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Sample records for az91d magnesium alloys

  1. Simulation of Magnesium Alloy AZ91D Microstructure Using Modified Cellular Automaton Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO Liang; LI Bin; SHI Yufeng; XU Qingyan; HAN Zhiqiang; LIU Baicheng

    2009-01-01

    A two-dimensional modified cellular automaton model was developed to simulate the solidification process of magnesium alloy, The stochastic nucleation, solute redistribution, and growth anisotropy effects were taken into account in the present model. The model was used to simulate the grain size of magnesium alloy AZ91D for various cooling rates during the solidification process. To quantitatively validate the current model, metallographic expedments were carded out on specimens obtained from sand mold AZ91D step castings. The metallographic results agree well with the prediction results. The current model can be used to accurately predict the grain sizes of cast AZ91D magnesium alloy.

  2. Effects of rare earth elements on the microstructure and properties of magnesium alloy AZ91D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KaikunWang; KuiZhang; 等

    2002-01-01

    The effects of rare earth elements on the microstructure and properties of Magnesium alloy AZ91D alloy were studied.The different proportion of rare earth elements was added to the AZ91D and the tensile tests were carried out at different temperatures.The experimental results show that at room temperature or at 120℃ the AZ91D's decrease with the increasing amount of the rare earth elements.however,the ductility is improved.The influence of 0.14%Sb(mass fraction)on the AZ91D's strength is like that of rare earth elements(0.2%-0.4%)(mass fraction).Microstructure graphs demonstrate that appropriate amount of rare earth elements (0.1%-0.2%) can fine AZ91D's grain and improve its ductility.

  3. Effects of rare earth elements on the microstructureand properties of magnesium alloy AZ91D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The effects of rare earth elements on the microstructure and properties of magnesium alloy AZ91D alloy were studied. The different proportion of rare earth elements was added to the AZ91D and the tensile tests were carried out at different temperatures. The experimental results show that at room temperature or at 120℃ the AZ91D's strength decrease with the increasing amount of the rare earth elements. However, the ductility is improved. The influence of 0.14%Sb (mass fraction) on the AZ91D's strength is like that of rare earth elements (0.2%-0.4%) (mass fraction). Microstructure graphs demonstrate that appropriate amount of rare earth elements (0.1%-0.2%) can fine AZ91D's grain and improve its ductility.

  4. Influence of neodymium on high cycle fatigue behavior of die cast AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨友; 李雪松

    2010-01-01

    High cycle fatigue behavior of die cast AZ91D magnesium alloy with different Nd contents was investigated.Axial mechanical fatigue tests were conducted at the stress ratio R=0.1 and the fatigue strength was evaluated using up-to-down load method on specimens of AZ91D with different Nd contents.The results showed that the grain of AZ91D alloy was refined,the size and amount of β-Mg17Al12 phase decreased and distributed uniformly with increasing Nd content.At the number of cycles to failure,Nf=107,the fatigue...

  5. Numerical simulation of temperature field of AZ91D magnesium alloy during equal channel angular extrusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The temperature field of AZ91D magnesium alloy extruded by equal channel angular extrusion(ECAE) has been simulated using finite element method(FEM).A series of tests were designed to obtain the simulation parameters:flow stress of AZ91D,friction factor and heat transfer coefficient.The simulated temperature agrees well with the measured one.The evolution of temperature and influencing factor was discussed in details.Furthermore,the extrusion pressure of ECAE was analyzed.

  6. Direct Electroless Nickel Plating on AZ91D Magnesium Alloy from a Sulfate Solution and its Deposition Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUChang-dong; LIANJian-she; LIGuang-yu; NIULi-yuan; JIANGZhong-hao

    2004-01-01

    A bath of electroless plating Ni on the AZ91D magnesium alloy, containing sulfate nickel, was given in this paper. The nucleation mechanism of Ni-P deposits on the AZ91D magnesium alloy was studied by using XRD and SEM. The electroless Ni-P deposits were preferentially nucleated on the β(Mg17Al12) phase and extended to the primary and eutectic α phases of the AZ91D magnesium alloy.

  7. Characterization of Ni–P coating on AZ91D magnesium alloy with surfactants and nano-additives

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Sahal

    2014-01-01

    Direct electroless Ni–P plating was done on AZ91D magnesium alloy by immersing magnesium AZ91D samples into a bath containing Nickel sulphate. The nucleation mechanism of Ni–P deposits on the AZ91D magnesium alloy in the presence of surfactants and nano-additives was studied by using SEM. The electroless Ni–P deposits were preferentially nucleated on the βMg17Al12 phase of AZ91D magnesium alloy. Ni–P coating was coated uniformly in the presence of surfactants. Effect of surfactant C-Tab with ...

  8. A novel dual nickel coating on AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Magnesium alloys covered with metal coating display excellent corrosion resistance,wear resistance,conductivity and electromagnetic shielding properties.The electroless plating Ni-P as boRom layer following the electroplating nickel as surface layer on AZ91D magnesium alloy was investigated.The coating surface morphology was observed with SEM and the structure was analyzed with XRD.Electrochemical tests and salt spray tests were carried out to study the corrosion resistance.The experimental results indicate that the dual coating is uniform,compact and pore-free.The adhesion strength between magnesium alloy substrate and electroless plating Ni-P bottom layer and electroplating nickel surface layer is perfect.The corrosion resistance of AZ91D magnesium alloy is greatly improved after being protected with the dual coating.

  9. Effects of rare earths on friction and wear characteristics of magnesium alloy AZ91D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁庆琚; 刘勇兵; 杨晓红

    2003-01-01

    The influence of various rare-earth contents on the friction and wear characteristics of magnesium alloyAZ91D was studied. The results show that the wear resistance properties of rare-earth magnesium alloys are betterthan those of the matrix alloy under the testing conditions. Magnesium alloys undergo transition from mild wear tosevere wear. The addition of rare earths refines the structure of alloys, improves the comprehensive behaviors of themagnesium alloys, increases the stability of oxidation films on worn surfaces, enhances the loading ability of rare-earth magnesium alloys, and delays the transition from mild wear to severe wear effectively.

  10. Preparation of biomimetic hydrophobic coatings on AZ91D magnesium alloy surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The hydrophobic coating has been a promising technology for improving surface performance. The surface performance of magnesium alloy has been limited in application. Furthermore, the hydrophobic of magnesium alloy is rarely investigated because magnesium alloy is an active metal alloy. In this paper, inspired by microstructure character of typical plant leaf surface such as lotus, the biomimetic hydrophobic coatings on AZ91D magnesium alloy surface were prepared by means of wet-chemical combining electroless. The samples were immersed into AgNO3 solution in wet-chemical method firstly. Then, biomimetic hydrophobic coatings were prepared by electroless after wet-method pretreatment. The microstructure was observed by SEM and the contact angles were measured by contact angle tester. The results indicated that the biomimetic hydrophobic coatings with uniform crystalline and dense structure could be obtained on AZ91D magnesium alloy surface. The results of contact angle revealed that the biomimetic nano-composite coatings were hydrophobic. The wet-chemical method treatment on the AZ91D magnesium alloy substrate provided a rough microstructure, thus improving adhesion of the coating and the substrate.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY ANODIZING ON AZ91D MAGNESIUM ALLOYS AND COATING CHARACTERISTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Saijo; M. Hino; M. Hiramatsu; T. Kanadani

    2005-01-01

    An environmental friendly anodizing treatment (Anomag) from a phosphate-based solution without heavy metals on AZ91D magnesium alloy was studied. The characteristics of the coatings,such as structure, composition and corrosion resistance were investigated. The effects of this anodizing treatment on the mechanical properties were examined. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the structure of the coatings is amorphous or glassy. In salt spray tests coatings with an average thickness of 10μm had an anticorrosive performance of over 1000 hours. Fatigue tests revealed that anodizing onto AZ91D magnesium alloy does not affect the fatigue strength. These results demonstrate the utility of this anodizing treatment on magnesium alloy for application as a structural material, such as in the automotive field.

  12. Structure and Corrosion Resistance of Microarc Oxidation Coatings on AZ91D Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Shihai; Han Jianmin; Li Weijing; Li Ronghua; Zhu Xiaowen; Wang Jinhua

    2004-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are widely used as shells of 3C (computer, mobile phone and consumer electronics) equipments for its impressive mechanical and physical properties, such as low density, good resistance to electromagnetic radiation, suitable for high pressure diecasting and easily recycling, etc. But poor corrosion resistance confines its extensively application. In this paper, protective coatings was successfully prepared on AZ91D magnesium alloys by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and painting process. Microstructures and phases of MAO coatings were invesgated with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-Ray diffractometer. Mechanical properties of MAO coating, such as adhesive force and corrosion resistance, were also tested. Results showed that MAO coatings were a good base for painting process. MAO coatings with paint have good adhesive properties to base metal and excellent corrosion resistance. Micro-arc oxidation with painting process is a good kind of surface treatment to improve the corrosion resistance of mobile phone shell made of AZ91D magnesium alloys.

  13. Study on solid solution and aging process of AZ91D magnesium alloy with cerium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO

    2010-01-01

    The influence of Ce on solid solution and aging process of AZ91D magnesium alloy was analyzed.The results showed that the decomposition of β-Mg17Al12 phase in AZ91D magnesium alloy at 420 ℃ could be completed within 12 h,while this process in the Ce-containing alloy required more time.In subsequent aging process at 175 ℃,Ce obviously delayed the aging process of AZglD.It was inferred that the influence of Ce on process of solid solution and aging was relative to the Ce that existed in β-Mg17Al12 phase of original structure in the form of solid solution,and the interaction of the Ce and Al was an important factor to get process of solution and aging slowly.

  14. Electroless Ni-P plating with a phytic acid pretreatment on AZ91D magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A phytic acid conversion film with especial functional groups was proposed as the pretreatment layer between Ni-P coating and AZ91D magnesium alloy substrate, to replace the traditional pretreatment. In the process, the silane coupling agent was adopted as connector between conversion film and palladium ion with catalysis. The microstructure of the phytic acid conversion coatings was observed using scanning electronic microscopy, while the composition and functional groups were analyzed by energy dispersive spectrometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The bonding between Si-OH of the silane coupling agent and hydroxyl of phytic acid was validated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the existence of palladium ion was also verified. The subsequent Ni-P deposited on the layer was also characterized by its structure, morphology, and corrosion resistance. The results show that the Ni-P coatings with the phytic acid pretreatment on AZ91D magnesium alloy have good corrosion resistance.

  15. Electroless Ni-P plating with a phytic acid pretreatment on AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui Xiufang, E-mail: cuixf97721@yahoo.com.cn [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, 145 Nantong St., Harbin 150001 (China); State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 62 Wencui Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Jin Guo; Li Qingfen; Yang Yuyun [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, 145 Nantong St., Harbin 150001 (China); Li Ying [State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 62 Wencui Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang Fuhui [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, 145 Nantong St., Harbin 150001 (China); State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 62 Wencui Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2010-05-15

    A phytic acid conversion film with especial functional groups was proposed as the pretreatment layer between Ni-P coating and AZ91D magnesium alloy substrate, to replace the traditional pretreatment. In the process, the silane coupling agent was adopted as connector between conversion film and palladium ion with catalysis. The microstructure of the phytic acid conversion coatings was observed using scanning electronic microscopy, while the composition and functional groups were analyzed by energy dispersive spectrometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The bonding between Si-OH of the silane coupling agent and hydroxyl of phytic acid was validated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the existence of palladium ion was also verified. The subsequent Ni-P deposited on the layer was also characterized by its structure, morphology, and corrosion resistance. The results show that the Ni-P coatings with the phytic acid pretreatment on AZ91D magnesium alloy have good corrosion resistance.

  16. Influence of Procedure Parameters on Rheological Property of Semi-Solid AZ91D Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Yunxi; Xie Shuisheng; Li Xinggang; Li Lei

    2004-01-01

    Semi-solid AZ91D magnesium alloy was investigated in isothermal steady-state condition. The influence of stirring technological parameters such as stirring temperature and shear rate to apparent viscosity of semi-solid alloy slurry was discussed. Apparent viscosity increases with stirring temperature decreases at the same shear rate. At the same stirring temperature, apparent viscosity decreases rapidly at first with shear rate increases, and then apparent viscosity decreases slowly with shear rate increases, when shear rate reaches a certain value, apparent viscosity appears tiny increase. According to the experimental data, the relation between solid volume fraction and apparent viscosity of semi-solid AZ9l D alloy at shear rate 238 s- 1 is fitted by regression method, it supplies useful data to the numerical simulation of semi-solid AZ91D alloy die casting process.

  17. Laser cladding of Zr-based coating on AZ91D magnesium alloy for improvement of wear and corrosion resistance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kaijin Huang; Xin Lin; Changsheng Xie; T M Yue

    2013-02-01

    To improve the wear and corrosion resistance of AZ91D magnesium alloy, Zr-based coating made of Zr powder was fabricated on AZ91D magnesium alloy by laser cladding. The microstructure of the coating was characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM techniques. The wear resistance of the coating was evaluated under dry sliding wear test condition at room temperature. The corrosion resistance of the coating was tested in simulated body fluid. The results show that the coating mainly consists of Zr, zirconium oxides and Zr aluminides. The coating exhibits excellent wear resistance due to the high microhardness of the coating. The main wear mechanism of the coating and the AZ91D sample are different, the former is abrasive wear and the latter is adhesive wear. The coating compared to AZ91D magnesium alloy exhibits good corrosion resistance because of the good corrosion resistance of Zr, zirconium oxides and Zr aluminides in the coating.

  18. Characterization of Ni–P coating on AZ91D magnesium alloy with surfactants and nano-additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Sahal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Direct electroless Ni–P plating was done on AZ91D magnesium alloy by immersing magnesium AZ91D samples into a bath containing Nickel sulphate. The nucleation mechanism of Ni–P deposits on the AZ91D magnesium alloy in the presence of surfactants and nano-additives was studied by using SEM. The electroless Ni–P deposits were preferentially nucleated on the βMg17Al12 phase of AZ91D magnesium alloy. Ni–P coating was coated uniformly in the presence of surfactants. Effect of surfactant C-Tab with varying quantities was studied. Addition of surfactant C-Tab homogenized the Ni–P deposition on AZ91D magnesium alloy surface. The effect produced by surfactant C-Tab was maximum with minimum addition (1 g/l of surfactant C-Tab further increase in the surfactant C-Tab quantity did not brought much changes in morphology. Effect of surfactant SLS was studied using SEM. Surfactant SLS when incorporated in small amounts (6 g/l and 12 g/l only exerted a slight influence in Ni–P deposition on AZ91D alloy surface. However Ni–P deposition was more uniform and spread throughout the surface with the addition of SLS surfactant (18 g/l. Effect of nano additives Al2O3, ZnO, SiO2 were studied. Nano additive Al2O3 enhanced the deposition of Ni–P on AZ91D alloy when added in 0.6 g/l quantity. SiO2 addition also gave the same results. ZnO addition influenced the Ni–P deposition on AZ91D alloy positively. Ni–P surface coating was coated more uniform and spread throughout the surface with the addition of surfactants and nano-additives.

  19. Microstructure and property of zinc phosphate coating on die-casting magnesium alloy AZ91D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guang-yu; LIAN Jian-she; NIU Li-yuan; JIANG Zhong-hao

    2006-01-01

    A surface treatment method was described, which can form a uniform and dense phosphate conversion coating on the die -casting magnesium alloy AZ91D in a non-chromate and non-nitrite bath. The coating consists of Zn3(PO4)2-4H2O, Zn, AlPO4 and MgZn2(PO4)2 analyzed by XRD. The SEM results show that the microstructure of the zinc phosphate coating transfers from flower-like to slab-like crystals with the increase of immersion time of magnesium alloy samples in the phosphating bath. The zinc phosphate coating formed in the bath with immersion time of 1 min is denser because metallic Zn and insoluble phosphate crystals co-deposit on the magnesium alloy surface and the growth of the crystals are restricted by each others. The zinc phosphate coating on the magnesium alloy is used as the base layer for further cataphoric and powder paintings. The cataphoric painting on AZ91D alloy based on phosphate coating has similar adhesion and corrosion-resistance to that based on the chromate conversion coating. But for powder painting, the former exhibits better adhesion property than the latter, due to the uneven microstructure and the enough thickness of the phosphate coating.

  20. Grain refinement of AZ91D magnesium alloy by MgCO3

    OpenAIRE

    Ti Jun Chen; Xiang Dong Jiang; Ying Ma; Rui Quan Wang; Yuan Hao

    2011-01-01

    The grain refining technique of AZ91D magnesium alloy by MgCO3 has been investigated. The refining mechanism and tensile properties of the resulting alloy have also been discussed. The results indicate that MgCO3 can decrease its grain size from 311 to 53µm. Correspondingly, the tensile properties are obviously improved. The higher the cooling rate from addition temperature to pouring temperature or the higher the addition temperature, the finer the grains. The melt treated by MgCO3 should be...

  1. Corrosion product formation during NaCl induced atmospheric corrosion of magnesium alloy AZ91D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joensson, Martin [Corrosion and Metals Research Institute (KIMAB), Drottning Kristinas vaeg 48, SE-114 28 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: martin.jonsson@kimab.com; Persson, Dan [Corrosion and Metals Research Institute (KIMAB), Drottning Kristinas vaeg 48, SE-114 28 Stockholm (Sweden); Thierry, Dominique [Institut de la Corrosion, 220 Rue Rivoalon, 29200 Brest (France)

    2007-03-15

    Magnesium alloy AZ91D was exposed in humid air at 95% relative humidity (RH) with a deposition of 70 {mu}g/cm{sup -2} NaCl. The corrosion products formed and the surface electrolyte were analysed after different exposure times using ex situ and in situ FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Ion Chromatography. The results show that magnesium carbonates are the main solid corrosion products formed under these conditions. The corrosion products identified were the magnesium carbonates hydromagnesite (Mg{sub 5} (CO{sub 3}){sub 4} (OH){sub 2}4H{sub 2}O) and nesquehonite (MgCO{sub 3} 3H{sub 2}O). The corrosion attack starts with the formation of magnesite at locations with higher NaCl contents. At 95% RH, a sequence of reactions was observed with the initial formation of magnesite, which transformed into nesquehonite after 2-3 days. Long exposures result in the formation of pits containing brucite (Mg(OH{sub 2})) covered with hydromagnesite crusts. The hydromagnesite crusts restrict the transport of CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} to the magnesium surface and thereby favour the formation of brucite. Analysis of the surface electrolyte showed that the NaCl applied on the surface at the beginning was essentially preserved during the initial corrosion process. Since the applied salt was not bound in sparingly soluble corrosion products a layer of NaCl electrolyte was present on the surface during the whole exposure. Thus, Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} ions can participate in the corrosion process during the whole time and the availability of these species will not restrict the atmospheric corrosion of AZ91D under these conditions. It is suggested that the corrosion behaviour of AZ91D is rather controlled by factors related to the microstructure of the alloy and formation of solid carbonate containing corrosion products blocking active corrosion sites on the surface.

  2. Corrosion product formation during NaCl induced atmospheric corrosion of magnesium alloy AZ91D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnesium alloy AZ91D was exposed in humid air at 95% relative humidity (RH) with a deposition of 70 μg/cm-2 NaCl. The corrosion products formed and the surface electrolyte were analysed after different exposure times using ex situ and in situ FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Ion Chromatography. The results show that magnesium carbonates are the main solid corrosion products formed under these conditions. The corrosion products identified were the magnesium carbonates hydromagnesite (Mg5 (CO3)4 (OH)24H2O) and nesquehonite (MgCO3 3H2O). The corrosion attack starts with the formation of magnesite at locations with higher NaCl contents. At 95% RH, a sequence of reactions was observed with the initial formation of magnesite, which transformed into nesquehonite after 2-3 days. Long exposures result in the formation of pits containing brucite (Mg(OH2)) covered with hydromagnesite crusts. The hydromagnesite crusts restrict the transport of CO2 and O2 to the magnesium surface and thereby favour the formation of brucite. Analysis of the surface electrolyte showed that the NaCl applied on the surface at the beginning was essentially preserved during the initial corrosion process. Since the applied salt was not bound in sparingly soluble corrosion products a layer of NaCl electrolyte was present on the surface during the whole exposure. Thus, Na+ and Cl- ions can participate in the corrosion process during the whole time and the availability of these species will not restrict the atmospheric corrosion of AZ91D under these conditions. It is suggested that the corrosion behaviour of AZ91D is rather controlled by factors related to the microstructure of the alloy and formation of solid carbonate containing corrosion products blocking active corrosion sites on the surface

  3. High cycle fatigue properties of die-cast magnesium alloy AZ91D-1%MM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The high cycle fatigue properties of the die-cast magnesium alloy AZ91D containing 1%mischmetal(mass fraction)at a fatigue ratio of 0.1 were investigated.The difference in the microstructure between the skin and core region of the die-cast magnesium alloy was analyzed by optical microscopy.The mechanical property tests indicate that the values of the tensile strength,elongation and hardness are 185 MPa,1.5%and HBS 70±3 at room temperature,respectively.The p-S-N curve(p=50%)of the die-cast magnesium alloy AZ91D-1%MM is determined and the mean fatigue strength corresponding to 3.8×105cycles is 70 MPa.A linear relation between S and Np in log scale between 103 and 106 cycles is written with a equation.The mechanical properties are influenced by the casting defects.The fatigue life of the samples with minor defects is near to the upper limit of the fatigue life data.The fatigue fracture surface of the samples with minor defects possesses the mixed characteristics of quasi-cleavage,lacerated ridge and dimple and it is briule fracture mode as a whole.

  4. Barium phosphate conversion coating on die-cast AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Poor corrosion resistance limits the application of magnesium alloys.Conversion coating is widely used to protect magnesium alloys because of easy operation and low cost.A novel conversion coating on die.cast AZ91D magnesium alloy containing barium salts was studied.The optimum concentrations of Ba(NO3)2,Mn(NO3)2 and NH4H2PO4 are 25 g/L,15 mL/L and 20 g/L,respectively,based on orthogonal test resulm.The treating time,solution temperature and PH value are settled to be 5-30 min,50-70℃and 2.35-3.0.respectively.The corrosion resistance of barium conversion coating is better than that of manganese-based phosphate conversion coating by immersion test.The coating is composed of Ba,P, O,Mg,Zn,Mn and Al by EDX analysis.

  5. Correlation between the surface chemistry and the atmospheric corrosion of AZ31, AZ80 and AZ91D magnesium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Feliu Jr., S.; Pardo, Angel; Merino, M. C.; Coy, A. E.; Viejo, F.; Arrabal, R.

    2009-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used in order to investigate the correlation between the surface chemistry and the atmospheric corrosion of AZ31, AZ80 and AZ91D magnesium alloys exposed to 98% relative humidity at 50 °C. Commercially pure magnesium, used as the reference material, revealed MgO, Mg(OH)2 and tracers of magnesium carbonate in the air-formed film. For the AZ80 and AZ91D alloys, the amount of magnesium carbonate formed on the surface reached similar values to those of M...

  6. Effect of cerium on ignition point of AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Hongjin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The surface and interior temperature-time curves of blocky cerium modified AZ91D magnesium alloy were measured during a non-protective heating and melting process. Two inflection points with rapid increase in temperature were found on both curves, which corresponded to the formation of “auliflower”oxide on the surface and the occurrence of flame during melting. These two temperatures are therefore defined as oxidation point and ignition point, respectively. The interior temperature-time curve is similar to that measured on the surface except for a comparable time delay. The oxidation and ignition temperatures increase with Ce content, an average increase of 33=and 61= was found when Ce addition was about 1.0 wt %. However, the increasing rate of the oxidation and ignition temperature decreases with increasing Ce content. An addition of 0.6wt% Ce is recommended for ignition-resistant AZ91 magnesium alloy.

  7. Effect of cerium on ignition point of AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Hongjin; Zhang Yinghui; Kang Yonglin

    2008-01-01

    The surface and interior temperature-time curves of blocky cerium modified AZ91D magnesium alloy were measured during a non-protective heating and melting process. Two inflection points with rapid increase in temperature were found on both curves, which corresponded to the formation of "auliflower" oxide on the surface and the occurrence of flame during melting. These two temperatures are therefore defined as oxidation point and ignition point, respectively.The interior temperature-time curve is similar to that measured on the surface except for a comparable time delay. The oxidation and ignition temperatures increase with Ce content, an average increase of 33℃ and 61℃ was found when Ce addition was about 1.0 wt %. However, the increasing rate of the oxidation and ignition temperature decreases with increasing Ce content. An addition of 0.6wt% Ce is recommended for ignition-resistant AZ91 magnesium alloy.

  8. Direct electroless Ni-P plating on AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhong-hou; QU Yu-ping; ZHENG Feng; DAI A-gan

    2006-01-01

    An electroless Ni-P plating treatment was applied on AZ91D magnesium alloy to improve its corrosion resistance. Optimum pretreatment conditions and optimum bath of electroless nickel plating for magnesium alloy were found through many experiments. In order to avoid bother of pre-plating medium layer, a set of procedure of direct electroless Ni-P under the acid condition was investigated. The properties of the coating with 10% phosphorus were investigated. The results show that a coating with high hardness, low porosity and good adhesive strength is obtained. X-ray diffraction patterns show that the structure of the coating is an amorphous phase. After annealing at 400 ℃, the amorphous phase of Ni-P is transformed to crystalline phases,and some intermetallics as Ni3P and Ni5P2 are deposited from Ni -P solid solution along with an enhancing hardness from Hv 450 to Hv 910.

  9. Effects of Ce on damping capacity of AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄正华; 郭学锋; 张忠明

    2004-01-01

    The microstructures and damping capacity of AZ91D cast alloys containing various Ce contents were investigated. Damping capacity (Q-1) of the alloys was measured by cantilever beam technique, and the relationship between damping capacity and strain amplitude was investigated. The results show that Al4 Ce phase is formed in AZ91D alloy after adding a certain quantity of Ce contents, then as-cast microstructures of the alloys are refined.Meanwhile the damping capacity of the alloys is also improved. When the mass fraction of Ce is 0.7 %, the most obvious refinement effect and the maximum damping capacity can be obtained. When the damping capacity (Q-1) is 2. 728 × 10-3 , 61% increment can be obtained compared with unmodified AZ91D alloy. The damping capacity of the alloys is relative to strain amplitude, and the damping behavior can be explained by the theory of Granato and Lucke.

  10. Thixotropic behavior of semi-solid AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛卫民; 甄子胜; 闫时建; 钟雪友

    2004-01-01

    The thixotropic behavior of semi-solid AZ91D slurry was studied through a Couette type viscometer.The results show that the apparent viscosity of semi-solid AZ91D magnesium alloy slurry increases after being isothermally held, but the apparent viscosity quickly falls down to a steady state value after being stirred again and it takes on a sharp shear-thinning behavior. With the same shearing rate and the rest time increasing, the steady apparent viscosity increases because of the agglomeration of the solid particles, and the time required for the slurry to reach the steady state also becomes longer. If the solid fraction increases, it takes longer time for the slurry to reach the steady apparent viscosity with the same shearing rate and the same rest time. If the solid fraction and the rest time are the same, but the shearing rate rises, it takes shorter time for the slurry to reach the steady apparent viscosity and the final steady apparent viscosity also decreases.

  11. Improvement on the Corrosion Resistance of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy by Aluminum Diffusion Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongwei HUO; Ying LI; Fuhui WANG

    2007-01-01

    By combination of magnetron sputtering deposition and vacuum annealing, an aluminum diffusion coating was prepared on the substrate of AZ91D alloy to improve its corrosion resistance. The microstructure and composition of the diffusion coating was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The diffusion coating was mainly comprised of β phase-Al12Mg17. The continuous immersion test in 3.5 wt pct neutral NaCl solution indicated that the specimen with diffusion coating had better corrosion resistance compared with the bare AZ91D alloy specimen. The potentiodynamic polarization measurement indicated that the diffusion coating could function as an effectively protective layer to reduce the corrosion rate of AZ91D alloy when exposed to 3.5 wt pct NaCl solution.

  12. Reheating microstructure of refined AZ91D magnesium alloy in semi-solid state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜巨福; 罗守靖

    2004-01-01

    By means of equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) test, upsetting test and metalloscope, reheating microstructures of raw casting ingots, materials prepared by SIMA and materials extruded by ECAE in semi-solid state were investigated. The results show that compared with those of raw casting ingots and materials prepared by SIMA, reheating microstructure of materials extruded by ECAE is the best and the final grain size is the finest.With increasing holding time, a growing phenomenon occurs in reheating microstructure of materials extruded by ECAE, which can be described by Ostwald ripening law. The average grain size increases firstly, subsequently decreases and the shape factor of grains approaches to 1 as the reheating temperature increases. With increasing equivalent strain, the average grain size decreases. This demonstrates that reheating material extruded by ECAE technology is a good method to prepare AZ91D magnesium alloy semi-solid billets.

  13. Corrosion resistance of plasma-anodized AZ91D magnesium alloy by electrochemical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barchiche, C.-E. [Nancy Universite, Universite Henri Poincare, Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide Mineral, UMR CNRS 7555, BP 239, Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy 54506 (France); Rocca, E. [Nancy Universite, Universite Henri Poincare, Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide Mineral, UMR CNRS 7555, BP 239, Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy 54506 (France)], E-mail: emmanuel.rocca@lcsm.uhp-nancy.fr; Juers, C.; Hazan, J.; Steinmetz, J. [Nancy Universite, Universite Henri Poincare, Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide Mineral, UMR CNRS 7555, BP 239, Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy 54506 (France)

    2007-12-01

    Anodic coatings formed on magnesium alloys by plasma anodization process are mainly used as protective coatings against corrosion. The effects of KOH concentration, anodization time and current density on properties of anodic layers formed on AZ91D magnesium alloy were investigated to obtain coatings with improved corrosion behaviour. The coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The film is porous and cracked, mainly composed of magnesium oxide (MgO), but contains all the elements present in the electrolyte and alloy. The corrosion behaviour of anodized Mg alloy was examined by using stationary and dynamic electrochemical techniques in corrosive water. The best corrosion resistance measured by electrochemical methods is obtained in the more concentrated electrolyte 3 M KOH + 0.5 M KF + 0.25 M Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}.12 H{sub 2}O, with a long anodization time and a low current density. A double electrochemical effects of the anodized layer on the magnesium corrosion is observed: a large inhibition of the cathodic process and a stabilization of a large passivation plateau.

  14. Corrosion resistance of plasma-anodized AZ91D magnesium alloy by electrochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anodic coatings formed on magnesium alloys by plasma anodization process are mainly used as protective coatings against corrosion. The effects of KOH concentration, anodization time and current density on properties of anodic layers formed on AZ91D magnesium alloy were investigated to obtain coatings with improved corrosion behaviour. The coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The film is porous and cracked, mainly composed of magnesium oxide (MgO), but contains all the elements present in the electrolyte and alloy. The corrosion behaviour of anodized Mg alloy was examined by using stationary and dynamic electrochemical techniques in corrosive water. The best corrosion resistance measured by electrochemical methods is obtained in the more concentrated electrolyte 3 M KOH + 0.5 M KF + 0.25 M Na3PO4.12 H2O, with a long anodization time and a low current density. A double electrochemical effects of the anodized layer on the magnesium corrosion is observed: a large inhibition of the cathodic process and a stabilization of a large passivation plateau

  15. EFFECTS OF Ce ON CORROSION RESISTANCE OF AZ91D MAGNESIUM ALLOY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.H. Huang; X.F. Guo; Z.M. Zhang; C.J. Xu

    2005-01-01

    As-cast and corrosive microstructures of AZ91D alloy containing various Ce contents were observed by optical microscope (OM). The phase compositions of the alloys before and after the corrosion were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Meanwhile, the corrosion resistance of the alloys was tested by weight loss and potentiodynamic polarization curve methods respectively.The results show that rod-like Al4Ce phase is formed in AZ91D alloy containing certain Ce content and as-cast microstructures are refined. AZ91D-0. 7%Ce alloy has good grain refinementeffect. The addition of Ce can reduce the corrosion rate and corrosion current density of AZ91Dalloy and those of AZ91D-0. 1%Ce alloy reach the minimum, which are 0.35mg/(cm2·d) and2.761μA/cm2 with 75% and 86% reduction, respectively. The increasing volume fraction and reticular degree of β phase can improve the corrosion resistance of the alloys.

  16. Influence of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria on the Corrosion Residual Strength of an AZ91D Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianyong Zhu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the corrosion residual strength of the AZ91D magnesium alloy in the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria is studied. In the experiments, the chemical composition of corrosion film was analyzed by a scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. In addition, a series of instruments, such as scanning electronic microscope, pH-meter and an AG-10TA materials test machine, were applied to test and record the morphology of the corrosion product, fracture texture and mechanical properties of the AZ91D magnesium alloy. The experiments show that the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB play an important role in the corrosion process of the AZ91D magnesium alloy. Pitting corrosion was enhanced by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Corrosion pits are important defects that could lead to a significant stress concentration in the tensile process. As a result, sulfate-reducing bacteria influence the corrosion residual strength of the AZ91D magnesium alloy by accelerating pitting corrosion.

  17. Effect of isothermal heat treatment on semi-solid microstructure of AZ91D magnesium alloy containing rare earth Gd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The AZ91D magnesium alloy containing rare earth Gd was prepared in this study, and the effect of semi-solid isothermal heat treatment on the microstructure of the alloy was investigated to obtain an optimum semi-solid structure. Results show that Gd can refine the microstructure of AZ91D magnesium alloy, and the optimum semi-solid AZ91D microstructure can be achieved by adding 1.5wt.% Gd. After treated at 585 °C for 30 min, the well distributed rose-shaped and near-spherical semi-solid microstructures of AZ91D+1.5wt.%Gd alloy can be obtained. The liquid phase of the semi-solid alloy consists of three components, namely, the molten pool, the “entrapped liquid” pool and the liner liquid film which separates two neighbor particles. The solid phase is composed of two phases, the primary α-Mg particles and the α-Mg phase formed in the second stage of solidification. With the increase of holding time, melting which causes the decrease of the primary α-Mg particle size is the dominant mechanism in the initial stage while coalescence and Ostwald ripening tend to be the principles later.

  18. Effect of combinative addition of strontium and rare earth elements on corrosion resistance of AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Jie-xin; CHEN Qiu-rong; XU Nai-xin; WEI Zhong-ling

    2008-01-01

    The influence of strontium(Sr) and rare earth(RE) elements on the corrosion behavior of AZ91D magnesium alloy was investigated by conventional corrosion testing and electrochemical measurements in 3.5% NaCI solution. After comparing the mass loss and hydrogen evolution of the samples, the microstruetures of the alloys and the morphologies of their corrosion product films were characterized by electron probe microanalysis-energy dispersive spectrometry(EPMA-EDS) and Auger electron spectroscopy(AES). Compared with individual addition of Sr or RE to AZ91D, the combinative addition of 0.5% Sr and 1% RE to AZ91D successfully decreases the corrosion rate further, which can be attributed to the depression of micro-galvanic couples, as well as the formation of more protective film due to aluminum enrichment. The combinative addition of strontium and rare earth elements to AZ91D magnesium alloy appears to he a promising approach to increase its corrosion resistance.

  19. Correlation between the surface chemistry and the atmospheric corrosion of AZ31, AZ80 and AZ91D magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used in order to investigate the correlation between the surface chemistry and the atmospheric corrosion of AZ31, AZ80 and AZ91D magnesium alloys exposed to 98% relative humidity at 50 deg. C. Commercially pure magnesium, used as the reference material, revealed MgO, Mg(OH)2 and tracers of magnesium carbonate in the air-formed film. For the AZ80 and AZ91D alloys, the amount of magnesium carbonate formed on the surface reached similar values to those of MgO and Mg(OH)2. A linear relation between the amount of magnesium carbonate formed on the surface and the subsequent corrosion behaviour in the humid environment was found. The AZ80 alloy revealed the highest amount of magnesium carbonate in the air-formed film and the highest atmospheric corrosion resistance, even higher than the AZ91D alloy, indicating that aluminium distribution in the alloy microstructure influenced the amount of magnesium carbonate formed.

  20. Correlation between the surface chemistry and the atmospheric corrosion of AZ31, AZ80 and AZ91D magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feliu, S. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pardo, A. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: anpardo@quim.ucm.es; Merino, M.C. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Coy, A.E.; Viejo, F.; Arrabal, R. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Sackville Street, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used in order to investigate the correlation between the surface chemistry and the atmospheric corrosion of AZ31, AZ80 and AZ91D magnesium alloys exposed to 98% relative humidity at 50 deg. C. Commercially pure magnesium, used as the reference material, revealed MgO, Mg(OH){sub 2} and tracers of magnesium carbonate in the air-formed film. For the AZ80 and AZ91D alloys, the amount of magnesium carbonate formed on the surface reached similar values to those of MgO and Mg(OH){sub 2}. A linear relation between the amount of magnesium carbonate formed on the surface and the subsequent corrosion behaviour in the humid environment was found. The AZ80 alloy revealed the highest amount of magnesium carbonate in the air-formed film and the highest atmospheric corrosion resistance, even higher than the AZ91D alloy, indicating that aluminium distribution in the alloy microstructure influenced the amount of magnesium carbonate formed.

  1. Correlation between the surface chemistry and the atmospheric corrosion of AZ31, AZ80 and AZ91D magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliu, S., Jr.; Pardo, A.; Merino, M. C.; Coy, A. E.; Viejo, F.; Arrabal, R.

    2009-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used in order to investigate the correlation between the surface chemistry and the atmospheric corrosion of AZ31, AZ80 and AZ91D magnesium alloys exposed to 98% relative humidity at 50 °C. Commercially pure magnesium, used as the reference material, revealed MgO, Mg(OH) 2 and tracers of magnesium carbonate in the air-formed film. For the AZ80 and AZ91D alloys, the amount of magnesium carbonate formed on the surface reached similar values to those of MgO and Mg(OH) 2. A linear relation between the amount of magnesium carbonate formed on the surface and the subsequent corrosion behaviour in the humid environment was found. The AZ80 alloy revealed the highest amount of magnesium carbonate in the air-formed film and the highest atmospheric corrosion resistance, even higher than the AZ91D alloy, indicating that aluminium distribution in the alloy microstructure influenced the amount of magnesium carbonate formed.

  2. High Cycle Fatigue Properties of Die-Cast Magnesium Alloy AZ91D with Addition of Different Concentrations of Cerium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The effect of addition of different concentrations of Ce on high-cycle fatigue behavior of die-cast magnesium al-loy AZ91D was investigated. Mechanical fatigue tests were conducted at the stress ratio of R = 0.1, and fatigue strength was evaluated using up-and-down loading method. The results show that the grain size of AZ91D alloy is remarkably refined, and the amount of porosity decreases and evenly distributes with the addition of Ce. The fatigue strength of AZ91D alloy at room temperature increases from 96.7 up to 116.3 MPa (1% Ce) and 105.5 MPa (2% Ce), respectively, at the number of cycles to failure, Nf = 1 × 107. The fatigue crack of AZ91D alloy initiates at porosities and inclusions, and propagates along grain boundaries. The fatigue striations on fractured surface appear with Ce addition. The fatigue fracture surface of test specimens shows mixed-fracture characteristics of quasi-cleavage and dimple.

  3. Electrochemical noise characteristics in corrosion process of AZ91D magnesium alloy in neutral chloride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-jun; ZHU Xu-bei; ZHANG Zhao; ZHANG Jian-qing

    2009-01-01

    The corrosion process of AZ91D magnesium alloy in neutral 1% (mass fraction) sodium chloride aqueous solution was investigated by electrochemical noise(EN), SEM and EDX. Fractal theory was primarily used to depict the corrosion process of the alloy. The fast wavelet transform(FWT), as well as the fast Fourier transform(FFT), was employed to analyze the EN data. The results show that the overall corrosion process can be described by three stages. The first stage corresponds to the pit nucleation and growth; the second stage involves the growth of a passive oxide layer; and the third stage involves reactivation. With increasing immersion time, fractal dimension increases fast initially, fluctuates in the medium and increases again at last. Pitting corrosion and fractal dimension increase due to the initiation and formation of pits in the initial and the end of immersion, while depresses due to the passivation in the medium period. The results of SEM and EDX support the above conclusions.

  4. Compressive Deformation of Semi-Solid AZ91D Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weimin MAO; Aimei YIN; Xueyou ZHONG

    2005-01-01

    The compression tests of semi-solid AZ91D Mg alloy have been conducted ona parallel-plate viscometer. The results are as follows. With increasing the compression temperature, the deformation rate or the strain rate of the specimens rises, but the compressive stress continuously decreases; the deformation strain is obviously linear with the compressive stress and independent on compression temperature under a given compression load. In the wake of the compression load being added, the compressive strain increases but the compressive stress decreases clearly; the deformation strain is obviously linear with the compressive stress under different compression load. The mathematical apparent viscosity model about the semi-solid compressed AZ91D Mg alloy has been established, i.e.ηapp =2004.2exp(15.61 fs)γ1.317fs-1.3511.

  5. Corrosion and self-healing behaviour of AZ91D magnesium alloy in ethylene glycol/water solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L.; Zhou, T.; Liang, J. [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China)

    2012-08-15

    Corrosion behaviour of magnesium alloy-based engine parts in cooling system is an urgent fundamental issue in automotive field where magnesium alloys are increasingly used. In the present work, the corrosion behaviour of AZ91D magnesium alloys in various ethylene glycol/water solutions was studied by electrochemical measurements and immersion tests at room temperature. The surfaces of the samples after immersion tests were examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the corrosion rates of AZ91D magnesium alloys decreased with the increase of ethylene glycol concentration in ethylene glycol/water solutions and the corrosion process was dominated by pitting corrosion. A continuous protective film transferred from corrosion products was formed on the corroded surface after sufficient immersion duration in ethylene glycol/water solutions, which is able to heal the corrosion pits. The self-healing behaviour inhibited the further corrosion of AZ91D magnesium alloy. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Microstructures and mechanical properties of AZ91D magnesium alloy processed by low pressure die casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hai-yan; FU Peng-huai; YU Yan-dong; ZHAI Chun-quan

    2006-01-01

    AZ91D alloy components were cast by low pressure die casting (LPDC) process. The mechanical properties of cast components with different microstructural features (shrinkage and distribution of Mg17Al12 second phase) were investigated under as-cast states. Compared with gravity casting, AZ91D with LPDC has much coarser grain size and second phases(Mg17Al12 and Al8Mn5). The different size and distribution of Mg17Al12 phase and shrinkage correspond to different mechanical properties. The ultimate tensile strengths and elongations are mainly decided by the content and distribution of shrinkage porosity, while the yield strengths are determined by the percentage and distribution of Mg17Al12 phase. The more and finer Mg17Al12 phase in the alloy, the relatively higher the yield strengths are. In the alloy without shrinkage, the mechanical properties are mainly determined by the size and distribution of Mg17Al12 phase. The finer Mg17Al12 phase, the better the mechanical properties are. Under optimal process, the density and mechanical properties of LPDC AZ91D are improved with fine microstructures.

  7. Effect of Holding Time on Thixotropic Fluidity of Semi-solid AZ91D Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zesheng JI; Maoliang HU; Xiaoping ZHENG

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the thixotropic fluidities, microstructures and mechanical properties of semi-solid AZ91D magnesium alloy during reheating, a self-made die set with channels of different sizes were used. The results show that critical forming forces and maximal forming forces could be obtained and related to the holding times in the semi-solid forming process. In the holding time of 0-2700 s, with increasing the holding time, maximal forming force decreased sharply and critical forming force decreased slowly. In the whole thixotropic flowing process, the filling-in was steady and the surface fineness was good. The forming force increased when the slurry changed the flowing direction or flowed from the big-diameter chamber to the small-diameter one. The tensile strength and elongation to failure of the sample after holding time for 2700 s, compared to as-cast sample, are increased by approximately 42.7% and 180%, respectively, and the fractured surfaces presented dimple-like pattern.

  8. Microstructural evolution of equal channel angular pressed AZ91D magnesium alloy during semi-solid isothermal heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Guoxiang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The microstructural evolution of AZ91D magnesium alloy processed by equal channel angular pressing during isothermal heat treatment at 570℃ was investigated. The results indicated that the equal channel angular pressing followed by semi-solid isothermal heat treatment was an effective method to prepare semisolid nondendritic slurry of AZ91D magnesium alloy. During this process, its microstructure change underwent four stages, the initial coarsening stage, the structure separation stage, the spheroidization stage and the final coarsening stage. The microstructural spheroidization effect was the best after being heated for 15 min for the alloy pressed for four passes, and the grain size was the smallest. With the further increase of heating time, the grain size and shape factor increased. When the heating time was kept constant, the grain size and shape factor decreased with the increase of pressing passes.

  9. Deposition of electroless Ni-P/Ni-W-P duplex coatings on AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The electroless Ni-P/Ni-W-P duplex coatings were deposited directly on AZ91D magnesium alloy by all acid-sulfate nickel bath.Nickel suitIhate and sodium tungstate were used as metal ion sources and sodium hypophosphite was used as reducing agent.The coating was characterized for its structure,morphologies,microhardness and corrosion properties.The presence of dense and coarse nodules in the duplex coatings Was observed by SEM and EDS.Tungsten content in Ni-P/Ni-W-P alloy is about 0.65%(mass fraction)and the phosphorus content is 8.1 8%(mass fraction).The microhardness of the coatings is 622 VHN.The coating shows good adhesion to the substrate.The results of electrochemical analysis,the porosity and the immersion test show that Ni-P/Ni-W-P duplex coatings possess noble anticorrosion properties to protect the AZ91D magnesium alloy.

  10. Microstructural evolution of equal channel angular pressed AZ91D magnesium alloy during semi-solid isothermal heat treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Tijun; Lu Guoxiang; Hao Yuan

    2008-01-01

    The microstructural evolution of AZ91D magnesium alloy processed by equal channel angular pressing during isothermal heat treatment at 570℃ was investigated. The results indicated that the equal channel angular pressing followed by semi-solid isothermal heat treatment was an effective method to prepare semi-solid nondendritic slurry of AZ91D magnesium alloy. During this process, its microstructure change underwent four stages, the initial coarsening stage, the structure separation stage, the spheroidization stage and the final coarsening stage. The microstructural spheroidization effect was the best after being heated for 15 min for the alloy pressed for four passes, and the grain size was the smallest. With the further increase of heating time, the grain size and shape factor increased. When the heating time was kept constant, the grain size and shape factor decreased with the increase of pressing passes.

  11. Preparation of AZ91D magnesium alloy semi-solid billet by new strain induced melt activated method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ju-fu; LUO Shou-jing; ZOU Jing-xiang

    2006-01-01

    New strain induced melt activated (new SIMA) method for preparing AZ91D magnesium alloy semi-solid billet is introduced by applying equal channel angular extrusion into strain induced step in SIMA method, by which semi-solid billet with fine spheroidal grains and average grain size of 18 μm can be prepared. Furthermore, average grain size of semi-solid billet is reduced with increasing extrusion pass of AZ91D magnesium alloy obtained in ECAE process. By using semi-solid billet prepared by new SIMA, thixoforged magazine plates component with high mechanical properties such as yield strength of 201.4 MPa, ultimate tensile strength of 321.8 MPa and elongation of 15.3%, can be obtained.

  12. Study of Flow-Assisted Corrosion of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy in Loop System Based on Array Electrode Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualiang Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A loop system was used to investigate flow-assisted corrosion (FAC of AZ91D magnesium alloy at an elbow based on array electrode technology by potentiodynamic polarization, computational fluid dynamics, simulation and surface analysis. The experimental results demonstrate the fluid hydrodynamics plays a significant role in the FAC of AZ91D magnesium alloy. The corrosion rate increases from the outer wall to the inner wall of the elbow, with the higher corrosion rate corresponding to the higher flow velocity and larger shear stress at the elbow. The maximum corrosion rate appears at the innermost wall of the elbow, the location with the maximum flow velocity and shear stress.

  13. Microstructure and mechanical properties of the pressure die cast magnesium alloy AZ91D after long-term thermal exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The thermal resistance of the pressure die cast magnesium alloy AZ91D is yet not investigated sufficiently. In order to assess the effect of a thermal exposure on the microstructural stability and the mechanical properties, the alloy AZ91D is subjected to a long-term annealing for 1 000 h at 80 ℃, 100 ℃, 120 ℃, 150 ℃, 180 ℃ and 200 ℃. After the annealing, the microstructural appearance of the material is investigated by light and scanning electron microscopy and compared with the as-cast condition. Furthermore, tensile tests, hardness measurements and fracture toughness tests are carried out and the measured values are discussed on the basis of the microstructural changes. The results reveal the distinct correlation between the microstructural changes, especially the precipitation of discontinuous and continuous β-particles (Mg17Al12), and the mechanical properties.

  14. Studies on influence of zinc immersion and fluoride on nickel electroplating on magnesium alloy AZ91D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of zinc immersion and the role of fluoride in nickel plating bath were mainly investigated in nickel electroplating on magnesium alloy AZ91D. The state of zinc immersion, the composition of zinc film and the role of fluoride in nickel plating bath were explored from the curves of open circuit potential (OCP) and potentiodynamic polarization, the images of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the patterns of energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). Results show that the optimum zinc film mixing small amount of Mg(OH)2 and MgF2 is obtained by zinc immersion for 30-90 s. The corrosion potential of magnesium alloy substrate attached zinc film will be increased in nickel plating bath and the quantity of MgF2 sandwiched between magnesium alloy substrate and nickel coating will be reduced, which contributed to produce nickel coating with good performance. Fluoride in nickel plating bath serves as an activator of nickel anodic dissolution and corrosion inhibitor of magnesium alloy substrate. 1.0-1.5 mol dm-3 of F- is the optimum concentration range for dissolving nickel anode and protecting magnesium alloy substrate from over-corrosion in nickel plating bath. The nickel coating with good adhesion and high corrosion resistance on magnesium alloy AZ91D is obtained by the developed process of nickel electroplating. This nickel layer can be used as the rendering coating for further plating on magnesium alloys.

  15. Laser Cladding of Magnesium Alloy AZ91D with Silicon Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, L. F.; Mark, C. K.; Zhou, Wei

    Mg alloys are ultralight but their structural applications are often limited by their poor wear and corrosion resistance. The research aimed to address the problem by laser-cladding. Cladding with SiC powder onto surface of AZ91D was carried out using Nd:YAG laser. The laser-clad surface was analyzed using the optical microscope, SEM equipped with EDS, and XRD and found to contain SiC and other Si compounds such as Mg2Si and Al3.21Si0.47 as well as much refined α-Mg grains and β-Mg17Al12 intermetallics. The laser-clad surface possesses considerably higher hardness but its corrosion resistance is not improved, indicating that the laser-cladding technique can only be adopted for applications in noncorrosive environments where wear is the predominant problem.

  16. Evaluation of microstructural effects on the corrosion behaviour of AZ91D magnesium alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan; Aung, Naing Naing; Zhou, W.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of microconstituents on the corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of AZ91D alloy prepared by die-casting and ingot casting route has been investigated in 3.5% NaCl solution at pH 7.25. The experimental techniques used include constant immersion technique, in-situ corrosion monitoring......, and potentiodynamic polarisation experiments. Surface examination and analytical studies were carried out using optical and scanning electron microscopy, EDX and XRD. The corrosion behaviour of microconstituents namely primary alpha, eutectic alpha and beta phases was significantly different. Goring...... of aluminum showed influence on corrosion behaviour more significantly in ingot material. Areas with aluminium concentration less than about 8% were found to be prone to corrosion attack compared with either those with higher amount of aluminium or beta phase. Die-cast material with smaller grain...

  17. Optimization of processing parameters for rheo-casting AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A design of experiment technique was used to optimize the microstructure of the AZ91D alloy produced by rheo-castingThe experimental design consists of four parameters (pouting temperature, shearing temperature, shearing time and shearing rate)with three levels. The grain size and shape factor measurements of primary α-Mg particles were conducted to determine the mierostrueture. The contribution of each parameter shows that pouring temperature is the most significant parameter affecting the grain size, and the shape factor highly depends on the shearing temperature. The optimized rheo-casting processing parameters are 650 ℃ for pouring temperature, 585 ℃ for shearing temperature, 40 s for shearing time, and 600 r/min for shearing rate. Under the optimized processing parameters, the average grain size is 28.53 μn, and the shape factor is 0.591.

  18. Effect of heat diffusion on properties of zinc-aluminum coating on AZ91D magnesium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhao-feng; HUANG Wei-jiu; LIU Ming

    2006-01-01

    A protecting zinc and aluminum coating on the surface of AZ91D magnesium alloys was obtained by thermal spraying to improve the corrosion and wear resistance performances. In order to enhance the combination between magnesium alloy matrix and zinc and aluminum coating, the sample was heat-treated at 300 ℃ for 2 h, then, the cross-section patterns, XRD pattern, micro-hardness, wear and corrosion resistance abilities were researched. The results indicate that the interface between the coating and substrate is metallurgical bond, and a transitional fusion layer is formed by diffusion. The micro-scale abrasion test and polarization test in 3% NaCl solution show that the diffusion-treated specimen has better wear and corrosion resistance performances in comparison with the undiffusion-treated and substrate magnesium alloys; in addition, it has relatively higher micro-hardness than the undiffusion-treated magnesium alloys.

  19. Corrosion and wear properties of electroless Ni-P plating layer on AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhong-hou; CHEN Zhi-yong; LIU Sha-sha; ZHENG Feng; DAI A-gan

    2008-01-01

    A direct electroless Ni-P plating treatment was applied to AZ91D magnesium alloy for improving its corrosion resistance and wear resistance. Corrosion resistance of the Ni-P coatings was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization and immersing experiments in 3.5% NaCl solution. The wear resistance of the coatings was investigated by the wear track and the mass change after ball-on-disk experiment. The results show that corrosion resistance and wear resistance of the AZ91D alloy are greatly improved after direct electroless Ni-P plating. No discoloration is noticed until 4 d of immersion in 3.5% NaCl solution. Potentiodynamic polarization experiments show that the free corrosion potential of magnesium alloy is shifted from -1 500 mV to -250 mV and passivation occurs at 1 350 mV after direct electroless plating. The friction coefficients and wear rates of Ni-P coating and Ni-P coating after tempering are 0.10-0.351, 9.038×10-3 mm3/m and 0.13-0.177, 3.056×10-4 mm3/m, respectively, at a load of 1.5 N with dry sliding. Although minor hurt on corrosion resistance was caused, significant improvement of wear resistance was obtained after tempering treatment of the coating.

  20. High performance corrosion and wear resistant composite titanium nitride layers produced on the AZ91D magnesium alloy by a hybrid method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Tacikowski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Composite, diffusive titanium nitride layers formed on a titanium and aluminum sub-layer were produced on the AZ91D magnesium alloy. The layers were obtained using a hybrid method which combined the PVD processes with the final sealing by a hydrothermal treatment. The microstructure, resistance to corrosion, mechanical damage, and frictional wear of the layers were examined. The properties of the AZ91D alloy covered with these layers were compared with those of the untreated alloy and of some engineering materials such as 316L stainless steel, 100Cr6 bearing steel, and the AZ91D alloy subjected to commercial anodizing. It has been found that the composite diffusive nitride layer produced on the AZ91D alloy and then sealed by the hydrothermal treatment ensures the corrosion resistance comparable with that of 316L stainless steel. The layers are characterized by higher electrochemical durability which is due to the surface being overbuilt with the titanium oxides formed, as shown by the XPS examinations, from titanium nitride during the hydrothermal treatment. The composite titanium nitride layers exhibit high resistance to mechanical damage and wear, including frictional wear which is comparable with that of 100Cr6 bearing steel. The performance properties of the AZ91D magnesium alloy covered with the composite titanium nitride coating are substantially superior to those of the alloy subjected to commercial anodizing which is the dominant technique employed in industrial practice.

  1. Improving wear resistance of magnesium alloy AZ91D by TiN-CrN multilayer coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO Qiang; CUI Cai-e; PAN Jun-de; ZHANG Ping-ze

    2006-01-01

    Applying a novel method of arc-glow plasma depositing, a 2 μm-thick coating with 12 sub-layers of TiN and CrN was deposited alternately on the surface of magnesium alloy AZ91D to improve its wear resistance. The wear behavior was investigated by test of ball on disc sliding. The composition and microstructure of the coating were also analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and glow discharge spectrum (GDS), and the morphology of TiN-CrN film was surveyed through scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and atom force microscopy (AFM).The adhesion strength between film and matrix was evaluated by ways of stick-peeling test. The surface micro-hardness of the coating is above HK0.011 433, and the specific wear ratio of specimens coated with TiN-CrN films tested decreases greatly compared to that of the bare metal.

  2. Influence of phytic acid concentration on performance of phytic acid conversion coatings on the AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui Xiufang [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, 145 Nantong Street, Harbin 150001 (China); State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 62 Wencui Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)], E-mail: cuixf97721@yahoo.com.cn; Li Ying [State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 62 Wencui Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li Qingfen; Jin Guo; Ding Minghui [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, 145 Nantong Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang Fuhui [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, 145 Nantong Street, Harbin 150001 (China); State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 62 Wencui Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2008-10-15

    In this study, the phytic acid conversion coating, a new environmentally friendly chemical protective coating for magnesium alloys, was prepared. The influences of phytic acid concentration on the formation process, microstructure, chemical state and corrosion resistance of the conversion coatings on AZ91D magnesium alloy were investigated by means of weight gain measurement, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization method and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. And the depth profile of all elements in the optimal conversion coatings was analyzed by auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The results show that the growth, microstructure, chemical state and corrosion resistance of the conversion coatings are all obviously affected by the phytic acid concentration. The concentration of 5 g l{sup -1} corresponds to the maximum weight gain. The main elements of the coating are Mg, Al, O, P, and C, which are distributed gradually in depth. The functional groups of conversion coatings formed in higher concentration phytic acid solution are closer to the constituent of phytic acid than those formed in lower concentration phytic acid solution. The coatings formed in 1-5 g l{sup -1} are integrated and uniform. However, those formed in 20-50 g l{sup -1} have some micro-cracks on the {alpha} phase. The coating formed in 5 g l{sup -1} has the best corrosion resistance, whose open circuit current density decreases about six orders than that of the untreated sample, although the coatings deposited in 1-20 g l{sup -1} can all improve the corrosion resistance of AZ91D.

  3. Influence of phytic acid concentration on performance of phytic acid conversion coatings on the AZ91D magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the phytic acid conversion coating, a new environmentally friendly chemical protective coating for magnesium alloys, was prepared. The influences of phytic acid concentration on the formation process, microstructure, chemical state and corrosion resistance of the conversion coatings on AZ91D magnesium alloy were investigated by means of weight gain measurement, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization method and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. And the depth profile of all elements in the optimal conversion coatings was analyzed by auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The results show that the growth, microstructure, chemical state and corrosion resistance of the conversion coatings are all obviously affected by the phytic acid concentration. The concentration of 5 g l-1 corresponds to the maximum weight gain. The main elements of the coating are Mg, Al, O, P, and C, which are distributed gradually in depth. The functional groups of conversion coatings formed in higher concentration phytic acid solution are closer to the constituent of phytic acid than those formed in lower concentration phytic acid solution. The coatings formed in 1-5 g l-1 are integrated and uniform. However, those formed in 20-50 g l-1 have some micro-cracks on the α phase. The coating formed in 5 g l-1 has the best corrosion resistance, whose open circuit current density decreases about six orders than that of the untreated sample, although the coatings deposited in 1-20 g l-1 can all improve the corrosion resistance of AZ91D

  4. Evaluating the improvement of corrosion residual strength by adding 1.0 wt.% yttrium into an AZ91D magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of yttrium on the corrosion residual strength of an AZ91D magnesium alloy was investigated detailedly. Scanning electron microscope was employed to analyze the microstructure and the fractography of the studied alloys. The microstructure of AZ91D magnesium alloy is remarkably refined due to the addition of yttrium. The electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization curve of the studied alloy was performed with a CHI 660b electrochemical station in the three-electrode system. The result reveals that yttrium significantly promotes the overall corrosion resistance of AZ91D magnesium alloy by suppressing the cathodic reaction in corrosion process. However, the nucleation and propagation of corrosion pits on the surface of the 1.0 wt.% Y modified AZ91D magnesium alloy indicate that pitting corrosion still emerges after the addition of yttrium. Furthermore, stress concentration caused by corrosion pits should be responsible for the drop of corrosion residual strength although the addition of yttrium remarkably weakens the effect of stress concentration at the tip of corrosion pits in loading process.

  5. Investigation of rare earth sealing of porous micro-arc oxidation coating formed on AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Laleh; Farzad Kargar; A.Sabour Rouhaghdam

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys have been used in many industries,but they are reactive and require protection against aggressive environments.In this study,oxide coatings were applied on AZ91D magnesium alloy using micro-arc oxidation (MAO) process.Then,in order to seal the pores of the MAO coatings,the samples were immersed in cerium bath for different times.The surface morphologies and compositions of the coatings were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS),respectively.The corrosion behavior of the coatings was investigated with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization tests in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution.The amount of the porosity of the coating was measured by electrochemical method.It was found that the sealing treatments by immersion in cerium bath successfully sealed the pores of the MAO coatings.The results of the corrosion tests showed that the MAO coating which was sealed in Ce bath for 10 min enhanced the corrosion resistance of the substrate significantly.Furthermore,this coating had the lowest amount of the porosity among the coatings.

