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Sample records for ayu plecoglossus altivelis

  1. Population Genetic Structure and Evidence of Demographic Expansion of the Ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis in East Asia

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    Ye-Seul Kwan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Plecoglossus altivelis (ayu is an amphidromous fish widely distributed in Northeastern Asia from the East China Sea to the northern Japanese coastal waters, encompassing the Korean Peninsula within its range. The shore lines of northeastern region in Asia have severely fluctuated following glaciations in the Quaternary. In the present study, we investigate the population genetic structure and historical demographic change of P. altivelis at a population level in East Asia. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA based on 244 mitochondrial control region DNA sequences clearly showed that as the sampling scope extended to a larger geographic area, genetic differentiation began to become significant, particularly among Northeastern populations. A series of hierarchical AMOVA could detect the genetic relationship of three closely located islands between Korea and Japan that might have been tightly connected by the regional Tsushima current. Neutrality and mismatch distribution analyses revealed a strong signature of a recent population expansion of P. altivelis in East Asia, estimated at 126 to 391 thousand years ago during the late Pleistocene. Therefore it suggests that the present population of P. altivelis traces back to its approximate demographic change long before the last glacial maximum. This contrasts our a priori expectation that the most recent glacial event might have the most crucial effect on the present day demography of marine organisms through bottleneck and subsequent increase of effective population size in this region.

  2. Molecular characterization of an IL-1β gene from ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin-Jiang; Chen, Jiong; He, Yu-Qing; Shi, Yu-Hong

    2013-05-01

    IL-1β plays a crucial role as a prototypical proinflammatory cytokine in immune responses and has been shown to affect macrophage functions. However, the effects of putative IL-1β homologs on fish macrophages are still less known. Here, we cloned the full-length cDNA sequence of IL-1β (aIL-1β) gene from ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that aIL-1β was closest to that of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed that aIL-1β transcript was mainly expressed in spleen, head kidney and gill, and dramatically increased in various tissues after Listonella anguillarum infection. Subsequently, aIL-1β was prokaryotic expressed and purified to prepare anti-aIL-1β antibody. After L. anguillarum challenge, the aIL-1β mRNA and protein levels were significantly up-regulated in ayu monocytes/macrophages. Moreover, aIL-1β neutralization did not change phagocytic capability, but reduced bacterial killing capability in ayu head kidney-derived monocytes/macrophages. Therefore, aIL-1β may play an important role in immune response of ayu, especially, contributing to bacterial killing of monocytes/macrophages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Differential expression and localization of four connexins in the ovary of the ayu (Plecoglossus Altivelis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Yoshizaki, G.; Takeuchi, T.; Soyano, K.; Itoh, F.; Patino, R.

    2007-01-01

    The post-vitellogenic oocytes of teleost fish are generally unresponsive to maturation-inducing hormone (MIH) until a luteinizing hormone (LH) surge stimulates sensitivity via the acquisition of oocyte-maturational competence (OMC). Heterologous gap junctions (GJs) between granulosa cells and the oocyte have been previously implicated in the regulation of oocyte maturation in various vertebrate species. Although heterologous GJ are present in ovarian follicles of ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis), their role in maturation remains unclear. In the present study, we cloned and characterized complementary DNAs for GJ protein connexin (Cx), and examined the expression pattern of Cx messenger RNAs in the ayu ovary. Four Cx cDNAs with predicted molecular masses of 32.1 (Cx32.1), 34.9 (Cx34.9), 44.1 (Cx44.1), and 44.2 (Cx44.2) kDa, respectively, were cloned. Northern blot analysis revealed that the levels of Cx44.1 and Cx44.2 transcripts were similar during the vitellogenic and ovulatory stages. Cx32.1 transcripts were more abundant during the vitellogenic stage, but their levels declined thereafter. Cx34.9 transcript levels increased during the vitellogenic stage and remained high during the acquisition of OMC. In situ hybridization revealed that Cx44.1 and Cx44.2 signals were restricted to the oocyte, whereas the Cx32.1 and Cx34.9 signals were detected in both cellular fractions. Furthermore, a dye-transfer assay revealed the presence of functional GJs between the oocytes and follicle cells. These results suggest that Cx34.9 contributes to the formation of heterologous GJs between oocytes and granulosa cells. Moreover, GJs formed by Cx34.9 may function during the LH-dependent acquisition of OMC and the MIH-dependent resumption of meiosis in ayu. ?? 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Characterization of P2X7R and its function in the macrophages of ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis.

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    Yu-Qing He

    Full Text Available P2X purinoceptor 7 (P2X7R, an ATP-gated ion channel, plays an important role during the innate immune response in mammals. However, relatively little is known about the role of P2X7R in the fish immune system. Here, we cloned a cDNA sequence encoding ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis P2X7R (aP2X7R. The predicted protein was composed of 574 amino acid residues with a P2X family signature, two transmembrane domains, and a long C-terminal. aP2X7R transcripts were mainly distributed in ayu immune tissues and significantly increased in all tested tissues and in macrophages after Listonella anguillarum infection. The aP2X7R protein was upregulated significantly in macrophages upon bacterial challenge. An antibody against the ectodomain of aP2X7R (aEPAb and an antagonist (oATP were used to block aP2X7R. aP2X7R siRNA was also used to knockdown the receptor expression in ayu macrophages. Cell death induced by ATP was significantly inhibited in ayu macrophages after aEPAb, oATP, or siRNA treatment. Moreover, aP2X7R ablation also resulted in suppression of phagocytic activity and ATP-induced bacterial killing in ayu macrophages. Our results indicated that aP2X7R was upregulated after infection and mediated cell death, phagocytosis, and bacterial killing of ayu macrophages.

  5. Characterization of P2X7R and its function in the macrophages of ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu-Qing; Chen, Jiong; Lu, Xin-Jiang; Shi, Yu-Hong

    2013-01-01

    P2X purinoceptor 7 (P2X7R), an ATP-gated ion channel, plays an important role during the innate immune response in mammals. However, relatively little is known about the role of P2X7R in the fish immune system. Here, we cloned a cDNA sequence encoding ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) P2X7R (aP2X7R). The predicted protein was composed of 574 amino acid residues with a P2X family signature, two transmembrane domains, and a long C-terminal. aP2X7R transcripts were mainly distributed in ayu immune tissues and significantly increased in all tested tissues and in macrophages after Listonella anguillarum infection. The aP2X7R protein was upregulated significantly in macrophages upon bacterial challenge. An antibody against the ectodomain of aP2X7R (aEPAb) and an antagonist (oATP) were used to block aP2X7R. aP2X7R siRNA was also used to knockdown the receptor expression in ayu macrophages. Cell death induced by ATP was significantly inhibited in ayu macrophages after aEPAb, oATP, or siRNA treatment. Moreover, aP2X7R ablation also resulted in suppression of phagocytic activity and ATP-induced bacterial killing in ayu macrophages. Our results indicated that aP2X7R was upregulated after infection and mediated cell death, phagocytosis, and bacterial killing of ayu macrophages.

  6. Role of gap junctions and protein kinase A during the development of oocyte maturational competence in Ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Yoshizaki, G.; Takeuchi, T.; Soyano, K.; Patino, R.

    2008-01-01

    Meiotic resumption in teleost oocytes is induced by a maturation-inducing hormone (MIH). The sensitivity of oocytes to MIH, also known as oocyte maturational competence (OMC), is induced by LH via mechanisms that are not fully understood. A previous study of Ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) showed the presence of functional heterologous gap junctions (GJs) between oocytes and their surrounding granulosa cells. The objectives of this study were to determine the role of ovarian GJs and of protein kinase A (PKA) during the acquisition of OMC. We examined the effects of the specific GJ inhibitor carbenoxolone (CBX) and 18??-glycyrrhetinic acid (??-GA) on the LH-(hCG)-dependent acquisition of OMC and on MIH-(17,20??-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one)-dependent meiotic resumption; measured the cAMP content of ovarian follicles during the hCG-dependent acquisition of OMC; and determined the effects of PK activators and inhibitors on hCG-dependent OMC. Production of follicular cAMP increased during the hCG-dependent acquisition of OMC. Both GJ inhibitors and the PKA inhibitor H8-dihydrochloride, but not the PKC inhibitor GF109203X, suppressed the hCG-dependent acquisition of OMC in a dose-dependent manner. The PKA activator forskolin induced OMC with a similar potency to hCG. Unlike previous observations with teleosts where disruption of heterologous GJ either blocks or stimulates meiotic resumption, treatment with GJ inhibitors did not affect MIH-dependent meiotic resumption in maturationally competent follicles of Ayu. These observations suggest that ovarian GJs are essential for LH-dependent acquisition of OMC but not for MIH-dependent meiotic resumption, and that the stimulation of OMC by LH is mediated by cAMP-dependent PKA. They are also consistent with the view that a precise balance between GJ-mediated signals (positive or negative) and oocyte maturational readiness is required for hormonally regulated meiotic resumption. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular Characterization of E-Type Prostanoid Receptor 4 (EP4 from Ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis and Its Functional Analysis in the Monocytes/Macrophages.

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    Ye-Jing Rong

    Full Text Available Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 plays an important role in a broad spectrum of physiological and pathological processes by interacting with E-type prostanoid receptors (EPs. EP4 is one of four EP subtypes known to mediate the immune response in mammalian monocytes/macrophages. However, the precise function and characteristics of EP4 in fish remain unclear. In this study, we characterized a novel EP4-like (PaEP4L gene from ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis. The cDNA sequence of PaEP4L is 2781 nucleotides (nts in length, encoding a polypeptide of 459 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 51.17 kDa. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that PaEP4L shared 76% amino acid identity with that of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar. PaEP4L mRNA was detected by real-time quantitative PCR (QPCR in all tested tissues and head kidney-derived monocytes/macrophages (MO/MФ. It varied greatly in liver, spleen and MO/MФ upon Vibrio anguillarum infection. Western blot analysis revealed a significant increase of PaEP4L in cell homogenates from ayu MO/MФ upon V. anguillarum infection. Moreover, anti-PaEP4L IgG reversed the down-regulation of interleukin 1β (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α mRNA expression as well as phagocytosis in ayu MO/MФ caused by PGE2. There were no significant differences in the respiratory burst response between PGE2 treated and untreated cells. We further found that cAMP mediated PGE2/PaEP4L signal in ayu MO/MФ. In conclusion, our results indicate that PaEP4L mediates PGE2 effects on ayu MO/MФ function, revealing that EP4 also plays a role in the modulation of cells of the fish's innate immune system.

  8. Assessing carcinogenic risks associated with ingesting arsenic in farmed smeltfish (Ayu, Plecoglossus altirelis) in aseniasis-endemic area of Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.-J.; Jang, C.-S.; Liang, C.-P.; Liu, C.-W.

    2008-01-01

    This study spatially analyzed potential carcinogenic risks associated with ingesting arsenic (As) contents in aquacultural smeltfish (Plecoglossus altirelis) from the Lanyang Plain of northeastern Taiwan. Sequential indicator simulation (SIS) was adopted to reproduce As exposure distributions in groundwater based on their three-dimensional variability. A target cancer risk (TR) associated with ingesting As in aquacultural smeltfish was employed to evaluate the potential risk to human health. The probabilistic risk assessment determined by Monte Carlo simulation and SIS is used to propagate properly the uncertainty of parameters. Safe and hazardous aquacultural regions were mapped to elucidate the safety of groundwater use. The TRs determined from the risks at the 95th percentiles exceed one millionth, indicating that ingesting smeltfish that are farmed in the highly As-affected regions represents a potential cancer threat to human health. The 95th percentile of TRs is considered in formulating a strategy for the aquacultural use of groundwater in the preliminary stage

  9. Ion microprobe Sr isotope analysis of carbonates with about 5 {mu}m spatial resolution: An example from an ayu otolith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, Yuji [Center for Advanced Marine Research, Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Nakano-ku, Tokyo 164-8639 (Japan)], E-mail: ysano@ori.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Shirai, Kotaro [International Coastal Research Center, Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Otsuchi, Iwate 028-1102 (Japan); Takahata, Naoto; Amakawa, Hiroshi [Center for Advanced Marine Research, Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Nakano-ku, Tokyo 164-8639 (Japan); Otake, Tsuguo [International Coastal Research Center, Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Otsuchi, Iwate 028-1102 (Japan)

    2008-08-15

    A high lateral resolution secondary ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS NS50 ion microprobe) has been used to measure {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios in natural CaCO{sub 3} samples. A {approx}2 nA O{sup -} primary beam was used to sputter a 5-7-{mu}m diameter crater on the sample surface and secondary positive ions were extracted for mass analysis using an accelerating voltage of 8 kV and a Mattauch-Herzog geometry. The multi-collector system was adjusted to detect {sup 43}Ca{sup +} (by a detector EM2), {sup 80}Ca{sub 2}{sup +} (EM3), {sup 86}Sr{sup +} (EM4), and {sup 87}Sr{sup +} (EM4b) ions at the same time. Then the magnetic field was scanned for the EM4 to detect {sup 85}Rb{sup +}, {sup 86}Sr{sup +} and {sup 87}Sr{sup +}, while the EM4b can measure {sup 86}Sr{sup +}, {sup 87}Sr{sup +} and {sup 88}Sr{sup +}, respectively. A mass resolution of 3600 at 10% peak height was attained with a flat peak top, while the sensitivity of Sr was about 10 cps/nA/ppm. An aragonite sample (coral skeleton standard; JCp-1) was used as a reference for Sr isotope ratio calibration. Repeated analyses of the JCp-1 show that the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio agrees well with the seawater signature within a precision of 0.3 per mille at 2{sigma}, after the series of corrections such as the Ca dimer, {sup 87}Rb, and a mass bias estimated by the {sup 88}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio. The method was applied to an otolith (ear-stone) from ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis) collected from the Yodo river, Japan. Although experimental errors are relatively large, up to 3 per mille at 2{sigma}, the ratios of the core region are higher than the seawater signature while more distal values agree well with seawater. The very outermost part again shows the relatively higher {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios. The spatial variation of {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios was consistent with amphidromous migration of the fish, namely, born in the lake and grown in the coastal sea and finally collected in a river.

