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Sample records for ayu plecoglossus altivelis

  1. Studies on Morphology and Cytochemistry in Blood Cells of Ayu Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis

    OpenAIRE

    NAKADA, Kojin; FUJISAWA, Kuniyasu; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Furusawa, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Peripheral blood cells from ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis, were separated using a density gradient. Blood cells were then smeared using Shandon Cytospin and subjected to cytochemical staining. Blood cells were categorized based on morphological and cytochemical characteristics, and the density fractionation range and nucleus area/cell area ratio were observed. Lymphocytes are distinguished from neutrophils by their basophilic cytoplasm and Golgi-like field. The features of ch...

  2. Cloning and characterization of metallothionein gene in ayu Plecoglossus altivelis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, C.-H.; John, Joseph Abraham Christopher; Ou, L.-W.; Chen, J.-C.; Lin, C.-H.; Chang, C.-Y

    2004-02-10

    Metallothionein (MT) has been used widely as a potential molecular marker to detect the deleterious effects of heavy metals in aquatic ecosystem. Here we exposed ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis, to zinc (Zn) and tested the distribution as well as the induction of MT in various tissues such as liver, kidney, intestine and stomach. MT induction was significant in liver tissue, followed by kidney and intestine, whereas no induction was detected in stomach. The gene encoding ayu MT was successfully cloned and characterized. Complete nucleotide sequencing and analysis of the 4.5 kb DNA fragment containing the ayu MT gene revealed that the gene has three exons interrupted by two introns, a 5'-flanking region of about 2.5 kb and about 1.6 kb of 3'-flanking region. In grouper heart and kidney cells, the 2.5 kb promoter containing eight metal responsive elements (MREs), two hepatic nuclear factor 5 responsive elements (HNF5REs) and one cAMP responsive element (CRE) had the highest reporter activity.

  3. Molecular and functional characterization of a novel CD302 gene from ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shen-Xue; Ma, Hai-Ling; Shi, Yu-Hong; Li, Ming-Yun; Chen, Jiong

    2016-08-01

    Recognizing the presence of invading pathogens by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is key to mounting an effective innate immune response. Mammalian CD302 is an unconventional C-type lectin like receptor (CTLR) involved in the functional regulation of immune cells. However, the role of CD302 in fish remains unclear. In this study, we characterized a novel CD302 gene from ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis), which was tentatively named PaCD302. The cDNA sequence of PaCD302 is 1893 nucleotides in length, and encodes a polypeptide of 241 amino acids with molecular weight 27.1 kDa and pI 4.69. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that PaCD302 is a type I transmembrane CTLR devoid of the known amino acid residues essential for Ca(2+)-dependent sugar binding. PaCD302 mRNA expression was detected in all tissues and cells tested, with the highest level in the liver. Following Vibrio anguillarum infection, PaCD302 mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in all tissues tested. For further functional analysis, we generated a recombinant protein for PaCD302 (rPaCD302) by prokaryotic expression and raised a specific antibody against rPaCD302. Western blot analysis revealed that the native PaCD302 is glycosylated. Refolded rPaCD302 was unable to bind to five monosaccharides (l-fucose, d-galactose, d-glucose, d-mannose and N-acetyl glucosamine) or two other polysaccharides (lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan). It was able to bind to three Gram-positive and seven Gram-negative bacteria, but show no bacterial agglutinating activity. PaCD302 function blocking using anti-PaCD302 IgG resulted in inhibition of phagocytosis and bactericidal activity of ayu monocytes/macrophages (MO/MΦ), suggesting that PaCD302 regulates the function of ayu MO/MΦ. In summary, our study demonstrates that PaCD302 may participate in the immune response of ayu against bacterial infection via modulation of MO/MΦ function. PMID:27235369

  4. Protection against Flavobacterium psychrophilum infection (cold water disease) in Ayu fish (Plecoglossus altivelis) by oral administration of humus extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAKAGAWA, Jun; IWASAKI, Tadashi; KODAMA, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    Humic substances are formed during the decomposition of organic matter in humus, and are found in many natural environments in which organic materials and microorganisms have been present. In the present study, oral administration of humus extract to ayu fish (Plecoglossus altivelis) induced effective protection against experimental Flavobacterium psychrophilum infection (cold water disease). Mortality of fish and development of skin lesions, such as erosion and hemorrhages on the skin, gill cover or mouth, were significantly suppressed in fish treated with 10%, 5% or 1% humus extract adsorbed on dry pellets. Although F. psychrophilum was not re-isolated from gills and erosion lesions of the skin of dead fish, bacterial gyrB DNA could be amplified in these specimens from dead fish and surviving control fish using the polymerase chain reaction. The protective effect of the extract was not the results of direct killing of bacteria or antibiotic activity of the extract since no obvious reduction in the bacterial number was observed at 5 times to 5,000 times dilution of the humus extract having pH 5.45 to 7.40. These results clearly show that treating fish with humus extract is effective in preventing cold water disease.

  5. Role of gap junctions and protein kinase A during the development of oocyte maturational competence in Ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Yoshizaki, G.; Takeuchi, T.; Soyano, K.; Patino, R.

    2008-01-01

    Meiotic resumption in teleost oocytes is induced by a maturation-inducing hormone (MIH). The sensitivity of oocytes to MIH, also known as oocyte maturational competence (OMC), is induced by LH via mechanisms that are not fully understood. A previous study of Ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) showed the presence of functional heterologous gap junctions (GJs) between oocytes and their surrounding granulosa cells. The objectives of this study were to determine the role of ovarian GJs and of protein kinase A (PKA) during the acquisition of OMC. We examined the effects of the specific GJ inhibitor carbenoxolone (CBX) and 18??-glycyrrhetinic acid (??-GA) on the LH-(hCG)-dependent acquisition of OMC and on MIH-(17,20??-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one)-dependent meiotic resumption; measured the cAMP content of ovarian follicles during the hCG-dependent acquisition of OMC; and determined the effects of PK activators and inhibitors on hCG-dependent OMC. Production of follicular cAMP increased during the hCG-dependent acquisition of OMC. Both GJ inhibitors and the PKA inhibitor H8-dihydrochloride, but not the PKC inhibitor GF109203X, suppressed the hCG-dependent acquisition of OMC in a dose-dependent manner. The PKA activator forskolin induced OMC with a similar potency to hCG. Unlike previous observations with teleosts where disruption of heterologous GJ either blocks or stimulates meiotic resumption, treatment with GJ inhibitors did not affect MIH-dependent meiotic resumption in maturationally competent follicles of Ayu. These observations suggest that ovarian GJs are essential for LH-dependent acquisition of OMC but not for MIH-dependent meiotic resumption, and that the stimulation of OMC by LH is mediated by cAMP-dependent PKA. They are also consistent with the view that a precise balance between GJ-mediated signals (positive or negative) and oocyte maturational readiness is required for hormonally regulated meiotic resumption. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Biochemical genetic analysis of isozymes in Plecoglossus altivelis population in Fuxi%凫溪香鱼群体同工酶的生化遗传分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄福勇; 李明云

    2004-01-01

    30 ayu(Plecoglossus altivelis) samples were collected from the cultural net in Fuxi Town, Ninghai County, Zhejiang Province. Polyarylamide gel electrophoresis was used to detect the expression of isozymes in 8 organs or tissues: eye, liver, kidney, muscle, spleen, heart, gill and pectroral fin. ADH,CAT,POD,ACP,ALP,EST,LDH,MDH,ME,GcDH,SCD,GDH,SDH,SOD,ATP were analyzed and the biochemical genetic results showed that 15 isozymes were coded by 55 gene loci, 12 of which (ADH-1, ADH-4, CAT-2, POD-3,ALP-2, EST-3, EST-4, LDH-5, ME-4, GcDH-4, GDH, SDH-2) were found polymorphic. The population of ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) in Fuxi town showed the higher genetic diversity when compared with other freshwater fishes, with 21.8% of the proportion of polymorphic loci and 0.0459 of the average heterozygosity per loci. And we think the expression of CAT, POD and SOD of ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) can be used to evaluate the influence to body-protecting system of the fish when environmental factors were changed. The expression of isozymes in pectroral fin can be used as genetic marker in breeding of ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis)

  7. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and expression analysis of ApoC-Ⅰgene from ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) exposed to cadmium%香鱼 ApoC-Ⅰ的克隆、序列分析及其镉胁迫下的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亚萍; 丁斐斐; 李长红; 默立宾; 陈炯

    2016-01-01

    ApoC-Ⅰ( Apolipoprotein C-Ⅰ) is the smallest member of the apolipoprotein family , which plays important roles in lipid uptake, secretion and transport .Here, we obtained the full-length cDNA sequence of ayu ( Plecoglossus altivelis ) ApoC-I gene ( PaApoC-Ⅰ) through random sequencing of cDNA library .The cDNA sequence of PaApoC-Ⅰis 574 nucleotides , consisting of a 267 bp open reading frame that encodes a protein of 88 amino acids with a deduced molecular mass of 10.08 ku.The N-terminus of PaApoC-Ⅰcontains a predicted signal peptide of 20 amino acids .Multiple sequence alignment of complete amino acid sequences showed that PaApoC-Ⅰshared the highest amino acid sequence identity (67.0%) with that of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) . Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that ApoC-Ⅰfrom mammals, reptiles, amphibians and fish formed different clusters , and PaApoC-Ⅰfalled into the fish ApoC-Ⅰcluster and was most closely related to that of rainbow trout .Genome structure analysis showed that PaApoC-Ⅰcontained three exons and two introns .Quantitative real-time PCR ( qRT-PCR) analysis showed that PaApoC-ⅠmRNA had the highest expressional level in ayu liver .Upon cadmium (Cd) exposure, PaApoC-I transcripts were significantly up-regulated in ayu liver, spleen, kidney and intestine, and were significantly down-regulated in ayu gill.In summary, our present study demonstrated that a tight relationship between the PaApoC-Ⅰexpression and Cd stress , and it can be a potential biomarker for Cd exposure in aquatic or-ganisms.The results would provide the basic data for further studying the function of fish ApoC-Ⅰand its mechanism in fish response to heavy metal stress .%载脂蛋白C-Ⅰ( Apolipoprotein C , ApoC-Ⅰ)是载脂蛋白家族中分子质量最小的成员,在脂类摄入、转运和分泌中发挥重要作用。通过cDNA文库随机测序获得了香鱼( Plecoglossus altivelis) ApoC-Ⅰ( PaApo

  8. The establishment of a library screening method based on yeast two-hybrid system and its use to determine the potential interactions of liver proteins in ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y H; Chen, J; Li, C H; Yang, H Y; Lu, X J

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of specific protein-protein interaction (PPI) is an important component in understanding biological processes and regulatory mechanisms. A library to library screening method (LLS) was established based on yeast two-hybrid (YTH) system in this research, and applied to study the PPIs in ayu liver. In total, 23 out of 55 interaction pairs were found positive through phenotypic identification, with a positive rate of 41.8%. Of the 11 unique PPIs, 9 interactions including FGB/FGG, CaM/Spna2, C9/Apo-AI-1, α₂M/Ft, RPL10/RPL5, C8α/C9, FGG/Apo-AI-1, LECT2/Tf, and Apo-AI-2/C9 were previously reported. The other two PPIs including FGG/CLR and Wap65/C3 are novel, and in vitro co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) experiments further confirmed these interactions. FGG/CLR interaction might play a role in regulating the inflammatory response. The interaction between Wap65 and C3 hints that Wap65 might function through the complement activation pathways when microbial infection occurs.

  9. Assessing carcinogenic risks associated with ingesting arsenic in farmed smeltfish (Ayu, Plecoglossus altirelis) in aseniasis-endemic area of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Jing; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Liang, Ching-Ping; Liu, Chen-Wuing

    2008-09-15

    This study spatially analyzed potential carcinogenic risks associated with ingesting arsenic (As) contents in aquacultural smeltfish (Plecoglossus altirelis) from the Lanyang Plain of northeastern Taiwan. Sequential indicator simulation (SIS) was adopted to reproduce As exposure distributions in groundwater based on their three-dimensional variability. A target cancer risk (TR) associated with ingesting As in aquacultural smeltfish was employed to evaluate the potential risk to human health. The probabilistic risk assessment determined by Monte Carlo simulation and SIS is used to propagate properly the uncertainty of parameters. Safe and hazardous aquacultural regions were mapped to elucidate the safety of groundwater use. The TRs determined from the risks at the 95th percentiles exceed one millionth, indicating that ingesting smeltfish that are farmed in the highly As-affected regions represents a potential cancer threat to human health. The 95th percentile of TRs is considered in formulating a strategy for the aquacultural use of groundwater in the preliminary stage.

