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Sample records for azaarenes

  1. Determination of selected azaarenes in water by bonded-phase extraction and liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinheimer, T.R.; Ondrus, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    A method for the rapid and simple quantitative determination of quinoline, isoquinoline, and five selected three-ring azaarenes in water has been developed. The azaarene fraction is separated from its carbon analogues on n-octadecyl packing material by edition with acidified water/acetonitrile. Concentration as great as 1000-fold is achieved readily. Instrumental analysis involves high-speed liquid chromatography on flexible-walled, wide-bore columns with fluorescence and ultraviolet detection at several wavelengths employing filter photometers in series. Method-validation data is provided as azaarene recovery efficiency from fortified samples. Distilled water, river water, contaminated ground water, and secondary-treatment effluent have been tested. Recoveries at part-per-billion levels are nearly quantitative for the three-ring compounds, but they decrease for quinoline and isoquinoline. ?? 1986 American Chemical Society.

  2. Photokinetics of azaarenes and toxicity of phototransformation products to the marine diatom phaeodactylum tricornutum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegman, S.; Vlaardingen, P.L.A. van; Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M.; Beusekom, S.A.M. van; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W.

    1999-12-01

    UV radiation is absorbed by PAHs, structurally altering these compounds into a variety of oxygenated products. Until recently, only hazards of parental PAHs in the environment were investigated. This study aims to determine the fate and effects of azaarenes (N-heterocyclic PAHs) together with their photoproducts in marine environments. Photoreaction kinetics of eight asaarenes, ranging from two-ringed to five-ringed structures, were examined using two different light sources: one with an emission peak at 300 nm (UV-B) and the other with an emission peak at 350 nm (UV-A). Azaarenes degraded rapidly in the presence of short-waved light, UV-B being more effective than UV-A. Especially preexposure of azaarenes to UV-A radiation led to products toxic to the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Since UV-A constitutes a larger fraction of sunlight at the earth surface and in the water column, photolysis by UV-A may increase the toxic risk of aromatic compounds in the marine environment.

  3. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and azaarenes in runoff from coal-tar- and asphalt-sealcoated pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Foreman, William T.

    2014-01-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat, used extensively on parking lots and driveways in North America, is a potent source of PAHs. We investigated how concentrations and assemblages of PAHs and azaarenes in runoff from pavement newly sealed with coal-tar-based (CT) or asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat changed over time. Samples of simulated runoff were collected from pavement 5 h to 111 d following application of AS or CT sealcoat. Concentrations of the sum of 16 PAHs (median concentrations of 328 and 35 μg/L for CT and AS runoff, respectively) in runoff varied relatively little, but rapid decreases in concentrations of azaarenes and low molecular weight PAHs were offset by increases in high molecular weight PAHs. The results demonstrate that runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement, in particular, continues to contain elevated concentrations of PAHs long after a 24-h curing time, with implications for the fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of contaminants in runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement.

  4. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and azaarenes in runoff from coal-tar- and asphalt-sealcoated pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J; Van Metre, Peter C; Foreman, William T

    2014-05-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat, used extensively on parking lots and driveways in North America, is a potent source of PAHs. We investigated how concentrations and assemblages of PAHs and azaarenes in runoff from pavement newly sealed with coal-tar-based (CT) or asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat changed over time. Samples of simulated runoff were collected from pavement 5 h to 111 d following application of AS or CT sealcoat. Concentrations of the sum of 16 PAHs (median concentrations of 328 and 35 μg/L for CT and AS runoff, respectively) in runoff varied relatively little, but rapid decreases in concentrations of azaarenes and low molecular weight PAHs were offset by increases in high molecular weight PAHs. The results demonstrate that runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement, in particular, continues to contain elevated concentrations of PAHs long after a 24-h curing time, with implications for the fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of contaminants in runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement.