  10. Ion microprobe Sr isotope analysis of carbonates with about 5 μm spatial resolution: An example from an ayu otolith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Yuji; Shirai, Kotaro; Takahata, Naoto; Amakawa, Hiroshi; Otake, Tsuguo

    2008-01-01

    A high lateral resolution secondary ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS NS50 ion microprobe) has been used to measure 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios in natural CaCO 3 samples. A ∼2 nA O - primary beam was used to sputter a 5-7-μm diameter crater on the sample surface and secondary positive ions were extracted for mass analysis using an accelerating voltage of 8 kV and a Mattauch-Herzog geometry. The multi-collector system was adjusted to detect 43 Ca + (by a detector EM2), 80 Ca 2 + (EM3), 86 Sr + (EM4), and 87 Sr + (EM4b) ions at the same time. Then the magnetic field was scanned for the EM4 to detect 85 Rb + , 86 Sr + and 87 Sr + , while the EM4b can measure 86 Sr + , 87 Sr + and 88 Sr + , respectively. A mass resolution of 3600 at 10% peak height was attained with a flat peak top, while the sensitivity of Sr was about 10 cps/nA/ppm. An aragonite sample (coral skeleton standard; JCp-1) was used as a reference for Sr isotope ratio calibration. Repeated analyses of the JCp-1 show that the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio agrees well with the seawater signature within a precision of 0.3 per mille at 2σ, after the series of corrections such as the Ca dimer, 87 Rb, and a mass bias estimated by the 88 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio. The method was applied to an otolith (ear-stone) from ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis) collected from the Yodo river, Japan. Although experimental errors are relatively large, up to 3 per mille at 2σ, the ratios of the core region are higher than the seawater signature while more distal values agree well with seawater. The very outermost part again shows the relatively higher 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios. The spatial variation of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios was consistent with amphidromous migration of the fish, namely, born in the lake and grown in the coastal sea and finally collected in a river

  11. サケ亜目魚類の生化学的系統分類

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    松岡, 教理; 北野, 誉

    2011-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among seven species of four families of the suborder Salmonoidea were investigated by allozyme analysis. The seven species examined here were the followings: Hypomesus trarspacificus nipponensis, Sprinchus lanceolatus, Mallotus villosus, Osmerus eperlanus mordax of the family Osmeridae; Salangichthys microdon of the family Salangidae; Onchorhynchus masou masou of the family Salmonidae and Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis (Ayu). From allozyme analysis of 15 diffe...

  12. Importance of Ayu Pareeksha for the Management of Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Monika; Byadgi, P S; Dwibedy, B K

    2017-01-01

    The word Ayurveda comes from the Sanskrit root Ayu which means span of life. The purpose of examination of Ayu is to obtain knowledge regarding longevity, residual span of life in diseased person and rate of the mortality. The purpose of Dashavidha Pariksha is to obtain knowledge regarding Dosha Bala (Vyadhi Bala), Bala (Rogibala) and Ayu of the patient as described in Charak Samhita . Commonly Ayu and Vaya are regarded as synonyms but they are not similar terms. Hence, description of Vaya and Ayu is separately mentioned in Charaka as well as Sushruta Samhita . Description exclusively on Ayu Pareeksha described in Charaka Viman Sthana, Charaka Chikitsasthana, Charaka Indriya Sthana and Charaka Shareer Sthana. In Indriya Sthana, Ayu Pariksha indicates the residual life-span of the diseased person and where as in Jaatisutriya Adhyaya in Shareer Sthana mentioned the characteristic properties of the child who is going to survive for longer period of time. In Sushruta Samhita, Ayu is classified into three broad headings namely Dhirghayu, Madhyamayu and Alpayu and explained the characteristic properties of all the three.

  13. Representasi Seksualitas dalam Novel Saman Karya Ayu Utami

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    Rina Patriana Chairiyani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Saman is a literature written by Ayu Utami. Showing a representation of a female counterpart ideology that differs from what has already been made in heterosexual and patriarchal society. The community considers sex is taboo to talk openly. In this novel it is represented openly. Women are no longer in a weak position, and have choices. In this paper, research methodology used is qualitative method. 

  14. Servqual Method: Analisis Kualitas Pelayanan Beauty Advisor Sari Ayu Martha Tilaar

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    Ami Widyastuti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa kualitas pelayanan beauty advisor Sari Ayu Martha Tilaar guna meningkatkan kualitas pelayanan pada konsumen. Pengambilan data menggunakan skala kualitas pelayanan yang disusun berdasarkan metode Servqual dari (Parasuraman, dkk., 1988 pada 72 orang konsumen Sari Ayu Martha Tilaar. Sampel diambil dengan menggunakan teknik insidental random sampling. Analisis data menggunakan pengukuran gap 5 dari metode Servqual. Hasil penelitian menemukan ada kesenjangan pelayanan (service gap antara persepsi dan harapan konsumen sebesar -81.09 dimana nilai minus disini berarti, kinerja kerja beauty advisor Sari Ayu Martha Tilaar berada pada kategori rendah. Kesimpulannya, beauty advisor sebagai garda lini depan dalam pemasaran belum bekerja secara optimal.

  15. Servqual Method: Analisis Kualitas Pelayanan Beauty Advisor Sari Ayu Martha Tilaar

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    Ami Widyastuti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa kualitas pelayanan beauty advisor Sari Ayu Martha Tilaar guna meningkatkan kualitas pelayanan pada konsumen. Pengambilan data menggunakan skala kualitas pelayanan yang disusun berdasarkan metode Servqual dari (Parasuraman, dkk., 1988 pada 72 orang konsumen Sari Ayu Martha Tilaar. Sampel diambil dengan menggunakan teknik insidental random sampling. Analisis data menggunakan pengukuran gap 5 dari metode Servqual. Hasil penelitian menemukan ada kesenjangan pelayanan (service gap antara persepsi dan harapan konsumen sebesar -81.09 dimana nilai minus disini berarti, kinerja kerja beauty advisor Sari Ayu Martha Tilaar berada pada kategori rendah. Kesimpulannya, beauty advisor sebagai garda lini depan dalam pemasaran belum bekerja secara optimal.

  16. Kritik Atas Modernitas Dalam Novel Bilangan Fu Karya Ayu Utami

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    Bramantio Bramantio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini bertujuan untuk mengungkap kritik atas modernitas dalam novel Bilangan Fu karya Ayu Utami. Dengan memanfaatkan naratologi Tzvetan Todorov, dapat dipahami aspek verbal Bilangan Fu, yaitu sudut pandang, pencerita, dan tuturannya. Berdasarkan penceritaannya, novel ini merupakan novel polifonik, karnivalistik, sekaligus metafiksi. Berdasarkan kontennya, novel ini menghadirkan sejumlah kritik atas modernitas, khususnya berkaitan dengan semangat modernitas yang cenderung melihat segala sesuatu secara monodimensional, hanya ada satu kebenaran, dan liyan diabaikan. Bilangan Fu merupakan novel yang merefleksikan zamannya. Novel ini berhasil menyegarkan cara pandang masyarakat Indonesia, atau setidaknya menghadirkan sesuatu untuk dipikirkan dan dipertimbangkan kembali, berkaitan dengan diri, lingkungan, dan semesta raya. Novel ini mengembalikan manusia ke hakikatnya, yaitu kemanusiaan. Abstract: This article aims to reveal criticism on modernity in Ayu Utami’s novel Bilangan Fu. Tzvetan Todorov’s theory of narrative provided a framework to understand the novel’s verbal aspects, which are point of view, narrator, dan its voice. Based on its narrative, this novel is polyphonic, carnivalistic, and metafictional. Based on its content, it presents criticism on modernity, particularly on spirit of modernity that tends to see everything in monodimensional; there is only one truth, and the other is ignored. Bilangan Fu is a novel that reflects its time. It successfully refreshes the perspective of Indonesian society, or at least brings something to think about, related to the self, environment, and the universe. In the end, it brings back human being to their core, their humanity. Key Words: novel; point of view; narrator; criticism; modernity

  17. REPRESENTASI PERAN DAN RELASI GENDER DALAM NOVEL CANTIK ITU LUKA KARYA EKA KURNIAWAN DAN NOVEL NAYLA KARYA DJENAR MAESA AYU

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    Wiyatmi Wiyatmi

    2013-02-01

    in relation to women, while Djenar Maesa Ayu views that men’s domination must be opposed by presenting dominant female figures. Third, Eka Kurniawan views that patriarchal domination in gender role still cannot be opposed by women, while Djenar Maesa Ayu views that women must be able to compete with men especially in the public role.

  18. Telaah Estetika dalam Novel Nayla Karya Djenar Maesa Ayu

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    Sugiarti Sugiarti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sebuah karya sastra adalah produk kreativitas seorang pengarang dalam memandang kehidupan dan lingkungan sosial ketika karya tersebut diperkenalkan. Dalam proses kreatifnya, seorang pengarang melakukan kerja keras dan serius dalam berbagai dimensi kehidupan dengan realisasi estetiknya dan berujung pada proses imajinatif, kontemplatif, reaktif, reflektif, dan refraktif. Ini dilakukan untuk merepresentasikan karya-karya sastra pengarang. Oleh karena itu, estetika diinternalisasikan ke dalam karya-karya sastra beserta genrenya. Masalah estetika sastra adalah aspek menarik untuk diteliti karena mewarisi gagasan kontemporer mengenai simbol dan pengalaman estetik dengan sifat uniknya. Dalam perjalanan kontemplasinya, seorang pengarang terkadang dihadapkan pada sebuah kontradiksi antara konvensi dan kreasi yang membuat pembacanya terkejut. Fenomena yang hampir sama terjadi dalam novel berjudul Nayla karya Djenar Maesa Ayu. Dalam novel ini, pengarang memiliki semacam kesensitifan untuk menghadapi sebuah objek dan kemampuan untuk menyerap makna keindahan. Keindahan tersebut ditata dengan menghubungkan sifat subjek dan objek melalui keterampilan dalam menata dan mengombinasikan bahasa. Itulah cara bagaimana seorang pengarang bekerja dalam koridor estetika untuk mengekspos konflik, perjuangan, dan dominasi dalam teks sastra. Abstract: A literary work is an author creativity product in seeing life and social environment in the time when the work is introduced. In his creative process, an author performs a hard and serious work on various life dimensions with their esthetic realization that ends in the imaginative, contemplative, reactive, reflective, and refractive process. This is done to represent the author’s literary works. Therefore, esthetics is internalized in the literary works along with their genres. The issues on esthetics in literature are interesting aspects to investigate since they inherit contemporary ideas pertaining to symbols and

  19. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes as indicators of habitat selection by cultured and natural fish preferences. A case study of ayu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Huang; Kyushu University, Fukuoka; Xixi Chen; Xiaobo Liu; Shinichiro Yano

    2017-01-01

    Reliable indicators on whether natural and cultured fish exhibit differences in habitat preferences are lacking. In this study, δ 13 C and δ 15 N were used to distinguish the habitat preferences of cultured versus natural ayu and their prey (periphyton) in a typical riffle-pool river reach. It found that the δ 13 C of natural ayu (-13.747‰) was consistent with that of periphyton in riffles (-14.611‰), while the δ 13 C of cultured ayu (-19.088‰) was consistent with that of periphyton (-19.711‰) in pools. The results indicated that cultured ayu appear to favor pools whereas natural ayu favor riffles, and δ 13 C and δ 15 N represent potential reliable indicators of habitat preferences of cultured ayu. (author)

  20. ISU GENDER PADA TOKOH PEREMPUAN DALAM NOVEL NAYLA KARYA DJENAR MAESA AYU

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    Ruaidah Ruaidah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This writing is done to know how for the gender issues affects the female characters in the novel Nayla of Djenar Maesa Ayu. The effect of inequality will appears subordination and violence against to women. Subordination and violence are events that affects the female characters in the novel Nayla of  Djenar Maesa Ayu. The author tries to raise the position of women from gender inequality. The figure of Nayla tries to find the self-awareness and the existence of gender inequality. Keywords : Gender, subordination, and violenceCopyright © 2012 by Kafa`ah All right reservedDOI : 10.15548/jk.v2i2.54

  1. Free Amino Acid Enriched Rotifer for Larval Grouper Cromileptes altivelis (Pengkayaan Rotifer dengan Asam Amino Bebas Untuk Larva Kerapu Bebek Cromileptes altivelis

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    Dedi Jusadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pembenihan ikan kerapu dihadapkan pada rendahnya sintasan, terutama fase awal hidupnya. Rendahnya sintasan diduga berhubungan dengan belum berkembangnya organ pencernaan larva dan tidak tersedianya pakan yang siap diserap tubuh. Pemberian asam amino bebas seperti taurin dan glutamin melalui rotifer diharapkan dapat meningkatan ketersediaan nutrien yang dapat diserap dengan cepat oleh larva, sehingga sintasan larva tinggi dan dapat tumbuh lebih cepat. Penelitian bertujuan mengukur pengaruh glutamin atau taurin terhadap sintasan dan pertumbuhan larva kerapu bebek Cromileptes altivelis. Larva umur 1 hari (10 ekor.L-1 dipelihara dalam bak fiberglass volume 500 L yang diisi air laut sampai 330 L. Larva diberi pakan rotifer diperkaya 0,5 g glutamin, 0,5 g taurin, atau tanpa glutamin dan taurin. Larva dipelihara selama 16 hari dengan pemberian pakan 2 kali  per hari. Satu jam setelah pemberian pakan dilakukan pengamatan terhadap jumlah rotifer dalam saluran pencernaan larva ikan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan jumlah rotifer dalam saluran pencernaan larva meningkat seiring dengan bertambahnya umur. Namun, jumlah rata-rata rotifer yang dikonsumsi larva pada perlakuan 0,5 g glutamin atau 0,5 g taurin lebih banyak dibanding perlakuan tanpa taurin dan glutamin. Larva yang diberi rotifer hasil pengkayaan dengan 0,5 g glutamin atau 0,5 g taurin memiliki sintasan yang tidak berbeda (P>0,05, masing-masing 19,2±2,25%, dan 24,5±1,20%, dan secara signifikan lebih banyak dibanding larva di perlakuan tanpa glutamin dan taurin yang nilainya 13,0±1,70%. Larva yang diberi rotifer hasil pengkayaan dengan 0,5 g taurin secara signifikan lebih panjang (5,5±0,18 mm dari ikan di perlakuan 0,5 g glutamin (5,3±0,12 mm. Demikian juga, larva di perlakuan glutamin lebih panjang dari pelakuan tanpa glutamin dan taurin (5,0±0,16 mm. Pengkayaan rotifer menggunakan asam amino bebas taurin atau glutamin dapat meningkatkan sintasan dan pertumbuhan larva kerapu bebek. Namun