  10. Morphology of the digestive tract and liver of Plecoglossus altivelis%香鱼消化道及肝脏的形态结构特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢明明; 李海燕; 竺俊全; 李明云

    2012-01-01

    The morphological characteristics of the digestive tract and liver in Plecoglossus altivelis were observed by paraffin section and photomicrography techniques. The digestive tract includes the orol-pharyngeal cavity, esophagus, stomach and intestine. The orol-pharyngeal cavity is big, long and narrow; in the front of its bottom wall there are a pair of mucous plait; on the edge of the two jaws there are broad flat pectinate jaw teeth; there are teeth on the palate bone and hyoid bone, but no teeth on the vomer. Tongue is formed by the projecting part of basihyoid covered by mucosa. Tongue mucosa epithelium is stratified squamous epithelium, and contains many goblet cells and taste buds. The esophagus, stomach and intestines all consist of mucous membrane layer, submucosa, muscularis and outer membrane. The mucosa of esophagus is stratified squamous epithelium with developed goblet cells. V-shaped stomach comprises cardia, body of stomach and pylorus. Stomach mucosa epithelium is simple columnar epithelium. There are gastric glands in the lamina propria of cardia and body of stomach. Intestine is short and consists of foregut, midgut and hindgut. The mucous epithelium of intestinal wall is simple columnar epithelium and the free surface of it contains a dense array of microvilli. Lots of goblet cells are distributed in the intestinal epithelium. Conjunctive sites of intestines and pylorus contain 350 — 400 pyloric caecums whose histological structure is the same as intestines. The liver is singular and coated by the serosa. The shape of hepatocyte is irregular and the boundaries of hepatic lobules are inconspicuous.%采用解剖及石蜡切片显微技术观察了香鱼消化道及肝脏的组织学结构.香鱼消化道由口咽腔、食道、胃及肠构成.口咽腔大且狭长,其底壁前部有一对粘膜褶,两颌边缘着生宽扁梳状齿,腭骨及舌骨具齿,犁骨无齿;舌由基舌骨突出部分覆盖粘膜构成,舌粘膜上皮为复层扁平上

  11. 饵料系列对香鱼(Plecoglossus altivelis Temminck et Schlegel)人工育苗成活率、畸形率和白化率的影响%Effect of Bait Series on the Rates of Survival, Abnormal and Albinism for Artificial Breeding of Ayu(Plecoglossus altivelis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘招坤

    2008-01-01

    通过同一饵料系列(轮虫、卤虫无节幼体、桡足类、颗粒配合饲料)中不同的轮虫投喂时间,桡足类、颗粒配合饲料的比例,比较研究香鱼人工育苗的成活率、畸形率、白化率等育苗效果,以完善香鱼全人工批量育苗工艺.试验表明,在香鱼人工育苗仔稚鱼培育早期延长轮虫的投喂时间到15日龄可提高育苗的成活率及苗种规格;增加桡足类投喂量、减少颗粒配合饲料的投喂或采用研制全价的颗粒配合饲料有助于降低苗种的白化率;苗种的畸形与卵质有直接的关系,但同时与饵料、水质条件等因素有关.

  12. Expression changes of heat shock transcription factor 1 in ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) under cadmium exposure%镉胁迫对香鱼热休克转录因子1基因组织表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李笑萌; 苗亮; 李明云; 徐玉敏; 穆方申; 陈炯

    2015-01-01

    [目的]克隆香鱼热休克转录因子1(Heat shock transcription factor1,HSF1)基因,并探究镉胁迫对其表达的影响.[方法]利用3' RACE和5'RACE技术克隆香鱼HSF1基因cDNA全长,并进行序列分析,通过半定量PCR(RT-PCR)检测HSF1在各组织中的表达情况,通过实时荧光定量PCR(qRT-PCR)检测分析镉胁迫后HSF1表达量的变化.[结果]香鱼HSF1基因cDNA序列全长2 127 bp(不含poly A),含一个1 587bp、编码528个氨基酸的开放阅读框(ORF);预测其编码蛋白分子量为57.956 87 kDa,等电点为4.56.与虹鳟进化关系最近.反转录PCR(RT-PCR)显示香鱼HSF1基因在鳃中表达量最低、肌肉中次之,其余组织中基本一致.qRT-PCR结果显示镉胁迫后香鱼肝、心和肌肉中HSF1基因表达量均显著增加,脾、肾和鳃中表达量均显著减少.[结论]HSF1基因参与香鱼镉胁迫应激反应.

  13. Construction and Characterization of a cDNA Library in Hepatopancreas of Ayu Plecoglossus altivelis%香鱼肝胰腺cDNA文库的构建和鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亮; 史雨红; 陈炯; 陆新江; 李明云

    2011-01-01

    以香鱼正常肝胰腺为材料,构建cDNA文库.初始文库库容大于1.3×107 cfu/ml,扩增文库的滴度大于1.1×106cfu/ml,平均插入片段约为1.0 kb.从文库中随机挑选297个cDNA克隆测序,得到232个功能已知EST序列,功能包括代谢、蛋白质合成、细胞与机体防御、信号转导以及细胞结构与运动等5个方面.随机测序获得香鱼弹性蛋白酶(Elastase,ELA)编码序列,cDNA序列全长957个核苷酸,3'-末端具有polyA尾,编码一个由268个氨基酸组成28.7 ku大小蛋白.序列分析表明,香鱼ELA的N端15个氨基酸为信号肽,成熟肽具有丝氨酸蛋白酶家族的典型结构特征.香鱼ELA与斜带石斑鱼、大西洋鳕和金头鲷的ELA氨基酸序列同源性最高,达76%~77%.系统进化树分析表明,香鱼ELA与其他鱼类ELA紧密成簇.RT-PCR检测显示,香鱼ELA基因mRNA在香鱼肝胰腺、脾、肠组织中均大量表达.

  14. Ion microprobe Sr isotope analysis of carbonates with about 5 {mu}m spatial resolution: An example from an ayu otolith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, Yuji [Center for Advanced Marine Research, Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Nakano-ku, Tokyo 164-8639 (Japan)], E-mail: ysano@ori.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Shirai, Kotaro [International Coastal Research Center, Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Otsuchi, Iwate 028-1102 (Japan); Takahata, Naoto; Amakawa, Hiroshi [Center for Advanced Marine Research, Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Nakano-ku, Tokyo 164-8639 (Japan); Otake, Tsuguo [International Coastal Research Center, Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Otsuchi, Iwate 028-1102 (Japan)

    2008-08-15

    A high lateral resolution secondary ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS NS50 ion microprobe) has been used to measure {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios in natural CaCO{sub 3} samples. A {approx}2 nA O{sup -} primary beam was used to sputter a 5-7-{mu}m diameter crater on the sample surface and secondary positive ions were extracted for mass analysis using an accelerating voltage of 8 kV and a Mattauch-Herzog geometry. The multi-collector system was adjusted to detect {sup 43}Ca{sup +} (by a detector EM2), {sup 80}Ca{sub 2}{sup +} (EM3), {sup 86}Sr{sup +} (EM4), and {sup 87}Sr{sup +} (EM4b) ions at the same time. Then the magnetic field was scanned for the EM4 to detect {sup 85}Rb{sup +}, {sup 86}Sr{sup +} and {sup 87}Sr{sup +}, while the EM4b can measure {sup 86}Sr{sup +}, {sup 87}Sr{sup +} and {sup 88}Sr{sup +}, respectively. A mass resolution of 3600 at 10% peak height was attained with a flat peak top, while the sensitivity of Sr was about 10 cps/nA/ppm. An aragonite sample (coral skeleton standard; JCp-1) was used as a reference for Sr isotope ratio calibration. Repeated analyses of the JCp-1 show that the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio agrees well with the seawater signature within a precision of 0.3 per mille at 2{sigma}, after the series of corrections such as the Ca dimer, {sup 87}Rb, and a mass bias estimated by the {sup 88}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio. The method was applied to an otolith (ear-stone) from ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis) collected from the Yodo river, Japan. Although experimental errors are relatively large, up to 3 per mille at 2{sigma}, the ratios of the core region are higher than the seawater signature while more distal values agree well with seawater. The very outermost part again shows the relatively higher {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios. The spatial variation of {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios was consistent with amphidromous migration of the fish, namely, born in the lake and grown in the coastal sea and finally collected in a river.

  15. Seasonal variation of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxides in blood of sweet smelt Plecoglossus altivelis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewsrithong, J; Ushio, H; Ohshima, T

    2001-08-01

    Sweet smelt was reared at two fishery experimental stations for 5 months from June to October. Every 2 weeks blood was collected from the caudal vessels and, subsequently, the phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide contents and the fatty acid compositions in the blood were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography, respectively. The seasonal variation of the contents of accumulated hydroperoxides and fatty acids in the sweet smelt blood were observed in both experimental stations. Sweet smelt started performance of cucumber-like or watermelon-like aroma in the middle of July and the aroma was enhanced in August. The content of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxides and the amount of total fatty acid in the fish blood, in terms of possible precursors of volatile compounds, were also extremely high in the same period. According to lipid peroxidation mechanisms, the strong characteristic aroma of sweet smelt during July to August might be due to the high contents of accumulated lipid hydroperoxides and polyunsaturated fatty acids in their tissues. PMID:11470442

  16. New tetracycline resistance determinant on R plasmids from Vibrio anguillarum.

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, T.; Satoh, T.; Kitao, T.

    1987-01-01

    Two classes of tetracycline resistance determinants on R plasmids were detected in Vibrio anguillarum strains isolated from ayu (sweat fish; Plecoglossus altivelis) farms in Japan. Tetracycline resistance genes categorized as class B were prevalent from 1973 to 1977; however, a new tetracycline resistance gene, which was not classified into tetracycline resistance determinant class A, B, C, or D, has been prevalent since 1981.

  17. Representasi Seksualitas dalam Novel Saman Karya Ayu Utami

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    Rina Patriana Chairiyani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Saman is a literature written by Ayu Utami. Showing a representation of a female counterpart ideology that differs from what has already been made in heterosexual and patriarchal society. The community considers sex is taboo to talk openly. In this novel it is represented openly. Women are no longer in a weak position, and have choices. In this paper, research methodology used is qualitative method.

  18. Servqual Method: Analisis Kualitas Pelayanan Beauty Advisor Sari Ayu Martha Tilaar

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    Ami Widyastuti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa kualitas pelayanan beauty advisor Sari Ayu Martha Tilaar guna meningkatkan kualitas pelayanan pada konsumen. Pengambilan data menggunakan skala kualitas pelayanan yang disusun berdasarkan metode Servqual dari (Parasuraman, dkk., 1988 pada 72 orang konsumen Sari Ayu Martha Tilaar. Sampel diambil dengan menggunakan teknik insidental random sampling. Analisis data menggunakan pengukuran gap 5 dari metode Servqual. Hasil penelitian menemukan ada kesenjangan pelayanan (service gap antara persepsi dan harapan konsumen sebesar -81.09 dimana nilai minus disini berarti, kinerja kerja beauty advisor Sari Ayu Martha Tilaar berada pada kategori rendah. Kesimpulannya, beauty advisor sebagai garda lini depan dalam pemasaran belum bekerja secara optimal.

  19. ISU GENDER PADA TOKOH PEREMPUAN DALAM NOVEL NAYLA KARYA DJENAR MAESA AYU

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    Ruaidah Ruaidah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This writing is done to know how for the gender issues affects the female characters in the novel Nayla of Djenar Maesa Ayu. The effect of inequality will appears subordination and violence against to women. Subordination and violence are events that affects the female characters in the novel Nayla of  Djenar Maesa Ayu. The author tries to raise the position of women from gender inequality. The figure of Nayla tries to find the self-awareness and the existence of gender inequality. Keywords : Gender, subordination, and violenceCopyright © 2012 by Kafa`ah All right reservedDOI : 10.15548/jk.v2i2.54

  20. Konflik Batin Tokoh Utama Dalam Novel Saman Karya Ayu Utami: Pendekatan Psikoanalisis Sigmund Freud

    OpenAIRE

    Saputra, Joko

    2015-01-01

    Psikologi dalam sastra mengandung kejadian-kejadian yang tampak lewat perilaku tokoh-tokohnya. Melalui perilaku tokoh-tokohnya akan tampak konflik batin yang dialami oleh masing-masing tokoh dalam karya sastra. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui konflik batin tokoh utama berdasarkan peristiwa-peristiwa yang dialaminya dalam novel Saman Karya Ayu Utami. Untuk memperoleh hasil tersebut dipergunakan teori psikologi sastra dengan penerapan teori-teori psikoanalisis Sigmund Freud. Metode pe...

