affected by auxin and by tissue age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochba, J.; Spiegel-Roy, P.

    1977-01-01

    The response of habituated embryogenic ovular callus of the 'Shamouti' orange, Citrus sinensis, to gamma irradiation was studied. Stimulation of embryogenesis was observed when only callus, but not when the medium was irradiated. Age of callus prior to subculture modified the response to irradiation as regards optimal dose for embryogenesis and radiosensitivity. Radiation intensities also modified callus response to radiation dose. Addition of unirradiated IAA to irradiated callus cultures increased embryo formation and furthered development of embryos into plantlets, with some combinations of radiation dose and IAA concentration. Addition of IAA also decreased radiosensitivity at high doses (32 kR). (author)

  12. MRT letter: Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic imaging of soft callus formation in fracture healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Lauren Nicole Miller; de Bakker, Chantal Marie-Jeanne; Lusic, Hrvoje; Gerstenfeld, Louis Charles; Grinstaff, Mark W; Morgan, Elise Feng-I

    2012-01-01

    Formation of a cartilaginous soft callus at the site of a bone fracture is a pivotal stage in the healing process. Noninvasive, or even nondestructive, imaging of soft callus formation can be an important tool in experimental and pre-clinical studies of fracture repair. However, the low X-ray attenuation of cartilage renders the soft callus nearly invisible in radiographs. This study utilized a recently developed, cationic, iodinated contrast agent in conjunction with micro-computed tomography to identify cartilage in fracture calluses in the femora of C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ mice. Fracture calluses were scanned before and after incubation in the contrast agent. The set of pre-incubation images was registered against and then subtracted from the set of post-incubation images, resulting in a three-dimensional map of the locations of cartilage in the callus, as labeled by the contrast agent. This map was then compared to histology from a previous study. The results showed that the locations where the contrast agent collected in relatively high concentrations were similar to those of the cartilage. The contrast agent also identified a significant difference between the two strains of mice in the percentage of the callus occupied by cartilage, indicating that this method of contrast-enhanced computed tomography may be an effective technique for nondestructive, early evaluation of fracture healing. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. In vitro isoflavonoid production and analysis in natural tetraploid Trifolium pratense (red clover calluses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba Ercetin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones are polyphenolic phytoestrogens, predominantly found in leguminous plants. Trifolium pratense L., Fabaceae (red clover, is rich in isoflavones that possess estrogenic activity due to their similar molecular structure and effectiveness in preventing health conditions such as menopause, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and hormone-dependent cancers. In this study, presence and amount of various phytoestrogens in the tetraploid plant and in the calluses derived from the plants were investigated. Calluses were generated from explants obtained from natural tetraploid T. pratense seedlings. The best callus formation was obtained from hypocotyl explants cultured in Phillips Collins and Gamborg B5 media containing different plant growth regulators. Flowers of plants and calluses were analysed for formononetin, biochanin A, genistein and daidzein contents using HPLC. In HPLC analysis, high levels of formononetin (0.249 µg/mg were determined in natural tetraploid T. pratense flowers in addition to genistein and biochanin A. In calluses, highest isoflavone content (1.15 µg/mg formononetin was observed in modified Gamborg B5 medium. Biochanin A content of calluses and the plant were found to be nearly the same. But formononetin and genistein contents of the calluses in this medium were found to be respectively 4.62 and 21.39 folds higher than the tetraploid plant.

  14. In vitro isoflavonoid production and analysis in natural tetraploid Trifolium pratense (red clover calluses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba Ercetin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones are polyphenolic phytoestrogens, predominantly found in leguminous plants. Trifolium pratense L., Fabaceae (red clover, is rich in isoflavones that possess estrogenic activity due to their similar molecular structure and effectiveness in preventing health conditions such as menopause, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and hormone-dependent cancers. In this study, presence and amount of various phytoestrogens in the tetraploid plant and in the calluses derived from the plants were investigated. Calluses were generated from explants obtained from natural tetraploid T. pratense seedlings. The best callus formation was obtained from hypocotyl explants cultured in Phillips Collins and Gamborg B5 media containing different plant growth regulators. Flowers of plants and calluses were analysed for formononetin, biochanin A, genistein and daidzein contents using HPLC. In HPLC analysis, high levels of formononetin (0.249 µg/mg were determined in natural tetraploid T. pratense flowers in addition to genistein and biochanin A. In calluses, highest isoflavone content (1.15 µg/mg formononetin was observed in modified Gamborg B5 medium. Biochanin A content of calluses and the plant were found to be nearly the same. But formononetin and genistein contents of the calluses in this medium were found to be respectively 4.62 and 21.39 folds higher than the tetraploid plant.

  15. Uptake and fate of IAA in apple callus tissue using IAA-1-14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, E.; Lavee, S.

    1975-01-01

    Incubation of young growing and older non-growing apple callus tissues in a medium containing IAA-1- 14 C resulted in rapid disappearance of the IAA. In old calluses (3 months), the major portion of IAA was lost by decarboxylation (90% after 4 hr) and very little (1.4%) was maintained by the tissue. In young calluses, after 4 hr in light, decarboxylation reached 20% and absorption 35% of the labelled IAA. Some decomposition of IAA was caused by photolysis and autoclaving (19% and 3%, respectively) but the final distribution of radioactivity was not affected. Factors such as sucrose concentration in the incubation medium, distilled water as incubation medium, and cutting of the callus did not affect tissue behavior. Special precautions were taken to eliminate non-biological decomposition of IAA. Therefore, we believe that the rapid CO 2 evolution is of enzymatic nature. This theory is supported by the drop in decarboxylation after killing of the callus, and the increase of decarboxylation with age. No enzyme was secreted by the callus into the medium after 24 hr of incubation, and IAA decomposition in old tissues is done probably on the surface. Absorption of IAA increased with increasing callus size and decarboxylation decreased. (auth.)

  16. Efficient plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis from callus cultures of Oncidium (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J -T.; Chang, W -C.

    2000-12-07

    An efficient method was established for high frequency somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from callus cultures of a hybrid of sympodial orchid (Oncidium 'Gower Ramsey'). Compact and yellow-white embryogenic calli formed from root tips and cut ends of stem and leaf segments on 1/2 MS [11] basal medium supplemented with 1-phenyl-3-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl)-urea (TDZ, 0.1-3 mg/l), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, 3-10 mg/l) and peptone (1 g/l) for 4-7 weeks. Embryogenic callus was maintained by subculture on the same medium for callus induction and proliferated 2-4 times (fresh weight) in 1 month. Initiation of somatic embryogenesis and development up to the protocorm-like-bodies (PLBs) from callus cultures was achieved on hormone-free basal medium. Regenerants were recovered from somatic embryos (SEs) after transfer to the same medium and showed normal development. The optimized protocol required about 12-14 weeks from the initiation of callus to the plantlet formation. Generally, the frequency of embryo formation of root-derived callus was higher than stem- and leaf-derived calli. Combinations of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and TDZ significantly promoted embryo formation from callus cultures. The high-frequency (93.8%) somatic embryogenesis and an average of 29.1 SEs per callus (3x3 mm(2)) was found in root-derived callus on a basal medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/l NAA and 3 mg/l TDZ. Almost all the SEs converted and the plantlets grew well with an almost 100% survival rate when potted in sphagnum moss and acclimatized in the greenhouse.

  17. Optimization of induction, subculture conditions, and growth kinetics of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels callus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bing; Han, Lijuan; Li, Shaomei; Yan, Chunyan

    2015-01-01

    Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels is an important traditional Chinese medicine, and the medicinal position is its root. This perennial herb grows vigorously only in specific areas and the environment. Tissue culture induction of callus and plant regeneration is an important and effective way to obtain large scale cultures of A. sinensis. The objective was to optimize the inductive, subculture conditions, and growth kinetics of A. sinensis. Tissue culture conditions for A. sinensis were optimized using leaves and petioles (types I and II) as explants source. Murashige and Skoog (MS) and H media supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose, 7.5 g/L agar, and varying concentrations of plant growth regulators were used for callus induction. In addition, four different basal media supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), 0.2 mg/L 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 30 g/L sucrose were optimized for callus subculture. Finally, growth kinetics of A. sinensis cultured on different subculture media was investigated based on callus properties, including fresh weight, dry weight, medium pH, callus relative fresh weight growth, callus relative growth rate (CRGR), and sucrose content. MS medium supplemented with 5 mg/L α-naphthaleneacetic acid, 0.5 mg/L BA, 0.7 mg/L 2,4-D, 30 g/L sucrose and 7.5 g/L agar resulted in optimal callus induction in A. sinensis while petiole I was found as the best plant organ for callus induction. The B5 medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 2,4-D, 0.2 mg/L BA and 30 g/L sucrose displayed the best results in A. sinensis callus subculture assays. The optimized conditions could be one of the most potent methods for large-scale tissue culture of A. sinensis.

  18. Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics of Embryogenic and Non-Embryogenic Callus during Sugarcane Somatic Embryogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Schuabb Heringer

    Full Text Available The development of somatic cells in to embryogenic cells occurs in several stages and ends in somatic embryo formation, though most of these biochemical and molecular changes have yet to be elucidated. Somatic embryogenesis coupled with genetic transformation could be a biotechnological tool to improve potential crop yields potential in sugarcane cultivars. The objective of this study was to observe somatic embryo development and to identify differentially expressed proteins in embryogenic (E and non-embryogenic (NE callus during maturation treatment. E and NE callus were cultured on maturation culture medium supplemented with different concentrations (0.0, 0.75, 1.5 and 2.0 g L(-1 of activated charcoal (AC. Somatic embryo formation and differential protein expression were evaluated at days 0 and 21 using shotgun proteomic analyses. Treatment with 1.5 g L(-1 AC resulted in higher somatic embryo maturation rates (158 somatic embryos in 14 days in E callus but has no effect in NE callus. A total of 752 co-expressed proteins were identified through the SUCEST (The Sugarcane EST Project, including many housekeeping proteins. E callus showed 65 exclusive proteins on day 0, including dehydrogenase, desiccation-related protein, callose synthase 1 and nitric oxide synthase. After 21 days on maturation treatment, 14 exclusive proteins were identified in E callus, including catalase and secreted protein. NE callus showed 23 exclusive proteins on day 0 and 10 exclusive proteins after 21 days on maturation treatment, including many proteins related to protein degradation. The induction of maturation leads to somatic embryo development, which likely depends on the expression of specific proteins throughout the process, as seen in E callus under maturation treatment. On the other hand, some exclusive proteins can also specifically prevent of somatic embryos development, as seen in the NE callus.

  19. α(1) adrenergic receptor agonist, phenylephrine, actively contracts early rat rib fracture callus ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Stuart J; Dooley, Philip C; McDonald, Aaron C; Djouma, Elvan; Schuijers, Johannes A; Ward, Alex R; Grills, Brian L

    2011-05-01

    Early, soft fracture callus that links fracture ends together is smooth muscle-like in nature. We aimed to determine if early fracture callus could be induced to contract and relax ex vivo by similar pathways to smooth muscle, that is, contraction via α(1) adrenergic receptor (α(1) AR) activation with phenylephrine (PE) and relaxation via β(2) adrenergic receptor (β(2) AR) stimulation with terbutaline. A sensitive force transducer quantified 7 day rat rib fracture callus responses in modified Krebs-Henseliet (KH) solutions. Unfractured ribs along with 7, 14, and 21 day fracture calluses were analyzed for both α(1) AR and β(2) AR gene expression using qPCR, whilst 7 day fracture callus was examined via immunohistochemistry for both α(1) AR and β(2) AR- immunoreactivity. In 7 day callus, PE (10(-6)  M) significantly induced an increase in force that was greater than passive force generated in calcium-free KH (n = 8, mean 51% increase, 95% CI: 26-76%). PE-induced contractions in calluses were attenuated by the α(1) AR antagonist, prazosin (10(-6)  M; n = 7, mean 5% increase, 95% CI: 2-11%). Terbutaline did not relax callus. Gene expression of α(1) ARs was constant throughout fracture healing; however, β(2) AR expression was down-regulated at 7 days compared to unfractured rib (p contract. We propose that increased concentrations of α(1) AR agonists such as noradrenaline may tonically contract callus in vivo to promote osteogenesis. Copyright © 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  20. Effects of gamma-radiation treatment in somatic cell culture of indica rice Basmati 370 selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaokai, Min; Xiufang, Qi; Zhenmin, Xiong; Chengzhang, Zhao [China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou (China)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Radiation treatment was applied at different doses to germinating embryo, callus, callus with green spots and callus with developing shoots. Results indicate: (1) induction rate of the callus was reduced with increased radiation dose applied to germinating embryos; (2) radiation effect on redifferentiation percentage and/or green plantlets percentage of the callus varied with different treatment dates in the order of callus treatment > treatment of callus with green spots > treatment of callus with developing shoots > treatment of germinating embryo; (3) in vitro irradiation reduced the fertility of regenerated plants, but was able to increase their exerted stigma rate and the frequency of early maturing variation in their progenies; (4) a number of promising mutants including 2 male sterile plants were obtained from the progenies of in vitro irradiation. The radiation treatment with 2.5-5.OkR to callus with green spots or shoots is a method worthy of adoption in rice improvement. (author)

  1. Eleusine indica resistance to Accase inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, Ribas Antonio; Portes, Emerson da Silva; Lamego, Fabiane Pinto; Trezzi, Michelangelo Muzell

    2006-01-01

    Dentre as causas da ineficácia no controle de plantas daninhas destaca-se a resistência delas aos herbicidas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a suspeita de resistência de Eleusine indica a inibidores de acetil-CoA carboxilase (ACCase) e investigar a ocorrência de resistência cruzada entre os inibidores de ACCase. Biótipo de Eleusine indica originado do Mato Grosso com suspeita de resistência aos herbicidas inibidores de ACCase foi avaliado em casa de vegetação na sua suscetibilidade...

  2. The GABA shunt in the callus cells derived from soybean cotyledon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Masao; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Kitaoka, Shozaburo

    1975-01-01

    In the growing callus cells from soybean cotyledon, the activities of glutamate decarboxylase and GABA transaminase were increased in the early phase of the callus growth on the Miller agar medium. Succinate dehydrogenase activity was also changed in a similar manner. From these and the additional evidences that GABA transaminase was probably localized in the mitochondria, it has been made clear that the GABA shunt (GABA by-pass pathway) is operative and contributes to the respiratory metabolism in growing callus cells. Feeding young callus cells with GABA-U- 14 C for 24 hr actually resulted in finding 53% of the taken up radioactivity in released carbon dioxide. Considerable parts of the taken up radioactivity were found in amino acids and proteins which should have been formed via the GABA shunt also. (auth.)

  3. MRI and CT features of hyperplastic callus in osteogenesis imperfecta tarda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrocky, I.; Seidl, G.; Grill, F.

    1999-01-01

    We describe the MRI and CT findings of hyperplastic callus formation simulating a tumour of pelvis in patient with osteogenesis imperfecta tarda. Possible differential diagnoses and the impact of different imaging techniques on the correct diagnosis are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Callus culture development of two varieties of Tagetes erecta and carotenoid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Benítez-García

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: WF callus appeared to be a suitable candidate as a source of different carotenoids, and tested varieties could represent an alternative for further studies about in vitro pigment production.

  5. Effect of sorbitol in callus induction and plant regeneration in wheat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... Key words: Callus induction, plant regeneration, wheat, 2,4-D, sorbitol. INTRODUCTION ... regeneration is better on hormone-free medium or that .... AB (interaction). 15 ... element and creates osmotic stress as reported by.

  6. Appraisal of beta-Phellandrene in Callus Cultures of Momordica charantia L. Cultivars, Jaunpuri and Jhalri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Tariq, A.; Ajaib, M.

    2015-01-01

    Secondary metabolite beta-phellandrene was analyze in callus cultures of two varieties of Momordica charantia L. i.e. Jaunpuri and Jhalri. Conditions for seed germination and callus induction were optimized. Seedlings grown under aseptic conditions served as explant sources. 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) supplemented in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium were scrutinized as the most suitable combination of plant growth regulators with different concentrations for callus induction in both the varieties. Cotyledon explant of (cultivars) cv. Jaunpuri revealed maximum callus induction with 1.0 mgl/sup -1/ BAP and 1.5 mgl/sup -1/ 2,4-D in eight days as compared to internode, apical bud and leaf. Cotyledon and leaf explants of cv. Jhalri responded to 1.5 mgl/sup -1/ BAP and 1.0 mgl/sup -1/ 2,4-D in nine days for callus and internode and apical bud with 1.0 mgl-l BAP and 1.5 mgl-l 2,4-D. Best grown calli from different explants were analyzed through GC-MS for production of secondary metabolites. Along with other secondary metabolites beta-phellandrene was the most prominent secondary metabolites found in in vitro grown callus cultures of both the varieties. The callus cultures of cv. Jaunpuri produced substantial amount of beta-phellandrene i.e. up to 30 percent of the total secondary metabolites as compared to calli from cv. Jhalri explants. The callus cultures of M. charantia can prove the best alternative, rapid and uninterrupted source for natural beta-phellandrene production. (author)

  7. Gamma-irradiation activates biochemical systems: induction of nitrate reductase activity in plant callus.

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, K N; Sabharwal, P S

    1982-01-01

    Gamma-irradiation induced high levels of nitrate reductase activity (NADH:nitrate oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.6.1) in callus of Haworthia mirabilis Haworth. Subcultures of gamma-irradiated tissues showed autonomous growth on minimal medium. We were able to mimic the effects of gamma-irradiation by inducing nitrate reductase activity in unirradiated callus with exogenous auxin and kinetin. These results revealed that induction of nitrate reductase activity by gamma-irradiation is mediated through i...

  8. Factors affecting callus and protoplast production and regeneration of plants from garlic tissue cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safadi, B.; Nabulsi, I.

    2001-08-01

    Five cultivars of garlic, two explants, six callusing media, six regeneration media, two kinds of light and several doses of gamma irradiation were used to determine the best conditions for callus induction and plant regeneration from garlic tissue cultures. Also, some experiments were conducted to study the possibility to isolate protoplast and regenerate plants. The experiment showed that medium MS9 was good for regenerating plant directly from basal plate without going through callus phase. ANOVA exhibited significant differences among used cultivars in their ability to form callus. No significant difference was observed between 16 hr light and complete darkness in callus growth. However, appearance of callus was generally better on darkness. Cultivar varied in their ability to regenerate and interaction between cultivars and media was observed. Cultivar kisswany was the best in regeneration (38%) and medium MS47 was the best among used media (35%). Light type played a significant role in regeneration of plants where red light was much better than white light in inducing regeneration (68% vs 36%). ANOVA revealed significant effect of low doses of gamma irradiation on stimulation regeneration of plant whereas high doses prevented regeneration. Many experiments were conducted to isolate protoplast and regenerate plants. The best method for culturing was the droplet and the best conditions for incubation were complete darkness at 25 Degreed centigrade. This lead to formation of cell wall but no cell division was observed (author)

  9. Embryogenic competence acquisition in sugarcane callus is associated with differential H+ pump abundance and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passamani, Lucas Z; Bertolazi, Amanda A; Ramos, Alessandro C; Santa-Catarina, Claudete; Thelen, Jay J; Silveira, Vanildo

    2018-06-22

    Somatic embryogenesis is an important biological process in several plant species, including sugarcane. Proteomics approaches have shown that H + pumps are differentially regulated during somatic embryogenesis; however, the relationship between H + flux and embryogenic competence is still unclear. This work aimed to elucidate the association between extracellular H + flux and somatic embryo maturation in sugarcane. We performed a microsomal proteomics analysis and analyzed changes in extracellular H + flux and H + pump (P-H + -ATPase, V-H + -ATPase and H + -PPase) activity in embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus. A total of 657 proteins were identified, 16 of which were H + pumps. We observed that P-H + -ATPase and H + -PPase were more abundant in embryogenic callus. Compared with non-embryogenic callus, embryogenic callus showed higher H + influx, especially on maturation day 14, as well as higher H+ pump activity (mainly P-H+-ATPase and H+-PPase activity). H+-PPase appears to be the major H + pump in embryogenic callus during somatic embryo formation, functioning in both vacuole acidification and PPi homeostasis. These results provide evidence for an association between higher H + pump protein abundance and, consequently, higher H + flux and embryogenic competence acquisition in the callus of sugarcane, allowing for optimization of the somatic embryo conversion process by modulating the activities of these H + pumps.

  10. Using callus culture to study the drought tolerance of wheat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondić Ankica

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we studied the drought tolerance under in vitro conditions of two winter wheat (T. aestivum L. cultivars, Košuta and Renesansa. The tolerance was tested on a modified MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962 nutrient medium to which polyethylene glycol (PEG was added at three different concentrations: 10%, 20% and 30%. Calluses from the control group were grown on a medium without PEG. After four months of growing on these mediums, fresh weight and dry matter content in the callus tissue were determined. We found significant differences in genotype response to different PEG concentrations The highest concentration (30% was lethal to the isolated embryos, so at this concentration no calluses formed in any of the genotypes. At 10 and 20% PEG, there was a significant decrease in the fresh callus weight in both genotypes. Thus, at the lowest concentration ( 10% PEG, the fresh weight decreased by 90% in Košuta and by 93% in Renesansa relative to the control. Due to callus dehydration in the presence of PEG, the dry matter content in the calluses of both genotypes increased with increasing PEG concentrations in the medium. In Košuta, the dry matter content increased from 8.7% (control to 24.9% (20% PEG, while in Renesansa it increased from 8.6% (control to 39.7% (20% PEG.

  11. Experimental study upon the effect of irradiation on callus formation of fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saigusa, Fujio

    1981-01-01

    Irradiation effects on callus formation after bone fracture were studied in rats with fractured right lower extremity. Follow-up study was continued for 112 days since 3000 rad was irradiated to the fractured site 3 days after bone fracture. Callus formation was noted in both of the outer and inner part (bone marrow) of the diaphysis before 14 days after bone fracture, but it was slow and sparse compared with that of non-irradiated group. Callus formation tended to disappear gradually from the outside of the diaphysis after 28 days after bone fracture. Strong disturbance was found in the surrounding vascular system at this time. Inside of the diaphysis, callus formation was restricted the end of the fracture, where lamellar calluses fused together. Changes in vascular system remained until 56 days after bone fracture. Vascular distribution was most dense 28 days after bone fracture. In many of the calluses which have established fusion, findings suggested excessive calcification in the trabeculae. Vascular distribution at this time was sparse, vascular formation was markedly suppressed in the bone marrow, and very little vascular formation was found in the fractured edges of the bone. (Ueda, J.)

  12. EFFECT OF PHYSIOLOGICAL AGE AND GROWTH REGULATORS ON CALLUS BROWNING OF COCONUT ENDOSPERM CULTURE IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAZARUS AGUS SUKAMTO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of physiological age and growth regulators affecting callus browning ofcoconut endosperm was investigated. Solid endosperm explants of four coconut fruits fromsame brunches of two coconut cultivars “Samoan Dwarf ” were grown on modified Murashigeand Skoog (MS formula with addition of 10 mg l putresine, 2.50 g l activated charcoal (AC,1.70 g l phytagel, 0, 10 , 10 , 10 , 10 M 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D or 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid (Picloram combined with 10 M 6-benzylaminopurine (BA.Callogenesis occurred on 98.83% of explants. Callus browning between different physiologicalages (antipodal and micropylar tissues of coconut endosperm at 9, 26 and 31 weeks of culture(WOC was significantly different, but not at 16 and 21 WOC. Auxins of 2,4-D and Picloramdid not affect significantly callus browning of endosperm cultures. Auxin doses at 10 , 10 , and10 M decreased significantly callus browning at 9 and 16 WOC, respectively, but at 10 Mbrowning was less significant compared to other doses at 21 WOC. Auxin dose at 10 M causedless significant browning compared to other doses at 31 WOC. The addition of BA decreasedsignificantly callus browning at 9 WOC, but did not affect callus browning thereafter.

  13. POTENTIALS OF TAMARINDUS INDICA (Linn) IN JAM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S O Jimoh

    while some of the other metals are actually of high nutritional values. There are ... The fruit pulp is used for seasoning, as a food component and in juices. Its fruit is regarded ... crude and inefficient due to poor handling and lack of storage facilities. This has ..... Extract of the seed coat of Tamarindus indica inhibits nitric oxide.

  14. The effect of different concentrations of Neem (Azadiractha indica leaves extract on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans (In vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Kavi Subramaniam

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Neem plant has a history for treating gum and teeth problems and this plant is used for oral care in India. The active component (Azadirachta indica has been proven to exhibit antibacterial properties. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of different concentrations of Neem leaves extract on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans. Neem leaves extract at concentrations of 10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% was prepared. Fifty milliliters of each concentration were dropped into holes of 6 millimeters in diameter on a MHA agar that has been inoculated with Streptococcus mutans. Distilled water was used as a control. After 24 hours of incubation, the inhibition diameters were measured and analyzed. The statistical results of the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA illustrated that the different concentrations of Neem extract had a significant influence on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans. This was followed with the Least Significant Difference (LSD which implied that there were significant differences between all the concentrations of Neem leaves extract used in this experiment. The conclusion of this study was that Neem leaves extract exhibited antibacterial effect towards Streptococcus mutans and different concentration of Neem leaves extract influenced the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans.

  15. Genetic analysis of Karnal bunt (Neovossia indica ) resistance in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    ear heads were harvested and grains were removed care- fully by hand. Percent ... Low callusing ability of embryo excised from mature grains were also .... induction, proliferation and plant regeneration from mature ... Plant Cell Rep. 18 331– ...

  16. Callus formation impedes adventitious rhizogenesis in air layers of broadleaved tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Singh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Callusing and root induction in air layering was evaluated aiming at evolution of procedure for mass clonal propagation of mature ortets of five tropical broadleaf species differing in their potential for adventitious root formation in shoot cuttings as: Anogiessus latifolia < Boswellia serrata < Dalbergia latifolia < Gmelina arborea < Dalbergia sissoo. Two experiments were conducted in rainy season during consecutive years; without application of growth regulators in the first year and with growth regulators (T1 - water, T2- 100 ppm indole-3-acetic acid, T3-100 ppm thiamine-HCl and T4 -combination of T2 + T3 in the next year. Air layered branches were detached from the trees to record percentage of alive airlayers, callusing and rooting (% as well as root number and root length. Response to air layering was found to be highly variable in five tree species but appeared to be feasible procedure for clonal propagation of mature ortets of B. serrata and D. sissoo with 100% (in auxin + thiamine treatment and 83.3% (in auxin treatment success, respectively. Maximum callusing (% was found in D. latifolia while no callusing was observed in D. sissoo, which is most easy-to-root among all five species. Callus formation impedes adventitious rhizogenesis in air layers as significant negative correlation of callusing (% and adventitious root formation was recorded in air layers of five tropical broadleaved tree species. Application of exogenous auxin alone or in combination with thiamine circumvents callusing to ensure direct development of roots for successful air layering.

