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Sample records for aya monograph thyroid

  1. Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Thyroid Disease FNA Biopsy of Thyroid Nodules Goiter Graves’ Disease ... Cancer Nuclear Radiation & the Thyroid Older Patients and Thyroid Disease Papillary & Follicular Thyroid Cancer Postpartum Thyroiditis Pregnancy and ...

  2. AYAs Are Not Alone: Confronting Psychosocial Challenges of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolescents and young adults with cancer have unique and specific psychosocial needs. Getting support to meet those needs is critical for enabling AYAs to adapt and cope as they navigate the course of their illness and beyond.

  3. Social Media and the Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA) Patient with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Miguel-Angel; Drake, Emily K; Pemmaraju, Naveen; Wood, William A

    2016-12-01

    Over 70,000 adolescent and young adults (AYA) aged 15 to 39 years are diagnosed with cancer each year in the US. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has identified AYA cancer patients as a unique population. The most common cancers in this age group include tumors typically seen in pediatric patients such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and brain tumors, as well as cancers more typically seen in adult patients such as breast cancer and melanoma. In addition, some cancers have their highest incidence in AYA patients, such as Hodgkin Lymphoma, testicular cancer, and bone tumors. AYA patients face additional unique issues due to their age, not just questions about treatment choices due to lack of data but also questions about fertility, relationships, loss of autonomy, and interruptions in school/work with potentially significant financial complications. This age group also has very high rates of social media usage with up to 90 % of adults aged 18 to 29 using social networking sites. In this review, we will describe the use of social media in AYAs with cancer and highlight some of the online resources for AYAs.

  4. Thyroid Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormones Thyroid cancer Thyroid nodules - lumps in the thyroid gland Thyroiditis - swelling of the thyroid To diagnose thyroid diseases, doctors use a medical history, physical exam, and thyroid tests. They sometimes also ...

  5. Archives: African Studies Monographs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Archives: African Studies Monographs. Journal Home > Archives: African Studies Monographs. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 5 of 5 Items. 2007. Vol 8 (2007) ...

  6. Age at Primary Malignancy Determines Survival in Adolescent and Young Adults That Develop a Secondary Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Briana J; Goldfarb, Melanie

    2016-06-01

    Second malignancy status is a risk factor for death in adolescent and young adults (AYAs) (ages 15-39) with thyroid cancer (TC). This study investigates whether age at primary malignancy (PM) is an independent predictor of overall survival (OS) for AYA patients diagnosed with secondary TC who have survived ≥5 years from their PM. Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program (SEER) multiple-primary session (SEER-9 [1973-2010] and SEER-13 [1992-2010]) identified all secondary TCs in patients malignant neoplasm (SMN) diagnosed as an AYA were categorized by age at PM (pediatric cancer survivors were identified; 71 had a pediatric PM and 357 an AYA PM. Median OS after a pediatric PM was 35.76 years and 33.22 years after an AYA-PM (p = 0.023); only one death was due to TC. Race, site and stage of PM, marital status, and three or more independent PMs also influenced OS (all p cancers, and a higher stage of their first malignancy are more likely to die. For AYA patients with thyroid SMNs, having a prior AYA PM (compared to a pediatric PM), Black race, and having three or more independent tumors predicted a decreased OS, independent of PM type or PM/SMN stage.

  7. Patterns of unmet needs in adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors: in their own words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alex W K; Chang, Ting-Ting; Christopher, Katrina; Lau, Stephen C L; Beaupin, Lynda K; Love, Brad; Lipsey, Kim L; Feuerstein, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Categorization of the needs of AYA cancer survivors is primarily based on quantitative analyses of epidemiological and observational research. The present study classified the phenomenological experiences of AYA survivors based on their own language. A systematic approach for selecting qualitative studies of unmet needs in AYA cancer survivors was used. Following selection based on quality, survivor statements were entered verbatim and thematic analysis was conducted using NVivo qualitative research software. A total of 1993 AYA cancer survivors (post-treatment) were included in 58 studies (78% individual interviews). Mean age was 27.6 with an average of 8.6 years post-primary treatment. The organizational framework reported in this study was based on a heterogeneous group of cancer types. Thirteen themes including symptoms, function, reproductive health, emotional well-being, health management, health care system, social interaction, romantic relationships, cancer disclosure, normalcy, career development and employment, and school and fiscal concerns were identified. Forty-eight subthemes were also identified covering such areas as fertility, integrative health services, advice for cancer disclosure, family interaction, and insurance challenges. Direct analysis of text identified many common unmet needs similarly reported in the quantitative literature. The phenomenological data also provided a breakdown of unmet needs into subthemes or elements of unmet needs. This information can help form the basis for a personalized, valid, and reliable evaluation tool of the range of unmet needs in AYA survivors.

  8. African Studies Monographs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Studies Monographs is a serial that promotes research and scholarship on the African perspective worldwide. This includes matters of philosophy, history, literature, arts and culture, environment, gender, politics, administration crisis management, etc.

  9. What do adolescents and young adults want from cancer resources? Insights from a Delphi panel of AYA patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Christabel K; Zebrack, Brad

    2017-01-01

    Cancer treatment programs and community-based support organizations are increasingly producing information and support resources geared to adolescent and young adult patients (AYAs); however, systematically-derived knowledge about user preferences for these resources is lacking. The primary purpose of this study was to generate findings from informed AYA cancer patients that resource developers can use to create products consistent with AYAs' expressed preferences for information and support. Utilizing a modified Delphi technique, AYA cancer patients identified barriers to optimal AYA cancer care, cancer resources that address their needs, and specific characteristics of cancer resources they find helpful. The Delphi panel consisted of a convenience sample of 21 patients aged 18-39 years, who were diagnosed with cancer between ages 15-39 and were no more than 8 years out from cancer treatment at the time of the study. Survey data were collected in three consecutive and iterative rounds over the course of 6 months in 2015. Findings indicated that AYA patients prefer resources that reduce feelings of loneliness, create a sense of community or belonging, and provide opportunities to meet other AYA patients. Among the top barriers to optimal cancer care, AYAs identified a lack of cancer care providers specializing in AYA care, a lack of connection to an AYA patient community, and their own lack of ability to navigate the health system. Participants also described aspects of cancer information and supportive care resources that they believe address AYAs' concerns. Information derived from this study will help developers of cancer information and support resources to better reach their intended audience. From the point of view of AYA cancer patients, optimal cancer care and utilization of information and support resources requires that cancer support programs foster meaningful connections among AYA patients. Results also suggest that patient resources should equip

  10. A mutational comparison of adult and adolescent and young adult (AYA) colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricoli, James V; Boardman, Lisa A; Patidar, Rajesh; Sindiri, Sivasish; Jang, Jin S; Walsh, William D; McGregor, Paul M; Camalier, Corinne E; Mehaffey, Michele G; Furman, Wayne L; Bahrami, Armita; Williams, P Mickey; Lih, Chih-Jian; Conley, Barbara A; Khan, Javed

    2018-03-01

    It is possible that the relative lack of progress in treatment outcomes among adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer is caused by a difference in disease biology compared with the corresponding diseases in younger and older individuals. There is evidence that colon cancer is more aggressive and has a poorer prognosis in AYA patients than in older adult patients. To further understand the molecular basis for this difference, whole-exome sequencing was conducted on a cohort of 30 adult, 30 AYA, and 2 pediatric colon cancers. A statistically significant difference in mutational frequency was observed between AYA and adult samples in 43 genes, including ROBO1, MYC binding protein 2 (MYCBP2), breast cancer 2 (early onset) (BRCA2), MAP3K3, MCPH1, RASGRP3, PTCH1, RAD9B, CTNND1, ATM, NF1; KIT, PTEN, and FBXW7. Many of these mutations were nonsynonymous, missense, stop-gain, or frameshift mutations that were damaging. Next, RNA sequencing was performed on a subset of the samples to confirm the mutations identified by exome sequencing. This confirmation study verified the presence of a significantly greater frequency of damaging mutations in AYA compared with adult colon cancers for 5 of the 43 genes (MYCBP2, BRCA2, PHLPP1, TOPORS, and ATR). The current results provide the rationale for a more comprehensive study with a larger sample set and experimental validation of the functional impact of the identified variants along with their contribution to the biologic and clinical characteristics of AYA colon cancer. Cancer 2018;124:1070-82. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  11. Contraception: the Need for Expansion of Counsel in Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA) Cancer Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridgen, Olivia; Sehovic, Ivana; Bowman, Meghan L; Reed, Damon; Tamargo, Christina; Vadaparampil, Susan; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2017-12-01

    Little is known about oncology provider recommendations regarding best practices in contraception use during cancer treatment and through survivorship for adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients. This review examined the literature to identify related studies on contraception recommendations, counseling discussions, and methods of contraception in the AYA oncology population. A literature review was conducted using PubMed, including all peer-reviewed journals with no publication date exclusions. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using combinations of the following phrases or keywords: "oncology OR cancer" AND "contraception, family planning, contraceptive devices, contraceptive agents, intrauterine devices OR IUD, vaccines, spermatocidal agents, postcoital, immunologic, family planning, vasectomy, tubal ligation, sterilization" AND "young adult OR adolescent" AND "young adult AND adolescent". Reviewers assessed articles using the "Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies" which considers: (1) selection bias; (2) study design; (3) confounders; (4) blinding; (5) data collection methods; and (6) withdrawals and dropouts. A total of five articles were included and all studies were quantitative. Results showed no consistent recommendations among providers, references to guidelines, or methods of contraceptive types. Provider guidelines for discussions with AYA patients should be expanded to provide comprehensive, consistent, and quality cancer care in the AYA population.

  12. Clinical Trials Offer a Path to Better Care for AYAs with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The slow progress against adolescent and young adult cancers is due, in part, to this populations lack of participation in clinical trials. Researchers are testing innovative ways to enroll more AYAs in clinical trials—using expanded access, patient navigation, community outreach, and collaborations between academic and community doctors.

  13. Perceived social support and health-related quality of life in AYA cancer survivors and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremolada, Marta; Bonichini, Sabrina; Basso, Giuseppe; Pillon, Marta

    2016-12-01

    This study compared education levels, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and perceived social support of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors with those of a control group of peers with no history of serious illness. The links between socio-demographic and medical factors and AYA cancer survivor outcomes were investigated. The participants included AYA cancer survivors (n = 205) recruited during follow-up visits, and AYA peers (n = 205) recruited from the secondary schools, youth groups and universities. All of the participants filled in self-report questionnaires regarding HRQoL and perceived social support. In addition, medical and socio-demographic information was collected. There were statistically significant differences between survivors and controls in terms of education level, HRQoL and perceived social support. Cancer survivors attended school for fewer years had a more positive perception of their health and a lower level of perceived social support provided by family, friends and significant others than controls. The results showed that female gender, the diagnosis of haematological disorder, haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and a shorter off-treatment period are risk variables for poorer HRQoL and social functioning in AYA cancer survivors. Adolescent and young adult cancer survivors perceived a better quality of life than controls, especially those treated for haematological disorders or with a shorter off-treatment period. Future studies should aim to understand better this positive self-reported phenomenon, as well as investigating post-traumatic growth using qualitative narratives. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Multiple Primary Cancer Monograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    To identify groups of cancer survivors that are at increased risk for multiple primary cancers, investigators led an effort to provide the first comprehensive population-based analysis of the risk of subsequent cancer in the U.S., resulting in a monograph.

  15. African Studies Monographs: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Manuscripts should be sent to The Series Editor, African Studies Monographs, OOP Ltd, P.O. Box 4893, Somolu, Lagos State, Nigeria or Dr Karo Ogbinaka, Department of Philosophy, Faculty of Arts, University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria. Electronic submission should be on Microsoft Word and ...

  16. The relationship between posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic growth among adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrack, Brad; Kwak, Minyoung; Salsman, John; Cousino, Melissa; Meeske, Kathleen; Aguilar, Christine; Embry, Leanne; Block, Rebecca; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon; Cole, Steve

    2015-02-01

    Theories of posttraumatic growth suggest that some degree of distress is necessary to stimulate growth; yet, investigations of the relationship between stress and growth following trauma are mixed. This study aims to understand the relationship between posttraumatic stress symptoms and posttraumatic growth in adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients. 165 AYA patients aged 14-39 years at diagnosis completed standardized measures of posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic growth at 12 months following diagnosis. Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing and regression were used to examine linear and curvilinear relationships between posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic growth. No significant relationships between overall posttraumatic stress severity and posttraumatic growth were observed at 12-month follow-up. However, curvilinear relationships between re-experiencing (a posttraumatic stress symptom) and two of five posttraumatic growth indicators (New Possibilities, Personal Strengths) were observed. Findings suggest that re-experiencing is associated with some aspects of posttraumatic growth but not others. Although re-experiencing is considered a symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder, it also may represent a cognitive process necessary to achieve personal growth for AYAs. Findings call into question the supposed psychopathological nature of re-experiencing and suggest that re-experiencing, as a cognitive process, may be psychologically adaptive. Opportunities to engage family, friends, cancer survivors, or health care professionals in frank discussions about fears, worries, or concerns may help AYAs re-experience cancer in a way that enhances their understanding of what happened to them and contributes to positive adaptation to life after cancer. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Professional Monograph Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mildeová Stanislava

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Title of the monograph: Systems Approach to Knowledge Modelling. Authors: dr. Ludmila Dömeová; dr. Milan Houška; dr. Martina Houšková Beránková. Cover designer: Olga Čermáková. Interior designer: Roman Kvasnička. Publisher: Graphical Studio Olga Čermáková, Czech Republic. Place: Hradec Králové, Czech Republic. Year of publication: 2008. Number of pages: 282. Recommended price of the book: 39.90 EUR. First edition. Reviewer : dr. Stanislava Mildeová; Department of Systems Analysis, Faculty of Informatics and Statistics, University of Economics, Prague.

  18. Clinical application of genomic profiling to find druggable targets for adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients with metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Soojin; Lee, Jeongeun; Shin, Jong-Yeon; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Sim, Sung Hoon; Keam, Bhumsuk; Kim, Tae Min; Kim, Dong-Wan; Heo, Dae Seog; Lee, Se-Hoon; Kim, Jong-Il

    2016-01-01

    Although adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancers are characterized by biological features and clinical outcomes distinct from those of other age groups, the molecular profile of AYA cancers has not been well defined. In this study, we analyzed cancer genomes from rare types of metastatic AYA cancers to identify driving and/or druggable genetic alterations. Prospectively collected AYA tumor samples from seven different patients were analyzed using three different genomics platforms (whole-exome sequencing, whole-transcriptome sequencing or OncoScan™). Using well-known bioinformatics tools (bwa, Picard, GATK, MuTect, and Somatic Indel Detector) and our annotation approach with open access databases (DAVID and DGIdb), we processed sequencing data and identified driving genetic alterations and their druggability. The mutation frequencies of AYA cancers were lower than those of other adult cancers (median = 0.56), except for a germ cell tumor with hypermutation. We identified patient-specific genetic alterations in candidate driving genes: RASA2 and NF1 (prostate cancer), TP53 and CDKN2C (olfactory neuroblastoma), FAT1, NOTCH1, and SMAD4 (head and neck cancer), KRAS (urachal carcinoma), EML4-ALK (lung cancer), and MDM2 and PTEN (liposarcoma). We then suggested potential drugs for each patient according to his or her altered genes and related pathways. By comparing candidate driving genes between AYA cancers and those from all age groups for the same type of cancer, we identified different driving genes in prostate cancer and a germ cell tumor in AYAs compared with all age groups, whereas three common alterations (TP53, FAT1, and NOTCH1) in head and neck cancer were identified in both groups. We identified the patient-specific genetic alterations and druggability of seven rare types of AYA cancers using three genomics platforms. Additionally, genetic alterations in cancers from AYA and those from all age groups varied by cancer type. The online version of this article

  19. Thyroid storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyrotoxic storm; Hyperthyroid storm; Accelerated hyperthyroidism; Thyroid crisis; Thyrotoxicosis - thyroid storm ... Thyroid storm occurs due to a major stress such as trauma, heart attack , or infection. In rare ...

  20. Thyroid Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is the thyroid gland and what are thyroid disorders? Your thyroid gland is a small structure in ... get older, you’re more likely to develop thyroid disorders. In addition to being more common with age, ...

  1. Postpartum Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorders cannot be distinguished from one another on pathology specimens. As in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, postpartum thyroiditis is associated with the development of anti-thyroid (anti-thyroid peroxidase, anti- thyroglobulin) antibodies. Women with ...

  2. African Studies Monographs: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The African Studies Monographs is a serial that promotes research and scholarship on the African perspective worldwide. This includes matters of philosophy, history, literature, arts and culture, environment, gender, politics, administration crisis management, etc.

  3. Monograph of Coccinia (Cucurbitaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This monograph deals with all 95 names described in the Cucurbitaceae genus Coccinia and recognizes 25 species. Taxonomic novelties are Coccinia adoensis var. aurantiaca (C.Jeffrey) Holstein, stat. nov., Coccinia sessilifolia var. variifolia (A.Meeuse) Holstein, stat. nov., and Coccinia adoensis var. jeffreyana Holstein, var. nov. For the 25 species 3157 collections were examined, of which 2024 were georeferenced to produce distribution maps. All species are distributed in sub-Saharan Africa with one species, Coccinia grandis, extending from Senegal in West Africa east to Indonesia and being naturalized on Pacific Islands, in Australia, the Caribbean, and South America. Coccinia species are dioecious creepers or climbers with simple or bifid tendrils that occupy a range of habitats from arid scrubland, woodlands to lowland rainforest and mist forest. The corolla of Coccinia species is sympetalous, usually pale yellow to orange, and 1 to 4.5 cm long. Pollination is by bees foraging for pollen or nectar. After pollination, the developing ovary often exhibits longitudinal mottling, which usually disappears during maturation. All species produce berries with a pericarp in reddish colors (orange-red through to scarlet red), hence the generic name. The globose to cylindrical fruits contain numerous grayish-beige flat to lenticular seeds. Chromosome numbers are 2n = 20, 24, and 22 + XX/XY. Many Coccinia species are used for food, either as roasted tubers, greens as spinach, or the fruits as vegetables. Medicinal value is established in Coccinia grandis, of which leaves and sap are used against diabetes. PMID:26312043

  4. Thyroid ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thyroid physiology and diagnostic evaluation of patients with thyroid disorders. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 11. ... Thyroid Tests Read more Ultrasound ...

  5. Weight-Related Correlates of Psychological Dysregulation in Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA) Females with Severe Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowey, Marissa A.; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Becnel, Jennifer; Peugh, James; Mitchell, James E.; Zeller, Meg H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Severe obesity is the fastest growing pediatric subgroup of excess weight levels. Psychological dysregulation (i.e., impairments in regulating cognitive, emotional, and/or behavioral processes) has been associated with obesity and poorer weight loss outcomes. The present study explored associations of dysregulation with weight-related variables among adolescent and young adult (AYA) females with severe obesity. Methods Fifty-four AYA females with severe obesity (MBMI=48.71 kg/m2; Mage=18.29, R=15–21 years; 59.3% White) completed self-report measures of psychological dysregulation and weight-related constructs including meal patterns, problematic eating behaviors, and body and weight dissatisfaction, as non-surgical comparison participants in a multi-site study of adolescent bariatric surgery outcomes. Pearson and bivariate correlations were conducted and stratified by age group to analyze associations between dysregulation subscales (affective, behavioral, cognitive) and weight-related variables. Results Breakfast was the most frequently skipped meal (consumed 3–4 times/week). Eating out was common (4–5 times/week) and mostly occurred at fast-food restaurants. Evening hyperphagia (61.11%) and eating in the absence of hunger (37.04%) were commonly endorsed, while unplanned eating (29.63%), a sense of loss of control over eating (22.22%), eating beyond satiety (22.22%), night eating (12.96%), and binge eating (11.11%) were less common. Almost half of the sample endorsed extreme weight dissatisfaction. Dysregulation was associated with most weight-related attitudes and behaviors of interest in young adults but select patterns emerged for adolescents. Conclusions Higher levels of psychological dysregulation are associated with greater BMI, problematic eating patterns and behaviors, and body dissatisfaction in AYA females with severe obesity. These findings have implications for developing novel intervention strategies for severe obesity in AYAs that may

  6. Thyroid Nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid nodules Overview Thyroid nodules are solid or fluid-filled lumps that form within your thyroid, a small gland located at the base of ... just above your breastbone. The great majority of thyroid nodules aren't serious and don't cause ...

  7. Weight-related correlates of psychological dysregulation in adolescent and young adult (AYA) females with severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowey, Marissa A; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Becnel, Jennifer; Peugh, James; Mitchell, James E; Zeller, Meg H

    2016-04-01

    Severe obesity is the fastest growing pediatric subgroup of excess weight levels. Psychological dysregulation (i.e., impairments in regulating cognitive, emotional, and/or behavioral processes) has been associated with obesity and poorer weight loss outcomes. The present study explored associations of dysregulation with weight-related variables among adolescent and young adult (AYA) females with severe obesity. Fifty-four AYA females with severe obesity (MBMI = 48.71 kg/m(2); Mage = 18.29, R = 15-21 years; 59.3% White) completed self-report measures of psychological dysregulation and weight-related constructs including meal patterns, problematic eating behaviors, and body and weight dissatisfaction, as non-surgical comparison participants in a multi-site study of adolescent bariatric surgery outcomes. Pearson and bivariate correlations were conducted and stratified by age group to analyze associations between dysregulation subscales (affective, behavioral, cognitive) and weight-related variables. Breakfast was the most frequently skipped meal (consumed 3-4 times/week). Eating out was common (4-5 times/week) and mostly occurred at fast-food restaurants. Evening hyperphagia (61.11%) and eating in the absence of hunger (37.04%) were commonly endorsed, while unplanned eating (29.63%), a sense of loss of control over eating (22.22%), eating beyond satiety (22.22%), night eating (12.96%), and binge eating (11.11%) were less common. Almost half of the sample endorsed extreme weight dissatisfaction. Dysregulation was associated with most weight-related attitudes and behaviors of interest in young adults but select patterns emerged for adolescents. Higher levels of psychological dysregulation are associated with greater BMI, problematic eating patterns and behaviors, and body dissatisfaction in AYA females with severe obesity. These findings have implications for developing novel intervention strategies for severe obesity in AYAs that may have a multidimensional

  8. Thyroid nodule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms, including: Fatigue Palpitations Chest pain Memory loss Thyroid nodules are sometimes found in people who have Hashimoto's disease. This may cause symptoms of an underactive thyroid gland, such as: Dry ...

  9. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  10. Thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, S.

    1990-01-01

    Presenting a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease, this volume provides a comprehensive picture of current thyroid medicine and surgery. The book integrates the perspectives of the many disciplines that deal with the clinical manifestations of thyroid disorders. Adding to the clinical usefulness of the book is the state-of-the-art coverage of many recent developments in thyroidology, including the use of highly sensitive two-site TSH immunoradionetric measurements to diagnose thyroid activity; thyroglobulin assays in thyroid cancer and other diseases; new diagnostic applications of MRI and CT; treatment with radionuclides and chemotherapy; new developments in thyroid immunology, pathology, and management of hyperthyroidism; suppressive treatment with thyroid hormone; and management of Graves' ophthalmopathy. The book also covers all aspects of thyroid surgery, including surgical treatment of hyperthyroidism; papillary, follicular, and other carcinomas; thyroidectomy; and prevention and management of complications

  11. Thyroid Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for several months or longer, a condition called amenorrhea . If your body's immune system causes thyroid disease, ... at all for several months or longer (called amenorrhea). How does thyroid disease affect pregnancy? Pregnancy-related ...

  12. ENRICH: A promising oncology nurse training program to implement ASCO clinical practice guidelines on fertility for AYA cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadaparampil, Susan T; Gwede, Clement K; Meade, Cathy; Kelvin, Joanne; Reich, Richard R; Reinecke, Joyce; Bowman, Meghan; Sehovic, Ivana; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2016-11-01

    We describe the impact of ENRICH (Educating Nurses about Reproductive Issues in Cancer Healthcare), a web-based communication-skill-building curriculum for oncology nurses regarding AYA fertility and other reproductive health issues. Participants completed an 8-week course that incorporated didactic content, case studies, and interactive learning. Each learner completed a pre- and post-test assessing knowledge and a 6-month follow-up survey assessing learner behaviors and institutional changes. Out of 77 participants, the majority (72%) scored higher on the post-test. Fifty-four participants completed the follow-up survey: 41% reviewed current institutional practices, 20% formed a committee, and 37% gathered patient materials or financial resources (22%). Participants also reported new policies (30%), in-service education (37%), new patient education materials (26%), a patient navigator role (28%), and workplace collaborations with reproductive specialists (46%). ENRICH improved nurses' knowledge and involvement in activities addressing fertility needs of oncology patients. Our study provides a readily accessible model to prepare oncology nurses to integrate American Society of Clinical Oncology guidelines and improve Quality Oncology Practice Initiative measures related to fertility. Nurses will be better prepared to discuss important survivorship issues related to fertility and reproductive health, leading to improved quality of life outcomes for AYAs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. PROVIDING AFFORDABLE HIGHER EDUCATION TO RURAL GIRLS IN INDIAN PUNJAB: A CASE STUDY OF BABA AYA SINGH RIARKI COLLEGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RANJIT SINGH GHUMAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights a case study of a rural girls college located in a remote village of Gurdaspur district in Indian Punjab. The idea of this unique college was conceptualised by one Baba Aya Singh, a social and religious activist, from a village near the college way back in 1925. It was really a revolutionary idea because female education in India, particularly higher education, was a distant dream at that time. The college was, however, started with only 14 rural girls after about half-a-century when the great visionary Baba Aya Singh had a dream to educate the rural girls. Access to and affordability of higher education is the uniqueness of this college. The student has to pay only Rs. 5800 (about US $ 65 per annum, which includes both the tuition fee and boarding and lodging. It is equally significant to note that the entire expenses of the college are met by this and the produce of agricultural land of the college. The college does not take any outside help. The meritorious senior class students teach the junior class students. The college in its own humble, but significant, way made a revolutionary contribution to the education of poor rural girls who, otherwise, would not have dreamt of college education. Apart from, class-room teaching and bookish knowledge, the students are taught social, ethical and management skills in a most natural manner. The product of the college has proved to be the agents of change and rural transformation.

  14. [Thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Yuji

    2012-03-01

    The thyroid glands are a vulnerable organ to ionizing radiation. Indeed the epidemiological studies have revealed an increase in the incidences of thyroid cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and radiation casualties in Chernobyl. The carcinogenic risk for the thyroids is dependent on radiation dose, and higher in younger people. Recent advances in molecular biology contribute to clarify the mechanisms for thyroid carcinogenesis at genetic and molecular levels. Here radiation-induced thyroid carcinogenesis is reviewed from epidemiological data to basic research.

  15. Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thyroid medicines made with animal thyroid, such as Armour Thyroid, but is not useful for your baby’s ... the American Thyroid Association for the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease during pregnancy and the postpartum. ...

  16. American Thyroid Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professionals Thyroid Information Find out more information on Thyroid Disease. learn more Meetings ATA meeting dates, information, and ... News Press Releases & Announcements Thyroid Information (Brochures & FAQ's / Thyroid Diseases & Conditions) Cancer of the Thyroid Public Health Statements ...

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ... the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is a ...

  18. Oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum strain AYA enhances IgA secretion and provides survival protection against influenza virus infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Kikuchi

    Full Text Available The mucosal immune system provides the first line of defense against inhaled and ingested pathogenic microbacteria and viruses. This defense system, to a large extent, is mediated by the actions of secretory IgA. In this study, we screened 140 strains of lactic acid bacteria for induction of IgA production by murine Peyer's patch cells. We selected one strain and named it Lactobacillus plantarum AYA. We found that L. plantarum AYA-induced production of IL-6 in Peyer's patch dendritic cells, with this production promoting IgA(+ B cells to differentiate into IgA-secreting plasma cells. We also observed that oral administration of L. plantarum AYA in mice caused an increase in IgA production in the small intestine and lung. This production of IgA correlated strongly with protective ability, with the treated mice surviving longer than the control mice after lethal influenza virus infection. Our data therefore reveals a novel immunoregulatory role of the L. plantarum AYA strain which enhances mucosal IgA production and provides protection against respiratory influenza virus infection.

  19. Thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noma, Koji

    1992-01-01

    This chapter reviews the correlation between thyroid disease, other than cancer, and radiation in the literature. Radiation-induced thyroid disturbance is discussed in the context of external and internal irradiation. External irradiation of 10 to 40 Gy may lower thyroid function several months or years later. Oral administration of I-131 is widely given to patients with Basedow's disease; it may also lower thyroid function with increasing radiation doses. When giving 70 Gy or more of I-131, hypothyroidism has been reported to occur in 20-30% and at least 10%. Thyroiditis induced with internal I-131 irradiation has also been reported, but no data is available concerning external irradiation-induced thyroiditis. The incidence of nodular goiter was found to be several ten times higher with external irradiation than internal irradiation. Thyroid disturbance is correlated with A-bomb survivors. A-bomb radiation can be divided into early radiation within one minute after A-bombing and the subsequent residual radiation. Nodular goiter was significantly more frequent in the exposed group than the non-exposed group; it increased with increasing radiation doses and younger age (20 years or less) at the time of exposure. The incidence of decrease in thyroid function was higher with increasing radiation doses. However, in the case of Nagasaki, the incidence of hypothyroidism was significantly higher in the low-dose exposed group, especially A-bomb survivors aged 10-39 at the time of exposure and women. (N.K.)

  20. Thyroid effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxon, H.; Thomas, S.; Buncher, C.; Book, S.; Hertzberg, V.

    1985-01-01

    Risk coefficients for thyroid disorders have been developed for both 131 I and external x or gamma low-LET radiation. A linear, no-threshold model has been used for thyroid neoplasms. A linear, threshold model has been used for other thyroid disorders. Improvements since the Reactor Safety Study were made possible by relevant new animal and human data. Major changes are as follows. Animal data are used to supplement the human experience where necessary. A specific risk estimate model is used for thyroid neoplasms, which accounts for observed effects of gender and age at exposure on risk. For thyroid cancer, the basis of the risk coefficients is the experience of North Americans following x-irradiation for benign disease in childhood. This recognizes possible differences in susceptibility in people of different heritage. A minimum induction period for thyroid neoplasms following irradiation is used to define periods at risk. An upper bound risk coefficient for cancer induction following exposure to 131 I is based on human experience at relatively low dose exposures. While the overall lifetime risks of death due to thyroid cancer are consistent with projections by the ICRP, BEIR III, and UNSCEAR Reports, the current model permits greater flexibility in determining risk for population subgroups. 88 references, 8 tables

  1. Thyroid Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyperthyroid patient, the most likely diagnosis is autoimmune thyroid disease. THYROGLOBULIN Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a protein produced by ... Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Thyroid Disease FNA Biopsy of Thyroid Nodules Goiter Graves’ Disease ...

  2. Thyroid and Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thyroid and Weight Thyroid and Weight FAQs THYROID, BMR & WEIGHT WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THYROID AND ... it is known as the basal metabolic rate (BMR). Indeed, measurement of the BMR was one of ...

  3. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common in people with a family history of thyroid disease. In very rare cases, the disease may be ... syndrome - Hashimoto; PGA II - Hashimoto Images Endocrine glands Thyroid enlargement - scintiscan Hashimoto's disease (chronic thyroiditis) Thyroid gland References Amino N, Lazarus ...

  4. Pediatric Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Patient Health Information News media interested in ... and neck issues, should be consulted. Types of thyroid cancer in children: Papillary : This form of thyroid cancer ...

  5. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary ... National Cancer Institute. PDQ thyroid cancer treatment. Bethesda, ... February 4, 2016. www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/ ...

  6. Thyroid gland removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total thyroidectomy; Partial thyroidectomy; Thyroidectomy; Subtotal thyroidectomy; Thyroid cancer - thyroidectomy; Papillary cancer - thyroidectomy; Goiter - thyroidectomy; Thyroid nodules - thyroidectomy

  7. Unmet Support Service Needs and Health-Related Quality of Life among Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: The AYA HOPE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Wilder Smith

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cancer for adolescents and young adults (AYA differs from younger and older patients; AYA face medical challenges while navigating social and developmental transitions. Research suggests that these patients are under- or inadequately served by current support services, which may affect health-related quality of life (HRQOL.Methods: We examined unmet service needs and HRQOL in the National Cancer Institute’s Adolescent and Young Adult Health Outcomes and Patient Experience (AYA HOPE study, a population-based cohort (n=484, age 15-39, diagnosed with cancer 6-14 months prior, in 2007-2009. Unmet service needs were psychosocial, physical, spiritual, and financial services where respondents endorsed that they needed, but did not receive, a listed service. Linear regression models tested associations between any or specific unmet service needs and HRQOL, adjusting for demographic, medical and health insurance variables.Results: Over one-third of respondents reported at least one unmet service need. The most common were financial (16%, mental health (15%, and support group (14% services. Adjusted models showed that having any unmet service need was associated with worse overall HRQOL, fatigue, physical, emotional, social, and school/work functioning, and mental health (p’s<0.0001. Specific unmet services were related to particular outcomes (e.g., needing pain management was associated with worse overall HRQOL, physical and social functioning (p’s<0.001. Needing mental health services had the strongest associations with worse HRQOL outcomes; needing physical/occupational therapy was most consistently associated with poorer functioning across domains.Discussion: Unmet service needs in AYAs recently diagnosed with cancer are associated with worse HRQOL. Research should examine developmentally appropriate, relevant practices to improve access to services demonstrated to adversely impact HRQOL, particularly physical therapy and mental

  8. Bibliometrics of NIHR HTA monographs and their related journal articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, Pamela; Waugh, Norman

    2015-02-18

    A bibliometric analysis of the UK National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment (HTA) monographs and their related journal articles by: (1) exploring the differences in citations to the HTA monographs in Google Scholar (GS), Scopus and Web of Science (WoS), and (2) comparing Scopus citations to the monographs with their related journal articles. A study of 111 HTA monographs published in 2010 and 2011, and their external journal articles. Citations to the monographs in GS, Scopus and WoS, and to their external journal articles in Scopus. The number of citations varied among the three databases, with GS having the highest and WoS the lowest; however, the citation-based rankings among the databases were highly correlated. Overall, 56% of monographs had a related publication, with the highest proportion for primary research (76%) and lowest for evidence syntheses (43%). There was a large variation in how the monographs were cited, compared to journal articles, resulting in more frequent problems, with unlinked citations in Scopus and WoS. When comparing differences in the number of citations between monograph publications with their related journal articles from the same project, we found that monographs received more citations than their journal articles for evidence syntheses and methodology projects; by contrast, journal articles related to primary research monographs were more highly cited than their monograph. The numbers of citations to the HTA monographs differed considerably between the databases, but were highly correlated. When a HTA monograph had a journal article from the same study, there were more citations to the journal article for primary research, but more to the monographs for evidence syntheses. Citations to the related journal articles were more reliably recorded than citations to the HTA monographs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please

  9. Bibliometrics of NIHR HTA monographs and their related journal articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Objectives A bibliometric analysis of the UK National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment (HTA) monographs and their related journal articles by: (1) exploring the differences in citations to the HTA monographs in Google Scholar (GS), Scopus and Web of Science (WoS), and (2) comparing Scopus citations to the monographs with their related journal articles. Setting A study of 111 HTA monographs published in 2010 and 2011, and their external journal articles. Main outcome measures Citations to the monographs in GS, Scopus and WoS, and to their external journal articles in Scopus. Results The number of citations varied among the three databases, with GS having the highest and WoS the lowest; however, the citation-based rankings among the databases were highly correlated. Overall, 56% of monographs had a related publication, with the highest proportion for primary research (76%) and lowest for evidence syntheses (43%). There was a large variation in how the monographs were cited, compared to journal articles, resulting in more frequent problems, with unlinked citations in Scopus and WoS. When comparing differences in the number of citations between monograph publications with their related journal articles from the same project, we found that monographs received more citations than their journal articles for evidence syntheses and methodology projects; by contrast, journal articles related to primary research monographs were more highly cited than their monograph. Conclusions The numbers of citations to the HTA monographs differed considerably between the databases, but were highly correlated. When a HTA monograph had a journal article from the same study, there were more citations to the journal article for primary research, but more to the monographs for evidence syntheses. Citations to the related journal articles were more reliably recorded than citations to the HTA monographs. PMID:25694457

  10. Sport Law. NOLPE Monograph Series, No. 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Linda A.

    Three primary areas of concern for those who confront sport law matters in public school or collegiate settings are the focus of this monograph. The first chapter presents tort issues, primarily negligence. A brief overview of fundamental negligence concepts is followed by discussions of major risk areas: supervision, conduct of the activity, and…

  11. Publicizing Adult Education Programs: A Leadership Monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Publications.

    This monograph describes successful publicity practices in adult education that can be adapted to fit individual promotional plans for communication with the community. The introduction explains the importance of good public relations to an adult education program. In section 1, publicity and promotion, the various ways of publicizing information…

  12. Sport Law. NOLPE Monograph Series, No. 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Linda A.

    The first chapter of this monograph on sport law presents tort issues, primarily negligence. A discussion of some fundamental negligence concepts is followed by three sections devoted to the prime risk areas in school and collegiate settings. A review of the principles of risk management is included. The second chapter focuses on contractual…

  13. Thyroid stimulating hormone and subclinical thyroid dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yongtie

    2008-01-01

    Subclinical thyroid dysfunction has mild clinical symptoms. It is nonspecific and not so noticeable. It performs only for thyroid stimulating hormone rise and decline. The value of early diagnosis and treatment of thyroid stimulating hormone in subclinical thyroid dysfunction were reviewed. (authors)

  14. [Autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krátký, Jan; Jiskra, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Association between autoimmune thyroiditis (CLT) and thyroid cancer remains not clear. Although both diseases often occur simultaneously in histological samples, it is not yet clear whether CLT can be regarded as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy. This review focus on the known epidemiological and molecular genetics links between both diseases. Most studies have shown a significant association between thyroid cancer and positive antibodies to thyroglobulin and histological evidence of CLT, as well. Both disorders share some risk factors (greater incidence in women, in areas with adequate supply of iodine and in patients after radiotherapy of the neck) and molecular genetics linkage. For example: RET/PTC rearrangements could be more often found in carcinomas associated with CLT, but this mutation could be found in benign lesions such as CLT, as well. CLT seems to be a positive prognostic factor in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. It is associated with less invasive forms of tumor, lower occurrence of infiltrated lymphatic nodes and a lower risk of recurrence.

  15. An Emerging Scholarly Form: The Digital Monograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Riva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Two recent initiatives, in the English-speaking world, are currently promoting monograph publishing in digital formats, with a specific focus on the arts and humanities but also including the social sciences. The American initiative is funded by the Andrew W. Mellon foundation; in the U.K., the Arts and Humanities Research Council has also promoted a similar initiative, the Academic Book of the Future, which produced a final report released in Spring 2017. This article describes some of the challenges and opportunities the author and his team are facing in designing a digital monograph on eigteenth and nineteenth-century visual culture, one of two pilot projects of the Brown University library Digital Publishing Initiative, funded by the Mellon foundation.

  16. Thyroid Disorders (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it keeps the temperature just right. What Is Thyroid Disease? There are two main kinds of thyroid disorder ... into the kid's bloodstream. Why Do Kids Get Thyroid Disease? In most cases, doctors and scientists can't ...

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid ... body converts food to energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The ...

  18. Thyroid gland removal - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000293.htm Thyroid gland removal - discharge To use the sharing features ... surgery. This will make your scar show less. Thyroid Hormone Replacement You may need to take thyroid ...

  19. Hyperthyroidism (Overactive Thyroid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) Overview Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) is a condition in which your thyroid gland produces too much of the hormone thyroxine. Hyperthyroidism can accelerate your body's metabolism significantly, ...

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is ... computer, create pictures offering details on both the structure and function of organs and tissues in your ...

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is ... taking our brief survey: Survey Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story ...

  2. Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000331.htm Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma To use the sharing features on ... does not increase the risk of developing thyroid cancer. Symptoms Thyroid cancer often begins as a small lump (nodule) ...

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... typically performed on people who have or had thyroid cancer. A physician may perform these imaging tests to: ... such as lumps (nodules) or inflammation determine whether thyroid cancer has spread beyond the thyroid gland evaluate changes ...

  4. Anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000352.htm Anaplastic thyroid cancer To use the sharing features on this page, ... carcinoma is a rare and aggressive form of cancer of the thyroid gland. Causes Anaplastic thyroid cancer is an invasive ...

  5. MSM 2010 Theme Monograph Psychopharmacology Today

    OpenAIRE

    Ajai R. Singh; Shakuntala A. Singh

    2010-01-01

    This theme monograph is called Psychopharmacology Today. It has some notable contributions on issues in psychopharmacology.MSM 2010 is dedicated to the fond memory of Dr V.N. Bagadia, who headed our Hon International Editorial Advisory Board. See Dedication, " Dr Bagadia, Sir, is no more"(p3).Thomas L. Schwartz, M.D. Associate Professor of Psychiatry, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY, USA writes an editorial on, "Psychopharmacology today: where are we and where do we go from here...

  6. An Emerging Scholarly Form: The Digital Monograph

    OpenAIRE

    Massimo Riva

    2017-01-01

    Two recent initiatives, in the English-speaking world, are currently promoting monograph publishing in digital formats, with a specific focus on the arts and humanities but also including the social sciences. The American initiative is funded by the Andrew W. Mellon foundation; in the U.K., the Arts and Humanities Research Council has also promoted a similar initiative, the Academic Book of the Future, which produced a final report released in Spring 2017. This article describes some of the c...

  7. Thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambertini, Roberto; Dalurzo, Liliana; Jaen, Ana del V.

    2008-01-01

    In this document the case of a 66-year old woman is presented, with record of multi nodular goiter of 5 year of evolution, which is derived to scan ultrasound office to make a puncture-aspiration with thin needle because of the growth of nodular thyroid injuries. The ultrasound scan examination made before the puncture determine multiple dominant nodules of hyperplasia aspect between 15 and 25 mm of diameter and a small nodule of 6 mm suspected proliferate process. Despite its size, it was decided to include small nodule in injuries to a biopsy. The cytological study reveals nodular hyperplasia with carcinoma in the small nodule of 6 mm. A thyroidectomy is practiced on the patient. The deferred histological study of the thyroid gland confirms the finding of multi-nodular goiter with a small focus of papillar carcinoma. The ganglions examined were negative in the deferred examination [es

  8. Thyroid metastasectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Pablo H; Ibrahimpasic, Tihana; Nixon, Iain J; Shaha, Ashok R

    2014-01-01

    Metastases to the thyroid gland are uncommon. Renal, lung, breast, and colon cancer and melanoma are the most common primary diseases implicated. Few retrospective series have been reported. Treatment decisions must be individualized, and will depend on the state of systemic disease. Selected patients could benefit from surgical treatment. Although most patients selected for surgery will not be cured, the aim of surgery is to avoid the complications of uncontrolled central neck disease. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Thyroid disease: thyroid function tests and interpretation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diseases of the thyroid are among the most prevalent of medical conditions, especially in women, but the symptoms can be relatively nonspecific or mild. For this reason, clinicians have been placing increased reliance on the laboratory for assistance in the diagnosis of thyroid disorders. In the 1950s, only one thyroid test ...

  10. Thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, M.; Skolnik, E.M.; Baim, H.M.; Becker, S.P.; Katz, A.H.; Mantravadi, R.V.

    1980-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma was studied with regard to mode of presentation, initial findings, treatment and survival. The classic signs, symptoms, physical and scan findings were found to be present in approximately 70% of the patients. Prognosis was found to be dependent on age of presentation more than any other factor. Patients with prior exposure to radiation were found to have more extensive disease and require more extensive surgery but ultimately had the same prognosis for 15-year cure. Treatment for distant metastatic disease by surgery, radioactive iodine and external radiation all resulted in long-term survival in certain cases

  11. Promoting Values Development in College Students. Monograph Series, Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Jon C., Ed.

    This monograph was written to examine the significance of recent moral development theory and research for college student development and to demonstrate ways in which these findings can be incorporated into student affairs programs and services. Although the monograph includes some review and discussion of research and theory in values…

  12. Thyroiditis: an integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Lori B; Stewart, Christopher; Gaitonde, David Y

    2014-09-15

    Thyroiditis is a general term that encompasses several clinical disorders characterized by inflammation of the thyroid gland. The most common is Hashimoto thyroiditis; patients typically present with a nontender goiter, hypothyroidism, and an elevated thyroid peroxidase antibody level. Treatment with levothyroxine ameliorates the hypothyroidism and may reduce goiter size. Postpartum thyroiditis is transient or persistent thyroid dysfunction that occurs within one year of childbirth, miscarriage, or medical abortion. Release of preformed thyroid hormone into the bloodstream may result in hyperthyroidism. This may be followed by transient or permanent hypothyroidism as a result of depletion of thyroid hormone stores and destruction of thyroid hormone-producing cells. Patients should be monitored for changes in thyroid function. Beta blockers can treat symptoms in the initial hyperthyroid phase; in the subsequent hypothyroid phase, levothyroxine should be considered in women with a serum thyroid-stimulating hormone level greater than 10 mIU per L, or in women with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level of 4 to 10 mIU per L who are symptomatic or desire fertility. Subacute thyroiditis is a transient thyrotoxic state characterized by anterior neck pain, suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone, and low radioactive iodine uptake on thyroid scanning. Many cases of subacute thyroiditis follow an upper respiratory viral illness, which is thought to trigger an inflammatory destruction of thyroid follicles. In most cases, the thyroid gland spontaneously resumes normal thyroid hormone production after several months. Treatment with high-dose acetylsalicylic acid or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is directed toward relief of thyroid pain.