  2. Pengaruh Pemberian Probiotik dan Prebiotik Terhadap Performan Juvenile ikan Kerapu Bebek (Comileptes altivelis

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    Fariq Azhar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk melihat efek pemberian pakan berupa probiotik (Bacillus sp. dan prebiotik (Ipomoea batatas pada performan pertumbuhan, sintasan, respon imun dan resistensi penyakit pada juvenil ikan kerapu bebek (Comileptes altivelis (berat rata-rata 3 g ± 0.48. Lima perlakuan pakan digunakan yang terdiri dari kontrol negatif, kontrol positif, probiotik, prebiotik dan sinbiotik. Masing-masing perlakuan disusun secara acak dan terdiri dari tiga ulangan masing-masing berisi 8 juvenil ikan kerapu bebek. Penelitian in dilakukan pada akuarium (50 x 40 x 35 cm selama 12 minggu. Diakhir perlakuan pakan, total eritrosit (TE, total leukosit (TL, hemoglobin (Hb, hematokrit (He, diferensial  leukosit (DL, aktifitas respiratory burst (RB, aktifitas fagositik (AF and total bakteri (TB diukur dan dilakukan uji tantang pada bagian intramuskular dengan Vibrio alginolyticus. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan pakan probiotik, prebiotik dan sinbiotik secara signifikan meningkatkan laju pertumbuhan harian (SGR (a > 0.05 dan rasio konversi pakan (FCR (a > 0.05 dibandingkan dengan kontrol. Total eritrosit, total leukosit, dan limfosit secara signifikan terjadi peningkatan pada ikan dengan pakan perlakuan probiotik, prebiotik dan sinbiotik. Hemoglobin secara signifikan meningkat pada perlakuan prebiotik. Perlakuan prebiotik dan sinbiotik secara signifikan meningkatkan hematokrit. Ikan dengan pakan perlakuan probiotik, prebiotik dan sinbiotik secara signifikan meningkatkan aktifitas fagositik. Aktifitas respiratory burst secara signifikan meningkat pada pakan perlakuan dengan penambahan probiotik, prebiotik dan sinbiotik. Total bakteri secara signifikan meningkat pada perlakuan probiotik, prebiotik dan sinbiotik. Hasil tersebut menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan dengan penambahan pakan sinbiotik meningkatkan pertumbuhan, rasio konversi pakan, respon imun non-spesi?k and resistensi penyakit pada juvenile ikan kerapu bebek (Comileptes altivelis.

  3. Posisi Perempuan dalam Tempurung dan Ayu Manda: Dua Novel Karya Perempuan dan Laki­Laki Pengarang Bali

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    Anang Santosa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tulisan ini bertujuan mendeskripsikan posisi tokoh­tokoh perempuan dalam dua novel karya pengarang Bali-Tempurung dan Ayu Manda dengan pendekatan feminis. Tempurung karya perempuan pengarang, Oka Rusmini, dan Ayu Manda garapan I Made Iwan Darmawan. Kedua novel tersebut sama­sama diterbitkan pada tahun 2010. Kedua novel tersebut dipilih karena sangat kental menyajikan beragam persoalan perempuan. Eksploitasi gender sebagai sebuah konstruk sosial budaya, mengakibatkan timbulnya ketidakadilan­ketidakadilan. Ironisnya, ketidakadilan tersebut mengalami pembiaran akibat ketatnya hegemoni adat dan tatanan dalam masyarakat. Masalah tersebut dimunculkan secara padat dan cepat dalam novel Tempurung dan Ayu Manda. Novel Tempurung menampilkan gambaran perempuan­perempuan yang dihegemoni oleh budaya dan masyarakatnya. Pada novel Ayu Manda yang mengambil latar waktu 1960­an, geliat penolakan terhadap ketidakadilan mulai ditampilkan. Akan tetapi, ketika perempuan mulai berbicara tentang dan terlibat cinta, perempuan akan berhadapan dengan kuasa adat istiadat dan tradisi yang siap memarginalkan tubuhnya jika tidak bersepaham dengannya. Temuan yang didapat dari hasil penelitian ini adalah perempuan­perempuan dalam kedua novel tersebut diposisikan sebagai manusia yang berjenis kelamin berbeda sehingga harus diperlakukan berbeda pula. Abstract: This article aims to describe the position of female characters in two novels written by Balinese writers, Tempurung and Ayu Manda, using feminist approach. Tempurung was written by a female writer, Oka Rusmini, whereas Ayu Manda is a work of I Made Iwan Darmawan. Both novels were published in 2010. The two novels were chosen for strongly presenting various woman issues. Gender exploitation as a sociocultural construction brings about discriminations. Ironically, ironically, those discriminations have been allowed because of a firm hegemony of tradition and social order of society. The issue is solidly and fast

  4. Growth and viability of juvenile humpback grouper (Cromileptes altivelis supplemented with inorganic and organic selenium

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    Muhaimin Hamzah

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of inorganic selenium (sodium selenite and organic selenium (selenomethionine supplementation on growth and viability of juvenile humpback grouper (Cromileptes altivelis. The experiment was designed as a completely randomized design with eight treatments and three replications. The treatment being tested was source and dosages of selenium ie., inorganic selenium (sodium selenite supplementation with dosages of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 mg Se/kg diet and organic selenium (selenomethionine with dosages of 1, 2, and 4 mg Se/kg diet. Another treatment was unsupplemented selenium. Juveniles humpback grouper at an initial average length of 6,39±0,41 cm and body weight of 4,49±0,65 g were reared in 90×40×35 cm3 aquaria and fed artificial diet (pellet two times daily (08.00 and 16.00 at satiation. Fishes were reared for 40 days at a stocking density of 12 fish per aquarium on sea water with salinity of 30–31 ppt and temperature of 28–29 °C. The results of this study showed that the source of selenium supplementation (inorganic or organic affected growth performance, glutathione peroxidase (GPx enzyme activity, and blood profiles of the experimental fish. Generally, it was found that selenomethionine supplementation resulted in better fish performance than sodium selenite. In sodium selenite supplementation, survival declined with the increased dosages of Se in the diet, and the supplementation at dosage of 0,5 mg Se/kg diet showed a toxic effects. Histopatological test showed that there were damage in livers, kidneys, and intestines of fish supplemented with sodium selenite from 0.5 to 4 mg Se/kg diet. On the contrary, supplementation of selenomethionine up to 4 mg Se/kg did not show any signs of toxicity and the survival was on 86.11 to 97.22%. Feed efficiency, protein retention, lipid retention, and Se retention indicated that a dosage of 4 mg Se/kg selenomethionine supplementation was the best dosage

  5. Blood Meal Utilization as Organic Fe Source for Polka Dot Grouper Cromileptes altivelis Growth Performance

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    Mia Setiawati

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to examine the use of spray dried cell blood meal as organic Fe source in polka dot grouper (Cromileptes altivelis feed to substitute inorganic Ferosulphate (FeSO4.7H2O. Two treatments were applied, one with FeSO4.7H2O as Fe source and the other with 6% blood meal. Fish with initial length and weight of 6.48 ± 0.16 cm and 5.60±0.25 g was reared at a density of 10 fish/aquarium (40 x 60 x 50 cm3 in a recirculation system for 40 days. Feed was administrated 3 times a day at satiation. The use of organic Fe with 6% blood meal apparently resulted in a lower body Fe content, feed consumption and lipid retention but a higher protein retention and feed efficiency. There was however no significant difference between treatments in growth and survival (P>0.05.   Keywords : Spray dried cell, polka dot grouper, growth, Fe, blood meal   ABSTRAK Penelitian dirancang untuk melihat pemanfaatan tepung darah spray-dried cell (SBC sebagai sumber zat besi organik dalam pakan kerapu bebek (Cromileptes altivelis, menggantikan bahan anorganik Ferosulfat (FeSO4.7H2O. Penelitian menggunakan 2 jenis perlakuan yaitu pakan Fe-anorganik dengan sumber Fe dari FeSO4.7H2O dan sumber Fe-organik dari tepung darah 6 %. Panjang awal ikan 6,48±0,16 cm dan bobot awal 5,60±0,25 gr/ekor, kepadatan 10 ekor/akuarium (40x60x50cm3 dalam sistem resirkulasi. Pemeliharaan ikan selama 40 hari dengan pemberian pakan 3 kali sehari  sekenyangnya (at satiation. Parameter uji meliputi kinerja pertumbuhan dan komposisi tubuh ikan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan penggunaan Fe-organik dengan 6 % tepung darah sebagai pengganti sumber Fe-anorganik pada kerapu bebek memberikan pengaruh terhadap penurunan kandungan Fe tubuh, konsumsi pakan dan retensi lemak, tetapi laju pertumbuhan harian, panjang relatif dan kelangsungan hidup sama (P>0,05. Penggunaan Fe-organik memberikan pengaruh terhadap peningkatan retensi protein dan efisiensi pakan. Kata kunci : spray-dried cell

  6. The reformasi of Ayu Utami; Attacking the monopoly of the great religions

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    Karel Steenbrink

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In eight novels, Ayu Utami has presented critical attacks on doctrines and practices of the major religions in Indonesia. The two books, that describe the spiritual struggle of the Catholic priest Saman (1998–2002, call for a religion that is more active in the political arena, but leaves sexual rules to the individual people. The novel Bilangan Fu (2008 condemns the monopoly of the great religions in favour of local and individual spirituality. This is developed in a series of novels of which two more have already appeared. A third cycle of three more or less autobiographic novels (2003–2013 sketch her personal quest from atheism towards a critical but positive spirituality condemning a clerical and monopolist trend in Catholicism. Utami’s criticism of the great religions is external (more players in the field should be recognised and internal (religious leaders should have more modest claims towards their faithful and leave more space for personal choice.

  7. Rhizospheric Microflora Escalating Aroma Constituents and Yield Attributes in Ocimum tenuiflorum (L. cv. CIM-Ayu

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    Shilpi Khare Saikia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of rhizospheric microbial flora for crop yield enhancement is well established. Rhizospheric microbes influence the plant physiology by imparting several beneficial effects, namely, Nitrogen fixation, increased nutrient uptake, and secondary metabolites production on their host plants. The present study investigates the response of Bacillus megaterium ATCC No. 13525, Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC No. 14581, and Trichoderma viride MTCC No. 167 in alone and combined treatments for their effect on growth and yield parameters in a commercially important Ocimum tenuiflorum L. cv. CIM-Ayu. The plant is therapeutically important for its essential oil constituents, namely, eugenol, β-caryophyllene, and various monoterpenes. The combination treatments, T7 (B. megaterium + P. fluorescens and T8 (B. megaterium + P. fluorescens + T. viride, showed maximum enhancement (27.27% of percentage essential oil as compared to untreated control. Nutrient uptake especially N2 content was significantly increased (43% with the treatment T8 (B. megaterium + P. fluorescens + T. viride. Amongst major essential oil constituents, eugenol content was maximally increased by 58.5% as compared to 42.9% (control indicating a cumulative role of microbial inoculants for crop yield boost-up.

  8. Burst Speed of Wild Fishes under High-Velocity Flow Conditions Using Stamina Tunnel with Natural Guidance System in River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Mattashi; Yamamoto, Yasuyuki; Yataya, Kenichi; Kamiyama, Kohhei

    Swimming experiments were conducted on wild fishes in a natural guidance system stamina tunnel (cylindrical pipe) installed in a fishway of a local river under high-velocity flow conditions (tunnel flow velocity : 211 to 279 cm·s-1). In this study, the swimming characteristics of fishes were observed. The results show that (1) the swimming speeds of Tribolodon hakonensis (Japanese dace), Phoxinus lagowshi steindachneri (Japanese fat-minnow), Plecoglossus altivelis (Ayu), and Zacco platypus (Pale chub) were in proportion to their body length under identical water flow velocity conditions; (2) the maximum burst speed of Japanese dace and Japanese fat-minnow (measuring 4 to 6 cm in length) was 262 to 319 cm·s-1 under high flow velocity conditions (225 to 230 cm·s-1), while the maximum burst speed of Ayu and Pale chub (measuring 5 cm to 12 cm in length) was 308 to 355 cm·s-1 under high flow velocity conditions (264 to 273 cm·s-1) ; (3) the 50cm-maximum swimming speed of swimming fishes was 1.07 times faster than the pipe-swimming speed; (4) the faster the flow velocity, the shorter the swimming distance became.

  9. The Use of “KakAyu Dental Flipbook” in Oral Health Knowledge Improvement for Elementary School Students in Depok

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    Rikawarastuti Rikawarastuti

    2017-05-01

    Perlu adanya edukasi untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan anak Indonesia tentang pentingnya memelihara kesehatan gigi dan mulut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskan hubungan antara faktor siswa sekolah dasar seperti kelas, usia, jenis kelamin dengan jumlah anak dalam keluarga atau faktor ekonomi seorang ibu rumah tangga atau berpenghasilan tetap, yang dipengaruhi oleh peningkatan pengetahuan dari edukasi kesehatan gigi dan mulut. Disain penelitian quasi experiment pre-test dan post-test tanpa desain grup kontrol melibatkan 141 siswa yang dipilih melalui purposive sampling. Sampel tersebar pada siswa kelas IV, V, dan VI sekolah dasar swasta di Depok, Jawa Barat, Indonesia pada April-Oktober 2016. Data penelitian diperoleh dari kuesioner pre-test dan post-test. Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test dan regresi logistik digunakan dalam pengolahan data. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tingkat pengetahuan meningkat setelah dilakukan edukasi menggunakan “KakAyu Dental Flipbook”. Rata-rata hasil pengetahuan responden saat pre-test 80,85 ± 14,17 dan saat post-test 93,40 ± 9,84. Terdapat korelasi antara peningkatan pengetahuan dan edukasi menggunakan “KakAyu Oral Dental/Orthodonthic Flipbook” (nilai p = 0,001, namun tidak terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara variabel (kelas, usia, jenis kelamin, jumlah anak dalam keluarga, dan status pekerjaan ibu dengan peningkatan pengetahuan kesehatan mulut siswa sekolah dasar.