  17. Effect of emulsion size and shelf life of azadirachtin A on the bioefficacy of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) emulsifiable concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, L; Parmar, B S

    2000-08-01

    In a study of 33 recipes of neem oil based emulsifiable concentrates, the specific surface area of the emulsions and cream plus oil layer separation in emulsions at 24 h revealed a correlation of -0.6874 between them and correlations of -0.8940 and 0.6972, respectively, with bioefficacy (LC(50)) against the 3-day-old second-instar larvae of the Bihar hairy caterpillar, Spilosoma obliqua Walker. Nearly 96-99% of azadirachtin A in emulsifiable concentrates (aza-A content = 617.93-1149.65 ppm) degraded during the heat stability test at 54 +/- 1 degrees C for 14 days with half-lives ranging between 1.84 and 4.53 days. The LC(50) values against S. obliqua were, however, statistically at par in both the pre- and the post-heat-treated samples, suggesting a similar effect of azadirachtin A and its degradation products on the bioactivity. The half-life of azadirachtin A could be enhanced by storing the concentrates at lower temperatures. A low pH of the formulation solvent did not check the degradation of azadirachtin A, as reported with aqueous solutions in the literature.

  18. Efficacy Of Leaf Extract Of Neem Azadirachta Indica Against Shoot Dieback Disease Of Two Species Of Ficus In Atbara Town-Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Elham S. Dawood

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A widespread stem canker and dieback diseases threatened different plant genera in Sudan. It was highly spread among different Ficus species. This research was carried out in Atbara town north Khartoum. The causal agents of this disease were Isolated from the infected shoot system of Ficus bengalensis and F. retusa. Morphological identification and relative densities of the isolated fungi were carried out with the help of authentic manuals of fungi. Biocontrol experiment was conducte...

  19. Efficacy Of Leaf Extract Of Neem Azadirachta Indica Against Shoot Dieback Disease Of Two Species Of Ficus In Atbara Town-Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham S. Dawood

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A widespread stem canker and dieback diseases threatened different plant genera in Sudan. It was highly spread among different Ficus species. This research was carried out in Atbara town north Khartoum. The causal agents of this disease were Isolated from the infected shoot system of Ficus bengalensis and F. retusa. Morphological identification and relative densities of the isolated fungi were carried out with the help of authentic manuals of fungi. Biocontrol experiment was conducted for the most prevalent pathogenic fungus using aqueous neem extract in both cold and hot water. The results showed that the fungal isolates belong to three genera Aspergillus spp. Aspergillus niger A. terrus and A. flavus Botryosphaeria sp. and Botrytis sp. The most prevalent mycoflora was Botryosphaeria sp. relative density range 35-45 the second one was A.niger 20 then Botrytis sp. 15 A. flavus 10 and A.terreus 2-8. The efficacy of aqueous cold and hot extracts of neem leaf on the growth of Botryosphaeria sp. showed that the hot extract is effective than the cold one and the inhibition percentage were 100 and 65 respectively on the 14th days.

  20. Impact of botanical extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica on populations of Plutella xylostella and its natural enemies: A field test of laboratory findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2006-01-01

    Differences between results from ecological laboratory studies and what actually happens in the field can be large. Therefore, field experiments are essential to validate laboratory findings. In previous laboratory trials we investigated the impact of aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree,

  1. Impact of botanical extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica on populations of Plutella xylostella and its natural enemies: a field test of laboratory findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2006-01-01

    Differences between results from ecological laboratory studies and what actually happens in the field can be large. Therefore, field experiments are essential to validate laboratory findings. In previous laboratory trials we investigated the impact of aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree,

  2. Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves mediated synthesis of SnO2/NiO nanocomposite and assessment of its photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Bhaskar; Shoeb, Mohd; Siddiqui, M. J.; Azam, Ameer; Mobin, Mohammad

    2018-05-01

    SnO2/NiO nanocomposite are prepared by using a simple cost effective and ecofriendly green soft template method followed by ultrasonication treatment further by calcination at 300 °C. The resulting nanocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Visible spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The SnO2-NiO photocatalyst was made of a mesoporous network of aggregated NiO and cassiterite SnO2 nanocrystallites, the size of which was estimated to be 16.68 nm and 13.17 nm, respectively, after calcination. According to UV-visible spectroscopy, the evident energy band gap value of the SnO2-NiO photocatalyst was estimated to be 3.132 eV to be compared with those of pure SnO2, that is, 3.7 eV. Moreover, the heterostructure SnO2-NiO photocatalyst showed much higher photocatalytic activities for the degradation of methylene blue than those of individual SnO2 and NiO nanomaterials. This behaviour was rationalized in terms of better charge separation and the suppression of charge recombination in the SnO2-NiO photocatalyst because of the energy difference between the conduction band edges of SnO2 and NiO as evidenced by the band alignment determination. Finally, this mesoporous SnO2-NiO heterojunction nanocatalyst was stable and could be easily recycled several times opening new avenues for potential industrial applications.

  3. Effects of a botanical larvicide derived from Azadirachta indica (the neem tree) on oviposition behaviour in Anopheles gambiae s.s. mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, A.F.V.; Adongo, E.A.; Vulule, J.; Githure, J.

    2011-01-01

    More focus is given to mosquito larval control due to the necessity to use several control techniques together in integrated vector management programmes. Botanical products are thought to be able to provide effective, sustainable and cheap mosquito larval control tools. However, bio-larvicides like

  4. IDENTIFIKASI SENYAWA EKSTRAK ETANOL DAUN MIMBA (Azadirachta indica A.Juss SEBAGAI ANTIBAKTERI SECARA KLT-BIOAUTOGRAFI TERHADAP BAKTERI Stahpylococcus aureus DAN Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurfijrin Ramadhani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rendahnya kesadaran masyarakat dan kurangnya sarana kesehatan membuat penyakit infeksi semakin meningkat. Pengobatan secara alami sekarang menjadi pilihan baru sebagai antibakteri, salah satunya adalah mimba. Penelitian sebelumnya menunjukkan bahwa daun mimba dapat menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri, akan tetapi belum diketahui senyawa apa yang berperan sebagai antibakteri tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui di dalam daun mimba senyawa yang berperan sebagai antibakteri. Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode KLT Bioautografi langsung, dimana hasil maserasi esktrak etanol daun mimba yang telah dielusi ditempelkan ke media yang telah ditanami bakteri Staphylococcus aureus dan Escherichia coli. Zona hambat yang terbentuk dilakukan identifikasi senyawa dengan menggunakan pereaksi semprot Dragendorf, FeCl3, Sitroborat, Lieberman Bouchardat, dan SbCl3. Hasil uji KLT-Bioautografi menunjukkan bahwa daun mimba dapat menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri yang ditandai dengan terbentuknya zona bening masing-masing dengan Rf 0,4 pada bakteri Staphylococcus aureus dan Escherichia coli. Senyawa yang berperan sebagai antibakteri terhadap bakteri Staphylococcus aureus dan Escherichia coli diduga adalah senyawa saponin dimana terbentuk warna ungu dengan pereaksi SbCl3.

  5. Ethanolic Neem (Azadirachta indica Leaf Extract Prevents Growth of MCF-7 and HeLa Cells and Potentiates the Therapeutic Index of Cisplatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhavi Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to gain insight into the antiproliferative activity of ethanolic neem leaves extract (ENLE alone or in combination with cisplatin by cell viability assay on human breast (MCF-7 and cervical (HeLa cancer cells. Nuclear morphological examination and cell cycle analysis were performed to determine the mode of cell death. Further, to identify its molecular targets, the expression of genes involved in apoptosis, cell cycle progression, and drug metabolism was analyzed by RT-PCR. Treatment of MCF-7, HeLa, and normal cells with ENLE differentially suppressed the growth of cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner through apoptosis. Additionally, lower dose combinations of ENLE with cisplatin resulted in synergistic growth inhibition of these cells compared to the individual drugs (combination index <1. ENLE significantly modulated the expression of bax, cyclin D1, and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP 1A1 and CYP 1A2 in a time-dependent manner in these cells. Conclusively, these results emphasize the chemopreventive ability of neem alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic treatment to reduce the cytotoxic effects on normal cells, while potentiating their efficacy at lower doses. Thus, neem may be a prospective therapeutic agent to combat gynecological cancers.

  6. Insect antifeedant ryanodane diterpenes from Persea indica

    OpenAIRE

    González-Coloma, Azucena; Terrero, David; Perales, Áurea; Escoubas, Pierre; Fraga, Braulio M.

    1996-01-01

    The new ryanodane diterpenes cinnzeylanone, ryanodol 14-monoacetate, and epi-cinnzeylanol have been isolated from Persea indica(Lauraceae). The structure of cinnzeylanone has been determined by X-ray analysis. These compounds proveds to be antifeedants against Spodoptera litura. Cinnzeylanol and ryanodol were the most active antifeedants of this plant, with a range of activity close to that of ryanodine. THis is the first report on the antifeedant effects of this class of diterpenes. Their st...

  7. Search for alkaloids on callus culture of Passiflora alata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelli Wesz Machado

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary work on Passiflora alata leaves failed to detect harmane alkaloids using LC. The aim of this work was to investigate the production of harmane alkaloids through the cell culture of P. alata, inducing its precursor (L-tryptophan. The leaf explants presented satisfactory results after disinfection, and the callus formation was initiated in MS media with adequate quantities of phytohormones. Sixty days after inoculation, calli were inoculated in the optimized semi-solid MS media, with and without the addition of L-tryptophan (50, 100, 200 mg/L and kept in standard conditions for 90 days. Calli were collected on days 6, 16, 26, 36, and 90, followed by acid-base extraction, and analysed by LC. The results showed an absence of harmane, harmin, harmol, harmalol, and harmaline. With L-tryptophan feeding, two peaks were detected, collected and analysed through positive mode electrospray [ESI(+-MS] and sequential analysis in tandem ESI(+-MS/MS. The spectra obtained were very similar, with a repetition of the more intense ions, and consecutive loss of 68 Da units, attributed to the heterocycle pyrazole. It appeared that this transformation was not related to any enzymatic pathway previously described for the plant from L-tryptophan, and the biosynthesis of β-carboline alkaloids in callus culture of P. alata were not observed in this work.As folhas de varias espécies de Passiflora são utilizadas como ansioliticas e sedativas. Passiflora alata Curtis, Passifloraceae consta em três edições da farmacopéia brasileira, porem não há muitos estudos sobre sua composição química. No passado, enfatizava-se a ação conjunta de alcalóides e flavonóides. Em trabalho anterior, não foi detectada a presença de alcalóides harmanicos através de CLAE. Assim, decidiu-se investigar a produção dos mesmos através de cultivo celular, introduzindo seu precursor metabólico L-triptofano. Os explantes foliares apresentaram resultados satisfatorios

  8. Tamarindus indica: Extent of explored potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadoriya, Santosh Singh; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Narwaria, Jitendra; Rai, Gopal; Jain, Alok Pal

    2011-01-01

    Tamarindus is a monotypic genus and belongs to the subfamily Caesalpinioideae of the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae), Tamarindus indica L., commonly known as Tamarind tree is one of the most important multipurpose tropical fruit tree species in the Indian subcontinent. Tamarind fruit was at first thought to be produced by an Indian palm, as the name Tamarind comes from a Persian word "Tamar-I-hind," meaning date of India. Its name "Amlika" in Sanskrit indicates its ancient presence in the country. T.indica is used as traditional medicine in India, Africa, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria,and most of the tropical countries. It is used traditionally in abdominal pain, diarrhea and dysentery, helminthes infections, wound healing, malaria and fever, constipation, inflammation, cell cytotoxicity, gonorrhea, and eye diseases. It has numerous chemical values and is rich in phytochemicals, and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic activity, antimicrobial activity, antivenomic activity, antioxidant activity, antimalarial activity, hepatoprotective activity, antiasthmatic activity, laxative activity, and anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Every part of the plant from root to leaf tips is useful for human needs. Thus the aim of the present review is to describe its morphology, and explore the phytochemical constituents, commercial utilization of the parts of the plant, and medicinal and pharmacologic activities so that T. indica's potential as multipurpose tree species can be understood.

  9. Effects of gamma-rays and neutrons on the seedling and callus growth in rice seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baradjanegara, A.A.; Fujii, Taro; Amano, Etsuo

    1976-01-01

    Seeds of rice c.v. Norin-8 and two radiation induced dwarf mutants MGS-46 and -96 were used to investigate the effects of gamma- and 14 MeV neutron-radiations in different culture systems. Seedling growth of irradiated seeds in soil, and in two types of synthetic media, modified White's (M-W) or modified Eriksson's (M-E), as well as the callus growth on 2.4-D supplemented media were measured as an index of radiation damage. Comparing the seedling height about two types of media, the M-E promoted the plant growth than the M-W in irradiated as well as non-irradiated lots of the three strains studied. The callus growth on M-E surpassed by more 10 times that obrained on the M-W in all the lots. The M-E medium seem to be appropriate for both the seedling and callus growth of rice. (auth.)

  10. Effects of gamma rays and neutrons on the seedling and callus growth in rice seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baradjanegara, A.A.; Fujii, T.; Amano, E.

    1976-01-01

    Seeds of rice c.v. Norin-8 and two radiation induced dwarf mutants MGS-46 and -96 were used to investigate the effects of gamma and 14 MeV neutron-radiations in different culture systems. Seeding growth of irradiated seeds in soil, and in two types of synthetic media, modified White's (M-W) or modified Erickson's (M-E), as well as the callus growth on 2,4-D supplemented media were measured as an index radiation damage. Comparing the seeding height about two types of media, the M-E promoted the plant growth than the M-W in irradiated as well as non irradiated lots of the three strains studied. The callus growth on M-E surpassed by more 10 times that obtained on the M-W in all the lots. The M-E medium seems to be appropriate for both the seeding and callus growth of rice. (author)

  11. Divergent regeneration-competent cells adopt a common mechanism for callus initiation in angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Zhang, Guifang; Liu, Wu; Shi, Jianmin; Wang, Hua; Qi, Meifang; Li, Jiqin; Qin, Peng; Ruan, Ying; Huang, Hai; Zhang, Yijing; Xu, Lin

    2017-06-01

    In tissue culture, the formation of callus from detached explants is a key step in plant regeneration; however, the regenerative abilities in different species are variable. While nearly all parts of organs of the dicot Arabidopsis thaliana are ready for callus formation, mature regions of organs in monocot rice ( Oryza sativa ) and other cereals are extremely unresponsive to tissue culture. Whether there is a common molecular mechanism beyond these different regenerative phenomena is unclear. Here we show that the Arabidopsis and rice use different regeneration-competent cells to initiate callus, whereas the cells all adopt WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX 11 ( WOX11 ) and WOX5 during cell fate transition. Different from Arabidopsis which maintains regeneration-competent cells in mature organs, rice exhausts those cells during organ maturation, resulting in regenerative inability in mature organs. Our study not only explains this old perplexity in agricultural biotechnology, but also provides common molecular markers for tissue culture of different angiosperm species.

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation on Callus formation and regeneration of wheat immature embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, O.M.

    2007-01-01

    Four Egyptian bread wheat cultivars; G164, G168, SK61 and Sids1, were tested for their response to six gamma irradiation treatments; 1, 2, 3 Gy (as low doses) and 10, 20, 30 Gy (as high doses) in addition to 0 Gy (as a control) in terms of callus formation and regeneration of immature embryos. Low doses of gamma irradiations ( 1, 2 and 3 Gy) showed favourable effects on both traits; number of regenerated calli and number of shoots per callus comparing with the control (0 Gy), while high doses; 10, 20 and 30 Gy, had the worst effect comparing with the control (0 Gy). G164 cultivar was shown to get the best response in terms of callus formation and regeneration when exposed to low doses of gamma irradiation. In conclusion, gamma irradiation can serve in increasing regeneration efficiency of Egyptian bread wheat cells when used in low doses

  13. Hyperplastic callus formation in osteogenesis imperfecta type V mimicking osteosarcoma: 4-year follow-up with resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, R.L.V.; Amaral, D.T. [Federal University of Sao Paulo, Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Jesus-Garcia, Filho R. [Federal University of Sao Paulo, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Saraiva, G. [Federal University of Sao Paulo, Department of Endocrinology, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Fernandes, A.R.C. [University of California San Diego, Department of MSK Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Resnick, D.

    2006-06-15

    We report a case of hyperplastic callus formation that occurred in both femurs in a patient with type V osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), with 4-year follow-up and resolution. The clinical, histological and imaging aspects of this condition are discussed. Recognition of the hyperplastic callus formation in this particular type of OI is important in order to avoid misdiagnosis. (orig.)

  14. Hyperplastic callus formation in osteogenesis imperfecta type V mimicking osteosarcoma: 4-year follow-up with resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, R.L.V.; Amaral, D.T.; Jesus-Garcia, Filho R.; Saraiva, G.; Fernandes, A.R.C.; Resnick, D.

    2006-01-01

    We report a case of hyperplastic callus formation that occurred in both femurs in a patient with type V osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), with 4-year follow-up and resolution. The clinical, histological and imaging aspects of this condition are discussed. Recognition of the hyperplastic callus formation in this particular type of OI is important in order to avoid misdiagnosis. (orig.)

  15. Secondary Metabolite Content in Roots and Callus of Paeonia Anomala L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. ZARIPOVA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the fact that in the process of introduction in vitro culture the change of secondary metabolite content may take place we compared the chemical composition of plant material of wild-growing plants of Paeonia anomala introduced and produced using the methods of clonal micropropagation, callus tissue.The content of phenolic compounds, that is catechins and gallatos was compared. Paeoniflorin content was estimated by direct spectrophotometry of methanol extracts (λ = 231,7 nm, ε 1% 1 sm = 265.4. Integral characteristic of the obtained extracts was received by comparison of absorption spectra using spectrophotometer SP - 121 within wave diapason 300 - 460 nm.Light absorption curves of methanol extracts had two distinct peaks at λ = 232 nm and λ = 275 nm typical of paeoniflorin. Paeoniflorin content was 80 % higher in young peony roots than in control plant. This glycoside content in callus culture was 44 % higher than in wild-growing plant roots and 26 % lower than in plantlet roots.The use of ethanol as extragent showed a higher content of extracted substances in callus tissue. The comparison of the obtained spectra in the region corresponding to phenolic compound absorption shows the highest phenolic compound content in callus tissue and young plant roots. Judging by light absorption maximum it may be phenolic acids. The lowest phenolic compound content was determined in adult wild-growing plant roots, where a high phlobaphene content was visually observed.The conducted research confirms the fact that callus culture of Paeonia anomala L. is a perspective producer of monoterpene glycosides and phenolic compounds. Extracts from plantlets and callus culture exceed in biological active substance content rootstock extracts of open air plants.

  16. Fully automated segmentation of callus by micro-CT compared to biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissinger, Oliver; Götz, Carolin; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Prodinger, Peter Michael; Tischer, Thomas

    2017-07-11

    A high percentage of closed femur fractures have slight comminution. Using micro-CT (μCT), multiple fragment segmentation is much more difficult than segmentation of unfractured or osteotomied bone. Manual or semi-automated segmentation has been performed to date. However, such segmentation is extremely laborious, time-consuming and error-prone. Our aim was to therefore apply a fully automated segmentation algorithm to determine μCT parameters and examine their association with biomechanics. The femura of 64 rats taken after randomised inhibitory or neutral medication, in terms of the effect on fracture healing, and controls were closed fractured after a Kirschner wire was inserted. After 21 days, μCT and biomechanical parameters were determined by a fully automated method and correlated (Pearson's correlation). The fully automated segmentation algorithm automatically detected bone and simultaneously separated cortical bone from callus without requiring ROI selection for each single bony structure. We found an association of structural callus parameters obtained by μCT to the biomechanical properties. However, results were only explicable by additionally considering the callus location. A large number of slightly comminuted fractures in combination with therapies that influence the callus qualitatively and/or quantitatively considerably affects the association between μCT and biomechanics. In the future, contrast-enhanced μCT imaging of the callus cartilage might provide more information to improve the non-destructive and non-invasive prediction of callus mechanical properties. As studies evaluating such important drugs increase, fully automated segmentation appears to be clinically important.

  17. In vitro studies on callus induction in gamma-irradiated velvet bean seeds (Mucuna pruriens L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Ankit; Misra, Pragati; Shukla, Pradeep K.

    2014-01-01

    Gamma rays are often used for developing plants varieties that are agriculturally and economically important and have high productivity potential with the minimum input. Ionizing radiations are currently a very important way to create genetic variability that is not exists in nature or that is not available to the breeder. Irradiation treatments performed at in vitro culture has been also employed to increase genetic variability and mutants as a potential source of new commercial cultivars. Large number of research reports suggests also that mutagenesis in combination with tissue culture has high potential in plant breeding programs. Mucuna pruriens L., also known as velvet bean, contains L-DOPA, a precursor to the neurotransmitter dopamine and formulation of the seed power has been studied for management of Parkinson's disease. Seeds were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation (10 kGy, 20 kGy and 30 kGy) using 60 Co as source, at National Botanical Research Institute (NBRI) Lucknow. Gamma treated and untreated seeds (control) were inoculated in MS media supplemented with different phytohormone concentrations and combinations. The best callus induction was observed in control seeds on MS media supplemented with 0.5 mg/l kinetin, 2 mg/l NAA and 10 mg/l adenine sulphate, whereas gamma treated seeds showed poor callus induction in the same phytohormone concentrations. The callus induction was poor in control seeds on MS media supplemented with 1.0 mg/l kinetin, 2.0 mg/l NAA and 10 mg/l adenine sulphate, whereas gamma treated seeds showed even poor callus induction under the same phytohormone concentrations. The callus induction frequency was in declined gradually with the increasing dose of gamma radiation. Gamma treated seeds developed greenish and fragile callus and also showed decreased weight as compare to control which was white greenish, compact and heavier. (author)

  18. Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitory and Antioxidant Potential of Antidiabetic Herb Alternanthera sessilis: Comparative Analyses of Leaf and Callus Solvent Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Tsun-Thai; Khoo, Chee-Siong; Tee, Chong-Siang; Wong, Fai-Chu

    2016-01-01

    Alternanthera sessilis is a medicinal herb which is consumed as vegetable and used as traditional remedies of various ailments in Asia and Africa. This study aimed to investigate the antiglucosidase and antioxidant activity of solvent fractions of A. sessilis leaf and callus. Leaf and callus methanol extracts were fractionated to produce hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water fractions. Antiglucosidase and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activities as well as total phenolic (TP), total flavonoid (TF), and total coumarin (TC) contents were evaluated. Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis was performed on leaf and callus fractions with the strongest antiglucosidase activity. Leaf ethyl acetate fraction (LEF) had the strongest antiglucosidase (EC 50 0.55 mg/mL) and radical scavenging (EC 50 10.81 μg/mL) activity among leaf fractions. Callus ethyl acetate fraction (CEF) and chloroform fraction had the highest antiglucosidase (EC 50 0.25 mg/mL) and radical scavenging (EC 50 34.12 μg/mL) activity, respectively, among callus fractions. LEF and CEF were identified as noncompetitive and competitive α-glucosidase inhibitors, respectively. LEF and CEF had greater antiglucosidase activity than acarbose. Leaf fractions had higher phytochemical contents than callus fractions. LEF had the highest TP, TF, and TC contents. Antiglucosidase and antioxidant activities of leaf fractions correlated with phytochemical contents. LEF had potent antiglucosidase activity and concurrent antioxidant activity. CEF had the highest antiglucosidase activity among all fractions. Callus culture is a promising tool for enhancing production of potent α-glucosidase inhibitors. Leaf ethyl acetate fraction (LEF) had the strongest antiglucosidase (EC 50 0.55 mg/mL) and radical scavenging (EC 50 10.81 μg/mL) activity among leaf fractionsCallus ethyl acetate fraction (CEF) and chloroform fraction had the highest antiglucosidase (EC 50 0.25 mg/mL) and radical scavenging (EC 50 34.12

  19. Fatty acids, phenols content, and antioxidant activity in Ibervillea sonorae callus cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada-Zúñiga, M.E.; Arano-Varela, H.; Buendía-González, L.; Orozco-Villafuerte, J.

    2012-01-01

    Ibervillea sonorae callus cultures were established in order to produce fatty acids (lauric, myristic, pentadecanoic, palmitic and stearic acids) and phenolic compounds. Highest callus induction (100%) was obtained in treatments containing 2.32 or 4.65 μM Kinetin (KIN) with 2.26 or 6.80 μM 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Highest fatty acids (FA) production (48.57 mg g-1), highest total phenol content (TPC; 57.1 mg gallic acid equivalents [GAE] g-1) and highest antioxidant activity (EC...

  20. Unilateral Palmar Callus and Irritant Hand Eczema – Underreported Signs of Dependency on Crutches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Wollina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Leg amputees who can’t use prostheses and patients with arthritis are often dependent on crutches. Their chronic use can exert significant friction forces. The palmar skin will respond by forming a hyperkeratotic callus. We report for the first time unilateral palmar callus formation caused by friction from using crutches. Another possible adverse effect is the triggering of irritant contact dermatitis by the handholes of crutches. We report two cases with hand dermatitis due to the chronic dependence on crutches and discuss treatment options.

  1. Differential radiosensitivity of seeds, seedlings and callus cultures of Petunia inflata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bapat, V.A.; Rao, P.S.

    1976-01-01

    A comparative study of the effects of γ-irradiation on seeds, seedlings and callus cultures of Petunia inflata showed striking differences in radiosensitivity as reflected in differences in mean fresh and dry weights, seedling height and morphology. Seeds subjected to low doses (4-6 kR) of irradiation showed stimulation of seedling height. Direct exposure of seedlings to high doses (10 kR) of irradiation caused inhibition in their development. Callus cultures, however, were more radioresistant compared to seeds and seedlings. Tissues grown on either an irradiated nutrient medium or on a medium in which sucrose alone had been irradiated, showed a marked inhibition in their growth potential

  2. High frequency plant regeneration from leaf explants derived callus of evening primrose (oenothera biennis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghauri, E.G.; Shafi, N.; Ghani, S.; Fatima, A.

    2008-01-01

    The seeds of Evening primrose were aseptically grown and leaf explants were used for establishment of callus culture. The Excellent growth in callus biomass was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 2, 4, -D and TDZ. For optimal growth of bud and shoot regeneration, fortification of IAA along with TDZ, or BAP was found to be essential. Rooting (70%) could be inducted on hormone free MS-medium. This percentage improved to 98 when NAA was added to the medium. The plantlets thus obtained were transferred to the field successfully after passing through the process of hardening. (author)

  3. High capacity of plant regeneration from callus of interspecific hybrids with cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Jensen, C. J.; Andersen, B.

    1986-01-01

    Callus was induced from hybrids between cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) and ten species of wild barley (Hordeum L.) as well as from one backcross line ((H. lechleri .times. H. vulgare) .times. H. vulgare). Successful callus induction and regeneration of plants were achieved from...... explants of young spikes on the barley medium J 25-8. The capacity for plant regeneration was dependent on the wild parental species. In particular, combinations with four related wild species, viz. H. jubatum, H. roshevitzii, H. lechleri, and H. procerum, regenerated high numbers of plants from calli....

  4. Effect of irradiation and colchicine on callus and somatic embryo formation in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzimega, D. A.