  13. Technical books and monographs: 1978 catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This publication is a bibliography of books and monographs sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and by the earlier organizations that were brought together to form DOE. In general, information for each published book, and for each book in press when known, includes title; author and author affiliation; publisher and publication date; page count; size of book; price; availability information if the book is not available from the publisher; Library of Congress card number (LC), with CIP to indicate books that have cataloging information in the publication; International Standard Book Number (ISBN); a brief descriptive statement concerning the book; and for the more recent books a list or a description of the contents. The books and monographs are grouped under thirteen subject categories. At the end of each subject category are separate sections listing recent published symposiums and bibliographies that received support from DOE or one of the earlier organizations. Also, at the end of the catalog are described the following DOE publications: Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, Energy Conservation Update, Fossil Energy Update, F usion Energy Update, Geothermal Energy Update, Solar Energy Update, Nuclear Safety, and Power Reactor Docket Information

  14. Technical books and monographs. 1979 catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This publication is a bibliography of books and monographs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and by the earlier organizations that were brought together to form DOE. In general, information for each published book, and for each book in press when known, includes title, author, and author affiliation, publisher and publication date, page count, size of book, price, availability information if the book is not available from the publisher, Library of Congress card number (LC) (with CIP to indicate books that have cataloging information in the publication), International Standard Book Number (ISBN), a brief descriptive statement concerning the book, and (for the more recent books) a list or a description of the contents. The books and monographs are grouped under thirteen subject categories. At the end of each subject category are separate sections listing recently published symposium proceedings and bibliographies that received support from DOE or one of the earlier organizations. Also, at the end of the catalog are described the following DOE publications: Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, Energy Conservation Update, Fossil Energy Update, Fusion Energy Update, Geothermal Energy Update, Solar Energy Update, and Nuclear Safety

  15. Technical books and monographs. 1977 catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Books and monographs sponsored by the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and by the organizations brought together to form ERDA under the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 are listed. In general, information for each published book, and for each book in press when known, includes title; author and author affiliation; publisher and publication date; page count; size of book; price; availability information if the book is not available from the publisher; Library of Congress card number (LC); International Standard Book Number (ISBN); a brief descriptive statement concerning the book; and for the more recent books a list or a description of the contents. The books and monographs are grouped under thirteen subject categories. Recent published symposiums from ERDA projects and recent and relevant bibliographies appear in special sections at the end of each subject category. Also, at the end of the catalog are described the following ERDA publications: ERDA Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, Solar Energy Update, Fossil Energy Update, Nuclear Safety, and Power Reactor Docket Information

  16. Ultrasound of the Thyroid Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Thyroid Thyroid ultrasound uses sound waves to produce pictures ... the Thyroid? What is an Ultrasound of the Thyroid? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces pictures ...

  17. Çayağzı Deresi’nin (Antalya) Ekonomik Yeşil Algleri Konusunda Bir Ön Çalışma

    OpenAIRE

    TURNA, İbrahim İsmail; DURUCAN, Furkan; KUŞAT, Mete

    2012-01-01

    Yeşil algler özellikle uzak doğu ve Akdeniz ülkelerinde gıda, kozmetik, farmakoji, tıp vb. amaçlarla değerlendirilirler. Bu çalışmada, Çayağzı Deresi’nde (Antalya) dağılım gösteren yeşil alglerden Gayralia oxysperma (Kützing) K.L.Vinogradova ex Scagel et al.ve Enteromorpha intestinalis (Linnaeus) Nees’in yoğunlukları ortaya konulmuştur. Örnekler sonbahar 2011 tarihinde, bölgede 4 ayrı noktadan kuadrat yöntemiyle (50x50 cm) (Dodolahi-Sohrab A, et.al.2012) toplanmış ve taze ağırlıkları saptanmı...

  18. A monograph of the Serbian folk literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojović Jovana D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the oral tradition of the Serbian people. The author focuses upon the richness of the motives in the oral lyrics, epics and folk tales, pointing out the influences and conditions related to the development of this kind of literature. The results of all classifications referring to the oral literature are demonstrated, as well as the issues of the language, versification and style. The attention is also paid to some of the most beautiful scenes of spiritual life of our people in the past centuries. The content of all the chapters of the monograph entitled 'Serbian folk literature' by Vladimir Bovan is systematically presented as well.

  19. Maternal Thyroid Dysfunction and Neonatal Thyroid Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Hulya; Akman, Ipek; Coskun, Senay; Demirel, Utku; Turan, Serap; Bereket, Abdullah; Bilgen, Hulya; Ozek, Eren

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To investigate obstetric features of pregnant women with thyroid disorders and thyroid function tests of their newborn infants. Methods. Women with hypothyroidism and having anti-thyroglobulin (ATG) and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies were assigned as group I, women with hypothyroidism who did not have autoantibodies were assigned as group II, and women without thyroid problems were assigned as group III. Results. Pregnant women with autoimmune hypothyroidism (group I) had more preterm delivery and their babies needed more frequent neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission. In group I, one infant was diagnosed with compensated hypothyroidism and one infant had transient hyperthyrotropinemia. Five infants (23.8%) in group II had thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels >20 mIU/mL. Only two of them had TSH level >7 mIU/L at the 3rd postnatal week, and all had normal free T4 (FT4). Median maternal TSH level of these five infants with TSH >20 mIU/mL was 6.6 mIU/mL. In group III, six infants (6.5%) had TSH levels above >20 mIU/mL at the 1st postnatal week. Conclusion. Infants of mothers with thyroid problems are more likely to have elevated TSH and higher recall rate on neonatal thyroid screening. Women with thyroid disorders and their newborn infants should be followed closely for both obstetrical problems and for thyroid dysfunction. PMID:23737782

  20. Maternal Thyroid Dysfunction and Neonatal Thyroid Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Ozdemir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate obstetric features of pregnant women with thyroid disorders and thyroid function tests of their newborn infants. Methods. Women with hypothyroidism and having anti-thyroglobulin (ATG and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO antibodies were assigned as group I, women with hypothyroidism who did not have autoantibodies were assigned as group II, and women without thyroid problems were assigned as group III. Results. Pregnant women with autoimmune hypothyroidism (group I had more preterm delivery and their babies needed more frequent neonatal intensive care unit (NICU admission. In group I, one infant was diagnosed with compensated hypothyroidism and one infant had transient hyperthyrotropinemia. Five infants (23.8% in group II had thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels >20 mIU/mL. Only two of them had TSH level >7 mIU/L at the 3rd postnatal week, and all had normal free T4 (FT4. Median maternal TSH level of these five infants with TSH >20 mIU/mL was 6.6 mIU/mL. In group III, six infants (6.5% had TSH levels above >20 mIU/mL at the 1st postnatal week. Conclusion. Infants of mothers with thyroid problems are more likely to have elevated TSH and higher recall rate on neonatal thyroid screening. Women with thyroid disorders and their newborn infants should be followed closely for both obstetrical problems and for thyroid dysfunction.

  1. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... THYROID HORMONES? Desiccated ( dried and powdered ) animal thyroid ( Armour ®), now mainly obtained from pigs, was the most ... Information A LISTING OF THE FDA-APPROVED MEDICINES PRODUCT FDA RATING MANUFACTURER Unithroid® AB (Stevens)*+ L-Thyroxin ...

  2. Sarcoidosis and Thyroid Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piera Fazzi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the studies have shown a higher risk for subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism, antithyroid autoantibodies [overall antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb], and in general, thyroid autoimmunity, overall in the female gender in patients with sarcoidosis (S. A significantly higher prevalence of clinical hypothyroidism and Graves’ disease was also described in female S patients with respect to controls. Gallium-67 (Ga-67 scyntigraphy in S patients, in the case of thyroid uptake, suggests the presence of aggressive autoimmune thyroiditis and hypothyroidism. For this reason, ultrasonography and thyroid function should be done in the case of Ga-67 thyroid uptake. In conclusion, thyroid function, TPOAb measurement, and ultrasonography should be done to assess the clinical profile in female S patients, and the ones at high risk (female individuals, with TPOAb positivity, and hypoechoic and small thyroid should have periodically thyroid function evaluations and suitable treatments.

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan ... for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. Jewelry ...

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... which are encased in metal and plastic and most often shaped like a box, attached to a ... will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake procedures are painless. ...

  5. Retrosternal thyroid surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007558.htm Retrosternal thyroid surgery To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The thyroid gland is normally located at the front of ...

  6. Thyroid preparation overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid preparations are medicines used to treat thyroid gland disorders. Overdose occurs when someone takes more than the normal or recommended amount of this medicine. This can be by accident or ...

  7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake ... you otherwise, you may resume your normal activities after your nuclear medicine scan. If any special instructions ...

  8. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Because nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential ... or imaging device that produces pictures and provides molecular information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide ...

  9. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... thyroid. The thyroid is a gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates ... examination table with your head tipped backward and neck extended. The gamma camera will then take a ...

  10. Cabozantinib (thyroid cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used to treat a certain type of thyroid cancer that is getting worse and that has spread ... only gives information about cabozantinib capsules (Cometriq) for thyroid cancer. If you are using this medication for advanced ...

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Uptake? A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) ... of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that ...

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is ... thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses ...

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Uptake? A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is ... of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses ...

  14. Thyroid and menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Ghianda, S; Tonacchera, M; Vitti, P

    2014-06-01

    Thyroid dysfunction is common in the general population especially in women. All thyroid diseases are in fact more common in women than in men and may interfere with the reproductive system. Thyroid function and the gonadal axes are related throughout the woman's fertile period. The relationship between the two glands is mutual. In particular, thyroid hormones affect the reproductive function both directly and indirectly through several actions. Studies on the relationship between menopause and thyroid function are few and do not allow to clarify whether menopause has an effect on the thyroid regardless of aging. With aging, the main changes regarding thyroid physiology and function are: a reduction of thyroid iodine uptake, free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine synthesis and catabolism of free thyroxine while reverse triiodothyronine increases; the level of thyroid stimulating hormone remains normal with sometimes a tendency to higher limits. These changes are present in both sexes without distinction between males and females. The complexity of the relationships can be summarized in three aspects: thyroid status does not influence significantly the climacteric syndrome; menopause may modify the clinical expression of some thyroid diseases, particularly the autoimmune ones; thyroid function is not directly involved in the pathogenesis of the complications of menopause. However, coronary atherosclerosis and osteoporosis may be aggravated in the presence of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. The effects of postmenopausal estrogen replacement on thyroxine requirements in women with hypothyroidism should be considered.

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is a gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates the rate at which the body converts food to energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used to determine the size, shape ...

  16. Thyroglossal Duct Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Synchronous Lingual Thyroid Atypia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Yoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroglossal duct and lingual thyroid ectopic lesions are exceedingly rare synchronous findings. Papillary thyroid carcinoma of these ectopic thyroid sites is well understood but still a rare finding. This case points to some management nuances in regard to ectopic thyroid screening with imaging and also shows the effectiveness of minimally invasive transoral robotic surgery for lingual thyroid.

  17. Thyroid cancer in lingual thyroid and thyroglossal duct cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturniolo, Giacomo; Vermiglio, Francesco; Moleti, Mariacarla

    2017-01-01

    Ectopy is the most common embryogenetic defect of the thyroid gland, representing between 48 and 61% of all thyroid dysgeneses. Persistence of thyroid tissue in the context of a thyroglossal duct remnant and lingual thyroid tissue are the most common defects. Although most cases of ectopic thyroid are asymptomatic, any disease affecting the thyroid may potentially involve the ectopic tissue, including malignancies. The prevalence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in lingual thyroid and thyroglossal duct cyst is around 1% of patients affected with the above thyroid ectopies. We here review the current literature concerning primary thyroid carcinomas originating from thyroid tissue on thyroglossal duct cysts and lingual thyroid. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Chapter 3. Thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.; Perez, R.

    1975-01-01

    In the context of a functional thyroid exploration study the physiopathology of the thyroid was reviewed on the basis of data supplied by the use of radioisotopes, especially radioiodine. It was pointed out in this respect that the functional activity of the thyroid is closely bound up with the iodine metabolism. The different stages of the iodine metabolism were therefore described in relation to the methods used for their exploration: study of iodine intake to the thyroid and uptake measurement; hormonogenesis and secretion of hormone iodine; transport and circulation of thyroid hormones; exploration of the hypothalamus-pituitary gland-thyroid axis. It was pointed out in addition that the morphological examination often complements the thyroid function exploration and is carried out whenever thyroid palpation reveals an anomaly. Data obtained by scintigraphy are given in this repect. Furthermore the remarkable capacity of hyperthyroid tissues to concentrate radioactive iodine may be used therapeutically to perform an endogenous irradiation of the thyroid. The treatment of both hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancers with radioactive iodine was studied [fr

  19. Ectopic goitrous submandibular thyroid with goitrous orthotopic thyroid gland

    OpenAIRE

    Bhardwaj, Avinash Kumar; Mani, Vinayaga; Dixit, Rashmi; Garg, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly with lingual thyroid accounting for majority of the cases. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue lateral to the midline is very rare, and very few cases located in the submandibular region have been reported. The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is even rarer. In the differential diagnosis of an ectopic submandibular thyroid, it is fundamental to exclude a metastasis from wel...

  20. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is Performed This is a test to diagnose thyroid disease or thyroid cancer . It is often used to ... What Abnormal Results Mean Abnormal results may mean: Thyroid disease such as goiter or thyroiditis Noncancerous tumors Thyroid ...

  1. Ectopic goitrous submandibular thyroid with goitrous orthotopic thyroid gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Avinash Kumar; Mani, Vinayaga; Dixit, Rashmi; Garg, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly with lingual thyroid accounting for majority of the cases. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue lateral to the midline is very rare, and very few cases located in the submandibular region have been reported. The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is even rarer. In the differential diagnosis of an ectopic submandibular thyroid, it is fundamental to exclude a metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer, even when primary thyroid carcinoma is not demonstrable. PMID:27413274

  2. Ectopic goitrous submandibular thyroid with goitrous orthotopic thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Kumar Bhardwaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly with lingual thyroid accounting for majority of the cases. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue lateral to the midline is very rare, and very few cases located in the submandibular region have been reported. The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is even rarer. In the differential diagnosis of an ectopic submandibular thyroid, it is fundamental to exclude a metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer, even when primary thyroid carcinoma is not demonstrable.

  3. Monograph of Diplachne (Poaceae, Chloridoideae, Cynodonteae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Neil; Peterson, Paul M.; Romaschenko, Konstantin; Simon, Bryan K.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Diplachne P. Beauv. comprises two species with C4 (NAD-ME) photosynthesis. Diplachne fusca has a nearly pantropical-pantemperate distribution with four subspecies: D. fusca subsp. fusca is Paleotropical with native distributions in Africa, southern Asia and Australia; the widespread Australian endemic D. f. subsp. muelleri; and D. f. subsp. fascicularis and D. f. subsp. uninervia occurring in the New World. Diplachne gigantea is known from a few widely scattered, older collections in east-central and southern Africa, and although Data Deficient clearly is of conservation concern. A discussion of previous taxonomic treatments is provided, including molecular data supporting Diplachne in its newer, restricted sense. Many populations of Diplachne fusca are highly tolerant of saline substrates and most prefer seasonally moist to saturated soils, often in disturbed areas. Some populations of Diplachne fusca in southern Asia combine nitrogen-fixation, high salinity tolerance and palatibilty to livestock, which should be pursued with further research for purposes of soil reclamation. Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia is the most invasive of the subspecies and is becoming weedy in some non-native areas, including in the Old World. This monograph provides detailed descriptions of all taxa, a key to the species and subspecies, geographic distributions and information on the anatomy of leaves, stems, lemmatal micromorphology and discussions of the chromosome numbers. Lectotypes are designated for: Atropis carinata Grisb.; Diplachne acuminata Nash; Diplachne capensis (Nees) Nees var. concinna Nees; Diplachne capensis (Nees) Nees var. obscura Nees, Diplachne capensis (Nees) Nees var. prolifera subvar. minor Nees, Diplachne halei Nash, Diplachne maritima E.P. Bicknel, Diplachne muelleri Benth., Diplachne reverchonii Vasey, Diplachne tectoneticola Backer, Leptochloa imbricata Thurb., Leptochloa neuroglossa Peter, Leptochloa uninervia var. typica fo. abbreviata Parodi

  4. Pathophysiology of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, M.G.R.; Nadkarni, G.D.

    1999-01-01

    The main physiological function of the thyroid gland is to produce thyroid hormones. The primary physiological control over iodine transport, organification and hormone synthesis appears to be through thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Regulation of tumor cells, biochemical studies in experimental tumors, role of oxygen free radical and antioxidants, role of proteases in metastasis, influence of growth factors and influence of sex hormones and receptors are discussed

  5. Radionuclides in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadev, V.

    1980-01-01

    The three main areas of application of radionuclides in thyroid disease will be reviewed. Firstly thyroid radionuclide imaging in thyroid swellings, in relationship to lumps in the neck and ectopic thyroid tissue such as retrosternal goitre, and lingual goitre will be described. Future developments in the field including tomographic scanning, using the coded aperture method, and fluorescent scans and ultrasound are reviewed. The second area of application is the assessment and evaluation of thyroid function and the therapy of Grave's Disease and Plummer's Disease using radioiodine. The importance of careful collection of the line of treatment, results of treatment locally and the follow-up of patients after radioiodine therapy will be described. The third area of application is in the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid cancer. Investigation of thyroid swelling, and the diagnosis of functioning metastases are reported. The therapeutic iodine scan as the sole evidence of functioning metastatic involvement is recorded. Histological thyroid cancer appears to be increasingly encountered in clinical practice and the plan of management in relation to choice of cases for therapeutic scanning is discussed with case reports. Lastly the role of whole body scanning in relationship to biochemical markers is compared. In the changing field of nuclear medicine radionuclide applications in thyroid disease have remained pre-eminent and this is an attempt to reassess its role in the light of newer developments and local experience in the Institute of Radiotherapy, Oncology and Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  6. Carcinoma of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botta Zunino, L.

    1992-01-01

    Reference is made to the diagnostic evaluation of thyroid nodule, reaffirming the concepts of algorithm study, sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic procedures and cost-effectiveness. Stressing once again the place of cytology and the concept of selecting patients for surgery, surgical tactics in front of the thyroid nodule and the need for probate multidisciplinary study and treatment of this pathology. Briefly discusses the most controversial treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinomas, the sine qua non of the pathologist in the operating room in thyroid surgery and the value of the quantification of nuclear DNA in the diagnosis and prognosis of these tumors (Author) [es

  7. Thyroid cancer around Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beral, V.

    1997-01-01

    The author's presentation on thyroid cancer around Chernobyl will focus on four different things. First will be the time trends, or the pattern of thyroid cancer occurrence before and after the accident. It is now very well known that the increase in thyroid cancer in children in several areas has been unprecedented. Second, the author discusses thyroid cancer in general and patterns of thyroid cancer around the world before the Chernobyl accident, including differences by age and pathology. Third, the author presents relatively crude analyses of risk according to dose to the thyroid gland. And last, the author attempts to contrast the findings for thyroid cancer in relation to the internal radioiodine dose in Chernobyl studies with analyses of the effects of external dose on thyroid cancer incidence. The bottom line to be developed is similar to that presented by Elaine Ron with regard to effects of external dose on thyroid cancer. The similarities between the childhood finding from Chernobyl studies and external radiation studies appear more remarkable than the differences

  8. Remembering Ruby Special monograph edition: Remembering Ruby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pam Johnson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ‘Remembering Ruby’ is a tribute to Doctor Ruby Langford Ginibi, a remarkable woman and an important Australian writer. Winner of numerous awards for her contribution to literature, as well as to Australian culture, Ruby was an Aboriginal Elder of the Bundjalung nation and a tireless campaigner for the rights of her people. Ruby’s writing is passionate, sincere and heart-felt, as well as extraordinarily funny and articulate. She knew that getting people to listen to her story would be fundamental to naming the hidden history of Indigenous Australia and to changing cultural perceptions in a broader context. As an elder she took on the complex and demanding role of ‘edumacation’, as she called it, and her representations of life and culture continue to provide important reflections, from an Indigenous perspective, on the effects of ignorance, racism and colonisation in an Australian context. As Aboriginal mother, aunty, teacher and scholar her writing represents a particular Australian experience for a readership of people interested in human rights and equality the world over. This monograph, in honouring Ruby Langford Ginibi, is the written expression of an ongoing dialogue between the two authors about their experiences living in Australia and the way that Ruby has interconnected with us and influenced our experiences of growing up in an Australian cultural context. It also brings into focus the many ways that Ruby Langford Ginibi’s writing has been central to challenging and changing prevailing perspectives on the lives of Indigenous people over the last twenty-five years. An excellent communicator with a wicked sense of humour, Ruby’s tireless telling of the truth about the impacts of invasion on Indigenous people makes her an important cultural ambassador for all Australians. Ruby’s totem, the Willy Wagtail, is connected to being a messenger for her people and in writing ‘Remembering Ruby’ we aim to contribute to keeping

  9. Radiation and thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, Edward

    2014-01-01

    An International Workshop on Radiation and Thyroid Cancer took place on 21-23 February 2014 in Tokyo, Japan, to support the efforts of the Fukushima Prefecture and the Japanese government in enhancing public health measures following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in March 2011. The workshop, which was designed to develop a state-of-the-art scientific understanding of thyroid cancer in children and of radiation-induced thyroid cancer (papillary carcinoma) in particular, was co-organised by the Japanese Ministry of the Environment (MOE), the Fukushima Medical University (FMU) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). It brought together the world's top experts in the field, including medical doctors, epidemiologists and radiological risk assessment specialists from ten countries. Although rare, thyroid cancer occurs naturally, with the risk of developing a thyroid cancer increasing with age. Cases are usually identified when a thyroid carcinogenic nodule grows enough to be felt with a patient's fingers, at which point the patient visits a medical doctor to identify the nature of the growth. In many countries around the world, the incidence rate of naturally occurring thyroid cancer is on the order of less than 1 per year per 100 000 children (from ages 0 to 18). Statistically, this rate appears to be increasing in many countries, with young girls slightly more at risk than young boys. A second but very different means of detecting thyroid cancer cases is through thyroid ultrasound screening examinations on subjects who do not demonstrate any symptoms. Ultrasound screening is a more sensitive approach that can detect very small nodules (< 5 mm) and cysts (< 20 mm) which would not normally be perceived through simple palpitation. However, because thyroid ultrasound screening examinations are much more effective, the number of thyroid cancer cases per examination will normally be larger than the number per capita found through national cancer

  10. Regulation and Education: Strategies for Solving the Bottle Feeding Problem. Monograph Series No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Ted

    This book is the fourth monograph in the Cornell International Monograph Series, the second in the series to deal with the question of breast versus bottle feeding. The introduction to the monograph discusses the shift from breast to bottle feeding in both industrialized and developing nations. Some of the reasons for, and consequences of, the…

  11. Thyroid hormone synthesis and anti-thyroid drugs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis is required for the treatment of hyperthyroidism and this can be achieved by one or more anti-thyroid drugs. The most widely used anti-thyroid drug methimazole (MMI) inhibits the production of thyroid hormones by irreversibly inactivating the enzyme TPO. Our studies show that the ...

  12. Thyroid hormone synthesis and anti-thyroid drugs: A bioinorganic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis is required for the treatment of hyperthyroidism and this can be achieved by one or more anti-thyroid drugs. The most widely used anti-thyroid drug methimazole (MMI) inhibits the production of thyroid hormones by irreversibly inactivating the enzyme TPO. Our studies show that the ...

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may be performed to measure the level of thyroid hormones in your blood. You may be told not to eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the ... as well. Thyroid Scan You will be positioned on an examination ...

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ...

  15. Flavonoids and thyroid disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, van der D.; Kastelijn, J.; Schroder-van der Elst, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    The most potent natural plant-derived compounds that can affect thyroid function, thyroid hormone secretion and availability to tissues is the group of flavonoids, i.e. plant pigments. They are present in our daily food, such as vegetables, fruits, grains, nuts, wine, and tea. Epidemiological

  16. Thyroid evaluation with radioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashkar, F.S.

    1983-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is given therapeutically for the treatment of hypothyroidism and in goiterous conditions. When administered in full maintenance dosage, it interrupts the operation of the homeostatic mechanism that evokes excesses of thyrotropin (TSH) in response to various goiterogenic stimuli or impending thyroid failure, resulting in thyroid gland enlargement. All patients with treated thyroid cancer are maintained indefinitely on full replacement dosages of thyroid hormone to eliminate endogenous TSH and its trophic effect, thereby minimizing recurrence and growth of the tumor. A high-risk group of patients that were irradiated to the head and neck in childhood for various reasons are placed on thyroid hormone therapy prophylactically to turn off their endogenous TSH if they are found free of thyroid nodularity on initial evaluation. The adequacy of thyroid hormone therapy and the regularity of its intake can be ultimately evaluated by the thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation test, where no TSH response indicates adequate therapy and a normal TSH response suggests inadequate or irregular treatment

  17. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, W. M.

    2001-01-01

    Thyroid hormone replacement has been used for more than 100 years in the treatment of hypothyroidism, and there is no doubt about its overall efficacy. Desiccated thyroid contains both thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)); serum T(3) frequently rises to supranormal values in the absorption

  18. PREGNANCY AND THYROID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Gaberšček

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In conditions with appropriate iodine intake, thyroid gland adapts to changes during pregnancy without any consequences. Fetal need for thyroid hormones in the first trimester is directly connected with transplacental transport of thyroid hormones. Fetal synthesis of thyroid hormones depends on availability of iodine in the feto-placental unit. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism during pregnancy are risk factors for pregnant woman and for normal development of fetus and child.Conclusions. Pregnant women with appropriately treated thyroid diseases have the same outcome of pregnancy as healthy women, and neuroendocrinological development of children is not impaired. If the disease is unrecognized or untreated, complications of pregnancy and delivery occur more frequently. Therefore, timely recognition and treatment of the diseases with appropriate drugs during pregnancy and, also, after delivery is very important.

  19. Issues in Correctional Training and Casework. Correctional Monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolford, Bruce I., Ed.; Lawrenz, Pam, Ed.

    The eight papers contained in this monograph were drawn from two national meetings on correctional training and casework. Titles and authors are: "The Challenge of Professionalism in Correctional Training" (Michael J. Gilbert); "A New Perspective in Correctional Training" (Jack Lewis); "Reasonable Expectations in Correctional Officer Training:…

  20. Systematic organization of medicinal plant information: a monograph template proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C.B. Carvalho

    Full Text Available The use of medicinal plants in Brazil is widespread and is supported by public policies; it has the objective of providing the population with safe and effective herbal medicines of adequate quality. An action in these policies is to develop medicinal plant monographs to gather published information and decide which medicinal plants should be financed by the Brazilian government and distributed by the public health system. Currently, the monographs published worldwide do not present unified information regarding medicinal plants, and generally, they do not cover enough requirements for herbal medicine registration. The aim of this study is to develop a monograph model with standardized information not only about botany, agronomy, quality control, safety, and efficacy but also about relating regulatory aspects that support herbal medicine regulation. The development of standardized monographs favors the fast authorization and distribution of herbal medicines in the public system. The model also points out the lacking studies that should be carried out to supplement the necessary regulatory information of medicinal plants.

  1. Monograph - The Numerical Integration of Ordinary Differential Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, T. E.

    The materials presented in this monograph are intended to be included in a course on ordinary differential equations at the upper division level in a college mathematics program. These materials provide an introduction to the numerical integration of ordinary differential equations, and they can be used to supplement a regular text on this…

  2. Safety in Team Sports. Sports Safety Series, Monograph No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borozne, Joseph, Ed.; And Others

    This monograph examines methods of promoting safe practices in the conduct of selected team sports with the aim of reducing and eliminating the occurrance of injuries. The team sports discussed are baseball and softball, basketball, field hockey, tackle football, touch and flag football, ice hockey, lacrosse, and soccer. (MJB)

  3. Lord Northcliffe: Trans-Atlantic Influences. Journalism Monographs Number 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Robert N.

    This monograph examines the extent to which Lord Northcliffe, generally conceded to be the dominant force in the popularization of journalism in Britain and what was once the British Empire, influenced or was influenced by American developments in journalism. The first section, entitled "The Legacy," briefly reviews the popular press in…

  4. The significance of field work in monographic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The focus of this paper is to document the clear and obvious advantages of field work for monographic studies. These advantages include: 1) ability to understand published distributions better and greatly expand these data, 2) access to taxonomic data obscured on herbarium sheets (as colors, odors, ...

  5. European Apprenticeship. CIRF Monographs, Vol. 1, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland). Human Resources Dept.

    This monograph provides an analytical comparison of the background and evaluation of apprenticeship in the eight European countries of Austria, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France, The Federal Republic of Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Its primary purpose is to determine how the rules and conditions of apprenticeship…

  6. Natural risks assessment and management (project of monograph)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragozin, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: large-scale theoretic and practical works on the issue of natural risk assessment and management started in Russia in the end of the 80's. By now there has been made a considerable progress, which allowed for the preparation of a collective monograph on the subject mentioned in the title of this abstract. It is supposed to be published in 1999 in order to become a Russian contribution to the International Decade of Natural Disasters Reduction. The monograph included 6 chapters with the following titles: 1. Methodological foundations of natural risk analysis and assessment. 2. Investigating and forecasting natural hazards for the purpose of risk assessment. 3. Assessment of economic, social and ecological damage from natural hazards. 4, Theory of natural risk assessment. 5. Examples of natural risk assessment and mapping. 6. Natural risk management. In the report there is described the content of the monograph and unsolved questions are discussed. Executive editor offers all international experts to cooperate in the compilation of this monograph, which is to be completed by the end of 1998, especially of chapter 5 and 6. (author)

  7. Teaching the Linguistically Diverse. New York State English Council Monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Judy I., Ed.

    The essays in this monograph are concerned with ways to build on the linguistic diversity found in the schools, turning to educational advantage the characteristics of the multicultural classroom. The following essays are included: (1) "Recent Trends in Bilingual Education" by V. John-Steiner and M. Cooper; (2) "Code-Switching in…

  8. Does normal thyroid gland by ultrasonography match with normal serum thyroid hormones and negative thyroid antibodies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimboli, P; Rossi, F; Condorelli, E; Laurenti, O; Ventura, C; Nigri, G; Romanelli, F; Guarino, M; Valabrega, S

    2010-10-01

    Few papers have shown that a hypoechoic appearance of the thyroid gland at ultrasonography (US) is related to a hypofunction and serum positivity of thyroid antibodies (T-Ab). However, it is not ascertained if normal thyroid appearance at US correspond to normal thyroid laboratory tests. The aim of this study was to assess the value of normal thyroid at US in predicting normal thyroid hormones and negative T-Ab in a cohort of 48 adult patients. All patients (37 females and 11 males) were referred to our hospital to undergo their first thyroid US examination, followed by a thyroid function evaluation. All subjects had normal thyroid gland at US. As a control group 65 patients with hypoechoic and inhomogeneous thyroid gland were enrolled. All 48 patients had normal free-T (3) and free-T (4) levels. While 41 patients (85.4%) showed normal TSH, in 7 subjects (14.6%) TSH was elevated and a significant (p thyroid volume or BMI. The multivariate model showed that only BMI was significantly correlated to thyroid volume (p thyroid recorded by US matches with normal thyroid laboratory assessment to a large degree. These preliminary data need to be confirmed in a prospective study and in a larger series and should suggest the evaluation of thyrotropin and thyroid antibodies in subjects with normal thyroid gland as assessed by US. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Amiodarone and the thyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabrocka-Hybel, Agata; Bednarczuk, Tomasz; Bartalena, Luigi; Pach, Dorota; Ruchała, Marek; Kamiński, Grzegorz; Kostecka-Matyja, Marta; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja

    2015-01-01

    Amiodarone, a benzofuranic iodine-rich antiarrhythmic drug, causes thyroid dysfunction in 15-20% of cases. Amiodarone can cause both hypothyroidism (AIH, amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism) and thyrotoxicosis (AIT, amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis). AIH is treated by L-thyroxin replacement and does not need amiodarone discontinuation. There are two main forms of AIT: type 1, a form of true iodine-induced hyperthyroidism; and type 2, a drug-induced destructive thyroiditis. However, mixed/indefinite forms exist, contributed to by both pathogenic mechanisms. Type 1 AIT usually occurs in diseased thyroid glands, whereas type 2 AIT develops in substantially normal thyroid glands. Thioamides represent the first-line treatment for type 1 AIT, but iodine-replete glands are poorly responsive; sodium/potassium perchlorate, by inhibiting thyroidal iodine uptake, may increase the response to thioamides. Type 2 AIT is best treated by oral glucocorticoids. Response depends on thyroid volume and severity of thyrotoxicosis. Mixed/indefinite forms may require a combination of thioamides, potassium perchlorate, and steroids. Radioiodine treatment is usually not feasible because amiodarone-related iodine load decreases thyroidal radioiodine uptake. Thyroidectomy represents an important and helpful option in cases resistant to medical therapy. Surgery performed by a skilled surgeon may represent an emergent treatment in patients who have severe cardiac dysfunction.

  10. Ectopic lingual thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amani, Mohammed El Amine; Benabadji, Nadjia; Benzian, Zakaria; Amani, Souad

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid ectopy is characterized by the presence of thyroid tissue outside its normal position resulting from a defect of the thyroid diverticulum migration from the base of the tongue until its final pre-tracheal position. One case is presented in a 12-year-old girl patient who consults for a failure to thrive estimated at less than three standard deviations (SD). Bone age was estimated at 8 years late compared to chronological age. The hormonal assessment showed hypothyroidism with negative thyroid antibodies. Cervical ultrasound was revealed thyroid parenchyma pre-dominantly left in place while sweeping the area under chin showed a nodular formation of the base of the tongue. Thyroid scan with technetium 99 m showed a selective uptake of radiotracer in sublingual position. Cervical computed tomography revealed a posterior median sublingual mass spontaneously hyperdense and enhancing sharply after injection of contrast. Treatment with thyroxine allowed obtaining euthyroidism. This case asks us to be careful before aetiological diagnosis of hypothyroidism in children, because although this is rare, the presence of a thyroid parenchyma up to the cervical ultrasound does not eliminate the presence of ectopic tissue

  11. Trends in Source of Catalog Records for European Monographs 1996-2000: A Preliminary Study of Italian Monographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellsey, Charlene

    2001-01-01

    Discusses catalog records for non-English books created by European booksellers and loaded into OCLC; describes a study of Italian language monographs to compare vendor records with Library of Congress and OCLC member libraries' records; and considers changes in cataloging workflow needed to edit records to include Library of Congress call numbers…

  12. [Autoimmune thyroid diseases complicated with reversible changes of thyroid function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajita, Y; Ochi, Y

    1999-08-01

    Autoimmune thyroid disease (AID) with reversible thyroid dysfunction was classified mainly by etiology. Hashimoto thyroiditis itself, pregnancy, cytokine therapy and various drugs, iodine-rich food and AID with TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) were main items. Silent or painless thyroiditis which was termed destructive thyroiditis occurs without clear cause or after adrenectomy for Cushing syndrome. Abnormal human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) rarely causes transient thyrotoxicosis at early phase of pregnancy and postpartum thyroiditis which has similar symptom as silent thyroiditis is relatively common disorders. Thyroid dysfunction of patients with both TRAb (TSAb and TSBAb) is pathophysiologically unknown and the detection of both antibodies in a patient serum is difficult methodologically. We developed the highly sensitive TSAb assay by patients' IgG precipitated by high concentration PEG (22.5%) using porcine thyroid cell. This assay is also useful for detection of the coexistence cases of TSAb and TSBAb.

  13. Chemotherapy in thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Shah, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Chemotherapy alone, either as a single drug or a combination of drugs with or without external radiation (ER) is useful for treatment of locally advanced disease and non iodine concentrating metastasis in differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC). The reported response is not encouraging, but the absence of better alternatives leave no choice for the treatment of such cases. However, for treatment of anaplastic thyroid cancers (ANC), chemotherapy (CT) in combination with ER results in local control. In medullary thyroid cancers (MTC), the results obtained with multimodal treatment are encouraging

  14. [Amiodarone and thyroid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maby-Mottet, V; Ollo, D; Meyer, P

    2012-11-14

    Amiodarone, an iodine-rich drug, results in mild disturbances of thyroid function in most patients and in thyroid dysfunction in approximately 20% of them. Hypothyroidism, mainly found in countries without iodine deficiency, is substituted with levothyroxine and does not need amiodarone to be discontinued. Hyperthyroidism, commonly found in areas of iodine deficiency, is more complex and usually motivates discontinuation of amiodarone. Type I hyperthyroidism, induced by iodine overload, is treated with antithyroid drugs, and type 2, resulting from the cytotoxic effect of amiodarone, may be treated with glucocorticoids. Considering the risk of thyroid dysfunction in patients treated with amiodarone, it is recommended to check regularly TSH level.

  15. Thyroid Disease in the Older Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Older Patients and Thyroid Disease Older Patients and Thyroid Disease DEFINITION: WHAT DO THE FOLLOWING PATIENTS OVER THE ... Nodules in Children and Adolescents Older Patients and Thyroid Disease Resources Older Patients and Thyroid Disease Brochure PDF ...

  16. Thyroid gland disorder emergencies: thyroid storm and myxedema coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Although thyroid dysfunction will develop in more than 12% of the US population during their lifetimes, true thyroid emergencies are rare. Thyroid storm and myxedema coma are endocrine emergencies resulting from thyroid hormone dysregulation, usually coupled with an acute illness as a precipitant. Careful assessment of risk and rapid action, once danger is identified, are essential for limiting morbidity and mortality related to thyroid storm and myxedema coma. This article reviews which patients are at risk, explains thyroid storm and myxedema coma, and describes pharmacological treatment and supportive cares.

  17. Development of the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Mikael; Fagman, Henrik

    2017-06-15

    Thyroid hormones are crucial for organismal development and homeostasis. In humans, untreated congenital hypothyroidism due to thyroid agenesis inevitably leads to cretinism, which comprises irreversible brain dysfunction and dwarfism. Elucidating how the thyroid gland - the only source of thyroid hormones in the body - develops is thus key for understanding and treating thyroid dysgenesis, and for generating thyroid cells in vitro that might be used for cell-based therapies. Here, we review the principal mechanisms involved in thyroid organogenesis and functional differentiation, highlighting how the thyroid forerunner evolved from the endostyle in protochordates to the endocrine gland found in vertebrates. New findings on the specification and fate decisions of thyroid progenitors, and the morphogenesis of precursor cells into hormone-producing follicular units, are also discussed. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Online group-based cognitive-behavioural therapy for adolescents and young adults after cancer treatment: A multicenter randomised controlled trial of Recapture Life-AYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sansom-Daly Ursula M

    2012-08-01

    -based programs in an online modality are highlighted, and the role of both peer and caregiver support in enhancing the effectiveness of this skills-based intervention is also discussed. The innovative videoconferencing delivery method Recapture Life uses has the potential to address the geographic and psychological isolation of adolescents and young adults as they move toward cancer survivorship. It is expected that teaching AYAs coping skills as they resume their normal lives after cancer may have long-term implications for their quality of life. Trial Registration ACTRN12610000717055

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if the gland is working properly help diagnose problems with the thyroid gland, such as an overactive ... of any allergies you may have or other problems that may have occurred during a previous nuclear ...

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When radiotracer is taken by mouth, in either liquid or capsule form, it is typically swallowed up ... radioactive iodine (I-123 or I-131) in liquid or capsule form to swallow. The thyroid uptake ...

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is taken by mouth, in either liquid or capsule form, it is typically swallowed up to 24 ... I-123 or I-131) in liquid or capsule form to swallow. The thyroid uptake will begin ...

  2. Hyperthyroidism (Overactive Thyroid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fatigue Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used ... the test. You should also drink plenty of water to help flush the radioactive material out of ...

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used ... computer aids in creating the images from the data obtained by the gamma camera. A probe is ...

  5. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers, a special ... is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose and determine ...

  6. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exam of any medications you are taking, including vitamins and herbal supplements. You should also inform them ... thyroid gland from three different angles. You will need to remain still for brief periods of time ...

  7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... capturing images of the thyroid gland from three different angles. You will need to remain still for ... Often, two separate uptake measurements are obtained at different times. For example, you may have uptake measurements ...

  8. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid ...

  9. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is a gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates the rate at ... performed on people who have or had thyroid cancer. A physician may perform these imaging tests to: ...

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... doctor of any recent illnesses, medical conditions, allergies, medications you’re taking and whether you’ve had ... thyroid gland evaluate changes in the gland following medication use, surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy top of page ...

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a variety of diseases, including many types of cancers, heart disease, gastrointestinal, endocrine, neurological disorders and other ... performed on people who have or had thyroid cancer. A physician may perform these imaging tests to: ...

  12. HIV and thyroid dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Alan A; Bhangoo, Amrit

    2013-06-01

    Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) are associated with dysfunction of many endocrine organs and their axis. HIV infectivity leads to altered metabolism, poor oral intake and increased prevalence of weight loss and wasting which may have a role in thyroid dysfunction. Overt thyroid dysfunction occurs at similar rates as the general population while subclinical disease such as nonthyroidal illness (sick euthyroid syndrome), subclinical hypothyroidism and isolated low T4 levels are more frequent. Moreover, HAART therapy can complicate thyroid function further through drug interactions and the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). In this review we report the common thyroid dysfunctions associated with HIV before and after HAART therapy. We discuss presentation, diagnostic work up, treatment and follow up in each condition.

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... areas of abnormality, such as lumps (nodules) or inflammation determine whether thyroid cancer has spread beyond the ... being recorded. Though nuclear imaging itself causes no pain, there may be some discomfort from having to ...

  14. MEDULLARY THYROID CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Medvedev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medullary thyroid carcinoma belongs to orphan diseases affecting a small part of the population. Multicenter trials are required to elaborate a diagnostic algorithm, to define treatment policy, and to predict an outcome.

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used to determine ... you are undergoing. top of page What does the equipment look like? The special camera and imaging ...

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your examination, blood tests may be performed to measure the level of thyroid hormones in your blood. ... device resembling a microphone that can detect and measure the amount of the radiotracer in a small ...

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if the gland is working properly help diagnose problems with the thyroid gland, such as an overactive ... images does not necessarily mean there was a problem with the exam or that something abnormal was ...

  18. Thyroid Diseases Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Iron-binding Capacity (TIBC, UIBC) Trichomonas Testing Triglycerides Troponin Tryptase Tumor Markers Uric Acid Urinalysis Urine ... a very important role in controlling the body's metabolism . It does this by producing thyroid hormones , primarily ...

  19. Thyroid hemiagenesis with immunthyropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikosch, P.; Gallowitsch, H.J.; Kresnik, E.; Lind, P.

    1999-01-01

    A case of Graves' disease occurring in a patient with hemiagenesis is presented. The detection of the rare occurrence of a congential hemiagenesis is often made by either clinical symptoms of thyroid dysfunction or anatomical abnormalities such as nodular goiter. The symptoms of hyperthyroidism in the current case led to the diagnostic confirmation by scintiscanning and ultrasonography of an absent lobe. Anti-thyroid antibody studies documented the presence of Graves' disease within the remaining lobe. (orig.) [de

  20. Papillary thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godballe, C; Asschenfeldt, P; Sørensen, J A

    1994-01-01

    The age influence on the prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma was analyzed in a group of 67 patients. A marked decline in cause-specific survival was found for patients older than 60 years of age at the time of diagnosis. In order to find a tumor-biological explanation of the prognostic...... invasion and distant metastases. The results indicate that 60 years of age the time of diagnosis may be the "prognostic break-point" for papillary thyroid carcinoma....

  1. Vascularity in thyroid neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen Kjaer; Andersen, Niels Frost; Melsen, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reliability of four different methods (vascular grading, Chalkley count, microvessel density (MVD) and stereological estimation) for quantifying intratumoral microvascularity in thyroid neoplasms, by comparing the variability within and between...... count should be the preferred method for assessing microvascularity in thyroid neoplasms. The diagnostic evaluation revealed a tendency towards higher degree of vascularity in FA compared to both FC and PC for all methods. No statistically significant association was seen between vascular density...

  2. Thyroid and male reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH, pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction.