  10. KEBUTUHAN ASAM AMINO LISIN UNTUK BENIH IKAN KERAPU BEBEK (Cromileptes altivelis

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    Nyoman Adiasmara Giri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Percobaan penentuan kebutuhan asam amino lisin untuk benih ikan kerapu bebek (Cromileptes altivelis telah dilakukan dengan metode pemeliharaan ikan menggunakan pakan yang mempunyai kandungan lisin berbeda. Ikan dengan bobot rata-rata 4,4 ± 0,3 gram dipelihara dalam bak polikarbonat volume 100 L dengan kepadatan 12 ekor ikan per bak. Setiap bak dilengkapi dengan sistem air mengalir dan aerasi. Pakan percobaan dibuat dalam bentuk pelet kering dengan kandungan protein 49% yang bersumber dari kasein dan tepung ikan serta campuran asam amino murni sehingga menyerupai komposisi asam amino tubuh ikan kerapu bebek, kecuali untuk lisin. Pakan percobaan mempunyai kandungan lisin berbeda, yaitu 1,77%; 2,27%; 2,77%; 3,27%; 3,77%; dan 4,27%. Ikan diberi pakan percobaan 2 kali sehari pada level satiasi selama 63 hari. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa bobot ikan akhir, persen pertambahan bobot, laju pertumbuhan spesifik, efisiensi pakan, retensi protein, dan kandungan protein tubuh ikan dipengaruhi oleh kandungan lisin pakan. Kadar optimum lisin dalam pakan untuk benih ikan kerapu bebek dihitung dengan regresi broken line berdasarkan data persen pertambahan bobot. Dari perhitungan ini diperoleh bahwa kebutuhan lisin untuk benih ikan kerapu bebek mencapai 2,77% dalam pakan atau setara dengan 5,63% dari protein pakan. The experiment to find out an amino acid lysine requirement for growth of  humpback grouper  juvenile has been conducted in 18 polycarbonate tanks, 100 liters volume. Each tank is equipped with flow-through water system. Twelve juveniles of humpback grouper (4.4 ± 0.3 gram in body weight, which were produced in hatchery, were randomly selected, and stock in each tank. Fish fed with experimental diets twice everyday at satiation level for 63 days. Experimental diets were prepared as dry pellet with casein and fish meal as the intact protein sources, and the mixture of crystalline amino acids to reach protein level of 49% and the composition of

  11. THE EFFECTS OF CRUDE RECOMBINANT VIRAL PROTEIN VACCINES AGAINST GROUPER SLEEPY DISEASE IRIDOVIRUS (GSDIV ON HUMPBACK GROUPER (Cromileptes altivelis

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    Ketut Mahardika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Infection of Megalocytivirus cause serious mass mortality in marine fish in South East Asian countries. The aim of this study was to produce recombinant of GSDIV capsid protein and its protection to humpback grouper Cromileptes altivelis against grouper sleepy disease iridovirus (GSDIV. A major capsid protein (MCP was selected for use as a crude subunit vaccines. This gene target (MCP was inserted to the protein expression system vector of pET SUMO and cloned in cells bacteria Escherichia coli strain BL-21. The MCP was succeded to be induced using 1 mM of IPTG. Results of protein analysis using MALDI TOF-TOF indicated that the MCP has measurement of 49.566 kDa with PI index of 6.00, and contained 453 amino acids. BLAST homology analysis exhibited that the amino acid sequence of the MCP showed high similarity with MCP of Red Sea Bream Iridovirus (RSIV. E. coli expressing MCP protein was inactivated using 0.03% formalin overnight and washed using PBS. The inactivated E. coli as a crude subunit vaccine was then injected intramuscularly to humpback grouper juveniles. Subsequently, the juveniles were challenged tested with GSDIV. The juveniles vaccinated with the MCP recombinant bacteria showed significantly higher survival rates than control those vaccinated with PBS. Thus, the MCP fusion protein is considered as a potential vaccine against GSDIV infections in grouper.

  12. DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS OF ENLARGED CELLS DERIVED FROM GROUPER SLEEPY DISEASE IRIDOVIRUS (GSDIV INFECTED HUMPBACK GROUPER Cromileptes altivelis

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    Indah Mastuti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Characteristic of Megalocytivirus infection has been known to produce formation of inclusion body bearing cells (IBCs on internals organs of fish predominantly on spleen and kidney. Megalocytivirus that infected grouper is known as Grouper Sleepy Disease Iridovirus (GSDIV. This study was conducted to answer the effect of entry sites of GSDIV on distribution of enlarged cells formed on the internal organs of humpback grouper Cromileptes altivelis. Enlarged cells were observed histologically under the light microscope on spleen, head kidney, trunk kidney, liver, gill, heart, stomach, intestine, muscle and brain. Entry sites were designated to intramuscularly injection, intraperitoneally injection, dipped gill and inoculum added feed. Enlarged cells were formed on spleen, head kidney, trunk kidney, liver, gill, heart, stomach, muscle, except on intestine and brain. All the entry sites resulted in formation of enlarged cells on spleen, head kidney, trunk kidney, liver, heart. Spleen and head kidney were the most frequent observed organ. These results suggested that distribution of enlarged cells were not affected by the entry site of GSDIV.

  13. Pengembangan pemakaian hasil samping agroindustri berbahan dasar jagung sebagai alternatif bahan baku pakan ikan kerapu tikus Cromileptes altivelis

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    Muhammad Agus Suprayudi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis experiment was conducted to evaluate the use of by product of corn ethanol industry, DDGS (distiller dried grain with soluble and hominy as feed raw material on digestibility and the growth performance of humpback grouper Cromileptes altivelis juvenile. Three experimental diets containing isoprotein (48% but different in DDGS contain were used. Diet A containing 0% of DDGS and hominy while diet B and C containing 10.13% (6.13% of DDGS and 4% of hominy and 19.05% (15.05% of DDGS and 4% of hominy. Reduce of fish meal level in the diet was happen as a consequence of balancing amino acid. For digestibility experiment and Cr2O3 at level of 0.05% was used as a tracer. The feces were daily collected 30‒60 minutes after feeding for 14 days. Dry matter and protein were used as digestibility parameters. Completely randomized design with three treatments and two replicates was used in this experiment. Humpback grouper with an average weight of 11‒14 g were reared at floating net cages (FNG of 3×2×1.5 m3. The stocking density for each cage was 167 fish/FNG and reared for six months. For digestibility measurement 30 fish were held in cylindrical fiber tank filled with 800 L of sea water. Fish were fed three times daily at satiation level. For maintaining net in a clean condition net was changed in every ten days. Feed consumption, digestibility of protein and total, growth performance indicator i,e specific growth rate, feed efficiency protein and lipid retention were used as evaluating parameters. The results showed that the fish fed with diet containing DDGS (6.13% dan hominy (4%, at the level of 10.13% (diet B, shows similar growth performance indicators with the fish fed diet A (0% of DDGS and hominy and the growth performance indicator was higher when being compared to those fish fed diet C (containing 19.05% of DDGS (15.05% and hominy (4% (p<0.05. More over the inclusion of DDGS and hominy at the level of 10,13% give no negatif

  14. The application of pigment-protein fraction from Nannochloropsis oculata on β-actin response of Cromileptes altivelis infected with viral nervous necrosis

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    Uun Yanuhar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT  β-actin is a prominent protein in the immune system. An outcome from gene transcription, the protein protects against pathogen infection, such as receptor clustering, antigen internalization, and regulating vesicle for antigen processing. ß - actin expression will determine the success of immune response of the organism. This study aimed to understand the role of pigment-protein fraction (PPF from Nannochloropsis oculata in the increase of β-actin expression in humpback grouper Cromileptes altivelis infected by viral nervous necrosis (VNN. The experiment was performed with one negative control (A: normal fish and three PPF treatments (B: fish + PPF, C: fish + VNN, and D: fish + PPF + VNN. PPF was applied through the sonde method and analyzed with immunohistochemistry technique and Immunoratio software. The results showed that PPF was able to increase β-actin expression on all treatments: A (34.9%, B (38.1%, C (39.1%, and D (51.6%. It demonstrated PPF ability to induce the increase of β-actin expression indicating an improved defense of humpback grouper C. altivelis against VNN infection. Keywords: β-actin, pigment-protein fraction, Nannochloropsis oculata, VNN  ABSTRAK β-aktin adalah protein yang berfungsi penting sebagai salah satu sistem pertahanan tubuh. Protein ini merupakan hasil transkripsi dari gen yang memiliki fungsi penting dalam sistem pertahanan tubuh terhadap infeksi patogen, seperti kelompok reseptor, internalisasi antigen, dan mengatur keluar masuknya vesikel untuk pemrosesan antigen. Ekpresi β-aktin menjadi penentu berhasil atau tidaknya respons imun pada tubuh organisme. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peran fraksi protein pigment (FPP dari Nannochloropsis oculata dalam meningkatkan respons β-aktin pada ikan kerapu tikus Cromileptes altivelis yang terinfeksi viral nervous necrosis (VNN. Pengamatan dilakukan pada empat percobaan yaitu, satu kontrol (A : ikan normal dan tiga perlakuan FPP (B

  15. ADDITION OF ADJUVANTS IN RECOMBINANT SUBUNIT VACCINES FOR THE PREVENTION OF GROUPER SLEEPY DISEASE IRIDOVIRUS (GSDIV INFECTION IN HUMPBACK GROUPER, Cromileptes altivelis

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    Ketut Mahardika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of grouper sleepy disease iridovirus (GSDIV which is a member of Megalocytivirus causes mass mortalities in marine fish in Indonesia. This study was conducted to know the effectiveness of recombinant subunit vaccine of GSDIV with an addition of adjuvants against GSDIV infection. Inactive bacteria Eschericia coli containing recombinant MCP-GSDIV protein was added with montanide ISA adjuvant at a ratio of 3:7. The vaccine was administered to humpback grouper, Cromileptes altivelis by intramuscular and intraperitoneal injection at a dose of 0.1 mL/fish. Test of the vaccine in humpback grouper was performed in four replicates (four trials. Results of the vaccination showed that the recombinant protein vaccine added with the adjuvant increased immunity of humpback grouper, indicated by higher relative percent survival (RPS= 77.78% compared to negative control (PBS and 50% higher compared to protein control (pET Sumo CAT at two weeks post vaccination. The RPS values of the recombinant protein vaccine were still higher (53.57%-72.73% than those of the control vaccine and 25%-53.33% of the protein control in the 4th week post vaccination. GSDIV detection by PCR showed that MCP-GSDIV-DNA and pET Sumo CAT-DNA were not detected in the vaccinated fish after one, two, three, and four weeks post vaccination. The fish died in both of vaccinated and control groups after experimental challenge with GSDIV were found to be infected with GSDIV. It can be stated that recombinant subunit vaccine of GSDIV with the addition of montanide ISA adjuvant could be used to prevent and diminish mortalities of grouper against GSDIV infection.

  16. Modeling the potential spread of the recently identified non-native panther grouper (Chromileptes altivelis in the Atlantic using a cellular automaton approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Johnston

    Full Text Available The Indo-pacific panther grouper (Chromileptes altiveli is a predatory fish species and popular imported aquarium fish in the United States which has been recently documented residing in western Atlantic waters. To date, the most successful marine invasive species in the Atlantic is the lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles, which, as for the panther grouper, is assumed to have been introduced to the wild through aquarium releases. However, unlike lionfish, the panther grouper is not yet thought to have an established breeding population in the Atlantic. Using a proven modeling technique developed to track the lionfish invasion, presented is the first known estimation of the potential spread of panther grouper in the Atlantic. The employed cellular automaton-based computer model examines the life history of the subject species including fecundity, mortality, and reproductive potential and combines this with habitat preferences and physical oceanic parameters to forecast the distribution and periodicity of spread of this potential new invasive species. Simulations were examined for origination points within one degree of capture locations of panther grouper from the United States Geological Survey Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database to eliminate introduction location bias, and two detailed case studies were scrutinized. The model indicates three primary locations where settlement is likely given the inputs and limits of the model; Jupiter Florida/Vero Beach, the Cape Hatteras Tropical Limit/Myrtle Beach South Carolina, and Florida Keys/Ten Thousand Islands locations. Of these locations, Jupiter Florida/Vero Beach has the highest settlement rate in the model and is indicated as the area in which the panther grouper is most likely to become established. This insight is valuable if attempts are to be made to halt this potential marine invasive species.

  17. 'Applications of stable isotopes in life sciences'. Lead and strontium stable isotope measurements by using a high lateral resolution secondary ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Yuji

    2008-01-01

    The method of Pb and Sr isotope measurements at about 5 μm resolution was developed by using a high lateral resolution secondary ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS NS50). Since the both elements have radiogenic nuclides such as 206 Pb, 207 Pb, and 87 Sr, natural variations of isotopic ratios are large. It is possible to detect a meaningful variation in a terrestrial sample, even though the experimental error is relatively large. In the case of monazite U-Pb dating, a 4 nA O - primary beam was used to sputter the sample and secondary positive ions were extracted for mass analysis using a Mattauch-Herzog geometry. The multi-collector system was modified to detect 140 Ce + , 204 Pb + , 206 Pb + , 238 U 16 O + , and 238 U 16 O 2 + ions simultaneously. Based on the monazite standard from North-Central Madagascar, we have determined the 206 Pb/ 238 U ratios of samples. 207 Pb/ 206 Pb ratios were measured by a magnet scanning with a single collector mode. 44 monazite grains extracted from a sedimentary rock in Taiwan were analyzed. Observed ages were consistent with the U-Th-Pb chemical ages by EPMA. Then NanoSIMS has been used to measure 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios in natural calcium carbonate samples. Multi-collector system was adjusted to detect 43 Ca + , 80 Ca 2 + , 86 Sr + , and 87 Sr + ions at the same time. Magnetic field was scanning for the EM no.4 counter to detect 85 Rb + , 86 Sr + and 87 Sr + , while the EM no.4b can measure 86 Sr + , 87 Sr + , and 88 Sr + , respectively. Repeated analyses of a coral skeleton standard (JCp-1) show that 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio agrees well with the seawater signature, after the series of corrections such as Ca dimer, 87 Rb, and a mass bias estimated by 88 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio. The method is applied to an otolith from ayu (Pleco-glossus altivelis altivelis) collected from the Yodo river, Japan. The spatial variation of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios was consistent with amphidromous migration of the fish, namely, born in the lake and grown in the coastal sea

  18. REPRESENTASI SEJARAH INDONESIA DALAM NOVEL-NOVEL KARYA AYU UTAMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiyatmi Wiyatmi Wiyatmi

    2013-12-01

    (ethe demonstration by students of Technology Institute of Bandung and the publication of the Student Struggle White Book in 1978. Second, the events are represented in parts integrated into the events that the characters experience. Historical events from factual events are contextualized in the novels. In the New Historicism perspective, socio-political historical events are presented to question historical truths previously recorded.