  6. Improvement of corrosion resistance of AZ91D magnesium alloy by gadolinium addition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xue-hua; WEI Zhong-ling; CHEN Qiu-rong; GAN Fu-xing

    2006-01-01

    Based on the previous investigation on beneficial introduction of holmium into magnesium alloy, the effect of gadolinium, an adjacent rare earth element, on corrosion resistance was examined. The corrosion behavior of two Mg-9Al-Gd alloys (Mg-9Al-0.45Gd and Mg-9Al-1.43Gd) was evaluated and compared with that of Mg-9Al alloy without Gd by means of specimen mass loss and hydrogen evolution in 3.5% NaCl solution saturated with Mg(OH)2. The Gd-containing alloys exhibit enhanced corrosion resistance with respect to the plain Mg-9Al alloy. The microstructures of Mg-9Al alloy and Mg-9Al-0.45 Gd alloy were observed by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS). The alloys with Gd addition show a microstructure characterized by α phase solid solution, surrounded by minor amount of β phase and more grain-like Gd-containing phase. To illustrate the involved mechanism their polarization curves were recorded. The electrochemical investigations reveal that Gd addition shifts the corrosion potential of the alloy towards active, as Gd containing phase is more active and hence less cathodic. As a result, the micro-galvanic corrosion is suppressed. Moreover corrosion product films formed on the Gd containing alloys are more compact and provide a better protective effectiveness than that on the alloy without Gd against corrosion. Repassivation measurements in mixture solution of 0.21 mol/L K2CrO4+0.6 mol/L NaCl also verify the beneficial role of Gd addition. Based on the present preliminary analysis, both the deposited Gd-containing phases and corrosion product films are believed to be responsible for the improved corrosion behaviour due to Gd addition.

  7. Corrosion behaviour of AZ91D and AM50 magnesium alloys with Nd and Gd additions in humid environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrabal, R., E-mail: raularrabal@quim.ucm.es [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Matykina, E.; Pardo, A.; Merino, M.C. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Paucar, K. [Gabinete de Corrosion, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica y Textil, Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, Cod. Postal 25, Lima (Peru); Mohedano, M.; Casajus, P. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mg alloys with additions of Nd and Gd were exposed to high humidity atmosphere. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The increase of Nd or Gd diminished the effect of micro-galvanic couples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Corrosion resistance of the AM50 alloy improved with the addition of Nd or Gd by 43%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nd and Gd had no significant effect on the corrosion resistance of the AZ91D alloy. - Abstract: AM50 and AZ91D alloys modified with rare earths (RE) were evaluated under atmospheric conditions. Nd and Gd additions resulted in formation of Al{sub 2}RE and Al-Mn-RE compounds and reduction of the fraction of {beta}-phase. According to surface potential maps, RE-containing intermetallics were more noble than the {beta}-phase, but less than Al-Mn inclusions. As a result, the action of micro-galvanic couples depended on the added amount of RE and the initial alloy microstructure. Nd or Gd additions improved the corrosion resistance of the AM50 alloy by up to 43%, but had no significant effect on the corrosion resistance of the AZ91D alloy.

  8. Investigation on a Non-cyanide Plating Process of Ni-P Coating on Magnesium Alloy AZ91D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bonian HU; Gang YU; Jueling CHEN; Ying LI; Liyuan YE

    2005-01-01

    In this research we presented a non-cyanide plating process of Ni-P alloy coating on Mg alloy AZ91D. By applying a new process flow of electroless nickel plating in which zinc coating is used as transition of Ni-P coating on Mg alloy AZ91D, the process of copper transition coating plated in the cyanides bath can be replaced. A new bath composed of NiSO4 was established by orthogonal test. The results show that zinc transition coating can increase the adhesion and pH 4.0 and 95℃, respectively. The present process flow is composed of ultrasonic cleaning→alkaline cleaning→acid pickling→activation→double immersing zinc→electroplating zinc→electroless nickel plating→passivation treatment.The present non-cyanide process of electroless nickel plating is harmless to our surroundings and Ni-P coating on Mg alloy AZ91D produced by present process possesses good adhesion and corrosion resistance.

  9. Effect of Nd on the corrosion behaviour of AM50 and AZ91D magnesium alloys in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrabal, R., E-mail: raularrabal@quim.ucm.es [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pardo, A.; Merino, M.C.; Mohedano, M.; Casajus, P. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Paucar, K. [Gabinete de Corrosion, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica y Textil, Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, Cod. Postal 25, Lima (Peru); Garces, G. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nd addition modified the microstructure of AM50 and AZ91D magnesium alloys. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Volume of {beta}-Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} phase was reduced and Al{sub 2}Nd/Al-Mn-Nd particles were formed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nd-containing intermetallics revealed lower potential than Al-Mn inclusions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 0.7-0.8 wt.% Nd reduced the corrosion rate of AM50 and AZ91D alloys by 90%. - Abstract: The corrosion performance of AM50 and AZ91D alloys containing up to 1.5 wt.% Nd was investigated by electrochemical and gravimetric measurements in 3.5 wt.% NaCl at 22 Degree-Sign C. The alloys were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and surface potential maps. In Nd-containing alloys, formation of Al{sub 2}Nd and Al-Mn-Nd intermetallic compounds reduced the volume fraction and modified the morphology of the {beta}-Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} phase. The addition of Nd improved the corrosion resistance of the alloys due to increased passivity of the surface film and suppression of micro-galvanic couples.

  10. Microstructures of AZ91D alloy solidified during electromagnetic stirring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Wei-min; ZHEN Zi-sheng; CHEN Hong-tao

    2005-01-01

    With the help of an electromagnetic stirring device self-made and alloy melt quenching technology,the effect of electromagnetic stirring parameters on the microstructures of semi-solid AZ91D alloy was mainly studied at the stirring frequency of 200 Hz.The experimental results show that when the stirring power rises,the primary α-Mg rosettes in the semi-solid melt will bear stronger man-made temperature fluctuation and the root remelting effect of the dendritic arms is promoted so that the spherical primary α-Mg grains become much more and rounder.If the stirring frequency is 200 Hz,the ideal semi-solid microstructure of AZ91D magnesium alloy can be obtained when the stirring power is increased to 6.0 kW.If the stirring frequency is 200 Hz and the stirring power is 6.0 kW,it is found that the lower cooling rate is favorable for the spherical primary α-Mg grains to be developed during the electromagnetic stirring stage.If the AZ91D magnesium alloy billet prepared during electromagnetic stirring at the stirring frequency of 200 Hz and the stirring power of 6.0 kW is reheated to the solidus and liquidus temperature region,the primary α-Mg grain's shape will get more spherical,so it is very advantageous to the semi-solid thixoforming process.

  11. Effect of T4 and T6 treatment on corrosion of die cast AZ91D magnesium alloys in 3.5% NaCl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Wan-qiu; SHAN Da-yong; HAN En-hou; KE Wei

    2006-01-01

    The effect of heat treatment on microstructure and corrosion behavior of die-cast AZ91D magnesium alloys in 3.5% NaCl solution was investigated by SEM, EDX, XRD and electrochemical technique. It is found that the distribution of β phase influences the corrosion morphology. Corrosion occurs preferentially in primary α phase and presents pitting corrosion feature in die-cast AZ91D. After homogenization of T4 treatment, β phase dissolves in α phase and forms a single phase with α matrix, and the corrosion form turns to localized corrosion. The attack initiates at local site, expands towards deep direction and produces "digging effect". After artificial aging of T6 treatment, β phase is produced in abundance and provides a great deal of effective micro-cathode for anodic dissolution, and the corrosion form exhibits in general corrosion.

  12. Dynamic behavior and constitutive modeling of magnesium alloys AZ91D and AZ31B under high strain rate compressive loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jing; Ahmad, Iram Raza; Shu, D. W.

    2014-03-01

    The dynamic stress-strain characteristics of magnesium alloys have not been sufficiently studied experimentally. Thus, the present work investigated compressive dynamic stress-strain characteristics of two representative magnesium alloys: AZ91D and AZ31B at high strain rates and elevated temperatures. In order to use the stress-strain characteristics in numerical simulations to predict the impact response of components, the stress-strain characteristics must be modeled. The most common approach is to use accepted constitutive laws. The results from the experimental study of the response of magnesium alloys AZ91D and AZ31B under dynamic compressive loading, at different strain rates and elevated temperatures are presented here. Johnson-Cook model was used to best fit the experimental data. The material parameters required by the model were obtained and the resultant stress-strain curves of the two alloys for each testing condition were plotted. It is found that the dynamic stress-strain relationship of both magnesium alloys are strain rate and temperature dependent and can be described reasonably well at high strain rates and room temperature by Johnson-Cook model except at very low strains. This might be due to the fact that the strain rate is not strictly constant in the early stage of deformation.

  13. Thickness effects on corrosion and wear resistance properties of micro-arc discharge oxide coatings on AZ91D magnesium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wei-jiu; LIU Ming; LI Zhao-feng; ZENG Rong-chang

    2006-01-01

    The microarc oxidation coatings with difference thickness were synthesized on AZ91D magnesium alloy. The microstructure and phase structure of the coatings were analyzed using SEM and XRD, the tribological properties and corrosion resistance behaviour of the coatings were also investigated. The results show that the coating contains two layers, a porous outer layer and relatively dense inner layer. The microhardness of the MAO coatings is four to six times higher than that of the magnesium alloy substrate. The MAO coatings have much better wear-resistance and corrosion resistance abilities than those of magnesium alloy substrate, but possess higher friction coefficient. The results further indicate that there is an optimization thickness for corrosion and wear resistance.

  14. The Development of Spheroidal Grains and Thixoforming of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy Treated by Different Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaozhan ZHAO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new process squeeze casting-solid extrusion was introduced to prepare semi-solid billets for thixoforging together with partial remelting. The microstructure development and tensile properties of AZ91D alloy reheated from states of as-cast and SCSE-formed were researched. During partial remelting, samples from SCSE-formed obtained finer and more uniform microstructure obviously than from as-cast. As the holding time went on, both solid particles from the two states experienced continuous spheroidization, and in the meantime from SCSE-formed were always to coarsen, while from as-cast were refined initially and coarsened then. Microstructure development is determined by the combination effects of various factors, including distortion energy from SCSE deformation, grain coalescence, Ostwald ripening mechanism, etc. During thixoforging, components with good forming quality were prepared successfully. Excellent tensile properties were obtained for the thixoforged alloy prepared by SCSE deformation, mainly with the microstructure refinement and the decrease of defects related. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.4.6482

  15. Composite titanium nitride layers produced on the AZ91D magnesium alloy by a hybrid method including hydrothermal modification of the layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacikowski, M.; Grzonka, J.; Płociński, T.; Jakieła, R.; Pisarek, M.; Wierzchoń, T.

    2015-08-01

    The microstructure and properties of the composite TiN-Ti-Al type titanium nitride surface layer with a sub-layer of titanium and aluminium produced on AZ91D magnesium alloy using a hybrid PVD method including final sealing by hydrothermal treatment were investigated. The results were analysed in terms of the microstructure-properties correlation, to approach the role of the sub-layers and the mechanisms involved in the properties improvement. The microstructure investigations indicate that the composite titanium nitride layers are tight and have nano-crystalline, diffusive character and multi zone microstructure of the type TixOy-TiN-Ti-Al-Al3Mg2-Al12Mg17. The significant corrosion resistance improvement of the AZ91D alloy obtained using the sealed composite titanium nitride layers was found to be the result of a synergistic mechanism which combined hydrothermal treatment of the layer with an action of aluminium sub-layer which is critical to make the sealing effective. The diffusive bonding via Mg-Al zone improves adhesion and the load bearing capacity of titanium nitride layers in wear conditions.

  16. Compressive Creep Behavior of TiC/AZ91D Magnesium-matrix Composites with Interpenetrating Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liqing CHEN; Jinhua GUO; Baohai YU; Zongyi MA

    2007-01-01

    The 42.1 vol. pct TiC/AZ91D magnesium-matrix composites with interpenetrating networks were fabricated by in-situ reactive infiltration process. The compressive creep behavior of as-synthesized composites was investigated at temperature ranging from 673 to 723 K under loads of 95-108 MPa. For a comparative purpose,the creep behavior of the monolithic matrix alloy AZ91D was also conducted under loads of 15-55 MPa at 548-598 K. The creep mechanisms were theoretically analyzed based on the power-law relation. The results showed that the creep rates of both TiC/AZ91D composites and AZ91D alloy increase with increasing the temperature and load. The TiC/AZ91D composites possess superior creep resistance as compared with the AZ91D alloy. At deformation temperature below 573 K, the stress exponent n of AZ91D alloy approaches theoretical value of 5, which suggests that the creep process is controlled by dislocation climb. At 598 K, the stress exponentof AZ91D is close to 3, in which viscous non-basal slip deformation plays a key role in the process of creep deformation. However, the case differs from that of AZ91D alloy when the stress exponent n of TiC/AZ91D composites exceeds 9, which shows that there exists threshold stress in the creep process of the composites, similar to other types of composites. The average activation energies for the creep of the AZ91D alloy and TiC/AZ91D composites were calculated to be 144 and 152 k J/mol, respectively. The existence of threshold stress in the creep process of the composites leads to an increase in activation energy for creep.

  17. Effects of Ce and Sb on the microstructure and properties of AZ91D magnesium alloy prepared by the EPC process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jiqiang; DONG Xuanpu; FAN Zitian; WANG Yuanqing

    2008-01-01

    The effects of small amounts of cerium and antimony additions on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of AZ91D (Mg-9A1-Zn)based alloy were researched via the expendable pattern casting (EPC) process.The results show that the microstructure is obviously refined and the tensile strength of the AZ91D based alloy at ambient temperature is significantly improved.When compared to AZ91D,the AZ91D-1.0%Ce-0.4%Sb alloy has higher ultimate tensile strength and elongation.Its ultimate tensile strength and elongation are enhanced by 39% and 47%,respectively.The morphology of the tensile fracture of the AZ91D-1.0%Ce-0.4%Sb alloy has more characteristics of quasi-cleavage,This indicates that it has had a larger plastic deformation before failure.The tensile strength and elongation decrease with the increase of Ce and Sb contents because of the coarsening and volume increase of Cesb and Al11Ce3 phases.

  18. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of AZ91D alloy in ethylene glycol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fekry, A.M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613 (Egypt)], E-mail: hham4@hotmail.com; Fatayerji, M.Z. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613 (Egypt)

    2009-11-01

    The effect of concentration on the corrosion behavior of Mg-based alloy AZ91D was investigated in ethylene glycol-water solutions using electrochemical techniques i.e. potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance measurements (EIS) and surface examination via scanning electron microscope (SEM) technique. This can provide a basis for developing new coolants for magnesium alloy engine blocks. Corrosion behavior of AZ91D alloy by coolant is important in the automotive industry. It was found that the corrosion rate of AZ91D alloy decreased with increasing concentration of ethylene glycol. For AZ91D alloy in chloride >0.05 M or fluoride <0.05 M containing 30% ethylene glycol solution, they are more corrosive than the blank (30% ethylene glycol-70% water). However, at concentrations <0.05 for chloride or >0.05 M for fluoride containing ethylene glycol solution, some inhibition effect has been observed. The corrosion of AZ91D alloy in the blank can be effectively inhibited by addition of 0.05 mM paracetamol that reacts with AZ91D alloy and forms a protective film on the surface at this concentration as confirmed by surface examination.

  19. The effects to the structure and electrochemical behavior of zinc phosphate conversion coatings with ethanolamine on magnesium alloy AZ91D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discussed a zinc phosphate conversion coating formed on magnesium alloy AZ91D from the phosphating bath with varying amounts of ethanolamine (MEA). The effects of MEA on the form, structure, phase composition and electrochemical behavior of the phosphate coatings were examined using an scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. Interpretations of the electrical elements of the equivalent circuit were obtained from the SEM structure of the coatings, assumed to be formed of two layers: an outer porous crystal layer and an inner flat amorphous layer. The result showed that adding MEA refined the microstructure of the crystal layer and that the phosphate coating, derived at the optimal content of 1.2 g/L, with the most uniform and compact outer crystal layer provided the best corrosion protection.

  20. AZ91D镁合金加工工艺的应用研究%Application Study of Processing Technology on AZ91D Magnesium Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘胤

    2012-01-01

    Based on the analysis of AZ91D magnesium alloy chemical composition, physical mechanical properties, this paper comparison study of chip breaking performance, chip morphology and surface quality between the cutting velocity at 66-819 m/min, 107.388 m/min and 169.434 m/min. It shows that in the back cutting depth constant conditions, a-long with the increase of cutting speed , chip deformation decreases, chip shape composed of C shaped cracking chip turns into strip continuous chip, chip breaking capacity and structural surface quality become worse. In the back cutting depth of 0.06mm, its form powder cutting, packing in scrap reeling slot , easy to cause burning. Summary of magnesium alloy cutting tool, cutting parameters, cutting fluid and cutting process requirements, introduces the process of anticorrosion. Analysis solid solution and aging effect of AZ91D magnesium alloy, heat treatment process is put forward from the parts of the structure, equipment and fire prevention. Review corrosion of magnesium alloy from metallurgy and environmental factors. Comparative analysis of AZ91D magnesium alloy chips corrosion between air and water. Finally, emphatically introduces the micro-arc oxidation process for magnesium alloy. Research on the processing of magnesium alloy application provides technical reference.%在分析AZ91D镁合金化学成分、物理力学性能的基础上,通过试验对比了切削速度在66.819m/min、107.388m/min、169.434m/min时的切屑断屑性能、切屑形态及其表面质量.试验表明:在背吃刀量恒定的前提下,随着切削速度的提高,切屑变形减小.切屑形态由C形挤裂切屑变成带状连续切屑,断屑能力变差,结构表面质量变差;在背吃刀量0.06mm时,切削形成粉末状切屑,堆积在卷屑槽内,易引起镁合金燃烧.总结了镁合金切削加工中对刀具、切削参数、切削液以及切削过程的要求,介绍了工序间防腐措施.分析了AZ91D镁合金的固溶时效作

  1. A study of corrosion performance of electroless Ni-P and Ni-W-P coatings on AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Y.; Dryfe, R. [School of Chemistry, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Zhang, S.T. [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Chongqing, Chongqing (China)

    2011-09-15

    The autocatalytic nature of the electroless nickel-based alloy coating process will inevitably produce H{sub 2} bubbles which may be left in electroless nickel-based alloy coating. If the H{sub 2} cannot be removed and left in the coating, it can lead to its poor corrosion resistance due to hydrogen cracks. So, the post treatment is an essential step for electroless deposition process. In this paper, electroless Ni-P and Ni-W-P coatings with chromium-free pretreatment and dehydrogenation post treatment have been successfully prepared on AZ91D magnesium alloy, and the corrosion behaviors of the two kind coating samples in NaCl solution, HCl solution, and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution have been investigated. Both the polarization test and immersion tests show that the electroless Ni-W-P coating has better corrosion resistance than that of electroless Ni-P coating. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Growth characterization of anodic film on AZ91D magnesium alloy in an electrolyte of Na2SiO3 and KF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiping Li; Liqun Zhu; Yihong Li; Bo Zhao

    2006-01-01

    Anodization of AZ91D magnesium alloy in the electrolyte solution of 0.5 mol/L of sodium silicate and 1.0 mol/L of potassium fluoride was investigated. The anodic films were characterized using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The corrosion resistance of the various anodized alloys was evaluated by a fast corrosion test using the solution of hydrochloric acid and potassium dichromate. The results showed that the addition of KF resulted in the presence of NaF in the anodic film. The thickness of the anodic film formed under a constant current density of 20 mA/cm2 for 16 min at 60℃ exceeded 100 μm. The growth of the anodic film could be divided into three stages based on the anodizing time; the growth rate was much faster during stage Ⅱ than in stages Ⅰ and Ⅲ. The anodic film exhibited the highest corrosion resistance for the AZ91 alloy,which is attributed to the fact that the anodization was maintained until the end of stage Ⅱ.

  3. Corrosion Resistance Enhancement of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy by Electroless Ni-Co-P Coating and Ni-Co-P-SiO2 Nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifzadeh, Davod; Rahimzadeh Hollagh, Amin

    2014-08-01

    Electroless Ni-Co-P coating and Ni-Co-P-SiO2 nanocomposites were successfully applied on AZ91D magnesium alloy via environmentally friendly cerium-lanthanum-permanganate treatment and their properties were compared with traditionally binary Ni-P coating. The prepared coatings were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Moreover, the corrosion behavior of the coatings in 3.5 wt.% NaCl was evaluated by two electrochemical methods. It is found that the Ni-Co-P coating possesses more uniform and compact structure and better corrosion protection characteristics in comparison with the Ni-P coating. The plating rate of Ni-Co-P bath is relatively lower than the Ni-P bath, but it significantly increases after addition of SiO2 nanoparticles more probably due to adsorption of silica nanoparticles on alloy surface. The corrosion resistance of Ni-Co-P-SiO2 composite coatings was superior with respect to Ni-P and Ni-Co-P coatings due to formation of thick and compact coating with tortuous grain boundaries.

  4. Research on semi-solid thixoforming process of AZ91D magnesium alloy brackets for generators in JH70-type motorbikes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Kai; LIU Changming; HAN Zhaotang; CAO Jianyong; ZHANG Zonghe

    2005-01-01

    The investment on semi-solid die casting processes of AZ91D magnesium alloy brackets for generators in JH70-type motorbikes is introduced. The processes of low super-heat and cooling slope for the preparation of billets with non-dendritic microstructure, the remelting of billets for thixoforming and the parameters in the process of semi-solid thixoforming have been researched. The results show that primary billets with non-dendritical structures can be prepared by forming great amount of nuclei in melt via the process of low super heat. By optimizing the remelting process through adjusting the current of the induced equipment, semi-solid billets with a structure of spherical grains were obtained from the primary billets with non-dendritical structure. The range of 580℃ to 583℃ is the proper remelting temperatures by which the billets have an expected thixotropy and can be transferred to a die-casting machine. The optimized parameters of semi-solid forming in a die-casting machine are as follows: the area of the ingate in the die is 383.5 mm2, the speed of the pierce of the machine 5 m/s, the shot pressure of the pierce 75 MPa, and the maintenance pressure of the pierce 350 MPa.The castings of brackets for supporting generators in JH70 type motorbikes were formed by adopting the optimized processes and parameters mentioned above.

  5. Rheological Behavior of Semi-Solid AZ91D Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weimin MAO; Zisheng ZHEN; Shijian YAN; Xueyou ZHONG

    2004-01-01

    The rheological behavior and microstructure of semi-solid AZ91D was studied using a Couette type viscometer. The results show that the apparent viscosity of semi-solid AZ91D increases with the cooling rate increasing when it is continuously cooled and mechanically stirred and the empiric relation of the apparent viscosity with the cooling rate and solid fraction at shearing rate 93.7 s-1 is expressed as η=[0.66 - 0.63e(-ε/3.01)]e(fs/0.14), and with the shearing rate and solid fraction at cooling rate 4℃/min is shown as η=0.55e(fs/0.11-γ/87.59), as well as the cooling rate and shearing rate have an important effect on the microstructure of the semi-solid AZ91D alloy slurry, and decreasing the cooling rate and increasing the shearing rate are favorable to the nondendritic evolution of the primary grains.

  6. Microstructure refinement of AZ91D alloy solidified with pulsed magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bin; YANG Yuan-sheng; ZHOU Ji-xue; TONG Wen-hui

    2008-01-01

    The effects of pulsed magnetic field on the solidified microstructure of an AZ91D magnesium alloy were investigated. The experimental results show that the remarkable microstructural refinement is achieved when the pulsed magnetic field is applied in the solidification of AZ91D alloy. The average grain size of the as-cast microstructure of AZ91D alloy is refined to 104μm. Besides the grain refinement, the morphology of the primary α-Mg is changed from dendritic to rosette, then to globular shape with changing the parameters of the pulsed magnetic field. The pulsed magnetic field causes melt convection during solidification, which makes the temperature of the whole melt homogenized, and produces an undercooling zone in front of the liquid/solid interface by the magnetic pressure, which makes the nucleation rate increased and big dendrites prohibited. In addition, primary α-Mg dendrites break into fine crystals, resulting in a refined solidification structure of the AZ91D alloy. The Joule heat effect induced in the melt also strengthens the grain refinement effect and spheroidization of dendrite arms.

  7. Microstructural formation of semi-solid AZ91D alloy stirred by electromagnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    With the help of an electromagnetic stirring device, alloy melt quenching and EBSD (electron back scatter diffraction)analysis technology, the microstructure of the semi-solid AZ91D magnesium alloy slurry stirred by rotational electromagnetic field under different stirring power conditions has been studied. The results show that the size of primary α-Mg phase is reduced obviously when the solidifying alloy melt is stirred by rotational electromagnetic field, moreover, the primary α-Mg grains are changed to fine rosette grains or spherical grains which are proved to belong to the different grains in three-dimension by the EBSD analysis technology. The results also show that the stirring power is an important processing parameter in the preparation of the semi-solid AZ91D magnesium alloy slurry. The larger the stirring power, the finer the primary α-Mg grains, the less the rosette primary α-Mg grains, and the more the spherical primary α-Mg grains. Theoretical analysis indicates that a stronger flow motion leads to a more even temperature field and solute field and a stronger man-made temperature fluctuation in the alloy melt so that the specially fine rosette and/or spherical primary α-Mg grains are formed in the semi-solid AZ91D magnesium alloy slurry.

  8. Preparation and corrosion resistance studies of nanometric sol-gel-based CeO{sub 2} film with a chromium-free pretreatment on AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Shiyan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Li Qing, E-mail: liqingswu@yeah.ne [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Chen Bo [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Yang Xiaokui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2010-01-01

    Magnesium alloy, although valuable, is reactive and requires protection before it can be applied in many fields. In this study, a novel protective environmental-friendly gradient coating was performed on AZ91D magnesium alloy by non-chromate surface treatments, which consisted of phytic acid chemical conversion coating and the sol-gel-based CeO{sub 2} thin film. The surface morphologies, microstructure and composition of the coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The effects of the concentration, layers, temperature of heat treatment of CeO{sub 2} sol on the anti-corrosion properties of the gradient coating for magnesium were also investigated. The results showed that the gradient coating was mainly composed of crystalline CeO{sub 2}. According to the results of electrochemical tests, the corrosion resistance of AZ91D magnesium alloy was found to be greatly improved by means of this new environmental-friendly surface treatment.

  9. 基于SHPB实验的挤压AZ91D镁合金动态力学行为数值模拟%Numerical simulation of dynamic behavior of extruded AZ91D magnesium alloy based on SHPB experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周霞; 赵昌美; 李利; 黄宏军

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic compression experiments of extruded AZ91D magnesium alloy at three different strain rates were carried out based on split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) technique, and a Johnson-Cook dynamic constitutive equation was obtained by fitting the experimental data. The SHPB dynamic compression of the material was simulated by using LS-DYNA software with the fitted Johnson-Cook constitutive parameters. Calculated incident, reflected, and transmitted waves were correlated with the stress-strain response of the extruded AZ91D sample using two-wave analytical method;the stress-strain curves at different strain rates obtained in the simulations were compared with the experimental and fitted stress-strain responses. The results show that the strain rate sensitivity of the extruded AZ91D Mg alloy increases with increasing the strain rate from 400 s-1 to 1000 s-1. The numerical simulation results and fitted results based on the Johnson-Cook strain-rate dependent constitutive model for the extruded AZ91D Mg alloy are basically in agreement with the experimental results.%使用霍普金森压杆技术对挤压AZ91D镁合金进行3种应变速率下的动态压缩实验,基于实验数据的拟合确定了其动态压缩的Johnson-Cook (J-C)本构方程。采用拟合的J-C本构参数和LS-DYNA有限元软件对挤压AZ91D镁合金在3种应变速率下的SHPB实验进行了数值模拟,根据模拟得到的入射波、反射波和透射波形计算得到各应变速率下完整的应力-应变曲线,并与实验及拟合的应力-应变响应进行了对比。结果表明:当应变速率在400~1000 s-1之间变化时,AZ91D镁合金的应变速率敏感性随应变率增大而增大;基于J-C材料模型描述的AZ91D镁合金应变速率相关的应力-应变本构模型,其数值模拟结果与拟合结果及实验结果基本吻合。

  10. Solidification microstructure of AZ91D Mg alloy after laser surface melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Y. C.; Zhou, W.; Zheng, H. Y.; Li, Z. L.

    2010-11-01

    The solidification microstructure plays a critical role in determining the surface properties of laser-treated magnesium alloys. The purpose of this paper is to study the solidification microstructures of AZ91D Mg alloy following millisecond- and nanosecond-pulse Nd:YAG laser irradiation. The solidification microstructural evolution of laser-melt AZ91D Mg alloy was investigated using X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer and transmission electron microscopy. Much refined α-Mg phase and β-Mg17Al12 intermetallics were observed in the microstructure after laser surface melting. Periodic and successive structure was observed in the millisecond irradiated surface and the melt depth was more than 100 μm. The solidification microstructure was mainly cellular/dendrite structures together with a large number of β-Mg17Al12 nano-particles. Micron holes were found in the nanosecond irradiated surface and the melt depth was shallow at 50 μm. Millisecond-pulse Nd:YAG laser was found to be more suitable for Mg alloy surface treatment due to sufficient melt depth.

  11. Composite Layers “MgAl Intermetalic Layer / PVD Coating” Obtained On The AZ91D Magnesium Alloy By Different Hybrid Surface Treatment Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolik J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys have very interesting physical properties which make them ‘materials of the future’ for tools and machine components in many industry areas. However, very low corrosion and tribological resistance of magnesium alloys hampers the implementation of this material in the industry. One of the methods to improve the properties of magnesium alloys is the application of the solutions of surface engineering like hybrid technologies. In this paper, the authors compare the tribological and corrosion properties of two types of “MgAlitermetalic / PVD coating” composite layers obtained by two different hybrid surface treatment technologies. In the first configuration, the “MgAlitermetalic / PVD coating” composite layer was obtained by multisource hybrid surface treatment technology combining magnetron sputtering (MS, arc evaporation (AE and vacuum heating methods. The second type of a composite layer was prepared using a hybrid technology combined with a diffusion treatment process in Al-powder and the electron beam evaporation (EB method. The authors conclude, that even though the application of „MgAlitermetalic / PVD coating” composite layers can be an effective solution to increase the abrasive wear resistance of magnesium alloys, it is not a good solution to increase its corrosion resistance.

  12. Grain refinement of AZ91D alloy by intensive melt shearing and its persistence after remelting and isothermal holding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuo Yubo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensive melt shearing has a significant grain refining effect on some light alloys. However, the persistence of the grain refining effect during isothermal holding and remelting is still unclear, although it is very important for the practical application. In this study, intensive melt shearing was achieved in a twin-screw mechanism to investigate its grain refining effect on AZ91D magnesium alloy. The refinement mechanism was discussed and the persistence of grain refinement after remelting and isothermal holding was also studied. A Zeiss imaging system with polarized light was used for quantitative measurement of grain size. The results show that the intensive melt shearing has a significant grain refining effect on AZ91D magnesium alloy. With the application of intensive melt shearing, the grain size of AZ91D magnesium alloy can be reduced from 530 μm (for a typical as-cast microstructure to 170 μm, which is about 70% size reduction. The grain refinement achieved by the intensive melt shearing can be partially kept after isothermal holding and remelting. It is believed that the refinement effect was mainly due to the finer and well dispersed oxide particles formed by high intensive shearing. The smaller size of oxide particles and their slow motion velocity in the sheared melt could make important contributions to the remained grain refinement.

  13. Smelting of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy at Air Containing FeS2 Protective Atmosphere%FeS2/Air气氛中熔炼AZ91D镁合金试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓; 许彩凤

    2012-01-01

    Through adding solid FeS2 in a sealed melting furnace for magnesium alloy, effects of FeS2 addition, melting temperature and holding time on protective role of AZ91D magnesium alloy melt were analyzed at air containing FeS2 atmosphere, and morphology, constituent and phase composition of oxidized film were observed by SEM (scanning electron microscope) , EDSCenergy dispersive spectrometer) and XRD (X-ray diffraction). The results show that the acceptable protective effects can be obtained with melting temperature below 760 °C. Melted at 730 °C for 30min, the protective effect is dissatisfied with lg FeS2 addition, while it is satisfied with 2 g FeS2 and 5g FeS2 addition, however, it is turned bad with FeS2 addition increased to 10 g in the sealed melting furnace with 13 L in volume. Melted at 730 °C for 60min, the protective effect is bad with 2g FeS2 addition while it is desirable with 5g FeS2 addition. With melting temperature increased to 800 °C for 30 min, the protective effect on AZ91D magnesium alloy is worse that with 2 g FeS2 addiiton. The surface film formed on the magnesium alloy at air containing FeS2 is composed of MgS and MgO phase with compact structure. And the thickness of the film formed is increased with increasing in holding time in range of 1. 0 - 2. 0 μm.%在密封容积为13 L的镁合金熔炼炉中加入固态硫铁矿(FeS2),研究了FeS2/Air气氛中,FeS2加入量、熔炼温度和保温时间等对AZ91D镁合金熔炼保护效果的影响,并采用SEM、EDS和XRD等对保护膜形貌、成分和相组成等进行了研究.结果表明,试验温度小于760℃时,加入硫铁矿的空气气氛对镁合金熔炼有良好的保护效果.当熔炼温度为730℃时,保温30 min,硫铁矿加入量为1g时,保护效果较差;加入量为2 g和5 g时,保护效果好,加入量为10 g时,保护效果变差.在730℃时,当保温时间提高到60 min时,2 g的硫铁矿保护效果差,将硫铁矿量增至5 g时,保护效

  14. Study on the solidification microstructure in AZ91D Mg alloy after laser surface melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser surface melting (LSM) is known to enhance the wear and corrosion resistance of Mg alloys, but its effect on microstructural evolution of Mg alloys is not well understood. An effort has been made to study the effect of rapid solidification following LSM on the microstructural evolution of AZ91D Mg alloy. The results of X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated that the solidification microstructure in the laser-melted zone was mainly cellular/dendrite structure of primarily α-Mg phase and continuous network of β-Mg17Al12 phase. Numerical prediction of the laser-melted zone suggested that cooling rates increased strongly from the bottom to the top surface in the irradiated regions. An attempt has been made to correlate dendrite cell sizes of the solidification microstructure with the cooling rates in the laser-treated AZ91D Mg alloy.

  15. MICROSTRUCTURAL FORMATION MECHANISM OF SEMI-SOLID AZ91D ALLOY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.M. Mao; Z.S. Zhen; H.T. Chen; X.Y. Zhong

    2005-01-01

    With the help of an electromagnetic stirring device and alloy melt quenching technology, the microstructure of semi-solid AZ9lD magnesium alloy slurry stirred by a rotationally electromagnetic field was studied and the experimental results are shown as the following. The primary α-Mg grains are refined obviously when the slurry is stirred by a rotational electromagnetic field during continuously cooling and they are eventually changed to fine rosette grains or spherical grains. If the above semi-solid slurry is further stirred isothermally .for some time,much more spherical primary α-Mg grains can be obtained. If the melt is first cooled down to a given semi-solid temperature and then starts being stirred by the rotational electromagnetic field, the primary α-Mg dendrites will be large, and a longer time will be taken and a larger stirring power will be needed for the secondary arms of the dendrites to be remelted on the roots to prepare an ideal semi-solid slurry. Theoretical analysis indicates that the strong flow motion leads to a more even temperature field and a solute field and stronger man-made temperature fluctuation in the AZ91D magnesium alloy melt so that the spherical primary α-Mg grains are increased in the slurry. Moreover, all the measures promoting the temperature fluctuation will be favorable to the formation of spherical primary α-Mg grains and all the factors increasing the arm's root remelting difficulty will be favorable to the formation of rosette-type primary α-Mg grains.

  16. 压铸AZ91D镁合金母材气孔在重熔过程的遗传性研究%STUDY ON HEREDITARY OF PORES IN LASER REMELTING OF DIE CASTING AZ91D MAGNESIUM ALLOY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王向杰; 游国强; 张均成; 龙思远

    2012-01-01

    Porosity has been a main problem for die casting magnesium alloy welding and casting defect repair. In order to study the formation mechanism of pores in fusion welding of die casting magnesium alloy, in this research, experiment of die casting AZ91D magnesium alloy CO2 laser re-melting was carried out. OM and SEM were employed to observe the characteristics of pores existing at both the base metal and re-melted zone, and a software for particle size analysis called nano measure 1.2 was adopted to measure the pores' size. During analysis, the work mainly focused on the relationship of pores in re-melted zone associated with that preexisting in the base metal. The results showed that: porosity in die cast magnesium alloy base metal showed apparently hereditary characteristic in the process of re-melting. Porosity preexisting in the die casting AZ91D magnesium alloy was mainly produced at the junction region of multi-grains, with high pressure of inner gas, small size and irregularity in shape. However, pores in the re-melting zone showed diversity. Specifically, the micro-pore was small in size, nearly round in cross section and smooth in the inner wall, which was induced by hydrogen stored in the base metal. The macro-pores were vermiculate, with gas channel and metal erosion traces at the inner wall. It's considered that the micro-pore was mainly inherited from the atomic hydrogen solution in the base metal and molecular hydrogen stored in the die casting defects.In the re-melting process, gas bubble of hydrogen was formed through nucleation and development two steps, and there was no sufficient time to grow up. As a result, the hydrogen induced pore was great in number and small in size. While the macro-pores were inherited from porosity preexisting in the base metal, the corresponded gas bubble did not require nucleation, was directly formed from the involved gas in preexisting porosity during die-casting process. Development of gas bubble for macro-pore mainly

  17. Effect of Mould Temperature and Pouring Temperature on the Hot Tearing and Fluidity of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy%模具温度和浇注温度对AZ91D镁合金热裂和.流动性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄皓; 付彭怀; 彭立明; 蒋海燕; 王迎新; 翟春泉

    2012-01-01

    Effects of mould temperature and pouring temperature on hot tearing and fluidity of AZ91D magnesium alloy were investigated. The results indicate that hot tearing resistance of the AZ91D alloy can be significantly improved with the increase of mould temperature. Hot tearing in the AZ91D magnesium alloy can not be observed with preheating temperature of 368°C at different pouring temperatures. At a lower mould temperature (<268℃), AZ91D alloy exhibits the desirable hot tearing resistance with pouring at 688℃. The influence of pouring temperature on hot tearing resistance is fade with the increase of mould temperature to be disappeared at mould temperature of 368℃. Both pouring temperature and mould temperature can obviously improve the fluidity of the AZ91D magnesium alloy, showing the remarkably role. At a lower mould temperature (68℃, a little increase of mould temperature can only increase the fluidity slightly, while with pouring temperature at a higher level (718℃); the effects of the increase of the pouring temperature on the improvement of the alloy's fluidity can be neglected. In order to get better fluidity and hot tearing resistance, it is suggested for the production of AZ91D magnesium alloy components at a higher mould temperature (≥268℃and suitable pouring temperature (688-718℃).%研究了模具温度和浇注温度对AZg1D镁合金热裂性能与流动性能的影响.结果表明,提高模具温度可以显著改善合金的抗热裂性能;当模具温度为368℃时,AZ91D合金在各种浇注温度下均不产生热裂;当模具温度较低(<268℃)时,浇注温度为688℃时,合金的抗热裂性最佳;随着模具温度提高,浇注温度对合金热裂性的影响逐渐减弱消失.浇注温度与模具温度对AZ91D镁合金的流动性能影响显著,两者的提高均能改善合金的流动性能.当模具温度较低(68℃)时,少量提高模具温度不能显著改善合金的流动性能;当浇注温度较高(718℃)时,

  18. Corrosion of Mg alloy AZ91D in the presence of living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuss, F; Seuss, S; Turhan, M C; Fabry, B; Virtanen, S

    2011-11-01

    Mg and Mg alloys are of interest for biodegradable implants as they readily corrode in biological fluids, and dissolved Mg ions are nontoxic. Even though it is well known that Mg dissolution leads to pH increase in the surroundings, the effect of the corrosion-induced alkalization on the biological environment has not been studied in detail. We therefore explored the interactions between corrosion-induced pH increase and cell growth on Mg alloy AZ91D surface. Cell adhesion and spreading on the alloy surface is unimpeded initially. However, with time a large fraction of cells de-adhere. We attribute this to the observed increase of the pH in the cell culture medium in the process of alloy dissolution. Cytotoxicity tests with HeLa cells grown on glass surfaces confirm that cell death increases with increasing alkalinity of the cell culture medium. We also show that a the cells that adhere on the Mg alloy surface act as a corrosion-blocking surface layer. In consequence, a slower pH increase in the medium takes place when the alloy surface is covered with cells. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements (EIS) verify that a cell layer slows down the corrosion process.

  19. Energy-storage Welding Connection Characteristics of Rapid Solidification AZ91D Mg Alloy Ribbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinfeng XU; Qiuya ZHAI; Sen YUAN

    2004-01-01

    Energy-storage welding connection characteristics of rapidly solidified AZ91D Mg alloy ribbons with 40~70 μm thickness are investigated using a microtype energy-storage welding machine. The microstructure and performance of the connection joints are analyzed and studied. The research results indicate that energy-storage welding is able to realize the spot welding connection of AZ9lD Mg alloy ribbons. The welding nugget consists of developed α-Mg equiaxed grains with the sizes of 1.2~2.7 μm and intergranular distributed β-Mg17Al12 compounds. The thickness of bond zone is about 4 μm and the solidification microstructure is characterized by the fine equiaxed grains with the sizes of 0.8~1.2μm, and grain boundary has become coarsening. The columnar crystal in HAZ also becomes slightly coarsening and the grain boundary has broadened,however, there is no obvious change in its primitive morphology and crystallographic direction. When welding energy is about 2.0 J, the welding joints with higher shear strength and smaller electrical resistivity are obtained.

  20. Degradation research of protective coating on AZ91D Mg alloy components via simulated contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-sheng Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated environmental (hygrothermal exposure experiments are performed on organic paints coated on commercial die-cast AZ91D Mg alloys to investigate the effects of contamination on blistering. Specifically, artificial human perspiration spray is used to contaminate the substrate surface. Blistering occurred only for paints that are spread on surfaces with the perspiration present. More blisters gradually form at longer test times, and the volume of blistering increases. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that blistering is initiated by contamination and/or substrate corrosion at the interface of the organic paints and the substrate. Blistering is characterized for two samples exposed to the hygrothermal environments for various times, and is found to be initially empty in the early stages. Hydrophilic chloride contaminants from the perspiration lead to in situ adhesion loss. Simultaneously, the paints volume expands, and the associated compressive stress causes it to bulge. After long-term test exposure, chloride anions corrode the substrate under the films, and MgO, Mg(OH2, and Mg2(OH3Cl corrosion products fill the blisters. Finally, a model of blistering evolution is discussed.

  1. Microstructure of electromagnetic stirred semi-solid AZ91D alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛卫民; 甄子胜; 陈洪涛; 钟雪友

    2004-01-01

    The microstructures of semi-solid AZ91D alloy stirred by rotationally electromagnetic field were studied.The shape of primary α-Mg phase is dendrite under conventional solidification condition and the primary α-Mg grains are changed to the fine rosette-like or granular grains under electromagnetic stirring condition. If the electromagnetic stirring frequencies are low, there are a large amount of fine rosette-like primary α-Mg grains and the fine rosettelike primary α-Mg grain in two dimensions belongs to a single grain in three dimensions; there are also many spherical primary α-Mg grains, they may belong to a single grain in three dimensions and the orientation differences of the grains between them are very small. If the electromagnetic stirring frequencies are high, a lot of the fine rosette-like primary α-Mg grains disappear and are converted into granular grains, and moreover, most of these granular grains belong to different grains in three dimensions.

  2. THE APPARENT VISCOSITY OF SEMI-SOLID AZ91D ALLOY AT STEADY STATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.S. Zhen; W.M. Mao; S.J. Yan; A.M. Zhao; C.L. CuI; X.Y. Zhong

    2002-01-01

    The Rheological behavior of semi-solid AZ91D at steady state is studied using a Couettetype viscometer in the present paper. The results show that the apparent viscosity ofsemi-solid AZ91D at the steady state increases with the solid fraction increasing, andgoes up sharply when the solid fraction reaches a certain value, which is called criticalfraction. In addition, the apparent viscosity of semi-solid AZ91D at the steady statetakes on a distinct downtrend with the shearing rate increasing, which indicates astrong shear thinning property. In addition, the critical solid fraction becomes higherunder larger shearing rate, owing to the more globular shape of the solid particles.Based on the present experiment results, an empirical equation is built as that, relatingthe steady state apparent viscosity of semi-solid AZ91D with the solid fraction fs andshearing rate γ at the same time: ηapp=10. 74exp(6.95fs)γ-0.86.

  3. MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF AZ91D EXTRUDED TUBE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.Y. Yu; C.L. Bao; H.W. Song; Z. Liu; H.P. Yu

    2006-01-01

    The effect of extrusion ratio on microstructures and mechanical properties of magnesium alloy AZ91D extruded tube at 430℃ has been studied. After the evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ91D during extrusion were studied, the following parameters were obtained: tensile strength reached the climax value of 306.9MPa and elongation peak value of10.1% at an extrusion ratio of 7.125, and with the increase of the extrusion ratio to 7.45, yield strength reached a top value of 285.795MPa with decreased tensile strength and elongation. It was concluded that mechanical properties of magnesium alloys AZ91D could be enhanced by adjusting the extrusion ratio near recrystallization.

  4. Study on interfacial heat transfer coefficient at metal/die interface during high pressure die casting process of AZ91D alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUO Zhi-peng

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The high pressure die casting (HPDC process is one of the fastest growing and most efficient methods for the production of complex shape castings of magnesium and aluminum alloys in today’s manufacturing industry.In this study, a high pressure die casting experiment using AZ91D magnesium alloy was conducted, and the temperature profiles inside the die were Measured. By using a computer program based on solving the inverse heat problem, the metal/die interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC was calculated and studied. The results show that the IHTC between the metal and die increases right after the liquid metal is brought into the cavity by the plunger,and decreases as the solidification process of the liquid metal proceeds until the liquid metal is completely solidified,when the IHTC tends to be stable. The interfacial heat transfer coefficient shows different characteristics under different casting wall thicknesses and varies with the change of solidification behavior.

  5. Effect of Ultrasonic Treatment in the Static and Dynamic Mechanical Behavior of AZ91D Mg Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Puga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the effect of high-intensity ultrasound (US in the static and dynamic mechanical behavior of AZ91D by microstructural modification. The characterization of samples revealed that US treatment promoted the refinement of dendrite cell size, reduced the thickness, and changed the β-Mg17Al12 intermetallic phase to a globular shape, promoted its uniform distribution along the grain boundaries and reduced the level of porosity. In addition to microstructure refinement, US treatment improved the alloy mechanical properties, namely the ultimate tensile strength (40.7% and extension (150% by comparison with values obtained for castings produced without US vibration. Moreover, it is suggested that the internal friction, enhanced by the reduction of grain size, is compensated by the homogenization of the secondary phase and reduction of porosity. It seems that by the use of US treatment, it is possible to enhance static mechanical properties without compromising the damping properties in AZ91D alloys.

  6. Effects of increase extent of voltage on wear and corrosion resistance of micro-arc oxidation coatings on AZ91D alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The effects of increase extent of voltage on the wear resistance and corrosion resistance of micro-arc oxidation(MAO)coatings on AZ91D magnesium alloy were investigated in silicate electrolyte.The results show that with increasing extent of voltage,both of the thickness and bonding force of MAO coatings first increase,and then decrease.These parameters are all up to their maximum values when the increase extent of voltage is 20 V.The roughness of the coatings always increases.The coating has the best corrosion resistance when the increase extent of voltage is not below 25 V,and the coating has the best wear resistance when the increase extent of voltage is 10 V.The wear mechanisms for the micro-arc oxidation are abrasive wear and micromachining wear.These are related to their microstructures.

  7. Influences of Organic Additives on Stannate Conversion Coating Prepared on the AZ91D Magnesium Alloy Surface%有机添加剂对AZ91D镁合金锡酸盐转化膜性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵忠财; 王明; 张庆芳

    2015-01-01

    采用化学转化法在镁合金表面制备锡酸盐转化膜.采用硫酸铜点滴实验、电化学交流阻抗(EIS)测试和Tafel曲线、扫描电子显微镜(SEM)测试和X射线衍射分析(XRD)等方法检测膜层的性能.研究了几种有机添加剂(Tartaric acid、Citric acid、Phytic acid、EDTA、Sodium dodecyl sulfate)对膜层耐蚀性的影响,结果表明溶液中添加SDS后,转化膜的硫酸铜点滴时间由35 s提高到了86 s,明显提高转化膜的耐腐蚀性能,膜层的形貌为呈“颗粒”状紧凑的连接到一起,该膜层的主要成分为MgSn(OH)6、Mg(OH)2.%A stannate conversion coating was prepared on the AZ91D magnesium alloy surface by a chemical conversion process.The coating performances were tested by CuSO4 drip experiment,EIS,Tafel,SEM and XRD.The effects of some organic additives including tartaric acid,citric acid,phytic acid,EDTA,and sodium dodecyl sulfate on the coating corrosion resistance were studied.The results show that the drip time is increased from 35 to 86 s by adding sodium dodecyl sulfate and it could improve the corrosion resistance of the film to a large extent.The morphology of the membrane layer mainly contains MgSn(OH)6 and Mg(OH)2 which is granular-bonded.

  8. 纳米SiC对AZ91D镁合金微弧氧化膜微观结构及性能的影响%Influence of nano-SiC on microstructure and property of MAO coating formed on AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑艳; 司乃潮; 夏永平; 刘莉

    2015-01-01

    Ceramic coating incorporated with nano-SiC was obtained on AZ91D magnesium alloy during MAO by adding nano-SiC into the silicate−aluminate-based composite electrolyte. The microstructure, thickness, phase analysis, element composition and hardness of the coatings were respectively investigated by scanning electron microscopy(SEM), film thickness meter, X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy disperse spectroscopy(EDS) and Vickers hardness tester. The wear resistance of Mg alloy and coatings were evaluated by friction and wear apparatus, while the corrosion resistance of Mg alloy and coatings were evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results show that after adding nano-SiC into the electrolyte, both the striking voltage and final voltage decrease, the size and number of the micropore on the surface of the coating decrease, the thickness and hardness of the coating increase, both the wear resistance and corrosion resistance of the coating raise.%通过向Na2SiO3−NaAlO2复合电解液体系中添加纳米SiC,经过微弧氧化处理后在AZ91D镁合金表面制备含纳米SiC的复合陶瓷层。利用SEM、膜层测厚仪、XRD、EDS和维氏硬度计分别研究膜层的微观形貌、厚度、相结构、元素组成及硬度。采用摩擦磨损试验机对镁合金基体和膜层的干滑动磨损行为进行研究,运用动电位极化曲线试验和交流阻抗法测量镁合金基体和膜层在3.5% NaCl溶液中的耐蚀性能。结果表明:向电解液中添加纳米SiC后,微弧氧化的起弧电压和终止电压均下降。经纳米SiC复合处理后,微弧氧化膜层的孔径减小,致密性提高;与未添加纳米SiC的膜层相比,其厚度和硬度都得到提升,耐磨性与耐蚀性均增强。

  9. AZ91 D镁合金表面激光熔覆Al-Cu合金的温度场模拟与验证%Simulation and Experimental Verification of Laser Cladding Temperature Field for Al-Cu Alloy on AZ91 D Magnesium Alloy Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱润东; 李志勇; 李晓锡; 孙琪

    2014-01-01

    目的确定AZ91 D镁合金表面激光熔覆Al-Cu合金的最佳工艺参数。方法利用有限元软件ANSYS建立移动高斯热源作用下的温度场三维模型,对不同参数下激光熔覆过程中的温度场进行动态模拟,确定工艺参数。结果熔池中心的温度随着激光功率的增大而增大,随着热源移动速度和光斑直径的增大而减小。温度过高时,熔覆层下塌且内部出现裂纹;温度过低时,熔覆层上有大量的金属颗粒且内部含有夹杂物。结论当功率为240 W、扫描速度为2.5 mm/s、光斑直径为0.6 mm时,熔池中心的温度约为1100℃,熔覆层与基体接触面的温度约为700℃。在此参数下得到了表面成形光滑且与基体结合紧密的致密熔覆层。%ABSTRACT:Objective To get the optimal technological parameters for Al-Cu alloy cladded coatings on AZ91D magnesium alloy prepared by laser cladding. Methods The three-dimensional temperature field model of laser cladding under the moving GUASS heat source was established with ANSYS software. Then, the dynamic simulation of temperature field for laser cladding was conduc-ted under different technological parameters. And the technological parameters were optimized by contrasting the melting point of Al-Cu alloy and the welding pool temperature. Finally, the experimental verification was performed. Results The results showed that the temperature at the center of welding pool increased with the rise of power ( P) while decreased with the rise of the speed ( v) of heat source and the diameter( d) of facula. When the temperature was excessively high, the cladding layer was collapsed and with internal cracks. However, when the temperature was too low, the cladding layer was covered with large amount of metal particles, and there were internal inclusions. Conclusion Under the conditions of P=240 W, v=2. 5 mm/s and d=0. 6 mm, the temperature at the center of welding pool was about 1100 ℃, and the temperature at the

  10. Effect of coolant inhibitors on AZ91D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.M. Baghni; WU Yinshun; ZHANG Wei; LI Jiuqing

    2004-01-01

    The inhibition effects of sodium vanadate along with inorganic coolant inhibitors were examined on corrosion of AZ91D in ASTM D1384-80 corrosive water by polarization measurements. The galvanic corrosion of AZ91D coupled to 3003, 6063, and 356 Al alloys were also tested. An effective combination of inhibitors containing (but not limited to) sodium vanadate, silicate, and nitrate was proposed for inhibition of AZ91D and prevention of galvanic corrosion.

  11. AZ91D镁合金表面不同树脂体系富镁涂层的保护性能%Protection performance of Mg-rich coatings formed by different epoxy resins on AZ91D alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢向雨; 吴静英; 左禹; 郑传波

    2015-01-01

    采用划叉浸泡实验,电化学交流阻抗(electrochemical impedance spectroscopy,EIS),开路电位(open circuit potential,OCP)及动电位扫描研究了不同类型的环氧树脂对于AZ91D镁合金的表面的富镁涂层的保护性能的影响。结果表明环氧618-593构成的富镁涂层防护性能较差;环氧6101-TY650制备的富镁涂层可明显改善涂层对破损处镁合金基体的保护作用,但涂层本身长期防护性能较差;环氧618-T31构成的富镁涂层对AZ91D镁合金的防护作用较强,适宜制备镁合金表面的富镁涂层。3种环氧涂料中加入镁粉颗粒制备的富镁涂层均可对缺陷处裸露的 AZ91D 镁合金基体提供保护,从而延长漆膜的破坏时间。涂层中的镁粉颗粒被激活后,为镁合金的基体提供了一定程度的阴极保护作用,减缓了镁合金基体的腐蚀。%The influence of different types of epoxy resins on protection performance of magnesium-rich coating for AZ91D alloy was studied with scratch testing, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), open circuit potential (OCP) and dynamic potential scanning. The results indicated that Mg-rich coating consisting of epoxy coating 618-593 showed poor protective performance. Magnesium particles in 6101-TY650 epoxy coating could significantly improve the protective effect for magnesium alloy substrate at the coating defects, however, their over the long-term protection performance was poor. Epoxy 618-T31 coating showed strong barrier properties. Then, the Mg-rich primer consisting of epoxy coating 618-T31 had a strong protective effect, indicating that the epoxy coating 618-T31 was suitable for the preparation of Mg-rich coating for AZ91D alloy. For AZ91D alloy, magnesium particles added in three types of epoxy coatings could provide cathodic protection to AZ91D substrate at coatings defects, prolonging the corrosion life of coatings. Meanwhile, magnesium particles were activated to

  12. TiC/AZ91D composites fabricated by in situ reactive infiltration process and its tensile deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ji-jie; GUO Jin-hua; CHEN Li-qing

    2006-01-01

    An innovative processing route was adopted to fabricate 42.1%(volume fraction) TiC/AZ91D magnesium matrix composites. The reinforcement TiC was in situ synthesized from elemental powders of Ti and C and the matrix magnesium alloy AZ91D pressurelessly infiltrated into the preform of Ti and C. A comparative tensile deformation tests were conducted on the as-synthesized TiC/AZ91D composites and magnesium alloy AZ91D. The true strain-stress curves were fitted by Hollomon relation and their failure mechanisms were finally analyzed. The results show that the in situ formed TiC can increase the tensile strength, and is especially effective at elevated temperatures. Theoretical calculation of the strain hardening exponent (n) for TiC/AZ91D composites indicates that the n value ranges from 0.71 to 0.82 when tensile deformation was carried out at 423-723 K and shows fracture with brittle characteristic. However, the n value of 0.11-0.32 obtained for the matrix alloy AZ91D shows typical ductile features at elevated temperatures.

  13. Structure and properties of a duplex coating combining micro-arc oxidation and baking layer on AZ91D Mg alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xue-Jun; Li, Ming-Tian; Yang, Rui-Song; Yu, Zu-Xiao

    2016-02-01

    A duplex coating (called MAOB coating) was fabricated on AZ91D Mg alloy by combining the process of micro-arc oxidation (MAO) with baking coating (B-coating). The structure, composition, corrosion resistance, and tribological behaviour of the coatings were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), electrochemical and long-term immersion test, and ball-on-disc friction test. The results show that a dense 92 μm thick B-coating was tightly deposited onto the MAO-coated Mg alloy and exhibited a good mechanical interlock along the rough interface. Compared with the MAO-coated sample, the corrosion current density of the MAOB-coated Mg alloy decreased by two or three orders of magnitude and no corrosion phenomenon was observed during a long-term immersion test of about 500 h (severe corrosion pits were found for MAO-treated samples after about 168 h of immersion). The frictional coefficient values of the MAOB coating were similar to those of the MAO coating using dry sliding tests, while the B-coating on the MAO-coated surface significantly improved the wear resistance of the AZ91D Mg alloy. All of these results indicate that a B-coating can be used to further protect Mg alloys from corrosion and wear by providing a thick, dense barrier.

  14. Analysis of laser welded joint of microstructure and mechanical properties of dissimilar magnesium AZ31B and AZ91D%AZ31B/AZ91D 异种镁合金激光焊接头组织性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军; 黄飞; 稼海星; 侯继军; 杜赵新

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the microstructure and properties of dissimilar magnesium AZ31B and AZ91D joints welded by CO2 laser using optical microscope,tensile test,microhardness test and etc are presented.The results show that a sound weld can be ob-tained with a laser power of 1 800 W,a welding speed of 600 mm/min and a flow rate of shielding gas of 15 L/min.Analysis of microstructure of welded joint shows that the heat affected zone is not apparent,the growth of the grains in base metal close to the fusion line are not obvious,and the grain size in weld is refined.X-ray diffraction shows that there areα-Mg andβ-Al12 Mg17 phases in the welded zone.EDS analysis shows that the element’s content of Mg,Al in the welded zone are between that of the base metal AZ91D and AZ31B.Tension results show that the fracture is mainly happened on AZ91D,which indicates that the tensile strength of joint is higher than the base metal AZ91D,and the dominant fracture mechanism is brittle fracture.The hard-ness of welded zone is higher than two base metals.%针对 AZ31B 和 AZ91D 异种镁合金材料的激光焊接问题,通过光学显微镜、拉伸试验、显微硬度测试等手段分析研究AZ31B 和 AZ91D 异种镁合金 CO2激光焊接头组织性能。结果表明:在功率为1800 W,焊接速度为600 mm/min,保护气流量为15 L/min 时,可以获得成形良好的焊缝。对焊接接头微观组织进行分析发现,接头热影响区不明显,熔合线附近母材侧晶粒未发生明显长大,焊缝晶粒明显细化;通过 XRD 检测可知焊缝区主要由α-Mg 和β-Al12 Mg17这2相组成;通过 EDS 能谱分析得到焊缝区 Mg、Al 元素的质量分数介于2种母材之间;通过拉伸试验发现,断裂位置位于 AZ91D 母材上,焊接接头抗拉强度高于AZ91D 母材,扫描断口显示断裂方式为脆性断裂;焊缝硬度高于2种母材硬度。

  15. Performance of Semi-solid Slurry Produced by Twin-screw Stirring Mixer and Rheo-diecasting Process of AZ91D Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Ze-hui; LUO Ji-rong; WU Shu-sen; LI Dong-nan

    2004-01-01

    The microstructure of semi-solid slurry of AZ91D alloy, which was produced by twin-screw stirring mixer under the different parameters, was investigated.Rheoforming by cold chamber die casting process was performed thereafter. The results indicate that with decreasing of the barrel temperature of the mixer and the pouring temperature of molten Mg alloy, the solid fraction of semi-solid slurry increases and the size of non-dendritic grains becomes smaller. While the shear rate increases, the solid fraction of semi-solid slurry decreases. The tensile strength and elongation of metal rheoformed by die casting are higher by about 37% and 44% respectively than those produced by conventional liquid die casting.