  1. The reformasi of Ayu Utami; Attacking the monopoly of the great religions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Steenbrink

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In eight novels, Ayu Utami has presented critical attacks on doctrines and practices of the major religions in Indonesia. The two books, that describe the spiritual struggle of the Catholic priest Saman (1998–2002, call for a religion that is more active in the political arena, but leaves sexual rules to the individual people. The novel Bilangan Fu (2008 condemns the monopoly of the great religions in favour of local and individual spirituality. This is developed in a series of novels of which two more have already appeared. A third cycle of three more or less autobiographic novels (2003–2013 sketch her personal quest from atheism towards a critical but positive spirituality condemning a clerical and monopolist trend in Catholicism. Utami’s criticism of the great religions is external (more players in the field should be recognised and internal (religious leaders should have more modest claims towards their faithful and leave more space for personal choice.

  2. Exposure of a herbivorous fish to 134Cs and 137Cs from the riverbed following the Fukushima disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayu Plecoglossus altivelis, a herbivorous fish, is an important fishery resource and key component of the foodweb in many Japanese streams. Radionuclide contamination of this species is likely transferred to higher trophic levels, include humans, in the food chain. After the Fukushima accident in March 2011, ayu were exposed to highly contaminated silt while feeding on algae attached to the riverbed stones. To understand the route by which herbivorous fish are exposed to radionuclides, the activity concentrations of sum of 134Cs and 137Cs (radiocesium) were analyzed in riverbed samples (algae and silt) and in the internal organs and the muscle of ayu in five river systems in the Fukushima Prefecture between summer 2011 and autumn 2013. Although there was a positive correlation between the radiocesium activity concentrations in the muscle and the internal organs of ayu, the median activity concentration in the muscle was much lower than those in the internal organs. The activity concentrations of radiocesium in the riverbed samples and the internal organs and the muscle of ayu were correlated with contamination levels in soil samples taken from the watershed upstream of the sample sites. The results of the generalized linear mixed models suggest that the activity concentrations in both the internal organs and the muscle of ayu declined over time. Additionally, the activity concentrations in the internal organs were correlated with those in the riverbed samples that were collected around the same time as the ayu. The activity concentrations in the muscle were correlated with ayu body size. Our results suggest that ayu ingest 134Cs and 137Cs while grazing silt and algae from the riverbed, and a part of the 134Cs and 137Cs is assimilated into the muscle of the fish. - Highlights: • The radiocesium (sum of 134Cs and 137Cs) concentrations in a herbivorous fish were measured following the Fukushima disaster. • The muscle concentrations were correlated with, but much

  3. Rhizospheric Microflora Escalating Aroma Constituents and Yield Attributes in Ocimum tenuiflorum (L. cv. CIM-Ayu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpi Khare Saikia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of rhizospheric microbial flora for crop yield enhancement is well established. Rhizospheric microbes influence the plant physiology by imparting several beneficial effects, namely, Nitrogen fixation, increased nutrient uptake, and secondary metabolites production on their host plants. The present study investigates the response of Bacillus megaterium ATCC No. 13525, Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC No. 14581, and Trichoderma viride MTCC No. 167 in alone and combined treatments for their effect on growth and yield parameters in a commercially important Ocimum tenuiflorum L. cv. CIM-Ayu. The plant is therapeutically important for its essential oil constituents, namely, eugenol, β-caryophyllene, and various monoterpenes. The combination treatments, T7 (B. megaterium + P. fluorescens and T8 (B. megaterium + P. fluorescens + T. viride, showed maximum enhancement (27.27% of percentage essential oil as compared to untreated control. Nutrient uptake especially N2 content was significantly increased (43% with the treatment T8 (B. megaterium + P. fluorescens + T. viride. Amongst major essential oil constituents, eugenol content was maximally increased by 58.5% as compared to 42.9% (control indicating a cumulative role of microbial inoculants for crop yield boost-up.

  4. Chronic hydrocarbon exposure of harlequin ducks in areas affected by the Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Paul L.; Schamber, J.L.; Trust, K.A.; Miles, A.K.; Henderson, J.D.; Wilson, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated chronic exposure of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to hydrocarbons associated with the 2004 M/V Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska. We measured levels of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) in liver biopsy samples as an indicator of hydrocarbon exposure in three oiled bays and one reference bay in 2005, 2006, and 2008. Median EROD activity in ducks from oiled bays was significantly higher than in the reference bay in seven of nine pairwise comparisons. These results indicated that harlequin ducks were exposed to lingering hydrocarbons more than three years after the spill.

  5. Euler Pole Determination of the Philippine Sea Plate Relative to the Caroline Plate from Bathymetric Information Collected at Ayu Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H.; Lee, S.

    2010-12-01

    The reconstruction of past positions of continents and oceans is one of the main goals of global tectonic investigations. The relative motion of rigid plate on a sphere can be described in terms of Euler pole, which is normally determined by comparing two pairing sets of magnetic anomalies across divergent boundary. However, in some cases, magnetic anomalies are so subdued that the comparison is practically impossible. The Ayu Trough represents such a case. It is a slow, east-west-spreading mid-ocean ridge that lies between the Caroline and the Philippine Sea plates, but due to its location near the magnetic equator, the exact motion of the two plates cannot be resolved by traditional means of by matching magnetic anomalies at two plates. In this study, we use seafloor topography that was obtained from high-resolution multi-beam bathymetric survey performed earlier to reconstruct the plate motions across the Ayu Trough. Our approach is similar to that outlined by T. Chang (1988) and others over the years but comparing detailed bathymetric information across two plates instead of magnetic anomalies. The comparison of bathymetry not only provided the best fitting Euler pole between Philippine Sea plate and Caroline plate presumably going back to 25 Ma but also the uncertainty associated with this estimate.

  6. Modeling the Potential Spread of the Recently Identified Non-Native Panther Grouper (Chromileptes altivelis)in the Atlantic Using a Cellular Automaton Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew W. Johnston; Sam J Purkis

    2013-01-01

    The Indo-pacific panther grouper (Chromileptes altiveli) is a predatory fish species and popular imported aquarium fish in the United States which has been recently documented residing in western Atlantic waters. To date, the most successful marine invasive species in the Atlantic is the lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles), which, as for the panther grouper, is assumed to have been introduced to the wild through aquarium releases. However, unlike lionfish, the panther grouper is not yet thought...

  7. Status and future perspectives of vaccines for industrialised fin-fish farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudeseth, Bjørn Erik; Wiulsrød, Rune; Fredriksen, Børge Nilsen; Lindmo, Karine; Løkling, Knut-Egil; Bordevik, Marianne; Steine, Nils; Klevan, Are; Gravningen, Kjersti

    2013-12-01

    Fin fish farming is developing from extensive to intensive high industrial scale production. Production of fish in high-density growth conditions requires effective vaccines in order to control persistent and emerging diseases. Vaccines can also have significant positive impact on the reduced usage of antibiotics. This was demonstrated when vaccines were introduced in Norway for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the late eighties and early nineties, resulting in a rapid decline of antibiotics consumption. The present review will focus on current vaccine applications for farmed industrialized fish species such as Atlantic salmon, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis), cod (Gadus morhua), sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilt-head sea bream (Sparus aurata), yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata), great amberjack (Seriola dumerili), barramundi (Lates calcarifer), japanese flounder (Paralichythys olivaceus), turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), red sea bream (Pagrus major), rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus), seven band grouper (Epinephelus septemfasciatus), striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). This paper will review the current use of licensed vaccines in fin fish farming and describe vaccine administration regimes including immersion, oral and injection vaccination. Future trends for inactivated-, live attenuated - and DNA - vaccines will also be discussed.

  8. Status and future perspectives of vaccines for industrialised fin-fish farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudeseth, Bjørn Erik; Wiulsrød, Rune; Fredriksen, Børge Nilsen; Lindmo, Karine; Løkling, Knut-Egil; Bordevik, Marianne; Steine, Nils; Klevan, Are; Gravningen, Kjersti

    2013-12-01

    Fin fish farming is developing from extensive to intensive high industrial scale production. Production of fish in high-density growth conditions requires effective vaccines in order to control persistent and emerging diseases. Vaccines can also have significant positive impact on the reduced usage of antibiotics. This was demonstrated when vaccines were introduced in Norway for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the late eighties and early nineties, resulting in a rapid decline of antibiotics consumption. The present review will focus on current vaccine applications for farmed industrialized fish species such as Atlantic salmon, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis), cod (Gadus morhua), sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilt-head sea bream (Sparus aurata), yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata), great amberjack (Seriola dumerili), barramundi (Lates calcarifer), japanese flounder (Paralichythys olivaceus), turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), red sea bream (Pagrus major), rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus), seven band grouper (Epinephelus septemfasciatus), striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). This paper will review the current use of licensed vaccines in fin fish farming and describe vaccine administration regimes including immersion, oral and injection vaccination. Future trends for inactivated-, live attenuated - and DNA - vaccines will also be discussed. PMID:23769873

  9. Complete genome sequence analysis of two Pseudomonas plecoglossicida phages, potential therapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawato, Yasuhiko; Yasuike, Motoshige; Nakamura, Yoji; Shigenobu, Yuya; Fujiwara, Atushi; Sano, Motohiko; Nakai, Toshihiro

    2015-02-01

    Pseudomonas plecoglossicida is a lethal pathogen of ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) in Japan and is responsible for substantial economic costs to ayu culture. Previously, we demonstrated the efficacy of phage therapy against P. plecoglossicida infection using two lytic phages (PPpW-3 and PPpW-4) (S. C. Park, I. Shimamura, M. Fukunaga, K. Mori, and T. Nakai, Appl Environ Microbiol 66:1416-1422, 2000, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.66.4.1416-1422.2000; S. C. Park and T. Nakai, Dis Aquat Org 53:33-39, 2003, http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao053033). In the present study, the complete genome sequences of these therapeutic P. plecoglossicida phages were determined and analyzed for deleterious factors as therapeutic agents. The genome of PPpW-3 (myovirus) consisted of 43,564 bp with a GC content of 61.1% and 66 predicted open reading frames (ORFs). Approximately half of the genes were similar to the genes of the Escherichia coli phage vB_EcoM_ECO1230-10 (myovirus). The genome of PPpW-4 (podovirus) consisted of 41,386 bp with a GC content of 56.8% and 50 predicted ORFs. More than 70% of the genes were similar to the genes of Pseudomonas fluorescens phage ϕIBB-PF7A and Pseudomonas putida phage ϕ15 (podoviruses). The whole-genome analysis revealed that no known virulence genes were present in PPpW-3 and PPpW-4. An integrase gene was found in PPpW-3, but other factors used for lysogeny were not confirmed. The PCR detection of phage genes in phage-resistant variants provided no evidence of lysogenic activity in PPpW-3 and PPpW-4. We conclude that these two lytic phages qualify as therapeutic agents.