  19. First Detection of Hirame Rhabdovirus (HIRRV) in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borzym, Ewa; Matras, Marek; Maj, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    72 hours, suggesting the presence of a virus. The virus isolated in cell culture induced mortalities on experimentally infected graylings, reaching 10-25% after 21 days. In moribund graylings, light petechiae and congestions in rump muscles and also in internal organs were observed. Although some...... specifically the P gene, we observed that the virus exhibited a higher identity with the Chinese strain compared to the Korean, suggesting that the virus was imported from China, maybe in frozen food. A specific qPCR was developed and used to demonstrate that the same virus was also present in cell culture......Introduction Hirame rhabdovirus (HIRRV) is one of the four recognized species within the Novirhabdovirus genus, represented by the type species Infectious Haematopoietic Necrosis (IHNV). HIRRV was first isolated during an outbreak on cultured flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and ayu (Plecoglossus...

  20. PENGARUH KEPADATAN Nannochloropsis sp. PADA PEMELIHARAAN LARVA KERAPU BEBEK (Cromileptes altivelis SECARA TERKONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suko Ismi

    2012-12-01

    pada perlakuan D (penambahan Nannochloropsis sp. 500.000 sel/mL menghasilkan sintasan 26,8%; lebih tinggi dari perlakuan yang lain, berikut perlakuan C, B, dan A masing-masing 19,5%; 14,2%; dan 3,5% sedangkan panjang total larva umur 45 hari relatif sama antara 2,47-2,53 cm.

  1. Substitution of fishmeal with soybean meal in humpback Grouper, Cromileptes altivelis juvenile diets supplemented with phytase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachman Syah

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing fishmeal with soybean meal in diet on growth of humpback grouper. Fifteen cages of 1 x 1 x 1.2 m3 each stocked with 16 humpback grouper juveniles (61.3 ± 0.4 g/pc were set up randomly in seawater. Fish were fed to satiation twice daily for 112 days. The control diet contained 61.9% fishmeal (63.34% crude protein. Four isonitrogenous (48% crude protein and isocaloric (4.7 kcal/g feed diets supplemented with commercial phytase “Rhonozyme-P” at 0.075% were formulated to contain different levels (8%, 16%, 24%, and 32% soybean meal (43.65% crude protein as a partial replacement for fishmeal. These diets contained total phosphorus levels between 3.6—4.5 (±0.4 % and 0.7—1.5 (±0.04 % available phosphorus. Replacement of fishmeal with soybean meal (8 to 32% replacement was not significantly different (P>0.05 to the control diet on daily growth rate (DGR, food conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER, and daily food consumption (DFC. However, the dietary levels of soybean meal significantly affected (P<0.05 whole body protein and phosphorus retention (Table 1. These data suggest that addition of phytase in diets could improve protein and phosphorus availability and reduce nitrogen and phosphorus loading in the environment. Phytase can therefore play an important role in formulating eco-friendly feed for humpback grouper. Based on P loading, supplementation of phytase enable up to 24% fishmeal replacement with soybean meal.

  2. Dietary Methionine Requirement for Growth of Juvenile Humpback Grouper (Cromileptes altivelis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Adiasmara Giri

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment to find out amino acid methionine requirement for growth of juvenile humpback grouper has been conducted in 18 polycarbonate 100 L tanks. Each tank was equipped with flow-through water system. Twelve juveniles of humpback grouper (5.6 ± 0.7 g each were randomly selected and stocked in each tank. Juveniles humpback grouper for the experiment were purchased from back yard hatchery in Gondol. Fish fed test diets twice everyday at satiation level for 49 days. Test diets were prepared as dry pellet with casein and fish meal as the intact protein sources, supplemented with the mixture of crystalline L-amino acids to correspond to the amino acid pattern found in the whole body protein of the juvenile humpback grouper, except methionine. Basal diet (diet-1 containing 0.86% methionine was supplied from casein and fish meal. Graded level (0.3% of L-methionine was added to the basal diet to get the final methionine level in each test diet of 0.86%, 1.16%, 1.46%, 1.76%, 2.06%, and 2.36 %. The experiment was designed according to completely random design (CRD with 6 treatments (methionine levels and three replicates for each treatment. Result of the experiment showed that dietary methionine content influenced final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, feed efficiency, protein retention, and body protein content of juvenile humpback grouper. Optimum dietary methionine for juvenile humpback grouper was calculated using broken line regression analysis.  Optimum dietary methionine requirement for growth of juvenile humpback grouper was 1.18% (2.41% of dietary protein and 1.16% (2.37% of dietary protein based on weight gain data and feed efficiency, respectively.

  3. Pengalaman dan Dukungan Keluarga terhadap Perubahan Psikologis Ibu Menopause di Puskesmas Putri Ayu Kota Jambi

    OpenAIRE

    Arifarahmi, Arifarahmi

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION A women up to 45 years old will have menopause phase. Many woman in menopause phase will be psycological changes. In 2013, total of menopause women in Indonesia (45-49 years old) are 17.511.166 womens. In 2014, Jambi has 28.516 woman (45-49 years old). METHOD This research was a descriptive research. The independent variables that researched are experiences and family supported, dependent variables is the psychological changes of menopause woman. The population are womens 50-...

  4. Metagonimus yokogawai (Trematoda: Heterophyidae): From Discovery to Designation of a Neotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Takeshi; Kino, Hideto

    2015-01-01

    Metagonimus yokogawai (Katsurada, 1912) Katsurada, 1912 (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) is parasitic in the small intestine of mammals including man and birds in Far Eastern Russia, Korea, Japan, China, and Taiwan. In the present study, the metacercariae and adults of M. yokogawai were redescribed to designate a neotype of this fluke together with reviews of previous studies including study histories from the first discovery to now. We particularly, attempted to review the study histories and morphological descriptions of M. yokogawai for the species validity, and compared with the morphological characteristics and life cycles of the closely related species, Metagonimus takahashii and Metagonimus miyatai. Finally, we proposed a differential key for the 8 known Metagonimus species distributed in East Asia. Metacercariae were obtained from the body muscles of sweetfish (Plecoglossus altivelis) collected in the Asahi River at Takebe-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama City, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. Adults were recovered from the small intestine of Syrian golden hamsters, to which the metacercariae had been fed 14 days before. A neotype was selected out of the present adult specimens. The Asahi River at Takebo-cho became the type locality of M. yokogawai. In conclusion, the present review shows that M. yokogawai, M. takahashii, and M. miyatai are valid and discriminated by means of morphological characteristics. PMID:26537043

  5. QUANTITATIVE HISTOPATHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF ENLARGED CELLS DERIVED FROM HUMPBACK GROUPER, Cromileptes altivelis INFECTED WITH GROUPER SLEEPY DISEASE IRIDOVIRUS (GSDIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Mastuti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathognomonic sign of grouper sleepy disease iridovirus (GSDIV was proposed to be the formation of enlarged cells and necrotic cells, in which under electron microscope, it is revealed to be the inclusion body bearing cells (IBCs and necrotic cells containing GSDIV viral particles. Spleen and kidney tissues are the major sites for formation of enlarged cells. This paper described the result of histopatological analysis of enlarged cells found in the spleen and kidney of moribund fish after GSDIV challenge. A pathogenicity test was conducted on fish stocked in two tanks for infected groups and the other two tanks for uninfected control groups (15 fish per tank. The infected groups were injected intramuscularly with 0.1 ml of the viral inoculum. The uninfected groups were injected with the same amount of EMEM-2. The GSDIV-infected humpback grouper began to die after 6 days post infection and all died after 7 dpi, excluding one fish which had survived until the end of experimental infection periods (93% to 100% mortality. All of the diseased fish showed massive formation of enlarged cells in their spleen, head kidney and trunk kidney. The largest number of enlarged cells was observed on head kidneys and subsequently followed by spleens, trunk kidney (2.0-200.3/field of view. This result suggested that the number of enlarged cells in the affected organs was not the direct factor that led to the mortality of fish.

  6. Engineering Technology Of Fish Farming Floating Nets Cages On Polka Dot Grouper (Cromileptes Altivelis) Used Artificial Feed Enriched Phytase Enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samidjan, Istiyanto; Rachmawati, Diana

    2018-02-01

    One solution is to utilize engineering technology cultivation floating cage net polka dot grouper (ducker grouper), which is given artificial feed enriched with phytase enzymes. The objectives of this study was to examine the use of technology engineering floating net on ducker grouper on artificial feed that is enriched with different dose phytase enzymes to accelerate growth and survival. The research method used ducker grouper fish size 15,5 ± 0,5 cm in the net cages unit (1 m x 1 m x 1 m), 250 fish per cage, using 12 cages. Each net-cages was made of polyethylens netting, mesh size 12.5 mm. with complete randomized design (CRD) 4 treatment and 3 replication were feed Artificial enriched of phytase enzyme with the doses of A (0 FTU · kg-1 diet), B (200 FTU · kg-1 diet), C (500 FTU · kg-1 diet), and D (800 FTU · kg-1 diet) phytase enzyme. Feed was given 2 times a day in the morning and afternoon with 5% biomass per day. Data includes the growth of absolute weight polka dot grouper, FCR, and survival rate analyzed variety and Test Tukey.The result of the research showed that the difference of artificial feeding enriched phytase enzyme significantly (P food conversion ratio (FCR), survival rete of polka dot grouper. The best treatment at C (500 mg / kg of feed) increase growth of absolute weight of 128.75 g, 1.75 (FCR), and a survival rate of 93.5%.

  7. Development of a spatially distributed model of fish population density for habitat assessment of rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Pengzhe; Iwasaki, Akito; Ryo, Masahiro; Saavedra, Oliver; Yoshimura, Chihiro

    2013-04-01

    discharge (MID) was found to be positively correlated to 9 among 16 fish species. For duration of high and low flows (DHF and DLF), longer DHF/DLF was corresponded to lower population density for 7/6 fish species, respectively, such as Rhinogobius kurodai and Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis. Among physical habitat conditions, sinuosity index (SI, the ratio between actual river section length and straight line length) seems to be the most important parameter for fish population density in Sagami River basin, since it affects 12 out of 16 fish species, followed by mean longitudinal slope (S) and number of downstream dams (NLD). Above results demonstrated the applicability of fish distribution model to provide quantitative information on flow conditions required to maintain fish population, which enabled us to evaluate and project ecological consequences of water resource management policy, such as flood management and water withdrawal.

  8. Radiological impact of the nuclear power plant accident on freshwater fish in Fukushima: An overview of monitoring results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Toshihiro; Tomiya, Atsushi; Enomoto, Masahiro; Sato, Toshiyuki; Morishita, Daigo; Izumi, Shigehiko; Niizeki, Kouji; Suzuki, Shunji; Morita, Takami; Kawata, Gyo

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide ((131)I, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs) concentrations of monitored freshwater fish species collected from different habitats (rivers, lakes, and culture ponds) in Fukushima Prefecture during March 2011-December 2014 (total 16 species, n = 2692) were analyzed to present a detailed description of radionuclide contamination after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, and to elucidate species-specific spatiotemporal declining trends of (137)Cs concentration for their respective habitats. Low concentrations of (131)I (≤24 Bq kg(-1)-wet) were detected from only 11 samples collected during March-June 2011, demonstrating that (131)I transferred to freshwater fish were not intense. In river and lake fishes, a more gradual decrease and higher radiocesium ((134)Cs, (137)Cs) concentrations were observed than in culture pond fishes, which strongly implied that radiocesium in freshwater fish species was mainly bioaccumulated through the food web in the wild. During 2011-2014, percentages above the Japanese regulatory limit of 100 Bq kg(-1)-wet for radiocesium in river and lake fish (14.0% and 39.6%, respectively) were higher than in monitored marine fish (9.9%), indicating longer-term contamination of freshwater fish species, especially in lakes. Higher radiocesium concentrations (maximum 18.7 kBq kg(-1)-wet in Oncorhynchus masou) were found in the northwestern areas from the FDNPP with higher deposition. However, radiocesium contamination levels were regarded as 1-2 orders of magnitude less than those after the Chernobyl accident. Lagged increase of (137)Cs concentration and longer ecological half-lives (Teco: 1.2-2.6 y in the central part of Fukushima Prefecture) were observed in carnivorous salmonids (O. masou, Salvelinus leucomaenis), whereas a rapid increase and decrease of (137)Cs concentration and shorter Teco (0.99 and 0.69 y) were found in herbivorous and planktivorous osmerids (Plecoglossus altivelis, Hypomesus nipponensis) with

  9. Radiological impact of the nuclear power plant accident on freshwater fish in Fukushima: An overview of monitoring results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Toshihiro; Tomiya, Atsushi; Enomoto, Masahiro; Sato, Toshiyuki; Morishita, Daigo; Izumi, Shigehiko; Niizeki, Kouji; Suzuki, Shunji; Morita, Takami; Kawata, Gyo

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide ( 131 I, 134 Cs, and 137 Cs) concentrations of monitored freshwater fish species collected from different habitats (rivers, lakes, and culture ponds) in Fukushima Prefecture during March 2011–December 2014 (total 16 species, n = 2692) were analyzed to present a detailed description of radionuclide contamination after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, and to elucidate species-specific spatiotemporal declining trends of 137 Cs concentration for their respective habitats. Low concentrations of 131 I (≤24 Bq kg −1 -wet) were detected from only 11 samples collected during March–June 2011, demonstrating that 131 I transferred to freshwater fish were not intense. In river and lake fishes, a more gradual decrease and higher radiocesium ( 134 Cs, 137 Cs) concentrations were observed than in culture pond fishes, which strongly implied that radiocesium in freshwater fish species was mainly bioaccumulated through the food web in the wild. During 2011–2014, percentages above the Japanese regulatory limit of 100 Bq kg −1 -wet for radiocesium in river and lake fish (14.0% and 39.6%, respectively) were higher than in monitored marine fish (9.9%), indicating longer-term contamination of freshwater fish species, especially in lakes. Higher radiocesium concentrations (maximum 18.7 kBq kg −1 -wet in Oncorhynchus masou) were found in the northwestern areas from the FDNPP with higher deposition. However, radiocesium contamination levels were regarded as 1–2 orders of magnitude less than those after the Chernobyl accident. Lagged increase of 137 Cs concentration and longer ecological half-lives (T eco : 1.2–2.6 y in the central part of Fukushima Prefecture) were observed in carnivorous salmonids (O. masou, Salvelinus leucomaenis), whereas a rapid increase and decrease of 137 Cs concentration and shorter T eco (0.99 and 0.69 y) were found in herbivorous and planktivorous osmerids (Plecoglossus altivelis, Hypomesus

  10. Pemaknaan Pembaca terhadap Kisah-kisah Rumah Tangga Bertema Perselingkuhan dalam Rubrik Oh Mama, Oh Papa di Majalah Kartini

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Ayu Permata; Santosa, Hedi Pudjo; Rahardjo, Turnomo

    2013-01-01

    Pemaknaan Pembaca Terhadap Kisah-kisah Rumah TanggaBertema Perselingkuhan dalam Rubrik Oh Mama, Oh Papa diMajalah KartiniSkripsiDisusun untuk memenuhi persyaratan menyelesaikanPendidikan Strata 1Jurusan Ilmu Komunikasi Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Imu PolitikUniversitas DiponegoroPenyusun :Ayu Permata SariD2C009109JURUSAN ILMU KOMUNIKASIFAKULTAS ILMU SOSIAL DAN ILMU POLITIKUNIVERSITAS DIPONEGOROSEMARANG2013Nama : Ayu Permata SariNIM : D2C009109Judul : Pemaknaan Pembaca Terhadap Kisah-kisah Rumah ...

