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Sample records for ayu plecoglossus altivelis

  1. Studies on Morphology and Cytochemistry in Blood Cells of Ayu Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis

    OpenAIRE

    NAKADA, Kojin; FUJISAWA, Kuniyasu; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Furusawa, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Peripheral blood cells from ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis, were separated using a density gradient. Blood cells were then smeared using Shandon Cytospin and subjected to cytochemical staining. Blood cells were categorized based on morphological and cytochemical characteristics, and the density fractionation range and nucleus area/cell area ratio were observed. Lymphocytes are distinguished from neutrophils by their basophilic cytoplasm and Golgi-like field. The features of ch...

  2. Cloning and characterization of metallothionein gene in ayu Plecoglossus altivelis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, C.-H.; John, Joseph Abraham Christopher; Ou, L.-W.; Chen, J.-C.; Lin, C.-H.; Chang, C.-Y

    2004-02-10

    Metallothionein (MT) has been used widely as a potential molecular marker to detect the deleterious effects of heavy metals in aquatic ecosystem. Here we exposed ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis, to zinc (Zn) and tested the distribution as well as the induction of MT in various tissues such as liver, kidney, intestine and stomach. MT induction was significant in liver tissue, followed by kidney and intestine, whereas no induction was detected in stomach. The gene encoding ayu MT was successfully cloned and characterized. Complete nucleotide sequencing and analysis of the 4.5 kb DNA fragment containing the ayu MT gene revealed that the gene has three exons interrupted by two introns, a 5'-flanking region of about 2.5 kb and about 1.6 kb of 3'-flanking region. In grouper heart and kidney cells, the 2.5 kb promoter containing eight metal responsive elements (MREs), two hepatic nuclear factor 5 responsive elements (HNF5REs) and one cAMP responsive element (CRE) had the highest reporter activity.

  3. Molecular and functional characterization of a novel CD302 gene from ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shen-Xue; Ma, Hai-Ling; Shi, Yu-Hong; Li, Ming-Yun; Chen, Jiong

    2016-08-01

    Recognizing the presence of invading pathogens by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is key to mounting an effective innate immune response. Mammalian CD302 is an unconventional C-type lectin like receptor (CTLR) involved in the functional regulation of immune cells. However, the role of CD302 in fish remains unclear. In this study, we characterized a novel CD302 gene from ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis), which was tentatively named PaCD302. The cDNA sequence of PaCD302 is 1893 nucleotides in length, and encodes a polypeptide of 241 amino acids with molecular weight 27.1 kDa and pI 4.69. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that PaCD302 is a type I transmembrane CTLR devoid of the known amino acid residues essential for Ca(2+)-dependent sugar binding. PaCD302 mRNA expression was detected in all tissues and cells tested, with the highest level in the liver. Following Vibrio anguillarum infection, PaCD302 mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in all tissues tested. For further functional analysis, we generated a recombinant protein for PaCD302 (rPaCD302) by prokaryotic expression and raised a specific antibody against rPaCD302. Western blot analysis revealed that the native PaCD302 is glycosylated. Refolded rPaCD302 was unable to bind to five monosaccharides (l-fucose, d-galactose, d-glucose, d-mannose and N-acetyl glucosamine) or two other polysaccharides (lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan). It was able to bind to three Gram-positive and seven Gram-negative bacteria, but show no bacterial agglutinating activity. PaCD302 function blocking using anti-PaCD302 IgG resulted in inhibition of phagocytosis and bactericidal activity of ayu monocytes/macrophages (MO/MΦ), suggesting that PaCD302 regulates the function of ayu MO/MΦ. In summary, our study demonstrates that PaCD302 may participate in the immune response of ayu against bacterial infection via modulation of MO/MΦ function. PMID:27235369

  4. Role of gap junctions and protein kinase A during the development of oocyte maturational competence in Ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Yoshizaki, G.; Takeuchi, T.; Soyano, K.; Patino, R.

    2008-01-01

    Meiotic resumption in teleost oocytes is induced by a maturation-inducing hormone (MIH). The sensitivity of oocytes to MIH, also known as oocyte maturational competence (OMC), is induced by LH via mechanisms that are not fully understood. A previous study of Ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) showed the presence of functional heterologous gap junctions (GJs) between oocytes and their surrounding granulosa cells. The objectives of this study were to determine the role of ovarian GJs and of protein kinase A (PKA) during the acquisition of OMC. We examined the effects of the specific GJ inhibitor carbenoxolone (CBX) and 18??-glycyrrhetinic acid (??-GA) on the LH-(hCG)-dependent acquisition of OMC and on MIH-(17,20??-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one)-dependent meiotic resumption; measured the cAMP content of ovarian follicles during the hCG-dependent acquisition of OMC; and determined the effects of PK activators and inhibitors on hCG-dependent OMC. Production of follicular cAMP increased during the hCG-dependent acquisition of OMC. Both GJ inhibitors and the PKA inhibitor H8-dihydrochloride, but not the PKC inhibitor GF109203X, suppressed the hCG-dependent acquisition of OMC in a dose-dependent manner. The PKA activator forskolin induced OMC with a similar potency to hCG. Unlike previous observations with teleosts where disruption of heterologous GJ either blocks or stimulates meiotic resumption, treatment with GJ inhibitors did not affect MIH-dependent meiotic resumption in maturationally competent follicles of Ayu. These observations suggest that ovarian GJs are essential for LH-dependent acquisition of OMC but not for MIH-dependent meiotic resumption, and that the stimulation of OMC by LH is mediated by cAMP-dependent PKA. They are also consistent with the view that a precise balance between GJ-mediated signals (positive or negative) and oocyte maturational readiness is required for hormonally regulated meiotic resumption. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular Characterization of E-Type Prostanoid Receptor 4 (EP4 from Ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis and Its Functional Analysis in the Monocytes/Macrophages.

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    Ye-Jing Rong

    Full Text Available Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 plays an important role in a broad spectrum of physiological and pathological processes by interacting with E-type prostanoid receptors (EPs. EP4 is one of four EP subtypes known to mediate the immune response in mammalian monocytes/macrophages. However, the precise function and characteristics of EP4 in fish remain unclear. In this study, we characterized a novel EP4-like (PaEP4L gene from ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis. The cDNA sequence of PaEP4L is 2781 nucleotides (nts in length, encoding a polypeptide of 459 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 51.17 kDa. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that PaEP4L shared 76% amino acid identity with that of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar. PaEP4L mRNA was detected by real-time quantitative PCR (QPCR in all tested tissues and head kidney-derived monocytes/macrophages (MO/MФ. It varied greatly in liver, spleen and MO/MФ upon Vibrio anguillarum infection. Western blot analysis revealed a significant increase of PaEP4L in cell homogenates from ayu MO/MФ upon V. anguillarum infection. Moreover, anti-PaEP4L IgG reversed the down-regulation of interleukin 1β (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α mRNA expression as well as phagocytosis in ayu MO/MФ caused by PGE2. There were no significant differences in the respiratory burst response between PGE2 treated and untreated cells. We further found that cAMP mediated PGE2/PaEP4L signal in ayu MO/MФ. In conclusion, our results indicate that PaEP4L mediates PGE2 effects on ayu MO/MФ function, revealing that EP4 also plays a role in the modulation of cells of the fish's innate immune system.

  6. Biochemical genetic analysis of isozymes in Plecoglossus altivelis population in Fuxi%凫溪香鱼群体同工酶的生化遗传分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄福勇; 李明云

    2004-01-01

    30 ayu(Plecoglossus altivelis) samples were collected from the cultural net in Fuxi Town, Ninghai County, Zhejiang Province. Polyarylamide gel electrophoresis was used to detect the expression of isozymes in 8 organs or tissues: eye, liver, kidney, muscle, spleen, heart, gill and pectroral fin. ADH,CAT,POD,ACP,ALP,EST,LDH,MDH,ME,GcDH,SCD,GDH,SDH,SOD,ATP were analyzed and the biochemical genetic results showed that 15 isozymes were coded by 55 gene loci, 12 of which (ADH-1, ADH-4, CAT-2, POD-3,ALP-2, EST-3, EST-4, LDH-5, ME-4, GcDH-4, GDH, SDH-2) were found polymorphic. The population of ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) in Fuxi town showed the higher genetic diversity when compared with other freshwater fishes, with 21.8% of the proportion of polymorphic loci and 0.0459 of the average heterozygosity per loci. And we think the expression of CAT, POD and SOD of ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) can be used to evaluate the influence to body-protecting system of the fish when environmental factors were changed. The expression of isozymes in pectroral fin can be used as genetic marker in breeding of ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis)

  7. Morphology of the digestive tract and liver of Plecoglossus altivelis%香鱼消化道及肝脏的形态结构特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢明明; 李海燕; 竺俊全; 李明云

    2012-01-01

    The morphological characteristics of the digestive tract and liver in Plecoglossus altivelis were observed by paraffin section and photomicrography techniques. The digestive tract includes the orol-pharyngeal cavity, esophagus, stomach and intestine. The orol-pharyngeal cavity is big, long and narrow; in the front of its bottom wall there are a pair of mucous plait; on the edge of the two jaws there are broad flat pectinate jaw teeth; there are teeth on the palate bone and hyoid bone, but no teeth on the vomer. Tongue is formed by the projecting part of basihyoid covered by mucosa. Tongue mucosa epithelium is stratified squamous epithelium, and contains many goblet cells and taste buds. The esophagus, stomach and intestines all consist of mucous membrane layer, submucosa, muscularis and outer membrane. The mucosa of esophagus is stratified squamous epithelium with developed goblet cells. V-shaped stomach comprises cardia, body of stomach and pylorus. Stomach mucosa epithelium is simple columnar epithelium. There are gastric glands in the lamina propria of cardia and body of stomach. Intestine is short and consists of foregut, midgut and hindgut. The mucous epithelium of intestinal wall is simple columnar epithelium and the free surface of it contains a dense array of microvilli. Lots of goblet cells are distributed in the intestinal epithelium. Conjunctive sites of intestines and pylorus contain 350 — 400 pyloric caecums whose histological structure is the same as intestines. The liver is singular and coated by the serosa. The shape of hepatocyte is irregular and the boundaries of hepatic lobules are inconspicuous.%采用解剖及石蜡切片显微技术观察了香鱼消化道及肝脏的组织学结构.香鱼消化道由口咽腔、食道、胃及肠构成.口咽腔大且狭长,其底壁前部有一对粘膜褶,两颌边缘着生宽扁梳状齿,腭骨及舌骨具齿,犁骨无齿;舌由基舌骨突出部分覆盖粘膜构成,舌粘膜上皮为复层扁平上

  8. Expression changes of heat shock transcription factor 1 in ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) under cadmium exposure%镉胁迫对香鱼热休克转录因子1基因组织表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李笑萌; 苗亮; 李明云; 徐玉敏; 穆方申; 陈炯

    2015-01-01

    [目的]克隆香鱼热休克转录因子1(Heat shock transcription factor1,HSF1)基因,并探究镉胁迫对其表达的影响.[方法]利用3' RACE和5'RACE技术克隆香鱼HSF1基因cDNA全长,并进行序列分析,通过半定量PCR(RT-PCR)检测HSF1在各组织中的表达情况,通过实时荧光定量PCR(qRT-PCR)检测分析镉胁迫后HSF1表达量的变化.[结果]香鱼HSF1基因cDNA序列全长2 127 bp(不含poly A),含一个1 587bp、编码528个氨基酸的开放阅读框(ORF);预测其编码蛋白分子量为57.956 87 kDa,等电点为4.56.与虹鳟进化关系最近.反转录PCR(RT-PCR)显示香鱼HSF1基因在鳃中表达量最低、肌肉中次之,其余组织中基本一致.qRT-PCR结果显示镉胁迫后香鱼肝、心和肌肉中HSF1基因表达量均显著增加,脾、肾和鳃中表达量均显著减少.[结论]HSF1基因参与香鱼镉胁迫应激反应.