    2012-06-01

    A study was conducted to assess the mutagenic effect of gamma radiation on sprouting and height in four local cassava accessions. The four cassava accessions were assessed for their callus induction and somatic embryo formation ability from leaf lobes from gamma irradiated stakes as well as colchicine treated leaf lobes on different concentrations of plant growth regulators, incorporated into Murashige and skoog, (1962) (MS) basal medium. The cassava accessions were irradiated at 0, 32, 35, 45 and 50 Gy and planted in pots filled with loamy soil. The height of the shoots was measured with rule after sprouting. The leaf lobes were collected from the shoots and cultured on MS medium supplemented with 8 mg/l 2, 4-D and 16 mg/l Picloram. Another set of leaf lobes were treated with 0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.25 g/l colchicine for one hour and thereafter culture on MS medium supplemented with 8 mg/l 2,4-D and 16 mg/l Picloram as described above. Callus induction from leaf lobes in 45 and 50 Gy were significantly (p≤0.05) affected by the irradiation. On the other hand, Callus induction from leaf lobes in 0.1-0.25 g/l colchicine were significantly (p≤0.05) affected by the mutagenic treatment whereas callus induced from leaf lobes in 0.05 g/l colchicine was not significantly (p≤0.05) affected. Callus induced on 8 mg/l 2, 4-D and 16 mg/l picloram gave the best response in Ankrah and all control tested while Tomfa recorded the least. Colchicine at a concentration of 0.05 g/l and radiation dose of 32 Gy treatments gave the best response of callusing. Callus induction decreased with increasing colchicine concentration and gamma irradiation. Callus derived from irradiated and colchicine leaf lobes appeared soft but friable and tiny, compact, respectively, predominately with creamy to brown colouration. Calli obtained were sub-cultures on embryo regeneration medium consisting of MS supplemented with 0.01mg/1 NAA and o.1 mg/1 BAP. There was no plantlet regeneration. Instead

  5. A New Stigmasterol Ester from Aeschynomene indica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jia-yuan; TAN Xiao; LU Wen-jie; YA Qi-kang

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents of Aeschynomene indica.Methods The constituents were isolated and purified by means of silica gel column chromatography and recrytallization,and the structures were elucidated by physicochemical properties and spectral analyses.Results Twelve compounds were obtained and elucidated as stigmasterol tritriacontanate (1),monotetracontane (2),taraxerol (3),stigmasterol (4),stearic acid (5),heptatriacontanoic acid (6),arachidic acid (7),ursolic acid acetate (8),quercetin (9),myricetin (10),myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside (11),and rutoside (12).Conclusion All the compounds are isolated from this plant for the first time and compound 1 is a new one.

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, Ivica; Dedysh, Svetlana N.; Liesack, Werner; Stott, Matthew B.; Alam, Maqsudul; Murrell, J. Colin; Dunfield, Peter F.

    2010-01-01

    Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica is an aerobic, acidophilic, exopolysaccharide-producing, N2-fixing soil bacterium. It is a generalist chemoorganotroph that is phylogenetically closely related to facultative and obligate methanotrophs of the genera Methylocella and Methylocapsa. Here we report the full genome sequence of this bacterium. PMID:20601475

  7. Anti-aging activities of Pyrus pyrifolia var culta plant callus extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    saline (PBS, pH 7.4) at 95 °C for 2 h and filtering through .... callus extract also exhibited dose-dependent .... toxic effects on the skin. ... copper-containing enzyme that catalyzes two .... herbal extract: implication for the mechanism underlying.

  8. Effects of plant growth regulators on callus, shoot and root formation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Root and stem explants of fluted pumpkin were cultured in medium containing different types and concentrations of plant growth regulators (PGRs). The explants were observed for callus, root and shoot formation parameters after four months. Differences among explants, plant growth regulators and their interaction were ...

  9. Spatial and temporal variations of the callus mechanical properties during bone transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Macias, J.; Reina-Romo, E.; Pajares, A.; Miranda, P.; Dominguez, J.

    2016-07-01

    Nanoindentation allows obtaining the elastic modulus and the hardness of materials point by point. This technique has been used to assess the mechanical propeties of the callus during fracture healing. However, as fas as the authors know, the evaluation of mechanical properties by this technique of the distraction and the docking-site calluses generated during bone transport have not been reported yet. Therefore, the aim of this work is using nanoindentation to assess the spatial and temporal variation of the elastic modulus of the woven bone generated during bone transport. Nanoindentation measurements were carried out using 6 samples from sheep sacrificed at different stages of the bone transport experiments. The results obtained show an important heterogeneity of the elastic modulus of the woven bone without spatial trends. In the case of temporal variation, a clear increase of the mean elastic modulus with time after surgery was observed (from 7±2GPa 35 days after surgery to 14±2GPa 525 days after surgery in the distraction callus and a similar increase in the docking site callus). Comparison with the evolution of the elastic modulus in the woven bone generated during fracture healing shows that mechanical properties increase slower in the case of the woven bone generated during bone transport. (Author)

  10. MRI and CT features of hyperplastic callus in osteogenesis imperfecta tarda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrocky, I. [Diagnostic Center Meidling, Vienna (Austria); Seidl, G. [Diagnostic Center Meidling, Vienna (Austria)]|[Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Vienna (Austria); Grill, F. [Orthopaedisches Spital Wien Speising, Vienna (Austria)

    1999-05-01

    We describe the MRI and CT findings of hyperplastic callus formation simulating a tumour of pelvis in patient with osteogenesis imperfecta tarda. Possible differential diagnoses and the impact of different imaging techniques on the correct diagnosis are discussed. (orig.) With 3 figs., 5 refs.

  11. The effect of plant growth regulators on callus initiation in wormwood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were carried out in the Biotechnology laboratory of Plant Science Department of Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria to study the effect of some plant growth regulators on the in vitro initiation of callus using the leaves of Chiyong variety of Artemisia annua. The explants were sterilized and incubated on Murashige ...

  12. An efficient method for in vitro callus induction in Myrciaria dubia (Kunth Mc Vaugh "Camu Camu"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Córdova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high variability in vitamin C production in Myrciaria dubia "camu camu", biotechnological procedures are necessary for mass clonal propagation of promising genotypes of this species. The aim was to establish an efficient method for in vitro callus induction from explants of M. dubia. Leaf and knot sex plants were obtained from branches grown in the laboratory and from fruit pulp collected in the field. These were desinfected and sown on Murashige-Skoog (1962 medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, benzylaminopurine (BAP and kinetin(Kin. The cultures were maintained at 25±2°C in darkness for 2 weeks and subsequently with a photoperiod of 16 hours in light and 8 hours in dark for 6 weeks. Treatment with 2 mg/L 2,4-D and 0.1 mg/L BAP allowed major callus formation in the three types of explants. Calluswere generated from the first week (knots, fourth week (leaves and sixth week (pulp and these were friable (leaves and nodes and non-friable (pulp. In conclusion, the described method is efficient for in vitro callus induction in leaves, knots and pulp of M. dubia, been leaves and knots explants more suitable for callus obtention

  13. Regeneration of three sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.)) accessions via meristem, Nodal and callus induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addae-Frimpomaah, F.

    2012-11-01

    In vitro regeneration of three sweet potato accessions UE007, UK-BNARI and SA-BNARI using meristem, nodal cuttings or callus induction was studied. Meristematic explants cultured on Murashige and Skoog (1962) basal medium supplemented with low concentration of benzylaminopurine (BAP) or kinetin resulted in callus with or without shoot development which delayed shoot emergence. The degree of callus development increased as the concentration of the cytokinin in the culture medium increased. Although, callus development was comparatively lower on kinetin amended medium than BAP amended medium, Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.25mg/1BAP had the highest shoot induction (80%). For further differentiation of callus or shoots into distinct stem and leaves, the culture were transferred into fresh MS medium supplemented with 0.25mg/1 BAP, 0.1 mg/1 NAA and 0.1 mg/1 Gibberellic acid (GA 3 . To overcome the delay in shoot initiation using meristem culture, nodal cuttings of sweet potato were used as explants and cultured on MS medium amended with 0.3 - 0.9mg/1 BAP. All explants cultured on 0.3 or 0.6mg/1 BAP developed shoots. Furthermore, liquid MS medium amended with 0.25mg/1 BAP, 0.1mg/I NAA, and 0.1mg/1 GA 3 also enhanced early shoot development from nodal cutting explants compared to solid culture. Post flask acclimatisation of meristem or nodal cutting-derived plantlets showed that meristem derived plantlets were better acclimatised than nodal cutting plants due to vigorous root development leading to higher percentage survival in pots and subsequent tuber production. Callusogenesis was achieved when leaf lobe explants were cultured on CLC/ Ipomoea medium supplemented with 1.0 - 4.0mg/1 2,4-D with 4.0mg/1 2,4-D being the optimal concentration. However, the calli were non-embryogenic and therefore could not produce embryos when transferred to 0.1mg/1 BAP amended medium but rather produced either single or multiple shoots. The highest percentage shoot (83

  14. Growth and accumulation of flavan-3-ol in Camellia sinensis through callus culture and suspension culture method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutini Sutini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to assess flavan-3-ol biomass in C. sinensis through callus cultures and suspension cultures derived from leaf explants. Callus initiation of both cultures were using Murashige and Skoog medium were enriched with plant growth regulators Naphtha-lene Acetic Acid 3.0 mg/L and kinetin 2.0 mg/L. The procedures in this study were: (1 callus initiation by cutting the leaves of C. sinen-sis shoots then planted on Murashige and Skoog medium that were enriched with plant growth regulators, (2 sub callus culture on fresh medium that enriched with the same growth regulators, (3 suspension culture initiation of liquid callus, (4 growth examination of callus and suspension cultures in week 12, (5 examination of qualitative-quantitative content of flavan-3-olin suspension cultures at week 4. The results show that suspension cultures contain biomass flavan-3-ol that increase in the same manner of the increase of callus age and weight

  15. Mineral crystal alignment in mineralized fracture callus determined by 3D small-angle X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yifei; Manjubala, Inderchand; Fratzl, Peter [Department of Biomaterials, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, 14424 Potsdam (Germany); Roschger, Paul [4th Medical Department, Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Osteology at Hanusch Hospital of WGKK and AUVA Trauma Centre Meidling, 1140 Vienna (Austria); Schell, Hanna; Duda, Georg N, E-mail: fratzl@mpikg.mpg.d [Julius Wolff Institut and Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite- University Medicine Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-10-01

    Callus tissue formed during bone fracture healing is a mixture of different tissue types as revealed by histological analysis. But the structural characteristics of mineral crystals within the healing callus are not well known. Since two-dimensional (2D) scanning small-angle X-ray scattering (sSAXS) patterns showed that the size and orientation of callus crystals vary both spatially and temporally [1] and 2D electron microscopic analysis implies an anisotropic property of the callus morphology, the mineral crystals within the callus are also expected to vary in size and orientation in 3D. Three-dimensional small-angle X-ray scattering (3D SAXS), which combines 2D SAXS patterns collected at different angles of sample tilting, has been previously applied to investigate bone minerals in horse radius [2] and oim/oim mouse femur/tibia [3]. We implement a similar 3D SAXS method but with a different way of data analysis to gather information on the mineral alignment in fracture callus. With the proposed accurate yet fast assessment of 3D SAXS information, it was shown that the plate shaped mineral particles in the healing callus were aligned in groups with their predominant orientations occurring as a fiber texture.

  16. Mineral crystal alignment in mineralized fracture callus determined by 3D small-angle X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yifei; Manjubala, Inderchand; Fratzl, Peter; Roschger, Paul; Schell, Hanna; Duda, Georg N

    2010-01-01

    Callus tissue formed during bone fracture healing is a mixture of different tissue types as revealed by histological analysis. But the structural characteristics of mineral crystals within the healing callus are not well known. Since two-dimensional (2D) scanning small-angle X-ray scattering (sSAXS) patterns showed that the size and orientation of callus crystals vary both spatially and temporally [1] and 2D electron microscopic analysis implies an anisotropic property of the callus morphology, the mineral crystals within the callus are also expected to vary in size and orientation in 3D. Three-dimensional small-angle X-ray scattering (3D SAXS), which combines 2D SAXS patterns collected at different angles of sample tilting, has been previously applied to investigate bone minerals in horse radius [2] and oim/oim mouse femur/tibia [3]. We implement a similar 3D SAXS method but with a different way of data analysis to gather information on the mineral alignment in fracture callus. With the proposed accurate yet fast assessment of 3D SAXS information, it was shown that the plate shaped mineral particles in the healing callus were aligned in groups with their predominant orientations occurring as a fiber texture.

  17. Evaluation of different carbon sources for high frequency callus culture with reduced phenolic secretion in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. SVPR-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Prem Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An efficient protocol was developed to control excessive phenolic compound secretion during callus culture of cotton. As cotton is naturally rich in phenolic compounds factors influencing the phenolic compound secretion, callus induction and proliferation were optimized for getting high frequency callus culture. Different carbon sources such as fructose, glucose, sucrose and maltose were tested at various concentrations to control phenolic secretion in callus culture. Among them, 3% maltose was found to be the best carbon source for effectively controlling phenolic secretion in callus induction medium. High frequency of callus induction was obtained on MSB5 medium supplemented with 3% Maltose, 2,4-D (0.90 μM and Kinetin (4.60 μM from both cotyledon and hypocotyl explants. The best result of callus induction was obtained with hypocotyl explant (94.90% followed by cotyledon explant (85.20%. MSB5 medium supplemented with 2,4-D (0.45 μM along with 2iP (2.95 μM gave tremendous proliferation of callus with high percentage of response. Varying degrees of colors and textures of callus were observed under different hormone treatments. The present study offers a solution for controlling phenolic secretion in cotton callus culture by adjusting carbon sources without adding any additives and evaluates the manipulation of plant growth regulators for efficient callus culture of SVPR-2 cotton cultivar.

  18. Biosynthesis of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles Using Extracts of Callus Cultures of Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, R Indira; Panda, Tapobrata

    2018-08-01

    The potential of callus cultures and field-grown organs of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles of the noble metals gold and silver has been investigated. Biosynthesis of AuNPs (gold nanoparticles) and AgNPs (silver nanoparticles) was obtained with flowers of C. maxima but not with pulp and seeds. With callus cultures established in MS-based medium the biogenesis of both AuNPs and AgNPs could be obtained. At 65 °C the biogenesis of AuNPs and AgNPs by callus extracts was enhanced. The AuNPs and AgNPs have been characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, TEM, DLS and XRD. Well-dispersed nanoparticles, which exhibited a remarkable diversity in size and shape, could be visualized by TEM. Gold nanoparticles were found to be of various shapes, viz., rods, triangles, star-shaped particles, spheres, hexagons, bipyramids, discoid particles, nanotrapezoids, prisms, cuboids. Silver nanoparticles were also of diverse shapes, viz., discoid, spherical, elliptical, triangle-like, belt-like, rod-shaped forms and cuboids. EDX analysis indicated that the AuNPs and AgNPs had a high degree of purity. The surface charges of the generated AuNPs and AgNPs were highly negative as indicated by zeta potential measurements. The AuNPs and AgNPs exhibited remarkable stability in solution for more than four months. FTIR studies indicated that biomolecules in the callus extracts were associated with the biosynthesis and stabilisation of the nanoparticles. The synthesized AgNPs could catalyse degradation of methylene blue and exhibited anti-bacterial activity against E. coli DH5α. There is no earlier report of the biosynthesis of nanoparticles by this plant species. Callus cultures of Cucurbita maxima are effective alternative resources of biomass for synthesis of nanoparticles.

  19. Callus Induction of Gendarussa (Justicia gendarussa by Various Concentration of 2,4-D, IBA, and BAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Kusuma Wahyuni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Justicia gendarussa Burm.f., a medicinal plant, is Acanthaceae that has many functions. Furthermore, the compounds in gendarussa must be produced in high quantity and quality by applying callus culture method. Accordingly, it is important to study the effects of plant growth regulators (2,4-D, IBA, and BAP on callus induction of gendarussa leaves. This research design utilized a factorial design with two factors (2,4-D and IBA: 0.5, 1, 1.5 mg/L and BAP: 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 mg/L. The experiment consisted of 24 treatments, each of which was repeated 3 times. Observation was carried out in 6 weeks. Data on the time of callus formation, percentage of explants formed callus, and callus morphology were analyzed descriptively,while data on fresh and dry weight were analyzed by Two-Way ANOVA (α = 0.5. Interestingly, the results showed that various concentration of plant growth regulators (2,4-D, IBA, and BAP affected callus induction from leaf explants of gendarussa. We concluded that the most optimal treatment combination of concentration of plant growth regulators in inducing callus from leaf explants of gendarussa is 1.5 mg/L 2,4-D and 2 mg/L BAP with a relatively long period of callus formation at the earliest, i.e. on day 5, 2.247 g of fresh weight, 0.108 gof dry weight, white callus translucent, and friable. Moreover, the optimum treatment will be used to produce secondary metabolite and seed synthetic by cell suspension culture.

  20. The influence of different hormone concentration and combination on callus induction and regeneration of Rauwolfia serpentina L. Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salma, U; Rahman, M S M; Islam, S; Haque, N; Jubair, T A; Haque, A K M F; Mukti, I J

    2008-06-15

    The influence of media composition on callus induction and subsequent regeneration of Rauwolfia serpentina L. Benth has been studied. High frequency (96.43%) callus induction was obtained when nodal segments from in vitro raised shoots were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg L(-1) BA and 2.0 mg L(-1) NAA. The callus differentiated into adventitious shoots when it was subcultured on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L(-1) BA with 0.2 mg L(-1) NAA. Regenerated shoots were best rooted on half-strength MS medium with 1.0 mg L(-1) each of IBA and IAA.

  1. Accumulation of the sesquiterpenes nootkatone and valencene by callus cultures of Citrus paradisi, Citrus limonia and Citrus aurantium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río, J A; Ortuño, A; Puig, D G; Iborra, J L; Sabater, F

    1991-10-01

    The production of the sesquiterpenes nootkatone and valencene by callus cultures of Citrus species is described. The levels of these compounds were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their yields were compared with the amounts found in mature fruits. A simultaneous increase and decrease in the levels of nootkatone and valencene, respectively, were observed with the aging of callus cultures of Citrus paradisi. These results suggest that valencene might be a possible precursor of nootkatone in this species. The high level of nootkatone detected in 9-month-old callus cultures of Citrus paradisi might be associated with the corresponding cell morphological changes observed.

  2. Strategies to overcome oxygen transfer limitations during hairy root cultivation of Azadiracta indica for enhanced azadirachtin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Smita; Srivastava, Ashok Kumar

    2012-07-01

    The vast untapped potential of hairy root cultures as a stable source of biologically active chemicals has focused the attention of scientific community toward its commercial exploitation. However, the major bottleneck remains its successful scale-up. Due to branching, the roots form an interlocked matrix that exhibits resistance to oxygen transfer. Thus, present work was undertaken to develop cultivation strategies like optimization of inlet gas composition (in terms of % (v/v) O(2) in air), air-flow rate and addition of oxygen vectors in the medium, to curb the oxygen transfer limitations during hairy root cultivation of Azadirachta indica for in vitro azadirachtin (a biopesticide) production. It was found that increasing the oxygen fraction in the inlet air (in the range, 20-100% (v/v) O(2) in air) increased the azadirachtin productivity by approximately threefold, to a maximum of 4.42 mg/L per day (at 100% (v/v) O(2) in air) with respect to 1.68 mg/L per day in control (air with no oxygen supplementation). Similarly, increasing the air-flow rate (in the range, 0.3-2 vvm) also increased the azadirachtin productivity to a maximum of 1.84 mg/L per day at 0.8 vvm of air-flow rate. On the contrary, addition of oxygen vectors (in the range, 1-4% (v/v); hydrogen peroxide, toluene, Tween 80, kerosene, silicone oil, and n-hexadecane), decreased the azadirachtin productivity with respect to control (1.76 mg/L per day).

  3. Different Aluminum Tolerance among Indica, Japonica and Hybrid Rice Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Chang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydroponic cultures were conducted to compare the aluminum (Al tolerance among different rice (Oryza sativa L. varieties, including indica, japonica and their hybrids. The results showed that the root growth of rice plant was inhibited in different degrees among Al treated varieties. The Al tolerance observed through relative root elongation indicated that five japonica varieties including Longjing 9, Dharial, LGC 1, Ribenyou and Koshihikari were relatively more tolerant than indica varieties. Most indica varieties in this study, such as Aus 373 and 9311 (awnless, were sensitive to Al toxicity. The Al tolerance of most progenies from japonica × indica or indica × japonica crosses was constantly consistent with indica parents. The differences of Al tolerance among Longjing 9 (japonica, Yangdao 6 (indica and Wuyunjing 7 (japonica were studied. Biomass and the malondial-dehyde content of Yangdao 6 under Al exposure decreased and increased, respectively, while there was no significant effect on those of Longjing 9 and Wuyunjing 7. Remarkable reduction of root activities was observed in all these three rice varieties. Significantly higher Al content in roots was found in Yangdao 6 compared to Longjing 9 or Wuyunjing 7.

  4. Resistência de Eleusine indica aos inibidores de ACCase Eleusine indica resistance to ACCase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Vidal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as causas da ineficácia no controle de plantas daninhas destaca-se a resistência delas aos herbicidas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a suspeita de resistência de Eleusine indica a inibidores de acetil-CoA carboxilase (ACCase e investigar a ocorrência de resistência cruzada entre os inibidores de ACCase. Biótipo de Eleusine indica originado do Mato Grosso com suspeita de resistência aos herbicidas inibidores de ACCase foi avaliado em casa de vegetação na sua suscetibilidade para diversos produtos do grupo dos ariloxifenoxipropionatos e cicloexanodionas. Estudos de resposta à dose confirmaram que o biótipo era 18 vezes mais insensível ao sethoxydim do que biótipo suscetível nunca aspergido com herbicidas. Também se constatou resistência cruzada ao fenoxaprop, cyhalofop, propaquizafop e butroxydim. Não se observou resistência cruzada aos produtos fluazifop, haloxyfop, quizalofop e clethodim.Among the causes for weed control inefficacy, the worst one is resistance to herbicides. The objectives of this work were to evaluate an Eleusine indica biotype suspected of resistance to ACCase inhibitors and to investigate the occurrence of cross- resistance to several ACCase inhibitors. One biotype of Eleusine indica originated from Mato Grosso with suspected resistance to ACCase inhibitors was evaluated in a greenhouse in relation to its susceptibility to several products of the ariloxyphenoxypropionate and cyclohexanedione groups. Studies on dose response confirmed that the suspected biotype was 18 times more insensitive to sethoxydim than the susceptible biotype that had never been treated with herbicides. Cross-resistance was confirmed for fenoxaprop, cyhalofop, propaquizafop and butroxydim. No cross-resistance was observed with fluazifop, haloxyfop, quizalofop, and clethodim.

  5. Controle da infestação por Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini e Fanzago, 1877 (Acari: Macronyssidae em poedeiras comerciais utilizando extrato de Azadirachta indica Control of Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago, 1877 (Acari: Macronyssidae infestation in commercial laying hens by using Azadirachta indica extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilce M. Soares

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a eficácia de um produto à base de extrato de nim, no controle da infestação por O. sylviarum em poedeiras comerciais. O experimento foi realizado observando-se a eficácia do extrato de nim a 2% após duas, três e quatro aplicações com intervalo de sete dias. Os resultados obtidos permitem concluir que o extrato de nim a 2% é efetivo no controle da infestação por O. sylviarum, sendo necessárias pelo menos três pulverizações semanais do produto para que haja o controle efetivo do parasito.This study evaluated the effectiveness of a neem extract-based product to control O. sylviarum infestations in commercial laying hens. The birds were divided in 3 groups, which received 2, 3, or 4 applications of the product at 7 day intervals. The results obtained allow the conclusion that the neem extract at 2"% is effective to control infestations by O. sylviarum, and at least 3 sprays of the product are required weekly for an effective control of the parasite.

  6. An environment with strong gravitational and magnetic field alterations synergizes to promote variations in Arabidopsis thaliana callus global transcriptional state

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Using diamagnetic levitation we have exposed A. thaliana in vitro callus cultures to five environments with different levels of effective gravity (from levitation...

  7. The Extraction Process of Trimethyl Xanthina in Vitro Culture of Callus Camellia Sinensis with ethyl Acetate Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trimethyl xanthina is one of the compounds contained bioactive culture in vitro Cammelia sinensis callus which is widely used in the field of food, beverage, agriculture and health industries. The presence of trimethyl xanthina on food, beverages and health is needed in a certain amount depending on the use which is achieved by the user. To get a certain amount of trimethyl xanthina from callus culture of Cammelia sinensis, the extraction process is performed on the water solvent, as well as non-solvent water / organic solvent such as ethyl acetate. The purpose of this study was to obtain profile of trimethyl xanthina in the extraction of Cammelia sinensis callus. The experimental methods used consisted of dissolution, filtration, extraction with water solvent and ethyl acetate, then followed by identification of trimethyl xanthina using HPLC. The results shows the profile form of trimethyl xanthina of Cammelia sinensis callus have similarities with the standard form of trimethyl xanthina.

  8. Plants regeneration of a papaya hybrid (IBP 42-99 from callus obtained from apexes of in vitro plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Gallardo Colina

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available In Cuba there realizes innumerable efforts to increase the food production and especially the fruit trees Inside which the papaya has great importance. In this sense studies are realized to obtain plants resistant to virus that they need of tools that they support and increase the indexes of obtaining transgenic line in the events of transformation specifically in a papaya hybrid. As main objective was to develop a protocol for the regeneration of plants of papaya hybrid from callus obtained of in vitro plant apexes.plan to develop a tool that supports and increases the indexes of obtaining line transgenic in the events of transformation in a hybrid of papaya.In vitro plants of the hybrid IBP 42-99 were used as plant material. The culture medium Nitsh and Nitsh was used and the growth regulators that permitted the obtaining of the best callus with embryogenic structures were studied, and also, the concentrations in which they were more efficient were adjusted. The capacity of callus formation from different parts of the stem of the in vitro plants was studied. Different culture medium for the regeneration of papaya plants from the obtained callus was studied. It was possible to obtain callus by combining 6-BAP with ANA and AIA. The best results are obtained when segments from in vitro plants shoot, 1 cm length from the meristem, were used. Also, by eliminating the meristem in the apexes, an increase in the callus formation capacity of the explant was achieved. Plants were obtained from callus using the culture medium MS supplement with 0.09mg.l-1 of AIA, 0.01mg.l-1 of AG3 and 2mg.l-1 of Zeatin and the best percentage was achieved with the callus coming from the treatments with less concentration of 6-BAP and AIA. Key words: culture medium, micropropagation, organogenesis, segments

  9. Genetic Dissection of Maize Embryonic Callus Regenerative Capacity Using Multi-Locus Genome-Wide Association Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langlang Ma

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The regenerative capacity of the embryonic callus, a complex quantitative trait, is one of the main limiting factors for maize transformation. This trait was decomposed into five traits, namely, green callus rate (GCR, callus differentiating rate (CDR, callus plantlet number (CPN, callus rooting rate (CRR, and callus browning rate (CBR. To dissect the genetic foundation of maize transformation, in this study multi-locus genome-wide association studies (GWAS for the five traits were performed in a population of 144 inbred lines genotyped with 43,427 SNPs. Using the phenotypic values in three environments and best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP values, as a result, a total of 127, 56, 160, and 130 significant quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs were identified by mrMLM, FASTmrEMMA, ISIS EM-BLASSO, and pLARmEB, respectively. Of these QTNs, 63 QTNs were commonly detected, including 15 across multiple environments and 58 across multiple methods. Allele distribution analysis showed that the proportion of superior alleles for 36 QTNs was <50% in 31 elite inbred lines. Meanwhile, these superior alleles had obviously additive effect on the regenerative capacity. This indicates that the regenerative capacity-related traits can be improved by proper integration of the superior alleles using marker-assisted selection. Moreover, a total of 40 candidate genes were found based on these common QTNs. Some annotated genes were previously reported to relate with auxin transport, cell fate, seed germination, or embryo development, especially, GRMZM2G108933 (WOX2 was found to promote maize transgenic embryonic callus regeneration. These identified candidate genes will contribute to a further understanding of the genetic foundation of maize embryonic callus regeneration.

