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Sample records for aza cope rearrangement

  1. Aza Cope Rearrangement of Propargyl Enammonium Cations Catalyzed By a Self-Assembled `Nanozyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastings, Courntey J.; Fiedler, Dorothea; Bergman, Robert G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2008-02-27

    The tetrahedral [Ga{sub 4}L{sub 6}]{sup 12-} assembly (L = N,N-bis(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-1,5-diaminonaphthalene) encapsulates a variety of cations, including propargyl enammonium cations capable of undergoing the aza Cope rearrangement. For propargyl enammonium substrates that are encapsulated in the [Ga{sub 4}L{sub 6}]{sup 12-} assembly, rate accelerations of up to 184 are observed when compared to the background reaction. After rearrangement, the product iminium ion is released into solution and hydrolyzed allowing for catalytic turnover. The activation parameters for the catalyzed and uncatalyzed reaction were determined, revealing that a lowered entropy of activation is responsible for the observed rate enhancements. The catalyzed reaction exhibits saturation kinetics; the rate data obey the Michaelis-Menten model of enzyme kinetics, and competitive inhibition using a non-reactive guest has been demonstrated.

  2. Expedient synthesis of fused azepine derivatives using a sequential rhodium(II)-catalyzed cyclopropanation/1-aza-Cope rearrangement of dienyltriazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Erica E; Lindsay, Vincent N G; Sarpong, Richmond

    2014-09-08

    A general method for the formation of fused dihydroazepine derivatives from 1-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles bearing a tethered diene is reported. The process involves an intramolecular cyclopropanation of an α-imino rhodium(II) carbenoid, leading to a transient 1-imino-2-vinylcyclopropane intermediate which rapidly undergoes a 1-aza-Cope rearrangement to generate fused dihydroazepine derivatives in moderate to excellent yields. The reaction proceeds with similar efficiency on gram scale. The use of catalyst-free conditions leads to the formation of a novel [4.4.0] bicyclic heterocycle. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Enantioselective catalytic fluorinative aza-semipinacol rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov-Michailidis, Fedor; Pupier, Marion; Besnard, Céline; Bürgi, Thomas; Alexakis, Alexandre

    2014-10-03

    An efficient and highly stereoselective fluorinative aza-semipinacol rearrangement is described. The catalytic reaction requires use of Selectfluor in combination with the chiral, enantiopure phosphate anion derived from acid L3. Under optimized conditions, cyclopropylamines A were transformed into β-fluoro cyclobutylimines B in good yields and high levels of diastereo- and enantiocontrol. Furthermore, the optically active cyclobutylimines were reduced diastereoselectively with L-Selectride in the corresponding fluorinated amines C, compounds of significant interest in the pharmacological industry.

  4. An Efficient Synthesis of de novo Imidates via Aza-Claisen Rearrangements of N-Allyl Ynamides

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKorver, Kyle A.; North, Troy D.; Hsung, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    A novel thermal 3-aza-Claisen rearrangement of N-allyl ynamides for the synthesis of α-allyl imidates is described. Also, a sequential aza-Claisen, Pd-catalyzed Overman rearrangement is described for the synthesis of azapine-2-ones. PMID:21278848

  5. A Divergent Mechanistic Course of Pd(0)-Catalyzed Aza-Claisen Rearrangement and Aza-Rautenstrauch-Type Cyclization of N-Allyl-Ynamides

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKorver, Kyle A.; Hsung, Richard P.; Lohse, Andrew G.; Zhang, Yu

    2010-01-01

    A fascinating mechanistic study of ynamido-palladium-π-allyl complexes is described that features isolation of a unique silyl-ketenimine via aza-Claisen rearrangement, which can be accompanied by an unusual thermal N-to-C 1,3-Ts shift in the formation of tertiary nitriles, and a novel cyclopentenimine formation via a palladium catalyzed aza-Rautenstrauch-type cyclization pathway. PMID:20337418

  6. A stereoselective synthesis of (+)-physoperuvine using a tandem aza-Claisen rearrangement and ring closing metathesis reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaed, Ahmed M; Swift, Michael D; Sutherland, Andrew

    2009-07-07

    A stereoselective synthesis of (+)-physoperuvine, a tropane alkaloid from Physalis peruviana Linne has been developed using a one-pot tandem aza-Claisen rearrangement and ring closing metathesis reaction to form the key amino-substituted cycloheptene ring.

  7. Carbocyclization cascades of allyl ketenimines via aza-Claisen rearrangements of N-phosphoryl-N-allyl-ynamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKorver, Kyle A; Wang, Xiao-Na; Walton, Mary C; Hsung, Richard P

    2012-04-06

    A series of carbocyclization cascades of allyl ketenimines initiated through a thermal aza-Claisen rearrangement of N-phosphoryl-N-allyl ynamides is described. Interceptions of the cationic intermediate via Meerwein-Wagner rearrangements and polyene-type cyclizations en route to fused bi- and tricyclic frameworks are featured.

  8. Molecular Rearrangement of an Aza-Scorpiand Macrocycle Induced by pH: A Computational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Vicente De Julián-Ortiz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Rearrangements and their control are a hot topic in supramolecular chemistry due to the possibilities that these phenomena open in the design of synthetic receptors and molecular machines. Macrocycle aza-scorpiands constitute an interesting system that can reorganize their spatial structure depending on pH variations or the presence of metal cations. In this study, the relative stabilities of these conformations were predicted computationally by semi-empirical and density functional theory approximations, and the reorganization from closed to open conformations was simulated by using the Monte Carlo multiple minimum method.

  9. Claisen, Cope and Related Rearrangements in the Synthesis of Flavour and Fragrance Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Nowicki

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available A review of the use of the Claisen, Cope and related [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangements, sequential ("tandem" sigmatropic rearrangements and the "ene" reaction in the syntheses of flavour and fragrance compounds is presented.

  10. Synthesis of fused tricyclic systems by thermal Cope rearrangement of furan-substituted vinyl cyclopropanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Verena; Wittmann, Stéphane; Senn, Hans M; Clark, J Stephen

    2018-05-15

    A novel method for the stereoselective construction of hexahydroazuleno[4,5-b]furans from simple precursors has been developed. The route involves the use of our recently developed Brønsted acid catalysed cyclisation reaction of acyclic ynenones to prepare fused 1-furanyl-2-alkenylcyclopropanes that undergo highly stereoselective thermal Cope rearrangement to produce fused tricyclic products. Substrates possessing an E-alkene undergo smooth Cope rearrangement at 40 °C, whereas the corresponding Z-isomers do not react at this temperature. Computational studies have been performed to explain the difference in behaviour of the E- and Z-isomers in the Cope rearrangement reaction. The hexahydroazuleno[4,5-b]furans produced by Cope rearrangement have potential as advanced intermediates for the synthesis of members of the guaianolide family of natural products.

  11. Development of a General Aza-Cope Reaction Trigger Applied to Fluorescence Imaging of Formaldehyde in Living Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, Kevin J; Walvoord, Ryan R; Brewer, Thomas F; Burgos-Barragan, Guillermo; Wit, Niek; Pontel, Lucas B; Patel, Ketan J; Chang, Christopher J

    2017-04-19

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a reactive signaling molecule that is continuously produced through a number of central biological pathways spanning epigenetics to one-carbon metabolism. On the other hand, aberrant, elevated levels of FA are implicated in disease states ranging from asthma to neurodegenerative disorders. In this context, fluorescence-based probes for FA imaging are emerging as potentially powerful chemical tools to help disentangle the complexities of FA homeostasis and its physiological and pathological contributions. Currently available FA indicators require direct modification of the fluorophore backbone through complex synthetic considerations to enable FA detection, often limiting the generalization of designs to other fluorophore classes. To address this challenge, we now present the rational, iterative development of a general reaction-based trigger utilizing 2-aza-Cope reactivity for selective and sensitive detection of FA in living systems. Specifically, we developed a homoallylamine functionality that can undergo a subsequent self-immolative β-elimination, creating a FA-responsive trigger that is capable of masking a phenol on a fluorophore or any other potential chemical scaffold for related imaging and/or therapeutic applications. We demonstrate the utility of this trigger by creating a series of fluorescent probes for FA with excitation and emission wavelengths that span the UV to visible spectral regions through caging of a variety of dye units. In particular, Formaldehyde Probe 573 (FAP573), based on a resorufin scaffold, is the most red-shifted and FA sensitive in this series in terms of signal-to-noise responses and enables identification of alcohol dehydrogenase 5 (ADH5) as an enzyme that regulates FA metabolism in living cells. The results provide a starting point for the broader use of 2-aza-Cope reactivity for probing and manipulating FA biology.

  12. Design, development, mechanistic elucidation, and rational optimization of a tandem Ireland Claisen/Cope rearrangement reaction for rapid access to the (iso)cyclocitrinol core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Christopher W; Wei, Carolyn S; Yozwiak, Carrie E; Soheili, Arash; Smithback, Sara O; Leighton, James L

    2014-07-16

    An approach to the synthesis of the (iso)cyclocitrinol core structure is described. The key step is a tandem Ireland Claisen/Cope rearrangement sequence, wherein the Ireland Claisen rearrangement effects ring contraction to a strained 10-membered ring, and that strain in turn drives the Cope rearrangement under unusually mild thermal conditions. A major side product was identified as resulting from an unexpected and remarkably facile [1,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement, and a tactic to disfavor the [1,3] pathway and increase the efficiency of the tandem reaction was rationally devised.

  13. Enantioselective γ-Alkylation of α,β-Unsaturated Malonates and Ketoesters by a Sequential Ir-Catalyzed Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation/Cope Rearrangement

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Wen-Bo; Okamoto, Noriko; Alexy, Eric J.; Hong, Allen Y.; Tran, Kristy; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2016-01-01

    A catalytic, enantioselective ? -alkylation of ?,?-unsaturated malonates and ketoesters is reported. This strategy entails a highly regio- and enantioselective iridium-catalyzed ?-alkylation of an extended enolate, and a subsequent translocation of chirality to the ?-position via a Cope rearrangement.

  14. Cascade Wittig reaction-double Claisen and Cope rearrangements: one-pot synthesis of diprenylated coumarins gravelliferone, balsamiferone, and 6,8-diprenylumbelliferone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Patre, R.E.; Shet, J.B.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Tilve, S.G.

    A cascade Wittig reaction-double Claisen and Cope rearrangements has been employed for a one-pot synthesis of diprenylated coumarins gravelliferone, balsamiferone, and 6,8-diprenylumbelliferone from a common precursor 2,4-diprenyloxybenzaldehyde...

  15. Are boat transition states likely to occur in Cope rearrangements? A DFT study of the biogenesis of germacranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Enrique Barquera-Lozada

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that elemanes are biogenetically formed from germacranes by Cope sigmatropic rearrangements. Normally, this reaction proceeds through a transition state with a chair conformation. However, the transformation of schkuhriolide (germacrane into elemanschkuhriolide (elemane may occur through a boat transition state due to the final configuration of the elemanschkuhriolide, but this transition state is questionable due to its high energy. The possible mechanisms of this transformation were studied in the density functional theory frame. The mechanistic differences between the transformation of (Z,E-germacranes and (E,E-germacranes were also studied. We found that (Z,E-germacranolides are significantly more stable than (E,E-germacranolides and elemanolides. In the specific case of schkuhriolide, even when the boat transition state is not energetically favored, a previous hemiacetalization lowers enough the energetic barrier to allow the formation of a very stable elemanolide that is even more stable than its (Z,E-germacrane.

  16. Optimal control of a Cope rearrangement by coupling the reaction path to a dissipative bath or a second active mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenel, A.; Meier, C.; Dive, G.; Desouter-Lecomte, M.

    2015-01-01

    We compare the strategy found by the optimal control theory in a complex molecular system according to the active subspace coupled to the field. The model is the isomerization during a Cope rearrangement of Thiele’s ester that is the most stable dimer obtained by the dimerization of methyl-cyclopentadienenylcarboxylate. The crudest partitioning consists in retaining in the active space only the reaction coordinate, coupled to a dissipative bath of harmonic oscillators which are not coupled to the field. The control then fights against dissipation by accelerating the passage across the transition region which is very wide and flat in a Cope reaction. This mechanism has been observed in our previous simulations [Chenel et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 11273 (2012)]. We compare here, the response of the control field when the reaction path is coupled to a second active mode. Constraints on the integrated intensity and on the maximum amplitude of the fields are imposed limiting the control landscape. Then, optimum field from one-dimensional simulation cannot provide a very high yield. Better guess fields based on the two-dimensional model allow the control to exploit different mechanisms providing a high control yield. By coupling the reaction surface to a bath, we confirm the link between the robustness of the field against dissipation and the time spent in the delocalized states above the transition barrier

  17. Rearrangements of Cycloalkenyl Aryl Ethers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedesz Törincsi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rearrangement reactions of cycloalkenyl phenol and naphthyl ethers and the acid-catalyzed cyclization of the resulting product were investigated. Claisen rearrangement afforded 2-substituted phenol and naphthol derivatives. Combined Claisen and Cope rearrangement resulted in the formation of 4-substituted phenol and naphthol derivatives. In the case of cycloocthylphenyl ether the consecutive Claisen and Cope rearrangements were followed by an alkyl migration. The mechanism of this novel rearrangement reaction is also discussed.

  18. Organocatalytic aza-Michael/retro-aza-Michael reaction: pronounced chirality amplification in aza-Michael reaction and racemization via retro-aza-Michael reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yong-Feng; Li, Li; Luo, Meng-Xian; Yang, Ke-Fang; Lai, Guo-Qiao; Jiang, Jian-Xiong; Xu, Li-Wen

    2011-05-01

    A detailed experimental investigation of an aza-Michael reaction of aniline and chalcone is presented. A series of Cinchona alkaloid-derived organocatalysts with different functional groups were prepared and used in the aza-Michael and retro-aza-Michael reaction. There was an interesting finding that a complete reversal of stereoselectivity when a benzoyl group was introduced to the cinchonine and cinchonidine. The chirality amplification vs. time proceeds in the quinine-derived organocatalyst containing silicon-based bulky group, QN-TBS, -catalyzed aza-Michael reaction under solvent-free conditions. In addition, we have demonstrated for the first time that racemization was occurred in suitable solvents under mild conditions due to retro-aza-Michael reaction of the Michael adduct of aniline with chalcone. These indicate the equilibrium of retro-aza-Michael reaction and aza-Michael reaction produce the happening of chirality amplification in aza-Michael reaction and racemization via retro-aza-Michael reaction under different conditions, which would be beneficial to the development of novel chiral catalysts for the aza-Michael reactions. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. [Manuel Azaña and psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrés, Javier; Llavona, Rafael

    2010-08-01

    Manuel Azaña (1880-1940) was President of the II Spanish Republic and one of the most influential intellectuals of the Republican culture. His doctoral thesis addressed some of the social psychology problems of his time regarding the issue of the legal responsibility of the masses. Azaña also showed interest in psychology during his time as a grantee in Paris and he became a close friend of two of the most influential Spanish psychologists: Luis Simarro y Gonzalo Rodríguez Lafora. Azaña's biography reflects the rise of Spanish psychologists of the early 20th century and their tragic dispersion at the end of the Spanish Civil War.

  20. Catalytic Wittig and aza-Wittig reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqi Lao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This review surveys the literature regarding the development of catalytic versions of the Wittig and aza-Wittig reactions. The first section summarizes how arsenic and tellurium-based catalytic Wittig-type reaction systems were developed first due to the relatively easy reduction of the oxides involved. This is followed by a presentation of the current state of the art regarding phosphine-catalyzed Wittig reactions. The second section covers the field of related catalytic aza-Wittig reactions that are catalyzed by both phosphine oxides and phosphines.

  1. Aza-Michael reaction: achievements and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rulev, Alexander Yu

    2011-01-01

    Data published in the last 10 years on the use of the aza-Michael reaction in organic synthesis are described systematically. The attention is focused on environmentally friendly processes following green chemistry principles and on methods for the synthesis of compounds that are difficult to access by other routes.

  2. Molecular rearrangements of superelectrophiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas A. Klumpp

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Superelectrophiles are multiply charged cationic species (dications, trications, etc. which are characterized by their reactions with weak nucleophiles. These reactive intermediates may also undergo a wide variety of rearrangement-type reactions. Superelectrophilic rearrangements are often driven by charge–charge repulsive effects, as these densely charged ions react so as to maximize the distances between charge centers. These rearrangements involve reaction steps similar to monocationic rearrangements, such as alkyl group shifts, Wagner–Meerwein shifts, hydride shifts, ring opening reactions, and other skeletal rearrangements. This review will describe these types of superelectrophilic reactions.

  3. Catalytic Asymmetric Piancatelli Rearrangement: Brønsted Acid Catalyzed 4π Electrocyclization for the Synthesis of Multisubstituted Cyclopentenones

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Yunfei

    2016-10-13

    The first catalytic asymmetric Piancatelli reaction is reported. Catalyzed by a chiral Brønsted acid, the rearrangement of a wide range of furylcarbinols with a series of aniline derivatives provides valuable aminocyclopentenones in high yields as well as excellent enantioselectivities and diastereoselectivities. The high value of the aza-Piancatelli rearrangement was demonstrated by the synthesis of a cyclopentane-based hNK1 antagonist analogue.

  4. Degradations and Rearrangement Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianbo

    This section deals with recent reports concerning degradation and rearrangement reactions of free sugars as well as some glycosides. The transformations are classified in chemical and enzymatic ways. In addition, the Maillard reaction will be discussed as an example of degradation and rearrangement transformation and its application in current research in the fields of chemistry and biology.

  5. 5-AZA-2'-DEOXYCYTIDINE INDUCED CYTOTOXICITY AND LONG BONE REDUCTION DEFECTS IN THE MURINE LIMB

    Science.gov (United States)

    The antineoplastic drug 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (dAZA) is a DNA hypomethylating agent that can be used to induce hind limb phocomelia in the offspring of CD-1 Swiss Webster mice. Previously, our laboratory investigated the possibility that dAZA induced alterations in gene express...

  6. Aza-Michael Reaction for an Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Manisha; Rush, Brittney; Patel, Jay; Castillo, Raul; Dhar, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    A green, aza-Michael reaction is described that can be used to teach undergraduate students conjugate addition of nitrogen nucleophile to an a,ß-unsaturated ester. Students analyze spectral data of the product obtained from the assigned reaction to determine product structure and propose the mechanism of its formation. The experiment requires…

  7. Rearrangements in ground and excited states

    CERN Document Server

    de Mayo, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Rearrangements in Ground and Excited States, Volume 3 presents essays on the chemical generation of excited states; the cis-trans isomerization of olefins; and the photochemical rearrangements in trienes. The book also includes essays on the zimmerman rearrangements; the photochemical rearrangements of enones; the photochemical rearrangements of conjugated cyclic dienones; and the rearrangements of the benzene ring. Essays on the photo rearrangements via biradicals of simple carbonyl compounds; the photochemical rearrangements involving three-membered rings or five-membered ring heterocycles;

  8. Rearrangements in ground and excited states

    CERN Document Server

    de Mayo, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Rearrangements in Ground and Excited States, Volume 2 covers essays on the theoretical approach of rearrangements; the rearrangements involving boron; and the molecular rearrangements of organosilicon compounds. The book also includes essays on the polytopal rearrangement at phosphorus; the rearrangement in coordination complexes; and the reversible thermal intramolecular rearrangements of metal carbonyls. Chemists and people involved in the study of rearrangements will find the book invaluable.

  9. The Development of an Aza-C-Glycoside Library Based on a Tandem Staudinger/Aza-Wittig/Ugi Three-Component Reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wennekes, T.; Bonger, K.M.; Vogel, K.; Berg, van den S.A.; Strijland, A.; Donker-Koopman, W.E.; Aerts, J.; Marel, van der A.; Overkleeft, H.S.

    2012-01-01

    We report the tandem Staudinger/aza-Wittig/Ugi three-component reaction mediated synthesis of a 64-member compound library of aza-C-glycosides. The library is composed of four pyrrolidine and three piperidine scaffolds, onto which a number of functional groups is grafted to form seven sublibraries.

  10. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine synergistic action with thymidine on leukemic cells and interaction of 5-aza-dCMP with dCMP deaminase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momparler, R.L.; Bartolucci, S.; Bouchard, J.; Momparler, L.F.; Raia, C.A.; Rossi, M.

    1986-01-01

    The authors observe a synergistic antineoplastic effect between 5-AZA-dCR and dTR on leukemia cells in culture. In order to understand the mechanism behind this interaction the authors investigate the effects of dTTP on the deamination of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine-5'-monophosphate (5-AZA-dCMP) by dCMP deaminase. The effects of 5-AZA-dCTP on this enzyme is also studied. The incorporation of tritium-5-AZA-Cdr into DNA of leukemic cells was performed. The amount of radioactivity incorproated into DNA was determined by trapping the cells on GF/C glass fiber filters and washing with cold TCA. It is shown that the modulation of the atieoplastic activity of deoxycytidine analogs by allosteric effectors such as dTTP may have the potential to increase the effectiveness of the chemotherapy for acute leukemia

  11. CSA/AZA, in the absence of prednisone, improves linear growth in renal transplanted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David-Neto, E; Nahas, W; Sampaio, E C; Ianhez, L E; Sabbaga, E; Arap, S

    1992-01-01

    We compared the results of 44 renal transplants in children, of whom 24 were treated with CSA/AZA and 20 with prednisone in combination with AZA and/or CSA. There were no differences in age distribution or mean ages at transplant between the two treatment groups. The CSA/AZA group had a longer follow-up (29 +/- 33 vs 17 +/- 18 months). At the last follow-up, five children in the CSA/AZA and none in the prednisone group had lost their grafts. Serum creatinine increased in both groups from 0.7 +/- 0.1 mg/dl and 0.9 +/- 0.1 mg/dl at the end of the first month to 1.1 +/- 0.2 mg/dl in the 36th month (CSA/AZA group) (P renal transplant in children, but only 75% tolerated AZA/CSA without same damage to their grafts.

  12. Application of the aza-Diels-Alder reaction in the synthesis of natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Min-Hui; Green, Nicholas J; Xu, Sheng-Zhen

    2017-04-11

    The Diels-Alder reaction that involves a nitrogen atom in the diene or dienophile is termed the aza-Diels-Alder reaction. As well as the powerful all-carbon Diels-Alder reaction, the aza-Diels-Alder reaction has also played an important role in the total synthesis of natural products. Herein, we review various natural products using an aza-Diels-Alder reaction as a key step to their total synthesis, and divide the syntheses into inter- and intra-molecular aza-Diels-Alder reactions and a retro-aza-Diels-Alder reaction. Inter- and intra-molecular aza-Diels-Alder reactions involve an imine as an electron deficient dienophile and an imine as an electron deficient azadiene. The significance of the aza-Diels-Alder reaction for the construction of a six-membered ring containing nitrogen is tremendous, but the development of asymmetric, in particular catalytic enantioselective intramolecular aza-Diels-Alder reaction in the total synthesis of natural products remains highly challenging, and will no doubt see enormous advances in the future.

  13. Claisen thermally rearranged (CTR) polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena, Alberto; Rangou, Sofia; Shishatskiy, Sergey; Filiz, Volkan; Abetz, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Thermally rearranged (TR) polymers, which are considered the next-generation of membrane materials because of their excellent transport properties and high thermal and chemical stability, are proven to have significant drawbacks because of the high temperature required for the rearrangement and low degree of conversion during this process. We demonstrate that using a [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement, the temperature required for the rearrangement of a solid glassy polymer was reduced by 200°C. Conversions of functionalized polyimide to polybenzoxazole of more than 97% were achieved. These highly mechanically stable polymers were almost five times more permeable and had more than two times higher degrees of conversion than the reference polymer treated under the same conditions. Properties of these second-generation TR polymers provide the possibility of preparing efficient polymer membranes in a form of, for example, thin-film composite membranes for various gas and liquid membrane separation applications. PMID:27482538

  14. Radical Smiles Rearrangement: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Allart-Simon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the decades the Smiles rearrangement and its variants have become essential synthetic tools in modern synthetic organic chemistry. In this mini-review we summarized some very recent results of the radical version of these rearrangements. The selected examples illustrate the synthetic power of this approach, especially if it is incorporated into a domino process, for the preparation of polyfunctionalized complex molecules.

  15. Chromosomal rearrangements in Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Birgitte; Debes, Nanette Mol; Hjermind, Lena E

    2013-01-01

    , and identification of susceptibility genes through linkage and association studies has been complicated due to inherent difficulties such as no clear mode of inheritance, genetic heterogeneity, and apparently incomplete penetrance. Positional cloning through mapping of disease-related chromosome rearrangements has...... been an efficient tool for the cloning of disease genes in several Mendelian disorders and in a number of complex disorders. Through cytogenetic investigation of 205 TS patients, we identified three possibly disease-associated chromosome rearrangements rendering this approach relevant in chasing TS...

  16. The hardness of train rearrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggermont, C.E.J.; Hurkens, C.A.J.; Modelski, M.S.; Woeginger, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    We derive several results on the computational complexity of train rearrangement problems in railway optimization. Our main result states that arranging a departing train in a depot is NP-complete, even if each track in the depot contains only two cars.

  17. Biotransformation and Rearrangement of Laromustine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Alaa-Eldin F; Wisnewski, Adam V; King, Ivan

    2016-08-01

    This review highlights the recent research into the biotransformations and rearrangement of the sulfonylhydrazine-alkylating agent laromustine. Incubation of [(14)C]laromustine with rat, dog, monkey, and human liver microsomes produced eight radioactive components (C-1 to C-8). There was little difference in the metabolite profile among the species examined, partly because NADPH was not required for the formation of most components, which instead involved decomposition and/or hydrolysis. The exception was C-7, a hydroxylated metabolite, largely formed by CYP2B6 and CYP3A4/5. Liquid chromatography-multistage mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)) studies determined that collision-induced dissociation, and not biotransformation or enzyme catalysis, produced the unique mass spectral rearrangement. Accurate mass measurements performed with a Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FTICR-MS) significantly aided determination of the elemental compositions of the fragments and in the case of laromustine revealed the possibility of rearrangement. Further, collision-induced dissociation produced the loss of nitrogen (N2) and methylsulfonyl and methyl isocyanate moieties. The rearrangement, metabolite/decomposition products, and conjugation reactions were analyzed utilizing hydrogen-deuterium exchange, exact mass, (13)C-labeled laromustine, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), and LC-MS(n) experiments to assist with the assignments of these fragments and possible mechanistic rearrangement. Such techniques produced valuable insights into these functions: 1) Cytochrome P450 is involved in C-7 formation but plays little or no role in the conversion of [(14)C]laromustine to C-1 through C-6 and C-8; 2) the relative abundance of individual degradation/metabolite products was not species-dependent; and 3) laromustine produces several reactive intermediates that may produce the toxicities seen in the clinical trials. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for

  18. Examination of the Potential for Adaptive Chirality of the Nitrogen Chiral Center in Aza-Aspartame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir H. Bouayad-Gervais

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential for dynamic chirality of an azapeptide nitrogen was examined by substitution of nitrogen for the α-carbon of the aspartate residue in the sweetener S,S-aspartame. Considering that S,S- and R,S-aspartame possess sweet and bitter tastes, respectively, a bitter-sweet taste of aza-aspartame 9 could be indicative of a low isomerization barrier for nitrogen chirality inter-conversion. Aza-aspartame 9 was synthesized by a combination of hydrazine and peptide chemistry. Crystallization of 9 indicated a R,S-configuration in the solid state; however, the aza-residue chiral center was considerably flattened relative to its natural amino acid counterpart. On tasting, the authors considered aza-aspartame 9 to be slightly bitter or tasteless. The lack of bitter sweet taste of aza-aspartame 9 may be due to flattening from sp2 hybridization in the urea as well as a high barrier for sp3 nitrogen inter-conversion, both of which may interfere with recognition by taste receptors.

  19. Examination of the potential for adaptive chirality of the nitrogen chiral center in aza-aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouayad-Gervais, Samir H; Lubell, William D

    2013-11-28

    The potential for dynamic chirality of an azapeptide nitrogen was examined by substitution of nitrogen for the α-carbon of the aspartate residue in the sweetener S,S-aspartame. Considering that S,S- and R,S-aspartame possess sweet and bitter tastes, respectively, a bitter-sweet taste of aza-aspartame 9 could be indicative of a low isomerization barrier for nitrogen chirality inter-conversion. Aza-aspartame 9 was synthesized by a combination of hydrazine and peptide chemistry. Crystallization of 9 indicated a R,S-configuration in the solid state; however, the aza-residue chiral center was considerably flattened relative to its natural amino acid counterpart. On tasting, the authors considered aza-aspartame 9 to be slightly bitter or tasteless. The lack of bitter sweet taste of aza-aspartame 9 may be due to flattening from sp2 hybridization in the urea as well as a high barrier for sp3 nitrogen inter-conversion, both of which may interfere with recognition by taste receptors.

  20. Programmed Rearrangement in Ciliates: Paramecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betermier, Mireille; Duharcourt, Sandra

    2014-12-01

    Programmed genome rearrangements in the ciliate Paramecium provide a nice illustration of the impact of transposons on genome evolution and plasticity. During the sexual cycle, development of the somatic macronucleus involves elimination of ∼30% of the germline genome, including repeated DNA (e.g., transposons) and ∼45,000 single-copy internal eliminated sequences (IES). IES excision is a precise cut-and-close process, in which double-stranded DNA cleavage at IES ends depends on PiggyMac, a domesticated piggyBac transposase. Genome-wide analysis has revealed that at least a fraction of IESs originate from Tc/mariner transposons unrelated to piggyBac. Moreover, genomic sequences with no transposon origin, such as gene promoters, can be excised reproducibly as IESs, indicating that genome rearrangements contribute to the control of gene expression. How the system has evolved to allow elimination of DNA sequences with no recognizable conserved motif has been the subject of extensive research during the past two decades. Increasing evidence has accumulated for the participation of noncoding RNAs in epigenetic control of elimination for a subset of IESs, and in trans-generational inheritance of alternative rearrangement patterns. This chapter summarizes our current knowledge of the structure of the germline and somatic genomes for the model species Paramecium tetraurelia, and describes the DNA cleavage and repair factors that constitute the IES excision machinery. We present an overview of the role of specialized RNA interference machineries and their associated noncoding RNAs in the control of DNA elimination. Finally, we discuss how RNA-dependent modification and/or remodeling of chromatin may guide PiggyMac to its cognate cleavage sites.

  1. Thermal rearrangement of 7-methylbicyclo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender; Leber; Lirio; Smith

    2000-08-25

    The gas-phase thermal rearrangement of exo-7-methylbicyclo[3.2.0]hept-2-ene yields almost exclusively 5-methylnorbornene products. Inversion (i) of configuration dominates this [1,3] sigmatropic shift although some retention (r) is also observed. Because the [1,3] migration can only occur suprafacially (s) in this geometrically constrained system, the si/sr ratio of 7 observed for the migration of C7 in exo-7-methylbicyclo[3.2.0]hept-2-ene indicates that the orbital symmetry rules are somewhat permissive for the [1,3] sigmatropic migration of carbon.

  2. Asymmetric Brønsted acid-catalyzed aza-Diels–Alder reaction of cyclic C-acylimines with cyclopentadiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Rueping

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A new chiral Brønsted acid-catalyzed aza-Diels–Alder reaction of cyclic C-acylimines with cyclopentadiene has been developed. The reaction provides optically active aza-tetracycles in good yields with high diastereo- and enantioselectivities under mild reaction conditions.

  3. AzaSite® inhibits Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus biofilm formation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Eric C; Kowalski, Regis P; Romanowski, Eric G; Mah, Francis S; Gordon, Y Jerold; Shanks, Robert M Q

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of azithromycin (AZM) 1% ophthalmic solution in DuraSite® (AzaSite®) on biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci in vitro. Susceptible and resistant clinical strains (n = 8) of S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci were challenged with serial dilutions of AzaSite® and its components: AZM, benzalkonium chloride (BAK), and the DuraSite drug delivery vehicle. After 20 h of incubation, bacterial growth was quantified using a spectrophotometer (A = 600 nm). Plates were stained with crystal violet and biofilm formation was quantified spectrophotometrically at A = 590 nm. AzaSite® and AZM inhibited bacterial growth (P reduction in biofilm formation (P reduction in biofilm formation at concentrations from 1.25 to 10 mg/mL in most strains. DuraSite® inhibited biofilm formation at concentrations between 10% and 2.5% in all studied strains (P < 0.05), without affecting bacterial growth. BAK inhibited bacterial growth and biofilm formation in all strains between concentrations of 0.042 and 0.375 mg/mL (P < 0.05). AzaSite®, AZM, or BAK prevented biofilm formation by inhibiting growth of AZM-susceptible strains. AzaSite®, AZM, and DuraSite® also reduced biofilm formation at subinhibitory concentrations for growth. Our data indicate that AZM has a moderate inhibitory effect on biofilm formation, whereas DuraSite® appears to play a greater role in the inhibition of staphylococcal biofilm formation by AzaSite®.

  4. Asymmetric Catalytic Aza-Diels-Alder/Ring-Closing Cascade Reaction Forming Bicyclic Azaheterocycles by Trienamine Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Barløse, Casper; Jørgensen, Julie; Carlsen, Bjørn Dreiø; Jørgensen, Karl Anker

    2017-01-01

    An asymmetric catalytic aza-Diels-Alder/ring-closing cascade reaction between acylhydrazones and in situ formed trienamines is presented. The reaction proceeds through a formal aza-Diels-Alder cycloaddition, followed by a ring-closing reaction forming the hemiaminal ring leading to chiral bicyclic azaheterocycles in moderate to good yield (up to 71 %), good enantio- (up to 92 % ee) and diastereoselectivity (up to >20:1 d.r.). Furthermore, transformations are presented to show the potential application of the formed product. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Asymmetric Formal Aza-Diels-Alder Reaction of Trifluoromethyl Hemiaminals with Enones Catalyzed by Primary Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Cha, Lide; Li, Lijun; Hu, Yanbin; Li, Yanan; Zha, Zhenggen; Wang, Zhiyong

    2016-04-15

    A primary amine-catalyzed asymmetric formal aza-Diels-Alder reaction of trifluoromethyl hemiaminals with enones was developed via a chiral gem-diamine intermediate. This novel protocol allowed facile access to structurally diverse trifluoromethyl-substituted piperidine scaffolds with high stereoselectivity. The utility of this method was further demonstrated through a concise approach to biologically active 4-hydroxypiperidine. More importantly, a stepwise mechanism involving an asymmetric induction process was proposed to rationalize the positive correlation between the chirality of the gem-diamine intermediate and the formal aza-Diels-Alder product.

  6. Copper-Mediated Reactions of Nitriles with Nitromethanes: Aza-Henry Reactions and Nitrile Hydrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Jun; Sawada, Yoshiharu; Yoshimatsu, Mitsuhiro

    2018-02-16

    In this study, the first aza-Henry reaction of nitriles with nitromethane in a CuI/Cs 2 CO 3 /DBU system is described. The process was conveniently and directly used for the synthesis of β-aminonitroalkenes 2a-x and tolerated aryl-, alkyl-, hetaryl-, alkenyl-, and alkynylnitriles. The resulting aminonitroalkenes 2 could be successfully transformed to the corresponding 2-nitroacetophenones, 2-amino-1-halonitroalkenes, 2-alkylaminonitroalkenes, or 3-nitropyridines. In the presence of H 2 O, the aza-Henry reaction turned the reaction path to the nitrile hydration to exclusively yield the amides 3a-s.

  7. A DFT study on the mechanisms for the cycloaddition reactions between 1-aza-2-azoniaallene cations and acetylenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-mei; Li, Zhi-ming; Wang, Quan-rui; Tao, Feng-gang

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms of cycloaddition reactions between 1-aza-2-azoniaallene cations 1 and acetylenes 2 have been investigated using the global electrophilicity and nucleophilicity of the corresponding reactants as global reactivity indexes defined within the conceptual density functional theory. The reactivity and regioselectivity of these reactions were predicted by analysis of the energies, geometries, and electronic nature of the transition state structures. The theoretical results revealed that the reaction features a tandem process: an ionic 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition to produce the cycloadducts 3 H-pyrazolium salts 3 followed by a [1,2]-shift affording the thermodynamically more stable adducts 4 or 5. The mechanism of the cycloaddition reactions can be described as an asynchronous concerted pathway with reverse electron demand. The model reaction has also been investigated at the QCISD/6-31++G(d,p) and CCSD(T)/6-31++G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) levels as well as by the DFT. The polarizable continuum model, at the B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) level of theory, was used to study solvent effects on all the studied reactions. In solvent dichloromethane, all the initial cycloadducts 3 were obtained via direct ionic process as the result of the solvent effect. The consecutive [1,2]-shift reaction, in which intermediates 3 are rearranged to the five-membered heterocycles 4/5, is proved to be a kinetically controlled reaction, and the regioselectivity can be modulated by varying the migrant. The LOL function and RDG function based on localized electron analysis were used to analysis the covalent bond and noncovalent interactions in order to unravel the mechanism of the title reactions.

  8. Rearrangements of organic peroxides and related processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan A. Yaremenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This review is the first to collate and summarize main data on named and unnamed rearrangement reactions of peroxides. It should be noted, that in the chemistry of peroxides two types of processes are considered under the term rearrangements. These are conventional rearrangements occurring with the retention of the molecular weight and transformations of one of the peroxide moieties after O–O-bond cleavage. Detailed information about the Baeyer−Villiger, Criegee, Hock, Kornblum−DeLaMare, Dakin, Elbs, Schenck, Smith, Wieland, and Story reactions is given. Unnamed rearrangements of organic peroxides and related processes are also analyzed. The rearrangements and related processes of important natural and synthetic peroxides are discussed separately.

  9. Asymmetric aza-Diels-Alder reaction of Danishefsky's diene with imines in a chiral reaction medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pégot Bruce

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The asymmetric aza-Diels-Alder reaction of chiral imines with Danishefsky's diene in chiral ionic liquids provides the corresponding cycloadduct with moderate to high diastereoselectivity. The reaction has proved to perform better at room temperature in ionic liquids without either Lewis acid catalyst or organic solvent. Chiral ionic liquids are recycled while their efficiency is preserved.

  10. Assessing Process Mass Intensity and Waste via an "aza"-Baylis-Hillman Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go´mez-Biagi, Rodolfo F.; Dicks, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    A synthetic procedure is outlined where upper-level undergraduate organic chemistry students perform a two-week, semimicroscale "aza"-Baylis-Hillman reaction to generate an allylic sulfonamide product. Students evaluate several green chemistry reaction metrics of industrial importance (process mass intensity (PMI), E factor, and reaction…

  11. Preparation of alpha-5-aza-2'-deoxy-[6-3H]cytidine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elbert, Tomáš; Černý, B.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 5 (2008), s. 701-704 ISSN 0010-0765 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : alfa-5aza-2'-deoxy-cytidine Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.784, year: 2008

  12. Studies on the interactions of 5-R-3-(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazines with arynes: inverse demand aza-Diels-Alder reaction versus aryne-mediated domino process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopchuk, Dmitry S; Nikonov, Igor L; Khasanov, Albert F; Giri, Kousik; Santra, Sougata; Kovalev, Igor S; Nosova, Emiliya V; Gundala, Sravya; Venkatapuram, Padmavathi; Zyryanov, Grigory V; Majee, Adinath; Chupakhin, Oleg N

    2018-05-02

    The interactions between substituted 5-R-3-(pyridyl-2)-1,2,4-triazines with in situ generated substituted aryne intermediates have been studied. The reaction afforded either inverse demand (ID) aza-Diels-Alder products or 1,2,4-triazine ring rearrangement (domino) products as major ones depending on the nature of both the substituents at the C5 position of the 1,2,4-triazine core or in the aryne moiety. The structures of the key products were confirmed based on X-ray data. Based on the density functional theoretical (DFT) studies of the Diels-Alder transition state geometries, the influence of the nature of arynes on the direction of the 1,2,4-triazine transformation has been proposed.

  13. Sorting permutations by prefix and suffix rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintzmayer, Carla Negri; Fertin, Guillaume; Dias, Zanoni

    2017-02-01

    Some interesting combinatorial problems have been motivated by genome rearrangements, which are mutations that affect large portions of a genome. When we represent genomes as permutations, the goal is to transform a given permutation into the identity permutation with the minimum number of rearrangements. When they affect segments from the beginning (respectively end) of the permutation, they are called prefix (respectively suffix) rearrangements. This paper presents results for rearrangement problems that involve prefix and suffix versions of reversals and transpositions considering unsigned and signed permutations. We give 2-approximation and ([Formula: see text])-approximation algorithms for these problems, where [Formula: see text] is a constant divided by the number of breakpoints (pairs of consecutive elements that should not be consecutive in the identity permutation) in the input permutation. We also give bounds for the diameters concerning these problems and provide ways of improving the practical results of our algorithms.

  14. Input-output rearrangement of isolated converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Kovacevic, Milovan; Mønster, Jakob Døllner

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new way of rearranging the input and output of isolated converters. The new arrangement posses several advantages, as increased voltage range, higher power handling capabilities, reduced voltage stress and improved efficiency, for applications where galvanic isolation...

  15. Equitoxic doses of 5-azacytidine and 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine induce diverse immediate and overlapping heritable changes in the transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangning Qiu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The hypomethylating agent 5-Azacytidine (5-Aza-CR is the first drug to prolong overall survival in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS. Surprisingly, the deoxyribonucleoside analog 5-Aza-2'deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR did not have a similar effect on survival in a large clinical trial. Both drugs are thought to exert their effects after incorporation into DNA by covalent binding of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT. While 5-Aza-CdR is incorporated into only DNA, 5-Aza-CR is also incorporated into RNA. Here, we have analyzed whether this difference in nucleic acid incorporation may influence the capacities of these drugs to regulate the expression of mRNA and microRNAs (miRNA, which may potentially affect the activities of the drugs in patients.A hematopoietic (HL-60; acute myeloid leukemia and a solid (T24; transitional cell carcinoma cancer cell line were treated with equitoxic doses of 5-Aza-CR and 5-Aza-CdR for 24 hrs, and the immediate (day 2 and lasting (day 8 effects on RNA expression examined. There was considerable overlap between the RNAs heritably upregulated by both drugs on day 8 but more RNAs were stably induced by the deoxy analog. Both drugs strongly induced expression of cancer testis antigens. On day 2 more RNAs were downregulated by 5-Aza-CR, particularly at higher doses. A remarkable downregulation of miRNAs and a significant upregulation of tRNA synthetases and other genes involved in amino acid metabolism was observed in T24 cells.Overall, this suggests that significant differences exist in the immediate action of the two drugs, however the dominant pattern of the lasting, and possible heritable changes, is overlapping.

  16. L-Threonine-derived novel bifunctional phosphine-sulfonamide catalyst-promoted enantioselective aza-morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Fangrui

    2011-03-18

    A series of novel bifunctional phosphine-sulfonamide organic catalysts were designed and readily prepared from natural amino acids, and they were utilized to promote enantioselective aza-Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) reactions. l-Threonine-derived phosphine-sulfonamide 9b was found to be the most efficient catalyst, affording the desired aza-MBH adducts in high yields and with excellent enantioselectivities. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  17. The Aza Lineage. Origin, Evolution and Impact of an Aristocratic Family in South-Eastern Castile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván GARCÍA IZQUIERDO

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the trajectory of the Aza aristocratic lineage and its impact on a sector of the eastern Castilian Extremadura between the 12th and mid-13th Centuries. Its originality resides in the focus on the role of an external aristocratic lineage, when previous studies of such areas have tended to focus on the dynamics of local concejil government. Whilst recent studies highlight the importance of local elites in the process of territory building prior to royal intervention, the projection of some of those groups was relatively limited at a national scale and was circumscribed in many cases to areas controlled by the local councils. This was the case with the Riaza Valley, similarly split into small territorial enclaves, in which the influence of an external aristocratic lineage, the Azas, became stronger with the passage of time.

  18. Aza-crown ether complex cation ionic liquids: preparation and applications in organic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yingying; Cheng, Chen; Jing, Huanwang

    2014-09-26

    Aza-crown ether complex cation ionic liquids (aCECILs) were devised, fabricated, and characterized by using NMR spectroscopy, MS, thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), elemental analysis and physical properties. These new and room-temperature ILs were utilized as catalysts in various organic reactions, such as the cycloaddition reaction of CO2 to epoxides, esterification of acetic acid and alcohols, the condensation reaction of aniline and propylene carbonate, and Friedel-Crafts alkylation of indole with aldehydes were investigated carefully. In these reactions, the ionic liquid exhibited cooperative catalytic activity between the anion and cation. In addition, the aza-[18-C-6HK][HSO4]2 was the best acidic catalyst in the reactions of esterification and Friedel-Crafts alkylation under mild reaction conditions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Manuel Azaña : biografía y obras completas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Juliá

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La primera vez que oí hablar en serio de Manuel Azaña fue a don Ramón Carande, en alguno de nuestros largos paseos por calles y plazas de Sevilla, hacia mediados de los años sesenta, cuando todavía era costumbre conversar mientras se caminaba. Me decía don Ramón que nosotros, los jóvenes, debíamos conocer a don Manuel Azaña y leer sus obras. Y como yo acostumbraba a seguir las indicaciones de lectura recibidas de don Ramón, me animé a comprar en una librería que que él mismo me recomendó, sit...

  20. Hydrogen-Bonding Catalysis of Tetraalkylammonium Salts in an Aza-Diels-Alder Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumatabara, Yusuke; Kaneko, Shiho; Nakata, Satoshi; Shirakawa, Seiji; Maruoka, Keiji

    2016-08-05

    A piperidine-derived tetraalkylammonium salt with a non-coordinating counteranion worked as an effective hydrogen-bonding catalyst in an aza-Diels-Alder reaction of imines and a Danishefsky diene. The hydrogen-bonding interaction between the ammonium salt and an imine was observed as part of a (1) H NMR titration study. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Methods for the synthesis of aza(deaza)xanthines as a basis of biologically active compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babkov, D A; Geisman, A N; Novikov, M S; Khandazhinskaya, A L

    2016-01-01

    The review covers methods for the synthesis of aza(deaza)xanthines, i.e., fused pyrrolo-, pyrazolo- and triazolopyrimidine heterocyclic systems, which are common core structures of various biologically active compounds. The extensive range of modern synthetic approaches is organized according to target structures and starting building blocks. The presented material is intended to benefit broad audience of specialists in the fields of organic, medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry. The bibliography includes 195 references

  2. Coping with Feelings

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A patient advises coping with emotions John Hammarley talks about coping with emotions Learn more about these ... month and the next year. Use "positive self-talk" to help overcome your fears. For example, say ...

  3. Additive effects of 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine and irradiation on clonogenic survival of human medulloblastoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patties, Ina; Jahns, Jutta; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Glasow, Annegret [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig AoeR (Germany); Hildebrandt, Guido [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig AoeR (Germany); Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. of Rostock (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    Background and purpose: in recent years, epigenetic modulators were introduced into tumor therapy. Here, the authors investigated the antitumor effect of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine-(5-aza-dC-)induced demethylation combined with irradiation on human medulloblastoma (MB) cells, which form the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Material and methods: three MB cell lines were treated with 5-aza-dC in a low-dose (0.1 {mu}M, 6 days) or high-dose (3/5 {mu}M, 3 days) setting and irradiated with 2, 4, 6, or 8 Gy single dose on an X-ray unit. Methylation status and mRNA expression of three candidate genes were analyzed by methylation-specific PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Cell survival and mortality were determined by trypan blue exclusion test. Proliferation was analyzed by BrdU incorporation assay, and long-term cell survival was assessed by clonogenic assay. Results: 5-aza-dC treatment resulted in partial promoter demethylation and increased expression of hypermethylated candidate genes. A significant decrease of vital cell count, proliferation inhibition and increase of mortality was observed in 5-aza-dC-treated as well as in irradiated MB cells, whereby combination of both treatments led to additive effects. Although high-dose 5-aza-dC treatment was more effective in terms of demethylation, clonogenic assay revealed no differences between high- and low-dose settings indicating no relevance of 5-aza-dC-induced demethylation for decreased cell survival. MB cells pretreated with 5-aza-dC showed significantly lower plating efficiencies than untreated cells at all irradiation doses investigated. Analysis of surviving curves in irradiated MB cells, however, revealed no significant differences of {alpha}-, {beta}-values and 2-Gy surviving fraction with or without 5-aza-dC treatment. Conclusion: 5-aza-dC did not enhance radiation sensitivity of MB cells but significantly reduced the clonogenicity versus irradiation alone, which

  4. Global demethylation of rat chondrosarcoma cells after treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine results in increased tumorigenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Hamm

    Full Text Available Abnormal patterns of DNA methylation are observed in several types of human cancer. While localized DNA methylation of CpG islands has been associated with gene silencing, the effect that genome-wide loss of methylation has on tumorigenesis is not completely known. To examine its effect on tumorigenesis, we induced DNA demethylation in a rat model of human chondrosarcoma using 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine. Rat specific pyrosequencing assays were utilized to assess the methylation levels in both LINEs and satellite DNA sequences following 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment. Loss of DNA methylation was accompanied by an increase in invasiveness of the rat chondrosarcoma cells, in vitro, as well as by an increase in tumor growth in vivo. Subsequent microarray analysis provided insight into the gene expression changes that result from 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine induced DNA demethylation. In particular, two genes that may function in tumorigenesis, sox-2 and midkine, were expressed at low levels in control cells but upon 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment these genes became overexpressed. Promoter region DNA analysis revealed that these genes were methylated in control cells but became demethylated following 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment. Following withdrawal of 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine, the rat chondrosarcoma cells reestablished global DNA methylation levels that were comparable to that of control cells. Concurrently, invasiveness of the rat chondrosarcoma cells, in vitro, decreased to a level indistinguishable to that of control cells. Taken together these experiments demonstrate that global DNA hypomethylation induced by 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine may promote specific aspects of tumorigenesis in rat chondrosarcoma cells.