  3. Academic Advising: New Insights for Teaching and Learning in the First Year. The First-Year Experience Monograph Series No. 46. NACADA Monograph Series No. 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Mary Stuart, Ed.; McCalla-Wriggins, Betsy, Ed.; White, Eric R., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Grounded in the philosophy that academic advising is a robust form of one-on-one teaching, this monograph places advising in a new light, one that brings it to the center of the institutional mission and activity. This monograph challenges all readers to embrace the tremendous potential that academic advising has for educating today's college…

  4. Thyroid hormone receptors in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, A.; Kwakkel, J.; Fliers, E.

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) play a key role in energy homeostasis throughout life. Thyroid hormone production and secretion by the thyroid gland is regulated via the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT)-axis. Thyroid hormone has to be transported into the cell, where it can bind to the thyroid hormone

  5. Monograph on propagation of sound waves in curved ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostafinski, Wojciech

    1991-01-01

    After reviewing and evaluating the existing material on sound propagation in curved ducts without flow, it seems strange that, except for Lord Rayleigh in 1878, no book on acoustics has treated the case of wave motion in bends. This monograph reviews the available analytical and experimental material, nearly 30 papers published on this subject so far, and concisely summarizes what has been learned about the motion of sound in hard-wall and acoustically lined cylindrical bends.

  6. Experience of a monographic tuberculosis unit: the first 500 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Moreno, Juan; García-Gasalla, Mercedes; Cifuentes Luna, Carmen; Mir Villadrich, Isabel; Pareja Bezares, Antonio; Navarro Fernández, Verónica; Serrano Bujalance, Araceli; Pérez Seco, M Cruz; Payeras Cifre, Antonio

    2013-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a highly prevalent and potentially severe disease. However, since 2002 the annual incidence has been decreasing both worldwide and in Spain, where the incidence varies widely between regions. The main objective of this study is to describe the experience of a monographic TB unit in a second level hospital. A descriptive study was carried out which included all cases of TB diagnosed in a monographic unit of a secondary hospital between 2003 and 2011. Demographic, clinical, epidemiological and microbiological data were recorded. We analyzed 500 TB cases and found an increasing annual incidence in all subgroups, including native and immigrant populations. Most cases (63.8%) were male, with a median age of 36 years (range 8 months-90 years). In total, 39.8% of patients were foreign born. Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus was found in 11% of cases. The pulmonary form was most frequently diagnosed (63.8%). Overall mortality was 5.8% with no significant differences between groups (including foreign born and human immunodeficiency virus positive patients). Although TB incidence is globally decreasing, in our study we found an increasing number of cases in recent years in all subgroups, which can be explained by this being a monographic unit with an intensive contact tracing program. Copyright © 2012 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. SCHOOL DIFFICULTIES IN CABINDA/ANGOLA: WHAT DO MONOGRAPHS SAY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Canhici

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed two monographs of Pedagogy and Psychology, from ISCED/UON/Cabinda/Angola. The study was based on the Historical - Cultural perspective of Vygotsky articulated with Bakhtin's concept of speech genre. In these monographs we find a variety of senses and meanings. These senses and meanings appear as synonyms for poor school performance, school failure, learning difficulties. However, despite this diversity, we find as a common denominator the view that the difficulties are individual and from a biological background. They are located on students and their families. Thus, schooling processes in these schools in Cabinda, although they include students in schools, they also walk towards the exclusion of the same students, which tells us that the difficulties are not necessarily in learning, but in this exclusionary process of schooling. For monographs also point out the precarious working conditions of schools and teacher training, in addition to the linguistic differences between the local language and Portuguese – the language that is spoken and written in schools - as factors contributing to the exclusion of many of the students. This reveals the double face of modernity: on the one hand it includes students within schools, on the other, excludes them from the teaching-learning processes when sociocultural differences are expressed. Through our analysis we realized that in schools in Cabinda, as in many schools in Brazil, reading, writing and mathematics are taught as individual skills acquisitions and not as human activities as taught in Vygotsky.

  8. Monograph of Keçiören Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaş Zafer Şahin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey, urban administration can be defined from a judicial perspective as the bundle of powers vested in municipalities. It is known that throughout republican history, municipalities, using these powers, have differentiated themselves via their own internal dynamics in parallel to the evolution of public policy and changes in legislation. Yet, it is obvious that there are important gaps in understanding this differentiation taking into consideration the structural conditions of individual municipalities. In particular, in order to thoroughly understand municipalities, it is important to consider periodical pictures of how each municipality has been affected by waves of decentralization and centralization experienced over the last thirty years. In this respect, this monograph, using the same monographic approach developed for the Çankaya Municipality, provides a picture of the existing situation of Ankara’s Keçiören Municipality and presents related problems and potential. This monograph, based on qualitative and quantitative research, presents a holistic evaluation of Keçiören Municipality in terms of its external environment, provision of services, decision-making processes, use of technology and communications.

  9. Dysfunction of thyroid hormone synthesis and thyroid hormone transport

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrugger, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential in processes of growth and development especially in the development of the central nervous system. Malfunction in thyroid hormone synthesis or decrease in the availability of thyroid hormones can lead to diseases as for example congenital hypothyroidism. In this thesis genetic variations (mutations in the thyroid peroxidase gene, mutations in the monocarboxylate transporter 8 gene) as well as exogenic factors (endocrine disrupters) were examined, leading to d...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Hashimoto thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for This Page Dong YH, Fu DG. Autoimmune thyroid disease: mechanism, genetics and current knowledge. Eur Rev Med ... Tomer Y. Cutting edge: the etiology of autoimmune thyroid diseases. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2011 Oct;41(2): ...

  11. Clinical studies on thyroid diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eskes, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on some aspects of thyroid disease: prevention of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), diagnosis of related conditions as autoimmune hypophysitis in autoimmune hypothyroidism (Hashimoto’s disease), and treatment of amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT).

  12. Static and dynamic thyroid scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlstedt, J.

    1986-01-01

    Static images as isolated investigation in thyroid diagnosis mainly provides morphologic information, and therefore sonography is largely applied for this purpose. 99m Tc-pertechnetate scans or 123 I-scans are indicated in cases of malpositions and serve to clarify lesions of unknown dignity. Additionally 201 Tl-chloride is suited for examinations with regard to metabolically active thyroid tissue, whereby differential diagnostic laboratory tests must be carried out to exclude parathyroid adenoma. Dynamic thyroid scans before and after regulation tests (suppression, stimulation) reflect the physiological correlation between the iodine avidity of the thyroid, the peripheral thyroid hormone concentrations and the hypophyseal regulation in the TRH-test. The main application of this procedure is the clarification of thyroid autonomy, i.e. indication, detection, quantification or exclusion of thyroid autonomy. For the treatment of immunogenic thyrotoxicosis, dynamic thyroid scintigraphy provides important information about the onset of remission, thus permitting to end thyreostatic therapy. (orig.) [de

  13. Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types A to ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ...

  14. Thyroid Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    The R package thyroid implements a risk prediction model developed by NCI researchers to calculate the absolute risk of developing a second primary thyroid cancer (SPTC) in individuals who were diagnosed with a cancer during their childhood.

  15. Thyroid ultrasonography: Pitfalls and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seon hyeong; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Soo Jin; Kwak, Jin Young [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Thyroid ultrasonography (US) plays a key role in the diagnosis and management of thyroid-related diseases. The aim of this article was to illustrate various pitfalls that can occur in utilizing thyroid US and techniques to prevent them. In this article, we present cases demonstrating the common pitfalls associated with US equipment, performance, normal thyroid structures, misinterpretations, and surrounding structures. Knowledge of these areas is essential to avoid misdiagnosis or improper disease management.

  16. Robotic Surgery for Thyroid Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jandee; Chung, Woong Youn

    2013-01-01

    Robotic surgery is an innovation in thyroid surgery that may compensate for the drawbacks of conventional endoscopic surgery. A surgical robot provides strong advantages, including three-dimensional imaging, motion scaling, tremor elimination, and additional degrees of freedom. We review here recent adaptations, experience and applications of robotics in thyroid surgery. Robotic thyroid surgeries include thyroid lobectomy, total thyroidectomy, central compartment neck dissection, and radical ...

  17. Thyroid carcinoma and hot nodule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukata, Shuji; Tamai, Hajime; Matsubayashi, Sunao; Nagai, Keisuke; Hirota, Yoshihiko; Matsuzuka, Fumio; Katayama, Shoichi; Kuma, Kanji; Nagataki, Shigenobu

    1987-09-01

    A 70-year-old woman presented with a nodule in the thyroid gland. /sup 131/I scintigraphy of the gland showed a hot nodule. Histology of the resected thyroid revealed a papillary adenocarcinoma. Although a thyroid carcinoma with a hot nodule seen on the radioiodine isotope scan is a very rare occurrence, it is clinically very important because it may indicate a thyroid malignancy.

  18. Evaluation of diffuse thyroid diseases and thyroid nodules by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Kyoko; Imanishi, Yoshimasa; Nakaji, Shunsuke; Shinagawa, Toshihito

    2007-01-01

    Imanishi et al. have previously reported that the changes in CT values reveal not only the change in iodine concentration in thyroid follicles, but also represent secondary changes in follicular content and follicular cells and/or interstitial structures. Thus, we performed thyroid CT without contrast material in 138 controls, 417 cases with diffuse thyroid diseases, and 279 cases with thyroid nodules, and evaluated the CT images based on the relation between the change in CT values and pathological changes. In 89% of the controls and 43% of patients with diffuse thyroid diseases, the thyroid CT revealed diffuse high density. In contrast, the 94% of thyroids that demonstrated diffuse low density were from patients with diffuse thyroid diseases. Eighty-four percent of malignant nodules and 64% of benign nodules had inhomogeneous densities, and only 26% of benign thyroid nodules had homogeneous density. However, 71% of nodules that showed high and low densities with regular and clear borders, and 82% of nodules that showed papillary proliferation in a cyst pattern were benign. Although only 58% of nodules with calcification were malignant, 66% of nodules with calcification in the central portion, and 86% of nodules with calcification of a disseminated and convergent pattern in distribution were malignant. Sixty-two percent of thyroids that surrounded nodules had chronic thyroiditis, hypoplasia and/or adenomatous goiter. Thus, unclear borders between a nodule and the surrounding thyroid tissue did not increase the possibility of malignancy. However, the unclear and/or lobulated border between a nodule and extra thyroid tissue increased the possibility of malignancy. We concluded that thyroid CT without contrast material is useful for the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. (author)

  19. EAMJ Jan. Thyroid.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-01-01

    Jan 1, 2009 ... age-related population because thyroid diseases significantly affect fertility rate and autoimmune thyroid disease tend to remit during pregnancy. (2,4). Numerous hormonal changes and metabolic demands occur in pregnancy, resulting in complex changes in maternal thyroid function, yet normal.

  20. Case presentation – thyroid lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkisa Izić

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Malignant tumors of the thyroid gland account for about 1% of thenewly diagnosed malignant tumors each year, and their incidence inwomen is twice the incidence in men. According to the WHO classification (2004 thyroid tumors are divided into: carcinoma of the thyroid, adenoma and similar tumors, and other thyroid tumors which include: teratomas, angiosarcomas, paragangliomas and others, as well as primary lymphomas and plasmacytomas. Primary thyroid lymphomasare defined as lymphomas which originate in the thyroid gland. This study presents the case of a 68-year-old patient with a thyroid lymphoma, which caused compression of the airways. In the patientpresented there was reduced activity of the thyroid gland. The dominant symptoms were: breathing difficulties, hoarse voice and the enlargement of the thyroid. An ultrasound examination was performedbefore surgery on the neck, which showed a multinodular thyroid,with compromised and compressed trachea to the right and rear. Anemergency surgical procedure was performed to reduce the tumor.Pathohistological diagnosis confirmed diffuse large B cell lymphoma.The aim of the study was to present a patient with a thyroid lymphoma, who had previously not had any immunological changes to the gland,that is, she had not had any chronic lymphocyte thyroiditis, but due to the compressive syndrome it was necessary to perform an emergencysurgical procedure to reduce the tumor.

  1. Thyroid Disorders in Accra, Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    to enhance thyroid-targeted expression of sodium/iodide symporter. J Clin Endocrinol. Metab 89(5): 2344-2350. Mariotti, S, Cambuli, VM (2007) Cardiovascular risk in elderly hypothyroid patients. Thyroid 17. (11): 1067-1073. Mariotti, S, Franceschi, C, Cossarizza, A, Pinchera, A. (1995) The aging thyroid. Endocr Rev 16(6):.

  2. Thyroid disease in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrou, Panayota; Raptis, Sotirios A; Dimitriadis, George

    2011-09-01

    Several changes in thyroid hormone secretion, metabolism, and action occur with the increase in age. Aging is often associated with a decrease in serum thyroid stimulating hormone and T3 levels, whereas serum free T4 levels usually remain unchanged. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction is higher in the elderly as compared to the younger population. In elderly individuals the non-specific clinical manifestations of thyroid hormone excess or deprivation can cause confusion in the clinical setup; while some of the symptoms of thyroid disease are similar to those in younger patients, it is not uncommon for both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism to be manifested in subtle ways in older patients, often mimicking symptoms of aging or masquerading as diseases of the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, or nervous system. In addition, diagnosis of thyroid disorders is commonly complicated, due to chronic, non-thyroidal illness or medication therapy. Early diagnosis and treatment of overt thyroid disorders is crucial, since these disorders are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the elderly, usually due to common coexistent diseases such as diminished cardiovascular reserve. Treatment of subclinical thyroid disease should also be considered, based on a combination of age, symptoms and risk factors in the individual patients. In addition, both prevalence and aggressiveness of thyroid cancer increase with age. This review summarizes the changes of thyroid function, as well as the clinical manifestations and treatment of thyroid disorders with advancing age. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Juan J; Iglesias, Pedro; Donnay, Sergio

    2015-10-21

    Recent clinical practice guidelines on thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy have changed health care provided to pregnant women, although their recommendations are under constant revision. Trimester- and area-specific reference ranges for serum thyroid-stimulating hormone are required for proper diagnosis of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. There is no doubt on the need of therapy for overt hypothyroidism, while therapy for subclinical hypothyroidism is controversial. Further research is needed to settle adverse effects of isolated hypothyroxinemia and thyroid autoimmunity. Differentiation between hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease and the usually self-limited gestational transient thyrotoxicosis is critical. It is also important to recognize risk factors for postpartum thyroiditis. Supplementation with iodine is recommended to maintain adequate iodine nutrition during pregnancy and avoid serious consequences in offspring. Controversy remains about universal screening for thyroid disease during pregnancy or case-finding in high-risk women. Opinions of some scientific societies and recent cost-benefit studies favour universal screening. Randomized controlled studies currently under development should reduce the uncertainties that still remain in this area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Indirect thyroid lymphography in the thyroid diseases diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kradinov, A.I.; Fesenko, V.P.; Kabalich, A.K.

    1981-01-01

    Indirect thyroid lymphography with water-soluble radiographic agents has been applied. This method allows contrast lymph microvessels of the thyroid gland, providing the detection of volume formations of 0.3 to 0.4 cm and more in diameter. 232 patients with different thyroid diseases were examined. Different rate of the water-soluble contrast agent resolution in diffuse toxic and nodular goiter, thyroid cancer, chronic thyroiditis is of great importance in differential diagnosis of these diseases. This method provides necessary information on the organs inner structure, its topography and size [ru

  5. Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma in a thyroid pyramidal lobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Tae Kwan; Kim, Dong Wook; Park, Ha Kyoung; Jung, Soo Jin [Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    We report an extremely rare case of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) in the thyroid pyramidal lobe (TPL). A 48-year-old woman underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for a small thyroid nodule in the right lobe in local clinic, and it revealed a malignant cytology. On preoperative ultrasonography for tumor staging in our hospital, another small suspiciously malignant hypoechoic nodule was detected in the left TPL. Total thyroidectomy and central nodal dissection were performed. Histopathology confirmed PTMCs in the left TPL and both thyroid lobes. Ultrasonography for TPL should be required for complete evaluation of possible multifocality of thyroid malignancy.

  6. Thyroid Metastasis from Breast Carcinoma Accompanied by Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-I Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis to the thyroid gland is very rare. Recently, we experienced a case of thyroid metastasis from breast cancer accompanying a papillary thyroid. A 51-year-old female patient presented with a palpated lymph node on her left lateral neck. The patient had undergone a left modified radical mastectomy followed by chemotherapy and hormonal therapy 12 years prior. Ultrasonography of the neck revealed a malignant looking nodule at the left thyroid lobe, measuring 0.9 × 0.9 cm, and several cystic nodules at the right thyroid lobe. Ultrasonography of the neck additionally revealed a malignant looking lymph node at the right level VI. Fine-needle aspiration of the left thyroid lobe resulted in a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and that of the right level VI in Hurthle cell lesion. The patient had a total thyroidectomy with selective dissection of the left neck node. Pathologic assessment of the specimen revealed metastatic carcinoma from the breast carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the thyroid gland is highly vascularized, metastasis of malignant tumors to the thyroid is relatively rare and detection of metastasis shows a low frequency. So a careful evaluation of thyroid tumor should be considered in a patient with a history of other malignancy.

  7. [Thyroid dysfunction and amiodarone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Jandira; Carvalho, Patrícia; Molina, M Auxiliadora; Rebelo, Marta; Dias, Patrícia; Vieira, José Diniz; Costa, José M Nascimento

    2013-02-01

    Although most patients remain clinically euthyroid, some develop amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism (HPEAI) or hypothyroidism (HPOAI). The authors present a retrospective analysis of ten patients with amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction. Six patients were female and mean amiodarone intake was 17.7 months. HPOIA was more common (six patients). From all the patients with HPEAI, two had type 2, one had type 1, and one had type 3 hyperthyroidism. Symptoms suggestive of thyroid dysfunction occurred in five patients, most of them with HPOAI. In HPEAI, the most frequent symptom was exacerbation of arrhythmia (three patients). Discontinuation of amiodarone and treatment with levothyroxine was chosen in 83.3% of the HPOAI cases, while thyonamide treatment with corticosteroids and without amiodarone was the option in 75% of the HPEAI cases. There were three deaths, all in patients with HPEAI. HPEAI is potentially fatal. The clinical picture may be vague, so the thyroid monitoring is mandatory.

  8. Subacute Thyroiditis During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CANAN YILDIZ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present a case of subacute thyroiditis occurring in the first trimester of pregnancy in a 33-years-old pregnant patient. Thyrotoxicosis during pregnancy is a rare condition and occurs in 0.1 to 0.4% of all pregnancies. Graves' Disease and transient gestational thyrotoxicosis constitute the majority of emerging thyrotoxicosis during pregnancy. Subacute thyroiditis may also cause temporary thyrotoxicosis. Although the majority of the patients recover without treatment, complications in the pregnancy should be considered and each patient must be evaluated individually. As a result, differential diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis in pregnancy and treatment plan should be done well and subacute thyroiditis should be considered in differential diagnosis. [J Contemp Med 2017; 7(1.000: 1-1

  9. Amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzi, Sara; Klein, Irwin

    2015-05-01

    Amiodarone is an effective medication for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. Originally developed for the treatment of angina, it is now the most frequently prescribed antiarrhythmia drug despite the fact that its use is limited because of potential serious side effects including adverse effects on the thyroid gland and thyroid hormones. Although the mechanisms of action of amiodarone on the thyroid gland and thyroid hormone metabolism are poorly understood, the structural similarity of amiodarone to thyroid hormones, including the presence of iodine moieties on the inner benzene ring, may play a role in causing thyroid dysfunction. Amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction includes amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT) and amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism (AIH). The AIT develops more commonly in iodine-deficient areas and AIH in iodine-sufficient areas. The AIT type 1 usually occurs in patients with known or previously undiagnosed thyroid dysfunction or goiter. The AIT type 2 usually occurs in normal thyroid glands and results in destruction of thyroid tissue caused by thyroiditis. This is the result of an intrinsic drug effect from the amiodarone itself. Mixed types are not uncommon. Patients with cardiac disease receiving amiodarone treatment should be monitored for signs of thyroid dysfunction, which often manifest as a reappearance of the underlying cardiac disease state. When monitoring patients, initial tests should include the full battery of thyroid function tests, thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and antithyroid antibodies. Mixed types of AIT can be challenging both to diagnose and treat and therapy differs depending on the type of AIT. Treatment can include thionamides and/or glucocorticoids. The AIH responds favorably to thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Amiodarone is lipophilic and has a long half-life in the body. Therefore, stopping the amiodarone therapy usually has little short-term benefit. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. [Non thyroidal illnesses (NTIS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, F; Goichot, B; Brue, T

    2010-09-01

    Abnormalities in the circulating levels of thyroid hormones, without evidence of coexisting thyroid or pituitary gland disease can be observed in all general diseases. These nonthyroidal illnesses (NTIS) are the result of complex mechanisms that combine the effect of some drugs, cytokines, nutritional and endocrine factors at all levels of the thyrotropic axis, from the hypothalamus to the cellular transporters and nuclear receptors of thyroid hormones. The patterns of NTIS depend on the underlying disease and its severity. Thirtyfive years after the initial description, the pathophysiological significance of these anomalies remains controversial. One of the dilemma of NTIS is whether the hormone responses represent an adaptive and normal, physiologic response to conserve energy and protect against hypercatabolism in case of aggression, or whether it is a maladaptive response contributing to a worsening of the disease. This debate is not just a theoretical question, because in the first case the process must be respected, in the other case a vigorous treatment to restore circulating thyroid hormone levels is justified. There have been very few clinical studies designed to address whether the substitution with thyroid hormone is advantageous, and there is at current time no permissive evidence for the use of thyroid hormone replacement in patients with NTIS. But the clinical context, the choice of the molecule or of the dose and the way of administration were not necessarily the most relevant. Theoretically, stimulation of thyreotrope axis used a continuous infusion of TRH seems to provide clinical benefit. With the expectation that randomized clinical trials will provide demonstration of NTIS treatment efficiency, the question might remain unanswered for several more years. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Emerging therapies for thyroid carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, S

    2012-02-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most commonly diagnosed endocrine malignancy. Its incidence is currently rising worldwide. The discovery of genetic mutations associated with the development of thyroid cancer, such as BRAF and RET, has lead to the development of new drugs which target the pathways which they influence. Despite recent advances, the prognosis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is still unfavourable. In this review we look at emerging novel therapies for the treatment of well-differentiated and medullary thyroid carcinoma, and advances and future directions in the management of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

  12. Molecular pathology and thyroid FNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poller, D N; Glaysher, S

    2017-12-01

    This review summarises molecular pathological techniques applicable to thyroid FNA. The molecular pathology of thyroid tumours is now fairly well understood. Molecular methods may be used as a rule-in test for diagnosis of malignancy in thyroid nodules, eg BRAF V600E point mutation, use of a seven-gene mutational panel (BRAF V600E, RAS genes, RET/PTC or PAX8/PPARG rearrangement), or as a comprehensive multigene next-generation sequencing panel, eg ThyroSeq v2. Molecular methods can also be applied as rule-out tests for malignancy in thyroid nodules, eg Afirma or ThyroSeq v2 or as markers of prognosis, eg TERT promoter mutation or other gene mutations including BRAF V600E, TP53 and AKT1, and as tests for newly defined tumour entities such as non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary like nuclei, or as a molecular marker(s) for targeted therapies. This review describes practical examples of molecular techniques as applied to thyroid FNA in routine clinical practice and the value of molecular diagnostics in thyroid FNA. It describes the range of molecular abnormalities identified in thyroid nodules and thyroid cancers with some practical applications of molecular methods to diagnosis and prognosis of thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Environmental Issues in Thyroid Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Fallahi, Poupak; Antonelli, Alessandro; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    Environmental factors are determinant for the appearance of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) in susceptible subjects. Increased iodine intake, selenium, and vitamin D deficiency, exposure to radiation, from nuclear fallout or due to medical radiation, are environmental factors increasing AITD. Cigarette smoking is associated with Graves' disease and Graves' ophthalmopathy, while it decreases the risk of hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity. Viral infections are important environmental factors in the pathogenesis of AITD, too, particularly human parvovirus B19 (EVB19) and hepatitis C virus. Among the many chemical contaminants, halogenated organochlorines and pesticides variably disrupt thyroid function. Polychlorinated biphenyls and their metabolites and polybrominated diethyl ethers bind to thyroid transport proteins, such as transthyretin, displace thyroxine, and disrupt thyroid function. Among drugs, interferon- and iodine-containing drugs have been associated with AITD. Moreover intestinal dysbiosis causes autoimmune thyroiditis. To reduce the risk to populations and also in each patient, it is necessary to comprehend the association between environmental agents and thyroid dysfunction.

  14. Molecular mechanisms of thyroid tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, K.; Fuehrer, D.

    2008-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are the most frequent endocrine disorder and occur in approximately 30% of the German population. Thyroid nodular disease constitutes a very heterogeneous entity. A striking diversity of possible functional and morphological features of a thyroid tumour derived from the same thyroid ancestor cell, is a hallmark of thyroid tumorigenesis and is due to specific genetic alterations. Defects in known candidate genes can be found in up to 70% of differentiated thyroid carcinomas and determine the respective cancer phenotype. Papillary thyroid cancers (PTC) harbour BRAF (or much less frequently RAS) mutations in sporadically occurring tumours, while radiation-induced PTC display chromosomal rearrangements such as RET, TRK, APR9 / BRAF. These genetic events results in constitutive MAPKinase activation. Follicular thyroid cancers (FTC) harbour RAS mutations or PAX8/ PPARγ rearrangements, both of which, however have also been identified in follicular adenoma. In addition, recent studies show, that activation of PI3K/AKT signalling occurs with high frequency in follicular thyroid tumours. Undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid cancers (ATC) display genetic features of FTC or PTC, in addition to aberant activation of multiple tyrosinkinase pathways (overexpression or mutations in PI3K and MAPK pathways). This underscores the concept of a sequential evolution of ATC from differentiated thyroid cancer, a process widely conceived to be triggered by p53 inactivation. In contrast, the molecular pathogenesis of benign thyroid tumours, in particular cold thyroid nodules is less known, except for toxic thyroid nodules, which arise from constitutive activation of cAMP signalling, predominantly through TSHR mutations. (orig.)

  15. Thyroid cell lines in research on goitrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, H; Peter, H J; Asmis, L; Studer, H

    1991-12-01

    Thyroid cell lines have contributed a lot to the understanding of goitrogenesis. The cell lines mostly used in thyroid research are briefly discussed, namely the rat thyroid cell lines FRTL and FRTL-5, the porcine thyroid cell lines PORTHOS and ARTHOS, The sheep thyroid cell lines OVNIS 5H and 6H, the cat thyroid cell lines PETCAT 1 to 4 and ROMCAT, and the human thyroid cell lines FTC-133 and HTh 74. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and COS-7 cells, stably transfected with TSH receptor cDNA and expressing a functional TSH receptor, are discussed as examples for non-thyroidal cells, transfected with thyroid genes.

  16. Hashimotos Thyroiditis with Coexistent Papillary Carcinoma and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lymphocytic thyroiditis and hashimotofs thyroiditis (HT) are the two main forms of autoimmune thyroiditis among which the latter is most frequent. A vast majority of cases of papillary carcinoma and primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) arise in the setting of HT. A case of 32.year.old female who presented with thyroid ...

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake ...

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: ... of a typical probe counter used for thyroid uptake exams. The patient sits with the camera directed at the neck for five minutes, and then the leg for ...

  19. Primary thyroid lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur-Roszak, M.; Litwiniuk, M.; Lacka, K.

    2007-01-01

    Primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) is a rare disease with heterogeneous histological and clinical characteristics. As a result, diagnosis and subsequent management of the disease is difficult. PTL occurs most commonly in the thyroid glands with a background of Hashimotos thyroiditis. The clinical presentation was usually an enlarging neck mass squeezing the surrounding structures. Most patients can be diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) followed by immuno phenotypic analysis, obviating the need for open surgical biopsy. Main histopathologic subtypes are either diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL) or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Patients with localised, low-grade MALT lymphomas may be treated with surgery. Postoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy is necessary in some patients. Systemic chemotherapy is the optimal treatment for DLBCL. In this group surgery may be used for palliative debulking to alleviate obstructive symptoms. Prognosis for MALT lymphoma is good. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma patients have poor prognosis (5-yr survival <50%). What should be stressed here is that patients with rapidly growing nodular goitre with or without cervical adenopathy should always be examined for primary thyroid lymphoma. (authors)

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rate at which the body converts food to energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used ... the patient's body. In contrast, nuclear medicine procedures use a ... off a small amount of energy in the form of gamma rays. Special cameras ...

  1. Thyroid-associated Ophthalmopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Şahlı

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy is the most frequent extrathyroidal involvement of Graves’ disease but it sometimes occurs in euthyroid or hypothyroid patients. Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy is an autoimmune disorder, but its pathogenesis is not completely understood. Autoimmunity against putative antigens shared by the thyroid and the orbit plays a role in the pathogenesis of disease. There is an increased volume of extraocular muscles, orbital connective and adipose tissues. Clinical findings of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy are soft tissue involvement, eyelid retraction, proptosis, compressive optic neuropathy, and restrictive myopathy. To assess the activity of the ophthalmopathy and response to treatment, clinical activity score, which includes manifestations reflecting inflammatory changes, can be used. Supportive approaches can control symptoms and signs in mild cases. In severe active disease, systemic steroid and/or orbital radiotherapy are the main treatments. In inactive disease with proptosis, orbital decompression can be preferred. Miscellaneous treatments such as immunosuppressive drugs, somatostatin analogs, plasmapheresis, intravenous immunoglobulins and anticytokine therapies have been used in patients who are resistant to conventional treatments. Rehabilitative surgeries are often needed after treatment.

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is also known as a thyroid uptake. ...

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will I experience during and after the procedure? Who interprets the results and how do I get them? What are the benefits vs. risks? What are the limitations of the Thyroid Scan ...

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer top of page ... and Neck Cancer Treatment Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear ... to Thyroid Scan and Uptake ...

  5. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or less. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan ... areas. Outside links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org provides links to relevant websites. RadiologyInfo. ...

  6. [Postpartum thyroiditis. A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Hernández, Z; Segura-Domínguez, A

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum thyroiditis (PPT) is a transient thyroid dysfunction of autoimmune origin that can occur in the first year postpartum in women who have not been previously diagnosed with thyroid disease. It may start with clinical thyrotoxicosis followed by hypothyroidism and the subsequent recovery of thyroid function, or may just appear as isolated thyrotoxicosis or hypothyroidism. PPT recurs in high percentage of patients after subsequent pregnancies. Many women develop permanent hypothyroidism sometime during the 3 to 10 year period after an episode of PPT. It is important for family physicians to be familiar with this disease, due to its high prevalence in order to make a correct diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. Family doctors also play a crucial role in the monitoring of these patients, given the negative implications of established hypothyroidism on reproduction in the female population during their reproductive years. This article reviews the principle characteristics of PPT along with its diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Preventing Drug Abuse in the Workplace. Drug Abuse Prevention Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicary, Judith R.; Resnik, Henry

    This monograph is designed to help employers, employees, managers, and union officials develop effective workplace policies and programs to prevent drug and alcohol abuse and other health problems. The text of the monograph: (1) presents information regarding the costs of drug and alcohol use in the workplace, and evidence of potential…

  8. Higher Education in the Republic of Moldova. Monographs on Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiron, Stefan; Arion, Valentin; Paiu, Mihai; Scalini, Vitalie; Stan, Victor

    This monograph parallels others in the "Monographs" series, allowing easy comparisons among the higher education systems of Europe. The volume describes the development of the higher education system in the Republic of Moldava and analyzes its legislative framework and administrative structures. It outlines steps on the academic career…

  9. The Caribbean News Agency: Third World Model. Journalism Monographs Number 71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, Marlene

    This monograph is a history of the Caribbean News Agency (CANA), which is jointly owned by private and public mass media of its region and independent of both governments and foreign news agencies. It is proposed that CANA may provide a unique model of an independent, regional third-world news agency. Sections of the monograph examine (1) CANA's…

  10. Characteristics of the Monographic Scholarship of Foreign Literary Studies by Native Speakers of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullars, John

    1988-01-01

    This study examined the nature and chronological spread of references used by English-speaking scholars writing monographs on foreign literary topics, and compared the findings to an earlier study of the monographic literature of English and American literature and the humanities journal literature. Implications for research library collections…

  11. Thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Nazarpour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnancy has a huge impact on the thyroid function in both healthy women and those that have thyroid dysfunction. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women is relatively high. Objective: The objective of this review was to increase awareness and to provide a review on adverse effect of thyroid dysfunction including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmune positivity on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this review, Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched with appropriate keywords for relevant English manuscript. We used a variety of studies, including randomized clinical trials, cohort (prospective and retrospective, case-control and case reports. Those studies on thyroid disorders among non-pregnant women and articles without adequate quality were excluded. Results: Overt hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism has several adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. Overt hyperthyroidism was associated with miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, preeclampsia and fetal thyroid dysfunction. Overt hypothyroidism was associated with abortion, anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, placental abruption, postpartum hemorrhage, premature birth, low birth weight, intrauterine fetal death, increased neonatal respiratory distress and infant neuro developmental dysfunction. However the adverse effect of subclinical hypothyroidism, and thyroid antibody positivity on pregnancy outcomes was not clear. While some studies demonstrated higher chance of placental abruption, preterm birth, miscarriage, gestational hypertension, fetal distress, severe preeclampsia and neonatal distress and diabetes in pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism or thyroid autoimmunity; the other ones have not reported these adverse effects. Conclusion: While the impacts of overt thyroid dysfunction on feto-maternal morbidities have been clearly

  12. The risk factor of thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Tomoko

    1979-01-01

    For the purposes of radiation protection, the noteworthy risk of thyroid is carcinogenesis. The risk factor which ICRP presented in the publication-26 is 5 x 10 - 6 rem - 1 . This numerical value is based upon the estimated likelihood of inducing fatal thyroid cancer. On the other hand, the risk factor presented by the BEIR report is 4 x 10 - 6 yr - 1 . This value was decided after consideration of the risks of both fatal and non-fatal cancer of thyroid. The following features distinguished thyroid cancer from malignancy of other tissue from medical point of view. 1) A large difference between incidence and mortality in case of thyroid cancer is recognized, because the thyroid cancer could be successfully treated by surgical or radiological treatment. 2) The high prevalence of clinically silent tumor in thyroid gland has been reported. The incidence of thyroid cancer, therefore, is very dependent on methods of medical inspection. The prevalence of radiation induced thyroid cancer is modified by various factors such as age, sex, latency, dose and dose rate. The latent period is very important factors such as ave, sex, latency, dose and dose rate. The latent period is a very important factor in the estimation of accumulated total risk of thyroid malignancy. What is included in the risk caused by thyroid irradiation must be investigated. The risk of non-fatal cancer should be considered in the same way as that of fatal cancer. The dose-equivalent limit of thyroid in non-uniform irradiation caused by radioactive iodine is decided by the limit for non-stochastic effects. Therefore the further consideration of non-stochastic effects of thyroid is necessary. (author)

  13. Thyroid autoantibodies and differentiated thyroid cancer: revue of 662 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izembart, M.; Dagousset, F.; Chevalier, A.; Hassid, V.; Leger, A.; Barritault, L.; Clerc, J.

    1999-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid autoantibodies is clearly increased in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. The aim of this study was to re-evaluate frequency and evolution of anti-thyroglobulin and anti-microsomal (anti-peroxidase) autoantibodies in 662 patients with thyroid carcinoma treated with 131 radioiodine. Ours results obtained with 'classical' methods confirmed others earlier reports. When using more sensitive methods to detect thyroglobulin antibodies we obtained an increase in positive results and a more frequent association with anti-microsomal antibodies. Antibodies became undetectable with a variable period, ranging from a few months to 13 years in one case. If we suppose that the disappearance of antibodies is linked to the thyroid tissue disappearance, thyroid cancer follow up ought to include anti-thyroglobulin and anti-peroxidase antibodies, both directed against thyroid antigens. A decrease of both antibodies seems to indicate a favorable prognostic factor whereas an increase may suggest relapse. (author)

  14. 2009 American Thyroid Association guidelines on thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perros, P

    2010-08-01

    The American Thyroid Association guidelines on thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer, published in 2009, provide valuable recommendations based on current evidence. Inevitably, controversies and uncertainties will continue to challenge clinicians and patients. On topics where evidence is not clear-cut, judgement may be coloured by pre-existing practises and the structure of the health service in each country, so one has to be aware of the pitfalls of transferring recommendations to one's own practise.

  15. Thyroid disease in the pediatric patient: emphasizing imaging with sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babcock, Diane S.

    2006-01-01

    Thyroid disease does occur in the pediatric patient, and imaging plays an important role in its evaluation. A review is presented of normal development of the thyroid gland, the technique and indications for thyroid sonography, and key imaging features of congenital thyroid disorders (ectopic or absent thyroid, infantile goiter, thyroglossal duct remnants), benign thyroid masses (follicular adenoma, degenerative nodules, colloid and thyroid cysts), malignant masses (follicular, papillary and medullary carcinoma) and diffuse thyroid disease (acute bacterial thyroiditis, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Grave's disease). (orig.)

  16. Environmental chemicals and thyroid function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Malene; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2006-01-01

    also indicate thyroid-disruptive properties of phthalates, but the effect of certain phthalates seems to be stimulative on TH production, contrary to most other groups of chemicals. Thyroid disruption may be caused by a variety of mechanisms, as different chemicals interfere with the hypothalamic......-pituitary-thyroid axis at different levels. Mechanisms of action may involve the sodium-iodide symporter, thyroid peroxidase enzyme, receptors for THs or TSH, transport proteins or cellular uptake mechanisms. The peripheral metabolism of the THs can be affected through effects on iodothyronine deiodinases or hepatic...... enzymes. Even small changes in thyroid homeostasis may adversely affect human health, and especially fetal neurological development may be vulnerable. It is therefore urgent to clarify whether the animal data showing effects of chemicals on thyroid function can be extended to humans....

  17. Thyroid dysfunction and rheumatic diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Delamere, J P; Scott, D L; Felix-Davies, D D

    1982-01-01

    Musculoskeletal symptoms developing during the treatment of thyroid disease were studied in 150 patients; 17 developed a symptom complex of early morning stiffness together with shoulder girdle pain and weakness; similar symptoms were seen in only 3 of 100 controls. A prospective study of 16 patients with recent onset rheumatoid arthritis followed during the first 6 months of penicillamine therapy showed no changes in thyroid function tests. It is suggested that changing or abnormal thyroid s...

  18. Thyroid dysfunction in Down's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Loudon, M M; Day, R E; Duke, E M

    1985-01-01

    One hundred and sixteen children with Down's syndrome, living in the community, were examined for clinical or laboratory evidence of thyroid dysfunction. Three were hypothyroid and one was hyperthyroid. Twenty eight (29%) had thyroid autoantibodies. Autoimmune conditions were present in first or second degree relatives of 35 (30%) of the children, and in 17 (15%) this was a thyroid disorder. The families of normal control children also showed a 30% incidence of overt autoimmune conditions, an...

  19. Parathyroid transplantation in thyroid surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Barczyński, Marcin; Gołkowski, Filip; Nawrot, Ireneusz

    2017-01-01

    Permanent hypoparathyroidism following thyroid surgery is rare. Its prevalence is reported to be below 1–2% if surgery is performed by experienced thyroid surgeons. Parathyroid identification and preservation in situ with good vascular supply is the mainstay of safe thyroid surgery. However, if the parathyroid glands are damaged, autotransplantation should be undertaken to preserve their function. Parathyroid transplantation can be considered in three distinct modes of application: (I) fresh ...

  20. Circulating leptin and thyroid dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann-Belsing, Tina; Brabant, Georg; Holst, Jens Juul

    2003-01-01

    the fields of nutrition, metabolism and endocrinology. Leptin is accepted as an adipose signal, and even though the underlying mechanisms are not fully clarified, leptin, in addition to the thyroid hormones, is believed to be involved in regulation during the switch from the fed to the starved state...... relationship between leptin and thyroid hormones, there might also be a peripheral relationship although this effect is not clear. Both thyroid hormones and leptin might be involved in the adaptive thermogenesis through mitochondrial uncoupling proteins and heat production because both thyroxine...... hormone involvement in thermogenesis and regulation of uncoupling proteins. In this review, we have focused on leptin in relation to thyroid pathophysiology....

  1. The clinician and the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, H.J.; Hotze, A.

    1991-01-01

    The goiter prevalence in iodine-deficient regions is up to 25%-54%. The most frequent disease in these endemic areas is non-toxic goiter, which is, however, oftentimes connected with autonomously functioning thyroid tissue leading to borderline or overt hyperthyroidism. Other thyroid diseases like cancer, thyroiditis and hypothyroidism play only a miner role in a thyroid clinic, while cases of Graves' disease may be observed more frequently. The most cost-effective tools to evaluate thyroid patients are the hand, ear and mouth of the thyroid clinician. The differential diagnosis of thyroid disorders may be evaluated by a battery of diagnostic tools like in-vitro tests and high performance imaging modalities. Once the diagnosis is established, the appropriate therapeutic procedures (drugs, radioiodine, surgery) have to be chosen. This review should be considered as a guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases. In addition, special problems concerning elderly patients and pregnant women are discussed, including the differential diagnosis of thyroid diseases. (orig.)

  2. HYPOTHYROIDISM FOLLOWING THYROID SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lankarani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Postsurgical hypothyroidism and its incidence has not been fully investigated. In this study, the incidence of hypothyroidism and its possible risk factors at Shariati Hospital was assessed. One hundred and two patients with benign thyroid diseases, who had undergone thyroidectomy, were investigated with regards to thyroid function profile during period of one year after the operation every three months with post-operative sample as the baseline. Hypothyroidism was developed in 36 patients (35.2% on average 5 ± 3.2 months after surgery. Factors such as increased age, operation type, histopathologic type, underlying disease, lymphocytic infiltration and use of levothyroxine before surgery were associated with the increased incidence of hypothyroidism. It seems that use of indicators such as Graves' disease and lymphocytic infiltration in pathologic specimens should be helpful in projecting the potential occurrence of hypothyroidism in patients undergoing thyroidectomy.

  3. Thyroid hormone synthesis and anti-thyroid drugs: A bioinorganic chemistry approach

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Gouriprasanna; Mugesh, G

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide, generated by thyroid oxidase enzymes, is a crucial substrate for the thyroid peroxidase (TPO)-catalysed biosynthesis of thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) in the thyroid gland. It is believed that the $H_2O_2$ generation is a limiting step in thyroid hormone synthesis. Therefore, the control of hydrogen peroxide concentration is one of the possible mechanisms for the inhibition of thyroid hormone biosynthesis. The inhibition of thyroid hormone synthe...

  4. Radioiodine and thyroid gland

    OpenAIRE

    Takavar A

    1994-01-01

    Administration of a precise amount of activity in thyroid gland radioiodine (¹³¹I) therapy is of prime importance. Several methods for this purpose have been suggested and used over many years. In this paper, a method for required ¹³¹I activity calculation for each case has been proposed. Major factors affecting ¹³¹I calculation such as gland volume, integral dose, and prescription index have been described. Usin...

  5. Thyroid Disrupting Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Calsolaro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disruptor compounds are exogenous agents able to interfere with a gland function, exerting their action across different functional passages, from the synthesis to the metabolism and binding to receptors of the hormone produced. Several issues, such as different levels and time of exposure and different action across different ages as well as gender, make the study of endocrine disruptors still a challenge. The thyroid is very sensitive to the action of disruptors, and considering the importance of a correct thyroid function for physical and cognitive functioning, addressing this topic should be considered a priority. In this review, we examined the most recent studies, many of them concentrating on maternal and child exposure, conducted to assess the impact of industrial chemicals which showed an influence on thyroid function. So far, the number of studies conducted on that topic is not sufficient to provide solid conclusions and lead to homogeneous guidelines. The lack of uniformity is certainly due to differences in areas and populations examined, the different conditions of exposures and the remarkable inter-subject variability. Nonetheless, the European Commission for Health and Food Safety is implementing recommendations to ensure that substances identified as endocrine disruptors will be withdrawn from the market.