  16. Structure and corrosion resistance of ZrO{sub 2} ceramic coatings on AZ91D Mg alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Zhongping, E-mail: yaozhongping@hit.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology Harbin 150001 (China); Postdoctoral Station of Chemistry Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Xu Yongjun; Liu Yunfu; Wang Dali; Jiang Zhaohua; Wang Fuping [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology Harbin 150001 (China)

    2011-08-18

    Highlights: > The ZrO{sub 2} ceramic coatings on AZ91D Mg alloys was prepared in tripolyphosphate and fluorozirconate solution. > The double-layer structure with the loose and porous outer layer and the compact inner layer was analyzed by SEM and EIS technique > The polarization resistance obtained from the equivalent circuit of the EIS was consistent with the results of the polarizing curves tests. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to study the structure and the corrosion resistance of the plasma electrolytic oxidation ZrO{sub 2} ceramic coatings on Mg alloys. The ceramic coatings were prepared on AZ91D Mg alloy in Na{sub 5}P{sub 3}O{sub 10} and K{sub 2}ZrF{sub 6} solution by pulsed single-polar plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). The phase composition, morphology and element distribution in the coating were investigated by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and energy distribution spectroscopy, respectively. The results show that the coating thickness and surface roughness were increased with the increase of the reaction time. The ceramic coatings were of double-layer structure with the loose and porous outer layer and the compact inner layer. And the coating was composed of P, Zr, Mg and K, of which P and Zr were the main elements in the coating. P in the coating existed in the form of amorphous state, while Zr crystallized in the form of t-ZrO{sub 2} and a little c-ZrO{sub 2} in the coating. Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) and the polarizing curve tests of the coatings were measured through CHI604 electrochemical analyzer in 3.5% NaCl solution to evaluate the corrosion resistance. The polarization resistance obtained from the equivalent circuit of the EIS was consistent with the results of the polarizing curves tests.

  17. Analysis and Research on Thickness of Micro-Arc Oxidation Film in AZ91D Magnesium Alloy Based on the Electrical Parameters%基于电参数的AZ91 D镁合金微弧氧化膜层厚度分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾金龙

    2014-01-01

    根据镁合金微弧氧化微区电弧放电机理、微弧氧化的三个阶段理论,并根据实验中出现的,保持电压恒定时,在微弧氧化处理初期电流不断下降,后期电流保持稳定或微升这一现象,拟合出负载阻抗随时间变化的三次方程,从而实现了在实验过程中的膜层厚度监测,具有一定的工程应用价值。%Based on the micro-discharge mechanism of micro-arc oxidation (MAO) of magnesium alloys and the three-stage theory of micro-arc oxidation, and according to the phenomenon occurred in experiments, which is, while a constant voltage is maintained, current keeps declining at the beginning of micro-arc oxidation and be stable or increases slightly at the later mi-cro-arc oxidation, a time-varying load impedance cubic equation is fitted out, thus the film thickness monitoring during ex-periments could be realized, and it has a certain value in engineering.

  18. Uniformity and continuity of effective strain in AZ91D processed by multi-pass equal channel angular extrusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-hua; LUO Shou-jing; DU Zhi-ming

    2008-01-01

    AZ91D magnesium alloy was processed by equal channel angular extrusion(ECAE). The influence of extrusion temperature, extrusion pass and extrusion route on the ultimate strength of the extruded billet was analyzed. The process of multi-pass extrusion was simulated with the method of finite element analysis, and the continuity and uniformity of effective strain in multi-pass extrusion were investigated. The results show that extrusion pass plays the most important role in improving the ultimate strength of AZ91D magnesium alloy, the extrusion route is the second, and the extrusion temperature is the last. From the numerical simulation, there exists the continuity of the accumulated deformation in multi-pass extrusion and the effective strain increases linearly. The tendency of the strain uniformity is different in multi-pass extrusion with extrusion routes. The results of experiment agree with those of numerical simulation.

  19. Research on Secondary Remelting Microstructures and Isothermal Compression of Al2O3sf/AZ91D-Y Magnesium-based Composite%Al2O3sf/AZ91D-Y镁基复合材料二次重熔及等温压缩研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁美琪; 付志强

    2010-01-01

    为了推动半固态加工在镁基复合材料成形中的应用,采用液态浸渗法制备出体积分数为10%的Al2O3sf/AZ91D-Y镁基复合材料,并采用等径道角挤压对镁基复合材料进行了形变诱导.再对镁基复合材料进行了二次重熔,并采用等温压缩实验对镁基复合材料在半固态下的力学性能进行了研究.研究表明:在550 ℃和560 ℃时延长保温时间有利于组织的球化,在560 ℃比550 ℃时,更加能促进晶粒的结晶球化;在相同的应变速率下,压缩变形时的峰值应力随着加热温度升高而降低;在相同的加热温度下,应变速率越大,峰值应力越大.

  20. Steady State Rheological Characteristic of Semisolid Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Isothermal compressive experiments at different temperatures, strain rates and holding time for semisolid AZ91D, Zr modified AZ91D and MB15 alloy with higher solid volume fraction were carried out by using Gleeble-15000 simulator and the true stress-strain curves were given directly. The relationship of apparent viscosity vs temperature, shear rate and holding time of the three kinds of semi-solid magnesium alloys, as well as isothermal steady state rheological characteristic and mechanical behavior were studied. The results show that the three magnesium alloys had the characteristic of shear-thinning. The rheological characteristic of the semi-solid MB15 is different from that of semi-solid AZ91D. The semi-solid MB15 has higher apparent viscosity and deformation resistance.

  1. Fabrication of anticorrosive multilayer onto magnesium alloy substrates via spin-assisted layer-by-layer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy, we reported a novel approach for the fabrication of anticorrosive multilayers onto AZ91D substrates. The multilayers were composed of poly(ethylene imine) (PEI), poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ). They were deposited onto AZ91D substrates via a spin-assisted layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. The multilayered structure was stabilized with glutaraldehyde (GA) as crossing linker. It was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Surface morphologies and elemental compositions of the formed anticorrosive multilayers were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. The corrosion performance of the multilayer coated AZ91D substrates was characterized by hydrogen evolution. The results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization measurements suggested that the multilayered coating improved the corrosion resistance of AZ91D substrates. In vitro study revealed that the multilayered coating was cytocompatible. The study provides a potential alternative for the fabrication of corrosion resistant magnesium alloy-based implants. Highlights: → Corrosion protective multilayers have been constructed onto AZ91D substrates via layer by layer technique. → The multilayered structured containing 8-hydroxyquinoline highly improves the corrosion resistance of AZ91D substrates. → The novel multilayered coating is potentially important for developing corrosion resistant magnesium alloy-based implants.

  2. Combined Effect of Long Processing Time and Na2SiF6 on the Properties of PEO Coatings Formed on AZ91D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Zeeshan Ur; Koo, Bon Heun

    2016-08-01

    In this study, protective ceramic coatings were prepared on AZ91D magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) to improve the corrosion and mechanical properties of AZ91D magnesium alloy. The process was conducted in silicate-fluoride-based electrolyte solution. It was found that the average micro-hardness of the coating was significantly increased with an increase in the PEO processing time. The highest value of the average micro-hardness ~1271.2 HV was recorded for 60-min processing time. The phase analysis of the coatings indicated that they were mainly composed of Mg2SiO4, MgO, and MgF2 phases. The surface and cross-sectional study demonstrated that porosity was largely reduced with processing time, together with the change in pore geometry from irregular to spherical shape. The results of the polarization test in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution revealed that aggressive corrosion took place for 5-min sample; however, the corrosion current was noticeably decreased to 0.43 × 10-7 A/cm2 for the 60-min-coated sample. The superior nobility and hardness for long processing time are suggested to be due to the dense and highly thick coating, coupled with the presence of MgF2 phase.

  3. Corrosion behavior of WE54 magnesium alloy in 3.5%NaCl solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhuo-qun; SHAN Da-yong; CHEN Rong-shi; KE Wei; HAN En-hou

    2006-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of WE54 magnesium alloy was investigated in 3.5%NaCl aqueous solution. The electrochemical study shows that the value of corrosion potential of WE54 magnesium was -1.8V(vs SCE). In the initial stage of immersion, a kind of visible thin film, which has the appearance of artificial conversion coating by microscopy observation, formed on the surface of WE54 alloy. Through the comparison of corrosion behavior between WE54 and AZ91D, it is shown that the value of corrosion potential of WE54 is approximately 200 mV lower than that of AZ91D, and the corrosion rate of WE54 was one order smaller than that of AZ91D. After 72 h constant immersion and corrosion products removal, deeper grooves along grain boundaries was revealed but lighter corrosion was apparent on the matrix of WE54 alloy. As far as AZ91D alloy was concerned, severe localized corrosion was dominant and network-bone-like structure was remained.

  4. Electroless Ni-P Deposition on Magnesium Alloy from a Sulfate Bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guangyu; NIU Liyuan; JIANG Qing; JIANG Zhonghao; LIAN Jianshe

    2008-01-01

    A technology for electroless Ni-P deposition on AZ91D from a low cost plating bath containing sulfate nickel was proposed.The seal pretreatment was employed before the electroless Ni-P deposition for the sake of occluding the micro holes of the cast magnesium alloy and interdicting the bubble formation in the Ni-P coating during plating process.And pickling pretreatment can provide a better adhesion between the Ni-P deposition and AZ91D substrate.The deposition speed of the Ni-P coating is 29 um/h.The technology is employed to AZ91D magnesium alloy automobile parts and can provide high hardness and high wear-resistant.The weight losses of Ni-P plated and heat-treated Ni-P plated magnesium alloy specimen are only about I/6 and 1/10 that of bare magnesium alloy specimen after l0 min abrasion wear,respectively.The hardness of the electroless Ni-P plated brake pedal support brackets is 674.1 VHN and 935.7 VHN after 2 hours heat treatments at 180 C.The adhesion of Ni-P coatings on magnesium alloy substrates meets the demands of ISO Standards 2819.The technology is environment friendly and cannot cause hazard to environment because of absence of chromate in the whole process.

  5. Preparation of semi-solid billet of magnesium alloy and its thixoforming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ju-fu; LUO Shou-jing

    2007-01-01

    Preparation of semi-solid billet of magnesium alloy and thixoforming was investigated by applying equal channel angular extrusion to magnesium alloy. The results show that mechanical properties of AZ91D alloy at room temperature, such as yield strength(YS), ultimate tensile strength(UTS) and elongation, are enhanced greatly by four-pass equal channel angular extrusion(ECAE) at 573 K and microstructure of AZ91D alloy is refined to the average grain size of 20 μm. Through using ECAE as strain induced step in SIMA and completing melt activated step by semi-solid isothermal treatment, semi-solid billet with fine spheroidal grains of 25 μm can be prepared successfully. Compared with common SIMA, thixoformed satellite angle frame components using semi-solid billet prepared by new SIMA have higher mechanical properties at room temperature and high temperature of 373 K.

  6. Numerical simulation of die filling behavior of AZ91D in the semisolid process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Guanglei

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, numerical simulation of the die filling and solidification process of AZ91D semisolid alloy was investigated to produce a thin walled connecting rod demanding a high dimensional precision. The Carreau viscosity model was implemented to simulate the flow behavior of semisolid slurry during the filling. The fitted constants for the Carreau model were used to verify the simulation results. The predicted results from this model were in good agreement with the experimental results. Then the verified Carreau model was designed to predict die filling, casting defects and casting process. It was found that the predicted results had a good correlation with those in the experiment. The optimum parameters were obtained with a slurry temperature of 590 ℃, a die temperature of 250 ℃ and an injection velocity of 2 m/s.

  7. AZ91D镁合金板材电脉冲轧制工艺研究%Research on electrostimulated rolling of AZ91D magnesium alloy plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎峰云; 黄旺; 杨群英; 程从德

    2010-01-01

    利用自主研发的电脉冲轧制设备,对AZ91D镁合金板材进行了电脉冲轧制实验,证明了AZ91D镁合金具有一定的可轧性,并获得了合适的工艺参数.对高能电脉冲和轧制力共同作用下AZ91板材变形量、力学性能及微观组织的变化机理进行了分析,并与常规轧制进行了比较.结果表明,由于电塑性效应的影响,与常规轧制相比,道次累计变形量达到了40%,显微组织变化明显,晶粒明显细化,晶粒和晶界明显拉长,抗拉强度等力学性能有显著提高.

  8. Influence of Cooling Rate on Microsegregation Behavior of Magnesium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Imran Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cooling rate on microstructure and microsegregation of three commercially important magnesium alloys was investigated using Wedge (V-shaped castings of AZ91D, AM60B, and AE44 alloys. Thermocouples were distributed to measure the cooling rate at six different locations of the wedge casts. Solute redistribution profiles were drawn based on the chemical composition analysis obtained by EDS/WDS analysis. Microstructural and morphological features such as dendrite arm spacing and secondary phase particle size were analyzed using both optical and scanning electron microscopes. Dendritic arm spacing and secondary phase particle size showed an increasing trend with decreasing cooling rate for the three alloys. Area percentage of secondary phase particles decreased with decreasing cooling rate for AE44 alloy. The trend was different for AZ91D and AM60B alloys, for both alloys, area percentage of β-Mg17Al12 increased with decreasing cooling rate up to location 4 and then decreased slightly. The tendency for microsegregation was more severe at slower cooling rates, possibly due to prolonged back diffusion. At slower cooling rate, the minimum concentration of aluminum at the dendritic core was lower compared to faster cooled locations. The segregation deviation parameter and the partition coefficient were calculated from the experimentally obtained data.

  9. Characterization and Properties of Micro-arc Composite Ceramic Coatings on Magnesium Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Long; Jiang, Bailing; Ge, Yanfeng; Nyberg, Eric A.; Liu, Ming

    2013-05-21

    Magnesium alloys are of growing interest for many industrial applications due to their favorable strength-to-weight ratio and excellent cast ability. However, one of the limiting factors in the use of magnesium on production vehicles is its poor corrosion resistance. Micro-arc Composite Ceramic (MCC) coatings on AZ91D magnesium alloys were prepared in combination with Micro-arc Oxidation (MAO) and electrophoresis technologies. The microstructure, corrosion resistance, abrasion resistance, stone impact resistance, thermal shock resistance and adhesion of MCC coating were studied, respectively. The surface and cross-section morphologies of MAO and MCC coating showed that the outer organic coating filled the holes on the surface of the MAO coating. It acted as a shelter on the MAO coating surface when the MCC coatings were exposed to corrosive environments. The corrosion resistance of the MCC coating was characterized by a copper-accelerated acetic acid salt spray test. The testing results showed that the creep back from scribe lines was less than 1mm and completely fit the evaluation standard. The composite structure of the MCC coating vastly improved the corrosion resistance of Mg alloys. According to testing standards, the resistance to abrasion, stone impact resistance, thermal shock resistance and adhesion of MCC coatings completely met the evaluation standard requirements. The MCC coated AZ91D magnesium alloys possessed excellent properties; this is a promising corrosion and wear resistance surface treatment technology on magnesium alloys for production vehicles.

  10. Surface modification of magnesium alloys by laser alloying using Si powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, K.; Suzuki, A.; Takagi, T.; Kamado, S.; Kojima, Y. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka Univ. of Technology (Japan); Hiraga, H. [Foundation Juridical Person Central Niigata Prefecture Regional Industries Promotion Center, Sanjou, Niigata (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    The surface modification of AZ91D magnesium alloy by laser alloying in which powder injection method was used for the purpose of improving the wear resistance of the alloy is evaluated. silicon powder was used as the feeding powder. The silicon powder reacts easily with molten magnesium to form fine Mg{sub 2}Si compound in the modified layer. The wear resistance of the modified layer consisting of magnesium solid solution and Mg{sub 2}Si compound was evaluated by conducting pin-on-plate type sliding test, and a satisfactory result is obtained. However, with large powder feeding rate and large amount of heat input by laser, a hard and brittle Mg-Al intermetallic compound crystallize so much in the matrix, resulting in the flaking of harder Mg{sub 2}Si compound. Consequently, the Mg{sub 2}Si compound drops out easily and the wear depth increases by ternary abrasive wear. (orig.)

  11. A study of weldability and fracture modes in electron beam weldments of AZ series magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, C.-T. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China) and System Manufacturing Center, Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology, PO Box 90008-14, Sanxia 237, Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: joseph.mse92g@nctu.edu.tw; Chao, C.-G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: c_g_chao@hotmail.com; Liu, T.-F. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: coe@cc.nctu.edu.tw; Wang, C.-C. [Graduate School of Industrial Design and Architecture, Shih-Chien University, Taipei 104, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: zcwang@mail.usc.edu.tw

    2006-11-05

    Given the growing need for environmental protection and lightweight construction, electron beam welding (EBW) is becoming the most important welding technology because it can compensate for the poor formability of magnesium alloys. This paper examines interactions between the properties of three AZ series magnesium alloys and welding conditions. The EBW process can yield four kinds of defect in a weld: cavities, the heat-affected zone (HAZ), undercuts, and root concavities. These defects obviously induce stress concentrations in the weld, and may seriously damage its strength. Additionally, the distribution of precipitates ({gamma} phase, Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12}) in the fusion zone (FZ) changes from a relatively small number of scattered particles to a dense population of dendrites as the Al content of the magnesium alloy increases. Under excessive tensile stress, alloy weldments break in one of two fracture modes: an irregular FZ fracture, or a regular HAZ fracture. AZ31B usually exhibits the former mode and AZ91D the latter, while AZ61A exhibits each mode half the time. The overall weldability, which depends on the random distribution of these precipitates and defects, is found to be greatest for the AZ61A alloy. The best process window, on the other hand, is found for the AZ91D alloy. Finally, we obtain optimum parameters for the EBW process and empirical formulae for the weldment strength as a function of these parameters. These results are closely related to each other.

  12. Purifying effect of new flux on magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高洪涛; 吴国华; 丁文江; 朱燕萍

    2004-01-01

    A new flux which can remove both Fe and non-metallic inclusions in magnesium alloy was introduced.The Fe content of the magnesium alloy can be decreased greatly from 0. 062% to lower than 0. 005% (degree of AZ91D) after being purified by this new flux. The optimum addition of B2O3 in the flux is 0. 58 % by Gaussian Curve Fitting. Corrosion rate was measured after the specimen being immersed in 5 % NaCl solution for 3 d. The resuits show that the corrosion rate of the magnesium alloy after purification by the new flux is only 0.3 mg · cm-2 ·d-1. On the other hand, non-metallic inclusions in the magnesium alloy decrease with increasing addition of JDMJ in the new flux. Average volume fraction of the non-metallic inclusions in the magnesium alloy decreases from 1.52 % to 1.08%, which leads to improvement in the mechanical properties of the magnesium alloy by 30%. The mechanisms of Fe reduction and non-metallic inclusion-removing in magnesium melt by purification with the new flux were also revealed.

  13. Electrochemical deposition of Mg(OH)2/GO composite films for corrosion protection of magnesium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Fengxia Wu; Jun Liang; Weixue Li

    2015-01-01

    Mg(OH)2/graphene oxide (GO) composite film was electrochemical deposited on AZ91D magnesium alloys at constant potential. The characteristics of the Mg(OH)2/GO composite film were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. It was shown that the flaky GO randomly distributed in the composite film. Compared with the Mg(OH)2 film, the Mg(OH)2/GO composite film exhibited more uniform and compac...

  14. Review of studies on corrosion of magnesium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Rong-chang; ZHANG jin; HUANG Wei-jiu; W. DIETZEL; K. U. KAINER; C. BLAWERT; KE Wei

    2006-01-01

    This review provided some recent progress of the research on corrosion mechanisms of magnesium and its alloys and a basis for follow-on research. Galvanic corrosion,pitting corrosion,intergranular corrosion (IGC),filiform corrosion,crevice corrosion,stress corrosion cracking (SCC),and corrosion fatigue (CF) were discussed. The influence of metallurgical factors such as alloying elements,microstructure and secondary phases,processing factors such as heat treatment and weld,and environmental factors including temperature,relative humidity,solution pH values and concentration on corrosion were discussed. In particular,a mechanism of pitting corrosion caused by AlMn particles was proposed. The corrosion properties of AZ91D weld material were investigated.

  15. AZ91D半固态坯料的等温压缩变形研究%Isothermal Compression Deformation of AZ91D Semisolid Billets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹富荣; 管仁国; 邢振环

    2011-01-01

    AZ91D semisolid billets were prepared by a self-designed wavelike sloping plate device. Mechanical behavior and microstructure evolution of isothermal compression deformation in AZ91D semisolid billets have been studied using a Gleeble1500 thermal simulation machine and optical microscopy. When deformation temperature was constant, true stress increased with increasing strain rate; when strain rate was constant, true stress decreased with increasing deformation temperature. The deformation mechanisms of AZ91D alloy were quasi-elastic deformation during isothermal compression and phase interface sliding under thermal activation. The microstructures of isothermal compression of AZ91D semisolid billets consist of globular and near-globular grains that are caused by the round-grinding of a-Mg grains under shear stress and Ostwald ripening under surface tension.%采用自行设计的波浪型倾斜板装置制备了AZ91D半固态坯料.利用Gleeblel500热模拟实验机和光学显微镜对AZ91D半固态坯料等温压缩变形力学行为和组织演变进行了研究.结果表明:在变形温度相同的情况下,随应变速率的增加,真应力增大;随变形速率的降低,真应力减小;在应变速率相同的情况下,随变形温度的增加,真应力减小.随变形温度的降低,真应力增大.AZ91D半固态坯料等温压缩的变形机制为准弹性变形机制和热激活条件下的相界面滑动变形机制.AZ91D半固态坯料等温压缩变形的组织为球形和近球形晶粒,剪切应力作用下的α-Mg晶粒磨圆和表面张力作用下的Ostwald熟化是获得球形和近球形组织的原因.

  16. Electrochemical deposition and characterization of Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) films on magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Fengxia; Liang, Jun, E-mail: jliang@licp.cas.cn; Peng, Zhenjun; Liu, Baixing

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Zn-Al LDHs film was prepared on AZ91D Mg alloy by electrochemical deposition. • The Zn-Al LDHs film was uniform and dense with some small flaws and cracks. • The Zn-Al LDHs film had high adhesion and good corrosion protection to Mg alloy. - Abstract: A zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (Zn-Al LDHs) film was prepared on AZ91D magnesium (Mg) alloy substrate by electrochemical deposition method. The characteristics of the film were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). It was found that the electrodeposited film was composed of crystalline Zn-Al LDHs with nitrate intercalation. The Zn-Al LDHs film was uniform and dense though there also presented some small flaws and cracks. The cross cut tape test showed that the film adhered well to the substrate. Polarization and EIS measurements revealed that the LDHs coated Mg alloy had better corrosion resistance compared to that of the uncoated one in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution, indicating that the Zn-Al LDHs film could effectively protect Mg alloy from corrosion.

  17. Characterization of oxide films formed on magnesium alloys using bipolar pulse microarc oxidation in phosphate solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-shi; CAI Qi-zhou; WEI Bo-kang; LIU Quan-xin

    2005-01-01

    The surface morphology and chemical composition of the oxide films formed on pure magnesium and AZ91D alloy in aqueous electrolytes which contained sodium hexafluorinealuminate(Na3 AlF6), potassium hydroxide (KOH), sodium hexametahposphate ((NaPO3)6), and triethanolamine were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope(SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy(EDX). The results show that the input of the negative pulse has great influences on the quantity and the appearance of the microdischarges. Three types of pores can be distinguished on the surface of the oxide film and their size ranges are 0.5 - 1 μm, 1 -2μm and 4- 7 μm, respectively. A few microcracks are seen around the large pores. There exists a remarkable fluorideenriched zone of about 4 -6 μm for pure magnesium and 3 -5 μm for AZ91D alloy at the coating/substrate interface.

  18. New Technique of Casting-rolling Strips for Semi-solid Magnesium Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuisheng XIE; Maopeng GENG; Xinmin ZHOU; Ying ZHANG; Songyang ZHANG; Yanchun WANG; Guojie HUANG

    2005-01-01

    The conjugation of semi-solid process technique and casting-rolling technique applied to produce the magnesium strips was studied. The semi-solid slurry hasbeen prepared continuously by the mechanical method and its temperature was controlled strictly at the same time. AZ91D and AZ31 casting magnesium alloys were applied to the experiment.The casting-rolling strips with non-dendritic structure were obtained and its main mechanical property is better. The process ability of the casting-rolling strips was studied. It is significative to link the semi-solid process techniques and casting-rolling techniques, through which we can get high quality magnesium alloy strips with non- dendritic structure and improve the overall properties of the products.

  19. Biocorrosion resistance of coated magnesium alloy by microarc oxidation in electrolyte containing zirconium and calcium salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ming; Guo, Jun-Wei; Wu, Yun-Feng; Liu, Yan; Cao, Jian-Yun; Zhou, Yu; Jia, De-Chang

    2014-09-01

    The key to use magnesium alloys as suitable biodegradable implants is how to adjust their degradation rates. We report a strategy to prepare biocompatible ceramic coating with improved biocorrosion resistance property on AZ91D alloy by microarc oxidation (MAO) in a silicate-K2ZrF6 solution with and without Ca(H2PO4)2 additives. The microstructure and biocorrosion of coatings were characterized by XRD and SEM, as well as electrochemical and immersion tests in simulated body fluid (SBF). The results show that the coatings are mainly composed of MgO, Mg2SiO4, m-ZrO2 phases, further Ca containing compounds involve the coating by Ca(H2PO4)2 addition in the silicate-K2ZrF6 solution. The corrosion resistance of coated AZ91D alloy is significantly improved compared with the bare one. After immersing in SBF for 28 d, the Si-Zr5-Ca0 coating indicates a best corrosion resistance performance.

  20. Microstructure and corrosion resistance of phytic acid conversion coatings for magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a new innoxious and pollution-free chemical protective coating for magnesium alloys, phytic acid conversion coating, was prepared. The conversion coatings are found to have high cover ratio and no cracks are found by atomic force microscopes (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The main elements of the conversion coatings are Mg, Al, O, P and C by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The chemical state of the elements in the coatings was also investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). AES depth profile analysis suggests that the thickness of the conversion coating is about 340 nm. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was evaluated by polarization curves. The results indicate that the corrosion resistance for the conversion coated AZ91D magnesium alloys in 3.5% NaCl solution increases markedly. The mechanisms of corrosion resistance and coatings formation are also discussed.

  1. Microstructure and corrosion resistance of phytic acid conversion coatings for magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiufang; Li, Qingfen; Li, Ying; Wang, Fuhui; Jin, Guo; Ding, Minghui

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, a new innoxious and pollution-free chemical protective coating for magnesium alloys, phytic acid conversion coating, was prepared. The conversion coatings are found to have high cover ratio and no cracks are found by atomic force microscopes (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The main elements of the conversion coatings are Mg, Al, O, P and C by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The chemical state of the elements in the coatings was also investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). AES depth profile analysis suggests that the thickness of the conversion coating is about 340 nm. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was evaluated by polarization curves. The results indicate that the corrosion resistance for the conversion coated AZ91D magnesium alloys in 3.5% NaCl solution increases markedly. The mechanisms of corrosion resistance and coatings formation are also discussed.

  2. Microstructure and corrosion resistance of phytic acid conversion coatings for magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui Xiufang [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li Qingfen [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Li Ying; Wang Fuhui [State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Jin Guo [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)], E-mail: jg97721@yahoo.com.cn; Ding Minghui [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2008-12-30

    In this paper, a new innoxious and pollution-free chemical protective coating for magnesium alloys, phytic acid conversion coating, was prepared. The conversion coatings are found to have high cover ratio and no cracks are found by atomic force microscopes (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The main elements of the conversion coatings are Mg, Al, O, P and C by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The chemical state of the elements in the coatings was also investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). AES depth profile analysis suggests that the thickness of the conversion coating is about 340 nm. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was evaluated by polarization curves. The results indicate that the corrosion resistance for the conversion coated AZ91D magnesium alloys in 3.5% NaCl solution increases markedly. The mechanisms of corrosion resistance and coatings formation are also discussed.

  3. 新SIMA法制备AZ91D镁合金半固态坯%Preparing Semi-solid Billet of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy by New SIMA Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜巨福; 罗守靖; 单巍巍

    2005-01-01

    借助于等径道角挤压试验、镦粗试验、半固态等温处理等试验方法,并利用金相显微镜、SEM等试验分析设备,对原始铸坯、镦粗和等径道角挤压3种加工状态的AZ91D镁合金在等温处理过程中的微观组织演变进行了研究.通过与原始铸坯直接等温处理和镦粗后等温处理生成的半固态坯的微观组织作比较,提出了新SIMA制备AZ91D镁合金半固态坯方法.新SIMA法制备的半固态坯料的微观组织均匀,晶粒球化程度好,晶粒细小,平均晶粒尺寸在20~50 μm之间.随着保温时间的延长,新SIMA法制备半固态坯料的微观组织有长大的现象,其可用Ostwald熟化理论描述.随着等温处理温度的升高,晶粒的尺寸先增加后减小,形状系数接近1.随着材料在ECAE中获得的等效应变的增加,半固态坯料的晶粒尺寸减小.

  4. Application of Equal Channel Angular Extrusion to Semi-solid Processing of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy%等径道角挤压在AZ91D镁合金半固态加工中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜巨福; 罗守靖; 邹经湘

    2006-01-01

    将等径道角挤压工艺(ECAE)应用为应变诱导-熔化激活(SIMA)中的应变诱导工序,并且利用半固态等温处理对ECAE挤压的材料实现熔化激活,提出新SIMA制备AZ91D镁合金半固态坯方法.研究结果表明,新SIMA法制备的AZ91D半固态坯的微观组织均匀、晶粒球化程度好、晶粒细小,平均晶粒尺寸在20 μm左右.新SIMA法所制备的半固态坯料半固态触变模锻成形的托弹板的力学性能高,其抗拉强度达到293.5 MPa,延伸率达到14.28%.

  5. 形变AZ91D镁合金重熔过程中共晶激活能研究%Eutectic Melting Activity Energy of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy by SIMA Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王武孝; 邢建东

    2008-01-01

    采用DSC技术研究了SIMA法制备半固态AZ91D镁合金坯料过程中形变率与共晶熔化激活能的关系.结果表明:形变AZ91D镁合金内部存在位错、孪晶缺陷,合金的共晶熔化激活能随变形率的增大而变小,当形变率达到40%时,共晶熔化激活能下降很少;共晶熔化开始温度随变形率的增大略有下降.

  6. AZ91D镁合金托弹板半固态触变模锻研究%Research on thixoforging of magazime plate of AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜巨福; 王迎; 罗守靖; 邹经湘; 孙毅

    2007-01-01

    为了掌握半固态触变模锻中工艺参数对成形零件的微观组织和力学性能的影响规律,借助拉伸试验机和金相显微镜对AZ91D镁合金托弹板的半固态触变模锻过程进行了研究.AZ91D镁合金半固态坯料分别采用传统SIMA法和新SIMA法制备.结果表明:压力对托弹板零件的充型过程有很大影响,当压力为500 kN,托弹板零件充型不满;当压力为2000 kN,托弹板零件充型良好.坯料加热温度和保温时间对托弹板零件的力学性能有一定影响.当压力为2000 kN,模具预热温度为450 ℃,坯料在545 ℃保温20 min时,新SIMA法制备的半固态坯半固态触变模锻成形的托弹板零件获得最佳的力学性能.与传统SIMA法相比,新SIMA法制备的半固态坯成形的托弹板零件的室温力学性能和100℃的高温力学性有很大提高.

  7. SIMA法制备AZ91D镁合金非枝晶组织锭料%Fabrication of magnesium alloy AZ91D ingot with non-dendrites structure using SIMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元东; 郝远; 阎峰云

    2002-01-01

    研究了利用应变诱发熔体激活法SIMA(Strain-Induced Melt Activation)制备AZ91D镁合金半固态非枝晶时的组织转变过程.实验结果表明:具有树枝晶形态的AZ91D合金经20%及30%的预变形后,在半固态升温(540~580 ℃)或保温(570 ℃)过程中,其组织形貌由粗化的等轴晶及短树枝晶依次转变为小块状细晶粒→团块状→球状大晶粒.另外,在等温热处理过程中,试样内部体系寻求能量最低状态也是组织转变的一个不可忽略的因素.与未预变形的合金制备的非枝晶组织相比较,经预变形处理的试样是较好的半固态成型材料.

  8. AZ91D合金SIMA形变组织与共晶熔化激活能的研究%Deformed Microstructure and the Eutectic Melting Activity En-ergy of AZ91D Magnesium Alloy by SIMA Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王武孝; 程健杰; 蒋百灵; 袁森; 介万奇

    2005-01-01

    研究了SIMA法制备半固态AZ91D镁合金坯料过程中形变率对形变组织的影响, 并采用DSC技术研究了形变率与共晶熔化激活能的关系.结果表明:随着形变率的增大,合金的原始组织由树枝晶演变为碎块晶,晶粒内存在位错、孪晶缺陷;合金的共晶熔化激活能随形变率的增大而变小,当形变率达到40%时,共晶熔化激活能下降很少;共晶熔化开始温度随形变率的增大略有下降.

  9. Structure Analysis of Oxidation Film on Ignition-Proof AZ91D Magnesium Alloy Added with Cerium%AZ91D加铈阻燃镁合金氧化膜结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓锋; 周宏; 何镇明

    2002-01-01

    研究了铈对AZ91D镁合金起燃温度的影响. 结果表明: 起燃温度随着铈添加量的增加而增加. 添加1%的铈, 起燃温度提高约180 ℃, 可直接暴露在大气中熔炼镁合金. 利用X射线衍射(XRD)和俄歇电子衍射(AES)观察了表面膜的化学成分及结构. XRD分析表明, 镁合金的表面膜基体金属原来的MgO疏松结构转变为由MgO, Ce2O3, Al2O3及Mg17Al12组成的复合致密结构, 具有很好的阻燃效果. AES表面膜深度剖析发现: 加铈以后, 表面膜可以分为3个层, 由外向内依次分为氧化镁层、中间致密复合层和内层. 通过热力学分析, 认为表面膜的这种结构与自由能的变化及液态镁合金表面镁的高蒸汽压有关.

  10. Computer Simulation on Filling and Solidification Process of Antigravity Casting of AZ91D Magnesium Alloys%AZ91D镁合金反重力铸造充型及凝固过程计算机模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严力; 王猛; 刘文锋; 黄卫东

    2006-01-01

    给出了AZ91D镁合金的相关热物性参数,采用ProCAST铸造模拟软件对镁合金力学试棒反重力铸造充型与凝固过程进行了模拟,并通过反重力铸造工艺实验对模拟结果进行了验证.结果表明:铸造模拟软件ProCAST可用于镁合金铸件反重力铸造充型及凝固过程的模拟,能够提供较为准确的流场、温度场等信息,实现缺陷及其位置的预测.

  11. Research on Production Control of High Purity AZ91D Magnesium Alloy in Bionic Inlay Casting Process%仿生镶嵌铸造用高纯度AZ91D镁合金生产控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万元元; 樊富友; 陈明; 程远胜

    2013-01-01

    以生产镁合金/钢仿生镶嵌铸造件用高纯净度AZ91D镁合金为出发点,从原材料及辅料的选择和检验、镁合金熔体保护方式及合金精炼方法、合金熔体夹杂物炉前检测控制等方面着手,通过设计坩埚内保护气体释放装置、炉前断口试样模具及断口判别方法等手段,总结出了用于生产镁合金/钢仿生镶嵌铸造件的高纯净度AZ91D镁合金品质控制方法.

  12. Electrochemical deposition of Mg(OH2/GO composite films for corrosion protection of magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxia Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mg(OH2/graphene oxide (GO composite film was electrochemical deposited on AZ91D magnesium alloys at constant potential. The characteristics of the Mg(OH2/GO composite film were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS, X-ray diffractometer (XRD and Raman spectroscopy. It was shown that the flaky GO randomly distributed in the composite film. Compared with the Mg(OH2 film, the Mg(OH2/GO composite film exhibited more uniform and compact structure. Potentiodynamic polarization tests revealed that the Mg(OH2/GO composite film could significantly improve the corrosion resistance of Mg(OH2 film with an obvious positive shift of corrosion potential by 0.19 V and a dramatic reduction of corrosion current density by more than one order of magnitude.

  13. Nanoparticle Capture During Directional Solidification of Nano-Sized SiC Particle-Reinforced AZ91D Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiaobo; Liu, Hongchang; Li, Wenzhen; Gao, Weiming; Li, Qiushu

    2015-05-01

    The capture/push behavior of a particle in front of a solidification interface was analyzed theoretically and experimentally in this work. Van der Waals force, viscous force, and force due to interfacial energy played important roles in the particle capture/push process. Directional solidification experiments were conducted with nano-sized SiC particle-reinforced AZ91D composites to observe the distribution of nanoparticles in different solidification morphologies under varied cooling rates. When the composite solidified with plane manner, the nanoparticles could be captured by the solidification front and distributed uniformly in the matrix. When solidified with columnar or equiaxial manners, the nanoparticles could be captured by the solidification front but distributed uniformly only in the grain boundary as a result of the difference in interfacial energy and wettability between SiC/α-Mg and SiC/eutectic phase. Theoretical prediction of particle capture was in agreement with the experiment results.

  14. Preparation and characterization of the micro-arc oxidation composite coatings on magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Ge

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The magnesium alloys attract the light-weight manufacture due to its high strength to weight ratio, however the poor corrosion resistance limits the application in automobile industry. The Micro-arc Composite Ceramic (MCC coatings on AZ91D magnesium alloys were prepared by Micro-arc Oxidation (MAO and electrophoresis technologies. The microstructure, corrosion resistance, abrasion resistance, stone impact resistance and adhesion of MCC coatings were studied respectively. The cross section morphologies showed that the outer organic coating was filled into the hole on surface of MAO coating, and it acted as a shelter against corrosive products. The copper-accelerated acetic acid salt spray Test, abrasion resistance test, stone impact resistance test, thermal shock resistance test and adhesion test were used to evaluate the protective characterization by the third testing organization which approved by GM. The test results showed the composite coatings meet all the requirements. The MCC coating on Mg presents excellent properties, and it is a promising surface treatment technology on magnesium alloys for production vehicles.

  15. 镁合金的微观结构对其上制备植酸转化膜的影响%The Effect of Microstructure of Magnesium Alloys on Preparation of Phytic Acid Conversion Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨旭; 李兰兰; 贺建; 张丁非; 潘复生

    2012-01-01

    采用浸没法,以纯Mg及AZ91D,AZ61,ZK60,ZM21镁合金为基体材料,在植酸水溶液中制备植酸转化膜.观察了植酸转化膜的形貌,分析了转化膜的元素组成及浓度分布,进而研究了镁合金的微观结构对制备表面植酸转化膜的影响.结果表明:合金元素对植酸转化膜的形成起着决定性的作用,高价合金元素(Al和Zr)比低价合金元素(Zn和Mn)更有利于植酸转化膜的形成,以固溶体存在的Al比以化合态(Mg17Al12)存在的Al更有利于转化膜的形成.%To study the influence of microstructure of magnesium alloys on preparation of phytic acid conversion coatings, the phytic acid coatings were prepared on AZ91D, AZ61, ZK60, ZM21 magnesium alloys in phytic acid aqueous solution by immersion method, and pure magnesium were used to compare. The surface morphologies of conversion coating were observed, and surface element compositions and concentration distribution of conversion coating were analyzed, and the effect of the microstructure on preparation of phytic acid conversion coating was studied. The results show that alloying elements play a definitive role in forming conversion coatings. Tetravalent and trivalent alloying elements are more helpful than divalent alloying elements. Alloying elements dissolved in the magnesium matrix (alpha-phase) are more beneficial for forming coatings than that in the second-phase.

  16. Corrosion mitigation of rare-earth metals containing magnesium EV31A-T6 alloy via chrome-free conversion coating treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Protective stannate coatings have been proposed for rare-earth-EV31A-T6 magnesium alloy. • A simple coating method based on direct treatment of EV31A-T6 in a diluted stannate was found promising. • Surface modification prior to stannate coating offer no substantial advantage over directly coating. • Stannate conversion coatings decrease corrosion rates by a factor of 1/7. • The coating does not display any self-healing characteristics as shown in AZ91D. -- Abstract: Magnesium alloys posses unique mechanical and physical characteristics making them attractive light-weight materials for several strategic industries such as electronics, computer, automotive and aerospace. Due to their high chemical reactivity and poor corrosion resistance, the protection of magnesium alloys from corrosion is one of the hottest topics in materials science and engineering. Addition of rare-earth metals (RE) as alloying elements to magnesium alloys is one of the common approaches to improve their mechanical properties and, sometimes, the corrosion resistance. However, the potential difference between the RE metals phase formed in the Mg matrix enhances the galvanic corrosion at the interfaces where RE metals inert phase acts as cathode and the active Mg matrix acts as anode. This paper introduces a simple one-step clean conversion coating treatment for improving the protection of RE containing magnesium EV31A-T6 alloy in Cl− media

  17. Effects of processing parameters on microstructure of semi-solid magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of pouring temperature of magnesium melt, preheating temperature of the barrel of the screw mixer, and shear rate on the solidified microstructures of semi-solid slurry were investigated by a mechanical stirring semi-solid process. The appropriate processing parameters of slurry preparation were obtained, and the mold filling ability of semi-solid slurry for thin-walled casting was examined. Results indicate that the solid volume fraction of non-dendritic microstructure increases with a decrease in pouring temperature of magnesium melt and the barrel preheating temperature of the screw mixer. Also the grain size of primary α-phase is reduced. Furthermore, the solid volume fraction of semi-solid nondendritic structure decreases with an increase of shear rate. The fine and round granular microstructure with 30 ~50 μm in size of semi-solid AZ91D magnesium alloy was presented. Finally, a 1.0 mm thin-walled casting with a clear contour and good soundness was successfully made by semi-solid rheo-diecasting.

  18. INVESTIGATION OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS MACHINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berat Barıs BULDUM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium is the lightest structural metal. Magnesium alloys have a hexagonal lattice structure, which affects the fundamental properties of these alloys. Plastic deformation of the hexagonal lattice is more complicated than in cubic latticed metals like aluminum, copper and steel. Magnesium alloy developments have traditionally been driven by industry requirements for lightweight materials to operate under increasingly demanding conditions. Magnesium alloys have always been attractive to designers due to their low density, only two thirds that of aluminium and its alloys [1]. The element and its alloys take a big part of modern industry needs. Especially nowadays magnesium alloys are used in automotive and mechanical (trains and wagons manufacture, because of its lightness and other features. Magnesium and magnesium alloys are the easiest of all metals to machine, allowing machining operations at extremely high speed. All standard machining operations such as turning, drilling, milling, are commonly performed on magnesium parts.

  19. INVESTIGATION OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS MACHINABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Berat Barıs BULDUM; Aydın SIK; Iskender OZKUL

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium is the lightest structural metal. Magnesium alloys have a hexagonal lattice structure, which affects the fundamental properties of these alloys. Plastic deformation of the hexagonal lattice is more complicated than in cubic latticed metals like aluminum, copper and steel. Magnesium alloy developments have traditionally been driven by industry requirements for lightweight materials to operate under increasingly demanding conditions. Magnesium alloys have always been attra...

  20. Corrosion behavior of magnesium and magnesium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.M.Baghni; WU Yin-shun(吴荫顺); LI Jiu-qing(李久青); ZHANG Wei(张巍)

    2004-01-01

    The automotive industry has crossed the threshold from using magnesium alloys in interior applications such as instrument panels and steering wheels to unprotected environment such as oil pan, cylinder head and wheels. The expanding territory of magnesium leads to new challenges: mainly environmental degradation of the alloys used and how they can be protected. The present critical review is aimed at understanding the corrosion behavior of magnesium and magnesium alloys in industrial and marine environments, and the effect of microstructure, additive elements and inhibitors on the corrosion mechanism.

  1. Initial corrosion behaviors of AZ91 magnesium alloy in the presence of SO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Lin; Xiaogang Li

    2004-01-01

    The effects of SO2 on the initial atmospheric corrosion of AZ91D magnesium alloy were investigated in laboratory. Metallographic observation, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), XRD (X-ray Diffraction) and XPS (X-ray Proton Spectrograph) were used to analyze and discuss the initial surface morphology of corrosion layers and corrosion products. The corrosion rate of the alloy increases with increasing the content of SO2. The initial attack has the characteristics of localized corrosion and preferentially concentrates on α phase. MgO and Mg(OH)2 form at first, which provide a protective layer, then the existence of SO2 decreases the pH of the thin solution on the alloy, accelerates dissolution process, and promotes the formation of MgSO3·6H20 and MgSO4·6H20,meanwhile cracks were found on the corrosion products with corrosion continuation. These soluble corrosion products and the cracks provide the paths for filtering oxygen and corrosion pollutants into the matrix, which results in severe localized corrosion and the loss of protective function of film.

  2. Investigation of Carboxylic Acid-Neodymium Conversion Films on Magnesium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiufang; Liu, Zhe; Lin, Lili; Jin, Guo; Wang, Haidou; Xu, Binshi

    2015-01-01

    The new carboxylic acid-neodymium anhydrous conversion films were successfully prepared and applied on the AZ91D magnesium alloy surface by taking absolute ethyl alcohol as solvent and four kinds of soluble carboxylic acid as activators. The corrosion resistance of the coating was measured by potentiodynamic polarization test in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution in pH 7.0. The morphology, structure, and constituents of the coating were observed by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersivespectrum, x-ray photoelectron spectrum, and Fourier infrared spectrometer. Results show that corrosion resistance properties of samples coated with four different anhydrous conversion films were improved obviously. The corrosion potential increased, corrosion current density decreased, and polarization resistance increased. Among these four kinds of conversion films the one added with phytic exhibits the best corrosion resistant property. The mechanism of anhydrous-neodymium conversion film formation is also analyzed in this paper. It reveals that the gadolinium conversion coating is mainly composed of stable Nd2O3, MgO, Mg(OH)2, and carboxylate of Nd. And that the sample surface is rich in organic functional groups.

  3. Experimental Study on Melting Magnesium Alloy in FeS2/Ar/Air Atmosphere%FeS2/Ar/空气气氛中镁合金熔炼试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨慧著; 陈晓

    2013-01-01

    AZ91D magnesium alloy was melted in an opened furnace, and the protective effect of different grain sizes of FeS2 and different Ar contents in the atmosphere on melting AZ91D magnesium alloy was researched. The pattern of the protective film, components and phase structure were analyzed with SEM, EDS and XRD. The results show that the protective effects are good at 730 ℃ adding some FeS2. Melting at 730 ℃ for 30min, the smaller the grain size of FeS2, the better the protective effect,but when the grain size is too small, the protective effect become worse. And the protective effect is enhanced with the decrease of air content, but when the air content is too low, the protective effect become worse.%在开放式熔炼炉中熔化了AZ91D镁合金,研究了不同粒度的FeS2和空气气氛中不同含量的Ar对AZ91D镁合金熔炼保护效果.采用SEM、EDS和XRD对保护膜形貌、成分和相组成进行了分析.结果表明,温度为730℃时,加入一定量硫铁矿的保护效果是好的.熔炼温度为730℃,保温30min时,硫铁矿粒度越小,保护效果越好,但当粒度减小到一定程度时,保护效果反而减弱;随着空气含量的降低,保护效果加强,但当空气含量太少时,保护效果开始减弱.

  4. Hydrostatic extrusion of magnesium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sillekens, W.H.; Bohlen, J.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter deals with the capabilities and limitations of the hydrostatic extrusion process for the manufacturing of magnesium alloy sections. Firstly, the process basics for the hydrostatic extrusion of materials in general and of magnesium in particular are introduced. Next, some recent research

  5. MICROSTRUCTURE EVOLUTION OF AZ91D MAGNESIUM ALLOY DURING SEMI-SOLID ISOTHERMAL HEAT TREATMENT UNDER DIRECT CURRENT%直流电流作用下AZ91D镁合金半固态等温处理过程中的组织演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周全; 杨院生; 唐军立; 胡壮麒

    2006-01-01

    考察了直流电流密度、等温温度及等温时间对AZ91D镁合金半固态组织的影响,对电流影响组织演变的机理进行了探讨.实验结果表明:当等温温度和等温时间一定时,随着电流密度的增加,初生相变得圆整,初生相的尺寸有所减小.但电流密度过高时,初生相尺寸有所增加.直流电流可以加速半固态等温处理的组织演化过程,明显改善枝晶球化效果.直流电流增加扩散激活能,增大溶质原子的扩散系数,促进溶质原子的扩散,从而加速半固态等温过程的组织演化;直流电流作用下的电迁移效应、Joule热效应和Peltier效应都将促进枝晶的熔断和球化.

  6. Effect of graphite particle size on wear property of graphite and Al2O3 reinforced AZ91D-0.8%Ce composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The graphite particles and Al2O3 short fibers reinforced AZ91D-0.8%Ce composites were fabricated by squeeze-infiltration technique.The researches about the effects of different graphite particle sizes on the microstructure and wear property of the composites were performed under the condition of constant contents of graphite particles and Al2O3 short fibers.The results reveal that the grain size of the composites changes less when the graphite particle size descends.Moreover,Ce enriches around the graphite particle and Al2O3 short fibers and forms Al3Ce phase with A1 element.The graphite that works as lubricant decreases the wear loss.The wear resistance of the composites increases as the graphite particle size increases.At low load the composites have similar wear loss;at high load the composite with the largest graphite particle size has the best wear resistance.The wear mechanism of all the composites at low load is abrasive wear and oxidation wear;at high load,except the composites with the particle size of 240 μm whose wear mechanism is still abrasive wear and oxicIation wear,the wear mechanism of othcrs changes to delamination wear.

  7. Local reinforcement of magnesium components by friction processing. Determination of bonding mechanisms and assessment of joint properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, G.A. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Materialforschung

    2008-07-01

    powered friction welding machine, originally designed and built as a portable stud welding unit, delivering up to 40 kN welding force and 8000 rpm. All welds were monitored, analysed and evaluated using a purpose-built data recording system. AZ91, AE42 and MRI230D magnesium grades were used in the experimental programme. The results obtained in the course of this study have shown the feasibility of FHPP to produce high strength welds with mechanical properties comparable to those of the base material. Defects, such as porosity or lack of bonding, were not observed. Furthermore, the welding pressure rather than the upsetting was found to have a major influence in the final weldment. The influence of process parameters on heat generation and bonding quality is similar to that known from rotational friction welding. It could be demonstrated that for dissimilar MRI230D to AZ91D and for similar AZ91D to AZ91D welds, the consumable member is fully plasticised across the bore of the hole and throughout the thickness of the workpiece. However, for AE42 to AZ91D welds, the stud was not completely plasticised across the bore of the hole and significant microstructural changes were restricted to a narrow area around the bonding line. Hardness profiles indicate a substantial reduction in scattering, as soon as the stud material is reached. Hardening or softening phenomena were not observed. Transverse tensile and pull-out testing confirmed the feasibility of the process to produce high strength welds, with failures taking place outside the welded area in most of the cases. Joint performance, in terms of creep and bolt load retention, was also tested and showed promising results. Although creep properties were demonstrated to be inferior within the extruded material, in comparison with the base materials (BM), the creep resistances of reinforced samples were always superior to those of purely unreinforced AZ91D-T6. The strength of the reinforced joint in both tensile and compressive

  8. Local reinforcement of magnesium components by friction processing. Determination of bonding mechanisms and assessment of joint properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, G.A. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Materialforschung

    2008-07-01

    powered friction welding machine, originally designed and built as a portable stud welding unit, delivering up to 40 kN welding force and 8000 rpm. All welds were monitored, analysed and evaluated using a purpose-built data recording system. AZ91, AE42 and MRI230D magnesium grades were used in the experimental programme. The results obtained in the course of this study have shown the feasibility of FHPP to produce high strength welds with mechanical properties comparable to those of the base material. Defects, such as porosity or lack of bonding, were not observed. Furthermore, the welding pressure rather than the upsetting was found to have a major influence in the final weldment. The influence of process parameters on heat generation and bonding quality is similar to that known from rotational friction welding. It could be demonstrated that for dissimilar MRI230D to AZ91D and for similar AZ91D to AZ91D welds, the consumable member is fully plasticised across the bore of the hole and throughout the thickness of the workpiece. However, for AE42 to AZ91D welds, the stud was not completely plasticised across the bore of the hole and significant microstructural changes were restricted to a narrow area around the bonding line. Hardness profiles indicate a substantial reduction in scattering, as soon as the stud material is reached. Hardening or softening phenomena were not observed. Transverse tensile and pull-out testing confirmed the feasibility of the process to produce high strength welds, with failures taking place outside the welded area in most of the cases. Joint performance, in terms of creep and bolt load retention, was also tested and showed promising results. Although creep properties were demonstrated to be inferior within the extruded material, in comparison with the base materials (BM), the creep resistances of reinforced samples were always superior to those of purely unreinforced AZ91D-T6. The strength of the reinforced joint in both tensile and compressive

  9. Imparting passivity to vapor deposited magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Ryan C.

    Magnesium has the lowest density of all structural metals. Utilization of low density materials is advantageous from a design standpoint, because lower weight translates into improved performance of engineered products (i.e., notebook computers are more portable, vehicles achieve better gas mileage, and aircraft can carry more payload). Despite their low density and high strength to weight ratio, however, the widespread implementation of magnesium alloys is currently hindered by their relatively poor corrosion resistance. The objective of this research dissertation is to develop a scientific basis for the creation of a corrosion resistant magnesium alloy. The corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys is affected by several interrelated factors. Among these are alloying, microstructure, impurities, galvanic corrosion effects, and service conditions, among others. Alloying and modification of the microstructure are primary approaches to controlling corrosion. Furthermore, nonequilibrium alloying of magnesium via physical vapor deposition allows for the formation of single-phase magnesium alloys with supersaturated concentrations of passivity-enhancing elements. The microstructure and surface morphology is also modifiable during physical vapor deposition through the variation of evaporation power, pressure, temperature, ion bombardment, and the source-to-substrate distance. Aluminum, titanium, yttrium, and zirconium were initially chosen as candidates likely to impart passivity on vapor deposited magnesium alloys. Prior to this research, alloys of this type have never before been produced, much less studied. All of these metals were observed to afford some degree of corrosion resistance to magnesium. Due to the especially promising results from nonequilibrium alloying of magnesium with yttrium and titanium, the ternary magnesium-yttrium-titanium system was investigated in depth. While all of the alloys are lustrous, surface morphology is observed under the scanning

  10. Corrosion protection of Mg/Al alloys by thermal sprayed aluminium coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The protective features of thermal sprayed Al-coatings applied on AZ31, AZ80 and AZ91D magnesium/aluminium alloys were evaluated in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution by electrochemical and gravimetric measurements. The changes in the morphology and corrosion behaviour of the Al-coatings induced by a cold-pressing post-treatment were also examined. The specimens were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and low-angle X-ray diffraction. The as-sprayed Al-coatings revealed a high degree of porosity and poor corrosion protection, which resulted in galvanic acceleration of the corrosion of the magnesium substrates. The application of a cold-pressing post-treatment produced more compact Al-coatings with better bonding at the substrate/coating interface and higher corrosion resistance regardless of the nature of the magnesium alloy.

  11. The developing strategy of Chinese magnesium and magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO; Tie-yong; DU; Wen-bo

    2005-01-01

    The status and developing strategy of Chinese magnesium industry are summarized in the present paper. The output and export of Chinese magnesium ingot have rapidly increased in the recent ten years, but the magnesium products with high value, such as the wrought magnesium alloys, and their applications are insufficient. Chinese magnesium industry should develop toward the direction of large scale, specialization and collectivization in the future. The enterprises should enhance the level of management and reinforce the international competing ability with the help of governmental policies.

  12. Processing magnesium alloys by severe plastic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Roberto B.; Aguilar, Maria Teresa P.; Cetlin, Paulo Roberto; Langdon, Terence G.

    2014-08-01

    The use of severe plastic deformation techniques for processing magnesium alloys has moved from the early difficulties of processing to a stage of tailoring the best properties of these materials. The present paper reviews processing, structure and mechanical properties characterization. It is shown that ultrafine-grained structures are obtained in magnesium alloys processed by multiple passes of Equal-Channel Angular Pressing at moderate temperatures. Ultrafine-grained structures are also obtained by room temperature processing by High- Pressure Torsion. The ultrafine-grained structures increase strength and introduce excellent superplastic capabilities in many magnesium alloys. Moreover, processing magnesium alloys by severe plastic deformation leads to the development of anisotropy in mechanical behavior.

  13. Laser surface treatment of cast magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of this work was to investigate influence of laser treatment on structure and properties MCMgAl3Zn1, MCMgAl6Zn1, MCMgAl9Zn1 and MCMgAl12Zn1 cast magnesium alloys.Design/methodology/approach: Tests were made on the experimental MCMgAl3Zn1 MCMgAl6Zn1 MCMgAl9Zn1 and MCMgAl12Zn1 casting magnesium alloys. Laser treatment was made using the Rofin DL020 HPDL high power diode laser in the argon shield gas cover with the technique of the continuous powder supply to the remelted pool area.Findings: Investigations of the surface layers carried out confirm that laser treatment of the surface layer of the Mg-Al-Zn casting magnesium alloys is feasible using the HPDL high power diode laser ensuring better properties compared to alloys properties after the regular heat treatment after employing the relevant process parameters. Occurrences were found based on the metallographic examinations of the remelted zone (RZ and the heat affected zone (HAZ in alloyed surface layer of the investigated casting magnesium alloy.Research limitations/implications: This investigation presents different laser power and in this research was used two powders, namely tungsten-, and titanium carbide.Practical implications: Reinforcing the surface of cast magnesium alloys by adding TiC and WC particles is such a possible way to achieve the possibilities of the laser melt injection process, which is a potential technique to produce a Metal-Matrix Composite (MMC layer in the top layer of a metal workpiece.Originality/value: The originality of this work is applying of High Power Diode Laser for alloying of magnesium alloy using hard particles like tungsten- and titanium carbide.

  14. Standard Specification for Copper-Aluminum-Silicon-Cobalt Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon-Magnesium Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy, and Copper-Nickel-Tin Alloy Sheet and Strip

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2015-01-01

    Standard Specification for Copper-Aluminum-Silicon-Cobalt Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon-Magnesium Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy, and Copper-Nickel-Tin Alloy Sheet and Strip

  15. New development of anodizing process of magnesium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Li-qun; LI Di

    2004-01-01

    Magnesium alloy, a kind of environment-friendly material with promising and excellent properties, is a good choice for a number of applications. The research and development of anodizing on magnesium alloys and its application situation are reviewed, and the anodizing development trend on magnesium alloys is summarized.

  16. Enhancements in Magnesium Die Casting Impact Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Yulong Zhu; Srinath Viswanathan; Shafik Iskander

    2000-06-30

    The need to produce lighter components in transportation equipment is the main driver in the increasing demand for magnesium castings. In many automotive applications, components can be made of magnesium or aluminum. While being lighter, often times the magnesium parts have lower impact and fatigue properties than the aluminum. The main objective of this study was to identify potential improvements in the impact resistance of magnesium alloys. The most common magnesium alloys in automotive applications are AZ91D, AM50 and AM60. Accordingly, these alloys were selected as the main candidates for the study. Experimental quantities of these alloys were melted in an electrical furnace under a protective atmosphere comprising sulfur hexafluoride, carbon dioxide and dry air. The alloys were cast both in a permanent mold and in a UBE 315 Ton squeeze caster. Extensive evaluation of tensile, impact and fatigue properties was conducted at CWRU on permanent mold and squeeze cast test bars of AZ91, AM60 and AM50. Ultimate tensile strength values between 20ksi and 30ksi were obtained. The respective elongations varied between 25 and 115. the Charpy V-notch impact strength varied between 1.6 ft-lb and 5 ft-lb depending on the alloy and processing conditions. Preliminary bending fatigue evaluation indicates a fatigue limit of 11-12 ksi for AM50 and AM60. This is about 0.4 of the UTS, typical for these alloys. The microstructures of the cast specimens were investigated with optical and scanning electron microscopy. Concomitantly, a study of the fracture toughness in AM60 was conducted at ORNL as part of the study. The results are in line with values published in the literature and are representative of current state of the art in casting magnesium alloys. The experimental results confirm the strong relationship between aluminum content of the alloys and the mechanical properties, in particular the impact strength and the elongation. As the aluminum content increases from about 5

  17. Impurity control and corrosion resistance of magnesium-aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, M. [GM China Lab; Song, GuangLing [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys is very sensitive to the contents of impurity elements such as iron. In this study, a series of diecast AXJ530 magnesium alloy samples were prepared with additions of Mn and Fe. Through a comprehensive phase diagram calculation and corrosion evaluation, the mechanisms for the tolerance limit of Fe in magnesium alloy are discussed. This adds a new dimension to control the alloying impurity in terms of alloying composition design and casting conditions.