  10. 驼背鲈(Chromileptes altivelis)的胚胎发育及仔、稚、幼鱼形态观察%Developmental and Morphological Characteristics of Embryo, Larval, Juvenile, and Young Fish, Chromileptes altivelis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦淇; 陈超; 李炎璐; 贾瑞锦; 于宏; 梁友; 蔡春有; 庞尊方

    2014-01-01

    Artificial breeding of Chromileptes altivelis is difficult to marine fishing, and related studies on C. altivelis are limited. The present study investigated the embryonic and morphological development of larval, juvenile and young fish of C. altivelis using microscope, anatomical lens and digital camera. The morphological features and the time of development stages were described. The results showed that the embryonic development of C. altivelis was divided into five stages:cleavage stage, blastula stage, gastrula stage, neurula stage, and organogenesis stage. The embryonic development requires 27 h 25 min under the following condition in the sea water at 25−26℃ and salinity of 30. The post embryonic development of C. altivelis was divided into larval stage, juvenile stage and young fish stage based on the features of the yolk-sac, finfold, second dorsal fin spine, pelvic fin spine, scale, and body color. The larval stage was further classified into early larvae and late larvae based on the existence of the yolk-sac or not. The embryos developed into prelarvae in 2 days under water environment with temperature between 22 and 26℃, salinity between 29 and 31, DO≥5 mg/L. The yolk-sac of larvae disappeared and the postlarvae began at day 3. The larvae started to develop to juveniles at day 31. The juveniles completed metamorphosis and became young fish at day 57. The growth and configuration of the second spine of dorsal fin and the first spine of ventral fin were the most obvious changes during early development of C. altivelis. This study provides information for the propagation, seed culture and morphological identification of grouper fish.%对驼背鲈(Chromileptes altivelis)的胚胎发育及仔、稚、幼鱼的形态特征进行了详细的观察与研究,描述了从受精卵到仔、稚、幼鱼各发育期的时间和形态特征变化。结果表明,在水温25−26℃、盐度30的海水中,受精卵历时27 h 25 min完成整个胚胎发育

  11. Modeling the potential spread of the recently identified non-native panther grouper (Chromileptes altivelis in the Atlantic using a cellular automaton approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Johnston

    Full Text Available The Indo-pacific panther grouper (Chromileptes altiveli is a predatory fish species and popular imported aquarium fish in the United States which has been recently documented residing in western Atlantic waters. To date, the most successful marine invasive species in the Atlantic is the lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles, which, as for the panther grouper, is assumed to have been introduced to the wild through aquarium releases. However, unlike lionfish, the panther grouper is not yet thought to have an established breeding population in the Atlantic. Using a proven modeling technique developed to track the lionfish invasion, presented is the first known estimation of the potential spread of panther grouper in the Atlantic. The employed cellular automaton-based computer model examines the life history of the subject species including fecundity, mortality, and reproductive potential and combines this with habitat preferences and physical oceanic parameters to forecast the distribution and periodicity of spread of this potential new invasive species. Simulations were examined for origination points within one degree of capture locations of panther grouper from the United States Geological Survey Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database to eliminate introduction location bias, and two detailed case studies were scrutinized. The model indicates three primary locations where settlement is likely given the inputs and limits of the model; Jupiter Florida/Vero Beach, the Cape Hatteras Tropical Limit/Myrtle Beach South Carolina, and Florida Keys/Ten Thousand Islands locations. Of these locations, Jupiter Florida/Vero Beach has the highest settlement rate in the model and is indicated as the area in which the panther grouper is most likely to become established. This insight is valuable if attempts are to be made to halt this potential marine invasive species.

  12. Modeling the potential spread of the recently identified non-native panther grouper (Chromileptes altivelis) in the Atlantic using a cellular automaton approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Matthew W; Purkis, Sam J

    2013-01-01

    The Indo-pacific panther grouper (Chromileptes altiveli) is a predatory fish species and popular imported aquarium fish in the United States which has been recently documented residing in western Atlantic waters. To date, the most successful marine invasive species in the Atlantic is the lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles), which, as for the panther grouper, is assumed to have been introduced to the wild through aquarium releases. However, unlike lionfish, the panther grouper is not yet thought to have an established breeding population in the Atlantic. Using a proven modeling technique developed to track the lionfish invasion, presented is the first known estimation of the potential spread of panther grouper in the Atlantic. The employed cellular automaton-based computer model examines the life history of the subject species including fecundity, mortality, and reproductive potential and combines this with habitat preferences and physical oceanic parameters to forecast the distribution and periodicity of spread of this potential new invasive species. Simulations were examined for origination points within one degree of capture locations of panther grouper from the United States Geological Survey Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database to eliminate introduction location bias, and two detailed case studies were scrutinized. The model indicates three primary locations where settlement is likely given the inputs and limits of the model; Jupiter Florida/Vero Beach, the Cape Hatteras Tropical Limit/Myrtle Beach South Carolina, and Florida Keys/Ten Thousand Islands locations. Of these locations, Jupiter Florida/Vero Beach has the highest settlement rate in the model and is indicated as the area in which the panther grouper is most likely to become established. This insight is valuable if attempts are to be made to halt this potential marine invasive species. PMID:24009726

  13. The room of the X-rays equipment for Siti Aminah Hospital Bumi Ayu Central Java has been designed to achieve 125 kV and 200 mA capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The room of the X-rays equipment for Siti Aminah Hospital Bumi Ayu Central Java has been designed to achieve 125 kV and 200 mA capacity, so as to provide radiation properly during operation. In order to achieve safe radiation exposure to the operator and patient, analysis and calculation are needed regarding time exposure, distance and shield width as required by radiation standard, procedure and principle. The result of calculation are expected to give exact maximum doses both for operator and patients. The shielding of the room, consist of concrete and Pb. (author)

  14. Ultrastructure of peripheral blood cells of highfin grouper Cromileptes altivelis%驼背鲈血细胞的超微结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静香; 李加儿; 区又君; 王永翠

    2011-01-01

    利用电镜技术对驼背鲈(Cromileptes altivelis)外周血细胞的超微结构进行了研究.结果表明,电镜下可区分6种类型的细胞:红细胞、粒细胞、单核细胞、淋巴细胞、血栓细胞和浆细胞.红细胞呈圆形或椭圆形,可见线粒体、少数囊泡;根据细胞中的颗粒形态大小和细胞核的形态,可将粒细胞分为4种类型:Ⅰ型粒细胞、Ⅱ型粒细胞、Ⅲ型粒细胞和Ⅳ型粒细胞.单核细胞圆形,表面较平整,偶有伪足伸出,空泡多见;淋巴细胞的胞质少,仅在细胞核边缘处形成薄薄的一层,细胞器少;血栓细胞异染色质丰富,沿核膜呈带状分布,胞质中有较多大小不等的空泡和少量的线粒体;浆细胞中粗面内质网成层分布包绕在核周围.此外可见到嗜曙红细胞吞噬红细胞、血栓细胞成群聚集分布的现象.%Using electron microscopy, we studied the ultrastructure of peripheral blood cells of Cromileptes allivelis. Six types of cells ( erythrocyte, granulocyte, monocyte, lymphocyte, thrombocyte and plasma cell) were detected under the electron microscope. Eryth rocyte is round or oval with visible mitochondria and a few vesicles. According to the size, shape of particles and form of nucleus, gran ulocytes can be divided into 4 types: Ⅰ-type granulocyte, Ⅱ-type granulocyte, Ⅲ-type granulocyte and Ⅳ-type granulocyte. Monocyte is round with smooth surface and vacuoles, occasionally holding out pseudopodia. Lymphocyte has a few organelles and little cytoplasm which only forms a thin layer around the nucleolus. Thrombocyte is rich in heterochromatins which distribute zonally along the nuclear membrane. There are many vacuoles at various sizes and a small amount of mitochondria. Rough endoplasmic reticulum distributes hi erarchically around the nucleolus in plasma cell. In addition, erythrocytes could be seen to be phagocytized by eosinophils and throm bocytes gathered in groups.

  15. Morphology and histology of head-kidney and spleen in Cromileptes altivelis%驼背鲈头肾和脾脏的形态组织学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    区又君; 刘江华; 李加儿; 吴水清; 谢木娇

    2015-01-01

    [目的]观察研究驼背鲈(Cromileptes altivelis)头肾和脾脏的组织学结构,以充实该鱼类免疫器官的比较解剖学、组织学等基础资料,为深入研究驼背鲈生物学及其养殖学提供理论依据.[方法]常规采集驼背鲈的头肾和脾脏,经石蜡切片及HE染色后,光学显微镜下观察头肾和脾脏的显微组织结构.[结果]驼背鲈头肾位于食道背面、胸腔内咽退缩肌之上,其外覆盖一层疏松结缔组织性被膜,属于淋巴样实质组织,无肾单位及明显小梁,分为红细胞聚集区和白细胞聚集区,其实质主要由淋巴组织、血管和血窦组成,其间可见黑色素巨噬细胞中心.驼背鲈脾脏位于胃后方、肠的前部背面,表面也覆盖一层较薄的结缔组织性被膜,其实质由红髓和白髓混合排列组成,小梁不明显,含有大量的淋巴细胞、血细胞及粒细胞,有椭圆体和黑色素巨噬细胞中心,脾脏中的动脉、静脉及神经束互相结伴而行.[结论]驼背鲈头肾是机体重要的造血和免疫器官,而脾脏具有很强的血液过滤及储存功能.

  16. MONOGENOIDEA OF CHINESE MARINE FISH Ⅻ.ONE NEW SPECIES OF GENUS NEOHALIOTREMA FROM ABUDEFDUF SP. AND ONE NEW RECORD OF GENUS HALIOTREMA FROM CROMILEPTES ALTIVELIS%中国海水鱼类单殖吸虫研究Ⅻ新海盘虫属一新种及海盘虫属一新记录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海燕; 李桂峰

    2000-01-01

    报道了寄生于豆娘Abudefduf sp.鳃上的新海盘虫属一新种和寄生于驼背鲈Cromileptes altivelis 鳃上的海盘虫属一新记录.双曲片新海盘虫,新种 Neohaliotrema dicurvilamellatum, sp.nov.与Neohaliotrema bychowskii Zhukov,1976相似,但支持器的形态结构不同和交接管量度上有差异.驼背鲈海盘虫Haliotrema cromileptis Young,1968与原始描述相比,除交接管稍长外,其它量度与形态基本一致.

  17. Ayu RBP: molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and its expression in response to salt stress%香鱼RBP基因的克隆、组织表达特征及其与盐度应激相关的表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈强; 赵桐; 史雨红; 陈炯

    2013-01-01

    Plasma retinol binding protein (RBP) is the specific carrier protein transporting retinol from liver to the target tissues in vertebrate plasma.In previous study,RBP in kidney was differently expressed during acclimation from freshwater to brachish water confirmed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.In this study,RBP cDNA was cloned and sequenced for the study of correlation between salt stress and ayu retinol binding protein.Ayu RBP transcripts were determined to be significantly abundant in the liver,and low in the kidney,intestine,brain and gill.RT-qPCR results revealed that ayu RBP mRNA especially in kidney and gill which play vital roles in fish osmoregulation was down-regulated to varying degrees in response to salinity increasing.Western blot analysis showed that the plasma RBP decrased as salinity increased.%血浆视黄醇结合蛋白(Retinol binding protein,RBP)是体内将视黄醇从肝脏转运至靶组织的特异载体蛋白.最近研究发现在盐度升高时肾脏RBP蛋白表达量下降.为了进一步研究香鱼RBP基因mRNA和蛋白表达与盐度应激相关性,从香鱼、肝脏cDNA文库中获得RBP基因cDNA序列.香鱼RBP基因mRNA在肝脏中表达量最高,肾、肠、脑和鳃中表达次之.实时荧光定量RT-PCR结果显示,盐度升高时,RBP基因mRNA表达在不同组织中呈不同下降趋势,其中渗透压调节相关组织鳃、肾中,表达量下降最显著.Western blot实验证实,盐度升高时,香鱼血清RBP蛋白表达量也显著下降.揭示了RBP可能在香鱼盐度适应中有重要作用.

  18. Development of a spatially distributed model of fish population density for habitat assessment of rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Pengzhe; Iwasaki, Akito; Ryo, Masahiro; Saavedra, Oliver; Yoshimura, Chihiro

    2013-04-01

    discharge (MID) was found to be positively correlated to 9 among 16 fish species. For duration of high and low flows (DHF and DLF), longer DHF/DLF was corresponded to lower population density for 7/6 fish species, respectively, such as Rhinogobius kurodai and Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis. Among physical habitat conditions, sinuosity index (SI, the ratio between actual river section length and straight line length) seems to be the most important parameter for fish population density in Sagami River basin, since it affects 12 out of 16 fish species, followed by mean longitudinal slope (S) and number of downstream dams (NLD). Above results demonstrated the applicability of fish distribution model to provide quantitative information on flow conditions required to maintain fish population, which enabled us to evaluate and project ecological consequences of water resource management policy, such as flood management and water withdrawal.