  6. Radiation and thyroid neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConahey, W.M.; Hayles, A.B.

    1976-01-01

    It is now generally accepted that an association exists between external radiation administered to the head, neck, and upper thorax of infants, children, and adolescents and the subsequent development of neoplastic changes in the thyroid gland. Until recent years, external radiation was frequently administered to shrink an enlarged thymus or for the treatment of tonsillitis, adenoiditis, hearing loss, hemangioma, acne, tinea capitis, and other conditions. During the course of these treatments, the thyroid gland was exposed to scatter radiation. The use of external radiation therapy was then accepted practice, and its value was attested by many. Concern about the adverse effects was not initially appreciated, primarily because of the long periods of time between the radiation and the recognition of changes in the thyroid. The availability and effectiveness of other therapeutic measures and the growing concern about the delayed effects of radiation therapy when administered to the young for relatively benign conditions has, in recent years, largely eliminated use of this form of therapy, except in a few unusual conditions

  7. Kinetics of thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Mitsuo; Nishikawa, Mitsushige; Naito, Kimikazu; Ishii, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    1980-01-01

    Kinetics of thyroid hormones were outlined, and recent progress in metabolism of these hormones was also described. Recently, not only T 4 and T 3 but also rT 3 , 3,3'-T 2 , 3',5'-T 2 , and 3,5-T 2 can be measured by RIA. To clarify metabolic pathways of these hormones, metabolic clearance rate and production rate of these hormones were calculated. As single-compartment analysis was insufficient to clarify disappearance curves of thyroid hormones in blood such as T 3 and T 2 of which metabolic speed was so fast, multi-compartment analysis or non-compartment analysis were also performed. Thyroid hormones seemed to be measured more precisely by constant infusion method. At the first step of T 4 metabolism, T 3 was formed by 5'-monodeiodination of T 4 , and rT 3 was formed by 5-monodeiodination of T 4 . As metabolic pathways of T 3 and rT 3 , conversion of them to 3,3'-T 2 or to 3',5'-T 2 and 3,5-T 2 was supposed. This subject will be an interesting research theme in future. (Tsunoda, M.)

  8. Substernal Thyroid Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A.H. Regal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A thyroid mass, most often a non toxic colloid goiter or occasionally an adenoma, is not an unusual finding below the level of the thoracic inlet.1 In 1992 Creswell and Wells estimated that these tumors comprise 5.8% of all mediastinal lesions.1 There is no standard definition for thyroid glands extending below the thoracic inlet, but such masses descend from their original cervical location for more than 2 or 3 cm below the thoracic inlet, and are not truly primary tumors of the mediastinum. They preserve the connection between the thoracic and cervical portion and receive their blood supply from the neck.2,3 In 1940, the seminal report of Wakeley and Mulvany divided intrathoracic thyroid masses into 3 types; (1”Small substernal extension” of a mainly cervical mass, (2 “Partial” intrathoracic, in which the major portion of the mass is situated within the thorax, and (3”Complete” in which all of the mass lies within the thoracic cavity.

  9. Iodine I-131 With or Without Selumetinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-30

    Metastatic Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  10. Thyroid size and thyroid function during pregnancy: an analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, A.; Wiersinga, W.

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of all available studies of thyroid size and function in pregnancy reveals that thyroid size, estimated by inspection and palpation or measured more accurately by ultrasonography, increases in pregnancy in areas of iodine deficiency but not in those with sufficient iodine. The increase

  11. Nodular thyroid disease and thyroid malignancy: Experience at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To review the profile of thyroid disease in patients with goitre presenting to the Department of Surgery at Polokwane Mankweng Hospital Complex (PMHC), Limpopo, SA, to characterise the pattern of malignancy in patients with goitre, and to determine the most common thyroid cancer. Method. A 6-year retrospective study ...

  12. Thyroid hormone therapy following the thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horster, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    Medication with thyroid hormones following total thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinoma is based on the following principles: 1. The patient is informed about the lifelong necessity of taking a thyroid hormones daily before breakfast. This hormone must be given orally and its bioligical effect is identical with that of the tyhroid hormone secreted by the healthy thyroid gland. 2. The daily dosage of thyroid hormones may be assessed on the basis of the following parameters: a) the patient's clinical euthyroidism, b) suppression of thyrotropic activity, c) unrestricted tolerance of the preparation. 3. The in vitro parameters associated with optimal medication should be within the following ranges: Thyroxine value (TT4 or FT4): above the normal range, triiodothyronine value (TT3 or FT3): within the upper normal range and thyrotropin value (TSH 'ultrasensitive' or TRH-test): suppressed. (orig.) [de

  13. Revisiting an open access monograph experiment: measuring citations and tweets 5 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijder, Ronald

    An experiment run in 2009 could not assess whether making monographs available in open access enhanced scholarly impact. This paper revisits the experiment, drawing on additional citation data and tweets. It attempts to answer the following research question: does open access have a positive influence on the number of citations and tweets a monograph receives, taking into account the influence of scholarly field and language? The correlation between monograph citations and tweets is also investigated. The number of citations and tweets measured in 2014 reveal a slight open access advantage, but the influence of language or subject should also be taken into account. However, Twitter usage and citation behaviour hardly overlap.

  14. Breaking Tolerance to Thyroid Antigens: Changing Concepts in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Basil

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid autoimmunity involves loss of tolerance to thyroid proteins in genetically susceptible individuals in association with environmental factors. In central tolerance, intrathymic autoantigen presentation deletes immature T cells with high affinity for autoantigen-derived peptides. Regulatory T cells provide an alternative mechanism to silence autoimmune T cells in the periphery. The TSH receptor (TSHR), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and thyroglobulin (Tg) have unusual properties (“immunogenicity”) that contribute to breaking tolerance, including size, abundance, membrane association, glycosylation, and polymorphisms. Insight into loss of tolerance to thyroid proteins comes from spontaneous and induced animal models: 1) intrathymic expression controls self-tolerance to the TSHR, not TPO or Tg; 2) regulatory T cells are not involved in TSHR self-tolerance and instead control the balance between Graves' disease and thyroiditis; 3) breaking TSHR tolerance involves contributions from major histocompatibility complex molecules (humans and induced mouse models), TSHR polymorphism(s) (humans), and alternative splicing (mice); 4) loss of tolerance to Tg before TPO indicates that greater Tg immunogenicity vs TPO dominates central tolerance expectations; 5) tolerance is induced by thyroid autoantigen administration before autoimmunity is established; 6) interferon-α therapy for hepatitis C infection enhances thyroid autoimmunity in patients with intact immunity; Graves' disease developing after T-cell depletion reflects reconstitution autoimmunity; and 7) most environmental factors (including excess iodine) “reveal,” but do not induce, thyroid autoimmunity. Micro-organisms likely exert their effects via bystander stimulation. Finally, no single mechanism explains the loss of tolerance to thyroid proteins. The goal of inducing self-tolerance to prevent autoimmune thyroid disease will require accurate prediction of at-risk individuals together with an antigen

  15. Sonographic appearance of thyroid cancer in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfee, Sara M; Benson, Carol B; Arthaud, Dylan M; Alexander, Erik K; Frates, Mary C

    2015-04-01

    To determine whether the sonographic appearance of thyroid cancer differs in patients with and without Hashimoto thyroiditis. Patients with histologically proven thyroid cancer who had thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies measured and sonography performed preoperatively were included. We evaluated each nodule for size, echogenicity, composition, margins, halo, and vascularity and evaluated the background heterogeneity of the gland. There were 162 thyroid cancers in 145 patients. Forty-two patients (29.0%) had Hashimoto thyroiditis with positive TPO antibodies, and 103 patients (71.0%) had negative TPO antibodies. The background echogenicity was more often heterogeneous in TPO antibody-positive patients compared to those who had negative TPO antibodies (57.1% versus 26.2%; P= .0005). Comparing cancers in TPO antibody-positive to TPO antibody-negative patients, there was no significant difference in the size, echogenicity, composition, margins, halo presence, calcification presence and type, or vascularity of the cancerous nodule (P > .05). Among TPO antibody-positive patients, comparing thyroid cancerous nodules in patients with heterogeneous glands to those with homogeneous glands, there was no significant difference in any sonographic characteristic except the margin of the nodule, which was more often irregular or poorly defined in heterogeneous glands and more often smooth in homogeneous glands (PHashimoto thyroiditis. Among patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis and thyroid cancer, the sonographic appearance of the cancerous nodule is similar, except that cancerous nodule margins are more likely to be irregular or poorly defined when the gland is heterogeneous. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  16. The effect of excessive iodine diet on thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuhua; Li Yaming

    2009-01-01

    The modify of the thyroid cell structure can be induced by excessive iodine diet. Then the disordered thyroid function can result in a number of thyroid disease. The radionucline thyroid imaging play an important role in diagnoses of thyroid. Amplify on the effect of excessive diet on thyroid function will be worthy instructing what preparation should do before doing the thyroid nuclide imaging. (authors)

  17. Thyroid diseases and cerebrovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Squizzato, A.; Gerdes, V. E. A.; Brandjes, D. P. M.; Büller, H. R.; Stam, J.

    2005-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Acute cerebral ischemia has been described in different diseases of the thyroid gland, and not only as a result of thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation and cardioembolic stroke. The purpose of this review is to summarize the studies on the relationship between thyroid diseases and

  18. Thyroid dysfunction in the elderly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-09-09

    thirds of the subjects in this study. The serum TSH concentration is a reliable screening test for thyroid dysfunction in the elderly, but is less useful if used to identify biochemical thyroid disease. An elevated TSH concentration is a ...

  19. Plasma fibronectin and thyroid function.

    OpenAIRE

    Graninger, W; Pirich, K; Derfler, K; Waldhäusl, W

    1985-01-01

    Plasma fibronectin concentrations up to 85 mg/100 ml were found in hyperthyroid patients. There was a significant correlation between free thyroxine index and plasma fibronectin values. Hypothyroid patients had low to normal fibronectin concentrations. Parallel decreases of thyroid hormones and plasma fibronectin concentrations were noted during treatment with thiamazole. A direct effect of thyroid hormones on fibronectin synthesis seems probable.

  20. Laboratory investigations in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, M.G.R.

    1999-01-01

    The usefulness of in vitro tests for diagnosis of primary thyroid tumor is negligible. However, monitoring the adequacy of thyroxin replacement and assess the functional aspects of metastatic disease is necessary using the routinely available hormonal tests. Serum thyroglobulin as a tumor marker for monitoring metastatic disease is a well-established and indispensable procedure in all thyroid clinics worldwide

  1. Thyroid gland development and defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzsch, Juergen; Pulzer, Ferdinand

    2008-02-01

    During the functional ontogenesis of the thyroid gland an increasing number of transcription factors play fundamental roles in thyroid-cell differentiation, maintenance of the differentiated state, and thyroid-cell proliferation. The early growth and development of the fetal thyroid appears to be generally independent of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH and thyroxine (T4) levels increase from the 12th week of gestation until delivery, whereas triiodothyronine (T3) levels remain relatively low. At birth, a cold-stimulated short-lived TSH surge is observed, followed by a TSH decrease until day 3 or 4 of life by T4 feedback inhibition. Disorders of thyroid gland development and/or function are relatively common, affecting approximately one newborn infant in 2000-4000. The most prevalent disease, congenital hypothyroidism, is frequently caused by genetic defects of transcription factors involved in the development of the thyroid or pituitary gland. A major cause of congenital hyperthyroidism is the transplacental passage of stimulating thyrotropin antibodies from the mother to the fetus. Hypothyroxinaemia or hypotriiodthyroninaemia is frequently observed in preterm infants with or without severe non-thyroidal illness. Whereas congenital hypo- and hyperthyroidism may be treated successfully with T4 or thyrostatic drugs, there is still insufficient evidence on whether the use of T4 for treatment of the latter condition results in changes in neonatal morbidity or reductions in neurodevelopmental impairment.

  2. Celiac Disease and Thyroid Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... metabolism to significantly increase. This is called hyperthyroidism. Hashimoto’s disease and Grave’s Disease are two common causes ... the dietitian? Celiac Disease and Thyroid Conditions | continued Hashimoto’s Disease (Also called Chronic Lymphocytic Thyroiditis) •Your body’s ...

  3. Scintigraphic visualization of 'Blocking' thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simeonova, A.; Kostadinova, I.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: An important problem in nuclear endocrinology is 'blocking' of thyroid gland, which necessitates postpone of the investigation, adverse clinical effect of stopping medications and a delay of making diagnosis. The aim of the study was to introduce and to determine the clinical value of the scintigraphy with 99mTc-MIBI in patients (Pts) with 'blocked thyroid'. In 365 Pts (aged 38-75 years), indicated for a thyroid scintigraphy after proper preparation, an investigation was performed with 74 MBq 99mTc-pertechnetate, 20 min. p.i. In 14 of them (3.8%), the thyroid was 'blocked' and additional scintigraphy was done with 370-555 MBq 99mTc-MIBI, 15 and 120 min.p.i. It was estimated that in all Pts there was a visualization of thyroid. In 1 of them, a large 'hot' nodule was visualized in the early and late image. Later on a differentiated thyroid carcinoma was proved histologically. In the rest of the patients 'cold' nodules with different size were visualized, eventually as a result of cysts. As a conclusion we consider, that a scintigraphy with 99mTc-MIBI is a useful tool in Pts with 'blocked' thyroid. In addition an evaluation of the thyroid nodule could be done and therefore- a recommendation for therapy

  4. Thyroid disease in pregnancy in 2011: Thyroid function--effects on mother and baby unraveled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weetman, Anthony P

    2011-12-06

    The complex relationship between pregnancy and thyroid function, and its clinical effect on mother and baby, continued to stimulate research in 2011. Key advances were made on three important issues: how long maternal thyroid function affects fetal thyroid hormone levels; whether thyroid autoimmunity affects pregnancy outcome; and the prevalence of permanent hypothyroidism after postpartum thyroiditis.

  5. Radiofrequency Ablation of Benign Thyroid Nodules and Recurrent Thyroid Cancers: Consensus Statement and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Dong Gyu [Human Medical Imaging and Intervention Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Hyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, So Lyung [Seoul St. Marys Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Radiofrequency ablation is a new non-surgical treatment modality for patients with benign thyroid nodules and recurrent thyroid cancers. The Task Force Committee of the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology has developed recommendations for the treatment of benign thyroid nodules and recurrent thyroid cancers using radiofrequency ablation. These recommendations are based on evidence from the current literature and expert consensus

  6. Radioiodine therapy of thyroid autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, Christoph; Schneider, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Over half a century, treatment of thyroid autonomy with an oral dose of iodine-131 has proven to be effective. The optimum management strategy for the patient is, however, still a matter of debate. The article provides an overview of the pathogenesis of functional autonomy and its clinical relevance. According to the guidelines on both sides of the Atlantic, radioiodine treatment is considered the most comfortable and economical approach to the treatment of the toxic nodular goitre. Some differences in the preparation procedures in the guidelines of the American and the German Society of Nuclear Medicine are discussed with respect to therapy results and the subtypes of thyroid autonomy. The results of studies are summarised concerning changes in thyroid function and thyroid volume after a course of radioiodine treatment. Therapy-related risks, such as immunogenic hypothyroidism or thyroid cancer, are discussed. 131 I treatment of functional autonomy and hyperthyroidism is considered an effective and safe procedure. (orig.)

  7. Circulating leptin and thyroid dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann-Belsing, Tina; Brabant, Georg; Holst, Jens Juul

    2003-01-01

    the fields of nutrition, metabolism and endocrinology. Leptin is accepted as an adipose signal, and even though the underlying mechanisms are not fully clarified, leptin, in addition to the thyroid hormones, is believed to be involved in regulation during the switch from the fed to the starved state....... It is not clear whether leptin and the melanocortin pathways interact with the thyroid axis under physiological conditions other than during starvation or in response to severe illness, both states in which the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis may be severely suppressed. In addition to the suggested central...... relationship between leptin and thyroid hormones, there might also be a peripheral relationship although this effect is not clear. Both thyroid hormones and leptin might be involved in the adaptive thermogenesis through mitochondrial uncoupling proteins and heat production because both thyroxine...

  8. Primary Hyperparathyroidism with Thyroid Hemiagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Sakurai

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hemiagenesis is a very rare anomaly. We herein report a case with right thyroid lobe agenesis, which was incidentally found during the assessment of primary hyperparathyroidism. A 42-year-old male presenting with urinary lithiasis was suspected of having primary hyperparathyroidism, and had elevated levels of both serum calcium and intact parathyroid hormone. Both computed tomography and ultrasonography demonstrated the absence of right thyroid lobe and a mass of 1 cm in diameter at the left lower pole of the thyroid. The patient underwent lower left parathyroidectomy, which confirmed the right thyroid hemiagenesis, as well as the absence of both upper and lower right parathyroid glands. The resected left lower parathyroid gland was pathologically diagnosed as adenoma. The postoperative course was favourable and he was discharged on the 2nd day after surgery, without complications.

  9. Iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize the mechanisms of iodine-induced hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, identify the risk factors for thyroid dysfunction following an iodine load, and summarize the major sources of excess iodine exposure. Recent findings Excess iodine is generally well tolerated, but individuals with underlying thyroid disease or other risk factors may be susceptible to iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction following acute or chronic exposure. Sources of increased iodine exposure include the global public health efforts of iodine supplementation, the escalating use of iodinated contrast radiologic studies, amiodarone administration in vulnerable patients, excess seaweed consumption, and various miscellaneous sources. Summary Iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction may be subclinical or overt. Recognition of the association between iodine excess and iodine-induced hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism is important in the differential diagnosis of patients who present without a known cause of thyroid dysfunction. PMID:22820214

  10. Metabolic Reprogramming in Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Guimaraes Coelho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Among all the adaptations of cancer cells, their ability to change metabolism from the oxidative to the glycolytic phenotype is a hallmark called the Warburg effect. Studies on tumor metabolism show that improved glycolysis and glutaminolysis are necessary to maintain rapid cell proliferation, tumor progression, and resistance to cell death. Thyroid neoplasms are common endocrine tumors that are more prevalent in women and elderly individuals. The incidence of thyroid cancer has increased in the Past decades, and recent findings describing the metabolic profiles of thyroid tumors have emerged. Currently, several drugs are in development or clinical trials that target the altered metabolic pathways of tumors are undergoing. We present a review of the metabolic reprogramming in cancerous thyroid tissues with a focus on the factors that promote enhanced glycolysis and the possible identification of promising metabolic targets in thyroid cancer.

  11. Metabolic Reprogramming in Thyroid Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Raquel Guimaraes; Fortunato, Rodrigo S.; Carvalho, Denise P.

    2018-01-01

    Among all the adaptations of cancer cells, their ability to change metabolism from the oxidative to the glycolytic phenotype is a hallmark called the Warburg effect. Studies on tumor metabolism show that improved glycolysis and glutaminolysis are necessary to maintain rapid cell proliferation, tumor progression, and resistance to cell death. Thyroid neoplasms are common endocrine tumors that are more prevalent in women and elderly individuals. The incidence of thyroid cancer has increased in the Past decades, and recent findings describing the metabolic profiles of thyroid tumors have emerged. Currently, several drugs are in development or clinical trials that target the altered metabolic pathways of tumors are undergoing. We present a review of the metabolic reprogramming in cancerous thyroid tissues with a focus on the factors that promote enhanced glycolysis and the possible identification of promising metabolic targets in thyroid cancer. PMID:29629339

  12. Environmental chemicals and thyroid function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Malene; Main, Katharina M; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To overview the effects of endocrine disrupters on thyroid function. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies in recent years have revealed thyroid-disrupting properties of many environmentally abundant chemicals. Of special concern is the exposure of pregnant women and infants, as thyroid...... disruption of the developing fetus may have deleterious effects on neurological outcome. Evidence is reviewed for the following groups of chemicals: polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, flame retardants, pesticides, perfluorinated chemicals, phthalates, bisphenol A and ultraviolet filters. Chemicals may exert...... thyroid effects through a variety of mechanisms of action, and some publications have focused on elucidating the mechanisms of specific (groups of) chemicals. SUMMARY: A large variety of ubiquitous chemicals have been shown to have thyroid-disrupting properties, and the combination of mechanistic...

  13. HISTOPATHOLOGIC PATTERN OF THYROID DISEASE B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-10-01

    Oct 1, 2003 ... The major risk factor predisposing to thyroid cancer is exposure to ionizing radiation, particularly during the first two decades of life. Certain thyroid diseases such as nodular colloid goiter and autoimmune thyroid diseases (Hashimoto's thyroiditis) have been implicated as predisposing factors. Unlike the ...

  14. Thyroid hormone signaling in the hypothalamus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, Anneke; Visser, Theo J.; Fliers, Eric

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Proper thyroid hormone signaling is essential for brain development and adult brain function. Signaling can be disrupted at many levels due to altered thyroid hormone secretion, conversion or thyroid hormone receptor binding. RECENT FINDINGS: Mutated genes involved in thyroid

  15. Stitch Abscess Masquerading as Recurrent Thyroid Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recurrent thyroid cancer after remnant ablation is a known entity in follow up of differentiated thyroid cancer. It is however unusual for a stitch abscess to present as a recurrent thyroid cancer. We highlight the diagnostic dilemma of a stitch abscess masquerading as a recurrent thyroid cancer in a young female adult in the ...

  16. Carcinome anaplasique de la thyroide | Lachkhem | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Thyroid anaplasic carcinoma is a rare variety of thyroid cancer and one of the most aggressive tumors known to affect humans. It accounts for less than 2%of thyroid cancers and it is often extremelymalignant and rapidly fatal. Material and methods: It is a retrospective study of 12 cases of thyroid anaplasic ...

  17. Correlation between serum lead and thyroid diseases: papillary thyroid carcinoma, nodular goiter, and thyroid adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Li, Xiang; Liu, Jie; Jin, Langping; Yang, Fan; Wang, Junbo; Wang, Ouchen; Gao, Ying

    2017-10-01

    Studies have showed that lead was associated with human health. However, the effects of lead on thyroid functions are inconsistent, and studies based on Chinese population are fragmentary. To evaluate the correlation between lead and thyroid functions of Chinese with different thyroid diseases, we conducted a hospital-based study. Ninety-six papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), 10 nodular goiter (NG), and 7 thyroid adenoma (TA) patients were recruited from the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, China. Serum triiodothyronine (T3), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxin (FT4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were evaluated with chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Serum lead was assessed with ICP-MASS. Partial correlation was used to explore the correlations of serum lead and thyroid diseases. Compared to PTC, the level of lead was significantly higher in TA, and lower in NG (p lead was negatively correlated with TSH (r s  =  - 0.27, p lead at quartile4 (r s  = 0.61, p lead and FT3 or FT4 in any group. The results suggested that lead might have different etiological roles in these three thyroid diseases.

  18. 77 FR 48995 - Draft National Toxicology Program (NTP) Monograph on Developmental Effects and Pregnancy Outcomes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... Developmental Effects and Pregnancy Outcomes Associated With Cancer Chemotherapy Use During Pregnancy; Request... Pregnancy Outcomes Associated with Cancer Chemotherapy Use during Pregnancy (available by August 14, 2012... NTP Monograph on Developmental Effects and Pregnancy Outcomes Associated with Cancer Chemotherapy Use...

  19. Evaluation of thyroid function tests in non-thyroidal illness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutte, D.P.

    1988-01-01

    Normal thyroid physiology and pathophysiology with reference to non-thyroidal illness (NTI) is reviewed including specific disease states and drugs and their effect on thyroid function tests. The diagnostic utility of two new highly sensitive thyrotrophin (TSH) assays as screening tests for thyroid dysfunction are evaluated and compared with conventional thyroid function assays. A group of 40 patients with NTI was studied. This group was compared to a group of normal controls and a group of thyrotoxic patients. Conventional thyroid function tests yielded many values outside the reference range in the NTI group. The general pattern that emerged was decreased total triiodothyronine levels in 70% of NTI patients, normal to low thyroxine values, increased mean free thyroxine values (dialysis), low mean values for the free thyroxine index and varying results for newer commercial assays for free thyroxine according to methodology. The TSH response to intravenous thyroliberin (TRH) was found to be blunted compared to controls. Basal TSH levels were measured with two ultasensitive TSH assays. The immunoradiometric assays yielded fewer values outside the reference range in the NTI group than conventional thyroid function tests. This assay yielded undetectable basal TSH levels in all thyrotoxic patients and could reliably separate thyrotoxic patients from the NTI group. Basal TSH levels with ultrasensitive TSH assays correlated well with the TSH response to TRH (TSH) and could obviate the need for TRH tests. Ultrasensitive TSH assays are promising first line screening tests in NTI. 120 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs

  20. Tormenta tiroidea Thyroid storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette Leal Curí

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La tormenta tiroidea es una de las situaciones más críticas entre las emergencias endocrinas y tiene una significativa mortalidad. La etiología más común de tirotoxicosis es la enfermedad de Graves y el factor precipitante que predomina es la infección. Clínicamente se caracteriza por la disfunción de varios sistemas (termorregulador, nervioso central, gastrointestinal y cardiovascular, con niveles de hormonas tiroideas libres o totales por encima de los valores normales. El tratamiento debe tener un enfoque multidisciplinario, e incluye medidas de soporte en unidades de cuidados intensivos, normalización de la temperatura corporal, reducción de la producción y liberación de hormonas tiroideas, con antitiroideos de síntesis y yodo respectivamente, bloqueo de los efectos periféricos mediante la administración de beta-bloqueadores, y corrección del factor desencadenante. Una vez que el paciente se encuentra estable es necesario planificar una terapia definitiva que impida la recurrencia futura de la crisis tirotóxica.The thyroid storm is one of the most critical situations in the endocrine emergencies and exhibits a significant mortality rate. The most common etiology of thyrotoxicosis is Graves' disease and the predominant precipitating factor is infection. The clinical characteristics are dysfunction of several systems (heat-regulator, central nervous, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular, and levels of total or free thyroid hormones that exceed the normal values. The treatment must be multidisciplinary and include support measures in intensive care units, normalization of body temperature, reduction of the production and the release of thyroid hormones by using synthesis and iodine anti-thyroid products respectively, blockade of the peripheral effects through administration of Beta-blockers and correction of the unleashing factor. Once the patients are stabilized, it is necessary to plan the final therapy that will prevent the

  1. Retrosternal thyroid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, A.R.; Sarkar, Sudeep

    1999-01-01

    Computerized axial tomography scans permit proper distinction between primary and secondary goitres and help in preoperative planning. Advances in anesthetic techniques and the use of small-caliber endotracheal tubes facilitate proper perioperative management, even for patients with significant respiratory compression symptoms. A tracheotomy is rarely necessary. Aggressive surgical therapy for retrosternal goitres avoids life-threatening situations and results in minimal morbidity and practically zero mortality when performed by a surgeon experienced in managing such patients. Radioactive iodine therapy is used in the treatment of metastases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma if they concentrate 131 I

  2. Thyroid diseases and Ramadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed A Raza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the month of Ramadan, patients with thyroid diseases, most of the time, do not need treatment adjustments and can fast safely without any health hazards. Patients with hypothyroidism taking thyroxine can take their tablets on an empty stomach at bedtime instead of half an hour before Sehr. Patients with hyperthyroidism, on methimazole/carbimazole can continue their dose in once or twice daily regimes, while those on propylthiouracil need to be switched. Hyperthyroid patients with severe symptoms should start treatment immediately and can avoid fast for few days after a consultation with their religious scholar.

  3. Radioiodine and thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takavar A

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Administration of a precise amount of activity in thyroid gland radioiodine (¹³¹I therapy is of prime importance. Several methods for this purpose have been suggested and used over many years. In this paper, a method for required ¹³¹I activity calculation for each case has been proposed. Major factors affecting ¹³¹I calculation such as gland volume, integral dose, and prescription index have been described. Using the method, ¹³¹I activity or any other radioisotope activity required for a certain case can be determined with a good estimate.

  4. Thyroid Emphysema Following Penetrating Neck Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Karadağ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although traumatic thyroid gland rupture or hemorrhage is usually seen in goitrous glands, injuries of the normal thyroid gland after neck trauma have rarely been described in the literature. We describe a 44-year-old man who presented with thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema (SCE that occurred after penetrating neck trauma. CT images showed complete resolution of thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema at follow-up examination. Neck injuries can be life threatening. After penetrating neck traumas, physicians should consider subtle esophageal or tracheal laceration. Thyroid emphysema can occur as the result of penetrating neck trauma. The mechanism of emphysema of the thyroid parenchyma can be explained by the thyroid gland’s presence in a single visceral compartment that encompasses the larynx, trachea and thyroid gland. We describe an unusual case of thyroid emphysema of a normal thyroid gland following a penetrating neck injury.

  5. Conditions for monograph projectsʼ by preservice teachers: lessons from the long and winding route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melba Libia Cárdenas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the analysis of the nature of monograph projects undertaken by pre-service teachers at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia. It will examine the main factors that, according to the participants of a case-study, favour or limit the development of those projects. On the basis of our findings, we highlight the conditions associated with the successful fulfilment of what students are required to do in monograph projects.

  6. Epitope recognition patterns of thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies in healthy individuals and patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus H; Brix, Thomas H; Gardas, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) are markers of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), including Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), but naturally occurring TPOAb are also detectable in healthy, euthyroid individuals. In AITD, circulating TPOAb react mainly with two immunodominant regions (IDR), IDR...

  7. Elaborating European Pharmacopoeia monographs for biotherapeutic proteins using substances from a single source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buda, M; Wicks, S; Charton, E

    2016-01-01

    For more than twenty years, the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) monographs for biotherapeutic proteins have been elaborated using the multisource approach (Procedure 1), which has led to robust quality standards for many of the first-generation biotherapeutics. In 2008, the Ph. Eur. opened up the way towards an alternative mechanism for the elaboration of monographs (Procedure 4-BIO pilot phase), which is applied to substances still under patent protection, based on a close collaboration with the Innovator company, to ensure a harmonised global standard and strengthen the quality of the upcoming products. This article describes the lessons learned during the P4-BIO pilot phase and addresses the current thinking on monograph elaboration in the field of biotherapeutics. Case studies are described to illustrate the standardisation challenges associated with the complexity of biotherapeutics and of analytical procedures, as well as the approaches that help ensure expectations are met when setting monograph specifications and allow for compatibility with the development of biosimilars. Emphasis is put on monograph flexibility, notably by including tests that measure process-dependent microheterogeneity (e.g. glycosylation) in the Production section of the monograph. The European Pharmacopoeia successfully concluded the pilot phase of the P4-BIO during its 156 th session on 22-23 November 2016.

  8. Thyroid Cancer: Current Molecular Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Giusti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid cancer is a rare oncological entity, representing no more than 1% of all human malignant neoplasms. Recently, it has been demonstrated a sharp increase in incidence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma, equally occurring in both sexes. So far, multiple genetic alterations have been identified in differentiated thyroid carcinoma, leading to investigate the clinical utility of genetic studies. In particular, molecular genetic approaches searching for gene mutations in the material collected by fine needle ago-biopsy may have a particular utility in small nodules and in those specimens with an indeterminate cytology. The expansion of knowledge about genetic mutations occurring in different thyroid tumors has characterized recent years, allowing the identification of a correlation between specific mutations and phenotypic characteristics of thyroid cancers, essential for their prognosis. This review will briefly report on the histological features and the new entity represented by thyroid microcarcinoma and will focus on both environmental and genetic aspects associated with the occurrence of thyroid cancer.

  9. Thyroid function during critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economidou, Foteini; Douka, Evangelia; Tzanela, Marinella; Nanas, Serafeim; Kotanidou, Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    The metabolic support of the critically ill patient is a relatively new target of active research and little is as yet known about the effects of critical illness on metabolism. The nonthyroidal illness syndrome, also known as the low T3 syndrome or euthyroid sick syndrome, describes a condition characterized by abnormal thyroid function tests encountered in patients with acute or chronic systemic illnesses. The laboratory parameters of this syndrome include low serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3) and high levels of reverse T3, with normal or low levels of thyroxine (T4) and normal or low levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). This condition may affect 60 to 70% of critically ill patients. The changes in serum thyroid hormone levels in the critically ill patient seem to result from alterations in the peripheral metabolism of the thyroid hormones, in TSH regulation, in the binding of thyroid hormone to transport-protein and in receptor binding and intracellular uptake. Medications also have a very important role in these alterations. Hormonal changes can be seen within the first hours of critical illness and, interestingly, these changes correlate with final outcome. Data on the beneficial effect of thyroid hormone treatment on outcome in critically ill patients are so far controversial. Thyroid function generally returns to normal as the acute illness resolves.

  10. Thyroid hormone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, S.; Richmond, M.; Quesada, S.; Lahaman, S.; Ramirez, A.; Herrera, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (AIEA) is carrying out the ARCAL VIII Program 'Thiroid Hormone Readioimmunoassay'. The Immunoassay Laboratory of INCIENSA is in charge of this program, with the participation of four National Hospital System laboratories, which carried out Thyroxine (T4). Triodothyroxine (T3) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) assays with NETRIA Reagents (North East Thames Region Immunoassay Unit). The variability was shown to be between 9-20 per cent for T4, 12-22 per cent for TSH and 22-36 per cent for T3. The study also evaluated the quality of a tracer (T3-l125 and T4 l125) produced at INCIENSA. In this case the intrassay variability was 8,4 per cent for T3 and 6,8 per cent for T4 in 32 determinations evaluated during 6 months. It was concluded that the T4 and TSH tests but not the T3 test are valid and reproducible when NETRIA Ragents are used. The tracer made at INCIENSA can be used up to 6 weeks after the radioiodination with l125. A successful thyroid-related hormones quality control was defined in Costa Rica by taking advantage of the support of a prestigious international agency, the IAEA. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs

  11. Thyroid Hormone Deiodinases and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eBianco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Deiodinases constitute a group of thioredoxin-containing selenoenzymes that play an important function in thyroid hormone homeostasis and control of thyroid hormone action. There are three known deiodinases: D1 and D2 activate the pro-hormone thyroxine (T4 to T3, the most active form of thyroid hormone, while D3 inactivates thyroid hormone and terminates T3 action. A number of studies indicate that deiodinase expression is altered in several types of cancers, suggesting that (i they may represent a useful cancer marker and/or (ii could play a role in modulating cell proliferation - in different settings thyroid hormone modulates cell proliferation. For example, although D2 is minimally expressed in human and rodent skeletal muscle, its expression level in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS-13 cells is 3-4 fold higher. In basal cell carcinoma (BCC cells, sonic hedgehog (Shh-induced cell proliferation is accompanied by induction of D3 and inactivation of D2. Interestingly a 5-fold reduction in the growth of BCC in nude mice was observed if D3 expression was knocked down. A decrease in D1 activity has been described in renal clear cell carcinoma, primary liver cancer, lung cancer, and some pituitary tumors, while in breast cancer cells and tissue there is an increase in D1 activity. Furthermore D1 mRNA and activity were found to be decreased in papillary thyroid cancer while D1 and D2 activities were significantly higher in follicular thyroid cancer tissue, in follicular adenoma and in anaplastic thyroid cancer. It is conceivable that understanding how deiodinase dysregulation in tumor cells affect thyroid hormone signaling and possibly interfere with tumor progression could lead to new antineoplastic approaches.

  12. Coexistence of papillary thyroid cancer and Hashimoto thyroiditis in children: report of 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koibuchi, Harumi; Omoto, Kiyoka; Fukushima, Noriyoshi; Toyotsuji, Tomonori; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Kawano, Mikihiko

    2014-07-01

    This report documents 3 pediatric papillary thyroid carcinoma cases with associated Hashimoto thyroiditis. In all 3 cases, hypoechoic nodules accompanied by multiple echogenic spots were noted on sonography of the thyroid. Hashimoto thyroiditis was suspected on the basis of positive thyroid autoantibody test results and pathologic examinations of thyroidectomy specimens, which revealed chronic thyroiditis with lymphocytic infiltration as the background of papillary thyroid carcinoma development. The potential for papillary carcinoma development warrants close follow-up, and meticulous sonographic examinations must be performed in children with Hashimoto thyroiditis. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  13. A case of synchronous hurthle cell adenoma of thyroid and para thyroid adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoome Tohidi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Synchronous hurthle cell adenoma of thyroid and para thyroid adenoma is very rare .Here we dicuss a 46 year old woman who presented with a thyroid nodule. Thyroid function test was normal but she had mild hypercalcemia. Fine needle aspiration of thyroid nodule was done that it was suspecious to follicular neoplasm or follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer .Then the patient underwent thyroidectomy. In surgical specimen hurthle cell adenoma of thyroid and parathyroid adenoma was confirmed.Measurment of serum calcium is recommended in patients who are candidate for thyroid surgery.

  14. The UNO Aviation Monograph Series: The Airline Quality Rating 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1998-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple factors important to consumers. Development history and calculation details for the AQR rating system are detailed in The Airline Quality Rating 1991 issued in April, 1991, by the National Institute for Aviation Research at Wichita State University. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 1998, contains monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 1997. Additional copies are available by contacting Wichita State University or University of Nebraska at Omaha. The Airline Quality Rating 1998 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the ten major U.S. airlines operating during 1997. Using the Airline Quality Rating system and monthly performance data for each airline for the calendar year of 1997, individual and comparative ratings are reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major airlines domestic operations for the 12 month period of 1997, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1991 through 1996 are included to provide a longer term view of quality in the industry.

  15. The UNO Aviation Monograph Series: The Airline Quality Rating 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1997-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple factors important to consumers. Development history and calculation details for the AQR rating system are detailed in The Airline Quality Rating 1991 issued in April, 1991, by the National Institute for Aviation Research at Wichita State University. This current report, Airline Rating 1997, contains monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 1996. Additional copies are available by contacting Wichita State University or the University of Nebraska at Omaha. The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) 1997 is a summary of a month-by-month quality ratings for the nine major domestic U.S. airlines operating during 1996. Using the Airline Quality Rating system and monthly performance data for each airline for the calendar year of 1996, individual and comparative ratings are reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major domestic airlines across the 12 month period of 1996, and industry average results. Also comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1991 through 1995 are included to provide a longer term view of quality in the industry.

  16. Use of Ultrasound in the Management of Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lew, John I.; Solorzano, Carmen C.

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the utility of ultrasound in evaluating thyroid nodules, staging thyroid cancer, determining the extent of surgery needed in thyroid cancer patients, and the surveillance of patients treated for thyroid cancer.

  17. Serum BAFF and thyroid autoantibodies in autoimmune thyroid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiunn-Diann; Wang, Yuan-Hung; Fang, Wen-Fang; Hsiao, Chia-Jung; Chagnaadorj, Amarzaya; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Tang, Kam-Tsun; Cheng, Chao-Wen

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the association of serum B-lymphocyte activating factor (BAFF) levels with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) in a Chinese population. We enrolled 221 patients with AITD [170 patients with Graves' disease (GD), 51 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT)], and 124 healthy controls. Serum BAFF levels, thyroid function and thyroid autoantibody (TAb) levels, including of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TSHRAb), anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (Anti-TPO Ab), and antithyroglobulin antibody (ATA), were measured at baseline. Serum BAFF levels were higher in the GD, HT, and AITD groups than in the control group. Significant correlations were observed between BAFF and TSHRAb levels (r=0.238, p=0.018), between BAFF and Anti-TPO Ab levels (p=0.038), and between BAFF and ATA titers (p=0.025) in women but not in men. In addition, serum BAFF levels were significantly associated with free thyroxine (r=0.430, p=0.004) and TSHRAb (r=0.495, p=0.001) levels in women with active GD but not in those with inactive GD. Serum BAFF levels are increased in GD, HT, and AITD. The correlation between serum BAFF and TAb levels exhibits a dimorphic pattern, particularly in active GD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hashimoto's Thyroiditis Pathology and Risk for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparodis, Rodis; Imam, Shahnawaz; Todorova-Koteva, Kristina; Staii, Anca

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) has been found to coexist with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in surgical specimens, but an association between the two conditions has been discounted by the medical literature. Therefore, we performed this study to determine any potential relationship between HT and the risk of developing DTC. Methods: We collected data for thyrotropin (TSH), thyroxine (T4), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) titers, surgical pathology, and weight-based levothyroxine (LT4) replacement dose for patients who were referred for thyroid surgery. Patients with HT at final pathology were studied further. To estimate thyroid function, patients with preoperative hypothyroid HT (Hypo-HT) were divided into three equal groups based on their LT4 replacement: LT4-Low (1.43 μg/kg). A group of preoperatively euthyroid (Euth-HT) patients but with HT by pathology was also studied. All subjects were also grouped based on their TPO-Ab titer in TPO-high (titer >1:1000) or TPO-low/negative (titer thyroid glands (LT4-Low) but not in fully hypothyroid HT (LT4-Mid and LT4-High). High TPO-Ab titers appear to protect against DTC in patients with HT. PMID:24708347

  19. Thyroid Tubercle of Zuckerkandl: importance in thyroid surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheahan, Patrick

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Tubercle of Zuckerkandl (TZ), which is the remant of the lateral thyroid process, is an important anatomic structure that serves as a reliable landmark for the recurrent laryngeal nerve in thyroid surgery. Furthermore, removal of the TZ is critical for the adequate performance of a total thyroidectomy. However, there is little mention of the TZ in surgical textbooks or papers. METHODS: Prospective observational study of 138 consecutive thyroid surgeries. The presence of the TZ, its size, and relationship to the recurrent laryngeal nerve, were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 211 thyroid lobes were included in the study. The TZ was identified in 61.1% of all thyroid lobes. The median size was 8 mm (range = 3-40 mm). A TZ was more commonly identified on the right (69.6%) than on the left side (53.2%) (P = .02). The recurrent laryngeal nerve was found deep to the TZ in 98.4% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: A TZ is present in the majority of thyroid lobes. Awareness of the TZ is critical in performing an adequate total thyroidectomy, and is very useful as a landmark for the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

  20. MR imaging of diffuse thyroid disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Masaaki; Fujii, Koichi; Ohnishi, Takuya; Higashikawa, Motoki; Araki, Yutaka; Hamada, Tatsumi; Ishida, Osamu

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 38 diffuse goiters, including 30 chronic thyroiditis and 8 Basedow disease. MR findings were analyzed as to degree of swelling, margin, internal structures including homogeneity and low intensity bands. With regard to signal intensity, thyroid-muscle-signal intensity ratios on T1 and T2-weighted images were measured in 19 normal thyroid glands, 30 chronic thyroiditis and 8 Basedow disease. Additionally thyroid-muscle-signal intensity ratios were compared between 19 hypothyroid glands and 11 euthyroid glands in chronic thyroiditis. Chronic thyroiditis tended to show lobulated margins, inhomogeneous intensity, and low intensity bands connecting with vessels or not. Basedow disease tended to display smooth margins, inhomogeneous intensity and low intensity bands connecting with vessels. Thyroid-muscle-signal intensity ratios of Basedow disease and chronic thyroiditis were significantly higher than those of normal thyroid gland at all sequences. In chronic thyroiditis thyroid-muscle-signal intensity ratios of euthyroid glands were significantly higher than those of hypothyroid glands. MR imaging could reflect pathologic features of diffuse goiters. Moreover, MR imaging is potentially contributory to speculate about thyroid function and degree of serious condition in diffuse thyroid disorders. (author)

  1. Cardiovascular Disease and Thyroid Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Jens; Selmer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones at the ce......Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones...... at the cellular level. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with increased left ventricular mass of the heart, which reverts after obtaining euthyroidism. Mortality and risk of major cardiovascular events are increased. Subclinical hypothyroidism is also associated with subtle changes in the heart, e.g. its...

  2. Gene therapy of thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Wei; Tan Jian

    2007-01-01

    Normally, differentiated thyroid carcinoma(DTC) is a disease of good prognosis, but about 30% of the tumors are dedifferentiate, which are inaccessible to standard therapeutic procedures such as 'operation, 131 I therapy and thyroid hormone'. Both internal and abroad experts are researching a new therapy of dedifferentiated thyroid carcinoma--gene therapy. Many of them utilize methods of it, but follow different strategies: (1) transduction of the thyroid sodium/iodide transporter gene to make tissues that do not accumulate iodide treatable by 131 I therapy; (2) strengthening of the anti-tumor immune response; (3) suicide gene therapy; (4) depression the generation of tumor cells; (5) gene therapy of anti- vascularization. (authors)

  3. Clinical presentation of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Shah, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    The clinical manifestation of thyroid cancer (TC) as seen at the Nuclear Medicine Department, where the patients investigated prior to diagnosis of disease are clinically suspected to harbor malignancy and mostly referred for scintigraphic investigations are presented

  4. Nodal metastasis in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    The biological behavior and hence the prognosis of thyroid cancer (TC) depends among other factors on the extent of spread of the disease outside the thyroid bed. This effect is controversial, especially for nodal metastasis of well differentiated thyroid carcinoma (WDC). Nodal metastasis at the time of initial diagnosis behaves differently depending on the histology, age of the patient, presence of extrathyroidal extension, and the sex of the individual. The type of the surgery, administration of 131 I and thyroxin suppression also to some extent influence the rate of recurrence and mortality. Experience has shown that it is not as innocuous as a small intrathyroidal tumor without any invasion outside the thyroid bed and due consideration should be accorded to the management strategies for handling patients with nodal metastasis

  5. Radiological patterns of thyroid calcifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jun; Sim, Do Chul; Park, Seog Hee; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the various patterns of calcification demonstrated in the anterior and lateral neck roentgenograms of 213 unselected patients with thyroid enlargement. The patterns of thyroid calcifications were correlated with clinical, surgical and histological findings. The results were as follows: 1. Of 213 cases of thyroid enlargement, 180 cases were benign and 168 cases were female. 2. The calcification rate was high in the chronic thyroid enlargement. 3. The incidence of calcification was 30.2% in the malignancy and 17.2% in the benign disease. There was no calcification in the Hashimoto's disease. 4. The nodular calcification was demonstrated in the both benign and malignant disease but curvilinear calcification was predominantly seen in benign disease.