  18. Corrosion behaviour of chemical conversion treatments on as-cast Mg-Al alloys: Electrochemical and non-electrochemical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocca, E. [Institut Jean Lamour UMR CNRS 7198, Nancy Universite - Corrosion Group, B.P. 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy (France)], E-mail: emmanuel.rocca@lcsm.uhp-nancy.fr; Juers, C.; Steinmetz, J. [Institut Jean Lamour UMR CNRS 7198, Nancy Universite - Corrosion Group, B.P. 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy (France)

    2010-06-15

    Magnesium alloys are often used in as-cast conditions. So, the aim of this work is to characterize the corrosion protection of as-cast AZ91D alloys coated with simple chemical conversion (phosphate-permanganate, and cerium-based coatings). With the two coatings, the electrochemical measurements show that the corrosion protection is due to both the inhibition of cathodic and anodic reactions, because of the presence of stable CeO{sub 2} or manganese oxides in basic pH. Nevertheless, the non-electrochemical tests of corrosion are required to bring to light the healing effect of phosphate-permanganate coating compared to Ce-coating and to describe the corrosion behaviour completely. Finally phosphoric and soda pickling associated to phosphate-permanganate conversion treatment or cerium coating are ecologically efficient alternatives to fluoride-based pickling and the chromating treatment.

  19. A review on hot tearing of magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Song

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hot tearing is often a major casting defect in magnesium alloys and has a significant impact on the quality of their casting products. Hot tearing of magnesium alloys is a complex solidification phenomenon which is still not fully understood, it is of great importance to investigate the hot tearing behaviour of magnesium alloys. This review attempts to summarize the investigations on hot tearing of magnesium alloys over the past decades. The hot tearing criteria including recently developed Kou's criterion are summarized and compared. The numeric simulation and assessing methods of hot tearing, factors influencing hot tearing, and hot tearing susceptibility (HTS of magnesium alloys are discussed.

  20. REVIEW ON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.Yaug; J.P.Li; J.X.Zhang; G.W.Lorimer; J.Robson

    2008-01-01

    The current research and development of magnesium alloys is summarized. Several aspects of magnesium alloys are described: cast Mg alloy, wrought Mg alloy, and novel processing. The subjects are discussed individually and recommendations for further study arc listed in the final section.

  1. A lightweight shape-memory magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yukiko; Ando, Daisuke; Sutou, Yuji; Koike, Junichi

    2016-07-01

    Shape-memory alloys (SMAs), which display shape recovery upon heating, as well as superelasticity, offer many technological advantages in various applications. Those distinctive behaviors have been observed in many polycrystalline alloy systems such as nickel titantium (TiNi)–, copper-, iron-, nickel-, cobalt-, and Ti-based alloys but not in lightweight alloys such as magnesium (Mg) and aluminum alloys. Here we present a Mg SMA showing superelasticity of 4.4% at –150°C and shape recovery upon heating. The shape-memory properties are caused by reversible martensitic transformation. This Mg alloy includes lightweight scandium, and its density is about 2 grams per cubic centimeter, which is one-third less than that of practical TiNi SMAs. This finding raises the potential for development and application of lightweight SMAs across a number of industries.

  2. A lightweight shape-memory magnesium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yukiko; Ando, Daisuke; Sutou, Yuji; Koike, Junichi

    2016-07-22

    Shape-memory alloys (SMAs), which display shape recovery upon heating, as well as superelasticity, offer many technological advantages in various applications. Those distinctive behaviors have been observed in many polycrystalline alloy systems such as nickel titantium (TiNi)-, copper-, iron-, nickel-, cobalt-, and Ti-based alloys but not in lightweight alloys such as magnesium (Mg) and aluminum alloys. Here we present a Mg SMA showing superelasticity of 4.4% at -150°C and shape recovery upon heating. The shape-memory properties are caused by reversible martensitic transformation. This Mg alloy includes lightweight scandium, and its density is about 2 grams per cubic centimeter, which is one-third less than that of practical TiNi SMAs. This finding raises the potential for development and application of lightweight SMAs across a number of industries. PMID:27463668

  3. Multi-functional magnesium alloys containing interstitial oxygen atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H; Choi, H J; Kang, S W; Shin, S E; Choi, G S; Bae, D H

    2016-01-01

    A new class of magnesium alloys has been developed by dissolving large amounts of oxygen atoms into a magnesium lattice (Mg-O alloys). The oxygen atoms are supplied by decomposing titanium dioxide nanoparticles in a magnesium melt at 720 °C; the titanium is then completely separated out from the magnesium melt after solidification. The dissolved oxygen atoms are located at the octahedral sites of magnesium, which expand the magnesium lattice. These alloys possess ionic and metallic bonding characteristics, providing outstanding mechanical and functional properties. A Mg-O-Al casting alloy made in this fashion shows superior mechanical performance, chemical resistance to corrosion, and thermal conductivity. Furthermore, a similar Mg-O-Zn wrought alloy shows high elongation to failure (>50%) at room temperature, because the alloy plastically deforms with only multiple slips in the sub-micrometer grains (alloys are expected to open a new paradigm in commercial alloy design. PMID:26976372

  4. POTENTIAL USE OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS FOR THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    KANDEMİR, Kudret; A. Çetin CAN

    2003-01-01

    Recently, there is a high interest in using lightweight materials for automotive applications where weight reduction and improvement in comfort are needed. Magnesium alloys with excellent specific strength and stiffness properties can be comparable with steel and aluminum alloys for applications in the automotive industry. For this reason, the properties of magnesium alloys are in the focus of research. This study aims at reviewing and evaluating the prospects of magnesium alloys use and appl...

  5. POTENTIAL USE OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS FOR THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudret KANDEMİR

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there is a high interest in using lightweight materials for automotive applications where weight reduction and improvement in comfort are needed. Magnesium alloys with excellent specific strength and stiffness properties can be comparable with steel and aluminum alloys for applications in the automotive industry. For this reason, the properties of magnesium alloys are in the focus of research. This study aims at reviewing and evaluating the prospects of magnesium alloys use and applications in the automotive industry.

  6. Biomedical applications of magnesium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sillekens, W.H.; Bormann, D.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter deals with the emerging field of biomedical applications for magnesium-based materials, envisioning degradable implants that dissolve in the human body after having cured a particular medical condition. After outlining the background of this interest, some major aspects concerning degra

  7. In Vivo and In Vitro Degradation Behavior of Magnesium Alloys as Biomaterials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dingchuan Xue; Yeoheung Yun; Zongqing Tan; Zhongyun Dong; Mark J. Schulz

    2012-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of pure Mg,AZ31,and AZ91D were evaluated in various in vitro and in vivo environments to investigate the potential application of these metals as biodegradable implant materials.DC polarization tests and immersion tests were performed in different simulated body solutions,such as distilled(DI) water,simulated body fluid(SBF) and phosphate buffered solution(PBS).Mg/Mg alloys were also implanted in different places in a mouse for in vivo weight loss and biocompatibility investigations.The in vivo subcutis bio-corrosion rate was lower than the corrosion rate for all of the in vitro simulated corrosive environments.The Mg/Mg alloys were biocompatible based on histology results for the liver,heart,kidney,skin and lung of the mouse during the two months implantation.Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were carried out to investigate the morphology and topography of Mg/Mg alloys after immersion testing and implantation to understand the corrosion mechanisms.

  8. Research on the diffusion bonding of superplastic magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于彦东; 张凯锋; 蒋大鸣; 郑海荣; 王刚

    2002-01-01

    The elevated temperature tensile experiments have been carried out on the magnesium alloy and results indicate that the magnesium alloy has excellent superplastic property. Gleebe-1500 testing machine was used in the diffusion bonding experiment on the superplastic magnesium alloy. Then, the shear strength of the joints under different conditions is obtained through shear testing and the optimum processing parameters for the diffusion bonding are achieved. By metallurgical microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM), it is revealed that the micromechanism of diffusion bonding is the slide of grain boundaries caused by the growth of grains and atom diffusion of the superplastic magnesium alloy.

  9. Possibilities of mechanical properties and microstructure improvement of magnesium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    I. Juřička; L.A. Dobrzański; L. Čižek; Kocich, R.; M. Greger

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Magnesium alloys are the very progressive materials whereon is due to improve their end-useproperties, which . Especially, wrought Mg alloys attract attention since they have more advantageous mechanicalproperties than cast Mg alloys.Design/methodology/approach: The presented article shows some specific physical-metallurgicalcharacteristics of magnesium alloys of the AZ91 kind after hot forming. Special attention has been focused onthe analysis of mutual relations existing between th...

  10. Corrosion resistance of Elektron 21 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kiełbus

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Elektron 21 magnesium alloy containing neodymium, gadolinium and zinc has high strength, good corrosion resistance and excellent castability. It is designed mainly for aerospace applications. The purpose of the investigation was to study the corrosion resistance of Elektron 21 magnesium alloy in as cast condition and after heat treatment in 3.5% NaCl saturated with Mg(OH2 solution.Design/methodology/approach: Solution treatment was performed at 525°C/8h/water, while ageing treatments at following conditions 250°C/4-96h/air. Immersion test was performed in 3.5% NaCl saturated with Mg(OH2 solution at room temperature. Specimens were placed in 3.5% NaCl solution for periods of time between one and 5 days. After immersion test, the microstructure and the appearances of the corroded structure were examined by optical microscopy (Olympus GX-70 and a scanning electron microscopy (Hitachi S3400.Findings: The corrosion rates of Elektron 21 alloy increased with increasing the exposure time and finally (after 5 days reached maximum value 0.092 mg/cm-2day-1. Solution treatment at 520°C for 8 h caused decrease in corrosion rate (0.072 mg cm-2 day-1 due to dissolving of intermetallic phase precipitates at matrix. Ageing at 200°C for 4h and 16h caused next decrease in corrosion rate to value 0.052 and 0,055 mg cm-2 day-1 respectively, while after ageing for 48h corrosion rate increase to value 0.067 mg cm-2 day-1, due to increase of volume fraction and size of β’ phase and precipitations of equilibrium β phase. It was also noticed that the longer time of ageing the higher corrosion rates were observed.Research limitations/implications: Future researches should include investigations of the influence of other environments on the corrosion resistance of Elektron 21 alloy.Practical implications: The improvement of corrosion resistance of Elektron 21 alloy can cause increase in it application in aerospace industry.Originality/value: The

  11. Twin-roll strip casting of magnesium alloys in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The development status of twin-roll strip casting for magnesium alloys in China was summarized as well as the new progress when several kinds of twin-roll strip casting technologies were developed and used.Horizontal twin-roll casting (HTRC) of magnesium alloys has attracted much attention and has been industrialized in China.Vertical twin roll casting(VTRC) of the magnesium alloys can reach a speed of higher than 30 m/min and its research and development are just beginning and exhibit exciting potential.By comparing the process characteristics of the two technologies,the process stability of HTRC for the magnesium alloys is better,and the casting speed and the cooling rate of VTRC for the magnesium alloys are higher.The quality of the products by the two technologies needs to be improved and further investigated.

  12. The Formablity of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy Sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lingyun; LU Zhiwen; ZHAO Yazhong; QIU Xiaogang

    2006-01-01

    The forming limit diagrams(FLD)of AZ31B magnesium alloy sheet were tested by means of the electro etching grid method based on the forming experiment of magnesium alloy sheet carried out with a BCS-30D sheet forming testing machine and the strain testing analysis made with an advanced ASAME automatic strain measuring system. Experiments show that, at room temperature, the mechanical properties and deep drawing performance of AZ31B cold-rolled magnesium alloy sheet were so poor that it failed to test the forming limit diagrams without an ideal forming and processing capacity, while the hot-rolled magnesium alloy sheet was of a little better plasticity and forming performance after testing its forming limit diagrams. It can be concluded that the testing of the forming limit curves (FLC)offers the theoretical foundation for the drawing of the deep drawing and forming process of magnesium alloy sheet.

  13. Novel Magnesium Alloys Developed for Biomedical Application: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Li; Yufeng Zheng

    2013-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the development of magnesium alloys both for industrial and biomedical applications.Industrial interest in magnesium alloys is based on strong demand of weight reduction of transportation vehicles for better fuel efficiency,so higher strength,and better ductility and corrosion resistance are required.Nevertheless,biomedical magnesium alloys require appropriate mechanical properties,suitable degradation rate in physiological environment,and what is most important,biosafety to human body.Rather than simply apply commercial magnesium alloys to biomedical field,new alloys should be designed from the point of view of nutriology and toxicology.This article provides a review of state-of-the-art of magnesium alloy implants and devices for orthopedic,cardiovascular and tissue engineering applications.Advances in new alloy design,novel structure design and surface modification are overviewed.The factors that influence the corrosion behavior of magnesium alloys are discussed and the strategy in the future development of biomedical magnesium alloys is proposed.

  14. Influence of Magnesium Alloy Degradation on Undifferentiated Human Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Cecchinato; Nezha Ahmad Agha; Adela Helvia Martinez-Sanchez; Berengere Julie Christine Luthringer; Frank Feyerabend; Ryo Jimbo; Regine Willumeit-Römer; Ann Wennerberg

    2015-01-01

    Background Magnesium alloys are of particular interest in medical science since they provide compatible mechanical properties with those of the cortical bone and, depending on the alloying elements, they have the capability to tailor the degradation rate in physiological conditions, providing alternative bioresorbable materials for bone applications. The present study investigates the in vitro short-term response of human undifferentiated cells on three magnesium alloys and high-purity magnes...

  15. Microstructure and kinetics of hot deformation WE43 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jiacheng; WANG Qiang; WANG Yong; LI Wei; NIU Wenjuan

    2008-01-01

    The effect of compression on the rnicrostructures and flow behavior of WE43 magnesium alloy was investigated in this article.The relationship between flow stress and strain rate was discussed.According to the empirical formula ε = Aσn exp(-Q/RT),the value of heat activation of WFA3 magnesium alloys is 297.15 kJ/mol.A mechanism of deformation softening of WEA3 alloy in testing hot deformation was identified to be dynamic recrystallization.

  16. Variation of hydrogen level in magnesium alloy melt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Si-xiang; WU Shu-sen; MAO You-wu; AN Ping; GAO Pei-qing

    2006-01-01

    At present there is no commercial instrument available for measurement of hydrogen level in magnesium alloy melt in front of melting fumace. In this paper the equations of solubility of hydrogen in pure magnesium and magnesium alloy have been modified based on thermodynamic analysis. A fast measurement system for hydrogen content in magnesium melt was set up. With this instrument,measurement experiments have been carried out to determine hydrogen level in AZ91 melt. The hydrogen level varies from 6 cm3/100 g to 14 cm3/100 g at the temperature range between 650 ℃and 750 ℃.

  17. Size Effect on Magnesium Alloy Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenming; Wang, Qigui; Luo, Alan A.; Zhang, Peng; Peng, Liming

    2016-06-01

    The effect of grain size on tensile and fatigue properties has been investigated in cast Mg alloys of Mg-2.98Nd-0.19Zn (1530 μm) and Mg-2.99Nd-0.2Zn-0.51Zr (41 μm). The difference between RB and push-pull fatigue testing was also evaluated in both alloys. The NZ30K05-T6 alloy shows much better tensile strengths (increased by 246 pct in YS and 159 pct in UTS) and fatigue strength (improved by ~80 pct) in comparison with NZ30-T6 alloy. RB fatigue testing results in higher fatigue strength compared with push-pull fatigue testing, mainly due to the stress/strain gradient in the RB specimen cross section. The material with coarse grains could be hardened more in the cyclic loading condition than in the monotonic loading condition, corresponding to the lower σ f and the higher σ f/ σ b or σ f/ σ 0.2 ratio compared to the materials with fine grains. The fatigue crack initiation sites and failure mechanism are mainly determined by the applied stress/strain amplitude. In LCF, fatigue failure mainly originates from the PSBs within the surface or subsurface grains of the samples. In HCF, cyclic deformation and damage irreversibly caused by environment-assisted cyclic slip is the crucial factor to influence the fatigue crack. The Coffin-Manson law and Basquin equation, and the developed MSF models and fatigue strength models can be used to predict fatigue lives and fatigue strengths of cast magnesium alloys.

  18. Multi-functional magnesium alloys containing interstitial oxygen atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H.; Choi, H. J.; Kang, S. W.; Shin, S. E.; Choi, G. S.; Bae, D. H.

    2016-03-01

    A new class of magnesium alloys has been developed by dissolving large amounts of oxygen atoms into a magnesium lattice (Mg-O alloys). The oxygen atoms are supplied by decomposing titanium dioxide nanoparticles in a magnesium melt at 720 °C the titanium is then completely separated out from the magnesium melt after solidification. The dissolved oxygen atoms are located at the octahedral sites of magnesium, which expand the magnesium lattice. These alloys possess ionic and metallic bonding characteristics, providing outstanding mechanical and functional properties. A Mg-O-Al casting alloy made in this fashion shows superior mechanical performance, chemical resistance to corrosion, and thermal conductivity. Furthermore, a similar Mg-O-Zn wrought alloy shows high elongation to failure (>50%) at room temperature, because the alloy plastically deforms with only multiple slips in the sub-micrometer grains (<300 nm) surrounding the larger grains (~15 μm). The metal/non-metal interstitial alloys are expected to open a new paradigm in commercial alloy design.

  19. A novel electroless silver depositing method for magnesium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hui; CUI Jian-zhong

    2006-01-01

    Depositing silver on magnesium alloy by both electroless plating and organic coatings was studied. The organic coating was made by immersing samples in organosilicon heat-resisting varnish. In this method the organic coating acts as interlayer between the substrate and silver film. When the reaction starts, silver deposits directly on the interlayer. X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis were used to determine the composition and morphology of the interlayer and silver film. The potentiodynamic polarization curves for corrosion studies of coated magnesium alloys were performed in a corrosive environment of 3.5% NaCl(mass fraction) at neutral pH (6.9). The results indicate that compared with the substrate, the corrosion resistance of coated magnesium alloys increases greatly. Moreover, the method proposed in this work is environmentally friendly, non-toxic chemicals were used. In addition, it provides a new concept for the corrosion inhibition of magnesium alloys.

  20. Applicability of existing magnesium alloys as biomedical implant materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erinc, M.; Sillekens, W.H.; Mannens, R.G.T.M.; Werkhoven, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Being biocompatible and biodegradable, magnesium alloys are considered as the new generation biomedical implant materials, such as for stents, bone fixtures, plates and screws. A major drawback is the poor chemical stability of metallic magnesium; it corrodes at a pace that is too high for most pros

  1. Casting Porosity-Free Grain Refined Magnesium Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwam, David [Case Western Reserve University

    2013-08-12

    The objective of this project was to identify the root causes for micro-porosity in magnesium alloy castings and recommend remedies that can be implemented in production. The findings confirm the key role played by utilizing optimal gating and risering practices in minimizing porosity in magnesium castings. 

  2. The role of magnesium in the electrochemical behaviour of 5XXX aluminium-magnesium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores Ramirez, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    An investigation concerning the effects of magnesium on the intergranular corrosion susceptibility of AA5XXX aluminium alloys was carried out. In the present work, magnesium is found to be highly mobile in the bulk metal as well as in the aluminium oxide. This mobility is also found to be dependent

  3. Mechanical properties and potential applications of magnesium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.M.Baghni; WU Yin-shun(吴荫顺); LI Jiu-qing(李久青); DU Cui-wei(杜翠薇); ZHANG Wei(张巍)

    2003-01-01

    Magnesium alloys,having high specific strength,with a density only 2/3 of that of aluminum and 1/4 of carbon steels,have become ideal materials for low mass applications such as automobiles and electronic devices.It was dealt with the state of the art in developing cost effective,low mass,high ductility and high creep resistance magnesium alloys that are suitable for structures and power train applications.

  4. Al-TiH2 Composite Foams Magnesium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasada Rao, A. K.; Oh, Y. S.; Ain, W. Q.; A, Azhari; Basri, S. N.; Kim, N. J.

    2016-02-01

    The work presented here in describes the synthesis of aluminum based titanium-hydride particulate composite by casting method and its foaming behavior of magnesium alloy. Results obtained indicate that the Al-10TiH2 composite can be synthesized successfully by casting method. Further, results also reveal that closed-cell magnesium alloy foam can be synthesized by using Al-10TiH2 composite as a foaming agent.

  5. Effects of segregation of primary alloying elements on the creep response in magnesium alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Y.D.; Dieringa, H.; Hort, N.;

    2008-01-01

    The segregation of primary alloying elements deteriorates the high temperature creep resistance of magnesium alloys. Annealing at high temperatures alleviating their segregations can improve the creep resistance. Present investigation on the effect of segregation of primary alloying elements...... on the creep response may provide some useful information about how to improve the creep resistance of magnesium alloys in the future. (c) 2008 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  6. Research of Plasma Spraying Process on Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricija Kavaliauskaitė

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines plasma sprayed 95Ni-5Al coatings on alu-minum-magnesium (Mg ≈ 2,6‒3,6 % alloy substrate. Alumi-num-magnesium samples prior spraying were prepared with mechanical treatment (blasting with Al2O3. 95Ni-5Al coatings on aluminum-magnesium alloys were sprayed with different parameters of process and coating‘s thickness, porosity, micro-hardness and microstructure were evaluated. Also numerical simulations in electric and magnetic phenomena of plasma spray-ing were carried out.

  7. Hydrogenations of alloys and intermetallic compounds of magnesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A kinetic and thermodynamic study of the hydrogenation of alloys and intermetallic compounds of magnesium is presented. It was established that the addition of elements of the IIIA group (Al, Ga, In) to magnesium catalyses its hydrogenation. This is explained by the mechanism of diffusion of magnesium cation vacancies. The hydride Mg2NiH4 was characterized by thermal analysis, x-ray diffraction and NMR measurements. The possibility of forming pseudo-binary compounds of Mg2Ni by the substitution of nickel or magnesium was examined. The hydrogenation of the inter-metallic compounds of the Mg-Al system was investigated. It was found that the addition of indium and nickel affected the hydrogenation kinetics. A preliminary study of the hydrogenation of various binary and ternary alloys of magnesium was carried out. (Author)

  8. Structure evolution of AZ61 magnesium alloy in SIMA process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Hong; ZHANG Fa-yun; JIE Xiao-ping

    2005-01-01

    The effect of prior compressive deformation, isothermal temperature and holding time on the structure of AZ61 magnesium alloy fabricated by strain-induced melt activation(SIMA) processing was investigated. The specimens were subjected under deformation ratios of 0%, 22% and 40% and various heat treatment time and temperature regions. The results indicate that the ideal technological parameters of semi-solid AZ61 alloy produced with non-dendrites are recommended as 22% (prior compressive deformation), 595 ℃ (heat treatment temperature) and 40 min(time). The as-cast AZ61 magnesium alloy isn't fit for semi-solid forming.

  9. Precision forging technologies for magnesium alloy bracket and wheel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Fundamental investigations on precision forging technology of magnesium alloys were studied. As-cast billet prestraining and a new concept of hollow billet were proposed in order to reduce the maximum forming load. A scheme of isothermal forming and the use of combined female dies were adopted, which can improve the die filling capacity and ensure the manufacture of high quality forgings. By means of the developed technique, AZ80 alloy wheel and AZ31 alloy bracket were produced successfully at suitable process parameters and applied in the automotive industries. The results show that the hot compression of AZ80 magnesium alloy has the peak flow stresses of pre-strained alloy with finer grain, which are lower by 20% than those of as-cast alloy under the same deformation conditions. The forming load is related to contact area and average positive stress on interface during forging process.

  10. Purification technology of AZ91 magnesium alloy wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国华; 谢敏; 翟春泉; 曾小勤; 朱燕萍; 丁文江

    2003-01-01

    The effects of different purification processes on the mechanical properties,structure and fracture pattern of AZ91 magnesium alloy wastes were studied.The results show that the inclusions in the Mg melt can be removed effectively by the treatment of the fluxes with MgO foam ceramic filter.Therefore,the properties of magnesium alloy wastes can be improved substantially.Tensile strength and elongation of the magnesium alloy wastes after purification treatment can reach 194.6 MPa and 5.12% respectively,which are comparable to the mechanical properties of AZ91 fresh stuff.The metallographic analysis results show that the purification treatment has not obvious effect on metallurgical structure.The fracture mechanism of AZ91 is not changed,and its fractures are still quasicleavage crack.It is discovered that for AZ91 magnesium alloy,the fluxes containing TiO2 can decrease the Fe content of magnesium alloy wastes to below 0.0056%.The results also show that TiO2 is helpful for the precipitation of γ phase in granular or small island shape and can refine the grain size effectively.

  11. Biodegradation of Secondary Phase Particles in Magnesium Alloys: A Critical Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, M. Bobby [James Cook University, Townsville (Australia)

    2016-04-15

    Magnesium alloys have been extensively studied in recent years for potential biodegradable implant applications. A great deal of work has been done on the evaluation of the corrosion behaviour of magnesium alloys under in vitro and in vivo conditions. However, magnesium alloys, in general, contain secondary phase particles distributed in the matrix and/or along the grain boundaries. Owing to their difference in chemistry in comparison with magnesium matrix, these particles may exhibit different corrosion behaviour. It is essential to understand the corrosion behaviour of secondary phase particles in magnesium alloys in physiological conditions for implant applications. This paper critically reviews the biodegradation behaviour of secondary phase particles in magnesium alloys.

  12. Preliminary study of biodegradation of AZ31B magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Yibin; HUANG Jingjing; ZHANG Bingchun; YANG Ke

    2007-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are potential to be developed as a new type of biodegradable implant material by use of their active corrosion behavior.Both in vitro and in vivo biodegradation properties of an AZ31B magnesium alloy were investigated in this work.The results showed that AZ31B alloy has a proper degradation rate and much lower hydrogen release in Hank's solution,with a degradation rate of about 0.3 mm/year and hydrogen release below 0.15mL/cm2.The animal implantation test showed that the AZ31B alloy could slowly biodegrade in femur of the rabbit and form calcium phosphate around the alloy sample,with the Ca/P ratio close to the natural bone.

  13. Inverter DC resistance spot welding of magnesium alloy AZ31

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, I. S.; D. C. Kim; Kang, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The welding lobes of AC resistance spot welding and inverter DC resistance spot welding for the magnesium alloy sheet AZ31 were compared and analyzed.Design/methodology/approach: Using the welding lobe in terms of electrode force, weld time, and weld current which are process variables of the resistance spot welding, optimal welding conditions were determined. The lower limit of the range of the optimal welding condition was decided by minimum shear tension strength for the magnesium...

  14. Microstructural evolvement of wrought magnesium alloy sheet during heat treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Magnesium alloy is the lightest structural metal material. As its ductility is usually limited because of its hexagonal closest packing (hcp) structure, it is significant to improve its forming performance. The primary way to achieve this goal is by grain refinement. This study explores new ways of grain refinement for cold-rolled sheet of magnesium alloy AZ31B by probing into its structural evolvement in heat treatment. It is found that recrystallization mostly takes place in the cold-rolled sheet in heattreatment, and refined and equiaxial recrystallization grains with an average diameter of (14 to 15) μm can be obtained by heattreatment at 260 °C for (60 to 90) min, which is an effective method to obtain refined symmetrical grains of magnesium alloy by heat treatment at a lower recrystallization temperature after cold-rolling.

  15. Temperature Dependent Constitutive Modeling for Magnesium Alloy Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnesium alloys have been increasingly used in automotive and electronic industries because of their excellent strength to weight ratio and EMI shielding properties. However, magnesium alloys have low formability at room temperature due to their unique mechanical behavior (twinning and untwining), prompting for forming at an elevated temperature. In this study, a temperature dependent constitutive model for magnesium alloy (AZ31B) sheet is developed. A hardening law based on non linear kinematic hardening model is used to consider Bauschinger effect properly. Material parameters are determined from a series of uni-axial cyclic experiments (T-C-T or C-T-C) with the temperature ranging 150-250 deg. C. The influence of temperature on the constitutive equation is introduced by the material parameters assumed to be functions of temperature. Fitting process of the assumed model to measured data is presented and the results are compared.

  16. MICROSTRUCTURAL STUDIES OF FRICTION STIR WELDED AZ31 MAGNESIUM ALLOY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Zhang; S.B.Lin; L.Wu; J.C.Feng

    2004-01-01

    Friction stir welding achieves the weld in solid phase by locally introducing frictional heating and plastic flow arising from rotation of the welding tool, which results in changes in the local microstructure of magnesium alloy. The purpose in the paper is to study the microstructures of friction stir welded AZ3I magnesium alloy. Residual microstructures,including dynamic re-crystallization zone and nugget structures have been systematically investigated utilizing optical microscopy (OM), scanning electric microscopy (SEM),transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and micro-hardness. AZ31 magnesium alloy has been successfully friction stir welded and exhibits the variations of microstructure including dynamically recrystallized,equaxied grains in the weld nugget. Residual hardness in the nugget was found slightly lower than the parent but not too obvious.

  17. Influence of Magnesium Alloy Degradation on Undifferentiated Human Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cecchinato

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys are of particular interest in medical science since they provide compatible mechanical properties with those of the cortical bone and, depending on the alloying elements, they have the capability to tailor the degradation rate in physiological conditions, providing alternative bioresorbable materials for bone applications. The present study investigates the in vitro short-term response of human undifferentiated cells on three magnesium alloys and high-purity magnesium (Mg.The degradation parameters of magnesium-silver (Mg2Ag, magnesium-gadolinium (Mg10Gd and magnesium-rare-earth (Mg4Y3RE alloys were analysed after 1, 2, and 3 days of incubation in cell culture medium under cell culture condition. Changes in cell viability and cell adhesion were evaluated by culturing human umbilical cord perivascular cells on corroded Mg materials to examine how the degradation influences the cellular development.The pH and osmolality of the medium increased with increasing degradation rate and it was found to be most pronounced for Mg4Y3RE alloy. The biological observations showed that HUCPV exhibited a more homogeneous cell growth on Mg alloys compared to high-purity Mg, where they showed a clustered morphology. Moreover, cells exhibited a slightly higher density on Mg2Ag and Mg10Gd in comparison to Mg4Y3RE, due to the lower alkalinisation and osmolality of the incubation medium. However, cells grown on Mg10Gd and Mg4Y3RE generated more developed and healthy cellular structures that allowed them to better adhere to the surface. This can be attributable to a more stable and homogeneous degradation of the outer surface with respect to the incubation time.

  18. In vitro and in vivo studies on biodegradable magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lida Hou; Zhen Li; Yu Pan; Li Du; Xinlin Li; Yufeng Zheng; Li Li

    2014-01-01

    The microstructure, mechanical property, electrochemical behavior and biocompatibility of magnesium alloy (BioDe MSM™) were studied in the present work. The experimental results demonstrated that grain refining induced by extrusion improves the alloy strength significantly from 162 MPa for the as-cast alloy to 241 MPa for the as-extruded one. The anticorrosion properties of the as-extruded alloy also increased. Furthermore, the hemolysis ratio was decreased from 4.7%for the as-cast alloy to 2.9%for the as-extruded one, both below 5%. BioDe MSM™alloy shows good biocompatibility after being implanted into the dorsal muscle and the femoral shaft of the New Zealand rabbit, respectively, and there are no abnormalities after short-term implantation. In vivo observation indicated that the corrosion rate of this alloy varies with different implantation positions, with higher degradation rate in the femur than in the muscle.

  19. In vitro and in vivo studies on biodegradable magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Hou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure, mechanical property, electrochemical behavior and biocompatibility of magnesium alloy (BioDe MSM™ were studied in the present work. The experimental results demonstrated that grain refining induced by extrusion improves the alloy strength significantly from 162 MPa for the as-cast alloy to 241 MPa for the as-extruded one. The anticorrosion properties of the as-extruded alloy also increased. Furthermore, the hemolysis ratio was decreased from 4.7% for the as-cast alloy to 2.9% for the as-extruded one, both below 5%. BioDe MSM™ alloy shows good biocompatibility after being implanted into the dorsal muscle and the femoral shaft of the New Zealand rabbit, respectively, and there are no abnormalities after short-term implantation. In vivo observation indicated that the corrosion rate of this alloy varies with different implantation positions, with higher degradation rate in the femur than in the muscle.

  20. Microstructure of MCMgAl12Zn1 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrzański L. A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented the structure of the cast magnesium alloys as cast state and after heat treatment cooled with different cooling rate, depending on the cooling medium (furnace, water, air. For investigations samples in shape of 250x150x25 mm plates were used. The structure have been study in the light microscope, scanning electron microscope equipped with an electron back scattering facility. The effects of the addition of Al on the microstructure were also studied. In the analysed alloys a structure of α solid solution and fragile phase β(Mg17Al12 occurred mainly on grain borders as well as eutectic and phase with Mn, Fe and Si. Investigation are carried out for the reason of chemical composition influence and precipitation processes influence to the structure and mechanical properties of the magnesium cast alloys with different chemical composition in as cast alloys and after heat treatment.

  1. Microstructure of AM50 die casting magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kiełbus

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: AM50 magnesium alloy allows high-energy absorption and elongation at high strength and has goodcastability. It contains aluminum and manganese. Typically, it is used in automotive industry for steering wheels,dashboards and seat frames. The aim of this paper is to present the results of investigations on the microstructureof the AM50 magnesium alloy in an ingot condition and after hot chamber die casting.Design/methodology/approach: Die casting was carried out on 280 tone locking force hot-chamber die castingmachine. For the microstructure observation, a Olympus GX+70 metallographic microscope and a HITACHIS-3400N scanning electron microscope with a Thermo Noran EDS spectrometer equipped with SYSTEM SIXwere used.Findings: Based on the investigation carried out it was found that the AM50 magnesium alloy in as ingotcondition is characterized by a solid solution structure a with partially divorced eutectic (a + Mg17Al12 andprecipitates of Mn5Al8 phase. After hot chamber die casting is characterized by a solid solution structure awith fully divorced eutectic a + Mg17Al12. Moreover, the occurrence of Mn5Al8 phase and some shrinkageporosity has been proved.Research limitations/implications: Future researches should contain investigations of the influence of the diecasting process parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AM50 magnesium.Practical implications: AM50 magnesium alloy can be cast with cold- and hot-chamber die casting machine.Results of investigation may be useful for preparing die casting technology of this alloy.Originality/value: The results of the researches make up a basis for the investigations of new magnesium alloysfor hot chamber die casting with addition of RE elements designed to exploitation in temperature to 175°C.

  2. Metal Injection Molding (MIM) of Magnesium and Its Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Wolff; Johannes G. Schaper; Marc René Suckert; Michael Dahms; Frank Feyerabend; Thomas Ebel; Regine Willumeit-Römer; Thomas Klassen

    2016-01-01

    Current research has highlighted that magnesium and its alloys as biodegradable material are highly suitable for biomedical applications. The new material fully degrades into nontoxic elements and offers material properties matching those of human bone tissue. As biomedical implants are rather small and complex in shape, the metal injection molding (MIM) technique seems to be well suited for the near net shape mass production of such parts. Furthermore, MIM of Mg-alloys is of high interest in...

  3. Influence of Al addition on structure of magnesium casting alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the following paper there have been the structure and properties of the MCMgAl9Zn1 magnesium cast alloy as-cast state and after a heat treatment presented.Design/methodology/approach: A casting cycle of alloys has been carried out in an induction crucible furnace using a protective salt bath Flux 12 equipped with two ceramic filters at the melting temperature of 750±10ºC, suitable for the manufactured material. The following results concern transmission and scanning microscopy, X-ray qualitative and quantitative microanalysis.Findings: The analysis of the thin foils after the ageing process has confirmed that the structure of the magnesium cast alloy consists of the solid solution α – Mg (matrix of the secondary phase β – Mg17Al12 evenly located in the structure. The structure creates agglomerates in the form of needle precipitations, partially coherent with the matrix placed mostly at the grain boundaries.Research limitations/implications: According to the alloys characteristic, the applied cooling rate and alloy additions seems to be a good compromise for mechanical properties and microstructures, nevertheless further tests should be carried out in order to examine different cooling rates and parameters of solution treatment process and aging process.Practical implications: A desire to create as light vehicle constructions as possible and connected with it low fuel consumption have made it possible to make use of magnesium alloys as a constructional material in automotive industry.Originality/value: The undertaken examinations aim at defining the influence of a chemical composition and precipitation processes on the structure and casting magnesium alloy properties in its as-cast state and after heat treatment with a different content of alloy components.

  4. Hot Deformation Kinetics of Magnesium Alloy AZ31

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lingyun; HUANG Guangjie; FAN Yonge; LU Zhiwen; PAN Fusheng

    2006-01-01

    The flow stress at elevated temperatures for magnesium alloy AZ31 was studied using isothermal compression testing. The effect of deformation parameters on the flow stress was studied as well. The kinetics of elevated temperature deformation was expressed by means of some empirical rate equations. The activation parameter has been calculated. A mechanism for the dynamic softening of AZ31 alloy in a hot deformation experiment was identified to be the dynamic recrystallization.

  5. Mechanical properties and structure of magnesium alloy AS31

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hanus

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary materials should possess high mechanical properties, physical and chemical, as well as technological ones, to ensure long and reliable use. The non-ferrous metals alloys used nowadays, including the magnesium alloys, meet the above-mentioned requirements and expectations regarding the contemporary materials.Magnesium alloys are primarily used in aeronautical and automobile industry in wide variety of structural characteristics because of their favorable combination of tensile strength (160 to 365 MPa, elastic modulus (45 GPa, and low density (1 740 kg/m3, which is two-thirds that of aluminum. Magnesium alloys have high strength-to-weight ratio (tensile strength/density, comparable to those of other structural metals. [1-6]Knowledge of the relaxation properties of metal materials at high temperatures is necessary for the verification of susceptibility of castings to the creation of defects during the production process. Temperature limits of materials where highest tension values are generated may be detected with tensile tests under high temperatures. The generated tensions in the casting are a cause of the creation and development of defects. At acoustic emission (hereinafter called the "AE" use, tensile tests at high temperatures may, among other things, be used for analysis of the AE signal sources and set, in more detail, the temperature limit of elastic-plastic deformations existence in the material under examination. The results of the temperature drop where tension at casting cooling is generated or its release at heating are basic data for controlled cooling mode (and temperature of casting knocking out of the form as well as necessary for the thermal mode for the casting tension reduction. [7-9]Knowledge of elastic-plastic properties at elevated temperatures is often important for complex evaluation of magnesium alloys. Objective of the work was focused on determination of changes of elastic-plastic properties of magnesium

  6. In vivo study of degradable magnesium and magnesium alloy as bone implant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jingjing; REN Yibin; JIANG Yue; ZHANG Bingchun; YANG Ke

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the in vivo behavior of pure magnesium and AZ31B and the influence of mineralization induction ability,sample rods were implanted intramedullary into the femora of rabbits.After one and nine weeks,six animals from each group were sacrificed,respectively.Undecalcified cross-sections of implant were performed to observe bone-implant by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)and energy dispersive spectromicroscopy(EDS).The SEM/EDS evaluation showed that there is a thin layer of bone around magnesium and its alloy after nine-week implantation.The results further showed that the aluminum-zinc containing magnesium alloys AZ31B provided a slower degradation rate in vivo than the pure magnesium.At the locations where magnesium was resorbed,the deposition of new bone was found.The results indicate that magnesium is biocompatible,osteo-conductive and is a potential material for use as a degradable bone implant.

  7. Structure changes and mechanical properties of laser alloyed magnesium cast alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kwaśny

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this work was to investigate structure and mechanical properties of the MCMgAl12Zn1 casting magnesium alloys after laser treatment. The laser treatment was carried out using a high power diode laser (HPDL.Design/methodology/approach: The laser processing of TiC, WC, SiC particles in MCMgAl12Zn1 and the resulted microstructures and properties are discussed in this paper. The resulting microstructure in the modified surface layer was examined. Phase composition was determined by the X-ray diffraction method using XPert device. The measurements of hardness after laser melt injection was also studied.Findings: Structure of the solidyifying material after laser alloying is characteristic with occurrences of areas with the diversified morphology, dependent on solidification rate of the magnesium alloys, is characteristic of structure of the solidified material after laser alloying. The MCMgAl12Zn1 casting magnesium alloys after laser alloying demonstrate similar hardness tests results, in reference to hardness of the alloys before their laser treatment.Research limitations/implications: In this research three powders (titanium carbide, tungsten carbide and silicon carbide were used to reinforcing the surface of the MCMgAl12Zn1 casting magnesium alloys.Practical implications: High power diode laser can be used as an economical substitute for CO2 and Nd:YAG lasers to modify the surface magnesium alloy by feeding the carbide particles.Originality/value: The originality of this work is applying of High Power Diode Laser for laser treatment of cast magnesium alloy consisting in fusion penetration of the hard particles of titanium, tungsten, and silicon carbides into the remelted surface layer of the alloy.

  8. Modified AZ80 magnesium alloys for biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erinc, M.; Zhang, X.; Sillekens, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys are light weight, biodegradable materials. They can be used as metal implants which maintain strength and integrity for the time of recovery, followed by natural dissolution in the body preventing the necessity of implant removal. In addition to the general biocompatibility

  9. Microstructure 2007of WE43 casting magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kiełbus

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: WE43 is a high-strength magnesium alloy characterized by good mechanical properties both at an ambient and elevated temperature (up to 300°C. It contains mainly yttrium and neodymium. The aim of this paper is to present the results of research on the microstructure of the WE43 magnesium alloy in an as-cast condition.Design/methodology/approach: For the microstructure observation, a Reichert metallographic microscope MeF2 and a HITACHI S-3400N scanning electron microscope with a Thermo Noran EDS equipped with SYSTEM SIX were used. A qualitative phase analysis was performed with a JEOL JDX-7S diffractometer. Microstrucutral examinations were performed JEOL 3010 transmission electron microscope.Findings: Based on the investigation carried out it was found that the microstructure of WE43 alloy after continuous casting consists of α-Mg matrix and irregular precipitates of Mg41Nd5, rectangular particles of MgY phase, particles of Mg24Y5, longitudinal precipitates of β (Mg14Nd2Y compound at grain boundaries and the grain interiors. All of these phases contain yttrium and neodymium. Research limitations/implications: Future researches should contain investigations of the influence of heat treatment parameters on microstructure, corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of WE43 alloy.Practical implications: WE43 magnesium alloy is used in the aircraft industry, for wheels, engine casings, gear box casings and rotor heads in helicopters. Results of investigation may be useful for development casting technology of the Mg-Y-Nd alloys.Originality/value: The results of the researches make up a basis for the next investigations of magnesium alloys with addition of Y and Nd designed to exploitation at temperature to 300°C.

  10. The effects of some elements on the igniting temperature of magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Weimin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, P.O. Box 549, South Campus, Tianjin 300132 (China)]. E-mail: wmzhao@mail.hebut.edu.cn; Sun Yong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, P.O. Box 549, South Campus, Tianjin 300132 (China); Li Haipeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, P.O. Box 549, South Campus, Tianjin 300132 (China); Liang Chunyong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, P.O. Box 549, South Campus, Tianjin 300132 (China)

    2006-02-25

    This paper studied the effects of some elements on the igniting temperature of the magnesium alloys. The main proposals of the study is to increase the igniting temperature by adding some elements to the magnesium alloys and make the magnesium alloys process easily like cast iron and aluminium without flux and gas cover. The results show that oxide film of molten Mg alloys has turned into fine and close structure from porous structure to stop the Mg alloys from oxidating further and the kindling point of magnesium alloys can be increased by about 200 deg. C.

  11. Copper-Silicon-Magnesium Alloys for Latent Heat Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, P. J.; Withey, E. A.; Coker, E. N.; Kruizenga, A. M.; Andraka, C. E.

    2016-06-01

    The systematic development of microstructure, solidification characteristics, and heat of solidification with composition in copper-silicon-magnesium alloys for thermal energy storage is presented. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to relate the thermal characteristics to microstructural development in the investigated alloys and clarifies the location of one of the terminal three-phase eutectics. Repeated thermal cycling highlights the thermal storage stability of the transformation through multiple melting events. Two near-terminal eutectic alloys display high enthalpies of solidification, relatively narrow melting ranges, and stable transformation hysteresis behaviors suited to thermal energy storage.

  12. Investigation on mechanical behaviour of AM60 magnesium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, C.; R.X. Bai; Gu, Y. T.; Ma, W. J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In this work, tension, impact, bend and fatigue tests were conducted in an AM60 magnesium alloy. The effects of environmental temperature and loading rates on impact and tension behavior of the alloy were also investigated.Design/methodology/approach: The tests were conducted using an Instron universal testing machine. The loading speed was changed from 1 mm/min to 300 mm/min to gain a better understanding of the effect of strain rate. To understand the failure behavior of this alloy...

  13. Processing aspects of magnesium alloy stent tube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werkhoven, R.J.; Sillekens, W.H.; Lieshout, J.B.J.M. van

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical applications are an emerging field of interest for magnesium technology, envisioning biodegradable implants that resorb in the human body after having cured a particular medical condition (such as artery clogging or bone fractures). This challenges research in a sense that the materials t

  14. The influence of modification on the thermophysical properties of magnesium wrought alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moldovan, P.; Popescu, G.; Miculescu, M.; Bojin, D.; Dimitriu, S.; Sillekens, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium is the lightest engineering metal and has a great potential due to its raw material large natural reverse and interesting properties. Magnesium alloys are attracting increasing attention for industry for weight reduction and high fuel efficiency. Magnesium alloys are attractive alternative

  15. Thermal spraying on the magnesium alloy AZ91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenz, U.; Weisheit, A.; Mordike, B.L. (Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde und Werkstofftechnik)

    1998-01-01

    The results of this investigations show, that thermal sprayed coatings can improve the surface properties of magnesium base alloys. Aluminium coatings can improve corrosion resistance, whereas wear resistance can significantly be improved with NiCrFeSiB and NiAl coatings. When materials are coated which are sensitive to contact corrosion then the density of the layer is the most important property. In this respect HVOF spaying seems to be the preferred process for producing protective coatings on magnesium substrates. (orig.)

  16. Hot compression behavior of GZ31 magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roostaei, M., E-mail: miladroustaei68@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155–4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Parsa, M.H., E-mail: mhparsa@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155–4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for High Performance Materials, School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Advanced Metalforming and Thermomechanical Processing Laboratory, School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmudi, R., E-mail: mahmudi@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155–4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for High Performance Materials, School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirzadeh, H., E-mail: hmirzadeh@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155–4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Advanced Metalforming and Thermomechanical Processing Laboratory, School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Study the hot deformation behavior of Mg–3Gd–1Zn (GZ31) magnesium alloy. • Determination of activation energy for hot deformation of this alloy. • Determination of material's constants of constitutive equations for this material. - Abstract: Hot deformation behavior of Mg–3Gd–1Zn (GZ31) magnesium alloy was studied by hot compression tests over the temperature range of 300–500 °C under strain rates of 0.0001–0.1 s{sup −1}. This material exhibited typical broad single-peak dynamic recrystallization behavior followed by a gradual drop towards the steady state stress. The constitutive behavior of the tested alloy was studied by the power, exponential, and hyperbolic sine laws. The stress multiplier and the hyperbolic sine exponent were calculated as 0.024 MPa{sup −1} and 3.42, respectively. The deformation activation energy was found to be about 173.2 kJ/mol, which is higher than the lattice self-diffusion activation energy of magnesium (135 kJ/mol). The latter can be ascribed to the presence of gadolinium, which shows the importance of rare earth elements in increasing the deformation resistance at high temperatures.

  17. HOW TO MAKE MAGNESIUM ALLOYS BE RESISTANT TO OPERATIONAL RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Chigrinova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies regularities and mechanisms of structure and phase formation in the surface layers of magnesium alloys when they are processed by method of micro-arc oxidation [MAO]. It has been determined that the same specific features of structure formation, namely: existence of a thin dense inner sublayer and a thicker outer sublayer with developed porosity are common for all types of coatings on the surface of magnesium and aluminum alloys. Such structural state of a protective coating can not be considered as a guaranteed protection against operational impacts, taking into account the fields of their primary application that is aviation construction, automotive construction, instrumentation, building construction, etc. The paper has analyzed the effect of alkaline electrolytes with varying chemical composition due to additions of sodium fluoride or potassium on the structure and properties of these alloys as well as on the level of basic performance characteristics of the layers formed in such electrolytes. On the basis of the analysis a conclusion has been made that it is possible to extend their life-span under operational conditions. It has been revealed that the existing techniques and methods for process control of MAO aluminum and magnesium alloys, particularly processing modes and technological equipment capacity determine a nature of structure formation and changes in a phase composition of the formed coatings.

  18. THE FORMING OF MAGNESIUM ALLOY FORGINGS FOR AIRCRAFT AND AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dziubińska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the theoretical and technological aspects of forming magnesium alloy parts for aircraft and automotive applications. The main applications of magnesium alloys in the aircraft and automotive industries are discussed. In addition, the forging technology for magnesium alloys is generally described, with a particular emphasis on wrought alloys. A brief outline of the state of the art in the forging of magnesium alloys is given based on a survey of the specialist literature and the results of previous research by the authors.

  19. One-step pickling-activation before magnesium alloy plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin-juan; YU Gang; OUYANG Yue-jun; HE Xiao-mei; ZHANG Jun; YE Li-yuan

    2009-01-01

    A one-step pickling-activation process was proposed as an environmental friendly pretreatment method in phosphate-permanganate solution before electroplating on magnesium alloys. The effects of pickling-activation on qualities of coating were assessed by adhesion and porosity testing of copper plating. The interfacial reactions between specimen and solution were analyzed with SEM, EDX and XRD. The results show that the developed process of pickling-activation can equalize the potentials on substrate surface. The compacted zinc film can be obtained by zinc immersion after treating magnesium alloy in the pH 4-6 phosphate-permanganate solution for 3-5 min. The adhesion and corrosion resistance of copper plating are enhanced. The one-step pickling-activation can replace the existing two-step process of acid pickling and activation which contains a great deal of chromium and fluorine. The procedure of surface pretreatment is simplified and the production environment is improved.

  20. Friction stir welding of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林三宝; 张华; 吴林; 冯吉才; 戴鸿滨

    2003-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is an new solid-phase joining technology which has more advantages over fusion welding methods in welding of aluminum and other non-ferrous metals. The effects of welding parameters on mechanical properties and microstructure during friction stir welding of AZ31 magnesium alloy were studied in this paper. Microstructures and mechanical properties of the joints were investigated by means of optical microscopy, scanning electric microscopy (SEM), micro-hardness analysis, and tensile test. Experimental results show that the magnesium alloy can be successfully welded by FSW method, and the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of FSW joint reaches up to 90 percent of base metal. The microstructures of welded joints exhibit the variation from dynamically recrystallized fine grains to greatly deformed grains. Hardness in nugget zone was found lower than the base metal but not too obvious.

  1. Cathodic phosphate coating containing nano zinc particles on magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A technology for preparation of a cathodic phosphate coating mainly containing nano metallic zinc particles and phosphate compounds on magnesium alloy was developed.The influence of cathodic current density on the microstructure of the cathodic phosphate coating Was investigated.The results show that the crystals of the coating are finer and the microstructures of the outer surface of the coatings are zigzag at the cathodic density of 0.2-0.5 A/dm2.The content of nano metallic zinc particles in the coating decreases with the increase of the thickness of the coatings and tends to be zero when the coating thickness is 4.14 μm.The cathodic phosphate coating was applied to be a transition coating for improving the adhesion between the paints and the magnesium alloys.The formation mechanism of the cathodic phosphate coating was investigated as well.

  2. Corrosion behaviour of aluminium-magnesium alloys in molten sodium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of the Al-1% Mg, A1-3% Mg, A1-5% Mg and A1-3% Mg-0.15%Zr alloys in moltensodium was investigated. The morphology of the corrosion products and the alloying element distribution of the specimenswere analyzed by using OM, SEM and EDS. The results showed that the effects of the magnesium content and the im-mersion temperature on the corrosion of the specimens are related to β phase (Mg5Al8).

  3. Development of a magnesium secondary alloy system for mixed magnesium post-consumer scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fechner, Daniel, E-mail: dfechner@tuev-nord.de; Blawert, Carsten; Hort, Norbert; Dieringa, Hajo; Kainer, Karl Ulrich

    2013-08-01

    Six alloys were prepared by high pressure die casting in order to develop a magnesium secondary alloy system for mixed post-consumer scrap. The alloys were investigated with regard to intermetallic phases, grain structures, mechanical properties and performance in the salt spray test. The results are discussed in relation to the characteristics of the high pressure die casting process. The effect of contamination by copper and compensation for this effect by the addition of zinc were thoroughly investigated for the most promising alloy. It is evident that the alloying elements strontium, silicon and calcium are incorporated in the ternary Zintl phase Sr{sub 6.33}Mg{sub 16.67}Si{sub 13}, while aluminium, zinc, copper and magnesium form the tau-phases Mg{sub 32}(Al{sub x},Cu{sub 1−x}){sub 49} and Mg{sub 32}(Al,Zn){sub 49}. The two tau-phases can merge due to isomorphism. Mg{sub 32}(Al,Zn){sub 49} ensures improved corrosion resistance after the addition of copper.

  4. Infrared measurement and simulation of magnesium alloy welding temperature field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Liming; CHI Mingsheng; HUANG Ruisheng; SONG Gang; ZHOU Yang

    2005-01-01

    The welding temperature field of magnesium alloy AZ31 welded by TIG was measured with the uncooled infrared (IR) thermal imaging technology. The variables in the mathematic mode of welding temperature fields were revised by IR temperature data. Based on the results of simulation, the loss of temperature fields caused by arc interfered was compensated, and a whole temperature field was achieved, which provided a precise and powerful foundation for the investigation of microstructure of the joints.

  5. Finite element simulation of magnesium alloys laser beam welding

    OpenAIRE

    BELHADJ, Asma; BESSROUR, Jamel; MASSE, Jean-Eric; BOUHAFS, Mahmoud; Barrallier, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional finite element model is developed to simulate thermal history magnesium-based alloys during laser beam welding. Space-time temperature distributions in weldments are predicted from the beginning of welding to the final cooling. The finite element calculations were performed using Cast3M code with which the heat equation is solved considering a non-linear transient behaviour. The applied loading is a moving heat source that depends on process parameters such ...

  6. Microstructure of MCMgAl12Zn1 magnesium alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrzański L.A.; Tański T.; Čížek L.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper is presented the structure of the cast magnesium alloys as cast state and after heat treatment cooled with different cooling rate, depending on the cooling medium (furnace, water, air). For investigations samples in shape of 250x150x25 mm plates were used. The structure have been study in the light microscope, scanning electron microscope equipped with an electron back scattering facility. The effects of the addition of Al on the microstructure were also studied. In the analysed...

  7. Microstructure analysis of magnesium alloy melted by laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S. Y.; Hu, J. D.; Yang, Y.; Guo, Z. X.; Wang, H. Y.

    2005-12-01

    The effects of laser surface melting (LSM) on microstructure of magnesium alloy containing Al8.57%, Zn 0.68%, Mn0.15%, Ce0.52% were investigated. In the present work, a pulsed Nd:YAG laser was used to melt and rapidly solidify the surface of the magnesium alloy with the objective of changing microstructure and improving the corrosion resistance. The results indicate that laser-melted layer contains the finer dendrites and behaviors good resistance corrosion compared with the untreated layer. Furthermore, the absorption coefficient of the magnesium alloy has been estimated according to the numeral simulation of the thermal conditions. The formation process of fine microstructure in melted layers was investigated based on the experimental observation and the theoretical analysis. Some simulation results such as the re-solidification velocities are obtained. The phase constitutions of the melted layers determined by X-ray diffraction were β-Mg 17Al 12 and α-Mg as well as some phases unidentified.

  8. The Atmospheric Corrosion of Magnesium Alloys : Influence of Microstructure and Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Jönsson, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The low density and high specific strength of magnesium alloys have created a great deal of interest in the use of these alloys in the automotive and aerospace industries and in portable electronics. All of these industries deal with applications in which weight is extremely important. However, an obstacle to overcome when using magnesium alloys in engineering applications are their unsatisfactory corrosion properties. This thesis is devoted to the atmospheric corrosion of the two magnesium a...

  9. Corrosion action and passivation mechanism of magnesium alloy in fluoride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-zhong; HUANG Jiu-gui; TIAN Yan-wen; LIU Chang-sheng

    2009-01-01

    Corrosion action and passive mechanism of magnesium alloy in the fluoride solution were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy(SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(EDS), and electrochemistry methods. The results show that an insoluble MgF2 film is generated on the surface of magnesium alloy activated in the hydrofluoric acid. And the mass of the deposited MgF2 film may reach a constant value, when the mass ratio of Mg/F on the magnesium alloy surface is fixed at 11.3-1. The activated magnesium alloy gains a 'passivation state' in a mixture of sulfuric acid and hydrofluoric acid at a volume ratio of less than 1.2. At the same time the mass of magnesium alloy is maintained as a function of the time. When the ratio is above 1.4, the mass of magnesium alloy rapidly decreases. The passive film formed through adsorption of HF2- (or H2F3-, H3F4-) ions by the deposited MgF2 film can protect the magnesium alloy from corrosion in fluoride solution, but not in non-fluoride solutions. The passive state is maintained for activated magnesium alloy in an acidic sulfuric nickel solution with added fluoride. If fluoride and carbonate are added to the acidic sulfuric nickel solution, a replacement reaction between magnesium alloy and solution takes place.

  10. Purely inorganic coatings based on nanoparticles for magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feil, Florian [DECHEMA e.V., Karl-Winnacker-Institut, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: feil@dechema.de; Fuerbeth, Wolfram; Schuetze, Michael [DECHEMA e.V., Karl-Winnacker-Institut, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2009-03-30

    The chemical nanotechnology is offering a chance to apply stable inorganic coatings onto magnesium alloys. The cast alloy AZ91 as well as the wrought alloy AZ31 could be dip-coated with aqueous dispersions based on commercially available silica particles and various additives. The high surface activity of the nanoparticles and appropriate additives, e.g. boron, aluminium or alkali salts, help to densify these coatings under moderate conditions even suitable for those thermally precarious magnesium alloys. Another coating technique is based on the electrophoretic deposition of nanoparticles already containing all sintering aids. These particles could be synthesised by a base-catalysed sol-gel process. Polydiethoxysiloxane can act as an adhesion promoter for these coatings. Additionally concentration gradients of different oxides within these particles can adjust the coating properties, too. Usually single coatings are very thin (200-500 nm). However, multiple coating applications as well as a process involving special particle mixtures lead to coatings with a thickness of up to several micrometers. Even after thermal treatment at 200 or 400 deg. C these coatings stay crack-free. The composition and texture of these coatings were studied using IR, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and other techniques. Electrochemical impedance measurements show an improvement of the corrosion performance by these coatings. The coating resistance is improving with the coating thickness.

  11. Microstructure and Thermomechanical Properties of Magnesium Alloys Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lichý

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys thanks to their high specific strength have an extensive potential of the use in a number of industrial applications. The most important of them is the automobile industry in particular. Here it is possible to use this group of materials for great numbers of parts from elements in the car interior (steering wheels, seats, etc., through exterior parts (wheels particularly of sporting models, up to driving (engine blocks and gearbox mechanisms themselves. But the use of these alloys in the engine structure has its limitations as these parts are highly thermally stressed. But the commonly used magnesium alloys show rather fast decrease of strength properties with growing temperature of stressing them. This work is aimed at studying this properties both of alloys commonly used (of the Mg-Al-Zn, Mn type, and of that ones used in industrial manufacture in a limited extent (Mg-Al-Sr. These thermomechanical properties are further on complemented with the microstructure analysis with the aim of checking the metallurgical interventions (an effect of inoculation. From the studied materials the test castings were made from which the test bars for the tensile test were subsequently prepared. This test took place within the temperature range of 20°C – 300°C. Achieved results are summarized in the concluding part of the contribution.