  5. Exciplex emission and photoinduced energy transfer as a function of cavity dimension in naphthalene-linked aza-crown ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Mailrayee Basu; Samanta, Subhodip; Chattopadhyay, Gautam; Ghosh, Sanjib

    2004-01-01

    We report here the photophysical properties of two derivatives of N-(β-methylnaphthalene) aza-crown systems having different cavity dimensions. The aza-crown moiety is attached to β-position of naphthalene moiety by one >CH 2 unit in both the derivatives. The cavity size is found to have a pronounced effect on exciplex formation as well as energy transfer in the systems at room temperature and low temperature, respectively. Both the systems exhibit photoinduced electron transfer (PET) which is evident from their weaker fluorescence emission and their quenched singlet lifetimes as compared to that of free naphthalene. The systems also show a solvent sensitive red shifted broad structureless emission which is assigned to exciplex formation. The ratio of quantum yields of exciplex to monomer emission (phi (cursive,open) Greek Exp /phi (cursive,open) Greek M ) is lower in the smaller aza-crown (L1) as compared to that in the larger aza-crown (L2) implying a different geometry of the two systems in the excited state. Semi-emperical calculations performed on the systems also corroborate the different geometry of the two systems. Complexation of alkali metals, rare earth ions and protons by the aza-crown moiety results in enhancement of fluorescence emission due to blocking of PET. In the presence of protons, L1 exhibits a new emission due to excimer formation which has not been observed in L2 under similar conditions. The rare earth ion complexes of L1 and L2 at low temperature exhibit energy transfer from the lowest triplet state of naphthalene to the rare earth ion states, the extent of energy transfer being greater in the larger aza-crown (L2) as compared to that in smaller aza-crown system (L1)

  6. Theoretical Approaches to Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Zyga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dealing with stress requires conscious effort, it cannot be perceived as equal to individual's spontaneous reactions. The intentional management of stress must not be confused withdefense mechanisms. Coping differs from adjustment in that the latter is more general, has a broader meaning and includes diverse ways of facing a difficulty.Aim: An exploration of the definition of the term "coping", the function of the coping process as well as its differentiation from other similar meanings through a literature review.Methodology: Three theoretical approaches of coping are introduced; the psychoanalytic approach; approaching by characteristics; and the Lazarus and Folkman interactive model.Results: The strategic methods of the coping approaches are described and the article ends with a review of the approaches including the functioning of the stress-coping process , the classificationtypes of coping strategies in stress-inducing situations and with a criticism of coping approaches.Conclusions: The comparison of coping in different situations is difficult, if not impossible. The coping process is a slow process, so an individual may select one method of coping under one set ofcircumstances and a different strategy at some other time. Such selection of strategies takes place as the situation changes.

  7. Rearrangement of cluster structure during fission processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyalin, Andrey G.; Obolensky, Oleg I.; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2004-01-01

    Results of molecular dynamics simulations of fission reactions $Na_10^2+ -->Na_7^++ Na_3^+ and Na_18^2+--> 2Na_9^+ are presented. The dependence of the fission barriers on the isomer structure of the parent cluster is analysed. It is demonstrated that the energy necessary for removing homothetic...... groups of atoms from the parent cluster is largely independent of the isomer form of the parent cluster. The importance of rearrangement of the cluster structure during the fission process is elucidated. This rearrangement may include transition to another isomer state of the parent cluster before actual...

  8. Recent Developments in the Reformatsky-Claisen Rearrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumi Hatakeyama

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The rearrangement of allyl a-bromoacetates with Zn dust is known as the Reformatsky-Claisen rearrangement. Whereas the Ireland-Claisen rearrangement has been widely used in the synthesis of a diverse range of natural products, the Zn-mediated Reformatsky-Claisen rearrangement has not been utilized so often. In this article, we will provide an overview of recent advances in the Reformatsky-Claisen rearrangement field, including the In-mediated Reformatsky-Claisen rearrangement we have recently developed.

  9. Antineoplastic activity of the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine in anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Melanie R.; Klisaroska, Aleksandra; Kollmann, Karoline; Steiner, Irene; Bilban, Martin; Schiefer, Ana-Iris; Sexl, Veronika; Egger, Gerda

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism establishing long-term gene silencing during development and cell commitment, which is maintained in subsequent cell generations. Aberrant DNA methylation is found at gene promoters in most cancers and can lead to silencing of tumor suppressor genes. The DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) is able to reactivate genes silenced by DNA methylation and has been shown to be a very potent epigenetic drug in several hematological malignancies. In this report, we demonstrate that 5-aza-CdR exhibits high antineoplastic activity against anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), a rare CD30 positive non-Hodgkin lymphoma of T-cell origin. Low dose treatment of ALCL cell lines and xenografted tumors causes apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in vitro and in vivo. This is also reflected in genome-wide expression analyses, where genes related to apoptosis and cell death are amongst the most affected targets of 5-aza-CdR. Furthermore, we observed demethylation and re-expression of p16INK4A after drug administration and senescence associated β-galactosidase activity. Thus, our data provide evidence that 5-aza-CdR is highly efficient against ALCL and warrants further clinical evaluation for future therapeutic use. PMID:22687603

  10. [The Role of 5-Aza-CdR on Methylation of Promoter in RASSF1A Gene in Endometrial Carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-ping; Chen, Chen; Wang, Xue-ping; Liu, Hui

    2015-05-01

    To explore the effect of demethylating drug 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR) on methtylation status of the Ras-association domain familylA gene (RASSF1A) in human endometrial carcinoma. Randomly'assign the human endometrial carcinoma cell line HEC-1-B into groups and use demethylating drug 5-Aza-CdR of different concentration to treat them. Then Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP), real-time PCR, Western blot, TUNEL technology were used to analyze methylation status of RASSF1A promoter CpG islands, RASSF1A mRNA expression, RASSF1A protein expression and apoptosis of HEC-1-B cell. High DNA methylation in RASSF1A gene promoter region, low RASSF1A mRNA level and protein expression and out of control of human endometrial carcinoma cell HEC-1-B apoptosis were observed. 5-Aza-CdR of different concentration could reverse RASSF1A gene's methylation status, recover the expression of mRNA and protein, and control the growth of HEC-1-B by inducing apoptosis. Aberrant methylation of RASSF1A in endometrial cancer as a therapeutic target, demethylating agent 5-Aza-CdR could be an effective way of gene therapy.

  11. Effects of 5-aza-2′deoxycytidine on RECK gene expression and tumor invasion in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, X.Q.; Huang, S.Y.; Zhang, D.S.; Zhang, S.Z.; Li, W.G.; Chen, Z.W.; Wu, H.W.

    2014-01-01

    Reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK), a novel tumor suppressor gene that negatively regulates matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), is expressed in various normal human tissues but downregulated in several types of human tumors. The molecular mechanism for this downregulation and its biological significance in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) are unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor, 5-aza-2′deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC), on the methylation status of the RECK gene and tumor invasion in SACC cell lines. Methylation-specific PCR (MSP), Western blot analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR were used to investigate the methylation status of the RECK gene and expression of RECK mRNA and protein in SACC cell lines. The invasive ability of SACC cells was examined by the Transwell migration assay. Promoter methylation was only found in the ACC-M cell line. Treatment of ACC-M cells with 5-aza-dC partially reversed the hypermethylation status of the RECK gene and significantly enhanced the expression of mRNA and protein, and 5-aza-dC significantly suppressed ACC-M cell invasive ability. Our findings showed that 5-aza-dC inhibited cancer cell invasion through the reversal of RECK gene hypermethylation, which might be a promising chemotherapy approach in SACC treatment

  12. Effects of 5-aza-2′deoxycytidine on RECK gene expression and tumor invasion in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, X.Q. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The First People' s Hospital of Jining, Shandong (China); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan (China); Huang, S.Y. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan (China); Zhang, D.S. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan (China); Zhang, S.Z.; Li, W.G.; Chen, Z.W.; Wu, H.W. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan (China)

    2014-12-12

    Reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK), a novel tumor suppressor gene that negatively regulates matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), is expressed in various normal human tissues but downregulated in several types of human tumors. The molecular mechanism for this downregulation and its biological significance in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) are unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor, 5-aza-2′deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC), on the methylation status of the RECK gene and tumor invasion in SACC cell lines. Methylation-specific PCR (MSP), Western blot analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR were used to investigate the methylation status of the RECK gene and expression of RECK mRNA and protein in SACC cell lines. The invasive ability of SACC cells was examined by the Transwell migration assay. Promoter methylation was only found in the ACC-M cell line. Treatment of ACC-M cells with 5-aza-dC partially reversed the hypermethylation status of the RECK gene and significantly enhanced the expression of mRNA and protein, and 5-aza-dC significantly suppressed ACC-M cell invasive ability. Our findings showed that 5-aza-dC inhibited cancer cell invasion through the reversal of RECK gene hypermethylation, which might be a promising chemotherapy approach in SACC treatment.

  13. Genomic regulatory landscapes and chromosomal rearrangements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard, Elisabete L Engenheiro

    2008-01-01

    The main objectives of the PhD study are to identify and characterise chromosomal rearrangements within evolutionarily conserved regulatory landscapes around genes involved in the regulation of transcription and/or development (trans-dev genes). A frequent feature of trans-dev genes is that they ......The main objectives of the PhD study are to identify and characterise chromosomal rearrangements within evolutionarily conserved regulatory landscapes around genes involved in the regulation of transcription and/or development (trans-dev genes). A frequent feature of trans-dev genes...... the complex spatio-temporal expression of the associated trans-dev gene. Rare chromosomal breakpoints that disrupt the integrity of these regulatory landscapes may be used as a tool, not only to make genotype-phenotype associations, but also to link the associated phenotype with the position and tissue...... specificity of the individual CNEs. In this PhD study I have studied several chromosomal rearrangements with breakpoints in the vicinity of trans-dev genes. This included chromosomal rearrangements compatible with known phenotype-genotype associations (Rieger syndrome-PITX2, Mowat-Wilson syndrome-ZEB2...

  14. Generalization of the quark rearrangement model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, T.; Chen, C.K.

    1976-01-01

    An extension and generalization of the quark rearrangement model of baryon annihilation is described which can be applied to all annihilation reactions and which incorporates some of the features of the highly successful quark parton model. Some p anti-p interactions are discussed

  15. Dynamics of genome rearrangement in bacterial populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron E Darling

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Genome structure variation has profound impacts on phenotype in organisms ranging from microbes to humans, yet little is known about how natural selection acts on genome arrangement. Pathogenic bacteria such as Yersinia pestis, which causes bubonic and pneumonic plague, often exhibit a high degree of genomic rearrangement. The recent availability of several Yersinia genomes offers an unprecedented opportunity to study the evolution of genome structure and arrangement. We introduce a set of statistical methods to study patterns of rearrangement in circular chromosomes and apply them to the Yersinia. We constructed a multiple alignment of eight Yersinia genomes using Mauve software to identify 78 conserved segments that are internally free from genome rearrangement. Based on the alignment, we applied Bayesian statistical methods to infer the phylogenetic inversion history of Yersinia. The sampling of genome arrangement reconstructions contains seven parsimonious tree topologies, each having different histories of 79 inversions. Topologies with a greater number of inversions also exist, but were sampled less frequently. The inversion phylogenies agree with results suggested by SNP patterns. We then analyzed reconstructed inversion histories to identify patterns of rearrangement. We confirm an over-representation of "symmetric inversions"-inversions with endpoints that are equally distant from the origin of chromosomal replication. Ancestral genome arrangements demonstrate moderate preference for replichore balance in Yersinia. We found that all inversions are shorter than expected under a neutral model, whereas inversions acting within a single replichore are much shorter than expected. We also found evidence for a canonical configuration of the origin and terminus of replication. Finally, breakpoint reuse analysis reveals that inversions with endpoints proximal to the origin of DNA replication are nearly three times more frequent. Our findings

  16. Rearrangement moves on rooted phylogenetic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambette, Philippe; van Iersel, Leo; Jones, Mark; Lafond, Manuel; Pardi, Fabio; Scornavacca, Celine

    2017-08-01

    Phylogenetic tree reconstruction is usually done by local search heuristics that explore the space of the possible tree topologies via simple rearrangements of their structure. Tree rearrangement heuristics have been used in combination with practically all optimization criteria in use, from maximum likelihood and parsimony to distance-based principles, and in a Bayesian context. Their basic components are rearrangement moves that specify all possible ways of generating alternative phylogenies from a given one, and whose fundamental property is to be able to transform, by repeated application, any phylogeny into any other phylogeny. Despite their long tradition in tree-based phylogenetics, very little research has gone into studying similar rearrangement operations for phylogenetic network-that is, phylogenies explicitly representing scenarios that include reticulate events such as hybridization, horizontal gene transfer, population admixture, and recombination. To fill this gap, we propose "horizontal" moves that ensure that every network of a certain complexity can be reached from any other network of the same complexity, and "vertical" moves that ensure reachability between networks of different complexities. When applied to phylogenetic trees, our horizontal moves-named rNNI and rSPR-reduce to the best-known moves on rooted phylogenetic trees, nearest-neighbor interchange and rooted subtree pruning and regrafting. Besides a number of reachability results-separating the contributions of horizontal and vertical moves-we prove that rNNI moves are local versions of rSPR moves, and provide bounds on the sizes of the rNNI neighborhoods. The paper focuses on the most biologically meaningful versions of phylogenetic networks, where edges are oriented and reticulation events clearly identified. Moreover, our rearrangement moves are robust to the fact that networks with higher complexity usually allow a better fit with the data. Our goal is to provide a solid basis for

  17. Rearrangement moves on rooted phylogenetic networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Gambette

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic tree reconstruction is usually done by local search heuristics that explore the space of the possible tree topologies via simple rearrangements of their structure. Tree rearrangement heuristics have been used in combination with practically all optimization criteria in use, from maximum likelihood and parsimony to distance-based principles, and in a Bayesian context. Their basic components are rearrangement moves that specify all possible ways of generating alternative phylogenies from a given one, and whose fundamental property is to be able to transform, by repeated application, any phylogeny into any other phylogeny. Despite their long tradition in tree-based phylogenetics, very little research has gone into studying similar rearrangement operations for phylogenetic network-that is, phylogenies explicitly representing scenarios that include reticulate events such as hybridization, horizontal gene transfer, population admixture, and recombination. To fill this gap, we propose "horizontal" moves that ensure that every network of a certain complexity can be reached from any other network of the same complexity, and "vertical" moves that ensure reachability between networks of different complexities. When applied to phylogenetic trees, our horizontal moves-named rNNI and rSPR-reduce to the best-known moves on rooted phylogenetic trees, nearest-neighbor interchange and rooted subtree pruning and regrafting. Besides a number of reachability results-separating the contributions of horizontal and vertical moves-we prove that rNNI moves are local versions of rSPR moves, and provide bounds on the sizes of the rNNI neighborhoods. The paper focuses on the most biologically meaningful versions of phylogenetic networks, where edges are oriented and reticulation events clearly identified. Moreover, our rearrangement moves are robust to the fact that networks with higher complexity usually allow a better fit with the data. Our goal is to provide

  18. Nitrogen-Containing Coronenes: Theoretical Evaluation of the Influence of Aza-substitution on their Aromaticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Raluca; van Staden, Jacobus; Diudea, Mircea

    2015-03-01

    The aromaticity of coronene derivatives where two C atoms of each outer six-membered ring are replaced by N have been investigated. Three types of substitution, namely 1,2-, 1,3-, and 1,4- are proposed. Computations of the geometric (HOMA index), energetic (HOMO-LUMO gap), and magnetic indices (NICS(0) and NICS(1)) were performed, and the results compared to the ones obtained for the all-carbon species. The results outline that the aza-derivatives have aromatic character comparable to the all-carbon species and an enlarged HOMO-LUMO gap.

  19. Dansyl - Substituted Aza Crown Ethers: Complexation with Alkali, Alkaline Earth Metal Ions and Ammonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiab, Shihab; Archibong, Edikan; Tasheva, Donka; Mochona, Bereket; Gangapuram, Madhavi; Redda, Kinfe

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates the binding properties of four dansyl substituted aza-crown ethers with alkali, alkaline earth metal ions and ammonium. The influence of the solvent polarity and protonation on the photophysical properties of the compounds was studied by UV/Vis and fluorescence methods. The host species caused only slight changes on the absorption spectra of the ligands. The fluorescence changes were more pronounced and concentration dependent thus allowing to calculate the binding constants of the process. The most stable complex under our working conditions was the one between Ba2+ and DNS18C6. PMID:21738561

  20. Protecting-Group-Free Synthesis of 2-Deoxy-Aza-Sugars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattie Simon Maria Timmer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The protecting-group-free asymmetric synthesis of 1,2,4-trideoxy-1,4-imino-L-xylitol is readily achieved in five steps from 2-deoxy-D-ribose and with an overall yield of 48%. Key in this synthesis is the application of our recently developed Vasella-reductive amination and carbamate annulation methodologies to the synthesis of 2-deoxy-aza-sugars. The carbamate annulation occurred with excellent yield and diastereoselectively (>20:1 d.r., in favour of the 3,4-cis isomer.

  1. Aza-Michael Mono-addition Using Acidic Alumina under Solventless Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Bosica

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aza-Michael reactions between primary aliphatic and aromatic amines and various Michael acceptors have been performed under environmentally-friendly solventless conditions using acidic alumina as a heterogeneous catalyst to selectively obtain the corresponding mono-adducts in high yields. Ethyl acrylate was the main acceptor used, although others such as acrylonitrile, methyl acrylate and acrylamide were also utilized successfully. Bi-functional amines also gave the mono-adducts in good to excellent yields. Such compounds can serve as intermediates for the synthesis of anti-cancer and antibiotic drugs.

  2. The Ultrafast Wolff Rearrangement in the Gas Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbacher, Andreas; Roeding, Sebastian; Brixner, Tobias; Nuernberger, Patrick

    The Wolff rearrangement of gas-phase 5-diazo Meldrum's acid is disclosed with femtosecond ion spectroscopy. Distinct differences are found for 267 nm and 200 nm excitation, the latter leading to even two ultrafast rearrangement reactions.

  3. Highly Efficient Synthesis of Allopurinol Locked Nucleic Acid Monomer by C6 Deamination of 8-Aza-7-bromo-7-deazaadenine Locked Nucleic Acid Monomer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosbar, Tamer Reda El-Saeed; Sofan, M.; Abou-Zeid, L.

    2013-01-01

    An allopurinol locked nucleic acid (LNA) monomer was prepared by a novel strategy through C6 deamination of the corresponding 8-aza-7-bromo-7-deazaadenine LNA monomer with aqueous sodium hydroxide. An 8-aza-7-deazaadenine LNA monomer was also synthesized by a modification of the new synthetic...... the required LNA monomers....

  4. A Perspective on the Comparative Antileukemic Activity of 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine (Decitabine and 5-Azacytidine (Vidaza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L. Momparler

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-AZA-CdR, decitabine, Dacogen® and 5-azacytidine (5-AC, Vidaza® are epigenetic agents that have been approved for the clinical treatment of the hematological malignancy myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS and are currently under clinical evaluation for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Most investigators currently classify 5-AZA-CdR and 5-AC as inhibitors of DNA methylation, which can reactivate tumor suppressor genes silenced by this epigenetic event. Examination of the pharmacology of these analogues reveals important differences with respect to their molecular mechanism of action. The action of 5-AZA-CdR is due to its incorporation into DNA. 5-AC is a riboside analogue that is incorporated primarily into RNA. A small fraction of 5-AC is converted to its deoxyribose form by ribonucleotide reductase and subsequently incorporated into DNA. The incorporation of 5-AC into RNA can interfere with the biological function of RNA and result in an inhibition protein synthesis. Microarray analysis revealed that both these analogues target the expression of different cohorts of genes. Preclinical studies show that 5-AZA-CdR is a more effective antileukemic agent than 5-AC. One explanation for this observation is that 5-AC blocks the progression of some leukemic cells from G1 into S phase, and this protects these cells from the chemotherapeutic action of this riboside analogue related to its incorporation into DNA. However, differences in chemotherapeutic efficacy of these related analogues have not been clearly demonstrated in clinical trials in patients with hematological malignancies. These observations should be taken into consideration in the design of new clinical trials using 5-AZA-CdR or 5-AC in patients with MDS and AML.

  5. Chimeric Amino Acid Rearrangements as Immune Targets in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Chimeric Amino Acid Rearrangements as Immune Targets in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH...that result from gene rearrangements given their high frequency relative to somatic point mutations. Gene rearrangements can yield novel chimeric

  6. The Depression Coping Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinke, Chris L.

    College students (N=396), chronic pain patients (N=319), and schizophrenic veterans (N=43) completed the Depression Coping Questionnaire (DCQ) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Factor analysis of the DCQ identified eleven coping responses: social support, problem solving, self-blame/escape, aggression, indulgence, activities, medication,…

  7. Catalytic synthesis of amides via aldoximes rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crochet, Pascale; Cadierno, Victorio

    2015-02-14

    Amide bond formation reactions are among the most important transformations in organic chemistry because of the widespread occurrence of amides in pharmaceuticals, natural products and biologically active compounds. The Beckmann rearrangement is a well-known method to generate secondary amides from ketoximes. However, under the acidic conditions commonly employed, aldoximes RHC=NOH rarely rearrange into the corresponding primary amides RC(=O)NH2. In recent years, it was demonstrated that this atom-economical transformation can be carried out efficiently and selectively with the help of metal catalysts. Several homogeneous and heterogenous systems have been described. In addition, protocols offering the option to generate the aldoximes in situ from the corresponding aldehydes and hydroxylamine, or even from alcohols, have also been developed, as well as a series of tandem processes allowing the access to N-substituted amide products. In this Feature article a comprehensive overview of the advances achieved in this particular research area is presented.

  8. System for the detection of chromosomal rearrangements using Sordaria macrospora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaise, S.; Leblon, G.; Lares, L. (Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Biologie Cellulaire et Genetique)

    1984-01-01

    A system is described for the detection and diagnosis of induced chromosomal rearrangement using Sordaria macrospora. The system uses the property of the rearrangement to produce defective white ascospores as meiotic progeny from heterozygous crosses. Two reconstruction experiments have shown that this system is able to give reliable quantitative measures of rearrangement frequencies. Evidence for a photoreactivation process was obtained, suggesting that pyrimidine dimers may well be an important lesion in UV-induced chromosomal rearrangement. No evidence of induction of chromosomal rearrangement was obtained in experiments with the powerful chemical mutagen N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine.

  9. The Wolff rearrangement in radical cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Mamoru; Tsujimoto, Kazuo; Shida, Yasuo; Yamada, Yasuji.

    1975-01-01

    The mass spectrometric behavior of 1-phenyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzotriazole and its seven membered analog is described. The principal fragmentation process of the molecular ions is loss of nitrogen. It was concluded from the results of deuterium labeling and accurate mass measurements that the subsequent fragmentation of the M-N 2 ions proceeds via isomerization to the ring-contracted ketenimine ions by the Wolff rearrangement, in sharp contrast to the case of 1-phenylbenzotriazole. (auth.)

  10. Occupancy statistics arising from weighted particle rearrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huillet, Thierry

    2007-01-01

    The box-occupancy distributions arising from weighted rearrangements of a particle system are investigated. In the grand-canonical ensemble, they are characterized by determinantal joint probability generating functions. For doubly non-negative weight matrices, fractional occupancy statistics, generalizing Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics, can be defined. A spatially extended version of these balls-in-boxes problems is investigated

  11. Comparing genomes with rearrangements and segmental duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Mingfu; Moret, Bernard M E

    2015-06-15

    Large-scale evolutionary events such as genomic rearrange.ments and segmental duplications form an important part of the evolution of genomes and are widely studied from both biological and computational perspectives. A basic computational problem is to infer these events in the evolutionary history for given modern genomes, a task for which many algorithms have been proposed under various constraints. Algorithms that can handle both rearrangements and content-modifying events such as duplications and losses remain few and limited in their applicability. We study the comparison of two genomes under a model including general rearrangements (through double-cut-and-join) and segmental duplications. We formulate the comparison as an optimization problem and describe an exact algorithm to solve it by using an integer linear program. We also devise a sufficient condition and an efficient algorithm to identify optimal substructures, which can simplify the problem while preserving optimality. Using the optimal substructures with the integer linear program (ILP) formulation yields a practical and exact algorithm to solve the problem. We then apply our algorithm to assign in-paralogs and orthologs (a necessary step in handling duplications) and compare its performance with that of the state-of-the-art method MSOAR, using both simulations and real data. On simulated datasets, our method outperforms MSOAR by a significant margin, and on five well-annotated species, MSOAR achieves high accuracy, yet our method performs slightly better on each of the 10 pairwise comparisons. http://lcbb.epfl.ch/softwares/coser. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. A general heuristic for genome rearrangement problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Ulisses; Galvão, Gustavo Rodrigues; Lintzmayer, Carla Négri; Dias, Zanoni

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present a general heuristic for several problems in the genome rearrangement field. Our heuristic does not solve any problem directly, it is rather used to improve the solutions provided by any non-optimal algorithm that solve them. Therefore, we have implemented several algorithms described in the literature and several algorithms developed by ourselves. As a whole, we implemented 23 algorithms for 9 well known problems in the genome rearrangement field. A total of 13 algorithms were implemented for problems that use the notions of prefix and suffix operations. In addition, we worked on 5 algorithms for the classic problem of sorting by transposition and we conclude the experiments by presenting results for 3 approximation algorithms for the sorting by reversals and transpositions problem and 2 approximation algorithms for the sorting by reversals problem. Another algorithm with better approximation ratio can be found for the last genome rearrangement problem, but it is purely theoretical with no practical implementation. The algorithms we implemented in addition to our heuristic lead to the best practical results in each case. In particular, we were able to improve results on the sorting by transpositions problem, which is a very special case because many efforts have been made to generate algorithms with good results in practice and some of these algorithms provide results that equal the optimum solutions in many cases. Our source codes and benchmarks are freely available upon request from the authors so that it will be easier to compare new approaches against our results.

  13. Enzyme active site mimics based on TriAzaCyclophane (TAC)-scaffolded peptides and amino acid residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albada, H.B.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes the scope and limitations of the application of TriAzaCyclophane (TAC)-scaffolded peptides or amino acid residues as enzyme active site mimics, as ligands in asymmetric catalysis and as hydrolysis catalysts attached to vancomycin. For the mimicry of functional group enzymes, of

  14. Solvent-free, catalyst-free aza-Michael addition of cyclohexylamine to diethyl maleate: reaction mechanism and kinetics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bláha, Michal; Trhlíková, Olga; Podešva, Jiří; Abbrent, Sabina; Steinhart, Miloš; Dybal, Jiří; Dušková-Smrčková, Miroslava

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 1 (2018), s. 58-67 ISSN 0040-4020 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : Aza-Michael addition * solvent-free * catalyst-free Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 2.651, year: 2016

  15. Determinants of orofacial clefting II: Effects of 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine on gene methylation during development of the first branchial arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelan, Ratnam S; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Warner, Dennis R; Smolenkova, Irina A; Pisano, M Michele; Greene, Robert M

    2017-01-01

    Defects in development of the secondary palate, which arise from the embryonic first branchial arch (1-BA), can cause cleft palate (CP). Administration of 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AzaD), a demethylating agent, to pregnant mice on gestational day 9.5 resulted in complete penetrance of CP in fetuses. Several genes critical for normal palatogenesis were found to be upregulated in 1-BA, 12h after AzaD exposure. MethylCap-Seq (MCS) analysis identified several differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in DNA extracted from AzaD-exposed 1-BAs. Hypomethylated DMRs did not correlate with the upregulation of genes in AzaD-exposed 1-BAs. However, most DMRs were associated with endogenous retroviral elements. Expression analyses suggested that interferon signaling was activated in AzaD-exposed 1-BAs. Our data, thus, suggest that a 12-h in utero AzaD exposure demethylates and activates endogenous retroviral elements in the 1-BA, thereby triggering an interferon-mediated response. This may result in the dysregulation of key signaling pathways during palatogenesis, causing CP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine in the medial prefrontal cortex regulates alcohol-related behavior and Ntf3-TrkC expression in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomeng Qiao

    Full Text Available Recent studies have indicated that DNA methylation plays an important role in the development of alcohol abuse. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dc, an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases, was FDA approved for myelodysplastic syndrome treatment. However, it is unclear whether 5-Aza-dc is involved in alcohol abuse. In this study, using a chronic alcohol exposure model in rats, 5-Aza-dc was injected into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. Alcohol-drinking behavior and the anxiety related behavior were evaluated by two-bottle choice and open field test. We found that 5-Aza-dc injection into the mPFC significantly decreased alcohol consumption and alcohol preference in alcohol-exposure rats, corresponding to the reduced blood alcohol levels. Although 5-Aza-dc potentiated the anxiety-like behavior of alcohol-exposure rats, it had no effect on the locomotor activity. Moreover, both of the mRNA and protein levels of DNA Methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A and DNMT3B in the mPFC were upregulated after 35 days of alcohol exposure and this upregulation could be reversed by 5-Aza-dc treatment. Additionally, 5-Aza-dc reversed the alcohol-induced downregulation of neurotrophin-3 (Ntf3, correspondingly the expression of its receptor-TrkC was reduced. These findings identified a functional role of 5-Aza-dc in alcohol-related behavioral phenotypes and one of the potential target genes, Ntf3. We also provide novel evidence for DNA methyltransferases as potential therapeutic targets in alcohol abuse.

  17. Impact of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and epigallocatechin-3-gallate for induction of human regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrmann, Jan; Tatura, Roman; Zeschnigk, Michael; Probst-Kepper, Michael; Geffers, Robert; Steinmann, Joerg; Buer, Jan

    2014-07-01

    The epigenetic regulation of transcription factor genes is critical for T-cell lineage specification. A specific methylation pattern within a conserved region of the lineage specifying transcription factor gene FOXP3, the Treg-specific demethylated region (TSDR), is restricted to regulatory T (Treg) cells and is required for stable expression of FOXP3 and suppressive function. We analysed the impact of hypomethylating agents 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and epigallocatechin-3-gallate on human CD4(+)  CD25(-) T cells for generating demethylation within FOXP3-TSDR and inducing functional Treg cells. Gene expression, including lineage-specifying transcription factors of the major T-cell lineages and their leading cytokines, functional properties and global transcriptome changes were analysed. The FOXP3-TSDR methylation pattern was determined by using deep amplicon bisulphite sequencing. 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine induced FOXP3-TSDR hypomethylation and expression of the Treg-cell-specific genes FOXP3 and LRRC32. Proliferation of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine-treated cells was reduced, but the cells did not show suppressive function. Hypomethylation was not restricted to FOXP3-TSDR and expression of master transcription factors and leading cytokines of T helper type 1 and type 17 cells were induced. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate induced global DNA hypomethylation to a lesser extent than 5-aza-2'-deoxycitidine, but no relevant hypomethylation within FOXP3-TSDR or expression of Treg-cell-specific genes. Neither of the DNA methyltransferase inhibitors induced fully functional human Treg cells. 5-aza-2'-deoxycitidine-treated cells resembled Treg cells, but they did not suppress proliferation of responder cells, which is an essential capability to be used for Treg cell transfer therapy. Using a recently developed targeted demethylation technology might be a more promising approach for the generation of functional Treg cells. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The origin of enantioselectivity in the l-threonine-derived phosphine-sulfonamide catalyzed aza-Morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction: Effects of the intramolecular hydrogen bonding

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Richmond

    2013-01-01

    l-Threonine-derived phosphine-sulfonamide 4 was identified as the most efficient catalyst to promote enantioselective aza-Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) reactions, affording the desired aza-MBH adducts with excellent enantioselectivities. Density functional theory (DFT) studies were carried out to elucidate the origin of the observed enantioselectivity. The importance of the intramolecular N-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding interaction between the sulfonamide and enolate groups was identified to be crucial in inducing a high degree of stereochemical control in both the enolate addition to imine and the subsequent proton transfer step, affording aza-MBH reactions with excellent enantioselectivity. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. Coping with Feelings

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    Full Text Available ... t try to reduce your anxiety with harmful habits, such as drinking alcohol or taking sleeping pills. ... Yourself - Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - Quitting Smoking - Eating Well and Losing Weight • Tools & Resources Popular ...

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  1. Coping with Feelings

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  16. Coping with Memory Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Coping With Memory Loss Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... be evaluated by a health professional. What Causes Memory Loss? Anything that affects cognition—the process of ...

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  19. Mass analyzed threshold ionization spectroscopy of aza-aromatic bicyclic molecules: Benzimidazole and benzotriazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.L.; Li, Y.C.; Tzeng, W.B.

    2007-01-01

    We report the vibrationally resolved cation spectra of benzimidazole and benzotriazole, which give the respective adiabatic ionization energies (IEs) to be 67552 ± 5 cm -1 and 70474 ± 5 cm -1 . Comparing these data with that of indole, one finds that the IE of these aza-aromatic bicyclic molecules increases with the number of the N atoms. Most of the active modes of the benzimidazole cation are related to the in-plane ring vibrations. In contrast, the observed spectral bands of the benzotriazole cation correspond to the out-of-plane N2-H and skeleton N1N2N3 bending vibrations. These experimental findings may be attributed to the nature and the N atoms in the five-membered ring

  20. Acceleration of Singlet Fission in an Aza-Derivative of TIPS-Pentacene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Julia; Buckup, Tiago; Paulus, Fabian; Engelhart, Jens; Bunz, Uwe H F; Motzkus, Marcus

    2014-07-17

    The influence of the carbon to nitrogen substitution on the photoinduced dynamics of TIPS-pentacene was investigated by ultrafast transient absorption measurements on spin-coated thin films in the visible and in the near-infrared spectral region. A global target analysis was performed to provide a detailed picture of the excited-state dynamics. We found that the chemical modification has a high impact on the triplet formation and leads to shorter dynamics; hence it speeds up the singlet fission process. A faster relaxation from the singlet into the triplet manifold implies a higher efficiency because other relaxation channels are avoided. The air-stable aza-derivatives have the potential to exceed the energy conversion efficiency of TIPS-pentacene.

  1. Adiabatic Rearrangement of Hollow PV Towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A Hendricks

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabatic heating from deep moist convection in the hurricane eyewall produces a towering annular structure of elevated potential vorticity (PV. This structure has been referred to as a hollow PV tower. The sign reversal of the radial gradient of PV satisfies the Charney-Stern necessary condition for combined barotropic-baroclinic instability. For thin enough annular structures, small perturbations grow exponentially, extract energy from the mean flow, and lead to hollow tower breakdown, with significant vortex structural and intensity change. The three-dimensional adiabatic rearrangements of two prototypical hurricane-like hollow PV towers (one thick and one thin are examined in an idealized framework. For both hollow towers, dynamic instability causes air parcels with high PV to be mixed into the eye preferentially at lower levels, where unstable PV wave growth rates are the largest. Little or no mixing is found to occur at upper levels. The mixing at lower and middle levels is most rapid for the breakdown of the thin hollow tower, consistent with previous barotropic results. For both hollow towers, this advective rearrangement of PV affects the tropical cyclone structure and intensity in a number of ways. First, the minimum central pressure and maximum azimuthal mean velocity simultaneously decrease, consistent with previous barotropic results. Secondly, isosurfaces of absolute angular momentum preferentially shift inward at low levels, implying an adiabatic mechanism by which hurricane eyewall tilt can form. Thirdly, a PV bridge, similar to that previously found in full-physics hurricane simulations, develops as a result of mixing at the isentropic levels where unstable PV waves grow most rapidly. Finally, the balanced mass field resulting from the PV rearrangement is warmer in the eye between 900 and 700 hPa. The location of this warming is consistent with observed warm anomalies in the eye, indicating that in certain instances the hurricane

  2. Gene activation by induced DNA rearrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnipper, L.E.; Chan, V.; Sedivy, J.; Jat, P.; Sharp, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    A murine cell line (EN/NIH) containing the retroviral vector ZIPNeoSV(x)1 that was modified by deletion of the enhancer elements in the viral long terminal repeats has been used as an assay system to detect induced DNA rearrangements that result in activation of a transcriptionally silent reporter gene encoded by the viral genome. The spontaneous frequency of G418 resistance is less than 10(-7), whereas exposure to the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or the combination of UV irradiation plus TPA resulted in the emergence of drug resistant cell lines at a frequency of 5 per 10(6) and 67 per 10(6) cells, respectively. In several of the cell lines that were analyzed a low level of amplification of one of the two parental retroviral integrants was observed, whereas in others no alteration in the region of the viral genome was detected. To determine the effect of the SV40 large T antigen on induced DNA rearrangements, EN/NIH cells were transfected with a temperature sensitive (ts) mutant of SV40 T. Transfectants were maintained at the permissive temperature (33 degrees C) for varying periods of time (1-5 days) in order to vary SV40 T antigen exposure, after which they were shifted to 39.5 degrees C for selection in G418. The frequency of emergence of drug resistant cell clones increased with duration of exposure to large T antigen (9-52 per 10(6) cells over 1-5 days, respectively), and all cell lines analyzed demonstrated DNA rearrangements in the region of the neo gene. A novel 18-kilobase pair XbaI fragment was cloned from one cell line which revealed the presence of a 2.0-kilobase pair EcoRI segment containing an inverted duplication which hybridized to neo sequences. It is likely that the observed rearrangement was initiated by the specific binding of large T antigen to the SV40 origin of replication encoded within the viral genome

  3. Azañón's disease. A 19th century epidemic of neurolathyrism in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Roldán, S; Spencer, P S

    2016-12-01

    The cultivation and consumption of grasspea (Lathyrus sativus) in Spain probably dates back centuries, especially during times of famine when the neurotoxic potential of this legume was expressed in the form of a spastic paraparesis known as neurolathyrism. Little known outside the country, the epidemic of neurolathyrism in the years following the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) came to affect more than a thousand people. In late 1872, during the Six Years Revolutionary Term, young Alejandro San Martín Satrústegui (1847-1908), then editor of the popular weekly El Siglo Médico, travelled to Azañón, a remote village in the province of Guadalajara, to clarify a so-far unknown disease. We analysed the original article published in 1873 by San Martin, as well as communications sent by El Siglo Médico readers reporting similar cases in many other Castilian provinces. San Martín's neurological findings in seven personally examined cases were astonishingly accurate; he concluded the subjects' neurological deficits resulted from injury to the lateral columns in the lower portion of the spinal cord. Description of the clinical findings provided both by San Martín, and by the readers of El Siglo Médico, leave no doubt as to the diagnosis of neurolathyrism. However, none suspected the patient's staple food was the determinant cause of the disease. San Martín proposed the eponym Azañón's disease for lack of a better name the same year (1873) in which Cantani in Italy introduced the term lathyrism. The epidemic of neurolathyrism that affected many Castilian towns represents one of the best-documented in Europe during the last third of the 19th century. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Sterile DJH rearrangements reveal that distance between gene segments on the human Ig H chain locus influences their ability to rearrange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tina Østergaard; Lange, Anders Blaabjerg; Barington, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Rearrangement of the Ig locus occurs in two steps. First, a JH gene is rearranged to a D gene followed by a VH gene rearranging to the DJH rearrangement. By next generation sequencing, we analyzed 9969 unique DJH rearrangements and 5919 unique VHDJH rearrangements obtained from peripheral blood B...... frequently than JH locus distal D genes, whereas VH locus proximal D genes were observed more frequently in nonproductive VHDJH rearrangements. We further demonstrate that the distance between VH, D, and JH gene segments influence their ability to rearrange within the human Ig locus....

  5. Dynamic behavior of rearranging carbocations – implications for terpene biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie R. Hare

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This review describes unexpected dynamical behaviors of rearranging carbocations and the modern computational methods used to elucidate these aspects of reaction mechanisms. Unique potential energy surface topologies associated with these rearrangements have been discovered in recent years that are not only of fundamental interest, but also provide insight into the way Nature manipulates chemical space to accomplish specific chemical transformations. Cautions for analyzing both experimental and theoretical data on carbocation rearrangements are included throughout.

  6. Deuterium kinetic isotope effects in the 1,4-dimethylenecyclohexane boat cope rearrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajewski, J.J.; Jimenez, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    In order to examine the extent of bond making in the boat-like 3,3-sigmatropic shift transition states, trans-2,3-dimethyl-1,4-dimethylenecyclohexane (T) and its exomethylene tetradeuteria derivative (TXD) were prepared. The 3,3-shift of TXD at 305 0 C results in interconversion of starting material, 5,5,6,6-tetradeuterio-trans-2,3-dimethyl-1,4-dimethylene-cyclohexane (TND), and 2,2,3,3-tetradeuterio-anti-1,4-diethylidenecyclohexane (AD). A kinetic analysis of the first-order rate equations for the three-component system in both protio and deuterio species by numerical integration of the data and simplex minimization of the rate constants with symmetry and the assumption of no equilibrium or kinetic isotope effect on the TND-AD reaction gives a bond making kinetic isotope effect of 1/1.04 (0.04). The equilibrium isotope effects observed are 1/1.16 (0.04) so that the extent of bond formation in this boat-like bicyclo[2.2.2]octyl transition state is roughly 25%, a value to be compared with ca. 67% in chair-like acyclic 3,3-shift transition states. This rules out significant intervention of a bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-1,4-diyl intermediate or transition state. 30 references, 6 figures, 4 tables

  7. Subjective Illness theory and coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessmann H.-W.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a view of a problem of subjective illness theory in context of coping behavior. The article compiles the results of the latest studies of coping; discloses the way subjective illness theory affects the illness coping and patient's health; presents the study of differences in coping behaviour of patients at risk of heart attack and oncology. The article is recommended for specialists, concerned with psychological reasons of pathogenic processes and coping strategies of patients.

  8. Exceptional Complex Chromosomal Rearrangements in Three Generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannie Kartapradja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an exceptional complex chromosomal rearrangement (CCR found in three individuals in a family that involves 4 chromosomes with 5 breakpoints. The CCR was ascertained in a phenotypically abnormal newborn with additional chromosomal material on the short arm of chromosome 4. Maternal karyotyping indicated that the mother carried an apparently balanced CCR involving chromosomes 4, 6, 11, and 18. Maternal transmission of the derivative chromosome 4 resulted in partial trisomy for chromosomes 6q and 18q and a partial monosomy of chromosome 4p in the proband. Further family studies found that the maternal grandmother carried the same apparently balanced CCR as the proband’s mother, which was confirmed using the whole chromosome painting (WCP FISH. High resolution whole genome microarray analysis of DNA from the proband’s mother found no evidence for copy number imbalance in the vicinity of the CCR translocation breakpoints, or elsewhere in the genome, providing evidence that the mother’s and grandmother’s CCRs were balanced at a molecular level. This structural rearrangement can be categorized as an exceptional CCR due to its complexity and is a rare example of an exceptional CCR being transmitted in balanced and/or unbalanced form across three generations.

  9. A tandem cross-metathesis/semipinacol rearrangement reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Christopher W; Soheili, Arash; Leighton, James L

    2012-05-18

    An efficient and (E)-selective synthesis of a 6-alkylidenebicyclo[3.2.1]octan-8-one has been developed. The key step is a tandem cross-metathesis/semipinacol rearrangement reaction, wherein the Hoveyda-Grubbs II catalyst, or more likely a derivative thereof, serves as the Lewis acid for the rearrangement. Despite the fact that both the starting alkene and the cross-metathesis product are viable rearrangement substrates, only the latter rearranges, suggesting that the Lewis acidic species is generated only after the cross-metathesis reaction is complete.

  10. Asymmetric NHC-catalyzed aza-Diels-Alder reactions: Highly enantioselective route to α-amino acid derivatives and DFT calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Limin; Wang, Fei; Lee, Richmond; Lv, Yunbo; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Zhong, Guofu

    2014-01-01

    A facile N-heterocyclic carbene catalytic enantioselective aza-Diels-Alder reaction of oxodiazenes with α-chloroaldehydes as dienophile precursors is reported, with excellent enantioselectivity (ee > 99%) and excellent yield (up to 93%). DFT study

  11. The origin of enantioselectivity in the l-threonine-derived phosphine-sulfonamide catalyzed aza-Morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction: Effects of the intramolecular hydrogen bonding

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Richmond; Zhong, Fangrui; Zheng, Bin; Meng, Yuezhong; Lu, Yixin; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2013-01-01

    in inducing a high degree of stereochemical control in both the enolate addition to imine and the subsequent proton transfer step, affording aza-MBH reactions with excellent enantioselectivity. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. RUNX3 is involved in caspase-3-dependent apoptosis induced by a combination of 5-aza-CdR and TSA in leukaemia cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Feng-Xian; Liu, Xiang-Fu; Fan, Rui-Fang; Long, Zi-Jie; Fang, Zhi-Gang; Lu, Ying; Zheng, Yong-Jiang; Lin, Dong-Jun

    2012-03-01

    Epigenetic therapy has had a significant impact on the management of haematologic malignancies. The aim of this study was to assess whether 5-aza-CdR and TSA inhibit the growth of leukaemia cells and induce caspase-3-dependent apoptosis by upregulating RUNX3 expression. K562 and Reh cells were treated with 5-aza-CdR, TSA or both compounds. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses were used to examine the expression of RUNX3 at the mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Immunofluorescence microscopy was used to detect the cellular location of RUNX3. Additionally, after K562 cells were transfected with RUNX3, apoptosis and proliferation were studied using Annexin V staining and MTT assays. The expression of RUNX3 in leukaemia cell lines was markedly less than that in the controls. Demethylating drug 5-aza-CdR could induce RUNX3 expression, but the combination of TSA and 5-aza-CdR had a greater effect than did treatment with a single compound. The combination of 5-aza-CdR and TSA induced the translocation of RUNX3 from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. TSA enhanced apoptosis induced by 5-aza-CdR, and Annexin V and Hoechst 33258 staining showed that the combination induced apoptosis but not necrosis. Furthermore, apoptosis was dependent on the caspase-3 pathway. RUNX3 overexpression in K562 cells led to growth inhibition and apoptosis and potentiated the effects of 5-aza-CdR induction. RUNX3 plays an important role in leukaemia cellular functions, and the induction of RUNX3-mediated effects may contribute to the therapeutic value of combination TSA and 5-aza-CdR treatment.