  11. Investigation of a parasitic outbreak of Lernaea cyprinacea Linnaeus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish samples were collected from impoundments in the Malilangwe Wildlife Reserve in the southeastern lowveld of Zimbabwe and these included the cichlids Oreochromis mossambicus, Oreochromis placidus and Tilapia rendalli, the cyprinids Labeo altivelis and Barbus paludinosus, the clariid Clarias gariepinus, the ...

  12. ZNF 197L is dispensable in mouse development | Tang | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gene trap technique is a newly powerful approach for characterizing and mutating genes in mouse. We used gene trap method to identify mice gene of unknown function and to establish their mouse line. Here, we found one such gene termed as Ayu17-923 (similar to zinc finger protein 197 transcript variant 2, ZNF ...

  13. NOUN CLASSIFICATION IN ESAHIE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . 'meaning'. 1. M mtu 'person' a/yu ye wa. People. 2 wa watu 'people' wa o wa. 3. M ..... One would have expected that since the subject of (10) bears the a-prefix, the same a-prefix .... attached to nouns beginning in a voiceless velar stop. (16).

  14. Stemcell Information: SKIP001151 [SKIP Stemcell Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ayu Yamazaki-Inoue,Takumi Miura,Mohan C. Vemuri,Mahendra S. Rao,Kenji Miyado,Akihiro Umezawa Regenerative Therapy 2015 1 June 18-29 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reth.2014.12.004 ...

  15. PEMBUATAN ALAT LABORATORIUM FISIKA FAKULTAS ILMU TARBIYAH DAN KEGURUAN IAIN WALISONGO UNTUK PRAKTIKUM OSILASI CAIRAN DAN AYUNAN MATEMATIS SECARA DIGITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    agus sudarmanto

    2016-02-01

    Hasil penelitian ini adalah bahwa pembuatan alat lab- oratorium sika  untuk praktikum osilasi cairan dan ayu- nan matematis secara digital sudah dapat berfungsi sesuai dengan yang diinginkan dan data hasil dari alat tersebut mendekati nilai percepatan gravitasi bumi sebenarnya yai- tu sebesar 9,8 m/s2.

  16. Synthetic magnetic opals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2JDS Uniphase Corporation, 625 Industrial Way, Eatontown, NJ 07724, USA. 3UTD-NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75083, USA. Abstract. ..... the Swedish funding agency VINNOVA for financing this project. VA, PS, and AYuG would like to acknowledge the local hospitality and the summer ...

  17. Dekonstruksitoshiko Sebagaitokoh Tambahan dalam Novelkagi Karya Tanizaki Jun'ichirou

    OpenAIRE

    OETOMO, AYU MAULIDDINA

    2014-01-01

    Mauliddina, ayu. 2014. Dekonstruksi Toshiko sebagai Tokoh Tambahan dalam Novel Kagi Karya Tanizaki Jun'ichirou. Program Studi Sastra Jepang. Fakultas Ilmu Budaya. Universitas Brawijaya. Pembimbing: (I) Fitriana Puspita Dewi (II) Eka Marthanty Indah LestariKata Kunci: Novel, The Key, Dekonstruksi, Penokohan, dan Tokoh tambahanSastra merupakan karya fiksi hasil dari buah pikir manusia. Dimana sebuah karya sastra dibuat dari imajinasi seseorang yang dilandasi tanggung jawab dan kreativitas da...

  18. A Novel Murine Gene, Sickle tail, Linked to the Danforth's short tail Locus, Is Required for Normal Development of the Intervertebral Disc

    OpenAIRE

    Semba, Kei; Araki, Kimi; Li, Zhengzhe; Matsumoto, Ken-ichirou; Suzuki, Misao; Nakagata, Naoki; Takagi, Katsumasa; Takeya, Motohiro; Yoshinobu, Kumiko; Araki, Masatake; Imai, Kenji; Abe, Kuniya; Yamamura, Ken-ichi

    2006-01-01

    We established the mutant mouse line, B6;CB-SktGtAyu8021IMEG (SktGt), through gene-trap mutagenesis in embryonic stem cells. The novel gene identified, called Sickle tail (Skt), is composed of 19 exons and encodes a protein of 1352 amino acids. Expression of a reporter gene was detected in the notochord during embryogenesis and in the nucleus pulposus of mice. Compression of some of the nuclei pulposi in the intervertebral discs (IVDs) appeared at embryonic day (E) 17.5, resulting in a kinky-...

  19. ANDIR AS A SCARED DANCE AT TISATA VILLAGE, KERAMBITAN, TABANAN REGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Arshiniwati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tariandir in the village Tista is a form of Legong Kraton tarisejenis the Tista community called andir.Strukturkoreografinyasangatdekatdengantarilegongkeraton , tetapitari Andir only flourish in the village Tista Kerambitan.Tari inidifungsikan as guardian and bebali art that in the play always involves Rangda sungsungan society , baikditampilkansebagaibagiandariceritamaupunhanyasebagai " witness " pementasannya . Qualitative research by applying the theory of representation , ideology theory , aesthetic theory , and the theory of semiotics examines the main problems that dance andirsebagai sacred art in the village Tista Kerambitan . The results showed that as the art sakraltari Andir related to : ( 1 the use of equipment ( sacred objects in the form of engagement rangdasungsungan ( Ratu Ayu Lingsir and Ratu Ayu Anom , yangdipercayamemilikikekuatanmagis which dapatmelindungimasyarakatTista ; ( 2 any activity that is carried out is always through a process with the ceremony accompanying the various upakara ; ( 3 the culprit is the elect ( chosen girls who have not experienced puberty and is seen as a dancer who kesenengin chosen and blessed by God ; ( 4 where the play is holy places associated with yadnya ceremony at the local and pretended to be done every 210 days ( every six months in Bali or six times thirty- five days ; ( 5 the play time is the time it was considered kramat (sacred time and associated with yadnyadan ceremony ( 6 community supporters ( who believes that dance is a dance sacred Andir kesakralannya sourced from sungsungan Rangda .

  20. Scientific heritage of L.D. Faddeev. Survey of papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takhtajan, L. A.; Alekseev, A. Yu; Aref'eva, I. Ya; Semenov-Tian-Shansky, M. A.; Sklyanin, E. K.; Smirnov, F. A.; Shatashvili, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    This survey was written by students of L.D. Faddeev under the editorship of L.A. Takhtajan. Sections 1.1, 1.2, 2-4, and 6 were written by Takhtajan, §§1.3 and 1.4 by F.A. Smirnov, §§5.1 and 5.2 by E.K. Sklyanin, §§5.3-5.6 by Sklyanin, Smirnov, and Takhtajan, §7.1 by M.A. Semenov-Tian-Shansky, §§7.2-7.6 by Takhtajan and S.L. Shatashvili, §7.7 by A.Yu. Alekseev and Shatashvili, and §8 by I.Ya. Aref'eva. Bibliography: 130 titles.

  1. KARAKTERISTIK FASAD BANGUNAN RUMAH KOMPAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmatika Apriyanti

    2016-09-01

    Fauzy, Bachtiar., Purnama Salura., Agnes Kurnia (2013.  Sintesis Langgam Arsitektur Kolonial  Pada  Gedung  Restauran ‘Hallo Surabaya’ Di Surabaya . Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat, Universitas Katolik Parahyangan Fitriyanin (….. Metode Penelitian. Universitas Komunikasi Indonesia. Bandung Krier, Rob (2001. Komposisi Arsitektur. Erlangga. Jakarta Pujantara, Ruly (2010. Karakteristik  Fasade  Bangunan Peninggalan  Kolonialisme  Dan Sebaran Spasialnya Di Kota Makassar Saraswati, A.A.Ayu Oka. (2006. Bale Kulkur Sebagai Bangunan Penanda Pendukung Karakter Kota Budaya. Dosen Sejarah Arsitektur, Universitas Udayana Bali Utami., Mario Wibowo., Abdul Jabbar Faruk (2014. Kajian Bentuk dan Fasad Hotel Gino Feruci Bandung. Jurusan Teknik Aristektur, Fakultas Teknik Sipil & Perencanaan, Institut Teknologi Nasional Bandung Widaningsih, Lilis (2004. Karakteristik Fasade Bangunan Factory  Outlet Di  Jalan Ir. H. Djuanda Bandung. Jurusan Teknik Arsitektur. Fakultas Teknik. Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia. Bandung

  2. NOVEL MLANTJARAN KA SASAK: FROM DILLEMATIC TEACHERS TO HUMOROUS ONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Tingkat

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the representation of the image of teachers in the novel entitled Mlantjaran ka Sasak written by Gde Srawana. Using the theory of literary sociology and the theory of representation as the basis of analysis, it was found that teachers were  imaged of being dilemmatic, humanistic idealistic, caring about the Balinese culture, and being humorous. Sociologically, the novel entitled Mlantjaran ka Sasak pictured the life background of the Balinese society during 1930s, indicated by the critical attitude of the intellectuals through I Made Sarati and Ida Ayu Priya, the characters who played a role as teachers, towards the caste feudalism in marriage. Such a critical attitude was expressed in such an inciting way that the ethic and aesthetic values needed to educate society were not neglected.

  3. A review of fish lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tzi Bun; Fai Cheung, Randy Chi; Wing Ng, Charlene Cheuk; Fang, Evandro Fei; Wong, Jack Ho

    2015-01-01

    Lectins have been reported from various tissues of a diversity of fish species including Japanese eel, conger eel, electric eel, bighead carp, gibel carp, grass carp, Arabian Gulf catfish, channel catfish, blue catfish, catfish, pike perch, perch, powan, zebrafish, toxic moray, cobia fish, steelhead trout, Japanese trout, Atlantic salmon, chinook salmon, olive rainbow smelt, rainbow smelt, white-spotted charr, tilapia, blue gourami, ayu, Potca fish, Spanish mackerel, gilt head bream, tench, roach, rudd, common skate, and sea lamprey. The tissues from which the lectins were isolated comprise gills, eggs, electric organ, stomach, intestine, and liver. Lectins have also been isolated from skin, mucus serum, and plasma. The lectins differ in molecular weight, number of subunits, glycosylation, sugar binding specificity and amino acid sequence. Their activities include antimicrobial, antitumor, immunoregulatory and a role in development.

  4. Kajian Aspek Ketidaksadaran dalam Karya Seni Rupa Indonesia Periode 2000-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Damajanti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pada era seni rupa kontemporer, pembacaan karya tidak lagi hanya terbatas padahasil analisis dan interpretasi unsur-unsur formal, namun juga mempertimbangkanketerkaitannya dengan psikobiografi seniman sehingga dapat memberikan gambaranyang lebih lengkap tentang karakter seni rupa yang multifaset. Penelitian inidirancang untuk mengidentifikasi representasi aspek ketidaksadaran dalam karya senirupa Indonesia dan menginterpretasikan simbol-simbolnya. Seniman yang karyanyadipilih sebagai studi kasus dalam penelitian ini adalah I Gusti Ayu Kadek Murniasih,Entang Wiharso, dan Ugo Untoro. Pendekatan yang digunakan adalah pendekatanmultidisiplin (psikologi seni dan semiotika. Berdasarkan hasil analisis, aspekketidaksadaran yang direpresentasikan melalui simbol-simbol visual yang khas dalamkarya ketiga seniman cenderung lahir dari pengalaman traumatik yang melahirkanketakutan, kesakitan, dan agresi. Melukis bagi ketiganya adalah proses katarsis,media untuk mensublimasikan/memperhalus dorongan-dorongan naluri ketakutan,kesakitan, dan agresi ke dalam bentuk karya yang dapat diterima dan diapresiasidengan baik oleh masyarakat.   A Study on Unconsciousness Aspect in the 2000-2011 Works of Indonesia VisualArt. In the era of contemporary visual art, the works of art cannot be read merelylimited to the analysis and interpretation of the formal elements but have to include theconsideration about the artist’s psychobiography so that there will be a more completepicture about the multifaceted visual arts. This research is carried out to identify therepresentation of the unconsciousness aspect in the works of visual arts and then interpretthe symbols. The selected samples are the works of I Gusti Ayu Kadek Murniasih,Entang Wiharso, and Ugo Untoro. The multidisciplinary (art psychology and semioticsapproach is applied within the qualitative method used. Based on the analysis result,the unconsciousness aspect represented in unique visual symbols in the works of

  5. Effect of V or Zr addition on the mechanical properties of the mechanically alloyed Al-8wt%Ti alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, I.H.; Lee, J.H.; Lee, K.M.; Kim, Y.D.

    1995-01-01

    Mechanical alloying (MA) of Al-Ti alloy, being a solid state process, offers the unique advantage of producing homogeneous and fine dispersions of thermally stable Al 3 Ti phase, where the formation of the fine Al 3 Ti phase by the other method is restricted from the thermodynamic viewpoint. The MA Al-Ti alloys show substantially higher strength than the conventional Al alloys at the elevated temperature due to the presence of Al 3 Ti as well as Al 4 C 3 and Al 2 O 3 , of which the last two phases were introduced during MA process. The addition of V or Zr to Al-Ti alloy was known to decrease the lattice mismatch between the intermetallic compound and the aluminum matrix, and such decrease in lattice mismatching can influence positively the high temperature mechanical strength of the MA Al-Ti by increasing the resistance to dispersoid coarsening at the elevated temperature. In the present study, therefore, the mechanical behavior of the MA Al-Ti-V and Al-Ti-Zr alloys were investigated in order to evaluate the effect of V or Zr addition on the mechanical properties of the MA Al-8Ti alloy at high temperature

  6. Minimum 1D velocity models in Central and Southern Italy: a contribution to better constrain hypocentral determinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Frepoli

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available We computed one-dimensional ( I D velocity models and station corrections for Centrai and Southern Italy, in- verting re-picked P-wave alTival times recorded by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica seismic network. The re-picked data yield resolved P-wave velocity results and proved to be more suited than bulletin data for de- tailed tomographic studies. Using the improved velocity models, we relocated the most significant earthquakes which occurt.ed in the Apennines in the past 7 years, achieving constrained hypocentral determinations for events within most of the Apenninic belt. The interpretation of the obtained lD velocity models allows us to infer interesting features on the deep structure of the Apennines. Smooth velocity gradients with depth and low P-wave velocities are ob,'ierved beneath the Apennines. We believe that our results are effective to constrain hypocentral locations in Italy and may represent a first step towards more detailed seismotectonic analyses.