  5. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated and estrogenic activities of oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and azaarenes originally identified in extracts of river sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machala, M; Ciganek, M; Bláha, L; Minksová, K; Vondráck, J

    2001-12-01

    Reproductive dysfunction in wildlife populations can be a result of environmental contaminants binding to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) or estrogenic receptors. Signaling by both types of receptors can be affected by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are potential endocrine disruptors. However, our knowledge regarding the effects of oxygenated (oxy)-PAHs and azaarenes on AhR-mediated and estrogenic activities is incomplete. In the present study, we have identified 9-fluorenone, anthrone, anthraquinone, benzanthrone, benz[a]anthracene-7,12-dione, benz[c]acridine, and dibenz[a,h]acridine as prevalent oxy-PAHs and azaarenes found in river sediments. Their concentrations in sediment samples ranged from 2.1 to 165.2 ng g(-1) for oxy-PAHs and up to 27.3 ng g(-1) for azaarenes. Their relative AhR-inducing and estrogenic potencies were quantified in vitro using two cell lines that were stably transfected with a luciferase reporter gene system and expressed as induction equivalency factors (IEFs). The only oxy-PAHs with detectable levels of in vitro AhR-mediated activity were benzanthrone and benz[a]anthracene-7,12-dione. However, their IEFs were approximately three to four orders of magnitude lower than those of benzo[a]pyrene. On the other hand, azaarenes showed a strong AhR-mediated activity, with dibenzo[a,h]acridine being a far more potent inducer of activity than benzo[a]pyrene. Benzanthrone, benz[a]anthracene-7,12-dione, anthraquinone, and benz[a]acridine were weak inducers of in vitro estrogenic activity, with IEFs similar to that of benzo[a]pyrene. Based on concentrations and relative potencies, our results suggest that dibenzo[a,h]acridine can significantly contribute to the overall AhR-mediated activity in river sediments, whereas the remaining compounds do not. No studied compound was found to contribute significantly to estrogen receptor-mediated activity in vitro.

  6. Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Azaarenes in Runoff from Freshly Applied Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealcoat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B. J.; Van Metre, P. C.

    2013-12-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat (CT-sealcoat) is extensively applied to asphalt parking lots and driveways in the U.S. and Canada. Toxicity to fish and invertebrates of runoff from pavement to which CT-sealcoat has been freshly applied has been reported, but relatively little is known about how concentrations of chemicals in runoff change in the hours to days following sealcoat application. We measured the concentrations of 16 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Priority Pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 7 azaarenes in 9 samples of simulated runoff from a coal-tar-sealed test plot collected at increasing intervals from 5 hours to 16 weeks following application. Azaarenes, several of which are common constituents in coal-tar pitch, and their oxidized derivatives, azaarones, are an emerging group of little-studied heterocyclic chemicals. Runoff samples were collected by spraying 25 L of a diluted groundwater to 10 m2 on sealed pavement and retrieving the runoff downgradient where the runoff pooled against spill berms. Unfiltered samples were analyzed by GC/MS following liquid-liquid extraction. In the first sample (t=5 hr), phenanthrene had the highest concentration (130 μg/L) among the 16 PAHs. Concentrations of the lower molecular weight (LMW) PAHs (2 and 3 ring) decreased during the 16 weeks following application, and concentrations of the higher molecular weight (HMW) PAHs (4 to 6 ring) increased, coincident with an increase in the concentration of suspended particulates. In the final sample (t=16 weeks), fluoranthene had the highest concentration (36 μg/L) among the 16 PAHs. Of the azaarenes measured, concentrations of acridine and carbazole (107 and 750 μg/L, respectively) in the initial sample exceeded those of any of the PAHs measured except phenanthrene; acridine and carbazole concentrations decreased over the 5 weeks to <5% of their initial values. Samples of dried sealcoat were analyzed the day of application and 5 weeks later. Samples were

  7. Occurrence, distribution and health risk from polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs, oxygenated-PAHs and azaarenes) in street dust from a major West African Metropolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Nkansah, Marian Asantewah

    2016-05-15

    Scientific evidence suggests that the burden of disease on urban residents of sub-Saharan African Countries is increasing, partly as a result of exposure to elevated concentrations of toxic environmental chemicals. However, characterization of the levels, composition pattern and sources of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in environmental samples from African cities is still lacking. This study measured the PAHs, oxygenated-PAHs (OPAHs) and azaarene (AZAs) content of street dusts collected from Kumasi, Ghana (a major metropolis located in the tropical forest zone of West Africa). The ∑Alkyl+parent-PAHs, ∑OPAHs and ∑AZAs concentration in street dust averaged 2570 ng g(-1) (range: 181-7600 ng g(-1)), 833 ng g(-1) (57-4200 ng g(-1)) and 73 ng g(-1) (3.3-240 ng g(-1)), respectively. The concentrations of ∑Alkyl+parent-PAHs were strongly correlated (n=25) with ∑OPAHs (r=0.96, p10(-6) indicating high risk of contracting cancer from exposure to street dust from Kumasi. The contribution of OPAHs, AZAs, and alkyl-PAHs in street dust to cancer risk could not be quantified because of lack of toxicity equivalency factors for these compounds; however this could be significant because of their high concentration and known higher toxicity of some polar PACs and alkyl-PAHs than their related parent-PAHs.