  19. Security about florfenicol used in aquaculture%氟苯尼考用于水产养殖的安全性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐力文; 廖昌容; 刘广锋

    2005-01-01

    氟苯尼考(florfenicol),又称氟甲砜霉素,是一种新型广谱高效抗菌药物,自20世纪90年代初开始应用于水产养殖.1990年氟苯尼考首次在日本上市用于治疗黄尾(鱼师)(Seriola lalandei)、真鲷(Pagrosomus major)、银大马哈鱼(Oncorhynchus kisutch)、日本竹 (荚)鱼(Trachurus japonicus)、虹鳟(Oncorhynchus mykiss)、香鱼(Plecoglossus altivelis)、罗非鱼和鳗鱼等的假结核性巴氏杆菌病(pasteurellosis)和链球菌病(streptococcosis),随后,韩国、挪威、智利、加拿大、英国等分别上市用于治疗专门疾病.中国1999年批准氟苯考尼为国家二类新兽药,在水产养殖上可用于治疗鳗鲡爱德华氏病和赤鳍病.本研究从氟苯尼考抗菌活性与药效学、药代动力学、毒理学、以及药物残留、耐药性等方面探讨其用于水产养殖病害防治的安全性,旨为该药在中国水产养殖中的科学合理应用提供理论参考.

  20. Radiological impact of the nuclear power plant accident on freshwater fish in Fukushima: An overview of monitoring results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Toshihiro; Tomiya, Atsushi; Enomoto, Masahiro; Sato, Toshiyuki; Morishita, Daigo; Izumi, Shigehiko; Niizeki, Kouji; Suzuki, Shunji; Morita, Takami; Kawata, Gyo

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide ((131)I, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs) concentrations of monitored freshwater fish species collected from different habitats (rivers, lakes, and culture ponds) in Fukushima Prefecture during March 2011-December 2014 (total 16 species, n = 2692) were analyzed to present a detailed description of radionuclide contamination after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, and to elucidate species-specific spatiotemporal declining trends of (137)Cs concentration for their respective habitats. Low concentrations of (131)I (≤24 Bq kg(-1)-wet) were detected from only 11 samples collected during March-June 2011, demonstrating that (131)I transferred to freshwater fish were not intense. In river and lake fishes, a more gradual decrease and higher radiocesium ((134)Cs, (137)Cs) concentrations were observed than in culture pond fishes, which strongly implied that radiocesium in freshwater fish species was mainly bioaccumulated through the food web in the wild. During 2011-2014, percentages above the Japanese regulatory limit of 100 Bq kg(-1)-wet for radiocesium in river and lake fish (14.0% and 39.6%, respectively) were higher than in monitored marine fish (9.9%), indicating longer-term contamination of freshwater fish species, especially in lakes. Higher radiocesium concentrations (maximum 18.7 kBq kg(-1)-wet in Oncorhynchus masou) were found in the northwestern areas from the FDNPP with higher deposition. However, radiocesium contamination levels were regarded as 1-2 orders of magnitude less than those after the Chernobyl accident. Lagged increase of (137)Cs concentration and longer ecological half-lives (Teco: 1.2-2.6 y in the central part of Fukushima Prefecture) were observed in carnivorous salmonids (O. masou, Salvelinus leucomaenis), whereas a rapid increase and decrease of (137)Cs concentration and shorter Teco (0.99 and 0.69 y) were found in herbivorous and planktivorous osmerids (Plecoglossus altivelis, Hypomesus nipponensis) with

  1. 瓯江鱼类资源调查及保护对策%INVESTIGATION OF FISH RESOURCES IN THE OUJIANG RIVER AND ITS PROTECTION STRATEGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锋; 赵先富; 赵进勇; 李敏

    2012-01-01

    瓯江是浙江省第二大江,鱼类资源丰富,然而至1972年调查以来,尚未有全面的鱼类资源调查研究。对瓯江干流从上游查田镇至下游海口镇的5个采样点进行了较全面的鱼类调查,共采集鱼类标本1 246尾,隶属于5目14科46属60种。相比1972年调查结果,有34种未采集到,其中包括列入中国濒危动物数据库的4种:中华鲟、鲥、香鱼、花鳗鲡;本次调查结果较1972年调查新增19种,其中外来鱼类2种:莫桑比克罗非鱼、大口黑鲈。在对5个采样点的鱼类组成、群落相似度、优势种组成、生物多样性指数等进行分析后,发现瓯江上游鱼类种类以流水性鱼类为主,且生物多样性较高;中下游鱼类种类组成以静水性鱼类为主,且生物多样性较低。本次调查的每日单船渔获量为4.5kg/(船.d),仅为1972年的25%,鱼类资源衰退严重。最后,对鱼类资源下降的原因进行了分析,并提出了保护对策。%The Oujiang River is the second biggest river in Zhejiang Province and its fish resources are very rich. But comprehensive survey of fish resources has not been made since 1972. We made an investigation of fish resources of the Oujiang River from its upstream (Chatian Town) to the downstream (Haikou Town) in 2010.1 246 fish specimens were collected,which belonged to 5 orders, 14 families,46 genera and 60 spe- cies. Compared to 1972 survey results,34 species were not collected, including 4 species in the database of Chinese endangered animals: Acipenser sinensis , Macrura reevesii , Plecoglossus altivelis and Anguilla marmorata ; and 20 species were new record, including 2 exotic fish species: Tilapia mossarnbica and Mi- cropterus salrnoides. We analyzed community similarity, dominant species composition, biological diversity of five sample sites, and found that the upstream fish community had higher biodiversity than the down- stream. CPUE of this investigation was 4.5 kg

  2. AcEST: BP921825 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Definition sp|Q6AYU1|MO4L1_RAT Mortality factor 4-like protein 1 OS=Rattus norve...nments: (bits) Value sp|Q6AYU1|MO4L1_RAT Mortality factor 4-like protein 1 OS=Rat...tus ... 112 6e-25 sp|Q5NVP9|MO4L1_PONAB Mortality factor 4-like protein 1 OS=Pongo... 108 9e-24 sp|Q6BT38|EA...lated protein EAF3... 92 1e-18 sp|P60762|MO4L1_MOUSE Mortality factor 4-like protein 1 OS=Mus m... 90 4e-18 sp|Q9UBU8|MO4L1_HUMAN Mor...cetyltransferase MYST1 OS=... 42 0.001 >sp|Q6AYU1|MO4L1_RAT Mortality factor 4-like protein 1 OS=Rattus norv

  3. 1981 fisheries statistics, Lake Kariba - Zimbabwe waters

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, B.E.; Mandisodza, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The 1981 statistics of the open water fishery (sardine, Limnothrissa miodon , and tigerfish, Hydrocynus vittatus) and inshore fishery (cichlids, labeoa, mainly L. altivelis , distichoclids, mainly Distichodus schenga , tigerfish, H. vittatus , mormyrids, mainly Mormyrus longirostris and M. deliciosus , and catfish, Clarias gariepinus) in Lake Kariba are presented.

  4. THE HOLDER CONTINUITY OF A CLASS OF 3-DIMENSION ULTRAPARABOLIC EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wendong; Zhang Liqun

    2009-01-01

    We obtained the Cα continuity for weak solutions of a class of ultraparabolic equations with measurable coefficients of the form atu = x(a(x, y, t)axu) + b0(x, y, t)axu + b(x, y, t) ayu,which generalized our recent results on KFP equations.

  5. Anexo 1

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Anexo de la lectura estadística Corpus de nombres femeninos en las tres parcialidades (237) Aba - ya Achino-ma/Chino-ma Ala - maya Ana - maya Anna Aro - rme Acar - ma Ay - cha Ay sa-ma/ Ayssi-ma Ayu-ma Cadco-ma Cama-sea Canca-ma Caqui-ma Cassi-ma Cayla-ma Cissa Cocha-ma Colqui-ma Concha Acussa - na Agua - ya Alu - biça Anca - ma Aqui - ma Ata - ma Auca- rmi Ayra- ma Ayssa-rme Ayu-so Cala-ma Cana-ma Capaco-ma Cara-ma Cassi-maya Cayo Coca Cochi-ta Conado Conega? Acha - ma/Ocha-ma Aha – lla Ana ...

  6. PENGARUH ALELOPATI JONGA-JONGA (Chromolaena odorata) TERHADAP PERKECAMBAHAN DAN PERTUMBUHAN BIJI SENTRO (Sentrosema pubescens)

    OpenAIRE

    mitasari, ayu

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRAK AYU MITA SARI (I211 09 001). Pengaruh Alelopati Jonga-jonga (Chromolaena odorata) terhadap Perkecambahan dan Pertumbuhan Sentro (Centrosema pubescens). Dibawah bimbingan Prof. Dr. Ir.H. Muh. Rusdy, M.Sc sebagai Pembimbing Utama dan Dr. Ir. Budiman Nohong, MP sebagai Pembimbing Anggota. Chromolaena odorata adalah semak yang telah menjadi salah satu gulma darat terburuk invasif di daerah tropis dan subtropis lembab. Chromolaena odorata mengandung protein yang tinggi (21-36...

  7. Pengaruh Strategi Green Cosmetic terhadap Loyalitas Konsumen Sariayu Martha Tilaar (Studi Kasus pada Mahasiswi Ekonomi dan Bisnis USU)

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Risa Saskia

    2015-01-01

    Today, there are a lot of cosmetics sold by using dangerous chemical substances which can be detrimental to their users. Consumers’ awareness of safe cosmetics is a challenge for the company which produces them to apply green cosmetic strategy be presenting cosmetic product made of natural ingredients in order to provide security for consumers. This will eventually make them loyal to using the cosmetics. Sari Ayu is one of the cosmetics which applies green cosmetic strategy in which it offers...

  8. Pharmacovigilance: Boon for the safety and efficacy of ayuvedic formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Chaudhary; Neetu Singh; Neeraj Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance is a corrective process originating in pharmaco-epidemiology. The 1997 Erice Declaration, presented at the World Health Organisation, became the basis on which the concept was implemented internationally for conventional systems of medicine. The increasing international acceptance of Ayurveda, led regulators to implement a similar program for Ayurveda, particularly as some medical professionals, scientists and members of the public reported adverse reactions after taking Ayu...

  9. Pemberian Fikosianin Spirulina Meningkatkan Jumlah Sel Darah, Aktivitas Fagositosis, dan Pertumbuhan Ikan Kerapu Bebek Juvenil (ADMINISTRATION OF SPIRULINA PHYCOCYANIN ENHANCES BLOOD CELLS, PHAGOCYTIC ACTIVITY AND GROWTH IN HUMPBACK GROUPER JUVENILE)

    OpenAIRE

    Woro Hastuti Satyantini; Sukenda .; Enang Harris; Nur Bambang Priyo Utomo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects of Spirulina phycocyanin on the total  blood cell count,phagocytic activity, and growth of humpback grouper fish, Cromileptes altivelis juvenil.  Fishes were fedwith a diet containing   0, 150, 250, 350 dan 450 mg  phycocyanin per kg diet for four weeks and eachtreatment was triplicates.  Initial body weight  of  grouper was  8.46 ± 0.22 g with a density of 10 fish per56 litre volume. The total count of  erythrocytes and leucocytes increased un...

  10. Strategi Peningkatan Pemasaran Sub Terminal Agribisnis Hessa Air Genting Kecamatan Air Batu Kabupaten Asahan

    OpenAIRE

    Piliang, Yetty Fitri Yanti

    2015-01-01

    YETTY FITRI YANTI PILIANG. The Strategy of Marketing Improvement of Hessa Agribusiness Sub-Terminal, Air Genting, Air Batu Subdistrict, Asahan District (Under the Supervision of Ir. Diana Chalil, M.Si, Ph.D (chair) and Sri Fajar Ayu, SP, MM, DBA as the (member) The research was conducted from June, 2012 to February, 2013. The objective of the research was 1) to identify internal and external factors which influenced the role of STA Hessa Air Genting in marketing the product of farmers’ ve...