  9. Ion microprobe Sr isotope analysis of carbonates with about 5 μm spatial resolution: An example from an ayu otolith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high lateral resolution secondary ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS NS50 ion microprobe) has been used to measure 87Sr/86Sr ratios in natural CaCO3 samples. A ∼2 nA O- primary beam was used to sputter a 5-7-μm diameter crater on the sample surface and secondary positive ions were extracted for mass analysis using an accelerating voltage of 8 kV and a Mattauch-Herzog geometry. The multi-collector system was adjusted to detect 43Ca+ (by a detector EM2), 80Ca2+ (EM3), 86Sr+ (EM4), and 87Sr+ (EM4b) ions at the same time. Then the magnetic field was scanned for the EM4 to detect 85Rb+, 86Sr+ and 87Sr+, while the EM4b can measure 86Sr+, 87Sr+ and 88Sr+, respectively. A mass resolution of 3600 at 10% peak height was attained with a flat peak top, while the sensitivity of Sr was about 10 cps/nA/ppm. An aragonite sample (coral skeleton standard; JCp-1) was used as a reference for Sr isotope ratio calibration. Repeated analyses of the JCp-1 show that the 87Sr/86Sr ratio agrees well with the seawater signature within a precision of 0.3 per mille at 2σ, after the series of corrections such as the Ca dimer, 87Rb, and a mass bias estimated by the 88Sr/86Sr ratio. The method was applied to an otolith (ear-stone) from ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis) collected from the Yodo river, Japan. Although experimental errors are relatively large, up to 3 per mille at 2σ, the ratios of the core region are higher than the seawater signature while more distal values agree well with seawater. The very outermost part again shows the relatively higher 87Sr/86Sr ratios. The spatial variation of 87Sr/86Sr ratios was consistent with amphidromous migration of the fish, namely, born in the lake and grown in the coastal sea and finally collected in a river

  10. Seasonal variation of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxides in blood of sweet smelt Plecoglossus altivelis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewsrithong, J; Ushio, H; Ohshima, T

    2001-08-01

    Sweet smelt was reared at two fishery experimental stations for 5 months from June to October. Every 2 weeks blood was collected from the caudal vessels and, subsequently, the phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide contents and the fatty acid compositions in the blood were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography, respectively. The seasonal variation of the contents of accumulated hydroperoxides and fatty acids in the sweet smelt blood were observed in both experimental stations. Sweet smelt started performance of cucumber-like or watermelon-like aroma in the middle of July and the aroma was enhanced in August. The content of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxides and the amount of total fatty acid in the fish blood, in terms of possible precursors of volatile compounds, were also extremely high in the same period. According to lipid peroxidation mechanisms, the strong characteristic aroma of sweet smelt during July to August might be due to the high contents of accumulated lipid hydroperoxides and polyunsaturated fatty acids in their tissues. PMID:11470442

  11. New tetracycline resistance determinant on R plasmids from Vibrio anguillarum.

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, T.; Satoh, T.; Kitao, T.

    1987-01-01

    Two classes of tetracycline resistance determinants on R plasmids were detected in Vibrio anguillarum strains isolated from ayu (sweat fish; Plecoglossus altivelis) farms in Japan. Tetracycline resistance genes categorized as class B were prevalent from 1973 to 1977; however, a new tetracycline resistance gene, which was not classified into tetracycline resistance determinant class A, B, C, or D, has been prevalent since 1981.

  12. First Detection of Hirame Rhabdovirus (HIRRV) in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Borzym, Ewa; Matras, Marek; Maj, Joanna; Sandomierska, Agnieszka; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Eliassen, Mette; Baud, Marine; Talbi, Chiraz; Bigarré, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    IntroductionHirame rhabdovirus (HIRRV) is one of the four recognized species within the Novirhabdovirus genus, represented by the type species Infectious Haematopoietic Necrosis (IHNV). HIRRV was first isolated during an outbreak on cultured flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) in Japan (1). It was also found on other marine fish in Asia, such as stone flounder (Kareius bicoloratus) in China (2). Furthermore, it was shown to be pathogenic for a range of salmonids...

  13. Representasi Seksualitas dalam Novel Saman Karya Ayu Utami

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    Rina Patriana Chairiyani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Saman is a literature written by Ayu Utami. Showing a representation of a female counterpart ideology that differs from what has already been made in heterosexual and patriarchal society. The community considers sex is taboo to talk openly. In this novel it is represented openly. Women are no longer in a weak position, and have choices. In this paper, research methodology used is qualitative method.

  14. Servqual Method: Analisis Kualitas Pelayanan Beauty Advisor Sari Ayu Martha Tilaar

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    Ami Widyastuti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa kualitas pelayanan beauty advisor Sari Ayu Martha Tilaar guna meningkatkan kualitas pelayanan pada konsumen. Pengambilan data menggunakan skala kualitas pelayanan yang disusun berdasarkan metode Servqual dari (Parasuraman, dkk., 1988 pada 72 orang konsumen Sari Ayu Martha Tilaar. Sampel diambil dengan menggunakan teknik insidental random sampling. Analisis data menggunakan pengukuran gap 5 dari metode Servqual. Hasil penelitian menemukan ada kesenjangan pelayanan (service gap antara persepsi dan harapan konsumen sebesar -81.09 dimana nilai minus disini berarti, kinerja kerja beauty advisor Sari Ayu Martha Tilaar berada pada kategori rendah. Kesimpulannya, beauty advisor sebagai garda lini depan dalam pemasaran belum bekerja secara optimal.

  15. ISU GENDER PADA TOKOH PEREMPUAN DALAM NOVEL NAYLA KARYA DJENAR MAESA AYU

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    Ruaidah Ruaidah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This writing is done to know how for the gender issues affects the female characters in the novel Nayla of Djenar Maesa Ayu. The effect of inequality will appears subordination and violence against to women. Subordination and violence are events that affects the female characters in the novel Nayla of  Djenar Maesa Ayu. The author tries to raise the position of women from gender inequality. The figure of Nayla tries to find the self-awareness and the existence of gender inequality. Keywords : Gender, subordination, and violenceCopyright © 2012 by Kafa`ah All right reservedDOI : 10.15548/jk.v2i2.54

  16. Konflik Batin Tokoh Utama Dalam Novel Saman Karya Ayu Utami: Pendekatan Psikoanalisis Sigmund Freud

    OpenAIRE

    Saputra, Joko

    2015-01-01

    Psikologi dalam sastra mengandung kejadian-kejadian yang tampak lewat perilaku tokoh-tokohnya. Melalui perilaku tokoh-tokohnya akan tampak konflik batin yang dialami oleh masing-masing tokoh dalam karya sastra. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui konflik batin tokoh utama berdasarkan peristiwa-peristiwa yang dialaminya dalam novel Saman Karya Ayu Utami. Untuk memperoleh hasil tersebut dipergunakan teori psikologi sastra dengan penerapan teori-teori psikoanalisis Sigmund Freud. Metode pe...

  17. Metafora Leksikal Dalam Novellarung Karya Ayu Utami Suatu Kajian Linguistik Fungsional Sistemik

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    Siti Aisyah

    2008-01-01

    Tesis ini mengkaji metafora leksikal dalam novel Larung karya Ayu Utami, berdasarkan Linguistik Fungsional Sistemik (LFS). Tujuan penelitian ini adalah memerikan jenis metafora leksikal yang digunakan dalam novel Larung, jenis metafora yang dominan dan implikasi atau pesan yang ingin disampaikan oleh pengarang melalui realisasi metafora leksikal. Sumber data penelitian ini adalah novel Larung dengan seluruh metafora leksikal yang terdapat di dalamnya sebagai populasi. Sampel dalam pen...

  18. The M/V Selendang Ayu commercial fisheries work group process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process used to form and operate the Selendang Ayu Fisheries Work Group was discussed. The M/V Selendang Ayu ran aground and broke apart near Unalaska Island, Alaska in December 2004, causing immediate concern to nearby commercial fisheries and seafood processors. The work group, which was formed less than 2 weeks after the initial spill, was modeled after other Alaska work groups and consisted of experts in environmental health, fisheries biology and oceanography. Its task was to facilitate communication between fishery managers and spill responders to identify risk-reducing measures and to minimize impacts to fisheries in Alaska. In support of Alaska's zero tolerance policy toward any contamination of food processed in Alaska, the working group conducted water quality sampling in and around Unalaska Island from December 2004 though March 2005. Information was gathered regarding fishery opening and closing dates, geographic extent of fisheries, gear and vessel types, seawater circulation systems, fish processing operations, vessel transit routes and other considerations related to the potential exposure of vessels, gear or seafood to oil. This paper described the different pathways that commercial fish species may be exposed to spilled oil, along with the major fish species at risk. One small fishery closure was enacted. The working group was successful in ensuring that major commercial fisheries for snow crab, pollock, halibut and other species were successfully conducted during the spill, with all loads undergoing mandatory seafood inspections. Seafood products were not contaminated and market prices remained stable. 15 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs

  19. The reformasi of Ayu Utami; Attacking the monopoly of the great religions

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    Karel Steenbrink

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In eight novels, Ayu Utami has presented critical attacks on doctrines and practices of the major religions in Indonesia. The two books, that describe the spiritual struggle of the Catholic priest Saman (1998–2002, call for a religion that is more active in the political arena, but leaves sexual rules to the individual people. The novel Bilangan Fu (2008 condemns the monopoly of the great religions in favour of local and individual spirituality. This is developed in a series of novels of which two more have already appeared. A third cycle of three more or less autobiographic novels (2003–2013 sketch her personal quest from atheism towards a critical but positive spirituality condemning a clerical and monopolist trend in Catholicism. Utami’s criticism of the great religions is external (more players in the field should be recognised and internal (religious leaders should have more modest claims towards their faithful and leave more space for personal choice.

  20. RESPON IMMUN SEL INTERLEUKIN -4 (IL-4 PADA IKAN KERAPU TIKUS (Cromileptes altivelis YANG DIPAPAR PROTEIN IMUNOGENIK VIBRIO HARVEYI

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    Uun Yanuhar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk melihat ekspresi molekul sel interleukin-4 (IL-4 pada ikan kerapu tikus (Cromileptes altivelis yang dipapar oleh protein imunogenik Vibrio harveyi sebagai salah satu reson immune seluler. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode eksperimen yaitu mengadakan percobaan untuk melihat suatu hasil. Prosedur penelitian meliputi isolasi protein imunogenik Vibrio harveyi, elektroforesis SDS-PAGe protein Vibrio harveyi, separasi protein dan pemotongan pita protein, elektroelusi dan dialisa, uji klinis protein imunogenik Vibrio harveyi, dan selanjutnya pemeriksaan imunositokimia untuk melihat ekspresi sel imun (sel IL-4 dengan menggunakan pelabelan secondary antibodi anti IL-4 conjugate biotin . Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pita protein imunogenik Vibrio harveyi yang ditemukan bersifat imunogenik adalah berat molekul 51,16 kDa, dan hasil uji invivo secara injeksi intraperitoneal pada ikan kerapu tikus (Cromileptes altivelis uji dengan dosis 31,6 ug protein/150 g berat ikan kerapu. Ikan kerapu uji in vivo dari hasil perlakuan yang telah dipapar dengan protein imunogenik V. harveyi 51,16 kDa menunjukkan bahwa respon imun seluler dari sel immune IL-4 yang dideteksi dengan metode imunositokimia dengan menggunakan pelabelan secondary antibody anti IL-4 conjugate biotin pada sel secara invivo ditunjukkan oleh warna coklat keemi V. harveyi 51,kDa sebagai Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah bahwa ikan kerapu yang dipapar protein imunogenik berat molekul 51,16 kDa secara in vivo mampu membangkitkan respon immune seluler yakni terbentuknya respon sel IL-4, pada ikan sel immune IL-4 berperan sebagai pertahanan sistem immune seluler terhadap serangan infeksi pathogen. Kata Kunci: Cromileptes altivelis, Immunosikimia, Sel interleukin-4 (IL-4 , Vibrio harveyi 