  8. Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and azaarenes in urban soils: a comparison of a tropical city (Bangkok) with two temperate cities (Bratislava and Gothenburg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Lueso, María Gómez; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    Environmental conditions in the tropics favor the formation of polar polycyclic aromatic compound (polar PACs, such as oxygenated PAHs [OPAHs] and azaarenes [AZAs]), but little is known about these hazardous compounds in tropical soils. The objectives of this work were to determine (i) the level of contamination of soils (0-5 and 5-10 cm layers) from the tropical metropolis of Bangkok (Thailand) with OPAHs and AZAs and (ii) the influence of urban emission sources and soil properties on the distribution of PACs. We hypothesized that the higher solar insolation and microbial activity in the tropics than in the temperate zone will lead to enhanced secondary formation of OPAHs. Hence, OPAH to related parent-PAH ratios will be higher in the tropical soils of Bangkok than in temperate soils of Bratislava and Gothenburg. The concentrations of ∑15OPAHs (range: 12-269 ng g(-1)) and ∑4AZAs (0.1-31 ng g(-1)) measured in soils of Bangkok were lower than those in several cities of the industrialized temperate zone. The ∑15OPAHs (r=0.86, pBangkok were mostly higher than those of Bratislava and Gothenburg (e.g. 9-fluorenone/fluorene concentration ratio was 12.2 ± 6.7, 5.6 ± 2.4, and 0.7 ± 02 in Bangkok, Bratislava and Gothenburg soils, respectively) supporting the view that tropical environmental conditions and higher microbial activity likely lead to higher OPAH to parent-PAH ratios in tropical than in temperate soils.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives (alkyl-PAHs, oxygenated-PAHs, nitrated-PAHs and azaarenes) in urban road dusts from Xi'an, Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chong; Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Han, Yongming; Cao, Junji; Zhan, Changlin; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2015-09-01

    Urban road dusts are carriers of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) and are therefore considered to be a major source of contamination of other environmental compartments and a source of exposure to PACs for urban populations. We determined the occurrence, composition pattern and sources of several PACs (29 alkyl- and parent-PAHs, 15 oxygenated-PAHs (OPAHs), 4 azaarenes (AZAs), and 11 nitrated-PAHs (NPAHs)) in twenty urban road dusts and six suburban surface soils (0-5cm) from Xi'an, central China. The average concentrations of ∑29PAHs, ∑4AZAs, ∑15OPAHs, and ∑11NPAHs were 15767, 673, 4754, and 885 n gg(-1) in road dusts and 2067, 784, 854, and 118 ng g(-1) in surface soils, respectively. The concentrations of most individual PACs were higher in street dusts than suburban soils, particularly for PACs with molecular weight>192 g mol(-1). The enrichment factors of individual PACs were significantly positively correlated with log KOA and log KOW, indicating an increasing deposition and co-sorption of the PACs in urban dusts with decreasing volatility and increasing hydrophobicity. Significant correlations between the concentrations of individual and sum of PACs, carbon fractions (soot and char), and source-characteristic PACs (combustion-derived PAHs and retene, etc.), indicated that PAHs, OPAHs and AZAs were mostly directly emitted from combustion activities and had similar post-emission fates, but NPAHs were possibly more intensely photolyzed after deposition as well as being emitted from vehicle exhaust sources. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) resulting from exposure to urban dust bound-PACs was higher than 10(-6), indicating a non-negligible cancer risk to residents of Xi'an.

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives (oxygenated-PAHs, nitrated-PAHs and azaarenes) in size-fractionated particles emitted in an urban road tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, C. A.; Vicente, A. M. P.; Gomes, J.; Nunes, T.; Duarte, M.; Bandowe, B. A. M.