  13. Bootstrapping phylogenies inferred from rearrangement data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale sequencing of genomes has enabled the inference of phylogenies based on the evolution of genomic architecture, under such events as rearrangements, duplications, and losses. Many evolutionary models and associated algorithms have been designed over the last few years and have found use in comparative genomics and phylogenetic inference. However, the assessment of phylogenies built from such data has not been properly addressed to date. The standard method used in sequence-based phylogenetic inference is the bootstrap, but it relies on a large number of homologous characters that can be resampled; yet in the case of rearrangements, the entire genome is a single character. Alternatives such as the jackknife suffer from the same problem, while likelihood tests cannot be applied in the absence of well established probabilistic models. Results We present a new approach to the assessment of distance-based phylogenetic inference from whole-genome data; our approach combines features of the jackknife and the bootstrap and remains nonparametric. For each feature of our method, we give an equivalent feature in the sequence-based framework; we also present the results of extensive experimental testing, in both sequence-based and genome-based frameworks. Through the feature-by-feature comparison and the experimental results, we show that our bootstrapping approach is on par with the classic phylogenetic bootstrap used in sequence-based reconstruction, and we establish the clear superiority of the classic bootstrap for sequence data and of our corresponding new approach for rearrangement data over proposed variants. Finally, we test our approach on a small dataset of mammalian genomes, verifying that the support values match current thinking about the respective branches. Conclusions Our method is the first to provide a standard of assessment to match that of the classic phylogenetic bootstrap for aligned sequences. Its

  14. Bootstrapping phylogenies inferred from rearrangement data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu; Rajan, Vaibhav; Moret, Bernard Me

    2012-08-29

    Large-scale sequencing of genomes has enabled the inference of phylogenies based on the evolution of genomic architecture, under such events as rearrangements, duplications, and losses. Many evolutionary models and associated algorithms have been designed over the last few years and have found use in comparative genomics and phylogenetic inference. However, the assessment of phylogenies built from such data has not been properly addressed to date. The standard method used in sequence-based phylogenetic inference is the bootstrap, but it relies on a large number of homologous characters that can be resampled; yet in the case of rearrangements, the entire genome is a single character. Alternatives such as the jackknife suffer from the same problem, while likelihood tests cannot be applied in the absence of well established probabilistic models. We present a new approach to the assessment of distance-based phylogenetic inference from whole-genome data; our approach combines features of the jackknife and the bootstrap and remains nonparametric. For each feature of our method, we give an equivalent feature in the sequence-based framework; we also present the results of extensive experimental testing, in both sequence-based and genome-based frameworks. Through the feature-by-feature comparison and the experimental results, we show that our bootstrapping approach is on par with the classic phylogenetic bootstrap used in sequence-based reconstruction, and we establish the clear superiority of the classic bootstrap for sequence data and of our corresponding new approach for rearrangement data over proposed variants. Finally, we test our approach on a small dataset of mammalian genomes, verifying that the support values match current thinking about the respective branches. Our method is the first to provide a standard of assessment to match that of the classic phylogenetic bootstrap for aligned sequences. Its support values follow a similar scale and its receiver

  15. Determinants of orofacial clefting I: Effects of 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine on cellular processes and gene expression during development of the first branchial arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Seelan, Ratnam S; Rezzoug, Francine; Warner, Dennis R; Smolenkova, Irina A; Brock, Guy; Pisano, M Michele; Greene, Robert M

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we identify gene targets and cellular events mediating the teratogenic action(s) of 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AzaD), an inhibitor of DNA methylation, on secondary palate development. Exposure of pregnant mice (on gestation day (GD) 9.5) to AzaD for 12h resulted in the complete penetrance of cleft palate (CP) in fetuses. Analysis of cells of the embryonic first branchial arch (1-BA), in fetuses exposed to AzaD, revealed: 1) significant alteration in expression of genes encoding several morphogenetic factors, cell cycle inhibitors and regulators of apoptosis; 2) a decrease in cell proliferation; and, 3) an increase in apoptosis. Pyrosequencing of selected genes, displaying pronounced differential expression in AzaD-exposed 1-BAs, failed to reveal significant alterations in CpG methylation levels in their putative promoters or gene bodies. CpG methylation analysis suggested that the effects of AzaD on gene expression were likely indirect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Coping changes the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan M. Nechvatal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the earliest and most consistent findings in behavioral neuroscience research is that learning changes the brain. Here we consider how learning as an aspect of coping in the context of stress exposure induces neuroadaptations that enhance emotion regulation and resilience. A systematic review of the literature identified 15 brain imaging studies in which humans with specific phobias or posttraumatic stress disorder were randomized to stress exposure therapies that diminished subsequent indications of anxiety. Most of these studies focused on functional changes in the amygdala and anterior corticolimbic brain circuits that control cognitive, motivational, and emotional aspects of physiology and behavior. Corresponding structural brain changes and the timing, frequency, and duration of stress exposure required to modify brain functions remain to be elucidated in future research. These studies will advance our understanding of coping as a learning process and provide mechanistic insights for the development of new interventions that promote stress coping skills.

  17. Gestalt Theory Rearranged: Back to Wertheimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelia Guberman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wertheimer's seminal paper of 1923 was of gerat influence in psychology and other sciences. Wertheimer also emphasized the weaknesses of the newborn Gestalt theory: too many basic laws, and the ambiguity of definitions. At the same time, the paper contained potential solutions to these problems, in the form of a number of very important ideas, some of which were presented implicitly: perception through imitation, communicative nature of linear drawings and writings, transfer from the visual domain to motor domain, linguistic interpretation of the Gestalt. In this paper it will be shown that based on these ideas the Gestalt theory can be rearranged so that the main notions can be well defined, and the general principle of Gestalt perception, which overarches all known laws and unifies different Gestalt phenomena (the imitation principle can be introduced. The presented model of Gestalt perception is supported by fundamental neurophysiological data—the mirror neurons phenomenon and simulation theory.

  18. Gestalt Theory Rearranged: Back to Wertheimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guberman, Shelia

    2017-01-01

    Wertheimer's seminal paper of 1923 was of gerat influence in psychology and other sciences. Wertheimer also emphasized the weaknesses of the newborn Gestalt theory: too many basic laws, and the ambiguity of definitions. At the same time, the paper contained potential solutions to these problems, in the form of a number of very important ideas, some of which were presented implicitly: perception through imitation, communicative nature of linear drawings and writings, transfer from the visual domain to motor domain, linguistic interpretation of the Gestalt. In this paper it will be shown that based on these ideas the Gestalt theory can be rearranged so that the main notions can be well defined, and the general principle of Gestalt perception, which overarches all known laws and unifies different Gestalt phenomena (the imitation principle) can be introduced. The presented model of Gestalt perception is supported by fundamental neurophysiological data-the mirror neurons phenomenon and simulation theory.

  19. New progress in snake mitochondrial gene rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nian; Zhao, Shujin

    2009-08-01

    To further understand the evolution of snake mitochondrial genomes, the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences were determined for representative species from two snake families: the Many-banded krait, the Banded krait, the Chinese cobra, the King cobra, the Hundred-pace viper, the Short-tailed mamushi, and the Chain viper. Thirteen protein-coding genes, 22-23 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 2 control regions were identified in these mtDNAs. Duplication of the control region and translocation of the tRNAPro gene were two notable features of the snake mtDNAs. These results from the gene rearrangement comparisons confirm the correctness of traditional classification schemes and validate the utility of comparing complete mtDNA sequences for snake phylogeny reconstruction.

  20. Frontal Integration and Coping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    reciprocal to Mesolimbic dopamine activity (mood). The study aims to explore interpersonal differences in coping associated with neural properties. Method: Neuroeconomic literature search of how neural centers of Rc2/L shape risk attitude2 or coping. Results: General risk attitude is a right skewed...... to the classical tempers. In prospect, differentiating the Frontal integration pattern by temper (General risk attitude) opens an evidence-based pathway for individually tailored neural training towards advanced social objectives as multidisciplinary collaboration and healthy living. References 1. Larsen T...

  1. Coping with Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lisbeth Villemoes; Waldorff, Frans Boch; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2008-01-01

    -living with a spouse. The analysis revealed that the basic social psychological problem faced by patients with mild AD was their awareness of decline in personal dignity and value. Coping strategies used to meet these problems were adaptations to the altered situation in order to maintain a feeling of well......-being. The spouse appeared to be the most important social relation. The most significant worries of the patients were about communication in relation to their spouse, and about the reaction of the spouse to the consequences of the disease. Keywords coping; dementia; everyday life; patients’ perspective; social...

  2. Coping with Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lisbeth Villemoes; Waldorff, Frans Boch; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to analyse how patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) cope with the changes they face concerning everyday life and social relations. This study used a grounded theory approach in the analysis of interview data from 11 persons with mild AD, home-living with ......Abstract The aim of this study was to analyse how patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) cope with the changes they face concerning everyday life and social relations. This study used a grounded theory approach in the analysis of interview data from 11 persons with mild AD, home...

  3. Genome organization influences partner selection for chromosomal rearrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijchers, P.J.; de Laat, W.

    2010-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements occur as a consequence of the erroneous repair of DNA double-stranded breaks, and often underlie disease. The recurrent detection of specific tumorigenic rearrangements suggests that there is a mechanism behind chromosomal partner selection involving the shape of the

  4. Constituent rearrangement model and large transverse momentum reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Yuji; Imachi, Masahiro; Matsuoka, Takeo; Otsuki, Shoichiro; Sawada, Shoji.

    1978-01-01

    In this chapter, two models based on the constituent rearrangement picture for large p sub( t) phenomena are summarized. One is the quark-junction model, and the other is the correlating quark rearrangement model. Counting rules of the models apply to both two-body reactions and hadron productions. (author)

  5. Árni Magnússon's rearrangement of paper manuscripts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Beeke

    Árni Magnússon’s rearrangement of paper manuscripts draws attention to the early history of Árni Magnússon’s (1663-1730) manuscript collection. The thesis examines Árni’s extensive rearrangement of paper manuscripts, showing that he repeatedly altered the physical composition of codices in his...

  6. Circumambulatory rearrangements of cyclopolyenes containing element-centred migrants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minkin, Vladimir I; Mikhailov, Igor E; Dushenko, Galina A; Zschunke, Adolf

    2003-01-01

    Data on circumambulatory rearrangements caused by rapid migrations of substituents formed by Group 13-17 elements around three- to nine-membered cyclopolyenes are generalised and systematised. Depending on the ring size, the nature of the migrating group, substituents in the ring and the medium, the rate constants of circumambulatory rearrangements vary over a wide range from 10 6 to 10 -8 s -1 at room temperature. Particular attention is given to analysis of the mechanisms of these rearrangements ([1, j]-, [2,3]- and [3,3]-sigmatropic shifts, haptotropic rearrangements and ionisation-recombination) and to the correlation of these mechanisms with the structural characteristics of the compounds that undergo rearrangements.

  7. Impact of Age, and Cognitive and Coping Resources on Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouillet, Raphael; Doan-Van-Hay, Loane-Martine; Launay, Michel; Martin, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    To explore the predictive value of cognitive and coping resources for problem- and emotion-focused coping with age, we collected data from community-dwelling adults between 20 and 90 years old. We hypothesized that age, perceived stress, self-efficacy, working-memory capacity, and mental flexibility were predictors of coping. We collected data…

  8. What is Skilled Coping?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høffding, Simon

    2014-01-01

    or reflecting. He uses examples from various experts, such a chess-, baseball-, and soccer players, to illustrate this. I argue that his account suffers from a reductive dualism between coping and reflection and further from a lack of clarity. I use my work with the string quartet to illustrate that so...

  9. Coping With Your Feelings

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are many difficult feelings that you can have when going through cancer. Having an advanced or metastatic cancer diagnosis can cause them to be more intense than ever. Know that you're not alone. Learn tips on how to cope with your feelings with an advanced cancer diagnosis.

  10. Coping with Coastal Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nichols, Robert J.; Stive, Marcel J.F.; Tol, Richard S.J.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter focuses on how to cope with coastal change and its implications. There are two major types of response: mitigation representing source control of drivers, such as greenhouse gas emissions and groundwater withdrawal, and adaptation referring to behavioral changes that range from

  11. Coping with climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuan; Byg, Anja

    2014-01-01

    found across villages regarding the degree of perceived sensitivity and responses despite similar exposure to climate extremes. These differences are partly related to the nature of events and varied socio-economic characteristics of households, which influence their vulnerability and ability to cope...

  12. Coping with Feelings

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you need it. Medical reporter John Hammarley discusses anxiety and depression A patient advises coping with emotions John Hammarley ... or she can recommend treatment, perhaps including anti-anxiety medications. Depression When you first learn you have heart disease, ...

  13. Coping with Feelings

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as you can about your condition and treatments is a good way to feel more hopeful. Learn more about ... Care of Yourself - Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - Quitting Smoking ... 8 Low Blood Pressure - When Blood Pressure Is Too Low 9 Tachycardia | Fast Heart Rate 10 ...

  14. Coping with Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pollution > Coping with Indoor Air Pollution Font: Outdoor Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Asthma Triggers For Kids and Teachers Coping with Indoor Air Pollution Indoor air pollution is irritating to everyone: But people who ...

  15. Coping with Fear of Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Comes Next After Finishing Treatment Coping With Fear of Recurrence Having a Baby After Cancer: Pregnancy ... treatment and preparing for the future. Coping With Fear of Recurrence Learn ways to manage the fear ...

  16. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine protects against emphysema in mice via suppressing p16Ink4a expression in lung tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He ZH

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Zhi-Hui He,1 Yan Chen,2 Ping Chen,2 Sheng-Dong He,2 Hui-Hui Zeng,2 Ji-Ru Ye,2 Da Liu,2 Jun Cao3 1Intensive Care Unit, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 3Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hunan Provincial People’s Hospital, Changsha, China Background: There is a growing realization that COPD, or at least emphysema, involves several processes presenting in aging and cellular senescence. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs contribute to neovascularization and play an important role in the development of COPD. The gene for p16Ink4a is a major dominant senescence one. The aim of the present study was to observe changes in lung function, histomorphology of lung tissue, and expression of p16Ink4a in lung tissue and bone marrow-derived EPCs in emphysematous mice induced by cigarette-smoke extract (CSE, and further to search for a potential candidate agent protecting against emphysema induced by CSE. Materials and methods: An animal emphysema model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of CSE. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR was administered to the emphysematous mice. Lung function and histomorphology of lung tissue were measured. The p16Ink4a protein and mRNA in EPCs and lung tissues were detected using Western blotting and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Results: CSE induced emphysema with increased p16Ink4a expression in lung tissue and bone marrow-derived EPCs. 5-Aza-CdR partly protected against emphysema, especially in the lung-morphology profile, and partly protest against the overexpression of p16Ink4a in EPCs and lung tissue induced by CSE. Conclusion: 5-Aza-CdR partly protected against emphysema in mice via suppressing p16Ink4a expression in EPCs and lung tissue. Keywords: 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine, cigarette smoke, emphysema, endothelial progenitor cells, p16Ink4a

  17. Children's Coping with Academic Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery-Helmer, Jacquelyn N.; Grolnick, Wendy S.

    2016-01-01

    There is little consensus on how to conceptualize coping after perceived failure and less is known about the contextual resources that may support or undermine the use of specific coping strategies. This study examined parenting in relation to coping using the framework of self-determination theory and examined the motivational processes through…

  18. Effect of DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine on radiosensitivity of the human lung cancer cells in three-dimensional culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Dong; Xue Gang; Li Xiaoman; Chen Yaxiong; Ren Zhenxin; Du Yarong; Hu Burong

    2014-01-01

    5-Aza-CdR is a specific inhibitor of DNMTs which could suppress tumor growth by demethylation of genomic DNA. There have only few studies thus far concerning it as radiosensitizers in three-dimensional (3D) cells. The principal aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of 5-Aza-CdR on the radiosensitivity of A549 cells in monolayer (2D) and 3D cultures in an attempt to find out a new combination treatments with radiotherapy. The cell proliferation was detected by MTT assay after pretreated with different doses of 5-Aza-CdR for 72 h. A549 cells were treated with or without 5-Aza-CdR (2, 5 μmol/L) for 72 h before be exposed to X-rays of 1, 2, 4, 6 Gy, respectively. The DNA damage was evaluated by micronucleus assay and clonogenic assays. Pretreatment with 5-Aza-CdR inhibited the A549 cell proliferation significantly. More micronucleus were observed after irradiation in 3D cells pretreated with 2 and 5 μmol/L concentration of drug than those without treatment. The survival fractions of cells pretreated by both 2 and 5 μmol/L drug reduced significantly in 3D cultures after irradiation. These significances, however, were found in 2D cells pretreated by only 5 μmol/L drug. Our results suggest that 5-Aza-CdR can inhibit the A549 cells proliferation and apparently enhance the radiosensitivity of cells in 3D cultures. Using of the low dose 5-Aza-CdR in clinical radiotherapy may reduce side effects and enhance effectively the cancer target therapy. (authors)

  19. The combination effect of sodium butyrate and 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine on radiosensitivity in RKO colorectal cancer and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Seong

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The overall level of chromatin compaction is an important mechanism of radiosensitivity, and modification of DNA methylation and histone deacetylation may increase radiosensitivity by altering chromatin compaction. In this study, we investigated the effect of a demethylating agent, a histone deacetylase(HDAC inhibitor, and the two agents combined on radiosensitivity in human colon and breast cancer cell lines. Methods In this study, we used RKO colorectal cancer cell line and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines and normal colon cell lines. On each of the cell lines, we used three different agents: the HDAC inhibitor sodium butyrate(SB, the demethylating agent 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine(5-aza-DC, and radiation. We then estimated the percentage of the cell survival using the XTT method and experimented to determine if there was an augmentation in the therapeutic effect by using different combinations of the two or three of the treatment methods. Results After treatment of each cell lines with 5-aza-DC, SB and 6 grays of radiation, we observed that the survival fraction was lower after the treatment with 5-aza-DC or SB than with radiation alone in RKO and MCF-7 cell lines(p Conclusion In conclusion, 5-aza-DC and SB can enhance radiosensitivity in both MCF-7 and RKO cell lines. The combination effect of a demethylating agent and an HDAC inhibitor is more effective than that of single agent treatment in both breast and colon cancer cell lines.

  20. Complete nucleotide sequence and gene rearrangement of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, People's Republic of China ... of these rearrangements involve tRNA genes, ND5 gene and ... ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/Sequin/download/seq_win_download.

  1. Exohedral and skeletal rearrangements in the molecules of fullerene derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignat' eva, Daria V; Ioffe, I N; Troyanov, Sergey I; Sidorov, Lev N [Department of Chemistry, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-31

    The data on the migration of monoatomic addends, perfluoroalkyl and more complex organic groups in the molecules of fullerene derivatives published mainly in the last decade are analyzed. Skeletal rearrangements of the carbon cage occurring during chemical reactions are considered.

  2. Triisobutylaluminium (TIBAL Promoted Rearrangement of C-glycosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sinay

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Triisobutylaluminium-promoted rearrangement of unsaturated glycosides containing electron-donating aglycons, such as C-aryl glycosides, provides direct access to highly functionalised cyclohexane derivatives.

  3. Photobiological behavior of bacteria and phages supplemented with aza-analogues of nucleic acid bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittler, L; Hradecna, Z; Jacob, H E; Loeber, G

    1975-01-01

    The photochemical stability of anomalous nucleic acid bases of the azatype, 5-azacytosine (1), 5-azacytidine (II), 6-azacytosine (III), 6-azacytidine (IV), 6-azathymine (V), 6-azauracil (VI), and 8-aza-adenine (VII) to uv light of the wavelength 254 nm differs from the uv stability of the normal constituents. Changes of the uv inactivation of Escherichia coli K12 C600, E. coli B, Bacillus cereus, as well as E. coli phages lambda cb/sub 2/ and lambda b/sub 2/b/sub 5/ supplemented with azaderivatives prior to irradiation were investigated. It was found that I, II, III, IV, and VII are more, V and VI less sensitive to uv light compared with corresponding natural nucleic acid bases. Their changed uv sensitivities are reflected in the survival curves after uv irradiation in as far as azabases are incorporated into the nucleic acids in vivo. This explains the increase in uv sensitivity of E. coli K 12 C600, E. coli B, and B. cereus supplemented with I, II, III, IV, and VII and the decrease in uv sensitivity of Streptococcus faecalis supplemented with V (the latter information was taken from Gunther and Prusoff 1967). The lack of any significant influence of inactivation curves of E. coli K 12 C600 by V and VI, and on E. coli phages lambda cb/sub 2/ and lambda c/sub 2/b/sub 5/ by II, is discussed in terms of too small incorporation rates. No discrimination was put forward with respect to DNA and RNA incorporation.

  4. Combinatorial aspects of genome rearrangements and haplotype networks

    OpenAIRE

    Labarre , Anthony

    2008-01-01

    The dissertation covers two problems motivated by computational biology: genome rearrangements, and haplotype networks. Genome rearrangement problems are a particular case of edit distance problems, where one seeks to transform two given objects into one another using as few operations as possible, with the additional constraint that the set of allowed operations is fixed beforehand; we are also interested in computing the corresponding distances between those objects, i.e. merely computing t...

  5. Dehydrophenylnitrenes: matrix isolation and photochemical rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Wolfram; Winkler, Michael; Cakir, Bayram; Grote, Dirk; Bettinger, Holger F

    2007-02-02

    The photochemistry of 3-iodo-2,4,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl azide 8 and 3,5-diiodo-2,4,6-trifluorophenyl azide 9 was studied by IR and EPR spectroscopy in cryogenic argon and neon matrices. Both compounds form the corresponding nitrenes as primary photoproducts in photostationary equilibria with their azirine and ketenimine isomers. In contrast to fluorinated phenylnitrenes, ring-opened products are obtained upon short-wavelength irradiation of the iodine-containing systems, indicative of C-I bond cleavage in the nitrenes or didehydroazepines under these conditions. Neither 3-dehydrophenylnitrene 6 nor 3,5-didehydrophenylnitrene 7 could be detected directly. The structures of the acyclic photoproducts were identified by extensive comparison with DFT calculated spectra. Mechanistic aspects of the rearrangements leading to the observed products and the electronic properties of the title intermediates are discussed on the basis of DFT as well as high-level ab initio calculations. The computations indicate strong through-bond coupling of the exocyclic orbital in the meta position with the singly occupied in-plane nitrene orbital in the monoradical nitrenes. In contrast to the ortho or para isomers, this interaction results in low-spin ground states for meta nitrene radicals and a weakening of the C1-C2 bond causing the kinetic instability of these species even under low-temperature conditions. 3,5-Didehydrophenylnitrenes, on the other hand, in which a strong C3-C5 interaction reduces coupling of the radical sites with the nitrene unit, might be accessible synthetic targets if the intermediate formation of labile monoradicals could be circumvented.

  6. Synthesis of rearranged unsaturated drimane derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Domingos S. de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A full account to the preparation and application of three appropriately substituted vinylcyclohexenes (2,2-dimethyl-3-vinylcyclohex-3-en-1-ol, 2,2-dimethyl-3-vinylcyclohex-3-en-1-one and 3,3-dimethyl-2-vinylcyclohexene in thermal Diels-Alder reactions with alpha,beta-unsaturated esters (methyl tiglate and methyl angelate is given. This approach delivered the racemic synthesis of ten octalin derivatives bearing a rearranged drimane skeleton (4 diastereomers of 1-methoxycarbonyl-6-hydroxy-1,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1,2,3,5,6,7, 8,8a-octahydronaphthalene; 1-methoxycarbonyl-6-oxo-1,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydronaphthalene; 2-methoxycarbonyl-6-oxo-1,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1,2,3,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydronaphthalene; 3 diastereomers of 1-methoxycarbonyl-1,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1,2,3,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydronaphthalene and 2-methoxycarbonyl-1,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1,2,3,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydronaphthalene . Central synthetic features included preparation of enoltriflates by Stang's protocol and the successful palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction (Stille reaction of the triflate with the tri-n-butylvinylstannane. The octalins relative stereochemistry was unequivocally ascertained by spectroscopic methods and/or X-ray crystallography and these data now stand as useful tools to support the correct assignment of related natural products usually isolated in minute amounts.

  7. New eco-friendly animal bone meal catalysts for preparation of chalcones and aza-Michael adducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riadi Yassine

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two efficient reactions were successfully carried out using Animal Bone Meal (ABM and potassium fluoride or sodium nitrate doped ABMs as new heterogeneous catalysts under very mild conditions. After preparation and characterization of the catalysts, we first report their use in a simple and convenient synthesis of various chalcones by Claisen–Schmidt condensation and then in an aza-Michael addition involving several synthesized chalcones with aromatic amines. All the reactions were carried out at room temperature in methanol; the chalcone synthesis was also achieved in water environment under microwave irradiation. Doping ABM enhances the rate and yield at each reaction. Catalytic activities are discussed and the ability to re-use the ABM is demonstrated. Results For Claisen–Schmidt the use of ABM alone, yields never exceeded 17%. In each entry, KF/ABM and NaNO3/ABM (79-97% gave higher yields than using ABM alone under thermic condition. Also the reaction proceeded under microwave irradiation in good yields (72-94% for KF/ABM and 81-97% for NaNO3/ABM and high purity. For aza-Michael addition the use of ABM doped with KF or NaNO3 increased the catalytic activity remarkably. The very high yields could be noted (84-95% for KF/ABM and 81-94% for NaNO3/ABM. Conclusion The present method is an efficient and selective procedure for the synthesis of chalcones an aza-Michael adducts. The ABM and doped ABMs are a new, inexpensive and attractive solid supports which can contribute to the development of catalytic processes and reduced environmental problems.

  8. A Catalyst-Enabled Diastereodivergent Aza-Diels-Alder Reaction: Complementarity of N-Heterocyclic Carbenes and Chiral Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Zi-Qiang; Wang, Min; Chow, Chi Hao Eugene; Zhao, Yu

    2016-07-04

    Highly efficient and diastereodivergent aza-Diels-Alder reactions have been developed to access either diastereomeric series of benzofuran-fused δ-lactams and dihydropyridines in nearly perfect stereoselectivity (d.r. >20:1, >99 % ee for all examples). The complementarity of N-heterocyclic carbene and chiral amine as the catalyst was demonstrated for the first time, together with an excellent level of catalytic efficiency (1 mol % loading). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Electrochemical Synthesis, Structure Elucidation and Antibacterial Evaluation of 9a-aza-9a-chloro-9a-homoerythromycin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Mandic

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical synthesis, structure elucidation and antibacterial evaluation of 9a-aza-9a-chloro-9a-homoerythromycin A were carried out. It was found that the anodic oxidation of 9a-aza-9a-homoerythromycin A via electrogenerated reactive chlorine species leads to the chlorination of lactam nitrogen in high yield provided the pH of the reaction mixture is maintained above 3. NOESY spectra reveal the existence of the mixture of two conformational families in the solution, the "folding-out" conformer being slightly more abundant comparing to 9a-Aza-9a-homoerythromycin A. The chlorine substitution of lactam hydrogen resulted in improved antimicrobial potency against Sreptococcus pyogenes PSCB0542, Moraxella catarrhalis ATCC 25238, Haemophilus  influenzae ATCC 49247 and Enteroccocus faecalis ATCC 29212.

  10. Comparison of the anti-cancer effect of Disulfiram and 5-Aza-CdR on pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastjerdi, Mehdi Nikbakht; Babazadeh, Zahra; Salehi, Mansour; Hashemibeni, Batool; Kazemi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has poor prognosis by surgical and chemotherapy when it is diagnosed, so other anti-cancerous assistant therapeutic drugs are suggested e.g. epigenetic reversal of tumor-suppressor genes on promoter hypermethylation. 5-Aza-CdR is a nucleoside analog of DNMTi but it has long-term cytotoxicity effects. This study compares the anticancer effect of 5-Aza-CdR and Disulfiram potencies on PANC-1 cell line and up-regulation of p21. PANC-1 cell line was cultured in DMEM high glucose and treated by 5-Aza-CdR with 5 and 10 μM concentration for four days and 13 μM DSF (Diulfiram) for 24 hours. MS-PCR and RT-PCR were carried out to detect the methylation pattern and estimate the mRNA expression of RASSF1A and p21 in PANC-1. MS-PCR demonstrated partial unmethylation after treatment with 5-Aza-CdR while there was no unmethylated band after DSF treatment. RT-PCR showed significant differences between re-expression of RASSF1A before and after treatment with 10 μM 5-Aza-CdR (P 0.05). The significant correlation was observed between RASSF1A re-expression and p21 up-regulation before and after treatment with 10 μM 5-Aza-CdR (P 0.05), while p21 up-regulation was significantly higher after DSF treatment (P PANC-1. DSF showed no epigenetic reversion while it affected p21 up-regulation.

  11. DNA demethylation by 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment abrogates 17 beta-estradiol-induced cell growth and restores expression of DNA repair genes in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kamaleshwar P; Treas, Justin; Tyagi, Tulika; Gao, Weimin

    2012-03-01

    Prolonged exposure to elevated levels of estrogen is a risk factor for breast cancer. Though increased cell growth and loss of DNA repair capacity is one of the proposed mechanisms for estrogen-induced cancers, the mechanism through which estrogen induces cell growth and decreases DNA repair capacity is not clear. DNA hypermethylation is known to inactivate DNA repair genes and apoptotic response in cancer cells. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the role of DNA hypermethylation in estrogen-induced cell growth and regulation of DNA repair genes expression in breast cancer cells. To achieve this objective, the estrogen-responsive MCF-7 cells either pretreated with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) or untreated (as control) were exposed to 17 beta-estradiol (E2), and its effect on cell growth and expression of DNA repair genes were measured. The result revealed that 5-aza-dC abrogates the E2-induced growth in MCF-7 cells. An increased expression of OGG1, MSH4, and MLH1 by 5-aza-dC treatment alone, suggest the DNA hypermethylation as a potential cause for decreased expression of these genes in MCF-7 cells. The decreased expression of ERCC1, XPC, OGG1, and MLH1 by E2 alone and its restoration by co-treatment with 5-aza-dC further suggest that E2 reduces the expression of these DNA repair genes potentially through promoter hypermethylation. Reactivation of mismatch repair (MMR) gene MLH1 and abrogation of E2-induced cell growth by 5-aza-dC treatment suggest that estrogen causes increased growth in breast cancer cells potentially through the inhibition of MMR-mediated apoptotic response. In summary, this study suggests that estrogen increases cell growth and decreases the DNA repair capacity in breast cancer cells, at least in part, through epigenetic mechanism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. STRESS COPING SKILLS IN ADDICTS

    OpenAIRE

    A EBRAHIMI; SG MOOSAVI; R SAMOOEIE; A ,HASAN ZADEH

    2002-01-01

    Introduction. Stress coping skills is one of the most important factors in prediction of addictive behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine this pattern and to compare them with those of non-addicts. Methods. One hundred subjects with substance dependency and 100 non-addict subjects were selected. Both groups were matched on the basis of their socioeconomic state. Stress coping skills of study participants were examined using CS-R scale. Results. Stress coping skills in ...

  13. NYESO-1/LAGE-1s and PRAME are targets for antigen specific T cells in chondrosarcoma following treatment with 5-Aza-2-deoxycitabine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth M Pollack

    Full Text Available Chondrosarcoma has no proven systemic option in the metastatic setting. The development of a non-cross-resistant strategy, such as cellular immunotherapy using antigen-specific T cells would be highly desirable. NY-ESO-1 and PRAME are members of the Cancer Testis Antigen (CTA family that have been identified as promising targets for T cell therapy. LAGE-1 is a cancer testis antigen 90% homologous to NY-ESO-1, sharing the 157-165 A*0201 NY-ESO-1 epitope with its transcript variant, LAGE-1s. A number of CTA's have been induced using 5-Aza-2-Deoxycitabine (5-Aza-dC in other cancers. We sought to evaluate the feasibility of targeting chondrosarcoma tumors using NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1s and PRAME specific T cells using 5-Aza-dC to induce antigen expression.We used 11 flash frozen tumors from the University of Washington tumor bank to test for the expression of NY-ESO-1, PRAME, LAGE-1s and LAGE-1L in chondrosarcoma tumors. Using four chondrosarcoma cell lines we tested the expression of these CTA's with and without 5-Aza-dC treatments. Finally, using NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1s and PRAME specific effectors that we generated from sarcoma patients, we evaluated the ability of these T cells to lyse A*0201 expressing chondrosarcoma cell lines in vitro both with and without 5-Aza-dC treatment.A minority (36% of chondrosarcoma tumors expressed either NY-ESO-1 or LAGE-1s at >10% of our reference value and none expressed PRAME at that level. However, in all four of the chondrosarcoma cell lines tested, NY-ESO-1 and PRAME expression could be induced following treatment with 5-Aza-dC including in cell lines where expression was absent or barely detectable. Furthermore, NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1s and PRAME specific CD8+ effector T cells were able to specifically recognize and lyse A*0201 expressing chondrosarcoma cell lines following 5-Aza-dC treatment.These data suggest that adoptive immunotherapy in combination with 5-Aza-dC may be a potential strategy to treat unresectable or metastatic

  14. Demethylation by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine in colorectal cancer cells targets genomic DNA whilst promoter CpG island methylation persists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossman, David; Kim, Kyu-Tae; Scott, Rodney J

    2010-01-01

    DNA methylation and histone acetylation are epigenetic modifications that act as regulators of gene expression. Aberrant epigenetic gene silencing in tumours is a frequent event, yet the factors which dictate which genes are targeted for inactivation are unknown. DNA methylation and histone acetylation can be modified with the chemical agents 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) and Trichostatin A (TSA) respectively. The aim of this study was to analyse de-methylation and re-methylation and its affect on gene expression in colorectal cancer cell lines treated with 5-aza-dC alone and in combination with TSA. We also sought to identify methylation patterns associated with long term reactivation of previously silenced genes. Colorectal cancer cell lines were treated with 5-aza-dC, with and without TSA, to analyse global methylation decreases by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Re-methylation was observed with removal of drug treatments. Expression arrays identified silenced genes with differing patterns of expression after treatment, such as short term reactivation or long term reactivation. Sodium bisulfite sequencing was performed on the CpG island associated with these genes and expression was verified with real time PCR. Treatment with 5-aza-dC was found to affect genomic methylation and to a lesser extent gene specific methylation. Reactivated genes which remained expressed 10 days post 5-aza-dC treatment featured hypomethylated CpG sites adjacent to the transcription start site (TSS). In contrast, genes with uniformly hypermethylated CpG islands were only temporarily reactivated. These results imply that 5-aza-dC induces strong de-methylation of the genome and initiates reactivation of transcriptionally inactive genes, but this does not require gene associated CpG island de-methylation to occur. In addition, for three of our selected genes, hypomethylation at the TSS of an epigenetically silenced gene is associated with the long term reversion of

  15. Quantum concept of the rearrangement of a crystal lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gureev, M.D.; Mednikov, S.I.

    1995-01-01

    Using quantum considerations based on the concept of lattice rearrangement waves, we carried out an analysis of processes of rearrangement of a crystal lattice occurring on a moving front (interface) of crystal rearrangement. For the introduction and quantization of these waves we use the method of acoustomechanical analogy and the Sommerfeld quantum conditions. We calculate the energies and the propagation velocities of the lattice rearrangement waves. Along with quanta having a certain momentum, quanta that have a certain angular momentum are introduced into consideration. On the basis of the concepts developed, we suggest a new expression for calculating the probability of thermofluctuational processes in a crystal. We perform a numerical analysis of the rate of growth of the γ-phase in iron in the process of α-γ-conversion. Satisfactory agreement with experiment is obtained. We discuss the limitations and prospects of further development of the concept suggested. For direct experimental verification of the concept we propose to investigate the diffraction of electrons and other particles on the lattice rearrangement waves, i.e., in the process of phase conversions or disintegration of crystals

  16. School Principals' Emotional Coping Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirel, Emmanuel; Yvon, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the emotional coping of school principals in Quebec. Emotional coping was measured by stimulated recall; six principals were filmed during a working day and presented a week later with their video showing stressful encounters. The results show that school principals experience anger because of reproaches from staff…

  17. Hemodialysis: stressors and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muayyad M; Al Nazly, Eman K

    2015-01-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is an irreversible and life-threatening condition. In Jordan, the number of ESRD patients treated with hemodialysis is on the rise. Identifying stressors and coping strategies used by patients with ESRD may help nurses and health care providers to gain a clearer understanding of the condition of these patients and thus institute effective care planning. The purpose of this study was to identify stressors perceived by Jordanian patients on hemodialysis, and the coping strategies used by them. A convenience sample of 131 Jordanian men and women was recruited from outpatients' dialysis units in four hospitals. Stressors perceived by participants on hemodialysis and the coping strategies were measured using Hemodialysis Stressor Scale, and Ways of Coping Scale-Revised. Findings showed that patients on hemodialysis psychosocial stressors scores mean was higher than the physiological stressors mean. Positive reappraisal coping strategy had the highest mean among the coping strategies and the lowest mean was accepting responsibility. Attention should be focused towards the psychosocial stressors of patients on hemodialysis and also helping patients utilize the coping strategies that help to alleviate the stressors. The most used coping strategy was positive reappraisal strategy which includes faith and prayer.

  18. Development of the Coping Flexibility Scale: Evidence for the Coping Flexibility Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tsukasa

    2012-01-01

    "Coping flexibility" was defined as the ability to discontinue an ineffective coping strategy (i.e., evaluation coping) and produce and implement an alternative coping strategy (i.e., adaptive coping). The Coping Flexibility Scale (CFS) was developed on the basis of this definition. Five studies involving approximately 4,400 Japanese…

  19. Coping with Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunes, Ines Marques

    is to provide insights into the ecological role of soil microbes living in a community and its capabilities to cope with short- and long-term stresses. In the introduction, the problem of using RNA based approaches in soil ecology is presented in parallel with the importance of soil microbes for the ecosystem...... research directions is presented. This PhD-thesis resulted in four draft-manuscripts where RNA sequencing techniques were used to answer different research questions related to the response of soil microorganisms to different types of stress: MANUSCRIPT 1 explores the effect of soil sieving...... towards microwaving-heat were detected and corresponded to traits conserved at high taxonomical level. Moreover, using the detected tolerance ranges, it was possible to point nitrification as “at risk” in systems exposed to rapid heat stress, even though some functional redundancy may have occurred...

  20. Coping with power dispersion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The last decades have witnessed a significant shift in policy competences away from central governments in Europe. The reallocation of competences spans over three dimensions: upwards; sideways; and downwards. This collection takes the dispersion of powers as a starting point and seeks to assess...... how the actors involved cope with the new configurations. In this introduction, we discuss the conceptualization of power dispersion and highlight the ways in which the contributions add to this research agenda. We then outline some general conclusions and end by indicating future avenues of research....... Taken together, the collection contributes some answers to the challenge of defining and measuring – in a comparative way – the control and co-ordination mechanisms which power dispersion generates. It also explores the tension between political actors' quest for autonomy and the acknowledgement...

  1. Coping With Droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaporozec, Alexander

    This book is a collection of selected papers from the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Droughts entitled “Drought Impact Control Technology,” held at the National Laboratory of Civil Engineering in Lisbon, Portugal, in June 1980. The editors of the book have chosen a nontraditional but successful approach to presenting the papers. Instead of including a verbatim proceedings of the institute, they assembled 21 papers presented by 14 of the institute's lecturers, reshaped and synthesized them, and supplemented them by five new papers that cover obvious gaps in topics. The result is enlightening reading and a more or less complete presentation of the subject. The edited material in the book was arranged around three central themes related to efforts needed to cope with or manage the droughts. In the process, the identity of individual contributors has been preserved.

  2. Predicting coping style in adolescence following trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    Decades of research have established the importance of coping with stressful events. Individuals generally use the same overall coping styles across situations, and correlational studies have demonstrated a relationship between single individual characteristics and coping. However, there is a lac...

  3. Coping and Sexual Harassment: How Victims Cope across Multiple Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarduzio, Jennifer A; Sheff, Sarah E; Smith, Mathew

    2018-02-01

    The ways sexual harassment occurs both online and in face-to-face settings has become more complicated. Sexual harassment that occurs in cyberspace or online sexual harassment adds complexity to the experiences of victims, current research understandings, and the legal dimensions of this phenomenon. Social networking sites (SNS) are a type of social media that offer unique opportunities to users and sometimes the communication that occurs on SNS can cross the line from flirtation into online sexual harassment. Victims of sexual harassment employ communicative strategies such as coping to make sense of their experiences of sexual harassment. The current study qualitatively examined problem-focused, active emotion-focused, and passive emotion-focused coping strategies employed by sexual harassment victims across multiple settings. We conducted 26 in-depth interviews with victims that had experienced sexual harassment across multiple settings (e.g., face-to-face and SNS). The findings present 16 types of coping strategies-five problem-focused, five active emotion-focused, and six passive emotion-focused. The victims used an average of three types of coping strategies during their experiences. Theoretical implications extend research on passive emotion-focused coping strategies by discussing powerlessness and how victims blame other victims. Furthermore, theoretically the findings reveal that coping is a complex, cyclical process and that victims shift among types of coping strategies over the course of their experience. Practical implications are offered for victims and for SNS sites.

  4. Telomerase activation by genomic rearrangements in high-risk neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peifer, Martin; Hertwig, Falk; Roels, Frederik; Dreidax, Daniel; Gartlgruber, Moritz; Menon, Roopika; Krämer, Andrea; Roncaioli, Justin L.; Sand, Frederik; Heuckmann, Johannes M.; Ikram, Fakhera; Schmidt, Rene; Ackermann, Sandra; Engesser, Anne; Kahlert, Yvonne; Vogel, Wenzel; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Peter; Thierry-Mieg, Jean; Thierry-Mieg, Danielle; Mariappan, Aruljothi; Heynck, Stefanie; Mariotti, Erika; Henrich, Kai-Oliver; Glöckner, Christian; Bosco, Graziella; Leuschner, Ivo; Schweiger, Michal R.; Savelyeva, Larissa; Watkins, Simon C.; Shao, Chunxuan; Bell, Emma; Höfer, Thomas; Achter, Viktor; Lang, Ulrich; Theissen, Jessica; Volland, Ruth; Saadati, Maral; Eggert, Angelika; de Wilde, Bram; Berthold, Frank; Peng, Zhiyu; Zhao, Chen; Shi, Leming; Ortmann, Monika; Büttner, Reinhard; Perner, Sven; Hero, Barbara; Schramm, Alexander; Schulte, Johannes H.; Herrmann, Carl; O’Sullivan, Roderick J.; Westermann, Frank; Thomas, Roman K.; Fischer, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a malignant paediatric tumour of the sympathetic nervous system1. Roughly half of these tumours regress spontaneously or are cured by limited therapy. By contrast, high-risk neuroblastomas have an unfavourable clinical course despite intensive multimodal treatment, and their molecular basis has remained largely elusive2–4. Here we have performed whole-genome sequencing of 56 neuroblastomas (high-risk, n = 39; low-risk, n = 17) and discovered recurrent genomic rearrangements affecting a chromosomal region at 5p15.33 proximal of the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT). These rearrangements occurred only in high-risk neuroblastomas (12/39, 31%) in a mutually exclusive fashion with MYCN amplifications and ATRX mutations, which are known genetic events in this tumour type1,2,5. In an extended case series (n = 217), TERT rearrangements defined a subgroup of high-risk tumours with particularly poor outcome. Despite a large structural diversity of these rearrangements, they all induced massive transcriptional upregulation of TERT. In the remaining high-risk tumours, TERT expression was also elevated in MYCN-amplified tumours, whereas alternative lengthening of telomeres was present in neuroblastomas without TERT or MYCN alterations, suggesting that telomere lengthening represents a central mechanism defining this subtype. The 5p15.33 rearrangements juxtapose the TERT coding sequence to strong enhancer elements, resulting in massive chromatin remodelling and DNA methylation of the affected region. Supporting a functional role of TERT, neuroblastoma cell lines bearing rearrangements or amplified MYCN exhibited both upregulated TERT expression and enzymatic telomerase activity. In summary, our findings show that remodelling of the genomic context abrogates transcriptional silencing of TERT in high-risk neuroblastoma and places telomerase activation in the centre of transformation in a large fraction of these tumours. PMID:26466568

  5. Domino Aza-Michael-ih-Diels-Alder Reaction to Various 3-Vinyl-1,2,4-triazines: Access to Polysubstituted Tetrahydro-1,6-naphthyridines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouha, Jabrane; Buttard, Floris; Lorion, Magali; Berthonneau, Clément; Khouili, Mostafa; Hiebel, Marie-Aude; Guillaumet, Gérald; Brière, Jean-François; Suzenet, Franck

    2017-09-15

    A straightforward domino aza-Michael-inverse-electron-demand-hetero-Diels-Alder/retro-Diels-Alder reaction between primary and secondary propargylamine derivatives and 3-vinyl-1,2,4-triazines is developed highlighting not only the uniqueness of this dual-heterocyclic platform but also a novel and unprecedented path to polysubstituted tetrahydro-1,6-naphthyridine scaffolds.

  6. One-pot synthesis of spiropyrroloquinoline-isoindolinone and their aza-analogs via the Ugi-4CR/metal-free intramolecular bis-annulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandi, Mehdi; Zarezadeh, Nahid; Abbasi, Alireza

    2015-08-14

    This presentation discloses a one-pot synthesis of a series of spiropyrroloquinoline isoindolinone and spiropyrroloquinoline aza-isoindolinone scaffolds. The reaction proceeds by the combination of a Ugi four-component reaction (4CR) and two intramolecular cyclizations under metal-free conditions. The proof of the structures relies on analytical investigation and X-ray crystallography.

  7. IBX-mediated oxidation of unactivated cyclic amines: application in highly diastereoselective oxidative Ugi-type and aza-Friedel-Crafts reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaff, C; Bensch, L; van Lint, Matthijs J; Ruijter, E; Orru, R V A

    2015-10-28

    The first o-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX) mediated oxidation of unactivated amines to imines is described. A range of meso-pyrrolidines were shown to be suitable substrates. The chemical space was further explored with one-pot oxidative Ugi-type and aza-Friedel-Crafts reactions, which proved to be highly diastereoselective.

  8. Asymmetric Domino Aza-Michael Addition/[3+2] Cycloaddition Reactions as a Versatile Approach to alpha,beta,gamma,-Triamino Acid Derivatives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kapras, Vojtěch; Pohl, Radek; Císařová, I.; Jahn, Ullrich

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 4 (2014), s. 1088-1091 ISSN 1523-7060 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition * lithium amides * aza-Michael addition * amino acids * pyrazoles Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 6.364, year: 2014

  9. Recurrent DNA inversion rearrangements in the human genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores, Margarita; Morales, Lucía; Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that reiterated sequences in the human genome are targets for nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR), which facilitates genomic rearrangements. We have used a PCR-based approach to identify breakpoint regions of rearranged structures in the human genome...... to human genomic variation is discussed........ In particular, we have identified intrachromosomal identical repeats that are located in reverse orientation, which may lead to chromosomal inversions. A bioinformatic workflow pathway to select appropriate regions for analysis was developed. Three such regions overlapping with known human genes, located...

  10. Screening for subtle chromosomal rearrangements in an Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive study was carried out to screen for subtle chromosomal rearrangements in a group of Egyptian children with idiopathic mental retardation (IMR) to estimate its frequency if detected. The study enrolled 30 patients with IMR, with the perquisite criteria of being <18 years at referral, their IQ <70, and manifesting at ...

  11. Screening for genomic rearrangements at BRCA1 locus in Iranian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 92; Issue 1. Screening for genomic rearrangements at BRCA1 locus in Iranian women with breast cancer using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Vahid R. Yassaee Babak Emamalizadeh Mir Davood Omrani. Research Note Volume 92 Issue 1 ...

  12. Selenium-mediated synthesis of biaryls through rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Sohail A; Vivant, Clotilde; Wirth, Thomas

    2010-03-19

    A new cyclization of beta-keto ester substituted stilbene derivatives using selenium electrophiles in the presence of Lewis acids is described. Substituted naphthols are obtained through cyclization and subsequent 1,2-rearrangement of aryl groups under very mild reaction conditions.

  13. Conjugated polyaniline as a result of the benzidine rearrangement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sapurina, Irina; Tenkovtsev, A. V.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 4 (2015), s. 453-465 ISSN 0959-8103 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14199; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00270S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : aniline * aniline oligomers * benzidine rearrangement Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.414, year: 2015

  14. Frequent Chromatin Rearrangements in Myelodysplastic Syndromes - What Stands Behind?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pagáčová, Eva; Falk, Martin; Falková, Iva; Lukášová, Emilie; Michalová, K.; Oltová, A.; Raška, I.; Kozubek, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2014 (2014), s. 1-7 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP302/12/G157; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0030 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : myelodysplastic syndromes * chromosomal rearrangements * chromosome 5 deletions Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2014

  15. Genome rearrangements and phylogeny reconstruction in Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkareva, Olga O; Dranenko, Natalia O; Ocheredko, Elena S; Kanevsky, German M; Lozinsky, Yaroslav N; Khalaycheva, Vera A; Artamonova, Irena I; Gelfand, Mikhail S

    2018-01-01

    Genome rearrangements have played an important role in the evolution of Yersinia pestis from its progenitor Yersinia pseudotuberculosis . Traditional phylogenetic trees for Y. pestis based on sequence comparison have short internal branches and low bootstrap supports as only a small number of nucleotide substitutions have occurred. On the other hand, even a small number of genome rearrangements may resolve topological ambiguities in a phylogenetic tree. We reconstructed phylogenetic trees based on genome rearrangements using several popular approaches such as Maximum likelihood for Gene Order and the Bayesian model of genome rearrangements by inversions. We also reconciled phylogenetic trees for each of the three CRISPR loci to obtain an integrated scenario of the CRISPR cassette evolution. Analysis of contradictions between the obtained evolutionary trees yielded numerous parallel inversions and gain/loss events. Our data indicate that an integrated analysis of sequence-based and inversion-based trees enhances the resolution of phylogenetic reconstruction. In contrast, reconstructions of strain relationships based on solely CRISPR loci may not be reliable, as the history is obscured by large deletions, obliterating the order of spacer gains. Similarly, numerous parallel gene losses preclude reconstruction of phylogeny based on gene content.

  16. Ring Expansion and Rearrangements of Rhodium(II) Azavinyl Carbenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selander, Nicklas; Worrell, Brady T.

    2013-01-01

    An efficient, regioselective and convergent method for the ring expansion and rearrangement of 1-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles under rhodium(II)-catalyzed conditions is described. These denitrogenative reactions form substituted enaminone and olefin-based products, which in the former case can be further functionalized to unique products rendering the sulfonyl triazole traceless. PMID:23161725

  17. Consejo Mayor Comunitario del Porce -AZA- (Antioquia por la defensa del Territorio. Experiencia organizativa por la dignidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeny Pino Franco

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available En los municipios de Amalfi, Anori y Zaragoza del departamento de Antioquia (Colombia, se ha venido desarrollando el proyecto hidroeléctrico Porce IV, desde el 2006, con los estudios preliminares por parte de la Empresa Pública de Medellín (EPM; en el desarrollo de las primeras etapas del proyecto, las comunidades se agruparon y constituyeron lo que hoy es el Consejo Mayor Comunitario AZA (CMC, el cual, les facilitara una negociación con EPM con justicia social y dignidad para todos, donde las comunidades pudieran participar con propuestas para la negociación en los temas de indemnización y principalmente el tema de compensación.

