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Sample records for aya monograph soft

  1. Treatment of adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer in a multidisciplinary setting: on the way to a highly specialized AYA unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernig, T; Jahn, F; Witkowsky, S; Huehn, R; Hentschel, A; Kegel, T; Schmoll, H-J; Körholz, D

    2013-11-01

    Further survival improvements of adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer are clearly affected by biological characteristics of the malignancies and age-specific needs. Multidisciplinary teams drawing expertice from both pediatric and adult cancer teams as well as clinical trials are required to meet the age specific needs of AYA patients with cancer. In 2011, the first AYA unit was established at the University Hospital Halle (Saale), where patients with newly-diagnosed cancer aged 15-25 are treated interdisciplinary by pediatric and adult oncologists. The enrollment into pediatric or adult clinical trials is controlled by age 18. Over the last 2 years, 19 AYA with cancer have been treated at the unit; and, in turn patients and their relatives reflected a high satisfaction with the offered novel health care approach. In the scope of the future Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University Hospital Halle (Saale), a complete ward is planned for all admitted AYA up to 25 years with cancer. The patients will be treated by a tumor-specialized multidisciplinary team of adult or pediatric oncologists and oncological surgeons. Therefore, we intend to establish a special teaching curriculum for physicians, nurses and psychosocial health care staff. Rather than age, cancer biology of a malignancy, surveillance data of late side effects as well as the age-specific needs of AYA patients will be crucial for best treatment options. PMID:24166088

  2. Ruth Ayaß: Kommunikation und Geschlecht. Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer Verlag 2008

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    Michaela Goll

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Ruth Ayaß gibt in der vorliegenden Einführung einen Überblick über den Forschungsstand und die wesentlichen Diskussionsstränge zum Thema Kommunikation und Geschlecht. Sie zeigt dabei, ob und wie sich männliche von weiblichen Gesprächstilen unterscheiden lassen und wie verschiedene Geschlechter erst interaktiv, nämlich durch kommunikative Prozesse, erzeugt werden. Der Band eignet sich hervorragend als Lehrbuch in soziologischen und sprachwissenschaftlichen Studiengängen, bietet aber auch für die konstruktivistische Genderforschung wichtige Anknüpfungspunkte.In this introductory text, Ruth Ayaß presents an overview of the state of research and the important issues on the topic of Communication and Gender (Kommunikation und Geschlecht. She thus shows if and how masculine and feminine speech styles can be differentiated and how different genders come into being through interaction, or more specifically, through communicative processes. The volume is excellently suited for use as a textbook in sociological and linguistic disciplines while also offering important points of departure for constructivist gender research.

  3. Counseling Techniques Monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Robert H.; And Others

    This monograph is designed to provide technical materials for counselor trainees. Its purpose is to help fill the void of published technical accounts. The papers included are very personalized and void of research documentation. The format was directed at allowing professional counselor educators to share their own technical ideas. Included in…

  4. Professional Monograph Review

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    Mildeová Stanislava

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Title of the monograph: Systems Approach to Knowledge Modelling. Authors: dr. Ludmila Dömeová; dr. Milan Houška; dr. Martina Houšková Beránková. Cover designer: Olga Čermáková. Interior designer: Roman Kvasnička. Publisher: Graphical Studio Olga Čermáková, Czech Republic. Place: Hradec Králové, Czech Republic. Year of publication: 2008. Number of pages: 282. Recommended price of the book: 39.90 EUR. First edition. Reviewer : dr. Stanislava Mildeová; Department of Systems Analysis, Faculty of Informatics and Statistics, University of Economics, Prague.

  5. Professional Monograph Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mildeová Stanislava

    2008-01-01

    Title of the monograph: Systems Approach to Knowledge Modelling. Authors: dr. Ludmila Dömeová; dr. Milan Houška; dr. Martina Houšková Beránková. Cover designer: Olga Čermáková. Interior designer: Roman Kvasnička. Publisher: Graphical Studio Olga Čermáková, Czech Republic. Place: Hradec Králové, Czech Republic. Year of publication: 2008. Number of pages: 282. Recommended price of the book: 39.90 EUR. First edition. Reviewer : dr. Stanislava Mildeová; Department of Systems Analysis, Faculty of ...

  6. Softly, Softly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Abigail

    2008-01-01

    The term "soft skills" encompasses a cluster of personality traits, language abilities, personal habits and, ultimately, values and attitudes. Soft skills complement "harder", more technical, skills, such as being able to read or type a letter, but they also have a significant impact on the ability of people to do their jobs and on their…

  7. Biodiversity within the subfamily Alyssinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae in the Natural Park Peñas de Aya (Spain

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    Francisco Javier Peris-Felipo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity within the subfamily Alyssinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae in the Natural Park Peñas de Aya (Spain. The study of parasitoid Hymenoptera is of significance for the assessment of diversity in a given area because of their role in the regulation of insects populations. The present work analyses diversity within Alysiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae in the Forested Estate of Artikutza, located in the Natural Park Peñas de Aya, western Pyrenees, Spain. Collection of specimens was spread over two years and was carried out in two different habitats: mixed forest and beech forest. A total of 2,270 specimens, belonging to 22 separate genera, were captured. Subsequently, alpha, beta and gamma diversities were analysed, and the beech forest was proven to host greater diversity than the mixed forest. A sampling strategy was adopted for the analysis of Alysiinae phenology and its relationship with environmental climatic conditions; as a result, a direct relationship between phenology and temperature was attested.Biodiversidade na Alyssinae subfamília (Hymenoptera, Braconidae no Parque Natural Peñas de Aya (Espanha. O estudo dos himenópteros parasitóides é significativo para uma avaliação da diversidade em determinada área por causa do seu papel no controle das populações de insetos. O presente trabalho analisa a diversidade no taxon Alysiinae (Himenóptero, Braconidae na área de floresta de Artikutza, localizada no Parque Natural de Peñas de Aya, Pirinéus ocidentais, Espanha. A coleta de espécimes dividiu-se em dois anos e foi realizada em dois habitats diferentes: floresta mista e floresta de faias. No total, foram capturados 2.270 exemplares pertencentes a 22 gêneros distintos. Subsequentemente, as variedades alfa, beta e gama foram analisadas, comprovando-se que a floresta de faias apresenta uma diversidade maior que a floresta mista. Adotou-se a estratégia de amostra para análise da fenologia da Alysiinae e da sua relação com

  8. Biodiversity within the subfamily Alyssinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae in the Natural Park Peñas de Aya (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Peris-Felipo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity within the subfamily Alyssinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae in the Natural Park Peñas de Aya (Spain. The study of parasitoid Hymenoptera is of significance for the assessment of diversity in a given area because of their role in the regulation of insects populations. The present work analyses diversity within Alysiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae in the Forested Estate of Artikutza, located in the Natural Park Peñas de Aya, western Pyrenees, Spain. Collection of specimens was spread over two years and was carried out in two different habitats: mixed forest and beech forest. A total of 2,270 specimens, belonging to 22 separate genera, were captured. Subsequently, alpha, beta and gamma diversities were analysed, and the beech forest was proven to host greater diversity than the mixed forest. A sampling strategy was adopted for the analysis of Alysiinae phenology and its relationship with environmental climatic conditions; as a result, a direct relationship between phenology and temperature was attested.

  9. PROVIDING AFFORDABLE HIGHER EDUCATION TO RURAL GIRLS IN INDIAN PUNJAB: A CASE STUDY OF BABA AYA SINGH RIARKI COLLEGE

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    RANJIT SINGH GHUMAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights a case study of a rural girls college located in a remote village of Gurdaspur district in Indian Punjab. The idea of this unique college was conceptualised by one Baba Aya Singh, a social and religious activist, from a village near the college way back in 1925. It was really a revolutionary idea because female education in India, particularly higher education, was a distant dream at that time. The college was, however, started with only 14 rural girls after about half-a-century when the great visionary Baba Aya Singh had a dream to educate the rural girls. Access to and affordability of higher education is the uniqueness of this college. The student has to pay only Rs. 5800 (about US $ 65 per annum, which includes both the tuition fee and boarding and lodging. It is equally significant to note that the entire expenses of the college are met by this and the produce of agricultural land of the college. The college does not take any outside help. The meritorious senior class students teach the junior class students. The college in its own humble, but significant, way made a revolutionary contribution to the education of poor rural girls who, otherwise, would not have dreamt of college education. Apart from, class-room teaching and bookish knowledge, the students are taught social, ethical and management skills in a most natural manner. The product of the college has proved to be the agents of change and rural transformation.

  10. Monograph of Coccinia (Cucurbitaceae

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    Norbert Holstein

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This monograph deals with all 95 names described in the Cucurbitaceae genus Coccinia and recognizes 25 species. Taxonomic novelties are Coccinia adoensis var. aurantiaca (C.Jeffrey Holstein, stat. nov., C. sessilifolia var. variifolia (A.Meeuse Holstein, stat. nov., and C. adoensis var. jeffreyana Holstein, var. nov. For the 25 species 3157 collections were examined, of which 2024 were georeferenced to produce distribution maps. All species are distributed in sub-Saharan Africa with one species, C. grandis, extending from Senegal in West Africa east to Indonesia and being naturalized on Pacific Islands, in Australia, the Caribbean, and South America. Coccinia species are dioecious creepers or climbers with simple or bifid tendrils that occupy a range of habitats from arid scrubland, woodlands to lowland rainforest and mist forest. The corolla of Coccinia species is sympetalous, usually pale yellow to orange, and 1 to 4.5 cm long. Pollination is by bees foraging for pollen or nectar. After pollination, the developing ovary often exhibits longitudinal mottling, which usually disappears during maturation. All species produce berries with a pericarp in reddish colors (orange-red through to scarlet red, hence the generic name. The globose to cylindrical fruits contain numerous grayish-beige flat to lenticular seeds. Chromosome numbers are 2n = 20, 24, and 22 + XX/XY. Many Coccinia species are used for food, either as roasted tubers, greens as spinach, or the fruits as vegetables. Medicinal value is established in C. grandis, of which leaves and sap are used against diabetes.

  11. Determination of pathogens causing damping-off and their pathogenicity in tomato seedbeds in Ankara (Ayaş, Beypazarı and Nallıhan districts) province

    OpenAIRE

    AŞKIN, Ayşe; KATIRCIOĞLU, Y. Zekai

    2009-01-01

    This research was carried out for determination of pathogens causing damping-off and their pathogenicity in tomato seedbeds in Ankara province (Ayaş, Beypazarı and Nallıhan districts) in 2003. Two hundred eleven samples of tomato seedlings, thought to be infected with damping off were collected from 42 seedbeds. Fusarium spp., Pythium spp., Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria spp. and Aspergillus spp. were isolated from all collected  tomato seddlings. Fusarium spp., Pythium spp., R. solani a...

  12. Unmet Support Service Needs and Health-Related Quality of Life among Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: The AYA HOPE Study

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    Ashley Wilder Smith

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cancer for adolescents and young adults (AYA differs from younger and older patients; AYA face medical challenges while navigating social and developmental transitions. Research suggests that these patients are under- or inadequately served by current support services, which may affect health-related quality of life (HRQOL.Methods: We examined unmet service needs and HRQOL in the National Cancer Institute’s Adolescent and Young Adult Health Outcomes and Patient Experience (AYA HOPE study, a population-based cohort (n=484, age 15-39, diagnosed with cancer 6-14 months prior, in 2007-2009. Unmet service needs were psychosocial, physical, spiritual, and financial services where respondents endorsed that they needed, but did not receive, a listed service. Linear regression models tested associations between any or specific unmet service needs and HRQOL, adjusting for demographic, medical and health insurance variables.Results: Over one-third of respondents reported at least one unmet service need. The most common were financial (16%, mental health (15%, and support group (14% services. Adjusted models showed that having any unmet service need was associated with worse overall HRQOL, fatigue, physical, emotional, social, and school/work functioning, and mental health (p’s<0.0001. Specific unmet services were related to particular outcomes (e.g., needing pain management was associated with worse overall HRQOL, physical and social functioning (p’s<0.001. Needing mental health services had the strongest associations with worse HRQOL outcomes; needing physical/occupational therapy was most consistently associated with poorer functioning across domains.Discussion: Unmet service needs in AYAs recently diagnosed with cancer are associated with worse HRQOL. Research should examine developmentally appropriate, relevant practices to improve access to services demonstrated to adversely impact HRQOL, particularly physical therapy and mental

  13. Preface to the third monograph

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    Ajai R. Singh

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Fashions come and go. Filmstars have their hey days and sink into oblivion. Technological gadgets become outdated sometimes even before they enter the market. Everyone wants the latest in TVs, computers, mobiles, cars, household appliances, industrial machinery, the works.We want to hear the latest news. Nobody prefers to read yesterday's newspaper today out of choice. We also want to read the latest edition of a book, and look up recent references and research work.We want the latest in treatments as well. The most recent is always considered an advancement over what was available earlier. Newer therapies, newer investigations, newer procedures.But, at the some time, we want to go to the senior consultant. And, given a choice, the older the better. Even elsewhere, we do not go to the junior most person to solve our problems if we can approach the senior man, and he is amenable. The recent graduate or postgraduate has the latest information, but it is the senior man who sits on the panel of examiners.We want the most recent in some cases, and the older and more experienced in others. Why should this happen? How should we handle our great need to update our knowledge on the latest, and yet not neglect the old and time-tested?This dilemma occurs in the research field as well, and psychiatry is no exception.What can be a healthy way of resolving this issue is the subject matter of this monograph.

  14. Preface to the fourth monograph

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    Ajai R. Singh

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The truth knocks on the door and you say, 'Go away, I am looking for the truth, and it goes away. Puzzling.- Robert M. Pirsig*There is an original and there is a copy. The copy can never achieve the status of an original. This is true not only of the arts, but of research as well, for there is original research and there is replicative research. But even replicative research has its own potential. It helps determine whether the original research findings are universally applicable, and/or whether they are faulty in methodology and design. Corrections are then possible. And this is how scientific research has progressed anyway.A lot of Indian research is replicative in nature, but it can as well be useful if it does not lose sight of this perspective. And how do we involve Indian Science into original research? Well, that's a different ball game altogether, not that its not already been played here. However, it needs a different mental set, and social ethos, which are discussed in the monograph that follows.What is scientific temper? How does it differ from other attitudes? How should it handle religion, faith, superstition and other such entities? The corner stone of scientific temper is the worth of evidence, howsoever damning to the most established of theories and paradigms. And the ability to withhold comment, or to take sides, till suitable evidence is available. Which means a true scientist should not act a know - all, nor need he have a viewpoint to air on everything under the sun.Is Science for Man, or Man for Science? This is a disturbing but fundamental question which all scientists, moral philosophers and other thinkers, must indeed attempt to answer. The two sides of this argument are presented in this essay to generate further dialogue.