    2016-11-01

    A sampling campaign of size segregated particulate matter (PM0.5, PM0.5-1, PM1-2.5 and PM2.5-10) was carried out at two sites, one in a road tunnel (Braga, Portugal) and another at an urban background location in the neighbourhood. Particle-bound polycyclic aromatic compounds were extracted with organic solvents and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Twenty six parent and alkyl-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 4 azaarenes (AZAs), 15 nitrated and 15 oxygenated derivatives (NPAHs and OPAHs) were analysed. On average, submicron particles (PM1) in the tunnel comprised 93, 91, 96 and 71% of the total PAHs, OPAHs, NPAHs and AZAs mass in PM10, respectively. Tunnel to outdoor PAH concentration ratios between 10 and 14 reveal the strong contribution of fresh exhaust emissions to the PM loads. The dominant PAHs in the tunnel were pyrene, retene and benzo[ghi]perylene, accounting for 20, 17 and 8% of the total PAH levels in PM10, respectively. Isomer ratios indicated the importance of unburnt fuel as a significant PAH source. The only NPAH consistently present in all samples was 5-nitroacenaphthene. Indanone and 1,8-naphthalic anhydride were the most abundant OPAHs, accounting for 25 and 17% of the total concentrations of this organic class, respectively. Other abundant OPAHs were 1,4-naphthoquinone, 9-fluorenone, 1,2-acenaphthylenequinone and 7H-benz[de]anthracene-7-one. Individual emission factors (μg veh- 1 km- 1) were estimated and compared with those obtained in other tunnel studies.

  11. Synergistic catalysis: highly diastereoselective benzoxazole addition to Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceban, Victor; Putaj, Piotr; Meazza, Marta; Pitak, Mateusz B; Coles, Simon J; Vesely, Jan; Rios, Ramon

    2014-07-18

    An expedited method has been developed for the diastereoselective synthesis of highly functionalized alkyl-azaarene systems with good yields and high diastereoselectivities (>15 : 1 dr). The methodology includes a synergistic catalysis event involving organometallic (10 mol% AgOAc) activation of an alkyl azaarene and Lewis base (10 mol% DABCO) activation of a Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonate. The structure and relative configuration of a representative product were confirmed by X-ray analysis.

  12. Microbial conversions of nitrogenous heterocycles

    OpenAIRE

    Parshikov, Igor A

    2015-01-01

    The monography describes examples of the application of microbial technologies for obtaining of derivatives from a series of nitrogen heterocycles (saturated nitrogen heterocycles, azaarenes and quinolones). It is proposed alternative ways for synthesize substances that are difficult to obtain by the methods of organic chemistry. Microbial technologies of synthesis of organic compounds may find out a practical application in the production of various drugs.

  13. Effects of polycyclic aromatic compounds in fine particulate matter generated from household coal combustion on response to EGFR mutations in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kin-Fai; Chang, Chih-Cheng; Tian, Linwei; Chan, Chi-Sing; Musa Bandowe, Benjamin A; Lui, Ka-Hei; Lee, Kang-Yun; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Liu, Chien-Ying; Ning, Zhi; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2016-11-01

    Induction of PM2.5-associated lung cancer in response to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI) remains unclear. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their polar derivatives (oxygenated PAHs: OPAHs and azaarenes: AZAs) were characterized in fine particulates (PM2.5) emitted from indoor coal combustion. Samples were collected in Xuanwei (Yunnan Province), a region in China with a high rate of lung cancer. Human lung adenocarcinoma cells A549 (with wild-type EGFR) and HCC827 (with EGFR mutation) were exposed to the PM2.5, followed by treatment with EGFR-TKI. Two samples showed significant and dose-dependent reduction in the cell viability in A549. EGFR-TKI further demonstrated significantly decreased in cell viability in A549 after exposure to the coal emissions. Chrysene and triphenylene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, benzo[ghi]perylene, azaarenes and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (carbonyl-OPAHs) were all associated with EGFR-TKI-dependent reduced cell viability after 72-h exposure to the PM2.5. The findings suggest the coal emissions could influence the response of EGFR-TKI in lung cancer cells in Xuanwei.