  10. Callus Growth Kinetics of Physic Nut (Jatropha curcas L.) and Content of Fatty Acids from Crude Oil Obtained In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz Costa, Jefferson; da Silva, André Luís Lopes; Bier, Mário César Jucoski; Brondani, Gilvano Ebling; Gollo, André Luiz; Letti, Luiz Alberto Junior; Erasmo, Eduardo Andrea Lemus; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2015-06-01

    The callus growth kinetics allows identifying the appropriate moment for callus pealing and monitoring the accumulation of primary and secondary metabolites. The physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is a plant species used for biofuel production due to its high oil content; however, this plant presents a great amount of bioactive compounds which can be useful for industry. The aim of this research was to establish a calli growth curve and to evaluate the fatty acid profile of crude oil extracted from callus. The callus growth kinetics presented a sigmoid standard curve with six distinct phases: lag, exponential, linear, deceleration, stationary, and decline. Total soluble sugars were higher at the inoculation day. Reducing sugars were higher at the inoculation day and at the 80th day. The highest percentage of ethereal extract (oil content) was obtained at the 120th day of culture, reaching 18 % of crude oil from the callus. The calli produced medium-chain and long-chain fatty acids (from 10 to 18 carbon atoms). The palmitic acid was the fatty acid with the highest proportion in oil (55.4 %). The lipid profile obtained in callus oil was different from the seed oil profile.

  11. In vitro callus culture of Heliotropium indicum Linn. for assessment of total phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Muthusamy Senthil; Chaudhury, Shibani; Balachandran, Srinivasan

    2014-12-01

    The total phenolic and flavonoid content and percentage of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of callus and in vivo plant parts of Heliotropium indicum Linn. were estimated. Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) 2.0 mg/l with benzyladenine (BA) 0.5 mg/l showed the highest amount of callus biomass (1.87 g/tube). The morphology of callus was significantly different according to the plant growth regulators and their concentrations used in the medium. The highest amount of total phenolic (21.70 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram (GAE/g)) and flavonoid (4.90 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g)) content and the maximum percentage (77.78 %) of radical scavenging activity were estimated in the extract of inflorescence. The synergistic effect of NAA (2.0 mg/l) and BA (0.5 mg/l) enhances the synthesis of total phenolic (9.20 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (1.25 mg QE/g) content in the callus tissue. The callus produced by the same concentration shows 45.24 % of free radical scavenging activity. While comparing the various concentrations of NAA with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) for the production of callus biomass, total phenolic and flavonoid content and free radical scavenging activity, all the concentrations of NAA were found to be superior than those of 2,4-D.

  12. The effect of gamma radiation and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea on cultured maize callus growth and plant regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, R.A.K.; Duncan, D.R.; Widholm, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Regenerable maize calli of two inbred lines were exposed to 0 to 100 Gy of gamma rays or treated with 0 to 30 mM of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) to determine their effect on growth and plant regeneration capability. Both growth and plant regeneration capacity decreased with increasing levels of either gamma radiation or ENU; however, plant regeneration capacity was more sensitive to either agent than growth. The 50% inhibition dose (I 50 ) for callus growth (fresh-weight gain) was approximately 100 Gy of gamma radiation and 30 mM ENU. The I 50 for plant regeneration capacity of treated callus was approximately 25 Gy of gamma radiation and 2.5 mM ENU. The decrease in plant regeneration capacity correlated with a change in tissue composition of the treated callus from a hard, yellow and opaque tissue to a soft, grayish-yellow and translucent tissue. This change was quantified by measuring the reduction of MnO 4 - to MnO 2 (PR assay) by the callus. These results suggest that the effect of gamma radiation or ENU on plant regeneration capacity must be taken into consideration if these potentially mutagenic agents are to be used on maize callus cultures, for the purpose of producing useful mutations at a whole plant level. The data also suggest that the PR assay may be useful for predicting the actual plant regeneration capacity of maize callus. (author)

  13. Microcolony formation from embryogenic callus-derived protoplasts of oil palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompong Te-chato

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Embryogenic callus of oil palm induced from young leaves of seedlings DxP was used as initial material for protoplast isolation. Various combinations of cellulase Onozuka RS and macerozyme R-10 were tested. Isolated protoplasts were cultured by various methods in MS medium supplemented with different phytohormones. The results revealed that 2% cellulase RS in combination with 2% macerozyme R-10 (adjusted osmoticum to 0.4 M by manitol yielded the highest number of viable protoplasts (1x107 per gram fresh weight. Dicamba at concentration 2 mg/l with 1 mg/l 6-benzyladenin (BA containing in phytagel semisolidified MS medium promoted the highest division of 2.3-4.0%. First division of the protoplasts was observed at 4 days after culture. Microcolony formation (8-10 cells was seen after three weeks of culture. Unfortunately, neither callus formation nor plantlet regeneration were obtained.

  14. Chemical characterization and anti-inflammatory effect of rauvolfian, a pectic polysaccharide of Rauvolfia callus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, S V; Vinter, V G; Patova, O A; Markov, P A; Nikitina, I R; Ovodova, R G; Popova, G Yu; Shashkov, A S; Ovodov, Yu S

    2007-07-01

    The pectic polysaccharide named rauvolfian RS was obtained from the dried callus of Rauvolfia serpentina L. by extraction with 0.7% aqueous ammonium oxalate. Crude rauvolfian RS was purified using membrane ultrafiltration to yield the purified rauvolfian RSP in addition to glucan as admixture from the callus, with molecular weights 300 and 100-300 kD, respectively. A peroral pretreatment of mice with the crude and purified samples of rauvolfian (RS and RSP) was found to decrease colonic macroscopic scores, the total area of damage, and tissue myeloperoxidase activity in colons as compared with a colitis group. RS and RSP were shown to stimulate production of mucus by colons of the colitis mice. RSP appeared to be an active constituent of the parent RS. The glucan failed to possess anti-inflammatory activity.

  15. Nano-copper-bearing stainless steel promotes fracture healing by accelerating the callus evolution process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang L

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lei Wang,1,* Guoyuan Li,1,* Ling Ren,2,* Xiangdong Kong,1 Yugang Wang,1 Xiuguo Han,1 Wenbo Jiang,3 Kerong Dai,1 Ke Yang,2 Yongqiang Hao11Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedics, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 2Special Materials and Device Research Department, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 3Medical 3D Printing Innovation Research Center, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Treatment for fractures requires internal fixation devices, which are mainly produced from stainless steel or titanium alloy without biological functions. Therefore, we developed a novel nano-copper-bearing stainless steel with nano-sized copper-precipitation (317L-Cu SS. Based on previous studies, this work explores the effect of 317L-Cu SS on fracture healing; that is, proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, osteogenesis-related gene expression, and lysyl oxidase activity of human bone mesenchymal stem cells were detected in vitro. Sprague–Dawley rats were used to build an animal fracture model, and fracture healing and callus evolution were investigated by radiology (X-ray and micro-CT, histology (H&E, Masson, and safranin O/fast green staining, and histomorphometry. Further, the Cu2+ content and Runx2 level in the callus were determined, and local mechanical test of the fracture was performed to assess the healing quality. Our results revealed that 317L-Cu SS did not affect the proliferation of human bone mesenchymal stem cells, but promoted osteogenic differentiation and the expression of osteogenesis-related genes. In addition, 317L-Cu SS upregulated the lysyl oxidase activity. The X-ray and micro-CT results showed that the callus evolution efficiency and fracture healing speed were

  16. Cloning of the queen variety pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) merr) through the callus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapade, A.G.; Veluz, A.M.S.; Santos, I.S.

    1988-01-01

    Crown sections of pineapple were inoculated aseptically in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with varying levels of benzyl adenine (BA) in combination with napthalene acetic acid (NAA). Callus was induced from crown sections that was grown in MS with 0 ppm BA + 2 ppm NAA, 2 ppm BA + 6 ppm NAA. These calli when grown continuously in the same medium developed profusely into shoots. Callus and shoots developed profusely at medium containing 2 ppm BA + 2 ppm NAA. Calli that were further sub-cultured in MS with 2 ppm BA + 2 ppm NAA produced multiple shoots. Calli and shoots that were further sub-cultured in 0 to 4 ppm BA to 4 to 6 ppm NAA formed roots. Results showed that complete plantlets were produced from crown sections of pineapple variety Queen in MS medium supplemented with the different treatment combinations of BA and NAA. (Author). 9 refs.; 1 fig

  17. Evaluation of different morphotypes of mango (mangifera indica l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of different morphotypes of mango (mangifera indica l.) ... Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ... 2006/2007 wet season at the teaching and research farm of Faculty of Agriculture, Bayero University, Kano (110 58'N and 80 ...

  18. antibacterial properties of mangifera indica on staphylococcus aureus.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Antibacterial activity of Mangifera indica stem bark extracts was determined using disk ... In disk diffusion method, inhibition zone sizes were used to determine the ...... There is need for lead compounds ... pharmaceutical and cosmetics.

  19. Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis) fruit juice protects against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HICHEM

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... A putative beneficial effect of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis prickly pear ... peroxidation levels were also increased in animals given ethanol compared to the controls. ..... mechanisms are suggested in this study to explain the.

  20. Mangifera indica L. leaf extract alleviates doxorubicin induced cardiac stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxit Bhatt

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: The present findings clearly suggest the protective role of alcoholic leaf extract of M. indica against oxidative stress induced by doxorubicin. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(3.000: 284-289

  1. Postharvest Ripening and Shelf Life of Mango ( Mangifera indica L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Postharvest Ripening and Shelf Life of Mango ( Mangifera indica L.) Fruit as Influenced by ... evaluate the influence of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and polyethylene packaging (PP) on postharvest storage of mango. ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  2. Effects of composite mango ( Mangifera indica ) fruit reject meal on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of composite mango ( Mangifera indica ) fruit reject meal on growth performance, digestibility and economics of production of rabbits. ... The experiment was conducted to determine the effect of mango fruit reject ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  3. Analysis of genetic diversity in mango ( Mangifera indica L.) using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of genetic diversity in mango ( Mangifera indica L.) using isozymetic polymorphism. ... All the isozymes, used in the present study showed polymorphism for mango. A total of 25 different electrophoretic ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  4. In vitro neoplastic transformation of plant callus tissue by γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, K.N.; Sabharwal, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    Tumours have been induced by γ-radiation in callus tissue derived from a monocotyledonous flowering plant, Haworthia mirabilis Haw. The transformed tissue exhibited compact texture, excessive cell proliferation and loss of capacity for organogenesis. Tumors were characterized by their ability to undergo continuous autonomous growth on minimal media in the subsequent 4 generations of subculture. In contrast, the nonirradiated control tissue grew with friable texture, required inositol or growth hormones and showed prolific differentiation of vegetative buds. (Auth.)

  5. UV-radiation and the flavonoid content in callus culture of Ononis arvensis L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumowa, L.; Psotowa, R.

    1998-01-01

    The paper discussed a possible influence on the production of secondary metabolites - the flavonoids, by the method of elicitation in the callus cultures of Ononis arvensis L., the elicitor employed being the UV 254 and 366 nm and the sun-lamp. In some cases there was an increase in the production of flavonoids particularly 60, 120, 240 and 300 s after sun-lamp irradiation and in case of 15 and 30 min irradiation with UV-254 nm

  6. Biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in hypocotyl callus cultures of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhandapani, M; Antony, A; Subba Rao, P V [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore. Dept. of Biochemistry

    1977-03-01

    Hypocotyl callus cultures of fenugreek were studied to determine their potential for synthesizing phenolics, particularly those which are intermediates in lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis. The cultures were found to be capable of synthesizing an array of phenolic compounds characteristic of higher plants. Both phenylalanine-U-/sup 14/C and cinnamic acid-U-/sup 14/C were found to be efficient precursors of these phenolics.

  7. In vitro anti-microbial activity of extracts from the callus cultures of some Nigella species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Landa, P.; Maršík, Petr; Vaněk, Tomáš; Rada, V.; Kokoška, L.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2006), s. 285-288 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA525/02/0257; GA MŠk(CZ) 1P04OC926.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Nigella * callus culture * antimicrobial activity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.213, year: 2006

  8. Synthesis and absolute configurations of the cytotoxic polyacetylenes isolated from the callus of Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Y; Satoh, M; Takeuchi, N; Kirisawa, M

    1990-06-01

    Panaxacol (1) and dihydropanaxacol (2), cytotoxic polyacetylenes isolated from the callus of Panax ginseng, were synthesized starting from D-(-)-diethyl tartrate. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined to be 9R, 10R and the absolute configuration at C-3 of 2 was tentatively assigned as 3S by the application of the R(+)-alpha-methoxy-alpha-(trifluoro methyl)phenylacetyl (MTPA) method.

  9. High Triterpenic Acids Production in Callus Cultures from Fruit Pulp of Two Apple Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verardo, Giancarlo; Gorassini, Andrea; Ricci, Donata; Fraternale, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    Very rarely fruit pulp has been used in in vitro culture to produce secondary metabolites useful in promoting health. The aims of this work were the study of the best conditions to obtain the callus cultures from the pulp of two varieties of apples, Golden Delicious (GD) and "Mela Rosa Marchigiana" (MRM), and the quali-quantitative analysis of secondary metabolites produced by the two in vitro callus cultures. Callus was induced on both Murashige and Skoog and Gamborg B5 media containing various combinations of supplements. To achieve the maximum recovery of secondary metabolites produced, preliminary extraction tests were carried out on GD apple culture using two different organic solvents (MeOH and EtOAc). The quali-quantitative analysis of the methanolic extract of both cultures was carried out by ESI-MS n and GC-MS techniques. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of triterpenic acids, in particular, oleanolic, ursolic, maslinic, pomolic, tormentic, corosolic and annurcoic acid along with a phytosterol, β-sitosterol. In addition, GD callus culture produced phloridzin, absent in the MRM culture. In this last culture, however, the total amount of secondary metabolites was markedly higher. The in vivo production of these bioactive compounds were also quantified in the GD and MRM apple pulps. Apple pulps produced higher amounts of triterpenic acids in vitro than in vivo. The present work can be considered a method to amplify the production of important secondary metabolites which exert beneficial effects on human health. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Callus formation in bone fractures combined with brain injury in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ping Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the speed of bony union and the serum levels of biomarkers in the setting of bone fractures combined with brain injury. Materials and Methods: In this study, Sprague–Dawley rats were randomized into four groups: sham, brain injury, bone fracture, and bone fracture plus brain injury groups. The serum levels of biochemical markers, namely, nerve growth factor (NGF, Wnt-3a, Dickkopf-related protein-1, receptor-activator of NF-κB ligand, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, were measured on the days 1, 3, 7, and 14 following injury. Bony union was evaluated using radiographs every week for 6 weeks. Results: Compared with the brain injury group and bone fracture group, the radiographs of the bone fracture plus brain injury group revealed enhanced callus formations in week 2. From week 3, the callus formation did not differ significantly among the groups. The serum levels of the biomarkers varied at different time points. The serum levels of NGF on days 1 and 3, Wnt-3a on days 3 and 14, and ACTH on days 1, 3, and 7 were significantly higher in the bone fracture plus brain injury group than in the bone fracture group. Conclusions: Brain injury increases callus formation in simultaneous bone fracture. Considering the time point, early NGF, Wnt-3a, and ACTH elevation might be associated with early callus formation enhancement. The results indicate that these brain injury-induced biomarkers might play crucial role in accelerating bone healing.

  11. Short-term effects of carbon dioxide on carnation callus cell respiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palet, A.; Ribas-Carbo, M.; Argiles, J.M.; Azcon-Bieto, J.

    1991-01-01

    The addition of potassium bicarbonate to the electrode cuvette immediately stimulated the rate of dark O 2 uptake of photomixotrophic and heterotrophic carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) callus, of Elodea canadensis (Minchx) leaves, and of other plant tissues. This phenomenon occurred at pH values lower than 7.2 to 7.8, and the stimulation depended on the concentration of gaseous CO 2 in the solution. These stimulatory responses lasted several minutes and then decreased, but additional bicarbonate or gaseous CO 2 again stimulated respiration, suggesting a reversible effect. Carbonic anhydrase in the solution increased the stimulatory effect of potassium bicarbonate. The CO 2 /bicarbonate dependent stimulation of respiration did not occur in animal tissues such as rat diaphragm and isolated hepatocytes, and was inhibited by salicylhydroxamic acid in carnation callus cells and E. canadensis leaves. This suggested that the alternative oxidase was engaged during the stimulation in plant tissues. The cytochrome pathway was severely inhibited by CO 2 /bicarbonate either in the absence or in the presence of the uncoupler carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone. The activity of cytochrome c oxidase of callus tissue homogenates was also inhibited by CO 2 /bicarbonate. The results suggested that high carbon dioxide levels (mainly free CO 2 ) partially inhibited the cytochrome pathway (apparently at the oxidase level), and this block in electron transport elicited a large transient engagement of the alternative oxidase when present uninhibited

  12. Are bone turnover markers capable of predicting callus consolidation during bone healing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, P; Bail, H J; Schell, H; Michel, R; Amthauer, H; Bragulla, H; Duda, G N

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the ability of the following bone turnover markers to monitor the course of callus consolidation during bone healing: Carboxy-terminal propeptide of procollagen type I (PICP), skeletal alkaline phosphatase (sALP), and amino-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIlINP). Since interfragmentary movements have been proven to possess the ability to document the progression of bone healing in experimental studies, correlations between bone turnover markers and interfragmentary movements in vivo were investigated. Therefore, two different types of osteosyntheses representing different mechanical situations at the fracture site were compared in an ovine osteotomy model. Blood samples were taken preoperatively and postoperatively in weekly intervals over a nine-week healing period. At the same intervals, interfragmentary movements were measured in all sheep. After nine weeks, animals were sacrificed and the tibiae were evaluated both mechanically and histologically. Wide interindividual ranges were observed for all bone turnover markers. The systemic PICP level did not increase with callus consolidation. The bone-healing model seemed to influence the systemic level of PIIINP and sALP but no general correlation between bone turnover markers and interfragmentary movements could be detected. No differences between the different types of osteosyntheses and thus the different mechanical situations were observed. All analyzed markers failed as general predictors for the course of callus consolidation during bone healing.

  13. Additions of precursors and elicitors improve geranylgeraniol production in Croton stellatopilosus callus cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraithip Wungsintaweekul

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for enhancing GGOH production in Croton stellatopilosus callus culture included additions of precursors (sodium acetate-NA, sodium pyruvate-NP, mevalonic acid lactone-MVA and elicitors (methyl jasmonate-MJ, acetylsalicylic acid-ASA, yeast extract-YE. Treated cells were evaluated for their GGOH contents by GC-FID and compared with the nontreated cells as controls. Additions of NA (25 mg/L, NP (50 mg/L and MVA (100 mg/L resulted in an enhancement of GGOH productivity to 0.61 mg/g DW, 0.52 mg/g DW and 0.70 mg/g DW, respectively, compared to the control culture (0.29 mg/g DW. Callus cultures elicited with MJ at 30 mg/L for 24 h stimulated GGOH production to 0.35 mg/g DW compared to the control culture (0.07 mg/g DW. Cells also responded to ASA (20 mg/L, 2 days and YE (0.25 g/L, 4 days and produced GGOH contents of 0.46 mg/g DW and 1.37 mg/g DW, respectively. This study has shown that isoprenoid precursors and conventional elicitors enhanced GGOH production in the C. stellatopilosus callus culture.

  14. The effect of plant growth regulators on callus induction somatic embryogenesis of hybird tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, S. A.; Shah, S. H.; Ali, S.; Ali, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    Efficient tissue culture system is important for transformation of important genes in hybrid tomato cultivars. The present study was undertaken to develop an efficient tissue culture system for hybrid tomato cultivar Peto-86. The young primary leaves and stems were inoculated into five different MS media having different concentrations of plant growth regulators in different combinations for callus induction, somatic embryogenesis and for both direct and indirect regeneration. Maximum callus induction frequency 90 percentage was achieved with MS media containing 2,4-D 4 mg L-1 and BAP 0.5 mg L-1. The direct somatic embryogenesis was found highest on MS media supplemented with 2,4-D 4 mg L-1 and BAP 0.5 mg L-1. Maximum indirect regeneration frequency 87 percentage was achieved from primary leaves explants with MS media containing IAA 0.5 mg L-1 and BAP 3 mg L-1 and highest direct regeneration frequency 77% was obtained from primary leaves explants with MS media containing NAA 1 mg L-1 and BAP 3 mg L-1. The high concentration of 2,4-D increased callus induction and somatic embryogenesis frequencies while the high concentration of BAP increased regeneration frequency. An improved tissue culture system of hybrid tomato cultivar Peto-86 was established and it may be recommended for further transformation experiments. (author)

  15. EFFECT OF AUXIN AND CYTOKININ ON VINCRISTINE PRODUCTION BY CALLUS CULTURES OF CATHARANTHUS ROSEUS L. (APOCYNACEAE

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    Chinnamadasamy Kalidass

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Callus cultures of Catharanthus roseus L. were established to verify whether they produce vincristine as the intact plant. Different growth regulator combinations were applied to Murashige and Skoog (MS medium to influence the level of production of vincristine. The effects of various combinations (0.5 µM to 3.0 µM of auxin and cytokinin on the growth and accumulation of vincristine were investigated. MS medium supplemented with 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D 1.0 µM and 6-furfurylaminopurine (Kinetin 1.0 µM was used to support the growth of callus cultures and the maximum amount of dry biomass (598.04 mg was produced after seven weeks of culture. High performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC analysis of methanol extracts from callus cultures of C. roseus revealed that the cultures produced vincristine. The concentrations of the growth regulators alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA and kinetin played a critical role in the production of vincristine.

  16. Effects of plant growth regulators on seed germination and callus induction of hylocereus costaricensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, W.K.

    2016-01-01

    Dragon fruit (Hylocereus costaricensis) belongs to the family Cactaceae and are climbing vines which have received worldwide attention in recent years. However, there are still lack of information on the protocols for the establishment of In vitro culture system. In the present study, seed germination percentage were determined by culturing seeds on semi-solid Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with 1 ppm 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) together with either 0, 0.5 or 0.8 ppm of Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Germination percentage was the highest by using plant growth regulators (PGRs) combination of 1 ppm BAP and 0 ppm IBA (93.33%). Subsequently, the cotyledons from seedlings of the germinated seeds were used for subsequent callus induction. Small pieces of cotyledons were excised and cultured on MS medium fortified with 0.45, 0.9, 1.8, 2.7, 3.6, and 4.5 ppm of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) together with either 0, 0.9 or 1.8 ppm of BAP. Callus induction percentage was highest using the plant growth regulators (PGRs) combination of 3.6 ppm 2,4-D and 1.8 ppm BAP (75%). Hence, 3.6 ppm of 2,4-D and 1.8 ppm BAP was the best combination for callus induction of Hylocereus costaricensis. (author)

  17. Nutritional Value of Tamarindus Indica Fruit Pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiteva, R.; Kitui, J.L

    2007-01-01

    In Kenya Tamarindus Indica (Tamarind) fruits are not fully utilized despite their abundance in Nyanza, Rift Valley and Eastern provinces. This study determined the nutritional composition of the edible fruit pulp to enhance utilization. The edible portion of Tamarindus indica fruit ('Ukwaju' in Kiswahili) was analysed for it's chemical and nutritional composition. The fruit was sampled from Kitui, Mwingi and Makueni districts of Ukambani, with an assumption that they could be climatically different. The analysis carried out included moisture content, sulphated ash, Vitamin C content, crude protein and minerals namely Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn. The energy contents were determined and total carbohydrates calculated. The results showed very low protein content of 0.01% for Kvisuni and Makindu divisions, while Katse and Kyanundu in Mwingi and TARDA in Makueni districts gave the highest value of 0.02% . This is a fairly low protein content compared with other indigenous fruits like Andasonia digitata (Baobab) with a value of 2.9%. The fat content was also low, especially for Makueni that had a value of 0.04% for the unripe fruits while Mwingi gave 0.04% for those fruits that were ripe. Vitamin C content was similar for the fruit from the three districts (8mg100g-1 ) sample. The fruits also contained an appreciable high internal energy level with Mbitini recording highest at 2.94 kcal. All samples had levels of Fe above 1mg100g-1 . Sodium was also available in all samples with TARDA sample having the highest (0.8mg/100g-1 ) . Potassium values were over 200 mg100g-1 s ample for all samples with TARDA leading (1050 mg100g-1 ) . Calcium in all samples was over 20 mg100g-1 w hile mg was 30 mg100g-1 w ith Makindu having the highest value of 75.2mg100g-1 . This fruit, therefore has the potential of providing nutrients and can be used as a food supplement

  18. Induction of embryogenic callus and plantlet regeneration from young leaves of high yielding mature oil palm

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    Yeedum, I.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Callus induction and plantlet regeneration from young leaves of high-yielding mature oil palm were carried out using 10-year and 20-year-old trees from Thepa Research Station, Faculty of Natural Resources,Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, and Trang Agricultural College, respectively. Culture media used in this experiment were Murashige and Skoog (1962 and Oil Palm supplemented with various concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA or 2,4- dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D or dicamba (Di and antioxidants.Young leaves from 6th to 11st frond were excised, sterilized, cut into 5x5 mm pieces and cultured in the dark at 26±4ºC or 28±0.5ºC for 3 months. The results revealed that MS medium with 200 mg/l ascorbic acid (As and 1 mg/l Di (MS-AsDi gave the highest callus induction percentage (7.93 after culture for 3 months at 28±0.5ºC. Leaf segments from 6th - 8th frond yielded callus forming percentage at 10% (averaged from 1, 2.5 and 5 mg/l Di containing MS medium. Ascorbic acid as an antioxidant at concentration of 200 mg/l supplemented in MS medium in the presence of 2.5 mg/l Di produced the highest callus induction percentage (11.2 and number of nodules (7.06. A high percentage of embryogenic callus formation (66.67 was obtained when the calli were transferred to the same medium component supplemented with 0.5 mg/l Di and 1,000 mg/l casein hydrolysate (CH (MS-AsDiCH. Haustorial-staged embryos were observed to be isolated as an individual embryo and germinated on MS medium without plant growth regulator (MS-free. Development of root could be classified into two distinct types, fibrous and tap root.