  12. Endothelial responses of magnesium and other alloying elements in magnesium-based stent materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nan; Zhu, Donghui

    2016-01-01

    Biodegradable tailored magnesium (Mg) alloys are some of the most promising scaffolds for cardiovascular stents. During the course of degradation after implantation, all the alloying elements in the scaffold will be released to the surrounding vascular tissues. However, fundamental questions regarding the toxicity of alloying elements towards vascular cells, the maximum amount of each element that could be used in alloy design, or how each of the alloying elements affects vascular cellular activity and gene expression, are still not fully answered. This work systematically addressed these questions by revealing how application of different alloying elements commonly used in Mg stent materials influences several indices of human endothelial cell health, i.e., viability, proliferations, cytoskeletal reorganizations, migration, and the gene expression profile. The overall cell viability and proliferation showed a decreasing trend with increasing concentrations of the ions, and the half maximal effective concentrations (EC50) for each element were determined. When applied at a low concentration of around 10 mM, Mg had no adverse effects but improved cell proliferation and migration instead. Mg ions also altered endothelial gene expression significantly in a dose dependent manner. Most of the changed genes are related to angiogenesis and the cell adhesion signaling pathways. Findings from this work provide useful information on maximum safe doses of these ions for endothelial cells, endothelial responses towards these metal ions, and some guidance for future Mg stent design. PMID:25363018

  13. Influence of Cobalt on the Properties of Load-Sensitive Magnesium Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Kai Kerber; Hans Jürgen Maier; Friedrich-Wilhelm Bach; Wilfried Reimche; Gregor Mroz; Christian Demminger; Christian Klose

    2012-01-01

    In this study, magnesium is alloyed with varying amounts of the ferromagnetic alloying element cobalt in order to obtain lightweight load-sensitive materials with sensory properties which allow an online-monitoring of mechanical forces applied to components made from Mg-Co alloys. An optimized casting process with the use of extruded Mg-Co powder rods is utilized which enables the production of magnetic magnesium alloys with a reproducible Co concentration. The efficiency of the casting proce...

  14. Comparison of corrosion behaviors of AZ31, AZ91,AM60 and ZK60 magnesium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Ying-liang; QIN Ting-wei; WANG Hui-min; ZHANG Zhao

    2009-01-01

    The corrosion behaviours of four kinds of rolled magnesium alloys of AZ31, AZ91, AM60 and ZK60 were studied in 1 mol/L sodium chloride solution. The results of EIS and potentiodynamic polarization show that the corrosion resistance of the four materials is ranked as ZK60>AM60>AZ31>AZ91. The corrosion processes of the four magnesium alloys were also analyzed by SEM and energy dispersive spectroscopy(EDS). The results show that the corrosion patterns of the four alloys are localized corrosion and the galvanic couples formed by the second phase particles and the matrix are the main source of the localized corrosion of magnesium alloys. The corrosion resistance of the different magnesium alloys has direct relationship with the concentration of alloying elements and microstructure of magnesium alloys. The ratio of the β phase in AZ91 is higher than that in AZ31 and the β phase can form micro-galvanic cell with the alloy matrix, as a result, the corrosion resistance of AZ31 will be higher than AZ91. The manganese element in AM60 magnesium alloy can form the second phase particle of AlMnFe, which can reduce the Fe content in magnesium alloy matrix, purifying the microstructure of alloy, as a result, the corrosion resistance of AM60 is improved. However, due to the more noble galvanic couples of AlMnFe and matrix, the microscopic corrosion morphology of AM60 is more localized. The zirconium element in ZK60 magnesium alloy can refine grain, form stable compounds with Fe and Si, and purify the composition of alloy, which results in the good corrosion resistance of ZK60 magnesium alloy.

  15. Investigations of microstructure and dislocations of cast magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tański

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The microstructures and the dislocation arrangements in the cast magnesium alloy have been investigated using transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. In this paper are presented also the results of phase morphology investigation of an new developed Mg alloy. Such studies are of great interest for the metal industry, mainly the automobile industry, were the improvement of cast elements quality is crucial for economic and quality reason and depends mainly on properly performed controlling process of the production parameters. There are presented especially the effect of heat treatment on the size and distribution of the precipitation occurred in the matrix.Design/methodology/approach: The basic assumptions of this work are realised an Universal Metallurgical Simulator and Analyzer. The solidification process itself is analysed using the UMSA device by appliance of the Derivative Thermo Analysis. The thermal analysis was performed at a low but regulated cooling rate in a range of 0.2 ºC to ca. 3 ºC. Cooling curve for the thermal analysis was performed using a high sensitivity thermocouples of the K type, covered with a stainless steel sheath. The data were acquired by a high speed data acquisition system linked to a PC computer. Two different types of samples were used, bulk-cylindrical, and thin-walled cylindrical. Metallographic investigation were made on cross section samples of a engine bloc. Non-equilibrium heating and cooling process conditions were applied to achieve changes in shape and distribution of the phases such as Al2Cu and Si.Findings: During the investigation Dislocation networks are found to increase with deformation in all cases. The dislocation networks have been found in the g- Mg17Al12 phase as well as in the matrix in the investigation magnesium alloys. The crystallographic orientation relationship are: (1 01 α-Mg ║ (10 Mg17Al12 and [11 0] α-Mg ║ [111] Mg17Al12

  16. Chemical conversion coating for protecting magnesium alloys from corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Gaurang; Allen, Fred M.; Skandan, Ganesh; Hornish, Peter; Jain, Mohit

    2016-01-05

    A chromate-free, self-healing conversion coating solution for magnesium alloy substrates, composed of 10-20 wt. % Mg(NO.sub.3).sub.2.6H.sub.2O, 1-5 wt. % Al(NO.sub.3).sub.3.9H.sub.2O, and less than 1 wt. % of [V.sub.10O.sub.28].sup.6- or VO.sub.3.sup.- dissolved in water. The corrosion resistance offered by the resulting coating is in several hundreds of hours in salt-spray testing. This prolonged corrosion protection is attributed to the creation of a unique structure and morphology of the conversion coating that serves as a barrier coating with self-healing properties. Hydroxoaluminates form the backbone of the barrier protection offered while the magnesium hydroxide domains facilitate the "slow release" of vanadium compounds as self-healing moieties to defect sites, thus providing active corrosion protection.

  17. Precipitation evolution and surface modification of magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tański

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this publication is to present the results of own long-term research summarising the experience concerning as casting magnesium alloys, and in especially a thermal analysis describing the process of alloys crystallisation, standard heat treatment according to the occurring phase transitions and precipitation processes, surface treatment with the CVD and PVD methods, laser surface treatment of surface layers, as well as using the methods of Computer Materials Science. Design/methodology/approach: The research concerned in the first place an analysis of Mg-Al-Zn alloys crystallisation kinetics. Optimisation investigations for heat treatment conditions taking into consideration different cooling mediums were performed in order to identify fully the structure of the investigated magnesium casting alloys. Investigations were carried out of the structure and properties of coatings produced with the CVD and PVD methods on the investigated Mg-Al-Zn alloys. The last stage of investigating the presented Mg-Al-Zn alloys applied to laser surface treatment enabling to produce a quasi-composite structure of MMCs characterised by the gradient of phase composition as well as functional properties by feeding hard ceramic particles, in particular carbides and oxides, into the surface of the materials produced. Findings: Valuable and original results were achieved based on the broad scope of the research performed both, in cognitive and applicational terms, concentrated mainly on the analysis and influence of chemical composition and technological heat and surface treatment processes on the structure and properties of the investigated alloys. Practical implications: The properties of the core and surface layer of the part produced can be customised most advantageously by selecting the part’s material and its structure and properties formation processes appropriately along with the surface layer type and technology ensuring the required

  18. Metal Injection Molding (MIM of Magnesium and Its Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wolff

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Current research has highlighted that magnesium and its alloys as biodegradable material are highly suitable for biomedical applications. The new material fully degrades into nontoxic elements and offers material properties matching those of human bone tissue. As biomedical implants are rather small and complex in shape, the metal injection molding (MIM technique seems to be well suited for the near net shape mass production of such parts. Furthermore, MIM of Mg-alloys is of high interest in further technical fields. This study focusses on the performance of MIM-processing of magnesium alloy powders. It includes Mg-specific development of powder blending, feedstock preparation, injection molding, solvent and thermal debinding and final sintering. Even though Mg is a highly oxygen-affine material forming a stable oxide layer on each particle surface, the material can be sintered to nearly dense parts, providing mechanical properties matching those of as cast material. An ultimate tensile strength of 142 MPa, yield strength of 67 MPa, elastic modulus of 40 GPa and 8% elongation at fracture could be achieved using novel organic polymer binders for the feedstock preparation. Thus, first implant demonstrator parts could be successfully produced by the MIM technique.

  19. Tribological Behaviour of the Ceramic Coating Formed on Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Fei; ZHOU Hai; CHEN Qiang; GE Yuanjing; LV Fanxiu

    2007-01-01

    Micro-arc oxidation is a recently developed surface treatment technology under anodic oxidation. Through micro-arc oxidation, a ceramic coating is directly formed on the surface of magnesium alloy, by which its surface property is significantly improved. In this paper, a dense ceramic oxide coating was prepared on an AZ31 magnesium alloy by micro-arc oxidation in a NaOH-Na2SiO3-NaB4O7-(NaPO3)6 electrolytic solution. Micro-structure, surface morphology and phase composition were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The tribological behavior of the micro-arc oxidation ceramic coating under dry sliding against GCrl5 steel was evaluated on a ball-on-disc test rig. The results showed that the AZ31 alloy was characterized by adhesion wear and scuffing under dry sliding against the steel, while the surface micro-arc oxidation ceramic coating experienced much abated adhesion wear and scuffing under the same testing conditions. The micro-arc oxidation ceramic coating showed good friction-reducing and fair antiwear ability in dry sliding against the steel.

  20. Microstructure, mechanical property and in vitro biocorrosion behavior of single-phase biodegradable Mg–1.5Zn–0.6Zr alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure, mechanical property, and in vitro biocorrosion behavior of as-cast single-phase biodegradable Mg–1.5Zn–0.6Zr alloy were investigated and compared with a commercial as-cast AZ91D alloy. The results show that the Mg–1.5Zn–0.6Zr alloy had a single-phase solid solution structure, with an average grain size of 34.7 ± 13.1 μm. The alloy exhibited ultimate tensile strength of 168 ± 2.0 MPa, yield strength of 83 ± 0.6 MPa, and elongation of 9.1 ± 0.6%. Immersion tests and electrochemical measurements reveal that the alloy displayed lower biocorrosion rate and more uniform corrosion mode than AZ91D in Hank's solution. The elimination of intensive galvanic corrosion reactions and the formation of a much more compact and uniform corrosion film mainly account for the better biocorrosion properties of the Mg–1.5Zn–0.6Zr alloy than AZ91D.

  1. Forming of magnesium alloy microtubes in the fabrication of biodegradable stents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.; Fang, G.; Qian, L.; Leeflang, M.A.; Duszczyk, J.; Zhou, J.

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium alloys have, in recent years, been recognized as highly promising biodegradable materials, especially for vascular stent applications. Forming of magnesium alloys into high-precision thin-wall tubes has however presented a technological barrier in the fabrication of vascular stents, becaus

  2. Electrochemical and Optical Properties of Magnesium-Alloy Hydrides Reviewed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirugnasambandam G. Manivasagam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available As potential hydrogen storage media, magnesium based hydrides have been systematically studied in order to improve reversibility, storage capacity, kinetics and thermodynamics. The present article deals with the electrochemical and optical properties of Mg alloy hydrides. Electrochemical hydrogenation, compared to conventional gas phase hydrogen loading, provides precise control with only moderate reaction conditions. Interestingly, the alloy composition determines the crystallographic nature of the metal-hydride: a structural change is induced from rutile to fluorite at 80 at.% of Mg in Mg-TM alloy, with ensuing improved hydrogen mobility and storage capacity. So far, 6 wt.% (equivalent to 1600 mAh/g of reversibly stored hydrogen in MgyTM(1-yHx (TM: Sc, Ti has been reported. Thin film forms of these metal-hydrides reveal interesting electrochromic properties as a function of hydrogen content. Optical switching occurs during (dehydrogenation between the reflective metal and the transparent metal hydride states. The chronological sequence of the optical improvements in optically active metal hydrides starts with the rare earth systems (YHx, followed by Mg rare earth alloy hydrides (MgyGd(1-yHx and concludes with Mg transition metal hydrides (MgyTM(1-yHx. In-situ optical characterization of gradient thin films during (dehydrogenation, denoted as hydrogenography, enables the monitoring of alloy composition gradients simultaneously.

  3. Determination of thermal conductivity of magnesium-alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An indirect method, Angstroms method was adopted and an instrument was designed to determine the thermal conductivity of magnesium metal and alloys. Angstroms method is an axial periodic heat flow technique by which the thermal diffusivity can be measured directly. Then thermal conductivity can be obtained with relation to thermal diffusivity. Compared with the recommended data from the literature the fitted values of the thermal diffiusivity correspond with 3%, and the credible probability of the thermal conductivity in the range of 0-450 ℃ is about 95%. The method is applicable in the given temperature range.

  4. Investigation on mechanical behaviour of AM60 magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this work, tension, impact, bend and fatigue tests were conducted in an AM60 magnesium alloy. The effects of environmental temperature and loading rates on impact and tension behavior of the alloy were also investigated.Design/methodology/approach: The tests were conducted using an Instron universal testing machine. The loading speed was changed from 1 mm/min to 300 mm/min to gain a better understanding of the effect of strain rate. To understand the failure behavior of this alloy at different environmental temperatures, Charpy impact test was conducted in a range of temperatures (-40~35°C. Plane strain fracture toughness (KIC was evaluated using compact tension (CT specimen. To gain a better understanding of the failure mechanisms, all fracture surfaces were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. In addition, fatigue behavior of this alloy was estimated using tension test under tension-tension condition at 30 Hz. The stress amplitude was selected in the range of 20~50 MPa to obtain the S-N curve.Findings: The tensile test indicated that the mechanical properties were not sensitive to the strain rates applied (3.3x10-4~0.1 and the plastic deformation was dominated by twining mediated slip. The impact energy is not sensitive to the environmental temperature. The plane strain fracture toughness and fatigue limit were evaluated and the average values were 7.6 MPa.m1/2 and 25 MPa, respectively. Practical implications: Tested materials AM60 Mg alloy can be applied among others in automotive industry aerospace, communication and computer industry.Originality/value: Many investigations have been conducted to develop new Mg alloys with improved stiffness and ductility. On the other hand, relatively less attention has been paid to the failure mechanisms of Mg alloys, such as brittle fracture and fatigue, subjected to different environmental or loading conditions. In this work, tension, impact, bend and fatigue tests were conducted

  5. Forming of magnesium alloy microtubes in the fabrication of biodegradable stents

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, L; Fang, G.; Qian, L.; Leeflang, M. A.; Duszczyk, J.; Zhou, J.

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium alloys have, in recent years, been recognized as highly promising biodegradable materials, especially for vascular stent applications. Forming of magnesium alloys into high-precision thin-wall tubes has however presented a technological barrier in the fabrication of vascular stents, because of the poor workability of magnesium at room temperature. In the present study, the forming processes, i.e., hot indirect extrusion and multi-pass cold drawing were used to fabricate seamless mic...

  6. The Degradation Interface of Magnesium Based Alloys in Direct Contact with Human Primary Osteoblast Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Agha, Nezha; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Laipple, Daniel; Luthringer, Bérengère; Feyerabend, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium alloys have been identified as a new generation material of orthopaedic implants. In vitro setups mimicking physiological conditions are promising for material / degradation analysis prior to in vivo studies however the direct influence of cell on the degradation mechanism has never been investigated. For the first time, the direct, active, influence of human primary osteoblasts on magnesium-based materials (pure magnesium, Mg-2Ag and Mg-10Gd alloys) is studied for up to 14 days. Se...

  7. Preparation, characterization and wear behavior of carbon coated magnesium alloy with electroless plating nickel interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yan; Li, Zhuguo; Feng, Kai; Guo, Xingwu; Zhou, Zhifeng; Dong, Jie; Wu, Yixiong

    2015-02-01

    Poor wear resistance of rare earth magnesium alloys has prevented them from wider application. In this study, composite coating (PVD carbon coating deposited on electroless plating nickel interlayer) is prepared to protect GW83 magnesium alloys against wear. The Ni + C composite coating has a dense microstructure, improved adhesion strength and hardness due to the effective support of Ni interlayer. The wear test result shows that the Ni + C composite coating can greatly prolong the wear life of the magnesium alloy. The wear track of the Ni + C coated magnesium alloy is obviously narrower and shows less abrasive particles as compared with the bare one. Abrasive wear is the wear mechanism of the coatings at the room temperature. In conclusion, the wear resistance of the GW83 magnesium alloy can be greatly improved by the Ni + C composite coating.

  8. Microstructure and Fatigue Characteristic of AM60B Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Mehrzadi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes and reviews the findings of our research on AM60B magnesium alloy conducted in past 8 years. It essentially covers three categories: microstructural study, environmental effect, and fatigue crack growth rate of AM60B. The experimental and numerical studies on the influence of casting defects on this particular material’s properties are reviewed in the first part. It has been shown that the non-uniform solidification of the casting results in variations of the microstructure in different layers (skin and core of the alloy which affects the mechanical properties in those regions. Moreover, the influence of microstructure on fatigue crack initiation and propagation response of the alloy is presented. The influence of several casting defects on the failure mechanism of the material are also numerically analyzed and discussed. The influence of elevated and cold temperatures on the fatigue response of the alloy is reviewed in the second part. Our findings show that the temperature does not have a significant effect on the number of cycles to failure. However, but at some stress level, this effect cannot be dismissed. The fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR response of the alloy at a wide range of stress ratios is also investigated in the last part. The FCGR of the alloy showed a noticeable dependency on the stress ratio. A model is proposed for estimating the FCGR of the alloy, which could provide a good prediction of alloy’s FCGR over a wide range of negative and positive stress ratios. The integrity of the new model is also compared against other models. Finally, the influence of compressive loading on fatigue life of the specimens under constant and random amplitude cyclic loading is investigated experimentally.

  9. Superplasticity and diffusion bonding of magnesium alloy ZK60

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yan-dong; JIANG Hai-yan; LI Qiang; ZAI Chun-quan; DING Wen-jiang

    2005-01-01

    Superplasticity of as-rolled ZK60 magnesium alloy sheets, with the average grain size of 8.2μm, was investigated at a strain rate of 5.56×10-4-5.56×10-2 s-1 at 573-673K. The microstructure evolution during the superplastic deformation shows that the alloy deforms in a superplastic manner at the temperature from 573K to 673K. Diffusion bonding tests were carried out on the Gleeble-1500 testing machine and the specimens were successfully diffusion bonded at the superplastic temperature. The maximum specific strength is 0.82 at a bonding pressure of 10MPa for holding time 1h at 673K. The microstructures of the joints were observed through OM and SEM. There is no bond line visible in the original interfaces of sound joint with high specific strength.

  10. Effect of neodymium on the as-extruded ZK20 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亚忠; 潘复生; 彭建; 王维青; 罗素琴

    2010-01-01

    The effect of Nd addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of ZK20 magnesium alloy was investigated by room tensile test, optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to develop a magnesium alloy with higher ductility. Results showed that the crystal grains of as-extruded ZK20+0.5%Nd magnesium alloy were effectively refined, and the alloy exhibited higher strength and ductility, with the UTS of 237 MPa and the elongation of 32.8%, increasing by 5...

  11. Thermal and structural characteristics of the AM50 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sahoo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of this publication is to demonstrate the laboratory metal casting simulation methodology based on controlled melting and solidification experiments. The thermal characteristics of the AM50 magnesium alloy during melting and solidification cycles were determined and correlated with the test samples’ microstructural parameters.Design/methodology/approach: A novel methodology allowed to perform variable solidification rates for stationary test samples. The experiments were performed using computer controlled induction heating and cooling sources using Argon for melt protection and test sample cooling.Findings: Thermal analysis data indicated that the alloy’s melting range was between approximately 434 and 640°C. Increasing the cooling rate from 1 to 4°C/s during solidification process reduced the Secondary Dendrite Arm Spacing from approximately 64 to 43μm. The temperatures of the metallurgical reactions were shifted toward the higher values for faster solidification rates. Fraction liquid curve indicates that at the end of melting of the α(Mg-β(Mg17Al12 eutectic, i.e., 454.2ºC the alloy had a 2% liquid phase.Research limitations/implications: Future research is intended to address the development of a physical simulation methodology representing very high solidification rates used by High Pressure Die Casting (HPDC and to assess the microstructure refinement as a function of solidification rates.Practical implications: Advanced simulation capabilities including non-equilibrium thermal and structural characteristics of the magnesium alloys are required for the development of advanced metal casting technologies like vacuum assisted HPDC and its heat treatment.Originality/value: The presented results point out the direction for future research needed to simulate the alloy solidification in a laboratory environment representing industrial casting processes.

  12. Study of Forming Limit for Rotational Incremental Sheet Forming of Magnesium Alloy Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jingee; Kim, Jeounghan; Park, Nhokwang; Kim, Youngsuk

    2010-01-01

    As a lightweight material, magnesium is being increasingly used for automotive parts. However, due to a hexagonal-closed-packed (hcp) crystal structure, in which only the basal plane can move, magnesium alloy sheets exhibit a low ductility and formability at room temperature. Press forming of magnesium alloy sheets is conventionally performed at elevated temperatures of 200 °C to 250 °C and thus is known as energy consumed forming. Therefore, in view of an energy saving forming technology, we study magnesium alloy sheet forming by a rotational incremental sheet forming (RISF) at room temperature, where the rotational tool generates local heat of specimen enough to accelerate plastic deformation. The flow curves of the magnesium alloy sheet are obtained and calculated at elevated temperatures, while the yield loci of the magnesium alloy sheet are measured at room temperature. Using RISF, a square cup of 80-mm width, 80-mm length, and 25-mm height is then formed from a magnesium alloy sheet at room temperature. In addition, the strain distribution is obtained and compared with the forming limit curve (FLC) by considering the effect of the tool radius and is found to effectively predict the forming limit of a magnesium alloy sheet in RISF.

  13. Formation and characterization of cerium conversion coatings on magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lingjie; LEI Jinglei; YU Shenghai; TIAN Yujing; JIANG Qiquan; PAN Fusheng

    2008-01-01

    Chemical conversion treatment by rare earth metal salt solution was considered as an alternative to chromium chemical conversion treatment to improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys. In this study, cerium conversion coatings formed on AZ31 magnesium alloy were characterized and the formation mechanism was discussed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed that cerium conversion coating consisted of cerium hydroxides/oxides, in which both tetravalent cerium Ce(IV) and trivalent cerium Ce(III) species co-existed. Cerium conversion coating was a two-layer structure. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images revealed that the morphology of the inside layer was different from that of the outside one, which was responsible for the inherent adhesive weakness of the coating. Corrosion potential (Ecorr) measurements indicated that poor adhesion limited the improvement of the corrosion resistance of the coating. During the treating process, the increased pH value of the cerium salt solution led to the precipitation of cerium hydroxides/oxides. The formation kinetics of the coating followed a parabolic curve.

  14. The influence of heat treatment on the microstructure of GA8 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kiełbus

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: GA8 magnesium alloy is a general purpose gravity sand casting alloy containing aluminum, zincand manganese. Typically, it is used in aerospace or commercial casting applications particularly where thereis no high temperature requirement. The aim of this paper is to present the results of investigations on themicrostructure of the GA8 magnesium alloy after heat treatment.Design/methodology/approach: The study was conducted on GA8 magnesium alloys in as-cast conditionand after heat treatment. The microstructure was characterized by optical microscopy (Olympus GX-70 and ascanning electron microscopy (Hitachi S3400 equipped with an electron dispersive detector EDS (VOYAGERof NORAN INSTRUMENTS. To measure the stereological parameters, an image analysis program“AnalysisPro®” was used.Findings: The microstructure of GA8 magnesium alloy has a solid solution structure α with α + d iscontinuous ßareas and continuous ß (Mg17Al12 phase at grain boundaries. After solution treatment a reduction of the number ofß precipitations was observed. Application of ageing treatment caused precipitation of discontinuous ß phase.Research limitations/implications: Future researches should involve investigations of the effect of heattreatment parameters on the mechanical properties of GA8 magnesium alloy.Practical implications: The established heat treatment parameters can be useful for preparing heat treatmenttechnology of the GA8 magnesium alloy.Originality/value: The relationship between the initial structure, heat treatment parameters and Mg17Al12 phasemorphology in GA8 magnesium alloy was specified.

  15. CO2 laser beam welding of AM60 magnesium-based alloy

    OpenAIRE

    BELHADJ, Asma; MASSE, Jean-Eric; Barrallier, Laurent; BOUHAFS, Mahmoud; BESSROUR, Jamel

    2010-01-01

    Magnesium alloys have a 33% lower density than aluminum alloys, whereas they exhibit the same mechanical characteristics. Their application increases in many economic sectors, in particular, in aeronautic and automotive industries. Nevertheless, their assembly with welding techniques still remains to be developed. In this paper, we present a CO2 laser welding investigation of AM60 magnesium-based alloy. Welding parameters range is determinate for the joining of 3 mm thickness sheets. The effe...

  16. Corrosion and mechanical properties of AM50 magnesium alloy after being modified by 1 wt.% rare earth element gadolinium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨淼; 刘耀辉; 刘家安; 宋雨来

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the corrosion and mechanical properties of AM50 magnesium alloy, 1 wt.% Gd was used to modify the AM50 magnesium alloy. The microstructure, corrosion and mechanical properties were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), electrochemical and mechanical stretch methods. The results indicated that β-Mg17Al12 phase decreased and Al2Gd3 and Al0.4GdMn1.6 phase existed after Gd addition. Because of the Gd addition, the grain of AM50 magnesium alloy was refined significantly, which improved the tensile strength of AM50 magnesium al-loy. The decreasing ofβ phase improved the corrosion resistance of the magnesium alloy. The fracture mechanism of the Gd modified AM50 magnesium alloy was quasi-cleavage fracture. The corrosion residual strength (CRS) of AM50 magnesium alloy was im-proved after 1 wt.% Gd addition.

  17. The microstructure, mechanical and friction properties of protective diamond like carbon films on magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Y.S., E-mail: yshzou75@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210094 (China); Wu, Y.F.; Yang, H.; Cang, K. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210094 (China); Song, G.H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang, Liaoning, 110178 (China); Li, Z.X.; Zhou, K. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210094 (China)

    2011-12-01

    Protective hard coatings deposited on magnesium alloys are believed to be effective for overcoming their poor wear properties. In this work, diamond-like carbon (DLC) films as hard protective films were deposited on AZ91 magnesium alloy by arc ion plating under negative pulse bias voltages ranging from 0 to -200 V. The microstructure, composition and mechanical properties of the DLC films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and nanoindentation. The tribological behavior of uncoated and coated AZ91 magnesium alloy was investigated using a ball-on-disk tribotester. The results show that the negative pulse bias voltage used for film deposition has a significant effect on the sp{sup 3} carbon content and mechanical properties of the deposited DLC films. A maximum sp{sup 3} content of 33.3% was obtained at -100 V, resulting in a high hardness of 28.6 GPa and elastic modulus of 300.0 GPa. The DLC films showed very good adhesion to the AZ91 magnesium alloy with no observable cracks and delamination even during friction testing. Compared with the uncoated AZ91 magnesium alloy, the magnesium alloy coated with DLC films exhibits a low friction coefficient and a narrow, shallow wear track. The wear resistance and surface hardness of AZ91 magnesium alloy can be significantly improved by coating a layer of DLC protective film due to its high hardness and low friction coefficient.

  18. The microstructure, mechanical and friction properties of protective diamond like carbon films on magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protective hard coatings deposited on magnesium alloys are believed to be effective for overcoming their poor wear properties. In this work, diamond-like carbon (DLC) films as hard protective films were deposited on AZ91 magnesium alloy by arc ion plating under negative pulse bias voltages ranging from 0 to -200 V. The microstructure, composition and mechanical properties of the DLC films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and nanoindentation. The tribological behavior of uncoated and coated AZ91 magnesium alloy was investigated using a ball-on-disk tribotester. The results show that the negative pulse bias voltage used for film deposition has a significant effect on the sp3 carbon content and mechanical properties of the deposited DLC films. A maximum sp3 content of 33.3% was obtained at -100 V, resulting in a high hardness of 28.6 GPa and elastic modulus of 300.0 GPa. The DLC films showed very good adhesion to the AZ91 magnesium alloy with no observable cracks and delamination even during friction testing. Compared with the uncoated AZ91 magnesium alloy, the magnesium alloy coated with DLC films exhibits a low friction coefficient and a narrow, shallow wear track. The wear resistance and surface hardness of AZ91 magnesium alloy can be significantly improved by coating a layer of DLC protective film due to its high hardness and low friction coefficient.

  19. The microstructure, mechanical and friction properties of protective diamond like carbon films on magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Y. S.; Wu, Y. F.; Yang, H.; Cang, K.; Song, G. H.; Li, Z. X.; Zhou, K.

    2011-12-01

    Protective hard coatings deposited on magnesium alloys are believed to be effective for overcoming their poor wear properties. In this work, diamond-like carbon (DLC) films as hard protective films were deposited on AZ91 magnesium alloy by arc ion plating under negative pulse bias voltages ranging from 0 to -200 V. The microstructure, composition and mechanical properties of the DLC films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and nanoindentation. The tribological behavior of uncoated and coated AZ91 magnesium alloy was investigated using a ball-on-disk tribotester. The results show that the negative pulse bias voltage used for film deposition has a significant effect on the sp3 carbon content and mechanical properties of the deposited DLC films. A maximum sp3 content of 33.3% was obtained at -100 V, resulting in a high hardness of 28.6 GPa and elastic modulus of 300.0 GPa. The DLC films showed very good adhesion to the AZ91 magnesium alloy with no observable cracks and delamination even during friction testing. Compared with the uncoated AZ91 magnesium alloy, the magnesium alloy coated with DLC films exhibits a low friction coefficient and a narrow, shallow wear track. The wear resistance and surface hardness of AZ91 magnesium alloy can be significantly improved by coating a layer of DLC protective film due to its high hardness and low friction coefficient.

  20. Effect of Yttrium and Cerium Addition on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AM50 Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To develop magnesium alloy with low cost, high strength and excellent elevated temperature properties, effect of Y and Ce addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of AM50 magnesium alloy was studied. Result showed that addition of small amount of Y and Ce to AM50 alloys resulted in refinement of microstructure. Owing to the improvement of microstructure, the mechanical properties of alloys at both ambient and elevated temperature were increased. AM50 alloy containing 0.6%Ce-0.3%Y (mass fraction) had good refinement effect and relatively ideal mechanical properties.

  1. Thermographic Study of Chip Temperature in High-Speed Dry Milling Magnesium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuczmaszewski Józef

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the state of knowledge on temperature measurement in the cutting area during magnesium alloy milling. Additionally, results of own research on chip temperature measurement during dry milling of magnesium alloys are included. Tested magnesium alloys are frequently used for manufacturing elements applied in the aerospace industry. The impact of technological parameters on the maximum chip temperature during milling is also analysed. This study is relevant due to the risk of chip ignition during the machining process.

  2. Laser welding of AZ61 magnesium-based alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hongying; Li Zhijun; Zhang Yihui

    2006-01-01

    Laser welding of AZ61 magnesium alloys was carried out asing a CO2 laser weldingexperimental system.The welding properties of AZ61 sheets with different thickness were investigated.The effect of processing parameters including laser power, welding speed and protection gas flow was researched.The results show that laser power and welding speed have large effect on the weld width and joint dimensions.Protection gas flow has relatively slight effect on the weld width.The property test of three typical joints indicates that microhardness and tensile strength in weld zone are higher than that of AZ61 base metal.Joints with good appearance and excellent mechanical properties can be produced using CO2 laser welding method.The microstructure with small grains in weld zone is believed to be responsible for the excellent mechanical properties of AZ61 joints.

  3. Binary Magnesium Alloys: Searching for Novel Compounds by Computational Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard; Curtarolo, Stefano; Hart, Gus

    2011-03-01

    Magnesium alloys are among the lightest structural materials and are of considerable technical interest. We use the high-throughput framework AFLOW to make T = 0 K ground state predictions by scanning a large set of known candidate structures for thermodynamic minima. The study presented here encompasses 34 Mg-X systems of interest (X=Al, Au, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ge, Hg, Ir, K, La, Pb, Pd, Pt, Mo, Na, Nb, Os, Rb, Re, Rh, Ru, Sc, Si, Sn, Sr, Ta, Tc, Ti, V, W, Y, Zn, Zr). Avenues for further investigation revealed by this study include stable phases found in addition to experimental phases and compound forming systems thought to be either immiscible or non-compound forming. The existence of potentially novel ordered phases presents new opportunities for materials design.

  4. Plasma process control for improved PEO coatings on magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Riyad Omran

    Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) is a high voltage plasma-assisted oxidation process uses an environmentally-friendly aqueous electrolyte to oxidize the metal surfaces to form ceramic oxide coatings which impart a high corrosion and wear resistance. One of the main advantages of PEO process is that it can be applied to treat samples with complex shapes, and surfaces with different composition and microstructure. The PEO process of Mg alloys is strongly influenced by such parameters as electrolyte composition and concentration, current or voltage applied and substrate alloy. Generally, these parameters have a direct influence on the discharging behavior. The discharges play an essential role in the formation and resulting composition of the 3-layer oxide structure. A detailed knowledge of the coating mechanisms is extremely important in order to produce a desired coating quality to reach the best performance of the PEO coatings in terms of corrosion resistance and tribological properties (wear rate, COF). During PEO processing of magnesium, some of the metal cations are transferred outwards from the substrate and react with anions to form ceramic coatings. Also, due to the high electric field in the discharge channels, oxygen anions transfer towards the magnesium substrate and react with Mg2+ cations to form a ceramic coating. Although, in general, PEO coating of Mg alloys produces the three-layered structure, the relative proportions of the three-layers are strongly influenced by the PEO processing parameters. In PEO process, the ceramic coating grows inwards to the alloy substrate and outwards to the coating surface simultaneously. For the coating growth, there are three simultaneous processes taking place, namely the electrochemical, the plasma chemical reactions and thermal diffusion. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was employed for the discharge characterization by following the substrate and electrolyte element present in the plasma discharge during the

  5. The Potential of Magnesium Alloys as Bioabsorbable/ Biodegradable Implants for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Živić

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The potential of magnesium alloys as bioabsorbable / biodegradable implants for biomedical applications has been extensively studied as emerging direction. This paper gives a review of current topics in this field. Research activities related to biomedical magnesium alloys have been pursued in two main directions, orthopedic and cardiovascular implants, by investigating different aspects of alloying system design, novel structures, degradation rate control, and surface modification methods. Magnesium alloys are currently considered for applications as load-bearing implant devices such as plates, screws and pins for repairing bone fracture. Highly important direction of research is degradable coronary stents. Degradable vessel stents promote stable vessel regeneration, unlike permanent stents. Different combinations of alloying elements have been investigated in order to decrease corrosion rate.Tribological issues are also important for understanding of different phenomenon related to prolongation of Mg alloys corrosion degradation time/rate, such as tribocorrosion, corrosion fatigue, and fatigue crack growth behavior.

  6. In vitro corrosion and biocompatibility study of phytic acid modified WE43 magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, C. H.; Zheng, Y. F.; Wang, S. Q.; Xi, T. F.; Li, Y. D.

    2012-02-01

    Phytic acid (PA) conversion coating on WE43 magnesium alloy was prepared by the method of immersion. The influences of phytic acid solution with different pH on the microstructure, properties of the conversion coating and the corrosion resistance were investigated by SEM, FTIR and potentiodynamic polarization method. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of different pH phytic acid solution modified WE43 magnesium alloys was evaluated by MTT and hemolysis test. The results show that PA can enhance the corrosion resistance of WE43 magnesium especially when the pH value of modified solution is 5 and the cytotoxicity of the PA coated WE43 magnesium alloy is much better than that of the bare WE43 magnesium alloy. Moreover, all the hemolysis rates of the PA coated WE43 Mg alloy were lower than 5%, indicating that the modified Mg alloy met the hemolysis standard of biomaterials. Therefore, PA coating is a good candidate to improve the biocompatibility of WE43 magnesium alloy.

  7. Study on microstructure and properties of Mg-alloy surface alloying layer fabricated by EPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Dongfeng

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available AZ91D surface alloying was investigated through evaporative pattern casting (EPC technology. Aluminum powder (0.074 to 0.104 mm was used as the alloying element in the experiment. An alloying coating with excellent properties was fabricated, which mainly consisted of adhesive, co-solvent, suspending agent and other ingredients according to desired proportion. Mg-alloy melt was poured under certain temperature and the degree of negative pressure. The microstructure of the surface layer was examined by means of scanning electron microscopy. It has been found that a large volume fraction of network new phases were formed on the Mg-alloy surface, the thickness of the alloying surface layer increased with the alloying coating increasing from 0.3 mm to 0.5 mm, and the microstructure became compact. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis was used to determine the chemical composition of the new phases. It showed that the new phases mainly consist of β-Mg17Al12, in addition to a small quantity of inter-metallic compounds and oxides. A micro-hardness test and a corrosion experiment to simulate the effect of sea water were performed. The result indicated that the highest micro-hardness of the surface reaches three times that of the matrix. The corrosion rate of alloying samples declines to about a fifth of that of the as-cast AZ91D specimen.

  8. Influence of the laser modification of surface on properties and structure of magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this work was to improve the surface layer cast magnesium cast alloys by laser surface treatment, determine the laser treatment parameters and examine structure and properties.Design/methodology/approach: The laser treatment of magnesium alloys with alloying SiC and TiC powders with the particles size below 75μm and over 6.4μm was carried out using a high power diode laser (HPDL. The resulting microstructure in the modified surface layer and was examinated using scanning electron microscopy. The X-ray qualitative and quantitative microanalysis and the analysis of a surface distribution of cast elements in the examined magnesium cast alloy was examined. The measurements of hardness and roughness of the modified surface layer was also studied.Findings: The alloyed region has a fine microstructure with hard carbide particles. Hardness of laser surface alloyed layer was dropped as compared to alloy without laser treatment. The roughness of layer surface increased after laser alloying and values are bigger for SiC alloying particles.Research limitations/implications: The investigations were conducted for cast magnesium alloys MCMgAl12Zn1 and MCMgAl9Zn1 and also TiC and SiC powders. One has used laser power in the range from 1.2 to 2.0 kW.Practical implications: The results obtained in this investigation were promising to compared other conventional processes. High Power Diode Laser can be used as an economical substitute of Nd:YAG and CO2 to improve the surface magnesium alloy by feeding the carbide particles.Originality/value: The value of this work is definition of the influence of laser treatment parameters on quality, microstructure and hardness of magnesium cast alloys surface layer.

  9. Magnesium and its alloys as degradable biomaterials : Corrosion studies using potentiodynamic and EIS electrochemical techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf Dieter Müller; Maria Lucia Nascimento; Miriam Zeddies; Mariana Córsico; Liliana Mabel Gassa; Mónica Alicia Fernández Lorenzo de Mele

    2007-01-01

    Magnesium is potentially useful for orthopaedic and cardiovascular applications. However, the corrosion rate of this metal is so high that its degradation occurs before the end of the healing process. In industrial media the behaviour of several magnesium alloys have been probed to be better than magnesium performance. However, the information related to their corrosion behaviour in biological media is insufficient. The aim of this work is to study the influence of the components of organic f...

  10. Grain refinement of Mg-Al magnesium alloys by carbon inoculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhao-hui; KANG Yong-lin; ZHAO Hong-jin; XU Yue

    2006-01-01

    C2Cl6 was used as grain refiner for AM60 magnesium alloys. The effects of grain refinement process on chemical composition, microstructure, impact energy, hardness and mechanical properties of magnesium alloys were investigated with XRF spectrometer, optical and electronic microscopes, pendulum impact tester, hardness tester and MTS material testing machine. The results show that C2Cl6 has good effects on microstructure and mechanical properties of AM60 magnesium alloys. The optimum usage of C2Cl6 in AM60 for getting the best properties is 1.0%. The results of electronic microscopic examination and theoretical analyses show that Al4C3 should be the potent heterogeneous nucleant for Mg-Al magnesium alloys.

  11. Laser Surface Alloying of Copper, Manganese, and Magnesium with Pure Aluminum Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiru, Woldetinsay G.; Sankar, M. Ravi; Dixit, Uday S.

    2016-03-01

    Laser surface alloying is one of the recent technologies used in the manufacturing sector for improving the surface properties of the metals. Light weight materials like aluminum alloys, titanium alloys, and magnesium alloys are used in the locomotive, aerospace, and structural applications. In the present work, an experimental study was conducted to improve the surface hardness of commercially pure aluminum plate. CO2 laser is used to melt pre-placed powders of pure copper, manganese, and magnesium. Microstructure of alloyed surface was analyzed using optical microscope. The best surface alloying was obtained at the optimum values of laser parameters, viz., laser power, scan speed, and laser beam diameter. In the alloyed region, microhardness increased from 30 HV0.5 to 430 HV0.5, while it was 60 HV0.5 in the heat-affected region. Tensile tests revealed some reduction in the strength and total elongation due to alloying. On the other hand, corrosion resistance improved.

  12. Evaluation of magnesium ions release, biocorrosion, and hemocompatibility of MAO/PLLA-modified magnesium alloy WE42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Cao, Lu; Liu, Yin; Xu, Xinhua; Wu, Xiangfeng

    2011-01-01

    Magnesium alloys may potentially be applied as biodegradable metallic materials in cardiovascular stent. However, the high corrosion rate hinders its clinical application. In this study, a new approach was adopted to control the corrosion rate by fabricating a biocompatible micro-arc oxidation/poly-L-lactic acid (MAO/PLLA) composite coating on the magnesium alloy WE42 substrate and the biocompatibility of the modified samples was investigated. The scanning electronic microscope (SEM) images were used to demonstrate the morphology of the samples before and after being submerged in hanks solution for 4 weeks. The degradation was evaluated through the magnesium ions release rate and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) test. The biocompatibility of the samples was demonstrated by coagulation time and hemolysis behavior. The result shows that the poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) effectively improved the corrosion resistance by sealing the microcracks and microholes on the surface of the MAO coating. The modified samples had good compatibility.

  13. European Community research on forging of magnesium alloys (MagForge): state of affairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sillekens, W.H.; Chevaleyre, F.; Gantar, G.

    2009-01-01

    While the interest in wrought magnesium applications is growing, forging of magnesium alloys in Europe and beyond is still restricted to a few specialized companies that operate for niche markets. Technical matters that relate to this are underdeveloped mechanical properties of available feedstock m

  14. The influence of the magnesium alloys microstructure on the cathodic hydrogen evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Габов, А. Л.; Белослудцев, И. С.; Медведева, Н. А.; Скрябина, Н. Е.; Фрушар, Д.; Gabov, A. L.; Belosludtsev, I. S.; Medvedeva, N. A.; Skryabina, N. E.; Fruchart, D.

    2014-01-01

    Evolution of grain structure of magnesium AZ31 and ZK60 alloys during equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) at the 200 ºC temperatures is researched. It is shown that ECAP leads to forming of very inhomogeneous structure. It has been found that deformation affects the rate of the cathodic process. AZ31 alloy is more effective cathode material in alkaline solution environment in comparison with Mg and ZK60 alloys. The object of study were samples of pure magnesium and alloys on its basis – AZ3...

  15. Stamping Formability of ZE10 Magnesium Alloy Sheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Ying; Li Yuanyuan; Li Wei

    2007-01-01

    ZE10 magnesium alloy sheets were prepared through ingot casting and the hot-rolling process. The mechanical properties, conical cup value (CCV), bore expanding performance, and limit drawing ratio (LDR) were investigated to examine the stamping formability of ZE10 alloy sheets, at temperatures ranging from 20 to 300 ℃. The results showed that the tensile strength decreased, whereas, plasticity, drawing-bulging performance, bore expanding properties, and deep drawing performance increased markedly at elevated temperatures. The CCV specimens could be drawn into the conical die's underside cylindrical hole from the conical cliff, without cracking, and could have the minimum CCV at 200 and 250 ℃. In the bore-expanding test, the bore (Φ10 mm) could be expanded to the dimension of the punch (Φ25 mm) and the maximum bore-expanding ratio could be achieved at above 150 ℃. The limiting drawing ratio (LDR) of 2.85 is acquired during the deep drawing test at 230 ℃ with the punch temperature of 20~ 50 ℃, the punch velocity of 50 mm·min-1, and the mixture of graphite and cylinder grease as lubricant.

  16. Corrosion Protection of AM50 Magnesium Alloy by Nafion/DMSO Organic Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Renguo; ZHENG Xiaohua; BAI Shuju; BLAWERT Carsten; DIETZEL Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of the corrosion protection of Nafion/Dimethysulfoxid (DMSO) organic coatings for AM50 magnesium alloy prepared by simple immersion and heat treatment was investigated. Its corrosion resistance and morphologies of the Nafion/DMSO organic coatings were studied by electrochemical corrosion testing and optical microscopy. The results show that Nafion/DMSO organic coatings can improve the corrosion resistance of AM50 magnesium alloy effectively. Also, the corrosion resistance increases with the surface density of the organic coatings.

  17. THE STUDY OF CUTTING FORCES AND THEIR AMPLITUDES DURING HIGH-SPEED DRY MILLING MAGNESIUM ALLOYS

    OpenAIRE

    Ireneusz Zagórski; Józef Kuczmaszewski

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the state of knowledge on cutting forces values during milling of different magnesium alloy types. Additionally, the results of own research on cutting forces and their amplitudes after milling magnesium alloys used for manufacturing elements applied in the aerospace industry are included. The subject of the analysis was the influence of technological parameters and the tool type on cutting forces and their amplitudes. The analysis is important due to the correlation betwe...

  18. Torsional and axial damping properties of the AZ31B-F magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anes, V.; Lage, Y. E.; Vieira, M.; Maia, N. M. M.; Freitas, M.; Reis, L.

    2016-10-01

    Damping properties for the AZ31B-F magnesium alloy were evaluated for pure axial and pure shear loading conditions at room temperature. Hysteretic damping results were measured through stress-strain controlled tests. Moreover, the magnesium alloy viscous damping was measured with frequency response functions and free vibration decay, both results were obtained by experiments. The axial and shear damping ratio (ASDR) has been identified and described, specifically for free vibration conditions.

  19. Influence of solidification rate on microstructure of gravity cast AZ91 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Braszczyńska-Malik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Derivative thermal (ATD and microstructure analyses of gravity cast AZ91 magnesium alloy are presented. The alloy was cast into cold steel and sand moulds with the same dimensions. ATD curves – solidification curves and their first derivative – are presented. The investigated alloy exhibited a strong alloying elements segregation and the presence of solid solution and (Mg17Al12 eutectic mixture. Discontinuous precipitates of phase were also observed in the microstructure of AZ91 cast into sand mould.

  20. Hot rolling characteristics of spray-formed AZ91 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-feng; ZHAO Jiu-zhou; HE Jie; HU Zhuang-qi

    2007-01-01

    AZ91 magnesium alloy was prepared by spray forming. The spray-deposited alloy was subsequently hot-rolled with a 80% reduction at 350 ℃. The microstructural features of the as-spray-deposited and hot-rolled alloy were examined by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. The results show that the spray-formed AZ91 magnesium alloy has, compared with the as-cast ingot, a finer microstructure with less intermetallic phase Mg17Al12 dispersed in the matrix due to fast cooling and solidification rates of spray forming process, and, therefore showing excellent workability. It can be hot-rolled with nearly 20% reduction for one pass at lower temperatures (330-360℃), and the total reduction can reach 50% prior to annealing. After proper thermo-mechanical treatment, the spray-formed AZ91 magnesium alloy exhibits outstanding mechanical properties.

  1. The development and application of a thermodynamic database for magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Shunli; Zhang, Hui; Ganeshan, Swetha; Liu, Zi-Kui

    2008-12-01

    The available thermodynamic databases for magnesium alloys are discussed in this paper. Of particular interest are the features of a magnesium database developed by the authors with 19 elements: Mg-Al-Ca-Ce-Cu-Fe-KLa-Li-Mn-Na-Nd-Pr-Si-Sn-Sr-Y-Zn-Zr. Using this database, two applications are presented. One is the phase evolution in AZ61 magnesium alloy including the variations of phase fractions, alloying compositions, and partition coefficients of alloying elements as a function of temperature (or solid fraction). The other is to understand sodium-induced high-temperature embrittlement in the Al-Mg alloy, which is ascribed to the formation of a liquid phase due to the presence of sodium traces.

  2. Investigation on the Explosive Welding of 1100 Aluminum Alloy and AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pengwan; Feng, Jianrui; Zhou, Qiang; An, Erfeng; Li, Jingbo; Yuan, Yuan; Ou, Sanli

    2016-07-01

    The undesirable properties of magnesium alloys include easy embrittlement, low oxidation resistance, and difficulty in welding with other materials. Their application in industry is, therefore, restricted. In this paper, plates of 1100 aluminum alloy and AZ31 magnesium alloy were successfully welded together using the explosive welding technique. The influences of the welding parameters on the weld quality were investigated. The surface morphology and microstructure near the weld interface were examined by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (equipped with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy), and transmission electron microscopy. The experimental results demonstrated the typical wavy bonding interface. In addition, elemental diffusion with a thickness of approximately 3 μm occurred near the bonding interface. The two plates were joined together well at the atomic scale. Nanograins with a size of approximately 5 nm were observed in the diffusion layer. The microhardness and shear strength were measured to evaluate the mechanical properties, which confirmed that a high quality of bonding was acquired.

  3. In vitro biocompatibility and endothelialization of novel magnesium-rare Earth alloys for improved stent applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zhao

    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg based alloys are the most advanced cardiovascular stent materials. This new generation of stent scaffold is currently under clinical evaluation with encouraging outcomes. All these Mg alloys contain a certain amount of rare earth (RE elements though the exact composition is not yet disclosed. RE alloying can usually enhance the mechanical strength of different metal alloys but their toxicity might be an issue for medical applications. It is still unclear how RE elements will affect the magnesium (Mg alloys intended for stent materials as a whole. In this study, we evaluated MgZnCaY-1RE, MgZnCaY-2RE, MgYZr-1RE, and MgZnYZr-1RE alloys for cardiovascular stents applications regarding their mechanical strength, corrosion resistance, hemolysis, platelet adhesion/activation, and endothelial biocompatibility. The mechanical properties of all alloys were significantly improved. Potentiodynamic polarization showed that the corrosion resistance of four alloys was at least 3-10 times higher than that of pure Mg control. Hemolysis test revealed that all the materials were non-hemolytic while little to moderate platelet adhesion was found on all materials surface. No significant cytotoxicity was observed in human aorta endothelial cells cultured with magnesium alloy extract solution for up to seven days. Direct endothelialization test showed that all the alloys possess significantly better capability to sustain endothelial cell attachment and growth. The results demonstrated the promising potential of these alloys for stent material applications in the future.

  4. Feasibility of Substituting Cerium-Rich Metal by La-Pr-Ce Alloy in Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伏思静; 赵平

    2004-01-01

    In magnesium alloy ZM3, using cheap Lanthanum-praseodymium-cerium (LPC) rare earth as a substitute for rich-cerium rare earth was studied. The experimental results show that when the adding amount of LPC is between 2.53% and 3.33%, the tensile strength increases as the adding amount of LPC increases; when the amount of RE is 2.53% and 3.33%, the average tensile strength is 142.35, 153.65 MPa respectively. The results show that LPC rare earth replacing rich Ce rare earth is feasible for the tensile strength of ZM3.

  5. Structure changes and mechanical properties of laser alloyed magnesium cast alloys

    OpenAIRE

    W. Kwaśny; T. Tański,; Sz. Malara; J. Domagała; L.A. Dobrzański

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to investigate structure and mechanical properties of the MCMgAl12Zn1 casting magnesium alloys after laser treatment. The laser treatment was carried out using a high power diode laser (HPDL).Design/methodology/approach: The laser processing of TiC, WC, SiC particles in MCMgAl12Zn1 and the resulted microstructures and properties are discussed in this paper. The resulting microstructure in the modified surface layer was examined. Phase composition was...

  6. Forming of magnesium alloy microtubes in the fabrication of biodegradable stents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixiao Wang; Gang Fang; Lingyun Qian; Sander Leeflang; Jurek Duszczyk; Jie Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium alloys have, in recent years, been recognized as highly promising biodegradable materials, especially for vascular stent applications. Forming of magnesium alloys into high-precision thin-wall tubes has however presented a technological barrier in the fabrication of vascular stents, because of the poor workability of magnesium at room temperature. In the present study, the forming processes, i.e., hot indirect extrusion and multi-pass cold drawing were used to fabricate seamless microtubes of a magnesium alloy. The magnesium alloy ZM21 was selected as a representative biomaterial for biodegradable stent applications. Microtubes with an outside diameter of 2.9 mm and a wall thickness of 0.2 mm were successfully produced at the fourth pass of cold drawing without inter-pass annealing. Dimensional evaluation showed that multi-pass cold drawing was effective in correcting dimensional non-uniformity arising from hot indirect extrusion. Examinations of the microstructures of microtubes revealed the generation of a large number of twins as a result of accumulated work hardening at the third and fourth passes of cold drawing, corresponding to the significantly raised forming forces. The work demonstrated the viability of the forming process route selected for the fabrication of biodegradable magnesium alloy microtubes.

  7. Forming of magnesium alloy microtubes in the fabrication of biodegradable stents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixiao Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys have, in recent years, been recognized as highly promising biodegradable materials, especially for vascular stent applications. Forming of magnesium alloys into high-precision thin-wall tubes has however presented a technological barrier in the fabrication of vascular stents, because of the poor workability of magnesium at room temperature. In the present study, the forming processes, i.e., hot indirect extrusion and multi-pass cold drawing were used to fabricate seamless microtubes of a magnesium alloy. The magnesium alloy ZM21 was selected as a representative biomaterial for biodegradable stent applications. Microtubes with an outside diameter of 2.9 mm and a wall thickness of 0.2 mm were successfully produced at the fourth pass of cold drawing without inter-pass annealing. Dimensional evaluation showed that multi-pass cold drawing was effective in correcting dimensional non-uniformity arising from hot indirect extrusion. Examinations of the microstructures of microtubes revealed the generation of a large number of twins as a result of accumulated work hardening at the third and fourth passes of cold drawing, corresponding to the significantly raised forming forces. The work demonstrated the viability of the forming process route selected for the fabrication of biodegradable magnesium alloy microtubes.

  8. A modified Johnson-Cook constitutive relationship for a rare-earth containing magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈道伦; 李德江; 曾小勤

    2013-01-01

    Lightweight magnesium alloy has recently attracted a considerable interest in the automotive and aerospace industries to improve fuel efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions via the weight reduction of vehicles. Rare-earth (RE) element addition can re-markably improve the mechanical properties of magnesium alloys through weakening crystallographic textures associated with the strong mechanical anisotropy and tension-compression yield asymmetry. While the addition of RE elements sheds some light on the alteration in the mechanical anisotropy, available information on the constitutive relationships used to describe the flow behavior of RE-containing magnesium alloys is limited. To establish such a constitutive relationship, uniaxial compressive deformation tests were first conducted on an extruded Mg-10Gd-3Y-0.5Zr (GW103K) magnesium alloy at the strain rates ranging from 1×10-1 to 1×10-4 s-1 at room temperature. A modified Johnson-Cook constitutive equation based on a recent strain hardening equation was proposed to predict the flow stresses of GW103K alloy. Comparisons between the predicted and experimental results showed that the modified Johnson-Cook constitutive equation was able to predict the flow stresses of the RE-containing magnesium alloy fairly accurately with a standard deviation of about 1.8%.

  9. Plasma electrolytic oxidation coating on AZ91 magnesium alloy modified by neodymium and its corrosion resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y. L.; Liu, Y. H.; Yu, S. R.; Zhu, X. Y.; Wang, Q.

    2008-03-01

    Ceramic coatings on the surfaces of Mg-9Al-1Zn (AZ91) magnesium alloy and Mg-9Al-1Zn-1Nd magnesium alloy (AZ91 magnesium alloy modified by neodymium, named as AZ91Nd in this paper) are synthesized in aluminate electrolyte by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process, respectively. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses show the PEO coating on the Mg-9Al-1Zn-1Nd alloy comprises not only MgO and Al 2O 3, which are found in the coating on the AZ91 alloy, but also a trace amount of Nd 2O 3. Microstructure observations indicate the addition of Nd can decrease the sizes of β phases and form Al 2Nd intermetallics in the AZ91 alloy. The fine β phases can effectively restrain the formation of unclosed-holes and greatly decrease the sizes of pores in the coating during the PEO process. In addition, the Al 2Nd intermetallics can be completely covered due to the lateral growth of the PEO coatings formed on the α and β phases. As a result, the coating on the AZ91Nd alloy possesses a dense microstructure compared with that on the AZ91 alloy. The following corrosion tests indicate the corrosion resistance of the PEO coating on the AZ91Nd alloy is evidently higher than that of the PEO coating on the AZ91 alloy.

  10. Review of grain refinement methods for as-cast microstructure of magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Changjiang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available As the lightest structural metal, Mg and Mg-based alloys have great potential applications in the aerospace, automotive and nuclear industries. However, such applications have been limited by low ductility and strength. Theoretically, small grain sized structure can synchronously improve its ductility and strength. Yet, universally reliable grain refi nement techniques for the magnesium alloys are still under investigation and some are in strong debating. This paper presents a brief review of development of grain refi nement methods for magnesium alloys, which would contribute to a better understanding of the factors controlling grain refi nement and provide an outlook of future research in this field.

  11. Effects of Ca addition on microstructure and properties of AZ63 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱宝光; 耿浩然; 陶珍东; 赵鹏; 田宪法

    2004-01-01

    Effects of Ca addition on the microstructure and viscosity as well as electrochemical properties of casting AZ63 magnesium alloy were studied. Testing results show that the viscosity value increases with the increase of calcium content, especially at the higher temperature, and there exists such a relation between the ignition temperature and viscosity of magnesium alloy: when the melt viscosity increases, the ignition temperature increases too. The microstructure of AZ63 magnesium alloy is first refined and then coarsened with the increase of Ca addition. By the addition of 0.15% Ca, AZ63 alloy has more negative open-circuit potential(1. 624 5V), bigger anode efficiency (55.65%) and lower corrosion rate(0.214g/(m2·h).AZ63 allo6y containing some Ca content is a high driving-potential and high-efficiency sacrificial anodes material.

  12. Warm Deep Drawing Of Rectangular Cups With Magnesium Alloy AZ31 Sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, magnesium alloys have been widely applied in automotive and electronic industries as the lightest weight structural and functional materials. Warm forming of magnesium alloys has attracted much attention due to the very poor formability of Mg alloys at room temperature. The formability of magnesium alloy sheet at elevated temperature is significantly affected by the processing parameters. Among them the forming temperature, the punch speed, the geometrical shape of the blank, the blank holder force and the lubrication are probably the most relevant. In this research, the deep drawing of rectangular cups with AZ31 sheets was conducted at elevated temperatures with different process parameters. The finite element analyses were performed to investigate the effects of the process parameters on the formability of rectangular cup drawing and to predict the process defects during the process. The material yield condition was modeled using the isotropic Von Mises criterion. The flow stress data were obtained from tensile tests

  13. Role of multi-microalloying by rare earth elements in ductilization of magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanding Huang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the influences of microalloying with rare earths on the mechanical properties of magnesium alloys. The amount of each rare earth element is controlled below 0.4 wt.% in order not to increase the cost of alloy largely. The synergic effects from the multi-microalloying with rare earths on the mechanical properties are explored. The obtained results show that the as-cast magnesium alloys multi-microalloying with rare earths possesses a quite high ductility with a tensile strain up to 25–30% at room temperature. Moreover, these alloys exhibit much better corrosion resistance than AZ31 alloy. The preliminary in situ neutron diffractions on the deformation of these alloys indicate that the multi-microalloying with rare earths seems to be beneficial for the activation of more slip systems. The deformation becomes more homogeneous and the resultant textures after deformation are weakened.

  14. Effects of Alloying Elements on Microstructure and Properties of Magnesium Alloys for Tripling Ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, D. H.; Geng, Z. W.; Chen, L.; Wu, Z.; Diao, H. Y.; Song, M.; Zhou, P. F.

    2015-10-01

    In order to find good candidate materials for degradable fracturing ball applications, Mg-Al-Zn-Cu alloys with different contents of aluminum, zinc, and copper were prepared by ingot metallurgy. The effects of aluminum, zinc, and copper additions on the microstructure, compressive strength, and rapid decomposition properties of the alloys have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy, compressive tests, and immersion tests. The results show that the addition of high contents Al (15 to 20 wt pct) in pure magnesium promotes a large number of network-like β-Mg17All2 phases, which helps produce more micro-thermocouples to accelerate the corrosion process in 3 wt pct potassium chloride (KCl) at 366 K (93 °C). Adding different Zn contents improves the compressive properties of Mg-20Al alloys drastically. However, it decreases the decomposition rate in 3 wt pct KCl at 366 K (93 °C). Small amount of Cu will slightly reduce the compressive strength of Mg-20Al-5Zn alloy but dramatically increase its decomposition rate.