  14. Separation and structure elucidation of coal molecule fragments. Final report, February 1, 1976-August 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, R V; Jorgenson, J W; Maskarinec, M P; Kump, R L; Marli, F; Novotny, M; Todd, L J

    1980-01-01

    Separation and identification of the polynuclear aromatic and aliphatic fractions of solvent-refined coal and its recycle oil were performed using a combination of solvent partition and chromatographic fractionation procedures with glass-capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Chromatographic profiles were generated for each fraction and some semiquantitative data were also obtained. In total, 146 polynuclear aromatic components of SRC were tentatively identified by their molecular weights, as indicated by the mass spectra of the gas chromatography peaks. In addition, wherever possible, specific isomers have been indicated, based on comparison of spectral characteristics and retention data. Separation and identification of nitrogen-containing aromatics of the recycle oil of SRC was accomplished with a combination solvent partition and capillary gas chromatography with deactivated glass columns. High-precision retention measurements of known pyridine and quinoline derivatives are reported, utilizing parent aza-arenes as retention standards. Both precisely measured retention data and mass spectral information combined lead to positive identification of some compounds in SRC samples. A total of 48 two-membered or three-membered aza-arenes have been tentatively identified in the recycle oil.

  15. Cancer risk from polycyclic aromatic compounds in fine particulate matter generated from household coal combustion in Xuanwei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, K H; Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Tian, Linwei; Chan, Chi-Sing; Cao, Jun-Ji; Ning, Zhi; Lee, S C; Ho, K F

    2017-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their polar derivatives (oxygenated PAHs: OPAHs and azaarenes: AZAs) were characterized in fine particulates (PM2.5) emitted from indoor coal combustion. Samples were collected in Xuanwei (Yunnan Province), a region in China with a high rate of lung cancer. A sample from the community with the highest mortality contained the highest total concentration of PAHs, OPAHs and AZAs and posed the highest excess cancer risk from a lifetime of inhaling fine particulates. Positive correlations between total carbonyl-OPAHs, total AZAs and total PAHs implied that the emissions were dependent on similar factors, regardless of sample location and type. The calculated cancer risk ranged from 5.23-10.7 × 10(-3), which is higher than the national average. The risk in each sample was ∼1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that deemed high risk, suggesting that the safety of these households is in jeopardy. The lack of potency equivalency factors for the PAH derivatives could possibly have underestimated the overall cancer risk.

  16. Development of analytical procedures for coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogh, J.W.; Anderson, R.P.

    1990-05-01

    Maya crude residue and Illinois No. 6 coal have been processed together over a range of reactant ratios to produce material for study of the product composition and of the coprocessing chemistry. The reaction conditions have been described in previous reports. Acid fractions have been derivatized to produce {sup 13}C tagged products suitable for NMR analysis. The acids have been identified as phenols and other oxygen acids, nitrogen acids including carbazoles, and benzylic and sulfur acids. All of the acid fractions appear to be essentially monofunctional. Base fractions were analyzed by nonaqueous titration and were shown to consist of azaarenes and arylamines. Two of the distillates boiling below 175{degrees}C were analyzed by PIANO capillary gas chromatography. Maya crude petroleum fractions similar to those obtained from coprocessing products have been analyzed for carbon isotope ratios. These fractions were prepared directly from the Maya crude without application of hydrogenation or other processing chemistry. Trends indicating isotopic fractionation coprocessing to that reported earlier for coprocessing products were observed. 14 figs., 13 tabs.

  17. Identification of sulfur heterocycles in coal liquids and shale oils. Technical progress report, August 1, 1980-May 1, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M. L.; Castle, R. N.

    1981-01-01

    The sulfur heterocycle separation scheme which was described in the last progress report was evaluated for quantitative recovery of individual components. The results indicate that recoveries can range from 10% to approx. 30% depending on the structure of the compound. During this period, 23 unsubstituted sulfur-containing heterocyclic ring systems were synthesized in oder to confirm GC/MS identifications and for biological testing. The four possible 3-ring heterocycles and the thirteen possible 4-ring heterocycles were tested for mutagenic activity in the histidine reversion (Ames assay) system. One of the 3-ring isomers, naphtho(1,2-b)-thiophene, and six of the 4-ring isomers induced mutations in Salmonella test strains. One of these compounds, phenanthro(3,4-b)thiophene, displayed approximately the same mutagenic activity as benzo(a)pyrene. A two-step adsorption chromatographic procedure was developed in order to fractionate synthetic fuels into various chemical-type classes for studying the relative concentrations and mutagenic activities of the various types. An SRC-II Heavy Distillate was fractionated into aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, sulfur heterocycles, indoles and carbazoles, azaarenes, and amino polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. It was found that the amino-PAH fraction contained most of the mutagenic activity. A survey was made for compounds containing both nitrogen and sulfur heteroatoms in their structures. A number of these compounds were detected by GC using nitrogen- and sulfur-selective detection.