  1. Exposure of a herbivorous fish to 134Cs and 137Cs from the riverbed following the Fukushima disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayu Plecoglossus altivelis, a herbivorous fish, is an important fishery resource and key component of the foodweb in many Japanese streams. Radionuclide contamination of this species is likely transferred to higher trophic levels, include humans, in the food chain. After the Fukushima accident in March 2011, ayu were exposed to highly contaminated silt while feeding on algae attached to the riverbed stones. To understand the route by which herbivorous fish are exposed to radionuclides, the activity concentrations of sum of 134Cs and 137Cs (radiocesium) were analyzed in riverbed samples (algae and silt) and in the internal organs and the muscle of ayu in five river systems in the Fukushima Prefecture between summer 2011 and autumn 2013. Although there was a positive correlation between the radiocesium activity concentrations in the muscle and the internal organs of ayu, the median activity concentration in the muscle was much lower than those in the internal organs. The activity concentrations of radiocesium in the riverbed samples and the internal organs and the muscle of ayu were correlated with contamination levels in soil samples taken from the watershed upstream of the sample sites. The results of the generalized linear mixed models suggest that the activity concentrations in both the internal organs and the muscle of ayu declined over time. Additionally, the activity concentrations in the internal organs were correlated with those in the riverbed samples that were collected around the same time as the ayu. The activity concentrations in the muscle were correlated with ayu body size. Our results suggest that ayu ingest 134Cs and 137Cs while grazing silt and algae from the riverbed, and a part of the 134Cs and 137Cs is assimilated into the muscle of the fish. - Highlights: • The radiocesium (sum of 134Cs and 137Cs) concentrations in a herbivorous fish were measured following the Fukushima disaster. • The muscle concentrations were correlated with, but much

  2. Rhizospheric Microflora Escalating Aroma Constituents and Yield Attributes in Ocimum tenuiflorum (L. cv. CIM-Ayu

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    Shilpi Khare Saikia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of rhizospheric microbial flora for crop yield enhancement is well established. Rhizospheric microbes influence the plant physiology by imparting several beneficial effects, namely, Nitrogen fixation, increased nutrient uptake, and secondary metabolites production on their host plants. The present study investigates the response of Bacillus megaterium ATCC No. 13525, Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC No. 14581, and Trichoderma viride MTCC No. 167 in alone and combined treatments for their effect on growth and yield parameters in a commercially important Ocimum tenuiflorum L. cv. CIM-Ayu. The plant is therapeutically important for its essential oil constituents, namely, eugenol, β-caryophyllene, and various monoterpenes. The combination treatments, T7 (B. megaterium + P. fluorescens and T8 (B. megaterium + P. fluorescens + T. viride, showed maximum enhancement (27.27% of percentage essential oil as compared to untreated control. Nutrient uptake especially N2 content was significantly increased (43% with the treatment T8 (B. megaterium + P. fluorescens + T. viride. Amongst major essential oil constituents, eugenol content was maximally increased by 58.5% as compared to 42.9% (control indicating a cumulative role of microbial inoculants for crop yield boost-up.

  3. Shoreline and surveillance surveys on the M/V Selendang Ayu spill response, Unalaska Island, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In December 2004, the marine vessel Selendang Ayu ran aground on Unalaska Island in the Aleutian Chain, Alaska, causing a spill of fuel oil that affected about 300 km of coastline in this remote Arctic area. Three days following the spill, tracking by aircraft was initiated. The surveillance continued as weather and sea conditions permitted. A map of the distribution of visible surface oil on the shoreline was produced 9 days after the spill to provide a basis for a limited winter cleanup program. A selective ground Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Technique (SCAT) survey was conducted in January and February in key areas to support response operations and to assess the distribution, amount and character of the stranded oil. The following spring, a systematic, complete ground SCAT survey was conducted, covering nearly 800 km of coast. The spring SCAT survey was unique in the sense of spill response because of the 2 distinct time periods and the 2 month lead time to plan and organize spring field operations. During that time, a physical shoreline character and oiling database was created from data collected in the winter and was then linked to a Geographic Information System (GIS), a digital photograph library, and aerial videotape imagery. The SCAT survey is scheduled to continue through the 2005 spring and summer months to support shoreline cleanup operations. A cultural resources program was also integrated into both the winter and spring surveys. 1 tab., 8 figs

  4. Chronic hydrocarbon exposure of harlequin ducks in areas affected by the Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Paul L.; Schamber, J.L.; Trust, K.A.; Miles, A.K.; Henderson, J.D.; Wilson, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated chronic exposure of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to hydrocarbons associated with the 2004 M/V Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska. We measured levels of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) in liver biopsy samples as an indicator of hydrocarbon exposure in three oiled bays and one reference bay in 2005, 2006, and 2008. Median EROD activity in ducks from oiled bays was significantly higher than in the reference bay in seven of nine pairwise comparisons. These results indicated that harlequin ducks were exposed to lingering hydrocarbons more than three years after the spill.

  5. Euler Pole Determination of the Philippine Sea Plate Relative to the Caroline Plate from Bathymetric Information Collected at Ayu Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H.; Lee, S.

    2010-12-01

    The reconstruction of past positions of continents and oceans is one of the main goals of global tectonic investigations. The relative motion of rigid plate on a sphere can be described in terms of Euler pole, which is normally determined by comparing two pairing sets of magnetic anomalies across divergent boundary. However, in some cases, magnetic anomalies are so subdued that the comparison is practically impossible. The Ayu Trough represents such a case. It is a slow, east-west-spreading mid-ocean ridge that lies between the Caroline and the Philippine Sea plates, but due to its location near the magnetic equator, the exact motion of the two plates cannot be resolved by traditional means of by matching magnetic anomalies at two plates. In this study, we use seafloor topography that was obtained from high-resolution multi-beam bathymetric survey performed earlier to reconstruct the plate motions across the Ayu Trough. Our approach is similar to that outlined by T. Chang (1988) and others over the years but comparing detailed bathymetric information across two plates instead of magnetic anomalies. The comparison of bathymetry not only provided the best fitting Euler pole between Philippine Sea plate and Caroline plate presumably going back to 25 Ma but also the uncertainty associated with this estimate.

  6. Modeling the Potential Spread of the Recently Identified Non-Native Panther Grouper (Chromileptes altivelis)in the Atlantic Using a Cellular Automaton Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew W. Johnston; Sam J Purkis

    2013-01-01

    The Indo-pacific panther grouper (Chromileptes altiveli) is a predatory fish species and popular imported aquarium fish in the United States which has been recently documented residing in western Atlantic waters. To date, the most successful marine invasive species in the Atlantic is the lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles), which, as for the panther grouper, is assumed to have been introduced to the wild through aquarium releases. However, unlike lionfish, the panther grouper is not yet thought...

  7. Burst Speed of Wild Fishes under High-Velocity Flow Conditions Using Stamina Tunnel with Natural Guidance System in River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Mattashi; Yamamoto, Yasuyuki; Yataya, Kenichi; Kamiyama, Kohhei

    Swimming experiments were conducted on wild fishes in a natural guidance system stamina tunnel (cylindrical pipe) installed in a fishway of a local river under high-velocity flow conditions (tunnel flow velocity : 211 to 279 cm·s-1). In this study, the swimming characteristics of fishes were observed. The results show that (1) the swimming speeds of Tribolodon hakonensis (Japanese dace), Phoxinus lagowshi steindachneri (Japanese fat-minnow), Plecoglossus altivelis (Ayu), and Zacco platypus (Pale chub) were in proportion to their body length under identical water flow velocity conditions; (2) the maximum burst speed of Japanese dace and Japanese fat-minnow (measuring 4 to 6 cm in length) was 262 to 319 cm·s-1 under high flow velocity conditions (225 to 230 cm·s-1), while the maximum burst speed of Ayu and Pale chub (measuring 5 cm to 12 cm in length) was 308 to 355 cm·s-1 under high flow velocity conditions (264 to 273 cm·s-1) ; (3) the 50cm-maximum swimming speed of swimming fishes was 1.07 times faster than the pipe-swimming speed; (4) the faster the flow velocity, the shorter the swimming distance became.

  8. Environmental risk assessment of surfactants: fate and environmental effects in Lake Biwa basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueishi, T; Morioka, T; Kaneko, H; Kusaka, M; Yagi, S; Chikami, S

    1988-03-01

    Environmental risk incurred with the use of synthetic surfactants is dealt with in this paper. The background and necessity of risk management related to surfactant usage in the Lake Biwa basin are introduced, as well as a research scheme that acknowledges risks in three sub-processes--consumption and discharge, fate in aquatic environment, and ecotoxicological response of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS). The ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) has been selected as the significant biological target in the basin. Results of a field survey of the behavior of LAS along streams flowing down to the lake are presented. Included are the estimation and verification of an original unit of surfactant consumption per capita per day based on LAS and MBAS concentrations observed in diurnal monitoring. A simulation model representing the flowdown process of LAS dynamically is formulated, with which longitudinal dispersion, settling, and modified biodegradation of LAS are evaluated in the field survey. On the basis of the research scheme described above, ecotoxicological laboratory tests on ayu have been carried out. The special significance of acute and subchronic effects on ayu in various life stages exposed to low concentrations of LAS can be recognized. It has been concluded that the LC50 of young ayu is not greater than 0.1 ppm under the disadvantageous condition of high temperature or extreme hardness even in normal ranges of environmental indicators. An advanced plan of risk management for surfactant usage is proposed based on methods of elevated risk, comparative risk, risk--benefit, and balanced risk. The occurrence and magnitude of risk phenomena in each subdivided basin adjacent to the lake are identified, taking into consideration features such as (1) the spawning place of ayu and aquafarms, (2) COD and MBAS concentrations and their tolerable levels in current regulation of stream pollution, (3) socioeconomic perspectives including recreational activities and voluntary

  9. 驼背鲈(Chromileptes altivelis)的胚胎发育及仔、稚、幼鱼形态观察%Developmental and Morphological Characteristics of Embryo, Larval, Juvenile, and Young Fish, Chromileptes altivelis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦淇; 陈超; 李炎璐; 贾瑞锦; 于宏; 梁友; 蔡春有; 庞尊方

    2014-01-01

    Artificial breeding of Chromileptes altivelis is difficult to marine fishing, and related studies on C. altivelis are limited. The present study investigated the embryonic and morphological development of larval, juvenile and young fish of C. altivelis using microscope, anatomical lens and digital camera. The morphological features and the time of development stages were described. The results showed that the embryonic development of C. altivelis was divided into five stages:cleavage stage, blastula stage, gastrula stage, neurula stage, and organogenesis stage. The embryonic development requires 27 h 25 min under the following condition in the sea water at 25−26℃ and salinity of 30. The post embryonic development of C. altivelis was divided into larval stage, juvenile stage and young fish stage based on the features of the yolk-sac, finfold, second dorsal fin spine, pelvic fin spine, scale, and body color. The larval stage was further classified into early larvae and late larvae based on the existence of the yolk-sac or not. The embryos developed into prelarvae in 2 days under water environment with temperature between 22 and 26℃, salinity between 29 and 31, DO≥5 mg/L. The yolk-sac of larvae disappeared and the postlarvae began at day 3. The larvae started to develop to juveniles at day 31. The juveniles completed metamorphosis and became young fish at day 57. The growth and configuration of the second spine of dorsal fin and the first spine of ventral fin were the most obvious changes during early development of C. altivelis. This study provides information for the propagation, seed culture and morphological identification of grouper fish.%对驼背鲈(Chromileptes altivelis)的胚胎发育及仔、稚、幼鱼的形态特征进行了详细的观察与研究,描述了从受精卵到仔、稚、幼鱼各发育期的时间和形态特征变化。结果表明,在水温25−26℃、盐度30的海水中,受精卵历时27 h 25 min完成整个胚胎发育

  10. Modeling the potential spread of the recently identified non-native panther grouper (Chromileptes altivelis) in the Atlantic using a cellular automaton approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Matthew W; Purkis, Sam J

    2013-01-01

    The Indo-pacific panther grouper (Chromileptes altiveli) is a predatory fish species and popular imported aquarium fish in the United States which has been recently documented residing in western Atlantic waters. To date, the most successful marine invasive species in the Atlantic is the lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles), which, as for the panther grouper, is assumed to have been introduced to the wild through aquarium releases. However, unlike lionfish, the panther grouper is not yet thought to have an established breeding population in the Atlantic. Using a proven modeling technique developed to track the lionfish invasion, presented is the first known estimation of the potential spread of panther grouper in the Atlantic. The employed cellular automaton-based computer model examines the life history of the subject species including fecundity, mortality, and reproductive potential and combines this with habitat preferences and physical oceanic parameters to forecast the distribution and periodicity of spread of this potential new invasive species. Simulations were examined for origination points within one degree of capture locations of panther grouper from the United States Geological Survey Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database to eliminate introduction location bias, and two detailed case studies were scrutinized. The model indicates three primary locations where settlement is likely given the inputs and limits of the model; Jupiter Florida/Vero Beach, the Cape Hatteras Tropical Limit/Myrtle Beach South Carolina, and Florida Keys/Ten Thousand Islands locations. Of these locations, Jupiter Florida/Vero Beach has the highest settlement rate in the model and is indicated as the area in which the panther grouper is most likely to become established. This insight is valuable if attempts are to be made to halt this potential marine invasive species. PMID:24009726

  11. Modeling the potential spread of the recently identified non-native panther grouper (Chromileptes altivelis in the Atlantic using a cellular automaton approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Johnston

    Full Text Available The Indo-pacific panther grouper (Chromileptes altiveli is a predatory fish species and popular imported aquarium fish in the United States which has been recently documented residing in western Atlantic waters. To date, the most successful marine invasive species in the Atlantic is the lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles, which, as for the panther grouper, is assumed to have been introduced to the wild through aquarium releases. However, unlike lionfish, the panther grouper is not yet thought to have an established breeding population in the Atlantic. Using a proven modeling technique developed to track the lionfish invasion, presented is the first known estimation of the potential spread of panther grouper in the Atlantic. The employed cellular automaton-based computer model examines the life history of the subject species including fecundity, mortality, and reproductive potential and combines this with habitat preferences and physical oceanic parameters to forecast the distribution and periodicity of spread of this potential new invasive species. Simulations were examined for origination points within one degree of capture locations of panther grouper from the United States Geological Survey Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database to eliminate introduction location bias, and two detailed case studies were scrutinized. The model indicates three primary locations where settlement is likely given the inputs and limits of the model; Jupiter Florida/Vero Beach, the Cape Hatteras Tropical Limit/Myrtle Beach South Carolina, and Florida Keys/Ten Thousand Islands locations. Of these locations, Jupiter Florida/Vero Beach has the highest settlement rate in the model and is indicated as the area in which the panther grouper is most likely to become established. This insight is valuable if attempts are to be made to halt this potential marine invasive species.