  11. ANDIR AS A SCARED DANCE AT TISATA VILLAGE, KERAMBITAN, TABANAN REGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Arshiniwati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tariandir in the village Tista is a form of Legong Kraton tarisejenis the Tista community called andir.Strukturkoreografinyasangatdekatdengantarilegongkeraton , tetapitari Andir only flourish in the village Tista Kerambitan.Tari inidifungsikan as guardian and bebali art that in the play always involves Rangda sungsungan society , baikditampilkansebagaibagiandariceritamaupunhanyasebagai " witness " pementasannya . Qualitative research by applying the theory of representation , ideology theory , aesthetic theory , and the theory of semiotics examines the main problems that dance andirsebagai sacred art in the village Tista Kerambitan . The results showed that as the art sakraltari Andir related to : ( 1 the use of equipment ( sacred objects in the form of engagement rangdasungsungan ( Ratu Ayu Lingsir and Ratu Ayu Anom , yangdipercayamemilikikekuatanmagis which dapatmelindungimasyarakatTista ; ( 2 any activity that is carried out is always through a process with the ceremony accompanying the various upakara ; ( 3 the culprit is the elect ( chosen girls who have not experienced puberty and is seen as a dancer who kesenengin chosen and blessed by God ; ( 4 where the play is holy places associated with yadnya ceremony at the local and pretended to be done every 210 days ( every six months in Bali or six times thirty- five days ; ( 5 the play time is the time it was considered kramat (sacred time and associated with yadnyadan ceremony ( 6 community supporters ( who believes that dance is a dance sacred Andir kesakralannya sourced from sungsungan Rangda .

  12. MISCELLANEOUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930610 The retrospective study on the mortalityof 0-4 years old children in five monitoring vil-lages of Baoying County,Jiangsu Province.JI Ji-ayu(季家鈺).Women & Children Health Center,Baoying County,Baoying,225800.Chin RuralHealth Serv Administr 1993;13(3):44-45.According to the monitoring plan laid down bythe Department of Women and Children Affairs,Ministry of Public Health,a basal survey on theacute respiratory infection of the children in thewhole county was engaged.The condition of theretrospective study of the mortality of 0-4 yearsold children in 1990 of 5 monitoring villages(Sishui,Zhangshidang,Wangzhi,Chengjiao andXiaji)was reported and analyzed.There were2227 neonatal live births in 1990.The mortalityof the infants in the 5 monitoring villages was 93

  13. The Forgotten Great War: Viewpoint of a Political Scientist. Book review: Russia in the Great War of 1914-1918. The images and texts / ed. by A. K. Sorokin, A. Yu. Shutov ; auth.-comp. K. M. Anderson, et al. – Moscow : Politicheskaya entsik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankratov Sergey Anatolyevich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This publication is a review of the book Russia in the Great War of 1914-1918. The images and texts, prepared by the team of authors and edited by A.K. Sorokin and A.Yu. Shutov in the context of joint activity of the Russian Society of Political Scientists,Faculty of Political Science of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russian State Archive of Social and Political History. The reviewer characterizes the specifics of the publication which represents an attempt to reveal the atmosphere of the century-old events, semantic plots, images of people and their actions through the photographs from the pages of periodicals, posters and cartoons, leaflets and official documents of the First World War.

  14. FENOMENA SEKS DALAM NOVEL INDONESIA MUTAKHIR KARYA PENGARANG PEREMPUAN: KAJIAN KRITIK SASTRA FEMINIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiyatmi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at describing and understanding (1 homo­sexuality phenomena in the current Indonesian novels, (2 the relationship between homosexuality phenomena with the existence of homosexual community in Indonesia, and(3 the relationship between homosexuality phenomena with feminist school. To achieve these aims, six novels are analyzed. They are (1 Larung by Ayu Utami, (2 Supernova by Dee (Dewi Lestari, (3 Mahadewi Mahadewi (4 Garis Tepi Seorang Lesbian by Herlinatien, (5 Tabularasa by Ratih Kumala, and (6 Dadaisme by Dewi Sartika. The result of the research shows that (1 homosexuality phenomena in the current Indonesian novels are reflected in theme and character problems, (2 these phenomena are related to the existence of homosexual community in Indonesia, whose members already demand that their existence be recognized in society, and (3 these phenomena are related to feminism, especially radical feminism that influences the authors’ creativity.

  15. A review of fish lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tzi Bun; Fai Cheung, Randy Chi; Wing Ng, Charlene Cheuk; Fang, Evandro Fei; Wong, Jack Ho

    2015-01-01

    Lectins have been reported from various tissues of a diversity of fish species including Japanese eel, conger eel, electric eel, bighead carp, gibel carp, grass carp, Arabian Gulf catfish, channel catfish, blue catfish, catfish, pike perch, perch, powan, zebrafish, toxic moray, cobia fish, steelhead trout, Japanese trout, Atlantic salmon, chinook salmon, olive rainbow smelt, rainbow smelt, white-spotted charr, tilapia, blue gourami, ayu, Potca fish, Spanish mackerel, gilt head bream, tench, roach, rudd, common skate, and sea lamprey. The tissues from which the lectins were isolated comprise gills, eggs, electric organ, stomach, intestine, and liver. Lectins have also been isolated from skin, mucus serum, and plasma. The lectins differ in molecular weight, number of subunits, glycosylation, sugar binding specificity and amino acid sequence. Their activities include antimicrobial, antitumor, immunoregulatory and a role in development. PMID:25929869

  16. NOVEL MLANTJARAN KA SASAK: FROM DILLEMATIC TEACHERS TO HUMOROUS ONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Tingkat

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the representation of the image of teachers in the novel entitled Mlantjaran ka Sasak written by Gde Srawana. Using the theory of literary sociology and the theory of representation as the basis of analysis, it was found that teachers were  imaged of being dilemmatic, humanistic idealistic, caring about the Balinese culture, and being humorous. Sociologically, the novel entitled Mlantjaran ka Sasak pictured the life background of the Balinese society during 1930s, indicated by the critical attitude of the intellectuals through I Made Sarati and Ida Ayu Priya, the characters who played a role as teachers, towards the caste feudalism in marriage. Such a critical attitude was expressed in such an inciting way that the ethic and aesthetic values needed to educate society were not neglected.

  17. Kajian Aspek Ketidaksadaran dalam Karya Seni Rupa Indonesia Periode 2000-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Damajanti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pada era seni rupa kontemporer, pembacaan karya tidak lagi hanya terbatas padahasil analisis dan interpretasi unsur-unsur formal, namun juga mempertimbangkanketerkaitannya dengan psikobiografi seniman sehingga dapat memberikan gambaranyang lebih lengkap tentang karakter seni rupa yang multifaset. Penelitian inidirancang untuk mengidentifikasi representasi aspek ketidaksadaran dalam karya senirupa Indonesia dan menginterpretasikan simbol-simbolnya. Seniman yang karyanyadipilih sebagai studi kasus dalam penelitian ini adalah I Gusti Ayu Kadek Murniasih,Entang Wiharso, dan Ugo Untoro. Pendekatan yang digunakan adalah pendekatanmultidisiplin (psikologi seni dan semiotika. Berdasarkan hasil analisis, aspekketidaksadaran yang direpresentasikan melalui simbol-simbol visual yang khas dalamkarya ketiga seniman cenderung lahir dari pengalaman traumatik yang melahirkanketakutan, kesakitan, dan agresi. Melukis bagi ketiganya adalah proses katarsis,media untuk mensublimasikan/memperhalus dorongan-dorongan naluri ketakutan,kesakitan, dan agresi ke dalam bentuk karya yang dapat diterima dan diapresiasidengan baik oleh masyarakat. A Study on Unconsciousness Aspect in the 2000-2011 Works of Indonesia VisualArt. In the era of contemporary visual art, the works of art cannot be read merelylimited to the analysis and interpretation of the formal elements but have to include theconsideration about the artist’s psychobiography so that there will be a more completepicture about the multifaceted visual arts. This research is carried out to identify therepresentation of the unconsciousness aspect in the works of visual arts and then interpretthe symbols. The selected samples are the works of I Gusti Ayu Kadek Murniasih,Entang Wiharso, and Ugo Untoro. The multidisciplinary (art psychology and semioticsapproach is applied within the qualitative method used. Based on the analysis result,the unconsciousness aspect represented in unique visual symbols in the works of

  18. ENERGY OF NOVELS SAMAN, NAYLA, AND PETIR IN LITERARY PUBLISHING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiarti -

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The research was based on the notion that novels Saman, Nayla, and Petir haveuniqueness in the exploration of ideas, narration style, and such typical techniques that creatednew esthetics. Besides, the literary works were written by three creative, innovative andknowledgeable young women who, in expressing their ideas and thoughts, were able to totallyframe story and give energy to the novels Saman, Nayla, and Petir. In the history of Indonesiancontemporary literary works, they (Ayu Utami, Djenar Maesa Ayu, and Dewi Lestari wereknown to have produce monumental works, which in turn received good responses in Indonesianliterature publishing industry.This research is aimed at describing (a thematic aspect and energy of the novels Saman,Nayla and Petir, which encourages literature publishing industry to publish; (b readers’reception of the themes novels Saman, Nayla, and Petir in social and cultural change andpublishing industry; (c relevance of cultural industry and economic praxis of readers, bookmarket and publishing industry of literary history. The research method used was descriptivewith qualitative and hermeneutic approaches. Meanwhile, the data was deeply analyzed in theunderstanding, content, and context. The analysis was conducted in cyclic and counter balancedways to gain deep understanding of writers’ thoughts, readers’ responses to the literary works,and the role of publishing industry with available market prospect. The research was based ontheory of post structuralism, reception, intertext, and cultural industry in literature.The research results showed that (1 thematic aspects and energy of the novels Saman,Nayla, and Petir as a context described women’s concern about social and cultural structure,patriarchy culture, and conflicts between traditional and modern structures. There were vulgarand jumping expressions, contrasting dictions, fantasy and symbolic language, the use of naturalstyle, free narrative, surprising and

  19. Minimum 1D velocity models in Central and Southern Italy: a contribution to better constrain hypocentral determinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Frepoli

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available We computed one-dimensional ( I D velocity models and station corrections for Centrai and Southern Italy, in- verting re-picked P-wave alTival times recorded by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica seismic network. The re-picked data yield resolved P-wave velocity results and proved to be more suited than bulletin data for de- tailed tomographic studies. Using the improved velocity models, we relocated the most significant earthquakes which occurt.ed in the Apennines in the past 7 years, achieving constrained hypocentral determinations for events within most of the Apenninic belt. The interpretation of the obtained lD velocity models allows us to infer interesting features on the deep structure of the Apennines. Smooth velocity gradients with depth and low P-wave velocities are ob,'ierved beneath the Apennines. We believe that our results are effective to constrain hypocentral locations in Italy and may represent a first step towards more detailed seismotectonic analyses.

  20. Molecular phylogenetic relationships of China Seas groupers based on cytochrome b gene fragment sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Shaoxiong; ZHUANG Xuan; GUO Feng; WANG Jun; SU Yongquan; ZHANG Qiyong; LI Qifu

    2006-01-01

    The classification and evolutionary relationships are important issues in the study of the groupers. Cytochrome b gene fragment of twenty-eight grouper species within six genera of subfamily Epinephelinae was amplified using PCR techniques and the sequences were analyzed to derive the phylogenetic relationships of the groupers from the China Seas. Genetic information indexes, including Kimura-2 parameter genetic distance and Ts/Tv ratios, were generated by using a variety of biology softwares. With Niphon spinosus, Pagrus major and Pagrus auriga as the designated outgroups, phylogenetic trees, which invoke additional homologous sequences of other Epinephelus fishes from GenBank, were constructed based on the neighbor-joining (NJ), maximum-parsimony (MP), maximum-likelihood (ML) and minimum-evolution (ME) methods. Several conclusions were drawn from the DNA sequences analysis: (1) genus Plectropomus, which was early diverged, is the most primitive group in the subfamily Epinephelinae; (2) genus Variola is more closely related to genus Cephalopolis than the other four genera; (3) genus Cephalopolis is a monophyletic group and more primitive than genus Epinephelus; (4) Promicrops lanceolatus and Cromileptes altivelis should be included in genus Epinephelus; (5) there exist two sister groups in genus Epinephelus.