  18. Mutagenicity of nitrogen compounds from synthetic crude oils: collection, separation and biological testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, T K; Epler, J L; Guerin, M R; Clark, B R; Ho, C H

    1980-01-01

    In order to determine the long range health effects such as carcinogenicity/mutagenicity/teratogenicity/toxicity, associated with the newly emerging energy technologies, we have utilized the Ames Salmonella assay to evaluate mutagenic properties of synthetic fuels. Coupling with class fractionation was necessary. Organic extraction and liquid/liquid partitioning was used to separate acidic and basic fraction. The neutral material was separated using Sephadex LH-20 gel filtration into saturated and aromatic fractions of various ring sizes. The alkaline fraction was subfractionated eluting with benzene and ethanol on a basic alumina column and then with isopropanol and acetone using a Sephadex LH-20 gel column. The frameshift strain TA-98 was utilized along with Aroclor-induced rat liver homogenate (S-9 mix) for the mutagenicity assay. The natural crude oils were slightly mutagenic, the polynucleararomatics constituting the activity, while the coal-derived fuels indicated mutagenicity associated with alkaline constituents as well as polyaromatics. Hydrotreated coal (H-coal, HDT) or Shale (Paraho-Shale oil, HDT) derived fuels were not mutagenic. Ninety percent of the mutagenic activity in alkaline fraction was recovered in the acetone subfraction. High resolution spectroscopy of this fraction indicates polycyclic aromatic primary amines along with azaarenes as organic constituents responsible for the mutagenic activity associated with shale- and coal-derived fuels.

  19. Quantifying the impact of residential heating on the urban air quality in a typical European coal combustion region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junninen, Heikki; Mønster, Jacob; Rey, Maria; Cancelinha, Jose; Douglas, Kevin; Duane, Matthew; Forcina, Victtorio; Müller, Anne; Lagler, Fritz; Marelli, Luisa; Borowiak, Annette; Niedzialek, Joanna; Paradiz, Bostian; Mira-Salama, Daniel; Jimenez, Jose; Hansen, Ute; Astorga, Covadonga; Stanczyk, Krzysztof; Viana, Mar; Querol, Xavier; Duvall, Rachelle M; Norris, Gary A; Tsakovski, Stefan; Wåhlin, Peter; Horák, Jiri; Larsen, Bo R

    2009-10-15

    The present investigation, carried out as a case study in a typical major city situated in a European coal combustion region (Krakow, Poland), aims at quantifying the impact on the urban air quality of residential heating by coal combustion in comparison with other potential pollution sources such as power plants, industry, and traffic. Emissions were measured for 20 major sources, including small stoves and boilers, and the particulate matter (PM) was analyzed for 52 individual compounds together with outdoor and indoor PM10 collected during typical winter pollution episodes. The data were analyzed using chemical mass balance modeling (CMB) and constrained positive matrix factorization (CMF) yielding source apportionments for PM10, B(a)P, and other regulated air pollutants namely Cd, Ni, As, and Pb. The results are potentially very useful for planning abatement strategies in all areas of the world, where coal combustion in small appliances is significant. During the studied pollution episodes in Krakow, European air quality limits were exceeded with up to a factor 8 for PM10 and up to a factor 200 for B(a)P. The levels of these air pollutants were accompanied by high concentrations of azaarenes, known markers for inefficient coal combustion. The major culprit for the extreme pollution levels was demonstrated to be residential heating by coal combustion in small stoves and boilers (>50% for PM10 and >90% B(a)P), whereas road transport (<10% for PM10 and <3% for B(a)P), and industry (4-15% for PM10 and <6% for B(a)P) played a lesser role. The indoor PM10 and B(a)P concentrations were at high levels similar to those of outdoor concentrations and were found to have the same sources as outdoors. The inorganic secondary aerosol component of PM10 amounted to around 30%, which for a large part may be attributed to the industrial emission of the precursors SO2 and NOx.