  18. 4-Aza-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane–2-aminobenzoate–2-aminobenzoic acid (1/1/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi D. Arman

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A 4-aza-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane cation, a 2-aminobenzoate anion and a neutral 2-aminobenzoic acid molecule comprise the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C6H13N2+·C7H6NO2−·C7H7NO2. An intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond occurs in the anion and in the neutral 2-aminobenzoic acid molecule. The cation provides a charge-assisted N—H...O hydrogen bond to the anion, and the 2-aminobenzoic acid molecule forms an O—H...N hydrogen bond to the unprotonated amino N atom in the cation. In this way, a three-component aggregate is formed. These are connected into a three-dimensional network by amino–carboxylate N—H...O hydrogen bonds. N—H...N hydrogen bonds are also observed.

  19. Identity style and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzonsky, M D

    1992-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between identity style and strategies used to cope with stressors that potentially threaten one's sense of identity. Identity style refers to differences in the way individuals construct and revise or maintain their sense of identity. An informational style involves actively seeking out, evaluating, and utilizing self-relevant information. A normative style highlights the expectations and standards of significant others. A diffuse/avoidant style is characterized by procrastination and situation-specific reactions. Late-adolescent college subjects were administered measures of identity style, ways of coping with academic stressors, and test anxiety. Within this self-as-student context, subjects with diffuse and normative identity styles employed avoidant-oriented coping strategies (wishful thinking, distancing, and tension reduction). An informational style was associated with deliberate, problem-focused coping. Findings are discussed in terms of a process model of identity development.

  20. For Caregivers: Coping with Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Community Advocate Get Involved Donate Coping With Burnout Being a caregiver of someone with ALS is ... Solutions in Dealing with Burnout Common Causes of Burnout Perfectionism: A perfectionist continually focuses on what needs ...

  1. [Lung adenocarcinoma with concomitant EGFR mutation and ALK rearrangement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliez, J; Monnet, I; Pujals, A; Rousseau-Bussac, G; Jabot, L; Boudjemaa, A; Leroy, K; Chouaid, C

    2017-05-01

    Among patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, coexistence of EGFR mutation and ALK rearrangement is rare. We describe the clinical features of two patients with this double anomaly. A 62-year-old Caucasian non-smoking woman was diagnosed with cT4N0M0 lung adenocarcinoma. Initial biopsy showed EGFR mutation and ALK rearrangement. She received cisplatin-gemcitabine, followed by 17 months of gemcitabine. Owing to progression, she received erlotinib for 14 months, then paclitaxel for 6 months and finally crizotinib. A partial response was achieved and maintained for 24 months. A 45-year-old Caucasian woman, light smoker, was diagnosed with cT2N3M0 lung adenocarcinoma. Only EGFR mutation was found on initial analysis. She underwent treatment with cisplatin-gemcitabine and thoracic radiotherapy. Progression occurred after 8 months and afatinbib was started. Eight months later, progression was observed with a neoplasic pleural effusion in which tumor cells expressing ALK rearrangement were found. A new FISH analysis was performed on the initial tumor but did not find this rearrangement. Despite a third line of crizotinib, the patient died one month later. The literature shows 45 other cases of these two abnormalities, observed either from the start or during follow-up. EGFR's TKI were almost always given before ALK's TKI. Therapeutic strategy needs to be clarified in cases of double alteration. With regard to the second patient, appearance of ALK rearrangement may constitute a resistance mechanism to EGFR's TKI. Copyright © 2016 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Nuclear structure in cold rearrangement processes in fission and fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armbruster, P.

    1998-11-01

    In fission and fusion of heavy nuclei large numbers of nucleons are rearranged at a scale of excitation energy very small compared to the binding energy of the nuclei. The energies involved are less than 40 MeV at nuclear temperatures below 1.5 MeV. The shapes of the configurations in the rearrangement of a binary system into a monosystem in fusion, or vice versa in fission, change their elongations by as much as 8 fm, the radius of the monosystem. The dynamics of the reactions macroscopically described by a potential energy surface, inertia parameters, dissipation, and a collision energy is strongly modified by the nuclear structure of the participating nuclei. Experiments showing nuclear structure effects in fusion and fission of the heaviest nuclei are reviewed. The reaction kinematics and the multitude of isotopes involved are investigated by detector techniques and by recoil spectrometers. The advancement of the latter allows to find very small reaction branches in the range of 10{sup -5} to 10{sup -10}. The experiments reveal nuclear structure effects in all stages of the rearrangement processes. These are discussed pointing to analogies in fusion and fission on the microscopic scale, notwithstanding that both processes macroscopically are irreversible. Heavy clusters, as 132Sn, 208Pb, nuclei with closed shell configurations N=82,126, Z=50,82 survive in large parts of the nuclear rearrangement. They determine the asymmetry in the mass distribution of low energy fission, and they allow to synthesise superheavy elements, until now up to element 112. Experiments on the cold rearrangement in fission and fusion are presented. Here, in the range of excitation energies below 12 MeV the phenomena are observed most convincingly. (orig.)

  3. Constitutional chromothripsis rearrangements involve clustered double-stranded DNA breaks and nonhomologous repair mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, Wigard P; Tavakoli-Yaraki, Masoumeh; van Roosmalen, Markus J; van Binsbergen, Ellen; Renkens, Ivo; Duran, Karen; Ballarati, Lucia; Vergult, Sarah; Giardino, Daniela; Hansson, Kerstin; Ruivenkamp, Claudia A L; Jager, Myrthe; van Haeringen, Arie; Ippel, Elly F; Haaf, Thomas; Passarge, Eberhard; Hochstenbach, Ron; Menten, Björn; Larizza, Lidia; Guryev, Victor; Poot, Martin; Cuppen, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    Chromothripsis represents a novel phenomenon in the structural variation landscape of cancer genomes. Here, we analyze the genomes of ten patients with congenital disease who were preselected to carry complex chromosomal rearrangements with more than two breakpoints. The rearrangements displayed

  4. Ligand flexibility and framework rearrangement in a new family of porous metal-organic frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawxwell, Samuel M; Espallargas, Guillermo Mínguez; Bradshaw, Darren

    2007-01-01

    Ligand flexibility permits framework rearrangement upon evacuation and gas uptake in a new family of porous MOFs.......Ligand flexibility permits framework rearrangement upon evacuation and gas uptake in a new family of porous MOFs....

  5. Fine-tiling array CGH to improve diagnostics for alpha- and beta-thalassemia rearrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phylipsen, M.; Chaibunruang, A.; Vogelaar, I.P.; Balak, J.R.; Schaap, R.A.; Ariyurek, Y.; Fucharoen, S.; den Dunnen, J.T.; Giordano, P.C.; Bakker, E.; Harteveld, C.L.

    2012-01-01

    Implementation of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) for thalassemia causing deletions has lead to the detection of new rearrangements. Knowledge of the exact breakpoint sequences should give more insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying these rearrangements, and would

  6. Classic theory for chromosome rearrangements with spatially restricted volume for broken ends interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omel'yanchuk, L.V.

    1997-01-01

    D. Lea classic theory for chromosomal rearrangements formation was modified to account for local interaction of broken chromosome ends. This assumption makes it possible to drastically improve coincidence of the theory and experiment in the case of complex rearrangements

  7. Evaluating Child Coping Competence: Theory and Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, Angela D.; Dumas, Jean E.

    2008-01-01

    Much of the research on children's coping styles is based on a downward extension of adult coping theories. In a departure from this approach, coping competence theory seeks to account for children's ability to cope with daily challenges on the basis of developmental research. The theory, which states that challenges call for distinct coping…

  8. Children coping with a serious illness

    OpenAIRE

    Pretzlik, Ursula

    1996-01-01

    A solid empirical base is needed to expand our understanding of coping in children who are seriously ill. The six studies reported were designed to describe the ways seriously ill children cope with their illness and treatment, and to explore factors (both individual and familial) which influence their coping. The choice of instniments and design were influenced by the Lazanis and Folkman transactional model of stress and coping (1984), especially their concept of coping. In the first study t...

  9. Genomecmp: computer software to detect genomic rearrangements using markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulawik, Maciej; Nowak, Robert M.

    2017-08-01

    Detection of genomics rearrangements is a tough task, because of the size of data to be processed. As genome sequences may consist of hundreds of millions symbols, it is not only practically impossible to compare them by hand, but it is also complex problem for computer software. The way to significantly accelerate the process is to use rearrangement detection algorithm based on unique short sequences called markers. The algorithm described in this paper develops markers using base genome and find the markers positions on other genome. The algorithm has been extended by support for ambiguity symbols. Web application with graphical user interface has been created using three-layer architecture, where users could run the task simultaneously. The accuracy and efficiency of proposed solution has been studied using generated and real data.

  10. Semiclassical asymptotic behavior and the rearrangement mechanisms for Coulomb particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, A.V.; Gevorkyan, A.S.; Dubrovskii, G.V.

    1986-01-01

    The semiclassical asymptotic behavior of the eikonal amplitude of the resonance rearrangement in a system of three Coulomb particles is studied. It is shown that the general formula for the amplitude correctly describes two classical mechanisms (pickup and knockout) and one nonclassical mechanism (stripping). The classical mechanisms predominate at high energies, while the stripping mechanism predominates at lower energies. In the region of medium energies the dominant mechanism is the pickup (or Thomas) mechanism, which is realized by nonclassical means. For such transitions the classical cross section diverges, and the amplitude must be computed on a complex trajectory. The physical reasons for introducing the approximate complex trajectories are discussed. The contributions of all the mechanisms to the rearrangement cross section are found in their analytic forms

  11. Ionization-induced rearrangement of defects in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinetskij, V.L.; Manojlo, M.A.; Matvijchuk, A.S.; Strikha, V.I.; Kholodar', G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Ionizing factor effect on defect rearrangement in silicon including centers with deep local electron levels in the p-n-transition region is considered. Deep center parameters were determined using non-steady-state capacity spectroscopy of deep levels (NCDLS) method. NCDLS spectrum measurement was performed using source p + -n - diodes and after their irradiation with 15 keV energy electrons or laser pulses. It is ascertained that in silicon samples containing point defect clusters defect rearrangement under ionizing factor effect takes place, i.e. deep level spectra are changed. This mechanism is efficient in case of silicon irradiation with subthreshold energy photons and electrons and can cause degradation of silicon semiconducting structures

  12. Incremental exposure facilitates adaptation to sensory rearrangement. [vestibular stimulation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, J. R.; Lobovits, D. N.

    1978-01-01

    Visual-target pointing experiments were performed on 24 adult volunteers in order to compare the relative effectiveness of incremental (stepwise) and single-step exposure conditions on adaptation to visual rearrangement. The differences between the preexposure and postexposure scores served as an index of the adaptation elicited during the exposure period. It is found that both single-step and stepwise exposure to visual rearrangement elicit compensatory changes in sensorimotor coordination. However, stepwise exposure, when compared to single-step exposur in terms of the average magnitude of visual displacement over the exposure period, clearly enhances the rate of adaptation. It seems possible that the enhancement of adaptation to unusual patterns of sensory stimulation produced by incremental exposure reflects a general principle of sensorimotor function.

  13. Chromosome-specific staining to detect genetic rearrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Joe W.; Pinkel, Daniel; Tkachuk, Douglas; Westbrook, Carol

    2013-04-09

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyzes. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar but genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

  14. Co-culture of human CD34+ cells with mesenchymal stem cells increases the survival of CD34+ cells against the 5-aza-deoxycytidine- or trichostatin A-induced cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Sang Hyeok; Choi, Hyoung Soo; Park, Eun Sil; Kang, Hyoung Jin; Ahn, Hyo Seop; Shin, Hee Young

    2005-01-01

    It has been suggested that epigenetic regulation plays an important role in maintaining the stemness and lineage differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), 5-aza-deoxycytidine (aza-D) and Trichostatin A (TSA) being candidate additives for HSC ex vivo expansion. Although they have potent activity to maintain the stemness, they can also cause serious cell death. This study examined the effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on the maintenance of CD34+ cells driven by aza-D and TSA in culture with the combined cytokines of thrombopoietin, flt-3 ligand, stem cell factor, interleukin-3, and interleukin-6. In cultures without MSCs, although aza-D and TSA retained the CD34 frequency 4 to 8 times more than in the cytokines alone, a large portion of cells underwent apoptotic cell death. Consequently, CD34+ cell expansion could not be achieved in any condition without MSCs. In cultures with MSCs, the total cell number was higher in aza-D or TSA than in any conditions in the cultures without MSCs. The CD34 frequency was also similar to the level in the cultures in aza-D or TSA without the MSCs. These results suggest that a co-culture of CD34+ cells with the MSCs might not simply deliver the proliferation signals but also stemness and survival signals, and overlap the action of epigenetic regulators

  15. A system for the detection of chromosomal rearrangements using Sordaria macrospora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaise, S.; Leblon, G.; Lares, L.

    1984-01-01

    A system is described for the detection and diagnosis of induced chromosomal rearrangement using Sordaria macrospora. The system uses the property of the rearrangement to produce defective white ascospores as meiotic progeny from heterozygous crosses. Two reconstruction experiments have shown that this system is able to give reliable quantitative measures of rearrangement frequencies. Evidence for a photoreactivation process was obtained, suggesting that pyrimidine dimers may well be an important lesion in UV-induced chromosomal rearrangement. No evidence of induction of chromosomal rearrangement was obtained in experiments with the powerful chemical mutagen N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. (orig.)

  16. A system for the detection of chromosomal rearrangements using Sordaria macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaise, S; Leblon, G; Lares, L

    1984-01-01

    A system is described for the detection and diagnosis of induced chromosomal rearrangement using Sordaria macrospora. The system uses the property of the rearrangement to produce defective white ascospores as meiotic progeny from heterozygous crosses. Two reconstruction experiments have shown that this system is able to give reliable quantitative measures of rearrangement frequencies. Evidence for a photoreactivation process was obtained, suggesting that pyrimidine dimers may well be an important lesion in UV-induced chromosomal rearrangement. No evidence of induction of chromosomal rearrangement was obtained in experiments with the powerful chemical mutagen N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine.

  17. Level rearrangement in exotic atoms and quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combescure, Monique; Khare, Avinash; Raina, Ashok; Richard Jean-Marc; Weydert, Carole

    2007-01-01

    A presentation and a generalisation are given of the phenomenon of level rearrangement, which occurs when an attractive long-range potential is supplemented by a short-range attractive potential of increasing strength. This problem has been discovered in condensate-matter physics and has also been studied in the physics of exotic atoms. A similar phenomenon occurs in a situation inspired by quantum dots, where a short-range interaction is added to an harmonic confinement. (authors)

  18. Detection of genomic rearrangements in cucumber using genomecmp software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulawik, Maciej; Pawełkowicz, Magdalena Ewa; Wojcieszek, Michał; PlÄ der, Wojciech; Nowak, Robert M.

    2017-08-01

    Comparative genomic by increasing information about the genomes sequences available in the databases is a rapidly evolving science. A simple comparison of the general features of genomes such as genome size, number of genes, and chromosome number presents an entry point into comparative genomic analysis. Here we present the utility of the new tool genomecmp for finding rearrangements across the compared sequences and applications in plant comparative genomics.

  19. Recent applications of ring-rearrangement metathesis in organic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambasivarao Kotha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ring-rearrangement metathesis (RRM involves multiple metathesis processes such as ring-opening metathesis (ROM/ring-closing metathesis (RCM in a one-pot operation to generate complex targets. RRM delivers complex frameworks that are difficult to assemble by conventional methods. The noteworthy point about this type of protocol is multi-bond formation and it is an atom economic process. In this review, we have covered literature that appeared during the last seven years (2008–2014.

  20. Coping and health in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancura, Loriena A; Aldwin, Carolyn M

    2008-02-01

    Although coping has been shown to influence physical health in younger populations, whether coping affects health in older adults appears to depend upon how coping and health are conceptualized. This article reviews recent literature on coping and health in older adults in three areas. First, we discuss coping's distinct relevance to health in older adults. Second, we describe ways in which coping may differ between older and younger populations. Third, we detail recent and notable findings of coping's specific effects on biomedical health and health in general. The recent literature suggests that coping may be a developmental and multifaceted process. Positive coping strategies may have positive and even protective effects on health, whereas negative strategies may have negative effects.

  1. Quantifying stretching and rearrangement in epithelial sheet migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Rachel M; Nordstrom, Kerstin N; Losert, Wolfgang; Kelley, Douglas H; Ouellette, Nicholas T

    2013-01-01

    Although understanding the collective migration of cells, such as that seen in epithelial sheets, is essential for understanding diseases such as metastatic cancer, this motion is not yet as well characterized as individual cell migration. Here we adapt quantitative metrics used to characterize the flow and deformation of soft matter to contrast different types of motion within a migrating sheet of cells. Using a finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) analysis, we find that—in spite of large fluctuations—the flow field of an epithelial cell sheet is not chaotic. Stretching of a sheet of cells (i.e. positive FTLE) is localized at the leading edge of migration and increases when the cells are more highly stimulated. By decomposing the motion of the cells into affine and non-affine components using the metric D m in 2 , we quantify local plastic rearrangements and describe the motion of a group of cells in a novel way. We find an increase in plastic rearrangements with increasing cell densities, whereas inanimate systems tend to exhibit less non-affine rearrangements with increasing density. (paper)

  2. Elevated Rate of Genome Rearrangements in Radiation-Resistant Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repar, Jelena; Supek, Fran; Klanjscek, Tin; Warnecke, Tobias; Zahradka, Ksenija; Zahradka, Davor

    2017-04-01

    A number of bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic species are known for their resistance to ionizing radiation. One of the challenges these species face is a potent environmental source of DNA double-strand breaks, potential drivers of genome structure evolution. Efficient and accurate DNA double-strand break repair systems have been demonstrated in several unrelated radiation-resistant species and are putative adaptations to the DNA damaging environment. Such adaptations are expected to compensate for the genome-destabilizing effect of environmental DNA damage and may be expected to result in a more conserved gene order in radiation-resistant species. However, here we show that rates of genome rearrangements, measured as loss of gene order conservation with time, are higher in radiation-resistant species in multiple, phylogenetically independent groups of bacteria. Comparison of indicators of selection for genome organization between radiation-resistant and phylogenetically matched, nonresistant species argues against tolerance to disruption of genome structure as a strategy for radiation resistance. Interestingly, an important mechanism affecting genome rearrangements in prokaryotes, the symmetrical inversions around the origin of DNA replication, shapes genome structure of both radiation-resistant and nonresistant species. In conclusion, the opposing effects of environmental DNA damage and DNA repair result in elevated rates of genome rearrangements in radiation-resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Repar et al.

  3. Highly variable rates of genome rearrangements between hemiascomycetous yeast lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemiascomycete yeasts cover an evolutionary span comparable to that of the entire phylum of chordates. Since this group currently contains the largest number of complete genome sequences it presents unique opportunities to understand the evolution of genome organization in eukaryotes. We inferred rates of genome instability on all branches of a phylogenetic tree for 11 species and calculated species-specific rates of genome rearrangements. We characterized all inversion events that occurred within synteny blocks between six representatives of the different lineages. We show that the rates of macro- and microrearrangements of gene order are correlated within individual lineages but are highly variable across different lineages. The most unstable genomes correspond to the pathogenic yeasts Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. Chromosomal maps have been intensively shuffled by numerous interchromosomal rearrangements, even between species that have retained a very high physical fraction of their genomes within small synteny blocks. Despite this intensive reshuffling of gene positions, essential genes, which cluster in low recombination regions in the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, tend to remain syntenic during evolution. This work reveals that the high plasticity of eukaryotic genomes results from rearrangement rates that vary between lineages but also at different evolutionary times of a given lineage.

  4. On colour rearrangement in hadronic W+W- events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoestrand, T.; Khoze, V.A.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of colour rearrangement in e + e - →W + W - →q 1 anti q 2 q 3 anti q 4 events, i.e. that the original colour singlets q 1 anti q 2 and q 3 anti q 4 may be transmuted, for instance, into new singlets q 1 anti q 4 and q 3 anti q 2 . The effects on event properties could be quite large if such a rearrangement would occur instantaneously, so that gluon emission would be restricted to each of the new singlets separately. We argue that such a scenario is unlikely for two reasons. Firstly, the W + and W - usually decay at separate times after the W + W - production, which leads to large relative phases for energetic radiation off the two constituents of a rearranged system, and a corresponding dampening of the QCD cascades. Secondly, within the perturbative scenario the colour transmutation appears only in order α s 2 and is colour-suppressed. Colour reconnection at longer time scales is quite feasible, however, and may affect the fragmentation phase. If so, the nature of non-perturbative QCD can be probed in a new way. We formulate several alternative toy models and use these to estimate the colour reconnection probability as a function of the event kinematics. Possible consequences for LEP 2 events are illustrated, with special attention to systematic errors in W mass determinations. (orig.)

  5. Synthesis of Imidazopyridines via Copper-Catalyzed, Formal Aza-[3 + 2] Cycloaddition Reaction of Pyridine Derivatives with α-Diazo Oxime Ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangjune; Kim, Hyunseok; Son, Jeong-Yu; Um, Kyusik; Lee, Sooho; Baek, Yonghyeon; Seo, Boram; Lee, Phil Ho

    2017-10-06

    The Cu-catalyzed, formal aza-[3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction of pyridine derivatives with α-diazo oxime ethers in trifluoroethanol was used to synthesize imidazopyridines via the release of molecular nitrogen and elimination of alcohol. These methods enabled modular synthesis of a wide range of N-heterobicyclic compounds such as imidazopyridazines, imidazopyrimidines, and imidazopyrazines with an α-imino Cu-carbenoid generated from the α-diazo oxime ethers and copper.

  6. Dependence of the reactivity of five-remembered aromatic heterocycles on their structure. 2. Effect of aza substitution on the proton affinity of aminofurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokhen, M.A.; Andrianov, V.G.; Eremeev, A.V.; Barmina, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    The proton affinities of a series of aminofurans and their aza derivatives were calculated by a nonempirical method in the STO-3G basis set. A correlation was established between the proton affinities and the position of the heteroatoms in the ring. The calculation was performed by means of the Gaussian-76 program in the STO-3G basis set with the use of the geometric parameters obtained with full optimization of the molecular geometry in terms of the semiempirical MNDO method

  7. 5,6-Dihydro-5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine potentiates the anti-HIV-1 activity of ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Rawson, Jonathan M.; Heineman, Richard H.; Beach, Lauren B.; Martin, Jessica L.; Schnettler, Erica K.; Dapp, Michael J.; Patterson, Steven E.; Mansky, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    The nucleoside analog 5,6-dihydro-5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (KP-1212) has been investigated as a first-in-class lethal mutagen of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Since a prodrug monotherapy did not reduce viral loads in Phase II clinical trials, we tested if ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors (RNRIs) combined with KP-1212 would improve antiviral activity. KP-1212 potentiated the activity of gemcitabine and resveratrol and simultaneously increased the viral mutant frequency. G-to-C ...

  8. Tautomerism provides a molecular explanation for the mutagenic properties of the anti-HIV nucleoside 5-aza-5,6-dihydro-2′-deoxycytidine

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Deyu; Fedeles, Bogdan I.; Singh, Vipender; Peng, Chunte Sam; Silvestre, Katherine J.; Simi, Allison K.; Simpson, Jeffrey H.; Tokmakoff, Andrei; Essigmann, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Unlike conventional antiviral therapy, lethal mutagenesis is a therapeutic strategy that exploits the high mutation rates of certain viruses. It works by intentionally increasing the viral mutation rate, causing excessive error accumulation and viral population collapse. The mutagenic nucleoside analog 5-aza-5,6-dihydro-2′-deoxycytidine (KP1212) is specifically designed to use lethal mutagenesis against HIV. The mechanism of KP1212 mutagenesis was proposed to involve tautomerism—the repositio...

  9. Asymmetric NHC-catalyzed aza-Diels-Alder reactions: Highly enantioselective route to α-amino acid derivatives and DFT calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Limin

    2014-08-01

    A facile N-heterocyclic carbene catalytic enantioselective aza-Diels-Alder reaction of oxodiazenes with α-chloroaldehydes as dienophile precursors is reported, with excellent enantioselectivity (ee > 99%) and excellent yield (up to 93%). DFT study showed that cis-TSa, formed from a top face approach of oxodiazene to cis-IIa, is the most favorable transition state and is consistent with the experimental observations. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  10. Aza-Peptidyl Michael Acceptor and Epoxide Inhibitors—Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Schistosoma mansoni and Ixodes ricinus Legumains (Asparaginyl Endopeptidases)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ovat, A.; Muindi, F.; Fagan, C.; Brouner, M.; Hansell, E.; Dvořák, J.; Sojka, Daniel; Kopáček, Petr; McKerrow, J. H.; Caffrey, C. R.; Powers, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 22 (2009), s. 7192-7210 ISSN 0022-2623 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/0865; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : legumain * IrAE * aza-peptide Michael acceptors Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 4.802, year: 2009

  11. A phosphine mediated sequential annulation process of 2-tosylaminochalcones with MBH carbonates to construct functionalized aza-benzobicyclo[4.3.0] derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinglong; Zhu, Yannan; Jin, Hongxing; Huang, You

    2017-04-04

    A novel phosphine mediated sequential annulation process to construct functionalized aza-benzobicyclo[4.3.0] derivatives has been developed involving a one-pot sequential catalytic and stoichiometric process, which generates a series of benzobicyclo[4.3.0] compounds containing one quaternary center with up to 94% yield and 20 : 1 dr value. In this reaction, MBH carbonates act as 1,2,3-C 3 synthons.

  12. Optimization of catalyst-solvent system for preparation of alpha-5,6-dihydro-5-aza-2'-deoxy-[6-3H]-cytidine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elbert, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 5 (2011), s. 285-285 ISSN 0362-4803. [Workshop of the International Isotope Society - Central European Division. The Synthesis and Applications of Isotopes and Isotopically Labelled Compounds /17./. 23.09.2010-24.09.2010, Bad Soden] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : tritium * labelled compounds * alfa-5,6-dihydro-5-aza-2'-deoxy-cytidine Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  13. PSYCHODIAGNOSTICS OF RELIGIOUS COPING STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Oleksiy Kuznetsov

    2018-01-01

    The paper characterizes the adaptation of Assessment of Beliefs and Behaviors in Coping. Its validity and reliability are shown. The scales of religious copings have been studied, namely: “Religion as a source of personal relationship with a higher power”, “Religion as a source of worldview that makes sense of life”, “Religion as a source of a sense of control in life”, “Religion as a source of a sense of community”, “Religion as a source of a sense of community”, “Religion as a source of a s...

  14. Coping, social relations, and communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thastum, Mikael; Jensen-Johansen, Mikael Birkelund; Gubba, Lotte

    2008-01-01

    and concerns for the child. Twenty-one children from 15 families and their parents were interviewed. In 13 families the mother was ill, in two the father. Children were aware of the facts of the illness, but there was limited emotional communication between the generations. The children were very observant...... examples of parentification were found. Communication patterns and parental coping seemed to be highly related to the child's coping repertoire. Even though most children seemed to manage rather well, all children were strongly affected by the illness. The `healthiest' adaptation related to factors within...

  15. Coping with acute stress in the military : The influence of coping style, coping self-efficacy and appraisal emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delahaij, R.; Dam, K. van

    2017-01-01

    It is of utmost importance to better understand how professionals in high-risk organizations, such as the military and police, appraise and cope with acute stress situations. The goal of this two-wave study was to investigate the role of two individual characteristics, coping style and coping

  16. Grief: Helping Young Children Cope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Frances B.

    2008-01-01

    In their role as caregivers supporting the children they teach, it is important for teachers to understand the grieving process and recognize symptoms of grief. The author explains Elisabeth Kubler-Ross's five stages of grief and offers 10 classroom strategies to help young children cope with their feelings.

  17. Eating Disorders as Coping Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Amy M.; Much, Kari

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the complex nature of eating disorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eating disorders are utilized by clients with varying…

  18. Stress, Coping, and Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClary, Sybil A.

    1990-01-01

    Adult educators can help students cope with stress by (1) designing programs that are responsive to stress factors; (2) including information on stress effects in orientation sessions; (3) developing individualized programs of study; (4) integrating education into students' work and other life roles; (5) providing personal attention, advising, and…

  19. Coping with Stress in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Jack

    1983-01-01

    Signs and sources of stress among approximately 220 special educators were identified, the most prevalent being feelings of exhaustion, frustration, disturbed sleep, and withdrawal. Coping resources included personal, interpersonal, organizational, and community approaches. Conclusions stressed the need for more administrative support, counseling,…

  20. Pain and Coping in Rituals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jegindø, Else-Marie Elmholdt

    by biological, psychological, social and cultural factors, which indicates that a bottom-up and a top-down approach in the study of pain and religion should interact instead of co-exist. This paper presents the initial framework of an interdisciplinary study of pain and coping in the religious mind...

  1. Coping with Cosmetic Effects of Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español Coping With Cosmetic Effects of Cancer Treatment KidsHealth / For Parents / Coping With Cosmetic Effects of Cancer Treatment What's in this article? Hair Loss Skin Problems ...

  2. Theoretical Study on the Aza-Diels-Alder Reaction Catalyzed by PHCl2 Lewis Acid via Pnicogen Bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghoobi, Fereshteh; Sohrabi Mahboub, Mahdi

    2018-03-15

    The reaction mechanism of the Aza-Diels-Alder (A-D-A) cycloaddition reaction between X 2 C═NNH 2 , where X = H, F, Cl, Br, and 1,3-butadiene catalyzed by a PHCl 2 Lewis acid was characterized using density functional theory calculations. The influences of various substituents of X on the studied reaction were analyzed using the activation strain model (ASM), which is also termed as the distortion-interaction model. Calculations showed that the smallest and largest values of the activation energies belong to the substituents of F and Br, respectively. The activation energy of the studied reactions was decreased within 8.6 kcal·mol -1 in the presence of PHCl 2 catalyst. Investigations showed that the pnicogen bonding is adequately capable of activating the A-D-A reaction. The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) and natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis were implemented to understand the nature of C 4,Cbut ···C XIm and C 1,Cbut ···N XIm bonds at the TS structures. Additionally, the energy decomposition analysis (EDA) based on the ETS-NOCV scheme was used to characterize the nature of C 4,Cbut ···C XIm and C 1,Cbut ···N XIm bond. The results of the study mirror the fact that the PHCl 2 Lewis acid may be suggested as a simple suitable catalyst for experimental studies on the A-D-A reactions.

  3. Near-infrared fluorescent aza-BODIPY dye-loaded biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles for optical cancer imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamon, Casey L.; Dorsey, Christopher L.; Özel, Tuğba; Barnes, Eugenia M.; Hudnall, Todd W.; Betancourt, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles are being readily investigated as carriers for the delivery of imaging and therapeutic agents for the detection, monitoring, and treatment of cancer and other diseases. In the present work, the preparation of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles loaded with a near-infrared fluorescent aza-boron dipyrromethene (NIR-BODIPY) derivative, and their use as contrast agents for optical imaging in cancer are described. Nanoparticles were prepared by nanoprecipitation of amphiphilic block copolymers of poly(lactic acid) and poly(ethylene glycol). The size, morphology, dye loading, spectral properties, quantum yield, cytocompatibility, and in vitro NIR imaging potential of the nanoparticles in breast and ovarian cancer cells were evaluated. Spherical nanoparticles of 30–70 nm in diameter were loaded with 0.73 w/w% BODIPY derivative. At this loading, the dye presented a fluorescence quantum yield in the same order of magnitude as in solution. Nanoparticle suspensions at concentrations up to 580 μg/mL were cytocompatible to breast (MDA-MB-231) and ovarian (SKOV-3 and Caov-3) cancer cells after a four-hour incubation period. Fluorescence microscopy images demonstrated the ability of the nanoparticles to act as imaging agents in all three cell lines in as little as 1 hour. The results shown indicate the potential of these NIR-BODIPY-loaded nanoparticles as contrast agents for near-infrared optical imaging in cancer.Graphical abstract

  4. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine acts as a modulator of chondrocyte hypertrophy and maturation in chick caudal region chondrocytes in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Samina Hyder

    2016-06-01

    This study was carried out to explore the effect of DNA hypomethylation on chondrocytes phenotype, in particular the effect on chondrocyte hypertrophy, maturation, and apoptosis. Chondrocytes derived from caudal region of day 17 embryonic chick sterna were pretreated with hypomethylating drug 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine for 48 hours and then maintained in the normal culture medium for up to 14 days. Histological studies showed distinct morphological changes occurred in the pretreated cultures when compared to the control cultures. The pretreated chondrocytes after 7 days in culture became bigger in size and acquired more flattened fibroblastic phenotype as well as a loss of cartilage specific extracellular matrix. Scanning electron microscopy at day 7 showed chondrocytes to have increased in cell volume and at day 14 in culture the extracellular matrix of the pretreated cultures showed regular fibrillar structure heavily embedded with matrix vesicles, which is the characteristic feature of chondrocyte hypertrophy. Transmission electron microscopic studies indicated the terminal fate of the hypertrophic cells in culture. The pretreated chondrocytes grown for 14 days in culture showed two types of cells: dark cells which had condense chromatin in dark patches and dark cytoplasm. The other light chondrocytes appeared to be heavily loaded with endoplasmic reticulum indicative of very active protein and secretory activity; their cytoplasm had large vacuoles and disintegrating cytoplasm. The biosynthetic profile showed that the pretreated cultures were actively synthesizing and secreting type X collagen and alkaline phosphatase as a major biosynthetic product.

  5. Near-infrared fluorescent aza-BODIPY dye-loaded biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles for optical cancer imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamon, Casey L.; Dorsey, Christopher L. [Texas State University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States); Özel, Tuğba [Texas State University, Materials Science, Engineering, and Commercialization Program (United States); Barnes, Eugenia M.; Hudnall, Todd W.; Betancourt, Tania, E-mail: tb26@txstate.edu [Texas State University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Nanoparticles are being readily investigated as carriers for the delivery of imaging and therapeutic agents for the detection, monitoring, and treatment of cancer and other diseases. In the present work, the preparation of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles loaded with a near-infrared fluorescent aza-boron dipyrromethene (NIR-BODIPY) derivative, and their use as contrast agents for optical imaging in cancer are described. Nanoparticles were prepared by nanoprecipitation of amphiphilic block copolymers of poly(lactic acid) and poly(ethylene glycol). The size, morphology, dye loading, spectral properties, quantum yield, cytocompatibility, and in vitro NIR imaging potential of the nanoparticles in breast and ovarian cancer cells were evaluated. Spherical nanoparticles of 30–70 nm in diameter were loaded with 0.73 w/w% BODIPY derivative. At this loading, the dye presented a fluorescence quantum yield in the same order of magnitude as in solution. Nanoparticle suspensions at concentrations up to 580 μg/mL were cytocompatible to breast (MDA-MB-231) and ovarian (SKOV-3 and Caov-3) cancer cells after a four-hour incubation period. Fluorescence microscopy images demonstrated the ability of the nanoparticles to act as imaging agents in all three cell lines in as little as 1 hour. The results shown indicate the potential of these NIR-BODIPY-loaded nanoparticles as contrast agents for near-infrared optical imaging in cancer.Graphical abstract.

  6. Dyadic coping and relationship functioning in couples coping with cancer: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traa, M.J.; de Vries, J.; Bodenmann, G.; den Oudsten, B.L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Cancer not only affects the patient but also the partner. In fact, couples may react as a unit rather than as individuals while coping with cancer (i.e., dyadic coping). We assessed (1) the relationship between dyadic coping and relationship functioning in couples coping with cancer and

  7. With a little coping from my friends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Tanja; Waldstrøm, Christian; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we explore the distributed nature of coping and thereby expand the understanding of coping as more than a transaction between the individual and a specific stressful situation. We argue that coping is not just an individual process, but is embedded in the organizational and thereby...

  8. Mothers' Coping and Hope in Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einav, Michal; Levi, Uzi; Margalit, Malka

    2012-01-01

    The goals of the study were to examine the relations between maternal coping and hope among mothers who participated in early intervention program for their infants. Earlier studies focused attention on mothers' experiences of stress and their coping. Within the salutogenic construct, we aim at examining relations between mothers' coping and hope…

  9. Refining borders of genome-rearrangements including repetitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Arjona-Medina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA rearrangement events have been widely studied in comparative genomic for many years. The importance of these events resides not only in the study about relatedness among different species, but also to determine the mechanisms behind evolution. Although there are many methods to identify genome-rearrangements (GR, the refinement of their borders has become a huge challenge. Until now no accepted method exists to achieve accurate fine-tuning: i.e. the notion of breakpoint (BP is still an open issue, and despite repeated regions are vital to understand evolution they are not taken into account in most of the GR detection and refinement methods. Methods and results We propose a method to refine the borders of GR including repeated regions. Instead of removing these repetitions to facilitate computation, we take advantage of them using a consensus alignment sequence of the repeated region in between two blocks. Using the concept of identity vectors for Synteny Blocks (SB and repetitions, a Finite State Machine is designed to detect transition points in the difference between such vectors. The method does not force the BP to be a region or a point but depends on the alignment transitions within the SBs and repetitions. Conclusion The accurate definition of the borders of SB and repeated genomic regions and consequently the detection of BP might help to understand the evolutionary model of species. In this manuscript we present a new proposal for such a refinement. Features of the SBs borders and BPs are different and fit with what is expected. SBs with more diversity in annotations and BPs short and richer in DNA replication and stress response, which are strongly linked with rearrangements.

  10. Recurrence risk in de novo structural chromosomal rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röthlisberger, Benno; Kotzot, Dieter

    2007-08-01

    According to the textbook of Gardner and Sutherland [2004], the standard on genetic counseling for chromosome abnormalities, the recurrence risk of de novo structural or combined structural and numeric chromosome rearrangements is less than 0.5-2% and takes into account recurrence by chance, gonadal mosaicism, and somatic-gonadal mosaicism. However, these figures are roughly estimated and neither any systematic study nor exact or evidence-based risk calculations are available. To address this question, an extensive literature search was performed and surprisingly only 29 case reports of recurrence of de novo structural or combined structural and numeric chromosomal rearrangements were found. Thirteen of them were with a trisomy 21 due to an i(21q) replacing one normal chromosome 21. In eight of them low-level mosaicism in one of the parents was found either in fibroblasts or in blood or in both. As a consequence of the low number of cases and theoretical considerations (clinical consequences, mechanisms of formation, etc.), the recurrence risk should be reduced to less than 1% for a de novo i(21q) and to even less than 0.3% for all other de novo structural or combined structural and numeric chromosomal rearrangements. As the latter is lower than the commonly accepted risk of approximately 0.3% for indicating an invasive prenatal diagnosis and as the risk of abortion of a healthy fetus after chorionic villous sampling or amniocentesis is higher than approximately 0.5%, invasive prenatal investigation in most cases is not indicated and should only be performed if explicitly asked by the parents subsequent to appropriate genetic counseling. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Precise detection of rearrangement breakpoints in mammalian chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautier Christian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomes undergo large structural changes that alter their organisation. The chromosomal regions affected by these rearrangements are called breakpoints, while those which have not been rearranged are called synteny blocks. We developed a method to precisely delimit rearrangement breakpoints on a genome by comparison with the genome of a related species. Contrary to current methods which search for synteny blocks and simply return what remains in the genome as breakpoints, we propose to go further and to investigate the breakpoints themselves in order to refine them. Results Given some reliable and non overlapping synteny blocks, the core of the method consists in refining the regions that are not contained in them. By aligning each breakpoint sequence against its specific orthologous sequences in the other species, we can look for weak similarities inside the breakpoint, thus extending the synteny blocks and narrowing the breakpoints. The identification of the narrowed breakpoints relies on a segmentation algorithm and is statistically assessed. Since this method requires as input synteny blocks with some properties which, though they appear natural, are not verified by current methods for detecting such blocks, we further give a formal definition and provide an algorithm to compute them. The whole method is applied to delimit breakpoints on the human genome when compared to the mouse and dog genomes. Among the 355 human-mouse and 240 human-dog breakpoints, 168 and 146 respectively span less than 50 Kb. We compared the resulting breakpoints with some publicly available ones and show that we achieve a better resolution. Furthermore, we suggest that breakpoints are rarely reduced to a point, and instead consist in often large regions that can be distinguished from the sequences around in terms of segmental duplications, similarity with related species, and transposable elements. Conclusion Our method leads to smaller

  12. [Synthetic biology and rearrangements of microbial genetic material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Quan-Feng; Wang, Qian; Qi, Qing-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    As an emerging discipline, synthetic biology has shown great scientific values and application prospects. Although there have been many reviews of various aspects on synthetic biology over the last years, this article, for the first time, attempted to discuss the relationship and difference between microbial genetics and synthetic biology. We summarized the recent development of synthetic biology in rearranging microbial genetic materials, including synthesis, design and reduction of genetic materials, standardization of genetic parts and modularization of genetic circuits. The relationship between synthetic biology and microbial genetic engineering was also discussed in the paper.

  13. Acid Rearrangement of Secoiridoids Related to Oleuropein and Secologanin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianco, Armandodoriano; Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Olesen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Acid treatment of an iridoid glycoside results in the cleavage of the acetal bond between the sugar unit and the monoterpenoid aglycon. Iridoids possessing non-conjugated enol ether systems, however, undergo the hydration of the iridoid enol ether functionality in acid medium, as well as the hydr...... as the hydrolysis of the bond. We examined the acid rearrangement of secoiridoids such as oleuropein (1) and secologanin (2) and their reduction products oleuropeinol (3) and secologaninol (4), to examine whether similar behaviour also occurs in this case....

  14. Evidence for compact cooperatively rearranging regions in a supercooled liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elenius, M; Dzugutov, M

    2009-01-01

    We examine structural relaxation in a supercooled glass-forming liquid simulated by constant-energy constant-volume (NVE) molecular dynamics. Time correlations of the total kinetic energy fluctuations are used as a comprehensive measure of the system's approach to the ergodic equilibrium. We find that, under cooling, the total structural relaxation becomes delayed as compared with the decay of the component of the intermediate scattering function corresponding to the main peak of the structure factor. This observation can be explained by collective movements of particles preserving many-body structural correlations within compact three-dimensional (3D) cooperatively rearranging regions.

  15. Coping Rarely Takes Place in a Social Vacuum: Exploring Dyadic Coping in Coach-Athlete Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Staff, H; Didymus, FF; Backhouse, S

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Despite widespread acceptance that coping is an interpersonal phenomenon, sport psychology research has focused largely on athletes' and coaches’ ways of coping individually. The aim of this study was to qualitatively explore coping from an interpersonal perspective (i.e., dyadic coping) in coach-athlete relationships. Methodology and methods: Antecedents and outcomes of dyadic coping were discussed with five coach-athlete dyads. We conducted individual interviews with athletes an...

  16. Personality and Coping in College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise V. Contreras-Torres

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to describe the personality traits and the copingstyles used by 99 college students, and observe if this variable are related.The NEO Five Factor Inventory [NEO-FFI], and the Coping StrategiesQuestionnaire [CAE] was used. The results confirm that Neuroticism isrelated with passive and emotion focused coping strategies (maladaptivecopings whereas, Extraversion, Conscientiousness and Agreeableness arerelated with rational and active focused coping. Openness to Experienceit was not associate with no one coping strategies. The findings provideevidence for the understanding of individual’s differences about how theyoung people cope the several environment requests.

  17. Observation of the Strong Electronic Coupling in Near-Infrared-Absorbing Tetraferrocene aza-Dipyrromethene and aza-BODIPY with Direct Ferrocene-α- and Ferrocene-β-Pyrrole Bonds: Toward Molecular Machinery with Four-Bit Information Storage Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatsikha, Yuriy V; Holstrom, Cole D; Chanawanno, Kullapa; Osinski, Allen J; Ziegler, Christopher J; Nemykin, Victor N

    2017-01-17

    The 1,3,7,9-tetraferrocenylazadipyrromethene (3) and the corresponding 1,3,5,7-tetraferrocene aza-BODIPY (4) were prepared via three and four synthetic steps, respectively, starting from ferrocenecarbaldehyde using the chalcone-type synthetic methodology. The novel tetra-iron compounds have ferrocene groups directly attached to both the α- and the β-pyrrolic positions, and the shortest Fe-Fe distance determined by X-ray crystallography for 3 was found to be ∼6.98 Å. These new compounds were characterized by UV-vis, nuclear magnetic resonance, and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry methods, while metal-metal couplings in these systems were probed by electro- and spectroelectrochemistry, chemical oxidations, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Electrochemical data are suggestive of the well-separated stepwise oxidations of all four ferrocene groups in 3 and 4, while spectroelectrochemical and chemical oxidation experiments allowed for characterization of the mixed-valence forms in the target compounds. Intervalence charge-transfer band analyses indicate that the mixed-valence [3] + and [4] + complexes belong to the weakly coupled class II systems in the Robin-Day classification. This interpretation was further supported by Mössbauer spectroscopy in which two individual doublets for Fe(II) and Fe(III) centers were observed in room-temperature experiments for the mixed-valence [3] n+ and [4] n+ species (n = 1-3). The electronic structure, redox properties, and UV-vis spectra of new systems were correlated with Density Functional Theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations (TDDFT), which are suggestive of a ferrocene-centered highest occupied molecular orbital and chromophore-centered lowest unoccupied molecular orbital in 3 and 4 as well as predominant spin localization at the ferrocene fragment attached to the α-pyrrolic positions in [3] + and [4] + .

  18. A Prediction Model for ROS1-Rearranged Lung Adenocarcinomas based on Histologic Features

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jianya; Zhao, Jing; Zheng, Jing; Kong, Mei; Sun, Ke; Wang, Bo; Chen, Xi; Ding, Wei; Zhou, Jianying

    2016-01-01

    Aims To identify the clinical and histological characteristics of ROS1-rearranged non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) and build a prediction model to prescreen suitable patients for molecular testing. Methods and Results We identified 27 cases of ROS1-rearranged lung adenocarcinomas in 1165 patients with NSCLCs confirmed by real-time PCR and FISH and performed univariate and multivariate analyses to identify predictive factors associated with ROS1 rearrangement and finally developed predi...

  19. A BAC clone fingerprinting approach to the detection of human genome rearrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzywinski, Martin; Bosdet, Ian; Mathewson, Carrie; Wye, Natasja; Brebner, Jay; Chiu, Readman; Corbett, Richard; Field, Matthew; Lee, Darlene; Pugh, Trevor; Volik, Stas; Siddiqui, Asim; Jones, Steven; Schein, Jacquie; Collins, Collin; Marra, Marco

    2007-01-01

    We present a method, called fingerprint profiling (FPP), that uses restriction digest fingerprints of bacterial artificial chromosome clones to detect and classify rearrangements in the human genome. The approach uses alignment of experimental fingerprint patterns to in silico digests of the sequence assembly and is capable of detecting micro-deletions (1-5 kb) and balanced rearrangements. Our method has compelling potential for use as a whole-genome method for the identification and characterization of human genome rearrangements. PMID:17953769

  20. Large Clinically Consequential Imbalances Detected at the Breakpoints of Apparently Balanced and Inherited Chromosome Rearrangements

    OpenAIRE

    South, Sarah T.; Rector, Lyndsey; Aston, Emily; Rowe, Leslie; Yang, Samuel P.

    2010-01-01

    When a chromosome abnormality is identified in a child with a developmental delay and/or multiple congenital anomalies and the chromosome rearrangement appears balanced, follow-up studies often examine both parents for this rearrangement. If either clinically unaffected parent has a chromosome abnormality with a banding pattern identical to the affected child's study, then it is assumed that the chromosome rearrangement is balanced and directly inherited from the normal carrier parent. It is ...

  1. Transposon domestication versus mutualism in ciliate genome rearrangements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vogt

    Full Text Available Ciliated protists rearrange their genomes dramatically during nuclear development via chromosome fragmentation and DNA deletion to produce a trimmer and highly reorganized somatic genome. The deleted portion of the genome includes potentially active transposons or transposon-like sequences that reside in the germline. Three independent studies recently showed that transposase proteins of the DDE/DDD superfamily are indispensible for DNA processing in three distantly related ciliates. In the spirotrich Oxytricha trifallax, high copy-number germline-limited transposons mediate their own excision from the somatic genome but also contribute to programmed genome rearrangement through a remarkable transposon mutualism with the host. By contrast, the genomes of two oligohymenophorean ciliates, Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium tetraurelia, encode homologous PiggyBac-like transposases as single-copy genes in both their germline and somatic genomes. These domesticated transposases are essential for deletion of thousands of different internal sequences in these species. This review contrasts the events underlying somatic genome reduction in three different ciliates and considers their evolutionary origins and the relationships among their distinct mechanisms for genome remodeling.