  1. Brain Enhancing Ingredients from Āyurvedic Medicine: Quintessential Example of Bacopa monniera, a Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant K. Singh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Āyurveda, the science (ved of life (ayu, owing its origin to Veda, the oldest recorded wisdom of human civilization written in 3500 BCE, contains extensive knowledge of various diseases and their therapeutic approaches. It essentially relied on nature and the immune system of an individual, and therapeutic interventions were introduced only to augment the immune system. Āyurveda had eight specialties, including psycho-neuroscience (a combination of psychology, clinical psychology and psychiatry and a unique promotive therapy encompassing nutrition, rejuvenation and geriatrics. The symptoms of various brain disorders, including memory disorder, were well defined. The goal of Āyurveda was to help an individual to achieve his cherished goal of leading a healthy life of 100 years. To achieve this, great emphasis was laid on nutrition, diet and a good conduct by the two great exponents of Āyurveda viz. Carak and Suśruta. By following these regimens, an individual could lead a less stressful life free from emotional disturbances. Both Carak and Suśruta had believed that these in combination with rasayana (rejuvenating plants could enable an individual to lead a healthy life of 100 years.

  2. A CRITICAL REVIEW ON AYURVEDIC CONCEPT OF AGNIMANDYA (LOSS OF APPETITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Akhilesh Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Human beings, in order to adjust themselves in the modest era, have been compelled to become fast and mechanical. This is the reason why they can’t give proper attention to daily and seasonal regimes, exercise and diet. This change in lifestyle is responsible for replacement of Shad-rasatmak Ahara by preserved and fast foods, bakery products, shift duties (i.e.Ratree jagran, stress. All these factors making them more and more susceptible for diseases generated by Agnimandya. According to them Mandagni is root cause of every disease. Due to this Mandagni Ahara-Pachan Kriya gets affected leading to production of Sama Ahara-Rasa which ultimately causes the Rasa Dhatwagni Mandya and Uttarottar Dhatu remains malnourished. Agni plays the key role in the process of bio-transformation. This is the reason why Ayurvedic Samhitas has given a lot of importance to Agni. The Ayu, Varna, Bala, Swasthya, Utsah, Buddhi, Kanti, Oja, Teja and Prana of human beings mainly depend on the status of Agni, because of this Agni should be kept in its Prakut state.

  3. Spilled Oils: Static Mixtures or Dynamic Weathering and Bioavailability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark G Carls

    Full Text Available Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs from sequestered MV Selendang Ayu oil were biologically available in 2008, 3.6 y after it was spilled along Unalaska Island, Alaska. Thermodynamically driven weathering was the most probable mechanism of organism exposure to PAHs. Alkane and PAH composition in oil changed over time as smaller constituents were preferentially lost, indicative of weathering. In contrast, composition of the largest compounds (biomarkers including triterpanes, hopanes, and steranes remained unchanged. Smaller molecules (the PAHs lost from stranded oil were observed in indigenous mussels and passive samplers deployed in July 2008. Concentration and composition of PAHs were significantly different than in a non-oiled reference area and patterns observed in mussels were repeated in passive samplers deployed in three zones (intertidal, subtidal, and water. Thus, hydrocarbons lost from one compartment (sequestered whole oil were detectable in another (mussels and passive samplers implying aqueous transfer. Quantities of mobile oil constituents were small, yielding uptake concentrations that are likely inconsequential for mussels, but the sensitivity provided by bioaccumulation and passive sampler uptake ensured that dissolved hydrocarbons were detectable.

  4. MORPHO-CHEMICAL DESCRIPTION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT OCIMUM SPECIES

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    KAKARAPARTHI PANDU SASTRY

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Basil is a popular medicinal and culinary herb, and its essential oils have been used extensively for many years in food products, perfumery, dental and oral products. Basil essential oils and their principal constituents were found to exhibit antimicrobial activity against a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, yeast, and mould. The essential oils obtained from aerial parts of three different species of Ocimum comprising twenty one germplasm lines were investigated for their essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity during 2010. Essential oils from seventeen germplasm lines in Ocimum basilicum and two each in Ocimum tenuiflorum and Ocimum gratissimum were investigated for anti-microbial activity against four bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sps., Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The morpho-chemotypes exhibited wide variability for morphological and chemical traits. Anti-bacterial activity was found to be high for Staphylococcus aureus, moderate for Escherichia coli, low for Bacillus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was highly resistant. The essential oils of Pale Green-Broad Leaves (O. basilicum and CIM Ayu (O. gratissimum exhibited significant antibacterial activity against both S. aureus and E. coli signifying them promising for anti-bacterial activity. No relationship was observed between chemotype specificity and anti-bacterial activity, indicating that apart from major components of essential oil, minor components and other factors may be responsible for anti-microbial activities.

  5. UPAYA PENINGKATAN PENGETAHUAN TENTANG OBAT TRADISIONAL DAN PEMANFAATANNYA MELALUI PELATIHAN PADA USILA

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    Herti Maryani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available By The Older People Integrated Health Post under the supervision of health centers, the traditional medicines from medicinal plants could be taught to older people to have benefit for self medication. The use of herbal medicine is prioritized to treat diseases that often occur among older people. This study aimed to enhance the knowledge and use of herbal plants as traditional medicines for older people. Data were collected by training with modul, practice, and talkative. The training were done on June 2007 in Surabaya. The respondents were 29 older persons from Kelurahan Medokan Ayu and Kelurahan South Krembangan, Surabaya city. Pre and post test were done on the knowledge. and practice of use of herbal medicine.The post test on knowledge was done soon after the training, meanwhile the post on practice were done three months after the training. Results showed there was an improvement of knowledge after the training for herbal medicine identification (a= 0.00, advantages of herbal medicine, to treat diseases and how to make traditional medicines (a= 0.04. Moreover, after training the respondents who take advantage of traditional medicinese and variety of herbal medicine are raised. Key words: older people, herbal medicine, training

  6. The English Borrowings and the Indonesian-English Codeswitching in Two Collections of Blog Short-Stories

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    Anna Marietta da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available If one has ever read fiction works by prominent Indonesian authors from 1920‟s Abdul Muis, and Marah Rusli, 1930‟s Sutan Takdir Alisjahbana and Armijn Pane, 1945‟s Chairil Anwar and Achdiat K. Mihardja, 1950-1960‟s Pramoedya Ananta Toer, W. S. Rendra, and N. H. Dini, 1960-1970‟s Taufik Ismail, Goenawan Moehammad, and Sapardi Djoko Darmono, and compared their work with those of the 1990‟s Hilman Sriwijaya and Ayu Utami, and the 2000‟s Hirata, one must have found many differences among the works. More obvious distinction will be discovered if all of the works previously mentioned are contrasted with those of 2000‟s teen writers like Arunita, Mentari, Andries, and recently Dika, especially in terms of style and vocabulary. The most recent teen fictions have employed much colloquial Indonesian or Malay-Betawi dialect (Djenar, 2008, and English lexical items. This study shows that in Dika‟s blog short-stories alone, English borrowings and Indonesian-English code-switching were commonly found. English seems to be the third language after the colloquial and standard Indonesian with which the author thinks

  7. Age determination and validation studies of marine fishes: do deep-dwellers live longer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cailliet, G M; Andrews, A H; Burton, E J; Watters, D L; Kline, D E; Ferry-Graham, L A

    2001-04-01

    Age determination and validation studies on deep-water marine fishes indicate they are difficult to age and often long-lived. Techniques for the determination of age in individual fish includes growth-zone analysis of vertebral centra, fin rays and spines, other skeletal structures, and otoliths (there are three sets of otoliths in most bony fish semicircular canals, each of which is made of calcium carbonate). Most have regular increments deposited as the fish (and its semicircular canals) grows. The most commonly used otolith for age determination is the largest one called the sagitta. Age validation techniques include: (1) tag-recapture, often combined with oxytetracycline injection and analysis in growth-zones of bone upon recapture; (2) analysis of growth-zones over time; and (3) radiometric approaches utilizing a known radioactive decay series as an independent chronometer in otoliths from bony fishes. We briefly summarize previous studies using these three validation approaches and present results from several of our radiometric studies on deep-water, bony fishes recently subjected to expanding fisheries. Radiometric age validation results are presented for four species of scorpaenid fishes (the bank, Sebastes rufus, and bocaccio, S. paucispinis, rockfishes, and two thornyhead species, Sebastolobus altivelis and S. alascanus). In addition, our analysis of scorpaenids indicates that longevity increases exponentially with maximum depth of occurrence. The reason that the deep-water forms of scorpaenid fishes are long-lived is uncertain. Their longevity, however, may be related to altered physiological processes relative to environmental parameters like low temperature, high pressures, low light levels, low oxygen, and poor food resources.

  8. Pemberian Fikosianin Spirulina Meningkatkan Jumlah Sel Darah, Aktivitas Fagositosis, dan Pertumbuhan Ikan Kerapu Bebek Juvenil (ADMINISTRATION OF SPIRULINA PHYCOCYANIN ENHANCES BLOOD CELLS, PHAGOCYTIC ACTIVITY AND GROWTH IN HUMPBACK GROUPER JUVENILE

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    Woro Hastuti Satyantini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate effects of Spirulina phycocyanin on the total  blood cell count,phagocytic activity, and growth of humpback grouper fish, Cromileptes altivelis juvenil.  Fishes were fedwith a diet containing   0, 150, 250, 350 dan 450 mg  phycocyanin per kg diet for four weeks and eachtreatment was triplicates.  Initial body weight  of  grouper was  8.46 ± 0.22 g with a density of 10 fish per56 litre volume. The total count of  erythrocytes and leucocytes increased until the fourth week of rearingperiod. The highest of total erythrocyte and leucocytes were observed in fish treated with 150 mg phycocyaninper kg diet ( 13.17 x  105 cells/mm3 and 8.93 x 105 cells/mm3 respectively which were not significantlydifferent (P>0.05 to those treated with 250 mg phycocyanin per kg diet. The total leucocytes and phagocyticactivity of fish fed diet containing  250 mg phycocyanin  per kg diet (8.49 x 105 cells/mm3 and 59.67%respectively were significantly higher  (P <0.05 to those of control group. The highest of final weight(Wt=14.32 g and weight growth (G=5.89g and lowest of feed conversion ratio (FCR=1.13 were obtainedin fish treated with  250 mg phycocyanin per kg diet which were  significantly  higher  (P <0.05 than thosefed control diet. The data showed that  the addition of  phycocyanin 250 mg/kg diet enhances the totalleukocyte count, phagocytic activity and the growth of humpback grouper juvenil.

  9. Interior structure models, Fe/Si ratio and parameters of figure for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkov, V. N.; Gudkova, T. V.

    2000-01-01

    A set of global interior structure models for Mars, which agree with the Mars Pathfinder (MPF) value of the mean moment of inertia factor is constructed. The models are obtained by combining the crust models of Babeiko and Zharkov [Babeiko, A.Yu., Zharkov, V.N., 1997. Mineralogical composition and seismic model of the Martian crust. Sol. Syst. Res. 31, 361-368; Babeiko, A.Yu., Zharkov, V.N., 1998. Density and seismic profiles of the Martian crust in the event of an extra-low temperature gradient. Sol. Syst. Res. 32, 14-16] with the model Martian mantle of Bertka and Fei [Bertka, C.M., Fei, Y., 1996. A profile of Martian mantle mineralogy and density up to core-mantle boundary pressures. Lunar Planet. Sci. XXVII, 107-108; Bertka, C.M., Fei, Y., 1997. Mineralogy of the Martian interior up to core-mantle boundary pressures. J. Geophys. Res. 102, 5251-5264.] and the core model of Zharkov [Zharkov, V.N., 1996. The internal structure of Mars: a key to understanding the origin of terrestrial planets. Sol. Syst. Res. 30, 456-465]. The models of the crust are constructed by numerical thermodynamic simulation by using the compositions of basaltic SNC meteorites. The model Martian mantle is based on mineral physics data obtained by recent high pressure experiments. These laboratory measurements were carried out by Bertka and Fei (1997) along a model marstherm up to core pressures of Mars using mineral mixtures with the cosmochemical composition proposed by Dreibus and Wänke [Dreibus, G., Wänke, H., 1989. Supply and loss of volatile constituents during the accretion of terrestrial planets. In: Atreya, S.K., Pollack, J.B., Matthews, M.S. (Eds.), Origin and Evolution of Planetary and Satellite Atmospheres. Univ. Arizona Press, pp. 268-288.] and Wänke and Dreibus [Wänke, H., Dreibus, G., 1994. Chemistry and accretion history of Mars. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 349, 285-293.] (DW composition). The model of the core is also constructed for this composition, but the fact that