  15. A Review of Dissimilar Welding Techniques for Magnesium Alloys to Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Welding of dissimilar magnesium alloys and aluminum alloys is an important issue because of their increasing applications in industries. In this document, the research and progress of a variety of welding techniques for joining dissimilar Mg alloys and Al alloys are reviewed from different perspectives. Welding of dissimilar Mg and Al is challenging due to the formation of brittle intermetallic compound (IMC such as Mg17Al12 and Mg2Al3. In order to increase the joint strength, three main research approaches were used to eliminate or reduce the Mg-Al intermetallic reaction layer. First, solid state welding techniques which have a low welding temperature were used to reduce the IMCs. Second, IMC variety and distribution were controlled to avoid the degradation of the joining strength in fusion welding. Third, techniques which have relatively controllable reaction time and energy were used to eliminate the IMCs. Some important processing parameters and their effects on weld quality are discussed, and the microstructure and metallurgical reaction are described. Mechanical properties of welds such as hardness, tensile, shear and fatigue strength are discussed. The aim of the report is to review the recent progress in the welding of dissimilar Mg and Al to provide a basis for follow-up research.

  16. Nanoscale Electro Negative Interface Density (NENID) in magnesium alloy nanocomposites: Effect on mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In metal matrix composites, particle–matrix interfacial reactions are generally undesirable as this leads to poor interface formation where the particle–matrix stress transfer characteristics are inferior. This is of particular concern regarding magnesium alloy nanocomposites for wide ranging weight critical structural applications. In this study, various magnesium alloy nanocomposites containing Al2O3, carbon nanotube, TiC, or Si3N4 nanoparticle reinforcement were fabricated using solidification processing followed by hot extrusion. Here and for the first time, Nanoscale Electro Negative Interface Density (NENID) quantifies the nanoparticle–alloy matrix interfacial area per unit volume in the magnesium alloy nanocomposite taking into consideration the electronegativity of the nanoparticle reinforcement. We suggest that (1) NENID affects selected mechanical properties in magnesium alloy nanocomposites and (2) there are two joint mechanisms at nanoscale that enable tensile strength and ductility of the alloy nanocomposites to be simultaneously enhanced. We show that NENID indicates the possibility of relatively increased nanoparticle–alloy matrix interfacial reactions occurring while taking into account thermodynamic considerations.

  17. Nanoscale Electro Negative Interface Density (NENID) in magnesium alloy nanocomposites: Effect on mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramsothy, M. [National University of Singapore, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Singapore); Chan, J.; Kwok, R. [Singapore Technologies Kinetics Ltd (ST Kinetics) (Singapore); Gupta, M., E-mail: mpegm@nus.edu.sg [National University of Singapore, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Singapore)

    2012-06-15

    In metal matrix composites, particle-matrix interfacial reactions are generally undesirable as this leads to poor interface formation where the particle-matrix stress transfer characteristics are inferior. This is of particular concern regarding magnesium alloy nanocomposites for wide ranging weight critical structural applications. In this study, various magnesium alloy nanocomposites containing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, carbon nanotube, TiC, or Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanoparticle reinforcement were fabricated using solidification processing followed by hot extrusion. Here and for the first time, Nanoscale Electro Negative Interface Density (NENID) quantifies the nanoparticle-alloy matrix interfacial area per unit volume in the magnesium alloy nanocomposite taking into consideration the electronegativity of the nanoparticle reinforcement. We suggest that (1) NENID affects selected mechanical properties in magnesium alloy nanocomposites and (2) there are two joint mechanisms at nanoscale that enable tensile strength and ductility of the alloy nanocomposites to be simultaneously enhanced. We show that NENID indicates the possibility of relatively increased nanoparticle-alloy matrix interfacial reactions occurring while taking into account thermodynamic considerations.

  18. Equal Channel Angular Deformation (ECAD) of As-Cast AM60 Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng LUO; Xiaolin WU; Kenong XIA

    2003-01-01

    As-cast AM60 magnesium alloy ingot with grains coarser than those of as-extruded AZ series is more liable to produce cracks under ECAD with severe shear strain. A feasible scheme of equal channel angular deformation (ECAD) for as-cast AM60 magnesium alloy ingot was proposed in this paper. The tests were conducted on Instron machine with hydraulic back-force machine. Through analysing load vs displacement curves, the effects of ECAD processing conditions on deformability and microstructure of as-cast magnesium AM60 billets were discussed. During testing,the back-force employment was helpful to keep ECAD processing more stable. And with back-force, it was observed that the number of ECAD passes in different routes could tremendously affect the deformability and microstructure of magnesium specimens. It was concluded that ECAD processing is entirely feasible for as-cast magnesium AM60alloy under severe shear strain, and back-force employment, multi-passes deformation and lubrication of graphite paper are the factors primarily beneficial to improvement of deformability and refinement of grained structure. This work provides a way to produce magnesium alloy with fine-grained structure directly from casting ingot by ECAD technique.

  19. Effects of production parameters on characteristics of magnesium alloy sheets manufactured by twin-roll casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Watari

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: : The purpose of the work is to establish a manufacturing process and technology to facilitate the economical manufacture of high-quality magnesium sheet alloys.Design/methodology/approach: Magnesium alloy AZ31B was used to investigate the appropriate manufacturing conditions for use in twin-roll strip casting. Temperatures of the molten materials and roll speeds were varied to find the appropriate manufacturing conditions. The effects of manufacturing conditions on possible forming were clarified in terms of roll speeds and roll gaps between upper and lower rolls.Findings: In the hot-rolling process, a temperature exceeding 200°C was chosen to keep cast products from cracking. An appropriate annealing temperature was effective for homogenizing the microstructure of the rolled cast sheets after the strip casting process. The grain size of the manufactured wrought magnesium alloys sheet was less than 10 micrometers. The obtained magnesium alloy sheet exhibited an equivalent limiting drawing ratio in a warm-drawing test.Research limitations/implications: AZ31 were used to investigate the appropriate manufacturing conditions for use in twin-roll strip casting. Casting temperatures were varied from 630°C to 670°C to find the best casting conditions. Roll casting speeds were varied from 5m/min to 30 m/min in order to examine which roll speed was appropriate for solidifying the molten magnesium.Practical implications: It was found that the cast magnesium sheet manufactured by roll strip casting could be used for plastic forming if the appropriate magnesium sheets were produced after the roll casting process.Originality/value: This paper showed the effectiveness of twin roll casting for magnesium alloys by a horizontal roll caster.

  20. Strength and ductility with {10͞11} — {10͞12} double twinning in a magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, M.; Risse, M.; Schaefer, N.; Reimers, W.; Beyerlein, I. J.

    2016-04-01

    Based on their high specific strength and stiffness, magnesium alloys are attractive for lightweight applications in aerospace and transportation, where weight saving is crucial for the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. Unfortunately, the ductility of magnesium alloys is usually limited. It is thought that one reason for the lack of ductility is that the development of -- double twins (DTW) cause premature failure of magnesium alloys. Here we show with a magnesium alloy containing 4 wt% lithium, that the same impressively large compression failure strains can be achieved with DTWs as without. The DTWs form stably across the microstructure and continuously throughout straining, forming three-dimensional intra-granular networks, a potential strengthening mechanism. We rationalize that relatively easier slip characteristic of this alloy plastically relaxed the localized stress concentrations that DTWs can generate. This result may provide key insight and an alternative perspective towards designing formable and strong magnesium alloys.

  1. Hemolysis and cytotoxicity mechanisms of biodegradable magnesium and its alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen, Zhen [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liu, Xiaoli [School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Huang, Tao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex System, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xi, TingFei, E-mail: xitingfei@pku.edu.cn [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Biomedical Engineering Research Center, Shenzhen Institute, Peking University, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Human Tissue Regeneration and Repair, Shenzhen Institute, Peking University, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Zheng, Yufeng [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex System, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Human Tissue Regeneration and Repair, Shenzhen Institute, Peking University, Shenzhen 518057 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Good hemocompatibility and cell compatibility are essential requirements for coronary stents, especially for biodegradable magnesium alloy stents, which could change the in situ environment after implanted. In this work, the effects of magnesium ion concentration and pH value on the hemolysis and cytotoxicity have been evaluated. Solution with different Mg{sup 2+} concentration gradients and pH values of normal saline and cell culture media DMEM adjusted by MgCl{sub 2} and NaOH respectively were tested for the hemolysis and cell viability. Results show that even when the concentration of Mg{sup 2+} reaches 1000 μg/mL, it has little destructive effect on erythrocyte, and the high pH value over 11 caused by the degradation is the real reason for the high hemolysis ratio. Low concentrations of Mg{sup 2+} (< 100 μg/mL) cause no cytotoxicity to L929 cells, of which the cell viability is above 80%, while high concentrations of Mg{sup 2+} (> 300 μg/mL) could induce obvious death of the L929 cells. The pH of the extract plays a synergetic effect on cytotoxicity, due to the buffer action of the cell culture medium. To validate this conclusion, commercial pure Mg using normal saline and PBS as extract was tested with the measurement of pH and Mg{sup 2+} concentration. Pure Mg leads to a higher hemolysis ratio in normal saline (47.76%) than in buffered solution (4.38%) with different pH values and low concentration of Mg{sup 2+}. The Mg extract culture media caused no cytotoxicity, with pH = 8.44 and 47.80 μg/mL Mg{sup 2+}. It is suggested that buffered solution and dynamic condition should be adopted in the hemolysis evaluation. - Highlights: • Mg{sup 2+} and pH have been tested for hemolysis and cytotoxicity of biomedical Mg. • Even 1000 μg/ml Mg{sup 2+} cannot cause hemolysis, but hemolysis reaches 53.8% when pH > 11. • Mg{sup 2+} > 300 μg/mL induces death of L929 and slight alkaline improves the proliferation. • Pure Mg in normal saline induces high

  2. Direct electroless Ni-P deposition on AM50 magnesium alloy from sulfate bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guang-yu; NIU Li-yuan; JIANG Zhong-hao; GU Chang-dong; LIAN Jian-she

    2006-01-01

    A bright electroless Ni-P deposition on AM50 magnesium alloy in a sulfate plating bath was proposed by using direct plating process with non-chromate pretreatment. The electroless Ni-P plating on AM50 magnesium alloy has an admirable appearance and good adhesion. The results indicate that the electroless Ni-P deposition with non-chromate pretreatment has better adhesion than that of zinc immersion coating. Anodic polarization curves indicate that the electroless Ni-P deposition obtained from the sulfate bath has similar corrosion-resistance to that obtained from basic nickel carbonate bath. The deposition process generates less pollutant by a non-chromate plating bath and is suitable for the magnesium alloys manufacture because of its low cost. The hardness of the electroless Ni-P plated AM50 is about HV 720.6 and HV 969.7 after heat treatments at 180 ℃ for 2 h. The wear resistance of Ni-P plated magnesium alloy specimens is about 5 to 9 times as high as that of bare magnesium alloys.

  3. Preparation, characterization and wear behavior of carbon coated magnesium alloy with electroless plating nickel interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Yan [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Li, Zhuguo, E-mail: lizg@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Academician Expert Office Workstation (Jiansheng Pan), Lin’an, Zhejiang Province (China); Feng, Kai, E-mail: fengkai@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Academician Expert Office Workstation (Jiansheng Pan), Lin’an, Zhejiang Province (China); Guo, Xingwu [National Engineering Research Center of Light Alloys Net Forming (LAF), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhou, Zhifeng [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Dong, Jie [National Engineering Research Center of Light Alloys Net Forming (LAF), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wu, Yixiong [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Academician Expert Office Workstation (Jiansheng Pan), Lin’an, Zhejiang Province (China)

    2015-02-01

    Highlights: • The carbon film with nickel interlayer (Ni + C coating) is deposited on GW83. • In Ni + C composite coating the carbon coating has good adhesion with the nickel interlayer. • The wear track of Ni + C coating is narrower compared to the bare one. • The wear resistance of GW83 is greatly improved by the Ni + C coating. - Abstract: Poor wear resistance of rare earth magnesium alloys has prevented them from wider application. In this study, composite coating (PVD carbon coating deposited on electroless plating nickel interlayer) is prepared to protect GW83 magnesium alloys against wear. The Ni + C composite coating has a dense microstructure, improved adhesion strength and hardness due to the effective support of Ni interlayer. The wear test result shows that the Ni + C composite coating can greatly prolong the wear life of the magnesium alloy. The wear track of the Ni + C coated magnesium alloy is obviously narrower and shows less abrasive particles as compared with the bare one. Abrasive wear is the wear mechanism of the coatings at the room temperature. In conclusion, the wear resistance of the GW83 magnesium alloy can be greatly improved by the Ni + C composite coating.

  4. Study on vertical mandibular distraction osteogenesis using magnesium alloy on canine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengyue Wang; Shufeng Wang; Yusheng Yao; Fuzhai Cui

    2014-01-01

    The bone formation feasibility by a novel magnesium alloy device was evaluated using a canine vertical mandibular distraction osteogenesis (DO) model. Osteotomies were performed in the area where last 3 star's teeth of left mandibular were pulled out before 3 months. Both AZ31 magnesium alloy (n=6) and 316L stainless steel (n=6) distraction devices were implanted. The distraction osteogenesis was carried out with a latency of 5 days after mandibular osteotomy. Distraction proceeded at a rate of 0.3 mm/8 h for 7 days and followed by 4 weeks of consolidations. The evaluations were conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and histological examinations. There were osteoblasts and trabecular bones formations manifestly in both groups. There was no significant difference in the bone mineral density between the two groups. The surface of the magnesium alloy was much more cracked and uneven, resulting from the surface pitting corrosion. The crew nails were closely combined with the surrounding bone tissue. AZ31 magnesium alloy exhibited a certain degradation rate in mandibular and did not post a negative effect on the kidney and liver. The observations in magnesium alloys group is consistent with the stainless steel group.

  5. Study on vertical mandibular distraction osteogenesis using magnesium alloy on canine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyue Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The bone formation feasibility by a novel magnesium alloy device was evaluated using a canine vertical mandibular distraction osteogenesis (DO model. Osteotomies were performed in the area where last 3 star׳s teeth of left mandibular were pulled out before 3 months. Both AZ31 magnesium alloy (n=6 and 316L stainless steel (n=6 distraction devices were implanted. The distraction osteogenesis was carried out with a latency of 5 days after mandibular osteotomy. Distraction proceeded at a rate of 0.3 mm/8 h for 7 days and followed by 4 weeks of consolidations. The evaluations were conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and histological examinations. There were osteoblasts and trabecular bones formations manifestly in both groups. There was no significant difference in the bone mineral density between the two groups. The surface of the magnesium alloy was much more cracked and uneven, resulting from the surface pitting corrosion. The crew nails were closely combined with the surrounding bone tissue. AZ31 magnesium alloy exhibited a certain degradation rate in mandibular and did not post a negative effect on the kidney and liver. The observations in magnesium alloys group is consistent with the stainless steel group.

  6. Calcium phosphate coating on magnesium alloy by biomimetic method :Investigation of morphology ,composition and formation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Magnesium alloy has similar mechanical properties with natural bone and can degrade via corrosion in the electrolytic environment of the human body.Calcium phosphate has been proven to possess bioactivity and bone inductivity.In order to integrate both advantages,calcium phosphate coating was fabricated on magnesium alloy by a biomimetic method.Supersaturated calcification solutions (SCSs) with different Ca/P ratio and C1- concentration were used as mimetic solutions.The morphology,composition and formation process of the coating were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM),energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS),Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).The results show that a uniform calcium phosphate coating was observed on magnesium alloy,the properties of which could be adjusted by the SCSs with different Ca/P ratio.The formation process of the coating was explored by immersing magnesium alloy in SCSs with different Cl- concentration which could adjust the hydrogen production.According to SEM results,the hydrogen bubbles were associated with the formation of grass-like and flower-like coating morphologies.In conclusion,the biomimetic method was effective to form calcium phosphate coating on magnesium alloy and the morphology and composition of the coating could be accommodated by the Ca/P ratio and Cl- concentration in SCSs.

  7. Corrosion of magnesium alloy AZ31 screws is dependent on the implantation site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willbold, E. [Laboratory for Biomechanics and Biomaterials, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Anna-von-Borries-Strasse 1-7, D - 30625 Hannover (Germany); Kaya, A.A. [Mugla University, Engineering Faculty, Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department, Mugla (Turkey); Kaya, R.A. [MedicalPark Hospital, Kueltuer Sok No:1, 34160 Bahcelievler, Istanbul (Turkey); Beckmann, F. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Materials Research, Max-Planck-Str.1, D - 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Witte, F., E-mail: witte.frank@mh-hannover.de [Laboratory for Biomechanics and Biomaterials, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Anna-von-Borries-Strasse 1-7, D - 30625 Hannover (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The corrosion of biodegradable materials is a crucial issue in implant development. Among other materials, magnesium and magnesium based alloys are one of the most promising candidates. Since the corrosion of biodegradable materials depends on different physiological parameters like pH or ion concentrations, the corrosion might be different in different biological environments. To investigate this issue, we produced screws from magnesium alloy AZ31 and implanted them into the hip bone of 14 sheep. After 3 and 6 months, the screws were explanted and analyzed with synchrotron-radiation based micro-computed tomography and hard tissue histology. We found considerable differences in the corrosion behavior of the magnesium screws with respect to its original tissue location. However, we could detect a normal immunological tissue response.

  8. Design of experiment (DOE) study of biodegradable magnesium alloy synthesized by mechanical alloying using fractional factorial design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Emee Marina; Ramakrishnan, Sivakumar; Hussain, Zuhailawati

    2014-06-01

    The biodegradable nature of magnesium (Mg) makes it a most highlighted and attractive to be used as implant materials. However, rapid corrosion rate of Mg alloys especially in electrolytic aqueous environment limits its performance. In this study, Mg alloy was mechanically milled by incorporating manganese (Mn) as alloying element. An attempt was made to study both effect of mechanical alloying and subsequent consolidation processes on the bulk properties of Mg-Mn alloys. 2k-2 factorial design was employed to determine the significant factors in producing Mg alloy which has properties closes to that of human bones. The design considered six factors (i.e. milling time, milling speed, weight percentage of Mn, compaction pressure, sintering temperature and sintering time). Density and hardness were chosen as the responses for assessing the most significant parameters that affected the bulk properties of Mg-Mn alloys. The experimental variables were evaluated using ANOVA and regression model. The main parameter investigated was compaction pressure.

  9. Anisotropic plastic deformation behavior of as-extruded ZK60 magnesium alloy at room temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HANS; J; R

    2009-01-01

    The anisotropic plastic deformation behavior of as-extruded ZK60 magnesium alloy at room tempera-ture (RT) was investigated by compressive and tensile testing in different directions, i.e. the loading axis oriented at 0°, 45° and 90° to the extrusion direction. The relationship between texture and plastic deformation behavior were examined. The results show that the extruded ZK60 alloy exhibits a strong ring fiber texture. The mechanical properties are strongly orientation dependent. In tension testing, the 0° specimen exhibited higher yield strength and lower elongation. In compression testing, however, ZK60 alloy exhibited almost the same yield strength in three directions. The anisotropic plastic defor-mation behavior is due to strong fiber texture and the lower symmetry of the hexagonal close packed (hcp) structure of ZK60 alloy. The correlation between texture and mechanical behaviour offers the possibility to improve the mechanical properties of magnesium alloy by optimization of the material production process.

  10. Microstructure and tensile properties of magnesium alloy modified by Si/Ca based refiner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Zhi-chao; SUN Yang-shan; WEI Yu; DU Wen-wen; XUE Feng; ZHU Tian-bai

    2005-01-01

    Microstructure and mechanical properties of pure magnesium and AZ31 alloy with Ca/Si based refiner addition were investigated. The results indicate that addition of Ca/Si based refiners to pure magnesium and AZ31 alloy results in remarkable microstructure refinement. With proper amount of refiner addition, the grain size in as cast ingots can be one order of magnitude lower than that without refiner addition. Small amount of refiner addition to AZ31 alloy increases both ultimate strength and yield strength significantly, while the ductility of the alloy with refiner addition is similar to that without refiner addition. Addition of refiner improves the deformability of AZ31 alloy and extruded or hot rolled specimens (rods or sheets) with refiner addition exhibit higher surface quality and mechanical properties than those without refiner addition.

  11. Nanomechanical analysis of AZ31 magnesium alloy and pure magnesium correlated with crystallographic orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anisotropic nanomechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy and pure Mg were measured in situ via nanoindentation of individual grains with simultaneous observations using a scanning electron microscope. Values of the nanohardness, indentation size effect, elastic modulus, and yield strength were correlated with the crystallographic orientation provided by electron backscattering diffraction and were further used to investigate the relationships between the nanomechanical properties of the materials and the work of nanoindentation. The nanohardness of AZ31 was found to be generally above that of pure Mg due to solid solution strengthening. The nanohardness of AZ31 first considerably decreased and then marginally increased, whereas the nanohardness of pure Mg steadily decreased as the angle between the hexagonal lattice c-axis of both materials and the indentation direction increased. The indentation size effect was stronger for AZ31 than for pure Mg, and its magnitude decreased as the angle between the lattice c-axis and the indentation direction increased. The AZ31 modulus remained nearly constant throughout the range of investigated orientations; the modulus of pure Mg followed a theoretical angular dependence but was generally lower than expected. The yield strength behaved in a similar manner to the nanohardness in both materials. Plots of the ratio of the nanohardness to the yield strength revealed that both materials underwent significant work hardening shortly after nanoindentation began. It was also shown that the amount of plastic deformation increased for Mg and increased or remained nearly constant for AZ31 as the angle increased. The observed orientation dependencies were interpreted as a consequence of the anisotropic activities of the dominant slip systems and extension twinning

  12. Effect of laser treatment on micro-structure and properties of cast magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of this paper is to present the structure and properties of the cast magnesium alloy after laser treatment.Design/methodology/approach: The laser treatment of magnesium alloys with TiC, WC powders was carried out using a high power diode laser (HDPL. The resulting microstructure in the modified surface layer was examined using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope. Phase composition was determined by the X-ray diffraction method using the XPert device. The measurements of hardness and wear resistance of the modified surface layer were also studied.Findings: The region after laser treatment has a fine microstructure with hard carbide particles. Hardness of laser surface layer with both TiC and WC particles was improved as compared to alloy without laser treatment.Research limitations/implications: In this research two powders (WC and TiC were used with the particle size over 5 μm. This investigation presents different laser power by one process speed rates.Practical implications: The results obtained in this investigation were promising towards compared other conventional processes. High Power Diode Laser can be used as an economical substitute of Nd:YAG and CO2 to improve the surface magnesium alloy by feeding the carbide particles.Originality/value: The originality of this work is applying of High Power Diode Laser for alloying of magnesium alloy using hard particles like tungsten and titanium carbides.

  13. First-principles study on structural stability of 3d transition metal alloying magnesium hydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A first-principles plane-wave pseudopotential method based on the density functional theory was used to investigate the energy and electronic structure of magnesium hydride (MgH2) alloyed by 3d transition metal elements. Through calculations of the negative heat formation of magnesium hydride alloyed by X (X denotes 3d transition metal) element, it is found that when a little X (not including Sc) dissolves into magnesium hydride, the structural stability of alloying systems decreases, which indicates that the dehydrogenation properties of MgH2 can be improved. After comparing the densities of states(DOS) and the charge distribution of MgH2 with or without X alloying, it is found that the improvement for the dehydrogenation properties of MgH2 alloyed by X attributes to the fact that the weakened bonding between magnesium and hydrogen is caused by the stronger interactions between X (not including Cu) and hydrogen. The calculation results of the improvement for the dehydrogenation properties of MgH2-X (X=Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co,Ni, Cu) systems are in agreement with the experimental results. Hence, the dehydrogenation properties of MgH2 are expected to be improved by addition of Cr, Zn alloying elements.

  14. Calculation of Liquidus Temperature for Aluminum and Magnesium Alloys Applying Method of Equivalency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mile B. Djurdjević

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a mathematical equation, which will be able to accurately predict the liquidus temperature of various aluminum and magnesium cast alloys on the basis of their known chemical compositions. An accurate knowledge of liquidus temperature permits a researcher to predict a variety of physical parameters pertaining to a given alloy. The analytical expressions presented in this paper are based on the “method of equivalency.” According to this concept, the influence of any alloying element on the liquidus temperature of an aluminum and/or magnesium alloy can be translated into the equivalent influence of a reference element. Silicon as a reference element has been chosen for aluminum alloys and aluminum for magnesium alloys. The sum of the equivalent concentrations for other elements, when added to the influence of the actual reference element is used to calculate the liquidus temperature of the alloy. The calculated liquidus temperatures for wide ranges of alloy chemical compositions show a good correlation with corresponding measured liquidus temperatures.

  15. Development of manufacturing process of wrought magnesium alloy sheets by twin roll casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Watari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the work is to development of a strip casting technology for manufacturing magnesiumalloy sheets. The aim of the work is to establish a manufacturing process and technology to facilitate theeconomical manufacture of high-strength magnesium sheet alloys.Design/methodology/approach: A horizontal type twin roll caster was used to manufacture magnesium alloysheets. Pair of copper alloy roll, pure copper roll and steel roll was used for the horizontal type twin roll caster.The diameter of the rolls was 300mm and the width of rolls was 100 and 150mm.Findings: The magnesium alloy sheets could be succcessfully manufactured by the horizontal twin roll caster. Theproduct sheet thickness in the present experiment was 2.0 to 5.0mm. The equiaxed microstrucure was observed incast magnesium alloys when a pair of copper and cupper aolly rolls were used. The mean grain size of the castmagnesium alloys strip was from 30 to 60 micrometers. After hot rolling process, the grain size was reduced to about10 micrometers. The obtained magnesium alloy sheet indicated a good plastic formability by a warm-drawing test.Research limitations/implications: The superheat in the experiment was between 15ºC and 30ºC, also anappropriate hot rolling temperature was 250ºC for AZ31, AZ61 and AM60, 300ºC for AZ91.Practical implications: The proposed manufacturing process was effective from the view point of economicalmanufacturing process as well as of formation of rapid solidification microstructures. Introducing the twin rollcasting technology enable to manufacture magnesium sheet alloys with high aluminum contents, such as AZ61,AM60 and AZ91.Originality/value: AZ31, AM60, AZ61 and AZ91 wrought magnesium alloy sheets can be manufacturedeconomically by twin roll casting. These cast sheet can be hot rolled and the proposed manufacturing processenables manufacturer to manufacure thin magnesium alloy sheets with high aluminum contents such as AM60,AZ61 and AZ

  16. [Research on the mechanical properties of bone scaffold reinforced by magnesium alloy/bioceramics composite with stereolithography double channels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changhai; Lian, Qin; Zhuang, Pei; Wang, Junzhong; Li, Dichen

    2015-02-01

    Focusing on the poor mechanical strength of porous bioceramics bone scaffold, and taking into account of the good mechanical properties of biodegradable magnesium alloy, we proposed a novel method to fabricate magnesium alloy/bioceramics composite bone scaffold with stereolithography double channels. Firstly, a scaffold structure without mutually connected double channels was designed. Then, an optimized bioceramics scaffold was fabricated according to stereolithography and gel-casing. Molten AZ31 magnesium alloy was perfused into the secondary channel of scaffold by low-pressure casting, and magnesium alloy/bioceramics composite bone scaffold was obtained when magnesium alloy was solidified. The compression test showed that the strength of bioceramics scaffold with only one channel and without magnesium alloy was (9.76 ± 0.64) MPa, while the strength of magnesium alloy/bioceramics composite scaffold with double channels was (17.25 ± 0.88) MPa. It can be concluded that the magnesium alloy/bioceramics composite is obviously able to improve the scaffold strength.

  17. Numerical analysis of self-pierce riveting of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S. L.; Wu, Y. W.; Zeng, Q. L.; Gao, Y.

    2013-05-01

    Magnesium alloy sheet has a broad development prospect for lightweight metal in automotive industry. Selfpierce Riveting (SPR) process is a suitable joining technology to fasten materials of different nature. This paper is concerned with the development of numerical models of the SPR process of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet. Based on DEFORM-2D finite element software, a two-dimensional axisymmetric model has been built for the SPR process. Then the distribution of stress and strain, and the stroke-load curve are analyzed in the forming process of the riveting. After a 2D simulation of SPR process, the quality of riveted joint is evaluated in terms of joint cross-sectional shape. The results show a better understanding of mechanical properties of SPR joints of magnesium alloy sheets. As a sufficient interlock and bottom thickness leading to a reasonably good joint, the numerical simulation method plays a significant role to predict the final strength of the joint.

  18. Magnetic force improvement and parameter optimization for magnetic abrasive polishing of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The magnetic force acting on workpieee to be machined plays a significantly important role in magnetic abrasive polishing process.But in a case of polishing nonferrous materials,the strength of magnetic force is very low and it leads lower polishing efficiency.The magnesium alloy that has superior mechanical properties for industrial application such as a lightweight and high specific strength is one of the most famous nonferrous materials.An improving strategy of the magnetic force for me AZ31 magnesium alloy installed with a permanent magnet was proposed and experimental verification Was carded out.For the proposed strategy,the effect of process parameters on the surface roughness of the AZ31 magnesium alloy Was evaluated by a design of experimental method.

  19. The Degradation Interface of Magnesium Based Alloys in Direct Contact with Human Primary Osteoblast Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezha Ahmad Agha

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys have been identified as a new generation material of orthopaedic implants. In vitro setups mimicking physiological conditions are promising for material / degradation analysis prior to in vivo studies however the direct influence of cell on the degradation mechanism has never been investigated. For the first time, the direct, active, influence of human primary osteoblasts on magnesium-based materials (pure magnesium, Mg-2Ag and Mg-10Gd alloys is studied for up to 14 days. Several parameters such as composition of the degradation interface (directly beneath the cells are analysed with a scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray and focused ion beam. Furthermore, influence of the materials on cell metabolism is examined via different parameters like active mineralisation process. The results are highlighting the influences of the selected alloying element on the initial cells metabolic activity.

  20. Estimating inclusion size in WE43-T6 magnesium alloys based on Gumbel extreme values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimating the maximum inclusion size in a large volume of clean metal from observations on a small volume is an important problem faced by the metallurgical industries. Static and fatigue behaviors and other mechanical properties of the material are influenced by the maximum inclusion sizes. This paper presents first application of the extreme values method for estimating the largest inclusion in WE43-T6 magnesium alloys. The actual dimensions of the largest pore and oxide in WE43-T6 magnesium alloys are found to be consistent with the dimensions predicted using the Gumbel extreme values (GEV) distribution obtained by both tomography and metallography. In this respect application of the Gumbel extreme values to describe clusters of intermetallic particles and predict the maximum intermetallic size in WE43 magnesium alloys may also be reasonably used.

  1. Effects of High Magnetic Field on Solidification and Corrosion Behaviors of Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The solidification behaviors of AZ61 magnesium alloy under a high magnetic field were studied. The corrosion property of AZ61 alloy was investigated in a solution of 3.5 mol/L NaCl by measuring electrochemical polarization. The results show that the high magnetic field can refine microstructure and benefit aluminum transfer.The crystal of α-Mg is induced to orient with their c-axis parallel to the magnetic field. The corrosion studies indicate that different crystal plane of magnesium has different corrosion property. The passivating films on the a- and b-planes have higher corrosion resistance than that on the c-plane. Aligned structure affects the corrosion property of AZ61 magnesium alloy.

  2. Diffusion Bonding and Post-Weld Heat Treatment of Extruded AZ91 Magnesium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei LIN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The grain size of as-extruded AZ91 magnesium alloys was refined to 12.31 μm from 21.41 μm by recrystallization annealing. The vacuum diffusion welding of as-annealed AZ91 magnesium alloys was researched. The results showed that the maximum shear strength of joints reached 64.70 MPa in the situation of 10 MPa bonding pressure, 18 Pa vacuum degree, 470 °C bonding temperature and 90 min bonding time; both bonding temperature and time are the main influence factors on as-extruded AZ91 magnesium alloys diffusion welding. Then the diffusion welded specimens were annealed, and the shear strength of joints was further improved to 76.93 MPa.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9699

  3. Magnesium and its alloys as degradable biomaterials: corrosion studies using potentiodynamic and EIS electrochemical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Dieter Müller

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium is potentially useful for orthopaedic and cardiovascular applications. However, the corrosion rate of this metal is so high that its degradation occurs before the end of the healing process. In industrial media the behaviour of several magnesium alloys have been probed to be better than magnesium performance. However, the information related to their corrosion behaviour in biological media is insufficient. The aim of this work is to study the influence of the components of organic fluids on the corrosion behaviour of Mg and AZ31 and LAE442 alloys using potentiodynamic, potentiostatic and EIS techniques. Results showed localized attack in chloride containing media. The breakdown potential decreased when chloride concentration increased. The potential range of the passivation region was extended in the presence of albumin. EIS measurements showed that the corrosion behaviour of the AZ31 was very different from that of LAE442 alloy in chloride solutions.

  4. Evaluation of sliding wear behavior of graphite particle-containing magnesium alloy composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Qing-ju

    2006-01-01

    The influence of graphite particle content on the friction and wear characteristics of AZ91 magnesium alloy matrix composite was studied. The results show that the wear resistances of graphite-containing composite are much better than those of the matrix under the test conditions. The anti-wear ability of magnesium alloy composite is improved substantially with the increase of the graphite content from 5% to 20%, and both wear mass loss and coefficient of friction are decreased to low level. Different wear mechanisms operate at different sliding stages. A continuous black lubricating film forms progressively on the worn surface along sliding, which effectively limits the direct interaction between the composite tribosurface and the counterpart, and also remarkably delays the transition from mild wear to severe wear for magnesium alloy composite.

  5. Magnesium Alloy for Repair of Lateral Tibial Plateau Defect in Minipig Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Zhang; Xiao Lin; Zhengrong Qi; Lili Tan; Ke Yang; Zhuangqi Hu; Yan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Bone graft substitutes are widely-studied as alternatives to bone grafts in the clinic.The currently available products are mostly ceramics and polymers.Considerable progress has been made in the study of the biodegradable magnesium alloys,which possess the necessary attributions of a suitable substitute,including an excellent mechanical property.In the present study,a minipig model of a lateral tibial plateau defect was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a magnesium alloy in the repair of a critical-sized defect.The micro-arc oxidation (MAO)-coated ZK60 alloy tablets and medical-grade calcium sulfate pellets were used as the test and control materials,respectively.Bone morphology was monitored by computed tomography after the implantation for 2 and 4 months.It was found that the bone morphology in minipigs following magnesium treatment was similar to that of the normal bone,whereas an abnormal and concave morphology was displayed following the calcium sulfate treatment.The average bone healing rate for the magnesium-treated defects was higher than that of the calcium sulfate-treated defects at the first 4 months following the implantation.Overall,magnesium treatment appeared to improve the defect repair as compared with the calcium sulfate treatment.Thus,the MAO-coated ZK60 alloy appears to be a useful biocompatible bone graft substitute,and further research on its biological activity in vivo is needed.

  6. Magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by limiting the amount lost in urine. Low magnesium intakes for a long period of time, however, can ... is important for healthy bones. People with higher intakes of magnesium have a higher bone mineral density, which is ...

  7. Conversion Coatings Produced on AZ61 Magnesium Alloy by Low-Voltage Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The resultes of anodic oxide conversion coatings on wrought AZ61 magnesium alloy production are describe. The studies were conducted in a solution containing: KOH (80 g/l and KF (300 g/l using anodic current densities of 3, 5 and 10 A/dm2 and different process durations. The obtained coatings were examined under a microscope and corrosion tests were performed by electrochemical method. Based on these results, it was found that the low-voltage process produces coatings conferring improved corrosion resistance to the tested magnesium alloy.

  8. Grain refinement of AZ31 magnesium alloy by electromagnetic stirring under effect of grain-refiner

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Y Gao; Q C Le; Z Q Zhang; J Z Cui

    2012-08-01

    The effects of electromagnetic stirring and Al4C3 grain refiner on the grain refinement of semicontinuously cast AZ31 magnesium alloy were discussed in this investigation. The results indicate that electromagnetic stirring has an effective refining effect on the grain size of AZ31 magnesium alloy under the effect of Al4C3 grain refiner. Electromagnetic stirring can `activate’ the Al4C3 particles, resulting in more heterogeneous nucleation sites for the primary -Mg grains. But, longer holding time can `deactivate’ the Al4C3 particles and poison the grain refining effect.

  9. Study on the isothermal forging process of MB26 magnesium alloy adaptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wenchen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The isothermal forging process is an effective method to manufacture complex-shaped components of hard-to-work materials, such as magnesium alloys. This study investigates the isothermal forging process of an MB26 magnesium alloy adaptor with three branches. The results show that two-step forging process is appropriate to form the adaptor forging, which not only improves the filling quality but also reduces the forging load compared with one-step forging process. Moreover, the flow line is distributed along the contour of the complex-shaped adaptor forging.

  10. Thermodynamic criteria for the removal of impurities from end-of-life magnesium alloys by evaporation and flux treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Takehito; Takeda, Osamu; Nakajima, Kenichi; Matsubae, Kazuyo; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, the possibility of removing impurities during magnesium recycling with pyrometallurgical techniques has been evaluated by using a thermodynamic analysis. For 25 different elements that are likely to be contained in industrial magnesium alloys, the equilibrium distribution ratios between the metal, slag and gas phases in the magnesium remelting process were calculated assuming binary systems of magnesium and an impurity element. It was found that calcium, gadolinium, lithium, ytterbium and yttrium can be removed from the remelted end-of-life (EoL) magnesium products by oxidization. Calcium, cerium, gadolinium, lanthanum, lithium, plutonium, sodium, strontium and yttrium can be removed by chlorination with a salt flux. However, the other elements contained in magnesium alloy scrap are scarcely removed and this may contribute toward future contamination problems. The third technological option for the recycling of EoL magnesium products is magnesium recovery by a distillation process. Based on thermodynamic considerations, it is predicted that high-purity magnesium can be recovered through distillation because of its high vapor pressure, yet there is a limit on recoverability that depends on the equilibrium vapor pressure of the alloying elements and the large energy consumption. Therefore, the sustainable recycling of EoL magnesium products should be an important consideration in the design of advanced magnesium alloys or the development of new refining processes.

  11. Thermodynamic criteria for the removal of impurities from end-of-life magnesium alloys by evaporation and flux treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehito Hiraki, Osamu Takeda, Kenichi Nakajima, Kazuyo Matsubae, Shinichiro Nakamura and Tetsuya Nagasaka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the possibility of removing impurities during magnesium recycling with pyrometallurgical techniques has been evaluated by using a thermodynamic analysis. For 25 different elements that are likely to be contained in industrial magnesium alloys, the equilibrium distribution ratios between the metal, slag and gas phases in the magnesium remelting process were calculated assuming binary systems of magnesium and an impurity element. It was found that calcium, gadolinium, lithium, ytterbium and yttrium can be removed from the remelted end-of-life (EoL magnesium products by oxidization. Calcium, cerium, gadolinium, lanthanum, lithium, plutonium, sodium, strontium and yttrium can be removed by chlorination with a salt flux. However, the other elements contained in magnesium alloy scrap are scarcely removed and this may contribute toward future contamination problems. The third technological option for the recycling of EoL magnesium products is magnesium recovery by a distillation process. Based on thermodynamic considerations, it is predicted that high-purity magnesium can be recovered through distillation because of its high vapor pressure, yet there is a limit on recoverability that depends on the equilibrium vapor pressure of the alloying elements and the large energy consumption. Therefore, the sustainable recycling of EoL magnesium products should be an important consideration in the design of advanced magnesium alloys or the development of new refining processes.

  12. The Interaction of Grain Refinement and Ageing in Magnesium-Zinc-Zirconium (ZK) Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    J. D. Robson and C. Paa-Rai

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium–zinc–zirconium (ZK) alloys are precipitation strengthened by the addition of zinc and grain refined by zirconium. In ZK alloys these mechanisms interact since some Zn can be precipitated into Zn–Zr intermetallics. This reduces the fraction of age hardening precipitates. An experimental study has confirmed the presence of these two particle types in ZK60, a commercial Mg–Zn–Zr alloy. A model has been developed to consider precipitation and strengthening in ZK alloys account...

  13. The Role of Calcium in Microstructural Refinement of AZ91 Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shengfa; KANG Liugen; HAN Hui; WANG Zhongfan

    2006-01-01

    The effect of calcium addition on the microstructures of AZ91 magnesium alloy was investigated. It was found that a small amount of calcium in AZ91 alloy produced a large decrease in the a-Mg grain size and the dispersed fine β-Mg17 Al12 phases. In addition, some Al4 Ca particles were found to exist in the AZ91 alloy containing 0.5 wt% Ca. EDS analysis and water-quenched technique revealed that the grain-refining mechanism of calcium for the AZ91 alloys was mainly attributed to the role of restricting growth of calcium in the primary a-Mg crystals.

  14. Current research progress in grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys: A review article

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Yahia; Qiu, Dong [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Jiang, Bin; Pan, Fusheng [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Zhang, Ming-Xing, E-mail: Mingxing.Zhang@uq.edu.au [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2015-01-15

    Grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys, particularly in magnesium–aluminium (Mg–Al) based alloys, has been an active research topic in the past two decades, because it has been considered as one of the most effective approaches to simultaneously increase the strength, ductility and formability. The development of new grain refiners was normally based on the theories/models that were established through comprehensive and considerable studies of grain refinement in cast Al alloys. Generally, grain refinement in cast Al can be achieved through either inoculation treatment, which is a process of adding, or in situ forming, foreign particles to promote heterogeneous nucleation rate, or restricting grain growth by controlling the constitutional supercooling or both. But, the concrete and tangible grain refinement mechanism in cast metals is still not fully understood and there are a number of controversies. Therefore, most of the new developed grain refiners for Mg–Al based alloys are not as efficient as the commercially available ones, such as zirconium in non-Al containing Mg alloys. To facilitate the research in grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys, this review starts with highlighting the theoretical aspects of grain refinement in cast metals, followed by reviewing the latest research progress in grain refinement of magnesium alloys in terms of the solute effect and potent nucleants.

  15. Current research progress in grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys: A review article

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys, particularly in magnesium–aluminium (Mg–Al) based alloys, has been an active research topic in the past two decades, because it has been considered as one of the most effective approaches to simultaneously increase the strength, ductility and formability. The development of new grain refiners was normally based on the theories/models that were established through comprehensive and considerable studies of grain refinement in cast Al alloys. Generally, grain refinement in cast Al can be achieved through either inoculation treatment, which is a process of adding, or in situ forming, foreign particles to promote heterogeneous nucleation rate, or restricting grain growth by controlling the constitutional supercooling or both. But, the concrete and tangible grain refinement mechanism in cast metals is still not fully understood and there are a number of controversies. Therefore, most of the new developed grain refiners for Mg–Al based alloys are not as efficient as the commercially available ones, such as zirconium in non-Al containing Mg alloys. To facilitate the research in grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys, this review starts with highlighting the theoretical aspects of grain refinement in cast metals, followed by reviewing the latest research progress in grain refinement of magnesium alloys in terms of the solute effect and potent nucleants

  16. Effect of cooling rate on microstructure and compressive performance of AZ91 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lin; FENG Hui; QIU Ke-qiang; CHEN Li-jia; LIU Zheng

    2006-01-01

    Effect of cooling rate on both microstructure and room temperature compressive performance of the AZ91 magnesium alloy was investigated. The experimental results show that with increasing cooling rate, the quantity of the solid solution phase increases and the fraction of secondary phase Mg17Al12 decreases. The almost single solid solution phase can be obtained with using liquid nitrogen as a coolant. The compressive strengths of the rapid solidified AZ91 magnesium alloys are higher than those of normal cast alloy, and decrease with increasing cooling rate. After artificial aging treatment for 14 h at 168 ℃, the compressive strength of the rapidly solidified AZ91 magnesium alloy cooled in liquid nitrogen increases from 253.5 to 335.3 MPa, while the compressive yield strength increases from 138.1 to 225.91 MPa. The improvement in the compressive strength of the rapidly solidified AZ91magnesium alloys can be attributed to the hardening effect from fine secondary phase.

  17. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-6Al magnesium alloy with yttrium and neodymium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jun

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of rare earth (RE elements Y and Nd on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-6Al magnesium alloy were investigated. The results show that a proper level of RE elements can obviously refi ne the microstructure of Mg-6Al magnesium alloys, reduce the quantity of β-Mg17Al12 phase and form Al2Y and Al2Nd phases. The combined addition of Y and Nd dramatically enhances the tensile strength of the alloys in the temperature range of 20-175℃. When the content of RE elements is up to 1.8%, the values of tensile strength at room temperature and at 150℃ simultaneously reach their maximum of 253 MPa and 196 MPa, respectively. The main mechanisms of enhancement in the mechanical properties of Mg-6Al alloy with Y and Nd are the grain refi ning strengthening and the dispersion strengthening.

  18. Quantitative procedure for evaluation of microstructure of cast Mg-Al-Ca-Sr magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rzychoń

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the microstructural characterization of ingot MRI-230D magnesium alloy and quantitative procedure for evaluation of microstructure are presented. The optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the morphology of microstructural compounds in this alloy. The X-ray diffraction was used to determination of phase composition. The as-cast microstructure of MRI-230D magnesium alloy containing aluminum, calcium and strontium consists of the dendritic α-Mg and such intermetallic compounds as: Al2Ca, Al4Sr and AlxMny. In the purpose quantitative description of microstructure semi-automatic procedures using Met-Ilo image analysis were developed. Prepared semi-automatic procedures allow a fast determination of phase content in MRI-230D alloy using light microscopy and will be useful in the quality control of MRI-230D ingots.

  19. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations of zinc-magnesium alloy coated steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coating layer composition depth profiles and element chemical states of zinc-magnesium alloy coated steel were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiling. Through the analysis of photoelectron signals and Auger signals of different elements on different depth planes of the coating layer, it can be found that the surface of the coating layer contains MgCO3, MgO, Mg(OH)2, metallic Mg, metallic Zn and some complex zinc compounds. Under the surface, there is a Zn2Mg alloy layer with the thickness of about 300 nm accompanied with MgO and Mg(OH)2 in the layer. There is a transitional layer with the thickness of about 200 nm between the Zn2Mg alloy layer and the pure Zn layer, whose components consist of zinc-magnesium alloy without fixed stoichiometry, a little MgO and a little Mg(OH)2.

  20. The corrosion behaviour of rare-earth containing magnesium alloys in borate buffer solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, R. [ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon (Portugal); Ferreira, M.G.S. [ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon (Portugal); CICECO, Universidade de Aveiro (Portugal); Carmezim, M.J. [ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon (Portugal); Instituto Politecnico de Setubal, ESTSetubal, DEM (Portugal); Montemor, M.F., E-mail: mfmontemor@ist.utl.p [ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon (Portugal)

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the corrosion behaviour of magnesium alloys ZK31, EZ33 and WE54 was studied in sodium borate buffer solution at pH 9.2. The electrochemical processes were studied by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The composition and morphology of the alloys and corrosion products formed were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The experimental findings highlighted the differences in the corrosion mechanisms of the different alloys tested. The results showed that the presence of rare-earth elements (RE) only increases the corrosion resistance when present in solid solution, as is the case of the WE54 alloy. At pH 9.2, an amorphous yttrium oxide/hydroxide thick film was formed, which possesses greater stability when compared to magnesium oxide/hydroxide. The role of RE in the corrosion mechanism was discussed.

  1. Microstructure of AE44 magnesium alloy before and after hot-chamber die casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kiełbus

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: AE44 magnesium alloy allows attractive high temperature mechanical properties, as well as diecastabilityand good corrosion resistance. It contains magnesium, aluminum, cerium and lanthanum. Typically,it is used in automotive industry for structural components working at elevated temperature (150÷175°C. Theaim of this paper is to present the results of investigations on the microstructure of the AE44 magnesium alloybefore and after hot chamber die casting.Design/methodology/approach: Die casting was carried out on 280 tone locking force hot-chamber die castingmachine. For the microstructure observation, a Olympus GX+70 metallographic microscope and a HITACHIS-3400N scanning electron microscope with a Thermo Noran EDS spectrometer equipped with SYSTEM SIXwere used.Findings: Based on the investigation carried out it was found that the AE44 magnesium alloy before diecasting is characterized by α-Mg solid solution with globular, lamellar and acicular precipitations of Al11RE3and Al3RE phases. Moreover, there was found globular Mn-rich phase existence (probably Al8CeMn4 phase.After hot-chamber die casting the microstructure of AE44 alloys consist of equiaxed dendrites of α-Mg withprecipitates of Al11RE3 and probably Al2RE phase.Research limitations/implications: Future researches should contain investigations of the influence of the hotchamber die casting process parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AE44 magnesiumalloy.Practical implications: AE44 magnesium alloy can be cast with cold- and hot-chamber die casting machine.Results of investigation may be useful for preparing die casting technology of this alloy.Originality/value: The results of the researches make up a basis for the investigations of new magnesium alloyscontaining rare earth elements for hot chamber die casting designed to service in elevated temperature.

  2. Ceramic coated Y1 magnesium alloy surfaces by microarc oxidation process for marine applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V V Narulkar; S Prakash; K Chandra

    2007-08-01

    The magnesium alloys occupy an important place in marine applications, but their poor corrosion resistance, wear resistance, hardness and so on, have limited their application. To meet these defects, some techniques are developed. Microarc oxidation is a one such recently developed surface treatment technology under anodic oxidation in which ceramic coating is directly formed on the surface of magnesium alloy, by which its surface property is greatly improved. In this paper, a dense ceramic oxide coating, ∼ 20 m thick, was prepared on an Y1 magnesium alloy through microarc oxidation in a Na3SiO3–Na2WO4–KOH–Na2EDTA electrolytic solution. The property of corrosion resistance of ceramic coating was studied by CS300P electrochemistry–corrosion workstation, and the main impact factor of the corrosion resistance was also analysed. Microstructure and phase composition were analysed by SEM and XRD. The microhardness of the coating was also measured. The basic mechanism of microarc coating formation is explained in brief. The results show that the corrosion resistance property of microarc oxidation coating on the Y1 magnesium surface is superior to the original samples in the 3.5 wt% NaCl solutions. The microarc oxidation coating is relatively dense and uniform, mainly composed of MgO, MgAl2O4 and MgSiO3. The microhardness of the Y1 magnesium alloy surface attained 410 HV, which was much larger than that of the original Y1 magnesium alloy without microarc oxidation.

  3. Solute segregation and texture modification in an extruded magnesium alloy containing gadolinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alloy Mg-1.5Gd has been extruded at different temperatures to produce two significantly different textures. At lower extrusion temperatures there was significant solute clustering in the matrix, coupled with segregation of solute to the grain boundaries. At higher temperatures these two phenomena were both less pronounced. It is suggested here that segregation of solute to the grain boundaries plays a significant role in the texture modification effect that rare earth elements have in magnesium alloys.

  4. Frictional properties of AZ80 and ZE10 magnesium alloys under dry and lubricated contact conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ramezani, Maziar; Neitzert, Thomas; Pasang, Timotius; Sellés Cantó, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    The frictional properties of two types of magnesium alloys, i.e. AZ80 and ZE10 were investigated. A purpose-developed sheet metal forming simulator was used to conduct the experiments under constant plastic deformation. Both lubricated and dry sliding contact conditions were simulated and the effect of key process parameters such as contact pressure and sliding velocity on the frictional properties of these alloys were investigated. Due to the different sliding velocities, the contact pressur...

  5. Structure and Properties Investigation of MCMgAl12Zn1 Magnesium Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Dobrzański; M. Król

    2013-01-01

    This work presents an influence of cooling rate on crystallization process, structure and mechanical properties of MCMgAl12Zn1 castmagnesium alloy. The experiments were performed using the novel Universal Metallurgical Simulator and Analyzer Platform. Theapparatus enabled recording the temperature during refrigerate magnesium alloy with three different cooling rates, i.e. 0.6, 1.2 and 2.4C/s and calculate a first derivative. Based on first derivative results, nucleation temperature, beginnin...

  6. Thermal and structure analysis of the MA MgAl6Zn3 magnesium alloy

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Dobrzański; M. Król

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This work presents effect of cooling rate structural properties and thermal characteristic results of MA MgAl6Zn3 cast alloy.Design/methodology/approach: The experiments were performed using the novel Universal Metallurgical Simulator and Analyzer Platform. Material used in this experiment is experimental magnesium alloy made as-cast.Findings: The research show that the thermal analysis carried out on UMSA Technology Platform is an efficient tool for collect and calculate thermal par...

  7. High Pressure Die Casting of Aluminium and Magnesium Alloys : Grain Structure and Segregation Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Laukli, Hans Ivar

    2004-01-01

    Cold chamber high pressure die casting, (HPDC), is an important commercial process for the production of complex near net shape aluminium and magnesium alloy castings. The work presented in the thesis was aimed at investigating the microstructure formation in this type of casting. The solidification characteristics related to the process and the alloys control the formation of grains and defects. This again has a significant impact on the mechanical properties of the castings.The investigatio...

  8. Calculation of Liquidus Temperature for Aluminum and Magnesium Alloys Applying Method of Equivalency

    OpenAIRE

    Mile B. Djurdjević; Srećko Manasijević; Zoran Odanović; Natalija Dolić

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a mathematical equation, which will be able to accurately predict the liquidus temperature of various aluminum and magnesium cast alloys on the basis of their known chemical compositions. An accurate knowledge of liquidus temperature permits a researcher to predict a variety of physical parameters pertaining to a given alloy. The analytical expressions presented in this paper are based on the “method of equivalency.” According to this concept, the influ...

  9. Rapid coating of AZ31 magnesium alloy with calcium deficient hydroxyapatite using microwave energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Yufu, E-mail: Yufu.Ren@rockets.utoledo.edu [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Zhou, Huan [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu (China); Nabiyouni, Maryam [Department of Bioengineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Bhaduri, Sarit B. [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Division of Dentistry, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Due to their unique biodegradability, magnesium alloys have been recognized as suitable metallic implant materials for degradable bone implants and bioresorbable cardiovascular stents. However, the extremely high degradation rate of magnesium alloys in physiological environment has restricted its practical application. This paper reports the use of a novel microwave assisted coating technology to improve the in vitro corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of Mg alloy AZ31. Results indicate that a dense calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) layer was uniformly coated on a AZ31 substrate in less than 10 min. Weight loss measurement and SEM were used to evaluate corrosion behaviors in vitro of coated samples and of non-coated samples. It was seen that CDHA coatings remarkably reduced the mass loss of AZ31 alloy after 7 days of immersion in SBF. In addition, the prompt precipitation of bone-like apatite layer on the sample surface during immersion demonstrated a good bioactivity of the CDHA coatings. Proliferation of osteoblast cells was promoted in 5 days of incubation, which indicated that the CDHA coatings could improve the cytocompatibility of the AZ31 alloy. All the results suggest that the CDHA coatings, serving as a protective layer, can enhance the corrosion resistance and biological response of magnesium alloys. Furthermore, this microwave assisted coating technology could be a promising method for rapid surface modification of biomedical materials. - Highlights: • A microwave assisted coating process for biodegradable Mg alloy. • CDHA coatings were successfully developed on AZ31 alloy in minutes. • The as-deposited CDHA coatings significantly reduced the degradation rate of AZ31 alloy. • The CDHA coated AZ31 alloy showed good bioactivity and biocompatibility in vitro. • The microwave assisted coating process can be used as rapid surface modification for bioimplants.

  10. Modelling of hardness prediction of magnesium alloys using artificial neural networks applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the following paper there have been presented the optimisation of heat treatment condition and structure of the MCMgAl12Zn1, MCMgAl9Zn1, MCMgAl6Zn1, MCMgAl3Zn1 magnesium cast alloy as-cast state and after a heat treatment.Design/methodology/approach: Working out of a neural network model for simulation of influence of temperature, solution heat treatment and ageing time and aluminium content on hardness of the analyzed magnesium cast alloys.Findings: The different heat treatment kinds employed contributed to the improvement of mechanical properties of the alloy with the slight reduction of its plastic properties.Research limitations/implications: According to the alloys characteristic, the applied cooling rate and alloy additions seems to be a good compromise for mechanical properties and microstructures, nevertheless further tests should be carried out in order to examine different cooling rates and parameters of solution treatment process and aging process.Practical implications: For comparison of the achieved results on the basis of the performed investigations a computer neural network model was used for analysis of the aluminium content and heat treatment parameters influence on the properties of the worked out cast magnesium alloys.Originality/value: The advantage of the neural networks is their capability to learn and adapt to the changing condition, as well as their capability to generalise the acquired knowledge.

  11. Biodegradable Behaviors of Ultrafine-Grained ZE41A Magnesium Alloy in DMEM Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghua Jiang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main limitation to the clinical application of magnesium alloys is their too-fast degradation rate in the physiological environment. Bio-corrosion behaviors of the ZE41A magnesium alloy processed by multi-pass equal channel angular pressing (ECAP were investigated in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM solution, in order to tailor the effect of grain ultrafining on the biodegradation rate of the alloy implant. Hydrogen evolution tests indicated that a large number of ECAP passes decreased the stable corrosion rate of the alloy after the initial incubation period. Potentiodynamic polarization curves showed that more ECAP passes made the corrosion potential nobler and the corrosion tendency lower. Corroded surfaces of the ECAPed alloy indicated a higher resistance toward localized corrosion due to the homogeneous redistribution of broken second phases on the ultrafine-grained Mg matrix. It suggests that grain ultrafining can decrease the biodegradable rate of the magnesium alloy-containing rare-earth elements and tailor the lifetime of the biodegradable material.

  12. Influence of Cobalt on the Properties of Load-Sensitive Magnesium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Kerber

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, magnesium is alloyed with varying amounts of the ferromagnetic alloying element cobalt in order to obtain lightweight load-sensitive materials with sensory properties which allow an online-monitoring of mechanical forces applied to components made from Mg-Co alloys. An optimized casting process with the use of extruded Mg-Co powder rods is utilized which enables the production of magnetic magnesium alloys with a reproducible Co concentration. The efficiency of the casting process is confirmed by SEM analyses. Microstructures and Co-rich precipitations of various Mg-Co alloys are investigated by means of EDS and XRD analyses. The Mg-Co alloys’ mechanical strengths are determined by tensile tests. Magnetic properties of the Mg-Co sensor alloys depending on the cobalt content and the acting mechanical load are measured utilizing the harmonic analysis of eddy-current signals. Within the scope of this work, the influence of the element cobalt on magnesium is investigated in detail and an optimal cobalt concentration is defined based on the performed examinations.

  13. A two-step superplastic forging forming of semi-continuously cast AZ70 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A two-step technology combined forging with superplastic forming has been developed to enhance the forgeability of semi-continuously cast AZ70 magnesium alloy and realize the application of the as-cast magnesium alloy in large deformation bullet shell. In the first step, fine-grained microstructure preforms that are suitable for superplastic forming were obtained by reasonably designing the size of the initial blanks with the specific height-to-diameter ratio, upsetting the blanks and subsequent annealing. In the second step, the heat treated preforms were forged into the end products at the superplastic conditions. The end products exhibit high quality surface and satisfied microstructure. Consequently, this forming technology that not only avoids complicating the material preparation but also utilizes higher strain rate superplastic provides a near net-shaped novel method on magnesium forging forming technology using as-cast billet.

  14. Electroplating zinc transition layer for electroless nickel plating on AM60 magnesium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-min; ZHOU Wan-qiu; HAN En-Hou

    2006-01-01

    Electroplating zinc coating as transition layer of electroless nickel plating on AM60 magnesium alloys was investigated. The zinc film can be deposited in a pyrophosphate bath at 50-60 ℃ under current density of 0.5-1.5 A/dm2. A new fore treatment technology was applied by acid cleaning with a solution containing molybdate and phosphorous acid, by alkaline cleaning in a bath containing molybdate and sodium hydroxide. The subsequent electroless plating was carried out in nickel sulfate bath. The SEM observation shows that the deposition is uniform and compact. The polarization curve measurements show that the corrosion potential of the zinc plating in 3.5% NaCl is about -1.3 V(vs SCE) which is noble than that of magnesium substrate. The zinc electroplating can be applied as the pretreatment process for electroless nickel plating on magnesium alloys.

  15. Structure-property relations and modeling of small crack fatigue behavior of various magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jairus Daniel

    Lightweight structural components are important to the automotive and aerospace industries so that better fuel economy can be realized. Magnesium alloys in particular are being examined to fulfill this need due to their attractive stiffness- and strength-to-weight ratios when compared to other materials. However, when introducing a material into new roles, one needs to properly characterize its mechanical properties. Fatigue behavior is especially important considering aerospace and automotive component applications. Therefore, quantifying the structure-property relationships and accurately predicting the fatigue behavior for these materials are vital. This study has two purposes. The first is to quantify the structure-property relationships for the fatigue behavior in an AM30 magnesium alloy. The second is to use the microstructural-based MultiStage Fatigue (MSF) model in order to accurately predict the fatigue behavior of three magnesium alloys: AM30, Elektron 21, and AZ61. While some studies have previously quantified the MSF material constants for several magnesium alloys, detailed research into the fatigue regimes, notably the microstructurally small crack (MSC) region, is lacking. Hence, the contribution of this work is the first of its kind to experimentally quantify the fatigue crack incubation and MSC regimes that are used for the MultiStage Fatigue model. Using a multi-faceted experimental approach, these regimes were explored with a replica method that used a dual-stage silicone based compound along with previously published in situ fatigue tests. These observations were used in calibrating the MultiStage Fatigue model.