  12. The room of the X-rays equipment for Siti Aminah Hospital Bumi Ayu Central Java has been designed to achieve 125 kV and 200 mA capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The room of the X-rays equipment for Siti Aminah Hospital Bumi Ayu Central Java has been designed to achieve 125 kV and 200 mA capacity, so as to provide radiation properly during operation. In order to achieve safe radiation exposure to the operator and patient, analysis and calculation are needed regarding time exposure, distance and shield width as required by radiation standard, procedure and principle. The result of calculation are expected to give exact maximum doses both for operator and patients. The shielding of the room, consist of concrete and Pb. (author)

  13. Prevalence of zoonotic trematode metacercariae in freshwater fish from Gangwon-do, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja; Kim, Tong-Soo; Seok, Won-Seok; Lee, Taejoon; Jeong, Kyungjin; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Sohn, Woon-Mok

    2014-08-01

    The infection status of zoonotic trematode metacercariae was investigated in a total of 2,293 freshwater fish collected from 11 rivers or streams in 9 administrative regions of Gangwon-do, Korea for 5 years (2009-2013). All fish were collected by netting methods and examined using the artificial digestion methods. Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae were detected in 4 fish species, i.e., Pungtungia herzi, Squalidus japonicus coreanus, Acheilognathus rhombeus, and Ladislabia taczanowskii, from only Hantangang in Cheorwon-gun. Metagonimus spp. metacercariae were found in 1,154 (50.3%) fish and their average number per infected fish was 55.8. Among the positive fish species, especially Tribolodon hakonensis from Namdaecheon in Yangyang-gun and Plecoglossus altivelis from Osipcheon in Samcheok-si were most heavily infected. Centrocestus armatus metacercariae were detected in 611 (26.7%) fish and the average metacercarial burden per infected fish was 1,032. Two chub species, Zacco platypus and Zacco temminckii were highly and heavily infected with C. armatus metacercariae in almost all regions surveyed. Echinostoma spp. metacercariae were also found in 24 fish from a few localities, but their numbers per fish infected were very low. From the above results, it is confirmed that the metacercariae of intestinal flukes, especially Metagonimus spp. and C. armatus, were heavily infected, while C. sinensis metacercariae were rarely found in fish from Gangwon-do, Korea. PMID:25246719

  14. Inherent noise appears as a Lévy walk in fish schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Hisashi; Niizato, Takayuki; Tomaru, Takenori; Nishiyama, Yuta; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio

    2015-01-01

    Recent experimental and observational data have revealed that the internal structures of collective animal groups are not fixed in time. Rather, individuals can produce noise continuously within their group. These individuals' movements on the inside of the group, which appear to collapse the global order and information transfer, can enable interactions with various neighbors. In this study, we show that noise generated inherently in a school of ayus (Plecoglossus altivelis) is characterized by various power-law behaviors. First, we show that individual fish move faster than Brownian walkers with respect to the center of the mass of the school as a super-diffusive behavior, as seen in starling flocks. Second, we assess neighbor shuffling by measuring the duration of pair-wise contact and find that this distribution obeys the power law. Finally, we show that an individual's movement in the center of a mass reference frame displays a Lévy walk pattern. Our findings suggest that inherent noise (i.e., movements and changes in the relations between neighbors in a directed group) is dynamically self-organized in both time and space. In particular, Lévy walk in schools can be regarded as a well-balanced movement to facilitate dynamic collective motion and information transfer throughout the group. PMID:26039595

  15. Radiological impact of the nuclear power plant accident on freshwater fish in Fukushima: An overview of monitoring results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Toshihiro; Tomiya, Atsushi; Enomoto, Masahiro; Sato, Toshiyuki; Morishita, Daigo; Izumi, Shigehiko; Niizeki, Kouji; Suzuki, Shunji; Morita, Takami; Kawata, Gyo

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide ((131)I, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs) concentrations of monitored freshwater fish species collected from different habitats (rivers, lakes, and culture ponds) in Fukushima Prefecture during March 2011-December 2014 (total 16 species, n = 2692) were analyzed to present a detailed description of radionuclide contamination after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, and to elucidate species-specific spatiotemporal declining trends of (137)Cs concentration for their respective habitats. Low concentrations of (131)I (≤24 Bq kg(-1)-wet) were detected from only 11 samples collected during March-June 2011, demonstrating that (131)I transferred to freshwater fish were not intense. In river and lake fishes, a more gradual decrease and higher radiocesium ((134)Cs, (137)Cs) concentrations were observed than in culture pond fishes, which strongly implied that radiocesium in freshwater fish species was mainly bioaccumulated through the food web in the wild. During 2011-2014, percentages above the Japanese regulatory limit of 100 Bq kg(-1)-wet for radiocesium in river and lake fish (14.0% and 39.6%, respectively) were higher than in monitored marine fish (9.9%), indicating longer-term contamination of freshwater fish species, especially in lakes. Higher radiocesium concentrations (maximum 18.7 kBq kg(-1)-wet in Oncorhynchus masou) were found in the northwestern areas from the FDNPP with higher deposition. However, radiocesium contamination levels were regarded as 1-2 orders of magnitude less than those after the Chernobyl accident. Lagged increase of (137)Cs concentration and longer ecological half-lives (Teco: 1.2-2.6 y in the central part of Fukushima Prefecture) were observed in carnivorous salmonids (O. masou, Salvelinus leucomaenis), whereas a rapid increase and decrease of (137)Cs concentration and shorter Teco (0.99 and 0.69 y) were found in herbivorous and planktivorous osmerids (Plecoglossus altivelis, Hypomesus nipponensis) with

  16. 1981 fisheries statistics, Lake Kariba - Zimbabwe waters

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, B.E.; Mandisodza, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The 1981 statistics of the open water fishery (sardine, Limnothrissa miodon , and tigerfish, Hydrocynus vittatus) and inshore fishery (cichlids, labeoa, mainly L. altivelis , distichoclids, mainly Distichodus schenga , tigerfish, H. vittatus , mormyrids, mainly Mormyrus longirostris and M. deliciosus , and catfish, Clarias gariepinus) in Lake Kariba are presented.

  17. Calculation of phase competition and selection in solidification using a combined nucleation and CALPHAD approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermodynamic data derived by the CALPHAD method has been extended to undercooled melts to study phase competition and the role of time dependent and steady state nucleation in rapidly solidified materials. The theoretical predictions made about phase competition between hcp α, bcc β and L10 γ in some Al(Ti,V) alloys are compared with experimental results. It is shown that high melt cooling rates introduce significant transient nucleation effects on phase nucleation

  18. ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE ABOUT AAHAAR AND VIHAAR AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Balpreet Singh; Jayanti Dutta; Vijay Lakshmi Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Objective of Ayurveda is to achieve optimal health and well-being through a comprehensive approach that addresses mind, body, behavior, and environment. Daily as well as seasonal, dietary and lifestyle recommendations has been described to promote health. Harmful diets and activities have been identified to prevent diseases. Against this background a cross sectional study was conducted with the purpose to assess awareness and knowledge of dietary and life style interventions prescribed by Ayu...

  19. Progress in live food production and use in fish and shellfish hatcheries

    OpenAIRE

    Sorgeloos, P.

    1998-01-01

    Different species of microalgae, the rotifer, Brachionus spp., and the brine shrimp, Artemia spp., are essential live food in the farming of several species of molluscs (e.g. oyster, clam, scallop), crustaceans (e.g. marine shrimp, freshwater prawn, crabs) and fish (e.g. bass, bream, grouper, turbot, flounder, halibut, ayu). A brief overview is given of the latest developments in their production and use in industrial hatcheries.

  20. Kesuksesan Karir Para Distributor pada Perusahaan Multi Level Marketing (MLM) dengan Membangun Kompetensi, Komitmen dan Motivasi Kewirausahaan (Proceedings Forum Manajemen Indonesia 6, Entrepreuneurial Management)

    OpenAIRE

    Siahaan, Elisabet; Lumbanraja, Prihatin; Muchtar, Yasmin Chairunisa

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of entrepreneurial competency, commitment and motivation on the career success of Multi Level Marketing Distributors. Samples in this study are distributors at Multi Level Marketing (MLM) Medan which are PT.Herbalife Indonesia, PT.Orindo Alam Ayu (Oriflame), PT.Sophie Martin Indonesia, PT.K-LinK, PT. Tupperware Indonesia dan PT. Amway Indonesia with snowball sampling method. Data was collected using self administered questionnaires that were distributed thro...

  1. Pharmacovigilance: Boon for the safety and efficacy of ayuvedic formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Chaudhary; Neetu Singh; Neeraj Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance is a corrective process originating in pharmaco-epidemiology. The 1997 Erice Declaration, presented at the World Health Organisation, became the basis on which the concept was implemented internationally for conventional systems of medicine. The increasing international acceptance of Ayurveda, led regulators to implement a similar program for Ayurveda, particularly as some medical professionals, scientists and members of the public reported adverse reactions after taking Ayu...

  2. FENOMENA SEKS DALAM NOVEL INDONESIA MUTAKHIR KARYA PENGARANG PEREMPUAN: KAJIAN KRITIK SASTRA FEMINIS

    OpenAIRE

    Wiyatmi

    2006-01-01

    This research is aimed at describing and understanding (1) homo­sexuality phenomena in the current Indonesian novels, (2) the relationship between homosexuality phenomena with the existence of homosexual community in Indonesia, and(3) the relationship between homosexuality phenomena with feminist school. To achieve these aims, six novels are analyzed. They are (1) Larung by Ayu Utami, (2) Supernova by Dee (Dewi) Lestari, (3) Mahadewi Mahadewi (4) Garis Tepi Seorang Lesbian by Herlinatien, (5)...

  3. ANALISIS PENERAPAN STRATEGI PEMASARAN DALAM PENINGKATAN PANGSA PASAR PADA PT. HADJI KALLA (TOYOTA) CABANG COKROAMINOTO DI MAKASSAR

    OpenAIRE

    ASTRINI, PRATANTI AYU

    2007-01-01

    Analisis Penerapan Strategi Pemasaran Dalam Peningkatan Pangsa Pasar Pada PT. Hadji Kalla (Toyota) Cabang Cokroaminoto di Makassar Implementation of marketing strategy analyze on increasing market share study case PT.Hadji Kalla (Toyota) Cabang Cokroaminoto in Makassar Pratanti Ayu Astrini Mursalim Nohong Wardhani Hakim Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui penerapan strategi pemasaran mobil Toyota pada PT. Hadji Kalla (Toyota) Cabang Cokroaminoto di Makassar me...