  2. Insights into structural variations and genome rearrangements in prokaryotic genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periwal, Vinita; Scaria, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Structural variations (SVs) are genomic rearrangements that affect fairly large fragments of DNA. Most of the SVs such as inversions, deletions and translocations have been largely studied in context of genetic diseases in eukaryotes. However, recent studies demonstrate that genome rearrangements can also have profound impact on prokaryotic genomes, leading to altered cell phenotype. In contrast to single-nucleotide variations, SVs provide a much deeper insight into organization of bacterial genomes at a much better resolution. SVs can confer change in gene copy number, creation of new genes, altered gene expression and many other functional consequences. High-throughput technologies have now made it possible to explore SVs at a much refined resolution in bacterial genomes. Through this review, we aim to highlight the importance of the less explored field of SVs in prokaryotic genomes and their impact. We also discuss its potential applicability in the emerging fields of synthetic biology and genome engineering where targeted SVs could serve to create sophisticated and accurate genome editing. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. FASEB Summer Research Conference. Genetic Recombination and Chromosome Rearrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinks-Robertson, Sue

    2002-02-01

    The 2001 meeting entitled ''Genetic Recombination and Genome Rearrangements'' was held July 21-26 in Snowmass, Colorado. The goal of the meeting was to bring together scientists using diverse approaches to study all aspects of genetic recombination. This goal was achieved by integrating talks covering the genetics, biochemistry and structural biology of homologous recombination, site-specific recombination, and nonhomologous recombination. The format of the meeting consisted of a keynote address on the opening evening, two formal plenary sessions on each of the four full meeting days, a single afternoon workshop consisting of short talks chosen from among submitted abstracts, and afternoon poster sessions on each of the four full meeting days. The eight plenary session were entitled: (1) Recombination Mechanisms, (2) Prokaryotic Recombination, (3) Repair and Recombination, (4) Site-specific Recombination and Transposition, (5) Eukaryotic Recombination I, (6) Genome Rearrangements, (7) Meiosis, and (8) Eukaryotic Recombination II. Each session included a mix of genetic, biochemical and structural talks; talks were limited to 20 minutes, followed by 10 minutes of very lively, general discussion. Much of the data presented in the plenary sessions was unpublished, thus providing attendees with the most up-to-date knowledge of this rapidly-moving field.

  4. Regioselective 1-N-Alkylation and Rearrangement of Adenosine Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oslovsky, Vladimir E; Drenichev, Mikhail S; Mikhailov, Sergey N

    2015-01-01

    Several methods for the preparation of some N(6)-substituted adenosines based on selective 1-N-alkylation with subsequent Dimroth rearrangement were developed. The proposed methods seem to be effective for the preparation of natural N(6)-isopentenyl- and N(6)-benzyladenosines, which are known to possess pronounced biological activities. Direct 1-N-alkylation of 2',3',5'-tri-O-acetyladenosine and 3',5'-di-O-acetyl-2'-deoxyadenosine with alkyl halides in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) in the presence of BaCO3 and KI gave 1-N-substituted derivatives with quantitative yields, whereas 1-N-alkylation of adenosine was accompanied by significant O-alkylation. Moreover, the reaction of trimethylsilyl derivatives of N(6)-acetyl-2',3',5'-tri-O-acetyladenosine and N(6)-acetyl-3',5'-di-O-acetyl-2'-deoxyadenosine with alkyl halides leads to the formation of the stable 1-N-substituted adenosines. Dimroth rearrangement of 1-N-substituted adenosines in aqueous ammonia yields pure N(6)-substituted adenosines.

  5. Magnetic field re-arrangement after prominence eruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, R.A.; Poletto, G.

    1986-01-01

    It has long been known that magnetic reconnection plays a fundamental role in a variety of solar events. Although mainly invoked in flare problems, large-scale loops interconnecting active regions, evolving coronal hole boundaries, the solar magnetic cycle itself, provide different evidence of phenomena which involve magnetic reconnection. A further example might be given by the magnetic field rearrangement which occurs after the eruption of a prominence. Since most often a prominence reforms after its disappearance and may be observed at about the same position it occupied before erupting, the magnetic field has to undergo a temporary disruption to relax back, via reconnection, to a configuration similar to the previous one. The above sequence of events is best observable in the case of two-ribbon (2-R) flares but most probably is associated with all filament eruptions. Even if the explanation of the magnetic field rearrangement after 2-R flares in terms of reconnection is generally accepted, the lack of a three-dimensional model capable of describing the field reconfiguration, has prevented, up to now, a thorough analysis of its topology as traced by Hα/x-ray loops. The purpose of the present work is to present a numerical technique which enables one to predict and visualize the reconnected configuration, at any time t, and therefore allows one to make a significant comparison of observations and model predictions throughout the whole process. 5 refs., 3 figs

  6. The social epidemiology of coping with infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L; Christensen, Ulla; Holstein, B E

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To analyse the cross-sectional association between coping responses with infertility and occupational social class. Infertility is evenly distributed across social classes in Denmark, and there is free access to high-quality assisted reproduction technology. METHODS: Data were based...... was developed in four categories: active-avoidance coping; active-confronting coping; passive-avoidance coping; meaning-based coping. These subscales were later confirmed by factor analysis. Occupational social class was measured in a standardized way. RESULTS: Contrary to expectations, the logistic regression...... analyses showed that women from lower social classes V + VI and men from social classes III + IV used significantly more active-confronting coping. Women from lower social classes V + VI used significantly more meaning-based coping. Both men and women from social classes III - VI used significantly more...

  7. Predicting coping styles in adolescence following trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    2013-01-01

    Decades of research have established the importance of coping when dealing with a stressful or traumatic event. Individuals tend to use the same overall coping styles across situations, and correlational studies have demonstrated a relationship between individual characteristics and coping. However...... was killed. Combined, the variables accounted for 19% of the variance in problem-focused coping, 21% of the variance in avoidant coping, and 49% of the variance in emotion-focused coping. The fact that the independent variables could account for a substantially larger amount of the variance in emotion...... exclusively on correlational research. The results suggest that personality traits and attachment can account for some of the variance in coping styles, but that a large amount of the variance remains to be accounted for. A combination of individual and situation-specific characteristics is likely...

  8. Motivational predictors of coping with academic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Julie; Stephan, Yannick; Maiano, Christophe; Le Scanff, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The present study focused on the motivational predictors of coping with academic examination through the test of the contribution of self-determination for academic studies and achievement goals. Coping strategies, academic motivation and achievement goals were assessed among 199 undergraduate students. Regression analysis revealed that problem-focused coping is positively predicted by identified regulation and negatively by amotivation, whereas emotion-focused coping is positively predicted by introjected regulation and amotivation. Mastery approach goals contributed positively to problem-focused coping. Identified regulation and mastery approach goals made a unique positive contribution to problem-focused coping, and amotivation was negatively related. Students' coping actions may vary according to both the reasons why they engage in academic studies and the goals they pursue in this setting.

  9. Caritas, spirituality and religiosity in nurses' coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekedahl, M A; Wengström, Y

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate registered nurses' coping processes when working with terminally ill and dying cancer patients, with special focus on religious aspects of coping resources. What religious components can be identified as coping resources in oncology nurses' orienting system and what function has religiosity in the nurse's work? The theoretical reference is care philosophy and the psychology of religion and coping. The material consists of interviews with 15 Swedish registered oncology nurses. The results highlight different dynamic aspects of the nurses' life orientation such as caritas, religiosity, spirituality and atheism and demonstrate that religiosity can have a protective function that facilitates coping, as the nurse has something to turn to. Religious coping dominated by basic trust where prayer is used as a coping strategy may support the nurse.

  10. Treatment of Donor Cells and Reconstructed Embryos with a Combination of Trichostatin-A and 5-aza-2'-Deoxycytidine Improves the Developmental Competence and Quality of Buffalo Embryos Produced by Handmade Cloning and Alters Their Epigenetic Status and Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Monika; Selokar, Naresh L; Agrawal, Himanshu; Singla, Suresh Kumar; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh; Manik, Radheysham S; Palta, Prabhat

    2017-06-01

    The application of cloning technology on a large scale is limited by very low offspring rate primarily due to aberrant or incomplete epigenetic reprogramming. Trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC), an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases, are widely used for altering the epigenetic status of cloned embryos. We optimized the doses of these epigenetic modifiers for production of buffalo embryos by handmade cloning and examined whether combined treatment with these epigenetic modifiers offered any advantage over treatment with the individual epigenetic modifier. Irrespective of whether donor cells or reconstructed embryos or both were treated with 50 nM TSA +7.5 nM 5-aza-dC, (1) the blastocyst rate was significantly higher (71.6 ± 3.5, 68.3 ± 2.6, and 71.8 ± 2.4, respectively, vs. 43.1 ± 3.4 for controls, p cells or reconstructed embryos or both with the combination of TSA +5-aza-dC. Therefore, there is no advantage in treating both donor cells and reconstructed embryos when the combination of TSA and 5-aza-dC is used.

  11. The epigenetic modifiers 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and trichostatin A influence adipocyte differentiation in human mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zych

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone modification are important in stem cell differentiation. Methylation is principally associated with transcriptional repression, and histone acetylation is correlated with an active chromatin state. We determined the effects of these epigenetic mechanisms on adipocyte differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs derived from bone marrow (BM-MSCs and adipose tissue (ADSCs using the chromatin-modifying agents trichostatin A (TSA, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, and 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5azadC, a demethylating agent. Subconfluent MSC cultures were treated with 5, 50, or 500 nM TSA or with 1, 10, or 100 µM 5azadC for 2 days before the initiation of adipogenesis. The differentiation was quantified and expression of the adipocyte genes PPARG and FABP4 and of the anti-adipocyte gene GATA2 was evaluated. TSA decreased adipogenesis, except in BM-MSCs treated with 5 nM TSA. Only treatment with 500 nM TSA decreased cell proliferation. 5azadC treatment decreased proliferation and adipocyte differentiation in all conditions evaluated, resulting in the downregulation of PPARG and FABP4 and the upregulation of GATA2. The response to treatment was stronger in ADSCs than in BM-MSCs, suggesting that epigenetic memories may differ between cells of different origins. As epigenetic signatures affect differentiation, it should be possible to direct the use of MSCs in cell therapies to improve process efficiency by considering the various sources available.

  12. Dyadic coping in Latino couples: validity of the Spanish version of the Dyadic Coping Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconier, Mariana Karin; Nussbeck, Fridtjof; Bodenmann, Guy

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to validate the Spanish version of the Dyadic Coping Inventory (DCI) in a Latino population with data from 113 heterosexual couples. Results for both partners confirm the factorial structure for the Spanish version (Subscales: Stress Communication, Emotion- and Problem-Focused Supportive, Delegated, and Negative Dyadic Coping, Emotion- and Problem-Focused Common Dyadic Coping, and Evaluation of Dyadic Coping; Aggregated Scales: Dyadic Coping by Oneself and by Partner) and support the discriminant validity of its subscales and the concurrent, and criterion validity of the subscales and aggregated scales. These results do not only indicate that the Spanish version of the DCI can be used reliably as a measure of coping in Spanish-speaking Latino couples, but they also suggest that this group relies on dyadic coping frequently and that this type of coping is associated with positive relationship functioning and individual coping. Limitations and implications are discussed.

  13. Epigenetic modulation of AR gene expression in prostate cancer DU145 cells with the combination of sodium butyrate and 5'-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialova, Barbora; Luzna, Petra; Gursky, Jan; Langova, Katerina; Kolar, Zdenek; Trtkova, Katerina Smesny

    2016-10-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) plays an essential role in the development and progression of prostate cancer. Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a consequence of androgen deprivation therapy. Unchecked CRPC followed by metastasis is lethal. Some CRPCs show decreased AR gene expression due to epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone deacetylation. The aim of this study was to epigenetically modulate the methylated state of the AR gene leading to targeted demethylation and AR gene expression in androgen-independent human prostate cancer DU145 cell line, representing the CRPC model with very low or undetectable AR levels. The cell treatment was based on single and combined applications of two epigenetic inhibitors, sodium butyrate (NaB) as histone deacetylases inhibitor and 5'-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (Aza-dC) as DNA methyltransferases inhibitor. We found that the Aza-dC in combination with NaB may help reduce the toxicity of higher NaB concentrations in cancer cells. In normal RWPE-1 cells and even stronger in cancer DU145 cells, the combined treatment induced both AR gene expression on the mRNA level and increased histone H4 acetylation in AR gene promoter. Also activation and maintenance of G2/M cell cycle arrest and better survival in normal RWPE-1 cells compared to cancer DU145 cells were observed after the treatments. These results imply the selective toxicity effect of both inhibitors used and their potentially more effective combined use in the epigenetic therapy of prostate cancer patients.

  14. Contribution of canonical nonhomologous end joining to chromosomal rearrangements is enhanced by ATM kinase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Ragini; Carson, Caree R; Lee, Gabriella; Stark, Jeremy M

    2017-01-24

    A likely mechanism of chromosomal rearrangement formation involves joining the ends from two different chromosomal double-strand breaks (DSBs). These events could potentially be mediated by either of two end-joining (EJ) repair pathways [canonical nonhomologous end joining (C-NHEJ) or alternative end joining (ALT-EJ)], which cause distinct rearrangement junction patterns. The relative role of these EJ pathways during rearrangement formation has remained controversial. Along these lines, we have tested whether the DNA damage response mediated by the Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) kinase may affect the relative influence of C-NHEJ vs. ALT-EJ on rearrangement formation. We developed a reporter in mouse cells for a 0.4-Mbp deletion rearrangement that is formed by EJ between two DSBs induced by the Cas9 endonuclease. We found that disruption of the ATM kinase causes an increase in the frequency of the rearrangement as well as a shift toward rearrangement junctions that show hallmarks of C-NHEJ. Furthermore, ATM suppresses rearrangement formation in an experimental condition, in which C-NHEJ is the predominant EJ repair event (i.e., expression of the 3' exonuclease Trex2). Finally, several C-NHEJ factors are required for the increase in rearrangement frequency caused by inhibition of the ATM kinase. We also examined ATM effectors and found that H2AX shows a similar influence as ATM, whereas the influence of ATM on this rearrangement seems independent of 53BP1. We suggest that the contribution of the C-NHEJ pathway to the formation of a 0.4-Mbp deletion rearrangement is enhanced in ATM-deficient cells.

  15. Molecular screening of pituitary adenomas for gene mutations and rearrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, V.; Drazin, N.Z.; Gonskey, R.; Melmed, S. (Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1993-07-01

    Although pituitary tumors arise as benign monoclonal neoplasms, genetic alterations have not readily been identified in these adenomas. The authors studied restriction fragment abnormalities involving the GH gene locus, and mutations in the p53 and H-, K-, and N-ras genes in 22 human GH cell adenomas. Twenty two nonsecretory adenomas were also examined for p53 and ras gene mutations. Seven prolactinoma DNA samples were tested for deletions in the multiple endocrine neoplasia-1 (MEN-1) locus, as well as for rearrangements in the hst gene, a member of the fibroblast growth factor family. In DNA from GH-cell adenomas, identical GH restriction patterns were detected in both pituitary and lymphocyte DNA in all patients and in one patient with a mixed GH-TSH cell adenoma. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single stranded conformation polymorphism analysis, no mutations were detected in exons 5, 6, 7 and 8 of the p53 gene in GH cell adenomas nor in 22 nonsecretory adenomas. Codons 12/13 and 61 of H-ras, K-ras, and N-ras genes were also intact on GH cell adenomas and in nonsecretory adenomas. Site-specific probes for chromosome 11q13 including, PYGM, D11S146, and INT2 were used in 7 sporadic PRL-secreting adenomas to detect deletions of the MEN-1 locus on chromosome 11. One patient was identified with a loss of 11p, and the remaining 6 patients did not demonstrate loss of heterozygosity in the pituitary 11q13 locus, compared to lymphocyte DNA. None of these patients demonstrated hst gene rearrangements which also maps to this locus. These results show that p53 and ras gene mutations are not common events in the pathogenesis of acromegaly and nonsecretory tumors. Although hst gene rearrangements and deletions of 11q13 are not associated with sporadic PRl-cell adenoma formation, a single patient was detected with a partial loss of chromosome 11, including the putative MEN-1 site. 31 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Organoboron compounds. Communication 417. Crystal and molecular structure of 4-acetoxy-4-butyl-2-methyl-3-phenyl1,4-dihydro-1-aza-3-azonia-4-boratanaphthalene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorontsova, L.G.; Boldyraeva, O.G.; Chizhov, O.S.; Dorokhov, V.A.; Mikhailov, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    In order to elucidate the structure of boronitrogen heterocycles, an x-ray diffraction structural analysis was carried out on the adduct of 4-butyl-2-methyl-3-phenyl-3,4-dihydro-4-boraquinazoline with acetic acid, namely, 4-acetoxy-4-butyl-2-methyl3-phenyl-1,4-dihydro-1-aza-3-azonia-4-boratanaphthalene (DAABN). The molecular structure of DAABN is given, and the atomic coordinates and bond lengths and angles are presented in tables. the boron atom has distorted tetrahedral configuration

  17. Cross-conjugated Trienamine Catalysis with α'-Alkylidene 2-Cyclohexenones: Application in β,γ-Regioselective Aza-Diels-Alder Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Zhou-Xiang; Ouyang, Qin; Xiao, Wei; Du, Wei; Chen, Ying-Chun

    2017-02-24

    Endo-type cross-conjugated trienamines between highly congested α'-alkylidene 2-cyclohexenones and a chiral primary amine catalyst serve as HOMO-raised dienophiles in inverse-electron-demand aza-Diels-Alder cycloadditions with a number of 1-azadiene substrates. The reactions exhibit exclusive β,γ-regioselectivity, and multifunctional products with high molecular complexity are efficiently constructed in excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivity (>19:1 d.r., up to 99 % ee). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Hydrosilylation induced by N→Si intramolecular coordination: spontaneous transformation of organosilanes into 1-aza-silole-type molecules in the absence of a catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novák, Miroslav; Dostál, Libor; Alonso, Mercedes; De Proft, Frank; Růžička, Aleš; Lyčka, Antonín; Jambor, Roman

    2014-02-24

    Our attempts to synthesize the N→Si intramolecularly coordinated organosilanes Ph2 L(1) SiH (1 a), PhL(1) SiH2 (2 a), Ph2 L(2) SiH (3 a), and PhL(2) SiH2 (4 a) containing a CH=N imine group (in which L(1) is the C,N-chelating ligand {2-[CH=N(C6 H3 -2,6-iPr2)]C6 H4}(-) and L(2) is {2-[CH=N(tBu)]C6 H4}(-)) yielded 1-[2,6-bis(diisopropyl)phenyl]-2,2-diphenyl-1-aza-silole (1), 1-[2,6-bis(diisopropyl)phenyl]-2-phenyl-2-hydrido-1-aza-silole (2), 1-tert-butyl-2,2-diphenyl-1-aza-silole (3), and 1-tert-butyl-2-phenyl-2-hydrido-1-aza-silole (4), respectively. Isolated organosilicon amides 1-4 are an outcome of the spontaneous hydrosilylation of the CH=N imine moiety induced by N→Si intramolecular coordination. Compounds 1-4 were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The geometries of organosilanes 1 a-4 a and their corresponding hydrosilylated products 1-4 were optimized and fully characterized at the B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) level of theory. The molecular structure determination of 1-3 suggested the presence of a Si-N double bond. Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis, however, shows a very strong donor-acceptor interaction between the lone pair of the nitrogen atom and the formal empty p orbital on the silicon and therefore, the calculations show that the Si-N bond is highly polarized pointing to a predominantly zwitterionic Si(+) N(-) bond in 1-4. Since compounds 1-4 are hydrosilylated products of 1 a-4 a, the free energies (ΔG298), enthalpies (ΔH298), and entropies (ΔH298) were computed for the hydrosilylation reaction of 1 a-4 a with both B3LYP and B3LYP-D methods. On the basis of the very negative ΔG298 values, the hydrosilylation reaction is highly exergonic and compounds 1 a-4 a are spontaneously transformed into 1-4 in the absence of a catalyst. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Tetrabutylammonium Bromide Media Aza-Michael Addition of 1,2,3,6-Tetrahydrophthalimide to Symmetrical Fumaric Esters and Acrylic Esters under Solvent-Free Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Zamanloo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aza-Michael addition of 1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophthalimide with symmetrical fumaric esters has been performed efficiently in a solvent-free system at 100 °C and using 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO as a base in the presence of tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB. The products were obtained in good to high yields within 2.5-7.0 h. This reaction worked well on linear alkyl fumarates and was not effective with nonlinear alkyl fumarates. Although the reaction was also applicable to acrylates such as n-butyl acrylate, methacrylates and crotonates were not suitable Michael acceptors for this reaction.

  20. 4-Aza-1-azoniabicyclo?[2.2.2]octa?ne?2-amino?benzoate?2-amino?benzoic acid (1/1/1)

    OpenAIRE

    Arman, Hadi D.; Kaulgud, Trupta; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

    2011-01-01

    A 4-aza-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane cation, a 2-aminobenzoate anion and a neutral 2-aminobenzoic acid molecule comprise the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C6H13N2+·C7H6NO2−·C7H7NO2. An intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond occurs in the anion and in the neutral 2-aminobenzoic acid molecule. The cation provides a charge-assisted N—H...O hydrogen bond to the anion, and the 2-aminobenzoic acid molecule forms an O—H...N hydrogen bo...

  1. Aza-peptidyl Michael acceptors. A new class of potent and selective inhibitors of asparaginyl endopeptidases (legumains) from evolutionarily diverse pathogens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Götz, M. G.; James, K. E.; Hansell, E.; Dvořák, J.; Seshaadri, A.; Sojka, Daniel; Kopáček, Petr; McKerrow, J. H.; Caffrey, C. R.; Powers, J. C.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 9 (2008), s. 2816-2832 ISSN 0022-2623 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA ČR GA206/06/0865 Grant - others:The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases(US) AI053247; National Institute of General Medical Sciences(US) GM54404; National Institute of General Medical Sciences(US) GM61964 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : legumain * IrAE * aza-peptide Michael acceptors Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.898, year: 2008

  2. Nano-organocatalyst: magnetically retrievable ferrite-anchored glutathione for microwave-assisted Paal–Knorr reaction, aza-Michael addition, and pyrazole synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek; Varma, Rajender S.

    2010-01-01

    Postsynthetic Surface modification of magnetic nanoparticles by glutathione imparts desirable chemical functionality and enables the generation of catalytic sites on the surfaces of ensuing organocatalysts. In this article, we discuss the developments, unique activity, and high selectivity of nano-organocatalysts for microwave-assisted Paal-Knorr reaction, aza-Michael addition, and pyrazole synthesis. Their insoluble character Coupled with paramagnetic nature enables easy separation of these nano-catalysts from the reaction mixture using external magnet, which eliminates the requirement of catalyst filtration. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Frequently Used Coping Scales: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tsukasa

    2015-10-01

    This article reports the frequency of the use of coping scales in academic journals published from 1998 to 2010. Two thousand empirical journal articles were selected from the EBSCO database. The COPE, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, Coping Strategies Questionnaire, Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, Religious-COPE and Coping Response Inventory were frequently mentioned. In particular, the COPE (20.2%) and Ways of Coping Questionnaire (13.6%) were used the most frequently. In this literature reviewed, coping scales were most often used to assess coping with health issues (e.g. illness, pain and medical diagnoses) over other types of stressors, and patients were the most frequent participants. Further, alpha coefficients were estimated for the COPE subscales, and correlations between the COPE subscales and coping outcomes were calculated, including depressive symptoms, anxiety, negative affect, psychological distress, physical symptoms and well-being. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. SYNTHESIS OF ALLYL PHENYL ETHER AND CLAISEN REARRANGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagik Torosyan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been established the possibility for phenol allylation on natural zeolites and them analogs. Here is demonstrated the synthesis of allyl phenol, which has wide industrial applications. The offered method in comparison with the traditional methods has more advantages – higher selectivity, smaller material and power resources consumption. It has been obtained the mixture of allylating phenols (30% in general with allyl phenyl ether (1 with 80% yields. At 600 K is obtained allylphenyl ether, at 700 K beginning the formation of allyl phenols, which is the result of direct C-allylation of the aromatic ring. It has been investigated the possibility of Claisen rearrangement in the same conditions. All of that are established by gas-liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography data.

  5. Highly rearranged mitochondrial genome in Nycteria parasites (Haemosporidia) from bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadjian, Gregory; Hassanin, Alexandre; Saintpierre, Benjamin; Gembu Tungaluna, Guy-Crispin; Ariey, Frederic; Ayala, Francisco J; Landau, Irene; Duval, Linda

    2016-08-30

    Haemosporidia parasites have mostly and abundantly been described using mitochondrial genes, and in particular cytochrome b (cytb). Failure to amplify the mitochondrial cytb gene of Nycteria parasites isolated from Nycteridae bats has been recently reported. Bats are hosts to a diverse and profuse array of Haemosporidia parasites that remain largely unstudied. There is a need to obtain more molecular data from chiropteran parasites. Such data would help to better understand the evolutionary history of Haemosporidia, which notably include the Plasmodium parasites, malaria's agents. We use next-generation sequencing to obtain the complete mitochondrial genome of Nycteria parasites from African Nycteris grandis (Nycteridae) and Rhinolophus alcyone (Rhinolophidae) and Asian Megaderma spasma (Megadermatidae). We report four complete mitochondrial genomes, including two rearranged mitochondrial genomes within Haemosporidia. Our results open outlooks into potentially undiscovered Haemosporidian diversity.

  6. New type of cells with multiple chromosome rearrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aseeva, Elena A. [National Research Centre for Hematology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Novozykovsky proezd 4a, 125167 Moscow (Russian Federation); Snigiryova, Galina P. [Russian Scientific Centre of Roentgenology and Radiology, ul. Profsoyuznaya 86, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Neverova, Anna L. [National Research Centre for Hematology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Novozykovsky proezd 4a, 125167 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bogomazova, Alexandra N.; Novitskaya, Natalia N.; Khazins, Eva D. [Russian Scientific Centre of Roentgenology and Radiology, ul. Profsoyuznaya 86, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Domracheva, Elena V. [National Research Centre for Hematology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Novozykovsky proezd 4a, 125167 Moscow (Russian Federation)], E-mail: dom@blood.ru

    2010-04-15

    A comparative analysis of the distribution and the frequency of multiaberrant cells (MAC) among lymphocytes in different categories of low dose (up to 0.5 Gy) irradiated people was carried out. The highest MAC frequency was observed in people exposed to {alpha}-radiation (Pu, Rn) and in cosmonauts. This fact allows MAC to be considered as an indicator of a high-energy local exposure. A new type of cells with multiple chromosome rearrangements was discovered in the course of analysis of stable aberrations by the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method. The biological consequences of MAC formation and possibility of revealing the whole diversity of cells with multiple aberrations by means of modern molecular-cytogenetic methods are discussed.

  7. Multiple scattering in the nuclear rearrangement reactions at medium energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekou, A.

    1980-09-01

    It is shown that the multiple scattering mechanism is very important in the transfer of the large momenta involved in the nuclear rearrangement reactions at medium energy. In contrast to the usual belief, the reaction cross-section is not very sensitive to the high momenta components of the nuclear wave function. The multiple scattering mechanism is especially important in 4 He(p,d) 3 He reaction around 800 MeV. Here the collisions involving two nucleons of the target nucleus are dominant. The triple collisions contribution is also important. The four collision contribution is negligible in the forward direction and sizeable at large angles. Thus, using the K.M.T. approach in DWBA calculations, the second order term of the optical potential must be included. So, is it not well established that the second term of the K.M.T. optical potential is important for the proton elastic scattering on light nuclei. (author)

  8. New type of cells with multiple chromosome rearrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aseeva, E.A.; Domracheva, E.V.; Neverova, A.L; Bogomazova, A.N.; Snigiryova, G.P.; Novitskaya, N.N.; Khazins, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: A comparative analysis of the distribution and the frequency of multiaberrant cells (MAC) among lymphocytes in different categories of low dose (up to 0.5 Gy) irradiated people was carried out. MAC were found in most of the examined groups and they were absent in the control population. A highest MAC frequency was observed in people exposed to alpha radiation (Pu, Ra). This fact allows MAC to be considered as an indicator of a high-energy local exposure. A new type of cells with multiple chromosome rearrangements was discovered in the course of analysis of stable aberrations by the FISH method. The biological consequences of MAC formation and possibility of revealing the whole diversity of cells with multiple aberrations by means of modern molecular-cytogenetic methods is discussed

  9. Deep ancestry of programmed genome rearrangement in lampreys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoshevskiy, Vladimir A; Lampman, Ralph T; Hess, Jon E; Porter, Laurie L; Smith, Jeramiah J

    2017-09-01

    In most multicellular organisms, the structure and content of the genome is rigorously maintained over the course of development. However some species have evolved genome biologies that permit, or require, developmentally regulated changes in the physical structure and content of the genome (programmed genome rearrangement: PGR). Relatively few vertebrates are known to undergo PGR, although all agnathans surveyed to date (several hagfish and one lamprey: Petromyzon marinus) show evidence of large scale PGR. To further resolve the ancestry of PGR within vertebrates, we developed probes that allow simultaneous tracking of nearly all sequences eliminated by PGR in P. marinus and a second lamprey species (Entosphenus tridentatus). These comparative analyses reveal conserved subcellular structures (lagging chromatin and micronuclei) associated with PGR and provide the first comparative embryological evidence in support of the idea that PGR represents an ancient and evolutionarily stable strategy for regulating inherent developmental/genetic conflicts between germline and soma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Infrared divergence enforces a rearranged perturbation expansion II QED

    CERN Document Server

    Matsson, L

    1977-01-01

    For pt.I see ibid., vol.39A, p.604 (1977). Part I showed, for the case of scalar electrodynamics, that the ordinary perturbation expansion (OPE) must, except in certain cases, be rearranged in order to carry out uniquely the infrared (IR) exponentiation in a translation- and gauge-invariant way. The uniqueness of the exponent of order alpha follows from requiring exact order-by-order agreement with the OPE before summation and also from requiring that exponentiation of all factorizable parts must be done before integration. This technique is applied to ordinary spinor QED and a similar result is obtained without making the gamma -matrix algebra more complicated than in the OPE. This technique explicitly exhibits the structure of the remaining IR-regular part, which appears in terms of a correlation expansion with respect to photon momenta. (9 refs).

  11. Collectivism and coping: current theories, evidence, and measurements of collective coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ben C H

    2013-01-01

    A burgeoning body of cultural coping research has begun to identify the prevalence and the functional importance of collective coping behaviors among culturally diverse populations in North America and internationally. These emerging findings are highly significant as they evidence culture's impacts on the stress-coping process via collectivistic values and orientation. They provide a critical counterpoint to the prevailing Western, individualistic stress and coping paradigm. However, current research and understanding about collective coping appear to be piecemeal and not well integrated. To address this issue, this review attempts to comprehensively survey, summarize, and evaluate existing research related to collective coping and its implications for coping research with culturally diverse populations from multiple domains. Specifically, this paper reviews relevant research and knowledge on collective coping in terms of: (a) operational definitions; (b) theories; (c) empirical evidence based on studies of specific cultural groups and broad cultural values/dimensions; (d) measurements; and (e) implications for future cultural coping research. Overall, collective coping behaviors are conceived as a product of the communal/relational norms and values of a cultural group across studies. They also encompass a wide array of stress responses ranging from value-driven to interpersonally based to culturally conditioned emotional/cognitive to religion- and spirituality-grounded coping strategies. In addition, this review highlights: (a) the relevance and the potential of cultural coping theories to guide future collective coping research; (b) growing evidence for the prominence of collective coping behaviors particularly among Asian nationals, Asian Americans/Canadians and African Americans/Canadians; (c) preference for collective coping behaviors as a function of collectivism and interdependent cultural value and orientation; and (d) six cultural coping scales. This

  12. Recent applications of the divinylcyclopropane–cycloheptadiene rearrangement in organic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Krüger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the application of the divinylcyclopropane–cycloheptadiene rearrangement in synthetic organic chemistry. A brief overview of the new mechanistic insights concerning the title reaction is provided as well as a condensed account on the biological relevance of the topic. Heteroatom variants of this rearrangement are covered briefly.

  13. Hydrogen rearrangement to and from radical z fragments in electron capture dissociation of peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savitski, Mikhail M; Kjeldsen, Frank; Nielsen, Michael L

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen rearrangement is an important process in radical chemistry. A high degree of H. rearrangement to and from z. ionic fragments (combined occurrence frequency 47% compared with that of z.) is confirmed in analysis of 15,000 tandem mass spectra of tryptic peptides obtained with electron...

  14. Initiation of MLL-rearranged AML is dependent on C/EBPα

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlsson, Ewa; Hasemann, Marie Sigurd; Willer, Anton

    2014-01-01

    have compared gene expression profiles from human MLL-rearranged AML to normal progenitors and identified the myeloid tumor suppressor C/EBPα as a putative collaborator in MLL-rearranged AML. Interestingly, we find that deletion of Cebpa rendered murine hematopoietic progenitors completely resistant...

  15. Heterogeneity of BCR-ABL rearrangement in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Najia; Saboor, Mohammad; Ghani, Rubina; Moinuddin, Moinuddin

    2014-07-01

    Breakpoint cluster region-Abelson (BCR-ABL) rearrangement or Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is derived from a reciprocal chromosomal translocation between ABL gene on chromosome 9 and BCR gene on chromosome 22. This chimeric protein has various sizes and therefore different clinical behaviour. The purpose of this study was to determine the heterogeneity of BCR-ABL rearrangement in patients with Ph(+)CML in Pakistan. The study was conducted at Civil Hospital and Baqai Institute of Hematology (BIH) Karachi. Blood samples from 25 patients with CML were collected. Multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to identify various BCR-ABL transcripts. All 25 samples showed BCR-ABL rearrangements. Out of these, 24 (96%) patients expressed p210 BCR-ABL rearrangements i.e. 60% (n=15) had b3a2 and 32% (n=8) had b2a2 rearrangements. Co-expression of b3a2 /b2a2 rearrangement and p190 (e1a3) rearrangement was also identified in two patients. It is apparent that majority of the patients had p210 BCR-ABL rearrangements. Frequency of co-expression and rare fusion transcripts was very low.

  16. Military Family Coping Project - Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Anxiety, Life Satisfaction , Addiction, Trauma 4 The Military Family Coping Project reflects two phases. The first consisted of a series of focus...need for and guided the work of the Military Family Coping Project Phase II funded by TATRC. The Military Family Coping Project Phase II was...solidarity. For the purposes of family functioning analyses, married and unmarried soldiers were analyzed separately because marital status affects

  17. Coping Strategies in People Attempting Suicide

    OpenAIRE

    Bazrafshan, Mohammad-Rafi; Jahangir, Fereidun; Mansouri, Amir; Kashfi, Seyyed Hannan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Having a set of effective coping skills can prevent suicidal behavior by increasing self-control and self-direction. This study examines coping styles used by suicidal patients. Objectives: The researchers in this study try to identify coping strategies used by suicide attempters admitted to Shiraz Shahid Faghihi Hospital emergency room. Materials and Methods: This is a analytical cross-sectional study. Participants consisted of 50 suicide-attempted people admitted to Shiraz Faghi...

  18. Stress and Coping with Stress in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Dolenc

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the many developmental changes in adolescence, young people are exposed to greater likelihood of experiencing stress. On the other hand, this period is critical for developing effective and constructive coping strategies. In the contribution, we summarize part of what is known about stress, stress responses and coping. Throughout, we focus on common stressful events among adolescents and emphasize the importance of dealing successfully with stressors in their daily lives. Finally, we highlight the most frequently used instruments to measure coping behaviour in youth and present an overview of the research findings on differences in coping among adolescents according to age and gender.

  19. Correlating Structural Order with Structural Rearrangement in Dusty Plasma Liquids: Can Structural Rearrangement be Predicted by Static Structural Information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yen-Shuo; Liu, Yu-Hsuan; I, Lin

    2012-11-01

    Whether the static microstructural order information is strongly correlated with the subsequent structural rearrangement (SR) and their predicting power for SR are investigated experimentally in the quenched dusty plasma liquid with microheterogeneities. The poor local structural order is found to be a good alarm to identify the soft spot and predict the short term SR. For the site with good structural order, the persistent time for sustaining the structural memory until SR has a large mean value but a broad distribution. The deviation of the local structural order from that averaged over nearest neighbors serves as a good second alarm to further sort out the short time SR sites. It has the similar sorting power to that using the temporal fluctuation of the local structural order over a small time interval.

  20. Importance of dose-schedule of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine for epigenetic therapy of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, Maryse; Chabot, Guy G; Raynal, Noël JM; Momparler, Louise F; Hurtubise, Annie; Bernstein, Mark L; Momparler, Richard L

    2008-01-01

    The inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) by aberrant DNA methylation plays an important role in the development of malignancy. Since this epigenetic change is reversible, it is a potential target for chemotherapeutic intervention using an inhibitor of DNA methylation, such as 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC). Although clinical studies show that DAC has activity against hematological malignancies, the optimal dose-schedule of this epigenetic agent still needs to be established. Clonogenic assays were performed on leukemic and tumor cell lines to evaluate the in vitro antineoplastic activity of DAC. The reactivation of TSGs and inhibition of DNA methylation by DAC were investigated by reverse transcriptase-PCR and Line-1 assays. The in vivo antineoplastic activity of DAC administered as an i.v. infusion was evaluated in mice with murine L1210 leukemia by measurement of survival time, and in mice bearing murine EMT6 mammary tumor by excision of tumor after chemotherapy for an in vitro clonogenic assay. Increasing the DAC concentration and duration of exposure produced a greater loss of clonogenicity for both human leukemic and tumor cell lines. The reactivation of the TSGs (p57KIP2 in HL-60 leukemic cells and p16CDKN2A in Calu-6 lung carcinoma cells) and the inhibition of global DNA methylation in HL-60 leukemic cells increased with DAC concentration. In mice with L1210 leukemia and in mice bearing EMT6 tumors, the antineoplastic action of DAC also increased with the dose. The plasma level of DAC that produced a very potent antineoplastic effect in mice with leukemia or solid tumors was > 200 ng/ml (> 1 μM). We have shown that intensification of the DAC dose markedly increased its antineoplastic activity in mouse models of cancer. Our data also show that there is a good correlation between the concentrations of DAC that reduce in vitro clonogenicity, reactivate TSGs and inhibit DNA methylation. These results suggest that the antineoplastic action of DAC is

  1. Dienone-phenol Rearrangement of C-9 Oxygenated Decalinic Dienone and Analogs through B-Ring Cleavage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Dehydrogenation of 9-hydroxy decalinic enones and analogs with DDQ resulted in a formal dienone-phenol type rearrangement via B-ring cleavage, while the corresponding dienone acetates underwent base-catalyzed formal dienone-phenol type rearrangement analogously.

  2. College Students Coping with Interpersonal Stress: Examining a Control-Based Model of Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiro, Mary Jo; Bettis, Alexandra H.; Compas, Bruce E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The ways that college students cope with stress, particularly interpersonal stress, may be a critical factor in determining which students are at risk for impairing mental health disorders. Using a control-based model of coping, the present study examined associations between interpersonal stress, coping strategies, and symptoms.…

  3. Decision making and coping in healthcare: The Coping in Deliberation (CODE) framework.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witt, J.; Elwyn, G.; Wood, F.; Brain, K.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a framework of decision making and coping in healthcare that describes the twin processes of appraisal and coping faced by patients making preference-sensitive healthcare decisions. METHODS: We briefly review the literature for decision making theories and coping theories

  4. How Dyslexic Teenagers Cope: An Investigation of Self-Esteem, Coping and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander-Passe, Neil

    2006-01-01

    Research into how dyslexics cope and the effects of their coping has received little attention in the 100 years since dyslexia has been recognized. Why is this? Well it is not an easy area to investigate, partly as most qualitative studies have looked only at coping strategies of specific dyslexics. These are individuals and are unsuitable for…

  5. Adolescent Coping Style and Behaviors: Conceptualization and Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Joan M.; McCubbin, Hamilton I.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews individual coping theory and family stress theory to provide a theoretical foundation for assessing adolescent coping. Presents development and testing of an adolescent self-report coping inventory, the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences. Gender differences in coping styles are discussed. (Author/NB)

  6. Synthesis of (±)-amathaspiramide F and discovery of an unusual stereocontrolling element for the [2,3]-Stevens rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheili, Arash; Tambar, Uttam K

    2013-10-04

    A formal total synthesis of (±)-amathaspiramide F through a tandem palladium-catalyzed allylic amination/[2,3]-Stevens rearrangement is reported. The unexpected diastereoselectivity of the [2,3]-Stevens rearrangement was controlled by the substitution patterns of an aromatic ring. This discovery represents a new stereocontrolling element for [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangements in complex molecular settings.

  7. Intacting Integrity in coping with health issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Stine Leegaard; Bastrup Jørgensen, Lene; Fridlund, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a formal substantive theory (FST) on the multidimensional behavioral process of coping with health issues. Intacting integrity while coping with health issues emerged as the core category of this FST. People facing health issues strive to safeguard and keep...

  8. Childhood Stress : Stressors, Coping, and Factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Burnout is a matter of imbalance in life very often (Nijboer, 2006). In order to know more about imbalance and exhaustion in children, stress and coping in children will be investigated in this literature study. The goal is to identify common childhood stressors, the ways children cope with stress,

  9. Secretaries' Perceived Strategies for Coping with Occupational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    The study investigated bank secretaries' perceived strategies for coping with stress. Survey design ... Job life is an important aspect of our daily lives that exerts a ..... 24 Taking balanced diet helps me cope with occupational stress. 3.52. 0.60.

  10. Teaching Practice generated stressors and coping mechanisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teaching Practice generated stressors and coping mechanisms among student teachers in Zimbabwe. ... South African Journal of Education ... We sought to establish stressors and coping mechanisms for student teachers on Teaching Practice from a Christian-related university and a government-owned teachers' college ...

  11. Cognitive coping and childhood anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legerstee, Jeroen S.; Garnefski, Nadia; Jellesma, Francine C.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate differences in cognitive coping strategies between anxiety-disordered and non-anxious 9-11-year-old children. Additionally, differences in cognitive coping between specific anxiety disorders were examined. A clinical sample of 131 anxiety-disordered children and a general population

  12. Coping and cognition in schizophrenia and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vandenBosch, RJ; Rombouts, RP

    1997-01-01

    We examined the stable relations between coping style and cognitive function in schizophrenic and depressed patients and in patient and normal controls on two test occasions. The results show that a poor self-report of coping style is independent of psychiatric diagnosis, but there are associations

  13. Coping with Mental Illness in the Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Agnes B.

    Utilizing the conceptual framework of coping theory, 30 family care-givers of mentally ill family members were interviewed to determine the relationship between coping effectiveness and such variables as patient characteristics, factors of the care-givers life situation, and the availability and adequacy of community supports. Care-givers were…

  14. Coping responses as predictors of psychosocial functioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory and the Coping Responses Inventory – Adult Form. The prevalence of the use of Avoidance and Approach Coping, and the relationship between these responses and psychosocial functioning (Pain Severity, Interference, Support, Life Control, and Affective Distress) were ...

  15. Ethnographic assessment of pain coping responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, R.

    1990-01-01

    of these Ss. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved). Medline: A sample consisting of 54 patients and 31 dentists of Chinese, Anglo-American, and Scandinavian ethnic origin were interviewed about their ways of coping with pain. Instruments designed to assess pain coping were constructed from...

  16. Mindfulness, Stress, and Coping among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Angele; Rodger, Susan

    2009-01-01

    A sample of 135 first-year university students living in residence completed questionnaires that measured individual differences in mindfulness, coping styles, and perceived stress. Findings revealed significant positive relationships between mindfulness and rational coping, and significant negative relationships with emotional and avoidant coping…

  17. Dispositional optimism and coping with pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargiel-Matusiewicz, K; Krzyszkowska, A

    2009-12-07

    The aim of this article is to analyze the relation between dispositional optimism and coping with chronic pain. The study seeks to define the relation between life orientation (optimism vs. pessimism) and coping with pain (believes about pain control and the choice of coping strategy). The following questionnaires were used: LOT-R - Life Orientation Test, BPCQ - The Beliefs about Pain Control Questionnaire and CSQ - The Pain Coping Strategies Questionnaire. The results show that dispositional optimism correlates positively with: internal locus of pain control r=0.6, Pr=0.38, Pr = 0.93, Pr = 0.82, Pr = -0.28, P<0.05. We conclude that dispositional optimism plays a key role in forming the mechanisms of coping with chronic pain and thereby in improving the psychophysical comfort of patients.

  18. Human heavy-chain variable region gene family nonrandomly rearranged in familial chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, A.; Humphries, C.; Tucker, P.; Blattner, F.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have identified a family of human immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable-region (V/sub H/) genes, one member of which is rearranged in two affected members of a family in which the father and four of five siblings developed chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Cloning and sequencing of the rearranged V/sub H/ genes from leukemic lymphocytes of three affected siblings showed that two siblings had rearranged V/sub H/ genes (V/sub H/TS1 and V/sub H/WS1) that were 90% homologous. The corresponding germ-line gene, V/sub H/251, was found to part of a small (four gene) V/sub H/ gene family, which they term V/sub H/V. The DNA sequence homology to V/sub H/WS1 (95%) and V/sub H/TS1 (88%) and identical restriction sites on the 5' side of V/sub H/ confirm that rearrangement of V/sub H/251 followed by somatic mutation produced the identical V/sub H/ gene rearrangements in the two siblings. V/sub H/TS1 is not a functional V/sub H/ gene; a functional V/sub H/ rearrangement was found on the other chromosome of this patient. The other two siblings had different V/sub H/ gene rearrangements. All used different diversity genes. Mechanisms proposed for nonrandom selection of a single V/sub H/ gene include developmental regulation of this V/sub H/ gene rearrangement or selection of a subpopulation of B cells in which this V/sub H/ has been rearranged

  19. Synthesis of some novel 4-aza-tricyclo[5.2.2.0 2,6 ]undecane-3,5,8-triones from 2-trimethylsilyloxy-1,3-cyclohexadiene and 1-methoxy-1,3-cyclohexadiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosapalya Thimmaiah Srinivasa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and characterization of nine novel Diels-Alder cycloadducts: the 4-aza-tricyclo[5.2.2.0 2,6] undecane-3,5,8-triones using 2-trimethylsilyloxy-1,3-cyclohexadiene and 1-methoxy-1,3-cyclohexadiene is reported. The isolated yields of the pure cycloadducts range between 75 to 95%.

  20. T3P- A Novel Catalyst for Aza-Diels-Alder Reaction: One-Pot Synthesis of Pyrano[3,2-c]quinolines and furano[3,2-c]quinolines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. R. Prasanna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available T3P was found to be an efficient catalyst for the Aza-Diels–Alder reactions of aldimines with dihydropyran or dihydrofuran to afford the corresponding pyrano-and furo [3,2-c]quinolines in high yields with high diastereoselectivity in a short period of time.

  1. Atomic rearrangements in ordered fcc alloys during neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, M.A.; Blewitt, T.H.

    1978-01-01

    Three sets of experiments performed at Argonne National Laboratory over the past few years are described. These experiments deal with atomic rearrangements in the ordered alloys Ni 3 Mn and Cu 3 Au during fast and thermal neutron bombardment. The unique magnetic properties of ordered Ni 3 Mn are utilized to investigate radiation damage production mechanisms at low temperature (5 K) where defect migration is not possible and only disordering is observed. In the case of thermal neutron bombardment, the average recoil energy is about 450 eV and significant disordering due to [110] replacement collision sequences is observed. For fast neutron bombardment where typical recoil energies are 20 keV, significant random disordering is observed but no evidence for sizable replacement sequences is found. The bombardment of ordered Cu 3 Au by fast and thermal neutrons at higher temperature (approx. 150 0 C) is studied by electrical resistance techniques. Both ordering and disordering are observed and related to the number of migrating vacancies escaping from the high energy collision cascade

  2. Ferrier rearrangement promoted by an electrochemically generated zirconium catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanović, Dragana; Pejović, Anka; Damljanović, Ivan; Minić, Aleksandra; Bogdanović, Goran A; Vukićević, Mirjana; Radulović, Niko S; Vukićević, Rastko D

    2015-04-30

    In situ generated zirconium catalyst from a sacrificial zirconium anode was successfully applied to promote Ferrier rearrangement of 3,4,5-tri-O-acetyl-D-glucal and 6-deoxy-3,4-di-O-acetyl-L-glucal (3,4-di-O-acetyl-L-rhamnal) in the presence of three thiols and eleven thiophenols as nucleophiles. A simple constant current electrolysis (20 mA, 0.4 F mol(-1)) of an acetonitrile solution of lithium perchlorate (0.1 M) containing the corresponding glycal and S-nucleophiles, using a zirconium anode and a platinum cathode resulted in the successful synthesis of the corresponding 2,3-unsaturated peracetylated thioglycosides (with an average anomer ratio α/β=4.129 in the case of peracetylated D-glucal and 8.740 in the case of L-rhamnal). The same procedure proved to be appropriate in synthesizing dihydropyran derivatives ('C-glycosides') using allyltrimethylsilane as the nucleophile (only 'α-anomers' were obtained). All new compounds were fully characterized by spectral data, whereas single-crystal X-ray analysis was performed for two thioglycosides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Heavy cluster in cold nuclear rearrangements in fusion and fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armbruster, P.