  15. Preface to the seventh monograph

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    Ajai R. Singh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Like all good neighbours, competing schools of psychiatry claw at each other. Like all good samaritans, some people try to play arbiters and douse the fires. The tradition of fights and retaliation is not new to psy­chiatry, neither is it unique to the branch. Competing schools of thought exist almost everywhere. And it is tempting to say that the more intellec­tually robust a field, the greater the controversies and fights in it.In fact if intellectuals were to come together and not voice differences, either they are not intellectuals, or they have no opinions. (Or they may be simply scared, or silenced for other reasons.Ofcourse we must note that while in other fields of thought there can be controversies, there is one essential difference. They may not be dealing with patients and their lives. And to that the corollary is that psychiatric controversies should not be carried out at the expense of patient welfare.Having said that, let us also note that when there are fights, arbiters become very active. As do advocates, of one or the other approach.In this monograph we have tried to act the arbiters. Maybe because it is appropriate. Maybe also because that's the only thing we can do (and may be do well: atleast that's what we would love to believe.Why not advocates ? Well, for one, there are so many already. For another, we run the risk of doing a poor job of it.Not that we have necessarily done a good job of being arbiters.

  16. Preface to the sixth monograph

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    Ajai R. Singh

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Consider this:You as an Indian, do not have the Right to Health, although our Direc­tive Principles of State Policy, the Preamble of the WHO and the Univer­sal Declaration of Human Rights of the UN mention it categorically.Most countries which care for its people, including Russia, France and US, have granted such a Right many decades ago.Progressive Five Year Plans of the Indian Government have reduced gov­ernment spending on health as a percentage of the GDP.National Health Policy was hardly debated on the floor of the house when tabled, probably because it was a soft political issue.There are strong forces in the medical establishment, which in the name of upholding standards, may not want greater dispersal of services.Governments and medical institutions may have conflicting interests, and the citizens' interests may get side-lined in the process.Greater health awareness and care are signs of a more evolved society. People, governments and medical institutions will work in tandem only with greater development coming in their country in other walks of life as well.If we have to achieve the goal of Health for All, we must have the cour­age to make the commitment: All for Health. Otherwise slogans like 'Health for All, All for Health', become one more cliche to mouth on suit­able occasions.

  17. Launching a Research Agenda: The Early Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Elsie S.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a description and review of seven monographs that were part of a series published by Louisiana State University Press between 1940 and 1963. Notes that the monographs dealt with newspaper circulation, Thomas Jefferson and the press, management of newspaper correspondents, journalism research, Oliver Kirby Bovard, and mass communication…

  18. Online group-based cognitive-behavioural therapy for adolescents and young adults after cancer treatment: A multicenter randomised controlled trial of Recapture Life-AYA

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    Sansom-Daly Ursula M

    2012-08-01

    -based programs in an online modality are highlighted, and the role of both peer and caregiver support in enhancing the effectiveness of this skills-based intervention is also discussed. The innovative videoconferencing delivery method Recapture Life uses has the potential to address the geographic and psychological isolation of adolescents and young adults as they move toward cancer survivorship. It is expected that teaching AYAs coping skills as they resume their normal lives after cancer may have long-term implications for their quality of life. Trial Registration ACTRN12610000717055

  19. Examining relationship between burnout level and socio-demographic characteristics of teachers: A case study for Ayaş, Güdül, Beypazarı, Nallıhan

    OpenAIRE

    Burhan Başoğlu; Mustafa Önder Şekeroğlu; Emrah Altun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to determine the relationship between 533 teachers’ level of burnout; who work in Ayaş, Güdül, Beypazarı and Nallıhan provinces in the northern of Ankara in different positions and their socio-demographic variables. According to obtained data results; number of children, staff position and felt wealth level in desensitisation dimension and gender, education level and staff position in personal success dimension were determined as significant. ...

  20. Conceptual Foundations of Mens Sana Monographs

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    Ajai R. Singh

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Mens Sana Monographs (MSM tend to look at events and issues from a somewhat different perspective. There are two main types of publications. Both serve important needs and have a committed readership. One type tends to be academic and technical to the extent of being incomprehensible to anyone except one intimately connected with the subject. These are the mainstream academic research publications of the respective disciplines. One the other hand are periodicals that cater to the interests of the moment, which are racy, sensational and as easily forgotten as eagerly read. (Not that they lay claims to any eternality. These are the newspapers, magazines, tabloids and other periodicals which fulfil our need to be aware of the multiplicity of the environment in which we exist. Both these approaches, though important, however leave a gap. The academic can be too austere for comfort, the tabloid too familiar for deeper reflection; the former too bland, the latter too spicy. An approach that provides food for thought and reflection without being too technical and elitist is therefore likely to bridge the divide between them. In other words, neither bland nor spicy: nutritious but without foregoing taste. MSM has been an attempt in that direction. This middle path is the first fundamental pillar of this publication.

  1. Light Scattering by Optically Soft Particles Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Subodh K

    2006-01-01

    The present monograph deals with a particular class of approximation methods in the context of light scattering by small particles. This class of approximations has been termed as eikonal or soft particle approximations. The eikonal approximation was studied extensively in the potential scattering and then adopted in optical scattering problems. In this context, the eikonal and other soft particle approximations pertain to scatterers whose relative refractive index compared to surrounding medium is close to unity. The study of these approximations is very important because soft particles occur abundantly in nature. For example, the particles that occur in ocean optics, biomedical optics, atmospheric optics and in many industrial applications can be classified as soft particles. This book was written in recognition of the long-standing and current interest in the field of scattering approximations for soft particles. It should prove to be a useful addition for researchers in the field of light scattering.

  2. Examining relationship between burnout level and socio-demographic characteristics of teachers: A case study for Ayaş, Güdül, Beypazarı, Nallıhan

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    Burhan Başoğlu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to determine the relationship between 533 teachers’ level of burnout; who work in Ayaş, Güdül, Beypazarı and Nallıhan provinces in the northern of Ankara in different positions and their socio-demographic variables. According to obtained data results; number of children, staff position and felt wealth level in desensitisation dimension and gender, education level and staff position in personal success dimension were determined as significant. It was concluded that marital status, duration of experience in job and staff position in management were not statistically significant on emotional exhaustion, desensitisation and personal success.

  3. Soft Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Schenker-Wicki, Andrea; Maiorano, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Der Begriff Soft Skills wird sehr unterschiedlich verwendet. Wir verstehen darunter überfachliche, nicht berufsspezifische Kompetenzen, welche für den Erfolg in der Arbeitswelt unabdingbar sind. Sie umfassen sowohl die Fähigkeit, mit anderen zu kommunizieren und zusammenzuarbeiten (interpersonell) als auch sich selbst zu organisieren und zu disziplinieren (intrapersonell). Zu den Soft Skills zählen im Wesentlichen die Kommunikations-, Team- und Konfliktlösungs- sowie die Motivationsfähigk...

  4. A foundation monograph of Convolvulus L. (Convolvulaceae

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    John R.I. Wood

    2015-06-01

    . stocksii (Boiss. J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, comb. et stat. nov., Convolvulus calvertii subsp. ruprechtii (Boiss. J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov., Convolvulus cephalopodus subsp. bushiricus (Bornm. J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov. The status of various infraspecific taxa is clarified and numerous taxa are lectotypified. This account represents a new initiative in terms of taxonomic monography, being an attempt to bring together the global approach of the traditional monograph with the more pragmatic and identification-focussed approach of most current floras while at the same time being informed by insights from molecular systematics.

  5. Systematic organization of medicinal plant information: a monograph template proposal

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    Ana C.B. Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of medicinal plants in Brazil is widespread and is supported by public policies; it has the objective of providing the population with safe and effective herbal medicines of adequate quality. An action in these policies is to develop medicinal plant monographs to gather published information and decide which medicinal plants should be financed by the Brazilian government and distributed by the public health system. Currently, the monographs published worldwide do not present unified information regarding medicinal plants, and generally, they do not cover enough requirements for herbal medicine registration. The aim of this study is to develop a monograph model with standardized information not only about botany, agronomy, quality control, safety, and efficacy but also about relating regulatory aspects that support herbal medicine regulation. The development of standardized monographs favors the fast authorization and distribution of herbal medicines in the public system. The model also points out the lacking studies that should be carried out to supplement the necessary regulatory information of medicinal plants.

  6. Higher Education in the USSR. Monographs on Higher Education.

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    Savelyev, A. Y.; And Others

    This monograph describes the system of higher education in the United Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). The preface points out that despite perestroika, two features of Soviet education persist, a high degree of unity and centralization and a close link between higher education and employers. Chapter 1, "Historical Overview," begins with 4th…

  7. Supplement to a monograph of the Indo-Australian Clausiliidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loosjes, F.E.

    1963-01-01

    Since the publication of my monograph of the Indo-Australian Clausiliidae (Loosjes, 1953) I obtained some additional information, consisting mainly of new distribution records and data on shell-structures. The present paper deals with these additional data, while furthermore two new species are desc

  8. Accountability in Education: A Primer for School Leaders. HSLA Monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Michael

    School leaders are increasingly coming under the gun of accountability, and this monograph is designed to help leaders think about, understand, and respond thoughtfully and effectively to the increasing demands for accountability in education. It provides a comprehensive and rather sophisticated set of concepts and insights into accountability…

  9. Natural risks assessment and management (project of monograph)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: large-scale theoretic and practical works on the issue of natural risk assessment and management started in Russia in the end of the 80's. By now there has been made a considerable progress, which allowed for the preparation of a collective monograph on the subject mentioned in the title of this abstract. It is supposed to be published in 1999 in order to become a Russian contribution to the International Decade of Natural Disasters Reduction. The monograph included 6 chapters with the following titles: 1. Methodological foundations of natural risk analysis and assessment. 2. Investigating and forecasting natural hazards for the purpose of risk assessment. 3. Assessment of economic, social and ecological damage from natural hazards. 4, Theory of natural risk assessment. 5. Examples of natural risk assessment and mapping. 6. Natural risk management. In the report there is described the content of the monograph and unsolved questions are discussed. Executive editor offers all international experts to cooperate in the compilation of this monograph, which is to be completed by the end of 1998, especially of chapter 5 and 6. (author)

  10. Hungarians and Jews. An Important Monograph with Deficit

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    Magdolna Balogh

    2015-01-01

    Hungarians and Jews. An Important Monograph with DeficitThe texts is a critical review of the book: Géza Komoróczy: The History of the Jews in Hungary I-II., Kalligram, Pozsony, 2012. 1230 and 1213 pp.

  11. Hungarians and Jews. An Important Monograph with Deficit

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    Magdolna Balogh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hungarians and Jews. An Important Monograph with DeficitThe texts is a critical review of the book: Géza Komoróczy: The History of the Jews in Hungary I-II., Kalligram, Pozsony, 2012. 1230 and 1213 pp.

  12. Trends in Source of Catalog Records for European Monographs 1996-2000: A Preliminary Study of Italian Monographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellsey, Charlene

    2001-01-01

    Discusses catalog records for non-English books created by European booksellers and loaded into OCLC; describes a study of Italian language monographs to compare vendor records with Library of Congress and OCLC member libraries' records; and considers changes in cataloging workflow needed to edit records to include Library of Congress call numbers…

  13. Soft electronics for soft robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Rebecca K.

    2015-05-01

    As advanced as modern machines are, the building blocks have changed little since the industrial revolution, leading to rigid, bulky, and complex devices. Future machines will include electromechanical systems that are soft and elastically deformable, lending them to applications such as soft robotics, wearable/implantable devices, sensory skins, and energy storage and transport systems. One key step toward the realization of soft systems is the development of stretchable electronics that remain functional even when subject to high strains. Liquid-metal traces embedded in elastic polymers present a unique opportunity to retain the function of rigid metal conductors while leveraging the deformable properties of liquid-elastomer composites. However, in order to achieve the potential benefits of liquid-metal, scalable processing and manufacturing methods must be identified.

  14. The vital few meet the trivial many: unexpected use patterns in a monographs collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, J D

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test three related hypotheses about monographs circulation at academic health sciences libraries: (1) Juran's "Vital Few" Principle, sometimes incorrectly referred to as the "Pareto Principle"; (2) most (> 30%) new monographs will not circulate within four years; and, (3) Trueswell's 20/80 rule concerning intensity of monographs circulation. METHODS: Retrospective circulation study conducted at a major academic health sciences library in November 1997 on monographs acquired during 1993, utilizing an online review file. RESULTS: Unexpectedly, most monographs (84%) had circulated at least once in the four years following acquisition. Combining circulation and in-house data revealed that 90.7% of the monographs acquired in 1993 had been used at least once. Small percentages of these monographs produced disproportionately high circulation levels. CONCLUSION: Monographs circulation rates confirm Juran's Vital Few principle. Most monographs circulated at least once in contrast to results reported by the Pittsburgh Study or other studies reported by Hardesty and Fenske. The results do not comply with Trueswell's 20/80 ratio rule. Further research needs to investigate the effects of low students to books ratios and problem-based learning (PBL) curricula upon monographs utilization. PMID:9803291

  15. The monographic sociology from the perspective of American critical ethnography

    OpenAIRE

    Șerban Văetiși

    2013-01-01

    The paper attempts to reconsider some theoretical and methodological principles practiced by the Bucharest School of Sociology by invoking some concepts put forward by the so called Critical Ethnography. It considers three major ideas of the Monographic Sociology, that can be also found as theoretical assumptions of the postmodern critical ethnographic theory, in an interesting parallel that can be, thus, reconstructed and further suggested as useful paradigm within current approaches in soci...