  19. Comparison of fracture site callus with iliac crest bone marrow as the source of plastic-adherent cells

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    Achmad Zaki

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Red marrow has been described as the main source of mesenchymal stem cells although its aspiration and isolation from bone marrow was reported to have significant donor site morbidity. Since secondary bone healing occurs through formation of callus as the result of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, callus may become alternative source for mesenchymal stem cells. In this study, we compared the number of plastic-adherent cells from fracture site callus and bone marrow of iliac crest after two and four weeks of culture.Methods: Sixteen New Zealand rabbits were fracturized at the femoral shaft. Then, these rabbits were taken care. After two weeks of fracturization, 3 mL iliac crest bone marrow aspiration and callus extraction of eight rabbits were cultured (group I. The other eight rabbits were treated equally after four weeks of fracturization (group II. Simultaneously, the cultures were observed after one and two weeks. Four weeks later, they were harvested. Cells were counted using Neubauer hemocytometer. The average number of cells between the sources and groups were statistically analyzed using the unpaired t-test. Results: In group I, there were 2.6 ± 0.1 x 104 cells in the culture of iliac crest bone marrow aspirate and 2.5 ± 0.1 x 104 cells in culture of callus extract from fracture site (p = 0.34. In group II, there were 2.7 ± 0.1 x 104 cells and 2.1 ± 0.1 x 104 cells, respectively (p < 0.001.Conclusion: Fracture site callus at the second week post-fracturization may be potential as source of plastic-adherent cells compared with iliac crest bone marrow. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:70-5Keywords: Bone marrow, fracture site callus, iliac crest, long bone, mesenchymal stem cell, plastic-adherent cells

  20. Callus induction and formation of Anthurium andraeanum variety ‘Lambada’ starting from foliar sections of in vitro plants

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    Nydia del Rivero

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Foliar sections of in vitro plants of Anthurium andraeanum variety ‘Lambada’ were used as explants for the induction and formation of callus. The formation of callus was evaluated in two culture mediums (MS and Nitsch, modified to which the growth regulators 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D were added in four concentrations 2.26, 4.52, 6.78 and 9.04 μM and the addition of 6-Benzilaminopurine (6-BAP to a concentration of 2.22 μM keeping it constant for both culture mediums. The treatments were placed in darkness at 28±2ºC during 45 days. Characteristics of the callus, such as colour and form, were also described . The results showed, in the statistical analysis, a significant interaction among the factors in study (concentrations of the growth regulator and type of culture medium. The calluses obtained presented translucent cream yellow colour with nodular structures. Callus were formed in the two culture medium used, however, the biggest explants percentage that allowed the formation of these structures was observed in the culture medium MS modified when a concentration of 6.78 μM 2,4-D was used . It was demonstrated that it is possible to use foliar sections of in vitro plants to form callus in Anthurium andraeanum variety ‘Lambada’ in the culture medium MS with the nitrates reduced in a half and 2,4-D. Key words: callus formation, culture medium, in vitro culture, micropropagation, growth regulators

  1. Optimization of callus induction of Zataria multiflora under the effect of different plant growth regulators and explant source

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    N. Mosavat*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The Lamiaceae family is rich in favorable secondary metabolites which have different medicinal properties and also use in food, cosmetic and sanitary industry. Zataria multiflora Boiss. is an aromatic and bushy plant containing specific pharmaceutical components which is only distributed in certain regions of Iran. Tissue culture technologies could be suitable for in vitro production of Zataria. Methods: In this study, callus production and callus related traits of Zataria was evaluated at in vitro condition. Callus induction was performed on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium containing different levels of plant growth regulators including different cytokinins (Kinetin, benzyl amino purine and auxins (2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and naphtalen acetic acid and two different explant (hypocotyl and leaf. Results: The friable calli with yellow-green color only appeared from leaf explants on three different treatments including: 1: 2.5 (mg/L 2,4-D; 2: 2 (mg/L  2,4-D; 3: [2 (mg/L 2,4-D+ 1 (mg/L Kin].  The best callus induction (75% was obtained at 2,4-D (2 mg/L + Kin (1 mg/L after 2 month of incubation under the photoperiod of 16/8 (light/dark. The highest callus growth rate (CGR (0.072 mm/day and callus fresh weight (0.135 g were denoted to the treatment of 2 mg/L (2,4-D.  Conclusion: The benefits of the protocol described here include the possibility of its use throughout the callus culture for commercial production of suitable secondary metabolites of Zataria in rapid time and huge scale.

  2. The Role of Ultrasound Imaging of Callus Formation in the Treatment of Long Bone Fractures in Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wawrzyk, Magdalena; Sokal, Jan; Andrzejewska, Ewa; Przewratil, Przemysław

    2015-01-01

    In the process of diagnosis and treatment of fractures, an X-ray study is typically performed. In modern medicine very important is the development of new diagnostic methods without adverse effects on the body. One of such techniques is ultrasound imaging. It has a high value in imaging most areas of the body, including the musculoskeletal system. Reports on the use of ultrasound in the evaluation of the callus are rare and this could be a method equivalent to or even better than standard radiographs. The aim of the study was to analyze the correlation of ultrasound with radiographs in imaging of callus formation after fractures of long bones in children and to analyze the correlation of vascular resistance index (RI) and the degree of vascularization of the callus with a subjective radiological assessment of the bone union quality. The prospective study was planned to qualify 50 children treated for long bones fractures of the arm, forearm, thigh and lower leg. Ultrasound diagnosis was carried out using a Philips iU22 camera equipped with a linear probe with 17-5-MHz resolution and MSK Superficial program. During ultrasound examination measurements of the callus were performed. Using the Power Doppler callus vascularity was visualized and vascular resistance index (RI) was measured. The same measurements were made within the corresponding area of the healthy limb. The results obtained by ultrasound were compared with radiograph measurements and with the subjective assessment of the callus quality. Preliminary results were developed on a group of 24 patients, where 28 fractured bones and 28 corresponding healthy bones were examined. Fifteen boys and 9 girls participated in the study. The average age at injury was, respectively, 11 and 9 years. In both groups fractures without displacement were the most frequent. A similar frequency was observed in fractures requiring reposition and subperiosteal fractures. In contrast, fractures with a slight displacement of the

  3. The Role of Ultrasound Imaging of Callus Formation in the Treatment of Long Bone Fractures in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzyk, Magdalena; Sokal, Jan; Andrzejewska, Ewa; Przewratil, Przemysław

    2015-01-01

    In the process of diagnosis and treatment of fractures, an X-ray study is typically performed. In modern medicine very important is the development of new diagnostic methods without adverse effects on the body. One of such techniques is ultrasound imaging. It has a high value in imaging most areas of the body, including the musculoskeletal system. Reports on the use of ultrasound in the evaluation of the callus are rare and this could be a method equivalent to or even better than standard radiographs. The aim of the study was to analyze the correlation of ultrasound with radiographs in imaging of callus formation after fractures of long bones in children and to analyze the correlation of vascular resistance index (RI) and the degree of vascularization of the callus with a subjective radiological assessment of the bone union quality. The prospective study was planned to qualify 50 children treated for long bones fractures of the arm, forearm, thigh and lower leg. Ultrasound diagnosis was carried out using a Philips iU22 camera equipped with a linear probe with 17-5-MHz resolution and MSK Superficial program. During ultrasound examination measurements of the callus were performed. Using the Power Doppler callus vascularity was visualized and vascular resistance index (RI) was measured. The same measurements were made within the corresponding area of the healthy limb. The results obtained by ultrasound were compared with radiograph measurements and with the subjective assessment of the callus quality. Preliminary results were developed on a group of 24 patients, where 28 fractured bones and 28 corresponding healthy bones were examined. Fifteen boys and 9 girls participated in the study. The average age at injury was, respectively, 11 and 9 years. In both groups fractures without displacement were the most frequent. A similar frequency was observed in fractures requiring reposition and subperiosteal fractures. In contrast, fractures with a slight displacement of the

  4. The combination effect of auxin and cytokinin on in vitro callus formation of Physalis angulata L. - A medicinal plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastuti, Retno; Munawarti, Aminatun; Firdiana, Elok Rifqi

    2017-11-01

    Physalis angulata L. (Ciplukan) is one member of Solanaceae that has a potential as herbal medicine. This plant grows wild in the crop fields, forest edges, etc. However, ciplukan is increasingly difficult to find recently. In vitro callus is an alternative source to produce secondary metabolite production as well as to regenerate plants through indirect organogenesis. This study aims to identify the response of hypocotyl explants on in vitro callus formation induced by a combination of auxin and cytokinins. Two types of cytokinins, Kinetin and BAP (0.5 ppm) were combined with three types of auxin, i.e. 2.4-D, IBA and IAA, at three concentrations 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 ppm. In all combinations of cytokinin and auxin, 50-100% of hypocotyl explants derived from in vitro seedling were able to produce callus either in a compact or watery friable texture. In MS medium supplemented with 2.4-D, callus FW (fresh weight) began to decline in the fourth week after culture. Callus FW that increased until 5 weeks of culture was obtained in medium IAA 0.5 + Kin 0.5, IBA 1.0 + Kin 0.5 and IBA 1 + BA 0.5. Almost all calli induced on a medium + Kinetin also produced roots. While medium + BAP was able to induce shoots regeneration.

  5. Primary characterization and evaluation of anti ulcerogenic activity of an aqueous extract from callus culture of Cereus peruvianus Mill. (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayme, Milena O; Ames, Franciele Q; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar A; Machado, Maria de Fatima P S; Mangolin, Claudete A; Goncalves, Regina A C; de Oliveira, Arildo J B

    2015-01-01

    In the current study we reported cultivation, extraction procedure, analysis and preliminary characterization of the aqueous extract from Cereus peruvianus callus culture and evaluated its anti ulcerogenic activity in vivo models of experimental ulcers in Wistar rats. The obtained aqueous extract from callus (AC) was dialyzed and subjected to freeze-thaw process, providing a possible polysaccharide. The carbohydrate and protein contents of the aqueous extract were estimated at 53.4% and 0.66%, respectively, composed primarily of galactose, arabinose and galacturonic acid, with minor amounts of glucose. This appeared heterogeneous when analyzed by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography and a multiangle laser light scattering detector (HPSEC-MALLS). The AC was found to be significantly effective against ethanol-induced lesions but was ineffective against indomethacin-induced lesions. The callus culture of C. peruvianus is an alternative source for the synthesis of substances originally produced by plants. The calluses grown indefinitely in vitro under controlled conditions are stable tissues, and the aqueous extract from calluses may be used instead of fully developed plants using the protocols described in this study.

  6. Callus induction and biomass accumulation in vitro in explants from chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa (Michx. Elliot fruit

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    Tatiana I. Calalb

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the following features were determined: biological (the optimal histogen as explant and the optimal age of donor fruit, biotechnological (type, dosage and combination of growth regulators supplements in culture medium Murashige and Skoog as well as sucrose dosage, and physical (light regime, to induce callusing and biomass accumulation in vitro from the succulent chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa (Michx. Elliot fruit. It turned out that it was much easier to induce callus from explants composed of the epicarp and hypoderm cut from fruits at 50–60 days after flowering. The role of light regime and varied supplementation of the basic MS medium with different doses of growth regulators was established; they resulted in four pigmented carpomass: violet, cream-pink, cream-white and green. The best combinations for the proliferation of fruit callus were culture media with 0.2–2.5 mg × dm-3 2,4-D+0.5 mg × dm-3 KIN +60 g × dm-3sucrose, while for fruit biomass accumulation enriched with phenolic substances – 2.5–3.5 mg × dm-3 NAA+0.5 mg × dm-3 KIN+60 g × dm-3sucrose. The chemical study of phenolic compounds by HPLC coupled with the mass spectrometry method identified chlorogenic acid, hiperozide, quercetrin, isoquercitrin and rutozide quantitatively and qualitatively in all pigmented carpomass and fruits; an exception is p-coumaric present only qualitatively in green carpomass and absent in fruit and quercetol absent in green carpomass.

  7. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CANNABIS INDICA FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES

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    Amar Singh Singha

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the synthesis of Cannabis indica fiber-reinforced composites using Urea-Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (URF as a novel matrix through compression molding technique. The polycondensation between urea, resorcinol, and formaldehyde in different molar ratios was applied to the synthesis of the URF polymer matrix. A thermosetting matrix based composite, reinforced with lignocellulose from Cannabis indica with different fiber loadings 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% by weight, was obtained. The mechanical properties of randomly oriented intimately mixed fiber particle reinforced composites were determined. Effects of fiber loadings on mechanical properties such as tensile, compressive, flexural strength, and wear resistance were evaluated. Results showed that mechanical properties of URF resin matrix increased considerably when reinforced with particles of Cannabis indica fiber. Thermal (TGA/DTA/DTG and morphological studies (SEM of the resin, fiber and polymer composite thus synthesized were carried out.

  8. Mangifera indica L. leaf extract alleviates doxorubicin induced cardiac stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Laxit; Joshi, Viraj

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The study was undertaken to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of the alcoholic leaf extract of Mangifera indica L. against cardiac stress caused by doxorubicin (DOX). Materials and Methods: Rats were treated with 100 mg/kg of M. indica leaf extract (MILE) in alone and interactive groups for 21 days. Apart from the normal and MILE control groups, all the groups were subjected to DOX (15 mg/kg, i.p.) toxicity for 21 days and effects of different treatments were analyzed by changes in serum biomarkers, tissue antioxidant levels, electrocardiographic parameters, lipid profile, and histopathological evaluation. Results: The MILE treated group showed decrease in serum biomarker enzyme levels and increase in tissue antioxidants levels. Compared to DOX control group, MILE treated animals showed improvement in lipid profile, electrocardiographic parameters, histological score, and mortality. Conclusion: These findings clearly suggest the protective role of alcoholic leaf extract of M. indica against oxidative stress induced by DOX. PMID:28894627

  9. Transcriptome analysis of Carica papaya embryogenic callus upon De-etiolated 1 (DET1 gene suppression

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    Diyana Jamaluddin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Papaya is considered to be one of the most nutritional fruits. It is rich in vitamins, carotenoids, flavonoids and other phytonutrient which function as antioxidant in our body [1]. Previous studies revealed that the suppression of a negative regulator gene in photomorphogenesis, De-etiolated 1 (DET1 can improve the phytonutrient in tomato and canola without affecting the fruit quality [2,3]. This report contains the experimental data on high-throughput 3′ mRNA sequencing of transformed papaya callus upon DET1 gene suppression.

  10. Biological effects of fast neutron irradiation on callus tissues of Tecoma stans Juss. and Ammi visnaga Lam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supniewska, J.H.; Dohnal, B.; Cebulska Wasilewska, A.; Huczkowski, J.

    1982-01-01

    Callus tissues of Tecoma stans Juss. and Ammi visnaga Lam. were subjected to fast neutron irradiation. Nine doses were applied within the range of 100 - 10.000 cGy. Small doses caused growth stimulation. Intermediate and high doses caused morphological changes, reduced growth and biosynthesis of biologically active substances (monoterpene alkaloids in T. stans, furanochromones in A. visnaga). In A. visnaga neutron irradiation considerably decreased the chlorophyll content in callus tissues. The radiosensitivity of A. visnaga at 50% growth reduction level was 1.5 times higher than that of the callus of T. stans. The recovery of the tissues takes place during a subculturing course. Three to 7 months after neutron exposure growth and biosynthesis reach the control level. (author)

  11. The influence of auxins on the biosynthesis of isoprene derivatives in callus cultures of Vaccinium corymbosum var. bluecrop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migas, Piotr; Luczkiewicz, Maria; Cisowski, Wojciech

    2006-01-01

    Callus cultures of Vaccinium corymbosum var. bluecrop were optimized for their isoprene derivatives production by supplementing Schenk-Hildebrandt (SH) medium with constant concentration of kinetin (2.32 microM) and two different amounts of selected auxins. Every auxin, except for IBA, used in 10-time higher concentration (2,4D, NAA, IAA, NOA) stimulated biosynthesis of beta-sitosterol and inhibited triterpene synthesis. Quantitative analysis of isoprene derivatives in callus biomass collected on the 25th day of the experiment proved that the analyzed callus of Vaccinium corymbosum var. bluecrop synthesized the highest amount of isoprene derivatives after subculturing on SH medium modified with 22.6 microM of 2,4D and 2.32 microM of kinetin.

  12. Effect of 60Co γ-rays irradiation pretreatment on callus inductivity and differentiation of strawberry anther

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huiqin; Xie Ming; Jiang Guihua; Sun Congbo; Huang Pule; Wu Yanjun; Wu Qing

    2007-01-01

    Strawberry buds, in which a majority of pollen had single nuclear keeping to the side, were pretreated by 60 Co γ-rays irradiation at different doses. The irradiation effect on the callus inductivity and plant differentiation rate of strawberry anther were studied. The results indicated that the pretreatment by 60 Co γ-rays could increase the anther callus inductivity and plant differentiation rate significantly, and 20 Gy was the best dose. The callus inductivity of Akihime and Toyonoka increased by 39.09% and 35.68%, respectively, compared with the no-pretreatment materials. On the same media, the plant differentiation rate of Akihime and Toyonoka were also increased by 6.67%-6.72% and 4.73%-6.45%, respectively, compared with the two varieties of no-pretreatment. (authors)

  13. Nitrogen-15 uptake by whole plants and root callus cultures of inbred maize lines and their F1 hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mladenova, Y.; Karadimova, M.

    1981-01-01

    The uptake of nitrogen-15 by 3 maize genotypes was investigated. Comparative analysis of N15 assimilation and distribution in the organs of intact plants of two self-pollinated lines and their F1 hybrid and also in a callus tissue of roots of the same genotypes was made. From the results the conclusion is drawn that the N-use efficiency of the female line is higher than that of the male line both in intact plants and callus tissues from roots. This fact indicates that the N-use efficiency is determined not only by the functions of the cells in the shoots, suggesting the participation of the photosynthetic carboxylases but also by the functions of cells without a photosynthesizing apparatus. The N-use efficiency in the F1 hybrid manifests ''heterosis'', in spite of the intact plants or root callus tissues are being studied. (author)

  14. Stimulation effects of γ-irradiation combined with colchicine on callus formation and green plant regeneration in rice anther culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Wei; Chen Qiufang; Wang Cailian; Lu Yimei

    1999-09-01

    The ability of callus formation and green plant regeneration was very different for various rice types and varieties in rice anther culture. It was quite effective that rice anthers were irradiated with 10-40 Gy of γ-rays after 30 d incubation on induction medium and calli were treated on differentiation medium contained 10-75 mg/L of colchicine for increase of callus formation and green plant regeneration. Among these treatments, 10 Gy of γ-rats was the best for callus formation, and 20 Gy of γ-rays or 30 mg/L of colchicine was the most favourable for green plant regeneration. The simulation effect of 20 Gy of γ-irradiation combined with 30 mg/L of colchicine on green plant regeneration was much better than that of their separate use in rice anther culture

  15. Development of highly regenerable callus lines and biolistic transformation of turf-type common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Qu, R

    2004-01-01

    Common bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon, is a widely used warm-season turf and forage species in the temperate and tropical regions of the world. Improvement of bermudagrass via biotechnology depends on improved tissue culture responses, especially in plant regeneration, and a successful scheme to introduce useful transgenes. When the concentration of 6-benzylaminopurine was adjusted in the culture medium, yellowish, compact calluses were observed from young inflorescence tissue culture of var. J1224. Nine long-term, highly regenerable callus lines (including a suspension-cultured line) were subsequently established, of which six were used for biolistic transformation. Five independent transgenic events, with four producing green plants, were obtained following hygromycin B selection from one callus line. Three transgenic events displayed resistance to the herbicide glufosinate, and one of these showed beta-glucuronidase activity since the co-transformation vector used in the experiments contained both the gusA and bar genes.

  16. The Reserpine Production and Callus Growth of Indian Snake Root (Rauvolfia serpentina (L. Benth. Ex Kurz Culture by Addition of Cu2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUNUNG NURCAHYANI

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to study the effects of Cu2+ addition on the reserpine production and callus growth from in vitro culture indian snake root (Rauvolfia serpentina (L. Benth. Ex Kurz. This research frame work was based on the potency of snake root which was many exploited as anti-hypertension. The addition of elicitor Cu2+ in the form of CuCl2 would influence the ion transport of cell and changed of cytoplasm pH, and also has effects on synthesis and activity of enzymes which role in reserpine production and callus growth. The research was conducted in two steps, using Completely Randomized Design. The first step was the callus initiation to promote callus growth. Second step was the treatment to induce reserpine production. The callus was divided into five groups: 0; 5; 10; 20; 40; and 80 µM. Morphology, wet weight, dry weight, growth rate, and reserpine content of callus were determined after 15 treatment day. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and continued by DMRT 5%. The result showed that reserpine production increased in addition of 5 µM and 10 µM Cu2+ in callus culture of R. serpentina and reduced in addition of Cu2+ more than 10 µM. The callus growth significantly decreased by increasing concentration of Cu2+.

  17. The role of 2,4-D and auxin-binding proteins during the induction of embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus in Zea mays (L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronsema, F.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis deals with the influence of the growth regulator 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on the induction of callus in cultured immature embryos of Zea mays (L). In maize, two types of embryogenic callus can be induced in immature zygotic embryos.
    Type I

  18. An attempt to conserve whatnot somniferum (L.) dual - a highly essential medicinal plant, through in vitro callus culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, J.R.; Sahoo, S.

    2011-01-01

    A simple effective protocol was developed for conservation and plant propagation through callus cultures of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha). Seed germination percentage reached a maximum value of 64.3% on half MS + GA3 0.25 mg/l at third week of culture. Three different basal media compared for seed germination, MS was most effective. Out of 25 combinations of growth regulators evaluated, MS + 1.0 mg/l BA + 1.0 mg/l 2, 4-D found to be best for callus induction and proliferation regardless to explants. Among the four different explants tested, In vivo leaf explant was found most suitable for callus induction, proliferation and fresh weight gain. The highest callus induction frequency percentage 86.4% was recorded with In vivo leaf explant whereas, 43.4% in In vitro leaf explant at day 30 on MS augmented with 1.0 mg/l BA + 1.0 mg/l 2,4-D. Among different growth regulator combinations tested in augmentation with MS for shoot initiation and elongation, 2.0 mg/l BA + 1.0 mg/l NAA was the best eliciting a maximum of 82.3% shoot induction with highest shoot number 4.8 shoots/callus. The original callus was sub-cultured 2 times on fresh shoot multiplication medium after each harvest of the shoots. Of three different auxins tested for In vitro rooting, IBA was most effective compared to IPA and NAA. Half-strength MS medium containing IBA at an optimum concentration of 2.0 mg/l induced rooting in 83.1% of the In vitro derived shoots. The rooted plantlets were acclimated and eventually established in soil. (author)

  19. Callus Distraction Versus Single-Stage Lengthening With Bone Graft for Treatment of Brachymetatarsia: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marc D; Pinegar, David M; Rincker, Sarah A

    2015-01-01

    Brachymetatarsia deformity is a cosmetically displeasing anomaly that can become physically symptomatic. The surgical techniques most commonly used to repair the anomaly include single-stage lengthening with a bone graft, callus distraction, or a combination of bone grafting and callus distraction. A systematic review of the published data was performed to compare the outcomes of these 3 surgical procedures. A total of 61 studies reporting the use of callus distraction or single-stage lengthening, or both, for the treatment of brachymetatarsia were included in the present review. The incidence of major postoperative complications after callus distraction, single-stage lengthening, and the combination procedure was 49 (12.62%), 13 (3.72%), and 3 (33.33%), respectively. The number of minor complications with callus distraction, single-stage lengthening, and the combination procedure was 152 (39.18%), 55 (15.76%), and 1 (11.11%); the mean percentage of the original length achieved was 37.36%, 25.98% and 36.00%; and the mean length achieved was 17.5, 13.2, and 14.0 mm, respectively. The healing index (mo/cm) and healing time was 2.31 and 16.04 weeks, 1.90 and 9.35 weeks, and 3.93 and 14.62 weeks for callus distraction, single-stage lengthening, and the combination procedure, respectively. Our findings indicate that the callus distraction technique is associated with greater length gained but results in greater complication rates and requires almost twice the time to heal. Single-stage lengthening with a bone graft was associated with fewer complications and faster healing times than callus distraction but with lesser gains in length. From the information reported in the studies we reviewed, the prevalence of bilateral brachymetatarsia was 44.52%, and the female/male ratio was 13.7:1. Both of these findings seem to contradict the usual data given (72% for bilateral brachymetatarsia and a female/male ratio of 25:1). Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and

  20. Enlargement of induced variations by combined method of chronic irradiations with callus culture in sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatomi, Shigeki

    1993-01-01

    The present study was conducted to elucidate the effects of gamma ray irradiation and callus culture upon induced variation of the regeneratives. The populations regenerated from young leaf tissue of chronic irradiated plnats grown under a gamma field receiving a total dose of 300 and 100 Gy, showed rather wider variation on quantitative characters than plants from populations of the non-irradiated. This variation extended in both negative and positive directions. Analysis of variance also revealed that variation and heritability in broad sense of most agronomic characters increased significantly among the subclones as the irradiation done rose. Principal component analysis also indicated that the subclones from the irradiated population were more variable than the non-irradiated. Such variation with higher heritability could be transmitted to the following generations by clonal propagation and utilized as genetic sources in mutation breeding. The combined method with chronic irradiation followed by tissue culture is evaluated as an effective method of widening mutation spectrum and increasing mutation frequency in regenerated plants. In addition, this method is valid to improve any crop species which can regenerate plants through callus culture. (author)

  1. Progressive erosion of genetic and epigenetic variation in callus-derived cocoa (Theobroma cacao) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez López, Carlos M; Wetten, Andrew C; Wilkinson, Michael J

    2010-06-01

    *Relatively little is known about the timing of genetic and epigenetic forms of somaclonal variation arising from callus growth. We surveyed for both types of change in cocoa (Theobroma cacao) plants regenerated from calli of various ages, and also between tissues from the source trees. *For genetic change, we used 15 single sequence repeat (SSR) markers from four source trees and from 233 regenerated plants. For epigenetic change, we used 386 methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) markers on leaf and explant (staminode) DNA from two source trees and on leaf DNA from 114 regenerants. *Genetic variation within source trees was limited to one slippage mutation in one leaf. Regenerants were far more variable, with 35% exhibiting at least one mutation. Genetic variation initially accumulated with culture age but subsequently declined. MSAP (epigenetic) profiles diverged between leaf and staminode samples from source trees. Multivariate analysis revealed that leaves from regenerants occupied intermediate eigenspace between leaves and staminodes of source plants but became progressively more similar to source tree leaves with culture age. *Statistical analysis confirmed this rather counterintuitive finding that leaves of 'late regenerants' exhibited significantly less genetic and epigenetic divergence from source leaves than those exposed to short periods of callus growth.