    1997-01-01

    The experimental evidence for the appearance of cluster aspects in the dynamics of large rearrangements processes, as fusion and fission, is presented. Clusters in the sense as used in the following are strongly bound, doubly magic neutron rich nuclei as 48 Ca 28 , 78 Ni 50 , 132 Sn 82 , and 208 Pb 126 , the spherical nuclei Z=114 - 126 and N=184, and nuclei with closed shells N=28, 50, 82, and 126, and Z=28, 50, and 82. As with increasing nucleon numbers, the absolute shell corrections to the binding energies increase, the strongest effects are to be observed for the higher shells. The 132 cluster manifests itself in low energy fission (Faissner, H. and Wildermuth, K. Nucl. Phys., 58 (1964) 177). The 208 Pb cluster gave the new radioactivity (Rose, M.J. and Jones G.A., Nature, 307 (1984) 245) and the first superheavy elements (SHE) (Armbruster P., Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci., 35 (1985) 135-94; Munzenberg, G. Rep. Progr. Phys., 51 (1988) 57). The paper discuss experiments concerning the stability of clusters to intrinsic excitation energy in fusion and fission (Armbruster, P. Lect. Notes Phys., 158 (1982) 1). and the manifestation of clusters in the fusion entrance channel (Armbruster, P., J. Phys. Soc. Jpn., 58 (1989) 232). The importance of compactness of the clustering system seems to be equally decisive in fission and fusion. Finally, it s covered the importance of clusters for the production of SHEs)

  4. Stress-induced rearrangement of Fusarium retrotransposon sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, N; Roncero, M I

    1996-11-27

    Rearrangement of fusarium oxysporum retrotransposon skippy was induced by growth in the presence of potassium chlorate. Three fungal strains, one sensitive to chlorate (Co60) and two resistant to chlorate and deficient for nitrate reductase (Co65 and Co94), were studied by Southern analysis of their genomic DNA. Polymorphism was detected in their hybridization banding pattern, relative to the wild type grown in the absence of chlorate, using various enzymes with or without restriction sites within the retrotransposon. Results were consistent with the assumption that three different events had occurred in strain Co60: genomic amplification of skippy yielding tandem arrays of the element, generation of new skippy sequences, and deletion of skippy sequences. Amplification of Co60 genomic DNA using the polymerase chain reaction and divergent primers derived from the retrotransposon generated a new band, corresponding to one long terminal repeat plus flanking sequences, that was not present in the wild-type strain. Molecular analysis of nitrate reductase-deficient mutants showed that generation and deletion of skippy sequences, but not genomic amplification in tandem repeats, had occurred in their genomes.

  5. Complex genomic rearrangement in CCS-LacZ transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Dina Myers; Darrow, Bruce J; Kim, Sang Do; Zhang, Jie; Jongbloed, Monique R M; Rentschler, Stacey; Moskowitz, Ivan P G; Seidman, Jonathan; Fishman, Glenn I

    2007-02-01

    The cardiac conduction system (CCS)-lacZ insertional mouse mutant strain genetically labels the developing and mature CCS. This pattern of expression is presumed to reflect the site of transgene integration rather than regulatory elements within the transgene proper. We sought to characterize the genomic structure of the integration locus and identify nearby gene(s) that might potentially confer the observed CCS-specific transcription. We found rearrangement of chromosome 7 between regions D1 and E1 with altered transcription of multiple genes in the D1 region. Several lines of evidence suggested that regulatory elements from at least one gene, Slco3A1, influenced CCS-restricted reporter gene expression. In embryonic hearts, Slco3A1 was expressed in a spatial pattern similar to the CCS-lacZ transgene and was similarly neuregulin-responsive. At later stages, however, expression patterns of the transgene and Slco3A1 diverged, suggesting that the Slco3A1 locus may be necessary, but not sufficient to confer CCS-specific transgene expression in the CCS-lacZ line. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Mediator structure and rearrangements required for holoenzyme formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kuang-Lei; Yu, Xiaodi; Gopalan, Sneha; Chao, Ti-Chun; Zhang, Ying; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P; Murakami, Kenji; Conaway, Ronald C; Conaway, Joan W; Asturias, Francisco J

    2017-04-13

    The conserved Mediator co-activator complex has an essential role in the regulation of RNA polymerase II transcription in all eukaryotes. Understanding the structure and interactions of Mediator is crucial for determining how the complex influences transcription initiation and conveys regulatory information to the basal transcription machinery. Here we present a 4.4 Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy map of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Mediator in which conserved Mediator subunits are individually resolved. The essential Med14 subunit works as a central backbone that connects the Mediator head, middle and tail modules. Comparison with a 7.8 Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy map of a Mediator-RNA polymerase II holoenzyme reveals that changes in the structure of Med14 facilitate a large-scale Mediator rearrangement that is essential for holoenzyme formation. Our study suggests that access to different conformations and crosstalk between structural elements are essential for the Mediator regulation mechanism, and could explain the capacity of the complex to integrate multiple regulatory signals.

  7. Nicotine affects protein complex rearrangement in Caenorhabditis elegans cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobkowiak, Robert; Zielezinski, Andrzej; Karlowski, Wojciech M; Lesicki, Andrzej

    2017-10-01

    Nicotine may affect cell function by rearranging protein complexes. We aimed to determine nicotine-induced alterations of protein complexes in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) cells, thereby revealing links between nicotine exposure and protein complex modulation. We compared the proteomic alterations induced by low and high nicotine concentrations (0.01 mM and 1 mM) with the control (no nicotine) in vivo by using mass spectrometry (MS)-based techniques, specifically the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) discontinuous gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS and spectral counting. As a result, we identified dozens of C. elegans proteins that are present exclusively or in higher abundance in either nicotine-treated or untreated worms. Based on these results, we report a possible network that captures the key protein components of nicotine-induced protein complexes and speculate how the different protein modules relate to their distinct physiological roles. Using functional annotation of detected proteins, we hypothesize that the identified complexes can modulate the energy metabolism and level of oxidative stress. These proteins can also be involved in modulation of gene expression and may be crucial in Alzheimer's disease. The findings reported in our study reveal putative intracellular interactions of many proteins with the cytoskeleton and may contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) signaling and trafficking in cells.

  8. Impact of local electrostatic field rearrangement on field ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katnagallu, Shyam; Dagan, Michal; Parviainen, Stefan; Nematollahi, Ali; Grabowski, Blazej; Bagot, Paul A. J.; Rolland, Nicolas; Neugebauer, Jörg; Raabe, Dierk; Vurpillot, François; Moody, Michael P.; Gault, Baptiste

    2018-03-01

    Field ion microscopy allows for direct imaging of surfaces with true atomic resolution. The high charge density distribution on the surface generates an intense electric field that can induce ionization of gas atoms. We investigate the dynamic nature of the charge and the consequent electrostatic field redistribution following the departure of atoms initially constituting the surface in the form of an ion, a process known as field evaporation. We report on a new algorithm for image processing and tracking of individual atoms on the specimen surface enabling quantitative assessment of shifts in the imaged atomic positions. By combining experimental investigations with molecular dynamics simulations, which include the full electric charge, we confirm that change is directly associated with the rearrangement of the electrostatic field that modifies the imaging gas ionization zone. We derive important considerations for future developments of data reconstruction in 3D field ion microscopy, in particular for precise quantification of lattice strains and characterization of crystalline defects at the atomic scale.

  9. Ultrastructural analysis of radiation induced chromosome breaks and rearrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.L.; Goyanes, V.J.; Campos, A.; Cajigal, D.

    1990-01-01

    Chinese Hamster chromosomes R-banded in vitro were gamma-irradiated and chromatid breaks and rearrangements examined by electron microscopy employing whole-mounting technique. Breaks were preferentially located at the point of transition between G- and R-bands where the chromosome showed an average diameter 71.65 % of the wide condensed R-bands. This result was similar to the average diameter of narrow G-bands. Three chromosomes which were thin sectioned presented their broken terminal end organized as a coil constituted by two 23 nm wide chromatin fibers coiling together. Coils diameter was 43.70 % of the mean chromatid diameter. The border of damage-breakage was analyzed in whole-mounted chromosomes where breaks were photoinduced in BrdU-substituted DNA. Measurements of the angle of the sharp border of damage with respect to the chromatid axis showed a tendency to be more perpendicular as condensation progressed. These results clearly correlate with the several levels of chromatin fiber organization of the metaphase chromosome. (author)

  10. A Distinct Class of Genome Rearrangements Driven by Heterologous Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Ortiz, Ana María; Panier, Stephanie; Sarek, Grzegorz; Vannier, Jean-Baptiste; Patel, Harshil; Campbell, Peter J; Boulton, Simon J

    2018-01-18

    Erroneous DNA repair by heterologous recombination (Ht-REC) is a potential threat to genome stability, but evidence supporting its prevalence is lacking. Here we demonstrate that recombination is possible between heterologous sequences and that it is a source of chromosomal alterations in mitotic and meiotic cells. Mechanistically, we find that the RTEL1 and HIM-6/BLM helicases and the BRCA1 homolog BRC-1 counteract Ht-REC in Caenorhabditis elegans, whereas mismatch repair does not. Instead, MSH-2/6 drives Ht-REC events in rtel-1 and brc-1 mutants and excessive crossovers in rtel-1 mutant meioses. Loss of vertebrate Rtel1 also causes a variety of unusually large and complex structural variations, including chromothripsis, breakage-fusion-bridge events, and tandem duplications with distant intra-chromosomal insertions, whose structure are consistent with a role for RTEL1 in preventing Ht-REC during break-induced replication. Our data establish Ht-REC as an unappreciated source of genome instability that underpins a novel class of complex genome rearrangements that likely arise during replication stress. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Structural rearrangements of chromosomes in the domestic chicken: experimental production by X-irradiation of spermatozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wooster, W.E.; Fechheimer, N.S.; Jaap, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    In order to produce chicks heterozygous for structural aberrations of chromosomes, 67 hens were inseminated with semen that had been exposed to 1200 R of X-rays. A sample of 204 chicks was hatched and survived. Among these, 18 (8.9%) contained rearrangements comprising 19 translocations and one pericentric inversion. All 10 males and eight females heterozygous for rearrangements were fertile and transmitted these rearrangements to approximately half their hatched progeny. Each of the major chromosomes of the chicken karyotype, except number 6, was involved in one or more of the translocations. The pericentric inversion was of a segment of chromosome number 2. (author)

  12. Analysis of chromosome rearrangements on the basis of synaptonemal complexes in the offspring of mice exposed to γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalikinskaya, E.I.; Bogdanov, Yu.F.; Kolomiets, O.L.; Shevchenko, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    Electron-microscopic analysis of synaptonemic complexes (SC), spread on the hypophase surface, was conducted to investigate chromosome rearrangements in sterile and semisterile F 1 malemause offsprings, exposed to 5 Gy γ-rays Paralelly Chromosome rearrangement account in diakinesis-metaphase 1 was conducted using light microscope, in the same animals. During SC analysis in pachytene chromosome rearrangements were found in 63% of spermatocytes. Under chromosome analysis in diakinesis-metaphase 1 in the same animals chromosome rearrangements were found only in 32% of cells. SC analysis allows one to reveal chromosome rearrangements, which can not be revealed in diakinesis-metaphase 1

  13. Dyadic coping and relationship satisfaction: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconier, Mariana K; Jackson, Jeffrey B; Hilpert, Peter; Bodenmann, Guy

    2015-12-01

    Meta-analytic methods were used to empirically determine the association between dyadic coping and relationship satisfaction. Dyadic coping is a systemic conceptualization of the processes partners use to cope with stressors, such as stress communication, individual strategies to assist the other partner cope with stress, and partners' strategies to cope together. A total of 72 independent samples from 57 reports with a combined sum of 17,856 participants were included. The aggregated standardized zero-order correlation (r) for total dyadic coping with relationship satisfaction was .45 (p=.000). Total dyadic coping strongly predicted relationship satisfaction regardless of gender, age, relationship length, education level, and nationality. Perceptions of overall dyadic coping by partner and by both partners together were stronger predictors of relationship satisfaction than perceptions of overall dyadic coping by self. Aggregated positive forms of dyadic coping were a stronger predictor of relationship satisfaction than aggregated negative forms of dyadic coping. Comparisons among dyadic coping dimensions indicated that collaborative common coping, supportive coping, and hostile/ambivalent coping were stronger predictors of relationship satisfaction than stress communication, delegated coping, protective buffering coping, and overprotection coping. Clinical implications and recommendations for future research are provided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The in vitro and in vivo effects of re-expressing methylated von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene in clear cell renal carcinoma with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleman, Wade G; Tabios, Ray L; Chandramouli, Gadisetti V R; Aprelikova, Olga N; Torres-Cabala, Carlos; Mendoza, Arnulfo; Rogers, Craig; Rodgers, Craig; Sopko, Nikolai A; Linehan, W Marston; Vasselli, James R

    2004-10-15

    Clear cell renal carcinoma (ccRCC) is strongly associated with loss of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene. The VHL gene is functionally lost through hypermethylation in up to 19% of sporadic ccRCC cases. We theorized that re-expressing VHL silenced by methylation in ccRCC cells, using a hypo-methylating agent, may be an approach to treatment in patients with this type of cancer. We test the ability of two hypo-methylating agents to re-express VHL in cell culture and in mice bearing human ccRCC and evaluate the effects of re-expressed VHL in these models. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR was used to evaluate the ability of zebularine and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dCyd) to re-express VHL in four ccRCC cell lines with documented VHL gene silencing through hypermethylation. We evaluated if the VHL re-expressed after hypo-methylating agent treatment could recreate similar phenotypic changes in ccRCC cells observed when the VHL gene is re-expressed via transfection in cell culture and in a xenograft mouse model. Finally we evaluate global gene expression changes occurring in our cells, using microarray analysis. 5-Aza-dCyd was able to re-express VHL in our cell lines both in culture and in xenografted murine tumors. Well described phenotypic changes of VHL expression including decreased invasiveness into Matrigel, and decreased vascular endothelial growth factor and glucose transporter-1 expression were observed in the treated lines. VHL methylated ccRCC xenografted tumors were significantly reduced in size in mice treated with 5-aza-dCyd. Mice bearing nonmethylated but VHL-mutated tumors showed no tumor shrinkage with 5-aza-dCyd treatment. Hypo-methylating agents may be useful in the treatment of patients having ccRCC tumors consisting of cells with methylated VHL.

  15. Hubungan Kecerdasan Emosi dengan Kemampuan Coping Adaptif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Saptoto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to analyze the correlation between adaptive coping and emotional intelligence (EI. The subject of this study (N=69 are high school students in SMU Negeri 8 Yogyakarta, whose age ranged from 15 to 17 years old. Adaptive coping is measured by adaptive coping scale, and EI is measured by EI scale. Researcher developed both scale. Data was analyzed using Pearson’s product moment correlation. Results show that there are: positive correlation between EI and problem focused coping (PFC part I (r=0,302; p=0,006, negative correlation between EI and emotional focused coping (EFC and confrontative coping (CC part I (r=‐0,322; p=0,004, and negative correlation between EI and PFC and CC part II (r=‐0,366; p=0,001. Spearman’s test correlation used to analyze correlation between EI and EPC part II, because this correlation did not meet linearity assumption. Spearman’s test correlation show that there is no correlation between EI and EPC part II (p=0,337. Based on these minor hypothesis, it is concluded that generally there is correlation between EI and adaptive coping ability.

  16. The Development of a Self-Report Questionnaire on Coping with Cyberbullying: The Cyberbullying Coping Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels C.L. Jacobs

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The negative effects and the continuation of cyberbullying seem to depend on the coping strategies the victims use. To assess their coping strategies, self-report questionnaires (SRQs are used. However, these SRQs are often subject to several shortcomings: the (single and topological categorizations used in SRQs do not always adequately differentiate among various coping responses, in addition the strategies of general SRQs fail to accurately measure coping with cyberbullying. This study is therefore aimed to develop a SRQ that specifically measures coping with cyberbullying (i.e., Cyberbullying Coping Questionnaire; CCQ and to discover whether other, not single and topological, categorizations of coping strategies can be found. Based on previous SRQs used in the (cyberbullying (i.e., traditional and cyberbullying literature (i.e., 49 studies were found with three different SRQs measuring coping with traditional bullying, cyberbullying or (cyberbullying items and categorizations were selected, compared and merged into a new questionnaire. In compliance with recommendations from the classical test-theory, a principal component analysis and a confirmatory factor analysis were done, and a final model was constructed. Seventeen items loaded onto four different coping categorizations: mental-, passive-, social-, and confrontational-coping. The CCQ appeared to have good internal consistency, acceptable test-retest reliability, good discriminant validity and the development of the CCQ fulfilled many of the recommendations from classical test-theory. The CCQ omits working in single and topological categorizations and measures cognitive, behavioral, approach and avoidance strategies.

  17. Coping strategies in teachers with vocal complaint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, Fabiana; Moreti, Felipe; Behlau, Mara

    2014-05-01

    To understand the coping strategies used by teachers with vocal complaints, compare the differences between those who seek and those who do not seek voice therapy, and investigate the relationships among coping and voice perceptual analysis, coping and signs and symptoms of voice, and coping and participation restrictions and limitations in vocal activities. Cross-sectional nonrandomized prospective study with control group. Ninety female teachers participated in the study, of similar ages, divided into three groups: group 1 (G1) comprised 30 teachers with vocal complaints who sought voice therapy, group 2 (G2) comprised 30 teachers with vocal complaints who never sought voice therapy, and group 3 (G3) comprised 30 teachers without vocal complaints. The following analysis were conducted: identification and characterization questionnaire, addressing personal and occupational description, recording speech material for voice perceptual analysis, Voice Signs and Symptoms Questionnaire, Voice Activity and Participation Profile (VAPP), and Voice Disability Coping Questionnaire (VDCQ)-Brazilian Version. In relation to the voice perceptual analysis, there was statistically significant difference between the groups with vocal complaint (G1+G2), which had showed voices with mild-to-moderate deviation, and the group without vocal complaint (G1), which showed voices within the normal variability of voice quality (mean for G1 = 49.9, G2 = 43.7, and G3 = 32.3, P Teachers with vocal complaints who looked for voice therapy use more coping strategies. Moreover, they present a tendency to use more problem-focused coping strategies. Voice symptoms prompt the teachers into seeking treatment; however, they are not correlated with the coping itself. In general, the higher the perception of limitation and restriction of participating in vocal activities, the greater the use of coping strategies. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Dyadic coping and well-being -- the Hungarian version of the Dyadic Coping Inventory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Tamás; Sallay, Viola; Nistor, Michaela; Józsa, Péter

    2012-01-01

    In studying coping processes, there is often a focus on individual coping while dyadic processes in couples are seldom addressed. Therefore we present here data with the Hungarian version of the Dyadic Coping Inventory (DCI) that was developed to assess dyadic forms of coping (e.g., stress communication, support, delegated and negative coping). 473 adult participants, living in committed relationships (176 male and 296 female, aged 34,0 +/- 11,9 years) were involved in a questionnaire study. Along with the Hungarian version of the Dyadic Coping Inventory we assessed satisfaction with life (SWLS) and marital satisfaction (Marital Stress Scale). Subscales of the Dyadic Coping Inventory were found reliable and the expected factor structure for both the dyadic coping of oneself and the partner were replicable. Moreover, specific forms of dyadic coping accounted for significant amount of explained variance in life satisfaction (31,8 and 27,7% for male and female respondents) and marital satisfaction (1,8 and 48,5%). Results imply possible gender differences, since marital satisfaction of women was negatively predicted both by negative coping of oneself and the partner (betas=-0,174 and -0,152), and positively by the support of the partner and the evaluation of the common dyadic coping (betas= 0,255 and 0,187), whereas there was only one significant link in male respondents, supportive coping of oneself (beta= 0,320). Results show that 1. the Hungarian version of the DCI is a reliable and valid measure, and 2. there may be specific gender differences in dyadic coping that has to be considered when planning further research, training programs and therapeutic interventions for couples.

  19. Evaluation of NGS and RT-PCR methods for ALK rearrangement in European NSCLC patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Letovanec, Igor; Finn, Stephen; Zygoura, Panagiota

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The reported prevalence of ALK rearrangement in NSCLC ranges from 2%-7%. The primary standard diagnostic method is fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Recently, immunohistochemistry (IHC) has also proven to be a reproducible and sensitive technique. Reverse transcriptase...

  20. Rearrangement of 5-trimethylsilylthebaine on treatment with L-selectride: an efficient synthesis of (+)-bractazonine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weibin; Wu, Huifang; Bernard, Denzil; Metcalf, Matthew D; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Flippen-Anderson, Judith L; MacKerell, Alexander D; Coop, Andrew

    2003-03-07

    Treatment of 5-trimethylsilylthebaine with L-Selectride gave rise to a rearrangement to 10-trimethylsilylbractazonine through migration of the phenyl group, whereas treatment of thebaine with strong Lewis acids is known to lead to a similar rearrangement through migration of the alkyl bridge to give, after reduction, (+)-neodihydrothebaine. It is suggested that the rearrangement of the alkyl group of thebaine is favored due to the formation of a tertiary benzylic cation. However, for 5-trimethylsilylthebaine, the lithium ion of L-Selectride acts as the Lewis acid and the beta-silyl effect dominates in the stabilization of any positive charge. This rearrangement provides a clear example of the greater relative migratory aptitude of phenyl groups over alkyl groups, and provides an efficient synthesis of (+)-bractazonine from thebaine.

  1. Recurrent reciprocal genomic rearrangements of 17q12 are associated with renal disease, diabetes, and epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mefford, Heather C; Clauin, Severine; Sharp, Andrew J

    2007-01-01

    predisposed to recurrent rearrangement, by array-based comparative genomic hybridization. We found that 6% of fetal material showed evidence of microdeletion or microduplication, including three independent events that likely resulted from unequal crossing-over between segmental duplications. One...

  2. Low frequency of large genomic rearrangements of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in western Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Cruger, Dorthe

    2006-01-01

    Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose female carriers to breast and ovarian cancer. The majority of mutations identified are small deletions or insertions or are nonsense mutations. Large genomic rearrangements in BRCA1 are found with varying frequencies in different populations......, but BRCA2 rearrangements have not been investigated thoroughly. The objective in this study was to determine the frequency of large genomic rearrangements in BRCA1 and BRCA2 in a large group of Danish families with increased risk of breast and ovarian cancer. A total of 617 families previously tested...... negative for mutations involving few bases were screened with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Two deletions in BRCA1 were identified in three families; no large rearrangements were detected in BRCA2. The large deletions constitute 3.8% of the BRCA1 mutations identified, which...

  3. Transformation of follicular lymphoma to plasmablastic lymphoma with c-myc gene rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouansafi, Ihsane; He, Bing; Fraser, Cory; Nie, Kui; Mathew, Susan; Bhanji, Rumina; Hoda, Rana; Arabadjief, Melissa; Knowles, Daniel; Cerutti, Andrea; Orazi, Attilio; Tam, Wayne

    2010-12-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is an indolent lymphoma that transforms to high-grade lymphoma, mostly diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, in about a third of patients. We present the first report of a case of FL that transformed to plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL). Clonal transformation of the FL to PBL was evidenced by identical IGH/BCL2 gene rearrangements and VDJ gene usage in rearranged IGH genes. IGH/ BCL2 translocation was retained in the PBL, which also acquired c-myc gene rearrangement. Genealogic analysis based on somatic hypermutation of the rearranged IGH genes of both FL and PBL suggests that transformation of the FL to PBL occurred most likely by divergent evolution from a common progenitor cell rather than direct evolution from the FL clone. Our study of this unusual case expands the histologic spectrum of FL transformation and increases our understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms of transformation of indolent lymphomas to aggressive lymphomas.

  4. Total synthesis of broussonetine F: the orthoamide Overman rearrangement of an allylic diol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, Naoto; Aoki, Toshihiro; Miwa, Shohei; Yamazaki, Miki; Sato, Takaaki; Chida, Noritaka

    2011-02-18

    A first total synthesis of broussonetine F from diethyl L-tartrate was achieved. The cornerstone of our synthesis was an orthoamide Overman rearrangement, which provided an allylic amino alcohol with complete diastereoselectivity.

  5. Cytological evidence of chromosomal rearrangement in the second meiotic division after exposure to X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szemere, G. (Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Szeged (Hungary). Orvosbiologiai Intezet)

    1982-01-01

    Metaphase II cells with unequal dyad-arms and obvious X/autosomal rearrangements were found after an exposure to X-rays (2 Gy) of male mice at different stages of meiosis (pachytene, diplotene and diakinesis) with a frequency of 0.2, 1.26 and 0.6%, respectively, giving a direct cytological evidence of structural chromosomal rearrangements in metaphase II cells, partly with autosomal and partly with X/autosomal partners.

  6. The Globular State of the Single-Stranded RNA: Effect of the Secondary Structure Rearrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryan, Zareh A.; Karapetian, Armen T.

    2015-01-01

    The mutual influence of the slow rearrangements of secondary structure and fast collapse of the long single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) in approximation of coarse-grained model is studied with analytic calculations. It is assumed that the characteristic time of the secondary structure rearrangement is much longer than that for the formation of the tertiary structure. A nonequilibrium phase transition of the 2nd order has been observed. PMID:26345143

  7. The Globular State of the Single-Stranded RNA: Effect of the Secondary Structure Rearrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zareh A. Grigoryan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mutual influence of the slow rearrangements of secondary structure and fast collapse of the long single-stranded RNA (ssRNA in approximation of coarse-grained model is studied with analytic calculations. It is assumed that the characteristic time of the secondary structure rearrangement is much longer than that for the formation of the tertiary structure. A nonequilibrium phase transition of the 2nd order has been observed.

  8. Isotopic labelling studies for a gold-catalysed skeletal rearrangement of alkynyl aziridines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Spencer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Isotopic labelling studies were performed to probe a proposed 1,2-aryl shift in the gold-catalysed cycloisomerisation of alkynyl aziridines into 2,4-disubstituted pyrroles. Two isotopomers of the expected skeletal rearrangement product were identified using 13C-labelling and led to a revised mechanism featuring two distinct skeletal rearrangements. The mechanistic proposal has been rationalised against the reaction of a range of 13C- and deuterium-labelled substrates.

  9. Brueckner Rearrangement Effects in $^5_\\Lambda$He and $^6_{\\Lambda\\Lambda}$He

    OpenAIRE

    Kohno, M.; Fujiwara, Y.; Akaishi, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Rearrangement effects in light hypernuclei are investigated in the framework of the Brueckner theory. We can estimate without detailed numerical calculations that the energy of the $\\alpha$-core is reduced by more than 2.5 MeV when the $\\Lambda$ adheres to $^4$He to form $^5_\\Lambda$He. Similar assessment of rearrangement contributions is essential to deduce the strength of $\\Lambda\\Lambda$ interaction from experimentally observed $\\Delta B_{\\Lambda\\Lambda}$. The recently observed experimenta...

  10. Cytological evidence of chromosomal rearrangement in the second meiotic division after exposure to X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szemere, G.

    1982-01-01

    Metaphase II cells with unequal dyad-arms and obvious X/autosomal rearrangements were found after an exposure to X-rays (2 Gy) of male mice at different stages of meiosis (pachytene, diplotene and diakinesis) with a frequency of 0.2, 1.26 and 0.6%, respectively, giving a direct cytological evidence of structural chromosomal rearrangements in metaphase II cells, partly with autosomal and partly with X/autosomal partners. (author)

  11. Deciphering the Code of the Cancer Genome: Mechanisms of Chromosome Rearrangement

    OpenAIRE

    Willis, Nicholas A.; Rass, Emilie; Scully, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome rearrangement plays a causal role in tumorigenesis by contributing to the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, the dysregulated expression or amplification of oncogenes and the generation of novel gene fusions. Chromosome breaks are important intermediates in this process. How, when and where these breaks arise and the specific mechanisms engaged in their repair strongly influence the resulting patterns of chromosome rearrangement. Here, we review recent progress in understandin...

  12. MAML2 rearrangement in primary pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma and the correlation with FLT1 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Zhu

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Primary pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma (PMEC is an uncommon neoplasm with remarkable resemblance to mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands. The latter has been shown to harbor t(11,19 resulting in MECT1-MAML2 fusion, which may be of diagnostic and prognostic values. However, the importance of such feature in PMEC has not been well studied. METHODS: We detected MAML2 rearrangement using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH in tissue samples from 42 cases of PMEC and 40 of adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC, and the expression of potential downstream targets of MECT1-MAML2, including HES1, FLT1 and NR4A2 with immunohistochemistry (IHC. The findings were then examined regarding the clinicopathological parameters and patient outcomes. RESULTS: FISH analysis revealed MAML2 rearrangement in 50% of the PMEC cases, and such property was prominent in considerable younger patients (33 versus 60 years; p = 0.001 and restricted to cases of low and intermediate grades. IHC analysis showed that FLT1 and HES1 were expressed at lower level in MAML2 rearranged group than MAML2 non-rearranged group (p<0.001 and p = 0.023, respectively. Survival analysis showed significant correlation between MAML2 rearrangement and overall survival (p = 0.023 or disease-free survival (p = 0.027 as well as correlation between FLT1 and overall survival (p = 0.009. CONCLUSIONS: MAML2 rearrangement appears frequent in PMEC and specific with this tumor. Both the presence of MAML2 rearrangement and absence of FLT1 tend to confer a favorable clinical outcome. These findings suggest that molecular detection of MAML2 rearrangement combined with FLT1 may be of important clinical value for PMEC.

  13. DNA rearrangements from γ-irradiated normal human fibroblasts preferentially occur in transcribed regions of the genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, H.B.; Radford, I.R.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: DNA rearrangement events leading to chromosomal aberrations are central to ionizing radiation-induced cell death. Although DNA double-strand breaks are probably the lesion that initiates formation of chromosomal aberrations, little is understood about the molecular mechanisms that generate and modulate DNA rearrangement. Examination of the sequences that flank sites of DNA rearrangement may provide information regarding the processes and enzymes involved in rearrangement events. Accordingly, we developed a method using inverse PCR that allows the detection and sequencing of putative radiation-induced DNA rearrangements in defined regions of the human genome. The method can detect single copies of a rearrangement event that has occurred in a particular region of the genome and, therefore, DNA rearrangement detection does not require survival and continued multiplication of the affected cell. Ionizing radiation-induced DNA rearrangements were detected in several different regions of the genome of human fibroblast cells that were exposed to 30 Gy of γ-irradiation and then incubated for 24 hours at 37 deg C. There was a 3- to 5-fold increase in the number of products amplified from irradiated as compared with control cells in the target regions 5' to the C-MYC, CDKN1A, RB1, and FGFR2 genes. Sequences were examined from 121 DNA rearrangements. Approximately half of the PCR products were derived from possible inter-chromosomal rearrangements and the remainder were from intra-chromosomal events. A high proportion of the sequences that rearranged with target regions were located in genes, suggesting that rearrangements may occur preferentially in transcribed regions. Eighty-four percent of the sequences examined by reverse transcriptase PCR were from transcribed sequences in IMR-90 cells. The distribution of DNA rearrangements within the target regions is non-random and homology occurs between the sequences involved in rearrangements in some cases but is not

  14. Palindromic nucleotide analysis in human T cell receptor rearrangements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh K Srivastava

    Full Text Available Diversity of T cell receptor (TCR genes is primarily generated by nucleotide insertions upon rearrangement from their germ line-encoded V, D and J segments. Nucleotide insertions at V-D and D-J junctions are random, but some small subsets of these insertions are exceptional, in that one to three base pairs inversely repeat the sequence of the germline DNA. These short complementary palindromic sequences are called P nucleotides. We apply the ImmunoSeq deep-sequencing assay to the third complementarity determining region (CDR3 of the β chain of T cell receptors, and use the resulting data to study P nucleotides in the repertoire of naïve and memory CD8(+ and CD4(+ T cells. We estimate P nucleotide distributions in a cross section of healthy adults and different T cell subtypes. We show that P nucleotide frequency in all T cell subtypes ranges from 1% to 2%, and that the distribution is highly biased with respect to the coding end of the gene segment. Classification of observed palindromic sequences into P nucleotides using a maximum conditional probability model shows that single base P nucleotides are very rare in VDJ recombination; P nucleotides are primarily two bases long. To explore the role of P nucleotides in thymic selection, we compare P nucleotides in productive and non-productive sequences of CD8(+ naïve T cells. The naïve CD8(+ T cell clones with P nucleotides are more highly expanded.

  15. The Brønsted Acid-Catalyzed, Enantioselective Aza-Diels-Alder Reaction for the Direct Synthesis of Chiral Piperidones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilbeer, Claudia; Sickert, Marcel; Naumov, Sergei; Schneider, Christoph

    2017-01-12

    We disclose herein the first enantioselective aza-Diels-Alder reaction of β-alkyl-substituted vinylketene silyl-O,O-acetals and imines furnishing a broad range of optically highly enriched 4-alkyl-substituted 2-piperidones. As a catalyst for this one-pot reaction we employed a chiral phosphoric acid which effects a vinylogous Mannich reaction directly followed by ring-closure to the lactam. Subsequent fully diastereoselective transformations including hydrogenation, enolate alkylation, and lactam alkylation/reduction processes converted the cycloadducts into various highly substituted piperidines of great utility for the synthesis of natural products and medicinally active compounds. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Gold-catalyzed tandem hydroamination/formal aza-Diels-Alder reaction of homopropargyl amino esters: a combined computational and experimental mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró, Javier; Sánchez-Roselló, María; González, Javier; del Pozo, Carlos; Fustero, Santos

    2015-03-27

    A tandem gold-catalyzed hydroamination/formal aza-Diels-Alder reaction is described. This process, which employs quaternary homopropargyl amino ester substrates, leads to the formation of an intrincate tetracyclic framework and involves the generation of four bonds and five stereocenters in a highly diastereoselective manner. Theoretical calculations have allowed us to propose a suitable mechanistic rationalization for the tandem protocol. Additionally, by studying the influence of the ligands on the rate of the gold-catalyzed reactions, it was possible to establish optimum conditions in which to perform the process with a variety of substituents on the amino ester substrates. Notably, the asymmetric version of the tandem reaction was also evaluated. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Copper(I)-Catalyzed Asymmetric Desymmetrization through Inverse-Electron-Demand aza-Diels-Alder Reaction: Efficient Access to Tetrahydropyridazines Bearing a Unique α-Chiral Silane Moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liang; Zhou, Yu; Song, Zhi-Min; Tao, Hai-Yan; Lin, Zhenyang; Wang, Chun-Jiang

    2017-04-11

    An unprecedented copper(I)-catalyzed asymmetric desymmetrization of 5-silylcyclopentadienes with in situ formed azoalkene was realized through an inverse-electron-demand aza-Diels-Alder reaction (IEDDA) pathway, in which 5-silylcyclopentadienes served as efficient enophiles. This new protocol provides a facile access to the biologically important heterocyclic tetrahydropyridazines containing a unique α-chiral silane motif and three adjoining stereogenic centers in generally good yield (up to 92 %) with exclusive regioselectivity, high diastereoselectivity (>20:1 diastereomeric ratio), and excellent enantioselectivity (up to 98 % enantiomeric excess). DFT calculations and control experiments further confirmed the proposed reaction mechanism. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Facile Synthesis of N-Tosyl Aza-Baylis-Hillman Adducts of Acrylamide via a Pd-Catalyzed Hydration of Nitrile to Amide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Sun; Kim, Yu Mi; Kim, Jae Nyoung

    2010-01-01

    We developed an efficient palladium-catalyzed two-step protocol for the synthesis of N-tosyl aza-Baylis-Hillman adducts of acrylamide. The method involved the preparation of the corresponding Baylis-Hillman adducts of acrylonitrile and the following Pd-catalyzed hydration of nitrile with acetaldoxime. The Baylis-Hillman reaction, which involves the coupling of activated vinyl compounds with electrophiles under the catalytic influence of a tertiary amine, gives rise to adducts, so called Baylis-Hillman adducts, with a new stereocenter and has proven to be a very useful carbon-carbon bond-forming method in the synthesis of highly functionalized molecules. As the activated vinyl compounds, various compounds have been used in the Baylis-Hillman reaction including acrylates, acrylonitrile, vinyl ketones, vinyl sulfones and acrylamides. However, among the activated vinyl compounds acrylamide has not been used much for the synthesis of the corresponding Baylis-Hillman adducts due to its sluggish reactivity

  19. Constitutional chromothripsis rearrangements involve clustered double-stranded DNA breaks and nonhomologous repair mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterman, Wigard P; Tavakoli-Yaraki, Masoumeh; van Roosmalen, Markus J; van Binsbergen, Ellen; Renkens, Ivo; Duran, Karen; Ballarati, Lucia; Vergult, Sarah; Giardino, Daniela; Hansson, Kerstin; Ruivenkamp, Claudia A L; Jager, Myrthe; van Haeringen, Arie; Ippel, Elly F; Haaf, Thomas; Passarge, Eberhard; Hochstenbach, Ron; Menten, Björn; Larizza, Lidia; Guryev, Victor; Poot, Martin; Cuppen, Edwin

    2012-06-28

    Chromothripsis represents a novel phenomenon in the structural variation landscape of cancer genomes. Here, we analyze the genomes of ten patients with congenital disease who were preselected to carry complex chromosomal rearrangements with more than two breakpoints. The rearrangements displayed unanticipated complexity resembling chromothripsis. We find that eight of them contain hallmarks of multiple clustered double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) on one or more chromosomes. In addition, nucleotide resolution analysis of 98 breakpoint junctions indicates that break repair involves nonhomologous or microhomology-mediated end joining. We observed that these eight rearrangements are balanced or contain sporadic deletions ranging in size between a few hundred base pairs and several megabases. The two remaining complex rearrangements did not display signs of DSBs and contain duplications, indicative of rearrangement processes involving template switching. Our work provides detailed insight into the characteristics of chromothripsis and supports a role for clustered DSBs driving some constitutional chromothripsis rearrangements. Copyright © 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Delineating Rearrangements in Single Yeast Artificial Chromosomes by Quantitative DNA Fiber Mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Greulich-Bode, Karin M.; Wu, Jenny; Duell, Thomas

    2009-09-18

    Cloning of large chunks of human genomic DNA in recombinant systems such as yeast or bacterial artificial chromosomes has greatly facilitated the construction of physical maps, the positional cloning of disease genes or the preparation of patient-specific DNA probes for diagnostic purposes. For this process to work efficiently, the DNA cloning process and subsequent clone propagation need to maintain stable inserts that are neither deleted nor otherwise rearranged. Some regions of the human genome; however, appear to have a higher propensity than others to rearrange in any host system. Thus, techniques to detect and accurately characterize such rearrangements need to be developed. We developed a technique termed 'Quantitative DNA Fiber Mapping (QDFM)' that allows accurate tagging of sequence elements of interest with near kilobase accuracy and optimized it for delineation of rearrangements in recombinant DNA clones. This paper demonstrates the power of this microscopic approach by investigating YAC rearrangements. In our examples, high-resolution physical maps for regions within the immunoglobulin lambda variant gene cluster were constructed for three different YAC clones carrying deletions of 95 kb and more. Rearrangements within YACs could be demonstrated unambiguously by pairwise mapping of cosmids along YAC DNA molecules. When coverage by YAC clones was not available, distances between cosmid clones were estimated by hybridization of cosmids onto DNA fibers prepared from human genomic DNA. In addition, the QDFM technology provides essential information about clone stability facilitating closure of the maps of the human genome as well as those of model organisms.

  1. Dysmenorrhoea and coping strategies among secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Its prevalence varies greatly in different populations and ethnic groups. Adolescents with severe dysmenorrhoea may miss classes and other social activities. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and coping strategies for ...

  2. Stress and coping with discrimination and stigmatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eBerjot

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to briefly review the literature on stigmatization and more generally identity threats, to focus more specifically of the way people appraise and cope with those threatening situations. Based on the transactional model of stress and coping (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984, we propose a model of coping with identity threats that takes into accounts the principle characteristic of stigma, its devaluing aspect. We present a model with specific antecedents, a refined appraisal phase and a new classification of coping strategies based on the motives that may be elicited by the threatening situation, those of protecting and/or enhancing the personal and/or social identity.

  3. Help your teen cope with stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolescents - stress; Anxiety - cope with stress ... Common sources of stress in teens include: Worrying about schoolwork or grades Juggling responsibilities, such as school and work or sports Having problems ...

  4. Fibromyalgia, Spirituality, Coping and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biccheri, Eliane; Roussiau, Nicolas; Mambet-Doué, Constance

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the impact of spirituality on coping strategies and on the quality of life of fibromyalgia patients. The study was carried out on 590 people suffering from fibromyalgia. The data were collected with the French version of the WCC-R (The Ways of Coping Checklist: Cousson et al. 1996), the questionnaire of spirituality (Evaluation de La Spiritualité: Renard and Roussiau, 2016) and Diener's Satisfaction with Life Scale questionnaire, translated into French (Blais et al. 1989). An analysis carried out with the software SPSS and Hayes' models showed that both problem-focused coping and coping through social support seeking are mediating variables that enable an indirect link between spirituality and quality of life.

  5. Women's Ways of Coping with Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouder, Lynn

    1997-01-01

    Women may attempt to cope with conflicting school and family roles by trying to work harder, altering personal expectations or behavior, or altering externally imposed expectations. When possible, continuing educators can help by transforming the inflexibilities of higher education. (SK)

  6. How Do People Cope with Muscular Dystrophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... topic are answered in this section. How do people cope with muscular dystrophy (MD)? Although MD presents ... improve health and quality of life. Almost all people with any form of MD experience a worsening ...

  7. Prosocial coping and substance use during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechman, E A; Lowell, E S; Garrett, J

    1999-01-01

    In structured interviews of pregnant inner-city residents, 38 substance users reported more current liking of drugs and polysubstance use, disengagement coping, depressive symptoms, negative affect, and antisocial behavior than did 45 nonusers. During videotaped interviews, trained observers coded less warmth and less prosocial information exchange (e.g., self-disclosure, question asking) among users. Factor analysis of measures of coping and its concomitants yielded a three-factor (prosocial, antisocial, asocial) solution, with asocial and antisocial coping predominating among substance users. These results suggest that coping has emotional, social, and cognitive elements. This study is the first to demonstrate an association between a substance-using lifestyle and limited prosocial information exchange.

  8. Relationship between religiosity, religious coping and socio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , ... Results: Intrinsic religiosity was greater among older people with depression than ... Positive religious coping was greater among participants with diabetes in the low occupational .... of this study would contribute to effective treatment for.

  9. Secretaries' Perceived Strategies for Coping with Occupational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secretaries' Perceived Strategies for Coping with Occupational Stress in Banks in Anambra State. ... Journal Home > Vol 9, No 3 (2015) > ... Results revealed that bank secretaries perceived work functions as cause of stress; these stressors ...

  10. Coping with Test Pain, Discomfort, and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe Search Coping with Test Pain, Discomfort and Anxiety Send Us Your Feedback This article was last ... can relax you. Anyone who suffers from high anxiety about medical tests should talk with a healthcare ...

  11. Understanding recovery in children following traffic-related injuries: exploring acute traumatic stress reactions, child coping, and coping assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsac, Meghan L; Donlon, Katharine A; Hildenbrand, Aimee K; Winston, Flaura K; Kassam-Adams, Nancy

    2014-04-01

    Millions of children incur potentially traumatic physical injuries every year. Most children recover well from their injury but many go on to develop persistent traumatic stress reactions. This study aimed to describe children's coping and coping assistance (i.e., the ways in which parents and peers help children cope) strategies and to explore the association between coping and acute stress reactions following an injury. Children (N = 243) rated their acute traumatic stress reactions within one month of injury and reported on coping and coping assistance six months later. Parents completed a measure of coping assistance at the six-month assessment. Children used an average of five to six coping strategies (out of 10), with wishful thinking, social support, and distraction endorsed most frequently. Child coping was associated with parent and peer coping assistance strategies. Significant acute stress reactions were related to subsequent child use of coping strategies (distraction, social withdrawal, problem-solving, blaming others) and to child report of parent use of distraction (as a coping assistance strategy). Findings suggest that children's acute stress reactions may influence their selection of coping and coping assistance strategies. To best inform interventions, research is needed to examine change in coping behaviors and coping assistance over time, including potential bidirectional relationships between trauma reactions and coping.

  12. Lack of nonfunctional B-cell receptor rearrangements in a patient with normal B cell numbers despite partial RAG1 deficiency and atypical SCID/Omenn syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohm-Laursen, Line; Nielsen, Christian; Fisker, Niels

    2008-01-01

    rearrangements to those of age-matched controls, cord blood, and adults revealed an almost total lack of nonproductive rearrangements (2.7% versus 14.7%, 27.6%, and 19.8% in the controls, respectively) indicating failure to correct out-of-frame rearrangements by a second rearrangement on the homologous...

  13. Coping Flexibility: Influencing Appraisals of Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-25

    organism was exposed to fear- inducing stimuli (Cannon and de la Paz, 1911 ). The substance Wsympathin", later to be named epinephrine, was identified...coping repertoire must playa role in this process. Rigid application of problem-focused coping across controllable and uncontrollable situations may...cabbage :e a splice C a steak D a paper box .::. a fish 3. To stop severe bleeding A a razor blade B a lima bean C a light bulb D a shoe E

  14. Stress and coping: An economic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wälde, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Stress is ubiquitous in society. In our model, stressors translate into subjective stress via an appraisal process. Stress reduces instantaneous utility of an individual directly and via a cognitive load argument. Coping can be functional and under the control of the individual or more automatic with dysfunctional features. We predict the occurrence and frequency of uncontrolled coping - emotional outbursts - as a function of an individual´s personality and environment. Outbursts cannot alway...

  15. STRATEGI COPING ORANG TUA MENGHADAPI ANAK AUTIS

    OpenAIRE

    Desi Sulistyo Wardani

    2016-01-01

    Autis merupakan grey area dibidang kedokteran, yang artinya masih merupakan suatu hal yang penyebab, mekanisme, dan terapinya belum jelas benar. Permasalahan yang dihadapi oleh orang tua yang mempunyai anak autis ini memerlukan pemecahan sebagai upaya untuk beradaptasi terhadap masalah dari tekanan yang menimpa mereka. Konsep untuk memecahkan masalah ini disebut coping. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui orientasi strategi coping yang digunakan oleh orang tua untuk menghadapi anak pend...

  16. Coping With Uncertainty in International Business

    OpenAIRE

    Briance Mascarenhas

    1982-01-01

    International business, as compared with domestic business, is usually characterized by increased uncertainty. A study of 10 multinational companies uncovered several methods of coping with uncertainty. This paper focuses on 2 methods which may not be apparent control and flexibility. A framework of analysis suggesting appropriate methods for coping with uncertainty is also developed.© 1982 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1982) 13, 87–98

  17. COPING STRATEGIES OF THE STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Andreevna Kiseleva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available According to the research it was revealed that students with health problems (handicapped students in general seldom take responsibility for the events happening to them, and rarely analyze the situation and their possibilities and more often try to distance from the problem. According to the data obtained the handicapped students demonstrate the problems with coping strategies in the cognitive sphere. The article also gives the analysis of the gender peculiarities of coping behavior of the handicapped students. It is revealed that such girls-students in comparison with so called conditionally healthy peers are more often ready to have a conflict or to try to cope with the problem subjectively diminishing its importance and degree of their emotional involving into it. The handicapped boys at the same time, are less ready for confrontation, rarely confess their responsibility for the problem and the responsibility for solving it and also have less tendency for direct analysis of the situation and possible variants of behavior, for working out the strategy of the problem solving and planning their actions considering objective conditions, previous experience and resources. Further on, the character of relations between different coping strategies of handicapped and conditionally healthy students was analyzed. It was revealed that the main relations between different copings of conditionally healthy students are on the scales Problem-solving Planning and Positive re-estimation. It is possible to suggest that for these (healthy students these coping strategies compose the core of the mechanisms of coping behavior. On the contrary, handicapped students (with health problems the definite correlational connections are absent. So in the case of handicapped students it is impossible to speak about some definite core in the system of coping behavior.

  18. Food Allergy and Attentional Coping in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Gauchel, Jessica A.

    2017-01-01

    Food allergy affects approximately 9 million adults in the Unites States. The only medically approved treatment is avoidance of the allergenic food. Research has found food allergy to be associated with anxiety, depression, and lower quality of life, but has primarily focused on children. Little research has explored these associations in adults, and even less has examined the relationship between coping and food allergy in adults. Attentional coping is associated with ongoing symptom managem...

  19. Antibody repertoire development in fetal and neonatal piglets. XXII. Lambda rearrangement precedes kappa rearrangement during B-cell lymphogenesis in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    PCR was used to detect VDJ and VJ rearrangement, expression of RAG-1, TdT and VpreB and the presence of signal joint circles (SJC) in an effort to identify sites of B cell lymphogenesis in tissue lysates and sorted leukocytes of fetal and newborn piglets. VDJ, VlambdaJlambda but not VkappaJkappa re...

  20. Coping with the Trauma of Professional Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovzhik L. M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigation considers sports injuries as a psychological phenomenon, reveals the personality traits of athletes in terms of their vulnerability and resource to overcome injuries. Authors suggest the specificity of athletes’ coping strategies composition, as well as differences in their emotional state depending on the psychological well-being level. We consider gender-specific study links. In the survey, 124 participants were interviewed (M age = 22.1, SD age = 4; 80 male, 44 female. Authors has found significant differences in the ways of overcoming ordinary and sports stress among athletes having high or low level of well-being, gender-specific coping with the situation of injury have been shown. In the male group, athletes with high level of well-being use Problem-solving strategies, as well as Sport coping skills significantly more often. In the female group, in addition to coping peculiar to men, there is an appeal to Goal Setting and Mental Preparation, besides that they use Coach ability coping strategy. The study also identified coping strategies that contributed to the experience of well-being. Authors propose the practical aspects and perspectives of research.