  6. Parathyroid transplantation in thyroid surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołkowski, Filip; Nawrot, Ireneusz

    2017-01-01

    Permanent hypoparathyroidism following thyroid surgery is rare. Its prevalence is reported to be below 1–2% if surgery is performed by experienced thyroid surgeons. Parathyroid identification and preservation in situ with good vascular supply is the mainstay of safe thyroid surgery. However, if the parathyroid glands are damaged, autotransplantation should be undertaken to preserve their function. Parathyroid transplantation can be considered in three distinct modes of application: (I) fresh parathyroid tissue autotransplantation during thyroidectomy in order to reduce the risk of permanent hypoparathyroidism; (II) cryopreserved parathyroid tissue autotransplantation in patients with permanent hypoparathyroidism; (III) parathyroid allotransplantation in patients with permanent hypoparathyroidism when cryopreserved parathyroid tissue is not available for grafting. Nowadays, allotransplantation of cultured parathyroid cells without immunosuppression should be taken into consideration in selected patients as an alternative to calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation in management of permanent hypoparathyroidism. This paper is aimed to provide a review of current status of various parathyroid transplantation techniques in thyroid surgery. PMID:29142845

  7. Painless thyroiditis associated to thyroid carcinoma: role of initial ultrasonography evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Raisa Bressan; Macedo, Bruno Mussoi de; Izquierdo, Rogério Friedrich; Meyer, Erika Laurini Souza

    2016-04-01

    Even though it is a rare event, most associations of thyroid carcinoma with subacute thyroiditis described in the literature are related to its granulomatous form (Quervain's thyroiditis). We present a patient with subacute lymphocytic thyroiditis (painless thyroiditis) and papillary thyroid cancer that was first suspected in an initial ultrasound evaluation. A 30-year old female patient who was referred to the emergency room due to hyperthyroidism symptoms was diagnosed with painless thyroiditis established by physical examination and laboratory findings. With the presence of a palpable painless thyroid nodule an ultrasound was prescribed and the images revealed a suspicious thyroid nodule, microcalcification focus in the heterogeneous thyroid parenquima and cervical lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspiration biopsy was taken from this nodule; cytology was assessed for compatibility with papillary thyroid carcinoma. Postsurgical pathology evaluation showed a multicentric papillary carcinoma and lymphocytic infiltration. Subacute thyroiditis, regardless of type, may produce transitory ultrasound changes that obscure the coexistence of papillary carcinoma. Due to this, initial thyroid ultrasound evaluation should be delayed until clinical recovery. We recommended a thyroid ultrasound exam for initial evaluation of painless thyroiditis, particularly in patients with palpable thyroid nodule. Further cytological examination is recommended in cases presenting with suspect thyroid nodule and/or non-nodular hypoechoic (> 1 cm) or heterogeneous areas with microcalcification focus.

  8. Thyroid Dysfunction from Antineoplastic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, P. Reed; Marqusee, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Unlike cytotoxic agents that indiscriminately affect rapidly dividing cells, newer antineoplastic agents such as targeted therapies and immunotherapies are associated with thyroid dysfunction. These include tyrosine kinase inhibitors, bexarotene, radioiodine-based cancer therapies, denileukin diftitox, alemtuzumab, interferon-α, interleukin-2, ipilimumab, tremelimumab, thalidomide, and lenalidomide. Primary hypothyroidism is the most common side effect, although thyrotoxicosis and effects on thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion and thyroid hormone metabolism have also been described. Most agents cause thyroid dysfunction in 20%–50% of patients, although some have even higher rates. Despite this, physicians may overlook drug-induced thyroid dysfunction because of the complexity of the clinical picture in the cancer patient. Symptoms of hypothyroidism, such as fatigue, weakness, depression, memory loss, cold intolerance, and cardiovascular effects, may be incorrectly attributed to the primary disease or to the antineoplastic agent. Underdiagnosis of thyroid dysfunction can have important consequences for cancer patient management. At a minimum, the symptoms will adversely affect the patient’s quality of life. Alternatively, such symptoms can lead to dose reductions of potentially life-saving therapies. Hypothyroidism can also alter the kinetics and clearance of medications, which may lead to undesirable side effects. Thyrotoxicosis can be mistaken for sepsis or a nonendocrinologic drug side effect. In some patients, thyroid disease may indicate a higher likelihood of tumor response to the agent. Both hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis are easily diagnosed with inexpensive and specific tests. In many patients, particularly those with hypothyroidism, the treatment is straightforward. We therefore recommend routine testing for thyroid abnormalities in patients receiving these antineoplastic agents. PMID:22010182

  9. Investigative procedures in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the main objectives of the procedures is to establish the likelihood of malignancy in the thyroid gland prior to surgery and detect metastases after surgery. Thyroid imaging is discussed in the context of (a) its role in the diagnosis of the primary disease (b) in the investigation of post-operative residual disease and (c) its role in the follow-up of patients after radioiodine therapy

  10. pattern of subclinical thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijaz, A.; Marri, M.H.; Qureshi, A.H.; Qamar, M.A.; Ali, N.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of subclinical thyroid disease (SCTD) in local population visiting a hospital laboratory for thyroid function tests. Design: It was a hospital - based study carried in consecutive patients who reported for thyroid function tests in the hospital laboratory. Place and duration of study: The study was conducted in combined military Hospital, Quetta during June 1999 to September 2000. Subject and methods: Serum samples of 917 patients living in Quetta and its surrounding were analysed for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) free thyroxin (FT4), and total tri-iodothyronine (T3) concentration using chemiluminescence technique on hormone auto analyser (LIA-Mat - Sangtech Germany). Results: Out of 917 patients, 287 (23%) were found to be having SCTD while overt thyroid disease was found in 288 (31%) patients. Prevalence of sub-clinical hypothyroidism (SCO) and sub-clinical hyperthyroidism (sce) was found to be almost equal with a profound female preponderance in both the groups. SCO was more common in children (<12 years of age). Conclusion: Almost every fourth patient reporting for thyroid function tests was diagnosed as having SCTD - a disease entity that is still not well known and that poses diagnostic and management problems for the pathologists and clinicians. (author)

  11. Sudden unexpected death associated with lymphocytic thyroiditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vibeke; Drostrup, Dorthe Høj; Thomsen, Jørgen L

    2007-01-01

    , especially, is easily overlooked at autopsy as there are no macroscopic changes and often no prior symptoms or history of thyroid disease pointing towards this condition. Analyses of thyroid hormones are unreliable in predicting endocrine status in life. Routine microscopy of the thyroid gland is therefore...... of their alcohol abuse, (iii) cases of fatal poisoning other than opiate addicts, (iv) unknown cause of death and (v) controls without prior disease. Tissue samples from the thyroid gland were cut and stained with haematoxylin and eosin and van Gieson. Histology examinations were subsequently performed blind...... advocated in cases of sudden unexpected death in order to diagnose thyroid disease, in particular silent (painless) thyroiditis....

  12. 2015 American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Adult Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Haugen, Bryan R; Alexander, Erik K; Bible, Keith C; Doherty, Gerard M; Mandel, Susan J; Nikiforov, Yuri E; Pacini, Furio; Randolph, Gregory W; Sawka, Anna M; Schlumberger, Martin; Schuff, Kathryn G; Sherman, Steven I; Sosa, Julie Ann; Steward, David L; Tuttle, R. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem, and differentiated thyroid cancer is becoming increasingly prevalent. Since the American Thyroid Association's (ATA's) guidelines for the management of these disorders were revised in 2009, significant scientific advances have occurred in the field. The aim of these guidelines is to inform clinicians, patients, researchers, and health policy makers on published evidence relating to the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules and d...

  13. IARC Monographs: 40 Years of Evaluating Carcinogenic Hazards to Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Aaron; Vineis, Paolo; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Andersen, Aage; Anto, Josep M.; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Beland, Frederick A.; Berrington, Amy; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Brownson, Ross C.; Bucher, John R.; Cantor, Kenneth P.; Cardis, Elisabeth; Cherrie, John W.; Christiani, David C.; Cocco, Pierluigi; Coggon, David; Comba, Pietro; Demers, Paul A.; Dement, John M.; Douwes, Jeroen; Eisen, Ellen A.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Fenske, Richard A.; Fleming, Lora E.; Fletcher, Tony; Fontham, Elizabeth; Forastiere, Francesco; Frentzel-Beyme, Rainer; Fritschi, Lin; Gerin, Michel; Goldberg, Marcel; Grandjean, Philippe; Grimsrud, Tom K.; Gustavsson, Per; Haines, Andy; Hartge, Patricia; Hansen, Johnni; Hauptmann, Michael; Heederik, Dick; Hemminki, Kari; Hemon, Denis; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hoppin, Jane A.; Huff, James; Jarvholm, Bengt; Kang, Daehee; Karagas, Margaret R.; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Kjuus, Helge; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kriebel, David; Kristensen, Petter; Kromhout, Hans; Laden, Francine; Lebailly, Pierre; LeMasters, Grace; Lubin, Jay H.; Lynch, Charles F.; Lynge, Elsebeth; ‘t Mannetje, Andrea; McMichael, Anthony J.; McLaughlin, John R.; Marrett, Loraine; Martuzzi, Marco; Merchant, James A.; Merler, Enzo; Merletti, Franco; Miller, Anthony; Mirer, Franklin E.; Monson, Richard; Nordby, Karl-Cristian; Olshan, Andrew F.; Parent, Marie-Elise; Perera, Frederica P.; Perry, Melissa J.; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Pirastu, Roberta; Porta, Miquel; Pukkala, Eero; Rice, Carol; Richardson, David B.; Ritter, Leonard; Ritz, Beate; Ronckers, Cecile M.; Rushton, Lesley; Rusiecki, Jennifer A.; Rusyn, Ivan; Samet, Jonathan M.; Sandler, Dale P.; de Sanjose, Silvia; Schernhammer, Eva; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Seixas, Noah; Shy, Carl; Siemiatycki, Jack; Silverman, Debra T.; Simonato, Lorenzo; Smith, Allan H.; Smith, Martyn T.; Spinelli, John J.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Stallones, Lorann; Stayner, Leslie T.; Steenland, Kyle; Stenzel, Mark; Stewart, Bernard W.; Stewart, Patricia A.; Symanski, Elaine; Terracini, Benedetto; Tolbert, Paige E.; Vainio, Harri; Vena, John; Vermeulen, Roel; Victora, Cesar G.; Ward, Elizabeth M.; Weinberg, Clarice R.; Weisenburger, Dennis; Wesseling, Catharina; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Zahm, Shelia Hoar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Programme for the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans has been criticized for several of its evaluations, and also for the approach used to perform these evaluations. Some critics have claimed that failures of IARC Working Groups to recognize study weaknesses and biases of Working Group members have led to inappropriate classification of a number of agents as carcinogenic to humans. Objectives: The authors of this Commentary are scientists from various disciplines relevant to the identification and hazard evaluation of human carcinogens. We examined criticisms of the IARC classification process to determine the validity of these concerns. Here, we present the results of that examination, review the history of IARC evaluations, and describe how the IARC evaluations are performed. Discussion: We concluded that these recent criticisms are unconvincing. The procedures employed by IARC to assemble Working Groups of scientists from the various disciplines and the techniques followed to review the literature and perform hazard assessment of various agents provide a balanced evaluation and an appropriate indication of the weight of the evidence. Some disagreement by individual scientists to some evaluations is not evidence of process failure. The review process has been modified over time and will undoubtedly be altered in the future to improve the process. Any process can in theory be improved, and we would support continued review and improvement of the IARC processes. This does not mean, however, that the current procedures are flawed. Conclusions: The IARC Monographs have made, and continue to make, major contributions to the scientific underpinning for societal actions to improve the public’s health. Citation: Pearce N, Blair A, Vineis P, Ahrens W, Andersen A, Anto JM, Armstrong BK, Baccarelli AA, Beland FA, Berrington A, Bertazzi PA, Birnbaum LS, Brownson RC, Bucher JR, Cantor KP

  14. Thyroid sonomorphology, thyroid peroxidase antibodies and thyroid function: new epidemiological data in unselected German employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döbert, N; Balzer, K; Diener, J; Wegscheider, K; Vaupel, R; Grünwald, F

    2008-01-01

    Employees of Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbH underwent thyroid screening in 2006 to assess new data about the prevalence of irregular sonomorphological pattern, elevated thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO AB) and thyroid function in an unselected adult German population. The examination included 700 unselected employees. Blood samples were analyzed for serum TSH and TPO AB, and ultrasound of the thyroid was performed. In 40.7% of the participants (n = 285) an irregular sonomorphological pattern was detected: goiter in 13.7%, nodules in 35.6%, nodular goiter in 8.6% and a hypoechogenic pattern of the thyroid gland in 20.4%. Serum TSH was increased in 3.9% and decreased in 0.6%. Elevated TPO AB values were observed in 13%. Only 1.4% (n = 10) showed elevated TPO AB combined with a TSH increase. Sonomorphological abnormalities were associated with increased TPO AB in 7.1%. Elevated TPO AB was observed significantly more often in combination with sonomorphological pathology (54.9%) than without (45.1%) (p = 0.003). Sonomorphological disorders are still very common in Germany and our results are comparable with previous screening examinations. Elevated TPO AB correlated significantly with the sonomorphological pattern of nodules and goiter. This may reflect an improved iodine supply or a hypertrophic stage of autoimmune thyroiditis in some cases.

  15. Benign Thyroid Conditions Associated with Increased Risk of Thyroid Cancer Later in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a new study from the National Cancer Institute and Aarhus University Hospital in Denmark, researchers report an association between diagnosis of hyperthyroidism and thyroiditis (inflammation of the thyroid gland), two benign thyroid conditions, and increased risk of differentiated thyroid cancer.

  16. Thyroid morphology in lethal non-thyroidal illness: a post-mortem study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.E. de Jongh (Felix); A.C. Jobsis; J.W.F. Elte (Jan Willem)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: Non-thyroidal illness (NTI) is associated with alterations in thyroid hormone metabolism. Whether morphological changes of the thyroid gland accompany NTI is unknown. The aim of the present study was to describe thyroid morphology in patients with

  17. Reevaluation of the Thyroid Scan for the Assessment of Pathophysiologic Status of Thyroid Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, In Sook; Nah, Jung Il; Kim, Deog Yoon

    1991-01-01

    To diagnosis and understand the pathophysiologic status of thyroid disease, not only hormonal measurements but also thyroid scan is believed to have a unique role. Especially in the cases of the change of the thyroid function by thyroiditis, it is emphasized that thyroid scan can be helpful in differential diagnosis, Discordant results of thyroid hormone levels and thyroid scan are found in transient hyperthyroidism, or in transient hypothyroidism. We analysed and reevaluated thyroid scan to look at the importance of thyroid scan. The results are summarised as follows: 1) 80%. of hyperthyroid patients had hyperthyroidism increased RAIU with even density, they are compatible with Graves' disease. 2) 2.1% of hyperthyroid patients had normal or decreased RAIU, which are classified as high iodine turn over genuine hyperthyroidism. 3) 8.5% of hyperthyroid patients had markedly decreased RAIU at both 2 hour and 24 hour, whose pathologic processes are suggested to be heterogenous namely subacute thyroiditis, postpartum thyroiditis, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and pamless thyroiditis. 4) 45% of hypothyroid patients had increased 24 hr RAIU, 30% of hypothyroid patients were normal, 25%, decreased. In conclusion, thyroid scan should be reevaluated its useful role to asses the pathophysiologic status of thyroid disease. Especially in cases of transient thyrotoxicosis, thyroid scan is essential to diagnose and follow up the disease process.

  18. Flavonoids, Thyroid Iodide Uptake and Thyroid Cancer-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Carlos F L; de Freitas, Mariana L; Ferreira, Andrea C F

    2017-06-12

    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignant tumor of the endocrine system and the incidence has been increasing in recent years. In a great part of the differentiated carcinomas, thyrocytes are capable of uptaking iodide. In these cases, the main therapeutic approach includes thyroidectomy followed by ablative therapy with radioiodine. However, in part of the patients, the capacity to concentrate iodide is lost due to down-regulation of the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), the protein responsible for transporting iodide into the thyrocytes. Thus, therapy with radioiodide becomes ineffective, limiting therapeutic options and reducing the life expectancy of the patient. Excessive ingestion of some flavonoids has been associated with thyroid dysfunction and goiter. Nevertheless, studies have shown that some flavonoids can be beneficial for thyroid cancer, by reducing cell proliferation and increasing cell death, besides increasing NIS mRNA levels and iodide uptake. Recent data show that the flavonoids apingenin and rutin are capable of increasing NIS function and expression in vivo. Herein we review literature data regarding the effect of flavonoids on thyroid cancer, besides the effect of these compounds on the expression and function of the sodium-iodide symporter. We will also discuss the possibility of using flavonoids as adjuvants for therapy of thyroid cancer.

  19. Flavonoids, Thyroid Iodide Uptake and Thyroid Cancer—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Carlos F. L.; de Freitas, Mariana L.; Ferreira, Andrea C. F.

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignant tumor of the endocrine system and the incidence has been increasing in recent years. In a great part of the differentiated carcinomas, thyrocytes are capable of uptaking iodide. In these cases, the main therapeutic approach includes thyroidectomy followed by ablative therapy with radioiodine. However, in part of the patients, the capacity to concentrate iodide is lost due to down-regulation of the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), the protein responsible for transporting iodide into the thyrocytes. Thus, therapy with radioiodide becomes ineffective, limiting therapeutic options and reducing the life expectancy of the patient. Excessive ingestion of some flavonoids has been associated with thyroid dysfunction and goiter. Nevertheless, studies have shown that some flavonoids can be beneficial for thyroid cancer, by reducing cell proliferation and increasing cell death, besides increasing NIS mRNA levels and iodide uptake. Recent data show that the flavonoids apingenin and rutin are capable of increasing NIS function and expression in vivo. Herein we review literature data regarding the effect of flavonoids on thyroid cancer, besides the effect of these compounds on the expression and function of the sodium-iodide symporter. We will also discuss the possibility of using flavonoids as adjuvants for therapy of thyroid cancer. PMID:28604619

  20. Challenges in interpretation of thyroid function tests in pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Bliddal, Sofie; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh

    2011-01-01

    Physiological changes during gestation are important to be aware of in measurement and interpretation of thyroid function tests in women with autoimmune thyroid diseases. Thyroid autoimmune activity is decreasing in pregnancy. Measurement of serum TSH is the first-line screening variable....... Measurement of antithyroperoxidase and/or TSH receptor antibodies adds to the differential diagnosis of autoimmune and nonautoimmune thyroid diseases....... for thyroid dysfunction also in pregnancy. However, using serum TSH for control of treatment of maternal thyroid autoimmunity infers a risk for compromised foetal development. Peripheral thyroid hormone values are highly different among laboratories, and there is a need for laboratory-specific gestational age...

  1. Thyroid diseases after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagataki, Shigenobu

    1993-01-01

    Radioactive iodine is released at every atomic-bomb testings and nuclear plants accidents and radioactive iodine is taken up by thyroid glands (internal radiation). In addition to the internal radiation, radioactive fallout causes the external radiation and thyroid glands are known to be sensitive to the external radiation. Furthermore, patients with radiation-induced thyroid disease can survive for a long time regardless of the treatment. The survey of thyroid diseases, therefore, is very sensitive and reliable ways to investigate the effects of radiation caused by atomic bomb explosion, testing and various types of nuclear plants' accidents. Our group from Nagasaki University was asked to investigate the thyroid diseases and jointed to the Sasakawa Project. In order to investigate the effects of radiation on thyroid disease, it is essential 1) to make a correct diagnosis in each subject, 2) to calculate a correct radiation dose in each subject and finally, 3) to find out the correlation between the radiation dose and thyroid diseases including age-, sex- and area-matched controls. We have established 5 centers (1 in Russia, 2 in Belarus, 2 in Ukraine) and supplied the most valuable ultrasonography instruments, commercial kits for the determination of serum free T 4 and TSH level and for the autoantibodies, instrument for urinary iodine measurements, syringers, tubes, refrigerators, etc. We visit each center often and asked people at centers to come to Japan for training. Protocol of investigation is essentially the same as that in Nagasaki, and we are planning to investigate more than 50,000 children within 5 years. We are hoping to show a definite conclusion in the near future. Recent articles are also discussed. (author)

  2. Clinical concepts on thyroid emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Giampaolo; Corsello, Salvatore Maria; Pontecorvi, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid-related emergencies are caused by overt dysfunction of the gland which are so severe that require admission to intensive care units (ICU) frequently. Nonetheless, in the ICU setting, it is crucial to differentiate patients with non-thyroidal illness and alterations in thyroid function tests from those with intrinsic thyroid disease. This review presents and discusses the main etiopathogenetical and clinical aspects of hypothyroid coma (HC) and thyrotoxic storm (TS), including therapeutic strategy flow-charts. Furthermore, a special chapter is dedicated to the approach to massive goiter, which represents a surgical thyroid emergency. We searched the electronic MEDLINE database on September 2013. Data Selection and Data Extraction: Reviews, original articles, and case reports on "myxedematous coma," "HC," "thyroid storm," "TS," "massive goiter," "huge goiter," "prevalence," "etiology," "diagnosis," "therapy," and "prognosis" were selected. Severe excess or defect of thyroid hormone is rare conditions, which jeopardize the life of patients in most cases. Both HC and TS are triggered by precipitating factors, which occur in patients with severe hypothyroidism or thyrotoxicosis, respectively. The pillars of HC therapy are high-dose l-thyroxine and/or tri-iodothyroinine; i.v. glucocorticoids; treatment of hydro-electrolyte imbalance (mainly, hyponatraemia); treatment of hypothermia; often, endotracheal intubation and assisted mechanic ventilation are needed. Therapy of TS is based on beta-blockers, thyrostatics, and i.v. glucocorticoids; eventually, high-dose of iodide compounds or lithium carbonate may be of benefit. Surgery represents the gold standard treatment in patients with euthyroid massive nodular goiter, although new techniques - e.g., percutaneous laser ablation - are helpful in subjects at high surgical risk or refusing operation.

  3. CLINICAL CONCEPTS ON THYROID EMERGENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo ePontecorvi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Thyroid-related emergencies are caused by overt dysfunction of the gland that are so severe that require admission to intensive care units frequently. Nonetheless, in the ICU setting, it is crucial to differentiate patients with non-thyroidal illness and alterations in thyroid function tests from those with intrinsic thyroid disease. This review presents and discusses the main etiopathogenetical and clinical aspects of hypothyroid coma (HC and thyrotoxic storm (TS, including therapeutic strategy flow-charts. Furthermore, a special chapter is dedicated to the approach to massive goiter, which represents a surgical thyroid emergency.Data source. We searched the electronic MEDLINE database to September 2013.Data selection and Data extraction. Reviews, original articles and case reports on myxedematous coma, hypothyroid coma, thyroid storm, thyrotoxic storm, massive goiter, huge goiter, prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, therapy, prognosis were selected.Data synthesis and conclusions. Severe excess or defect of thyroid hormone are rare conditions which jeopardize the life of patients in most cases. Both HC and TS are triggered by precipitating factors, which occur in patients with severe hypothyroidism or thyrotoxicosis, respectively. The pillars of HC therapy are: high dose l-thyroxine and/or tri-iodothyroinine; i.v. glucocorticoids; treatment of hydro-electrolyte imbalance (mainly, hyponatraemia; treatment of hypothermia; not rarely, endotracheal intubation and assisted mechanic ventilation are needed. Therapy of TS is based on beta-blockers, thyrostatics, and i.v. glucocorticoids; eventually, high-dose iodide compounds or lithium carbonate may be of benefit. Surgery represents the gold standard treatment in patients with euthyroid massive nodular goiter, although new techniques – e.g., percutaneous laser ablation - are helpful in subjects at high surgical risk or refusing operation.

  4. Risk of thyroid cancer in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules with an emphasis on family history of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JHwang, Shin Hye; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Jin Young

    2016-01-01

    To determine the factors associated with thyroid cancer, focusing on first-degree family history and ultrasonography (US) features, in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. This retrospective study included 1310 thyroid nodules of 1254 euthyroid asymptomatic patients who underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy between November 2012 and August 2013. Nodule size and clinical risk factors- such as patient age, gender, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer, multiplicity on US and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels - were considered together with US features to compare benign and malignant nodules. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk of thyroid malignancy according to clinical and US characteristics. Although all of the clinical factors and US findings were significantly different between patients with benign and malignant nodules, a solitary lesion on US (p = 0.041–0.043), US features and male gender (p < 0.001) were significant independent risk factors for thyroid malignancy in a multivariate analysis. Patient age, a first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and high normal serum TSH levels did not independently significantly increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, multicollinearity existed between US assessment and patient age, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and serum TSH values. Ultrasonography findings should be the primary criterion used to decide the management of euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. The concept of first-degree family history as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy should be further studied in asymptomatic patients

  5. Risk of thyroid cancer in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules with an emphasis on family history of thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JHwang, Shin Hye; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Jin Young [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    To determine the factors associated with thyroid cancer, focusing on first-degree family history and ultrasonography (US) features, in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. This retrospective study included 1310 thyroid nodules of 1254 euthyroid asymptomatic patients who underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy between November 2012 and August 2013. Nodule size and clinical risk factors- such as patient age, gender, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer, multiplicity on US and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels - were considered together with US features to compare benign and malignant nodules. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk of thyroid malignancy according to clinical and US characteristics. Although all of the clinical factors and US findings were significantly different between patients with benign and malignant nodules, a solitary lesion on US (p = 0.041–0.043), US features and male gender (p < 0.001) were significant independent risk factors for thyroid malignancy in a multivariate analysis. Patient age, a first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and high normal serum TSH levels did not independently significantly increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, multicollinearity existed between US assessment and patient age, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and serum TSH values. Ultrasonography findings should be the primary criterion used to decide the management of euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. The concept of first-degree family history as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy should be further studied in asymptomatic patients.

  6. Anaplastic thyroid cancer, tumorigenesis and therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, J P

    2010-03-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a fatal endocrine malignancy. Current therapy fails to significantly improve survival. Recent insights into thyroid tumorigenesis, post-malignant dedifferentiation and mode of metastatic activity offer new therapeutic strategies.

  7. [Autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allelein, S; Feldkamp, J; Schott, M

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland are considered to be the most frequent cause of thyroid gland disorders. Autoimmune thyroid diseases consist of two subgroups: autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) and Graves' disease. The AIT is the most common human autoimmune disease. Infiltration of the thyroid gland with cytotoxic T‑cells can lead to an initial thyrotoxicosis und during the course to hypothyroidism due to destruction of the thyroid gland. Substitution with Levothyroxine is indicated for manifest hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism with increased thyroid antibodies with the intention of normalizing the serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Graves' disease is characterized by the appearance of stimulating TSH receptor antibodies leading to hyperthyroidism. Endocrine ophthalmopathy may also occur. Ablative therapy with radioiodine therapy or thyroidectomy is administered to patients with Graves' disease without remission after at least 1 year of antithyroid drug therapy.

  8. Amyloidosis of the thyroid gland: ultrasonographic aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moya, M.I.; Vilas, I.; Menargues, M.A.; Hernandez, M.

    1998-01-01

    Subclinical amyloid infiltration of the thyroid gland is very common. However, amyloidosis rarely provokes thyroid symptoms. We describe a case of goiter due to secondary amyloidosis and review the characteristic ultrasound findings associated with this condition. (Author) 6 refs

  9. IODIDE DEFICIENCY, THYROID HORMONES, AND NEURODEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT BODY: Iodide is an essential nutrient for thyroid hormone synthesis. Severe iodide insufficiency during early development is associated with cognitive deficits. Environmental contaminants can perturb the thyroid axis and this perturbation may be more acute under conditio...

  10. Impact of alcohol use on thyroid function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatan Pal Singh Balhara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is one of the commonest illicit psychoactive substances consumed globally and is the world′s third largest risk factor for disease and disability. It has been reported to have multiple effects on the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis and the functioning of the thyroid gland. It has been reported to cause direct suppression of thyroid function by cellular toxicity, and indirect suppression by blunting thyrotropin-releasing hormone response. It causes a decrease of peripheral thyroid hormones during chronic use and in withdrawal. Alcohol use may also confer some protective effect against thyroid nodularity, goiter, and thyroid cancer. This article presents a review of the clinically relevant effects of alcohol on the functioning of the thyroid gland and also discusses the effect of medication used in treatment of alcohol dependence on thyroid function.

  11. Thyroid Cancer Statistics | Did You Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid cancer represents the 8th most common cancer in the United States. Did you know that this cancer, located at the base of the throat in the thyroid gland, is highly treatable and usually curable?

  12. Challenges in Interpretation of Thyroid Function Tests in Pregnant Women with Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Physiological changes during gestation are important to be aware of in measurement and interpretation of thyroid function tests in women with autoimmune thyroid diseases. Thyroid autoimmune activity is decreasing in pregnancy. Measurement of serum TSH is the first-line screening variable for thyroid dysfunction also in pregnancy. However, using serum TSH for control of treatment of maternal thyroid autoimmunity infers a risk for compromised foetal development. Peripheral thyroid hormone values are highly different among laboratories, and there is a need for laboratory-specific gestational age-related reference ranges. Equally important, the intraindividual variability of the thyroid hormone measurements is much narrower than the interindividual variation (reflecting the reference interval. The best laboratory assessment of thyroid function is a free thyroid hormone estimate combined with TSH. Measurement of antithyroperoxidase and/or TSH receptor antibodies adds to the differential diagnosis of autoimmune and nonautoimmune thyroid diseases.

  13. Thyroid Emphysema Following Penetrating Neck Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Demet Karadağ; Egemen Doner; Baki Adapınar

    2011-01-01

    Although traumatic thyroid gland rupture or hemorrhage is usually seen in goitrous glands, injuries of the normal thyroid gland after neck trauma have rarely been described in the literature. We describe a 44-year-old man who presented with thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema (SCE) that occurred after penetrating neck trauma. CT images showed complete resolution of thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema at follow-up examination. Neck injuries can be life threatening. After pene...

  14. Thyroid Hormones as Renal Cell Cancer Regulators

    OpenAIRE

    Szyma?ski, ?ukasz; Matak, Damian; Bartnik, Ewa; Szczylik, Cezary; Czarnecka, Anna M.

    2016-01-01

    It is known that thyroid hormone is an important regulator of cancer development and metastasis. What is more, changes across the genome, as well as alternative splicing, may affect the activity of the thyroid hormone receptors. Mechanism of action of the thyroid hormone is different in every cancer; therefore in this review thyroid hormone and its receptor are presented as a regulator of renal cell carcinoma.

  15. Thyrotoxic thyroiditis after radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blitzer, J.B.; Paolozzi, F.P.; Gottlieb, A.J.; Zamkoff, K.W.; Chung, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    Exposure of the thyroid gland to ionizing radiation has been associated with a variety of abnormalities. Among these are tardive hypothyroidism and an increased risk of developing thyroid nodules and cancer. Although acute thyroiditis has been known to complicate radioactive iodine 131 therapy, it has rarely been associated with external beam irradiation. Thyrotoxic painless thyroiditis developed in two patients after mantle-field irradiation for Hodgkin's disease

  16. Thyroid Dysplasia in Wistar Hannover GALAS Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Klaus; Ernst, Rainer; Fankhauser, Heinz; Hardisty, Jerry F.; Heider, Wolfram; Stevens, Karla

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid dysplasia was recognized in WistarHan GALAS rats and confirmed as a heritable congenital disorder. The gene or genes involved were not identified, but homozygous animals with thyroid dysplasia also exhibited stunted growth, had reduced pituitary gland growth hormone (GH) and were hypothyroid. Heterozygous animals exhibited thyroid dysplasia with normal thyroid hormonal homeostasis and no difference in the incidence of preneoplastic or neoplastic lesions in oncogenicity studies.

  17. IMPORTANCE OF THYROID FUNCTION TEST IN DIABETES

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND : Thyroid disorder and Diabetes are both hormone and endocrine and problems. When thyroid disease occurs in someone with diabetes, it can make blood glucose control more difficult. The incidence and occurrence of thyroid diseases in general population is increasing more and more day by day . As the prevalence of diabetes and thyroid both is more in India, correlation of these two diseases was studied in this study. MA...

  18. Surgery of thyroid gland in Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishdorj, Ts

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The surgery department of Central Hospital no.1 operated on 1690 thyroid disease patients in last 7 years (2000-2007). Patients' ages were 9-80 years. Female : Male ratio 10 : 1. In the last years morbidity is changed, Diffuse toxic Goiter has decreased, Thyroid nodule and cancer has increased. During last 7 years we have operated 164 patients for thyroid mass. 69 cases (51.54%) of them were thyroid carcinoma. In this 69 cases include Anaplastic carcinoma 3, Papillary carcinoma 36, follicular carcinoma 30 cases. 80 percent patients from thyroid cancer cases were diagnosed in pre-operative period, 20 percent were diagnosed in inter and post-operation period. For thyroid cancer cases we made the following operations: - Total thyroidectomy 20 cases, Hemithyroidectomy 30 cases, Hemithyroidectomy 29 cases. After operation 49 patients were sent for radioactive I-131 treatment and 3 cases which recurred, were operated a second time. In the treatment of DTG, there has been a decrease in the number of surgeries, while great increase in the use of I-131. From 1990 to 1999 have been done 1307 operations, because of thyroid disease: - 580 (44.37%) for DTG, 636 (48.66%) for thyroid nodule, 37 ( 2.83%) for thyroid cancer. From 2000 to 2007 we have conducted 1608 operations, because of thyroid disease: 473 (29.41%) for DTG, 919 (57.15%) for thyroid nodule and 134 (8.33%) for thyroid cancer. All operations were done by O.V.Nicolaev's method. (intracapsular resection). Conclusion: 1. the numbers of thyroid cases which have been treated by operation is changing. There are an increasing number of cases of Thyroid nodule and thyroid cancer. 2. There is need to improve preoperative diagnostics. 3. Combination of surgery treatment and radioactive I131 treatment gave good results for thyroid cancer. (author)

  19. Dual ectopic thyroid gland: sonography and scintigraphy of lingual and sublingual thyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Vinko; Glavina, Gordana; Eterović, Davor; Punda, Ante; Brdar, Dubravka

    2014-06-01

    Dual ectopic lingual and sublingual thyroid gland is an extraordinarily rare condition. We present 1 patient with subclinical hypothyroidism. The clinical examination revealed that the thyroid gland was not palpable in its usual cervical location, whereas ultrasonography confirmed an empty thyroid bed without any ectopic thyroid tissue in the rest of the neck. The final diagnosis of dual ectopic lingual and sublingual thyroid was established by ultrasound examination through the mouth floor and confirmed by scintigraphy and CT thereafter.

  20. Diagnosis of bone metastasis from thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechsgaard, Thor; Lelkaitis, Giedrius; Jensen, Karl E

    2015-01-01

    (MRI), but histology revealed a metastasis from thyroid carcinoma, although the patient had no previous history of thyroid malignancy and resection of the thyroid gland was without malignancy. Ultrasound-guided biopsy was possible due to cortical destruction and the multidisciplinary approach with re...

  1. Comparative ultrasound measurement of normal thyroid gland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-08-31

    Aug 31, 2011 ... the normal thyroid gland has a homogenous increased medium level echo texture. The childhood thyroid gland dimension correlates linearly with age and body surface unlike adults. [14] Iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) are thyroid hormones which function to control the basal metabolic rate (BMR).

  2. Maintaining euthyroidism: fundamentals of thyroid hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thyroid-related pathologies, especially subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism, are commonly described in clinical practice. While illnesses related to aberrant thyroid hormone homeostasis are the most prevalent endocrinological conditions diagnosed, important aspects related to thyroid hormone physiology are often ...

  3. Thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies in euthyroid subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prummel, Mark F.; Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2005-01-01

    Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is a key enzyme in the formation of thyroid hormones and a major autoantigen in autoimmune thyroid diseases. Titers of TPO antibodies also correlate with the degree of lymphocytic infiltration in euthyroid subjects, and they are frequently present in euthyroid subjects

  4. The evolution of thyroid function tests

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thyroid gland disturbances are the second most common endocrine disorder after diabetes mellitus. Given that approximately 200 million people in the world have some form of thyroid disease, it is no wonder that thyroid function tests,. i.e. thyrotropin and free thyroxine (T4), currently account for a significant portion of the ...

  5. Thyroid artery embolization for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jingyu; Zhang Xinguo; Xu Liyang; Liu Ming; Zhang Yongtian; Jin Weiya

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the method and result of thyroid artery embolization as a new therapy for hyperthyroidism. Methods: Twenty-two patients with hyperthyroidism underwent selective thyroid artery embolization. Totally 52 thyroid arteries were embolized with microspheres. The indications to this therapy were following: hyperthyroid patients having indications to surgical and 131 I therapy, clinically being difficult to complete the preparation for subtotal thyroidectomy and having high risk for surgical process because of their huge thyroid gland. Results: Serum level of thyroid hormones dropped significantly [median T3 from 8.8 nmol/L (4.3-43.0 nmol/L) to 4.0 nmol/L (1.1-9.2 nmol/L), median T4 from 206.4 nmol/L (77.4-748.2 nmol/L) to 144.5 nmol/L (25.8-279.9 nmol/L), P 131 I treatment of hyperthyroidism. A long term follow-up study is still needed

  6. Ultrasound diagnostics of thyroid diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharchenko, Vladimir P. [Russian Radiology Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kotlyarov, Peter M. [Russian Center of Roentgenradiology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mogutov, Mikhail S.; Sencha, Alexander N.; Patrunov, Yury N.; Belyaev, Denis V. [Yaroslavl Railway Clinic (Russian Federation); Alexandrov, Yury K. [State Medical Academy, Yaroslavl (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    This book is based on the authors' extensive practical experience in the use of modern ultrasound, and other radiological methods, in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. The authors have analyzed more than 100,000 ultrasound examinations performed between 1995 and 2008 in patients with thyroid and parathyroid disease, as well as many thousands of diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound-guided minimally invasive procedures. The opening chapters include discussion of current ultrasound techniques, pitfalls, and the specifics of ultrasound examination of the thyroid in children. Detailed attention is then devoted to findings in the normal thyroid and in the presence of diffuse and focal changes. Further chapters focus on such topics as ultrasound examination after thyroid surgery and ultrasound diagnosis of parathyroid disease, recurrent goiter, and neck masses. Ultrasound-guided minimally invasive techniques, such as fine-needle aspiration biopsy, percutaneous laser ablation, and ethanol and glucocorticoid injections, are considered in depth. This up-to-date and richly illustrated book will interest and assist specialists in ultrasound diagnostics, radiologists, endocrinologists, and neck surgeons. (orig.)

  7. [Smoking and chronic autoimmune thyroiditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzoianu, Ioana Cristina; Arghir, Oana Cristina; Circo, E

    2010-01-01

    The chronic autoimmune thyroiditis are heterogeneous entities by the functional, lesional and evolutive point of view. Ethiopathogenic factors involved in chronic autoimmune thyroiditis are genetical factors, combines with environmental factors, hormonal factors, infectious factors etc. The exact role of smoking on the autoimmune mechanism is unclear, but smoking is known to have an antithyroid effect. Our study tries to estimate the influence of smoking on serum levels of antithyroid peroxidase antibodies and antithyroglobulin antibodies, in a group of patients with various clinical forms of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. We studied a group consists of 310 patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, hospitalised in the Endocrinology Department of Constanta County Hospital, between January 2006 - December 2009. We detected serum values of antithyroidperoxidase antibodies and antithyroglobulin antibodies of our patients. We also followed the age, sex and presence of smoking in our study group. For statistical processing of the data we use Student's t-test. In our study group 24.28% of patients were smokers. Serum levels of antithyroid peroxidase antibodies were significantly increased (p < 0.001) in the smokers patients, compared with the nonsmokers patients. Serum levels of antithyroglobulin antibodies were significantly increased (p < 0.01) in smokers patients, compared with those who were nonsmokers. Smoking increased the serum levels of antithyroid antibodies in patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis.

  8. Ultrasound diagnostics of thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharchenko, Vladimir P.; Kotlyarov, Peter M.; Mogutov, Mikhail S.; Sencha, Alexander N.; Patrunov, Yury N.; Belyaev, Denis V.; Alexandrov, Yury K.

    2010-01-01

    This book is based on the authors' extensive practical experience in the use of modern ultrasound, and other radiological methods, in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. The authors have analyzed more than 100,000 ultrasound examinations performed between 1995 and 2008 in patients with thyroid and parathyroid disease, as well as many thousands of diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound-guided minimally invasive procedures. The opening chapters include discussion of current ultrasound techniques, pitfalls, and the specifics of ultrasound examination of the thyroid in children. Detailed attention is then devoted to findings in the normal thyroid and in the presence of diffuse and focal changes. Further chapters focus on such topics as ultrasound examination after thyroid surgery and ultrasound diagnosis of parathyroid disease, recurrent goiter, and neck masses. Ultrasound-guided minimally invasive techniques, such as fine-needle aspiration biopsy, percutaneous laser ablation, and ethanol and glucocorticoid injections, are considered in depth. This up-to-date and richly illustrated book will interest and assist specialists in ultrasound diagnostics, radiologists, endocrinologists, and neck surgeons. (orig.)

  9. Basic Skills and Employment and Training Programs: A Monograph for Local Elected Officials and Private Industry Council Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumpf, Lori

    This monograph provides advice for local officials and Private Industry Council (PIC) members about youth employment and unemployment problems and strategies for solving them. The first part of the monograph sketches the problem of unemployment and its roots in a changing economy, youths' lack of basic skills, and the mismatch between the needs of…

  10. Cocaine Use in America: Epidemiologic and Clinical Perspectives. National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Research Monograph Series 61.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozel, Nicholas J., Ed.; Adams, Edgar H., Ed.

    This monograph is based on papers presented at a technical review of patterns of cocaine use in the United States which was held in 1984. The foreword by Jerome H. Jaffe acknowledges that, over the past 10 years, cocaine has become a major public health threat in this country. Papers contained in this monograph include: (1) "Cocaine Use in…

  11. Impact of lymphocytic thyroiditis on incidence of pathological incidental thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Eric; Heffron, Cynthia; Murphy, Matthew; O'Leary, Gerard; Sheahan, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of lymphocytic thyroiditis on incidence of incidental thyroid cancers. We conducted a retrospective review of 713 consecutive patients who underwent thyroidectomies. Incidental thyroid cancer was defined as an unexpected cancer discovered on pathological examination outside the index nodule undergoing preoperative cytology. We excluded 65 cases because of preoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancer, and 68 because of nonincidental cancer within the index nodule. Among the remaining 580 cases, there were 43 cases (7.4%) of incidental thyroid cancers. Incidental thyroid cancers were significantly associated with moderate/severe lymphocytic thyroiditis (relative risk = 2.5; p = .03). Sixteen of 56 patients with moderate/severe lymphocytic thyroiditis had Graves' disease, none of whom had incidental thyroid cancer. The risk of incidental thyroid cancer associated with moderate/severe lymphocytic thyroiditis was significantly higher in non-Graves' than patients with Graves' disease (p = .05). The risk of incidental thyroid cancer is significantly increased in patients with moderate/severe lymphocytic thyroiditis. Moderate/severe lymphocytic thyroiditis associated with Graves' disease seems to have a lower risk of incidental thyroid cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 122-127, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Thyroid tumors after irradiation; Tumeurs de la thyroide apres irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlumberger, M. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France)

    1995-12-31

    Epidemiological studies have shown an increased incidence of thyroid tumors after external irradiation during childhood. These studies have shown a long latency and have pointed out risk factors, related either to the subject (young age, female sex) or to the radiation (dose, fractionation, protection). Irradiation by Iodine 131 in adulthood does not seen to increase the risk of thyroid tumor but in childhood data are too scarce to allow any conclusion. Similarly, the risks following low radiation doses and/or protected radiation exposure are still matter of debate. (author). 41 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig.

  13. Harmonization of monographic standards is needed to ensure the quality of Chinese medicinal materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Sandy

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article provides an overview on the regulations of Chinese medicinal materials (CMMs in various countries and regions. Harmonization of CMM monographs would provide standards for the quality control of CMM products and play an important role in the modernization and globalization of Chinese medicine. A harmonized regulatory system would improve the quality of CMMs thereby ensuring the safety of the products and assisting Chinese medicine practitioners in their practice. The fast growing demand worldwide for traditional medicines calls for harmonized monographic standards to safeguard the safety and quality of CMM products.