  16. Scholarly monographs on rock music: a bibliographic essay

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Monica

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article is an overview of scholarly monographs on rock music from 1980 to the present. It provides an overview to the literature for practical purposes of collections development as well as giving the reader insight into key issues and trends related to a interdisciplinary topic that attracts scholars from many disciplines in the humanities and social sciences. Design/methodology/approach: This bibliographic essay, focusing on works related to American culture and of a gen...

  17. Soft Trencher

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Excavation near existing electrical lines, gas lines and other underground utilities can be dangerous and time consuming. A self propelled trencher called the Soft Trencher developed by Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio uses supersonic air to loosen dirt which is then vacuumed up into a truck or piled into a windrow for later removal of backfill. The supersonic air used to break up the soil is harmless to underground utilities and cables. Unlike traditional excavation methods there ...

  18. Soft Clouding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten; Markussen, Thomas; Wetton, Barnabas;

    2012-01-01

    Soft Clouding is a blended concept, which describes the aim of a collaborative and transdisciplinary project. The concept is a metaphor implying a blend of cognitive, embodied interaction and semantic web. Furthermore, it is a metaphor describing our attempt of curating a new semantics of sound...... competencies brought together in one transdisciplinary process of curating a semantics of sound: Technological, Humanistic /Curatorial, and Design / Action-based practice....

  19. Monograph of Keçiören Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaş Zafer Şahin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey, urban administration can be defined from a judicial perspective as the bundle of powers vested in municipalities. It is known that throughout republican history, municipalities, using these powers, have differentiated themselves via their own internal dynamics in parallel to the evolution of public policy and changes in legislation. Yet, it is obvious that there are important gaps in understanding this differentiation taking into consideration the structural conditions of individual municipalities. In particular, in order to thoroughly understand municipalities, it is important to consider periodical pictures of how each municipality has been affected by waves of decentralization and centralization experienced over the last thirty years. In this respect, this monograph, using the same monographic approach developed for the Çankaya Municipality, provides a picture of the existing situation of Ankara’s Keçiören Municipality and presents related problems and potential. This monograph, based on qualitative and quantitative research, presents a holistic evaluation of Keçiören Municipality in terms of its external environment, provision of services, decision-making processes, use of technology and communications.

  20. Soft Mappings Space

    OpenAIRE

    Taha Yasin Ozturk; Sadi Bayramov

    2014-01-01

    Various soft topologies are being introduced on a given function space soft topological spaces. In this paper, soft compact-open topology is defined in functional spaces of soft topological spaces. Further, these functional spaces are studied and interrelations between various functional spaces with soft compact-open topology are established.

  1. Soft Ternary Semirings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the notion of soft ternary semiring by using the concept of soft set theory. Besides, we characterize the notions of regularity and intra-regularity in soft ternary semiring by using different soft (left, lateral, right, quasi, bi ideals of soft ternary semirings.

  2. On Bipolar Soft Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Shabir, Muhammad; Naz, Munazza

    2013-01-01

    We have studied the concept of bipolarity of information in the soft sets. We have defined bipolar soft sets and basic operations of union, intersection and complementation for bipolar soft sets. Examples of bipolar soft sets and an application of bipolar soft sets in a decision making problem with general algorithms have also been presented at the end.

  3. Running a Contest to Encourage Timely Monograph Ordering

    OpenAIRE

    Cramer, Carol J

    2013-01-01

    An age-old problem: Whatever deadline you set for placing monograph orders, you receive a big burst of orders at the last minute. Acquisitions staff beg for book orders one month and get flooded with orders the next. Librarians at Wake Forest University tried to mitigate this problem by running a contest: spend 65% of your target by an early deadline, and your fund wins a share of a cash prize. The presenter will discuss how the contest idea proved an effective incentive for selectors and how...

  4. Soft Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles de Gennes, Pierre; Edwards, Introduction By Sam

    1997-04-01

    Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, one of the greatest physicists of the twentieth century, died in 1984. Dirac's college, St. John's of Cambridge, generously endowed annual lectures to be held at Cambridge University in his memory. This volume contains a much expanded version of the 1994 Dirac Lecture by Nobel Laureate Pierre Gilles de Gennes. The book presents an impressionistic tour of the physics of soft interfaces. Full of insight and interesting asides, it not only provides an accessible introduction to this topic, but also lays down many markers and signposts that will be of interest to researchers in physics or chemistry. Features discussions of wetting and dewetting, the dynamics of different types of interface and adhesion and polymer/polymer welding.

  5. Adult soft tissue sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007654.htm Adult soft tissue sarcoma To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Soft tissue sarcoma is cancer that forms in the soft ...

  6. Contributions of Wilbur Schramm to Mass Communication Research. Journalism Monograph No. 36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Steven H., Ed.; And Others

    This monograph describes the philosophical, theoretical, and research contributions of Wilbur Schramm in the field of mass communication research. In the papers that comprise this monograph, three of Schramm's principal areas of investigation are reviewed. Jack Lyle looks at both the integration of mass communication into the field of education…

  7. The Voice of America: Policies and Problems. Journalism Monographs No. 43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Donald R.

    1976-01-01

    This issue of "Journalism Monographs" is devoted to a discussion of the Policies and problems of the international broadcasting operation "The Voice of America" (VOA). The monograph begins with an examination of the origins of America's entry into international broadcasting and the creation of the Office of War Information in 1942. The VOA's…

  8. 75 FR 30838 - Drometrizole Trisiloxane Eligibility for Potential Inclusion in Sunscreen Monograph; Over-the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... Eligibility for Potential Inclusion in Sunscreen Monograph; Over-the-Counter Sunscreen Drug Products for Human... it is eligible to be considered for inclusion in our OTC drug monograph system. We will evaluate the... requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). DATES: Submit data, information,...

  9. Soft Translations and Soft Extensions of BCI/BCK-Algebras

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The concept of soft translations of soft subalgebras and soft ideals over BCI/BCK-algebras is introduced and some related properties are studied. Notions of Soft extensions of soft subalgebras and soft ideals over BCI/BCK-algebras are also initiated. Relationships between soft translations and soft extensions are explored.

  10. Soft Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents an extended form of the 1994 Dirac Memorial Lecture delivered by Pierre Gilles de Gennes at Cambridge University. The main task of the presentation is to show the beauty and richness of structural forms and phenomena which are observed at soft interfaces between two media. They are much more complex than forms and phenomena existing in each phase separately. Problems are discussed including both traditional, classical techniques, such as the contact angle in static and dynamic partial wetting, as well as the latest research methodology, like 'environmental' scanning electron microscopes. The book is not a systematic lecture on phenomena but it can be considered as a compact set of essays on topics which particularly fascinate the author. The continuum theory widely used in the book is based on a deep molecular approach. The author is particularly interested in a broad-minded rheology of liquid systems at interfaces with specific emphasis on polymer melts. To study this, the author has developed a special methodology called anemometry near walls. The second main topic presented in the book is the problem of adhesion. Molecular processes, energy transformations and electrostatic interaction are included in an interesting discussion of the many aspects of the principles of adhesion. The third topic concerns welding between two polymer surfaces, such as A/A and A/B interfaces. Of great worth is the presentation of various unsolved, open problems. The kind of topics and brevity of description indicate that this book is intended for a well prepared reader. However, for any reader it will present an interesting picture of how many mysterious processes are acting in the surrounding world and how these phenomena are perceived by a Nobel Laureate, who won that prize mainly for his investigations in this field. (book review)

  11. Soft set theory and topology

    OpenAIRE

    D. N. Georgiou; A. C. Megaritis

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study and discuss the soft set theory giving new definitions, examples, new classes of soft sets, and properties for mappings between different classes of soft sets. Furthermore, we investigate the theory of soft topological spaces and we present new definitions, characterizations, and properties concerning the soft closure, the soft interior, the soft boundary, the soft continuity, the soft open and closed maps, and the soft homeomorphism.

  12. Acacia mangium: Growing and utilization. MPTS monograph series No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awang, K.; Taylor, D.

    1993-01-01

    With deforestation in the Asia-Pacific region progressing at the rate of 4.4 million ha per year, many countries have adopted plantation forestry using fast-growing species as a way to sustain the commercial supply of tree products and reduce pressure on natural forests. Acacia mangium (A. mangium) is playing a large role in this development, especially in Indonesia and Malaysia, due to its versatility and its ability to recapture grasslands dominated by the noxious weed, Imperata cylindrica. This monograph consolidates information on A. mangium from published literature, unpublished reports and studies, and observations from those familiar with the species. Priorities for future research are included in each chapter and in the final summary.

  13. New Analytical Monographs on TCM Herbal Drugs for Quality Proof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Hildebert; Bauer, Rudolf; Melchart, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Regardless of specific national drug regulations there is an international consensus that all TCM drugs must meet stipulated high quality standards focusing on authentication, identification and chemical composition. In addition, safety of all TCM drugs prescribed by physicians has to be guaranteed. During the 25 years history of the TCM hospital Bad Kötzting, 171 TCM drugs underwent an analytical quality proof including thin layer as well as high pressure liquid chromatography. As from now mass spectroscopy will also be available as analytical tool. The findings are compiled and already published in three volumes of analytical monographs. One more volume will be published shortly, and a fifth volume is in preparation. The main issues of the analytical procedure in TCM drugs like authenticity, botanical nomenclature, variability of plant species and parts as well as processing are pointed out and possible ways to overcome them are sketched. PMID:27271998

  14. Evaluation of the TALON Cooperative Acquisitions Program for monographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, V M; Comeaux, E A; Eakin, D

    1984-07-01

    The TALON Cooperative Acquisitions Program for monographs (TALON/CAP) was implemented in 1979 by eleven resource libraries in the South Central Regional Medical Library Program. Each participating library acquired books from selected publishers within a profile covering subject and format. The program was evaluated by comparing interlibrary loan requests, surveying participants, and analyzing cataloging records. The results were that ten of the eleven libraries significantly increased their coverage of assigned publishers, and that academic medical libraries are not all buying the same books, even from major medical publishers. The fifty-six publishers in the program accounted for 60% to 83% of the titles with 1977-80 imprints held by participating libraries. The computer-generated collection analysis reports provide a baseline for future collection management studies. PMID:6743874

  15. Fuzzy Soft Topological Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nazmul

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Notions of Lowen type fuzzy soft topological space are introduced and some of their properties are established in the present paper. Besides this, a combined structure of a fuzzy soft topological space and a fuzzy soft group, which is termed here as fuzzy soft topological group is introduced. Homomorphic images and preimages are also examined. Finally, some definitions and results on fuzzy soft set are studied.

  16. Soft Ditopological Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Dizman, Tugbahan Simsekler; Sostak, Alexander; Yuksel, Saziye

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the concept of a soft ditopological space as the "soft generalization" of the concept of a ditopological space as it is defined in the papers by L.M. Brown and co-authors, see e.g. L. M. Brown, R. Erturk, S. Dost, Ditopological texture spaces and fuzzy topology, I. Basic Concepts, Fuzzy Sets and Systems 147 (2) (2004), 17. Actually a soft ditopological space is a soft set with two independent structures on it - a soft topology and a soft co-topology. The ?rst one is used to desc...

  17. 77 FR 48995 - Draft National Toxicology Program (NTP) Monograph on Developmental Effects and Pregnancy Outcomes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... medical communities and their patients. Preliminary Topic and Availability of Meeting Materials The... decisions about human hazard, setting ] research and testing priorities, and providing information to... laboratory animals. OHAT has prepared a comprehensive draft NTP Monograph that summarizes the effects...

  18. Definition of the standard format to prepare descriptive monographs of ITACA stations

    OpenAIRE

    Di Capua, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione AC, Roma, Italia; Lanzo, G.; Dipartimento di Ingegneria Strutturale e Geotecnica - Sapienza Università di Roma; Peppoloni, S.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione AC, Roma, Italia; Scasserra, G.; Dipartimento di Ingegneria Strutturale e Geotecnica - Sapienza Università di Roma

    2009-01-01

    In the previous S6 Project (2004-2007 DPC-INGV Framework Program) a monograph was carried out, that was drawn up for many stations, that were part of the former ENEL accelerometric network. In these monographs all the ENEL documentation about geological information as well as geognostic and geophysical data was included. Knowledge of geological and geomorphological context, and the mechanical and dynamic characteristics of the stations subsoil is fundamental for studies on the att...

  19. On Soft Connectedness

    CERN Document Server

    Peyghan, E; Tayebi, A

    2012-01-01

    The soft topological spaces and some their related concepts have stud- ied in [7]. In this paper, we introduce and study the notions of soft connected topological spaces after a review of preliminary definitions.