  7. Lagenidium callinectes INFECTION ON ROTIFERS Brachionus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Des Roza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Milkfish, Chanos chanos and humpback grouper, Cromileptes altivelis hatcheries have developed at Gondol, Bali since 1995 and until now still rely on rotifers, the main natural food, supply. Recent problem on mass culture of rotifer, Brachionus sp. is harvest failure caused by fungus infection. Under light microscope, infected eggs and bodies of the rotifers was filled with numerous aseptate hyphae. Two isolates of fungi were isolated from rotifer eggs and carcass on June 21st, 2004 and on June 25th, 2004 obtained from milkfish and humpback grouper hatcheries at Gondol. Based on its morphological characteristics, the pathogenic fungus was identified as Lagenidium callinectes which grows optimally at 25°C and survives in 1.0%, 2.5%, and 5.0% NaCl as well as in 1.0% and 2.5% KCl. Both of the present isolates utilize only 8 out of 26 carbohydrates and derivatives tested as carbon, nutrition and energy sources. This finding is the first report on rotifer, Brachionus sp. infected with L. callinectes causing up to 100% mortality.

  8. ENERGY OF NOVELS SAMAN, NAYLA, AND PETIR IN LITERARY PUBLISHING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiarti -

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The research was based on the notion that novels Saman, Nayla, and Petir haveuniqueness in the exploration of ideas, narration style, and such typical techniques that creatednew esthetics. Besides, the literary works were written by three creative, innovative andknowledgeable young women who, in expressing their ideas and thoughts, were able to totallyframe story and give energy to the novels Saman, Nayla, and Petir. In the history of Indonesiancontemporary literary works, they (Ayu Utami, Djenar Maesa Ayu, and Dewi Lestari wereknown to have produce monumental works, which in turn received good responses in Indonesianliterature publishing industry.This research is aimed at describing (a thematic aspect and energy of the novels Saman,Nayla and Petir, which encourages literature publishing industry to publish; (b readers’reception of the themes novels Saman, Nayla, and Petir in social and cultural change andpublishing industry; (c relevance of cultural industry and economic praxis of readers, bookmarket and publishing industry of literary history. The research method used was descriptivewith qualitative and hermeneutic approaches. Meanwhile, the data was deeply analyzed in theunderstanding, content, and context. The analysis was conducted in cyclic and counter balancedways to gain deep understanding of writers’ thoughts, readers’ responses to the literary works,and the role of publishing industry with available market prospect. The research was based ontheory of post structuralism, reception, intertext, and cultural industry in literature.The research results showed that (1 thematic aspects and energy of the novels Saman,Nayla, and Petir as a context described women’s concern about social and cultural structure,patriarchy culture, and conflicts between traditional and modern structures. There were vulgarand jumping expressions, contrasting dictions, fantasy and symbolic language, the use of naturalstyle, free narrative, surprising and

  9. PRIBUMI SUBALTERN DALAM NOVEL-NOVEL INDONESIA PASCAKOLONIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iswadi Bahardur, S.S., M.Pd.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research is motivated by colonial problems in the archipelago that still leave traces of oppression as well as efforts of the struggle of the natives to escape from the impact of the ideology. The trail of colonial colonization that still lags behind creates indigenous groups that become subalterns-isolated, oppressed, and discarded groups. In the postcolonial theory of subaltern Gayatri Spivax it is stated that among the most victimized groups of colonialism are women. Relevant to the issue, this study aims to describe the forms of oppression and the struggle of indigenous people, especially women who become subalterns, against the colonial ideology. Data obtained from modern Indonesian novels are then analyzed qualitatively. Based on the research data source, Orang-orang Blanti by Wisran Hadi, Maya by Ayu Utami and Gadis Pantai by Pramoedya Ananta Toer, the result of this research shows that indigenous figures, especially women become subaltern because they are marginalized, economically impoverished, labeled, As well as experiencing sexual harassment. Furthermore the form of the struggle of indigenous women in the face of colonial oppression in the context of the subaltern is to foster the spirit of struggle by recalling the glory of the past, practicing the knowledge gained through modern education, maintaining traditional and cultural values, as well as mimicry Keywords: novel, women, postcolonial, indigenous, subaltern

  10. The English Borrowings and the Indonesian-English Codeswitching in Two Collections of Blog Short-Stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Marietta da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available If one has ever read fiction works by prominent Indonesian authors from 1920‟s Abdul Muis, and Marah Rusli, 1930‟s Sutan Takdir Alisjahbana and Armijn Pane, 1945‟s Chairil Anwar and Achdiat K. Mihardja, 1950-1960‟s Pramoedya Ananta Toer, W. S. Rendra, and N. H. Dini, 1960-1970‟s Taufik Ismail, Goenawan Moehammad, and Sapardi Djoko Darmono, and compared their work with those of the 1990‟s Hilman Sriwijaya and Ayu Utami, and the 2000‟s Hirata, one must have found many differences among the works. More obvious distinction will be discovered if all of the works previously mentioned are contrasted with those of 2000‟s teen writers like Arunita, Mentari, Andries, and recently Dika, especially in terms of style and vocabulary. The most recent teen fictions have employed much colloquial Indonesian or Malay-Betawi dialect (Djenar, 2008, and English lexical items. This study shows that in Dika‟s blog short-stories alone, English borrowings and Indonesian-English code-switching were commonly found. English seems to be the third language after the colloquial and standard Indonesian with which the author thinks

  11. WACANA KEKERASAN DAN RESISTENSI PEREMPUAN DALAM FILM KARYA SUTRADARA PEREMPUAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liestianingsih Dwi Dayanti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Mereka Bilang Saya Monyet, a movie by woman director Djenar Maesa Ayu, was a film about women with a different perspective. This movie reveals a discourse on both violence and women’s resistance against it. The dimensions shown included psychological, physical, and sexual violence between parents and their child, an adult men with his daughter, and adult men with adult women. Violence appears because of the unbalanced relationship between subject and object. The effects of this violence can take the form of fear, anger, or a feeling of inferiority and unworthiness, and the victim feels encouraged to act on it. Discourse related to gender-based violence is a result of a patriarchal cultural construction. In the film, resistance was portrayed through the victim’s suffering, anger, and physical resistance. Women directors perceived these issues from a different perspective. It is not enough to understand violence against women only from the normative perspective of law and social obligation. This issue must be understood by positioning women as the subject (survivor and recognizing that violence against women is a crime against humanity.

  12. Brain Enhancing Ingredients from Āyurvedic Medicine: Quintessential Example of Bacopa monniera, a Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant K. Singh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Āyurveda, the science (ved of life (ayu, owing its origin to Veda, the oldest recorded wisdom of human civilization written in 3500 BCE, contains extensive knowledge of various diseases and their therapeutic approaches. It essentially relied on nature and the immune system of an individual, and therapeutic interventions were introduced only to augment the immune system. Āyurveda had eight specialties, including psycho-neuroscience (a combination of psychology, clinical psychology and psychiatry and a unique promotive therapy encompassing nutrition, rejuvenation and geriatrics. The symptoms of various brain disorders, including memory disorder, were well defined. The goal of Āyurveda was to help an individual to achieve his cherished goal of leading a healthy life of 100 years. To achieve this, great emphasis was laid on nutrition, diet and a good conduct by the two great exponents of Āyurveda viz. Carak and Suśruta. By following these regimens, an individual could lead a less stressful life free from emotional disturbances. Both Carak and Suśruta had believed that these in combination with rasayana (rejuvenating plants could enable an individual to lead a healthy life of 100 years.

  13. New Publications and Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Karyakin I.V. Eagles of Russia and Kazakhstan: ranges and electric-grid danger zones. Novosibirsk: Sibecocentr, 2016. 36 pp. ISBN 978-5-9908314-0-7. Forsman D. Flight Identification of Raptors of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2016: 1–544. ISBN-13: 9781472913616 Birds of Prey in the Northern Eurasia: Problems and adaptations in current environment: Proceedings of the VII International Conference on Birds of Prey and Owls of Northern Eurasia, Sochi, 19-24 September 2016 / Ed. V.P. Belik. Rostov-on-Don, 2016. 614 pp. ISBN 978-5-9275-2047-3 The Harriers of the Palearctic: Systematics, distribution and features of ecology in Northern Eurasia: Proceedings of the VII International Conference on Birds of Prey and Owls of Northern Eurasia, Sochi, 19-24 September 2016 / Eds. I.V. Fefelov, A.Yu. Sokolov. Rostov-on-Don, 2016. 180 p. ISBN 978-5-9275-2053-4

  14. Spilled Oils: Static Mixtures or Dynamic Weathering and Bioavailability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark G Carls

    Full Text Available Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs from sequestered MV Selendang Ayu oil were biologically available in 2008, 3.6 y after it was spilled along Unalaska Island, Alaska. Thermodynamically driven weathering was the most probable mechanism of organism exposure to PAHs. Alkane and PAH composition in oil changed over time as smaller constituents were preferentially lost, indicative of weathering. In contrast, composition of the largest compounds (biomarkers including triterpanes, hopanes, and steranes remained unchanged. Smaller molecules (the PAHs lost from stranded oil were observed in indigenous mussels and passive samplers deployed in July 2008. Concentration and composition of PAHs were significantly different than in a non-oiled reference area and patterns observed in mussels were repeated in passive samplers deployed in three zones (intertidal, subtidal, and water. Thus, hydrocarbons lost from one compartment (sequestered whole oil were detectable in another (mussels and passive samplers implying aqueous transfer. Quantities of mobile oil constituents were small, yielding uptake concentrations that are likely inconsequential for mussels, but the sensitivity provided by bioaccumulation and passive sampler uptake ensured that dissolved hydrocarbons were detectable.

  15. MORPHO-CHEMICAL DESCRIPTION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT OCIMUM SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAKARAPARTHI PANDU SASTRY

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Basil is a popular medicinal and culinary herb, and its essential oils have been used extensively for many years in food products, perfumery, dental and oral products. Basil essential oils and their principal constituents were found to exhibit antimicrobial activity against a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, yeast, and mould. The essential oils obtained from aerial parts of three different species of Ocimum comprising twenty one germplasm lines were investigated for their essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity during 2010. Essential oils from seventeen germplasm lines in Ocimum basilicum and two each in Ocimum tenuiflorum and Ocimum gratissimum were investigated for anti-microbial activity against four bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sps., Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The morpho-chemotypes exhibited wide variability for morphological and chemical traits. Anti-bacterial activity was found to be high for Staphylococcus aureus, moderate for Escherichia coli, low for Bacillus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was highly resistant. The essential oils of Pale Green-Broad Leaves (O. basilicum and CIM Ayu (O. gratissimum exhibited significant antibacterial activity against both S. aureus and E. coli signifying them promising for anti-bacterial activity. No relationship was observed between chemotype specificity and anti-bacterial activity, indicating that apart from major components of essential oil, minor components and other factors may be responsible for anti-microbial activities.

  16. Edge Plasma Simulations in NSTX and CTF: Synergy of Lithium Coating, Non-Diffusive Anomalous Transport and Drifts. Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigarov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This is the final report for the Research Grant DE-FG02-08ER54989 'Edge Plasma Simulations in NSTX and CTF: Synergy of Lithium Coating, Non-Diffusive Anomalous Transport and Drifts'. The UCSD group including: A.Yu. Pigarov (PI), S.I. Krasheninnikov and R.D. Smirnov, was working on modeling of the impact of lithium coatings on edge plasma parameters in NSTX with the multi-species multi-fluid code UEDGE. The work was conducted in the following main areas: (i) improvements of UEDGE model for plasma-lithium interactions, (ii) understanding the physics of low-recycling divertor regime in NSTX caused by lithium pumping, (iii) study of synergistic effects with lithium coatings and non-diffusive ballooning-like cross-field transport, (iv) simulation of experimental multi-diagnostic data on edge plasma with lithium pumping in NSTX via self-consistent modeling of D-Li-C plasma with UEDGE, and (v) working-gas balance analysis. The accomplishments in these areas are given in the corresponding subsections in Section 2. Publications and presentations made under the Grant are listed in Section 3.