  14. Thyroid profiles in a patient with resistance to thyroid hormone and episodes of thyrotoxicosis, including repeated painless thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniyama, Matsuo; Otsuka, Fumiko; Tozaki, Teruaki; Ban, Yoshiyuki

    2013-07-01

    Thyrotoxic disease can be difficult to recognize in patients with resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) because the clinical symptoms of thyrotoxicosis cannot be observed, and thyrotropin (TSH) may not be suppressed because of hormone resistance. Painless thyroiditis is a relatively common cause of thyrotoxicosis, but its occurrence in RTH has not been reported. We assessed the thyroid profile in a patient with RTH and episodes of thyrotoxicosis who experienced repeated painless thyroiditis. A 44-year-old Japanese woman with RTH, which was confirmed by the presence of a P453A mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) gene, showed a slight elevation of the basal levels of thyroid hormones, which indicated that her pituitary RTH was mild. She experienced a slight exacerbation of hyperthyroxinemia concomitant with TSH suppression. A diagnosis of painless thyroiditis was made because of the absence of TSH receptor antibodies, low Tc-99m pertechnetate uptake by the thyroid gland, and transient suppression followed by a slight elevation of TSH following the elevation of thyroid hormones. The patient's complaints of general malaise and occasional palpitations did not change throughout the course of painless thyroiditis. Three years later, painless thyroiditis occurred again without any deterioration of the clinical manifestations. Mild pituitary RTH can be overcome by slight exacerbation of hyperthyroxinemia during mild thyrotoxicosis. When pituitary resistance is severe and TSH is not suppressed, thyrotoxicosis may be overlooked.

  15. Systemic Sarcoidosis with Thyroid Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuma, Hideyuki; Hashimoto, Koshi; Wang, Xin; Ohkiba, Noriaki; Murooka, Nozomi; Akizuki, Norikazu; Inazawa, Takeshi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2017-08-15

    A 66-year-old woman, who was diagnosed with iritis, visited our hospital due to general malaise. A blood analysis revealed hypercalcemia. Computed tomography revealed mediastinal and hilar lymph node hyperplasia. Moreover, 67 Gallium scintigraphy demonstrated strong accumulation in the lesions, suggesting sarcoidosis. A core needle biopsy (CNB) of the hypoechoic areas of the thyroid was performed because the patient refused to undergo a bronchoscopic examination. The scattering of slightly acidophilic epithelioid cell granulomas was observed in the pathological examination of the biopsy specimen. Based on this finding, the patient was diagnosed with sarcoidosis. Although sarcoidosis rarely involves the thyroid gland, in the present case, thyroid CNB was an alternative diagnostic method that allowed a pathological diagnosis to be obtained.

  16. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Pradhan, S.A.; D'Cruz, A.; Shah, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma is a biologically distinct form of thyroid cancer and accounts for 5-10% of all thyroid neoplasms. Twenty percent of MTC can occur in a familial setting either by itself or as part of the multiple endocrine neoplasm syndromes. A disciplined approach is necessary in the work-up of these patients to rule out coexistent endocrine tumors (pheochromocytomas and parathyroid). Cacitonin is a sensitive tumor marker secreted by MTC that is of prognostic value and important in the follow-up of patients. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment with a total thyroidectomy and centre compartment clearance being the minimum for patients without cervical adenopathy. Radiotherapy has a limited role and is only indicated as a palliative measure in patients with advanced/metastatic disease not amenable to surgery

  17. [Iodine excess induced thyroid dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egloff, Michael; Philippe, Jacques

    2016-04-20

    The principle sources of iodine overload, amiodarone and radiologic contrast media, are frequently used in modern medicine. The thyroid gland exerts a protective effect against iodine excess by suppressing iodine internalization into the thyrocyte and iodine organification, the Wolff-Chaikoff effect. Insufficiency of this effect or lack of escape from it leads to hypo- or hyperthyroidism respectively. Amiodarone induced thyrotoxicosis is a complex condition marked by two different pathophysiological mechanisms with different treatments. Thyroid metabolism changes after exposure to radiologic contrast media are frequent, but they rarely need to be treated. High risk individuals need to be identifed in order to delay the exam or to monitor thyroid function or apply prophylactic measures in selected cases.

  18. [AMIODARONE AND THE THYROID FUNCTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukić, Tomislav; Punda, Marija; Franceschi, Maja; Staniĉić, Josip; Granić, Roko; Kusić, Zvonko

    2015-01-01

    Amiodarone is a benzofuran derivative that contains up to 40% of iodine. Amiodarone is used for treatment and prevention of life threatening supraventricular and ventricular tachyarrhythmias. The effects on thyroid gland vary from abnormalities in thyroid function tests to overt amiodarone induced hypothyroidism (AIH) and thyrotoxicosis (AIT). Patients with AIH are treated with L-thyroxine and may continue treatment with amiodarone. Two different forms of AIT have to be distinguished: amiodarone induced hyperthyroidism (AIT I) and thyroiditis (AIT II). AIT I is treated with antithyroid drugs, while total thyroidectomy and iodine-131 are used for definitive treatment. AIT II is treated with glucocorticoids. Patients with AIT have to stop treatment with amiodarone. Dronedarone is a less potent antiarrhythmic agent with structural and pharmacological properties similar to amiodarone. Dronedarone is devoid of iodine with fewer adverse effects and therefore it may be used in high risk patients for development of AIT or AIH.

  19. The Study on the Thyroid Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mun Ho

    1982-01-01

    Several recent advances in our knowledge of thyroid physiology have broad application to the diagnosis and management of thyroid disorders. For in the thyroid, more than other end-ocrine organs, pathophysiology can be translated directly into the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease. Graves' disease is a syndrome including goiter with hyperthyroidism, exophthalmos and dermatopathy. The pathogenesis of Graves' disease is not yet clearly identified, but various autoantibodies to the thyroid gland and immunapathalogic studied indicate that autoimmune processes are involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. The diagnosis and management of Graves' disease are largely dependent on radionuclide technique as radioimmunoassay, radioactive iodine therapy and so on. Several laboratory tests are also developed to determine the remission of this disease including TRH stimulation test, T 3 , suppression test and detection of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins. Autoimmune thyroiditis is almost certainly a primary immunologic disease and the incidence tends to increase recently, mainly due to the application of biopsy technique is thyroid diseases. Thyroid nodules have been a great challenge to physicians because of the possibility of malignancy. But recently, cytologic examination of thyroid aspirate provides a very simple and also reliable diagnostic method in patients with thyroid nodules. In 163 patients with thyroid nodules, only 19.3% was revealed to be malignant. Therefore cytologic examination of thyroid aspirate and thyroid biopsy should be included in the diagnosis of nodular patients prior to surgical intervention. In this paper, a comprehensive review is presented on the pathogenesis, clinical features, laboratory findings and therapeutic modalities of various thyroid diseases on the basis of over 80 researches performed during the past 20 years at radioisotope clinic, Seoul National University Hospital.

  20. Thyroid dysfunction in infertile women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elahi, S.; Tanseem, A.; Nazir, I.; Nagra, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the frequency of thyroid dysfunction in infertile women referred for thyroid evaluation. Age matched infertile (n=140 each) and fertile women (n=152 each) referred to CENUM for thyroid evaluation were investigated for incidence of hyperthyroidism (TSH 20 IU/L). Serum free T4 (FT4), free T3 (FT3) and antithyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and TSH by immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). Most of the infertile women (89.3%), like control women (93.4%), were euthyroid. The difference of overall thyroid dysfunction was not statistically significant in infertile and control women (10.7% vs. 7.9%; p=0.395). The same was true for incidence of hyperthyroidism (4.3% vs. 5.3%; p=0.701) as well as hypothyroidism (6.4% vs. 2.6%; p=0.104). In infertile women, the incidence of hypothyroidism (6.4%) was slightly higher as compared to hyperthyroidism (4.3%). In euthyroid women of both groups, mean FT4, FT3 and TSH levels were significantly higher (p 2.5 mIU/L compared to fertile women (31.2% vs. 15.6%; p 20 IU/L) than control women (7.2% vs. 1.4%; p<0.05). Increased incidence of high normal TSH and raised TPO-Ab titer indicate relatively more frequent occurrence of compensated thyroid function in infertile women than normal women of reproductive age. This necessitates considering them a subgroup of women in which all aspects of pituitary-thyroid axis should be thoroughly investigated than merely TSH testing. (author)

  1. [Thyroid hormones and cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Límanová, Zdeňka; Jiskra, Jan

    Cardiovascular system is essentially affected by thyroid hormones by way of their genomic and non-genomic effects. Untreated overt thyroid dysfunction is associated with higher cardiovascular risk. Although it has been studied more than 3 decades, in subclinical thyroid dysfunction the negative effect on cardiovascular system is much more controversial. Large meta-analyses within last 10 years have shown that subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with higher cardiovascular risk than subclinical hypothyroidism. Conversely, in patients of age > 85 years subclinical hypothyroidism was linked with lower mortality. Therefore, subclinical hyperthyroidism should be rather treated in the elderly while subclinical hypothyroidism in the younger patients and the older may be just followed. An important problem on the border of endocrinology and cardiology is amiodarone thyroid dysfunction. Effective and safe treatment is preconditioned by distinguishing of type 1 and type 2 amiodarone induced hyperthyroidism. The type 1 should be treated with methimazol, therapeutic response is prolonged, according to recent knowledge immediate discontinuation of amiodarone is not routinely recommended and patient should be usually prepared to total thyroidectomy, or rather rarely 131I radioiodine ablation may be used if there is appropriate accumulation. In the type 2 there is a promt therapeutic response on glucocorticoids (within 1-2 weeks) with permanent remission or development of hypothyroidism. If it is not used for life-threatening arrhytmias, amiodarone may be discontinuated earlier (after several weeks). Amiodarone induced hypothyroidism is treated with levothyroxine without amiodarone interruption.Key words: amiodarone induced thyroid dysfunction - atrial fibrillation - cardiovascular risk - heart failure - hyperthyroidism - hypothyroidism - thyroid stimulating hormone.

  2. Carcinoembryonic antigen in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissel, M.; Hoefer, R.

    1982-01-01

    In order to investigate the usefulness of determining the serum concentrations of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as a specific tumor marker in thyroid cancer, CEA serum levels were measured (enzymeimmunoassay, Abbott-Kit) repeatedly at the routine followup checks performed at various intervals after total thyroidectomy, in 65 patients with papillary, 82 with follicular, 25 with mixed type (papillary/follicular), 8 with anaplastic, and in 18 patients with medullary thyroid cancer. The postoperative observation period of these patients ranged from 2 to 36 months. Calcitonin serum levels were additionally determined in patients with medullary carcinoma (radioimmunoassay kit of Immuno-Nuclear Corp.). In the family of one patient with medullary carcinoma we also had an opportunity to investigate, within the framework of family screening (pentagastrin tests, etc.), the value of preoperative CEA determination. In the patients with ''non-medullary'' histological types of thyroid cancer, the maximum CEA serum concentration was 9.8 ng/ml. 6% of the patients with papillary, 9% of the patients with follicular, and 8% of those with mixed type thyroid cancer had serum levels above the upper limit of our normal range (5 ng/ml). All patients with anaplastic carcinoma had values below 3 ng/ml. The values quoted represent maximal values and were confirmed at various follow-up checks. However, 1 year after thyroidectomy, a female patient with follicular thyroid carcinoma developed an adenocarcinoma of the rectum: The CEA levels measured in this patient were: 4.2 ng/ml 3 weeks after thyroidectomy, 8.4 ng/ml 6 months later, and 37 ng/ml 1 week before operation on the rectum. In none of the other patients with elevated CEA levels were metastases of thyroid cancer, or any other malignancy, detected. (orig.) [de

  3. Disorders of the equine thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuhaus, Babetta A

    2011-04-01

    Regulatory control of the thyroid gland in horses is similar to other species. Clinical signs of hypothyroidism in adult horses are minimal. Several drugs and physiologic and pathophysiological states can cause circulating thyroid hormone concentrations to be low without actual pathology of the thyroid gland. Thus, nonthyroidal factors must be ruled out before a diagnosis of hypothyroidism can be made. Thyroid hormone supplementation seems to be well tolerated, even in euthyroid horses. Neonatal foals have very high circulating thyroid hormone concentrations, and deficiencies result in significant clinical signs. Unlike in adults, two syndromes of hypothyroidism are well described in foals. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Clinical Observation on Thyroid Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seon Yang; Shin, Yong Tae; Cho, Bo Yun; Kim, Byung Kuk; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho

    1978-01-01

    Clinical features of 147 patients with biopsy-proven thyroid carcinomas were investigated from January, 1972 to April, 1978 at the Seoul National University Hospital with the following results. 1) The incidence of thyroid carcinomas according to their histopathological classification revealed 76.2% of papillary carcinoma, 19.0% of follicular carcinoma, and 3 cases of occult sclerozing carcinoma, 1 case of giant cell carcinoma and 1 case of metastatic melanoma. 2) The ratio of male to female patients was 1:8.3 and showed no difference between papillary and follicular carcinomas. 3) The age distribution showed the peak incidence in the fourth decade (29.3%) followed by the fifth and sixth decades. 4) The average duration of illness from the onset of symptoms was about 5 years while it was 4.4 years and 7.6 years in the papillary and follicular carcinomas respectively. 5) The diameter of the thyroid masses was smaller than 5 cm in 53.6% of the patients, from 5 cm to 10 cm in 40.0% and larger than 10 cm in 6.4%. 6) In 36.4% of the patients with thyroid carcinomas the thyroid masses were fixed to adjacent tissues. 7) Metastasis to the regional lymph nodes was noted in 40.0% of the total cases, and in 45.2% and 17.6% of the papillary and follicular carcinomas respectively, while the lung and bone metastases were found in 10.0% and 4.4% in each type respectively. 8) 88.9% of the patients showed cold areas in the thyroid scans using 131 I. 9) Typical psammoma bodies were observed in 21.3% of the cases in the microscopic examination of the pathological specimens. 10) The initial diagnosis of thyroid malignancy could be made before histological confirmation in 64.5% of the patients. 11) The clinical staging slightly modified from Schulz method revealed 43.6% of the patients in stage I, 26.4% in stage II, 20.9% in stage III and 9.1% in stage IV. 12) The association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was noted in 4 cases, with nodular goiter in 3 cases, and with follicular adenoma

  5. Clinical Observation on Thyroid Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seon Yang; Shin, Yong Tae; Cho, Bo Yun; Kim, Byung Kuk; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1978-09-15

    Clinical features of 147 patients with biopsy-proven thyroid carcinomas were investigated from January, 1972 to April, 1978 at the Seoul National University Hospital with the following results. 1) The incidence of thyroid carcinomas according to their histopathological classification revealed 76.2% of papillary carcinoma, 19.0% of follicular carcinoma, and 3 cases of occult sclerozing carcinoma, 1 case of giant cell carcinoma and 1 case of metastatic melanoma. 2) The ratio of male to female patients was 1:8.3 and showed no difference between papillary and follicular carcinomas. 3) The age distribution showed the peak incidence in the fourth decade (29.3%) followed by the fifth and sixth decades. 4) The average duration of illness from the onset of symptoms was about 5 years while it was 4.4 years and 7.6 years in the papillary and follicular carcinomas respectively. 5) The diameter of the thyroid masses was smaller than 5 cm in 53.6% of the patients, from 5 cm to 10 cm in 40.0% and larger than 10 cm in 6.4%. 6) In 36.4% of the patients with thyroid carcinomas the thyroid masses were fixed to adjacent tissues. 7) Metastasis to the regional lymph nodes was noted in 40.0% of the total cases, and in 45.2% and 17.6% of the papillary and follicular carcinomas respectively, while the lung and bone metastases were found in 10.0% and 4.4% in each type respectively. 8) 88.9% of the patients showed cold areas in the thyroid scans using {sup 131}I. 9) Typical psammoma bodies were observed in 21.3% of the cases in the microscopic examination of the pathological specimens. 10) The initial diagnosis of thyroid malignancy could be made before histological confirmation in 64.5% of the patients. 11) The clinical staging slightly modified from Schulz method revealed 43.6% of the patients in stage I, 26.4% in stage II, 20.9% in stage III and 9.1% in stage IV. 12) The association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was noted in 4 cases, with nodular goiter in 3 cases, and with follicular

  6. Nilotinib-Associated Destructive Thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhalia Bakerywala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors are currently an important drug class in the treatment of leukemia. They represent targeted cancer therapy and have become the treatment of choice in chronic myeloid leukemia. Tyrosine kinases are enzymes expressed in multiple tissues and are involved in several signaling pathways influencing cellular growth. Below we describe a patient who developed an unusual complication of tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy: thyrotoxicosis due to destructive thyroiditis. We review the pathophysiology of tyrosine kinase inhibitor-induced thyroid dysfunction particularly with regard to new second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

  7. Epigenetic modulators of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodero, Sandra; Delgado-Álvarez, Elías; Díaz-Naya, Lucía; Martín Nieto, Alicia; Menéndez Torre, Edelmiro

    2017-01-01

    There are some well known factors involved in the etiology of thyroid cancer, including iodine deficiency, radiation exposure at early ages, or some genetic changes. However, epigenetic modulators that may contribute to development of these tumors and be helpful to for both their diagnosis and treatment have recently been discovered. The currently known changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs in each type of thyroid carcinoma are reviewed here. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Challenges in interpretation of thyroid function tests in pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Bliddal, Sofie; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh

    2011-01-01

    Physiological changes during gestation are important to be aware of in measurement and interpretation of thyroid function tests in women with autoimmune thyroid diseases. Thyroid autoimmune activity is decreasing in pregnancy. Measurement of serum TSH is the first-line screening variable...... for thyroid dysfunction also in pregnancy. However, using serum TSH for control of treatment of maternal thyroid autoimmunity infers a risk for compromised foetal development. Peripheral thyroid hormone values are highly different among laboratories, and there is a need for laboratory-specific gestational age......-related reference ranges. Equally important, the intraindividual variability of the thyroid hormone measurements is much narrower than the interindividual variation (reflecting the reference interval). The best laboratory assessment of thyroid function is a free thyroid hormone estimate combined with TSH...

  9. Papillary thyroid carcinoma: does the association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis affect the clinicopathological characteristics of the disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Muradás Girardi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Papillary carcinoma is the most common malignant thyroid neoplasm. The effect of the concurrent presence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and clinicopathological parameters in thyroid papillary carcinoma cases, based on an historical institutional cohort analysis. METHODS: Cross-sectional study obtained from a historical cohort, including all cases submitted to thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma in a single institution during an 11-year period study. RESULTS: A total of 417 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma were enrolled; 148 (35.4% also had Hashimoto's thyroiditis. A female predominance among cases associated to Hashimoto's thyroiditis was observed. The thyroid tumor, in cases associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, had a smaller mean diameter, lower frequency of extra-thyroid extension, and earlier clinicopathological staging. CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of papillary thyroid carcinoma cases are associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. There are associations among these cases with several histopathological factors already recognized for their prognostic value, which by themselves could impact outcomes.

  10. Evaluation of diffuse thyroid diseases by computed tomography and 123I thyroidal uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Yoshiko; Imanishi, Yoshimasa; Ehara, Norishige

    1991-01-01

    Understanding the iodine kinetics in the thyroid is useful for the diagnosis of a patient with diffuse thyroid disease. In this study, 9 controls and 50 patients with diffuse thyroid diseases, we evaluated diffuse thyroid diseases with 123 I thyroidal uptake and volume, iodine concentration, and net iodine content measured by computed tomography. There was no significant correlation between volume, iodine concentration, and net iodine content of the thyroid and 123 I thyroidal uptake. The thyroid volume in Graves' and Hashimoto's diseases was significantly larger than that in the control group. The thyroid iodine concentration in Graves' and Hashimoto's diseases was significantly smaller than that in the control group. The thyroid net iodine content in Hashimoto's disease was significantly smaller than that in the control group. Although most of the patients with Graves' disease had more increased radioiodine thyroidal uptake than the control group, there was no significant difference between them in the mean of the thyroid net iodine content. But the variance of net iodine contents in the former was significantly larger than that in the latter. The thyroid net iodine content was very low in all patients with very high thyroglobulin hemaggrugated antibody (TGHA) value although it was nearly normal in some patients with normal TGHA value. It was suggested that iodine concentration and net iodine content might be determined not only by iodine uptake but also by release and/or leakage of iodine compounds from the thyroid, which might depend on some antithyroid antibodies. (author)

  11. Molecular regulation of thyroid gland function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggo, Margaret C

    2010-10-01

    For de-novo thyroid hormone synthesis ex vivo, thyroid follicular cells require a serum-free medium supplying nutrients, iodide, thyroid-stimulating hormone and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) (or insulin). Under these conditions, T3 and T4 are secreted but so are other factors such as growth factors, plasminogen activators, their inhibitors known as serpins, and so on. What is the function of these factors? Do thyroid cells respond to them or are these paracrine/endocrine factors? The purpose of this review is to highlight the current developments in the identification and role of the signalling pathways that regulate thyroid growth and function and the putative role of endogenous thyroid proteases in regulating this. The roles of the mitogen-activated protein kinases and phosphoinositol 3 kinases and integrins in mediating growth and function in thyroid cancer cells and the roles of plasminogen activators, their receptors and the downstream signalling pathways they modulate have been developed. Discoveries of novel proteases, expressed in thyroid cancers, may be useful in diagnosis. The signalling pathways regulating thyroid activity are examined and the roles of follicular cell products in maintaining thyroid homeostasis evaluated. The possibility that thyroid cell products other than T3 and T4 may circulate and have extrathyroidal effects is proposed.

  12. Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, Steven L.; McDougall, I. Ross; Constine, Louis S.

    1995-01-01

    The thyroid gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body and one of the organs most likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. Radiation doses to the thyroid that exceed approximately 26 Gy frequently produce hypothyroidism, which may be clinically overt or subclinical, as manifested by increased serum thyrotropin and normal serum-free thyroxine concentrations. Pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidism may arise when the pituitary region receives doses exceeding 50 Gy with conventional, 1.8-2 Gy fractionation. Direct irradiation of the thyroid may increase the risk of Graves' disease or euthyroid Graves' opthalmopathy. Silent thyroiditis, cystic degeneration, benign adenoma, and thyroid cancer have been observed after therapeutically relevant doses of external radiation. Direct or incidental thyroid irradiation increases the risk for well-differentiated, papillary, and follicular thyroid cancer from 15- to 53-fold. Thyroid cancer risk is highest following radiation at a young age, decreases with increasing age at treatment, and increases with follow-up duration. The potentially prolonged latent period between radiation exposure and the development of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid cancer means that individuals who have received neck or pituitary irradiation require careful, periodic clinical and laboratory evaluation to avoid excess morbidity

  13. INTRODUCTION Thyroid lymphoma is a rare form of thyroid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-07-07

    Jul 7, 2004 ... At the time of writing, our patient had been followed up for 16 ... subtypes can be seen and therapeutic approaches must be done. We report two ... treatment is total thyroidectomy and/or involved-field radiation therapy. As with other forms of lymphoma, the choice of treatment for thyroid lymphoma depends.

  14. Scintigraphic And Ultrasonic Determinations of Thyroid Volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarsono; Ismanto; Kunto, W; Hayati, N; Irma, S H

    1996-01-01

    A study has been done on the determination of thyroid volume by scintigraphic method in comparison to ultrasonographic technique, which involved a healthy woman volunteer, 5 women patients and a man patient with thyroid diseases. Scintigraphic examination upon the patient's thyroid was performed using a gamma camera 20 minutes following the injection of 55.5 Mbq (1.5 mCi) Tc-99m pertechnetate. A computer, with a dedicated program, coupled to the gamma camera was employed in the calculation of thyroid volume based on the scintigraphic data. Subsequent to the scintigraphic study, ultrasonographic determination of thyroid volume was then carried out. Correlation test that was applied to the outcome of the two methods of thyroid volume determination resulted in an excellent coefficient of correlation, R, which was 0.99. This showed a very good correlation between these two different techniques of thyroid volume determination

  15. Thyroid function and thyroid antibodies in recurrent miscarriage women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, A. B. H.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine thyroid status in recurrent miscarriage Sudanese women and to determine the association between thyroid antibodies and miscarriage. The study included patients attending obstetrics and gynecology unit at Khartoum teaching hospital and Omdurman New hospital since June 2008 to Jan 2009, these patients were complaining of vaginal bleeding. Sixty, apparently healthy pregnant women with history of unexplained recurrent miscarriages during the first trimester, their ages ranged between 20 and 45 years were selected as target group. Forty healthy, normal pregnant women of the same gestational age and known to reach term and had healthy labor, patients with age ranged between 17 and 41 years were selected from (SAEC), referral clinic center at Khartoum Teaching and Omdurman New Hospitals as control group. The two groups were physically examined and their thyroid glands were seen by the physician. Questionnaires were completed for all the subjects. Patients with metabolic or endocrinologic disorders, genital organ anamoly, uterine myoma, mal nourishment or exposed to toxic substances were excluded from the study. Five ml of venous blood samples were collected from the target and control subjects. Thyroid function test and thyroid antibodies (TT 4 , TT 3 , FT 4 , FT 3 , TSH, TPO-Ab and Tg-Ab) were measured for the two groups (target and control ) using RIA technique. The results of this study showed that there was a significant decrease decrease in the concentrations of thyroid hormones (TT 4 and TT 3 ) in the target group (p-value = 0.0001 and 0.004 respectively) compared with the control group. Moreover, there was a significant elevation in the concentration of TSH in the target group (p- value = 0.0001). The free T-4 concentration was lower but not significant in the target group (p-value=0.075), FT 3 level was similar in both groups (p-value = 0.591). The presence of abnormal high concentrations of TT 4 in control and target groups

  16. Computed tomography in the evaluation of thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, P.M.; Newman, G.E.; Korobkin, M.; Workman, J.B.; Moore, A.V.; Coleman, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    Traditionally, thyroid imaging has been performed primarily using radionuclide scanning. High-resolution computed tomography (CT) was performed in 18 patients to evaluate the CT appearance of various thyroid abnormalities including diffuse toxic goiter, multinodular goiter, Hashimoto thyroiditis, thyroid adenoma, and malignant thyroid tumors. CT images of the thyroid were correlated with radionuclide scanning, surgical findings, and clinical and laboratory results. CT provided a complementary method for evaluation of the thyroid by defining the morphology of the thyroid gland and more precisely defining the anatomic extent of thyroid abnormalities in relation to the normal structures of the neck and mediastinum

  17. Growth and development in a child with resistance to thyroid hormone and ectopic thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, Natasha; Hall, Kate; Neas, Katherine; Potter, Howard; Wiltshire, Esko

    2012-03-01

    Resistance to thyroid hormone is an uncommon problem, which has rarely been associated with thyroid dysgenesis. We report a case with both thyroid gland ectopy and resistance to thyroid hormone and, thus, a reduced capacity to produce and respond to thyroid hormone. The patient presented at 2 years of age with developmental delay, dysmorphic features, and elevation in both thyroxine and thyrotropin. We document her response to therapy with thyroxine, with particular regard to her growth and development. Persistent elevation of thyrotropin is commonly recognized during treatment of congenital hypothyroidism. Resistance to thyroid hormone may be an important additional diagnosis to consider in cases where thyrotropin remains persistently elevated.

  18. Challenges in interpretation of thyroid function tests in pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Bliddal, Sofie; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh

    2011-01-01

    Physiological changes during gestation are important to be aware of in measurement and interpretation of thyroid function tests in women with autoimmune thyroid diseases. Thyroid autoimmune activity is decreasing in pregnancy. Measurement of serum TSH is the first-line screening variable for thyr......Physiological changes during gestation are important to be aware of in measurement and interpretation of thyroid function tests in women with autoimmune thyroid diseases. Thyroid autoimmune activity is decreasing in pregnancy. Measurement of serum TSH is the first-line screening variable...

  19. Does It Make a Sound: Are Open Access Monographs Discoverable in Library Catalogs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollough, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    This article describes an exploratory study examining the common perception among library-based publishers that open access academic publications (especially monographs) are not readily discoverable in library catalogs. Using titles from the Michigan Publishing imprint, digital culture books, the study provides an empirical basis for evaluating…

  20. Urine Testing for Drugs of Abuse. NIDA Research Monograph Series 73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawks, Richard L., Ed.; Chiang, C. Nora, Ed.

    In the past 5 years, a growing concern over the use of illicit drugs in the workplace has led to an interest in urinalysis as a way to detect and deter drug use. This monograph provides information that will assist those involved in the planning or implementation of drug testing programs in making informed choices. Articles include: (1)…

  1. The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) 2002 Report. UNO Aviation Monograph Series. UNOAI Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Box, Richard C.; Fink, Mary M.; Gogos, George; Lehrer, Henry R.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; O'Neil, Patrick D.; Tarry, Scott E.; Vlasek, Karisa D.

    This document contains four papers on aeronautics education, research, and partnerships that partly supported through the Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL). The paper "2002 AERIAL Monograph" (Brent D. Bowen, Jocelyn S. Nickerson, Mary M. Fink, et al.) presents an overview of research and development in the…

  2. On the rise of Bayesian econometrics after Cowles Foundation Monographs 10, 14

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baştürk, N.; Çakmak, C.; Pinar Ceyhan, S.; van Dijk, H.K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper starts with a brief description of the introduction of the likelihood approach in econometrics as presented in Cowles Foundation Monographs 10 and 14. A sketch is given of the criticisms on this approach mainly from the first group of Bayesian econometricians. Publication and citation

  3. On the rise of Bayesian econometrics after Cowles Foundation monographs 10, 14

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baştürk, N.; Çakmaklı, C.; Ceyhan, S.P.; van Dijk, H.K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper starts with a brief description of the introduction of the likelihood approach in econometrics as presented in Cowles Foundation Monographs 10 and 14. A sketch is given of the criticisms on this approach mainly from the first group of Bayesian econometricians. Publication and citation

  4. Robert Ezra Park's Theory of News, Public Opinion and Social Control. Journalism Monographs No. 64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, P. Jean; Gaziano, Cecilie

    This monograph reconstructs a theory of news, public opinion, and social control originally presented between 1904 and 1941 by Robert Ezra Park, a founder of the sociological study of mass communication and public opinion, and suggests that the theory is pertinent to contemporary journalists and scholars. Park's work is described as the basis of…

  5. Prevention, The Beginning of the Rehabilitation Process: A View from New Zealand. Monograph #46.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ian B.

    The monograph argues that prevention should be considered the first step in the rehabilitation process, and examines preventive efforts in the areas of occupational safety, road safety, home safety, and sporting and recreational safety. Following an introductory chapter, other chapters discuss: (1) the close relationship between compensation,…

  6. Unitas: Evaluating a Preventative Program for Hispanic and Black Youth. Monograph No. 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procidano, Mary E.; Glenwick, David S.

    This monograph is the third of a trilogy of studies on the Unitas Therapeutic Community, a program that attempts to strengthen the competencies of the Hispanic and Black youngsters living in the Longwood/Hunts Point section of the South Bronx, New York City. The program uses indigenous nonprofessionals as surrogate parents, uncles, and aunts for…

  7. Guide for Hospices. Interdisciplinary Team Training and Humanistic Patient Care for Hospices. Monograph 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, David J.; Mortenson, Lee E.

    This monograph, the first in a series of five, provides training information for hospice staff in improving interdisciplinary team functions and humanistic care provisions. Its purpose is to assist hospice directors, educators, and other administrative staff members to understand the focus of the proposed training and its applicability to their…

  8. Training Program Design. Interdisciplinary Team Training and Humanistic Patient Care for Hospices. Monograph 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, David J.; Mortenson, Lee E.

    This monograph, the third in a series of five, provides training information for hospice staff in improving interdisciplinary team functions and humanistic care provisions. Its purpose is to describe the steps in designing a training program for a particular hospice and the activities undertaken between the selection of the trainers and the…

  9. Guide for Trainers. Interdisciplinary Team Training and Humanistic Patient Care for Hospices. Monograph 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dottie C.; Grady, Kathleen A.

    This monograph, the second in a series of five, provides information for trainers on interdisciplinary team training and humanistic patient care in hospices. Designed to help outside trainers who may be invited by a hospice to conduct its training, the materials help instructors to understand the nature of hospices, to determine whether or not the…

  10. News Piracy: Unfair Competition and the Misappropriation Doctrine. Journalism Monographs No. 56.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Paul W.

    Unfair competition is a complex problem affecting all areas of American business, including the communications media. Piracy of material, an alarmingly widespread example of unfair competition, involves legal as well as ethical questions. This monograph uses the historical approach to trace the development of common-law precedent and trends and…

  11. Healthy Moves for Older Adults. Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance Monograph No. One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, Leslie A.; Smith, Christel M.

    This monograph describes some of the physical, sociological, and psychological characteristics of older adults, identifies their needs, and outlines the role of the health, physical education, recreation and dance (HPRD) professionals in meeting these needs. The first section clarifies various theories on the aging process and the classification…

  12. Grassroots Journalism in the City: Cleveland's Neighborhood Newspapers. Monograph No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffres, Leo W.; And Others

    The first section of this monograph on community newspapers describes the patterns and trends of "grassroots journalism" in the Cleveland, Ohio, area. Based on interviews with 37 newspaper editors, the following topics are covered: origins and history, goals, organization and structure, method of production, advertising, content,…

  13. The Law on Reduction-in-Force: A Summary of Legislation and Litigation. ERS Monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.; Bargerstock, Charles T.

    Declining enrollment and lower teacher turnover have forced many school districts to reduce the number of professional personnel employed. State legislatures, the courts, and local collective negotiations have been the principal scenes of legal activity concerning reduction in force (RIF). In this monograph, both technical legal information and…

  14. On the Rise of Bayesian Econometrics after Cowles Foundation Monographs 10, 14

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Basturk (Nalan); C. Cakmakli (Cem); S.P. Ceyhan (Pinar); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper starts with a brief description of the introduction of the likelihood approach in econometrics as presented in Cowles Foundation Monographs 10 and 14. A sketch is given of the criticisms on this approach mainly from the first group of Bayesian

  15. The Political Economy of Education in the Sahel. Efficiency Indicators Activity. IEES Project Monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fass, Simon M.; And Others

    The role of the political class in the debate on how to improve education in the Sahelian countries is examined in this monograph. Although cultural backwardness and faulty inquiry impede educational quality, the major problem is the absence of political forms through which all people can participate in educational reform. A review of the…

  16. The Critical Factor: Criticism of the News Media in Journalism Education. Journalism Monographs, No. 32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westley, Bruce H., Ed.

    Although there has been a reluctance in the past on the part of journalism educators to criticize the news media openly, evidence now exists indicating that attempts to assess the performance of the press are taking place in the classroom, in the community, and within the media itself. Contents of this AEJ monograph include "The Journalism…

  17. Cocaine: Pharmacology, Effects, and Treatment of Abuse. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph 50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, John, Ed.

    This monograph consists of eight papers which refer in one way or another to the pharmacology of cocaine. The papers are: (1) Cocaine 1984: Introduction and Overview" (John Grabowski); (2) "Cocaine: A Growing Public Health Problem" (Edgar H. Adams and Jack Durell); (3) "Neural Mechanisms of the Reinforcing Action of…

  18. Existing and Emerging Technologies in Education: A Descriptive Overview. CREATE Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, Thomas W.

    Second in a series of six monographs on the use of new technologies in the instruction of learning disabled students, the paper offers a descriptive overview of new technologies. Topics addressed include the following: (1) techniques for sharing computer resources (including aspects of networking, sharing information through databases, and the use…

  19. Using and Reporting Test Results, Monograph #1. An Overview. Steps in the Right Direction!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeber, Edward D.; Carr, Robert A.

    This is the first in a series of six monographs developed to help school district and building staff use and report Michigan Educational Assessment Program (MEAP) test results. Determining the meaning and use of previous and current test results is a necessary part of a complete reporting process. The two major ways to use MEAP results are student…

  20. Nutritional Problems and Policy in Tanzania. Cornell International Nutrition Monograph Series, Number 7 (1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgaza, Olyvia

    This monograph discusses policies designed to deal with food and nutrition problems in Tanzania. Available information on food supplies and nutritional conditions in Tanzania clearly shows that the country faces nutritional problems; protein energy malnutrition is the most serious and requires priority action. Iron deficiency anemia, goiter, and…

  1. Setting the Table for Diversity. National Collegiate Honors Council Monograph Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Lisa L., Ed.; Kotinek, Jonathan D., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This monograph provides a cross section of policy and practice through the voices and experiences of honors faculty, staff, and students from across the nation. While far from comprehensive, this volume does pick up different strands of thinking on diversity to present a rich and complicated understanding of what diversity is, why it is important,…

  2. Activated Sludge. Selected Instructional Activities and References. Instructional Resources Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Clinton L.; Walasek, James B.

    This monograph contains a variety of selected materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction. Part I presents a brief discussion of the activated sludge process in wastewater treatment operations. Part II, Instructional Units, contains selected portions of existing programs which may be utilized in…

  3. Rural Substance Abuse: State of Knowledge and Issues. NIDA Research Monograph 168.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Elizabeth B., Ed.; Sloboda, Zili, Ed.; Boyd, Gayle M., Ed.; Beatty, Lula, Ed.; Kozel, Nicholas J., Ed.

    This research monograph is based on papers from a technical review meeting of the same name, held April 26-27, 1994. It provides information about the special nature or context of rural communities that might impact patterns of drug and alcohol consumption and delivery of prevention and treatment services; health, social, and economic consequences…

  4. The evaluation of scientific monograph and publisher's role: the spanish project Scholarly Publishers Indicators (SPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Capaccioni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the issue about the quality assessment of scientific monograph and the role of publishers in the field of Humanities and Social Sciences, focusing on the Spanish project Scholarly Publishers Indicators (SPI. This project was born to identify and explore specific quality indicators for scientific books, starting from the opinion of SSH Spanish experts.

  5. Academic Advising as a Comprehensive Campus Process. Monograph Series, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennen, Robert E., Ed.; Vowell, Faye N., Ed.

    The 22 papers of this monograph review academic advising from the perspective of three types of campus activities: administrative support services, academic advising services, and student support services. The papers include: (1) "Obtaining Presidential Support for Advising" (Robert E. Glennen); (2) "Faculty Affairs" (David H. Goldenberg and Steve…

  6. Making Sense of Autonomous Language Learning. English Centre Monograph No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Phil; Lor, Winnie

    The monograph emerged from experience with an independent learning program at the English Centre of the University of Hong Kong. Students enrolled in classroom-based English spend part of their study time improving their English in ways they have chosen themselves, with the support of self-access learning facilities and counselors. They were asked…

  7. HPLC method validation for modernization of the tetracycline hydrochloride capsule USP monograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad M. Hussien

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a continuation to our previous work aiming at development and validation of a reversed-phase HPLC for modernization of tetracycline-related USP monographs and the USP general chapter . Previous results showed that the method is accurate and precise for the assay of tetracycline hydrochloride and the limit of 4-epianhydrotetracycline impurity in the drug substance and oral suspension monographs. The aim of the current paper is to examine the feasibility of the method for modernization of USP tetracycline hydrochloride capsule monograph. Specificity, linearity, accuracy and precision were examined for tetracycline hydrochloride assay and 4-epianhydrotetracycline limit. The method was linear in the concentration range from 80% to 160% (r>0.9998 of the assay concentration (0.1 mg/mL for tetracycline hydrochloride and from 50% to 150% (r>0.997 of the acceptance criteria specified in tetracycline hydrochloride capsule monograph for 4-epianhydrotetracycline (NMT 3.0%. The recovery at three concentration levels for tetracycline hydrochloride assay was between 99% and 101% and the RSD from six preparations at the concentration 0.1 mg/mL is less than 0.6%. The recovery for 4-epianhydrotetracycline limit procedure over the concentration range from 50% to 150% is between 96% and 102% with RSD less than 5%. The results met the specified acceptance criteria.

  8. Japanese Parents Bringing Up Their Children in English. Monographs on Bilingualism No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukawa, Emiko

    This monograph describes the experience of a Japanese family raising their children bilingually in Japan by adopting English as the home language. Both parents are native Japanese who went to graduate school in the United States and now teach English at the college level. Although both parents are very proficient in English, they recognize they…

  9. Computers in the English Program: Promises and Pitfalls. New York State English Council Monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Charles R., Ed.

    Since an increasing number of English teachers are being asked to find a place for computers in the English program, this monograph focuses on issues connected to this technology. The first article sets the stage with a discussion of the power and potential of the computer. Other articles focus on the following topics: (1) promises and…

  10. 21 CFR 866.5870 - Thyroid autoantibody immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... thyroid autoantibodies may aid in the diagnosis of certain thyroid disorders, such as Hashimoto's disease (chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis), nontoxic goiter (enlargement of thyroid gland), Grave's disease... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Thyroid autoantibody immunological test system...

  11. Hashimoto's thyroiditis - an independent risk factor for papillary carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhliarova, Barbora; Hajtman, Andrej

    2017-09-14

    The link between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid carcinoma has long been a topic of controversy. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of thyroid carcinoma and Hashimoto's thyroiditis coexistence in histopathologic material of thyroidectomized patients. In a retrospective study, the clinicohistopathologic data of 2117 patients (1738 females/379 males), who underwent total or partial thyroidectomy for thyroid gland disorder at a single institution from the 1st of January 2005 to the 31st of December 2014 were analyzed. Thyroid carcinoma was detected in 318 cases (15%) and microcarcinoma (thyroid cancer ≤10mm in diameter) was found in permanent sections in 169 cases (8%). Hashimoto's thyroiditis was detected in 318 (15%) patients. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was significantly more often associated with thyroid carcinoma and microcarcinoma compare to benign condition (p=0.048, p=0.00014, respectively). Coexistence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid carcinoma/thyroid microcarcinoma did not affect tumor size (p=0.251, p=0.098, respectively), or tumor multifocality (p=0.831, p=0.957, respectively). Bilateral thyroid microcarcinoma was significantly more often detected when Hashimoto's thyroiditis was also diagnosed (p=0.041), but presence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis did not affect bilateral occurrence of thyroid carcinoma (p=0.731). Hashimoto's thyroiditis is associated with significantly increased risk of developing thyroid carcinoma, especially thyroid microcarcinoma. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Thyrotoxicosis Associated with a Hypopharyngeal Toxic Nodular Thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ali Imran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly which may be either asymptomatic or present with thyroid dysfunction as well as pressure symptoms. Here we present a novel case of thyrotoxicosis associated with a hypopharyngeal multinodular thyroid in a female. Removal of the ectopic thyroid led to normalization of the thyroid status.

  13. Thyroid Hemiagenesis Associated with Hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunay Gurleyik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hemiagenesis (TH, very rare congenital anomaly, is generally asymptomatic. We report two cases of TH with hyperthyroidism. Case One. The patient presented with signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis. Physical examination revealed asymmetric nodular goitre at right lobe. Biochemical analysis revealed the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism. Ultrasound showed multinodular hypertrophy in the right lobe and absence of the left lobe. Nuclear scan, confirming absence of the left lobe, showed hot nodules in the right one. The diagnosis was toxic multinodular goitre. Case Two. The thyroid was not palpable in this patient presented with signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis. Biochemical analysis revealed the diagnosis of autoimmune thyrotoxicosis. Ultrasound showed mild diffuse hyperplasia of the right lobe and agenesis of the left lobe. Nuclear scan, confirming absence of the left lobe, showed increasing diffuse uptake of radiotracer in the right one. The diagnosis was Graves’ disease in this patient. After antithyroid medication, the patients were surgically treated with total excision of the thyroid tissue. TH is sometimes associated with disorders of the thyroid. Hyperthyroidism makes TH cases symptomatic. During evaluation of patients, ultrasound and nuclear scan usually report agenesis of one lobe and establish the diagnosis of TH. The surgical treatment is total removal of hyperactive tissue and total excision of the remaining lobe.

  14. Amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The large amount of iodide released by metabolism of amiodarone inhibits thyroid hormone biosynthesis (the Wolff-Chaikoff. Divisions of Endocrinology and Cardiology and Medical Informatics, Groote. Schuur Hospital and University of Cape Town. Ian Louis Ross, MB ChB, FCP (SA), Cert Endocrinology and Metabolism.

  15. Thyroid albumin originates from blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vijlder, J. J.; Veenboer, G. J.; van Dijk, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    Iodoalbumin has been found in the goiter of Dutch goats with a thyroglobulin synthesis defect. Immunohistochemical studies showed that in the goiter the percentage of follicles containing albumin was higher than that in normal thyroid glands. In the albumin-containing follicles of normal and

  16. Peripheral markers of thyroid function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulla; Nygaard, Birte; Winther Jensen, Ebbe

    2013-01-01

    ). This was performed to obtain unaltered serum TSH levels during the trial and between the two treatment groups. Blood sampling was performed 24 h after the last intake of thyroid hormone medication. RESULTS: TSH remained unaltered between the groups ((median) 0.83 vs 1.18 mU/l in T4/T3 combination and T4 monotherapy...