  20. On Soft Generalized Topological Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Jyothis; Johna, Sunil Jacob

    2014-01-01

    – The main purpose of this paper is to introduce soft generalized topology on a soft set. The definitions of subspace soft generalized topology and soft continuity of soft functions are introduced. Some basic concepts in soft generalized topological spaces are also defined and studied their properties

  1. IARC Monographs: 40 Years of Evaluating Carcinogenic Hazards to Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Aaron; Vineis, Paolo; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Andersen, Aage; Anto, Josep M.; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Beland, Frederick A.; Berrington, Amy; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Brownson, Ross C.; Bucher, John R.; Cantor, Kenneth P.; Cardis, Elisabeth; Cherrie, John W.; Christiani, David C.; Cocco, Pierluigi; Coggon, David; Comba, Pietro; Demers, Paul A.; Dement, John M.; Douwes, Jeroen; Eisen, Ellen A.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Fenske, Richard A.; Fleming, Lora E.; Fletcher, Tony; Fontham, Elizabeth; Forastiere, Francesco; Frentzel-Beyme, Rainer; Fritschi, Lin; Gerin, Michel; Goldberg, Marcel; Grandjean, Philippe; Grimsrud, Tom K.; Gustavsson, Per; Haines, Andy; Hartge, Patricia; Hansen, Johnni; Hauptmann, Michael; Heederik, Dick; Hemminki, Kari; Hemon, Denis; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hoppin, Jane A.; Huff, James; Jarvholm, Bengt; Kang, Daehee; Karagas, Margaret R.; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Kjuus, Helge; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kriebel, David; Kristensen, Petter; Kromhout, Hans; Laden, Francine; Lebailly, Pierre; LeMasters, Grace; Lubin, Jay H.; Lynch, Charles F.; Lynge, Elsebeth; ‘t Mannetje, Andrea; McMichael, Anthony J.; McLaughlin, John R.; Marrett, Loraine; Martuzzi, Marco; Merchant, James A.; Merler, Enzo; Merletti, Franco; Miller, Anthony; Mirer, Franklin E.; Monson, Richard; Nordby, Karl-Cristian; Olshan, Andrew F.; Parent, Marie-Elise; Perera, Frederica P.; Perry, Melissa J.; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Pirastu, Roberta; Porta, Miquel; Pukkala, Eero; Rice, Carol; Richardson, David B.; Ritter, Leonard; Ritz, Beate; Ronckers, Cecile M.; Rushton, Lesley; Rusiecki, Jennifer A.; Rusyn, Ivan; Samet, Jonathan M.; Sandler, Dale P.; de Sanjose, Silvia; Schernhammer, Eva; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Seixas, Noah; Shy, Carl; Siemiatycki, Jack; Silverman, Debra T.; Simonato, Lorenzo; Smith, Allan H.; Smith, Martyn T.; Spinelli, John J.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Stallones, Lorann; Stayner, Leslie T.; Steenland, Kyle; Stenzel, Mark; Stewart, Bernard W.; Stewart, Patricia A.; Symanski, Elaine; Terracini, Benedetto; Tolbert, Paige E.; Vainio, Harri; Vena, John; Vermeulen, Roel; Victora, Cesar G.; Ward, Elizabeth M.; Weinberg, Clarice R.; Weisenburger, Dennis; Wesseling, Catharina; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Zahm, Shelia Hoar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Programme for the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans has been criticized for several of its evaluations, and also for the approach used to perform these evaluations. Some critics have claimed that failures of IARC Working Groups to recognize study weaknesses and biases of Working Group members have led to inappropriate classification of a number of agents as carcinogenic to humans. Objectives: The authors of this Commentary are scientists from various disciplines relevant to the identification and hazard evaluation of human carcinogens. We examined criticisms of the IARC classification process to determine the validity of these concerns. Here, we present the results of that examination, review the history of IARC evaluations, and describe how the IARC evaluations are performed. Discussion: We concluded that these recent criticisms are unconvincing. The procedures employed by IARC to assemble Working Groups of scientists from the various disciplines and the techniques followed to review the literature and perform hazard assessment of various agents provide a balanced evaluation and an appropriate indication of the weight of the evidence. Some disagreement by individual scientists to some evaluations is not evidence of process failure. The review process has been modified over time and will undoubtedly be altered in the future to improve the process. Any process can in theory be improved, and we would support continued review and improvement of the IARC processes. This does not mean, however, that the current procedures are flawed. Conclusions: The IARC Monographs have made, and continue to make, major contributions to the scientific underpinning for societal actions to improve the public’s health. Citation: Pearce N, Blair A, Vineis P, Ahrens W, Andersen A, Anto JM, Armstrong BK, Baccarelli AA, Beland FA, Berrington A, Bertazzi PA, Birnbaum LS, Brownson RC, Bucher JR, Cantor KP

  2. Preface to the first monograph: The Fourth Psychiatric Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R. Singh

    2004-05-01

    the one hand, and cautious forays in the neurosciences, adoption and genetic studies on the other ( from where, hopefully, significant leads in understanding the aetiology of major psychiatric disorders must arise. Diagnostic refinement is a necessary step in this direction, as is use of sophisticated technology to aid the process.And yet, we know that psychiatry, its practitioners, and its patients, do not function in a vacuum. They interact with, and are influenced by, a wide range of complex, interlinked, social and interpersonal forces.These forces are often generated by people not directly connected with the medical speciality of psychiatry. They are the policy-planners, governments, political leaders, activists, social thinkers, NGOs, mass media, enlightened public opinion etc. They have marked influence on social thought and action, policy, funding and research. They influence people and societies often in more significant ways than the medical speciality of psychiatry considers healthy for society.We may continue to function in a vacuum and wait for wisdom to dawn. Or, we may establish a dialogue with them and work for wisdom for happen.The second option seems the more productive one.No doubt, there are some psychiatrists comfortable with the biological label. There are others comfortable with the social one. Both these are needed, for they help to further robust enquiry in their respective fields. But what we also probably need is an integration, a synthesis of the mass of evidence that these two fields have produced. The inevitable conclusions drawn at our present state of knowledge based on such integration will give rise to pointers for further research as well as guidelines for policy-planners. Moreover, it will result in an awakened public opinion empowered with knowledge and evidence, its actions enlightened, and unlikely to be swayed or manipulated by unscrupulous forces.The Mens Sana Monographs are meant to further attempts at such a Fourth

  3. The superficial soft tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because the soft parts of the body are much less radiopaque than the bones, they may be overlooked when a reoentgenogram, obtained primarily to bring out bone detail, is being examined. Nevertheless, the soft tissues, even in a heavily exposed film, exert a distinct influence on the appearance of the bones that they cover. One has only to compare the difference in density of a part of a bone over which there is a loss of soft tissue because of ulceration, traumatic avulsion, or surgical removal with that of the adjacent uninvolved part to appreciate how much radiation is absorbed by the soft tissues. The soft tissues can be seen in practically every roentgenogram, even those that have been heavily exposed, by viewing the film with a strong beam of light (in addition to the usual illuminators). Some type of spotlight should always be available for the scrutiny of overexposed roentgenograms and particularly for the study of the soft tissues

  4. Operations on Soft Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akram

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modelling, analysis and computing of problems with uncertainty is one of the hottest areas in interdisciplinary research involving applied mathematics, computational intelligence and decision sciences. It is worth noting that uncertainty arises from various domains has very different nature and cannot be captured within a single mathematical framework. Molodtsov’s soft sets provide us a new way of coping with uncertainty from the viewpoint of parameterization. In this paper, we introduce the concepts of soft graphs, vertex-induced soft graphs, edge-induced soft graphs and describe some operations on soft graphs by presenting several examples to demonstrate these new concepts. Finally, we investigate some fundamental properties of soft graphs.

  5. On Soft Dual Space of Soft Normed Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Yazar, Murat Ibrahim; Altun, Yilmaz; Bilgin, Tunay

    2015-01-01

    The concept of Soft set theory was introduced by Molodtsov in the study [8]. Soft real numbers and properties were introduced inthe study [6] and soft normed space was defined in [11]. In this study, firstly we obtain a soft normed space by defining a soft norm on (Real numbers) which is called soft normed real space. By using this normed space we define the soft linear functional and investigate some of its properties. Secondly, we introduce soft dual space and soft dual operator and investi...

  6. Pediatric Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    OpenAIRE

    Loeb, David M.; Thornton, Katherine; Shokek, Ori

    2008-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas in children are relatively rare. Approximately 850 to 900 children and adolescents are diagnosed each year with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) or one of the non-RMS soft tissue sarcomas (NRSTS). Of these, 350 are cases of RMS. RMS is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children 14 years old and younger, and NRSTS is more common in adolescents and young adults. Infants also get NRSTS, but their tumors constitute a distinctive set of histologies, including infantile fibrosarcoma...

  7. Soft matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Soft matter (polymers, colloids, surfactants and liquid crystals) are an important class of materials in modern technology. They also form the basis of many future technologies, for example in medical and environmental applications. Soft matter shows complex behaviour between fluids and solids, and used to be a synonym of complex materials. Due to the developments of the past two decades, soft condensed matter can now be discussed on the same sound physical basis as solid condensedmatter. The purpose of this book is to provide an overview of soft matter for undergraduate and graduate students

  8. On Soft Topology

    OpenAIRE

    ENGİNOĞLU, Serdar; Çağman, Naim; KARATAŞ, Serkan; Aydin, Tuğçe

    2015-01-01

    Soft set theory was introduced by Molodtsov in 1999. Until now many versions of it have been developed and applied to a lot of areas from algebra to decision making problems. One of these areas is Soft Topology [Çağman, N., Karataş, S., Enginoglu, S., Soft topology, Computers and Mathematics with Applications, 62, 351-358, 2011]. However, it has some difficulties and mistakes. In this paper, for further study on the soft topology, we have made fit this concept which is important for developme...

  9. 76 FR 55391 - Notice of Postponement of Release of Draft NTP Monograph on Potential Developmental Effects of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... announced on August 17, 2011 (76 FR 51034). Information about rescheduling the release of the draft... HUMAN SERVICES Notice of Postponement of Release of Draft NTP Monograph on Potential Developmental... (NIEHS), National Institutes of Health. ACTION: Notice of postponement of draft NTP monograph and...

  10. Review of the Monograph “Colour. City. Culture” by O.E. Zheleznyak

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Dobritsyna

    2015-01-01

    The author of the review, professor I. A. Dobritsyna evaluates the Monograph “Colour. City. Culture” by O.E. Zheleznyak as a distinctive work. This thorough and methodically organized monograph presents a profound idea of the colour phenomenon as a part of the culture and the city life and observes a new untraditional treatment of colour and its role in the space of culture and the city. This work can be recommended as a scientific publication for a wide range of specialists and as a manual f...

  11. Review of the Monograph “Colour. City. Culture” by O.E. Zheleznyak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Dobritsyna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The author of the review, professor I. A. Dobritsyna evaluates the Monograph “Colour. City. Culture” by O.E. Zheleznyak as a distinctive work. This thorough and methodically organized monograph presents a profound idea of the colour phenomenon as a part of the culture and the city life and observes a new untraditional treatment of colour and its role in the space of culture and the city. This work can be recommended as a scientific publication for a wide range of specialists and as a manual for higher educational institutions, which train specialists in architecture and design, monumental-decorative and decorative-applied arts.

  12. Harmonization of monographic standards is needed to ensure the quality of Chinese medicinal materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Sandy

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article provides an overview on the regulations of Chinese medicinal materials (CMMs in various countries and regions. Harmonization of CMM monographs would provide standards for the quality control of CMM products and play an important role in the modernization and globalization of Chinese medicine. A harmonized regulatory system would improve the quality of CMMs thereby ensuring the safety of the products and assisting Chinese medicine practitioners in their practice. The fast growing demand worldwide for traditional medicines calls for harmonized monographic standards to safeguard the safety and quality of CMM products.

  13. Bibliometric analysis of martial arts monographs published in Spain (1906-2006)

    OpenAIRE

    Mikel Pérez Gutiérrez; Carlos Gutiérrez García

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the martial arts monographs published in Spain between 1906 and 2006 from a bibliometric point of view. Starting from Pérez and Gutiérrez’s previous bibliography (2008), the total number of published monographs following the criteria of subject, decade and the combination of both was analyzed. The results showed a total of 2.036 books (1.285 original editions) with a prevalence of Japanese and Chinese martial arts. A group of eight subjects exceeded a hundred volumes (kara...

  14. Soft, Embodied, Situated & Connected: enriching interactions with soft wearables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomico, Oscar; Wilde, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Soft wearables include clothing and textile-based accessories that incorporate smart textiles and soft electronic interfaces to enable responsive and interactive experiences. When designed well, soft wearables leverage the cultural, sociological and material qualities of textiles, fashion and dre...

  15. A soft qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The model of a soft-qubit is offered. It is a system which reproduces information properties of the quantum object bearing a qubit of information. Simultaneously the soft-qubit can be realised in the form of a computer program.

  16. learning and soft skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2000-01-01

    Learning of soft skills are becoming more and more necessary due to the complexe development of modern companies and their environments. However, there seems to be a 'gap' between intentions and reality regarding need of soft skills and the possiblities to be educated in this subject in particular...

  17. Embodying Soft Wearables Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomico, Oscar; Wilde, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    of soft wearables. Throughout, we will experiment with how embodied design research techniques might be shared, developed, and used as direct and unmediated vehicles for their own reporting. Rather than engage in oral presentations, participants will lead each other through a proven embodied method...... and knowledge transfer in the context of soft wearables....

  18. Soft Pion Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambu, Y.

    1968-01-01

    My talk is concerned with a review, not necessarily of the latest theoretical developments, but rather of an old idea which has contributed to recent theoretical activities. By soft pion processes I mean processes in which low energy pions are emitted or absorbed or scattered, just as we use the word soft photon in a similar context. Speaking more quantitatively, we may call a pion soft if its energy is small compared to a natural scale in the reaction. This scale is determined by the particular dynamics of pion interaction, and one may roughly say that a pion is soft if its energy is small compared to the energies of the other individual particles that participate in the reaction. It is important to note at this point that pion is by far the lightest member of all the hadrons, and much of the success of the soft pion formulas depends on this fact.

  19. Evaluating six soft approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Sørensen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner’s perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff’s interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable for supporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using such a conceptual framework for evaluations of soft approaches increases the understanding of them, their transparency, and their usability in practice.

  20. Isomorphism on fuzzy soft graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćelik, Yıldıray

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we define the notion of fuzzy soft graph and then introduce the concepts of homomorphism, isomorphism, weak isomorphism, co-weak isomorphism of fuzzy soft graphs. Also, we study some properties of isomorphism on fuzzy soft graphs.

  1. Soft Topology on Function Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Ozturk, Taha Yasin; Bayramov, Sadi

    2014-01-01

    Molodtsov initiated the concept of soft sets in Molodtsov D. Maji et al. defined some operations on soft sets in Maji P. K., Bismas R., Roy A. R. The concept of soft topological space was introduced by some authors. In this paper, we introduce the concept of the pointwise topology of soft topological spaces and the properties of soft mappings spaces. Finally, we investigate the relationships between some soft mappings spaces.

  2. Identifying Your School's Crime Problems: Simple Steps That Precede Costly Action. An IRC Monograph for Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Robert J., Ed.

    This monograph is intended to provide guidance to schools and school districts in two areas: in the identification and analysis of crime problems in schools and in the evaluation of security programs. Part 1 provides simple steps necessary to avoid problems in data collection that might cause confusion and misinterpretation of student violence…

  3. News Piracy: Unfair Competition and the Misappropriation Doctrine. Journalism Monographs No. 56.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Paul W.