  17. Kunst, Kosmos, Kaste. Weibliche Körperinszenierungen, Tanz und Aspekte der Bewahrung balinesischer Kultur in Oka Rusminis Tarian Bumi [Art, Cosmos, Caste. Female Stagings of the Body, Dance and Aspects of Preserving Balinese Culture in Oka Rusmini‘s Tarian Bumi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Arnez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Immer mehr indonesische Autorinnen haben insbesondere seit dem Sturz Präsident Suhartos die literarische Bühne erobert. Viele ihrer Bücher wurden Bestseller, mit bis zu 100.000 verkauften Kopien. Diese zunehmende Popularität hängt vor allem mit Tendenzen der Liberalisierung, Aufhebung der Zensur und einer Redefinition der Rolle der Frau zusammen. Einige Schriftstellerinnen machten in der letzten Dekade durch die offene Thematisierung von Sexualität und Begehren der Frau auf sich aufmerksam, ein Tabuthema, das während der Neuen Ordnung nicht in dieser Weise hätte diskutiert werden können. Die meisten dieser Autorinnen, deren Literatur in den Medien oftmals mit dem umstrittenen Begriff sastrawangi (Duftliteratur bezeichnet wird, wählen als Handlungsschauplätze ihrer Erzählungen urbane Zentren Javas. Dieses Paper diskutiert den Roman Tarian Bumi (Erdentanz, 2000 von Oka Rusmini, die den Diskurs um den weiblichen Körper und Sexualität de facto noch vor der ‚Pionierin’ der sogenannten sastrawangi eröffnet hat, Ayu Utami. Das Paper möchte einen Beitrag dazu leisten, die Verflechtungen von weiblichen Körperinszenierungen, Tanz und Aspekte der Bewahrung der balinesischen Kultur aufzuzeigen. Ein besonderes Augenmerk liegt auf der Frage, wie die Körperinszenierungen genutzt werden, um die Rolle der Frau in der balinesischen Gesellschaft innerhalb des Spannungsfeldes des hinduistischen Kastensystems, der Hierarchie und vor dem Hintergrund der Problematik von Tourismus, postkolonialer Kritik und Bewahrung balinesischer Kultur im Wandel der Zeit zu charakterisieren.An increasing number of Indonesian women authors have entered the literary stage since the fall of Suharto. Many of their books have become bestsellers, selling up to 100.000 copies. Reasons for this rising popularity of literature by women authors are tendencies of liberalization, lifting of censorship and a redefinition of women’s role. Some female authors have attracted

  18. Revitalisasi Kearifan Lokal dalam Masyarakat Multikultural di Kecamatan Lingsar, Lombok Barat, NTB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sodli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on topat war which exists in Lingsar sub District West Lombok. This tradition still becomes guidance for the residents. Questions of this research are, how the revitalization of local tradition named topat war is empowered by communities as a way to integrate them, and what are the supporting factors of it? This is a qualitative research. Data were gathered using interview, observation, and documentary research. Result of this study depicts that there are many steps of topat war, namely cleaning of holy weapons and hereditary articles, making tetaring, a tent made of coconut leaf and bamboo, remember day of the death of KH. Abdul Malik, KH. Abdul Rouf, and Hj. R. Ayu Dewi Anjani, remembering the way of KH.Abdul Malik, slaughtering buffalo for dish service, conducting topat war. This topat war has been seen as a way of community’s integration in many aspects, for instance in remembering the way of KH.Abdul Malik, animal used, and the origin of topat. This tradition has been guarded because  it is a way to glue harmony among believers. Keywords : Tradition, Topat War, Religius, Harmony

  19. KATA PENGANTAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Team

    2016-05-01

    dalam artikel Peran Ganda Hakim Sebagai Mediator Bagi Penyelesaian Perkara Perdata Di Pengadilan Terkait Kode Etik Profesi oleh Dely Bunga Saravistha.  Aspek-Aspek Hukum Keluarga Dalam Awig-Awig Desa Pakraman olrh I Ketut Sudantra,  I Made Walesa Putra dan  Yuwono.  I Nyoman Agus Trisnadiasa membahas terkait Perlindungan Hukum Para Pihak Dalam Pembuatan Akta RUPS Yang Dilaksanakan Melalui Telekonferensi.  Selanjutnya terkait Gadai dibahas tentang Perlindungan Hukum Terhadap PT. Pegadaian (Persero Dalam Hal Barang Jaminan Gadai Bukan Milik Debitur oleh Ida Ayu Gede Narasanti. Gde Manik Yogiartha menalnjutkan dengan bahasan tentang  Keabsahan Penyidikan Badan Narkotika Nasional (BNN Made Dwi Kurniahartawan Tanggungjawab Pelaku Usaha Terkait Dengan Jual-Beli Telepon Seluler Tanpa Garansi . Sebagai area internasional yang ditandai oleh garis kuning (yellow line, area imigrasi memiliki kedudukan yang sama pentingnya dengan kedaulatan suatu negara. Secara normatif, area imigrasi yang ada disetiap Tempat Pemeriksaan Imigrasi merupakan tempat dan area yang dilegalisasi oleh Menteri dan memiliki kedudukan hukum (legal standing yang sah di mata hukum. Sehingga eksistensi area imigrasi merupakan representasi wibawa dan kedaulatan negara.Namun area imigrasi kurang efektif karena instrumen hukum yang mengatur belum memadai dan juga masyarakat belum sadar hukum sehingga masih banyak pelanggaran yang terjadi diarea imigrasi tersebut.  Terkait hal keimigrasian tersebut dibahas secara tuntas dalam tulisan  Eksistensi Area Imigrasi Pada Tempat Pemeriksaan Imigrasi Di Indonesia oleh  Gusti Ayu Made Widnyani. Selanjutnya berturut-turut dibahas mengenai : Pertanggungjawaban Pidana Terhadap Pelaku Tindak Pidana Penyelundupan Manusia (People Smuggling olrh Dewa Agung Gede Mahardhika Martha, Perlindungan Hukum Bagi Nasabah Pengguna Anjungan Tunai Mandiri (ATM Dalam Sistem Perbankan Di Indonesia oleh Ni Nyoman Muryatini.  Analisa Yuridis Pencabutan Hak Memilih Dan Dipilih Sebagai

  20. Texts and Glosses -Issue 16- Barataria / Textos y glosas, Barataria nº 16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Tardivo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Este libro publicado por Mondadori es parte de una colección llamada “Los sabe-res de la educación”, que lleva unos años publicando interesantes manuales sobre el tema educativo, sobre todo de carácter psi-cológico, sociológico y pedagógico. En este caso, una experta reconocida en el campo de la sociología de la educación, Luisa Ri-bolzi, ha publicado un manual sintético y fácil pensado para los estudiantes que se acercan por vez primera al campo de la dis-ciplina fundada por Durkheim. Están pen-sados para estos estudiantes por ejemplo los cuadros que de repente interrumpen la na-rración para explicar términos probable-mente desconocidos para quien esté en ayu-nas de sociología, como el concepto de anomía, el de sociedad, o el de generación, introducido por Mannheim. Todos los temas clásicos de esta discipli-na se encuentran resumidos en las primeras ciento cuarenta y nueve páginas del texto. Desde el concepto de socialización, en sus múltiples facetas (primaria, secundaria, re-socialización, etc., para llegar a una des-cripción general de las características fun-damentales de los principales agentes de socialización. Con un paréntesis muy in-teresante sobre Althusser y su famosa diser-tación sobre el Estado y sus aparatos ideo-lógicos, que parecen reflejar la voluntad del estado capitalista. En el capítulo cuatro la autora recuerda los orígenes de esta disciplina académica, destacando el papel fundador de Durkheim, profesor de educación antes que sociólogo y autor de tres libros sobre el tema educativo especialmente interesantes.

  1. Theory and case studies on solar induced seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duma, Gerald; Freund, Friedemann; Kosovichev, Pavel

    2015-04-01

    Huge electric current vortices are continuously generated in the Earth's lithosphere through electromagnetic induction from powerful ionospheric electric vortex currents that arise from ionization on the sun-lit side of the Earth (Chapman S. and Bartels J., 1940). The circular telluric currents in the Earth's lithosphere interact with the Earth's main magnetic field (H), building up a magnetic moment (M). According to T = [M x H] a mechanic torque (T) results from this interaction that can reach values as high as 5x10exp13 Nm (Duma G. and Ruzhin Y., 2003). We present evidence that this ionospherically induced telluric torque, which reaches deep into the lithosphere, influences the diurnal seismicity patterns in major earthquake zones as documented by earthquakes with magnitudes M ≥ 6.0. Our results confirm observations of distinct time-of-day patterns of seismic activity reported for over a century (Omori F., 1902; Conrad V., 1932 ; Shimshoni M., 1971; Duma G. and Vilardo G., 1998; Schekotov A.Yu., Molchanov O.A. and Hayakawa M., 2005) and even much earlier by Pliny the Elder, 79 A.D. A solar influence on earthquake frequency is apparent not only in diurnal patterns, but also in seasonal (e.g. Lipovics T., 2005) and decadal patterns. The effect can be validated by data recorded continuously at geomagnetic observatories, the INTERMAGNET stations (http://www.intermagnet.org), operating on all continents. The observatories continuously record magnetic variations which arise from the telluric currents in the Earth's lithosphere. Theory and model are presented, starting from the primary source for the effect, which is the varying solar wind speed as measured by satellites. The data are provided by the OMNI 2 directory (NASA, http://omniweb.gsfc.nasa.gov). We offer 7 case studies that deal with seismic activity patterns in the diurnal, seasonal and long term time domains for seismic zones in Asia (Japan, Taiwan, Sumatra), N-America (California), the Mid Atlantic Ridge

  2. Outcaste by Choice: Re-Genderings in a Short Story by Oka Rusmini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Aveling

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ida Ayu Oka Rusmini is a major contemporary Indonesian author. She has published two novels, Tarian Bumi (2000 and Kenanga (2003a, a collection of short stories, (Sagra, 2001, and a volume of poetry, Patiwangi (2003b, republished in 2007 as Warna Kita, with the omission of some 12 poems. Born in Jakarta in 1967 of Balinese parents, she was a member of the highest Balinese caste, the brahmana caste, but renounced this status, including her title, after her marriage to the East Javanese essayist and poet Arif B. Prasetyo. Oka Rusmini is a graduate of the Indonesian Studies Department, Udayana University, and lives in Den Pasar where she works as a journalist for the Bali Post. Most of Oka Rusmini’s prose works explore the constraints into which the socioreligious practices of caste place all members of society, but most especially women. Both of her novels tell of a woman’s abandonment of her brahmin caste status as the result of her marriage to a sudra. The title of the poetry book, Patiwangi, refers to the ritual practice by which this degradation is confirmed, and the poem which gives the book its title bears the footnote: ‘Patiwangi: pati = death; wangi = fragrant. Patiwangi is a ritual that is performed on a noble women in her Village Temple to remove her noble status as a consequence of having married a man of a lower caste. The ritual often has a serious psychological impact on noble women’ (107. In both novels, and many short stories and poems, their loss of status brings enormous scorn and hardship to the major woman characters. Nevertheless, as we shall see, stepping outside patriarchally-dominated caste ties may also provide an ambiguous freedom for any woman who is positioned to take advantage of the opportunities which the modern, potentially secular, nation state of Indonesia, offers her. In this paper, I am interested in the way in which the short story, ‘Cenana’ (Sagra, 270-318, uses a traditional myth to deal

  3. Early results of valve-sparing ascending aortic replacement in type A aortic dissection and aortic insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. Л. Гордеев

    2016-08-01

    -term follow-up is needed.Funding The study has been performed within the framework of the 2015-2017 government task, “Cardiovascular diseases” platform, Theme No. 4 Research on genome/cellular mechanisms responsible for aorta/aortic valve pathology development and elaboration of new methods of its multimodality treatment including hybrid technologies.Conflict of interestThe authors declare no conflict of interest.AcknowledgementThe authors express their deep gratitude for assistance in diagnostics and management of patients with aortic pathologies, as well as in preparation of this article to A.Yu. Bakanov, PhD, Head of Research Laboratory of Perfusiology and Cardiac Protection; V.V. Volkov, Fellow of Research Laboratory of Perfusiology and Cardiac Protection; A.V. Naymushin, PhD, Head of Anesthesiology & Resuscitation/ICU-2 Department; I.V. Basek, Phd, Head of X-Ray Computer Tomography Department and the specialists of X-Ray Computer Tomography Department, as well as to the employees of Research Center for Non-Coronary Heart Diseases and to specialists of cardiovascular surgery departments.

  4. Heterogeneous Data Fusion Methods for Disaster Risk Assessment using Grid Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussul, Nataliia; Skakun, Sergii; Shelestov, Andrii

    2014-05-01

    index (VHI) derived from NOAA satellites, and the extreme value theory techniques. Drought vulnerability is assessed by estimating the crop areas and crop yield to quantify potential impact of a drought on crop production. Finally, drought hazard and vulnerability maps are fused to derive a drought risk map. [1] N.N. Kussul, B.V. Sokolov, Y.I. Zyelyk, V.A. Zelentsov, S.V. Skakun, and A.Yu. Shelestov, "Disaster Risk Assessment Based on Heterogeneous Geospatial Information," J. of Autom. and Inf. Sci., 42(12), pp. 32-45, 2010. [2] S. Skakun, N. Kussul, A. Shelestov, and O. Kussul, "Flood Hazard and Flood Risk Assessment Using a Time Series of Satellite Images: A Case Study in Namibia," Risk Analysis, 2013, doi: 10.1111/risa.12156. [3] L. Hluchy, N. Kussul, A. Shelestov, S. Skakun, O. Kravchenko, Y. Gripich, P. Kopp, E. Lupian, "The Data Fusion Grid Infrastructure: Project Objectives and Achievements," Computing and Informatics, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 319-334, 2010.

  5. ITER ITA newsletter. No. 24, July 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-08-01

    This issue of ITER ITA (ITER transitional Arrangements) newsletter contains concise information about the Ministerial Meeting on the ITER site selection (MMI-2) took place in Moscow, Russian Federation, on 28 June 2005. About one hundred participants from the Parties to the ITER Negotiations and the IAEA attended at the Meeting. Mr. A.Yu. Rumyantsev, Director of Rosatom, welcomed the participants and pointed out that the goal of the meeting was to resolve the most difficult issue: to select the site for implementation of the ITER project. Once this decision had been taken, one could expect a swift and successful accomplishment of negotiations and beginning of work on the ITER constriction. Mr. A. Yu. Rumyantsev, Director of Rosatom, welcomed the participants and pointed out that the goal of the meeting was to resolve the most difficult issue: to select the site for implementation of the ITER project. Once this decision had been taken, one could expect a swift and successful accomplishment of negotiations and beginning of work on the ITER construction. Mr. Rumyantsev invited the Heads of Delegations of Japan, the European Union, the People's Republic of China, the Republic of Korea and the United States of America to express the positions of their Parties on the choice of a site. Mr. N. Nakayama, Japanese Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, recognized that three years had passed since the start of Negotiations on the site issue and that a consensus on the roles of the Host Party and the Non-Host Party had been reached. It was therefore not desirable that both Japan and the EU still advocate their own sites and allow the Negotiations to continue with no prospect of coming to a conclusion. So, considering that the ITER project should be started as soon as possible for the future benefit of humankind, that the six-Party-framework for implementing the ITER project should not be broken, that the ITER project starting smoothly will be a major

  6. EDITORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ayu Made Suartika

    2014-07-01

    architect. Dinar studies the stilt houses of Loloan community, Jembrana, Bali. She underlines that the form of stilt houses has changed over time in line with various elements including socio-cultural aspects, economic factors, building age, land availability, and occupants' preferences. The sixth article is written by I Nengah Riana, Widiastuti, and Ida Bagus Gde Primayatna, academic staff from the Department of Civil Engineering, National University (Bali and the Department of Architecture, Udayana University. It examines the conversion of green open spaces, a major problem in Denpasar. The seventh paper is authored by Gusti Ayu Made Suartika. It examines the relevance of multi storey housing in fulfilling the need for affordable houses by low income urban dwellers in Indonesia. Finally, a big thank you to all our contributors, editorial board, production team and publishing staff who have worked faithfully to bring the journal RUANG- SPACE into being.