  4. Pengaruh Strategi Green Cosmetic terhadap Loyalitas Konsumen Sariayu Martha Tilaar (Studi Kasus pada Mahasiswi Ekonomi dan Bisnis USU)

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Risa Saskia

    2015-01-01

    Today, there are a lot of cosmetics sold by using dangerous chemical substances which can be detrimental to their users. Consumers’ awareness of safe cosmetics is a challenge for the company which produces them to apply green cosmetic strategy be presenting cosmetic product made of natural ingredients in order to provide security for consumers. This will eventually make them loyal to using the cosmetics. Sari Ayu is one of the cosmetics which applies green cosmetic strategy in which it offers...

  5. PENGARUH SOFT DIPLOMACY DALAM MEMBANGUN CITRA KOREA SELATAN DI INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    WAHYUDIYA, AYU RISKA

    2012-01-01

    Ayu Riska Wahyudiya, E 131 08 259 dengan skripsi berjudul ???Pengaruh Soft Diplomacy dalam Membangun Citra Korea Selatan di Indonesia??? dibawah bimbingan Mappa Nasrun selaku Pembimbing I dan Aspiannor Masrie selaku Pembimbing II, Jurusan Ilmu Hubungan Internasional, Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik, Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui bagaimana strategi, pengaruh dan prospek pelaksanaan soft diplomacy dalam membangun citra Korea Selatan di Ind...

  6. PENGARUH ALELOPATI JONGA-JONGA (Chromolaena odorata) TERHADAP PERKECAMBAHAN DAN PERTUMBUHAN BIJI SENTRO (Sentrosema pubescens)

    OpenAIRE

    mitasari, ayu

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRAK AYU MITA SARI (I211 09 001). Pengaruh Alelopati Jonga-jonga (Chromolaena odorata) terhadap Perkecambahan dan Pertumbuhan Sentro (Centrosema pubescens). Dibawah bimbingan Prof. Dr. Ir.H. Muh. Rusdy, M.Sc sebagai Pembimbing Utama dan Dr. Ir. Budiman Nohong, MP sebagai Pembimbing Anggota. Chromolaena odorata adalah semak yang telah menjadi salah satu gulma darat terburuk invasif di daerah tropis dan subtropis lembab. Chromolaena odorata mengandung protein yang tinggi (21-36...

  7. Pemberian Fikosianin Spirulina Meningkatkan Jumlah Sel Darah, Aktivitas Fagositosis, dan Pertumbuhan Ikan Kerapu Bebek Juvenil (ADMINISTRATION OF SPIRULINA PHYCOCYANIN ENHANCES BLOOD CELLS, PHAGOCYTIC ACTIVITY AND GROWTH IN HUMPBACK GROUPER JUVENILE)

    OpenAIRE

    Woro Hastuti Satyantini; Sukenda .; Enang Harris; Nur Bambang Priyo Utomo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects of Spirulina phycocyanin on the total  blood cell count,phagocytic activity, and growth of humpback grouper fish, Cromileptes altivelis juvenil.  Fishes were fedwith a diet containing   0, 150, 250, 350 dan 450 mg  phycocyanin per kg diet for four weeks and eachtreatment was triplicates.  Initial body weight  of  grouper was  8.46 ± 0.22 g with a density of 10 fish per56 litre volume. The total count of  erythrocytes and leucocytes increased un...

  8. AcEST: DK953150 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TPSTP--GAVRTP 292 E K T+ G + ++ +SQ+ A+ P +E L EP STPSTP G V+TP Sbjct: 566 EPKVTTEINSVGSTNSPSPKSTPLSQNYALT---PSDLEDLALEP...PTV 493 L P + N P + A K QK P+ T+ Sbjct: 196 QLPPPPSIPSGNKTAIQQEPLESGAKNKTAEQKQAAPEPDPSTM 239 >sp|Q6AYU3|DNJB6_RAT...05 ---LTP-------RERESPWRSKMKNNNMAGEGKNGSEKSQRAEPRSPTVYDWVVITSLE 154 Query: 524 R ...+P REREN W + + A K S+K + P SPTVYDWVV SAL Sbjct: 95 SPPISPCFLTP--RERENPWRSNKYKNNVPPAAAKRKSEKSPRAEPRSPTVYDWVVF...TPS 295 E+LKR ++ A+E+++ Q +A PPP +++ D+EP + P + V Sbjct: 2125 EQLKRWVNKN-----ASEEDK-----QQLATPAPPPPIVKRKDTEPKTKPR

  9. AcEST: DK962165 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E K T+ G + ++ +SQ+ A+ P +E L EP STPSTP G V+TP Sbjct: 566 EPKVTTEINSVGSTNSPSPKSTPLSQNYALT---PSDLEDLALEPWSTPST...SMPISPALGSPAAR 439 +PPPL + + PG P R S F + V + L + P L SP Sbjct: 125 -EEPPPLTPPARCAAPGGVRKAPAPFRPASERFAATTVEEILAKM-EQPR...+ A K QK P+ T+ Sbjct: 196 QLPPPPSIPSGNKTAIQQEPLESGAKNKTAEQKQAAPEPDPSTM 239 >sp|Q6AYU3|DNJB6_RAT DnaJ homolog...STNSAMANPSTPELEEALSRLRERRASADFQ 59 Query: 218 TEQEEARRVSQSIAIAKPPPLLIESLDSEPGSTPSTPGAVRTPSSSFVGSPVFDKLPR...RE+ W + + K GS+K + P SPTVYDWVV+++L+ Sbjct: 104 ---LTP-------RERESPWRSKMKNNNMAGEGKNGSEKSQRAEPR

  10. Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Pendapatan Usahatani Udang Windu Organik dan Nonorganik (Studi Kasus : Batang Kilat Kota Medan Propinsi Sumatera Utara)

    OpenAIRE

    Zakwan

    2015-01-01

    ZAKWAN. Some Factors which Influence the Income of the Agribusiness of Organic and Non-Organic Tiger Prawns (A Case Study at BatangKilat, Medan). (The research was supervised by Dr. Ir. Salmiah, M.S. as the chair person, and Sri FajarAyu, S.P., M.M., DBA as the member). This research was based on the trend of the people throughout the world, especially the people in Indonesia in consuming healthful food and free from dangerous chemical substance, which is known as organic food. One of the ...

  11. ANDIR AS A SCARED DANCE AT TISATA VILLAGE, KERAMBITAN, TABANAN REGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Arshiniwati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tariandir in the village Tista is a form of Legong Kraton tarisejenis the Tista community called andir.Strukturkoreografinyasangatdekatdengantarilegongkeraton , tetapitari Andir only flourish in the village Tista Kerambitan.Tari inidifungsikan as guardian and bebali art that in the play always involves Rangda sungsungan society , baikditampilkansebagaibagiandariceritamaupunhanyasebagai " witness " pementasannya . Qualitative research by applying the theory of representation , ideology theory , aesthetic theory , and the theory of semiotics examines the main problems that dance andirsebagai sacred art in the village Tista Kerambitan . The results showed that as the art sakraltari Andir related to : ( 1 the use of equipment ( sacred objects in the form of engagement rangdasungsungan ( Ratu Ayu Lingsir and Ratu Ayu Anom , yangdipercayamemilikikekuatanmagis which dapatmelindungimasyarakatTista ; ( 2 any activity that is carried out is always through a process with the ceremony accompanying the various upakara ; ( 3 the culprit is the elect ( chosen girls who have not experienced puberty and is seen as a dancer who kesenengin chosen and blessed by God ; ( 4 where the play is holy places associated with yadnya ceremony at the local and pretended to be done every 210 days ( every six months in Bali or six times thirty- five days ; ( 5 the play time is the time it was considered kramat (sacred time and associated with yadnyadan ceremony ( 6 community supporters ( who believes that dance is a dance sacred Andir kesakralannya sourced from sungsungan Rangda .

  12. First Detection of Hirame Rhabdovirus (HIRRV) in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borzym, Ewa; Matras, Marek; Maj, Joanna;

    2012-01-01

    graylings and rainbow trouts. The conditions of virulence should be further investigated to estimate the epizootic risks in Europe on grayling and other freshwater fish. It must be mentioned that at the same period of viral isolation, a massive mortality occurred on wild grayling in a river in the same...... altivelis) in Japan (1). It was also found on other marine fish in Asia, such as stone flounder (Kareius bicoloratus) in China (2). Furthermore, it was shown to be pathogenic for a range of salmonids species, including rainbow trout, experimentally challenged in freshwater. The major clinical signs of HIRRV...... identify viral genomic fragments with similarities to other viruses in GenBank. Surprisingly, of the 60 clones sequenced, two of them showed high sequence similarities (> 99%) with either the L gene or the N gene of HIRRV, a viral species that had been reported only in Japan, China and Korea till now. By...

  13. FENOMENA SEKS DALAM NOVEL INDONESIA MUTAKHIR KARYA PENGARANG PEREMPUAN: KAJIAN KRITIK SASTRA FEMINIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiyatmi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at describing and understanding (1 homo­sexuality phenomena in the current Indonesian novels, (2 the relationship between homosexuality phenomena with the existence of homosexual community in Indonesia, and(3 the relationship between homosexuality phenomena with feminist school. To achieve these aims, six novels are analyzed. They are (1 Larung by Ayu Utami, (2 Supernova by Dee (Dewi Lestari, (3 Mahadewi Mahadewi (4 Garis Tepi Seorang Lesbian by Herlinatien, (5 Tabularasa by Ratih Kumala, and (6 Dadaisme by Dewi Sartika. The result of the research shows that (1 homosexuality phenomena in the current Indonesian novels are reflected in theme and character problems, (2 these phenomena are related to the existence of homosexual community in Indonesia, whose members already demand that their existence be recognized in society, and (3 these phenomena are related to feminism, especially radical feminism that influences the authors’ creativity.

  14. NOVEL MLANTJARAN KA SASAK: FROM DILLEMATIC TEACHERS TO HUMOROUS ONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Tingkat

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the representation of the image of teachers in the novel entitled Mlantjaran ka Sasak written by Gde Srawana. Using the theory of literary sociology and the theory of representation as the basis of analysis, it was found that teachers were  imaged of being dilemmatic, humanistic idealistic, caring about the Balinese culture, and being humorous. Sociologically, the novel entitled Mlantjaran ka Sasak pictured the life background of the Balinese society during 1930s, indicated by the critical attitude of the intellectuals through I Made Sarati and Ida Ayu Priya, the characters who played a role as teachers, towards the caste feudalism in marriage. Such a critical attitude was expressed in such an inciting way that the ethic and aesthetic values needed to educate society were not neglected.

  15. Kajian Aspek Ketidaksadaran dalam Karya Seni Rupa Indonesia Periode 2000-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Damajanti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pada era seni rupa kontemporer, pembacaan karya tidak lagi hanya terbatas padahasil analisis dan interpretasi unsur-unsur formal, namun juga mempertimbangkanketerkaitannya dengan psikobiografi seniman sehingga dapat memberikan gambaranyang lebih lengkap tentang karakter seni rupa yang multifaset. Penelitian inidirancang untuk mengidentifikasi representasi aspek ketidaksadaran dalam karya senirupa Indonesia dan menginterpretasikan simbol-simbolnya. Seniman yang karyanyadipilih sebagai studi kasus dalam penelitian ini adalah I Gusti Ayu Kadek Murniasih,Entang Wiharso, dan Ugo Untoro. Pendekatan yang digunakan adalah pendekatanmultidisiplin (psikologi seni dan semiotika. Berdasarkan hasil analisis, aspekketidaksadaran yang direpresentasikan melalui simbol-simbol visual yang khas dalamkarya ketiga seniman cenderung lahir dari pengalaman traumatik yang melahirkanketakutan, kesakitan, dan agresi. Melukis bagi ketiganya adalah proses katarsis,media untuk mensublimasikan/memperhalus dorongan-dorongan naluri ketakutan,kesakitan, dan agresi ke dalam bentuk karya yang dapat diterima dan diapresiasidengan baik oleh masyarakat. A Study on Unconsciousness Aspect in the 2000-2011 Works of Indonesia VisualArt. In the era of contemporary visual art, the works of art cannot be read merelylimited to the analysis and interpretation of the formal elements but have to include theconsideration about the artist’s psychobiography so that there will be a more completepicture about the multifaceted visual arts. This research is carried out to identify therepresentation of the unconsciousness aspect in the works of visual arts and then interpretthe symbols. The selected samples are the works of I Gusti Ayu Kadek Murniasih,Entang Wiharso, and Ugo Untoro. The multidisciplinary (art psychology and semioticsapproach is applied within the qualitative method used. Based on the analysis result,the unconsciousness aspect represented in unique visual symbols in the works of

  16. Minimum 1D velocity models in Central and Southern Italy: a contribution to better constrain hypocentral determinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Frepoli

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available We computed one-dimensional ( I D velocity models and station corrections for Centrai and Southern Italy, in- verting re-picked P-wave alTival times recorded by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica seismic network. The re-picked data yield resolved P-wave velocity results and proved to be more suited than bulletin data for de- tailed tomographic studies. Using the improved velocity models, we relocated the most significant earthquakes which occurt.ed in the Apennines in the past 7 years, achieving constrained hypocentral determinations for events within most of the Apenninic belt. The interpretation of the obtained lD velocity models allows us to infer interesting features on the deep structure of the Apennines. Smooth velocity gradients with depth and low P-wave velocities are ob,'ierved beneath the Apennines. We believe that our results are effective to constrain hypocentral locations in Italy and may represent a first step towards more detailed seismotectonic analyses.