  2. Biotransformation of isofraxetin-6-O-β-d-glucopyranoside by Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels callus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Di; Zhang, Yuhua; Jiang, Zhe; Hou, Yue; Jiao, Kun; Yan, Chunyan; Li, Ning

    2017-01-15

    Isofraxetin-6-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, identified from traditional medicinal herbal Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge, has been demonstrated to be a natural neuroinflammatory inhibitor. In order to obtain more derivatives with potential anti-neuroinflammatory effects, biotransformation was carried out. According to the characteristics of coumarin skeleton, suspension cultures of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels callus (A. sinensis callus) were employed because of the presence of diverse phenylpropanoids biosynthetic enzymes. As a result, 15 products were yielded from the suspension cultures, including a new coumarin: 8'-dehydroxymethyl cleomiscosin A (1), together with 14 known compounds. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Furthermore, the biotransformed pathways were discussed. Among them, compound 13 was transformed from isofraxetin-6-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, while compounds 1-6, 10-12, 14-15 were derived from the culture medium stimulated by the substrate. The biotransformation processes include hydroxylation, oxidation and esterification. Furthermore, their inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated nitric oxide (NO) production were evaluated in BV2 microglial cells. It is worth noting that, 1, 1'-methanediylbis(4-methoxybenzene) (3), obtucarbamates A (5), 2-nonyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide (10) and 1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde (11) exhibited significant inhibitory effect against neuroinflammation with IC 50 values at 1.22, 10.57, 1.02 and 0.76μM respectively, much stronger than that of the positive control minocycline (IC 50 35.82μM). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of suitable microspore stage and callus induction from anthers of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed Mahmood; Kayat, Fatimah Binti; Hussin, Zeti Ermiena Surya Mat; Susanto, Dwi; Ariffulah, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) is one of the important species of Hibiscus cultivated for fiber. Availability of homozygous parent lines is prerequisite to the use of the heterosis effect reproducible in hybrid breeding. The production of haploid plants by anther culture followed by chromosome doubling can be achieved in short period compared with inbred lines by conventional method that requires self pollination of parent material. In this research, the effects of the microspore developmental stage, time of flower collection, various pretreatments, different combinations of hormones, and culture condition on anther culture of KB6 variety of Kenaf were studied. Young flower buds with immature anthers at the appropriate stage of microspore development were sterilized and the anthers were carefully dissected from the flower buds and subjected to various pretreatments and different combinations of hormones like NAA, 2,4-D, Kinetin, BAP, and TDZ to induce callus. The best microspore development stage of the flower buds was about 6-8 mm long collected 1-2 weeks after flower initiation. At that stage, the microspores were at the uninucleate stage which was suitable for culture. The best callus induction frequency was 90% in the optimized semisolid MS medium fortified with 3.0 mg/L BAP + 3.0 mg/L NAA.

  4. Anther development stage and gamma radiation effects on tomato anther-derived callus formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasileiro, Ana Christina R.; Willadino, Lilia; Guerra, Marcelo; Colaco, Waldeciro; Meunier, Isabelle; Camara, Terezinha R.

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments were carried (I) to determine tomato anther development stage influence on callus production; and (II) to investigate gamma radiation effects on anther culture. In the first experiment, anthers of a tomato hybrid (IPA 5 x Rotam 4-F 1 ) were grown on three media. Although calli were induced at all stages of anther development, varying from prophase I to mono nucleate microspore, callus frequency decreased as anther development progressed and calli induction were not significantly affected by all media tested. Anthers containing prophase I meiocytes produced the highest calli frequency. Anther and flower bud length both were significantly correlated with anther development stage. In the second experiment, seed and floral buds of tomato hybrids IPA 5 x Rotam 4 (F 2 ), IPA 6 x Rotam 4 (F 2 ) and IPA 8 x 217.1 (F 2 ) were submitted to gamma-ray and anthers were plated on two media described by Gresshoff and Doy (1972) supplemented with 2.0 mg L -1 NAA + 5.0 mg L -1 KIN and 2.0 mg L -1 NAA + 1.0 mg L -1 KIN. No significant differences for genotype and dosage testes were found for calli formation. (author)

  5. Establishment of Aquilaria malaccensis Callus, cell suspension and adventitious root systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norazlina Noordin; Rusli Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Aquilaria malaccensis is a tropical forest tree from the family Thymelaeaceae, an endangered forest species and was listed in CITES since 1995. Locally known as Pokok Karas, this tree produces agar wood or gaharu, a highly valuable, resinous and fragrant forest product. Karas has been highly recognized for its vast medicinal values and gaharu has been widely use for perfumery, incense and religious purposes. The phyto chemical studies of agar wood showed that Sesqui terpenoid and Phenyl ethy chromone derivatives are the principal compounds that have anti allergic and anti microbe activities. Cell and organ culture systems provide large scale production of biomass and offers feasibilities for the production of secondary metabolites. This paper describes the work done for establishing reproducible systems for callus initiation and production of cell suspension cultures as well as production of adventitious roots that will later be amenable for the production of secondary metabolites of A. malaccensis. Hence, further manipulation with Methyl Jasmonate, a chemical elicitor could be done to induce secondary metabolites using callus, cell suspension and adventitious roots systems. (author)

  6. Influence of auxins combinations on accumulation of reserpine in the callus of Rauvolfia tetraphylla L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, S; Kumari, B D Ranjitha

    2007-11-01

    Reserpine is a monoterpene indole alkaloid used to treat hypertension because of its hypotensive property and psychiatric disorders because of its tranquilizing effect. Protocol has been standardized to enhance the synthesis of reserpine in leaf derived calli of Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. by adjusting the auxins combinations in the medium consisting of MS nutrient salts and B5 vitamins. Auxins such as naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) were used in 1-5 microM concentration along with 9 microM concentration of 2,4 dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), which was found suitable for callus induction. The combination of (2,4-D) with NAA had been proved to accumulate maximum amount of reserpine followed by 2,4-D with IBA. The IAA with 2,4-D combination yielded very less amount of reserpine than the other combinations and 9 microM 2,4-D alone. The results suggest that there may be synergetic effect of NAA with 2,4-D and IBA with 2,4-D for increase in the biomass and reserpine accumulation and antagonistic effect of IAA with 2,4-D for the above said factors in the callus.

  7. Development of Betalain Producing Callus Lines from Colored Quinoa Varieties (Chenopodium quinoa Willd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henarejos-Escudero, Paula; Guadarrama-Flores, Berenice; Guerrero-Rubio, M Alejandra; Gómez-Pando, Luz Rayda; García-Carmona, Francisco; Gandía-Herrero, Fernando

    2018-01-17

    Betalains are water-soluble plant pigments of hydrophilic nature with promising bioactive potential. Among the scarce edible sources of betalains is the grain crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd), with violet, red, and yellow grains being colored by these pigments. In this work, callus cultures have been developed from differently colored plant varieties. Stable callus lines exhibited color and pigment production when maintained on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with the plant growth regulators 6-benzylaminopurine (8.88 μM) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (6.79 μM) with a reduction of the nitrogen source to 5.91 mM. Pigment analysis by HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS/MS fully describes the content of individual pigments in the cell lines and allows the first report on the pigments present in quinoa seedlings. Phyllocactin and vulgaxanthin I are described as novel pigments in the species and show the potential of C. quinoa culture lines in the production of compounds of nutritional value.

  8. Determination of Suitable Microspore Stage and Callus Induction from Anthers of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mahmood Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L. is one of the important species of Hibiscus cultivated for fiber. Availability of homozygous parent lines is prerequisite to the use of the heterosis effect reproducible in hybrid breeding. The production of haploid plants by anther culture followed by chromosome doubling can be achieved in short period compared with inbred lines by conventional method that requires self pollination of parent material. In this research, the effects of the microspore developmental stage, time of flower collection, various pretreatments, different combinations of hormones, and culture condition on anther culture of KB6 variety of Kenaf were studied. Young flower buds with immature anthers at the appropriate stage of microspore development were sterilized and the anthers were carefully dissected from the flower buds and subjected to various pretreatments and different combinations of hormones like NAA, 2,4-D, Kinetin, BAP, and TDZ to induce callus. The best microspore development stage of the flower buds was about 6–8 mm long collected 1-2 weeks after flower initiation. At that stage, the microspores were at the uninucleate stage which was suitable for culture. The best callus induction frequency was 90% in the optimized semisolid MS medium fortified with 3.0 mg/L BAP + 3.0 mg/L NAA.

  9. Determination of Suitable Microspore Stage and Callus Induction from Anthers of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binti Kayat, Fatimah; Ermiena Surya Mat Hussin, Zeti; Susanto, Dwi; Ariffulah, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) is one of the important species of Hibiscus cultivated for fiber. Availability of homozygous parent lines is prerequisite to the use of the heterosis effect reproducible in hybrid breeding. The production of haploid plants by anther culture followed by chromosome doubling can be achieved in short period compared with inbred lines by conventional method that requires self pollination of parent material. In this research, the effects of the microspore developmental stage, time of flower collection, various pretreatments, different combinations of hormones, and culture condition on anther culture of KB6 variety of Kenaf were studied. Young flower buds with immature anthers at the appropriate stage of microspore development were sterilized and the anthers were carefully dissected from the flower buds and subjected to various pretreatments and different combinations of hormones like NAA, 2,4-D, Kinetin, BAP, and TDZ to induce callus. The best microspore development stage of the flower buds was about 6–8 mm long collected 1-2 weeks after flower initiation. At that stage, the microspores were at the uninucleate stage which was suitable for culture. The best callus induction frequency was 90% in the optimized semisolid MS medium fortified with 3.0 mg/L BAP + 3.0 mg/L NAA. PMID:24757416

  10. Indica rice (Oryza sativa, BR29 and IR64).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Karabi; Datta, Swapan Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Rice is the world's most important food crop. Indica-type rice provides the staple food for more than half of the world population. To satisfy the growing demand of the ever-increasing population, more sustained production of indica-type rice is needed. In addition, because of the high per capita consumption of indica rice, improvement of any traits including its nutritive value may have a significant positive health outcome for the rice-consuming population. Rice yield productivity is greatly affected by different biotic stresses, like diseases and insect pests, and abiotic stresses like drought, cold, and salinity. Attempts to improve resistance in rice to these stresses by conventional breeding through introgression of traits have limited success owing to a lack of resistance germplasm in the wild relatives. Gene transfer technology with genes from other sources can be used to make rice plants resistant or tolerant to insect pests, diseases, and different environmental stresses. For improving the nutritional value of the edible endosperm part of the rice, genes for increasing iron, beta-carotene, or better quality protein can be introduced in rice plants by genetic engineering. Different crops have been transformed using various gene transfer methods, such as protoplast transformation, biolistic, and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This chapter describes the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for indica-type rice. The selectable marker genes used are hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt), neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII), or phosphomannose isomerase (pmi), and, accordingly, the selection agents are hygromycin, kanamycin (G418), or mannose, respectively.

  11. Effect of Mangifera Indica Leaves Extract on Growth Response of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Mangifera indica leaves extracts on growth response of Oreochromis niloticus was evaluated for 42 days. 5 diets at approximately 40% crude protein containing varying levels of the extracts at 0%, 5%, 15% and 25% were formulated. These were fed to fingerlings of O. niloticus (mean weight, 5.25 – 6.05g) that were ...

  12. Synthesis of gold nanostructures using fruit extract of Garcinia Indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaprabha, M.; Pattabi, Manjunatha

    2016-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles having different shapes are synthesized using extract of fresh fruit rinds of Garcinia Indica. The onset of growth and formation of gold nanostructures is confirmed from UV-Vis spectroscopy. Morphological studies are done using FESEM. Size dependent catalytic activity is evaluated with the model reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol.

  13. Determination of Heavy Metals in Leaves of Mangifera Indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER PC

    ABSTRACT. Concentrations of cadmium, chromium and zinc in leaves of Mangifera indica (Mango), Psidium ... alarm, in some cases, trace heavy metals may accumulate to an ... leaves when released can lead to serious ... shown that it can interact with different hormonal .... 17, 2012. Cadmium Exposure and Bone Mineral.

  14. Evaluation Of Tamarind ( Tamarindus indica ) Seed Meal As A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding study was conducted to assess the value of Tamarind, Tamarindus indica seed meal as dietary carbohydrate in the diets of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Tamarind seeds were used to replace maize at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 % substitution levels for treatments 1 to 6. Growth trial was conducted in outdoor ...

  15. Chemical and nutritional content of Opuntia ficus-indica (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) fruit pulp was analyzed for its chemical and nutritional content and the results compared with those of the same species from other parts of the world. The analysis included those for: Moisture and ash contents, crude fibre, energy values, non-reducing sugars, crude protein and vitamin C. Total ...

  16. Molecular identification of Mango, Mangifera indica L.var. totupura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagarlamudi, Sankar; G, Rosaiah; Kurapati, Ravi Kumar; Pinnamaneni, Rajasekhar

    2011-01-01

    Mango (>Mangifera indica) belonging to Anacardiaceae family is a fruit that grows in tropical regions. It is considered as the King of fruits. The present work was taken up to identify a tool in identifying the mango species at the molecular level. The chloroplast trnL-F region was amplified from extracted total genomic DNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. Sequence of the dominant DGGE band revealed that Mangifera indica in tested leaves was Mangifera indica (100% similarity to the ITS sequences of Mangifera indica). This sequence was deposited in NCBI with the accession no. GQ927757. Abbreviations AFLP - Amplified fragment length polymorphism , cpDNA - Chloroplast DNA, DDGE - Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, DNA - Deoxyribo nucleic acid, EDTA - Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid, HCl - Hydrochloric acid, ISSR - Inter simple sequence repeats, ITS - Internal transcribed spacer, MATAB - Methyl Ammonium Bromide, Na2SO3 - Sodium sulphite, NaCl - Sodium chloride, NCBI - National Centre for Biotechnology Information, PCR - Polymerase chain reaction, PEG - Polyethylene glycol, RAPD - Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, trnL-F - Transfer RNA genes start codon- termination codon. PMID:21423885

  17. Postharvest Ripening and Shelf Life of Mango (Mangifera indica L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a climacteric and highly perishable fruit that requires specialized postharvest handling to extend its storage life. The study was undertaken at Melkassa Agricultural Research Center (MARC) to evaluate the influence of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and polyethylene packaging (PP) on ...

  18. 10406 EFFICACY OF CACTUS PEAR (Opuntia ficus-indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bdu

    Tigray, a region in north Ethiopia, is a semi-arid area with limited agricultural potential ..... ficus-indica recorded in South Africa by Hugh Mciteka [31]. Younger ... camel and equines feed on cactus varieties most, compared to goats and sheep.

  19. Genetic diversity of Tamarindus indica populations: Any clues on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tamarindus indica is a domesticated species of high economic value for the Sahel region. Despite this importance, very few data is available on its diversity as well as its structure leading to controversial discussions on its origin. Thus it is questionable whether the knowledge of its genetic diversity and organisation may ...

  20. Chemical composition of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) fruit | Salim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition of pulp, skin and seeds of fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica was investigated. Results showed high amount of water in the pulp (84.14%) and skin (90.33%). Glucose and fructose (29 and 24%, respectively) in the pulp were greater than in the skin (14 and 2.29%, respectively), whereas saccharose was very ...

  1. Antibacterial activity of Mangifera indica L. seeds against some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Mangifera indica L. seeds was done against 41 clinically isolated and 20 standard bacterial strains. Clinical bacterial strains were isolated from different specimens like blood, urine, catheter, stool and pus. Antibacterial activity was done by agar disc diffusion method at two different ...

  2. Saraca asoca (Roxb.) de Wilde Syn. Saraca indica L. (English ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saraca asoca (Roxb.) de Wilde Syn. Saraca indica L. (English: Ashoka; Hindi: Asok) ofCaesalpilliaceae is a medium sized extremely ornamental evergreen tree with numerous spreading and drooping branches, compound leaves and orange-yellow flowers in clusters. Fruits are black, leathery pods with compressed seeds.

  3. Investigation On Antidiarrhoeal Activity Of Aristolochia Indica Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The present study aimed at investigating the effect of ethanolic extract (EtAI), and aqueous extract (AqAI) of Aristolochia indica Linn roots on castor oil-induced diarrhoea and study on small intestinal transit. Phytochemical analysis of extracts was performed as per standard procedure. Materials and Methods: ...

  4. Turbidity removal from surface water using Tamarindus indica crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant-based coagulants are potential alternatives to chemical coagulants used in drinking water treatment. This paper examined the turbidity removal efficiency of Tamarindus indica fruit crude pulp extract (CPE) towards evaluating a low-cost option for drinking-water treatment. Laboratory analysis was carried out on high ...

  5. callus culture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    steve

    1Harran University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Food Engineering, ... conduct the study with the independent variables being: percent depletion of KH2PO4 or NH4NO3 and ... phenolic compounds for prevention of disorders related to.

  6. Effect of gamma-radiation on callus initiation and oraganogenesis in the tissue culture of Nicotiana tabaccum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, S. H.; Kim, J. G.; Song, H. S.

    2004-01-01

    It is generally agreed that ionizing radiations stimulate cell division, growth and development in various organisms including animals and plants. Differentiating tissues are the most sensitive to radiation. The present experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of ionizing radiation on callus initiation and organogenesis from the stem in the culture of Nicotiana tabaccum L. cv. When the stem segments were cultured on a Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 2 mg/L kinetin, with 1 mg/L 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), with 2 mg/L kinetin and 1 mg/L 2,4-D, the shoots and callus were differentiated 14 days after cultivation. Callus was especially formed on the MS medium with 2,4-D and/or kinetin and the formation was promoted by 1 Gy and 5 Gy of gamma radiation. The formation of the shoot clusters on the MS medium with 2 mg/L kinetin were prominent in the 5 Gy-irradiated groups. It is concluded that that gamma radiation enhanced the callus initiation and organogenesis in the tissue culture of Nicotiana tabaccum L

  7. Cold Response of Dedifferentiated Barley Cells at the Gene Expression, Hormone Composition, and Freezing Tolerance Levels: Studies on Callus Cultures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vashegyi, I.; Marozsan-Toth, Z.; Galiba, G.; Dobrev, Petre; Vaňková, Radomíra; Toth, B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2013), s. 337-349 ISSN 1073-6085 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/09/2058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : ABA * Barley * Callus Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.275, year: 2013

  8. Oxygen regulation of uricase and sucrose synthase synthesis in soybean callus tissue is exerted at the mRNA level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Z T; Larsen, K; Jochimsen, B U

    1991-01-01

    The effect of lowering oxygen concentration on the expression of nodulin genes in soybean callus tissue devoid of the microsymbiont has been examined. Poly(A)+ RNA was isolated from tissue cultivated in 4% oxygen and in normal atmosphere. Quantitative mRNA hybridization experiments using nodule...

  9. Growing, regeneration and radiosensibility of sugarcane callus (Saccharum spp. hybrid var. “SP 70-1284” treated with gamma radiation source 60Co.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apolonio Valdez Balero

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Calluses in growth of sugar cane, variety “SP 70-1284”, were radiated with a source of 60Co. The studied doses were between 10 and 80 Gy. The affectation of the Gamma radiation source 60Co in the growth of the callus and the regeneration of plants was evaluated. The results indicated that the dose that diminished the growth of callus in a value under 50% was the one of 30 Gy, and also the dose that diminished the regenerative capacity of the callus below to the 50% of the population was the one of 30 Gy. The results showed that for this variety of sugar cane doses superior to 30Gy of Gamma radiations jeopardizes the growth and the later regeneration of the callus. Its application is recommended to induce genetic variability in the variety of sugar cane “SP 70-1284”, as well as in programs of genetic improvement by mutations, in susceptible varieties of the sugar cane red blight (Puccinia melanocephala Syd using calluses in growth. Key words: callus, hybrid, in vitro, improvement, rust, Saccharum sp, variability

  10. A survey of the effect of explants type, plant growth regulators and activated charcoal on callus induction in Papaver bracteatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Hosseini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Callus culture is necessary for production of suspension cell culture in plant breeding programs. Regarding to the application of Papaver bracteatum as an important medicinal plant in production of benzophenantridine alkaloids, this study was performed to find the most suitable hormone combination and explant type for achieving to high percentage of callus induction fresh weight and somatic embryogenesis in this plant. For this purpose, hypocotyl explants were cultured in ½MS media containing active charcoal (2 and 4 mgL-1 in combination of different concentrations of NAA, 2,4-D (0, 1, 2, 3 and 5 mgL-1 and BA (0, 0.1 and 0.5 mgL-1. The seed explants were cultured in same treatments without active charcoal. Also, somatic embryogesis induction using seed explants in ½MS media containing different concentrations of NAA and 2,4-D (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mgL-1 with BA 0.5 mgL-1 were investigated. The results showed that the highest percentage of callus induction (43.6%, 54% in hypocotyls explants were obtained in the ½MS media containing 2 mgL-1 active charcoal and 2 mgL-1 2,4-D and 5 mgL-1 NAA in companion with BA 0.5 mgL-1 respectively. The maximum callus induction (84% was obtained in ½MS medium with 1 mgL-1 2,4-D without active charcoal. The highest callus fresh weight (0.35% was obtained in MS media with 0.5 mgL-1 2,4-D andthe maximum rate of somatic embryogenesis induction (77% was observed in ½MS media containing 1 mgL-1 2,4-D with 0.5 mgL-1 BA.

  11. Improvement of efficient in vitro regeneration potential of mature callus induced from Malaysian upland rice seed (Oryza sativa cv. Panderas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Din, Abd Rahman Jabir; Iliyas Ahmad, Fauziah; Wagiran, Alina; Abd Samad, Azman; Rahmat, Zaidah; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji

    2016-01-01

    A new and rapid protocol for optimum callus production and complete plant regeneration has been assessed in Malaysian upland rice (Oryza sativa) cv. Panderas. The effect of plant growth regulator (PGR) on the regeneration frequency of Malaysian upland rice (cv. Panderas) was investigated. Mature seeds were used as a starting material for callus induction experiment using various concentrations of 2,4-D and NAA. Optimal callus induction frequency at 90% was obtained on MS media containing 2,4-D (3 mg L(-1)) and NAA (2 mg L(-1)) after 6 weeks while no significant difference was seen on tryptophan and glutamine parameters. Embryogenic callus was recorded as compact, globular and light yellowish in color. The embryogenic callus morphology was further confirmed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. For regeneration, induced calli were treated with various concentrations of Kin (0.5-1.5 mg L(-1)), BAP, NAA and 0.5 mg L(-1) of TDZ. The result showed that the maximum regeneration frequency (100%) was achieved on MS medium containing BAP (0.5 mg L(-1)), Kin (1.5 mg L(-1)), NAA (0.5 mg L(-1)) and TDZ (0.5 mg L(-1)) within four weeks. Developed shoots were successfully rooted on half strength MS free hormone medium and later transferred into a pot containing soil for acclimatization. This cutting-edge finding is unique over the other existing publishable data due to the good regeneration response by producing a large number of shoots.

  12. Assessment of silver nitrate on callus induction and in vitro shoot regeneration in tomato (solanum lycopersicum mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.H.; Ali, S.; Jan, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    In vitro morphogenesis is greatly influenced by a gaseous plant growth regulator (ethylene). The effect of silver nitrate (AgNO/sub 3/) and different plant growth regulators were assessed on callus induction, In vitro shoot regeneration and multiple primordial shoots per explant in tomato. The maximum callus induction frequency was recorded culturing hypocotyls, while In vitro shoot regeneration frequency and the number of primordial shoots per explant were significantly higher when leaf discs were used as explants. The callus induction frequency was improved by the supplementation of 10-15 mg/l AgNO/sub 3/ in MS basal media along with 2.0 mg/l IAA, 2.5 mg/l BAP and yielded the highest callus induction frequency (91.33%) in cv. Rio Grande, followed by Roma (88.33%) and Moneymaker (82.66%). Similarly, the highest In vitro shoot regeneration frequency (96.66, 92.66 and 90%) was recorded in Rio Grande, Roma and Moneymaker on MS media fortified with 0.1 mg/l IAA, 1.0 mg/l ZEA and 2.0 mg/l BAP along with 8-10 mg/l AgNO/sub 3/. AgNO/sub 3/ also had promotive effect on induction of multiple shoots per explant. These findings indicate that ethylene is linked with the suppression of In vitro morphogenesis in tomato and AgNO3 interacts with ethylene and enhances callus induction and In vitro shoot regeneration in tomato. (author)

  13. Efficient production of a bioactive Bevacizumab monoclonal antibody using the 2A self-cleavage peptide in transgenic rice callus

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    Lei Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb targeting to the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, has been widely used in clinical practice for the treatment of multiple cancers. Bevacizumab was mostly produced by the mammalian cell expression system. We here reported the first plant-derived Bevacizumab by using transgenic rice callus as an alternative gene expression system. Codon-optimized Bevacizumab light chain (BLC and heavy chain (BHC genes were designed, synthesized as a polyprotein with a 2A self-cleavage linker peptide from the Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV, cloned into a plant binary vector under a constitutive maize ubiquitin promoter, and transformed into rice nuclear genome through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Southern blot and western blot analyses confirmed the integration and expression of BLC and BHC genes in transgenic rice callus. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA analysis indicated that the rice-derived Bevacizumab mAb was biologically active and the recombinant mAb was expressed at high levels (160.7-242.8 mg kg-1FW in transgenic rice callus. The mAb was purified by using protein A affinity chromatography and the purified antibody was tested for its binding affinity with its target hVEGF antigen by ELISA. Rice callus produced Bevacizumab and a commercial Bevacizumab (Avastin were shown to have similar binding affinity to hVEGF. These results indicated that rice callus produced Bevacizumab could have similar biological activity and might potentially be used as a cost-effective biosimilar molecule in future cancer treatment.

  14. Phytosynthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Callus of JATROPHA CURCAS: a Biotechnological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, A. G.; Lele, S. S.

    2013-06-01

    The present study reports a rapid plant-based biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using callus extract of Jatropha curcas L. The particle size and morphological analyses were carried out using Zetasizer, SEM, TEM. The physicochemical properties were monitored using UV-Vis spectroscopic, IR and DSC. The formation of silver nanoparticle was confirmed by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and absorbance peaks at 421 nm. The silver nanoparticle was found to be a negatively charged with size ranging from 2 nm to 50 nm. The morphology of the nanoparticle is uniformly spherical and has a dispersion ratio of 0.14. The physicochemical study using DSC indicated significant thermal stability and crystalline nature of the nanoparticle. This intracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles is simple, cheap and eco-friendly than other mechanical and chemical approaches.

  15. Comparison of auxin activty in tumourous and normal callus cultures from sunflower and tobacco plants

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    Z. Chirek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In normal and tumourous calluses of sunflower and tobacco the level of extractable auxins was determined by Avena coleoptile straight growth test. Auxin activity was detected practically in two zones: I - at position with Rf 0.2-0.4 and II - at position with Rf 0.6-0.9. The tumour tissues of sunflower and tobacco plants, representing different types of neoplastic growth exhibit a 3 times higher auxin activity as compared with that of the corresponding normal tissues. Tobacco tissues, on the other hand, had a higher auxin level than the corresponding sunflower tissues and they exhibited different proportions in the activity of zones I and II, which points to a dominance of genetic regulation of hormone metabolism in these plants.