  10. RADARSAT-1 synthetic aperture radar analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The M/V Selendang Ayu grounded off Unalaska Island in Alaska on December 8, 2004, and spilled over 1270 m3 of oil and an unknown quantity of soybeans. The freighter grounded nearshore in a high-wave energy zone along a remote and rugged coastline, a terrain which can cause difficulties for remote sensors in detecting oil slicks. In addition, guano, kelp beds, whale and fish sperm, and releases from fishing activities generated biogenic films on the sea surface that had a signature similar to that of petroleum films. RADARSAT-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery was used as part of the response effort to assist in the pollution monitoring effort. This paper described the methodology and results of the RADARSAT-1 analysis. Detailed information on the spill response was reported daily, and provided an opportunity to compare field observations with RADARSAT-1 SAR imagery. Observers recorded observations onto electronic maps during 35 aerial surveillance flights. Fifty-seven incident reports describing the vessel status were also used for comparison. Using screening criteria for the favorable wind and wave conditions, 37 images were available for viewing the wreck, and 22 images were acceptable for oil slick viewing. Image analysis for the wreck suggested that the sensor has the resolution and capability to monitor a grounded freighter. Visual inspection of the images showed that SAR can capture changes in vessel status, such as the gradual sinking of the bow. However, SAR's oil slick detection capability was disappointing due to the significant number of biogenic films in the nearshore areas of Alaska. It was concluded that future work should concentrate on developing a ranking system to indicate analysis confidence that a particular image does in fact contain a petroleum pocket. 25 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

  11. RADARSAT-1 synthetic aperture radar analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simecek-Beatty, D. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminstration, National Ocean Service, Seattle, WA (United States). Office of Response and Restoration; Pichel, W.G. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service, Camp Springs, MD (United States). Office of Research and Applications

    2006-07-01

    The M/V Selendang Ayu grounded off Unalaska Island in Alaska on December 8, 2004, and spilled over 1270 m{sup 3} of oil and an unknown quantity of soybeans. The freighter grounded nearshore in a high-wave energy zone along a remote and rugged coastline, a terrain which can cause difficulties for remote sensors in detecting oil slicks. In addition, guano, kelp beds, whale and fish sperm, and releases from fishing activities generated biogenic films on the sea surface that had a signature similar to that of petroleum films. RADARSAT-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery was used as part of the response effort to assist in the pollution monitoring effort. This paper described the methodology and results of the RADARSAT-1 analysis. Detailed information on the spill response was reported daily, and provided an opportunity to compare field observations with RADARSAT-1 SAR imagery. Observers recorded observations onto electronic maps during 35 aerial surveillance flights. Fifty-seven incident reports describing the vessel status were also used for comparison. Using screening criteria for the favorable wind and wave conditions, 37 images were available for viewing the wreck, and 22 images were acceptable for oil slick viewing. Image analysis for the wreck suggested that the sensor has the resolution and capability to monitor a grounded freighter. Visual inspection of the images showed that SAR can capture changes in vessel status, such as the gradual sinking of the bow. However, SAR's oil slick detection capability was disappointing due to the significant number of biogenic films in the nearshore areas of Alaska. It was concluded that future work should concentrate on developing a ranking system to indicate analysis confidence that a particular image does in fact contain a petroleum pocket. 25 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  12. Revitalisasi Kearifan Lokal dalam Masyarakat Multikultural di Kecamatan Lingsar, Lombok Barat, NTB

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    Ahmad Sodli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on topat war which exists in Lingsar sub District West Lombok. This tradition still becomes guidance for the residents. Questions of this research are, how the revitalization of local tradition named topat war is empowered by communities as a way to integrate them, and what are the supporting factors of it? This is a qualitative research. Data were gathered using interview, observation, and documentary research. Result of this study depicts that there are many steps of topat war, namely cleaning of holy weapons and hereditary articles, making tetaring, a tent made of coconut leaf and bamboo, remember day of the death of KH. Abdul Malik, KH. Abdul Rouf, and Hj. R. Ayu Dewi Anjani, remembering the way of KH.Abdul Malik, slaughtering buffalo for dish service, conducting topat war. This topat war has been seen as a way of community’s integration in many aspects, for instance in remembering the way of KH.Abdul Malik, animal used, and the origin of topat. This tradition has been guarded because  it is a way to glue harmony among believers. Keywords : Tradition, Topat War, Religius, Harmony

  13. Prognosis of efficacy of post-operation treatment of metastatic brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyatikop V.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metastatic affection of brain by its prevalence, medical and social importance, economical burden represents a topical medical problem in neurosurgery and adjacent medical specialties. Objective – optimization of prognosis for post-operation metastatic brain tumors treatment efficacy. Methods. An active cohort randomized research with retro- and prospective, cross-sectional and longitude components has been conducted in 176 patients, including 96 males and 80 females aged 56 years with adenocarcinoma (152, melanoblastoma (21 and sarcoma (3, derived from lungs (39, breast (34, skin (25 kidneys (9, digestive tract (11, ovary and uterus (by 4 each, thymus (2, nasopharynx, pronaus (by 1 each. Standard basic diagnostic and treatment procedures have been performed. P-level critical value was 0.05. Results. Discriminant models of post-operation tactics choice, prognostic algorithm of unfavorable outcome evaluation after treatment have been developed. The approbation of the algorithm allowed to state its sensitivity (69.2 %, specificity (95.2 %, positive predicting value (75.0 %, negative predicting value (93.7 %. Conclusion. For the purpose of widening of arsenal of available decision-making means for further treatment tactics in metastatic brain tumors after conducted neurosurgical treatment the use of developed discriminant models is recommended. The risk of unfavorable outcome and efficacy of combined treatment prognosis for patients with metastatic brain tumors are recommended to assess using the developed prognostic algorithm. Citation: Pyatikop VA, Al-Trawneh MA, Buryan AV, Gavryushkin AYu, Marchenko AE, Posokhov NF, Starenkiy VP. [Prognosis of efficacy of post-operation treatment of metastatic brain tumors]. Morphologia. 2016;10(2:69-76. Russian.

  14. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of TRAF6 in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Wei; Li, Xia; Xiao, Xi-Xi; Zhao, Fei; Luo, Xiao-Chun; Dan, Xue-Ming; Li, An-Xing

    2014-05-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is a crucial signal transducer in both the TNFR superfamily and Toll-like receptor/interleukin 1R family. Although significant progress has been made in clarifying the role of TRAF6 in mammals, the function of TRAF6 in fish is still poorly understood. In this study, we cloned the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) TRAF6 (EcTRAF6) cDNA, with an open reading frame of 1713bp encoding 570 amino acids. Sequence analysis indicated that EcTRAF6 contains the four characteristic domains conserved in the TRAF family, including an N-terminal RING finger, two zinc fingers, a coiled-coil domain, and a C-terminal MATH domain. Homology alignment and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that EcTRAF6 shares high sequence identity with TRAF6 of other fish species. The EcTRAF6 gene contains seven exons and six introns, which is similar to the organization in ayu, but not in the common carp, human, or mouse (six exons and five introns). EcTRAF6 transcripts were broadly expressed in all tissues tested, and increased after infection with Cryptocaryon irritans. Intracellular localization showed EcTRAF6 was distributed mainly in the cytoplasm. Over-expression of wild type (WT) EcTRAF6, truncated forms of EcTRAF6, including ΔZinc finger 2 and ΔMATH, and a mutant of C78A activated NF-κB strongly in HEK293T cells; whereas truncations, including ΔRING, ΔZinc finger 1 and Δcoiled-coiled, and a mutant of K132R induced the activity of NF-κB slightly compared to WT EcTRAF6, implying the latter has a more crucial role in downstream signal transduction. Together, these results suggested EcTRAF6 functions like that of mammals to activate NF-κB, and it might have an important role in host defense against parasitic infections.

  15. Comparative evaluation of the biological properties of bone bioimplants Tutoplast® and bioactive ceramic material "Syntekost" when implanted in the middle ear in the experiment

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    Kravchenko S.V.

    2014-09-01

    were formed. In none of the experimental cases after implanting of this material into the tympanic bullae of guinea pigs inflammation was observed which may have led to suppuration or ototoxic effects on the structures of the inner ear. Conclusion. The experimental studies showed that the transformation of bone implant Tutoplast® occurred more actively and to a greater extent than that of bioactive ceramic material "Sintekost". In none of the experimental cases after implanting this material into the tympanic bullae of guinea pigs inflammation was observed. Citation: Kravchenko SV, Zaporoschenko AYu, Savitskaya IM. [Comparative evaluation of the biological properties of bone bioimplants Tutoplast® and bioactive ceramic material "Syntekost" when implanted in the middle ear in the experiment]. Morphologia. 2014;8(3:35-41. Russian.

  16. Ground-based simulation of the Earth's upper atmosphere oxygen impact on polymer composites with nanosized fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, Lev; Chernik, Vladimir; Voronina, Ekaterina; Chechenin, Nikolay; Samokhina, Maria S.; Bondarenko, Gennady G.; Gaidar, Anna I.; Vorobyeva, Ekaterina A.; Petrov, Dmitrii V.; Chirskaya, Natalia P.

    under AO impact [2,4]. REFERENCES 1. K.B. Vernigorov, A.Yu. Alent'ev, A.M. Muzafarov, L.S. Novikov, V.N. Chernik. J. Surf. Ingestig.-X-Ray Synchro. 5, 263 (2011). 2. E.N. Voronina, L.S. Novikov, V.N. Chernik, et al. Inorg. Mat.: Appl. Res. 3, 95 (2012). 3. N.G. Chechenin, P.N. Chernykh, E.A. Vorobyeva, O.S. Timofeev. Appl. Surf. Science, 275, 217-221 (2013). 4. E.N. Voronina, L.S. Novikov. RSC Adv., 2013, 3 (35), 15362.

  17. Outcaste by Choice: Re-Genderings in a Short Story by Oka Rusmini

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    Harry Aveling

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ida Ayu Oka Rusmini is a major contemporary Indonesian author. She has published two novels, Tarian Bumi (2000 and Kenanga (2003a, a collection of short stories, (Sagra, 2001, and a volume of poetry, Patiwangi (2003b, republished in 2007 as Warna Kita, with the omission of some 12 poems. Born in Jakarta in 1967 of Balinese parents, she was a member of the highest Balinese caste, the brahmana caste, but renounced this status, including her title, after her marriage to the East Javanese essayist and poet Arif B. Prasetyo. Oka Rusmini is a graduate of the Indonesian Studies Department, Udayana University, and lives in Den Pasar where she works as a journalist for the Bali Post. Most of Oka Rusmini’s prose works explore the constraints into which the socioreligious practices of caste place all members of society, but most especially women. Both of her novels tell of a woman’s abandonment of her brahmin caste status as the result of her marriage to a sudra. The title of the poetry book, Patiwangi, refers to the ritual practice by which this degradation is confirmed, and the poem which gives the book its title bears the footnote: ‘Patiwangi: pati = death; wangi = fragrant. Patiwangi is a ritual that is performed on a noble women in her Village Temple to remove her noble status as a consequence of having married a man of a lower caste. The ritual often has a serious psychological impact on noble women’ (107. In both novels, and many short stories and poems, their loss of status brings enormous scorn and hardship to the major woman characters. Nevertheless, as we shall see, stepping outside patriarchally-dominated caste ties may also provide an ambiguous freedom for any woman who is positioned to take advantage of the opportunities which the modern, potentially secular, nation state of Indonesia, offers her. In this paper, I am interested in the way in which the short story, ‘Cenana’ (Sagra, 270-318, uses a traditional myth to deal

  18. EDITORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ayu Made Suartika

    2014-07-01

    architect. Dinar studies the stilt houses of Loloan community, Jembrana, Bali. She underlines that the form of stilt houses has changed over time in line with various elements including socio-cultural aspects, economic factors, building age, land availability, and occupants' preferences. The sixth article is written by I Nengah Riana, Widiastuti, and Ida Bagus Gde Primayatna, academic staff from the Department of Civil Engineering, National University (Bali and the Department of Architecture, Udayana University. It examines the conversion of green open spaces, a major problem in Denpasar. The seventh paper is authored by Gusti Ayu Made Suartika. It examines the relevance of multi storey housing in fulfilling the need for affordable houses by low income urban dwellers in Indonesia. Finally, a big thank you to all our contributors, editorial board, production team and publishing staff who have worked faithfully to bring the journal RUANG- SPACE into being.