    Unfair competition is a complex problem affecting all areas of American business, including the communications media. Piracy of material, an alarmingly widespread example of unfair competition, involves legal as well as ethical questions. This monograph uses the historical approach to trace the development of common-law precedent and trends and…

  4. Interactive Robotic Aids--One Option for Independent Living: An International Perspective. Monograph Number 37.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, Richard, Ed.

    The monograph is a collection of papers on the role of robotics in rehabilitation. The first four papers represent contributions from other countries: "Spartacus and Manus: Telethesis Developments in France and the Netherlands" (H. Kwee); "A Potential Application in Early Education and a Possible Role for a Vision System in a Workstation Based…

  5. Guide to open access monograph publishing for arts, humanities and social science researchers

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Ellen; Milloy, Caren; Stone, Graham

    2015-01-01

    This guide has been produced to assist arts, humanities and social sciences (AHSS) researchers in understanding the state of play with regards to open access in the UK and what it means to them as current and future authors of scholarly monographs.

  6. Rural Substance Abuse: State of Knowledge and Issues. NIDA Research Monograph 168.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Elizabeth B., Ed.; Sloboda, Zili, Ed.; Boyd, Gayle M., Ed.; Beatty, Lula, Ed.; Kozel, Nicholas J., Ed.

    This research monograph is based on papers from a technical review meeting of the same name, held April 26-27, 1994. It provides information about the special nature or context of rural communities that might impact patterns of drug and alcohol consumption and delivery of prevention and treatment services; health, social, and economic consequences…

  7. On the rise of Bayesian econometrics after Cowles Foundation monographs 10, 14

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Baştürk; C. Çakmaklı; S.P. Ceyhan; H.K. van Dijk

    2014-01-01

    This paper starts with a brief description of the introduction of the likelihood approach in econometrics as presented in Cowles Foundation Monographs 10 and 14. A sketch is given of the criticisms on this approach mainly from the first group of Bayesian econometricians. Publication and citation pat

  8. On the Rise of Bayesian Econometrics after Cowles Foundation Monographs 10, 14

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Basturk (Nalan); C. Cakmakli (Cem); S.P. Ceyhan (Pinar); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper starts with a brief description of the introduction of the likelihood approach in econometrics as presented in Cowles Foundation Monographs 10 and 14. A sketch is given of the criticisms on this approach mainly from the first group of Bayesian econometricians

  9. On the rise of Bayesian econometrics after Cowles Foundation Monographs 10, 14

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baştürk, N.; Çakmak, C.; Pinar Ceyhan, S.; van Dijk, H.K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper starts with a brief description of the introduction of the likelihood approach in econometrics as presented in Cowles Foundation Monographs 10 and 14. A sketch is given of the criticisms on this approach mainly from the first group of Bayesian econometricians. Publication and citation pat

  10. Administration and Supervision for Safety in Sports. Sports Safety Series: Monograph No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borozne, Joseph, Ed.; And Others

    Examined in this monograph are issues concerned with accident problems in sports. Materials are organized under eight headings, each developed by an expert in the area: (1) the injury problem in sports; (2) philosophy of sports accident prevention and injury control; (3) an introduction to administration and supervision; (4) administration and…

  11. The Vocational Choice Process of Non-Professional Workers: Research Plan: Revised and Operationalized. Monograph 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, Paul R.

    This monograph provides a revised list of research hypotheses and questions, a detailed review of psychological and operational definitions of over fifteen vocational contructs (including such ambiguous concepts as vocational stability and vocational satisfaction), and an overview of projected research procedures. In addition, a comprehensive set…

  12. Nutritional Problems and Policy in Tanzania. Cornell International Nutrition Monograph Series, Number 7 (1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgaza, Olyvia

    This monograph discusses policies designed to deal with food and nutrition problems in Tanzania. Available information on food supplies and nutritional conditions in Tanzania clearly shows that the country faces nutritional problems; protein energy malnutrition is the most serious and requires priority action. Iron deficiency anemia, goiter, and…

  13. Services that Matter: An Overview of Childcare Services in Tamil Nadu. Monograph No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantha, E. V.

    This monograph describes the strengths and weaknesses of child care services in the Tamil Nadu region of India and suggests directions for the future of child care. Section 1, "Introduction," discusses the role of the government in providing support for child development, highlighting achievements of the State of Tamil Nadu. Section 2,…

  14. Work, Life and VET Participation amongst Lower-Paid Workers. NCVER Monograph Series 05/2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocock, Barbara; Skinner, Natalie; McMahon, Catherine; Pritchard, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    This monograph is the culmination of a three-year research program undertaken by the University of South Australia's Centre for Work+Life. It considers the barriers, support and benefit of vocational education and training (VET) for workers in the low-paid occupations (that is, those earning around $17 per hour). The research considered a wide…

  15. The Implementation of CETA in Ohio. R&D Monograph 44. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Randall B.

    This last of a series of reports on the implementation of the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) in Ohio, from the inception of the program in 1974 through mid-1976, compares 16 of the 17 prime sponsors in the State. The monograph describes and explains patterns of influence over decisionmaking about CETA at the local level, a…

  16. The Implementation of CETA in Eastern Massachusetts and Boston. R & D Monograph 57.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barocci, Thomas A.; And Others

    This monograph includes two reports describing the results of three years of field research on the implementation and impact of the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) in Eastern Massachusetts. They represent a thorough and detailed study of the problems faced by prime sponsors in the initial years of CETA. The first report, CETA in…

  17. The Educational Production Function: Implications for Educational Manpower Policy. Institute of Public Employment Monograph No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, John; Perl, Lewis

    This monograph summarizes and evaluates "educational production function analyses"--studies of the relation between inputs and outputs in an education system--in order to aid in educational manpower policy making. In addition, data from New York state school districts and from a large national sample of high school students is subjected to…

  18. Florida Studies in the Helping Professions. University of Florida Monographs Social Sciences--No. 37.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Arthur W.; And Others

    The monograph presents principles governing the nature and effective practice of helping professions. It is presented in three parts: (1) background of the studies and evaluation of the hypothesis, (2) research reports completed to date, (3) interpretation of the research and future directions. The research deals with perceptual organization of…

  19. Grassroots Journalism in the City: Cleveland's Neighborhood Newspapers. Monograph No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffres, Leo W.; And Others

    The first section of this monograph on community newspapers describes the patterns and trends of "grassroots journalism" in the Cleveland, Ohio, area. Based on interviews with 37 newspaper editors, the following topics are covered: origins and history, goals, organization and structure, method of production, advertising, content, audience, and…

  20. Design criteria monograph for pressure regulators, relief valves, check valves, burst disks, and explosive valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Monograph reviews and assesses current design practices, and from them establishes firm guidance for achieving greater consistency in design, increased reliability in end product, and greater efficiency in design effort. Five devices are treated separately. Guides to aid in configuration selection are outlined.

  1. 76 FR 51034 - Availability of Draft NTP Monograph on Potential Developmental Effects of Cancer Chemotherapy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... Chemotherapy During Pregnancy; Request for Comments; Announcement of a Panel Meeting To Peer Review Draft... of the Draft NTP Monograph on Potential Developmental Effects of Cancer Chemotherapy During Pregnancy... of Cancer Chemotherapy During Pregnancy, which has been prepared by the NTP Office of...

  2. Existing and Emerging Technologies in Education: A Descriptive Overview. CREATE Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, Thomas W.

    Second in a series of six monographs on the use of new technologies in the instruction of learning disabled students, the paper offers a descriptive overview of new technologies. Topics addressed include the following: (1) techniques for sharing computer resources (including aspects of networking, sharing information through databases, and the use…

  3. Family Support Program Quality and Parent, Family and Child Benefits. Winterberry Press Monograph Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Hamby, Deborah W.

    2006-01-01

    The belief that adoption of, adherence to, and use of family support principles is associated with better parent, family, and child outcomes has for the most part gone untested but not unchallenged. This monograph investigates the relationship between practitioner adherence to family support principles and parent, family, and child behavior and…

  4. The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) 2002 Report. UNO Aviation Monograph Series. UNOAI Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Box, Richard C.; Fink, Mary M.; Gogos, George; Lehrer, Henry R.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; O'Neil, Patrick D.; Tarry, Scott E.; Vlasek, Karisa D.

    This document contains four papers on aeronautics education, research, and partnerships that partly supported through the Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL). The paper "2002 AERIAL Monograph" (Brent D. Bowen, Jocelyn S. Nickerson, Mary M. Fink, et al.) presents an overview of research and development in the following…

  5. Focus on Learning: A Schoolwide Renewal Process of Analysis & Action. HSLA Monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Marilyn; Haught, Don

    The Accrediting Commission for Schools, Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC) has recently developed a new protocol for accrediting schools entitled "Focus on Learning" (FoL). This monograph explains how the FoL process can influence student learning and serve as a vehicle for school improvement and accountability. The following…

  6. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner's perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...... such a conceptual framework for evaluations of soft approaches increases the understanding of them, their transparency, and their usability in practice....

  7. Soft multipole excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The origin of soft multipole states in halo nuclei is discussed by using a double square well potential. It is found that the huge enhancement of the transition strength near particle threshold energy is caused by the coherent contribution of particle and hole wave functions from an extremely large radial distance R=10∼45 fm. The soft excitation is thus characterized as an independent particle-hole excitation rather than a coherent superposition of particle-hole states. The characteristic feature of the soft mode is demonstrated to manifest itself in the response to the momentum dependent transition operator. (author) 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2008-01-01

    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...

  9. Evaluating Six Soft Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Valqui Vidal, René Victor

    2008-01-01

    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...

  10. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2006-01-01

    ’s interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable for supporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...

  11. Man-made mineral (vitreous) fibres: evaluations of cancer hazards by the IARC Monographs Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baan, Robert A; Grosse, Yann

    2004-09-01

    Man-made vitreous (glass-like) fibres are non-crystalline, fibrous inorganic substances (silicates) made primarily from rock, slag, glass or other processed minerals. These materials, also called man-made mineral fibres, include glass fibres (used in glass wool and continuous glass filament), rock or stone wool, slag wool and refractory ceramic fibres. They are widely used for thermal and acoustical insulation and to a lesser extent for other purposes. These products are potentially hazardous to human health because they release airborne respirable fibres during their production, use and removal. Man-made mineral fibres and man-made vitreous fibres have been the subject of reviews by IARC Monographs Working Groups in 1987 and 2001, respectively, which resulted in evaluations of the carcinogenic hazard to humans from exposure to these materials. These reviews and evaluations have been published as Volumes 43 and 81 of the IARC Monographs series [IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol. 43, Man-made Mineral Fibres and Radon (1988); IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol. 81, Man-made Vitreous Fibres (2002)]. The re-evaluation in 2001 was undertaken because there have been substantial improvements in the quality of the epidemiological information available on the carcinogenicity to humans of glass fibres, continuous glass filament and rock/slag wool. The new evaluations have addressed the limitations of earlier cohort studies, particularly concerning the lack of adjustment with respect to concomitant risk factors such as smoking and other sources of occupational exposure. In addition, the evaluation of the evidence for carcinogenicity of glass fibres to experimental animals has been refined, by making a distinction between insulation glass wool and special-purpose glass fibres. The results of the evaluations in 1987 and 2001 are thus different in several aspects. In this paper, the reviews and evaluations

  12. Fuzzy Soft normed space and Fuzzy Soft linear operator

    OpenAIRE

    Khameneh, A. Zahedi; A. Kilicman; Salleh, A. R.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of fuzzy soft set was introduced for the first time by Maji et al. in 2002, and was considered sharply from applicable aspects to theoretical aspects by a wide range of researchers. In this paper the concept of fuzzy soft norm over fuzzy soft spaces has been considered and some properties of fuzzy soft normed spaces are studied. We also study the fuzzy soft topology over a crisp set by using the fuzzy soft subsets of it and the relationship between fuzzy soft topology and general ...

  13. Facial Soft Tissue Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Kretlow, James D.; McKnight, Aisha J.; Izaddoost, Shayan A.

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic facial soft tissue injuries are commonly encountered in the emergency department by plastic surgeons and other providers. Although rarely life-threatening, the treatment of these injuries can be complex and may have significant impact on the patient's facial function and aesthetics. This article provides a review of the relevant literature related to this topic and describes the authors' approach to the evaluation and management of the patient with facial soft tissue injuries.

  14. Soft tissue elastometer

    OpenAIRE

    Egorov, V.; Tsyuryupa, S.; Kanilo, S.; Kogit, M.; Sarvazyan, A.

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a device entitled the ‘Tissue Elastometer’ (TE) for evaluating the Young’s modulus of soft tissues. Soft tissue specimens are compressed between the object plate of an electronic balance and a linearly actuated indenter with a small rounded tip. The hardware of the device was designed such that a deformation model for semi-infinite media is applicable for calculating the Young’s modulus of test specimens from their collected force–displacement data.

  15. Soft tissue tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, A J; Thomas, J M

    1997-01-01

    Any soft tissue swelling beneath the deep fascia should be considered a sarcoma until proven otherwise. As the most important factor in the primary treatment of these cancers is the adequacy of the primary surgical resection, it is vital to diagnose these malignant tumours pre-operatively. The modern treatment of soft tissue sarcomas may involve all modalities, but the most important aspect of treatment of a primary localised sarcoma is wide excisional surgery preserving limb function. Radiot...

  16. Deployable Soft Composite Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wang; Hugo Rodrigue; Sung-Hoon Ahn

    2016-01-01

    Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and sim...

  17. Dynamics of Soft Matter

    CERN Document Server

    García Sakai, Victoria; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    Dynamics of Soft Matter: Neutron Applications provides an overview of neutron scattering techniques that measure temporal and spatial correlations simultaneously, at the microscopic and/or mesoscopic scale. These techniques offer answers to new questions arising at the interface of physics, chemistry, and biology. Knowledge of the dynamics at these levels is crucial to understanding the soft matter field, which includes colloids, polymers, membranes, biological macromolecules, foams, emulsions towards biological & biomimetic systems, and phenomena involving wetting, friction, adhesion, or micr

  18. Oligarchy and soft incompleteness

    OpenAIRE

    Piggins, Ashley; Duddy, Conal

    2016-01-01

    The assumption that the social preference relation is complete is demanding. We distinguish between “hard” and “soft” incompleteness, and explore the social choice implications of the latter. Under soft incompleteness, social preferences can take values in the unit interval. We motivate interest in soft incompleteness by presenting a version of the strong Pareto rule that is suited to the context of a [0, 1]-valued social preference relation. Using a novel approach to the quasi-tr...