  16. Responses of meristematic callus cells of two Cynodon dactylon genotypes to aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramgareeb, Sumita; Cooke, John A; Watt, M Paula

    2004-11-01

    Responses to Al3+ of embryogenic callus cells of an Al-sensitive (Al-S) and Al-resistant (Al-R) Cynodon dactylon genotype were evaluated with regard to Al3+ toxicity and resistance. A chemical equilibrium speciation model (MINTEQA2) was used to ensure the availability of the Al3+ ion in culture media, which was supplied as 0.08-2.3 mM Al3+ for 2-8 weeks. Increasing Al3+ concentration and exposure time had a greater negative impact on the Al-S than on the Al-R genotype, in terms of callus growth rate and frequency of non-embryogenic cells. Exposure to 0.8 mM Al3+ for 2 weeks resulted in an 88% reduction in the Al-S meristematic cell number, whereas that of the Al-R genotype remained unaffected. In addition, the Al-S cells accumulated three times more Al in the nucleus than did the Al-R cells, suggesting that Al interfered with mitosis. The Al-R cells appeared to exclude Al3+ from its cells through an increase in extracellular pH (4.34 in Al-R and 4.08 in Al-S) and by the immobilisation of Al in the cell wall (33% more in Al-R). The results showed that by studying the cellular responses to Al3+ it is possible to discriminate between the Al-S and Al-R C. dactylon genotypes.

  17. Statistically optimized biotransformation protocol for continuous production of L-DOPA using Mucuna monosperma callus culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamdar, Shrirang Appasaheb; Surwase, Shripad Nagnath; Jadhav, Shekhar Bhagwan; Bapat, Vishwas Anant; Jadhav, Jyoti Prafull

    2013-01-01

    L-DOPA (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine), a modified amino acid, is an expansively used drug for the Parkinson's disease treatment. In the present study, optimization of nutritional parameters influencing L-DOPA production was attempted using the response surface methodology (RSM) from Mucuna monosperma callus. Optimization of the four factors was carried out using the Box-Behnken design. The optimized levels of factors predicted by the model include tyrosine 0.894 g l(-1), pH 4.99, ascorbic acid 31.62 mg l(-1)and copper sulphate 23.92 mg l(-1), which resulted in highest L-DOPA yield of 0.309 g l(-1). The optimization of medium using RSM resulted in a 3.45-fold increase in the yield of L-DOPA. The ANOVA analysis showed a significant R (2) value (0.9912), model F-value (112.465) and probability (0.0001), with insignificant lack of fit. Optimized medium was used in the laboratory scale column reactor for continuous production of L-DOPA. Uninterrupted flow column exhibited maximum L-DOPA production rate of 200 mg L(-1) h(-1) which is one of the highest values ever reported using plant as a biotransformation source. L-DOPA production was confirmed by HPTLC and HPLC analysis. This study demonstrates the synthesis of L- DOPA using Mucuna monosperma callus using a laboratory scale column reactor.

  18. Phytochemistry, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of Eleusine indica (sambau)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberahim, Rashidah; Yaacob, Wan Ahmad; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    Goose grass also known as Eleusine indica (EI) is a local medicinal plant that displays antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. The present study is to determine the phytochemical constituents, cytotoxicity and antiviral activities for both crude extract and fraction obtained from the plant. The crude extract contained more secondary metabolites compared to the hexane fraction as gauged using standard phytochemical tests. Cytotoxicity screening against Vero cells using MTT assay showed that the CC50 values for crude extract and hexane fraction were 2.07 and 5.62 mg/ml respectively. The antiviral activity towards Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) was determined using plaque reduction assay. The selective indices (SI = CC50 / EC50) for both methanol extract and hexane fraction were 12.2 and 6.2 respectively. These results demonstrate that the extract prepared from E. indica possesses phytochemical compound that was non cytotoxic to the cell with potential antiviral activity.

  19. Characterization of crystalline structures in Opuntia ficus-indica

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras-Padilla, Margarita; Rivera-Muñoz, Eric M.; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Elsa; del López, Alicia Real; Rodríguez-García, Mario Enrique

    2014-01-01

    This research studies the crystalline compounds present in nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes. The identification of the crystalline structures was performed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The crystalline structures identified were calcium carbonate (calcite) [CaCO3], calcium-magnesium bicarbonate [CaMg(CO3)2], magnesium oxide [MgO], calcium oxalate monohydrate [Ca(C2O4)•(H2O)], potassium peroxydiphosph...

  20. Perbandingan Aktivitas Antioksidan Campuran Ekstrak-Etanol A.indica dan C.asiatica terhadap Ekstrak-Etanol A.indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemas R Notariza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Radikal bebas, dalam kadar rendah atau menengah, mempunyai peran fisiologis bagi kehidupan sel tubuh. Pada konsentrasi tinggi, radikal-bebas dapat memicu stres oksidatif yang menjadi dasar patogenesis berbagai penyakit. Suplai antioksidan eksogen dibutuhkan untuk membantu kinerja antioksidan endogen dalam menangkal stres oksidatif. Ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica dan Centella asiatica masing-masing diketahui memiliki aktivitas antioksidan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbandingan aktivitas antioksidan campuran ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica dan Centella asiatica terhadap ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica. Kombinasi ekstrak diharapkan mampu meningkatkan aktivitas antioksidan yang dihasilkan dan menurunkan dosis yang digunakan. Aktivitas antioksidan ekstrak diukur dengan metode spektrofotometri melalui uji DPPH. Kandungan fitokimia ekstrak juga diuji secara kualitatif. Hasil uji kualitatif menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica maupun campuran ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica dan Centella asiatica positif mengandung fitokimia berupa flavonoid dan steroid. Hasil pengukuran aktivitas antioksidan menunjukkan bahwa Vitamin C yang menjadi kontrol positif menunjukkan nilai EC50 sebesar 0,012 mg/mL. Nilai EC50 ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica adalah 13,68 mg/mL, sedangkan nilai EC50 campuran ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica dan Centella asiatica adalah 39,65 mg/mL. Nilai EC50 yang lebih kecil mengindikasikan aktivitas antioksidan yang lebih tinggi. Dengan demikian, aktivitas antioksidan campuran ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica dan Centella asiatica lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica.   Kata kunci: Acalypha indica; aktivitas antioksidan; Centella asiatica Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  1. De novo assembly and comparative analysis of the transcriptome of embryogenic callus formation in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zongli; Chen, Junying; Sun, Junyan; Dong, Zhongdong; Yang, Xia; Wang, Ying; Xu, Haixia; Zhang, Xiaoke; Chen, Feng; Cui, Dangqun

    2017-12-19

    During asexual reproduction the embryogenic callus can differentiate into a new plantlet, offering great potential for fostering in vitro culture efficiency in plants. The immature embryos (IMEs) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are more easily able to generate embryogenic callus than mature embryos (MEs). To understand the molecular process of embryogenic callus formation in wheat, de novo transcriptome sequencing was used to generate transcriptome sequences from calli derived from IMEs and MEs after 3d, 6d, or 15d of culture (DC). In total, 155 million high quality paired-end reads were obtained from the 6 cDNA libraries. Our de novo assembly generated 142,221 unigenes, of which 59,976 (42.17%) were annotated with a significant Blastx against nr, Pfam, Swissprot, KOG, KEGG, GO and COG/KOG databases. Comparative transcriptome analysis indicated that a total of 5194 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the comparisons of IME vs. ME at the three stages, including 3181, 2085 and 1468 DEGs at 3, 6 and 15 DC, respectively. Of them, 283 overlapped in all the three comparisons. Furthermore, 4731 DEGs were identified in the comparisons between stages in IMEs and MEs. Functional analysis revealed that 271transcription factor (TF) genes (10 overlapped in all 3 comparisons of IME vs. ME) and 346 somatic embryogenesis related genes (SSEGs; 35 overlapped in all 3 comparisons of IME vs. ME) were differentially expressed in at least one comparison of IME vs. ME. In addition, of the 283 overlapped DEGs in the 3 comparisons of IME vs. ME, excluding the SSEGs and TFs, 39 possessed a higher rate of involvement in biological processes relating to response to stimuli, in multi-organism processes, reproductive processes and reproduction. Furthermore, 7 were simultaneously differentially expressed in the 2 comparisons between the stages in IMEs, but not MEs, suggesting that they may be related to embryogenic callus formation. The expression levels of genes, which

  2. Absence of arabinan in the side chains of the pectic polysaccharides strongly associated with cell walls of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia non-organogenic callus with loosely attached constituent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, H; Ishii, T; Satoh, S

    2001-10-01

    When leaf disks from haploid plants of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv. were transformed with T-DNA and cultured on shoot-inducing medium, nonorganogenic callus. designated nolac (for non-organogenic callus with loosely attached cells), appeared on approximately 7% of leaf disks. In contrast, normal callus was generated on T-DNA-transformed leaf disks from diploid plants and on non-transformed leaf disks from haploid and diploid plants. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the middle lamellae and the cell walls of one line of mutant callus (nolac-H14) were barely stained by ruthenium red. even after demethylesterification with NaOH, whereas the entire cell wall and the middle lamella were strongly stained in normal callus. In cultures of nolac-H14 callus, the level of sugar components of pectic polysaccharides in the hemicellulose fraction was reduced and that in the culture medium was elevated, as compared with cultures of normal callus. These results indicate that pectic polysaccharides are not retained in the cell walls and middle lamellae of nolac-H14 callus. In nolac-H14, the ratio of arabinose to galactose was low in the pectic polysaccharides purified from all cell wall fractions and from the medium, in particular, in the hemicellulose fractions. The low levels of arabinofuranosyl (T-Araf, 5-Araf, 2,5-Araf, and 3,5-Araf) residues in the pectic polysaccharides of the hemicellulosic fraction of nolac-H,14 indicated that no neutral-sugar side chains, composed mainly of linear arabinan. were present in nolac-H14. Arabinose-rich pectins. which are strongly associated with cellulose-hemicellulose complexes, might play an important role in intercellular attachment in the architecture of the cell wall.

  3. Antidiarrhoeal efficacy of Mangifera indica seed kernel on Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, S; Suganya, H; Thirunalasundari, T; Jeeva, S

    2012-08-01

    To examine the antidiarrhoeal activity of alcoholic and aqueous seed kernel extract of Mangifera indica (M. indica) on castor oil-induced diarrhoeal activity in Swiss albino mice. Mango seed kernels were processed and extracted using alcohol and water. Antidiarrhoeal activity of the extracts were assessed using intestinal motility and faecal score methods. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of M. indica significantly reduced intestinal motility and faecal score in Swiss albino mice. The present study shows the traditional claim on the use of M. indica seed kernel for treating diarrhoea in Southern parts of India. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. In Vitro Callus Induction and Growth of Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni M. with Difference Concentrations of PEG (Polyethylene Glycol and Light Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ana Syabana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bert. M. is known as a natural non-caloric sweetener. This plants contain glycoside such steviosida type, mainly on the leave contain sweetness level between 200-300 cane sugar but the calorie is very low. This research was aimed to determine difference effects of PEG (Polyethylene Glycol concentrations and the light conditions on  Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bert. M. callus induction  in vitro. This research was conducted from April to June 2016 at Biotechnology Laboratory Faculty of Agriculture, Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa University. This research used a completely randomized design (CRD, which consisted of two factors with three replications. Concentrations of PEG as first factor consisted of four levels (0 mg/L, 5 mg/L, 15 mg/L, and 25 mg/L. Light conditions as second factor consisted of two levels (Dark and Light. The results showed that the concentrations of PEG (Polyethylene Glycol did not significantly effect the time of callus appearance and diameter of callus on 4, 5 and 6 weeks after planting. Dark condition was the best conditions for callus induction of stevia. The texture of callus was compact on all treatments and the callus dominant color produced is golden brown

  5. In Vitro Callus Induction and Growth of Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni M. with Difference Concentrations of PEG (Polyethylene Glycol and Light Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ana Syabana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bert. M. is known as a natural non-caloric sweetener. This plants contain glycoside such steviosida type, mainly on the leave contain sweetness level between 200-300 cane sugar but the calorie is very low. This research was aimed to determine difference effects of PEG (Polyethylene Glycol concentrations and the light conditions on Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bert. M. callus induction in vitro. This research was conducted from April to June 2016 at Biotechnology Laboratory Faculty of Agriculture, Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa University. This research used a completely randomized design (CRD, which consisted of two factors with three replications. Concentrations of PEG as first factor consisted of four levels (0 mg/L, 5 mg/L, 15 mg/L, and 25 mg/L. Light conditions as second factor consisted of two levels (Dark and Light. The results showed that the concentrations of PEG (Polyethylene Glycol did not significantly effect the time of callus appearance and diameter of callus on 4, 5 and 6 weeks after planting. Dark condition was the best conditions for callus induction of stevia. The texture of callus was compact on all treatments and the callus dominant color produced is golden brown.

  6. The durative use of suspension cells and callus for volatile oil by comparative with seeds and fruits in Capparis spinosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongtai Yin

    Full Text Available Capparis spinosa is one of the most important eremophytes among the medicinal plants, and continued destruction of these plants poses a major threat to species survival. The development of methods to extract compounds, especially those of medicinal value, without harvesting the whole plant is an issue of considerable socioeconomic importance. On the basis of an established system for culture of suspension cells and callus in vitro, Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS was used for the volatile oil composition analyzing in seed, fruit, suspension cells and callus. Fatty acids were the major component, and the highest content of alkanes was detected in seed, with <1.0% in suspension cells and callus. Esters, olefins and heterocyclic compounds were significantly higher in fruit than in the other materials. The content of acid esters in the suspension cells and callus was significantly higher than in seed and fruit. This indicated that the suspension cells and callus could be helpful for increasing the value of volatile oil and replacing seeds and fruit partially as a source of some compounds of the volatile oil and may also produce some new medical compounds. The above results give valuable information for sustainable use of C. spinosa and provide a foundation for use of the C. spinosa suspension cells and callus as an ongoing medical resource.

  7. Plant germination and production of callus from the yellow hornpoppy (Glaucium flavum): the first stage of micropropagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, M E; Arafa, A M; Soliman, S S; Eldahmy, S I

    2014-09-01

    The yellow hornpoppy, Glaucium flavum Cr. (Fam. Papaveraceae) is a perennial herb, distributed in the Mediterranean region, including Egypt. The plant contains many benzyl isoquinoline alkaloids from the aporphine type such as glaucine, isoboldine, 1-chelidonine, 1-norchelidonine and 3-O-methylarterenol, making it to display various medicinal activities including antitussive, anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, hypoglycemic, analgesic, antipyretic, bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory effects. The plant is now rare and endangered in the Egyptian flora due to urban sprawl. The present study looks into Glaucium flavum seeds' in vitro germination as well as the ability of the explants taken from the growing seedlings to form stable callus lines in order to enable micropropagation as a way to save the rare plant. The study also scans the production of different medicinally valuable alkaloids, particularly glaucine, in produced callus.

  8. Morpho-anatomical characterization of embryogenic calluses from immature zygotic embryo of peach palm during somatic embryogenesis =

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Alencar Maciel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to morpho-anatomically characterizenodular embryogenic calluses from zygotic embryos of peach palm during the induction of somatic embryogenesis. Immature zygotic embryos were pre-treated in MS medium added to Picloram and 2,4-D (25 μM and BAP (0, 5, 10 μM. After three months, primary calluses were transferred to MS induction medium added to Picloram and 2,4-D (450 μM. After six months, the embryogenic calluses were then histologically analyzed and cultivated in the maturation medium. The competent tissues of the zygotic embryos differentiated embryogenic calluses under action of both Picloram and 2,4-D auxins (450 μM, where the presence of multi-granular structures were observed. Histological observations showed that in the nodular embryogenic calluses, the outlying parenchymal cells exhibit cellular characteristics of high mitotic activity. Differentiation of tracheal elements exists in embryogenic calluses connecting the callus to the explant. The evaluated cytokinin/auxin interaction influences the development of embryogenic calluses and globular structures.O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar morfoanatomicamente calos nodulares embriogênicos originados de embriões zigóticos de pupunheira durante a indução da embriogênese somática. Embriões zigóticos imaturos de pupunha foram inicialmente pré-tratados em meio de cultura MS, solidificado com 2,5 g L-1 de phytagel® e suplementado com Picloram e 2,4-D na concentração de 25 μM e BAP (0, 5, 10 μM. Após três meses, os calos primários foram transferidos para meio de indução, com Picloram e 2,4-D (450 μM. Após seis meses, os calosnodulares embriogênicos formados foram então analisados histologicamente e repicados para o meio de maturação para a progressão das estruturas multigranulares embriogênicas. Verificou-seque os tecidos competentes dos embriões zigóticos imaturos diferenciaram nódulos embriogênicos pela ação de ambas

  9. Synthesis of deuterium-labelled substrates for the study of oleuropein biosynthesis in Olea europaea callus cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrilli, Anna Maria; Maggi, Agnese; Casagrande, Valentina; Bianco, Armandodoriano

    2016-01-01

    We propose the cell culture approach to investigate oleuropein (1) biogenesis in Olea europaea L. We suggest employing olive callus cultures to identify the iridoidic precursor of oleuropein. In fact, we confirmed that callus cells from olive shoot explants are able to produce key secoiridoid as 1. To enable this approach, we synthesised and characterised deuterium-labelled iridoidic precursors belonging both to the loganin and the 8-epiloganin series. These iridoids are [7,8-(2)H2]-7-deoxy-8-epi-loganin (2(D)), [8,10-(2)H2]-8-epi-loganin (4(D)) and [7,8-(2)H2]-7-deoxy-loganin (3(D)).

  10. Biomass Yield and Steviol Glycoside Production in Callus and Suspension Culture of Stevia rebaudiana Treated with Proline and Polyethylene Glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pratibha; Sharma, Satyawati; Saxena, Sanjay

    2015-06-01

    Enhanced production of steviol glycosides (SGs) was observed in callus and suspension culture of Stevia rebaudiana treated with proline and polyethylene glycol (PEG). To study their effect, yellow-green and compact calli obtained from in vitro raised Stevia leaves were sub-cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg l(-1) NAA and different concentrations of proline (2.5-10 mM) and PEG (2.5-10 %) for 2 weeks, and incubated at 24 ± 1 °C and 22.4 μmol m(-2) s(-1) light intensity provided by white fluorescent tubes for 16 h. Callus and suspension culture biomass (i.e. both fresh and dry weight content) was increased with 5 mM proline and 5 % PEG, while at further higher concentrations, they got reduced. Further, quantification of SGs content in callus (collected at 15th day) and suspension culture (collected at 10th and 15th day) treated with and without elicitors was analysed by HPLC. It was observed that chemical stress enhanced the production of SGs significantly. In callus, the content of SGs increased from 0.27 (control) to 1.09 and 1.83 % with 7.5 mM proline and 5 % PEG, respectively, which was about 4.0 and 7.0 times higher than control. However, in the case of suspension culture, the same concentrations of proline and polyethylene glycol enhanced the SG content from 1.36 (control) to 5.03 and 6.38 %, respectively, on 10th day which were 3.7 times and 4.7 times higher than control.

  11. Intramedullary Mg2Ag nails augment callus formation during fracture healing in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jähn, Katharina; Saito, Hiroaki; Taipaleenmäki, Hanna; Gasser, Andreas; Hort, Norbert; Feyerabend, Frank; Schlüter, Hartmut; Rueger, Johannes M; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Hesse, Eric

    2016-05-01

    Intramedullary stabilization is frequently used to treat long bone fractures. Implants usually remain unless complications arise. Since implant removal can become technically very challenging with the potential to cause further tissue damage, biodegradable materials are emerging as alternative options. Magnesium (Mg)-based biodegradable implants have a controllable degradation rate and good tissue compatibility, which makes them attractive for musculoskeletal research. Here we report for the first time the implantation of intramedullary nails made of an Mg alloy containing 2% silver (Mg2Ag) into intact and fractured femora of mice. Prior in vitro analyses revealed an inhibitory effect of Mg2Ag degradation products on osteoclast differentiation and function with no impair of osteoblast function. In vivo, Mg2Ag implants degraded under non-fracture and fracture conditions within 210days and 133days, respectively. During fracture repair, osteoblast function and subsequent bone formation were enhanced, while osteoclast activity and bone resorption were decreased, leading to an augmented callus formation. We observed a widening of the femoral shaft under steady state and regenerating conditions, which was at least in part due to an uncoupled bone remodeling. However, Mg2Ag implants did not cause any systemic adverse effects. These data suggest that Mg2Ag implants might be promising for intramedullary fixation of long bone fractures, a novel concept that has to be further investigated in future studies. Biodegradable implants are promising alternatives to standard steel or titanium implants to avoid implant removal after fracture healing. We therefore developed an intramedullary nail using a novel biodegradable magnesium-silver-alloy (Mg2Ag) and investigated the in vitro and in vivo effects of the implants on bone remodeling under steady state and fracture healing conditions in mice. Our results demonstrate that intramedullary Mg2Ag nails degrade in vivo over time without

  12. Overexpression of a repressor MdMYB15L negatively regulates anthocyanin and cold tolerance in red-fleshed callus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haifeng; Yang, Guanxian; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Yicheng; Zhang, Tianliang; Wang, Nan; Jiang, Shenghui; Zhang, Zongying; Chen, Xuesen

    2018-04-14

    The cold-induced metabolic pathway and anthocyanin biosynthesis play important roles in plant growth. In this study, we identified a bHLH binding motif in the MdMYB15L protein using protein sequence analyses. Yeast two-hybrid and pull-down assays showed that MdMYB15L could interact with MdbHLH33. Overexpressing MdMYB15L in red-fleshed callus inhibited the expression of MdCBF2 and resulted in reduced cold tolerance but did not affect anthocyanin levels. Chip-PCR and EMSA analysis showed that MdMYB15L could bind the type II cis-acting element found in the MdCBF2 promoter. Overexpressing MdMYB15L in red-fleshed callus overexpressing MdbHLH33 also reduced cold tolerance and reduced MdbHLH33-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis. Knocking out the bHLH binding sequence of MdMYB15L (LBSMdMYB15L) prevented LBSMdMYB15L from interacting with MdbHLH33. Overexpressing LBSMdMYB15L in red-fleshed callus overexpressing MdbHLH33 also reduced cold tolerance and reduced MdbHLH33-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis. Together, these results suggested that an apple repressor MdMYB15L might play a key role in the cold signaling and anthocyanin metabolic pathways. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Study on Effect of Type of Explant and Hormone on Callus Induction and Regeneration in Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

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    Mohsen Sajjadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L. is one of the medicinal plants that contain active components and medicinal materials. Tissue culture of saffron can improve the quality and quantity of the saffron product, increase its export and the farmers’ income. In this study, 36 different types of hormone combinations in the dark and 9 different treatments of hormone combinations in cold (4°C, using different saffron explants (bulb, leaf, scales around leaf and distal parts of the leaf were studied in tissue culture. To investigate the growth of corms, the callus formation and the regeneration rate, three replications for each treatment were used and the length of shoot (cm, the callus formation percentage and the regeneration percentage were measured and statistical analysis was performed. Among the types of explants, only explants from bulbs produced the callus on MS medium containing 2 mg.l-1 BAP and 1 mg.l-1 IBA in both the dark and cold conditions. The highest percentage of regeneration was obtained in MS medium with hormonal composition of 0.3 mg.l-1 TDZ, 1 mg.l-1 BAP, 2 mg.l-1 IBA and 0.01 mg.l-1 GA3 in the cold conditions.

  14. Optimization of Callus Induction and Regeneration in Two Fenugreek Landraces as a Medicinal Plant during in vitro Condition

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    Hasan Hasani Jifroudi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum- graecum is a medicinal plant extensively distributed in most regions of the world. Fenugreek is an annual plant from the family of papilionaceae, leguminosae. Fenugreek leaves and seeds have been used extensively to prepare extracts and powders for medicinal uses. Its root, leaf and seed contain a number of important medicinal compounds such as polysaccharide, galactomannan, different saponins such as diosgenin, yamogenin, mucilage, volatile oil and alkaloids such as choline and trigonelline. Plant tissue culture is fundamental to most aspects of biotechnology of plants. Establishment of an efficient callus induction and direct regeneration protocol is an essential prerequisite in harnessing the advantage of cell and tissue culture for genetic improvement. For the successful application of the tissue culture technique in plant breeding, callus induction and plant regeneration potential of each plant must be determined. The present study was performed in order to determine the optimum concentration of plant growth regulators (IBA + TDZ for producing of in vitro plantlet using cotyledon and hypocotyl as an explant for two different Iranian genotypes (Ardestani and Neyshabouri. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, Ardestani and Neyshabouri genotypes were used for callus induction and direct shoot regeneration. The medium used in this investigation was MS (Murashige and Skoog basal medium. Then seeds were germinated on MS medium. For callus induction and direct shoot regeneration, cotyledon and hypocotyl explants were excised from 8-day-old sterile seedlings and cultured on MS medium containing various concentrations of IBA and TDZ. In this experiment, two combinations (TDZ + IBA were used. In the first composition, IBA had four levels (0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 mg l-1 and TDZ had five levels (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 mg l-1 and in the second composition, IBA had four levels (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 mg l-1 and TDZ

  15. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Taxus yunnanensis Callus and Their Antibacterial Activity and Cytotoxicity in Human Cancer Cells

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    Qian Hua Xia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant constituents could act as chelating/reducing or capping agents for synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs. The green synthesis of AgNPs has been considered as an environmental friendly and cost-effective alternative to other fabrication methods. The present work described the biosynthesis of AgNPs using callus extracts from Taxus yunnanensis and evaluated their antibacterial activities in vitro and potential cytotoxicity in cancer cells. Callus extracts were able to reduce silver nitrate at 1 mM in 10 min. Transmission electron microscope (TEM indicated the synthesized AgNPs were spherical with the size range from 6.4 to 27.2 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD confirmed the AgNPs were in the form of nanocrystals. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR suggested phytochemicals in callus extracts were possible reducing and capping agents. The AgNPs exhibited effective inhibitory activity against all tested human pathogen bacteria and the inhibition against Gram-positive bacteria was stronger than that of Gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, they exhibited stronger cytotoxic activity against human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells and induced noticeable apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells, but showed lower cytotoxic against normal human liver cells (HL-7702. Our results suggested that biosynthesized AgNPs could be an alternative measure in the field of antibacterial and anticancer therapeutics.

  16. Light-induced biochemical variations in secondary metabolite production and antioxidant activity in callus cultures of Stevia rebaudiana (Bert).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Naveed; Rab, Abdur; Ahmad, Nisar

    2016-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana (S. rebaudiana) is a very important species with worldwide medicinal and commercial uses. Light is one of the major elicitors that fluctuate morphogenic potential and biochemical responses. In the present study, we investigated the effect of various spectral lights on biomass accumulation and secondary metabolite production in callus cultures of S. rebaudiana. Leaf explants were placed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium and exposed to various spectral lights. 6-Benzyle adenine (BA) and 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D; 2.0 mgl(-1)) were used for callus induction. The control light (16/8h) produced optimum callogenic response (92.73%) than other colored lights. Compared to other colored lights, control grown cultures displayed maximum biomass accumulation (5.78 gl(-1)) during a prolonged log phase at the 18th day of growth kinetics. Cultures grown under blue light enhanced total phenolic content (TPC; 102.32 μg/g DW), total flavonoid content (TFC; 22.07 μg/g DW) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC; 11.63 μg/g DW). On the contrary, green and red lights improved reducing power assay (RPA; 0.71Fe(II)g(-1) DW) and DPPH-radical scavenging activity (DRSA; 80%). Herein, we concluded that the utilization of colored lights is a promising strategy for enhanced production of antioxidant secondary metabolites in callus cultures of S. rebaudiana. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Production of isoflavones, daidzein and genistein in callus cultures of Pueraria candollei Wall. ex Benth. var. mirifica

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    Sanha Panichajakul

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Callus cultures of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica were first established from various parts of explants with the objective of isoflavones, daidzein and genistein production. The cultures were studied on their growth and isoflavone production by various combinations of growth regulators, auxins and cytokinins at 25±2ºC. Daidzein and genistein accumulated in the cells were determined. The results revealed that callus of P. candollei var. mirifica was capable of producing high level of both isoflavones consistently. The culture temperature played an important role in the growth and isoflavone production. Over twofold of growth and threefold of isoflavone production were demonstrated at 32±2ºC. The callus established from the stems in MS medium supplemented with 4.5 µM 2,4-D and 0.46 µM kinetin produced the highest yield of daidzein (5.12 mg/g, DW and genistein (2.77 mg/g, DW, which was remarkably higher than the intact plants.