  17. Molecular phylogenetic relationships of China Seas groupers based on cytochrome b gene fragment sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Shaoxiong; ZHUANG Xuan; GUO Feng; WANG Jun; SU Yongquan; ZHANG Qiyong; LI Qifu

    2006-01-01

    The classification and evolutionary relationships are important issues in the study of the groupers. Cytochrome b gene fragment of twenty-eight grouper species within six genera of subfamily Epinephelinae was amplified using PCR techniques and the sequences were analyzed to derive the phylogenetic relationships of the groupers from the China Seas. Genetic information indexes, including Kimura-2 parameter genetic distance and Ts/Tv ratios, were generated by using a variety of biology softwares. With Niphon spinosus, Pagrus major and Pagrus auriga as the designated outgroups, phylogenetic trees, which invoke additional homologous sequences of other Epinephelus fishes from GenBank, were constructed based on the neighbor-joining (NJ), maximum-parsimony (MP), maximum-likelihood (ML) and minimum-evolution (ME) methods. Several conclusions were drawn from the DNA sequences analysis: (1) genus Plectropomus, which was early diverged, is the most primitive group in the subfamily Epinephelinae; (2) genus Variola is more closely related to genus Cephalopolis than the other four genera; (3) genus Cephalopolis is a monophyletic group and more primitive than genus Epinephelus; (4) Promicrops lanceolatus and Cromileptes altivelis should be included in genus Epinephelus; (5) there exist two sister groups in genus Epinephelus.

  18. Non-sinusoidal current-phase relations in SFS pi-Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Harlingen, Dale J.

    2010-03-01

    We report the direct observation of a sin(2φ) component in the current-phase relation (CPR) of Superconductor-Ferromagnet-Superconductor (SFS) Josephson junctions. The deviation from a sinusoidal CPR is most evident near the crossover between the 0-junction to π-junction states reached by tuning the thickness of the ferromagnet barrier and the temperature. We measure the CPR in Nb-CuNi-Nb junctions using a phase-sensitive Josephson interferometer technique in which the junctions are incorporated into a superconducting loop coupled to a dc SQUID. We correlate the CPR data with measurements of subharmonic Shapiro steps and anomalous critical current diffraction patterns that have previously been cited as evidence for higher-order Josephson tunneling components. We will discuss possible origins and implications for the non-sinusoidal component. In collaboration with M.J.A. Stoutimore (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) and A.Yu. Rusanov, V.A. Oboznov, V.V. Bolginov, A.N. Rossolenko, and V.V. Ryazanov (Institute of Solid State Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Russia).

  19. UPAYA PENINGKATAN PENGETAHUAN TENTANG OBAT TRADISIONAL DAN PEMANFAATANNYA MELALUI PELATIHAN PADA USILA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herti Maryani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available By The Older People Integrated Health Post under the supervision of health centers, the traditional medicines from medicinal plants could be taught to older people to have benefit for self medication. The use of herbal medicine is prioritized to treat diseases that often occur among older people. This study aimed to enhance the knowledge and use of herbal plants as traditional medicines for older people. Data were collected by training with modul, practice, and talkative. The training were done on June 2007 in Surabaya. The respondents were 29 older persons from Kelurahan Medokan Ayu and Kelurahan South Krembangan, Surabaya city. Pre and post test were done on the knowledge. and practice of use of herbal medicine.The post test on knowledge was done soon after the training, meanwhile the post on practice were done three months after the training. Results showed there was an improvement of knowledge after the training for herbal medicine identification (a= 0.00, advantages of herbal medicine, to treat diseases and how to make traditional medicines (a= 0.04. Moreover, after training the respondents who take advantage of traditional medicinese and variety of herbal medicine are raised. Key words: older people, herbal medicine, training

  20. Brain Enhancing Ingredients from Āyurvedic Medicine: Quintessential Example of Bacopa monniera, a Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant K. Singh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Āyurveda, the science (ved of life (ayu, owing its origin to Veda, the oldest recorded wisdom of human civilization written in 3500 BCE, contains extensive knowledge of various diseases and their therapeutic approaches. It essentially relied on nature and the immune system of an individual, and therapeutic interventions were introduced only to augment the immune system. Āyurveda had eight specialties, including psycho-neuroscience (a combination of psychology, clinical psychology and psychiatry and a unique promotive therapy encompassing nutrition, rejuvenation and geriatrics. The symptoms of various brain disorders, including memory disorder, were well defined. The goal of Āyurveda was to help an individual to achieve his cherished goal of leading a healthy life of 100 years. To achieve this, great emphasis was laid on nutrition, diet and a good conduct by the two great exponents of Āyurveda viz. Carak and Suśruta. By following these regimens, an individual could lead a less stressful life free from emotional disturbances. Both Carak and Suśruta had believed that these in combination with rasayana (rejuvenating plants could enable an individual to lead a healthy life of 100 years.

  1. MORPHO-CHEMICAL DESCRIPTION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT OCIMUM SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAKARAPARTHI PANDU SASTRY

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Basil is a popular medicinal and culinary herb, and its essential oils have been used extensively for many years in food products, perfumery, dental and oral products. Basil essential oils and their principal constituents were found to exhibit antimicrobial activity against a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, yeast, and mould. The essential oils obtained from aerial parts of three different species of Ocimum comprising twenty one germplasm lines were investigated for their essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity during 2010. Essential oils from seventeen germplasm lines in Ocimum basilicum and two each in Ocimum tenuiflorum and Ocimum gratissimum were investigated for anti-microbial activity against four bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sps., Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The morpho-chemotypes exhibited wide variability for morphological and chemical traits. Anti-bacterial activity was found to be high for Staphylococcus aureus, moderate for Escherichia coli, low for Bacillus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was highly resistant. The essential oils of Pale Green-Broad Leaves (O. basilicum and CIM Ayu (O. gratissimum exhibited significant antibacterial activity against both S. aureus and E. coli signifying them promising for anti-bacterial activity. No relationship was observed between chemotype specificity and anti-bacterial activity, indicating that apart from major components of essential oil, minor components and other factors may be responsible for anti-microbial activities.

  2. A CRITICAL REVIEW ON AYURVEDIC CONCEPT OF AGNIMANDYA (LOSS OF APPETITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Akhilesh Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Human beings, in order to adjust themselves in the modest era, have been compelled to become fast and mechanical. This is the reason why they can’t give proper attention to daily and seasonal regimes, exercise and diet. This change in lifestyle is responsible for replacement of Shad-rasatmak Ahara by preserved and fast foods, bakery products, shift duties (i.e.Ratree jagran, stress. All these factors making them more and more susceptible for diseases generated by Agnimandya. According to them Mandagni is root cause of every disease. Due to this Mandagni Ahara-Pachan Kriya gets affected leading to production of Sama Ahara-Rasa which ultimately causes the Rasa Dhatwagni Mandya and Uttarottar Dhatu remains malnourished. Agni plays the key role in the process of bio-transformation. This is the reason why Ayurvedic Samhitas has given a lot of importance to Agni. The Ayu, Varna, Bala, Swasthya, Utsah, Buddhi, Kanti, Oja, Teja and Prana of human beings mainly depend on the status of Agni, because of this Agni should be kept in its Prakut state.

  3. Characterization and experimental infection of Vibrio harveyi isolated from diseased Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ransangan, J.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Vibrio harveyi causes vibriosis to Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer. The disease spreads rapidly among fish stocked in the same cage. It causes high mortality especially in weak and small sized fish stocked at high density in poorly managed net cage. Study to determine the virulence levels of the bacterial pathogen in various aquaculture animals is a key to prevent vibriosis in marine aquaculture. Methodology and Result: Isolation of bacteria from diseased Asian seabass was done using tryptic soy agar (TSAand thiosulphate citrate bile sucrose agar (TCBS plates. Virulence of two strains of Vibrio harveyi (VHJR4 and VHJR7was tested against clinically healthy aquaculture animals. The analysis revealed that the two bacterial strains differ in pathogenicity. The V. harveyi strain VHJR7 was virulent to Asian seabass at 1.40 x 104 c.f.u. g-1, humpback grouper(Cromileptis altivelis at LD50 8.33 x 103 c.f.u. g-1 and black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon at LD50 3.26 x 104 c.f.u. g-1,respectively. The V. harveyi strain VHJR4 was not virulent to Asian seabass and humpback grouper but it caused mortality to black tiger shrimp at LD50 1.32 x 106 c.f.u. g-1. Phenotypically, the two strains shared most of the biochemical features except that the V. harveyi strain VHJR7 was a urease positive and grew at 8.5 % NaCl, and at 10 °C. The percentage similarity of nucleotide sequences of 16S rDNA in V. harveyi VHJR4 and V. harveyi VHJR7 was higher (99% but reduced at 95 % in hemolysin gene. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Pathogenic strain of V. harveyi causes mortality and affects aquaculture production of Asian seabass. Hence, vaccine development against the bacterial pathogen is urgently needed for sustainability of Asian seabass aquaculture in Malaysia.

  4. Pemberian Fikosianin Spirulina Meningkatkan Jumlah Sel Darah, Aktivitas Fagositosis, dan Pertumbuhan Ikan Kerapu Bebek Juvenil (ADMINISTRATION OF SPIRULINA PHYCOCYANIN ENHANCES BLOOD CELLS, PHAGOCYTIC ACTIVITY AND GROWTH IN HUMPBACK GROUPER JUVENILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woro Hastuti Satyantini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate effects of Spirulina phycocyanin on the total  blood cell count,phagocytic activity, and growth of humpback grouper fish, Cromileptes altivelis juvenil.  Fishes were fedwith a diet containing   0, 150, 250, 350 dan 450 mg  phycocyanin per kg diet for four weeks and eachtreatment was triplicates.  Initial body weight  of  grouper was  8.46 ± 0.22 g with a density of 10 fish per56 litre volume. The total count of  erythrocytes and leucocytes increased until the fourth week of rearingperiod. The highest of total erythrocyte and leucocytes were observed in fish treated with 150 mg phycocyaninper kg diet ( 13.17 x  105 cells/mm3 and 8.93 x 105 cells/mm3 respectively which were not significantlydifferent (P>0.05 to those treated with 250 mg phycocyanin per kg diet. The total leucocytes and phagocyticactivity of fish fed diet containing  250 mg phycocyanin  per kg diet (8.49 x 105 cells/mm3 and 59.67%respectively were significantly higher  (P <0.05 to those of control group. The highest of final weight(Wt=14.32 g and weight growth (G=5.89g and lowest of feed conversion ratio (FCR=1.13 were obtainedin fish treated with  250 mg phycocyanin per kg diet which were  significantly  higher  (P <0.05 than thosefed control diet. The data showed that  the addition of  phycocyanin 250 mg/kg diet enhances the totalleukocyte count, phagocytic activity and the growth of humpback grouper juvenil.

  5. Interior structure models, Fe/Si ratio and parameters of figure for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkov, V. N.; Gudkova, T. V.