  16. INFLUENCE OF HEAT TREATMENT ON DAMPING BEHAVIOUR OF THE MAGNESIUM WROUGHT ALLOY AZ61

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The effect of isochronal heat treatments for 1h on variation of damping, hardness and microstructural change of the magnesium wrought alloy AZ61 was investigated. Damping and hardness behaviour could be attributed to the evolution of precipitation process. The influence of precipitation on damping behaviour was explained in the framework of the dislocation string model of Granato and Lücke.

  17. Tempering effect on corrosion performance of magnesium alloys for biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Ferrari, G.M.; Erinc, M.; Sillekens, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    The corrosion resistances for magnesium alloys AZ80, AE82 and ZM21 treated at 200 and 330°C for 2 hours, and for AZ80 and AE82 at 415°C for 8 hours were investigated using potentiodynamic polarization measurements in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution at 37°C. The morphology and the Volta potential

  18. A brief review of calcium phosphate conversion coating on magnesium and its alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaludin, Mohd Amin Farhan; Jamal, Zul Azhar Zahid; Jamaludin, Shamsul Baharin; Derman, Mohd Nazree

    2016-07-01

    Recent developments have shown that magnesium is a promising candidate to be used as a biomaterial. Owing to its light weight, biocompatibility and compressive strength comparable with natural bones makes magnesium as an excellent choice for biomaterial. However, high reactivity and low corrosion resistance properties have restricted the application of magnesium as biomaterials. At the moment, several strategies have been developed to solve this problem. Surface modification of magnesium is one of the popular solutions to solve the problem. Among many techniques developed in the surface modification, conversion coating method is one of the simple and effective techniques. From various types of conversion coating, calcium phosphate-based conversion coating is the most suitable for biomedical fields. This paper reviews some studies on calcium phosphate coating on Mg and its alloys via chemical conversion method and discusses some factors determining the coating performance.

  19. In Vivo Corrosion of Two Novel Magnesium Alloys ZEK100 and AX30 and Their Mechanical Suitability as Biodegradable Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Meyer-Lindenberg; Henning Windhagen; Dina Rittershaus; Dirk Bormann; Tim Andreas Huehnerschulte; Nina Angrisani

    2011-01-01

    In magnesium alloys, the components used modify the alloy properties. For magnesium implants in contact with bone, rare earths alloys are commonly examined. These were shown to have a higher corrosion resistance than other alloys and a high mechanical strength, but their exact composition is hard to predict. Therefore a reduction of their content could be favorable. The alloys ZEK100 and AX30 have a reduced content or contain no rare earths at all. The aim of the study was to investigate thei...

  20. Biomimetic hydrophobic surface fabricated by chemical etching method from hierarchically structured magnesium alloy substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Yin, Xiaoming; Zhang, Jijia; Wang, Yaming; Han, Zhiwu; Ren, Luquan

    2013-09-01

    As one of the lightest metal materials, magnesium alloy plays an important role in industry such as automobile, airplane and electronic product. However, magnesium alloy is hindered due to its high chemical activity and easily corroded. Here, inspired by typical plant surfaces such as lotus leaves and petals of red rose with super-hydrophobic character, the new hydrophobic surface is fabricated on magnesium alloy to improve anti-corrosion by two-step methodology. The procedure is that the samples are processed by laser first and then immersed and etched in the aqueous AgNO3 solution concentrations of 0.1 mol/L, 0.3 mol/L and 0.5 mol/L for different times of 15 s, 40 s and 60 s, respectively, finally modified by DTS (CH3(CH2)11Si(OCH3)3). The microstructure, chemical composition, wettability and anti-corrosion are characterized by means of SEM, XPS, water contact angle measurement and electrochemical method. The hydrophobic surfaces with microscale crater-like and nanoscale flower-like binary structure are obtained. The low-energy material is contained in surface after DTS treatment. The contact angles could reach up to 138.4 ± 2°, which hydrophobic property is both related to the micro-nano binary structure and chemical composition. The results of electrochemical measurements show that anti-corrosion property of magnesium alloy is improved. Furthermore, our research is expected to create some ideas from natural enlightenment to improve anti-corrosion property of magnesium alloy while this method can be easily extended to other metal materials.

  1. Biomimetic hydrophobic surface fabricated by chemical etching method from hierarchically structured magnesium alloy substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As one of the lightest metal materials, magnesium alloy plays an important role in industry such as automobile, airplane and electronic product. However, magnesium alloy is hindered due to its high chemical activity and easily corroded. Here, inspired by typical plant surfaces such as lotus leaves and petals of red rose with super-hydrophobic character, the new hydrophobic surface is fabricated on magnesium alloy to improve anti-corrosion by two-step methodology. The procedure is that the samples are processed by laser first and then immersed and etched in the aqueous AgNO3 solution concentrations of 0.1 mol/L, 0.3 mol/L and 0.5 mol/L for different times of 15 s, 40 s and 60 s, respectively, finally modified by DTS (CH3(CH2)11Si(OCH3)3). The microstructure, chemical composition, wettability and anti-corrosion are characterized by means of SEM, XPS, water contact angle measurement and electrochemical method. The hydrophobic surfaces with microscale crater-like and nanoscale flower-like binary structure are obtained. The low-energy material is contained in surface after DTS treatment. The contact angles could reach up to 138.4 ± 2°, which hydrophobic property is both related to the micro–nano binary structure and chemical composition. The results of electrochemical measurements show that anti-corrosion property of magnesium alloy is improved. Furthermore, our research is expected to create some ideas from natural enlightenment to improve anti-corrosion property of magnesium alloy while this method can be easily extended to other metal materials.

  2. Biomimetic hydrophobic surface fabricated by chemical etching method from hierarchically structured magnesium alloy substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yan; Yin, Xiaoming; Zhang, Jijia [Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering (Ministry of Education), Jilin University, Changchun 130022 (China); Wang, Yaming [Institute for Advanced Ceramics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Han, Zhiwu, E-mail: zwhan@jlu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering (Ministry of Education), Jilin University, Changchun 130022 (China); Ren, Luquan [Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering (Ministry of Education), Jilin University, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2013-09-01

    As one of the lightest metal materials, magnesium alloy plays an important role in industry such as automobile, airplane and electronic product. However, magnesium alloy is hindered due to its high chemical activity and easily corroded. Here, inspired by typical plant surfaces such as lotus leaves and petals of red rose with super-hydrophobic character, the new hydrophobic surface is fabricated on magnesium alloy to improve anti-corrosion by two-step methodology. The procedure is that the samples are processed by laser first and then immersed and etched in the aqueous AgNO{sub 3} solution concentrations of 0.1 mol/L, 0.3 mol/L and 0.5 mol/L for different times of 15 s, 40 s and 60 s, respectively, finally modified by DTS (CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}Si(OCH{sub 3}){sub 3}). The microstructure, chemical composition, wettability and anti-corrosion are characterized by means of SEM, XPS, water contact angle measurement and electrochemical method. The hydrophobic surfaces with microscale crater-like and nanoscale flower-like binary structure are obtained. The low-energy material is contained in surface after DTS treatment. The contact angles could reach up to 138.4 ± 2°, which hydrophobic property is both related to the micro–nano binary structure and chemical composition. The results of electrochemical measurements show that anti-corrosion property of magnesium alloy is improved. Furthermore, our research is expected to create some ideas from natural enlightenment to improve anti-corrosion property of magnesium alloy while this method can be easily extended to other metal materials.

  3. Research activities of biomedical magnesium alloys in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng; Gu, Xuenan

    2011-04-01

    The potential application of Mg alloys as bioabsorable/biodegradable implants have attracted much recent attention in China. Advances in the design and biocompatibility evaluation of bio-Mg alloys in China are reviewed in this paper. Bio-Mg alloys have been developed by alloying with the trace elements existing in human body, such as Mg-Ca, Mg-Zn and Mg-Si based systems. Additionally, novel structured Mg alloys such as porous, composited, nanocrystalline and bulk metallic glass alloys were tried. To control the biocorrosion rate of bio-Mg implant to match the self-healing/regeneration rate of the surrounding tissue in vivo, surface modification layers were coated with physical and chemical methods.

  4. Fracture performance of high strength steels, aluminium and magnesium alloys during plastic deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of uniaxial tension tests were performed for 5052 and 6061 aluminum alloys, AZ31B magnesium alloy, TRIP600 and DP600 steels, to obtain a better understanding of their fracture performance. Scanning electron microscope (SEM observation of the microstructure evolution was conducted. The dimple structure, orientation relationship between the fracture surface and tensile direction, necking behavior were analyzed. The fracture mechanism and fracture mode of each material was discussed in detail. The results show that TRIP600 steel is subject to a typical inter-granular ductile fracture combined by shear fracture. DP600 steel belongs to mainly ductility mixed with normal fracture. Both 5052 and 6061 aluminum alloys are subject to a mixed ductility fracture and brittle fracture. AA5052 and AA6061 belong to a typical shear fracture and a normal fracture, respectively. Magnesium AZ31B is typical of a brittle fracture combined with normal fracture.

  5. The Effect of Adding Corrosion Inhibitors into an Electroless Nickel Plating Bath for Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rong; Su, Yongyao; Liu, Hongdong; Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Xin; Shao, Zhongcai

    2016-10-01

    In this work, corrosion inhibitors were added into an electroless nickel plating bath to realize nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) coating deposition on magnesium alloy directly. The performance of five corrosion inhibitors was evaluated by inhibition efficiency. The results showed that only ammonium hydrogen fluoride (NH4HF2) and ammonium molybdate ((NH4)2MoO4) could be used as corrosion inhibitors for magnesium alloy in the bath. Moreover, compounding NH4HF2 and (NH4)2MoO4, the optimal concentrations were both at 1.5 ~ 2%. The deposition process of Ni-P coating was observed by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). It showed corrosion inhibitors inhibited undesired dissolution of magnesium substrate during the electroless plating process. In addition, SEM observation indicated that the corrosion inhibition reaction and the Ni2+ replacement reaction were competitive at the initial deposition time. Both electrochemical analysis and thermal shock test revealed that the Ni-P coating exhibited excellent corrosion resistance and adhesion properties in protecting the magnesium alloy.

  6. The Effect of Adding Corrosion Inhibitors into an Electroless Nickel Plating Bath for Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rong; Su, Yongyao; Liu, Hongdong; Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Xin; Shao, Zhongcai

    2016-08-01

    In this work, corrosion inhibitors were added into an electroless nickel plating bath to realize nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) coating deposition on magnesium alloy directly. The performance of five corrosion inhibitors was evaluated by inhibition efficiency. The results showed that only ammonium hydrogen fluoride (NH4HF2) and ammonium molybdate ((NH4)2MoO4) could be used as corrosion inhibitors for magnesium alloy in the bath. Moreover, compounding NH4HF2 and (NH4)2MoO4, the optimal concentrations were both at 1.5 ~ 2%. The deposition process of Ni-P coating was observed by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). It showed corrosion inhibitors inhibited undesired dissolution of magnesium substrate during the electroless plating process. In addition, SEM observation indicated that the corrosion inhibition reaction and the Ni2+ replacement reaction were competitive at the initial deposition time. Both electrochemical analysis and thermal shock test revealed that the Ni-P coating exhibited excellent corrosion resistance and adhesion properties in protecting the magnesium alloy.

  7. Novel magnesium alloy Mg–2La caused no cytotoxic effects on cells in physiological conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weizbauer, Andreas, E-mail: weizbauer.andreas@mh-hannover.de [Laboratory for Biomechanics and Biomaterials, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Anna-von-Borries-Straße 1-7, 30625 Hannover (Germany); CrossBIT, Center for Biocompatibility and Implant-Immunology, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Feodor-Lynen-Str. 31, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Seitz, Jan-Marten [Institute of Materials Science, Leibniz Universität Hannover, An der Universität 2, 30823 Garbsen (Germany); Werle, Peter [ABB AG, Trafoweg 4, 06112 Halle (Germany); Hegermann, Jan [Institute of Functional and Applied Anatomy, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Straße 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Willbold, Elmar [Laboratory for Biomechanics and Biomaterials, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Anna-von-Borries-Straße 1-7, 30625 Hannover (Germany); CrossBIT, Center for Biocompatibility and Implant-Immunology, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Feodor-Lynen-Str. 31, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Eifler, Rainer [Institute of Materials Science, Leibniz Universität Hannover, An der Universität 2, 30823 Garbsen (Germany); Windhagen, Henning [Laboratory for Biomechanics and Biomaterials, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Anna-von-Borries-Straße 1-7, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Reifenrath, Janin [Small Animal Clinic, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Bünteweg 9, 30559 Hannover (Germany); Waizy, Hazibullah [Laboratory for Biomechanics and Biomaterials, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Anna-von-Borries-Straße 1-7, 30625 Hannover (Germany)

    2014-08-01

    Using several different in vitro assays, a new biodegradable magnesium alloy Mg–2La, composed of 98% magnesium and 2% lanthanum, was investigated as a possible implant material for biomedical applications. An in vitro cytotoxicity test, according to EN ISO 10993-5/12, with L929 and human osteoblastic cells identified no toxic effects on cell viability at physiological concentrations (at 50% dilutions and higher). The metabolic activity of human osteoblasts in the 100% extract was decreased to < 70% and was therefore rated as cytotoxic. The degradation rates of Mg–2La were evaluated in phosphate buffered saline and four different cell culture media. The degradation rates were shown to be influenced by the composition of the solution, and the addition of fetal bovine serum slightly accelerated the corrosive process. The results of these in vitro experiments suggest that Mg–2La is a promising candidate for use as an orthopedic implant material. - Highlights: • A new magnesium alloy (Mg–2La) has been developed. • Magnesium alloy Mg–2La revealed no toxic effect in physiological concentrations. • Degradation rates were influenced by the corrosion media. • The addition of fetal bovine serum increased the corrosive process slightly.

  8. Galvanic corrosion behaviour of carbon fibre reinforced polymer/magnesium alloys coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The coupling of T300/648 and Mg–Li shows a large driving force for galvanic corrosion. • The galvanic activity of T300/648 coupled to Mg–Li increases with the increase of Li. • The duration of the current instability in T300/648 and magnesium coupling increases with the increase of Li. • The micro-arc oxidation film with double-layer exhibit good inhibiting effect on galvanic corrosion. - Abstract: The galvanic corrosion behaviour of carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP, T300/648) in contact with different magnesium alloys (AZ31, LZ91 and LZ141) in a sodium chloride solution and the influence of micro-arc oxidation (MAO) film on the corrosion behaviour of CFRP/magnesium alloys coupling were investigated using the electrochemical method. The results showed that the galvanic activity of CFRP/magnesium alloys coupling increased with the increase of lithium concentrations. The duration of the inhibitory effect of MAO film on the corrosion of CFRP/Mg–Li coupling is longer than that of CFRP/Mg–Al coupling due to its double-layer structure

  9. Preparation and Performance of Rare Earths Chemical Conversion Film on Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Golden yellow cerium conversion film was obtained on magnesium alloys surface by immersion method and the preparation parameters were established. The influence of different process parameters on the surface morphology and performance of the conversion film were analyzed by means of SEM and electrochemical method. Formation dynamics about cerium conversion film on magnesium alloy in solution containing cerium salt and the anti-corrosion behavior of the conversion film in 3.5% NaCl solution were studied by electrochemical method respectively. The results shows that the conversion film is more compact at room temperature when concentration of cerium sulfate is 10 g·L-1 in the solution; the open circuit potential of the magnesium sample moves up to positive direction about 100 mV, the surface of conversion film becomes even and lustrous, and the adhesion intensity of conversion film increases when adding aluminum nitrate into the solution containing cerium salt. The pH value of the solution and immersion time of the sample in the solution also affect the surface morphology and anti-corrosion property of the conversion film. After covered by rare earths conversion film, the anti-corrosion property of magnesium alloy is obviously improved. Rare earth conversion film has self-repairing capability in corrosion medium.

  10. Novel magnesium alloy Mg–2La caused no cytotoxic effects on cells in physiological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using several different in vitro assays, a new biodegradable magnesium alloy Mg–2La, composed of 98% magnesium and 2% lanthanum, was investigated as a possible implant material for biomedical applications. An in vitro cytotoxicity test, according to EN ISO 10993-5/12, with L929 and human osteoblastic cells identified no toxic effects on cell viability at physiological concentrations (at 50% dilutions and higher). The metabolic activity of human osteoblasts in the 100% extract was decreased to < 70% and was therefore rated as cytotoxic. The degradation rates of Mg–2La were evaluated in phosphate buffered saline and four different cell culture media. The degradation rates were shown to be influenced by the composition of the solution, and the addition of fetal bovine serum slightly accelerated the corrosive process. The results of these in vitro experiments suggest that Mg–2La is a promising candidate for use as an orthopedic implant material. - Highlights: • A new magnesium alloy (Mg–2La) has been developed. • Magnesium alloy Mg–2La revealed no toxic effect in physiological concentrations. • Degradation rates were influenced by the corrosion media. • The addition of fetal bovine serum increased the corrosive process slightly

  11. Influence of hot extrusion on microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ling; TIAN Su-gui; MENG Fan-lai; DU Hong-qiang

    2006-01-01

    Extrusion treatment is a common method to refine the grain size and improve the mechanical properties of metal material. The influence of hot extrusion on microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy was investigated. The results show that the mechanical properties of AZ31 alloy are obviously improved by extrusion treatment. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of AZ31 alloy at room temperature is measured to be 222 MPa, and is enhanced to 265.8 MPa after extrusion at 420℃. The yield tensile strength (YTS) of AZ31 alloy at room temperature is measured to be 84 MPa, and is enhanced to 201 MPa after extrusion at 420℃. The effective improvements on mechanical properties result from the formation of the finer grains during extrusion and the finer particles precipitated by age treatment. The features of the microstructure evolution during hot extruded of AZ31 alloy are dislocation slipping on the matrix and occurrence of the dynamic recrystallization.

  12. Plastic Deformation Characteristics Of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheets At Elevated Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jingee; Lee, Jongshin; You, Bongsun; Choi, Seogou; Kim, Youngsuk

    2007-05-01

    Using lightweight materials is the emerging need in order to reduce the vehicle's energy consumption and pollutant emissions. Being a lightweight material, magnesium alloys are increasingly employed in the fabrication of automotive and electronic parts. Presently, magnesium alloys used in automotive and electronic parts are mainly processed by die casting. The die casting technology allows the manufacturing of parts with complex geometry. However, the mechanical properties of these parts often do not meet the requirements concerning the mechanical properties (e.g. endurance strength and ductility). A promising alternative can be forming process. The parts manufactured by forming could have fine-grained structure without porosity and improved mechanical properties such as endurance strength and ductility. Because magnesium alloy has low formability resulted form its small slip system at room temperature it is usually formed at elevated temperature. Due to a rapid increase of usage of magnesium sheets in automotive and electronic industry it is necessary to assure database for sheet metal formability and plastic yielding properties in order to optimize its usage. Especially, plastic yielding criterion is a critical property to predict plastic deformation of sheet metal parts in optimizing process using CAE simulation. Von-Mises yield criterion generally well predicts plastic deformation of steel sheets and Hill'1979 yield criterion predicts plastic deformation of aluminum sheets. In this study, using biaxial tensile test machine yield loci of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet were obtained at elevated temperature. The yield loci ensured experimentally were compared with the theoretical predictions based on the Von-Mises, Hill, Logan-Hosford, and Barlat model.

  13. Plastic Deformation Characteristics Of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheets At Elevated Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using lightweight materials is the emerging need in order to reduce the vehicle's energy consumption and pollutant emissions. Being a lightweight material, magnesium alloys are increasingly employed in the fabrication of automotive and electronic parts. Presently, magnesium alloys used in automotive and electronic parts are mainly processed by die casting. The die casting technology allows the manufacturing of parts with complex geometry. However, the mechanical properties of these parts often do not meet the requirements concerning the mechanical properties (e.g. endurance strength and ductility). A promising alternative can be forming process. The parts manufactured by forming could have fine-grained structure without porosity and improved mechanical properties such as endurance strength and ductility. Because magnesium alloy has low formability resulted form its small slip system at room temperature it is usually formed at elevated temperature. Due to a rapid increase of usage of magnesium sheets in automotive and electronic industry it is necessary to assure database for sheet metal formability and plastic yielding properties in order to optimize its usage. Especially, plastic yielding criterion is a critical property to predict plastic deformation of sheet metal parts in optimizing process using CAE simulation. Von-Mises yield criterion generally well predicts plastic deformation of steel sheets and Hill'1979 yield criterion predicts plastic deformation of aluminum sheets. In this study, using biaxial tensile test machine yield loci of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet were obtained at elevated temperature. The yield loci ensured experimentally were compared with the theoretical predictions based on the Von-Mises, Hill, Logan-Hosford, and Barlat model

  14. Fabrication of a Delaying Biodegradable Magnesium Alloy-Based Esophageal Stent via Coating Elastic Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianwen Yuan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal stent implantation can relieve esophageal stenosis and obstructions in benign esophageal strictures, and magnesium alloy stents are a good candidate because of biodegradation and biological safety. However, biodegradable esophageal stents show a poor corrosion resistance and a quick loss of mechanical support in vivo. In this study, we chose the elastic and biodegradable mixed polymer of Poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL and poly(trimethylene carbonate (PTMC as the coated membrane on magnesium alloy stents for fabricating a fully biodegradable esophageal stent, which showed an ability to delay the degradation time and maintain mechanical performance in the long term. After 48 repeated compressions, the mechanical testing demonstrated that the PCL-PTMC-coated magnesium stents possess good flexibility and elasticity, and could provide enough support against lesion compression when used in vivo. According to the in vitro degradation evaluation, the PCL-PTMC membrane coated on magnesium was a good material combination for biodegradable stents. During the in vivo evaluation, the proliferation of the smooth muscle cells showed no signs of cell toxicity. Histological examination revealed the inflammation scores at four weeks in the magnesium-(PCL-PTMC stent group were similar to those in the control group (p > 0.05. The α-smooth muscle actin layer in the media was thinner in the magnesium-(PCL-PTMC stent group than in the control group (p < 0.05. Both the epithelial and smooth muscle cell layers were significantly thinner in the magnesium-(PCL-PTMC stent group than in the control group. The stent insertion was feasible and provided reliable support for at least four weeks, without causing severe injury or collagen deposition. Thus, this stent provides a new stent for the treatment of benign esophageal stricture and a novel research path in the development of temporary stents in other cases of benign stricture.

  15. A fundamental study on the structural integrity of magnesium alloys joined by friction stir welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Harish Mangebettu

    The goal of this research is to study the factors that influence the physical and mechanical properties of lap-shear joints produced using friction stir welding. This study focuses on understanding the effect of tool geometry and weld process parameters including the tool rotation rate, tool plunge depth and dwell time on the mechanical performance of similar magnesium alloy and dissimilar magnesium to aluminum alloy weld joints. A variety of experimental activities were conducted including tensile and fatigue testing, fracture surface and failure analysis, microstructure characterization, hardness measurements and chemical composition analysis. An investigation on the effect of weld process conditions in friction stir spot welding of magnesium to magnesium produced in a manner that had a large effective sheet thickness and smaller interfacial hook height exhibited superior weld strength. Furthermore, in fatigue testing of friction stir spot welded of magnesium to magnesium alloy, lap-shear welds produced using a triangular tool pin profile exhibited better fatigue life properties compared to lap-shear welds produced using a cylindrical tool pin profile. In friction stir spot welding of dissimilar magnesium to aluminum, formation of intermetallic compounds in the stir zone of the weld had a dominant effect on the weld strength. Lap-shear dissimilar welds with good material mixture and discontinues intermetallic compounds in the stir zone exhibited superior weld strength compared to lap-shear dissimilar welds with continuous formation of intermetallic compounds in the stir zone. The weld structural geometry like the interfacial hook, hook orientation and bond width also played a major role in influencing the weld strength of the dissimilar lap-shear friction stir spot welds. A wide scatter in fatigue test results was observed in friction stir linear welds of aluminum to magnesium alloys. Different modes of failure were observed under fatigue loading including crack

  16. Hot deformation behavior of rare earth magnesium alloy without pre-homogenization treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The behavior and structure evolvement of as-cast Mg-Gd-Y-Nd-Zr magnesium alloy during the hot deformation process were discussed. The flow stress behavior of magnesium alloy over the strain rate range of 0.002-1 s-1 and the temperature range of 573-723 K was researched on Gleeble-1500D hot simulator under the maximum deformation degree of 60%. The experimental results show that the relationship between stress and strain is obviously affected by the strain rate and deformation temperature. The important softening mechanisms are eutectic melting and discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (DDRX) during deformation. The fragments of eutectie melting along the boundaries can turn round so as to take effect of the slippage between grains. The flow stress of Mg-7Gd-5Y-1.2Nd-Zr magnesium alloy during high temperature deformation can be represented by a Zener-Hollomon parameter in the hyperbolic Arrhenius-type equation. The strain coefficient n and deformation activation energy Q are evaluated by linear regression analysis. A, α and n in the analytical expressions of σ are fitted to be 2.401 93× 1015, 0.017 3 MPa-1 and 3.218 19,respectively. The hot deformation activation energy of alloy during hot deformation is 234.950 58 kJ/mol. The results also show that the structure of primitive microstructure has an effect on the plastic deformation.

  17. Thermal analysis of the MCMgAl9Zn1 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Maniara

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of this paper is to present the new methodology to determine the thermal characteristicsof magnesium alloy using the novel Universal Metallurgical Simulator and Analyzer Platform.Design/methodology/approach: The experiments were performed using the novel Universal MetallurgicalSimulator and Analyzer Platform. Material used in this experiment is experimental magnesium alloy made as-cast.Findings: The research show that the thermal analysis carried out on UMSA Technology Platform is an efficienttool for collect and calculate thermal parameters. The formation temperatures of various thermal parameters areshifting with an increasing cooling rate.Research limitations/implications: This paper presents results for one alloy – MCMgAl9Zn1 only cooled withtwo different solidifications rate i.e. 0.6 and 2ºC/s, for assessment for the liquidus, solidus temperatures and describea beginning of nucleation of α(Mg-ß(Mg-Mg17Al12 eutectic. Further investigations should be concentrating onassessment an influence of different solidification rate on microstructure and mechanical properties.Practical implications: The parameters described can be applied in metal casting industry for selectingmagnesium ingot preheating temperature for semi solid processing.Originality/value: The paper contributes to better understanding and recognition an influence of differentsolidification condition on non-equilibrium thermal parameters of magnesium alloys.

  18. Effect of laser surface melting on microstructure and corrosion characteristics of AM60B magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Cancan [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Liang, Jun, E-mail: jliang@licp.cas.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhou, Jiansong, E-mail: jszhou@licp.cas.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Lingqian [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Qingbiao [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Laser surface melting was used on AM60B Mg alloy. • The microstructure, composition and corrosion behavior of the as-received and LSM treated specimens were compared. • The laser treated alloy exhibited better corrosion resistance than the as-received one in the long term. • A model of two different corrosion mechanisms was established. - Abstract: Surface modification of laser surface melting (LSM) was applied to the AM60B magnesium alloy using a 10 kW continuous-wave CO{sub 2} laser. The microstructure, composition and corrosion resistance of AM60B magnesium alloy after LSM treatment were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and corrosion tests, respectively. Results showed that the LSM treatment produced a continuous and homogeneous modified layer with refined grains, enriched Al element and redistributed intermetallic compounds on AM60B alloy. The corrosion resistance of the AM60B alloy was enhanced by the LSM treatment. The enhancement of the corrosion resistance was mainly attributed to the reduced corrosion susceptibility of Al enriched α-Mg matrix and the barrier effect of uniformly distributed β-phase of the LSM modified layer.

  19. Gating System Design for a Magnesium Alloy Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The gating system of a cylindrical magnesium casting has been designed by using multiple objective optimization and Taguchi method. Mold filling and solidification processes were simulated by using MAGMASOFT(R).The simulation results indicate that the gating system design has a significant effect on the quality of magnesium castings. In an effort to obtain the optimal design of gating system, the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio was used to analyze the effect of various gating designs on cavity filling and casting quality by using a weighting method based on the design of an orthogonal array. Four gating system parameters, namely, ingate height,ingate width, runner height, runner width, were optimized with a consideration of multiple objective criteria including filling velocity, shrinkage porosity and product yield.

  20. Prediction of corrosion rate of AZ31B magnesium alloy under salt fog environment in NaCl solution

    OpenAIRE

    even">D.Thirumalaikumarasamy,; , K.Shanmugam and V. Balasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium alloys have gained considerable interest as a material for automotive and aerospace applications due to its low density, high specific strength, and good castability. However, another considerable issue is their corrosion properties. This restricts their practical applications. In this present research, corrosion behavior of the AZ31B magnesium alloy was evaluated by conducting salt fog test in NaCl solution at different chloride ion concentrations, pH values, spraying times, and ai...

  1. Corrosion Resistance of AZ91 Magnesium Alloy with Pulse Electrodeposited Ni-SiC Nanocomposite Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Amadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium and its alloys are the lightest of the structural metals, which makes them one of the most promising materials to minimize vehicle weight, but poor surface properties restrict the application of these alloys. In this paper, Ni-SiC nanocomposite coatings were applied on AZ91 magnesium alloy from Watts bath containing different amounts of SiC content by pulse electrodeposition technique. The morphology and phase analysis were carried out by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD analysis, respectively. Microhardness of specimens was measured and the results revealed a significant enhancement from 74 H for bare AZ91 magnesium alloy to 523 HV for the specimen coated in the bath containing 15 g.L–1 SiC. The Corrosion behavior of the samples was studied by potentiodaynamic polarization, and the obtained data showed superior corrosion resistance for coated AZ91 magnesium alloy, i.e. the corrosion current density decreased from 2.69 mA.cm–2, for the uncoated sample, to 0.00046 mA.cm–2, for coated specimen in the bath containing 15 g.L–1 SiC and the corrosion potential increased from – 2.069 V to – 0.33 V at the same conditions. Magnesium and its alloys are the lightest of the structural metals, which makes them one of the most promising materials to minimize vehicle weight, but poor surface properties restrict the application of these alloys. In this paper, Ni-SiC nanocomposite coatings were applied on AZ91 magnesium alloy from Watts bath containing different amounts of SiC content by pulse electrodeposition technique. The morphology and phase analysis were carried out by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD analysis, respectively. Microhardness of specimens was measured and the results revealed a significant enhancement from 74 H for bare AZ91 magnesium alloy to 523 HV for the specimen coated in the bath containing 15 g.L–1 SiC. The Corrosion behavior of the samples was studied by

  2. Effect of Mucin and Bicarbonate Ion on Corrosion Behavior of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy for Airway Stents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongseok Jang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The biodegradable ability of magnesium alloys is an attractive feature for tracheal stents since they can be absorbed by the body through gradual degradation after healing of the airway structure, which can reduce the risk of inflammation caused by long-term implantation and prevent the repetitive surgery for removal of existing stent. In this study, the effects of bicarbonate ion (HCO3− and mucin in Gamble’s solution on the corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy were investigated, using immersion and electrochemical tests to systematically identify the biodegradation kinetics of magnesium alloy under in vitro environment, mimicking the epithelial mucus surfaces in a trachea for development of biodegradable airway stents. Analysis of corrosion products after immersion test was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS was used to identify the effects of bicarbonate ions and mucin on the corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloys with the temporal change of corrosion resistance. The results show that the increase of the bicarbonate ions in Gamble’s solution accelerates the dissolution of AZ31 magnesium alloy, while the addition of mucin retards the corrosion. The experimental data in this work is intended to be used as foundational knowledge to predict the corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy in the airway environment while providing degradation information for future in vivo studies.

  3. Hybrid coating on a magnesium alloy for minimizing the localized degradation for load-bearing biodegradable mini-implant applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, M. Bobby, E-mail: bobby.mathan@jcu.edu.au; Liyanaarachchi, S.

    2013-10-01

    The effect of a hybrid coating, calcium phosphate (CaP) + polylactic acid (PLA), on a magnesium alloy on its in vitro degradation (general and localized) behaviour was studied for potential load-bearing biodegradable mini-implant applications. CaP was coated on a magnesium alloy, AZ91, using an electrochemical deposition method. A spin coating method was used to coat PLA on the CaP coated alloy. In vitro degradation performance of the alloy with hybrid coating was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in simulated body fluid (SBF). The EIS results showed that the hybrid coating enhanced the degradation resistance of the alloy by more than two-order of magnitude as compared to the bare alloy and one-order of magnitude higher than that of the CaP coated alloy, after 1 h exposure in simulated body fluid (SBF). Long-term (48 h) EIS results also confirmed that the hybrid coating performed better than the bare alloy and the CaP coated alloy. Importantly, the hybrid coating improved the localized degradation resistance of the alloy significantly, which is critical for better in service mechanical integrity. - Highlights: • A hybrid coating (CaP + PLA) was applied on a magnesium-based alloy. • The hybrid coating enhanced the in vitro degradation resistance of the alloy. • Localized degradation resistance was also improved by the hybrid coating.

  4. Process Influences on Laser-beam Melting of the Magnesium Alloy AZ91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Dominik; Renza, Johanna; Zaeh, Michael F.; Glasschroeder, Johannes

    Magnesium's great lightweight potential and high biocompatibility render laser-beam melting of this metal increasingly interesting. Despite recent research activities in this field, the properties thereby achieved are still inadequate for industrial or medical use. Low surface quality caused by powder sintered to parts' boundaries is one of the main problems. This effect is discussed theoretically and examined on single tracks of the magnesium alloy AZ91. Welding-penetration depth and width was measured on a magnesium plate with and without a powder layer. For the derivation of suitable process parameters, structures with incrementally increasing hatch distances were built and microscopically analyzed. The influence on defect percentage and hardness of the parts was determined based on specimens manufactured with different layer thicknesses. The influence of the oxygen content on solids was analyzed by varying the process atmosphere.

  5. Effect of magnesium in aluminum alloys on characteristics of microarc oxidation coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yao-hui; LI Song; YU Si-rong; ZHU Xian-yong; XU Bai-ming

    2006-01-01

    Microarc oxidation(MAO) coatings were prepared on the surface of aluminum alloys with different contents of magnesium. The morphologies and surface roughness of the coatings were characterized by Confocal laser scanning microscopy(CLSM). Phase and chemical composition of the MAO coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffractometry(XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS). The experimental results show that the coatings formed on different substrates have two-layer morphologies and are mainly composed of Al2O3 and Al-Si-O phases. In addition, the content of Al2O3 increases with increasing the content of magnesium. XPS results prove that magnesium from substrate indeed participates in the MAO process and is incorporated into the coating in the form of MgO. The coating formed on Al-3Mg substrate has the smallest mass loss and the lowest friction coefficient of 0.17-0.19.

  6. Hot deformation behavior of a spray-deposited AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yongbing; CHEN Yunbo; CUI Hua; DING Jie; ZUO Lingli; ZHANG Jishan

    2009-01-01

    The flow stress behavior of an as-spray-deposited AZ31 magnesium alloy with fine grains was investigated by means of compression tests with a Gleeble 1500 thermal mechanical simulator at isothermal constant strain rates of 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10 s-1; the testing temperatures ranged from 623 to 723 K. It is demonstrated that a linear equation can be fitted between the Zemer-Hollomon parameter Z and stress in a double-log scale. The effect of deformation parameters on the behavior of recrystallization was analyzed. Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) generally occurs at a higher temperature and at a lower strain rate. The constitutive equation of the spray-deposited AZ31 magnesium alloy is elevated temperatures due to the fine grain, which provides a large amount of nucleation sites and a high-diffnsivity path for the atom.

  7. Finite element simulation on press forging of magnesium alloy AZ31 sheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Press forging of rectangular box of magnesium alloy AZ31 sheets was investigated at elevated temperatures.The characteristics of metal flow were analyzed on the basis of finite element method(FEM)and experiments.Effects of friction factor and sidewall thickness on metal flow and boss forming were investigated by FEM.The results indicate that the bosses and the sidewall of the rectangular box are formed unevenly due to the uneven flow of the metal.The increase in friction factor at die/sheet interface improves the metal flow pattem and the efficiency of boss forming,but reduces the sidewall uniformity.Decrease in sidewall thickness enhances boss forming efficiency,whereas the punch load increases in this case.The present work can provide rcasonable parameters and design guideline for the practical press foxing process of magnesium alloy sheets.

  8. Preparation of Scandium-Bearing Master Alloys by Aluminum-Magnesium Thermoreduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜锋; 白兰; 尹志民

    2002-01-01

    The new preparation method of scandium-bearing master alloys, in which scandium oxide was fluorinated by reaction with NH4HF2 and then reduced by aluminum-magnesium in fused salt containing alkali and alkaline fluoride under atmosphere, was studied. The effect of sorts of metallic reductive and technique conditions such as reducing temperature and time on the recovery of Sc was discussed. When the liquid aluminum-magnesium was used as the reductive agent, the all-recovery exceeds 80% and the concentration of Sc in master alloy prepared exceeds 1.9%. The best reducing reaction temperature and time are 1100 K and 40 min respectively. The newly produced Sc from reduction combines with Al to produce the stable compound Al3Sc, so the reduction progress is sustained and the recovery of Sc is increased.

  9. Recrystallization behaviour of fine-grained magnesium alloy after hot deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Annealing behaviors of hot-deformed magnesium alloy AZ31 were studied at temperatures from 300 to 673 K by optical and SEM/EBSD metallographic observation. Temperature dependence of the average grain size(D) is categorized into three temperature regions, i.e. an incubation period for grain growth, rapid grain coarsening, and normal grain growth. The number of fine grains per unit area, however, is reduced remarkably even in incubation period. This leads to grain coarsening taking place continuously in the whole temperature regions. In contrast, the deformation texture scarcely changes even after full annealing at high temperatures. It is concluded that the annealing processes operating in hot-deformed magnesium alloy with continuous dynamic recrystallized grain structures can be mainly controlled by grain coarsening accompanied with no texture change, that is, continuous static recrystallization.

  10. In vitro Study on Biodegradable AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Fibers Reinforced PLGA Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.H.Wu; N.Li; Y.Cheng; Y.F.Zheng; Y.Han

    2013-01-01

    AZ31 magnesium alloy fibers reinforced poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) composites were prepared and their mechanical property,immersion corrosion behavior and biocompatibility were studied.The tensile test showed that with the addition of AZ31 fibers,the composites had a significant increment in tensile strength and elongation.For the direct cell attachment test,all the cells showed a healthy morphology and spread well on the experimental sample surfaces.The immersion results indicated that pH values of the immersion medium increased with increasing AZ31 fiber contents.All the in vitro experimental results indicated that this new kind of magnesium alloy fibers reinforced PLGA composites show a potential for future biomedical applications.

  11. Laser cladding of Al + Ir powders on ZM5 magnesium base alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Laser cladding of preplaced Al + Ir powders on a ZM5 magnesium alloy was performed to enhance the corrosion resistance of the ZM5 magnesium alloy. A metallurgical bond was obtained at the coating/substrate interface. The corrosion potential (Ecorr) of the laser cladded sample was 169 mV positive to that of the untreated ZM5 substrate, while the corrosion current (Icorr) was some one order of magnitude lower. The laser cladded sample, unlike the untreated ZM5 substrate,showed a passive region in the polarization plot. Immersion tests confirmed that the corrosion resistance of the laser cladded ZM5 sample was significantly enhanced in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The Al-rich phases of AlIr, Mg17Al12, and Al formed in the cladding layer and the rapid solid characteristics were contributed to the improved corrosion behavior of the coating.

  12. Friction and Adhesion in Dry Warm Forging of Magnesium Alloy with Coated Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ryo; Kawashima, Hiroaki; Osakada, Kozo

    In order to develop forging process of magnesium alloys without lubrication, frictional behavior of magnesium alloy AZ31B (Mg-3%Al-1%Zn) is evaluated by a tapered plug penetration test under dry condition. The cemented tungsten carbide (WC) plugs polished to be a mirror-like surface are coated with diamond-like carbon (DLC) and TiAlN by physical vapor deposition (PVD). The cylindrical hollow billets of AZ31B are penetrated by the tapered plugs at a temperature of 200°C. The surface roughness of the hole of the billet, the adhesion length of AZ31B on the plug surface and the penetration load are measured. Compared with WC and TiAlN coating, it is found that DLC coating is effective in preventing AZ31B from adhering to the tool surface and reducing the penetration load.

  13. Corrosion resistance, composition and structure of RE chemical conversion coating on magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Golden yellow rare earths chemical conversion coating was obtained on the surface of magnesium alloy by immersing in cerium sulfate solution.The corrosion resistance of RE conversion coating was evaluated using immersion test and potentiodynamic polarization measurements in 3.5%NaCl solution.The morphologies of samples before corrosion and after corrosion were observed by SEM.The structures and compositions of the RE conversion coating were studied by means of XPS.XRD and IR.The results show that,the conversion coating consists of mainly two kinds of element Ce and O,the valences of cerium are+3 and+4.and OH exists in the coating.The anti-corrosion property of magnesium alloy is increased obviously by rare earths conversion coating,Its self-corrosion current density decreases and the coating has self-repairing capability in the corrosion process in 3.5%NaCl solution.

  14. Preparation and Corrosion Resistance of Rare Earth Ceramic Film on AZ91 Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yue; Guo Yuandong; Li Yingjie

    2004-01-01

    With the purpose of improving corrosion resistance and solving environmental pollution caused by traditional protective technique, rare earth ceramic film on AZ91 magnesium alloy was prepared by dip coating process, and technical parameters of preparation were defmed. Microstructure and composition of the film were studied and corrosion resistance was evaluated as well. The results show that rare earth ceramic film is uniform,dense, with strong cohesion and intact coverage. The film is mainly made up of CeO2 and MgCeO3. The results of corrosion experiments approve that the film acts as a barrier to isolate the contact of the substrate with corrosion media and decreas corrosion rate. Polarization curve of the coated sample shiftes to positive potential obvito 2.7 × 104 Ω. These facts indicate that rare earth ceramic film could effectively improve corrosion resistance of AZ91 magnesium alloy.

  15. Microstructure and corrosion property of AZ61 magnesium alloy by electromagnetic stirring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Can-feng; ZHANG Xing-guo; JI Shou-hua; JIN Jun-ze; CHANG Yu-bao

    2005-01-01

    The influence of permanent-magnet-driven stirring during solidification on the microstructure and corrosion property of AZ61 magnesium alloy was investigated. The corrosion behaviour of AZ61 was studied in 3.5mol/L NaCl by measuring electrochemical polarization. The results show that the permanent-magnet stirring refines the microstructure of AZ61 magnesium alloy, which improves the precipitation amount and distribution uniformity of β phase and decreases the content of hydrogen, but it has less influence on the distribution uniformity of Zn. The change of precipitation amount of β phase influences the corrosive nature of the matrix, and it has no direct proportion with the corrosion resistance of the matrix.

  16. An improved neural network model for prediction of mechanical properties of magnesium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    An improved neural network model was developed for prediction of mechanical properties in the de-sign and development of new types of magnesium alloys by refining the types of input variables and using a more reasonable algorithm. The results showed that the improved model apparently decreased the prediction errors, and raised the accuracy of the prediction results. Better preprocessing parame-ters were found to be [0.15, 0.90] for the tensile strength, [0.1, 0.9] for the yield strength, and [0.15, 0.90] for the elongation. When the above parameters were used, the relativity for predicition of strength was bigger than 0.95. By using improved ANN analysis, more reasonable process parameters and compo- sition could be obtained in some magnesium alloys without addition of strontoum.

  17. Discontinuous Dynamic Recrystallization during Accumulative Back Extrusion of a Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Fatemi-Varzaneh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of nucleation mechanism of new grains during severe plastic deformation of magnesium alloys is of great importance to control the characteristics of final microstructures.  To investigate the role of discontinuous recrystallization, a wrought AZ31 magnesium alloy was deformed by accumulative back extrusion process at 330 °C.  The obtained microstructures were studied using optical and field emission microscopy as well as electron back scattered diffraction techniques.  The results demonstrated that the fine and ultrafine grains formed along the prior grain boundaries yielding a bimodal structure.  The EBSD analysis showed that the new grains exhibit a similar basal texture to deformed grains, which may confirm the operation of strain induced boundary migration mechanism.

  18. Corrosion protection of AZ31 magnesium alloy treated with La3+ modified 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane conversion film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔英杰; 李文鹏; 王桂香; 张晓红

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrated the influence of addition concentration of La3+ on the anti-corrosion behavior of a 3-methacry-loxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) film formed on AZ31 magnesium alloy. The morphology and surface chemistry of the samples were evaluated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), respectively. The corrosion resistance of the pre-treated AZ31 magnesium alloy was studied during immersion in 0.1 mol/L NaCl solution, using poten-tiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS). In comparison to MPS film, the low concentration of La3+ ion modified silane layer exhibited a better anti-corrosion performance, nevertheless, the high concentration of La3+ ion modified was worse. Results showed that the preferable addition concentration of La3+ ion in the silane film was 5×10–4 mol/L in this experi-ment.

  19. Development of Laser Surface Technologies for Anti-Corrosion on Magnesium Alloys: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rujian; Guan, Yingchun; Zhu, Ying

    2016-03-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys have been increasingly used in industries and biomaterial fields due to low density, high specific strength and biodegradability. However, poor surface-related properties are major factors that limit their practical applications. This paper mainly focuses on laser-based anti-corrosion technologies for Mg alloys, beginning with a brief review of conventional methods, and then demonstrates the feasibility of laser surface technologies including laser surface melting (LSM), laser surface alloying (LSA), laser surface cladding (LSC) and laser shock peening (LSP) in achieving enhancement of corrosion resistance. The mechanism and capability of each technique in corrosion resistance is carefully discussed. Finally, an outlook of the development of laser surface technology for Mg alloy is further concluded, aiming to serve as a guide for further research both in industry applications and biomedical devices.

  20. Modification of texture and microstructure of magnesium alloy extrusions by particle-stimulated recrystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Samman, T., E-mail: alsamman@imm.rwth-aachen.de [Institut fuer Metallkunde und Metallphysik, RWTH Aachen, 52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2013-01-10

    Conventional magnesium alloy Mg-1Zn-0.4Zr and a modified version of the same alloy containing Nd-based rare earth mischmetal and Y were extruded at 400 Degree-Sign C to study dynamic recrystallization and its role in the microstructure and texture development. Second phase particles in the modified alloy seemed to generate new orientations other than the deformed orientation. Although this occurred within small volume fraction of the material, the respective recrystallizing grains grew up to considerable sizes consuming larger volumes of the extruded microstructure and dominating the bulk texture. The consequent mechanical behavior tested in plane strain compression at room temperature demonstrated improved strain hardening behavior and enhanced ambient formability relative to the conventional alloy due to well-scattered texture and prolonged activity of basal slip within a large volume of the deformed microstructure.

  1. Modification of texture and microstructure of magnesium alloy extrusions by particle-stimulated recrystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional magnesium alloy Mg–1Zn–0.4Zr and a modified version of the same alloy containing Nd-based rare earth mischmetal and Y were extruded at 400 °C to study dynamic recrystallization and its role in the microstructure and texture development. Second phase particles in the modified alloy seemed to generate new orientations other than the deformed orientation. Although this occurred within small volume fraction of the material, the respective recrystallizing grains grew up to considerable sizes consuming larger volumes of the extruded microstructure and dominating the bulk texture. The consequent mechanical behavior tested in plane strain compression at room temperature demonstrated improved strain hardening behavior and enhanced ambient formability relative to the conventional alloy due to well-scattered texture and prolonged activity of basal slip within a large volume of the deformed microstructure.

  2. Effect of Ca and Y additions on oxidation behavior of magnesium alloys at high temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Jianfeng; YANG Changlin; XU Bingshe

    2012-01-01

    Oxidation and ignition of magnesium alloys at elevated temperature were successfully retarded by additions of Y and Ca.which could be melted at 1173 K in air without any protection.Thermogravimetric measurements in dry air revealed that the oxidation dynamics curves of Mg-2.5Ca alloy and Mg-3.5Y-0.79Ca alloy at high temperatures followed the parabolic-line law or the ubic-line law.X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis indicated that the oxide film on the surface of Mg-3.5Y-0.79Ca and Mg-2.5Ca alloys exhibited a duplex structure.which agreed with the results of thermodynamic analysis.By comparison,the ignition-proof effect of the combination addition of Y and Ca was better than that of the single addition of Ca.

  3. Transition in Deformation Mechanism of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy during High-Temperature Tensile Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Noda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys can be used for reducing the weight of various structural products, because of their high specific strength. They have attracted considerable attention as materials with a reduced environmental load, since they help to save both resources and energy. In order to use Mg alloys for manufacturing vehicles, it is important to investigate the deformation mechanism and transition point for optimizing the material and vehicle design. In this study, we investigated the transition of the deformation mechanism during the high-temperature uniaxial tensile deformation of the AZ31 Mg alloy. At a test temperature of 523 K and an initial strain rate of 3×10−3 s-1, the AZ31 Mg alloy (mean grain size: ~5 μm exhibited stable deformation behavior and the deformation mechanism changed to one dominated by grain boundary sliding.

  4. Wear resistance of ceramic coating on AZ91 magnesium alloy by micro-arc oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hui; LIU Zheng; CHEN Li-jia; CHEN Ji; HAN Zhong

    2006-01-01

    The ceramic coating formed on AZ91 magnesium alloy by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) was characterized. The results show that the ceramic coating(3.4-23 μm in thickness)on the surface of AZ91 alloy was attained under different micro-arc oxidation treatment conditions, which consist mainly of MgO, Mg2SiO4 and MgSiO3 phases. Nano-hardness in a cross-sectional specimen was determined by nano-indentation experiment. The MAO coatings exhibit higher hardness than the substrate. Dry sliding wear tests for the MAO coatings and AZ91 alloy were also carried out using an oscillating friction and wear tester in a ball-on-disc contact configuration. The wear resistance of the MAO coatings is improved respectively under different treatment time as a result of different structures of ceramic coatings formed on AZ91 alloy.

  5. Microstructures and Properties of Aluminium-Magnesium Alloys with Additions of Manganese, Zirconium and Scandium

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Arve

    2000-01-01

    The present work reports on the effect of Mn-, Zr- and Sc-additions upon hot deformation properties, recrystallization properties and mechanical properties for different temper conditions of Al-Mg alloys.It can be stated that the addition of Mn, Zr and Sc improves the recrystallization properties and the mechanical properties of Al-Mg alloys. It should be emphasised that the precipitation of the metastable cubic Al3Zr and the stable cubic Al3(Sc,Zr) is favourable in an aluminium-magnesium mat...

  6. Effects of organic acid pickling on the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Blawert, C.; Scharnagl, N.;

    2010-01-01

    mu m of the contaminated surface was required to reach corrosion rates less than 1 mm/year in salt spray condition. Among the three organic acids examined, acetic acid is the best choice. Oxalic acid can be an alternative while citric acid is not suitable for cleaning AZ31 sheet, because......Organic acids were used to clean AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet and the effect of the cleaning processes on the surface condition and corrosion performance of the alloy was investigated. Organic acid cleanings reduced the surface impurities and enhanced the corrosion resistance. Removal of at least 4...

  7. The Optimization of Salt Additions during Processing of Aluminium-Magnesium Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Solberg, Egil

    2013-01-01

    Sodium is well known to be a cause for edge cracking during rolling of aluminium-magnesium alloys (AA5xxx). Due to this, requirements for the sodium contents in Al-Mg alloys are often less than 1,0 ppm. The electrolytic produced aluminium have a sodium content in the range of 30 to 200 ppm, where the highest levels are present in the most modern pot lines.To reduce sodium and other impurities like oxides and carbides several techniques are available for casthouses today. Furnace fluxing and d...

  8. Achieving superplastic properties in a ZK10 magnesium alloy processed by equal-channel angular pressing

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Roberto B.; Terence G. Langdon

    2016-01-01

    Equal-channel angular pressing provides an opportunity for refining the grain structure and introducing superplastic properties in magnesium alloys. This report describes the use of this processing technique with a ZK10 (Mg–1.0 wt.% Zn–0.26 wt.% Zr) alloy. The grain structure was successfully refined from ~12.9um to ~5.2um after 4 passes and superplastic elongations were observed when testing at low strain rates at temperatures of 473 and 523 K. An analysis shows that the superplastic behavio...

  9. Biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) coatings on magnesium alloys for orthopedic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Nicole J; Lee, Boeun; Roy, Abhijit; Ramanathan, Madhumati; Kumta, Prashant N

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric film coatings were applied by dip coating on two magnesium alloy systems, AZ31 and Mg4Y, in an attempt to slow the degradation of these alloys under in vitro conditions. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) polymer in solution was explored at various concentrations, yielding coatings of varying thicknesses on the alloy substrates. Electrochemical corrosion studies indicate that the coatings initially provide some corrosion protection. Degradation studies showed reduced degradation over 3 days, but beyond this time point however, do not maintain a reduction in corrosion rate. Scanning electron microscopy indicates inhomogeneous coating durability, with gas pocket formation in the polymer coating, resulting in eventual detachment from the alloy surface. In vitro studies of cell viability utilizing mouse osteoblast cells showed improved biocompatibility of polymer coated substrates over the bare AZ31 and Mg4Y substrates. Results demonstrate that while challenges remain for long term degradation control, the developed polymeric coatings nevertheless provide short term corrosion protection and improved biocompatibility of magnesium alloys for possible use in orthopedic applications. PMID:23053803

  10. Microstructural Characterization of a Magnesium Alloy Processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    OpenAIRE

    Florina Diana Dumitru; Mihaela Andreea Moncea; Oscar Fabián Higuera-Cobos

    2014-01-01

    Samples of as-extruded ZK60 magnesium alloy were subjected to 6 passes of equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) following route A. The processing temperature was decreased with the number of passes. The structural evolution of the deformed samples was analyzed using Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) and X-Ray Diffraction. The grain boundary misorientation distribution showed a reduction in the grain size accompanied bya large proportion of high angle grain boundaries and the presence ...

  11. Passive and Localised Corrosion Behaviour of a High Magnesium Alloy (Magnox Al80)

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The high magnesium alloy Magnox Al80 is used as a clad for nuclear fuel employed in the UK gas-cooled, graphite moderated power station reactors of the same name. Following irradiation, spent fuel elements are stored in aqueous environments. Historical corrosion studies and plant experience have identified suitable chemistry regimes to ensure passivity of the material, by maintaining high pH and very low concentrations of aggressive anions, notably chloride. Despite this large body of work, c...

  12. Resistance to corrosion of magnesium alloy AZ31 after plastic working

    OpenAIRE

    J. Przondziono; W. Walke; A. Szuła; Hadasik, E.; J. Szala; Wieczorek, J.

    2011-01-01

    The study presents results of electrochemical and chemical corrosion resistance tests of magnesium alloy AZ31 after plastic working. Electrochemical measurements were carried out in 1,35 % solution of NaCl. On the ground of registered polarisation curves, typical features characterising resistance to electrochemical corrosion, were determined. Resistance to chemical corrosion was tested by means of immersion in 3,5%solution of NaCl for the period of 1_5 days. By means of scanning electron mic...

  13. Atmospheric corrosion of magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61 under continuous condensation conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Feliu Jr., S.; Maffiotte, C.; Galván Sierra, Juan Carlos; Barranco, Violeta

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the corrosion rate of magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61 exposed in humid air under continuous condensation conditions. The shape of the gravimetric curves for corrosion progress suggests that the process is controlled by factors related with the corrosion product layer growing on the metallic surface according to gravimetric results there is an initial period in which only a small part of the corroded metal is incorporated in the corrosion product layer, but after longer testi...

  14. Thermo-physical properties of body-centered cubic iron-magnesium alloys under extreme conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Kádas, K.; Ahuja, R.; Johansson, B; Eriksson, O.; Vitos, L.

    2011-01-01

    Using density functional theory formulated within the framework of the exact muffin-tin orbitals method, we investigate the thermo-physical properties of body-centered cubic (bcc) iron-magnesium alloys, containing 5 and 10 atomic % Mg, under extreme conditions, at high pressure and high temperature. The temperature effect is taken into account via the Fermi-Dirac distribution of the electrons. We find that at high pressures pure bcc iron is dynamically unstable at any temperature, having a ne...

  15. Electrolytic deposition of aluminium-magnesium-alloys from electrolytes containing organo-aluminium complexes; Elektrolytische Abscheidung von Aluminium-Magnesium-Legierungen aus aluminiumorganischen Komplexelektrolyten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmkuhl, H.; Mehler, K.; Bongard, H.; Tesche, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kohlenforschung, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany); Reinhold, B. [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany). Technische Entwicklung

    2000-10-01

    The galvanic deposition of pure aluminium from fluoride-containing electrolytes has been developed further and for the first time aluminium and magnesium have been deposited from a toluene-solution of a halide-free organo-aluminium complex electrolyte. The rate of incorporation of magnesium can be controlled over a wide range by either adjusting the composition of the aluminium-magnesium anode or by using separate aluminium or magnesium anodic circuits. The current efficiency for both anode and cathode approaches 100%. The resulting coating is optically attractive and, depending upon the magnesium-content or the cathodic current density, can be formed as a dull or polished surface. Investigations using an electron microscope show that the surface, in contrast to that of pure aluminium, consists of spherical particles. The aluminium-magnesium coating provides excellent protection against the corrosion of magnesium components. Electrochemical investigations using, for example 25% by weight magnesium incorporation, indicate a pronounced passivity interval compared to the alloy AZ91hp. In contrast to galvanic zinc-plated and silicate-sealed examples, cyclic corrosion tests on screws simulating 10 years of exposure, show no corrosion. (orig.)

  16. The oxidation resistance and ignition temperature of AZ31 magnesium alloy with additions of La2O3 and La

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Using lanthanum and lanthanum oxide (La2O3) can improve oxidation resistance of magnesium alloy. ► La2O3 is as effective as La in affecting both alloy microstructure and oxidation resistance. ► The optimum La concentration in alloy is ∼0.7 wt.%. ► We analyzed the oxidation kinetics of AZ31 alloy with both additions. - Abstract: We investigate the oxidation resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloy with additions of La and La oxide (La2O3). The contributor is the practical La content in alloy. Both La and La2O3 are effective in improving the oxidation resistance of Mg alloys. The samples with La content of ∼ 0.7 wt.% possess the best resistance to oxidation of all. Oxide scale, ignition temperature and oxidation kinetics are analyzed. However, higher La content is detrimental to the oxidation resistance.

  17. Interactive effect of cerium and aluminum on the ignition point and the oxidation resistance of magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Pengyu [Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanling Campus of Jilin University, Changchun Jilin 130025 (China)], E-mail: linpengyu2000@yahoo.com.cn; Zhou Hong; Li Wei; Li Wenping; Sun Na [Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanling Campus of Jilin University, Changchun Jilin 130025 (China); Yang Rong [Public Mathematics Teaching and Research Center, College of Mathematics, Qianwei Campus of Jilin University, Changchun Jilin 130012 (China)

    2008-09-15

    This paper focused on the interactive effect of cerium (Ce) addition and aluminum (Al) content in magnesium alloy on ignition point and oxidation resistance. Ce content played an important role in improving the oxidation resistance of Mg alloy. Ignition point ascended with increasing Ce content. 0.25 wt% Ce content in Mg alloys could greatly improve tightness of the oxide film of Mg alloys. However, when Ce content in the alloy exceeded its solid solubility, ignition point descended. Furthermore, Al content in the alloy also influenced the ignition point. The higher the Al content was, the lower the ignition point.

  18. Yield Asymmetry Design of Magnesium Alloys by Integrated Computational Materials Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dongsheng; Joshi, Vineet V.; Lavender, Curt A.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Ahzi, Said

    2013-11-01

    Deformation asymmetry of magnesium alloys is an important factor on machine design in automobile industry. Represented by the ratio of compressive yield stress (CYS) against tensile yield stress (TYS), deformation asymmetry is strongly related to microstructure, characterized by texture and grain size. Modified intermediate phi-model, a polycrystalline viscoplasticity model, is used to predict the deformation behavior of magnesium alloys with different grain sizes. Validated with experimental results, integrated computational materials engineering is applied to find out the route in achieving desired asymmetry by thermomechanical processing. In some texture, for example, rolled texture, CYS/TYS is smaller than 1 under different loading directions. In some texture, for example, extruded texture, asymmetry is large along normal direction. Starting from rolled texture, the asymmetry will increased to close to 1 along rolling direction after compressed to a strain of 0.2. Our model shows that grain refinement increases CYS/TYS. Besides texture control, grain refinement can also optimize the yield asymmetry. After the grain size decreased to a critical value, CYS/TYS reaches to 1 since CYS increases much faster than TYS. By tailoring the microstructure using texture control and grain refinement, it is achievable to optimize yield asymmetry in wrought magnesium alloys.