  1. LIFE EVENTS AND NEGATIVE RELIGIOUS COPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sema eryücel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, insufficiency of secular coping methods has drawn the attention of researchers towards religious coping methods. While the parts about theory and model cover an important place in the literature, experimental studies are rapidly going on. Although religious coping was initially interpreted as positive, experimental studies reveal that it also has negative forms. The purpose of this study, in which qualitative research methods were used, is to define the components of religious coping. Semi structured interview was used among 42 participants, 9 war veterans from Association of Turkish Disabled War Veterans, Martyrs, their Widows and Orphans Ankara Branch, and 9 relatives of martyrs from the Association of Martyrs’ Families Ankara Branch, totaling 60 volunteer participants between the ages 25 and 65 with snowball sampling method. It was discovered that 29 of the participants used negative religious coping and the participants who only used negative religious coping were studied in this research. Upon recording the interviews with the aid of a recorder, the researched typed the script of the interviews. The qualitative analysis of the collected data was done in MAXODA 11 computer program.

  2. LIFE EVENTS AND NEGATIVE RELIGIOUS COPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sema eryücel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Recently, insufficiency of secular coping methods has drawn the attention of researchers towards religious coping methods. While the parts about theory and model cover an important place in the literature, experimental studies are rapidly going on. Although religious coping was initially interpreted as positive, experimental studies reveal that it also has negative forms. The purpose of this study, in which qualitative research methods were used, is to define the components of religious coping. Semi structured interview was used among 42 participants, 9 war veterans from Association of Turkish Disabled War Veterans, Martyrs, their Widows and Orphans Ankara Branch, and 9 relatives of martyrs from the Association of Martyrs’ Families Ankara Branch, totaling 60 volunteer participants between the ages 25 and 65 with snowball sampling method. It was discovered that 29 of the participants used negative religious coping and the participants who only used negative religious coping were studied in this research. Upon recording the interviews with the aid of a recorder, the researched typed the script of the interviews. The qualitative analysis of the collected data was done in MAXODA 11 computer program.

  3. Clinical variables, lifestyle and coping in hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comelis Bertolin, Daniela

    2016-10-01

    To verify the relationship between coping strategies of people with chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis and their clinical variables and lifestyle habits. It was developed a cross-sectional study that used the Coping Strategies Inventory of Folkman and Lazarus and a semi-structured questionnaire for collecting clinical variables and lifestyles of patients undergoing hemodialysis in the Urology and Nephrology Institute of São Jose do Rio Preto-SP (Brazil). Participants were 107 adults undergoing hemodialysis, with an average age of 51 years; 62.4% were men. The main causes of chronic kidney disease were chronic glomerulonephritis, diabetes mellitus, undetermined cause and hypertension. The most reported coping strategies were focused on emotion. There were greater coping scores among people who had diabetes, those who had leisure and those who referred religion. People who exercised and those who had undergone renal transplantation had more positive coping. Clinical variables of people undergoing hemodialysis can be sources of stress, and lifestyle habits are associated with coping strategies to mitigate the effects of stress. Copyright© by the Universidad de Antioquia.

  4. Depression and coping in subthreshold eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennard, E Eliot; Richards, C Steven

    2013-08-01

    The eating disorder literature has sought to understand the role of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses and coping in relation to eating disorders. The present research extends these findings by studying the relationships among depression, coping, and the entire continuum of disordered eating behaviors, with an emphasis on subthreshold eating disorders. 109 undergraduate females completed questionnaires to assess disordered eating symptoms, depressive symptoms, and the use of active and avoidant coping mechanisms. Hypotheses were tested using bivariate linear regression and multivariate linear regression. Results indicated that depression was a significant predictor of disordered eating symptoms after controlling for relationships between depression and coping. Although avoidant coping was positively associated with disordered eating, it was not a significant predictor after controlling for depression and coping. Previous research has found associations between depression and diagnosable eating disorders, and this research extends those findings to the entire continuum of disordered eating. Future research should continue to investigate the predictors and correlates of the disordered eating continuum using more diverse samples. Testing for mediation and moderation among these variables may also be a fruitful area of investigation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Proactive and Preventive Coping in Adjustment to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yiqun; Hu, Yueqin; Zhang, Yiwen

    2010-01-01

    The current study compared the relative importance of proactive coping and preventive coping in the adjustment to university life among 403 freshmen at a Chinese university and evaluated the function of proactive coping in the stress process. Participants completed the Future-Oriented Coping Inventory (Gan, Yang, Zhou, & Zhang, 2007), the…

  6. Coping with loneliness: what do older adults suggest?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, E.; van Tilburg, T.; Fokkema, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: A limited amount of information is available on how older adults cope with loneliness. Two ways of coping are distinguished here, i.e., active coping by improving relationships and regulative coping by lowering expectations about relationships. We explore how often older adults suggest

  7. Detection of circulating tumor cells harboring a unique ALK rearrangement in ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailler, Emma; Adam, Julien; Barthélémy, Amélie; Oulhen, Marianne; Auger, Nathalie; Valent, Alexander; Borget, Isabelle; Planchard, David; Taylor, Melissa; André, Fabrice; Soria, Jean Charles; Vielh, Philippe; Besse, Benjamin; Farace, Françoise

    2013-06-20

    The diagnostic test for ALK rearrangement in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) for crizotinib treatment is currently done on tumor biopsies or fine-needle aspirations. We evaluated whether ALK rearrangement diagnosis could be performed by using circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The presence of an ALK rearrangement was examined in CTCs of 18 ALK-positive and 14 ALK-negative patients by using a filtration enrichment technique and filter-adapted fluorescent in situ hybridization (FA-FISH), a FISH method optimized for filters. ALK-rearrangement patterns were determined in CTCs and compared with those present in tumor biopsies. ALK-rearranged CTCs and tumor specimens were characterized for epithelial (cytokeratins, E-cadherin) and mesenchymal (vimentin, N-cadherin) marker expression. ALK-rearranged CTCs were monitored in five patients treated with crizotinib. All ALK-positive patients had four or more ALK-rearranged CTCs per 1 mL of blood (median, nine CTCs per 1 mL; range, four to 34 CTCs per 1 mL). No or only one ALK-rearranged CTC (median, one per 1 mL; range, zero to one per 1 mL) was detected in ALK-negative patients. ALK-rearranged CTCs harbored a unique (3'5') split pattern, and heterogeneous patterns (3'5', only 3') of splits were present in tumors. ALK-rearranged CTCs expressed a mesenchymal phenotype contrasting with heterogeneous epithelial and mesenchymal marker expressions in tumors. Variations in ALK-rearranged CTC levels were detected in patients being treated with crizotinib. ALK rearrangement can be detected in CTCs of patients with ALK-positive NSCLC by using a filtration technique and FA-FISH, enabling both diagnostic testing and monitoring of crizotinib treatment. Our results suggest that CTCs harboring a unique ALK rearrangement and mesenchymal phenotype may arise from clonal selection of tumor cells that have acquired the potential to drive metastatic progression of ALK-positive NSCLC.

  8. Dyadic coping and relationship functioning in couples coping with cancer: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traa, Marjan J; De Vries, Jolanda; Bodenmann, Guy; Den Oudsten, Brenda L

    2015-02-01

    Cancer not only affects the patient but also the partner. In fact, couples may react as a unit rather than as individuals while coping with cancer (i.e., dyadic coping). We assessed (1) the relationship between dyadic coping and relationship functioning in couples coping with cancer and (2) whether intervention studies aimed at improving dyadic coping were able to enhance the relationship functioning of these couples. Recommendations for future studies are provided. A systematic search was conducted to identify all eligible papers between January 1990 and September 2012. The databases PubMed, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library, and EMBASE were screened. Most studies (n = 33) used an appropriate study design, adequate measurements, adequate analytical techniques, and a sufficient number of included participants to answer addressed research questions. However, the definition and assessment of dyadic coping strategies differed, which hampered comparison. Coping styles characterized by open and constructive (cancer-related) communication, supportive behaviours, positive dyadic coping, and joint problem solving were related to higher relationship functioning, whereas dysfunctional communication patterns (e.g., protective buffering, demand-withdraw communication), unsupportive behaviours, and negative dyadic coping were related to lower relationship functioning. The results of the intervention studies were inconsistent: while some studies reported a beneficial effect on relationship functioning, other studies report no such effect, or only found a positive effect in couples with fewer personal relationship resources. This review showed that adequate dyadic coping may improve relationship functioning, while dysfunctional dyadic coping may impede relationship functioning. In order to increase the comparability of the reported findings, a more uniformly conceptualized perspective on dyadic coping is needed. A better understanding of the dyadic challenges couples coping with

  9. Cooperative Group Performance in Graduate Research Methodology Courses: The Role of Study Coping and Examination-Taking Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Qun G.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the extent to which cooperative group members' levels of coping strategies (study and examination-taking coping strategies) and the degree that heterogeneity (variability of study coping strategies and examination-taking coping strategies) predict cooperative groups' levels of achievement in research methodology…

  10. Detection of Gene Rearrangements in Circulating Tumor Cells: Examples of ALK-, ROS1-, RET-Rearrangements in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and ERG-Rearrangements in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catelain, Cyril; Pailler, Emma; Oulhen, Marianne; Faugeroux, Vincent; Pommier, Anne-Laure; Farace, Françoise

    2017-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) hold promise as biomarkers to aid in patient treatment stratification and disease monitoring. Because the number of cells is a critical parameter for exploiting CTCs for predictive biomarker's detection, we developed a FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) method for CTCs enriched on filters (filter-adapted FISH [FA-FISH]) that was optimized for high cell recovery. To increase the feasibility and reliability of the analyses, we combined fluorescent staining and FA-FISH and developed a semi-automated microscopy method for optimal FISH signal identification in filtration-enriched CTCs . Here we present these methods and their use for the detection and characterization of ALK-, ROS1-, RET-rearrangement in CTCs from non-small-cell lung cancer and ERG-rearrangements in CTCs from prostate cancer patients.

  11. Rearrangements of MYC gene facilitate risk stratification in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with rituximab-CHOP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzankov, Alexandar; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Gerhard, Marc

    2014-01-01

    In order to address the debatable prognostic role of MYC rearrangements in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone, we evaluated MYC rearrangements by fluorescence in situ hybridization in 563 cases using...... with the dual-fusion probes, 15 detectable only with the break-apart probes and 20 detectable with both dual-fusion probes and break-apart probes. MYC rearrangements correlated with germinal center B-cell origin (P=0.02), MYC protein expression (P=0.032), and larger tumor mass size (P=0.0003). Patients with MYC...... was prognostically additive. Radiotherapy seemed to diminish the prognostic effects of MYC rearrangements in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients since only 2/10 irradiated patients with MYC rearrangements died of/with disease, compared with 16/28 non-irradiated patients with MYC rearrangements. We conclude...

  12. Decision making and coping in healthcare: the Coping in Deliberation (CODE) framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Jana; Elwyn, Glyn; Wood, Fiona; Brain, Kate

    2012-08-01

    To develop a framework of decision making and coping in healthcare that describes the twin processes of appraisal and coping faced by patients making preference-sensitive healthcare decisions. We briefly review the literature for decision making theories and coping theories applicable to preference-sensitive decisions in healthcare settings. We describe first decision making, then coping and finally attempt to integrate these processes by building on current theory. Deliberation in healthcare may be described as a six step process, comprised of the presentation of a health threat, choice, options, preference construction, the decision itself and consolidation post-decision. Coping can be depicted in three stages, beginning with a threat, followed by primary and secondary appraisal and ultimately resulting in a coping effort. Drawing together concepts from prominent decision making theories and coping theories, we propose a multidimensional, interactive framework which integrates both processes and describes coping in deliberation. The proposed framework offers an insight into the complexity of decision making in preference-sensitive healthcare contexts from a patient perspective and may act as theoretical basis for decision support. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Adolescents Coping with Poverty-Related Family Stress: Prospective Predictors of Coping and Psychological Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Martha E.; Berger, Lauren E.

    2006-01-01

    Examined prospective associations among poverty-related family stress, coping, involuntary stress reactivity, and psychological symptoms in a sample of 79 rural, low-income adolescents. Poverty-related family stress predicted adolescents' anxious/depressed and aggressive behavior 8 months later, controlling for prior symptoms. Coping interacted…

  14. Managing Stress and Maintaining Well-Being: Social Support, Problem-Focused Coping, and Avoidant Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien

    2011-01-01

    This study tested a model that links stress, social support, problem-focused coping, and well-being. First, it looks at how high support significantly moderated the association between stress and well-being. Next, the students' problem-focused coping was seen as mediating this moderated association. Finally, a 3-way interaction of stress, social…

  15. Development and Validation of an Exploratory Measure to Assess Student Coping: The Student Coping Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujut, Emile

    2013-01-01

    Students is a very specific population according to their manner to cope with stress. A coping questionnaire for students was developed and administered to 1100 French students at the beginning of the term (T1). Principal Component Analysis of responses, followed by varimax rotations, yielded three factors accounting for 50.5% of the total…

  16. Coping with examinations: exploring relationships between students' coping strategies, implicit theories of ability, and perceived control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Julie; Stephan, Yannick; Boiché, Julie; Le Scanff, Christine

    2009-09-01

    Relatively little is known about the contribution of students' beliefs regarding the nature of academic ability (i.e. their implicit theories) on strategies used to deal with examinations. This study applied Dweck's socio-cognitive model of achievement motivation to better understand how students cope with examinations. It was expected that students' implicit theories of academic ability would be related to their use of particular coping strategies to deal with exam-related stress. Additionally, it was predicted that perceived control over exams acts as a mediator between implicit theories of ability and coping. Four hundred and ten undergraduate students (263 males, 147 females), aged from 17 to 26 years old (M=19.73, SD=1.46) were volunteers for the present study. Students completed measures of coping, implicit theories of academic ability, and perception of control over academic examinations during regular classes in the first term of the university year. Multiple regression analyses revealed that incremental beliefs of ability significantly and positively predicted active coping, planning, venting of emotions, seeking social support for emotional and instrumental reasons, whereas entity beliefs positively predicted behavioural disengagement and negatively predicted active coping and acceptance. In addition, analyses revealed that entity beliefs of ability were related to coping strategies through students' perception of control over academic examinations. These results confirm that exam-related coping varies as a function of students' beliefs about the nature of academic ability and their perceptions of control when approaching examinations.

  17. Dysregulation of the DNA Damage Response and KMT2A Rearrangement in Fetal Liver Hematopoietic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Nanya

    Full Text Available Etoposide, a topoisomerase 2 (TOP2 inhibitor, is associated with the development of KMT2A (MLL-rearranged infant leukemia. An epidemiological study suggested that in utero exposure to TOP2 inhibitors may be involved in generation of KMT2A (MLL rearrangement. The present study examined the mechanism underlying the development of KMT2A (MLL-rearranged infant leukemia in response to in utero exposure to etoposide in a mouse model. Fetal liver hematopoietic stem cells were more susceptible to etoposide than maternal bone marrow mononuclear cells. Etoposide-induced Kmt2a breakage was detected in fetal liver hematopoietic stem cells using a newly developed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assay. Assessment of etoposide-induced chromosomal translocation by next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq identified several chimeric fusion messenger RNAs that were generated by etoposide treatment. However, Kmt2a (Mll-rearranged fusion mRNA was detected in Atm-knockout mice, which are defective in the DNA damage response, but not in wild-type mice. The present findings suggest that in utero exposure to TOP2 inhibitors induces Kmt2a rearrangement when the DNA damage response is defective.

  18. Processes of fungal proteome evolution and gain of function: gene duplication and domain rearrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen-Gihon, Inbar; Nussinov, Ruth; Sharan, Roded

    2011-01-01

    During evolution, organisms have gained functional complexity mainly by modifying and improving existing functioning systems rather than creating new ones ab initio. Here we explore the interplay between two processes which during evolution have had major roles in the acquisition of new functions: gene duplication and protein domain rearrangements. We consider four possible evolutionary scenarios: gene families that have undergone none of these event types; only gene duplication; only domain rearrangement, or both events. We characterize each of the four evolutionary scenarios by functional attributes. Our analysis of ten fungal genomes indicates that at least for the fungi clade, species significantly appear to gain complexity by gene duplication accompanied by the expansion of existing domain architectures via rearrangements. We show that paralogs gaining new domain architectures via duplication tend to adopt new functions compared to paralogs that preserve their domain architectures. We conclude that evolution of protein families through gene duplication and domain rearrangement is correlated with their functional properties. We suggest that in general, new functions are acquired via the integration of gene duplication and domain rearrangements rather than each process acting independently

  19. Hexose rearrangements upon fragmentation of N-glycopeptides and reductively aminated N-glycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuhrer, Manfred; Koeleman, Carolien A M; Deelder, André M

    2009-06-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry of glycans and glycoconjugates in protonated form is known to result in rearrangement reactions leading to internal residue loss. Here we studied the occurrence of hexose rearrangements in tandem mass spectrometry of N-glycopeptides and reductively aminated N-glycans by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS and ESI-ion trap-MS/MS. Fragmentation of proton adducts of oligomannosidic N-glycans of ribonuclease B that were labeled with 2-aminobenzamide and 2-aminobenzoic acid resulted in transfer of one to five hexose residues to the fluorescently tagged innermost N-acetylglucosamine. Glycopeptides from various biological sources with oligomannosidic glycans were likewise shown to undergo hexose rearrangement reactions, resulting in chitobiose cleavage products that have acquired one or two hexose moieties. Tryptic immunoglobulin G Fc-glycopeptides with biantennary N-glycans likewise showed hexose rearrangements resulting in hexose transfer to the peptide moiety retaining the innermost N-acetylglucosamine. Thus, as a general phenomenon, tandem mass spectrometry of reductively aminated glycans as well as glycopeptides may result in hexose rearrangements. This characteristic of glycopeptide MS/MS has to be considered when developing tools for de novo glycopeptide structural analysis.

  20. Relationship between mitochondrial gene rearrangements and stability of the origin of light strand replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel M. Fonseca

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial gene rearrangements are much more frequent in vertebrates than initially thought. It has been suggested that the origin of light strand replication could have an important role in the process of gene rearrangements, but this hypothesis has never been tested before. We used amphibians to test the correlation between light-strand replication origin thermodynamic stability and the occurrence of gene rearrangements. The two variables were correlated in a non-phylogenetic approach, but when tested in a phylogenetically based comparative method the correlation was not significant, although species with unstable light-strand replication origins were much more likely to have undergone gene rearrangements. This indicates that within amphibians there are stable and unstable phylogenetic groups regarding mitochondrial gene order. The species analyzed showed variability in the thermodynamic stability of the secondary structure, in the length of its stem and loop, and several species did not present the 5’-GCCGG-3’ motif reported to be necessary for efficient mitochondrial DNA replication. Future studies should focus on the role of the light-strand replication origin in mitochondrial DNA replication and gene rearrangements mechanisms.

  1. Characterization of apparently balanced chromosomal rearrangements from the developmental genome anatomy project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Anne W; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Bosco, Amy F; Brown, Kerry K; Bruns, Gail A P; Donovan, Diana J; Eisenman, Robert; Fan, Yanli; Farra, Chantal G; Ferguson, Heather L; Gusella, James F; Harris, David J; Herrick, Steven R; Kelly, Chantal; Kim, Hyung-Goo; Kishikawa, Shotaro; Korf, Bruce R; Kulkarni, Shashikant; Lally, Eric; Leach, Natalia T; Lemyre, Emma; Lewis, Janine; Ligon, Azra H; Lu, Weining; Maas, Richard L; MacDonald, Marcy E; Moore, Steven D P; Peters, Roxanna E; Quade, Bradley J; Quintero-Rivera, Fabiola; Saadi, Irfan; Shen, Yiping; Shendure, Jay; Williamson, Robin E; Morton, Cynthia C

    2008-03-01

    Apparently balanced chromosomal rearrangements in individuals with major congenital anomalies represent natural experiments of gene disruption and dysregulation. These individuals can be studied to identify novel genes critical in human development and to annotate further the function of known genes. Identification and characterization of these genes is the goal of the Developmental Genome Anatomy Project (DGAP). DGAP is a multidisciplinary effort that leverages the recent advances resulting from the Human Genome Project to increase our understanding of birth defects and the process of human development. Clinically significant phenotypes of individuals enrolled in DGAP are varied and, in most cases, involve multiple organ systems. Study of these individuals' chromosomal rearrangements has resulted in the mapping of 77 breakpoints from 40 chromosomal rearrangements by FISH with BACs and fosmids, array CGH, Southern-blot hybridization, MLPA, RT-PCR, and suppression PCR. Eighteen chromosomal breakpoints have been cloned and sequenced. Unsuspected genomic imbalances and cryptic rearrangements were detected, but less frequently than has been reported previously. Chromosomal rearrangements, both balanced and unbalanced, in individuals with multiple congenital anomalies continue to be a valuable resource for gene discovery and annotation.

  2. Quantitative and Qualitative Changes in V-J α Rearrangements During Mouse Thymocytes Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqual, Nicolas; Gallagher, Maighréad; Aude-Garcia, Catherine; Loiodice, Mélanie; Thuderoz, Florence; Demongeot, Jacques; Ceredig, Rod; Marche, Patrice Noël; Jouvin-Marche, Evelyne

    2002-01-01

    Knowledge of the complete nucleotide sequence of the mouse TCRAD locus allows an accurate determination V-J rearrangement status. Using multiplex genomic PCR assays and real time PCR analysis, we report a comprehensive and systematic analysis of the V-J recombination of TCR α chain in normal mouse thymocytes during development. These respective qualitative and quantitative approaches give rise to four major points describing the control of gene rearrangements. (a) The V-J recombination pattern is not random during ontogeny and generates a limited TCR α repertoire; (b) V-J rearrangement control is intrinsic to the thymus; (c) each V gene rearranges to a set of contiguous J segments with a gaussian-like frequency; (d) there are more rearrangements involving V genes at the 3′ side than 5′ end of V region. Taken together, this reflects a preferential association of V and J gene segments according to their respective positions in the locus, indicating that accessibility of both V and J regions is coordinately regulated, but in different ways. These results provide a new insight into TCR α repertoire size and suggest a scenario for V usage during differentiation. PMID:12417627

  3. [Multidimensional assessment of coping: validation of the Brief COPE among French population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, L; Spitz, E

    2003-01-01

    This Article aims to introduce the translation and the validation of a multidimensional measure of coping strategies: the Brief COPE, in a French population. The coping concept comes from psychological studies that were conducted on stress. In the conceptual analysis of stress by Lazarus and Folkman, coping works with two cognitive appraisals performed by the person concerning the perception of a threatening situation and his or her available resources to deal with it. Coping is defined as "cognitive and behavioural efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate the internal and/or external demands that are created by the stressful transaction". The Brief COPE is the abridged version of the COPE inventory and presents fourteen scales all assessing different coping dimensions: 1) active coping, 2) planning, 3) using instrumental support, 4) using emotional support, 5) venting, 6) behavioural disengagement, 7) self-distraction, 8) self-blame, 9) positive reframing, 10) humor, 11) denial, 12) acceptance, 13) religion, and 14) substance use. Each scale contains two items (28 altogether). This inventory has the advantage of being built from acknowledged theoretical models (Lazarus' transactional model of stress, 1984; behavioral self-regulation model, Carver and Scheier, 1981, 1998). It can be used to assess trait coping (the usual way people cope with stress in everyday life) and state coping (the particular way people cope with a specific stressful situation). As is the COPE inventory, the Brief COPE is a measure used for many health-relevant studies: drugs addiction, ageing, breast cancer, depression, AIDS. Both measures are widely used in Anglophone countries and translated in many Languages. Today, the COPE inventory has been validated among Estonian, Croatian, Chinese, and Italian populations and the Brief COPE is also validated among Spanish people. Thus, the worldwide use of this coping inventory should allow a broad comparison of medical and psychological research for

  4. Testing of the coping flexibility hypothesis based on the dual-process theory: Relationships between coping flexibility and depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tsukasa

    2015-12-15

    According to the dual-process theory of coping flexibility (Kato, 2012), coping flexibility is the ability to discontinue an ineffective coping strategy (i.e., evaluation coping process) and implement an alternative strategy (i.e., adaptive coping process). The coping flexibility hypothesis (CFH) proposes that the ability to engage in flexible coping is related to better psychological functioning and physical health, including less depression. I the present study, participants were 393 American Whites, 429 Australian Whites, and 496 Chinese, selected from the data pool of the 2013 Coping and Health Survey (see Kato, 2014b). They completed both the Coping Flexibility Scale (Kato, 2012), which is based on the dual-process theory of coping flexibility, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). For all nationalities and genders, evaluation coping and adaptive coping were significantly correlated with lower levels of depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling revealed that evaluation coping was associated with lower depressive symptoms for all nationalities and genders, whereas no significant relationships between adaptive coping and depressive symptoms were found for any nationalities. Our results partially supported that the CFH fits with the dual-process theory of coping flexibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Acculturation and coping strategies in the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristova Stoyanka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents empirical study of the level of organizational acculturation and the frequency of use of coping strategies in Bulgarian sample. The relationship between them and their dependence on socio-demographic factors were also examined. The aim of the research conducted was to verify the hypotheses that certain socio-demographic factors had a statistically significant impact on the phenomena studied, and that the use of control-oriented coping strategies was related to higher levels of acculturation in organization. The results obtained when applying analysis of variance indicated statistically significant differences in the level of acculturation and the frequency of use of coping strategies depending on part of the socio-demographic factors observed, confirming partially the first hypothesis formulated. The second hypothesis was fully confirmed. The findings of correlation analysis indicated that high levels of acculturation in organization correlated statistically significantly with the coping strategies of Increasing efforts, Confidence in success, Change of situation and Time management, all of which are part of the control-oriented coping.

  6. Resilience and Coping After Hospital Mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Cynthia; Calo, Oriana; Harrison, Georgia; Mahoney, Kathleen; Zavotsky, Kathleen Evanovich

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between resilience and coping in frontline nurses working in a healthcare system that has recently undergone a merger. Hospital mergers are common in the current healthcare environment. Mergers can provide hospital nurses the opportunity to use and develop positive coping strategies to help remain resilient during times of change. An anonymous-survey, quantitative, exploratory, descriptive study design was used. Data were obtained from an electronic survey that was made available to all nurses working in a 3-hospital system located in the northeast. Overall, the results showed that, when nurses reported using positive coping strategies, they report higher levels of resilience. The levels of resilience also varied from campus to campus. The campus that has been through 2 recent mergers reported the highest levels of resilience. This study suggests that, during times of change in the workplace, if nurses are encouraged to use positive coping strategies, they may have higher levels of resilience. This changing environment provides the clinical nurse specialists/clinical nurse educators the opportunity to foster and support frontline nurses in the use of healthy coping strategies and to help improve and maintain a high level of resilience, which is critical in today's healthcare environment.

  7. The synthesis and characterization of 1,2-dihydroxyimino-3,6-di-aza-8,9-O-iso-butylidene nonane and its complexes with Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canpolat, E.; Kaya, M.; Gorgulu, A.O.

    2002-01-01

    1,2-dihydroxyimino-3,6-di-aza-8,9-O-iso-butylidene nonane (H 2 L) was synthesized starting from 1,2-O-iso-butylidene-4-aza-6-amino hexane (RNH 2 ) and antichloroglyoxime. Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes of H 2 L have a metal:ligand ratio 1:2 and the ligand coordinates through two N atoms, as do most of the vic-dioximes. However, Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes of H 2 L have a metal: ligand ratio 1:1 and one chloride ion and one water molecule are also coordinated to the metal ion. Structures of the ligand and its transition-metal complexes are proposed, according to elemental analysis, IR, 13 C and 1 H NMR spectra, magnetic susceptibility measurements and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). (author)

  8. Coping in Parkinson's disease: an examination of the coping inventory for stressful situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, C S; Thomas, B A; Burn, D J; Hindle, J V; Landau, S; Samuel, M; Wilson, K C M; Brown, R G

    2011-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) brings with it a range of stresses and challenges with which a patient must cope. The type of coping strategies employed can impact upon well-being, although findings from coping studies in PD remain inconsistent. The variety of coping scales used without validation in PD has been cited as a possible cause of this inconsistency. The present study sought to examine the validity of the coping inventory for stressful situations (CISS) in a sample of patients with PD. Five hundred and twenty-five patients with PD were recruited as part of a longitudinal investigation of mood states in PD. Four hundred and seventy-one participants completed the CISS. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to explore the structural validity of the scale. Internal reliability, test-retest reliability, convergent validity and discriminant validity were assessed using Cronbach's alpha, intraclass correlations and Pearson's correlations. Both three and four factor solutions were examined. The four factor model was found to provide a better fit of the data than the three factor model. The internal reliability, discriminant validity, convergent validity, and test-retest reliability of the CISS scales were shown to be good. Use of emotion-focused coping was associated with greater depression and anxiety whilst, task-oriented coping was associated with better psychological well-being. The results provide support for the validity and reliability of the CISS as a measure of coping in patients with PD. Further research into the relationship between coping and well-being is warranted. The identification of helpful and unhelpful coping strategies may guide the development of evidence-based therapies to improve well-being in patients with PD. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Contextual analysis of coping: implications for immigrants' mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Tam Truong

    2002-01-01

    Providing high quality and effective health care services that are culturally acceptable and appropriate to clients has become an important issue for many health care providers. This paper explores problems associated with the traditional model that views coping according to hierarchical style and traits. While some scholars who have adopted this theoretical framework have made many contributions to the development of stress and coping theories, limitations are present. Using Vietnamese immigrants' experiences as examples, I argue that coping theories should emphasize the contextual nature of stress and coping, and that coping should be viewed as a dynamic process that varies under different social, cultural, political, economic, and historical conditions. Drawing from the work of others on coping, culture, imperialism, and colonialism, I explore the way that certain cultural conceptualizations determine how individuals cope. An understanding of the contextual nature of coping and of a Vietnamese immigrant's experience of coping with stressors and illness has implications for mental health care practice and research.

  10. The He+H¯→He p¯+e+ rearrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Allan C.; Armour, Edward A. G.

    2006-06-01

    In this paper, we present a summary of our work in progress on calculating cross sections for the He+H¯→He p¯+e+ rearrangement process in He H¯ scattering. This has involved a study of the system He p¯ within the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation using the Rayleigh-Ritz variational method. This work has been reported in [A.C. Todd, E.A.G. Armour, J. Phys. B 38 (2005) 3367] and is summarised here. Similar calculations are in progress for the He+H¯ entrance channel. We intend to use the entrance channel and rearrangement channel wave functions to obtain the cross sections for the rearrangement using the distorted wave Born approximation T-matrix method described elsewhere in these proceedings [E.A.G. Armour, S. Jonsell, Y. Liu, A.C. Todd, these Proceedings, doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2006.01.049].

  11. The He+H-bar → Hep-bar +e+ rearrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, Allan C.; Armour, Edward A.G.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a summary of our work in progress on calculating cross sections for the He+H-bar ->Hep-bar +e + rearrangement process in HeH-bar scattering. This has involved a study of the system Hep-bar within the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation using the Rayleigh-Ritz variational method. This work has been reported in [A.C. Todd, E.A.G. Armour, J. Phys. B 38 (2005) 3367] and is summarised here. Similar calculations are in progress for the He+H-bar entrance channel. We intend to use the entrance channel and rearrangement channel wave functions to obtain the cross sections for the rearrangement using the distorted wave Born approximation T-matrix method described elsewhere in these proceedings [E.A.G. Armour, S. Jonsell, Y. Liu, A.C. Todd, these Proceedings, doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2006.01.049

  12. Marfan syndrome with a complex chromosomal rearrangement including deletion of the FBN1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colovati Mileny ES

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of Marfan syndrome (MFS cases is caused by mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene (FBN1, mapped to chromosome 15q21.1. Only few reports on deletions including the whole FBN1 gene, detected by molecular cytogenetic techniques, were found in literature. Results We report here on a female patient with clinical symptoms of the MFS spectrum plus craniostenosis, hypothyroidism and intellectual deficiency who presents a 1.9 Mb deletion, including the FBN1 gene and a complex rearrangement with eight breakpoints involving chromosomes 6, 12 and 15. Discussion This is the first report of MFS with a complex chromosome rearrangement involving a deletion of FBN1 and contiguous genes. In addition to the typical clinical findings of the Marfan syndrome due to FBN1 gene haploinsufficiency, the patient presents features which may be due to the other gene deletions and possibly to the complex chromosome rearrangement.

  13. Mutations and Rearrangements in the Genome of Sulfolobus solfataricus P2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redder, P.; Garrett, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    The genome of Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 carries a larger number of transposable elements than any other sequenced genome from an archaeon or bacterium and, as a consequence, may be particularly susceptible to rearrangement and change. In order to gain more insight into the natures and frequencies...... of different types of mutation and possible rearrangements that can occur in the genome, the pyrEF locus was examined for mutations that were isolated after selection with 5-fluoroorotic acid. About two-thirds of the 130 mutations resulted from insertions of mobile elements, including insertion sequence (IS...... deletions, insertions, and a duplication, were observed, and about one-fifth of the mutations occurred elsewhere in the genome, possibly in an orotate transporter gene. One mutant exhibited a 5-kb genomic rearrangement at the pyrEF locus involving a two-step IS element-dependent reaction, and its boundaries...

  14. Rearrangement of a common cellular DNA domain on chromosome 4 in human primary liver tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquinelli, C.; Garreau, F.; Bougueleret, L.; Cariani, E.; Thiers, V.; Croissant, O.; Hadchouel, M.; Tiollais, P.; Brechot, C.; Grzeschik, K.H.

    1988-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA integration has been shown to occur frequently in human hepatocellular carcinomas. The authors have investigated whether common cellular DNA domains might be rearranged, possibly by HBV integration, in human primary liver tumors. Unique cellular DNA sequences adjacent to an HBV integration site were isolated from a patient with hepatitis B surface antigen-positive hepatocellular carcinoma. These probes detected rearrangement of this cellular region of chromosomal DNA in 3 of 50 additional primary liver tumors studied. Of these three tumor samples, two contained HBV DNA, without an apparent link between the viral DNA and the rearranged allele; HBV DNA sequences were not detected in the third tumor sample. By use of a panel of somatic cell hybrids, these unique cellular DNA sequences were shown to be located on chromosome 4. Therefore, this region of chromosomal DNA might be implicated in the formation of different tumors at one step of liver cell transformation, possible related to HBV integration

  15. Religious Coping in a Religious Minority Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viftrup, Dorte Toudal; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Buus, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Religious coping in Denmark has primarily been studied among the Danish majority with whom religious practice is limited. The aim of this study is to explore a small sample of Danish Pentecostals’ experiences of religious coping. The study includes semi-structured interviews with eighteen Danish...... Pentecostals facing a psychological crisis. Qualitative methods are applied for generating and analyzing the data material. The theme of religious individualism ran through the participants’ talk of religious coping in relation to fellow believers, reading the Bible, and personal experiences of God. Religious...... individualism was characterized by: A lived expectation of having one’s specific individual needs met through one’s religiosity. The findings from this study show that having specific individual needs met was central for the religious faith of the participants. They used both individualistic and institutional...

  16. Nurses′ workplace stressors and coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickie A Lambert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior research has suggested that nurses, regardless of workplace or culture, are confronted with a variety of stressors. As the worldwide nursing shortage increases, the aged population becomes larger, there is an increase in the incidence of chronic illnesses and technology continues to advance, nurses continually will be faced with numerous workplace stressors. Thus, nurses, especially palliative care nurses, need to learn how to identify their workplace stressors and to cope effectively with these stressors to attain and maintain both their physical and mental health. This article describes workplace stressors and coping strategies, compares and contrasts cross-cultural literature on nurses′ workplace stressors and coping strategies, and delineates a variety of stress management activities that could prove helpful for contending with stressors in the workplace.

  17. Coping with Rainfall Variability in Northern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores a potential relationship between rainfall data and household self-reported harvest shocks and local (spatial) variability of harvest shocks and coping strategies based on a survey of 2700 rural households in the Kagera region of northern Tanzania. In addition, correlations...... of household reported harvest shocks differs significantly between districts and correspond to the observed variability in local climate patterns. Coping strategies are focused on spreading risks and include reduced consumption, casual employment, new crops, external support and the selling of assets....... There are no large differences in applied coping strategies across the region, but district-level data demonstrate how local strategies differ between localities within the districts. The results emphasize that in order to target rural policies and make them efficient, it is important to take into account the local...

  18. Psychosocial coping strategies in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprah, L.; Sostaric, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background. The aim of this review is to present common psychosocial problems in cancer patients and their possible coping strategies. Cancer patients are occupied with many psychosocial problems, which are only partially related to their health state and medical treatments. They are faced with a high social pressure, based on prejudices and stereotypes of this illness. The review presents the process of confrontation with the cancer diagnosis and of managing the psychological consequences of cancer. The effects of specific coping styles, psychosocial interventions and a social support on initiation, progression and recurrence of cancer are also described. Conclusions. Although some recent meta-analysis could not provide scientific evidence for the association between coping strategies and the cancer initiation, the progression or the recurrence (neither have studies rejected the thesis of association), the therapeutic window for the psychosocial intervention is still wide and shows an important effect on the quality of lives of many cancer patients. (author)

  19. Dental family stress and coping patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, R S; Sampson, V M

    1986-10-01

    This exploratory study of 28 married male dentists and their families was designed to gain an understanding about the stressors that dentists and their spouses experience, the life events and family strains they incur, the behavioral coping patterns they utilize, and their psychosocial characteristics. The study found that although stable dental families did encounter a significant number of stressors arising from both the dental practice and the family, they maintained their sense of balance through strong family coping skills and family resources. The effect of the dentist's office-related stress was directly felt in the family, especially by the spouse. Strong coping patterns resulted when dentists and spouses maintained a balance of time and responsibility, satisfaction in work and family activity, regular communication, sharing of decision making, good physical health, and the inclusion of an active exercise program within multiple demands on their time.

  20. [Synthetic Studies of Bioactive Heterocyclic Natural Products and Fused Heterocyclic Compounds Based on the Thermal Electrocyclic or Azaelectocyclic Reaction of 6π-Electron or Aza-6π-electron Systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibino, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Since 1979, synthetic studies of bioactive heterocyclic natural products and condensed heteroaromatic compounds based on the thermal electrocyclic reaction of 6π-electron or aza-6π-electron systems incorporating the double bond of the principal aromatic or heteroaromatic ring have been conducted by our research group. In this review, five types of electrocyclic and azaelectrocyclic reaction are described: 1) the synthesis of the carbazole alkaloids hyellazole and 6-chlorohyellazole through the electrocyclic reaction of 2,3-bisalkenylindoles; 2) synthetic studies of the pyridocarbazole alkaloids ellipticine and olivacine through the electrocyclic reactions of the indole-2,3- and pyridine-3,4-quinodimethane intermediates; 3) synthetic studies of polysubstituted carbazole alkaloids through the allene-mediated electrocyclic reactions involving the indole 2,3-bond; 4) synthetic studies of fused pyridine rings through the azaelectrocyclic reaction of the 1-aza-6π-electron system using the oxime or oxime ether; and 5) synthetic studies of fused pyridine rings through the azaelectrocyclic reaction of the 2-aza-6π-electron system using a carbodiimide or isocyanate.

  1. COPING STRATEGIES IN PATIENTS WITH PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Gardanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostics of psycho-emotional disorders of patients with malignant diseases of the prostate is not doubt, because timely correction contributes to the shortening of rehabilitation period and restoration of the quality of life of patients after treatment. Detection and diagnosis of prostate cancer for many patients is stressful and causes changes in the affective sphere, and manifests itself in increased levels of anxiety and depression in men. To cope with stress is possible due to the used coping strategies.Purpose. Studying the coping mechanisms in prostate cancer patients.Materials and methods. 56 men treated in FGBU "LRTS" Russian Ministry of Health. The average age was 65.7 ± 6.1 years. The average duration of the disease prostate cancer is 3 ± 2 months. All men were subjected to the standard algorithm for the evaluation of hormonal status, the PSA, taking a history, inspection and physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging and scintigraphy of bones of a skeleton. All the patients underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Psychological testing with the use of the method of "Coping test" the scale of reactive and personal anxiety for the differentiated evaluation of anxiety. Results. The most common for prostate cancer revealed constructive coping strategies are "planning solve", "selfcontrol" and "search of social support". According to the scale Spielberg–Hanin a high level of situational anxiety was revealed.Conclusion. According to the results of the research, patients with prostate cancer are likely to use constructive coping strategies, that leads to stabilization of psycho-emotional state of men and promotes more effective adaptation in the terms of stress, that is caused by treatment of prostate cancer.

  2. Clinical and CT characteristics of surgically resected lung adenocarcinomas harboring ALK rearrangements or EGFR mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hua; Schabath, Matthew B.; Liu, Ying; Han, Ying; Li, Qi; Gillies, Robert J.; Ye, Zhaoxiang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if clinical and CT characteristics of surgically resected lung adenocarcinomas can distinguish those harboring ALK rearrangements from EGFR mutations. Materials and methods: Patients who had surgical resection and histologically confirmed lung adenocarcinoma were enrolled, including 41 patients with ALK rearrangements and 66 patients with EGFR mutations. Eighteen categorical and six quantitative CT characteristics were used to evaluate the tumors. Differences in clinical and CT characteristics between the two groups were investigated. Results: Age (P = 0.003), histological subtypes (P < 0.001), pathological stage (P = 0.007), and five CT characteristics, including size (P < 0.001), GGO (P = 0.001), bubble-like lucency (P = 0.048), lymphadenopathy (P = 0.001), and tumor shadow disappearance rate (P = 0.005) were significantly different between patients harboring ALK rearrangements compared to patients with EGFR mutations. When we compared histologic components, a solid pattern was more common (P = 0.009) in tumors with ALK rearrangements, and lepidic and acinar patterns were more common (P < 0.001 and P = 0.040, respectively) in those with EGFR mutations. Backward elimination analyses revealed that age (OR = 0.93; 95% CI 0.89–0.98), GGO (OR = 0.14; 95% CI 0.03–0.67), and lymphadenopathy (OR = 4.15; 95% CI 1.49–11.60) were significantly associated with ALK rearrangement status. Conclusion: Our analyses revealed that clinical and CT characteristics of lung adenocarcinomas harboring ALK rearrangements were significantly different, compared with those with EGFR mutations. These differences may be related to the molecular pathology of these diseases.

  3. Clinical and CT characteristics of surgically resected lung adenocarcinomas harboring ALK rearrangements or EGFR mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hua [Department of Radiology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center of Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin (China); Schabath, Matthew B. [Department of Cancer Epidemiology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL (United States); Liu, Ying [Department of Radiology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center of Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin (China); Department of Cancer Imaging and Metabolism, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL (United States); Han, Ying [Department of Biotherapy, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center of Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin (China); Li, Qi [Department of Pathology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center of Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin (China); Gillies, Robert J. [Department of Cancer Imaging and Metabolism, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL (United States); Department of Radiology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL (United States); Ye, Zhaoxiang, E-mail: yezhaoxiang@163.com [Department of Radiology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center of Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin (China)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: To determine if clinical and CT characteristics of surgically resected lung adenocarcinomas can distinguish those harboring ALK rearrangements from EGFR mutations. Materials and methods: Patients who had surgical resection and histologically confirmed lung adenocarcinoma were enrolled, including 41 patients with ALK rearrangements and 66 patients with EGFR mutations. Eighteen categorical and six quantitative CT characteristics were used to evaluate the tumors. Differences in clinical and CT characteristics between the two groups were investigated. Results: Age (P = 0.003), histological subtypes (P < 0.001), pathological stage (P = 0.007), and five CT characteristics, including size (P < 0.001), GGO (P = 0.001), bubble-like lucency (P = 0.048), lymphadenopathy (P = 0.001), and tumor shadow disappearance rate (P = 0.005) were significantly different between patients harboring ALK rearrangements compared to patients with EGFR mutations. When we compared histologic components, a solid pattern was more common (P = 0.009) in tumors with ALK rearrangements, and lepidic and acinar patterns were more common (P < 0.001 and P = 0.040, respectively) in those with EGFR mutations. Backward elimination analyses revealed that age (OR = 0.93; 95% CI 0.89–0.98), GGO (OR = 0.14; 95% CI 0.03–0.67), and lymphadenopathy (OR = 4.15; 95% CI 1.49–11.60) were significantly associated with ALK rearrangement status. Conclusion: Our analyses revealed that clinical and CT characteristics of lung adenocarcinomas harboring ALK rearrangements were significantly different, compared with those with EGFR mutations. These differences may be related to the molecular pathology of these diseases.

  4. Chromosomal Rainbows detect Oncogenic Rearrangements of Signaling Molecules in Thyroid Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Benjamin; Jossart, Gregg H.; Ito, Yuko; Greulich-Bode, Karin M.; Weier, Jingly F.; Munne, Santiago; Clark, Orlo H.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

    2010-08-19

    Altered signal transduction can be considered a hallmark of many solid tumors. In thyroid cancers the receptor tyrosine kinase (rtk) genes NTRK1 (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man = OMIM *191315, also known as 'TRKA'), RET ('Rearranged during Transfection protooncogene', OMIM *164761) and MET (OMIM *164860) have been reported as activated, rearranged or overexpressed. In many cases, a combination of cytogenetic and molecular techniques allows elucidation of cellular changes that initiate tumor development and progression. While the mechanisms leading to overexpression of the rtk MET gene remain largely unknown, a variety of chromosomal rearrangements of the RET or NTKR1 gene could be demonstrated in thyroid cancer. Abnormal expressions in these tumors seem to follow a similar pattern: the rearrangement translocates the 3'-end of the rtk gene including the entire catalytic domain to an expressed gene leading to a chimeric RNA and protein with kinase activity. Our research was prompted by an increasing number of reports describing translocations involving ret and previously unknown translocation partners. We developed a high resolution technique based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to allow rapid screening for cytogenetic rearrangements which complements conventional chromosome banding analysis. Our technique applies simultaneous hybridization of numerous probes labeled with different reporter molecules which are distributed along the target chromosome allowing the detection of cytogenetic changes at near megabase-pair (Mbp) resolution. Here, we report our results using a probe set specific for human chromosome 10, which is altered in a significant portion of human thyroid cancers (TC's). While rendering accurate information about the cytogenetic location of rearranged elements, our multi-locus, multi-color analysis was developed primarily to overcome limitations of whole chromosome painting (WCP) and chromosome banding

  5. The consequences of coping with stalking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Katrine Bindesbøl Holm; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this article is to explore: (1) how victims of stalking experience the phenomenon in their daily life, (2) how the nature of stalking informs the victim's internal coping strategies, and (3) how the victims' internal coping strategies negatively affect their daily life...... and well-being. METHODS: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 victims of stalking. Thematic content analysis was employed, and themes were primarily identified inductively and broad into dialogue with concepts, such as Foucault's panopticism. RESULTS: The results of the study...

  6. Coping with infertility: a transcultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Liu, Botao; Li, Min

    2014-09-01

    To review the most important and interesting articles in infertility published in the last year. This systematic review covers 60 studies published in journals or dissertations in Science Direct and PubMed in the last year, including those related to prevention and treatment as well as related psychosocial services in infertility. We also propose some suggestions about coping with infertility in China. Infertility is a multidisciplinary problem that requires medical, social, and political efforts to prevent and offer infertile patients the best diagnostic, therapeutic, and psychosocial services. Cultural factors should be taken into consideration when designing coping strategies.

  7. How we cope with digital technology

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Digital technology has become a defining characteristic of modern life. Almost everyone uses it, we all rely on it, and many of us own a multitude of devices. What is more, we all expect to be able to use these technologies ""straight out the box."" This lecture discusses how we are able to do this without apparent problems. We are able to use digital technology because we have learned to cope with it. ""To cope"" is used in philosophy to mean ""absorbed engagement,"" that is, we use our smart phones and tablet computers with little or no conscious effort. In human-computer interaction this ki

  8. Children's Coping in the Context of Disasters and Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Noffsinger, Mary A; Wind, Leslie H; Allen, James R

    2014-01-01

    Disasters and terrorism present significant and often overwhelming challenges for children and families worldwide. Individual, family, and social factors influence disaster reactions and the diverse ways in which children cope. This article links conceptualizations of stress and coping to empirical knowledge of children's disaster reactions, identifies limitations in our current understanding, and suggests areas for future study of disaster coping. Coping strategies, developmental trajectories influencing coping, and the interplay between parent and child coping represent critical areas for advancing the field and for informing programs and services that benefit children's preparedness and foster resilience in the face of mass trauma.

  9. Coping with Fear of and Exposure to Terrorism among Expatriates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutell, Nicholas J; O'Hare, Marianne M; Schneer, Joy A; Alstete, Jeffrey W

    2017-07-19

    This paper examines existing research on the impact of terrorism on expatriate coping strategies. We consider pre-assignment fear of terrorism, in-country coping strategies, and anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with repatriation. The extant research is small but growing. Our model for expatriate coping at the pre-departure, in-country, and repatriation stages includes strategies specific to each stage. Preparation using proactive coping, systematic desensitization, problem and emotion focused coping, social support, and virtual reality explorations are recommended. Selecting expatriate candidates who are well-adjusted, emotionally intelligent, and possessing good coping skills is essential for successful assignments in terror-prone regions.