  19. Mechanochemically Active Soft Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossweiler, Gregory R; Brown, Cameron L; Hewage, Gihan B; Sapiro-Gheiler, Eitan; Trautman, William J; Welshofer, Garrett W; Craig, Stephen L

    2015-10-14

    The functions of soft robotics are intimately tied to their form-channels and voids defined by an elastomeric superstructure that reversibly stores and releases mechanical energy to change shape, grip objects, and achieve complex motions. Here, we demonstrate that covalent polymer mechanochemistry provides a viable mechanism to convert the same mechanical potential energy used for actuation in soft robots into a mechanochromic, covalent chemical response. A bis-alkene functionalized spiropyran (SP) mechanophore is cured into a molded poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) soft robot walker and gripper. The stresses and strains necessary for SP activation are compatible with soft robot function. The color change associated with actuation suggests opportunities for not only new color changing or camouflaging strategies, but also the possibility for simultaneous activation of latent chemistry (e.g., release of small molecules, change in mechanical properties, activation of catalysts, etc.) in soft robots. In addition, mechanochromic stress mapping in a functional robotic device might provide a useful design and optimization tool, revealing spatial and temporal force evolution within the robot in a way that might be coupled to autonomous feedback loops that allow the robot to regulate its own activity. The demonstration motivates the simultaneous development of new combinations of mechanophores, materials, and soft, active devices for enhanced functionality. PMID:26390078

  20. Operations on soft sets revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Soft sets, as a mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty, have recently gained considerable attention, including some successful applications in information processing, decision, demand analysis, and forecasting. To construct new soft sets from given soft sets, some operations on soft sets have been proposed. Unfortunately, such operations cannot keep all classical set-theoretic laws true for soft sets. In this paper, we redefine the intersection, complement, and difference of soft sets and investigate the algebraic properties of these operations along with a known union operation. We find that the new operation system on soft sets inherits all basic properties of operations on classical sets, which justifies our definitions.

  1. Fuzzy parametrized fuzzy soft topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Atmaca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, researches have contributed a lot towards fuzzification of Soft Set Theory. In this paper, we introduce the topological structure of fuzzyfying soft sets called fuzzy parametrized soft sets. We define the notion of quasi-coincidence for fuzzy parametrized soft sets and investigated basic properties of it. We study the closure, interior, base, continuity and compactness in the content of fuzzy parametrized soft topological spaces.

  2. OAPEN-UK: an Open Access Business Model for Scholarly Monographs in the Humanities and Social Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Milloy, Caren; Stone, Graham; Collins, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the current findings of OAPEN-UK, a UK research project gathering evidence on the social and technological impacts of an open access business model for scholarly monographs in the humanities and social sciences.

  3. OAPEN-UK: an Open Access Business Model for Scholarly Monographs in the Humantiies and Social Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Milloy, C.; Stone, G; Collins, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the initial findings of OAPEN-UK, a UK research project gathering evidence on the social and technological impacts of an open access business model for scholarly monographs in the humanities and social sciences.

  4. Hard and Soft Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moos, Lejf

    2009-01-01

    The governance and leadership at transnational, national and school level seem to be converging into a number of isomorphic forms as we see a tendency towards substituting 'hard' forms of governance, that are legally binding, with 'soft' forms based on persuasion and advice. This article analyses...... and discusses governance forms at several levels. The first layer is the global: the methods of 'soft governance' that are being utilised by transnational agencies. The second layer is the national and local: the shift in national and local governance seen in many countries, but here demonstrated in...... the case of Denmark, and finally the third layer: the leadership used in Danish schools. The use of 'soft governance' is shifting the focus of governance and leadership from decisions towards influence and power and thus shifting the focus of the processes from the decision-making itself towards more...

  5. On Soft Biometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nixon, Mark; Correia, Paulo; Nasrollahi, Kamal;

    2015-01-01

    Innovation has formed much of the rich history in biometrics. The field of soft biometrics was originally aimed to augment the recognition process by fusion of metrics that were sufficient to discriminate populations rather than individuals. This was later refined to use measures that could be used...... to discriminate individuals, especially using descriptions that can be perceived using human vision and in surveillance imagery. A further branch of this new field concerns approaches to estimate soft biometrics, either using conventional biometrics approaches or just from images alone. These three...... strands combine to form what is now known as soft biometrics. We survey the achievements that have been made in recognition by and in estimation of these parameters, describing how these approaches can be used and where they might lead to. The approaches lead to a new type of recognition, and one similar...

  6. Tensional acoustomechanical soft metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Fengxian; Lu, Tianjian

    2016-06-01

    We create acoustomechanical soft metamaterials whose response to uniaxial tensile stressing can be easily tailored by programming acoustic wave inputs, resulting in force versus stretch curves that exhibit distinct monotonic, s-shape, plateau and non-monotonic snapping behaviors. We theoretically demonstrate this unique metamaterial by considering a thin soft material sheet impinged by two counter-propagating ultrasonic wave inputs across its thickness and stretched by an in-plane uniaxial tensile force. We establish a theoretical acoustomechanical model to describe the programmable mechanics of such soft metamaterial, and introduce the first- and second-order tangential stiffness of its force versus stretch curve to boundary different behaviors that appear during deformation. The proposed phase diagrams for the underlying nonlinear mechanics show promising prospects for designing tunable and switchable photonic/phononic crystals and microfluidic devices that harness snap-through instability.

  7. Results on fuzzy soft topological spaces

    OpenAIRE

    J Mahanta; P. K. Das

    2012-01-01

    B. Tanay et. al. introduced and studied fuzzy soft topological spaces. Here we introduce fuzzy soft point and study the concept of neighborhood of a fuzzy soft point in a fuzzy soft topological space. We also study fuzzy soft closure and fuzzy soft interior. Separation axioms and connectedness are introduced and investigated for fuzzy soft topological spaces.

  8. Embodying Soft Wearables Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomico, Oscar; Wilde, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    The value of engaging sensory motor skills in the design and use of smart systems is increasingly recognized. Yet robust and reliable methods for development, reporting and transfer are not fully understood. This workshop investigates the role of embodied design research techniques in the context...... of soft wearables. Throughout, we will experiment with how embodied design research techniques might be shared, developed, and used as direct and unmediated vehicles for their own reporting. Rather than engage in oral presentations, participants will lead each other through a proven embodied method...... and knowledge transfer in the context of soft wearables....

  9. Mechanics of soft materials

    CERN Document Server

    Volokh, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a concise introduction to soft matter modelling. It offers an up-to-date review of continuum mechanical description of soft and biological materials from the basics to the latest scientific materials. It includes multi-physics descriptions, such as chemo-, thermo-, electro- mechanical coupling. It derives from a graduate course at Technion that has been established in recent years. It presents original explanations for some standard materials and features elaborated examples on all topics throughout the text. PowerPoint lecture notes can be provided to instructors. .

  10. On the Rise of Bayesian Econometrics after Cowles Foundation Monographs 10, 14

    OpenAIRE

    Basturk, Nalan; Cakmakli, Cem; Ceyhan, Pinar; Dijk, Herman

    2014-01-01

    This paper starts with a brief description of the introduction of the likelihood approach in econometrics as presented in Cowles Foundation Monographs 10 and 14. A sketch is given of the criticisms on this approach mainly from the first group of Bayesian econometricians. Publication and citation patterns of Bayesian econometric papers are analyzed in ten major econometric journals from the late 1970s until the first few months of 2014. Results indicate a cluster of journals with theoretical a...

  11. Some Properties of Fuzzy Soft Proximity Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    İzzettin Demir; Oya Bedre Özbakır

    2015-01-01

    We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras’s sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximiti...

  12. Some Properties of Fuzzy Soft Proximity Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    İzzettin Demir; Oya Bedre Özbakır

    2015-01-01

    We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras's sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities.

  13. Monographs on Croats in Vojvodina from 1990 to 2008 - basic information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Žigmanov

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the monograph publications on Croats in Vojvodina from 1990 to 2008. The paper presents a list of 137 monographs published in the above period that are thematically related to the social and cultural life of Croats in Vojvodina. These works are of heterogenic nature by a series of features - ranging from their volume through the complexity and scope of the theme to their scientific relevance; nevertheless, what brings them all together is the same topic. The list of publications on Vojvodina Croats is published in a sequence that follows the classification in accordance with the Universal Decimal Classification and the alphabetic list of authors. Anonymous publications and publications with multiple authors are listed at the beginning. In addition, the paper contains a brief analysis of the place of publishing and the place of the author’s activity, the language of publication and the field of science and the topics they cover. The contribution of the paper lies in the compilation of a time-defined regional bibliography that has presented for the first time all the known monographs on Vojvodina Croats in the mentioned period.

  14. Soft tissue mixed tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Eiichi Hiraishi; Hiroshi Sakihara; Michiro Susa; Takayuki Honma; Hiroshi Shimosawa

    2009-01-01

    Mixed tumors are relatively common in the skin and salivary glands, but extremely rare in soft tissues, often resulting in diagnostic problems. The occurrence of these tumors in the hand is especially limited. In this article we report the clinical, radiological, and histological features of a mixed tumor of the hypothenar region of the right hand.

  15. Soft Tissue Extramedullary Plasmacytoma

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Ruiz Santiago; Manuel Tello Moreno; Aurelio Martín Castro; Luis Guzmán Álvarez; Pedro Navarrete González

    2010-01-01

    We present the uncommon case of a subcutaneous fascia-based extramedullary plasmacytoma in the leg, which was confirmed by the pathology report and followed up until its remission. We report the differential diagnosis with other more common soft tissue masses. Imaging findings are nonspecific but are important to determine the tumour extension and to plan the biopsy.

  16. Soft Tissue Extramedullary Plasmacytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ruiz Santiago

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the uncommon case of a subcutaneous fascia-based extramedullary plasmacytoma in the leg, which was confirmed by the pathology report and followed up until its remission. We report the differential diagnosis with other more common soft tissue masses. Imaging findings are nonspecific but are important to determine the tumour extension and to plan the biopsy.

  17. A soft scalar theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine a soft scalar theorem which has proved useful in the evaluation of certain Feynman graphs. The use of this theorem is described in connection with the determination of the Λnphi coupling in a unified model of weak and electromagnetic interactions. (author)

  18. Soft Matter Characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Borsali, Redouane

    2008-01-01

    Progress in basic soft matter research is driven largely by the experimental techniques available. Much of the work is concerned with understanding them at the microscopic level, especially at the nanometer length scales that give soft matter studies a wide overlap with nanotechnology. This 2 volume reference work, split into 4 parts, presents detailed discussions of many of the major techniques commonly used as well as some of those in current development for studying and manipulating soft matter. The articles are intended to be accessible to the interdisciplinary audience (at the graduate student level and above) that is or will be engaged in soft matter studies or those in other disciplines who wish to view some of the research methods in this fascinating field. Part 1 contains articles with a largely (but, in most cases, not exclusively) theoretical content and/or that cover material relevant to more than one of the techniques covered in subsequent volumes. It includes an introductory chapter on some of t...

  19. CMS soft QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsova, Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Soft QCD measurements play am important role in fundamental QCD studies as well as in tuning of corresponding Monte Carlo generator models for a good description of experimental data. The presented overview covers CMS studies on Underlying Event activity, transitions between perturbative and non-perturbative QCD regions, inclusive studies of diffractive production and recent measurements of the charged hadron multiplicity in inelastic production.

  20. Soft X-ray Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seely, John

    1999-05-20

    The contents of this report cover the following: (1) design of the soft x-ray telescope; (2) fabrication and characterization of the soft x-ray telescope; and (3) experimental implementation at the OMEGA laser facility.

  1. Chemotherapy for Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Targeted therapy for soft tissue sarcoma Chemotherapy for soft tissue sarcomas Chemotherapy (chemo) is the use of drugs given into ... Depending on the type and stage of sarcoma, chemotherapy may be given as the main treatment or ...

  2. Soft Hair on Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been shown that BMS supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft ($i.e.$ zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This paper gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that com...

  3. Soft skills and dental education

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, M. A. G.; Abu Kasim, N. H.; Naimie, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Soft skills and hard skills are essential in the practice of dentistry. While hard skills deal with technical proficiency, soft skills relate to a personal values and interpersonal skills that determine a person's ability to fit in a particular situation. These skills contribute to the success of organisations that deal face-to-face with clients. Effective soft skills benefit the dental practice. However, the teaching of soft skills remains a challenge to dental schools. This paper discus...

  4. Public Diplomacy and Soft Power

    OpenAIRE

    Nye, Joseph S.

    2008-01-01

    Soft power is the ability to affect others to obtain the outcomes one wants through attraction rather than coercion or payment. A country's soft power rests on its resources of culture, values, and policies. A smart power strategy combines hard and soft power resources. Public diplomacy has a long history as a means of promoting a country's soft power and was essential in winning the cold war. The current struggle against transnational terrorism is a struggle to win hearts and minds, and the ...

  5. Teaching Soft Skills Employers Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Maureen; Kisling, Eric; Hackworth, Robbie G.

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies the soft skills community colleges teach in an office technology course and determines whether the skills taught are congruent with the soft skills employers require in today's entry-level office work. A qualitative content analysis of a community college office technology soft skills course was performed using 23 soft…

  6. Soft, Embodied, Situated & Connected

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomico, Oscar; Wilde, Danielle

    Soft wearables include clothing and textile-based accessories that incorporate smart textiles and soft electronic interfaces to enable responsive and interactive experiences. When designed well, they leverage the cultural, sociological and material qualities of textiles, fashion and dress; diverse...... capabilities and meanings of the body; as well as the qualities and capabilities afforded by smart and programmable elements. Textiles behave in particular ways. They are part of culture. No matter a person’s views on fashion or dress, they will have an intimate relationship with textiles, as they are one of...... notions of situatedness and personal meaning-making to understand and posit values in relation to outcomes. We present three design cases focusing respectively on body, material, and context; and reflect on how the different design approaches might impact use. Finally, we reflect on how embodied and...