  17. Functional scintigraphy of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baehre, M.; Emrich, D.

    1983-01-01

    In order to obtain more diagnostic information by thyroid scintigraphy we used a gamma camera with a high resolution collimator and a computer. This led to an improvement of thyroid scintigrams and their documentation. Additionally it allowed to obtain values for global and regional uptake of pertechnetate before and under suppression. The usefulness of this method was proven by investigation of 50 individuals with normal thyroid function and 32 euthyroid patients with pathological suppressibility in an area of iodine deficiency. In normals global thyroid uptake and its suppression correlated with the FT 4 I and Δ TSH after TRH in dependence of their iodine excretion. Three types of pathological reaction under suppression could be delineated: 1. pure focal autonomy, 2. generalized (disseminated) autonomy, 3. combined focal and disseminated autonomy. The means of Δ TSH decreased stepwise from group 1 to 3 indicating increasing autonomy. The method is predominantly helpful to detect autonomy in euthyroid goitre. It is superior to qualitative evaluation of scintigrams. Additionally it is useful for decisions in therapy, especially for functionally orientated operation. (orig.) [de

  18. DNA Methylation in Thyroid Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. Worsham

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine cancer with 1,690 deaths each year. There are four main types of which the papillary and follicular types together account for >90% followed by medullary cancers with 3% to 5% and anaplastic carcinomas making up

  19. 1978-IJBCS-Article-Aya carole Bonny

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    thousands of hospitalizations and deaths worldwide each year (Callaway et al., 2010). Salmonella includes more than 2500 different serotypes (Popoff et al., 2001). Salmonella species can cause systemic infection especially in children and immuno- compromised individuals, while healthy individuals suffer from symptoms ...

  20. Recent tendency in diagnosis of thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Ito, Hiroshi; Tatsuno, Ikuro

    1979-01-01

    Various new approaches have been recently investigated in diagnosis of thyroid diseases with the progress of nuclear medicine. sup(99m)TcO 4 - has become a routinely used radiopharmaceutical in thyroid scan. sup(99m)TcO 4 - thyroid uptake was evaluated by using thyroid-t-high ratio. 123 I thyroid scan is more valuable than 131 I scan because of its short half time and low radiation exposure. We use 123 I particulary in functional analysis of thyroid hot nodule. 201 Tl scans were performed in patients with cold nodule. All thyroid cancer patients showed 201 Tl positive accumulation in thyroid nodule. However, even in benign diseases 201 Tl was accumulated. 201 Tl scan will be most effectively used in detecting the metastatic lesions from thyroid cancer. Serum rT 3 concentration in various diseases was evaluated by RIA method. Serum TBG concentration in various diseases was evaluated by RIA method and T 4 /TBG ratio was evaluated. Serum anti-thyroglobulin antibody titer in thyroid diseases was evaluated by RIA method. It was more objective than widely used tanned red cell hemagglutinin method. (author)

  1. Thyroid disorders in atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaizumi, M.; Neriishi, K.; Akahoshi, M.; Suzuki, G.; Nakashima, E.; Nagataki, S.; Eguchi, K.

    2003-01-01

    It is known from several studies, including those from RERF that radiation exposure can cause thyroid tumors (Socolow, N Engl J Med. 1963;268:406, Parker, Ann Intern Med. 1974;80:600). Effects of radiation on autoimmune thyroid disease are not well understood. We have conducted thyroid disease screening on a population of 2856 individuals from the Adult Health Study (AHS) cohort of atomic-bomb survivors for the period of 1984-1987. This study, which for logistical reasons involved survivors only from Nagasaki, revealed a statistically significant relationship between radiation dose and prevalence of solid nodules, including cancer, and that of autoimmune hypothyroidism (Nagataki, JAMA. 1994;272:364). Because the previous thyroid study was conducted only in Nagasaki, the new comprehensive thyroid disease screening study has been ongoing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki AHS participants since March 2000. For about 4,000 participants in Hiroshima and Nagasaki AHS cohort, thyroid ultrasonography, aspiration biopsy of nodules, thyroid function test, thyroid autoantibody (thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody) test by highly sensitive assay using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay were performed for the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. Analysis of data from the 1874 people examined through July 2001 (915 people from Hiroshima, 959 people from Nagasaki) provides evidence that thyroid cancer increases with radiation dose. The prevalence of positive result for thyroid autoantibody test is increased in the people exposed to relative low dose of radiation (0.01-0.99 Sv). Examination and measurements was completed in February 2003 for all patients. The analysis of these data is providing new and more complete insights into relationships between thyroid diseases and low doses of radiation

  2. Screening for thyroid cancer in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagataki, S.; Ashizawa, K.

    1996-01-01

    In the screening of the thyroid diseases in the radiation exposed cohort, it is essential to make correct diagnosis and to measure radiation dose in every subjects in the cohort and to analyze the dose response relationship by the most appropriate statistical method. Thus, thyroid cancer, thyroid adenoma and autoimmune hypothyroidism were confirmed to be radiation-induced thyroid diseases among atomic bomb survivors. A group of investigators from Nagasaki university have been working in the thyroid part of Chernobyl Sasakawa Health and Medical Cooperation Project, and more than 80000 children were screened in 5 diagnostic centers (Mogilev, Gomel, Kiev, Korosten and Klincy). In order to make correct diagnosis, thyroid echo-tomography, measurements of serum levels of free thyroxine, TSH, titers of anti-thyroid antibodies were performed in every children in the cohort and aspiration biopsy was performed when necessary. Whole body Cs 137 radioactivity was also determined in every subjects. Children with thyroid cancer confirmed by histology (biopsy or operation) were 2 in Mogilev, 19 in Gomel, 6 in Kiev, 5 in Korosten and 4 in Klincy (until 1994). Since children screened in each center were less than 20000, prevalence of thyroid cancer was remarkably high (lowest 100 and highest 1000/million children) when compared to the other parts of the world (0.2 to 5/million/year). However, there was no dose response relationship between the prevalence of cancer or nodule and whole body Cs 137 radioactivity. Although a significant correlation between thyroid cancer and reconstructed thyroid I 131 dose was presented, there are no previous reports to prove that I 131 produces thyroid cancer in human. Investigation on external radiation and short lived isotopes along with I 131 may be important to elucidate the cause of thyroid cancer

  3. Interrelationships between age, thyroid volume, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid function in patients with sporadic nontoxic goiter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, A.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Smits, N. J.; Touber, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that during the natural history of sporadic nontoxic goiter (SNG), a diffuse goiter precedes a multinodular goiter with gradual development of autonomous thyroid function. A cross-sectional survey of 102 consecutive patients with SNG (seven male, 95 female) was performed.

  4. Total Thyroidectomy for Thyroid Cancer Followed by Thyroid Storm due to Thyrotropin Receptor Antibody Stimulation of Metastatic Thyroid Tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkestad, Lars; Brandt, Frans; Brix, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Graves disease (GD) is an autoimmune condition characterized by the presence of antibodies against the thyrotropin receptor (TRAB), which stimulate the thyroid gland to produce excess thyroid hormone. Theoretically, TRAB could stimulate highly differentiated thyroid cancer tissue and....../or metastases to produce thyroid hormone. CASE: A 68-year-old male, with weight loss and palpitations, was diagnosed with thyrotoxicosis. A later MRI, due to persistent shoulder pain, revealed multiple bone metastases. A biopsy was diagnostic for follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, and total...... treatment continued until after the fourth RAI dose. Hypothyroidism did not occur until following the fifth RAI treatment. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS: We present a patient initially diagnosed with thyrotoxicosis and subsequently with metastatic follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer. It is suggested...

  5. American Thyroid Association Guide to investigating thyroid hormone economy and action in rodent and cell models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Antonio C; Anderson, Grant; Forrest, Douglas; Galton, Valerie Anne; Gereben, Balázs; Kim, Brian W; Kopp, Peter A; Liao, Xiao Hui; Obregon, Maria Jesus; Peeters, Robin P; Refetoff, Samuel; Sharlin, David S; Simonides, Warner S; Weiss, Roy E; Williams, Graham R

    2014-01-01

    An in-depth understanding of the fundamental principles that regulate thyroid hormone homeostasis is critical for the development of new diagnostic and treatment approaches for patients with thyroid disease. Important clinical practices in use today for the treatment of patients with hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, or thyroid cancer are the result of laboratory discoveries made by scientists investigating the most basic aspects of thyroid structure and molecular biology. In this document, a panel of experts commissioned by the American Thyroid Association makes a series of recommendations related to the study of thyroid hormone economy and action. These recommendations are intended to promote standardization of study design, which should in turn increase the comparability and reproducibility of experimental findings. It is expected that adherence to these recommendations by investigators in the field will facilitate progress towards a better understanding of the thyroid gland and thyroid hormone dependent processes.

  6. Thyroid nodules and thyroid autoimmunity in the context of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenga, Salvatore; Antonelli, Alessandro; Vita, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    Evidence suggests that in most industrialized countries autoimmune disorders, including chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, are increasing. This increase parallels the one regarding differentiated thyroid cancer, the increment of which is mainly due to the papillary histotype. A number of studies have pointed to an association between chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and differentiated thyroid cancer. The upward trend of these two thyroid diseases is sustained by certain environmental factors, such as polluting substances acting as endocrine disrupting chemicals. Herein we will review the experimental and clinical literature that highlights the effects of environmental and occupational exposure to polluting chemicals in the development of autoimmune thyroid disease or differentiated thyroid cancer. Stakeholders, starting from policymarkers, should become more sensitive to the consequences for the thyroid resulting from exposure to EDC. Indeed, the economic burden resulting from such consequences has not been quantified thus far.

  7. American Thyroid Association Guide to Investigating Thyroid Hormone Economy and Action in Rodent and Cell Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Grant; Forrest, Douglas; Galton, Valerie Anne; Gereben, Balázs; Kim, Brian W.; Kopp, Peter A.; Liao, Xiao Hui; Obregon, Maria Jesus; Peeters, Robin P.; Refetoff, Samuel; Sharlin, David S.; Simonides, Warner S.; Weiss, Roy E.; Williams, Graham R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: An in-depth understanding of the fundamental principles that regulate thyroid hormone homeostasis is critical for the development of new diagnostic and treatment approaches for patients with thyroid disease. Summary: Important clinical practices in use today for the treatment of patients with hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, or thyroid cancer are the result of laboratory discoveries made by scientists investigating the most basic aspects of thyroid structure and molecular biology. In this document, a panel of experts commissioned by the American Thyroid Association makes a series of recommendations related to the study of thyroid hormone economy and action. These recommendations are intended to promote standardization of study design, which should in turn increase the comparability and reproducibility of experimental findings. Conclusions: It is expected that adherence to these recommendations by investigators in the field will facilitate progress towards a better understanding of the thyroid gland and thyroid hormone dependent processes. PMID:24001133

  8. Detecting thyroid cancer: utopia or reality? or Possibilities for thallium 201 in thyroid oncopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermans, J.; Beauduin, M.; Gigot, J.F.; Schmitz, A.; Pluygers, E.

    1985-01-01

    201 Tl uptake by cold thyroid nodules, as evidenced by routine scintigraphy, was investigated in 119 patients. Results show strong correlation (89.5%) of existence of thyroid tumors (benign follicular adenoma and carcinoma) with 202 Tl uptake. (Auth.)

  9. The thyroid nodule. Thyrotropin and peripheral thyroid hormones; Der Schilddruesenknoten. TSH und periphere Hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimny, M. [Klinikum Hanau (Germany). Inst. fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2008-09-15

    Thyrotropin, free triodothyronine and thyroxine represent the standard serological parameters for the diagnostic work-up of the thyroid but only a minority of thyroid nodules present with subclinical or overt thyroid disorders. Besides a review of the regulation and principle of function of thyroid hormones as well as the effects of subclinical or overt hyperthyroidism, the significant role of these parameters beyond the assessment of hyperthyroidism in thyroid nodules is discussed. There is evidence that the level of thyrotropin within the normal range is predictive for the relevance of autonomous functioning nodules and the risk of malignancy of non-functioning thyroid nodules. Furthermore, the ratio of triodothyronine and thyroxine indicates the etiology of hyperthyroidism. Thyrotropin represents the main parameter to determine the adequate dose of thyroid hormone therapy of thyroid nodules. (orig.)

  10. Ionizing radiation influence on thyroid iodine metabolism in hypothyroid rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadol'nik, L.I.; Valentyukevich, O.I.; Netsetskaya, Z.V.

    2005-01-01

    Reduction of inhibition effect mercazalylum on thyroid after irradiation that apparent in decrease of rate hypertrophy, increase of blood thyroid hormone level and increase thyroid concentration of total, protein binding and free iodine was shown. (authors)

  11. Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid An ... Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? What is Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? During ...

  12. What You Need to Know about Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types A to ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Thyroid Cancer This booklet is about thyroid cancer. Learning about ...

  13. Radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid disorders: functional thyroid autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkelmann, S.

    2005-01-01

    In the last 15 years, several concepts have been developed to further improve the outcome of radioiodine therapy in functional thyroid autonomy. Results of radioiodine therapy in functional autonomy are considerably better than in Graves' disease. All of the currently-applied concepts offer healing rates of 75-100%, but they differ considerably in the hypothyreosis rates attained. The target volume can be precisely determined by sonography only in unifocal autonomy. In the case of multifocal and disseminated autonomy, the entire thyroid is taken as the target volume and the focal dose is reduced ('dosimetric compromise'). TcTUs-based dose concepts calculate the functionally autonomous volume from the TcTUs and replace the target volume by sonography, in the TcTUs-adapted dose concepts, sonographic target volume is left and the focal dose varied in dependence of the suppression uptake. The objective is to attain a high rate of success with a low rate of hypothyreosis. (orig.)

  14. Radiofrequency Ablation of Benign Thyroid Nodules and Recurrent Thyroid Cancers: Consensus Statement and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Hyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Na, Dong Gyu [Human Medical Imaging and Intervention Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, So Lyung [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Thermal ablation using radiofrequency is a new, minimally invasive modality employed as an alternative to surgery in patients with benign thyroid nodules and recurrent thyroid cancers. The Task Force Committee of the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology has developed recommendations for the optimal use of radiofrequency ablation for thyroid nodules. These recommendations are based on a comprehensive analysis of the current literature, the results of multicenter studies, and expert consensus.

  15. Clinical And Pathological Implications Of Concurrent Autoimmune Thyroid Disorders And Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, L L; Ferreira, R C; Marcello, M A; Vassallo, J; Ward, L S

    2011-01-01

    Cooccurrences of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) and thyroid cancer (DTC) have been repeatedly reported. Both CLT and DTC, mainly papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), share some epidemiological and molecular features. In fact, thyroid lymphocytic inflammatory reaction has been observed in association with PTC at variable frequency, although the precise relationship between the two diseases is still debated. It also remains a matter of debate whether the association with a CLT or even an a...

  16. Vulnerability of the developing brain to thyroid abnormalities: environmental insults to the thyroid system.

    OpenAIRE

    Porterfield, S P

    1994-01-01

    Neurologic development follows orderly patterns that can be severely disturbed when thyroid hormones are deficient or excessive. Should this occur at appropriate development periods, irreversible neurologic damage can result. The nature of the deficits depends upon the specific development period and the severity of the thyroid disturbance. PCBs and dioxins are structurally similar to the thyroid hormones. Their binding characteristics are similar to those of thyroid hormones and all three gr...

  17. Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody and Screening for Postpartum Thyroid Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed A. Adlan; Lakdasa D. Premawardhana

    2011-01-01

    Postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD) is a common disorder which causes considerable morbidity in affected women. The availability of effective treatment for hypothyroid PPTD, the occurrence of the disease in subsequent pregnancies and the need to identify subjects who develop long term hypothyroidism, has prompted discussion about screening for this disorder. There is currently no consensus about screening as investigations hitherto have been variable in their design, definitions and assay f...

  18. Thyroid gland in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miłkowska-Dymanowska, Joanna; Białas, Adam J; Laskowska, Paulina; Górski, Paweł; Piotrowski, Wojciech J

    2017-01-01

    The risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as well as thyroid diseases increases with age. COPD is a common systemic disease associated with chronic inflammation. Many endocrinological disorders, including thyroid gland diseases are related to systemic inflammation. Epidemiological studies suggest that patients with COPD are at higher risk of thyroid disorders. These associations are not well-studied and thyroid gland diseases are not included on the broadly acknowledged list of COPD comorbidities. They may seriously handicap quality of life of COPD patients. Unfortunately, the diagnosis may be difficult, as many signs are masked by the symptoms of the index disease. The comprehension of the correlation between thyroid gland disorders and COPD may contribute to better care of patients. In this review, we attempt to revise available literature describing existing links between COPD and thyroid diseases.

  19. Does microbiota composition affect thyroid homeostasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virili, Camilla; Centanni, Marco

    2015-08-01

    The intestinal microbiota is essential for the host to ensure digestive and immunologic homeostasis. When microbiota homeostasis is impaired and dysbiosis occurs, the malfunction of epithelial barrier leads to intestinal and systemic disorders, chiefly immunologic and metabolic. The role of the intestinal tract is crucial in the metabolism of nutrients, drugs, and hormones, including exogenous and endogenous iodothyronines as well as micronutrients involved in thyroid homeostasis. However, the link between thyroid homeostasis and microbiota composition is not yet completely ascertained. A pathogenetic link with dysbiosis has been described in different autoimmune disorders but not yet fully elucidated in autoimmune thyroid disease which represents the most frequent of them. Anyway, it has been suggested that intestinal dysbiosis may trigger autoimmune thyroiditis. Furthermore, hypo- and hyper-thyroidism, often of autoimmune origin, were respectively associated to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and to changes in microbiota composition. Whether some steps of this thyroid network may be affected by intestinal microbiota composition is briefly discussed below.

  20. Benign solitary solid cold thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Helle; Bennedbaek, Finn Noe; Karstrup, Steen

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of ultrasonography (US)-guided interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) on the volume of benign solitary solid cold thyroid nodules and any nodule-related symptoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ILP was performed in 16 patients with normal thyroid function and a solid...... benign thyroid nodule. None of the patients had uptake on a radionuclide scan. Patients underwent one ILP session. A needle was positioned in the thyroid nodule with US guidance, and the laser fiber was placed in the lumen of the needle. Patients were treated for 287-1,200 seconds with an output power...... of 1-3 W. ILP was performed with continuous US guidance and terminated when the echogenic changes were stationary. Thyroid nodule volume and thyroid function were evaluated before and 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. During the same period, 15 untreated patients (control group) were followed up...

  1. Thyroid nodular disease: an emerging problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, E; Pirola, I; Gandossi, E; Delbarba, A; Cappelli, C

    2008-03-01

    As a consequence of increasing application of ultrasound technology, the detection of asymptomatic thyroid nodules has generally increased. In fact, ultrasound epidemiological studies report that two third of subjects have at least a thyroid nodule, instead of 4-7% detected by clinicians. These evidences suggest the need of a rational approach to the thyroid nodule ''epidemia''. The question of whether clinically unapparent thyroid lesions should be assessed by cytology is still unresolved and, moreover, the clinical significance of nonpalpable (diameter <10 mm) thyroid carcinoma is still a matter of discussion. Aim of this work is to delineate a rational approach to thyroid nodules, taking in account literature data, the most recent guidelines and our clinical experience.

  2. [Thymoma and autoimmune thyroiditis. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkane, A; Bellamy, J; Leroy-Terquem, E; Levy, R

    2003-09-01

    We report an association between a thymus tumor and autoimmune thyroiditis. This association is probably related to loss of immune control secondary to loss of thymus integrity. A 48-year-old woman was hospitalized for thoracic pain. Her past history included thyroiditis treated by L-thyroxin for two years. The chest x-ray demonstrated a mediastinal opacity which was confirmed by computed tomography. Surgical resection was performed and histological analysis of the surgical specimen confirmed the diagnosis of lympho-epithelial thymoma. Thyroid immunity tests demonstrated the presence of anti-peroxidase antibodies confirming the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Chest x-ray and CT-scan are indicated in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis to search for a thymic mass. Conversely, search for autoimmune thyroiditis is warranted in patients with an identified thymic mass.

  3. Thyroid function and thyroid size in normal pregnant women living in an iodine replete area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, A.; Endert, E.; Ross, A.; Hogerzeil, H. V.; Smits, N. J.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    1994-01-01

    The interpretation of the changes in thyroid hormone concentrations during normal pregnancy is a matter of debate involving, in some geographical regions, enhanced thyroid activity in early pregnancy and a hypothyroid state in the third trimester. A clinically detectable increase in thyroid size has

  4. Pathological evaluation of thyroid glands in Graves' disease after thyroid arteries embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Wenquan; Xiao Haipeng; Cheng Wei; Yang Jianyong; Chen Guorui; Ling Qibo

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the pathological morphology of thyroid specimen after thyroid arteries embolization. In order to select appropriate size of embolizing granules, the diameters of thyroid arteries in Graves' disease were measured. Methods: Multiple slides of embolized thyroid tissues from superior pole, body and inferior pole of the resected thyroid glands were made. After being embedded and stained, pathological morphology was observed and diameters of arteries in various parts of thyroid glands were measured under microscopy. Results: Pathological examination of thyroid glands showed that superior and inferior thyroid arteries and most of their branches were embolized with ischemic necrosis and fibrosis in the embolized thyroid tissue. Follicular epithelium appeared as flat or cubic shapes with colloid reduction. Average diameter of main branches of superior artery was 440-550 μm and that of inferior artery was 300-375 μm. The diameters of capillary network in the thyroid body was 120-250 μm, and the non-embolized ones was 40-110 μm. The diameter of isthmus was 130-150 μm. Conclusions: Pathological morphology of Graves' disease after thyroid arteries embolization showed that the excretion of thyroid glands would be decreased and equivalents to subtotal thyroidectomy

  5. Thyroid hormone resistance syndrome due to mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor alpha gene (THRA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tylki-Szymanska, A.; Acuna Hidalgo, R.; Krajewska-Walasek, M.; Lecka-Ambroziak, A.; Steehouwer, M.; Gilissen, C.F.; Brunner, H.G.; Jurecka, A.; Rozdzynska-Swiatkowska, A.; Hoischen, A.; Chrzanowska, K.H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Resistance to thyroid hormone is characterised by a lack of response of peripheral tissues to the active form of thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine, T3). In about 85% of cases, a mutation in THRB, the gene coding for thyroid receptor beta (TRbeta), is the cause of this disorder. Recently,

  6. Thyroid Hormone Receptor beta Mediates Acute Illness-Induced Alterations in Central Thyroid Hormone Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, Anita; Kwakkel, Joan; Chassande, Olivier; Fliers, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Acute illness in mice profoundly affects thyroid hormone metabolism in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. It remains unknown whether the thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-beta is involved in these changes. In the present study, we investigated central thyroid hormone metabolism during

  7. Thyroid disease in children and adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Ji Ye; Jeong, Sun Hye [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    Thyroid imaging in pediatric patients is indicated for the evaluation of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) during newborn screening or for a palpable thyroid mass. The primary imaging modalities for newborn screening are ultrasonography (US) and radionuclide scintigraphy. US is useful as a first-line test for the diagnosis of thyroid abnormalities and lymphadenopathy in pediatric patients. In addition, US can be used to guide the aspiration of detected nodules and to support the evaluation of the lymph nodes.

  8. Usefulness of screening ultrasound for thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soo Youn; Han, Heon; Park, Man Soo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of the ultrasonography as a screening test for thyroid diseases. For 7 months, thyroid ultrasonography (7.5 MHz linear array) was performed prospectively by radiologists on 1,316 subjects who do not have a history of the thyroid disease. We analyzed the morphological abnormalities of thyroid gland and these were classified as the nodulal, cystic and diffuse types in accordance with the gender and ages of the patients. We performed ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration in 21 patients who had sonographic features that were suggestive of malignant thyroid nodules. Physical examination was performed for all subjects by clinicians before the thyroid ultrasonography, and we compared the detectability of thyroid lesions between ultrasonography and physical examination. Thyroidal abnormalities were detected in 94 (7.1%) of 1,316 subjects. Among the 94 patients, 72(5.5%) showed as nodules, 18 (1.4%) showed as cysts and 4 (0.3%) showed as diffuse abnormalities. The result of the ultrasound-guided aspiration on 21 patients showed 4 malignant nodules, 16 benign nodules and 1 undetermined nodule. Physical examination detected abnormalities in only 12 patients (12.8%) of the 94 patients, which were showed as nodules, cysts and the diffuse type by ultrasonography. Thyroid disease of the general population was relatively common and the detection rate with performing physical examination for the thyroid nodule, cyst and the diffuse type was lower than that for ultrasonography. Thyroid ultrasonography is a useful screening modality for detecting thyroid diseases

  9. Encephalopathy Associated With Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

    OpenAIRE

    li A. Raouf; Gianluca Tamagno

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs) are immune-endocrine disorders affecting the thyroid gland and, eventually, also a number of other systemic targets, including the brain and the nervous system. Encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid disease (EAATD) is a rare, heterogeneous condition arising from the background of an ATD. It is characterised by neurological and/or psychiatric symptoms with acute or sub-acute onset, and virtually any neurological or psychiatric symptom can appear. ...

  10. Unmodifiable variables related to thyroid cancer incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelia Nitipir; Lucian Alecu; Iulian Slavu; Raluca Tulin; Radu C. Jecan

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer is significantly different between male and female patients. Thyroid cancer is also the only form of cancer where age can be considered a staging variable. Identifying biological prognostic factors such as age or sex is important as it helps select an optimal personalized therapy. The present analysis is an observational, prospective study that enrolled all patients with thyroid disease who were operated upon at a single center. The study aimed to determine the...

  11. Etiology of thyroid cancer: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narkar, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    Thyroid cancer, although a relatively rare tumor, is the most common cancer of the endocrine glands. The identification of genetic factors important in the pathogesis of thyroid cancer could provide molecular tools for a better differential diagnosis between the different histotypes. Characterisation of mechanisms by which mutated proteins transduce mitogenic and de-differentiating signals might suggest novel therapeutic approaches for controlling cell growth and restoring thyroid differentiated functions

  12. Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma of the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Justin A; Ali, Syed Z

    2011-04-01

    Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma (HTA) is a rare primary thyroid neoplasm. Ever since its initial descriptions, controversy has surrounded the lesion, particularly in regard to its malignant potential and most appropriate terminology. HTA shares many features with medullary thyroid carcinoma and particularly papillary thyroid carcinoma, making it an especially treacherous lesion on fine-needle aspiration (FNA). This manuscript reviews the history and pathologic features of HTA, with particular attention to cytologic findings and differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Interactions between thyroid disorders and kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gopal Basu; Anjali Mohapatra

    2012-01-01

    There are several interactions between thyroid and kidney functions in each other organ's disease states. Thyroid hormones affect renal development and physiology. Thyroid hormones have pre-renal and intrinsic renal effects by which they increase the renal blood flow and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Hypothyroidism is associated with reduced GFR and hyperthyroidism results in increased GFR as well as increased renin – angiotensin – aldosterone activation. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) ...

  14. Lingual thyroid - report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Ricardo Pires de; Abicalaf, Ricardo Souza; Pimentel, Claudia Andreia Rabay; Santos, Leynalze Ramos; Soares, Aldemir Humberto; Gois Filho, Jose Francisco de; Carvalho, Marcos Brasilino de; Rapoport, Abrao

    1997-01-01

    The authors report two cases of lingual thyroid, an uncommon developmental anomaly of embryogenesis characterized by a failure of the normal migration of thyroid tissue to the neck, with presence of the thyroid gland in the mid-line of the tongue base between circumvallate papillae and the epiglottis. The lesions may appear at nay time from birth to old age and have a predilection for females. The embryology, incidence, signs and symptoms, diagnostic methods and management are discussed. (author)

  15. Thyroid Disorders in Accra, Ghana: A Retrospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty-six (43.4%) of the neoplastic thyroid disorders were malignant with a prevalence of 0.18 among thy-roid samples and annual incidence of 9.40 cases. The commonest thyroid cancer was papillary car-cinoma 40(60.6 %), with a mean age of 38.3 SD=16.1 years, majority, 34 (82.9%), were women. A wide spectrum of ...

  16. Thyroid radiofrequency ablation: Updates on innovative devices and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye Sun; Baek, Jung Hwan; Chung, Sae Rom; Choi, Young Jun; Lee, Jeong Hyun [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Auh Whan [Dept. of Radiology, Vascular and Interventional Radiology Section, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a well-known, effective, and safe method for treating benign thyroid nodules and recurrent thyroid cancers. Thyroid-dedicated devices and basic techniques for thyroid RFA were introduced by the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology (KSThR) in 2012. Thyroid RFA has now been adopted worldwide, with subsequent advances in devices and techniques. To optimize the treatment efficacy and patient safety, understanding the basic and advanced RFA techniques and selecting the optimal treatment strategy are critical. The goal of this review is to therefore provide updates and analysis of current devices and advanced techniques for RFA treatment of benign thyroid nodules and recurrent thyroid cancers.

  17. Ultrasound elastography in the evaluation of thyroid pathology. Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantisani, Vito; Lodise, Pietro; Grazhdani, Hektor; Mancuso, Ester; Maggini, Elena; Di Rocco, Giorgio; D’Ambrosio, Ferdinando; Calliada, Fabrizio; Redler, Adriano; Ricci, Paolo; Catalano, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid pathology including thyroid nodules and diffuse thyroid diseases represents often a diagnosing challenge for clinicians. US, although highly accurate in identifying thyroid nodules and diffuse thyroid diseases, is still not sufficiently accurate to evaluate them. US-elastography has been introduced in order to further increase US accuracy in many fields and eventually for thyroid disease. The aim of the present paper it to provide an update of the literature on different available techniques and the results reported both for thyroid nodules differentiation and for diffuse thyroid disease evaluation. Advantages and limitations of elastography are also discussed

  18. Ultrasound elastography in the evaluation of thyroid pathology. Current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantisani, Vito, E-mail: vito.cantisani@uniroma1.it [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Lodise, Pietro, E-mail: pietro.lodise@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Grazhdani, Hektor, E-mail: he1graz@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Mancuso, Ester, E-mail: ester.mancuso@libero.it [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Maggini, Elena, E-mail: elenamaggini@yahoo.it [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Di Rocco, Giorgio, E-mail: giorgiodirocco@virgilio.it [Department of Surgical Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); D’Ambrosio, Ferdinando, E-mail: ferdinando.dambrosio@uniroma1.it [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Calliada, Fabrizio, E-mail: fabrizio.calliada@gmail.com [Policlinico San Matteo, University of Pavia (Italy); Redler, Adriano, E-mail: adriano.redler@uniroma1.it [Department of Surgical Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Ricci, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.ricci@uniroma1.it [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Catalano, Carlo [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy)

    2014-03-15

    Thyroid pathology including thyroid nodules and diffuse thyroid diseases represents often a diagnosing challenge for clinicians. US, although highly accurate in identifying thyroid nodules and diffuse thyroid diseases, is still not sufficiently accurate to evaluate them. US-elastography has been introduced in order to further increase US accuracy in many fields and eventually for thyroid disease. The aim of the present paper it to provide an update of the literature on different available techniques and the results reported both for thyroid nodules differentiation and for diffuse thyroid disease evaluation. Advantages and limitations of elastography are also discussed.

  19. Thyroid Disease and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Medicine in Thyroid Disease Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Thyroid Disease (CAM) WHAT IS COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (CAM)? Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is defined ...

  20. Experience in a specialist thyroid surgery unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    al-Suliman, N N; Ryttov, N F; Qvist, N

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present a demographic study of thyroid diseases and thyroid surgical activity, to analyse the results of one department that has specialised in thyroid surgery during an 11-year period, and to try to define those groups of patients at increased risk of complications and untoward...... catchment area composed of five municipalities. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Annual number of operations for goitre, waiting time to operation, incidence of complications, and sequelae. RESULTS: In the demographic study the number of patients operated on for benign thyroid diseases declined from about 50 cases...

  1. Thyroid disease and the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzi, Sara; Klein, Irwin

    2014-06-01

    Thyroid hormones, specifically triiodothyronine (T3), have significant effects on the heart and cardiovascular system. Hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, subclinical thyroid disease, and low T3 syndrome each cause cardiac and cardiovascular abnormalities through both genomic and nongenomic effects on cardiac myocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. In compromised health, such as occurs in heart disease, alterations in thyroid hormone metabolism may further impair cardiac and cardiovascular function. Diagnosis and treatment of cardiac disease may benefit from including analysis of thyroid hormone status, including serum total T3 levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Iodine-129 in thyroids of grazing animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballad, R.V.; Holman, D.W.; Hennecke, E.W.; Johnson, J.E.; Manuel, O.K.; Nicholson, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    A combination of neutron activation and mass spectrometry has been used to determine the concentrations of fissiogenic 129 I and stable 127 I in thyroids of grazing animals and in mineral iodine. The 129 I/ 127 I ratios are lowest in mineral iodine and in a given area lower in cow thyroids than in deer thyroids. Near saturation levels of mineral iodine in commercial feeds and salt licks may account for differences in the 129 I levels of cows and deer. Values of the 129 I/ 127 I ratio in deer appear to vary inversely with the iodine concentration of the thyroid. (author)

  3. Stemness is derived from thyroid cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risheng eMa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: One hypothesis for thyroid cancer development is its derivation from thyroid cancer stem cells (CSCs. Such cells could arise via different paths including from mutated resident stem cells within the thyroid gland or via epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT from malignant cells since EMT is known to confer stem-like characteristics. Methods: To examine the status of stemness in thyroid papillary cancer we employed a murine model of thyroid papillary carcinoma and examined the expression of stemness and EMT using qPCR and histochemistry in mice with a thyroid-specific knock-in of oncogenic Braf (LSL-Braf(V600E/TPO-Cre. This construct is only activated at the time of thyroid peroxidase (TPO expression in differentiating thyroid cells and cannot be activated by undifferentiated stem cells which do not express TPO.Results: There was decreased expression of thyroid specific genes such as Tg and NIS and increased expression of stemness markers such as Oct4, Rex1, CD15 and Sox2 in the thyroid carcinoma tissue from 6 week old BRAFV600E mice. The decreased expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and increased EMT regulators including Snail, Slug, and TGF-β1 and TGF-β3, and the mesenchymal marker vimentin demonstrated the simultaneous progression of EMT and the CSC-like phenotype. Stemness was also found in a derived cancer thyroid cell line in which overexpression of Snail caused up-regulation of vimentin expression and up regulation of stemness markers Oct4, Rex1, CD15 with enhanced migration ability of the cells. Conclusions: Our findings support our earlier hypothesis that stemness in thyroid cancer is derived via EMT rather than from resident thyroid stem cells. In mice with a thyroid-specific knock-in of oncogenic Braf (LSL-Braf(V600E/TPO-Cre the neoplastic changes were dependent on thyroid cell differentiation and the onset of stemness must have been derived from differentiated thyroid epithelial cells.

  4. Thyroid Autoimmunity in Girls with Turner Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska-Sędek, Ewelina; Borowiec, Ada; Kucharska, Anna; Chacewicz, Karolina; Rumińska, Małgorzata; Demkow, Urszula; Pyrżak, Beata

    2017-01-01

    Turner syndrome is associated with increased incidence of autoimmune diseases, especially those of the thyroid gland. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity among pediatric patients with Turner syndrome. The study was retrospective and included 41 girls with Turner syndrome aged 6-18 years. Free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO-Ab) antibodies, anti-thyroglobulin (TG-Ab) antibodies, and karyotype were investigated. The correlation between karyotype and incidence of thyroid autoimmunity was also examined. Eleven patients (26.8%) were positive for TPO-Ab and/or TG-Ab. Three girls from that subgroup were euthyroid, 5 had subclinical hypothyroidism, and 3 were diagnosed with overt hypothyroidism. Out of these 11 patients affected by thyroid autoimmunity, 6 girls had mosaic karyotype with X-isochromosome (n = 4) or with deletions (n = 2), and 5 had the 45,X karyotype. The study findings confirmed a high incidence of thyroid autoimmunity in girls with Turner syndrome, but we failed to observe an association between the incidence of thyroid autoimmunity and karyotype. We conclude that it is important to monitor thyroid function in patients with Turner syndrome because they are prone to develop hypothyroidism.

  5. Associations between Systemic Sclerosis and Thyroid Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poupak Fallahi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We have reviewed scientific literature about the association of systemic sclerosis (SSc and thyroid disorders. A high incidence, and prevalence, of new cases of autoimmune thyroiditis (AT and/or hypothyroidism have been shown in sclerodermic patients (overall in the female gender. An association among a Th1 immune-predominance, low vitamin D levels, and AT have been also shown in SSc patients. Cases of Graves’ disease (GD have been described in SSc patients, too, according with the higher prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity. It has been also shown a higher prevalence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC, in association with AT, in SSc patients. However, in order to confirm results about GD and thyroid cancer, studies in larger number of patients with SSc are needed. During the follow-up of SSc patients it would be appropriate to monitor carefully their thyroid status. The abovementioned data strongly suggest a periodic thyroid function follow-up in female SSc patients [showing a borderline high (although in the normal range thyroid-stimulating hormone level, antithyroid peroxidase antibody positivity, and a small thyroid with a hypoechoic pattern], and, when necessary, appropriate treatments. In conclusion, most of the studies show an association among SSc, AT, and hypothyroidism, such as an increased prevalence of TC overall in SSc patients with AT. Only few cases of GD have been also described in SSc.

  6. Thyroid functions in young diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiez, A.A.; Ismail, A.A.; Awadeen, M.R.; Abbas, E.Z.; Farag, M.S.A.

    1982-01-01

    Assessment of the thyroid-pituitary axis was performed in uncontrolled (20 cases) and controlled (22 cases) insulin-dependent young diabetics who were university students attending the university hospital. A third age-matching group (21 normal subjects) was also investigated. The plasma glucose level was determined after fasting as well as 2 hours after an oral glucose meal (50 g). Thyroxine (T 4 ), triiodeothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were assayed by RIA. The data obtained showed a lowered level of T 3 and T 4 and a raised level of TSH in uncontrolled young diabetics as compared to corresponding values for age matching normals. The group of controlled diabetics showed near normal T 3 and increased T 4 levels, but still lower than normal. TSH levels dropped significantly to the normal level. (author)

  7. External radiotherapy in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Shah, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    In the management of thyroid carcinoma (TC) of any histological type, surgery is the primary mode of treatment. The second modality for the management is treatment with radioactive iodine ( 131 I), especially, when the tumor has the ability to concentrate 131 I. External radiotherapy has a limited use in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). It is useful in the management of bulky residual tissue which is not completely resected, metastatic disease which does not concentrated radioiodine and as a palliative treatment for reliving pain in patients with distant metastases. The ER as an adjuvant treatment in both anaplastic and medullary carcinoma has a significant role to play and should be used more frequently than is presently being advocated and practiced

  8. Numerical model of thyroid counter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szuchta Maciej

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a numerical model of spectrometric thyroid counter, which is used for the measurements of internal contamination by in vivo method. The modeled detector is used for a routine internal exposure monitoring procedure in the Radiation Protection Measurements Laboratory of National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ. This procedure may also be used for monitoring of occupationally exposed nuclear medicine personnel. The developed model was prepared using Monte Carlo code FLUKA 2011 ver. 2b.6 Apr-14 and FLAIR ver. 1.2-5 interface. It contains a scintillation NaI(Tl detector, the collimator and the thyroid water phantom with a reference source of iodine 131I. The geometry of the model was designed and a gamma energy spectrum of iodine 131I deposited in the detector was calculated.

  9. Thyroglobulin in differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Carol; Tennant, Sarah; Perros, Petros

    2015-04-15

    Identification of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is becoming increasingly common. Patients usually have an excellent prognosis. Most undergo total thyroidectomy, radioiodine ablation and treatment with suppressive doses of levothyroxine. Patients require long term follow-up which includes measurement of serum thyroglobulin (Tg). Interpretation of serum Tg requires knowledge of the concurrent thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration, as secretion is TSH dependant, and an awareness of the limitations of the methods used to measure it. These limitations include the heterogeneity of Tg in serum, the ability of assays to recognise forms of Tg secreted by a tumour, assay biases and not least the potential for interference in immunoassays for Tg from endogenous thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAbs) in patient serum. This review considers what the clinician wants to know and how Tg results can be interpreted in light of an awareness of assay limitations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Insular carcinoma of the thyroid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, J; Cerpa, F; Domínguez, M; Franco, C; Jadresic, A; Pérez, G; Phillippi, V

    1999-03-01

    We report 5 cases of insular carcinoma of the thyroid. Most patients were females (80%) with an age range of 28 to 75 years. Treatment consisted of total or near total thyroidectomy plus modified cervical lymph node dissection in cases with lymph node metastasis. This was followed by radioiodine therapy and external radiation therapy in patients with residual disease. None of the patients had distant metastasis. However, three patients with involvement of the perithyroid soft tissue died within 4 years of the diagnosis. The other two patients are alive without evidence of disease. This type of thyroid carcinoma has an aggresive clinical course with frequent extension to the adjacent soft tissue associated to poor outcomes.

  11. Thyroid Hormone Regulation of Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullur, Rashmi; Liu, Yan-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is required for normal development as well as regulating metabolism in the adult. The thyroid hormone receptor (TR) isoforms, α and β, are differentially expressed in tissues and have distinct roles in TH signaling. Local activation of thyroxine (T4), to the active form, triiodothyronine (T3), by 5′-deiodinase type 2 (D2) is a key mechanism of TH regulation of metabolism. D2 is expressed in the hypothalamus, white fat, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle and is required for adaptive thermogenesis. The thyroid gland is regulated by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). In addition to TRH/TSH regulation by TH feedback, there is central modulation by nutritional signals, such as leptin, as well as peptides regulating appetite. The nutrient status of the cell provides feedback on TH signaling pathways through epigentic modification of histones. Integration of TH signaling with the adrenergic nervous system occurs peripherally, in liver, white fat, and BAT, but also centrally, in the hypothalamus. TR regulates cholesterol and carbohydrate metabolism through direct actions on gene expression as well as cross-talk with other nuclear receptors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), liver X receptor (LXR), and bile acid signaling pathways. TH modulates hepatic insulin sensitivity, especially important for the suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis. The role of TH in regulating metabolic pathways has led to several new therapeutic targets for metabolic disorders. Understanding the mechanisms and interactions of the various TH signaling pathways in metabolism will improve our likelihood of identifying effective and selective targets. PMID:24692351

  12. Affective cycling in thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapp, A.

    1988-01-01

    Depression in an elderly man with primary recurrent unipolar depression responded to radioactive iodine treatment of a thyrotoxic nodule, without the addition of psychotropic medications. Two months later, manic symptoms developed concomitant with the termination of the hyperthyroid state secondary to the radioactive iodine treatment. Clinical implications of these findings in relation to the possible mechanism of action of thyroid hormones on affective cycling are discussed

  13. Thyroid suppression test with dextrothyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, D.; Fridman, J.; Ribeiro, H.B.

    1978-01-01

    The classic thyroid suppression test with triiodothyronine (l-T 3 ) has been shown to be efficient as an auxiliary method in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases, but should not be performed on elderly patients or on those with heart disease or a tendency to tachycardia. Since these subjects seem able to support a short period of dextro-thyronine (d-T 4 ) feeding, we compared the effect of d-T 4 and l-T 3 on the 24 hours thyroid uptake in euthyroid and hyperthyroid subjects. After basal radio-iodine uptake determination, 99 patients without hyperthyroidism and 27 with Graves' disease were randomly divided in 2 groups; one received 100μg of l-T 3 per day and the other 4 mg of d-T 4 per day, both groups being treated for a period of 10 days. At the end of this suppression period the 24 hours radio-iodine uptake was measured again and the percentual suppression index (S.I.) calculated. Since the comparison of the two groups showed no difference between the suppressive effect of l-T 3 and d-T 4 in euthyroid subjects, while dextro-thyronine, as levo-triiodothyronine, did not suppress the 24 hours uptake of hyperthyroid patients, l-T 3 or d-T 4 can be used interchangeably to test thyroid suppressibility. In the euthyroid subjects the normal range for the post-suppression uptake was 0-17.1% and for the suppression index 54,7.100% [pt

  14. Molecular markers for thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero Rodriguez, Maria Teresa; Sinconegui Gomez, Belkys; Cruz Cruz, Anaisa

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the study of the thyroid nodule lies in excluding the possibility of a malignant lesion because the majority of lesions are benign but there is a malignancy risk of 5 to 10%. Most of them are well differentiated carcinomas originating in the follicular epithelium. In spite of the fact that the majority are benign lesions, distinguishing them from carcinomas is crucial to treatment and adequate follow-up. Fine-needle biopsy allows making the diagnosis in most of cases. However, this method is restricted, particularly when diagnosing follicular lesions. In an effort to improve the diagnostic accuracy of biopsy and to provide new diagnosing criteria, a number of molecular markers have been put forward, some of which has wide range of approval whereas others still awaits to be validated for further implementation. This article presented an updated review of molecular markers with higher number of evidence, more accessible and potentially usable from a methodological viewpoint for diagnosis of the thyroid nodule before surgery. The importance of the study of the thyroid nodule lies in excluding the possibility of a malignant lesion because the majority of lesions are benign but there is a malignancy risk of 5 to 10%. Most of them are well differentiated carcinomas originating in the follicular epithelium. In spite of the fact that the majority are benign lesions, distinguishing them from carcinomas is crucial to treatment and adequate follow-up. Fine-needle biopsy allows making the diagnosis in most of cases. However, this method is restricted, particularly when diagnosing follicular lesions. In an effort to improve the diagnostic accuracy of biopsy and to provide new diagnosing criteria, a number of molecular markers have been put forward, some of which has wide range of approval whereas others still awaits to be validated for further implementation. This article presented an updated review of molecular markers with higher number of evidence, more

  15. Sialolithiasis mimicking metastatic thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Bom, Hee Seung; Song, Ho Cheon; Min, Jung Jun; Kim, Seung Min; Kim, Ji Yeul [Chonnam Univ. Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-02-01

    We report a false positive case of I-131 scan due to a sialolithiasis in right submandibular gland. I-131 images showed not only remnant thyroid tissues and functional metastases in the anterior neck but also a hot uptake near right submandibular gland. We confirmed the sialolithiasis by radiologic studies. Sialolithiasis should be regarded as a false positive cause when I-131 scan shows a hot spot near salivary bed.