  18. Study of Androgenesis Ability and Callus Induction in Four Varieties of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill by Anther Culture

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    R. Najib

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill is one of the most important vegetables which in addition of its importance as a food, is utilized as a model plant for cytological and cytogenetic studies. Tomato breeding programs are often based on the production and selection of hybrid plants. Producing hybrid plants and application of features that is needed to breed pure lines with high specific combining abilities, is highly required.New technologies such as doubled haploid can be an effective strategy to provide pure lines in tomato. Generation of homozygous doubled haploid lines through induction of androgenesis is a promising alternative method to the classical breeding programs. However, this technology is poorly developed in tomato so that some improvements in methodology are required. Genotype and stages of microspore development are critical factors for induction of androgenesis in tomato. Among them, the genotype is more important than other factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of callus induction from anthers in some tomato genotypes. Materials and Methods: In order to investigate the androgenic response and callus induction through anther culture in tomato, four varieties including Mobil-Netherlands, Baker, U. S. Agriseed and Khoram were chosen. To determine the appropriate stage of microspore development for anther culture, cytologycal studies were accomplished at different size length of flower buds (2-7.9 mm. Flower buds were incubated at 4oC for 15 minutes and stained in acetocarmin %4 solution. Based on cytological studies in four tested cultivars, flower buds with size length 4-4.9 mm were chosen, as they had the highest frequency of meiotic microspores to microspores mid uninucleate. Pretreatments were colchicine solution (250 mgr/L at 4 °C for 48 h. The anthers were cultured on MS medium containing 2 mgr/L IAA and 1 mgr/L 2ip. All changes in frequency of callus induction and diameter of

  19. Callus formation of american Persea Mill. cultivar Catalina starting from segments of leaves of in vitro plants

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    Marisol Freire Seijo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of establishing protocols for the regeneration of fruit-trees through out the organogenesis and the somatic embryogenesis is based on the possibility to use them in the propagation of the species or in programs of genetic improvement. Specifically the Catalina cultivar is very coveted in Cuba, however it has not been introduced in vitro. The present work had the objective of forming callus starting from leaves of in vitro plants from avocado tree of the Catalina cultivar. The phase of multiplication of the in vitro plants was carried out in temporary immersion systems in order to favour the expansion of the leaves. Erlenmeyers 1.0l were used In the TIS and immersions every four and eight hours with a minute of duration were carried out. The effect of the Picloram, the 6 BAP and the 2,4-D on leaves of in vitro plants for the formation of callus was studied. The plants with more quality were obtained when immersions every 8 hours were carried out. It was also possible to form callus using sections of leaves of in vitro plants as explants in a culture medium with 0.1 Picloram mgl-1. Key words: in vitro plant leaves, temporary immersion system

  20. Regeneration of roots from callus reveals stability of the developmental program for determinate root growth in Sonoran Desert Cactaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkova, Svetlana; García-Mendoza, Edith; Castillo-Díaz, Vicente; Moreno, Norma E; Arellano, Jesús; Dubrovsky, Joseph G

    2007-05-01

    In some Sonoran Desert Cactaceae the primary root has a determinate root growth: the cells of the root apical meristem undergo only a few cell division cycles and then differentiate. The determinate growth of primary roots in Cactaceae was found in plants cultivated under various growth conditions, and could not be reverted by any treatment tested. The mechanisms involved in root meristem maintenance and determinate root growth in plants remain poorly understood. In this study, we have shown that roots regenerated from the callus of two Cactaceae species, Stenocereus gummosus and Ferocactus peninsulae, have a determinate growth pattern, similar to that of the primary root. To demonstrate this, a protocol for root regeneration from callus was established. The determinate growth pattern of roots regenerated from callus suggests that the program of root development is very stable in these species. These findings will permit future analysis of the role of certain Cactaceae genes in the determinate pattern of root growth via the regeneration of transgenic roots from transformed calli.

  1. Generation and multiplication of plantlets from callus derived from Haplopappus gracilus (Nutt.) Gray and their karyotype analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, R. P.; O'Connor, S. A.; Levine, H. G.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1991-01-01

    Unopened flower heads of Haplopappus gracilis (2n = 4) provided primary explants for callus production and subsequent induction of organized growth. Callus was initiated from small (3-5 mm in length) floral buds with benzylaminopurine (BAP) (44.4 micromoles; 10 mg/l) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) (0.54 micromole; 0.1 mg/l). Lowering the BAP level to 4.44 micromoles (1 mg/l) but maintaining the NAA level, gave rise to organized but highly compressed shoot growing points from an otherwise undifferentiated callus mass. Shoots selected from such cultures were maintainable and could be proliferated by growing 1-1.5-cm stem tip cuttings on Murashige and Skoog basal medium (solidified with agar) containing 0.444 micromole (0.1 mg/l) BAP and 0.054 micromole (0.01 mg/l) NAA. The stem tip multiplication rates obtainable by these means permit reliable strategies for shoot multiplication or production of rooted plantlets. Prolonged subculture and maintenance of shoots on growth regulator-free medium leads to in vitro flowering and greatly reduces rooting capacity. Karyotype analysis of chromosomes from root tip cells at metaphase and chromosome measurements show that karyologically uniform plantlets (based on chromosome number and morphology) can be obtained.

  2. Study on homologous series of induced early mutants in Indica rice Ⅱ. the relationship between the homologous series of early mutants induced and the ecotype in Indica rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiulan; Yang Hefeng; He Zhentian; Han Yuepeng; Liu Xueyu

    2001-01-01

    The induced mutation in light sensitivity of the Indica rice leads to induction of the homologous series of early mutants along with the variation of ecological character and the ecoclimate. The induction of mutants was closely related to the ecotype of Indica rice, the homologous series of early mutants in different level were derived from the different ecotype of the Indica rice, otherwise, the similar homologous series of early mutants were derived from the same ecotypic variety. The induction of the early ecotypic variety derived from the homologous series of early mutants provides the basis and possibility for accelerating the development of the new cultivars. (authors)

  3. Effects of Neem (Azadirachta indic and Custard Apple (Annona reticulata Diets on Sterility of House Rat (Rattus rattus

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    Prem Nidhi Sharma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three different plant products diets – i neem (Azadirachta indic A. Juss oil mixed diet (neem oil mixed @ 80 ml/kg of normal diet, ii neem seed powder mixed diet (neem seed powder mixed @ 80 g/kg of normal diet and iii custard apple (Annona reticulata L. seed powder mixed diet (custard apple seed powder mixed @ 80 g/kg of normal diet were separately fed to mature rats (Rattus rattus with single dose feeding of 80 g per pair in a day on 13th week-age during the experimenting years, 2012/013 and 2013/014. In control group only normal diet without neem and custard apple constituents were fed. Sterility test of rat was conducted up to 38 and 28 weeks-age in first and second year, respectively. The test rats were fed normal diet during whole experimenting periods except the one day when they were fed only the neem or custard apple mixed diet on the age of 13th week. Efficacy of the mixed diets on rat-sterility was determined based on pregnancy and parturition by the rats. The two years' results confirmed that all the tested three mixed diets – neem oil mixed diet, neem seed powder mixed diet, and custard apple seed powder mixed diet were effective to stop pregnancy and parturition in rats during whole experimenting periods up to 38 and 28 weeks-age with single dose feeding of 80 g per pair (40 gm/rat in a day on 13th week-age of the rats; whereas the pregnancy and parturition were observed in the rats that were fed only the normal diet. It is expected, neem and custard apple mixed diets can be utilized in reducing the economically important rodent populations in rice-wheat cropping system in future.

  4. Anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils from Mangifera indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R M; Dutra, T S; Simionatto, E; Ré, N; Kassuya, C A L; Cardoso, C A L

    2017-03-16

    Mangifera indica is widely found in Brazil, and its leaves are used as an anti-inflammatory agent in folk medicine. The aim of this study is to perform composition analysis of essential oils from the M. indica varieties, espada (EOMIL1) and coração de boi (EOMIL2), and confirm their anti-inflammatory properties. Twenty-three volatile compounds were identified via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in two essential oils from the leaves. Paw edema and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were evaluated using the carrageenan-induced paw model, while leukocyte migration was analyzed using the pleurisy model. At oral doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg, the essential oils significantly reduced edema formation and the increase in MPO activity induced by carrageenan in rat paws. For a dose of 300 mg/kg EOMIL1, 62 ± 8% inhibition of edema was observed, while EOMIL2 led to 51 ± 7% inhibition of edema. At a dose of 100 mg/kg, the inhibition was 54 ± 9% for EOMIL1 and 37 ± 7% for EOMIL2. EOMIL1 and EOMIL2 significantly reduced MPO activity at doses of 100 mg/kg (47 ± 5 and 23 ± 8%, respectively) and 300 mg/kg (50 ± 9 and 31 ± 7%, respectively). In the pleurisy model, inhibitions were also observed for EOMIL1 and EOMIL2 in the leukocyte migration test. The results of the present study show that essential oils from M. indica differ in chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity in rats.

  5. The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica enhances Arabidopsis thaliana growth and modulates Na + /K + homeostasis under salt stress conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelaziz, Mohamed Ewis; Kim, Dongjin; Ali, Shawkat; Fedoroff, Nina V.; Al-Babili, Salim

    2017-01-01

    The mutualistic, endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica has been shown to confer biotic and abiotic stress tolerance to host plants. In this study, we investigated the impact of P. indica on the growth of Arabidopsis plants under normal and salt

  6. Global Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes and Proteins in the Wheat Callus Infected by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaohong; Wang, Ke; Lv, Dongwen; Wu, Chengjun; Li, Jiarui; Zhao, Pei; Lin, Zhishan; Du, Lipu; Yan, Yueming; Ye, Xingguo

    2013-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation is an extremely complex and evolved process involving genetic determinants of both the bacteria and the host plant cells. However, the mechanism of the determinants remains obscure, especially in some cereal crops such as wheat, which is recalcitrant for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. In this study, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were analyzed in wheat callus cells co-cultured with Agrobacterium by using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) in conjunction with mass spectrometry (MS). A set of 4,889 DEGs and 90 DEPs were identified, respectively. Most of them are related to metabolism, chromatin assembly or disassembly and immune defense. After comparative analysis, 24 of the 90 DEPs were detected in RNA-seq and proteomics datasets simultaneously. In addition, real-time RT-PCR experiments were performed to check the differential expression of the 24 genes, and the results were consistent with the RNA-seq data. According to gene ontology (GO) analysis, we found that a big part of these differentially expressed genes were related to the process of stress or immunity response. Several putative determinants and candidate effectors responsive to Agrobacterium mediated transformation of wheat cells were discussed. We speculate that some of these genes are possibly related to Agrobacterium infection. Our results will help to understand the interaction between Agrobacterium and host cells, and may facilitate developing efficient transformation strategies in cereal crops. PMID:24278131

  7. Morphological Evaluation of Shoots Regenerated from Hygromycin-Resistant Rice Callus (cv IACuba-28

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    Maylin Pérez Bernal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation system based on the morphological characteristics of regenerated hygromycin-resistant rice callus shoots was established for correlating such characteristics with shoot viability on hygromycin. Embryogenic rice calli were transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (EHA105/ pCAMBIA1300, containing the hygromycin-phosphotransferase gene as selection marker. After two weeks on selection medium, hygromycin-resistant calli were transferred to regeneration medium. Regenerated shoots were extracted every 5 days (over a 30-day period and classified into three classes according to their morphological structure: class I: vigorous shoot having typical bipolar structure; class II: shoot having small root compared to apical length, or shoot without roots; class III: shoots having an abnormal appearance, such as malformed leaves or albinism. Individualised shoots were transferred to MS medium containing hygromycin for evaluating their resistance to antibiotics. A relationship was observed between regenerated shoots’ morphological characteristics and the percentage of shoots’ viability on hygromycin. Class I prevailed at early shoot extraction and was the most resistant to hygromycin. Drastic class I reduction was found with later shoot extraction, whilst classes II and III became increased. Likewise, shoot viability became radically reduced on MS medium containing hygromycin. This result might be applied for improving efficiency regarding obtaining transgenic rice plants, taking into account the best time for obtaining high percentages of hygromycin-resistant shoots having the best morphological characteristics.

  8. Global analysis of differentially expressed genes and proteins in the wheat callus infected by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Zhou

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation is an extremely complex and evolved process involving genetic determinants of both the bacteria and the host plant cells. However, the mechanism of the determinants remains obscure, especially in some cereal crops such as wheat, which is recalcitrant for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. In this study, differentially expressed genes (DEGs and differentially expressed proteins (DEPs were analyzed in wheat callus cells co-cultured with Agrobacterium by using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE in conjunction with mass spectrometry (MS. A set of 4,889 DEGs and 90 DEPs were identified, respectively. Most of them are related to metabolism, chromatin assembly or disassembly and immune defense. After comparative analysis, 24 of the 90 DEPs were detected in RNA-seq and proteomics datasets simultaneously. In addition, real-time RT-PCR experiments were performed to check the differential expression of the 24 genes, and the results were consistent with the RNA-seq data. According to gene ontology (GO analysis, we found that a big part of these differentially expressed genes were related to the process of stress or immunity response. Several putative determinants and candidate effectors responsive to Agrobacterium mediated transformation of wheat cells were discussed. We speculate that some of these genes are possibly related to Agrobacterium infection. Our results will help to understand the interaction between Agrobacterium and host cells, and may facilitate developing efficient transformation strategies in cereal crops.

  9. Influence of different methods of internal bone fixation on characteristics of bone callus in experimental animals

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    Gajdobranski Đorđe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Correct choice of osteosynthesis method is a very important factor in providing the optimal conditions for appropriate healing of the fracture. There are still disagreements about the method of stabilization of some long bone fractures. Critically observed, no method of fracture fixation is ideal. Each osteosynthesis method has both advantages and weaknesses. Objective. The objective of this study was to compare the results of the experimental application of three different internal fixation methods: plate fixation, intramedullary nail fixation and self-dynamisable internal fixator (SIF. Methods. A series of 30 animals were used (Lepus cuniculus as experimental animals, divided into three groups of ten animals each. Femoral diaphysis of each animal was osteotomized and fixed with one of three implants. Ten weeks later all animals were sacrificed and each specimen underwent histological and biomechanical testing. Results. Histology showed that the healing process with SIF was more complete and bone callus was more mature in comparison to other two methods. During biomechanical investigation (computerized bending stress test, it was documented with high statistical significance that using SIF led to stronger healing ten weeks after the operation. Conclusion. According to the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that SIF is a suitable method for fracture treatment.

  10. Changes in auxin activity in tumourous and normal tobacco calluses treated with morphactin IT 3233

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    Z. Chirek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The addition of morphactin IT 3233 in 1-40 mg/dm3 concentrations to the medium inhibited the growth in vitro of normal and tumourous tobacco calluses. The auxin activity (estimated by the Avena coleoptile straight growth test of the acid ether extracts from these tissues increased. The activity of zone I (Rf 0.2-0.4, 0.5, solvent system: butanol:water:ammonia 10:10:1 in normal tissues increased more intensively than that of zone II (Rf 0.6-0.8, 0.9. In tumourous tissues, however, these changes were smaller and they concerned merely zone I of auxin activity (Rf 0.0-0.5. It seems that the mechanism of morphactin activity in both kinds of tissue is different. It may be supposed that the excessive accumulation of auxins induces growth inhibition of tissues. A previously found increase in the activity of IAA-oxidase influenced by morphactin might be considered as an adaptation to a higher level of IAA.

  11. Phytochemical and biological study of callus cultures of Tulbaghia violacea Harv. Cultivated in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Hanaa H; Metwally, Ghada F

    2017-08-01

    As in vitro plant cultures are used extensively to produce bioactive metabolites, our goal was to establish calli from Tulbaghia violacea Harv. flowers and assess the tissue phytochemically and biologically. Murashige & Skoog medium(MS) + 22.6 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid +2.2 μM benzylaminopurine induced callus from flowers. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry(GC/MS) analyses of n-hexane extracts of calli(HC) and flowers(HF) revealed 33 and 32 components(92.6 and 98.5%, respectively). Hydrocarbons were predominant in HC (55.0%), whereas a higher percentage of oxygenated compounds was found in HF(74.6%). Trans(E)-anethole(39.1%) and 16-hentriacontanone (30.3%) dominated in HF and HC, respectively. However, sulphur compounds were only detected in HF. Quantitative estimation of thiosulphinates, phenolics, flavonoids and saponins in ethanolic extracts of calli(EC) and flowers(EF) showed much higher contents in EF. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic screening of extracts demonstrated that EF was the most potent, followed by HF and EC; conversely, HC was inactive. Although HC and EC were less biologically active, these calli could be an alternative source of bioactive metabolites.

  12. Crescimento, esporulação e viabilidade de fungos entomopatogênicos em meios contendo diferentes concentrações do óleo de nim (Azadirachta indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques Renata Paro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A associação de extratos de origem vegetal com fungos entomopatogênicos pode aumentar a eficiência do controle biológico de pragas, reduzir custos e impactos ambientais. No presente trabalho, avaliou-se, através da concentração inibitória mínima, o efeito do óleo de nim (NIM-I-GO sobre o crescimento, esporulação e viabilidade de Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana e Paecilomyces farinosus. Utilizou-se o meio BDA, contendo diferentes concentrações de óleo de nim (C1: 5% de óleo de nim, e sucessivamente concentrações iguais a fraction one-half da concentração anterior, até C11: 0,0048% de óleo de nim. O óleo de nim reduziu o crescimento de colônias de B. bassiana e P. farinosus, que não diferiram significativamente do controle apenas na concentração C11, mas para M. anisopliae o mesmo efeito foi observado com 0,039% de óleo de nim (C8. A esporulação também foi significativamente reduzida pelo óleo de nim, exceto na concentração C11 para B. bassiana; contudo, não se verificou efeito do óleo na viabilidade de esporos dos fungos.

  13. The effects of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. JUSS) enriched with different concentrations of azadirachtin on the integument of semi-engorged Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae) females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima de Souza, José Ribamar; Remedio, Rafael Neodini; Arnosti, André; de Abreu, Rusleyd Maria Magalhães; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2017-08-01

    Several studies searching for methods to control Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l., (dog tick) infestations have been developed aiming to minimize the damages caused by these ectoparasites to the hosts and the environment, which is harmed by the indiscriminate use of toxic acaricide products. In this scenario, neem oil has been used as a natural alternative against ticks, once this chemical has repellent properties and interferes in the growth regulation of these ectoparasites, inhibiting ecdysis. The present study evaluated the effects of azadirachtin-enriched neem oil on the integument of semi-engorged R.sanguineus s.l., females through morphohistological techniques. The results showed the occurrence of significant morphological and histochemical alterations, mainly in the females exposed to higher concentrations, which demonstrates the dose-dependent action of the chemical. A decrease in the cuticle thickness was observed, as well as a modification in the distribution of the epithelial cells, which displayed pyknotic and fragmented nuclei, and intensely vacuolated cytoplasm, indicating that these cells would be undergoing death processes. These morphological alterations observed in the integument of the females exposed to the azadirachtin-enriched neem oil encourage the use of this chemical as a strategy to control these ectoparasites. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Avaliação da utilização de Nim (Azadirachta indica) para o controle parasitário em bovinos de produção leiteira em sistema orgânico.

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Claudia Bezerra da; Brito, Guilherme Rodrigues; Sanavria, Argemiro; Soares, João Paulo Guimarães

    2009-01-01

    As infestações parasitárias são responsáveis por sérios prejuízos econômicos na pecuária leiteira por causarem danos para a saúde animal. O controle de ectoparasitos com produtos químicos convencionais tem sido realizado de forma indiscriminada, ocasionando o desenvolvimento acelerado de resistência aos princípios ativos, contaminação do ambiente e dos produtos de origem animal, provocando preocupação na sociedade e órgãos governamentais. Desta forma, o uso de métodos alternativos, como o de ...

  15. Sensory acceptability evaluation of irradiated rice, oryza sativa indica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, S.; Sutantawong, M.; Ungsunanatawiwat, A.

    1971-01-01

    The non-glutinous and glutinous types of polished rice, Oryza sativa indica were subjected to gamma rays at ambient temperature and stored at 27+-1 0 C for one week. The irradiated rice was cooked and tasted by members of trained panel. Using Hedonic scale and Triangle test, the acceptability of irradiated rice was justified. Gamma irradiation up to 100 krads did not significantly cause off-color, off-odor and off flavor in irradiated non-glutino rice. Glutinous rice irradiated at 60 krads could not be significantly differentiated from non-irradiated sample

  16. Endochondral fracture healing with external fixation in the Sost knockout mouse results in earlier fibrocartilage callus removal and increased bone volume fraction and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, A; Yu, N Y C; Peacock, L; Mikulec, K; Kramer, I; Kneissel, M; McDonald, M M; Little, D G

    2015-02-01

    Sclerostin deficiency, via genetic knockout or anti-Sclerostin antibody treatment, has been shown to cause increased bone volume, density and strength of calluses following endochondral bone healing. However, there is limited data on the effect of Sclerostin deficiency on the formative early stage of fibrocartilage (non-bony tissue) formation and removal. In this study we extensively investigate the early fibrocartilage callus. Closed tibial fractures were performed on Sost(-/-) mice and age-matched wild type (C57Bl/6J) controls and assessed at multiple early time points (7, 10 and 14days), as well as at 28days post-fracture after bony union. External fixation was utilized, avoiding internal pinning and minimizing differences in stability stiffness, a variable that has confounded previous research in this area. Normal endochondral ossification progressed in wild type and Sost(-/-) mice with equivalent volumes of fibrocartilage formed at early day 7 and day 10 time points, and bony union in both genotypes by day 28. There were no significant differences in rate of bony union; however there were significant increases in fibrocartilage removal from the Sost(-/-) fracture calluses at day 14 suggesting earlier progression of endochondral healing. Earlier bone formation was seen in Sost(-/-) calluses over wild type with greater bone volume at day 10 (221%, p<0.01). The resultant Sost(-/-) united bony calluses at day 28 had increased bone volume fraction compared to wild type calluses (24%, p<0.05), and the strength of the fractured Sost(-/-) tibiae was greater than that that of wild type fractured tibiae. In summary, bony union was not altered by Sclerostin deficiency in externally-fixed closed tibial fractures, but fibrocartilage removal was enhanced and the resultant united bony calluses had increased bone fraction and increased strength. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Preformulación de tabletas de Tamarindus indica L. Preformulation of tablets from Tamarindus indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rafael Rodríguez Amado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de preformulación de tabletas partiendo del extracto blando de las hojas de la especie Tamarindus indica L. Se estudiaron posibles interacciones en mezclas binarias del extracto blando con los excipientes en relación 1:3 que puedan afectar la cantidad de polifenoles en la mezcla a temperaturas 30, 45 y 60 ºC. Se diseñaron 3 formulaciones preliminares de tabletas y se estudió en todos los casos la calidad de los granulados y de las tabletas. En conclusión, no se producen interacciones que afecten el color, el olor ni la concentración de polifenoles en las mezclas binarias extracto blando de tamarindo-excipientes a 30 ºC, y a temperaturas mayores se reduce la cantidad de polifenoles en las mezclas. La formulación preliminar número tres produce tabletas de calidad tecnológica y resulta adecuada para los subsecuentes estudios de formulación y optimización de tabletas de tamarindo.A pre-formulation study for tablet preparation using soft extract from Tamarindus indica L. leaves was conducted. Possible interactions in binary mixtures of Tamarindus indica L. soft extract and selected excipients in a 1:3 ratio, which may affect the amount of polyphenols in the mixture at 30°, 45° and 60 °C temperatures, were analyzed. Three preliminary tablet formulations were designed and then the quality of granules and tables were researched in all the cases. It was concluded that there were no interactions affecting the color, the smell and the polyphenol concentration in the evaluated binary mixtures at 30°. At higher temperatures, the amount of polyphenols decreased. Pre-formulation number 3 yielded the best technological quality in tablet production and thus can be used for future formulation and optimization studies of Tamarind tables.

  18. FLUORIDE SORPTION USING MORRINGA INDICA-BASED ACTIVATED CARBON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Karthikeyan, S. Siva Ilango

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Batch adsorption experiments using activated carbon prepared from Morringa Indica bark were conducted to remove fluoride from aqueous solution. A minimum contact time of 25 min was required for optimum fluoride removal. The influence of adsorbent, dose, pH, co-ions (cations and anions on fluoride removal by the activated carbon has been experimentally verified. The adsorption of fluoride was studied at 30 C, 40 C and 50 C. The kinetics of adsorption and adsorption isotherms at different temperatures were studied. The fluoride adsorption obeyed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and followed a pseudo first order kinetic model. The thermodynamic studies revealed that the fluoride adsorption by Morringa Indica is an endothermic process indicating an increase in sorption rate at higher temperatures. The negative values of G indicate the spontaneity of adsorption. SEM and XRD studies confirmed the surface morphological characteristics of the adsorbent and the deposition of fluoride on the surface of the material.

  19. In Vivo Evaluation of Fracture Callus Development During Bone Healing in Mice Using an MRI-compatible Osteosynthesis Device for the Mouse Femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner-Luntzer, Melanie; Müller-Graf, Fabian; Matthys, Romano; Abaei, Alireza; Jonas, René; Gebhard, Florian; Rasche, Volker; Ignatius, Anita

    2017-11-14

    Endochondral fracture healing is a complex process involving the development of fibrous, cartilaginous, and osseous tissue in the fracture callus. The amount of the different tissues in the callus provides important information on the fracture healing progress. Available in vivo techniques to longitudinally monitor the callus tissue development in preclinical fracture-healing studies using small animals include digital radiography and µCT imaging. However, both techniques are only able to distinguish between mineralized and non-mineralized tissue. Consequently, it is impossible to discriminate cartilage from fibrous tissue. In contrast, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) visualizes anatomical structures based on their water content and might therefore be able to noninvasively identify soft tissue and cartilage in the fracture callus. Here, we report the use of an MRI-compatible external fixator for the mouse femur to allow MRI scans during bone regeneration in mice. The experiments demonstrated that the fixator and a custom-made mounting device allow repetitive MRI scans, thus enabling longitudinal analysis of fracture-callus tissue development.

  20. Comparison of antibacterial activity of parent plant of Tylophora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    2013-07-31

    Jul 31, 2013 ... raised plant and its callus. Key words: Tylophora indica, in vitro raised plant and callus, antibacterial activity. .... Callusing was initiated from the cut ends of the explants after 25 days of ..... Glossary of Indian Medicinal. Plants,.