    2000-01-01

    A set of global interior structure models for Mars, which agree with the Mars Pathfinder (MPF) value of the mean moment of inertia factor is constructed. The models are obtained by combining the crust models of Babeiko and Zharkov [Babeiko, A.Yu., Zharkov, V.N., 1997. Mineralogical composition and seismic model of the Martian crust. Sol. Syst. Res. 31, 361-368; Babeiko, A.Yu., Zharkov, V.N., 1998. Density and seismic profiles of the Martian crust in the event of an extra-low temperature gradient. Sol. Syst. Res. 32, 14-16] with the model Martian mantle of Bertka and Fei [Bertka, C.M., Fei, Y., 1996. A profile of Martian mantle mineralogy and density up to core-mantle boundary pressures. Lunar Planet. Sci. XXVII, 107-108; Bertka, C.M., Fei, Y., 1997. Mineralogy of the Martian interior up to core-mantle boundary pressures. J. Geophys. Res. 102, 5251-5264.] and the core model of Zharkov [Zharkov, V.N., 1996. The internal structure of Mars: a key to understanding the origin of terrestrial planets. Sol. Syst. Res. 30, 456-465]. The models of the crust are constructed by numerical thermodynamic simulation by using the compositions of basaltic SNC meteorites. The model Martian mantle is based on mineral physics data obtained by recent high pressure experiments. These laboratory measurements were carried out by Bertka and Fei (1997) along a model marstherm up to core pressures of Mars using mineral mixtures with the cosmochemical composition proposed by Dreibus and Wänke [Dreibus, G., Wänke, H., 1989. Supply and loss of volatile constituents during the accretion of terrestrial planets. In: Atreya, S.K., Pollack, J.B., Matthews, M.S. (Eds.), Origin and Evolution of Planetary and Satellite Atmospheres. Univ. Arizona Press, pp. 268-288.] and Wänke and Dreibus [Wänke, H., Dreibus, G., 1994. Chemistry and accretion history of Mars. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 349, 285-293.] (DW composition). The model of the core is also constructed for this composition, but the fact that

  6. Kunst, Kosmos, Kaste. Weibliche Körperinszenierungen, Tanz und Aspekte der Bewahrung balinesischer Kultur in Oka Rusminis Tarian Bumi [Art, Cosmos, Caste. Female Stagings of the Body, Dance and Aspects of Preserving Balinese Culture in Oka Rusmini‘s Tarian Bumi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Arnez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Immer mehr indonesische Autorinnen haben insbesondere seit dem Sturz Präsident Suhartos die literarische Bühne erobert. Viele ihrer Bücher wurden Bestseller, mit bis zu 100.000 verkauften Kopien. Diese zunehmende Popularität hängt vor allem mit Tendenzen der Liberalisierung, Aufhebung der Zensur und einer Redefinition der Rolle der Frau zusammen. Einige Schriftstellerinnen machten in der letzten Dekade durch die offene Thematisierung von Sexualität und Begehren der Frau auf sich aufmerksam, ein Tabuthema, das während der Neuen Ordnung nicht in dieser Weise hätte diskutiert werden können. Die meisten dieser Autorinnen, deren Literatur in den Medien oftmals mit dem umstrittenen Begriff sastrawangi (Duftliteratur bezeichnet wird, wählen als Handlungsschauplätze ihrer Erzählungen urbane Zentren Javas. Dieses Paper diskutiert den Roman Tarian Bumi (Erdentanz, 2000 von Oka Rusmini, die den Diskurs um den weiblichen Körper und Sexualität de facto noch vor der ‚Pionierin’ der sogenannten sastrawangi eröffnet hat, Ayu Utami. Das Paper möchte einen Beitrag dazu leisten, die Verflechtungen von weiblichen Körperinszenierungen, Tanz und Aspekte der Bewahrung der balinesischen Kultur aufzuzeigen. Ein besonderes Augenmerk liegt auf der Frage, wie die Körperinszenierungen genutzt werden, um die Rolle der Frau in der balinesischen Gesellschaft innerhalb des Spannungsfeldes des hinduistischen Kastensystems, der Hierarchie und vor dem Hintergrund der Problematik von Tourismus, postkolonialer Kritik und Bewahrung balinesischer Kultur im Wandel der Zeit zu charakterisieren.An increasing number of Indonesian women authors have entered the literary stage since the fall of Suharto. Many of their books have become bestsellers, selling up to 100.000 copies. Reasons for this rising popularity of literature by women authors are tendencies of liberalization, lifting of censorship and a redefinition of women’s role. Some female authors have attracted

  7. The Alaska Commercial Fisheries Water Quality Sampling Methods and Procedures Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive water quality sampling program was conducted in response to the oil spill that occurred when the M/V Selendang Ayu ship ran aground near a major fishing port at Unalaska Island, Alaska in December 2004. In particular, the sampling program focused on the threat of spilled oil to the local commercial fisheries resources. Spill scientists were unable to confidently model the movement of oil away from the wreck because of limited oceanographic data. In order to determine which fish species were at risk of oil contamination, a real-time assessment of how and where the oil was moving was needed, because the wreck became a continual source of oil release for several weeks after the initial grounding. The newly developed methods and procedures used to detect whole oil during the sampling program will be presented in the Alaska Commercial Fisheries Water Quality Sampling Methods and Procedures Manual which is currently under development. The purpose of the manual is to provide instructions to spill managers while they try to determine where spilled oil has or has not been encountered. The manual will include a meaningful data set that can be analyzed in real time to assess oil movement and concentration. Sections on oil properties and processes will be included along with scientific water quality sampling methods for whole and dissolved phase oil to assess potential contamination of commercial fishery resources and gear in Alaska waters during an oil spill. The manual will present a general discussion of factors that should be considered when designing a sampling program after a spill. In order to implement Alaska's improved seafood safety measures, the spatial scope of spilled oil must be known. A water quality sampling program can provide state and federal fishery managers and food safety inspectors with important information as they identify at-risk fisheries. 11 refs., 7 figs

  8. Revitalisasi Kearifan Lokal dalam Masyarakat Multikultural di Kecamatan Lingsar, Lombok Barat, NTB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sodli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on topat war which exists in Lingsar sub District West Lombok. This tradition still becomes guidance for the residents. Questions of this research are, how the revitalization of local tradition named topat war is empowered by communities as a way to integrate them, and what are the supporting factors of it? This is a qualitative research. Data were gathered using interview, observation, and documentary research. Result of this study depicts that there are many steps of topat war, namely cleaning of holy weapons and hereditary articles, making tetaring, a tent made of coconut leaf and bamboo, remember day of the death of KH. Abdul Malik, KH. Abdul Rouf, and Hj. R. Ayu Dewi Anjani, remembering the way of KH.Abdul Malik, slaughtering buffalo for dish service, conducting topat war. This topat war has been seen as a way of community’s integration in many aspects, for instance in remembering the way of KH.Abdul Malik, animal used, and the origin of topat. This tradition has been guarded because  it is a way to glue harmony among believers. Keywords : Tradition, Topat War, Religius, Harmony

  9. Prognosis of efficacy of post-operation treatment of metastatic brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyatikop V.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metastatic affection of brain by its prevalence, medical and social importance, economical burden represents a topical medical problem in neurosurgery and adjacent medical specialties. Objective – optimization of prognosis for post-operation metastatic brain tumors treatment efficacy. Methods. An active cohort randomized research with retro- and prospective, cross-sectional and longitude components has been conducted in 176 patients, including 96 males and 80 females aged 56 years with adenocarcinoma (152, melanoblastoma (21 and sarcoma (3, derived from lungs (39, breast (34, skin (25 kidneys (9, digestive tract (11, ovary and uterus (by 4 each, thymus (2, nasopharynx, pronaus (by 1 each. Standard basic diagnostic and treatment procedures have been performed. P-level critical value was 0.05. Results. Discriminant models of post-operation tactics choice, prognostic algorithm of unfavorable outcome evaluation after treatment have been developed. The approbation of the algorithm allowed to state its sensitivity (69.2 %, specificity (95.2 %, positive predicting value (75.0 %, negative predicting value (93.7 %. Conclusion. For the purpose of widening of arsenal of available decision-making means for further treatment tactics in metastatic brain tumors after conducted neurosurgical treatment the use of developed discriminant models is recommended. The risk of unfavorable outcome and efficacy of combined treatment prognosis for patients with metastatic brain tumors are recommended to assess using the developed prognostic algorithm. Citation: Pyatikop VA, Al-Trawneh MA, Buryan AV, Gavryushkin AYu, Marchenko AE, Posokhov NF, Starenkiy VP. [Prognosis of efficacy of post-operation treatment of metastatic brain tumors]. Morphologia. 2016;10(2:69-76. Russian.

  10. RADARSAT-1 synthetic aperture radar analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The M/V Selendang Ayu grounded off Unalaska Island in Alaska on December 8, 2004, and spilled over 1270 m3 of oil and an unknown quantity of soybeans. The freighter grounded nearshore in a high-wave energy zone along a remote and rugged coastline, a terrain which can cause difficulties for remote sensors in detecting oil slicks. In addition, guano, kelp beds, whale and fish sperm, and releases from fishing activities generated biogenic films on the sea surface that had a signature similar to that of petroleum films. RADARSAT-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery was used as part of the response effort to assist in the pollution monitoring effort. This paper described the methodology and results of the RADARSAT-1 analysis. Detailed information on the spill response was reported daily, and provided an opportunity to compare field observations with RADARSAT-1 SAR imagery. Observers recorded observations onto electronic maps during 35 aerial surveillance flights. Fifty-seven incident reports describing the vessel status were also used for comparison. Using screening criteria for the favorable wind and wave conditions, 37 images were available for viewing the wreck, and 22 images were acceptable for oil slick viewing. Image analysis for the wreck suggested that the sensor has the resolution and capability to monitor a grounded freighter. Visual inspection of the images showed that SAR can capture changes in vessel status, such as the gradual sinking of the bow. However, SAR's oil slick detection capability was disappointing due to the significant number of biogenic films in the nearshore areas of Alaska. It was concluded that future work should concentrate on developing a ranking system to indicate analysis confidence that a particular image does in fact contain a petroleum pocket. 25 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

  11. Theory and case studies on solar induced seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duma, Gerald; Freund, Friedemann; Kosovichev, Pavel

    2015-04-01

    Huge electric current vortices are continuously generated in the Earth's lithosphere through electromagnetic induction from powerful ionospheric electric vortex currents that arise from ionization on the sun-lit side of the Earth (Chapman S. and Bartels J., 1940). The circular telluric currents in the Earth's lithosphere interact with the Earth's main magnetic field (H), building up a magnetic moment (M). According to T = [M x H] a mechanic torque (T) results from this interaction that can reach values as high as 5x10exp13 Nm (Duma G. and Ruzhin Y., 2003). We present evidence that this ionospherically induced telluric torque, which reaches deep into the lithosphere, influences the diurnal seismicity patterns in major earthquake zones as documented by earthquakes with magnitudes M ≥ 6.0. Our results confirm observations of distinct time-of-day patterns of seismic activity reported for over a century (Omori F., 1902; Conrad V., 1932 ; Shimshoni M., 1971; Duma G. and Vilardo G., 1998; Schekotov A.Yu., Molchanov O.A. and Hayakawa M., 2005) and even much earlier by Pliny the Elder, 79 A.D. A solar influence on earthquake frequency is apparent not only in diurnal patterns, but also in seasonal (e.g. Lipovics T., 2005) and decadal patterns. The effect can be validated by data recorded continuously at geomagnetic observatories, the INTERMAGNET stations (http://www.intermagnet.org), operating on all continents. The observatories continuously record magnetic variations which arise from the telluric currents in the Earth's lithosphere. Theory and model are presented, starting from the primary source for the effect, which is the varying solar wind speed as measured by satellites. The data are provided by the OMNI 2 directory (NASA, http://omniweb.gsfc.nasa.gov). We offer 7 case studies that deal with seismic activity patterns in the diurnal, seasonal and long term time domains for seismic zones in Asia (Japan, Taiwan, Sumatra), N-America (California), the Mid Atlantic Ridge