  16. Thyroid hormones and cardiac arrhythmias

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tribulová, N.; Knezl, V.; Shainberg, A.; Seki, S.; Soukup, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 52, 3-4 (2010), s. 102-112 ISSN 1537-1891 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 2/0049/09; APVV(SK) 51-059505; APVV(SK) 51-017905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : thyroid hormone * arrhythmias * ion channels * connexin-43 Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2010

  17. Autoimmune Thyroiditis and Myasthenia Gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lopomo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases (AIDs are the result of specific immune responses directed against structures of the self. In normal conditions, the molecules recognized as “self” are tolerated by immune system, but when the self-tolerance is lost, the immune system could react against molecules from the body, causing the loss of self-tolerance, and subsequently the onset of AID that differs for organ target and etiology. Autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD is caused by the development of autoimmunity against thyroid antigens and comprises Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and Graves disease. They are frequently associated with other organ or non-organ specific AIDs, such as myasthenia gravis (MG. In fact, ATD seems to be the most associated pathology to MG. The etiology of both diseases is multifactorial and it is due to genetic and environmental factors, and each of them has specific characteristics. The two pathologies show many commonalities, such as the organ-specificity with a clear pathogenic effect of antibodies, the pathological mechanisms, such as deregulation of the immune system and the implication of the genetic predisposition. They also show some differences, such as the mode of action of the antibodies and therapies. In this review that focuses on ATD and MG, the common features and the differences between the two diseases are discussed.

  18. Vitiligo and Autoimmune Thyroid Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enke Baldini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo represents the most common cause of acquired skin, hair, and oral depigmentation, affecting 0.5–1% of the population worldwide. It is clinically characterized by the appearance of disfiguring circumscribed skin macules following melanocyte destruction by autoreactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Patients affected by vitiligo usually show a poorer quality of life and are more likely to suffer from depressive symptoms, particularly evident in dark-skinned individuals. Although vitiligo is a non-fatal disease, exposure of affected skin to UV light increases the chance of skin irritation and predisposes to skin cancer. In addition, vitiligo has been associated with other rare systemic disorders due to the presence of melanocytes in other body districts, such as in eyes, auditory, nervous, and cardiac tissues, where melanocytes are thought to have roles different from that played in the skin. Several pathogenetic models have been proposed to explain vitiligo onset and progression, but clinical and experimental findings point mainly to the autoimmune hypothesis as the most qualified one. In this context, it is of relevance the strong association of vitiligo with other autoimmune diseases, in particular with autoimmune thyroid disorders, such as Hashimoto thyroiditis and Graves’ disease. In this review, after a brief overview of vitiligo and its pathogenesis, we will describe the clinical association between vitiligo and autoimmune thyroid disorders and discuss the possible underlying molecular mechanism(s.

  19. 129I in Missouri thyroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, L.L.; Ballad, R.V.; Manuel, O.K.

    1982-01-01

    Concentrations of 129 I and values of the 129 I/ 127 I ratio are reported in one sample of indigenous vegetation and in over forty additional individual thyroids of man, wild deer and beef cattle in Missouri. The results indicate the following order for successively lower values of 129 I/ 127 I ratios in the local environment: Rain, wild deer, commercial milk, beef cattle and human. The value of the 129 I/ 127 I ratio in single vegetation sample is intermediate to the mean values in wild deer and commercial milk, but well within the range of values observed in both. These results are consistent with a geochemical cycle in which iodine that is enriched in 129 I is transported via air into the central U.S. and then diluted with other iodine-especially mineral iodine that is added to the diets of domesticated animals-as the iodine deposited from air moves through the local ecosystem. Differences in the diets of beef and dairy cattle or differences in the biological life-times of iodine in thyroids and mammae, and hence the degree of equilibration with body iodine, may explain the lower value of the 129 I/ 127 I ratio in beef thyroids than in milk. (author)

  20. Autoimmune Thyroiditis and Myasthenia Gravis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopomo, Angela; Berrih-Aknin, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (AIDs) are the result of specific immune responses directed against structures of the self. In normal conditions, the molecules recognized as “self” are tolerated by immune system, but when the self-tolerance is lost, the immune system could react against molecules from the body, causing the loss of self-tolerance, and subsequently the onset of AID that differs for organ target and etiology. Autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD) is caused by the development of autoimmunity against thyroid antigens and comprises Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and Graves disease. They are frequently associated with other organ or non-organ specific AIDs, such as myasthenia gravis (MG). In fact, ATD seems to be the most associated pathology to MG. The etiology of both diseases is multifactorial and it is due to genetic and environmental factors, and each of them has specific characteristics. The two pathologies show many commonalities, such as the organ-specificity with a clear pathogenic effect of antibodies, the pathological mechanisms, such as deregulation of the immune system and the implication of the genetic predisposition. They also show some differences, such as the mode of action of the antibodies and therapies. In this review that focuses on ATD and MG, the common features and the differences between the two diseases are discussed. PMID:28751878

  1. Thyroid hormone and seasonal rhythmicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues eDardente

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms show seasonality in a wide array of functions such as reproduction, fattening, hibernation and migration. At temperate latitudes, changes in photoperiod maintain the alignment of annual rhythms with predictable changes in the environment. The appropriate physiological response to changing photoperiod in mammals requires retinal detection of light and pineal secretion of melatonin, but extraretinal detection of light occurs in birds. A common mechanism across all vertebrates is that these photoperiod-regulated systems alter hypothalamic thyroid hormone conversion. Here we review the evidence that a circadian clock within the pars tuberalis of the adenohypophysis links photoperiod decoding to local changes of thyroid hormone signalling within the medio-basal hypothalamus through a conserved thyrotropin/deiodinase axis. We also focus on recent findings which indicate that, beyond the photoperiodic control of its conversion, thyroid hormone might also be involved in longer term timing processes of seasonal programs. Finally, we examine the potential implication of kisspeptin and RFRP3, two RF-amide peptides expressed within the medio-basal hypothalamus, in seasonal rhythmicity.

  2. Nuclear receptors for thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricketts, M.H.; Groenewald, J. de W.; Wilson, B.D.

    1980-01-01

    The thyroid hormones, T 3 and T 4 , modulate a vast number of metabolic processes in mammalian tissues. High affinity, low capacity binding sites for T 3 and T 4 have been demonstrated in cell nuclei of target organs using both in vivo and in vitro labelling techniques. The displacement of [ 125 I]T 3 from nuclear binding sites by thyroid hormone analogues correlates well with the thyromimetic activities of the analogues tested. Dose-response relationships between T 3 occupancy and growth hormone secretion as a function of free T 3 concentration have been established with the GH 1 cell line. The equilibrium dissociation constant of the equation which describes how T 3 binds to the nuclei of intact cells is essentially the same as the free T 3 concentration that elicits the half-maximal biological response of the hormone. It is becoming apparent that these nuclear binding sites represent specific thyroid hormone receptors, whose function may be to regulate gene activity in target tissues. This report concerns the binding of the rat liver nuclear receptor to duplex and random coil DNA as well as to non-mammalian and synthetic DNAs. We postulate that the receptor binds in vivo to native DNA in the minor groove of the DNA helix

  3. Double thyroid ectopia (with incidental papillary thyroid microcarcinoma) (2010: 8b)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia de Francisco Gentil-Centro de Lisboa, Department of Radiology, Lisbon (Portugal); Martins, Mariluz [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia de Francisco Gentil-Centro de Lisboa, Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Lisbon (Portugal); Andre, Saudade [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia de Francisco Gentil-Centro de Lisboa, Department of Pathology, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2010-11-15

    We present the case of a 45-year-old man with a long-standing history of a slow-growing left submandibular mass. Imaging was diagnostic as it disclosed an absent orthotopic thyroid gland and heterogeneous masses, with both solid and cystic components, as well as calcifications in the left sublingual/submandibular space and in the left paramedian aspect of the tongue base, consistent with double thyroid ectopia, originating from central and lateral thyroid anlages, respectively. Pathology confirmed an ectopic thyroid goiter in the left submandibular space with an incidental papillary microcarcinoma. Scintigraphy also demonstrated ectopic thyroid tissue in the left tongue base. (orig.)

  4. Arrangement and processing of monographic publications in youth sections of public libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Ločniškar-Fidler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic and transparent layout of library material on book shelves of public libraries is one of the essential conditions for successful viewing and searching of materials. The research tried to determine the contemporary classification system of library material for the youth. The data needed for the research was gathered and analyzed by a questionnaire completed by five randomly selected central public libraries. Special collections, arrangement and classification of certain fiction and specialized monographic publications for infants, teenagers and adolescents were analyzed. It was of our interest to observe whether the libraries assign the elements of a call number - which are evident on the library material and in online catalogs – according to standards and current instructions. The article also focuses on the unity and differences of the technical processing, and on color and/or image of labels which additionally explain the classification and the contents of the monographic publications for the youth.

  5. The UNO Aviation Monograph Series: Aviation Security: An Annotated Bibliography of Responses to the Gore Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrico, John S.; Schaaf, Michaela M.

    1998-01-01

    This monograph is a companion to UNOAI Monograph 96-2, "The Image of Airport Security: An Annotated Bibliography," compiled in June 1996. The White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security, headed by Vice President Al Gore, was formed as a result of the TWA Flight 800 crash in August 1996. The Commission's final report included 31 recommendations addressed toward aviation security. The recommendations were cause for security issues to be revisited in the media and by the aviation industry. These developments necessitated the need for an updated bibliography to review the resulting literature. Many of the articles were written in response to the recommendations made by the Gore Commission. "Aviation Security: An Annotated Bibliography of Responses to the Gore Commission" is the result of this need.

  6. [Estimation of the costs of radiographic and endoscopic examinations in gastroenterology using monographic studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salort, P; Rodriguez, M; Cornee, J; Berthezene, P; Sahel, J; Clement, F

    1986-01-01

    This study is devoted to the study of rate-setting and cost price of fifteen radiological and endoscopic examinations in gastroenterology as based on monographic studies. In rate-setting the costs are the examinations actually performed in the department. In contrast, the cost price allocated to include only the expenses incurred by each examination and not those related to the time running between them. Both estimations converge when rooms and equipment are used maximally. Our results show that the amounts reimbursed by the Social Security system were always lower than those obtained from monographic studies, except for two radiological examinations for which expenses were adequate. However when cost prices are considered, all reimbursements would have to be increased for endoscopic examinations, but for Radiography, only those of cholangiography, cholecystography and small bowel barium series should be adjusted.

  7. Non-European traditional herbal medicines in Europe: a community herbal monograph perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Liping; Zou, Wenjun; Zhou, Zhenxiang; Zhang, Tingmo; Greef, JanVander; Wang, Mei

    2014-10-28

    The European Directive 2004/24/EC introducing a simplified registration procedure for traditional herbal medicinal products, plays an important role in harmonising the current legislation framework for all herbal medicinal products in the European Union (EU). Although substantial achievements have been made under the new scheme, only a limited number of herbal medicinal products from non-European traditions commonly used in Europe have been registered. Therefore, identification of the obstacles, and determination of appropriate means to overcome the major challenges in the registration of non-European traditional herbal medicinal products are of critical importance for the EU herbal medicinal product market. The primary aims of this study were to understand the key issues and obstacles to registration of non-European traditional herbal medicinal products within the EU. The findings may identify the need for more attention on the Community herbal monographs elaborated by the Herbal Medicinal Products Committee (HMPC), as well as further evidence based scientific research on non-European herbal substances/preparations by the scientific community. A systematic evaluation of the herbal substances and preparations included in Community herbal monographs and public statements has been carried out. The focus was herbal substances and preparations derived from non-European traditions. Of the 109 adopted Community herbal monographs, 10 are herbal substances used in Chinese traditional medicine. Where the HMPC issued a public statement because it was unable to elaborate a monograph more than half-involved herbal substances/preparations from non-European traditions. The main reasons herbal substances/preparations from non-European traditions were not accepted for inclusion in the Community herbal monographs have been identified as due to unfulfilled requirements of Directive 2004/24/EC. The most common reasons were the lack of evidence to demonstrate a 15-year minimum

  8. Abnormal thyroid function tests in psychiatric patients: a red herring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerman, Anna L; Barnhill, John W

    2012-02-01

    Thyroid abnormalities can induce mood, anxiety, psychotic, and cognitive disorders. Thus, thyroid function tests are routinely checked in psychiatric patients. However, up to one-third of psychiatric patients may demonstrate thyroid function test abnormalities that do not reflect true thyroid disease, but rather are a manifestation of secondary effects on one or more levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. Originally termed the euthyroid sick syndrome, this phenomenon is now more commonly referred to as "non-thyroidal illness." In psychiatric patients with non-thyroidal illness, patterns of thyroid function test abnormalities may vary considerably based upon factors such as the underlying psychiatric disorder, the presence of substance abuse, or even the use of certain psychiatric medications. Thus, any abnormal thyroid function tests in psychiatric patients should be viewed with skepticism. Given the fact that thyroid function test abnormalities seen in non-thyroidal illness usually resolve spontaneously, treatment is generally unnecessary, and may even be potentially harmful.

  9. Dental amalgam implantation and thyroid autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisakol, G

    2014-01-01

    Mercury was heavily studied as a factor in the autoimmune processes. We aimed to observe whether mercury of amalgam is associated with Hashimoto disease. 363 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and 365 control subjects were included in to the study. Amalgam fillings were checked by the physician. 363 (49.9 %) patients and 365 (50.1 %) healthy controls were included into the study. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed with thyroid hormones, antithyroid antibody levels, and ultrasonographic findings. Control subjects were selected from patients with no known autoimmune diseases. They were controlled with ultrasonography, as well as antibody titers. None of them had Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Sex distribution of the study population was following: 319 (87.9 %) female, 44 (12.1 %) male in the patient group and 277 (75.9 %) male and 88 (24.1 %) female in healthy control subjects, respectively. Mean free T4 values for Hashimoto's thyroiditis and healthy control group were 15.30±0.76, 17.30±0.96 pmol/L and mean TSH values for Hashimoto's thyroiditis and healthy control group were 9.29±20.79, 1.20±0.32 uIU/ml. Frequency of dental amalgam implantation in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was not statistically significantly different from healthy controls (p=186) (t=-1.324) CONCLUSIONS: Some studies identified mercury of amalgam as responsible for autoimmune thyroiditis. We studied whether amalgam fillings are more frequent in Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients and whether it is a causative factor for Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Statistical analysis revealed that there is no relation of amalgam with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (Tab. 1, Ref. 34).

  10. Thyroid Malignancies in Survivors of Hodgkin Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelson, Evan M.; Chen, Yu-Hui; Silver, Barbara; Tishler, Roy B.; Marcus, Karen J.; Stevenson, Mary Ann; Ng, Andrea K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the incidence of thyroid cancer after Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and determine disease characteristics, risk factors, and treatment outcomes. Methods and Materials: Thyroid cancer cases were retrospectively identified from a multi-institutional database of 1981 HL patients treated between 1969 and 2008. Thyroid cancer risk factors were evaluated by a Poisson regression model. Results: With a median follow-up duration of 14.3 years (range, 0-41.2 years), 28 patients (1.4%) developed a thyroid malignancy. The overall incidence rate (expressed as the number of cases per 10,000 person-years) and 10-year cumulative incidence of thyroid cancer were 9.6 and 0.26%, respectively. There were no observed cases of thyroid malignancy in patients who received neck irradiation for HL after age 35 years. Age <20 years at HL diagnosis and female sex were significantly associated with thyroid cancer. The incidence rates of females aged <20 at HL diagnosis in the first 10 years, ≥10 years, ≥15 years, and ≥20 years after treatment were 5, 31, 61, and 75 cases per 10,000 person-years of follow-up, respectively. At a median follow-up of 3.5 years after the thyroid cancer diagnosis, 26 patients (93%) were alive without disease, 1 (4%) was alive with metastatic disease, and 1 (4%) died of metastatic disease, at 6 and 3.6 years after the thyroid cancer diagnosis, respectively. Conclusions: Although HL survivors have an increased risk for thyroid cancer, the overall incidence is low. Routine thyroid cancer screening may benefit females treated at a young age and ≥10 years from HL treatment owing to their higher risk, which increases over time

  11. Thyroid Malignancies in Survivors of Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelson, Evan M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and the Children' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Chen, Yu-Hui [Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Silver, Barbara; Tishler, Roy B.; Marcus, Karen J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and the Children' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Stevenson, Mary Ann [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ng, Andrea K., E-mail: ang@lroc.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and the Children' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To quantify the incidence of thyroid cancer after Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and determine disease characteristics, risk factors, and treatment outcomes. Methods and Materials: Thyroid cancer cases were retrospectively identified from a multi-institutional database of 1981 HL patients treated between 1969 and 2008. Thyroid cancer risk factors were evaluated by a Poisson regression model. Results: With a median follow-up duration of 14.3 years (range, 0-41.2 years), 28 patients (1.4%) developed a thyroid malignancy. The overall incidence rate (expressed as the number of cases per 10,000 person-years) and 10-year cumulative incidence of thyroid cancer were 9.6 and 0.26%, respectively. There were no observed cases of thyroid malignancy in patients who received neck irradiation for HL after age 35 years. Age <20 years at HL diagnosis and female sex were significantly associated with thyroid cancer. The incidence rates of females aged <20 at HL diagnosis in the first 10 years, ≥10 years, ≥15 years, and ≥20 years after treatment were 5, 31, 61, and 75 cases per 10,000 person-years of follow-up, respectively. At a median follow-up of 3.5 years after the thyroid cancer diagnosis, 26 patients (93%) were alive without disease, 1 (4%) was alive with metastatic disease, and 1 (4%) died of metastatic disease, at 6 and 3.6 years after the thyroid cancer diagnosis, respectively. Conclusions: Although HL survivors have an increased risk for thyroid cancer, the overall incidence is low. Routine thyroid cancer screening may benefit females treated at a young age and ≥10 years from HL treatment owing to their higher risk, which increases over time.

  12. Dendritic cells in autoimmune thyroid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabel, P J; Voorbij, H A; van der Gaag, R D; Wiersinga, W M; de Haan, M; Drexhage, H A

    1987-01-01

    Dendritic cells form a morphologically distinct class of cells characterized by shape, reniform nucleus, absent to weak acid-phosphatase activity and strong Class II MHC determinant positivity. Functionally they are the most efficient cells in antigen presentation to T-lymphocytes which indicates their role in the initiation of an immune response. Using immunehistochemical techniques we studied the presence of dendritic cells in normal Wistar rat and human thyroids, in thyroids of BBW rats developing thyroid autoimmunity and in Graves' goitres. Dendritic cells could be identified in all thyroids studied and were positioned underneath the thyrocytes in between the follicles. Skin dendritic cells travel via lymphatics to draining lymph nodes, thus forming an antigen presenting cell system. It is likely that a similar cell system exists on the level of the thyroid for dendritic cells have also been detected in thyroid draining lymph nodes. In normal thyroid tissue of both human and rat dendritic cells were relatively scarce. During the initial phases of the thyroid autoimmune response in the BBW rat (before the appearance of Tg-antibodies in the circulation) numbers of thyroid dendritic cells increased. Intrathyroidal T-helper cells, B-cells or plasma cells could not be found. The thyroid draining lymph node contained large numbers of plasma cells. During the later stages of the thyroid autoimmune response in the BB/W rat (after the appearance of Tg-antibodies in the circulation) and in Graves' goitres dendritic cells were not only present in high number, but 20-30% were seen in contact with now-present intrathyroidal T-helper lymphocytes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. [Immunohistochemical profile of angiogenesis in the thyroid gland in various thyroid diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurua, N Z; Gogiashvili, L E; Tsagareli, Z G

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the study - to determine the feature of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) expression in the thyroid gland (TG) in various thyroid diseases. Material - thyroid tissue (operative material) with histologically confirmed diagnosis: 10 - follicular adenoma, 17 - multinodular goiter, 8 - thyroiditis Hashimoto, 8 - papillary carcinoma, 10 - intact (normal) thyroid samples (forensic autopsy). The immunohistochemical study of the material showed the following results: the increase of the Hürtle cells population 40 % or more indicates a hyperthyroidism tendency despite TSH+ receptor status. Under the thyroid pathology TSH and VEGF expression appears in thyrocytes and also in microvascular endothelial cells. VEGF expression is below the norm in the Hashimoto thyroiditis. VEGF is involved not only in angiogenesis, but in pathophysiological shifts in thyroid tissue. Microvessel density (MVD) and TSH positive receptor status under the thyroid pathology testify the absence of the endothelial cells transformation, however, this index can not serve as a biopothential prognostic marker of thyroid disease.

  14. Prevalence of thyroid function test abnormalities and thyroid autoantibodies in children with vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Sule Afsar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the exact pathogenic processes involved in vitiligo are still unknown, its association with autoimmune disorders and endocrine dysfunction has been reported. One of its associations is with thyroid diseases. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the prevalence of thyroid function tests and thyroid autoantibody abnormalities in children diagnosed with vitiligo and compare the results with the literature. The laboratory documents of thyroid function tests (FT3, FT4, and TSH and thyroid autoantibodies (TgAb and TPOAb belonging to the pediatric vitiligo patients were studied retrospectively. Thyroid function tests and thyroid autoantibody abnormalities were detected in 20 (25.3% of the pediatric vitiligo patients. Thirteen (16.4% patients were evaluated as subclinical hypothyroidism, two (2.5% were evaluated as hypothyroidism, and five (6.3% were evaluated as euthyroidism. Thyroid autoantibodies were found to be positive in nine (11.3% patients. Previously reported prevalence of thyroid disease in children with vitiligo ranged from 10.7 to 24.1%, and the prevalence of 25.3% determined in this study was compatible with the literature. Also, the high rate of subclinical hypothyroidism determined in these patients attracted attention to the probable development of overt hypothyroidism in a long term. Thus, our results suggest that thyroid function tests and thyroid autoantibodies should be analyzed in children with vitiligo.

  15. The effect of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis on patients with thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Ma, Xiao-Peng; Deng, Fu-Sheng; Liu, Zheng-Rong; Wei, Hou-Qing; Wang, Xi-Hong; Chen, Hao

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) and malignant tumors of the thyroid. A retrospective review of 647 patients who underwent thyroid surgery at the Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery in Anhui Provincial Hospital, China in 2012 was performed. The clinicopathological characteristics of patients with thyroid malignancies and CLT were collected. CLT was diagnosed by histopathological method. Among 647 patients, 144 patients had thyroid malignancies and 108 patients had been diagnosed with CLT. Moreover, in total, 44 patients had thyroid malignancies coexistent with CLT: forty-one (93.2%) patients had been diagnosed with the papillary thyroid cancer (PTC); two (4.5%) patients suffered from medullary carcinoma; and one (2.3%) patient suffered from lymphoma. The morbidity of thyroid malignancies in patients with CLT was significantly higher than that in patients without CLT (40.7% versus 18.6%; P CLT compared with those without CLT (P CLT and without CLT. Female predominance was observed in patients with CLT. CLT may have no effect on the progression of thyroid malignant tumor. Nevertheless, the influences of CLT on the prognosis of the thyroid carcinoma still need to be investigated with a larger sample size.

  16. Thyroid Hormone Receptor Mutations in Cancer and Resistance to Thyroid Hormone: Perspective and Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan D. Rosen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone, operating through its receptors, plays crucial roles in the control of normal human physiology and development; deviations from the norm can give rise to disease. Clinical endocrinologists often must confront and correct the consequences of inappropriately high or low thyroid hormone synthesis. Although more rare, disruptions in thyroid hormone endocrinology due to aberrations in the receptor also have severe medical consequences. This review will focus on the afflictions that are caused by, or are closely associated with, mutated thyroid hormone receptors. These include Resistance to Thyroid Hormone Syndrome, erythroleukemia, hepatocellular carcinoma, renal clear cell carcinoma, and thyroid cancer. We will describe current views on the molecular bases of these diseases, and what distinguishes the neoplastic from the non-neoplastic. We will also touch on studies that implicate alterations in receptor expression, and thyroid hormone levels, in certain oncogenic processes.

  17. 2015 American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Adult Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Bryan R; Alexander, Erik K; Bible, Keith C; Doherty, Gerard M; Mandel, Susan J; Nikiforov, Yuri E; Pacini, Furio; Randolph, Gregory W; Sawka, Anna M; Schlumberger, Martin; Schuff, Kathryn G; Sherman, Steven I; Sosa, Julie Ann; Steward, David L; Tuttle, R Michael; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem, and differentiated thyroid cancer is becoming increasingly prevalent. Since the American Thyroid Association's (ATA's) guidelines for the management of these disorders were revised in 2009, significant scientific advances have occurred in the field. The aim of these guidelines is to inform clinicians, patients, researchers, and health policy makers on published evidence relating to the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. The specific clinical questions addressed in these guidelines were based on prior versions of the guidelines, stakeholder input, and input of task force members. Task force panel members were educated on knowledge synthesis methods, including electronic database searching, review and selection of relevant citations, and critical appraisal of selected studies. Published English language articles on adults were eligible for inclusion. The American College of Physicians Guideline Grading System was used for critical appraisal of evidence and grading strength of recommendations for therapeutic interventions. We developed a similarly formatted system to appraise the quality of such studies and resultant recommendations. The guideline panel had complete editorial independence from the ATA. Competing interests of guideline task force members were regularly updated, managed, and communicated to the ATA and task force members. The revised guidelines for the management of thyroid nodules include recommendations regarding initial evaluation, clinical and ultrasound criteria for fine-needle aspiration biopsy, interpretation of fine-needle aspiration biopsy results, use of molecular markers, and management of benign thyroid nodules. Recommendations regarding the initial management of thyroid cancer include those relating to screening for thyroid cancer, staging and risk assessment, surgical management, radioiodine remnant ablation and therapy, and thyrotropin suppression

  18. 2015 American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Adult Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Erik K.; Bible, Keith C.; Doherty, Gerard M.; Mandel, Susan J.; Nikiforov, Yuri E.; Pacini, Furio; Randolph, Gregory W.; Sawka, Anna M.; Schlumberger, Martin; Schuff, Kathryn G.; Sherman, Steven I.; Sosa, Julie Ann; Steward, David L.; Tuttle, R. Michael; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem, and differentiated thyroid cancer is becoming increasingly prevalent. Since the American Thyroid Association's (ATA's) guidelines for the management of these disorders were revised in 2009, significant scientific advances have occurred in the field. The aim of these guidelines is to inform clinicians, patients, researchers, and health policy makers on published evidence relating to the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Methods: The specific clinical questions addressed in these guidelines were based on prior versions of the guidelines, stakeholder input, and input of task force members. Task force panel members were educated on knowledge synthesis methods, including electronic database searching, review and selection of relevant citations, and critical appraisal of selected studies. Published English language articles on adults were eligible for inclusion. The American College of Physicians Guideline Grading System was used for critical appraisal of evidence and grading strength of recommendations for therapeutic interventions. We developed a similarly formatted system to appraise the quality of such studies and resultant recommendations. The guideline panel had complete editorial independence from the ATA. Competing interests of guideline task force members were regularly updated, managed, and communicated to the ATA and task force members. Results: The revised guidelines for the management of thyroid nodules include recommendations regarding initial evaluation, clinical and ultrasound criteria for fine-needle aspiration biopsy, interpretation of fine-needle aspiration biopsy results, use of molecular markers, and management of benign thyroid nodules. Recommendations regarding the initial management of thyroid cancer include those relating to screening for thyroid cancer, staging and risk assessment, surgical management, radioiodine remnant ablation and therapy

  19. The association between thyroid malignancy and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis: should it alter the surgical approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükaşık, Oktay; Hasdemir, Ahmet Oğuz; Yalçın, Erol; Celep, Bahadır; Sengül, Serkan; Yandakçı, Kemal; Tunç, Gündüz; Küçükpınar, Tevfik; Alkoy, Seval; Cöl, Cavit

    2011-01-01

    The relation between thyroid neoplasms and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) is controversial. While it is accepted that focal lymphocytic thyroiditis develops secondarily to malignancy, it is not clear whether diffuse lymphocytic thyroiditis has a tendency to develop into thyroid cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between CLT and malignant tumours of the thyroid and evaluate the surgical approach to CLT cases. In this study, 917 patients operated on for thyroid diseases were investigated retrospectively. Seventy-seven (8.4%) patients histopathologically diagnosed as having CLT (either non-specific or Hashimoto's thyroiditis) were investigated for any concurrent malignant neoplasm. Fifteen patients in whom CLT and thyroid malignancy were coexisting were included in the study. In the pathological evaluation of 917 cases, malignancy in the thyroid was found in 97 (10.6%) cases. Seventy-seven cases were categorised as CLT. Of these 77, 16 (20.8%) were Hashimoto's thyroiditis (specific CLT) and the other 61 (79.2%) were non-specific CLT. In 15 cases, thyroid malignancy was found to be concurrent with CLT. Of the malignities, nine (60%) were papillary carcinoma, three (20%) medullar carcinoma, one (6.6%) follicular carcinoma, one (6.6%) Hurthle cell carcinoma, and one (6.6%) lymphoma. In our series, the rate of the development of malignancy against the background of CLT was 19.48%, while the rate in the groups without CLT was 9.76%, with a statistically significant difference between the groups (p = 0.008). CLT cases should be evaluated more carefully in terms of malignancy. If a nodule is detected on thyroiditis, the minimal surgical intervention should be lobectomy. Total thyroidectomy should be considered as preferable to subtotal thyroidectomy because of its many advantages such as controlling thyroiditis, removing the probability of reoperation, and hormonal stability.

  20. Thyroid uptake of {sup 67}Ga-citrate is associated with thyroid autoimmunity and hypothyroidism in patients with sarcoidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonelli, Alessandro; Fallahi, Poupak; Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Ferrannini, Ele [University of Pisa and CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, Metabolism Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Pisa (Italy); Fazzi, Piera [University of Pisa, Respiratory Pathophysiology Section, Cardiac and Thoracic Department, Pisa (Italy); Grosso, Mariano; Boni, Giuseppe; Mariani, Giuliano [University of Pisa, Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine, Medical School, Pisa (Italy)

    2009-01-15

    To evaluate the association of gallium-67 ({sup 67}Ga)-citrate thyroid uptake with the presence of thyroid disorders in patients with sarcoidosis (S patients). Eighty-four S patients were evaluated by a complete thyroid work-up (neck ultrasound, circulating thyroid hormones and anti-thyroid antibodies, fine-needle aspiration). In S patients with {sup 67}Ga thyroid uptake (respect those without): serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, the titre of anti-thyroid peroxidase (AbTPO) and/or anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (AbTg), and the prevalence of S patients with hypothyroidism or with positive AbTg or AbTPO was significantly higher; a thyroid hypoechoic pattern was more frequent. The prevalence of thyroid nodules was not significantly different between the two groups. Two cases of papillary thyroid cancer were observed in S patients without {sup 67}Ga thyroid uptake, whilst no case in those with {sup 67}Ga thyroid uptake. {sup 67}Ga thyroid uptake is associated with the presence of aggressive autoimmune thyroiditis and hypothyroidism in S patients; thyroid function and ultrasonography should be performed in the presence of {sup 67}Ga thyroid uptake. (orig.)

  1. The role of thyroid scanning in hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogelman, I.; Cooke, S.G.; Maisey, M.N.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide thyroid imaging was performed in 872 consecutive patients with hyperthyroidism. Of these, 84% were found to have diffuse toxic hyperplasia (Graves' disease), while 12% had autonomously functioning nodules (Plummer's disease), 3% had Graves' disease developing in a multinodular gland, and in the remaining 1%, either a clear diagnosis could not be established or the hyperthyroidism was due to thyroiditis or the Jod-Basedow phenomenon. It was found that a thyroid scan seldom provides additional diagnostic information in patients with Graves' disease when a diffuse goitre is present. However, if patients are to be treated with radioiodine ( 131 I), thyroid imaging with tracer quantitation can replace a 24-h 131 I uptake measurement, this having the advantages that the patients are required to attend only once, and that the gland size can be measured. In addition, visual confirmation of tracer uptake by the thyroid is obtained and patients with thyroiditis will not receive inappropriate therapy. When single or multiple thyroid nodules are palpated, a thyroid scan is crucial in establishing an accurate diagnosis, as it is not otherwise possible to differentiate between Plummer's disease and Graves' disease developing in a multinodular gland. Indeed, in 20 of our 63 patients (32%) with single autonomously functioning nodules, the initial clinical assessment had been incorrect. (orig.)

  2. Thyroid function in Danish greenhouse workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonde Jens

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From animal studies it is known that currently used pesticides can disturb thyroid function. Methods In the present study we investigated the thyroid function in 122 Danish greenhouse workers, to evaluate if greenhouse workers classified as highly exposed to pesticides experiences altered thyroid levels compared to greenhouse workers with lower exposure. Serum samples from the greenhouse workers were sampled both in the spring and the fall to evaluate if differences in pesticide use between seasons resulted in altered thyroid hormone levels. Results We found a moderate reduction of free thyroxine (FT4 (10–16% among the persons working in greenhouses with a high spraying load both in samples collected in the spring and the fall, but none of the other measured thyroid hormones differed significantly between exposure groups in the cross-sectional comparisons. However, in longitudinal analysis of the individual thyroid hormone level between the spring and the fall, more pronounced differences where found with on average 32% higher thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH level in the spring compared to the fall and at the same time a 5–9% lower total triiodthyroxin (TT3, free triiodthyroxine (FT3 and FT4. The difference between seasons was not consistently more pronounced in the group classified as high exposure compared to the low exposure groups. Conclusion The present study indicates that pesticide exposure among Danish greenhouse workers results in only minor disturbances of thyroid hormone levels.

  3. Thyroid development in zebrafish lacking Taz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pappalardo, Andrea; Porreca, Immacolata; Caputi, Luigi; De Felice, Elena; Schulte-Merker, S.; Zannini, Mariastella; Sordino, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Taz is a signal-responsive transcriptional coregulator implicated in several biological functions, from chondrogenesis to regulation of organ size. Less well studied, however, is its role in thyroid formation. Here, we explored the in vivo effects on thyroid development of morpholino (MO)-mediated

  4. Analysis of Current Thyroid Function Testing Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-18

    Rationale: Current guidelines recommend thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) alone as the best test to detect and monitor thyroid dysfunction, yet free ...thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) are commonly ordered when not clinically indicated. Excessive testing can lead to added economic

  5. Hypothyroxinaemia and thyroid function after preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wassenaer, Aleid G.; Kok, Joke H.

    2004-01-01

    The concentration of thyroid hormone in preterm infants is lower than that in term infants. This phenomenon is referred to as transient hypothyroxinaemia of prematurity. Low thyroid hormone levels after very preterm birth are associated with worse developmental outcome in childhood, but only one

  6. Nucleophosmin is overexpressed in thyroid tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pianta, Annalisa; Puppin, Cinzia [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biomediche, Universita di Udine, Udine (Italy); Franzoni, Alessandra; Fabbro, Dora [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria ' S. Maria della Misericordia' Udine, Udine (Italy); Di Loreto, Carla [Dipartimento di Ricerche Mediche e Morfologiche, Universita di Udine, Udine (Italy); Bulotta, Stefania [Department of Pharmacobiological Sciences, Universita di Catanzaro ' Magna Graecia' , Catanzaro (Italy); Deganuto, Marta; Paron, Igor; Tell, Gianluca [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biomediche, Universita di Udine, Udine (Italy); Puxeddu, Efisio [Department of Internal Medicine, Universita di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Filetti, Sebastiano [Department of Clinical Sciences, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Roma (Italy); Russo, Diego [Department of Pharmacobiological Sciences, Universita di Catanzaro ' Magna Graecia' , Catanzaro (Italy); Damante, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.damante@uniud.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biomediche, Universita di Udine, Udine (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria ' S. Maria della Misericordia' Udine, Udine (Italy)

    2010-07-02

    Nucleophosmin (NPM) is a protein that contributes to several cell functions. Depending on the context, it can act as an oncogene or tumor suppressor. No data are available on NPM expression in thyroid cells. In this work, we analyzed both NPM mRNA and protein levels in a series of human thyroid tumor tissues and cell lines. By using immunohistochemistry, NPM overexpression was detected in papillary, follicular, undifferentiated thyroid cancer, and also in follicular benign adenomas, indicating it as an early event during thyroid tumorigenesis. In contrast, various levels of NPM mRNA levels as detected by quantitative RT-PCR were observed in tumor tissues, suggesting a dissociation between protein and transcript expression. The same behavior was observed in the normal thyroid FRTL5 cell lines. In these cells, a positive correlation between NPM protein levels, but not mRNA, and proliferation state was detected. By using thyroid tumor cell lines, we demonstrated that such a post-mRNA regulation may depend on NPM binding to p-Akt, whose levels were found to be increased in the tumor cells, in parallel with reduction of PTEN. In conclusion, our present data demonstrate for the first time that nucleophosmin is overexpressed in thyroid tumors, as an early event of thyroid tumorigenesis. It seems as a result of a dysregulation occurring at protein and not transcriptional level related to an increase of p-Akt levels of transformed thyrocytes.

  7. Aspects of peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. Otten (Marten Henk)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractThe research into thyroid function has a long history. The recognition of goiter as pathology of the thyroid gland dates back to the ancient world of Rome and Greece and possibly even to the early history of chinese medicine. In an excellent review of the historical aspects of the

  8. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma : nuclear medicine studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkooijen, Ronald B.T.

    2009-01-01

    The therapy of choice in patients suffering from differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), subdivided into papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma, is (near-)total thyroidectomy. This is routinely followed by the administration of radioiodine (RaI)-131 (131I) to destroy any remaining benign or

  9. Position of solitary thyroid nodules by gammagraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basteris M, J.; Gomez D, R.

    2007-01-01

    In this work it is presented which it is the position more frequent of the solitary thyroid nodules. It was used the method of retrospective longitudinal observational investigation in 125 patients that went to the laboratory for realization of detection of thyroid nodules in the years 2004 and 2005 through gammagraphy. (Author)

  10. Thyroid hormone metabolism during inflammation and fasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Pathophysiological circumstances such as illness and fasting affect the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT)-axis. The illness induced alterations, collectively known as the non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) are characterized by decreased serum T3 and T4 concentrations, increased serum rT3

  11. Thyroid Disorders and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mohamedali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones play a very important role regulating metabolism, development, protein synthesis, and influencing other hormone functions. The two main hormones produced by the thyroid are triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4. These hormones can also have significant impact on kidney disease so it is important to consider the physiological association of thyroid dysfunction in relation to chronic kidney disease (CKD. CKD has been known to affect the pituitary-thyroid axis and the peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormones. Low T3 levels are the most common laboratory finding followed by subclinical hypothyroidism in CKD patients. Hyperthyroidism is usually not associated with CKD but has been known to accelerate it. One of the most important links between thyroid disorders and CKD is uremia. Patients who are appropriately treated for thyroid disease have a less chance of developing renal dysfunction. Clinicians need to be very careful in treating patients with low T3 levels who also have an elevation in TSH, as this can lead to a negative nitrogen balance. Thus, clinicians should be well educated on the role of thyroid hormones in relation to CKD so that proper treatment can be delivered to the patient.

  12. correlation between cytology and thyroid function test

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Damary

    2006-10-01

    Oct 1, 2006 ... Background: Thyroid dysfunction can be evaluated by measuring serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total tri-iodothyronine (T3) and total thyroxine (T4) which will establish euthyroidism, hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is the diagnostic test of choice in determining ...

  13. Relationship Between Diabetes Mellitus And Thyroid Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes and thyroid disorders have been shown to mutually influence each other and associations between both conditions have long been reported. Thyroid dysfunction has been found to be chiefly hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Recent findings have evidenced the intricate bond between subclinical ...

  14. Maintaining Euthyroidism: Fundamentals of Thyroid Hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In fact, while thyroid hormones, i.e. triiodothyronine. (T3) and thyroxine (T4), play a ... hormone regulation, iodine metabolism, and the clinical management of thyroid related pathology, the current paper provides a physiological and clinical overview of ...... Surks MI, Goswami G, Daniels GH. The thyrotropin reference range ...

  15. Thyroid tumours following fractionated irradiation in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vathaire, F. de; Grimaud, E.; Diallo, I.; Shamsaldin, A.

    1997-01-01

    Results of a cohort study designed to evaluate the long term risk of thyroid tumours after fractioned high doses of external beam radiotherapy received by the thyroid are reported. In this cohort study, doses have been estimated for each child. (author)

  16. Hashimoto thyroiditis: clinical and diagnostic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caturegli, P; De Remigis, A; Rose, N R

    2014-01-01

    Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT), now considered the most common autoimmune disease, was described over a century ago as a pronounced lymphoid goiter affecting predominantly women. In addition to this classic form, several other clinico-pathologic entities are now included under the term HT: fibrous variant, IgG4-related variant, juvenile form, Hashitoxicosis, and painless thyroiditis (sporadic or post-partum). All forms are characterized pathologically by the infiltration of hematopoietic mononuclear cells, mainly lymphocytes, in the interstitium among the thyroid follicles, although specific features can be recognized in each variant. Thyroid cells undergo atrophy or transform into a bolder type of follicular cell rich in mitochondria called Hürthle cell. Most HT forms ultimately evolve into hypothyroidism, although at presentation patients can be euthyroid or even hyperthyroid. The diagnosis of HT relies on the demonstration of circulating antibodies to thyroid antigens (mainly thyroperoxidase and thyroglobulin) and reduced echogenicity on thyroid sonogram in a patient with proper clinical features. The treatment remains symptomatic and based on the administration of synthetic thyroid hormones to correct the hypothyroidism as needed. Surgery is performed when the goiter is large enough to cause significant compression of the surrounding cervical structures, or when some areas of the thyroid gland mimic the features of a nodule whose cytology cannot be ascertained as benign. HT remains a complex and ever expanding disease of unknown pathogenesis that awaits prevention or novel forms of treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Imaging strategy in differentiated thyroid cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, Thi Thanh Ha

    2007-01-01

    This thesis focuses on clinical dilemmas, which the clinician faces in the management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with a specific emphasis on the role of current and new diagnostic imaging. Thyroid cancer is a rare disease, but it is the most common endocrine malignancy of

  18. Thyroid cancer in children in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demidchik, E.P.; Drobyshevskaya, I.M.; Cherstvoy, E.D.; Astakhova, L.N.; Vorontsova, T.V.; Okeanov, A.E.; Germenchuk, M.

    1996-01-01

    Pediatric thyroid cancer was diagnosed in 390 patients in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident. The morbidity rates increased by 55.7 times as compared with the 10 year pre-accident period. Thyroid cancer in children is highly aggressive disease accompanied by surrounding tissues and metastatic involvement of lymph nodes

  19. The WHO activities on thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baverstock, K.; Cardis, E.

    1996-01-01

    The WHO has been involved in activities related to thyroid disease in populations exposed to Chernobyl fallout since 1991. The International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident, based in Geneva, undertook a pilot project on screening for thyroid disease and the WHO European Centre for Environment and Health responded to claims from Belarus of an increase of childhood thyroid cancer. Since then the WHO has been developing the public health response in partnership with scientists and physicians in Belarus and a number of centres of excellence outside the CIS specializing in the disciplines relevant to the problem. In 1993 the International Thyroid Project was initiated in partnership with the International Agency for Cancer Research. The activities developed with scientists and physicians in Belarus to respond to the increase are described. The increase in thyroid cancer and its implications for future accidents have been addressed. Revised advice on stable iodine prophylaxis has been formulated

  20. The 'rings of fire' and thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duntas, Leonidas H; Doumas, Christos

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have revealed an increased incidence of thyroid cancer in volcanic areas around the world. Hawaii and the Philippines on the rim of the Pacific Ocean, where the greatest number of volcanoes are located at convergent plate boundaries, are among the regions with the highest incidence of thyroid carcinoma worldwide. Iceland is another region also rich in volcanoes in which the highest incidence of thyroid cancer in Europe is found. The common denominator of these regions is their numerous volcanoes and the fact that several constituents of volcanic lava have been postulated as being involved in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer. This article aims at presenting pertinent data that could link a volcanic environment to thyroid cancer.