  19. Fabrication of biomimetic hydrophobic films with corrosion resistance on magnesium alloy by immersion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We have developed a facile and simple method of creating a hydrophobic surface on a magnesium alloy by an immersion process at room temperature. ► The distribution of the micro-structure and the roughness of the surface play critical roles in transforming from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. ► The hydrophobic coatings possess better corrosion resistance than magnesium alloy matrix. - Abstract: Biomimetic hydrophobic films of crystalline CeO2 were prepared on magnesium alloy by an immersion process with cerium nitrate solution and then modified with DTS (CH3(CH2)11Si(OCH3)3). The CeO2 films fabricated with 20-min immersion yield a water contact angle of 137.5 ± 2°, while 20-min DTS treatment on top of CeO2 can further enhance the water contact angle to 146.7 ± 2°. Then corrosion-resistant property of these prepared films against NaCl solution was investigated and elucidated using electrochemical measurements.

  20. Equal channel angular deformation process and its neuro-simulation for fine-grained magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Peng(罗蓬); HU Qiao-dan(胡侨丹); WU Xiao-lin; XIA Ke-nong

    2004-01-01

    Fine-grained structure of as-cast magnesium AM60 alloy was obtained by means of equal channel angular deformation(ECAD) technique. Through analyzing the relationship between the load and the displacement under different working conditions, it is demonstrated that employment of back-pressure, multi-passages of deformation, and speed of deformation are the main factors representing ECAD working condition. As for ECAD process, a network composed of nonlinear neuro-element based on error back-propagation learning algorithm is launched to set up a processing mapping module for dynamic forecasting of load summit under different working conditions. The experimental results show that back-pressure, multi-passages and deforming speed have strong correlation with ECAD processing characteristics. On the metallographs of AM60 alloy after multi-passes ECAD, a morphology that inter-metallic compound Mg17 Al12 precipites on magnesium matrix without discrepancy, which evolves from coarse casting ingot microstructure, is observed. And the grains are refined significantly under accumulated severe shear strain.The study demonstrates feasibility of ECAD by using as-cast magnesium alloy directly, and launches an intelligent neuro-simulation module for quantitative analysis of its process.

  1. Lap Fillet Welding of Thin Sheet AZ31 Magnesium Alloy with Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Mahadzir; Yamasaki, Kazuhiko; Maekawa, Katsuhiro

    In recent years, reducing the size and weight of consumer products requires the joining of thin sheets of magnesium alloys with both thickness and joining area of less than 1mm, especially for packaging purposes. Conventional welding processes are difficult to joint a thin sheet magnesium alloy because of high heat input, which in turns leads to various problems such as burn through and cracks. In this study, lap fillet welding of thin sheet magnesium alloy AZ31B with a thickness of 0.3 mm has been carried out using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser beam. The influences of gap, laser beam center location and scan speed on joint appearances have been investigated. It was found that defects were significantly reduced when the gap width was less than 35 µm when the laser beam center was located just on the edge of the upper specimen (x=0), and scan speed was varied from 400 to 450 m/min. Wider bond width at average value of 300 µm was achieved when the beam center was at x=0 with a wide range of scan speeds from 250 to 450 mm/min compared with the cases at x=-0.1 and -0.2 mm from edge. Increases in bond width and minimal defects at x=0 improve fracture load by 68% compared with those at x=-0.1 mm.

  2. Effect of cutting parameters on machinability characteristics in milling of magnesium alloy with carbide tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaining Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloy has attracted more attentions due to its excellent mechanical properties. However, in process of dry cutting operation, many problems restrict its further development. In this article, the effect of cutting parameters on machinabilities of magnesium alloy is explored under dry milling condition. This research is an attempt to investigate the impact of cutting speed at multiple feed rates on cutting force and surface roughness, while a statistical analysis is adopted to determine the influential intensities accurately. The results showed that cutting force is affected by the positively constant intensity from feed rate and the increasingly negative intensity from cutting speed. In contrast, surface roughness is determined by the gradually increasing negative tendency from feed rate and the positive effect with constant intensity from cutting speed. Within the range of the experiments, feed rate is the leading contribution for cutting force while the cutting speed is the dominant factor for surface roughness according to the absolute intensity values. Meanwhile, the trends of influencing intensities between cutting force and surface roughness are opposite. Besides, it is also found that in milling magnesium alloy, chip morphology is highly sensitive to cutting speed while the chip quality mainly depends on feed rate.

  3. Fabrication of biomimetic hydrophobic films with corrosion resistance on magnesium alloy by immersion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yan, E-mail: liuyan2000@jlu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Bionic Engineering (Ministry of Education), Jilin University, Changchun 130022 (China); Lu Guolong; Liu Jindan; Han Zhiwu; Liu Zhenning [Key Laboratory for Bionic Engineering (Ministry of Education), Jilin University, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have developed a facile and simple method of creating a hydrophobic surface on a magnesium alloy by an immersion process at room temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The distribution of the micro-structure and the roughness of the surface play critical roles in transforming from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hydrophobic coatings possess better corrosion resistance than magnesium alloy matrix. - Abstract: Biomimetic hydrophobic films of crystalline CeO{sub 2} were prepared on magnesium alloy by an immersion process with cerium nitrate solution and then modified with DTS (CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}Si(OCH{sub 3}){sub 3}). The CeO{sub 2} films fabricated with 20-min immersion yield a water contact angle of 137.5 {+-} 2 Degree-Sign , while 20-min DTS treatment on top of CeO{sub 2} can further enhance the water contact angle to 146.7 {+-} 2 Degree-Sign . Then corrosion-resistant property of these prepared films against NaCl solution was investigated and elucidated using electrochemical measurements.

  4. Production of Magnesium and Aluminum-Magnesium Alloys from Recycled Secondary Aluminum Scrap Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesing, Adam J.; Das, Subodh K.; Loutfy, Raouf O.

    2016-02-01

    An experimental proof of concept was demonstrated for a patent-pending and trademark-pending RE12™ process for extracting a desired amount of Mg from recycled scrap secondary Al melts. Mg was extracted by electrorefining, producing a Mg product suitable as a Mg alloying hardener additive to primary-grade Al alloys. This efficient electrorefining process operates at high current efficiency, high Mg recovery and low energy consumption. The Mg electrorefining product can meet all the impurity specifications with subsequent melt treatment for removing alkali contaminants. All technical results obtained in the RE12™ project indicate that the electrorefining process for extraction of Mg from Al melt is technically feasible. A techno-economic analysis indicates high potential profitability for applications in Al foundry alloys as well as beverage—can and automotive—sheet alloys. The combination of technical feasibility and potential market profitability completes a successful proof of concept. This economical, environmentally-friendly and chlorine-free RE12™ process could be disruptive and transformational for the Mg production industry by enabling the recycling of 30,000 tonnes of primary-quality Mg annually.

  5. Corrosion and mechanical properties of hot-extruded AZ31 magnesium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AZ31 magnesium alloys were hot-extruded at 573 K and 623 K with extrusion ratio (λ) of 20, 35 and 50. The corrosion and mechanical behavior of hot-extruded AZ31 were studied by galvanic tests and tensile tests. The microstructures of the studied AZ31 alloys were also investigated with optical microscope. The results show that, compared with the as-cast AZ31 alloy, the corrosion potentials of all hot-extruded AZ31 alloys are increased by 60 mV. Moreover, at the extrusion temperature of 623 K, the galvanic current of AZ31 alloy decreases with increasing extrusion and the galvanic corrosion resistance is increased by 10% with the extrusion ratio of 50. In addition, the tensile strength and elongation of the extruded alloys are significantly enhanced by about 20% and 140%, respectively. The improvement of corrosion resistance and obvious increasing of mechanical properties of AZ31 alloys by hot-extrusion are ascribed to grain refinement and microstructural modification together with the homogeneous distribution of intermetallie phases throughout the matrix.

  6. Electron beam-assisted healing of nanopores in magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, He; Liu, Yu; Cao, Fan; Wu, Shujing; Jia, Shuangfeng; Cao, Ajing; Zhao, Dongshan; Wang, Jianbo

    2013-01-01

    Nanopore-based sensing has emerged as a promising candidate for affordable and powerful DNA sequencing technologies. Herein, we demonstrate that nanopores can be successfully fabricated in Mg alloys via focused electron beam (e-beam) technology. Employing in situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy techniques, we obtained unambiguous evidence that layer-by-layer growth of atomic planes at the nanopore periphery occurs when the e-beam is spread out, leading to the shrinkage and eventual disappearance of nanopores. The proposed healing process was attributed to the e-beam-induced anisotropic diffusion of Mg atoms in the vicinity of nanopore edges. A plausible diffusion mechanism that describes the observed phenomena is discussed. Our results constitute the first experimental investigation of nanopores in Mg alloys. Direct evidence of the healing process has advanced our fundamental understanding of surface science, which is of great practical importance for many technological applications, including thin film deposition and surface nanopatterning. PMID:23719630

  7. Recrystallization and texture of aluminium-magnesium-silicon-(copper) alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.W.F.; Humphreys, F.J. [Manchester Materials Science Centre, Univ. of Manchester, UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom); Court, S.A. [Alcan International Ltd., Banbury, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The effect of thermomechanical processing on the recrystallization behaviour and texture development of Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys after cold deformation and annealing has been examined, and the processing route shown to have a marked influence on the strength and spatial alignment of the Cube and Goss components. The spatial distribution of texture has been measured by electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) and correlated with the surface ridging or ''roping'' behaviour of the material. (orig.)

  8. Oxidation of an aluminium-magnesium alloy in liquid state. Methodology of determination of mechanisms from not necessarily repeatable experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis reports the study of the oxidation of an aluminium-5 pc magnesium alloy in its liquid state in an oxygen environment, using thermogravimetric analysis and that of magnesium in its solid state. In a first part, the author reports a thermodynamic and bibliographical study on magnesium transformation in its solid state (Mg/O2 and Mg/H2O systems, transformation with dry and humid synthetic air, oxidation inhibitors) and on Al-Mg alloy transformation in presence of oxygen (thermodynamic properties of aluminium-rich Al-Mg alloys, Al-Mg/O2/N2 and Al-Mg/O2/N2/H2O systems). The next parts address the selection of reaction systems for the different cases (oxidation of solid magnesium in oxygen, oxidation of the Al-Mg alloy in oxygen), the modelling of the formation of magnesia from solid magnesium and from the Al-Mg alloy, and the modelling of the liquid Al-Mg A5182 alloy oxidation in oxygen

  9. Effect of Ar bubbling during plasma electrolytic oxidation of AZ31B magnesium alloy in silicate electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junghoon; Kim, Yonghwan; Chung, Wonsub

    2012-10-01

    Argon gas was bubbled during plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) treatment of magnesium alloy in a silicate solution. The appearance of arcs and plasma discharging was locally concentrated on the magnesium alloy surface and phase fraction of Mg2SiO4 in the oxide layer was increased due to Argon gas bubbling. The higher energy density of the Ar plasma atmosphere is believed to contribute to the effective formation of the high temperature phase (Mg2SiO4), particularly in the inner layer. Furthermore, the PEO treated Mg alloy with Ar bubbling showed improved corrosion resistance by a change of open pores structure.

  10. Electrophoretic deposition of nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating on AZ91 magnesium alloy implants with different surface treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojaee, Ramin, E-mail: raminrojaee@aim.com [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fathi, Mohammadhossein [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dental Materials Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Raeissi, Keyvan [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Bio-absorbable magnesium (Mg) based alloys have been introduced as innovative orthopedic implants during recent years. It has been specified that rapid degradation of Mg based alloys in physiological environment should be restrained in order to be utilized in orthopedic trauma fixation and vascular intervention. In this developing field of healthcare materials, micro-arc oxidation (MAO), and MgF{sub 2} conversion coating were exploited as surface pre-treatment of AZ91 magnesium alloy to generate a nanostructured hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) coating via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were used to characterize the obtained powder and coatings. The potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the coated and uncoated specimens, and in vitro bioactivity evaluation were performed in simulated body fluid. Results revealed that the MAO/n-HAp coated AZ91 Mg alloy samples with a rough topography and lower corrosion current density leads to a lower Mg degradation rate accompanied by high bioactivity.

  11. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations of zinc-magnesium alloy coated steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Sheng, E-mail: chen_sheng@baosteel.com [Research Institute of Baoshan Iron and Steel Co. Ltd., 655 Fujin Road, Baoshan District, Shanghai 201900 (China); Yan Fei; Xue Fei; Yang Lihong; Liu Junliang [Research Institute of Baoshan Iron and Steel Co. Ltd., 655 Fujin Road, Baoshan District, Shanghai 201900 (China)

    2010-11-01

    The coating layer composition depth profiles and element chemical states of zinc-magnesium alloy coated steel were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiling. Through the analysis of photoelectron signals and Auger signals of different elements on different depth planes of the coating layer, it can be found that the surface of the coating layer contains MgCO{sub 3}, MgO, Mg(OH){sub 2}, metallic Mg, metallic Zn and some complex zinc compounds. Under the surface, there is a Zn{sub 2}Mg alloy layer with the thickness of about 300 nm accompanied with MgO and Mg(OH){sub 2} in the layer. There is a transitional layer with the thickness of about 200 nm between the Zn{sub 2}Mg alloy layer and the pure Zn layer, whose components consist of zinc-magnesium alloy without fixed stoichiometry, a little MgO and a little Mg(OH){sub 2}.

  12. Friction Stir Lap Welding of Magnesium Alloy to Steel: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, S.; Hovanski, Y.; Grant, G. J.

    2010-12-01

    An initial study was made to evaluate the feasibility of joining magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet to galvanized steel sheet in a lap configuration using friction stir welding (FSW). Two different automotive sheet steels were used for comparative evaluation of the dissimilar joining potential: a 0.8 mm thick, electrogalvanized (EG) mild steel, and a 1.5 mm thick hot-dipped galvanized (HDG) high-strength, low-alloy (HSLA) steel. These steels were joined to 2.33 mm thick AZ31B magnesium sheet. A single FSW tool design was used for both dissimilar welds, and the process parameters were kept the same. The average peak load for the AZ31-1.5 mm steel weld joint in lap shear mode was found to be 6.3 ± 1.0 kN. For the AZ31-0.8 mm steel weld, joint strength was 5.1 ± 1.5 kN. Microstructural investigation indicates melting of the Zn coating present on the steel sheets, and subsequent alloying with the Mg sheet resulted in the formation of a solidified Zn-Mg alloy layer.

  13. Friction Stir Lap Welding of Magnesium Alloy to Steel: A Preliminary Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, Saumyadeep; Hovanski, Yuri; Grant, Glenn J.

    2010-12-01

    An initial study was made to evaluate the feasibility of joining Magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet to galvanized steel sheet in lap configuration using friction stir welding (FSW). Two different automotive sheet steels were used for comparative evaluation of the dissimilar joining potential; a 0.8mm thick, electro galvanized (EG) mild steel, and a 1.5mm thick hot dipped galvanized (HDG) high-strength, low-alloy steel (HSLA). These steels were joined to 2.33mm thick AZ31B magnesium sheet. A single FSW tool design was used for both dissimilar welds, and process parameters were kept the same. Average peak load for the AZ31-1.5 mm steel weld joint in lap shear mode was found to be 6.3 ± 1.0 kN. For the AZ31-0.8 mm steel weld, joint strength was 5.1 ± 1.5 kN. Microstructural investigation indicates melting of the Zn coating at the interface and subsequent alloying with the Mg sheet resulting in formation of solidified Zn-Mg alloy layer at AZ31/steel interface.

  14. Laser welding of AZ31B magnesium alloy to Zn-coated steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Magnesium alloy was successfully laser welded to Zn-coated steel. ► The joint strength exceeded 6000 N on a 25 mm wide specimen. ► A 450 nm thick layer of Fe3Al was uniformly formed on the steel surface. -- Abstract: The characteristics of laser lap welding of AZ31B magnesium alloy to Zn-coated steel were investigated. Welding was difficult when the laser beam was irradiated onto the AZ31B alloy and the processing parameters were set to obtain a keyhole welding mode. The difference in the physical properties between the two materials resulted in unstable welding process particularly when the laser beam penetrated into the steel specimen and a keyhole was formed therein. By switching to a conduction mode, the process stability was improved and successful welding could be achieved because the liquid metal film remained unbroken and the laser beam did not penetrate into the material. A 25 mm wide joint failed in tensile shear testing at loads exceeding 6000 N. This high joint strength was attributed to the formation of a 450 nm thick layer of Fe3Al intermetallic compound on the steel surface as a result of the interaction between Al from the AZ31B alloy and Fe. The presence of Zn-coating layer was essential to eliminate the negative effects of oxides on the joining process.

  15. Modification of Magnesium Alloys by Ceramic Particles in Gravity Die Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs Haßlinger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A critical drawback for the application of magnesium wrought alloys is the limited formability of semifinished products that arises from a strong texture formation during thermomechanical treatment. The ability of second phase particles embedded into the metal matrix to alter this texture evolution is of great interest. Therefore, the fabrication of particle modified magnesium alloys (particle content 0.5–1 wt.-% by gravity die casting has been studied. Five different types of micron sized ceramic powders (AlN, MgB2, MgO, SiC, and ZrB2 have been investigated to identify applicable particles for the modification. Agglomeration of the particles is revealed to be the central problem for the fabrication process. The main factors that influence the agglomerate size are the particle size and the intensity of melt stirring. Concerning handling, chemical stability in the Mg-Al-Zn alloy system, settling and wetting in the melt, and formation of the microstructure in most cases, the investigated powders show satisfying properties. However, SiC is chemically unstable in aluminum containing alloys. The high density of ZrB2 causes large particles to settle subsequent to stirring resulting in an inhomogeneous distribution of the particles over the cast billet.

  16. Hydrogen storage in metallic hydrides: the hydrides of magnesium-nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The massive and common use of hydrogen as an energy carrier requires an adequate solution to the problem of storing it. High pressure or low temperatures are not entirely satisfactory, having each a limited range of applications. Reversible metal hydrides cover a range of applications intermediate to high pressure gas and low temperature liquid hydrogen, retaining very favorable safety and energy density characteristics, both for mobile and stationary applications. This work demonstrates the technical viability of storing hydrogen in metal hydrides of magnesium-nickel alloys. Also, it shows that technology, a product of science, can be generated within an academic environment, of the goal is clear, the demand outstanding and the means available. We review briefly theoretical models relating to metal hydride properties, specially the thermodynamics properties relevant to this work. We report our experimental results on hydrides of magnesium-nickel alloys of various compositions including data on structure, hydrogen storage capacities, reaction kinetics, pressure-composition isotherms. We selected a promising alloy for mass production, built and tested a modular storage tank based on the hydrides of the alloy, with a capacity for storing 10 Nm sup(3) of hydrogen of 1 atm and 20 sup(0)C. The tank weighs 46,3 Kg and has a volume of 21 l. (author)

  17. In vivo corrosion behaviour of magnesium alloy in association with surrounding tissue response in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Chieko; Shimizu, Yoshinaka; Imai, Yoshimichi; Mukai, Toshiji; Yamamoto, Akiko; Sano, Yuya; Ikeo, Naoko; Isozaki, Shuji; Takahashi, Toru; Oikawa, Miho; Kumamoto, Hiroyuki; Tachi, Masahiro

    2016-04-01

    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg) alloys are the most promising candidates for osteosynthesis devices. However, their in vivo corrosion behaviour has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of the physiological environment surrounding Mg alloys on their corrosion behaviour. A Mg-1.0Al alloy with a fine-grained structure was formed into plates using titanium (Ti) as a control. These plates were implanted into the subperiosteum in the head, subcutaneous tissue of the back, and in the muscle of the femur of rats for 1, 2 and 4 weeks. The volumes of the remaining Mg alloy and of the insoluble salt deposition and gas cavities around the Mg alloy were determined by microtomography, and the volume losses were calculated. Then, the tissue response around the plates in each implantation site was examined histopathologically, and its relation to the respective volume loss was analyzed. These analyses determined that the Mg alloy was corroded fastest in the head, at an intermediate level in the back, and slowest in the femur. The insoluble salt deposition at the Mg alloy surface had no influence on the volume loss. Gas cavities formed around the Mg alloy at all implantation sites and decreased after 4 weeks. Histopathological examination revealed that the Mg alloy exhibited good biocompatibility, as was seen with Ti. In addition, vascularized fibrous capsules formed around the plates and became mature with time. Notably, the volume loss in the different anatomical locations correlated with capsule thickness. Together, our results suggest that, to facilitate the successful clinical application of Mg alloys, it will be necessary to further comprehend their interactions with specific in vivo environments. PMID:26947358

  18. Microstructure evaluation of the Al-Ti alloy with magnesium addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Labisz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Effects of magnesium additions to Al alloy with 2% Ti addition on the microstructure, phase morphology and distribution and mechanical properties were investigated. Here are presented mainly microstructure changes after solution heat treatment concerning mainly grain uniformity and intermetallic phases of the aluminium – titanium alloy with a content of 2 and 4 % of magnesium addition. The purpose of this work was also to determine the solution heat treatment conditions of the investigation alloys.Design/methodology/approach: The reason of this work was to determine the heat treatment parameters influence, particularly SHT temperature and time onto the changes of the microstructure of the investigated material, as well to determine which intermetallic phases occur after the heat treatment performed, and how is the particles morphology in as cast state compared to structure after heat treatment.Findings: After solution heat treatment for 4 hours the structure changes in a significant way. The grains are larger and no more uniform as in the as cast state. The most stable intermetallic in the Al-Ti system is the Al3Ti phase. The solution heat treatment time should be greater than 4 hours to ensure a proper solution of titanium and magnesium in the Al-α solid solution.Research limitations/implications: The investigated aluminium samples were examined metallographically using optical microscope with different image techniques, scanning electron microscope and also analyzed using a Vickers micro-hardness tester, also EDS microanalysis was carried out.Practical implications: As an implication for the practice an alloy can be developed with increased properties, which could be of great interest for the automotive or aerospace industry. There are existing many different investigation areas and the knowledge found in this research shows one of interesting investigation direction.Originality/value: The combination of light weight and high

  19. Environmental friendly plasma electrolytic oxidation of AM60 magnesium alloy and its corrosion resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Fa-he; LIN Long-yong; ZHANG Zhao; ZHANG Jian-qing; CAO Chu-nan

    2008-01-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation of Mg-based AM60 alloys was investigated using 50 Hz AC anodizing technique in an alkaline borate solution, which contained a new kind of organic. The anodic film is relatively smooth with some micro pores and cracks, while the anodic film consists of MgO, MgAl2O4 and MgSiO3. The electrochemical behavior of anodic film was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization. Polarization results indicate the PEO treatment can decrease corrosion current by 3-4 magnitude compared with blank AM60 alloy. The anodic film presents a good level of corrosion protection for AM60 magnesium alloy, over 272 h of the salt spray test based on ASTM B117. The effect of micro-structure and composition on corrosion protection efficiency was also investigated.

  20. Microstructure and properties of AZ80 magnesium alloy prepared by hot extrusion from recycled machined chips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英; 李元元; 张大童; 倪东惠; 陈维平

    2002-01-01

    AZ80 magnesium alloy was prepared by hot extrusion of recycled machined chips and its microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated. Hot pressing was employed to prepare extrusion billets of AZ80 chips, then the billets were hot extruded at 623K with an extrusion ratio of 25∶ 1. The extruded rods show a high ultimate tensile strength of 285MPa and a high elongation of 6%. Due to grain refinement by extrusion, mechanical properties of the extruded rods are much higher than those of as-cast AZ80 alloy. Process technique and chips densification mechanism were also studied. Results show that hot extrusion is an efficient method for AZ80 alloy chips recycling.

  1. Development of high performance single-phase solid solution magnesium alloy at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Qiuming [MagIC-Magnesium Innovation Centre, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Geesthacht (Germany); State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao (China); Huang, Yuanding; Kainer, Karl Ulrich; Hort, Norbert [MagIC-Magnesium Innovation Centre, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Geesthacht (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys are well known as potential candidates for engineering structural materials due to their low density and high specific strength. However, compared with traditional steel or aluminum materials, Mg alloys have not been widely used. Up to now, these present commercial products are mainly fabricated by cast. In contrast to cast products, wrought Mg alloys only have a market share of less than 5%. Most of the barriers preventing wrought produces from widespread applications arising from low ductility/toughness and poor corrosion. Therefore, to improve the formability and corrosion resistance becomes an urgent problem to extend the applications of deformed Mg materials. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Steady state rheological behavior of semi-solid ZK60-RE magnesium alloy during compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Steady state rheological behavior of semi-solid ZK60-RE magnesium alloy during compression was studied. The alloy was prepared from ZK60 alloy and RE elements by casting, equal channel angular extruding, and liquidus forging. Semi-solid isothermal pre-treatment was carried out to make the grains spherical before compression. The apparent viscosity increases with decreasing the solid content and shear rate. Another very important factor is the grain size. When the solid content is high, the viscosity increases with decreasing the grain size at high strain rates and decreases with decreasing the grain size at low shear rates.Several fitting equations were obtained by using the power law equation, and the method of time-temperature superposition was used to get more information through a small number of experimental data.

  3. Effect of yttrium on the twinning and plastic deformation of AE magnesium alloy under ballistic impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asgari, H., E-mail: hamed.asgari@usask.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada); Odeshi, A.G.; Szpunar, J.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada); Zeng, L.J.; Olsson, E. [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg (Sweden); Li, D.Y. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)

    2015-01-19

    In this research, effect of yttrium on the texture formation, microstructural evolution and mechanical response of AE42 and AE44 cast magnesium alloys were investigated under ballistic impact. The selected strain rates were 800 and 1100 s{sup −1} and the tests were conducted using Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar. It was inferred that after high velocity impact, a weaker basal texture developed in the samples with lower content of yttrium. Experimental results also showed that by increasing the concentration of yttrium in the cast AE alloys, strength, ductility and dislocation density of the impacted alloys increased but, the fraction of twinning decreased, which indicate the effective influence of yttrium on the nucleation and growth of twins. Moreover, it was inferred that accumulation of dislocations at intersections of the twins led to the cracking and fracture of the samples under shock loading conditions.

  4. Influence of inorganic acid pickling on the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Blawert, C.; Scharnagl, N.;

    2009-01-01

    of micro-galvanic couples and can therefore increase corrosion attack on these alloys. Due to this influence they should be removed to obtain good corrosion resistance. In this study, the effect of inorganic acid pickling on the corrosion behaviour of a commercial AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet...... was investigated. Sulphuric, nitric and phosphoric acids of different concentrations were used to clean the alloy for various pickling times. The surface morphology, composition and phases were elucidated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence analysis, spark discharge-optical emission spectroscopy......, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The effect of surface cleaning on the corrosion properties was studied using salt spray test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The experimental results show that acid pickling reduces the surface impurities and therefore enhances...

  5. Metallurgical Joining of Magnesium Alloys by the FSW Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Kupec

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with welding AZ 31Mg alloy by FSW (Friction Stir Welding technology. Welds were fabricated with new equipment supplied from China for VUZ-PI Bratislava (Welding Research Institute — Industrial Institute. Welding parameters and conditions were proposed and tested. Joint quality was assessed by optical microscopy and microhardness measurements. The fabricated joints were sound, apart from minor inhomogeneities (cracks. It is considered that after certain adaptations of the welding parameters, and perhaps also of the welding tool, that this equipment will be capable of producing welded joints of excellent quality that can compete with any fusion welding technologies, including concentrated power sources.

  6. Modelling of laser cladding of magnesium alloys with pre-placed powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li-Feng

    As a surface engineering technique, high-power laser cladding, has shown great potential for improving the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys. Its main advantage over other processes, is its ability to form relatively thick protective coatings on selected areas where improved properties are desired. It is also a 'clean' process. However, previous research studies have found that in laser cladding of magnesium alloys, the problem of a high degree of dilution cannot be easily overcome. Moreover, in-depth studies using analytical or numerical modelling can rarely be found in the literature for addressing laser cladding with pre-placed powders with the aim of predicting the level of dilution. In the first phase of this study, a simplified thermal model based on the finite element method (FEM) was developed to study the phenomenon of dilution in laser cladding of a magnesium alloy. In the model, the powder bed was treated as a continuum, and a high power continuous wave (CW) laser was employed. The results of the simulations of the FEM model together with those of the statistical analyses showed that although, under normal cladding conditions, a process window can be established for achieving good interfacial bonding between the substrate and the clad coating, a low dilution level was extremely difficult to achieve. This was primarily attributed to the low melting point and the high thermal diffusivity of magnesium as well as the relatively long laser-material interaction time. To overcome the dilution problem, the double-layer cladding technique was explored, and was found to be able to produce low dilution clads with improved corrosion resistance. In considering the improvement of corrosion resistance that can be caused by laser surface modification to magnesium alloys, a comparison was made between the techniques of laser surface melting and laser cladding. The results of the potentiodynamic polarisation tests showed that the improvement obtained from laser

  7. EFFECTS OF TREATMENT TIME ON CORROSION OF DIFFUSION-ALLOYED COATINGS OF PURE MAGNESIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.P. Ma; J. Li; J. Zhu; L. Yang; Y.G. Liu; Z.Y. Li; F. Zhao

    2007-01-01

    The corrosion resistance of pure magnesium with surface alloying layer obtained by a solid diffusion alloying technique has been analyzed. To establish the optimum treatment time, the experiments were performed at 480℃ for different solid diffusion time (8, 16, and 24h). The diffusion interaction effectiveness between Zn, Al mix powder and the sample surface, depending on the treatment time for diffusion at given temperatures, has an obvious influence on corrosion resistance and corrosion mechanism. Corrosion properties were studied using the constant immersion test (in 3.0% NaCl solution, temperature is (28±1)℃, and time is 96h). Optical microscopy (OM) and EDS (energy dispersive spectrum) composition analysis were used to examine the cross-sectional microstructural characteristics of alloyed layer of treated samples. It is shown that in comparison with the untreated samples, the treated ones possess a better corrosion resistance. The Al5Mg11Zn4 phase, which formed as a continuous phase due to the diffusion of Al,Zn, and Mg elements and subsequent interaction on the outermost layer of diffusion alloying zones (especially the samples treated for 24h at 480℃), was inert to the chloride solution compared with pure magnesium and acted as a corrosion barrier, and therefore the best corrosion resistance was obtained. This protective action of Al5Mg11Zn4 phase was found to change with its amount, which was controlled by the diffusion time at given temperature. It was concluded that the continuous Al5Mg11Zn4 phase (WP-zone) of the reacted layer in pure magnesium was beneficial from the point of view of corrosion resistance.

  8. Understanding effects of microstructural inhomogeneity on creep response – New approaches to improve the creep resistance in magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanding Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous investigations indicate that the creep resistance of magnesium alloys is proportional to the stability of precipitated intermetallic phases at grain boundaries. These stable intermetallic phases were considered to be effective to suppress the deformation by grain boundary sliding, leading to the improvement of creep properties. Based on this point, adding the alloying elements to form the stable intermetallics with high melting point became a popular way to develop the new creep resistant magnesium alloys. The present investigation, however, shows that the creep properties of binary Mg–Sn alloy are still poor even though the addition of Sn possibly results in the precipitation of thermal stable Mg2Sn at grain boundaries. That means other possible mechanisms function to affect the creep response. It is finally found that the poor creep resistance is attributed to the segregation of Sn at dendritic and grain boundaries. Based on this observation, new approaches to improve the creep resistance are suggested for magnesium alloys because most currently magnesium alloys have the commonality with the Mg–Sn alloys.

  9. Microstructural development of high temperature deformed AZ31 magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to their significant role in automobile industries, high temperature deformation of Mg–Al–Zn alloys (AZ31) at constant stress (i.e. creep) were studied at a wide range of stresses and temperatures to characterize underlying deformation mechanism, dynamic recrystallization (DRX) and dislocation density evolution. Various microstructures (e.g. grain growth & DRX) are noted during steady-state creep mechanisms such as grain boundary sliding (GBS), dislocation glide creep (DGC) and dislocation climb creep (DCC). Although a combination of DRX and grain growth is characteristic of low stacking fault energy materials like Mg alloys at elevated temperatures, observation reveals grain growth at low strain-rates (GBS region) along with dynamic recovery (DRV) mechanism. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed a decrease in dislocation density during GBS region while it increased under dislocation based creep mechanisms which could be related to the possible DRV and DRX respectively. Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) characterization of the fracture surface reveals more inter-granular fracture for large grains (i.e. GBS region with DRV process) and more dimple shape fracture for small grains (i.e. DGC & DCC region with DRX)

  10. Microstructural development of high temperature deformed AZ31 magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahbeigi Roodposhti, Peiman, E-mail: pshahbe@ncsu.edu; Sarkar, Apu; Murty, Korukonda Linga

    2015-02-25

    Due to their significant role in automobile industries, high temperature deformation of Mg–Al–Zn alloys (AZ31) at constant stress (i.e. creep) were studied at a wide range of stresses and temperatures to characterize underlying deformation mechanism, dynamic recrystallization (DRX) and dislocation density evolution. Various microstructures (e.g. grain growth & DRX) are noted during steady-state creep mechanisms such as grain boundary sliding (GBS), dislocation glide creep (DGC) and dislocation climb creep (DCC). Although a combination of DRX and grain growth is characteristic of low stacking fault energy materials like Mg alloys at elevated temperatures, observation reveals grain growth at low strain-rates (GBS region) along with dynamic recovery (DRV) mechanism. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed a decrease in dislocation density during GBS region while it increased under dislocation based creep mechanisms which could be related to the possible DRV and DRX respectively. Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) characterization of the fracture surface reveals more inter-granular fracture for large grains (i.e. GBS region with DRV process) and more dimple shape fracture for small grains (i.e. DGC & DCC region with DRX)

  11. Coating of biodegradable magnesium alloy bone implants using nanostructured diopside (CaMgSi2O6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnesium alloys with their biodegradable characteristic can be a very good candidate to be used in orthopedic implants. However, magnesium alloys may corrode and degrade too fast for applications in the bone healing procedure. In order to enhance the corrosion resistance and the in vitro bioactivity of a magnesium alloy, a nanostructured diopside (CaMgSi2O6) film was coated on AZ91 magnesium alloy through combined micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and electrophoretic deposition (EPD) methods. The crystalline structures, morphologies and compositions of the coated and uncoated substrates were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and immersion test in simulated body fluid (SBF) were employed to evaluate the corrosion resistance and the in vitro bioactivity of the samples. The results of our investigation showed that the nanostructured diopside coating deposited on the MAO layer increases the corrosion resistance and improves the in vitro bioactivity of the biodegradable magnesium alloy.

  12. Coating of biodegradable magnesium alloy bone implants using nanostructured diopside (CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razavi, Mehdi, E-mail: mehdi.razavi@okstate.edu [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Torabinejad Dental Research Center, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK 74106 (United States); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK 74106 (United States); Fathi, Mohammadhossein [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dental Materials Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Savabi, Omid [Torabinejad Dental Research Center, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Beni, Batoul Hashemi [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Razavi, Seyed Mohammad [School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vashaee, Daryoosh [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK 74106 (United States); and others

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium alloys with their biodegradable characteristic can be a very good candidate to be used in orthopedic implants. However, magnesium alloys may corrode and degrade too fast for applications in the bone healing procedure. In order to enhance the corrosion resistance and the in vitro bioactivity of a magnesium alloy, a nanostructured diopside (CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}) film was coated on AZ91 magnesium alloy through combined micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and electrophoretic deposition (EPD) methods. The crystalline structures, morphologies and compositions of the coated and uncoated substrates were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and immersion test in simulated body fluid (SBF) were employed to evaluate the corrosion resistance and the in vitro bioactivity of the samples. The results of our investigation showed that the nanostructured diopside coating deposited on the MAO layer increases the corrosion resistance and improves the in vitro bioactivity of the biodegradable magnesium alloy.

  13. The Improvement of Tribological and Fatigue Properties of Casting Magnesium Alloy AZ91 Performed Diamond Like Carbon Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akebono, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hideto

    In recent years, magnesium alloy has been widely used because of its low weight and ease of recycling. However, because magnesium alloys provide inferior wear resistance, it is necessary to improve this property to use magnesium alloy for more machine parts. For this study, we produced a diamond like carbon (DLC) coating that has high hardness, low friction, and excellent wear resistance. With DLC coated onto a soft material such as magnesium alloy, the adhesion strength between the substrate and the coating poses an important problem. Therefore, in this study, to acquire high adhesion strength, the DLC coating process was performed using unbalanced magnetron sputtering (UBMS). A tungsten-doped inter-layer was formed on the substrate. Onto the inter-layer, nano-order DLC coatings of two kinds were laminated. Wear tests and fatigue tests were carried out. The DLC-coated magnesium alloy exhibited excellent wear friction. Furthermore, DLC coatings raised its fatigue reliability over that of the substrate alone.

  14. AZ91C magnesium alloy modified by Cd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabadi, R.; Ambat, Rajan; Dwarakadasa, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, the effect of Cd on the microstructure, mechanical properties and general corrosion behaviour of AZ91C alloys was investigated. Addition of Cd was found not to be efficient in modifying/refining the microstructure or β-phase. A morphology change in β-phase from fine continuous...... precipitates to discontinuous β-phase upon the addition of Cd was observed. A marginal increment in mechanical properties was observed. General corrosion behaviour was followed with weight loss measurements, potentiostatic polarisation studies and surface studies in 3.5% sodium chloride solution and 3.......5% sodium chloride with 2% potassium dichromate solution. Cd addition deteriorated the corrosion behaviour of AZ91C. This behaviour was attributed to the formation of chunks of β-phase upon the addition of Cd. AZ91C with refined β-phase distribution, performed rather better in the NaCl solutions....

  15. Corrosion protection of AZ91 magnesium alloy by anodizing in niobium and zirconium-containing electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new Nb + Zr-based anodized coating was designed for the corrosion protection of AZ91 magnesium alloy. Polarization curves and electrochemical impedance diagrams plotted in Na2SO4 electrolyte showed its high protective effect. Analysis of the chemical composition by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the coating mainly consisted of (i) magnesium metaborate and metaphosphate, (ii) MgF2 and ZrF4, and (iii) Nb2O5, ZrO2 and MgO. A higher concentration of fluorine at both interfaces and an enrichment in Zr compared to Nb were revealed by SEM and EDS analyses. Thus, Zr-based compounds and MgF2 play a key role in the anti-corrosion ability of the coating.

  16. Production Process of Biocompatible Magnesium Alloy Tubes Using Extrusion and Dieless Drawing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustra, Piotr; Milenin, Andrij; Płonka, Bartłomiej; Furushima, Tsuyoshi

    2016-06-01

    Development of technological production process of biocompatible magnesium tubes for medical applications is the subject of the present paper. The technology consists of two stages—extrusion and dieless drawing process, respectively. Mg alloys for medical applications such as MgCa0.8 are characterized by low technological plasticity during deformation that is why optimization of production parameters is necessary to obtain good quality product. Thus, authors developed yield stress and ductility model for the investigated Mg alloy and then used the numerical simulations to evaluate proper manufacturing conditions. Grid Extrusion3d software developed by authors was used to determine optimum process parameters for extrusion—billet temperature 400 °C and extrusion velocity 1 mm/s. Based on those parameters the tube with external diameter 5 mm without defects was manufactured. Then, commercial Abaqus software was used for modeling dieless drawing. It was shown that the reduction in the area of 60% can be realized for MgCa0.8 magnesium alloy. Tubes with the final diameter of 3 mm were selected as a case study, to present capabilities of proposed processes.

  17. Microstructure and texture evolution in a magnesium alloy during processing by high-pressure torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Huang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys often exhibit cracking and segmentation after equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP at room temperature. With torsion shear deformation and a hydrostatic stress, high-pressure torsion (HPT has an advantage over ECAP in the processing of hard-to-deform materials like magnesium alloys at room temperature. In this report, HPT was used on extruded AZ31 Mg alloy at temperatures of 296, 373 and 473 K for 1 and 5 turns. After HPT processing, the hcp crystal c-axis rotated from the disc (r,θ plane towards the torsion axis. The angle between the c-axis and the torsion axis (Φ has a relationship with the HPT processing temperature. It was found that the c-axis was 10º from the torsion axis at 296 and 373 K but 5º from the torsion axis at 473 K. The activity of the basal slip and the twinning exert significant contributions to the deformation. Microstructural features such as the grain size and grain size distributions were examined and correlated with the mechanical properties through the microhardness values.

  18. Corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61: Surface chemistry and protective ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feliu, S., E-mail: sfeliu@cenim.csic.es; Llorente, I.

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • Surface chemistry of the corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys. • Influence of the type of alloy on the carbonate surface enrichment. • Relation between surface composition and protection properties. - Abstract: This paper studies the chemical composition of the corrosion product layers formed on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61 following immersion in 0.6 M NaCl, with a view to better understanding their protective action. Relative differences in the chemical nature of the layers were quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDX) and low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD). Corrosion behavior was investigated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and hydrogen evolution measurement. An inhibitive effect from the corrosion product layers was observed from EIS, principally in the case of AZ31, as confirmed by hydrogen evolution tests. A link was found between carbonate enrichment observed by XPS in the surface of the corrosion product layer, concomitant with the increase in the protective properties observed by EIS.

  19. A cellular automaton model for microstructural simulation of friction stir welded AZ91 magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mostafa; Asadi, Parviz; Besharati Givi, MohammadKazem; Zolghadr, Parisa

    2016-03-01

    To predict the grain size and microstructure evolution during friction stir welding (FSW) of AZ91 magnesium alloy, a finite element model (FEM) is developed based on the combination of a cellular automaton model and the Kocks  -  Mecking and Laasraoui-Jonas models. First, according to the flow stress curves and using the Kocks  -  Mecking model, the hardening and recovery parameters and the strain rate sensitivity were calculated. Next, an FEM model was established in Deform-3D software to simulate the FSW of AZ91 magnesium alloy. The results of the FEM model are used in microstructure evolution models to predict the grain size and microstructure of the weld zone. There is a good agreement between the simulated and experimental microstructures, and the proposed model can simulate the dynamic recrystallization (DRX) process during FSW of AZ91 alloy. Moreover, microstructural properties of different points in the SZ as well as the effect of the w/v parameter on the grain size and microstructure are considered.

  20. Spectroscopic study of plasma during electrolytic oxidation of magnesium- and aluminium-alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovović, J.; Stojadinović, S.; Šišović, N. M.; Konjević, N.

    2012-10-01

    We present the results of an optical emission spectroscopy study of Plasma during Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) of magnesium- and aluminum-alloy. Plasma electron number density Ne diagnostics is performed either from the Hβ line shape or from the width or shift of non-hydrogenic ion lines of aluminum and magnesium. The line profile analysis of the Hβ suggests presence of two PEO processes characterized by relatively low electron number densities Ne≈1.2×1015 cm-3 and Ne≈2.3×1016 cm-3. Apart from these two low Ne processes, there is the third one related to the ejection of evaporated anode material through micro-discharge channels. This process is characterized by larger electron density Ne=(1.2-1.6)1017 cm-3, which is detected from the shape and shift of aluminum and magnesium singly charged ion lines. Two low Ne values detected from the Hβ and large Ne measured from the widths and shift of ion lines suggest presence of three types of discharges during PEO with aluminum- and magnesium-alloy anode. On the basis of present and earlier results one can conclude that low Ne processes do not depend upon anode material or electrolyte composition.The electron temperature of 4000 K and 33,000 K are determined from relative intensities of Mg I and O II lines, respectively. The attention is drawn to the possibility of Ne application for Te evaluation using Saha equation what is of importance for PEO metal plasma characterization. During the course of this study, difficulties in the analysis of spectral line shapes are encountered and the ways to overcome some of the obstacles are demonstrated.

  1. Diffusion Bonding Behavior and Characterization of Joints Made Between 316L Stainless Steel Alloy and AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elthalabawy, Waled Mohamed

    The 316L austenitic stainless steel and AZ31 magnesium alloy have physical and mechanical properties which makes these alloys suitable in a number of high technology based industries such as the aerospace and automotive sectors. However, for these alloys to be used in engineering applications, components must be fabricated and joined successfully. The differences in the physical and metallurgical properties between these two alloys prevents the use of conventional fusion welding processes commonly employed in aerospace and transport industry. Therefore, alternative techniques need to be developed and diffusion bonding technology is a process that has considerable potential to join these two dissimilar alloys. In this research work both solid-state and transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding processes were applied. The solid-state bonding of 316L steel to AZ31 magnesium alloy was possible at a bonding temperature of 550°C for 120 minutes using a pressure of 1.3 MPa. The interface characterization of the joint showed a thin intermetallic zone rich in Fe-Al was responsible for providing a metallurgical bond. However, low joint shear strengths were recorded and this was attributed to the poor surface to surface contact. The macro-deformation of the AZ31 alloy prevented the use of higher bonding pressures and longer bonding times. In order to overcome these problems, the TLP bonding process was implemented using pure Cu and Ni foils as interlayers which produced a eutectic phase at the bonding temperature. This research identified the bonding mechanism through microstructural and differential scanning calorimetry investigations. The microstructural characterization of the TLP joints identified intermetallics which became concentrated along the 316L steel/AZ31 bond interface due to the "pushing effect" of the solid/liquid interface during isothermal solidification stage of bonding. The size and concentration of the intermetallics had a noticeable effect on the final joint

  2. Biocorrosion behavior and cell viability of adhesive polymer coated magnesium based alloys for medical implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdal-hay, Abdalla [Departmentt of Bionano System Engineering, College of Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Mechanical Design Engineering, Advanced wind power system research institute, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Dewidar, Montasser [Department of Materials and Mechanical Design, Faculty of Energy Engineering, South Valley University, Aswan (Egypt); Lim, Jae Kyoo, E-mail: jklim@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Design Engineering, Advanced wind power system research institute, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The corrosion behavior of magnesium for orthopedic applications is extremely poor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The solvent (DCM, THF and DMF) had a strong effect on the coatings performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mg bar alloy coated with PVAc/DCM layers provided an excellent bonding strength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treated samples indicated significant damping for the degradation rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cytocompatibility on MC3T3 cells of the PVAc/DCM samples revealed a good behavior. - Abstract: The present study was ultimately aimed to design novel adhesive biodegradable polymer, poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc), coatings onto Mg based alloys by the dip-coating technique in order to control the degradation rate and enhance the biocompatibility of magnesium alloys. The influence of various solvents on PVAc surface topography and their protection of Mg alloys were dramatically studied in vitro. Electrochemical polarization, degradation, and PVAc film cytocompatibility were also tested. Our results showed that the solvent had a significant effect on coating quality. PVAc/dichloromethane solution showed a porous structure and solution concentration could control the porous size. The coatings prepared using tetrahydrofuran and dimethylformamide solvents are exceptional in their ability to generate porous morphology even at low polymer concentration. In general, the corrosion performance appears to be different on different PVAc-solvent system. Immersion tests illustrated that the porous morphology on PVAc stabilized corrosion rates. A uniform corrosion attack in artificial simulation body fluid was also exhibited. The cytocompatibility of osteoblast cells (MC3T3) revealed high adherence, proliferation, and survival on the porous structure of PVAc coated Mg alloy, which was not observed for the uncoated samples. This novel PVAc coating is a promising candidate for biodegradable implant materials, which might

  3. Fabrication of hydrophobic/super-hydrophobic nanofilms on magnesium alloys by polymer plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang Zhixin, E-mail: zxkang@scut.edu.cn; Lai Xiaoming; Sang Jing; Li Yuanyuan

    2011-11-01

    Hydrophobic/super-hydrophobic nanofilms with improved corrosion resistance were fabricated on the surfaces of Mg-Mn-Ce magnesium alloy by a surface modification technique, named as polymer plating, which has been developed to modify superficial characteristics of magnesium alloys with polymeric nanofilms through synthesized organic compounds of triazine dithiol containing functional groups. The nanofilms were prepared by the electrochemical and polymerization reactions during polymer plating analyzed from characteristics of Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The fabricated nanofilms changed the surface wettability of blank magnesium alloy from hydrophilic to hydrophobic with contact angle 119.0 Degree-Sign of distilled water with lower surface free energy of 20.59 mJ/m{sup 2} and even super-hydrophobic with contact angle 158.3 Degree-Sign with lowest surface free energy of 4.68 mJ/m{sup 2} by different functional nanofilms on their surfaces. Alteration of wettability from hydrophilic to hydrophobic and super-hydrophobic resulted from their low surface free energy and surface morphology with micro- and nano-rough structures. The corrosion behaviors from potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) show that the super-hydrophobic nanofilm has higher corrosion resistance and stability in 0.1 mol/L NaCl solution and lower corrosion current density (I{sub corr}) with R{sub ct} increasing two orders of magnitude of 16,500 {Omega}{center_dot}cm{sup 2} compared to that obtained for blank of 485 {Omega}{center_dot}cm{sup 2}.

  4. Aqueous Corrosion Behavior of Micro Arc Oxidation (MAO)-Coated Magnesium Alloys: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama Krishna, L.; Sundararajan, G.

    2014-06-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys, in the current era of persistently growing engineering demands, have become the most promising materials finding widespread industrial applications. Numerous processes are available for surface protection of Mg and its alloys to potentially minimize corrosion damage. The micro arc oxidation (MAO), a fairly recent and eco-friendly coating process, emerged as a novel means to provide an adherent, hard, scratch-resistant, wear-resistant, and corrosion-resistant coatings on Mg alloys. However, the successful utilization of such coatings demands a thorough understanding of the influence of a relatively large number of process parameters such as electrolytic composition, presence of insoluble additives in the electrolyte, electrical parameters employed, and the composition of the Mg alloy substrate on the corrosion resistance. The detailed influence of all the above parameters on the corrosion behavior of Mg alloys is critically reviewed and presented in this article. In addition, this article also reviews the recent trends in terms of duplexing the MAO process using different techniques/processes such that the composite coatings are produced with enhanced corrosion resistance.

  5. Increased corrosion resistance of the AZ80 magnesium alloy by rapid solidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghion, E; Jan, L; Meshi, L; Goldman, J

    2015-11-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and Mg-alloys are being considered as implantable biometals. Despite their excellent biocompatibility and good mechanical properties, their rapid corrosion is a major impediment precluding their widespread acceptance as implantable biomaterials. Here, we investigate the potential for rapid solidification to increase the corrosion resistance of Mg alloys. To this end, the effect of rapid solidification on the environmental and stress corrosion behavior of the AZ80 Mg alloy vs. its conventionally cast counterpart was evaluated in simulated physiological electrolytes. The microstructural characteristics were examined by optical microscopy, SEM, TEM, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The corrosion behavior was evaluated by immersion, salt spraying, and potentiodynamic polarization. Stress corrosion resistance was assessed by Slow Strain Rate Testing. The results indicate that the corrosion resistance of rapidly solidified ribbons is significantly improved relative to the conventional cast alloy due to the increased Al content dissolved in the α-Mg matrix and the correspondingly reduced presence of the β-phase (Mg17 Al12 ). Unfortunately, extrusion consolidated solidified ribbons exhibited a substantial reduction in the environmental performance and stress corrosion resistance. This was mainly attributed to the detrimental effect of the extrusion process, which enriched the iron impurities and increased the internal stresses by imposing a higher dislocation density. In terms of immersion tests, the average corrosion rate of the rapidly solidified ribbons was <0.4 mm/year compared with ∼2 mm/year for the conventionally cast alloy and 26 mm/year for the rapidly solidified extruded ribbons.

  6. Preparation of micro-arc oxidation coatings on magnesium alloy and its thermal shock resistance property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zhaohua; ZENG Xiaobin; YAO Zhongping

    2006-01-01

    In the NaAlO2-Na2SiO3 compound system, the ceramic coatings were prepared on magnesium alloy by micro-arc oxidation. The morphology, phase composition, and thermal shock resistance of the ceramic coatings were studied by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and thermal shock tests, respectively. The results showed that the ceramic coating contains MgO, MgAl2O4, as well as a little amount of Mg2SiO4. The thickness of the ceramic coatings induced ceramic coating is the best. The hardness of the ceramic coating is up to 10 GPa or so.

  7. Microstructural Characterization of a Magnesium Alloy Processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Diana Dumitru

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Samples of as-extruded ZK60 magnesium alloy were subjected to 6 passes of equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP following route A. The processing temperature was decreased with the number of passes. The structural evolution of the deformed samples was analyzed using Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD and X-Ray Diffraction. The grain boundary misorientation distribution showed a reduction in the grain size accompanied bya large proportion of high angle grain boundaries and the presence of recrystallization processes. XRD results showed that with the increment of the applied strain the peaks presented a slight variation of the angles.

  8. Phosphating process of AZ31 magnesium alloy and corrosion resistance of coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Ying-liang; WU Hai-lan; CHEN Zhen-hua; WANG Hui-min; LI Ling-ling

    2006-01-01

    Zinc phosphate films were formed on AZ31 magnesium alloy by immersing into a phosphatation bath to enhance the corrosion resistance of AZ31. Different films were prepared by changing the processing parameters such as immersing time and temperature. The corrosion protection of the coatings was studied by electrochemical measurements such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization curves, and the structure of the films were studied by metalloscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that, the film formed at 80 ℃, 10 min has the highest corrosion resistance. The XRD patterns show that the film consists of hopeite (Zn3(PO4)2·xH2O).

  9. Microstructure and texture evolution in multi-pass warm rolled AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Di

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD is employed to characterize the microstructure and texture established during the process of warm rolled AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets. The grain size was refined from 17.4 μm to 3.8 μm after 4 pass rolling. Texture of as-rolled sheets was expressed by (0002 basal texture, and the texture intensity was increased with the rolling pass increasing. The mechanical properties of as-rolled sheets were greatly improved by warm rolling.

  10. Effect of side transmission of power ultrasonic on structure of AZ81 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海波; 翟启杰; 戚飞鹏; 龚永勇

    2004-01-01

    In order to promote the application of power ultrasonic in metallurgic industry, ultrasonic vibration is introduced from the side of AZ81 ingot by adopting the automatic-attracting amplitude transformer horn which has independently been designed and produced, and the effect of the side transmission of ultrasonic on the solidification structure of metal is investigated. The results show that under this experimental condition, power ultrasonic can greatly improve the solidification structure of AZ81 magnesium alloy. Compared with the traditional modification methods in which inoculants are added into melt, power ultrasonic has a better performance. The present research gives us a new way for the application of ultrasonic refinement technique.

  11. Analyses of impurities in cast magnesium-rare earth elements alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Braszczyńska-Malik

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Microstructure analyses of impurities in binary Mg–3%RE and Mg–8%RE alloys are presented. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM+EDX techniques were used to characterize the investigated material. In microstructure, besides α-Mg solution and α+Mg12RE eutectic, some intermetallic compounds with different morphology (needle-like, square-like were observed. X-ray phase analyses showed that intermetallic compounds were RESi and 32RE2Fe14Si3. Their location in axis of primaryα-Mg dendrites suggests that some parts of them may act as heterogeneous nucleation sits for magnesium.

  12. A systematic multiscale modeling and experimental approach to protect grain boundaries in magnesium alloys from corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horstemeyer, Mark R. [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Chaudhuri, Santanu [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    A multiscale modeling Internal State Variable (ISV) constitutive model was developed that captures the fundamental structure-property relationships. The macroscale ISV model used lower length scale simulations (Butler-Volmer and Electronics Structures results) in order to inform the ISVs at the macroscale. The chemomechanical ISV model was calibrated and validated from experiments with magnesium (Mg) alloys that were investigated under corrosive environments coupled with experimental electrochemical studies. Because the ISV chemomechanical model is physically based, it can be used for other material systems to predict corrosion behavior. As such, others can use the chemomechanical model for analyzing corrosion effects on their designs.

  13. Microstructure character of AZ80 magnesium alloy ingots cast under electromagnetic vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Shi-jie; LE Qi-chi; ZHAO Zhi-hao; CUI Jian-zhong

    2007-01-01

    Microstructure evolutions of an AZ80 magnesium alloy ingot with 300 mm in diameter cast with and without the electromagnetic vibration was investigated. The microstructures of the ingot cast with the conventional DC exhibited relatively fine dendritic grains at the surface area, but coarse dendritic grains at the 1/2 radius and large equiaxed dendritic grains at the center. However, under the electromagnetic vibration casting condition, the microstructures of the ingot is significantly refined, especially those at the surface and at the center.

  14. Microstructure and composition of rare earth-transition metal-aluminium-magnesium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Lia Maria Carlotti Zarpelon; Eguiberto Galego; Hidetoshi Takiishi; Rubens Nunes Faria

    2008-01-01

    The determination of the microstructure and chemical composition of La0.7-xPr xMg0.3Al 0.3Mn0.4Co0.5 Ni3.8 (0 < x < 0.7) metal hydride alloys has been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X ray analysis (EDX) and X ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The substitution of La with Pr changed the grain structure from equiaxial to columnar. The relative atomic ratio of rare earth to (Al, Mn, Co, Ni) in the matrix phase was 1:5 (LaNi5-type structure). Magnesium was de...

  15. Effect of temperature on mechanical behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Cheng-wen; XU Shan-na; WANG Lu; CHEN Zhi-yong; WANG Fu-chi; CAI Hong-nian

    2007-01-01

    Strain rate sensitivity and tension/compression asymmetry of AZ31 magnesium alloy at different temperatures and strain rates were investigated. Both of mechanical behaviors are temperature dependent. Strain rate sensitivity increases with increasing temperature. Thermally activated slip is the source of strain rate sensitivity. At the temperature below or near 373 K, strain rate sensitivity is very little. Tension/compression asymmetry in yielding decreases with increasing temperature. Twinning is the reason of tension/compression asymmetry. At the temperature above or near 573 K, the material shows little tension/compression asymmetry of the flow stress.

  16. Evaluation of Microstructure and Mechanical Property of FSW Welded MB3 Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Kuai-she; SHEN Yang; YANG Xi-rong; WANG Xun-hong; XU Ke-wei

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was carried out on the friction stir welding of MB3 magnesium alloy to determine welding parameters for obtaining an excellent weld appearance without void, cracking, or distortion. Frictional heat and plastic flow created fine and equiaxed grains in the weld nugget, and the elongated and recovered grains in the thermomechanically affected zone (TMAZ). The grains in the heat affected zone (HAZ) grow slightly. The mechanical property results show that maximum joint tensile strength can reach 97.2% of the parent material, which is stronger than that of fusion joints; and the failure almost occurs in the heat affected zone.

  17. Grain refinement of an AZ63B magnesium alloy by an Al-1C master alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yichuan Pan; Xiangfa Liu; Hua Yang [The Key Lab. of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Shandong Univ., Jinan (China)

    2005-12-01

    In order to develop a refiner of Mg-Al alloys, an Al-1C (in wt.%) master alloy was synthesized using a casting method. The microstructure and grain-refining performance of the Al-1C master alloy were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and a grain-refining test. The microstructure of the Al-1C master alloy is composed of {alpha}-Al solid solution, Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} particles, and graphite phases. After grain refinement of AZ63B alloy by the Al-1C master alloy, the mean grain size reached a limit when 2 wt.% Al-C master alloy was added at 800 C and held for 20 min in the melt before casting. The minimum mean grain size is approximately 48 {mu}m at the one-half radius of the ingot and is about 17% of that of the unrefined alloy. The Al-1C master alloy results in better grain refinement than C{sub 2}Cl{sub 6} and MgCO{sub 3} carbon-containing refiners. (orig.)

  18. Effect of PEO-modes on the electrochemical and mechanical properties of coatings on MA8 magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorova, M. V.; Sinebrukhov, S. L.; Khrisanfova, O. A.; Gnedenkov, S. V.

    Protective surface layers with a high corrosion stability and significant microhardness as compared to the substrate material were obtained on MA8 magnesium alloy by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) in a silicate-fluoride electrolyte. The phase and elemental composition of the coatings were investigated. It was found that the application of the bipolar PEO-modes enables one to synthesize on the alloy's surface a high-temperature phase of magnesium silicate, forsterite (Mg2SiO4) having a good anticorrosion and mechanical properties.

  19. Influence of chloride ion concentration on immersion corrosion behaviour of plasma sprayed alumina coatings on AZ31B magnesium alloy

    OpenAIRE

    D. Thirumalaikumarasamy; K. Shanmugam; Balasubramanian, V

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion attack of aluminium and magnesium based alloys is a major issue worldwide. The corrosion degradation of an uncoated and atmospheric plasma sprayed alumina (APS) coatings on AZ31B magnesium alloy was investigated using immersion corrosion test in NaCl solutions of different chloride ion concentrations viz., 0.01 M, 0.2 M, 0.6 M and 1 M. The corroded surface was characterized by an optical microscope and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the corrosion deterioration of uncoate...

  20. Microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welding of AZ31B magnesium alloy added with cerium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于思荣; 陈显君; 黄志求; 刘耀辉

    2010-01-01

    The AZ31B magnesium alloy sheet added with 0.5 wt.% Ce was welded with friction stir welding(FSW).The microstructures and mechanical properties of the welded joint were investigated.The results showed that the microstructures in the weld nugget zone were uniform and with small equiaxed grains.The grains in the heat-affected zone and the thermo-mechanical affected zone were coarser than those in the base metal zone and the weld nugget zone.The ultimate tensile strength of AZ31B magnesium alloy added with 0.5...