  7. Soft-Collinear Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Timothy; Larkoski, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) is a framework for modeling the infrared structure of theories whose long distance behavior is dominated by soft and collinear divergences. This paper demonstrates that SCET can be made compatible with supersymmetry (SUSY). Explicitly, the effective theory for $\\mathcal{N} = 1$ SUSY Yang-Mills is constructed and shown to be consistent. For contrast, arguments are given that chiral SUSY theories with Yukawa couplings, specifically the single flavor Wess-Zumino model, are incompatible with the collinear expansion. SCET is formulated by expanding fields along a light-like direction and then subsequently integrating out degrees-of-freedom that are away from the light-cone. Defining the theory with respect to a specific frame obfuscates Lorentz invariance -- given that SUSY is a space-time symmetry, this presents a possible obstruction. The cleanest language with which to expose the congruence between SUSY and SCET requires exploring two novel formalisms: collinear fermions a...

  8. Facial soft tissue segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Majeed, Tahir

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the face for socio-ecological interaction is the cause for a high demand on any surgical intervention on the facial musculo-skeletal system. Bones and soft-tissues are of major importance for any facial surgical treatment to guarantee an optimal, functional and aesthetical result. For this reason, surgeons want to pre-operatively plan, simulate and predict the outcome of the surgery allowing for shorter operation times and improved quality. Accurate simulation requires exact...

  9. Neonatal soft tissue tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Spicer, R D

    1992-01-01

    Thirty-five different soft tissue tumours occurring in the first month of life are described and classified into five Clinical Groups. A. Excellent prognosis with no treatment or simple surgical excision. B. Good prognosis. Treatment depends upon anatomical site. C. Good prognosis. Treatment usually surgical but chemotherapy may be indicated in certain situations. D. Intermediate prognosis. Treatment as for older child, usually surgery or chemotherapy. E. Poor prognosis. Treatment palliative ...

  10. Myoepithelioma of soft tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Pai Mukhta; Naik Ramadas; Kamath Ramachandra; Magar Dilasma

    2009-01-01

    Myoepitheliomas and mixed tumors involving deep subcutaneous and subfascial soft tissues of limb or limb girdle are rare lesions as against salivary lesions that are well established conditions. Here, we report a 22-year-old female who presented with painful hard swelling in the left gluteal region of 1½ year duration. MRI showed a large ill-defined heterogeneous mass lesion measuring about 7-8 cm. in the left sacral region eroding the left sacroiliac region and left sacroiliac joint. ...

  11. Soft tissue case 61

    OpenAIRE

    Aird, Lisa; Tiwari, Pari; Brown, Carl J.

    2009-01-01

    A 55-year-old man presented to the emergency department with a 12-hour history of severe crampy abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and obstipation. The patient had a complex medical history, including coronary artery disease, lupus, hypothyroidism, epilepsy, pancreatitis and renal calculi. However, the patient had no history of a hernia or abdominal surgery. Physical examination revealed a temperature of 38.5°C and a soft distended abdomen that was diffusely tender without signs of peritonitis....

  12. Soft tissue myoepithelial carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Stojšić Zorica; Brašanac Dimitrije; Bacetić Dragoljub; Janković Radmila; Drndarević Neda

    2006-01-01

    Background. Myoepitheliomas are tumors composed predominantly or exclusively of myoepithelial cells, usually arising in salivary glands. Cutaneous/soft tissue localization is very rare, especially for the malignant myoepitheliomas. Case report. We presented a case of myoepithelial carcinoma involving subcutaneous adipose tissue of the left forearm in a woman aged 62 years. The tumor was composed of epithelioid and hyaline cell types, arranged in diffuse sheets, nests and loose clusters within...

  13. Necrotizing soft tissue infections

    OpenAIRE

    Holtom, P D

    1999-01-01

    Necrotizing soft tissue infections are a group of highly lethal infections that typically occur after trauma or surgery. Many individual infectious entities have been described, but they all have similar pathophysiologies, clinical features, and treatment approaches. The essentials of successful treatment include early diagnosis, aggressive surgical debridement, antibiotics, and supportive intensive treatment unit care. The two commonest pitfalls in management are failure of early diagnosis a...

  14. Soft tissue injections

    OpenAIRE

    Inês, Luís P. B. S.; Silva, José António P. da

    2005-01-01

    Soft tissue rheumatism includes a wide spectrum of common lesions of the tendons, enthesis, tendon sheaths, bursae, ligaments and fasciae as well as nerve compression syndromes. Studies on the pathogenesis of these lesions do not support a major role for inflammation, thus questioning the rationale for glucocorticoid injections. This chapter reviews current indications for local glucocorticoid injections and available evidence on its efficacy, as well as contraindications and potential risks....

  15. On Soft Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Nixon, Mark; Correia, Paulo; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.; Hadid, Abdenour; Tistarelli, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Innovation has formed much of the rich history in biometrics. The field of soft biometrics was originally aimed to augment the recognition process by fusion of metrics that were sufficient to discriminate populations rather than individuals. This was later refined to use measures that could be used to discriminate individuals, especially using descriptions that can be perceived using human vision and in surveillance imagery. A further branch of this new field concerns approaches to estimate s...

  16. Towards Soft Computing Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neruda, Roman; Krušina, Pavel; Petrová, Zuzana

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 5 (2000), s. 859-868. ISSN 1210-0552. [SOFSEM 2000 Workshop on Soft Computing. Milovy, 27.11.2000-28.11.2000] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/00/1489; GA ČR GA201/99/P057 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : hybrid systems * intelligent agents Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  17. Soft interactions in Herwig++

    CERN Document Server

    Bahr, Manuel; Gieseke, Stefan; Seymour, Michael H

    2009-01-01

    We describe the recent developments to extend the multi-parton interaction model of underlying events in Herwig++ into the soft, non-perturbative, regime. This allows the program to describe also minimum bias collisions in which there is no hard interaction, for the first time. It is publicly available from versions 2.3 onwards and describes the Tevatron underlying event and minimum bias data. The extrapolations to the LHC nevertheless suffer considerable ambiguity, as we discuss.

  18. Electrostatics in soft matter

    OpenAIRE

    Messina, Rene

    2008-01-01

    Recent progress in the understanding of the effect of electrostatics in soft matter is presented. A vast amount of materials contains ions ranging from the molecular scale (e.g., electrolyte) to the meso/macroscopic one (e.g., charged colloidal particles or polyelectrolytes). Their (micro)structure and physicochemical properties are especially dictated by the famous and redoubtable long-ranged Coulomb interaction. In particular theoretical and simulational aspects, including the experimental ...

  19. Some Results on Fuzzy Soft Topological Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Cigdem Gunduz (Aras); Sadi Bayramov

    2013-01-01

    We introduce some important properties of fuzzy soft topological spaces. Furthermore, fuzzy soft continuous mapping, fuzzy soft open and fuzzy soft closed mappings, and fuzzy soft homeomorphism for fuzzy soft topological spaces are given and structural characteristics are discussed and studied.

  20. Soft Condensed Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author states in the preface of the book that the aim is '...to give a unified overview of the various aspects of the physics of soft condensed matter'. The book succeeds in fulfilling this aim in many respects. The style is fluent and concise and gives the necessary explanations to make its content understandable to people with some knowledge of the basic principles of physics. The content of the book is complete enough to give a panoramic view of the landscape of soft condensed matter. The first two chapters give, respectively, a short introduction and a presentation of forces, energies and timescales, giving a general overview and pointing out the particular importance of different aspects such as timescales, which are much more important in soft condensed matter than in traditional or 'hard' condensed matter. The next chapter, devoted to phase transition, recalls that the equilibrium between two phases is controlled by free energy considerations. Spinodal decomposition is presented as a counterpart of nucleation and growth. Again, characteristic length scales are considered and applied to a phase separation mixture of polymers in a common solvent. The following three chapters are devoted respectively to specific topics: colloidal dispersion, polymers and gelation. The stability and phase behaviour of colloids are related to the interaction between colloidal particles. Properties of colloidal crystals as well as colloidal dispersion are depicted in terms of stabilization of crystalline colloids. The flow properties of colloidal dispersion are presented in terms of free energy minimization and the structure of the dispersion. After a brief introduction to polymer chemistry and architecture, the coil-globule transition is discussed. Viscoelasticity of polymers is described and discussed by introducing the notion of entanglement. This leads to the introduction of the tube model and the theory of reptation. The sol-gel transition is presented phenomenologically

  1. Wavelets in soft computing

    CERN Document Server

    Thuillard, Marc

    2001-01-01

    This book presents the state of integration of wavelet theory and multiresolution analysis into soft computing. It is the first book on hybrid methods combining wavelet analysis with fuzzy logic, neural networks or genetic algorithms. Much attention is given to new approaches (fuzzy-wavelet) that permit one to develop, using wavelet techniques, linguistically interpretable fuzzy systems from data. The book also introduces the reader to wavelet-based genetic algorithms and multiresolution search. A special place is given to methods that have been implemented in real world applications, particul

  2. Le monde du theatre: monographie relative au montage d'une piece de theatre (The World of Theater: Monograph on Mounting a Theatrical Production).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokor, Pierre

    This monograph (in French) provides Alberta teachers with information relating to teaching about the world of the theater, and discusses the principal elements to be considered in mounting a theatrical production. It is intended for French language dramatic arts teachers (both in immersion courses and French-speaking schools). The monograph's four…

  3. Architecture design for soft errors

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Shubu

    2008-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive description of the architetural techniques to tackle the soft error problem. It covers the new methodologies for quantitative analysis of soft errors as well as novel, cost-effective architectural techniques to mitigate them. To provide readers with a better grasp of the broader problem deffinition and solution space, this book also delves into the physics of soft errors and reviews current circuit and software mitigation techniques.

  4. Data Sources for Trait Databases: Comparing the Phenomic Content of Monographs and Evolutionary Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dececchi, T. Alex; Mabee, Paula M.; Blackburn, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Databases of organismal traits that aggregate information from one or multiple sources can be leveraged for large-scale analyses in biology. Yet the differences among these data streams and how well they capture trait diversity have never been explored. We present the first analysis of the differences between phenotypes captured in free text of descriptive publications (‘monographs’) and those used in phylogenetic analyses (‘matrices’). We focus our analysis on osteological phenotypes of the limbs of four extinct vertebrate taxa critical to our understanding of the fin-to-limb transition. We find that there is low overlap between the anatomical entities used in these two sources of phenotype data, indicating that phenotypes represented in matrices are not simply a subset of those found in monographic descriptions. Perhaps as expected, compared to characters found in matrices, phenotypes in monographs tend to emphasize descriptive and positional morphology, be somewhat more complex, and relate to fewer additional taxa. While based on a small set of focal taxa, these qualitative and quantitative data suggest that either source of phenotypes alone will result in incomplete knowledge of variation for a given taxon. As a broader community develops to use and expand databases characterizing organismal trait diversity, it is important to recognize the limitations of the data sources and develop strategies to more fully characterize variation both within species and across the tree of life. PMID:27191170

  5. Classic articles and workbook: EPRI monographs on simulation of electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This monograph republishes several articles including a seminal one on probabilistic production costing for electric power generation. That article is given in the original French along with a English translation. Another article, written by R. Booth, gives a popular explanation of the theory, and a workbook by B. Manhire is included that carries through a simple example step by step. The classical analysis of non-probabilistic generator dispatch by L.K. Kirchmayer is republished along with an introductory essay by J.P. Stremel that puts in perspective the monograph material. The article in French was written by H. Baleriaux, E. Jamoulle, and Fr. Linard de Guertechin and first published in Brussels in 1967. It derived a method for calculating the expected value of production costs by modifying a load duration curve through the use of probability factors that account for unplanned random generator outages. Although the paper showed how pump storage plants could be included and how linear programming could be applied, the convolution technique used in the probabilistic calculations is the part most widely applied. The tutorial paper by Booth was written in a light style, and its lucidity helped popularize the method. The workbook by Manhire also shows how the calculation can be shortened significantly using cumulants to approximate the load duration curve

  6. Bibliometric analysis of martial arts monographs published in Spain (1906-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Pérez Gutiérrez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the martial arts monographs published in Spain between 1906 and 2006 from a bibliometric point of view. Starting from Pérez and Gutiérrez’s previous bibliography (2008, the total number of published monographs following the criteria of subject, decade and the combination of both was analyzed. The results showed a total of 2.036 books (1.285 original editions with a prevalence of Japanese and Chinese martial arts. A group of eight subjects exceeded a hundred volumes (karate, judo/jujutsu, taijiquan, wu-shu/kung fu, classics, qigong, philosophy, history and education, and aikido, with two patterns of bibliographic evolution appearing. The first, represented by Japanese martial arts considered as a group and martial arts focused on the utilitarian and/or sporting performance aspects (judo/jujutsu, karate and wu-shu/kung fu, developed increasingly until the 80’s when it followed a steady-state and/or drop. The second model, which characterises the Chinese martial arts group and martial arts mainly focused on healthy and/or spiritual aspects of training (taijiquan, qigong, aikido, has increased significantly from the 90’s until the present moment. The interpretation of these patterns and the evolution of the martial arts bibliographic production in Spain highlights some aspects such as the development of the Spanish society and sports practice, bibliographic production, reading habits, or the cultural influences of eastern countries on Spain.

  7. Regulation of medicinal plants for public health--European community monographs on herbal substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöss, Werner; Chinou, Ioanna

    2012-08-01

    The European legislation on medicinal products also addresses the medicinal use of products originating from plants. The objective of the legislation is to ensure the future existence of such products and to consider particular characteristics when assessing quality, efficacy, and safety. Two categories are defined: i) herbal medicinal products can be granted a marketing authorisation; and ii) traditional herbal medicinal products can be granted a registration based on their longstanding use if they are complying with a set of provisions ensuring their safe use. The Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC) was established at the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to provide monographs and list entries on herbal substances and preparations thereof. Meanwhile, approx. 100 monographs have been published, which define a current scientific and regulatory standard for efficacy and safety of herbal substances and herbal preparations used in medicinal products. This harmonised European standard will facilitate the availability and adequate use of traditional herbal medicinal products and herbal medicinal products within the European Union. Consequent labelling shall also enable patients and health care professionals to differentiate medicinal products from other product categories like cosmetics, food supplements, and medical devices. PMID:22618374

  8. Deployable Soft Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Rodrigue, Hugo; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and simple to actuate. This basic actuator can then be used to form modules capable of different types of deformations, which can then be assembled into deployable structures. The design of deployable structures is based on three principles: design of basic hinge actuators, assembly of modules and assembly of modules into large-scale deployable structures. Various deployable structures such as a segmented triangular mast, a planar structure comprised of single-loop hexagonal modules and a ring structure comprised of single-loop quadrilateral modules were designed and fabricated to verify this approach. Finally, a prototype for a deployable mirror was developed by attaching a foldable reflective membrane to the designed ring structure and its functionality was tested by using it to reflect sunlight onto to a small-scale solar panel.