  12. Investigation of vessel traffic passing through the Aleutian Islands with discussion of risk factors that could lead to oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil spill risks posed by marine vessels travelling the North Pacific route from North America to Asia were discussed with reference to the grounding and break-up of the bulk grain ship M/V Selendang Ayu at Unalaska Island in Alaska's Aleutian Islands. The challenge of gathering and categorizing vessel traffic data in the Aleutians was also discussed along with a review of methods for developing an accurate traffic study for this large, remote maritime region. The travelling route passes through, or lies in close proximity to large and valuable commercial fishing grounds as well as the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge. As most vessels remain in international waters, they do not report their presence to state and national authorities and are exempt from contingency planning requirements. This paper listed the factors affecting risk of damage from oil spills from marine vessels. These include the volume of oil carried; types of oil; proximity to environmentally sensitive areas; fate of spill; location of spill response equipment; number of vessels travelling through the area; time that vessels are in the area; type and age of vessels; environmental factors affecting sailing conditions; factors limiting rescue; and interaction with regulatory agencies. When considered as a whole, these factors can help in deciding the degree and type of contingency planning. In order to estimate traffic through the North Pacific route, the authors compared, combined and extrapolated information from similar datasets. The task involved 3 steps: (1) estimating the number of trans-Pacific voyages through the Aleutians, (2) estimating vessel type, and (3) estimating fuel oil carried by vessel type. It was determined that more than 2,700 ship voyages pass through the Aleutians every year, of which 50 carry a total of 800 million gallons of oil as cargo. It was noted that serious ship accidents occur so infrequently in remote areas that it was impossible to establish an accurate

  13. Investigation of vessel traffic passing through the Aleutian Islands with discussion of risk factors that could lead to oil pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eley, D. [Cape International Inc., Juneau, AK (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The oil spill risks posed by marine vessels travelling the North Pacific route from North America to Asia were discussed with reference to the grounding and break-up of the bulk grain ship M/V Selendang Ayu at Unalaska Island in Alaska's Aleutian Islands. The challenge of gathering and categorizing vessel traffic data in the Aleutians was also discussed along with a review of methods for developing an accurate traffic study for this large, remote maritime region. The travelling route passes through, or lies in close proximity to large and valuable commercial fishing grounds as well as the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge. As most vessels remain in international waters, they do not report their presence to state and national authorities and are exempt from contingency planning requirements. This paper listed the factors affecting risk of damage from oil spills from marine vessels. These include the volume of oil carried; types of oil; proximity to environmentally sensitive areas; fate of spill; location of spill response equipment; number of vessels travelling through the area; time that vessels are in the area; type and age of vessels; environmental factors affecting sailing conditions; factors limiting rescue; and interaction with regulatory agencies. When considered as a whole, these factors can help in deciding the degree and type of contingency planning. In order to estimate traffic through the North Pacific route, the authors compared, combined and extrapolated information from similar datasets. The task involved 3 steps: (1) estimating the number of trans-Pacific voyages through the Aleutians, (2) estimating vessel type, and (3) estimating fuel oil carried by vessel type. It was determined that more than 2,700 ship voyages pass through the Aleutians every year, of which 50 carry a total of 800 million gallons of oil as cargo. It was noted that serious ship accidents occur so infrequently in remote areas that it was impossible to establish an

  14. Large Scale Crop Classification in Ukraine using Multi-temporal Landsat-8 Images with Missing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussul, N.; Skakun, S.; Shelestov, A.; Lavreniuk, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    At present, there are no globally available Earth observation (EO) derived products on crop maps. This issue is being addressed within the Sentinel-2 for Agriculture initiative where a number of test sites (including from JECAM) participate to provide coherent protocols and best practices for various global agriculture systems, and subsequently crop maps from Sentinel-2. One of the problems in dealing with optical images for large territories (more than 10,000 sq. km) is the presence of clouds and shadows that result in having missing values in data sets. In this abstract, a new approach to classification of multi-temporal optical satellite imagery with missing data due to clouds and shadows is proposed. First, self-organizing Kohonen maps (SOMs) are used to restore missing pixel values in a time series of satellite imagery. SOMs are trained for each spectral band separately using non-missing values. Missing values are restored through a special procedure that substitutes input sample's missing components with neuron's weight coefficients. After missing data restoration, a supervised classification is performed for multi-temporal satellite images. For this, an ensemble of neural networks, in particular multilayer perceptrons (MLPs), is proposed. Ensembling of neural networks is done by the technique of average committee, i.e. to calculate the average class probability over classifiers and select the class with the highest average posterior probability for the given input sample. The proposed approach is applied for large scale crop classification using multi temporal Landsat-8 images for the JECAM test site in Ukraine [1-2]. It is shown that ensemble of MLPs provides better performance than a single neural network in terms of overall classification accuracy and kappa coefficient. The obtained classification map is also validated through estimated crop and forest areas and comparison to official statistics. 1. A.Yu. Shelestov et al., "Geospatial information system

  15. 2002 astroparticle physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2002 Summer School on Astroparticle Physics and Cosmology was held at ICTP, in the three weeks from June 17 to July 5. As in previous Schools in this series, the main topics were covered by sets of 3-5 lectures (regular courses); some special topics were presented in dedicated sessions (special lectures); and emphasis was given to the discussion sessions. The main aim of the School was to give an updated survey of astroparticle physics and cosmology, with an emphasis on theoretical aspects. W. Hu introduced and discussed the theory of structure formation, and the most important features of the cosmic microwave background radiation. A closely connected topic, inflation, was reviewed in detail in the lectures of A. Riotto. The connection between dark matter and particle physics was outlined by R. Bernabei. The search for other dark matter candidates, such as monopoles and axions, was discussed by G. Giacomelli and E. Masso. Dark energy and the cosmological constant - the most puzzling aspect of particle and astroparticle physics, according to many - were the topics of the lectures of G. Dvali, who offered many stimulating proposals and speculations. G. Gabadadze reviewed the physics of large extra dimensions, and suggested a number of applications of these ideas in cosmology. Field theory at finite temperature has been presented by M. Laine. S. Sarkar and P. Tinyakov addressed the cosmic rays of ultra-high energies and discussed the puzzles they pose to astrophysics and particle physics. The lectures of W. Buchmueller provided an overview of current ideas about baryogenesis, and in particular the mechanism of leptogenesis - which draws a connection with neutrino masses. A.Yu. Smirnov discussed the status of the solar neutrino problem. An introduction to neutrino astronomy was given by F. Vissani. Finally, L. Rezzolla gave a detailed discussion of the status and perspectives for gravitational wave detection (of great interest for interferometers like VIRGO and

  16. Comparative evaluation of the biological properties of bone bioimplants Tutoplast® and bioactive ceramic material "Syntekost" when implanted in the middle ear in the experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchenko S.V.

    2014-09-01

    were formed. In none of the experimental cases after implanting of this material into the tympanic bullae of guinea pigs inflammation was observed which may have led to suppuration or ototoxic effects on the structures of the inner ear. Conclusion. The experimental studies showed that the transformation of bone implant Tutoplast® occurred more actively and to a greater extent than that of bioactive ceramic material "Sintekost". In none of the experimental cases after implanting this material into the tympanic bullae of guinea pigs inflammation was observed. Citation: Kravchenko SV, Zaporoschenko AYu, Savitskaya IM. [Comparative evaluation of the biological properties of bone bioimplants Tutoplast® and bioactive ceramic material "Syntekost" when implanted in the middle ear in the experiment]. Morphologia. 2014;8(3:35-41. Russian.

  17. Outcaste by Choice: Re-Genderings in a Short Story by Oka Rusmini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Aveling

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ida Ayu Oka Rusmini is a major contemporary Indonesian author. She has published two novels, Tarian Bumi (2000 and Kenanga (2003a, a collection of short stories, (Sagra, 2001, and a volume of poetry, Patiwangi (2003b, republished in 2007 as Warna Kita, with the omission of some 12 poems. Born in Jakarta in 1967 of Balinese parents, she was a member of the highest Balinese caste, the brahmana caste, but renounced this status, including her title, after her marriage to the East Javanese essayist and poet Arif B. Prasetyo. Oka Rusmini is a graduate of the Indonesian Studies Department, Udayana University, and lives in Den Pasar where she works as a journalist for the Bali Post. Most of Oka Rusmini’s prose works explore the constraints into which the socioreligious practices of caste place all members of society, but most especially women. Both of her novels tell of a woman’s abandonment of her brahmin caste status as the result of her marriage to a sudra. The title of the poetry book, Patiwangi, refers to the ritual practice by which this degradation is confirmed, and the poem which gives the book its title bears the footnote: ‘Patiwangi: pati = death; wangi = fragrant. Patiwangi is a ritual that is performed on a noble women in her Village Temple to remove her noble status as a consequence of having married a man of a lower caste. The ritual often has a serious psychological impact on noble women’ (107. In both novels, and many short stories and poems, their loss of status brings enormous scorn and hardship to the major woman characters. Nevertheless, as we shall see, stepping outside patriarchally-dominated caste ties may also provide an ambiguous freedom for any woman who is positioned to take advantage of the opportunities which the modern, potentially secular, nation state of Indonesia, offers her. In this paper, I am interested in the way in which the short story, ‘Cenana’ (Sagra, 270-318, uses a traditional myth to deal

  18. Heterogeneous Data Fusion Methods for Disaster Risk Assessment using Grid Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussul, Nataliia; Skakun, Sergii; Shelestov, Andrii

    2014-05-01

    index (VHI) derived from NOAA satellites, and the extreme value theory techniques. Drought vulnerability is assessed by estimating the crop areas and crop yield to quantify potential impact of a drought on crop production. Finally, drought hazard and vulnerability maps are fused to derive a drought risk map. [1] N.N. Kussul, B.V. Sokolov, Y.I. Zyelyk, V.A. Zelentsov, S.V. Skakun, and A.Yu. Shelestov, "Disaster Risk Assessment Based on Heterogeneous Geospatial Information," J. of Autom. and Inf. Sci., 42(12), pp. 32-45, 2010. [2] S. Skakun, N. Kussul, A. Shelestov, and O. Kussul, "Flood Hazard and Flood Risk Assessment Using a Time Series of Satellite Images: A Case Study in Namibia," Risk Analysis, 2013, doi: 10.1111/risa.12156. [3] L. Hluchy, N. Kussul, A. Shelestov, S. Skakun, O. Kravchenko, Y. Gripich, P. Kopp, E. Lupian, "The Data Fusion Grid Infrastructure: Project Objectives and Achievements," Computing and Informatics, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 319-334, 2010.

  19. ITER ITA newsletter. No. 24, July 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of ITER ITA (ITER transitional Arrangements) newsletter contains concise information about the Ministerial Meeting on the ITER site selection (MMI-2) took place in Moscow, Russian Federation, on 28 June 2005. About one hundred participants from the Parties to the ITER Negotiations and the IAEA attended at the Meeting. Mr. A.Yu. Rumyantsev, Director of Rosatom, welcomed the participants and pointed out that the goal of the meeting was to resolve the most difficult issue: to select the site for implementation of the ITER project. Once this decision had been taken, one could expect a swift and successful accomplishment of negotiations and beginning of work on the ITER constriction. Mr. A. Yu. Rumyantsev, Director of Rosatom, welcomed the participants and pointed out that the goal of the meeting was to resolve the most difficult issue: to select the site for implementation of the ITER project. Once this decision had been taken, one could expect a swift and successful accomplishment of negotiations and beginning of work on the ITER construction. Mr. Rumyantsev invited the Heads of Delegations of Japan, the European Union, the People's Republic of China, the Republic of Korea and the United States of America to express the positions of their Parties on the choice of a site. Mr. N. Nakayama, Japanese Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, recognized that three years had passed since the start of Negotiations on the site issue and that a consensus on the roles of the Host Party and the Non-Host Party had been reached. It was therefore not desirable that both Japan and the EU still advocate their own sites and allow the Negotiations to continue with no prospect of coming to a conclusion. So, considering that the ITER project should be started as soon as possible for the future benefit of humankind, that the six-Party-framework for implementing the ITER project should not be broken, that the ITER project starting smoothly will be a major

  20. EDITORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ayu Made Suartika

    2014-07-01

    architect. Dinar studies the stilt houses of Loloan community, Jembrana, Bali. She underlines that the form of stilt houses has changed over time in line with various elements including socio-cultural aspects, economic factors, building age, land availability, and occupants' preferences. The sixth article is written by I Nengah Riana, Widiastuti, and Ida Bagus Gde Primayatna, academic staff from the Department of Civil Engineering, National University (Bali and the Department of Architecture, Udayana University. It examines the conversion of green open spaces, a major problem in Denpasar. The seventh paper is authored by Gusti Ayu Made Suartika. It examines the relevance of multi storey housing in fulfilling the need for affordable houses by low income urban dwellers in Indonesia. Finally, a big thank you to all our contributors, editorial board, production team and publishing staff who have worked faithfully to bring the journal RUANG- SPACE into being.