  10. Coping with Fear of and Exposure to Terrorism among Expatriates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Beutell

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines existing research on the impact of terrorism on expatriate coping strategies. We consider pre-assignment fear of terrorism, in-country coping strategies, and anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD associated with repatriation. The extant research is small but growing. Our model for expatriate coping at the pre-departure, in-country, and repatriation stages includes strategies specific to each stage. Preparation using proactive coping, systematic desensitization, problem and emotion focused coping, social support, and virtual reality explorations are recommended. Selecting expatriate candidates who are well-adjusted, emotionally intelligent, and possessing good coping skills is essential for successful assignments in terror-prone regions.

  11. Correlates of Coping Styles in an Adolescent Trauma Sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte M.; Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    2014-01-01

    the combined effect of personality traits, attachment, locus of control, and social support on rational (problem-focused), avoidant, and emotion-focused coping in 320 trauma-exposed adolescents. The combined variables only explained 20-23 % of the vari- ance in avoidant and rational coping, and 49...... % of the variance in emotion-focused coping. The largest contributing variable for emotion-focused coping was neuroticism, possibly due to a confounding of emotion-focused coping with distress. Thus, other variables are needed to fully account for coping style choice....

  12. Personality, sense of coherence and the coping of working mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lettie Herbst

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between personality dimensions, sense of coherence and coping styles among working mothers. The OPQ, OLQ and COPE questionnaires were administered to 120 married, working mothers. In view of contrasting results obtained by other researchers regarding the dimensionality of the COPE, its factorial validity and internal consistency were assessed. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that the COPE measured five factors with high degrees of internal consistency. Several personality dimensions and sense of coherence variables correlated significantly with the dependent variables (coping styles. It appeared that these independent variables predicted substantial percentages of the variability in the coping styles.

  13. Alzheimer's aggression: influences on caregiver coping and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Scott E; Little, Kristina G; Gough, Heather R; Spurlock, Wanda J

    2011-04-01

    This study assessed impact of Alzheimer's patients' aggressive behavior (AD aggression) on caregiver coping strategies (task-, emotion-, and avoidance-focused) and caregiver resilience, and examined whether coping strategy moderated the AD aggression-caregiver resilience relationship. Informal caregivers across Louisiana (N = 419) completed surveys with measures of demographics, AD aggression, caregiver coping strategies, and caregiver resilience. Task-focused coping positively related to resilience. Aggression negatively predicted caregiver resilience. Emotion- and avoidance-focused coping strategies separately interacted with aggression and increased its negative relationship to caregiver resilience. Task-focused coping showed no moderation. Implications for social work professionals are discussed.

  14. Free energy landscape and cooperatively rearranging region in a hard sphere glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshidome, Takashi; Yoshimori, Akira; Odagaki, Takashi

    2007-08-01

    Exploiting the density functional theory, we calculate the free energy landscape (FEL) of the hard sphere glass in three dimensions. From the FEL, we estimate the number of the particles in the cooperatively rearranging region (CRR). We find that the density dependence of the number of the particles in the CRR is expressed as a power law function of the density. Analyzing the relaxation process in the CRR, we also find that the string motion is the elementary process for the structural relaxation, which leads to the natural definition of the simultaneously rearranging region as the particles displaced in the string motion.

  15. Tandem catalytic allylic amination and [2,3]-Stevens rearrangement of tertiary amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheili, Arash; Tambar, Uttam K

    2011-08-24

    We have developed a catalytic allylic amination involving tertiary aminoesters and allylcarbonates, which is the first example of the use of tertiary amines as intermolecular nucleophiles in metal-catalyzed allylic substitution chemistry. This process is employed in a tandem ammonium ylide generation/[2,3]-rearrangement reaction, which formally represents a palladium-catalyzed Stevens rearrangement. Low catalyst loadings and mild reaction conditions are compatible with an unprecedented substrate scope for the ammonium ylide functionality, and products are generated in high yields and diastereoselectivities. Mechanistic studies suggested the reversible formation of an ammonium intermediate.

  16. Unexpected rearrangements in the synthesis of an unsymmetrical tridentate dianionic N-heterocyclic carbene

    KAUST Repository

    Despagnet-Ayoub, Emmanuelle; Miqueu, Karinne; Sotiropoulos, Jean-Marc; Henling, Lawrence M.; Day, Michael W.; Labinger, Jay A.; Bercaw, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Starting from the same ethylenediamine species, three valuable carbene precursors were synthesized under differing conditions: a tridentate dianionic N-heterocyclic carbene bearing an aniline, a phenol and a central dihydroimidazolium salt, its benzimidazolium isomer by intramolecular rearrangement and a dicationic benzimidazolium-benzoxazolium salt by changing the Brønsted acid from HCl to HBF4. A DFT study was performed to understand the rearrangement pathway. The structure of a bis[(NCO)carbene] zirconium complex was determined. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  17. The rearrangement process in a two-stage broadcast switching network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren B.

    1988-01-01

    The rearrangement process in the two-stage broadcast switching network presented by F.K. Hwang and G.W. Richards (ibid., vol.COM-33, no.10, p.1025-1035, Oct. 1985) is considered. By defining a certain function it is possible to calculate an upper bound on the number of connections to be moved...... during a rearrangement. When each inlet channel appears twice, the maximum number of connections to be moved is found. For a special class of inlet assignment patterns in the case of which each inlet channel appears three times, the maximum number of connections to be moved is also found. In the general...

  18. Triazole–Au(I complex as chemoselective catalyst in promoting propargyl ester rearrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Wang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Triazole–Au (TA–Au catalysts were employed in several transformations involving propargyl ester rearrangement. Good chemoselectivity was observed, which allowed the effective activation of the alkyne without affecting the reactivity of the allene ester intermediates. These results led to the investigation of the preparation of allene ester intermediates with TA–Au catalysts under anhydrous conditions. As expected, the desired 3,3-rearrangement products were obtained in excellent yields (generally >90% yields with 1% loading. Besides the typical ester migrating groups, carbonates and carbamates were also found to be suitable for this transformation, which provided a highly efficient, practical method for the preparation of substituted allenes.

  19. Deciphering the Code of the Cancer Genome: Mechanisms of Chromosome Rearrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Nicholas A.; Rass, Emilie; Scully, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome rearrangement plays a causal role in tumorigenesis by contributing to the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, the dysregulated expression or amplification of oncogenes and the generation of novel gene fusions. Chromosome breaks are important intermediates in this process. How, when and where these breaks arise and the specific mechanisms engaged in their repair strongly influence the resulting patterns of chromosome rearrangement. Here, we review recent progress in understanding how certain distinctive features of the cancer genome, including clustered mutagenesis, tandem segmental duplications, complex breakpoints, chromothripsis, chromoplexy and chromoanasynthesis may arise. PMID:26726318

  20. Mechanistic and kinetic insights into the thermally induced rearrangement of alpha-pinene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolle, Achim; Ondruschka, Bernd; Findeisen, Matthias

    2008-11-07

    The thermal rearrangement of alpha-pinene (1) is interesting from mechanistic as well as kinetic point of view. Carrier gas pyrolyses with 1 and its acyclic isomers ocimene (2) and alloocimene (3) were performed to investigate the thermal network of these hydrocarbons. Kinetic analysis of the major reaction steps allows for a deeper insight in the reaction mechanism. Thus it was possible to explain the racemization of 1, the formation of racemic limonene (4), and the absence of the primary pyrolysis product 2 in the reaction mixture resulting from thermal rearrangement of 1. Results supported the conclusion that the reactions starting with 1 involve biradical transition states.

  1. Stressors, coping, and coping effectiveness: gender, type of sport, and skill differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Adam R; Polman, Remco; Levy, Andrew R; Taylor, Jamie; Cobley, Stephen

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine stressors, coping, and coping effectiveness as a function of gender, type of sport, and skill. The sample consisted of 749 undergraduate athletes (455 males, 294 females) aged 18-38 years (mean= 19.8 years). Skill was classified as international/national, county, university, and club standard. Participants completed a stressor and coping concept map (Novak & Gowin, 1984). The results revealed gender, type of sport, and skill differences in relation to stressor frequencies, coping strategy deployment, and coping effectiveness. In contrast to previous research, females used a variety of problem-focused (e.g. planning, communication, technique-orientated coping) strategies more frequently than males. Team sport athletes reported a variety of sport-specific stressors relating to the demands of playing in a team environment. The group of national/international athletes reported using more planning, blocking, and visualization, and also reported that their coping was more effective than that of less-skilled athletes.

  2. High level of chromosomal instability in circulating tumor cells of ROS1-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailler, E; Auger, N; Lindsay, C R; Vielh, P; Islas-Morris-Hernandez, A; Borget, I; Ngo-Camus, M; Planchard, D; Soria, J-C; Besse, B; Farace, F

    2015-07-01

    Genetic aberrations affecting the c-ros oncogene 1 (ROS1) tyrosine kinase gene have been reported in a small subset of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We evaluated whether ROS1-chromosomal rearrangements could be detected in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and examined tumor heterogeneity of CTCs and tumor biopsies in ROS1-rearranged NSCLC patients. Using isolation by size of epithelial tumor cells (ISET) filtration and filter-adapted-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FA-FISH), ROS1 rearrangement was examined in CTCs from four ROS1-rearranged patients treated with the ROS1-inhibitor, crizotinib, and four ROS1-negative patients. ROS1-gene alterations observed in CTCs at baseline from ROS1-rearranged patients were compared with those present in tumor biopsies and in CTCs during crizotinib treatment. Numerical chromosomal instability (CIN) of CTCs was assessed by DNA content quantification and chromosome enumeration. ROS1 rearrangement was detected in the CTCs of all four patients with ROS1 rearrangement previously confirmed by tumor biopsy. In ROS1-rearranged patients, median number of ROS1-rearranged CTCs at baseline was 34.5 per 3 ml blood (range, 24-55). In ROS1-negative patients, median background hybridization of ROS1-rearranged CTCs was 7.5 per 3 ml blood (range, 7-11). Tumor heterogeneity, assessed by ROS1 copy number, was significantly higher in baseline CTCs compared with paired tumor biopsies in the three patients experiencing PR or SD (P < 0.0001). Copy number in ROS1-rearranged CTCs increased significantly in two patients who progressed during crizotinib treatment (P < 0.02). CTCs from ROS1-rearranged patients had a high DNA content and gain of chromosomes, indicating high levels of aneuploidy and numerical CIN. We provide the first proof-of-concept that CTCs can be used for noninvasive and sensitive detection of ROS1 rearrangement in NSCLC patients. CTCs from ROS1-rearranged patients show considerable heterogeneity of ROS1-gene

  3. Coping with chronic renal failure in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Esther; Lai, Claudia; Zhang, Zhi-Xue

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the coping behaviours of Chinese patients with chronic renal failure. The study, based on Lazarus and Folkman (Stress, Appraisal and Coping, Springer, New York, 1984) model of coping, was conducted to identify the process by which 11 chronic renal failure patients cope with their disease. The identified themes are coping with fluctuating feelings and concerns, motivation to cope, interdependent relationships between patients and their family members and modes of coping strategies. The significance of the results indicates that coping is the consequence not only of situational demands but also of life goals. Meaning in life is an important motivator in the coping process. Besides problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping, another important element is relationship-focused coping. The interdependent influences of families on patients and patients on families are also important factors. The role of family and cultural factors is discussed as it affects how patients with chronic renal failure cope with their illness.

  4. Azacitidine in combination with intensive induction chemotherapy in older patients with acute myeloid leukemia: The AML-AZA trial of the Study Alliance Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Tidow, C; Tschanter, P; Röllig, C; Thiede, C; Koschmieder, A; Stelljes, M; Koschmieder, S; Dugas, M; Gerss, J; Butterfaß-Bahloul, T; Wagner, R; Eveslage, M; Thiem, U; Krause, S W; Kaiser, U; Kunzmann, V; Steffen, B; Noppeney, R; Herr, W; Baldus, C D; Schmitz, N; Götze, K; Reichle, A; Kaufmann, M; Neubauer, A; Schäfer-Eckart, K; Hänel, M; Peceny, R; Frickhofen, N; Kiehl, M; Giagounidis, A; Görner, M; Repp, R; Link, H; Kiani, A; Naumann, R; Brümmendorf, T H; Serve, H; Ehninger, G; Berdel, W E; Krug, U

    2016-03-01

    DNA methylation changes are a constant feature of acute myeloid leukemia. Hypomethylating drugs such as azacitidine are active in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) as monotherapy. Azacitidine monotherapy is not curative. The AML-AZA trial tested the hypothesis that DNA methyltransferase inhibitors such as azacitidine can improve chemotherapy outcome in AML. This randomized, controlled trial compared the efficacy of azacitidine applied before each cycle of intensive chemotherapy with chemotherapy alone in older patients with untreated AML. Event-free survival (EFS) was the primary end point. In total, 214 patients with a median age of 70 years were randomized to azacitidine/chemotherapy (arm-A) or chemotherapy (arm-B). More arm-A patients (39/105; 37%) than arm-B (25/109; 23%) showed adverse cytogenetics (P=0.057). Adverse events were more frequent in arm-A (15.44) versus 13.52 in arm-B, (P=0.26), but early death rates did not differ significantly (30-day mortality: 6% versus 5%, P=0.76). Median EFS was 6 months in both arms (P=0.96). Median overall survival was 15 months for patients in arm-A compared with 21 months in arm-B (P=0.35). Azacitidine added to standard chemotherapy increases toxicity in older patients with AML, but provides no additional benefit for unselected patients.

  5. Novel photoluminescence enzyme immunoassay based on supramolecular host-guest recognition using L-arginine/6-aza-2-thiothymine-stabilized gold nanocluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youmei; Lu, Minghua; Tang, Dianping

    2018-06-30

    A new photoluminescence (PL) enzyme immunoassay was designed for sensitive detection of aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) via an innovative enzyme substrate, 6-aza-2-thiothymine-stabilized gold nanocluster (AAT-AuNC) with L-arginine. The enzyme substrate with strong PL intensity was formed through supramolecular host-guest assembly between guanidine group of L-arginine and AAT capped on the surface of AuNC. Upon arginase introduction, the captured L-arginine was hydrolyzed into ornithine and urea, thus resulting in the decreasing PL intensity. Based on this principle, a novel competitive-type immunoreaction was first carried out on AFB 1 -bovine serum albumin (AFB 1 -BSA) conjugate-coated microplate, using arginase-labeled anti-AFB 1 antibody as the competitor. Under the optimum conditions, the PL intensity increased with the increment of target AFB 1 , and allowed the detection of the analyte at concentrations as low as 3.2 pg mL -1 (ppt). Moreover, L-arginine-AAT-AuNC-based PL enzyme immunoassay afforded good reproducibility and acceptable specificity. In addition, the accuracy of this methodology, referring to commercial AFB 1 ELISA kit, was evaluated to analyze naturally contaminated or spiked peanut samples, giving well-matched results between two methods, thus representing a useful scheme for practical application in quantitative monitoring of mycotoxins in foodstuff. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Uranyl-organic assemblies with the macrocyclic ligand 1, 4, 8, 11-tetra-aza-cyclo-tetradecane-1, 4, 8, 11-tetraacetate (TETA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuery, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Three uranyl ion complexes obtained from the reaction of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate and 1, 4, 8, 11-tetra-aza-cyclo-tetradecane-1, 4, 8, 11-tetraacetic acid (H 4 TETA) were characterized by their crystal structure. The centrosymmetric macrocycle, in the [3434] conformation with either carbon or nitrogen atoms as corners, is zwitterionic, with four carboxylate groups and two or four protonated nitrogen atoms. The complexes [(UO 2 ) 2 (H 2 TETA)(C 2 O 4 )(H 2 O) 2 ] (1) and [UO 2 (H 4 TETA)(H 2 O)].NO 3 .Cl (2) were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and 1 includes additional oxalate ligands generated in situ. Both compounds are two-dimensional polymers in which the four-fold monodentate macrocyclic ligand unites either four uranyl oxalate dinuclear species (1) or isolated uranyl ions (2). Complex 3, [UO 2 (H 2 TETA)(H 2 O)].6H 2 O, was obtained at room temperature and, although it displays the same stoichiometry as 2, it differs from it by being a three-dimensional framework. Both 2 and 3 present channels containing either counter-ions or water molecules. As often observed, the water content of the low-temperature species, 3, is higher than that of the high-temperature one, 2. (author)

  7. The Chemical Decomposition of 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (Decitabine): Kinetic Analyses and Identification of Products by NMR, HPLC, and Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogstad, Daniel K.; Herring, Jason L.; Theruvathu, Jacob A.; Burdzy, Artur; Perry, Christopher C.; Neidigh, Jonathan W.; Sowers, Lawrence C.

    2014-01-01

    The nucleoside analog 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (Decitabine, DAC) is one of several drugs in clinical use that inhibit DNA methyltransferases, leading to a decrease of 5-methylcytosine in newly replicated DNA and subsequent transcriptional activation of genes silenced by cytosine methylation. In addition to methyltransferase inhibition, DAC has demonstrated toxicity and potential mutagenicity, and can induce a DNA-repair response. The mechanisms accounting for these events are not well understood. DAC is chemically unstable in aqueous solutions, but there is little consensus between previous reports as to its half-life and corresponding products of decomposition at physiological temperature and pH, potentially confounding studies on its mechanism of action and long-term use in humans. Here we have employed a battery of analytical methods to estimate kinetic rates and to characterize DAC decomposition products under conditions of physiological temperature and pH. Our results indicate that DAC decomposes into a plethora of products, formed by hydrolytic opening and deformylation of the triazine ring, in addition to anomerization and possibly other changes in the sugar ring structure. We also discuss the advantages and problems associated with each analytical method used. The results reported here will facilitate ongoing studies and clinical trials aimed at understanding the mechanisms of action, toxicity, and possible mutagenicity of DAC and related analogs. PMID:19480391

  8. Emotional and Cognitive Coping in Relationship Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrape, Elizabeth R.; Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Callahan, Jennifer L.; Nowlin, Rachel B.

    2016-01-01

    Dissolution of a romantic relationship can adversely affect functioning among college students and represents one primary reason for seeking campus counseling. This study examined the associations among common coping strategies and distress following relationship dissolution. Avoidance and repetitive negative thinking (RNT) were significantly…

  9. Suppressor Effects of Coping Strategies on Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jae ho; Lee, Ji hae; Lee, Chae Yeon; Cho, Minhee; Lee, Sang Min

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to demonstrate a significant suppressor effect among coping strategies on resilience. Two different samples were used to replicate the suppressor effect. Participants in the first example were 391 adolescents (middle school students) in Korea, and participants in the second example were 282 young adults…

  10. Social Coping of Gifted and LGBTQ Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, Virginia H.; Tieso, Carol L.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study used critical ethnography as a theoretical framework to investigate the social coping strategies of gifted and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) students in middle and high school. Twelve LGBTQ college students from a selective Southeastern university were interviewed and asked to retrospectively…

  11. Coping Styles of Failing Brunei Vocational Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundia, Lawrence; Salleh, Sallimah

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the prevalence of two types of underachieving students (n = 246) (active failing (AF) and passive failing (PF)) in Brunei vocational and technical education (VTE) institutions and their patterns of coping. Design/methodology/approach: The field survey method was used to directly reach many…

  12. Christchurch earthquakes: how did former refugees cope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Mohamud; Hornblow, Andrew; Macleod, Sandy; Coope, Pat

    2012-06-29

    This study investigated how former refugees now living in Christchurch (Canterbury Province, New Zealand) communities coped after the 4 September 2010 and subsequent earthquakes. A systematic sample of one in three former refugees from five ethnic groupings (Afghanistan, Kurdistan, Ethiopia, Somalia and Bhutan) was selected from a list of 317 refugees provided by the Canterbury Refugee Council and invited to participate in the study. Seventy-two out of 105 potential participants completed a 26 item questionnaire regarding the impact of the quakes, their concerns and anxieties, coping strategies and social supports. The methodology was complicated by ongoing aftershocks, particularly that of 22 February 2011. Three-quarters of participants reported that they had coped well, spirituality and religious practice being an important support for many, despite less then 20% receiving support from mainstream agencies. Most participants (72%) had not experienced a traumatic event or natural disaster before. Older participants and married couples with children were more likely to worry about the earthquakes and their impact than single individuals. There was a significant difference in the level of anxiety between males and females. Those who completed the questionnaire after the 22 February 2011 quake were more worried overall than those interviewed before this. Overall, the former refugees reported they had coped well despite most of them not experiencing an earthquake before and few receiving support from statutory relief agencies. More engagement from local services is needed in order to build trust and cooperation between the refugee and local communities.

  13. Vulnerability, poverty and coping in Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin; Bird, Kate

    This paper uses five life histories from three locations in Zimbabwe—one peri-urban, one urban and one rural—to provide a window on current processes of impoverishment and adverse coping. Each case and location highlight key aspects of Zimbabwe’s recent economic and political turmoil. Together...

  14. Coping with a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the final decisions should be made together. Knowing what to expect is another way to feel in control. It may also help to keep as normal a routine as possible. Be patient. Coping with breast cancer requires time, acceptance, a fighting spirit and support. Many people also find strength in ...

  15. Regression testing Ajax applications : Coping with dynamism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, D.; Mesbah, A.; Van Deursen, A.

    2009-01-01

    Note: This paper is a pre-print of: Danny Roest, Ali Mesbah and Arie van Deursen. Regression Testing AJAX Applications: Coping with Dynamism. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation (ICST’10), Paris, France. IEEE Computer Society, 2010.

  16. A Theoretical Perspective on Coping with Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carol T.; Kaiser, Cheryl R.

    2001-01-01

    Uses existing theory and research on general stress and coping responses to describe responses to stigma-related stressors and discuss the adaptiveness of these responses. Research suggests that different stressors evoke different responses from different individuals. Stigmatized people have different life experiences than nonstigmatized people,…

  17. Methods of Coping with Stress: A Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    techniques and meditational exercises: breath control, progressive relaxation, autogenic training, transcendental medita- tion and others. REFERENCE: Norfolk...Relaxation/ Meditation : A category including any one of several techniques whose major purpose is to offset or diffuse the normal but negative...of Chicago Press. 5 APPENDIX A SELECTED COPING METHODS: SOURCES AND BRIEF DEFINITIONS A-0 #:I NAME: MEDITATION DEFINITION: Anything that redirects

  18. Coping with complexity: past, present and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, E.

    2012-01-01

    not only for process plant operators but for everyone. And while computers in 1981 were looked upon as the solution, they are now seen as the source of the problem. This paper discusses why and how the meaning of 'coping with complexity' has changed over the years and speculate on what may lie ahead....

  19. Helplessness and Resourcefulness in Coping with Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Michael; Palmon, Noami

    1984-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that psychological adjustment to epilepsy would be a joint function of subjects' (N=50) perceived repertoire of self-control skills and the extent to which they were exposed to uncontrollable seizures. Results showed that high-resourceful epileptics exposed to lower frequencies of seizures coped better with their disability.…

  20. Coping with Childhood Asthma: Caretakers' Views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailick, Mildred D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Pilot study of 23 caretakers of African American and Hispanic school-aged children with asthma explored effects of asthma on families and coping strategies of caretakers. Found large and significant correlations between perceived impact in areas of financial burden, social and familial isolation, and personal strain. Caretakers reported using…

  1. Cognitive coping in anxiety-disordered adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legerstee, Jeroen S.; Garnefski, Nadia; Verhulst, Frank C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated differences in cognitive coping strategies between anxiety-disordered and non-anxious adolescents. In addition, the interaction effect with gender as well as differences between specific anxiety diagnoses was examined. A clinical sample of 159 anxiety-disordered

  2. Coping with extreme climate events: Institutional flocking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppen, van C.S.A.; Mol, A.P.J.; Tatenhove, van J.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    The article explores the governance structures that would be needed to cope with extreme and unpredictable climate change. The impacts on the Netherlands of a Gulf Stream collapse in the Northern Atlantic are taken as a case. This hypothetical situation of serious risks and high uncertainties

  3. Children of Torture Victims: Reactions and Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Edith; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Evaluation of 11 children from 5 exile families with at least 1 parent having been subjected to torture found children were anxious, depressive, and regressive with psychosomatic symptoms, sleep disorders, and family and school problems. Coping strategies including isolation and withdrawal, mental flight, eagerness to acclimatize, and strength of…

  4. Stress in College Athletics: Causes, Consequences, Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, James H.; Yow, Deborah A.; Bowden, William W.

    This book addresses the causes and consequences of stress in college sports and offers effective coping mechanisms to help individuals understand and control stressors and emotions in their environment. The chapters are: (1) "Understanding Stress"; (2) "Perceptions of Stress in College Athletics"; (3) "Stress among College Athletes"; (4) "Stress…

  5. Coping and resilience resources in early adolescents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karaffová, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, Sup. 1 (2012), s. 240-240 ISSN 0887-0446. [Conference of European Health Psychology Society: Resilience and Health /26./. 21.08.2012-25.08.2012, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/12/2325 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : resilience * coping * adolescents Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  6. Coping With Pain: Studies in Stress Inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, John J.; And Others

    The stress-inoculation paradigm for helping clients deal with pain consists of education about the psychological dimensions of pain, training in a number of coping skills relevant to each dimension, and practice in applying these skills to the noxious stimulus. Presented are two studies, the first of which represents a component analysis of stress…

  7. Infertility, psychological distress, and coping strategies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relatively little is known about infertility and its consequences in Mali, West Africa where the context and culture are different from those of previously studied settings. This study therefore aimed to specifically examine infertility induced psychological distress and coping strategies among women in Mali. A convergent ...

  8. Stress, Adaptive Coping, and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buser, Juleen K.; Kearney, Anne

    2017-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between stress, adaptive coping, and life satisfaction among college students who reported having a friend or family member with eating disorder symptomatology. A hierarchical regression confirmed the study's hypotheses. Higher stress was linked with less life satisfaction. After stress was controlled, plan…

  9. Rearrangement of crystallographic domains driven by magnetic field in ferromagnetic Ni2MnGa and antiferromagnetic CoO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terai, Tomoyuki; Yasui, Motoyoshi; Yamamoto, Masataka; Kakeshita, Tomoyuki

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the rearrangement of crystallographic domains (martensite variants) in Ni 2 MnGa ferromagnetic shape memory alloy and CoO antiferromagnetic oxide by applying magnetic field up to 8.0 MA/m. From the result of optical microscope observation of Ni 2 MnGa single crystal, when a magnetic field is applied along [001] p (p represents a parent phase), the rearrangement of crystallographic domains occurs and the single domain state is obtained below T Ms = 202 K. The same rearrangement occurs but partially when a magnetic field is applied along [110] p . On the other hand, when a magnetic field is applied along [111] p , the rearrangement does not occur. In case of the CoO single crystal, when a magnetic field is applied along [001] p below T Ms = 293 K, the rearrangement occurs at 170 K ≤ T ≤ 293 K, but does not occur at T p and [111] p , the rearrangement does not occur below T Ms . In order to explain the rearrangement in the alloy and the oxide, we have evaluated the magnetic shear stress, τ mag , which is derived from the difference in magnetic energy among crystallographic domains and have compared it with the shear stress required for the twinning plane movement, τ req . As a result, we have found that the rearrangement occurs when the value of τ mag is larger than or equal to the value of τ req for the present alloy and oxide.

  10. Region-Specific Involvement of Actin Rearrangement-Related Synaptic Structure Alterations in Conditioned Taste Aversion Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Ai-Ling; Wang, Yue; Li, Bo-Qin; Wang, Qian-Qian; Ma, Ling; Yu, Hui; Zhao, Ling; Chen, Zhe-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Actin rearrangement plays an essential role in learning and memory; however, the spatial and temporal regulation of actin dynamics in different phases of associative memory has not been fully understood. Here, using the conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm, we investigated the region-specific involvement of actin rearrangement-related…

  11. Large BRCA1 and BRCA2 genomic rearrangements in Danish high risk breast-ovarian cancer families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas v O; Jønson, Lars; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    BRCA1 and BRCA2 germ-line mutations predispose to breast and ovarian cancer. Large genomic rearrangements of BRCA1 account for 0-36% of all disease causing mutations in various populations, while large genomic rearrangements in BRCA2 are more rare. We examined 642 East Danish breast and/or ovaria...

  12. Personality profile and coping resources of family medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Personality profile and coping resources of family medicine vocational trainees at ... (81.8%) indicated that they mainly experienced work-related stress. ... Keywords: personality; coping resources; family medicine; stress; vocational trainees ...

  13. Exploring the Factors Contributing to Stress and Coping Strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring the Factors Contributing to Stress and Coping Strategies of Nurses at ... explore the factors contributing to nurses' stress and related coping strategies used ... of staff and materials, facing death and dying, dissatisfaction with the work ...

  14. Leadership for coping with and adapting to policy change in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leadership for coping with and adapting to policy change in deprived contexts: ... what, from school principals' perspectives, constitutes leadership for coping with and ... We conclude that leadership practices are not fixed, but are fluid, and ...

  15. Coping, affect, and the metabolic syndrome in older men: how does coping get under the skin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancura, Loriena A; Aldwin, Carolyn M; Levenson, Michael R; Spiro, Avron

    2006-09-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a complex construct with interrelated factors of obesity, blood pressure, lipids, and glucose. It is a risk factor for a number of chronic diseases in late life. This study tested a model in which the relationship between stress and the metabolic syndrome was mediated by appraisal, coping, and affect. Data were collected from 518 male participants in the Normative Aging Study (X(age) = 68.17 years). The model was partially confirmed. Relationships among stress, appraisal, coping, and affect were valenced along positive and negative pathways. However, affect was not directly related to the metabolic syndrome. The metabolic syndrome was related to positive coping as operationalized by self-regulatory strategies. The results of this study suggest that the influence of coping on physical health may occur through emotional regulation.

  16. Stress and neurobiology of coping styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vsevolod V. Nemets

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In stressful environment, animal can use different coping strategies. Passive animals manifest freezing behaviour at predator attacks, active ones are trying to have an impact on a stressful situation. Each coping style is presupposed to have a neurobiological basis and it helps animals to survive in aggressive and mutable environment. Being under a long lasting stress, leaders can be affected by cardiovascular and ulcer diseases, but a short term impact can cheer them up, improve neuroendocrine stress response more than passive coping style in animals. This paper analyzes animal pattern of coping behaviour, their inheritance based on gender, social status and age. The research shows how anxiety affects social behaviour of people individuals and typological reactions were compared. These patterns can be used by people in a situation of uncontrolled stress to prevent diseases and depressive disorders through altering one’s type of behavior to the one which is more effective. In addition, knowledge of behavioural types can assist teachers in implementing the learning process as in stress situations (e.g. taking exams, working on course papers, doing tests not all students are able to effectively perceive and present the resulting material. On the other hand, active students could encourage short-term rather than long-term stressor irritation. It is necessary to pay special attention to students with low social economic status who display active response to stress. According to statistics, problem students often become aggressors and commit antisocial and sometimes criminal acts. The coping styles mentioned here above are not polar, there are no clear boundaries of personality. In addition, behaving according to the active / non-active type is identified by customary and inherited behaviour patterns.

  17. Coping skills of olympic developmental soccer athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, M C; Stewart, C C; Laurent, C M; Leunes, A D; Bourgeois, A E

    2008-12-01

    Athletes at Olympic Developmental Program (ODP) camps experience unusually high levels of expectations and inherent mental and physical challenges within such a short span of time. With the increasing emphasis on talent development, there has been consensus by the ODP staff to more clearly define present levels of coping skills, in order to enhance athletic prediction, maximize training efforts, identify the predisposition to injury, and focus on areas pertinent to successful performance. This study examined athletic and pain coping skills of U. S. ODP soccer athletes not previously investigated. Following written informed consent, 70 males completed the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory and the Sports Inventory for Pain. Data were analyzed by competitive level (U-14, U-15), and skill position (goalkeeper/defense, midfield/foward). MANOVA indicated a significant main effect across competitive level (Wilks' Lambda F(12,57) = 2.27; p = 0.02; n-beta = 0.915) but no significant effect by skill position (Wilks' Lambda F(12,57) = 0.931; p = 0.523; n-beta = 0.457). Post hoc analyses indicated that U-15 athletes scored significantly higher in concentration (p = 0.01) and body awareness (p = 0.03), but lower in avoidance (p = 0.01) than U-14 competitors. In conclusion, older, more experienced athletes revealed more positive athletic and pain coping skills than younger, less experienced athletes, although athletes in skill positions requiring spontaneous decision-making skills and split-second adjustment in a constantly changing sport environment (forwards, midfielders) did not exhibit more positive athletic and pain coping skills than those positions requiring reaction and protection (defenders, goalkeepers).

  18. ON THE PECULIARITIES OF THE RING CONTRACTION REACTIONS OF HOMODRIMANES VIA ACID MEDIATED EPOXIDE REARRANGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veaceslav Kulciţki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A selective rearrangement of a epoxy-homodrimanic substrate is described. Using fluorosulfonic acid at low temperature leads by ring contraction to a perhydrindanic structure. On the contrary, using boron trifluoride-diethyl ether at r.t. selectively brings about angular methyl migration.

  19. Synthesis of N-protected Galactosamine Building Blocks from D-Tagatose via the Heyns Rearrangement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrodnigg, Tanja M.; Lundt, Inge; Stütz, Arnold E.

    2006-01-01

    N-Acetyl-D-galactosamine (11), a very important naturally occurring building block of oligosaccharides, is easily accessible via the Heyns rearrangement of D-tagatose (3) with benzylamine. The short and efficient synthesis of various differently N-protected D-galactosamine derivatives is reported....

  20. Conversion and non-conversion approach to preimplantation diagnosis for chromosomal rearrangements in 475 cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuliev, Anver; Janzen, Jeanine Cieslak; Zlatopolsky, Zev; Kirillova, Irina; Ilkevitch, Yury; Verlinsky, Yury

    2010-07-01

    Due to the limitations of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for chromosomal rearrangements by interphase fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, a method for obtaining chromosomes from single blastomeres was introduced by their fusion with enucleated or intact mouse zygotes, followed by FISH analysis of the resulting heterokaryons. Although this allowed a significant improvement in the accuracy of testing of both maternally and paternally derived translocations, it is still labour intensive and requires the availability of fertilized mouse oocytes, also creating ethical issues related to the formation of interspecies heterokaryons. This method was modified with a chemical conversion procedure that has now been clinically applied for the first time on 877 embryos from PGD cycles for chromosomal rearrangements and has become the method of choice for performing PGD for structural rearrangements. This is presented within the context of overall experience of 475 PGD cycles for translocations with pre-selection and transfer of balanced or normal embryos in 342 (72%) of these cycles, which resulted in 131 clinical pregnancies (38%), with healthy deliveries of 113 unaffected children. The spontaneous abortion rate in these cycles was as low as 17%, which confirms an almost five-fold reduction of spontaneous abortion rate following PGD for chromosomal rearrangements. 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A single oncogenic enhancer rearrangement causes concomitant EVI1 and GATA2 deregulation in leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gröschel, Stefan; Sanders, Mathijs A; Hoogenboezem, Remco; de Wit, Elzo; Bouwman, Britta A M; Erpelinck, Claudia; van der Velden, Vincent H J; Havermans, Marije; Avellino, Roberto; van Lom, Kirsten; Rombouts, Elwin J; van Duin, Mark; Döhner, Konstanze; Beverloo, H Berna; Bradner, James E; Döhner, Hartmut; Löwenberg, Bob; Valk, Peter J M; Bindels, Eric M J; de Laat, Wouter; Delwel, Ruud

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements without gene fusions have been implicated in leukemogenesis by causing deregulation of proto-oncogenes via relocation of cryptic regulatory DNA elements. AML with inv(3)/t(3;3) is associated with aberrant expression of the stem-cell regulator EVI1. Applying functional

  2. Thermally rearranged (TR) bismaleimide-based network polymers for gas separation membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Yu Seong; Lee, Won Hee; Seong, Jong Geun; Kim, Ju Sung; Wang, Ho Hyun; Doherty, Cara M; Hill, Anita J; Lee, Young Moo

    2016-11-15

    Highly permeable, thermally rearranged polymer membranes based on bismaleimide derivatives that exhibit excellent CO 2 permeability up to 5440 Barrer with a high BET surface area (1130 m 2 g -1 ) are reported for the first time. In addition, the membranes can be easily used to form semi-interpenetrating networks with other polymers endowing them with superior gas transport properties.

  3. Electron beam-induced Fries rearrangement of arylsulfonamides and arylsulfonates in the crystalline state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Jun; Yuasa, Kanako; Yamashita, Takashi; Maekawa, Yasunari; Yoshida, Masaru

    2003-01-01

    Electron beam (EB)-induced reactions of organic crystals containing a carbonyl or a sulfonyl group have been investigated. The EB irradiation of benzenesulfonanilide (BSA) in the crystalline state induced the Fries rearrangement to yield o- and p-aminodiphenylsulfones as the major and minor products, respectively. Several BSA derivatives also had the same reactivity, while benzanilide as the corresponding carbonyl compound did not rearrange under the same conditions. These results showed that the S-N bond could be cleaved selectively by EB irradiation but the C-N bond couldn't, which could take place only by the use of EB. The EB irradiation of phenyl p-toluenesulfonate (PTS) crystals gave not only Fries-type products but also the oxidation product. By comparing with the reactivity of liquid phenyl benzenesulfonate, the EB-induced Fries rearrangement was suggested to proceed under crystalline lattice restrictions. The G-values of arylsulfonamides and arylsulfonates were in the range of ca. 1-2 molecules per 100 eV of absorbed energy. This is the first Fries rearrangement via direct excitation by EB irradiation. (author)

  4. Molecular Mechanisms and Diagnosis of Chromosome 22q11.2 Rearrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Beverly S.

    2008-01-01

    Several recurrent, constitutional genomic disorders are present on chromosome 22q. These include the translocations and deletions associated with DiGeorge and velocardiofacial syndrome and the translocations that give rise to the recurrent t(11;22) supernumerary der(22) syndrome (Emanuel syndrome). The rearrangement breakpoints on 22q cluster…

  5. Beckmann rearrangement of aldoximes catalyzed by transition metal salts: mechanical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leusink, A.J.; Meerbeek, T.G.; Noltes, J.G.

    1977-01-01

    The Beckmann rearrangement of aldoximes catalyzed by transition metal salts like palladium and nickel acetylacetonates is shown to be a dehydration‐hydration reaction in which the anti‐oxime is converted into nitrile and the nitrile is converted into amide.

  6. Condensed tannins. Base-catalysed reactions of polymeric procyanidins with phloroglucinol: Intramolecular rearrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter E. Laks; Richard W. Hemingway; Anthony H. Conner

    1987-01-01

    Reactions of polymeric procyanidins with phloroglucinol at pH 12.0 and temperatures of 23 or 50°C gave epicatechin-(4β)-phloroglucinol (7), by cleavage of the interflavanoid bond between procyanidin units with subsequent addition of phloroglucinol, and (+)-catechin from the terminal unit. The phloroglucinol adduct (7) rearranged to an enolic form of 8-(3,4-...

  7. Iridium-Catalyzed Dynamic Kinetic Isomerization: Expedient Synthesis of Carbohydrates from Achmatowicz Rearrangement Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao-Yuan; Yang, Ka; Bennett, Scott R; Guo, Sheng-rong; Tang, Weiping

    2015-07-20

    A highly stereoselective dynamic kinetic isomerization of Achmatowicz rearrangement products was discovered. This new internal redox isomerization provided ready access to key intermediates for the enantio- and diastereoselective synthesis of a series of naturally occurring sugars. The nature of the de novo synthesis also enables the preparation of both enantiomers. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Single Particle Potential of a Σ Hyperon in Nuclear Matter. II Rearrangement Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowski, J.

    2000-01-01

    The rearrangement contribution to the real part of the single particle potential of a Σ hyperon in nuclear matter, U Σ , is investigated. The isospin and spin dependent parts of U Σ are considered. Results obtained for four models of the Nijmegen baryon-baryon interaction are presented and discussed. (author)

  9. Intergenomic rearrangements after polyploidization of Kengyilia thoroldiana (Poaceae: Triticeae) affected by environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuxia; Liu, Huitao; Gao, Ainong; Yang, Xinming; Liu, Weihua; Li, Xiuquan; Li, Lihui

    2012-01-01

    Polyploidization is a major evolutionary process. Approximately 70-75% species of Triticeae (Poaceae) are polyploids, involving 23 genomes. To investigate intergenomic rearrangements after polyploidization of Triticeae species and to determine the effects of environmental factors on them, nine populations of a typical polyploid Triticeae species, Kengyilia thoroldiana (Keng) J.L.Yang et al. (2n = 6x = 42, StStPPYY), collected from different environments, were studied using genome in situ hybridization (GISH). We found that intergenomic rearrangements occurred between the relatively large P genome and the small genomes, St (8.15%) and Y (22.22%), in polyploid species via various types of translocations compared to their diploid progenitors. However, no translocation was found between the relatively small St and Y chromosomes. Environmental factors may affect rearrangements among the three genomes. Chromosome translocations were significantly more frequent in populations from cold alpine and grassland environments than in populations from valley and lake-basin habitats (P<0.05). The relationship between types of chromosome translocations and altitude was significant (r = 0.809, P<0.01). Intergenomic rearrangements associated with environmental factors and genetic differentiation of a single basic genome should be considered as equally important genetic processes during species' ecotype evolution.

  10. Density, viscosity and surface tension of liquid phase Beckmann rearrangement mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidhof, K.T.; Croon, de M.H.J.M.; Schouten, J.C.; Tinge, J.T.

    2015-01-01

    We have determined the density, dynamic viscosity, and surface tension of liquid phase Beckmann rearrangement mixtures, consisting of e-caprolactam and fuming oleum. These important properties have been measured in wide ranges of both temperature and molar ratios of acid and e-caprolactam, covering

  11. DNA template strand sequencing of single-cells maps genomic rearrangements at high resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falconer, Ester; Hills, Mark; Naumann, Ulrike; Poon, Steven S. S.; Chavez, Elizabeth A.; Sanders, Ashley D.; Zhao, Yongjun; Hirst, Martin; Lansdorp, Peter M.

    DNA rearrangements such as sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) are sensitive indicators of genomic stress and instability, but they are typically masked by single-cell sequencing techniques. We developed Strand-seq to independently sequence parental DNA template strands from single cells, making it

  12. Aberrant immunoglobulin and c-myc gene rearrangements in patients with nonmalignant monoclonal cryoglobulinemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perl, A.; Wang, N.; Williams, J.M.; Hunt, M.J.; Rosenfeld, S.I.; Condemi, J.J.; Packman, C.H.; Abraham, G.N.

    1987-01-01

    The status of the immunoglobulin (Ig) genes was investigated in patients with idiopathic nonmalignant monoclonal IgG cryoglobulinemia (NCG). In NCG, monoclonal antibodies are synthesized at an accelerated rate by nonmalignant B lymphocytes. In order to determine whether this high production rate is related to a clonal B cell expansion, the rearrangement of the Ig genes was investigated by Southern blot analysis of genomic, 32 P-labelled, DNA extracted from the peripheral blood lymphocytes of four NCG patients. In three of four (VI, BR, and CH) clonal expansion of B cells was detected using probes specific for the genes. BamHI digestion of DNA from VI and BR produced three rearranged fragments which cohybridized with two of the probes. This finding suggested the presence of additional nonsecretory B cell clones and/or disruption of the gene segments spanned by and detected with the probes. In addition, the possibility of aberrant gene rearrangements was supported by noting the alteration of the c-myc gene locus in genomic DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes of VI and CH. Northern blot analysis of RNA isolated from peripheral blood B cells of VI and CH demonstrated aberrant transcripts of the c-myc gene, showing an active role of the altered c-myc locus. Detection of c-myc rearrangement in NCG patients clearly shows that this event may not be a final step in malignant B cell transformation

  13. Interphase FISH detection of BCL2 rearrangement in follicular lymphoma using breakpoint-flanking probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaandrager, J W; Schuuring, E; Raap, T; Philippo, K; Kleiverda, K; Kluin, P

    Rearrangement of the BCL2 gene is an important parameter for the differential diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Although a relatively large proportion of breakpoints is clustered, many are missed by standard PCR. A FISH assay is therefore desired. Up to now, a lack of probes flanking the BCL2 gene

  14. Effects of structural rearrangements on the rheology of rennet-induced casein particle gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellema, M.; Walstra, P.; Opheusden, van J.H.J.; Vliet, van T.

    2002-01-01

    During ageing of casein or skim milk gels, structural changes take place that affect gel parameters, such as pore size and storage modulus. These changes can be explained in terms of rearrangements of the gel network at various length scales. In this paper, rheological experiments on rennet-induced

  15. Myeloid neoplasm with prominent eosinophilia and PDGFRA rearrangement treated with imatinib mesylate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Kielsgaard Kristensen, Thomas; Møller, Michael Boe

    2010-01-01

    of FIP1L1-PDGFRA positive disease has been reported. We report a 2-year-old female with a myeloid neoplasm associated with eosinophilia and rearrangement of PDGFRA. Treatment with imatinib resulted in complete and durable clinical, hematological, and molecular remission within 3 months after starting...

  16. Intergenomic rearrangements after polyploidization of Kengyilia thoroldiana (Poaceae: Triticeae affected by environmental factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuxia Wang

    Full Text Available Polyploidization is a major evolutionary process. Approximately 70-75% species of Triticeae (Poaceae are polyploids, involving 23 genomes. To investigate intergenomic rearrangements after polyploidization of Triticeae species and to determine the effects of environmental factors on them, nine populations of a typical polyploid Triticeae species, Kengyilia thoroldiana (Keng J.L.Yang et al. (2n = 6x = 42, StStPPYY, collected from different environments, were studied using genome in situ hybridization (GISH. We found that intergenomic rearrangements occurred between the relatively large P genome and the small genomes, St (8.15% and Y (22.22%, in polyploid species via various types of translocations compared to their diploid progenitors. However, no translocation was found between the relatively small St and Y chromosomes. Environmental factors may affect rearrangements among the three genomes. Chromosome translocations were significantly more frequent in populations from cold alpine and grassland environments than in populations from valley and lake-basin habitats (P<0.05. The relationship between types of chromosome translocations and altitude was significant (r = 0.809, P<0.01. Intergenomic rearrangements associated with environmental factors and genetic differentiation of a single basic genome should be considered as equally important genetic processes during species' ecotype evolution.

  17. Comparative analysis of clinicoradiologic characteristics of lung adenocarcinomas with ALK rearrangements or EGFR mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, J.Y.; Zheng, J.; Chen, X.; Zhou, J.Y. [Zhejiang University, Department of Respiratory Disease, Thoracic Disease Center, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Yu, Z.F.; Xiao, W.B.; Jiang, L.N. [Zhejiang University, Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Zhao, J.; Sun, K.; Wang, B.; Ding, W. [Zhejiang University, Department of Pathology, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Hangzhou (China)

    2015-05-01

    To compare the clinicoradiologic features of tumours with echinoderm anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, or wild type (WT) for both genes in a cohort of patients with lung adenocarcinoma to identify useful characteristics of different gene statuses. In 346 lung adenocarcinoma patients, ALK rearrangements were confirmed with fluorescence in situ hybridisation, and EGFR mutations were determined by pyrosequencing assay. Patients were divided into three groups: ALK rearrangement (ALK+ group, n = 48), EGFR mutation (EGFR+ group, n = 166), and WT for both genes (WT group, n = 132). Chest computed tomography (CT) examinations were performed in all patients. The percentages of ground-glass opacity volume (pGGO) and tumour shadow disappearance rate (TDR) were measured using semi-automated nodule assessment software. The pGGO was significantly lower in the ALK+ group (25.1 % ± 24.3) than in the EGFR+ group (37.2 % ± 25.7, p < 0.001) and the WT group (36.1 % ± 24.6, p = 0.001). The TDR in the ALK+ group (17.3 % ± 25.1) was significantly lower than in the EGFR+ group (26.8 % ± 24.9, p = 0.002) and the WT group (25.7 % ± 24.6, p = 0.003). Solid pattern with lower incidence of lobulated border, finely spiculated margins, pleural retraction, and bubble-like lucency on CT imaging are the main characteristics of ALK rearrangement tumours. (orig.)

  18. A DFT exploration of the enantioselective rearrangement of cyclohexene oxide to cyclohexenol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Peter; Norrby, Per-Ola; Andersson, Pher G.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we present computational results for the (1S,3R,4R)-3-(pyrrolidinyl)-methyl-2-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane mediated rearrangement of cyclohexene oxide. The results nicely explain the differences in enantioselectivities between catalytic and stoichiometric mode between different ligands...

  19. Synthesis and Rearrangement of Dewar Benzenes Into Biaryls: Experimental Evidence for Conrotatory Ring Opening

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janková, Š.; Dračínský, Martin; Císařová, I.; Kotora, Martin

    -, č. 1 (2008), s. 47-51 ISSN 1434-193X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Dewar benzene * biaryls * alkynes * Hammett * rearrangement Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.016, year: 2008

  20. Mapping of 5q35 chromosomal rearrangements within a genomically unstable region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buysse, Karen; Crepel, An; Menten, Björn

    2008-01-01

    these rearrangements. METHODS: We analysed a series of patients with breakpoints clustering within chromosome band 5q35. Using high density arrays and subsequent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), we characterised the breakpoints of four interstitial deletions (including one associated with an unbalanced...