  9. Deployable Soft Composite Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Rodrigue, Hugo; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and simple to actuate. This basic actuator can then be used to form modules capable of different types of deformations, which can then be assembled into deployable structures. The design of deployable structures is based on three principles: design of basic hinge actuators, assembly of modules and assembly of modules into large-scale deployable structures. Various deployable structures such as a segmented triangular mast, a planar structure comprised of single-loop hexagonal modules and a ring structure comprised of single-loop quadrilateral modules were designed and fabricated to verify this approach. Finally, a prototype for a deployable mirror was developed by attaching a foldable reflective membrane to the designed ring structure and its functionality was tested by using it to reflect sunlight onto to a small-scale solar panel. PMID:26892762

  10. Modeling Soft Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Kurt

    Soft matter science or soft materials science is a relatively new term for the science of a huge class of rather different materials such as colloids, polymers (of synthetic or biological origin), membranes, complex molecular assemblies, complex fluids, etc. and combinations thereof. While many of these systems are contained in or are even the essential part of everyday products ("simple" plastics such as yoghurt cups, plastic bags, CDs, many car parts; gels and networks such as rubber, many low fat foods, "gummi" bears; colloidal systems such as milk, mayonnaise, paints, almost all cosmetics or body care products, the border lines between the different applications and systems are of course not sharp) or as biological molecules or assemblies (DNA, proteins, membranes and cytoskeleton, etc.) are central to our existence, others are basic ingredients of current and future high tech products (polymers with specific optical or electronic properties, conducting macromolecules, functional materials). Though the motivation is different in life science rather than in materials science biomolecular simulations, the basic structure of the problems faced in the two fields is very similar.

  11. IARC Monographs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearce, Neil E; Blair, Aaron; Vineis, Paolo;

    2015-01-01

    ' failures to recognize study weaknesses and biases of Working Group members have led to inappropriate classification of a number of agents as carcinogenic to humans. OBJECTIVES: The authors of this paper are scientists from various disciplines relevant to the identification and hazard evaluation of human......BACKGROUND: Recently the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Programme for the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans has been criticized for several of its evaluations, and also the approach used to perform these evaluations. Some critics have claimed that IARC Working Groups...... employed by IARC to assemble Working Groups of scientists from the various discipline and the techniques followed to review the literature and perform hazard assessment of various agents provide a balanced evaluation and an appropriate indication of the weight of the evidence. Some disagreement by...

  12. Some Results on Soft Multi Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Tokat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, at first we recall the concept of soft multiset. Then some results which we obtained on soft multisets were given. Moreover, in this paper, the notion of soft multi topology was introduced and some results on soft multi topology and the concept of the soft multi base were presented.

  13. Some Results on Soft Multi Topology

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz Tokat

    2013-01-01

    In this article, at first we recall the concept of soft multiset. Then some results which we obtained on soft multisets were given. Moreover, in this paper, the notion of soft multi topology was introduced and some results on soft multi topology and the concept of the soft multi base were presented.

  14. Topological Properties of Rough Soft Formal Context

    OpenAIRE

    Li Fu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the topological structure is discussed in the rough soft formal context. The rough soft formal context is defined on the rough formal context with some soft operators, the topology and the topological space are given in the rough soft formal context. And some topological properties are discussed over the rough soft formal context.

  15. Some Results on Soft Multi Topology

    OpenAIRE

    Tokat, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    In this article, at first we recall the concept of soft multiset. Then some results which we obtained on soft multisets were given. Moreover, in this paper, the notion of soft multi topology was introduced and some results on soft multi topology and the concept of the soft multi base were presented*

  16. Not-so-Soft Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Much recent discussion about the skills needed to secure Britain's economic recovery has focused on skills for employability. However, too often, these fundamental skills are understood in narrow functional or vocational terms. So-called "soft skills", what Penelope Tobin, in her 2008 paper "Soft Skills: the hard facts", terms "traits and…

  17. Soft isostasy in geomorphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Pourkhosravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Earth subsidence has been one of the important issues jeopardizing environment and there are many studies, which blame shortage of underground water resources for having uplift and subsidence. However, many argue such conclusion and believe that earth subsidence has been studied in the past without considering the changes in the hill over a long period. In this study, we use SAR interferometry study to investigate earth subsidence in dessert areas of Esfahan, Yazd and Ardakan, located in central part of Iran. The results indicate that there are more important issues affecting subsidence such as the uplift in the hills located the desert area. The results of the survey based on SAR interferometry reveals that subsidence occurs with the uplift in the adjacent hills, simultaneously. In other words, tectonic movements and soft isostasy play important role on earth subsidence.

  18. Soft matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Claudine

    1999-01-01

    What do colloids, fractals, liquid crystals, and polymers have in common? Nothing at first sight. Yet the distance scales, the energy transfers, the way these objects react to an external field are very similar. For the first time, this book offers an introduction to the physics of these soft materials in one single volume. A variety of experiments and concepts are presented, including the phenomena of capillarity and wetting, fractals, small volumes and large surfaces, colloids, surfactants, giant micelles and fluid membranes, polymers, and liquid crystals. Each chapter is written by experts in the field with the aim of making the book accessible to the widest possible scientific audience: graduate students, lecturers, and research scientists in physics, chemistry, and other disciplines. Nobel Prize winner Pierre-Gilles de Gennes inspired this book and has written a foreword.

  19. Soft Costs Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-05-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the systems integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. Soft costs can vary significantly as a result of a fragmented energy marketplace. In the U.S., there are 18,000 jurisdictions and 3,000 utilities with different rules and regulations for how to go solar. The same solar equipment may vary widely in its final installation price due to process and market variations across jurisdictions, creating barriers to rapid industry growth. SunShot supports the development of innovative solutions that enable communities to build their local economies and establish clean energy initiatives that meet their needs, while at the same time creating sustainable solar market conditions.

  20. Soft Systems Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkland, Peter; Poulter, John

    Soft systems methodology (SSM) is an approach for tackling problematical, messy situations of all kinds. It is an action-oriented process of inquiry into problematic situations in which users learn their way from finding out about the situation, to taking action to improve it. The learning emerges via an organised process in which the situation is explored using a set of models of purposeful action (each built to encapsulate a single worldview) as intellectual devices, or tools, to inform and structure discussion about a situation and how it might be improved. This paper, written by the original developer Peter Checkland and practitioner John Poulter, gives a clear and concise account of the approach that covers SSM's specific techniques, the learning cycle process of the methodology and the craft skills which practitioners develop. This concise but theoretically robust account nevertheless includes the fundamental concepts, techniques, core tenets described through a wide range of settings.

  1. Soft rocks in Argentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giambastiani; Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Soft rocks are a still fairly unexplored chapter in rock mechanics. Within this category are the clastic sedimentary rocks and pyroclastic volcanic rocks, of low to moderate lithification (consolidation, cemen-tation, new formed minerals), chemical sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks formed by minerals with Mohs hardness less than 3.5, such as limestone, gypsum, halite, sylvite, between the first and phyllites, graphitic schist, chloritic shale, talc, etc., among the latter. They also include any type of rock that suffered alteration processes (hydrothermal or weathering). In Argentina the study of low-strength rocks has not received much attention despite having extensive outcrops in the Andes and great impact in the design criteria. Correlation between geomechanical properties (UCS, deformability) to physical index (porosity, density, etc.) has shown promising results to be better studied. There are many studies and engineering projects in Argentina in soft rock geological environments, some cited in the text (Chihuído dam, N. Kirchner dam, J. Cepernic Dam, etc.) and others such as International Tunnel in the Province of Mendoza (Corredor Bioceánico), which will require the valuable contribution from rock mechanics. The lack of consistency between some of the physical and mechanical parameters explored from studies in the country may be due to an insufficient amount of information and/or non-standardization of criteria for testing materials. It is understood that more and better academic and professional efforts in improv-ing techniques will result in benefits to the better understanding of the geomechanics of weak rocks.

  2. Soft tissue sparganosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparganosis is a rare tissue-parasitic infestation caused by a plerocercoid tapeworm larva(sparganum), genus Spirometra. The most common clinical presentation of sparganosis is a palpable subcutaneous mass or masses. Fifteen simple radiographs and 10 ultrasosnograms of 17 patients with operatively verified subcutaneous sparganosis were retrospectively analyzed to find its radiologic characteristics for preoperative diagnosis of sparganosis. The location of the subcutaneous sparganosis were lower extremity, abdominal wall, breast, inguinal region and scrotum in order of frequency. The simple radiographs showed linear or elongated calcification with or without nodular elongated shaped soft tissue mass shadows in 8 patients, soft tissue mass shadow only in 2 patients and lateral abdominal wall thickening in 1 patient. But no specific findings was noted in 4 patients with small abdominal and inguinal masses. We could classify the subcutaneous sparganosis by ultrasound into 2 types: one is long band-like hypoechoic structures, corresponding to the subcutaneous tunnel-like tracks formed by migration of sparganum larva and the order is elongated or ovoid hyperechoic nodules, representing granulomas. Long band-like hypoechoic structures within or associated with mixed echoic granulomatous masses were noted in 6 patients and elongated or ovoid hypoechoic mass or masses were noted in 4 patients. In conclusion, sparganosis should be considered when these radiologic findings-irregular linear calcifications on simple radiograph and long band-like hypoechoic structures on ultrasonography, corresponding to the subcutaneous tunnel-like tracks formed by migration of sparganum larva are noted in the patients who have subcutaneous palpable mass or masses. And radiologic examination especially ultrasonography is very helpful to diagnose sparganosis

  3. Covering the '76 Elections: A Dialogue between Journalists and Social Scientists. Columbia Journalism Monograph No. 2, 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Mark R., Ed.

    The purpose of the conference of journalists and social scientists "Covering the '76 Elections: A Dialogue..." was to provide an opportunity to discuss academic research on elections and to expose the social science community to the thinking and concerns of journalists. This monograph contains the conference keynote address by Henry F. Graff; five…

  4. Community Collaboration for Improving Career Guidance Programs: Preliminary Findings Suggest It Can Work. A Monograph and an Evaluation Auditor's Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. Brian; And Others

    Community collaboration for improving career guidance is an attempt to obtain cooperation from local agencies, organizations, and volunteering individuals to provide assistance to citizens whose career needs are not being addressed. This monograph is designed to motivate and provide initial orientation for community leaders who want to develop…

  5. Youth with Disabilities in the Corrections System: Prevalence Rates and Identification Issues. Monograph Series on Education, Disability and Juvenile Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Robert B., Jr.; Bullis, Michael; Anderson, Cindy Wheeler; Griller-Clark, Heather M.

    This monograph, one of a series on youth with disabilities and the juvenile justice system, reviews current data on disabilities requiring special education and related supports. Statistics on the prevalence of juvenile crime are followed by statistics on the prevalence of special education disabilities in the system, specifically specific…

  6. First-Year Academic Advising: Patterns in the Present, Pathways to the Future. Monograph Series Number 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upcraft, M. Lee, Ed.; Kramer, Gary L., Ed.

    This monograph is designed to provide a blueprint to educators on how to improve academic advising for first-year college students. Seventeen chapters are: (1) "First-Year Students: The Year 2000" (Wesley Habley); (2) "Insights from Theory: Understanding First-Year Student Development" (M. Lee Upcraft); (3) "Creating Successful Transitions Through…

  7. The Origins of Local News in the U. S. Country Press, 1840s-1970s. Journalism Monographs Number 65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, David J.

    The origins of local news in the United States country press between the 1840s and 1870s are discussed and traced in this monograph. Specifically, it deals with why local news reporting in standardized form began when it did, who provided the news, and what the news items revealed about the patterns of life in rural areas and towns in the United…

  8. Why Is My Child Hurting? Positive Approaches to Dealing with Difficult Behaviors. A Monograph for Parents of Children with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Susan; Lehr, Robert

    This monograph aims to assist parents in dealing with behavior problems of children with disabilities. It begins with a case history of an 8-year-old girl with learning disabilities, emotional problems, and behavior problems and her parents' advocacy efforts to obtain an appropriate educational environment for her. Aversive interventions are…

  9. Fundamentos Basicos de Career Education. Monografia en Career Education. [Basic Fundamentals of Career Education. Monograph in Career Education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This document is the Spanish translation of ED 145 222, A Primer for Career Education. In this monograph, a view of the basic nature of the career education effort is discussed under the following topics: the basis of need for career education; the meaning and goals of career education; the difference between career education and vocational…

  10. Youth in Turmoil. America's Changing Youth Cultures and Student Protest Movements. Crime and Delinquency Issues: A Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Jack D.

    In this monograph, student protests and disturbances are viewed within a broad and well-informed framework, which includes: (1) the growing importance of youth and college students in American society; (2) the changing social position of youth and the rise of a generalized youth subculture; and (3) perspectives on cooperative subcultures, deviant…

  11. Solar thermal power technologies. Monograph in the framework of the VLEEM Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    : technology and socio-economic development and one horizontal field of research, i.e. modelling. The technology development research programme has focussed on a selected number of new and innovative energy supply and demand technologies for which monographs have been compiled first. This report discusses the status of different Solar Thermal Power technologies (STP). The report serves as monograph document for very long modelling exercise in the VLEEM project and focuses on global energy supply and demand until 2100. It is difficult to make predictions about the development of these technologies for such a timeframe. Because the VLEEM project focuses on technical options, this monograph pays attention to the expected breakthrough year of 'new' power production facilities, geographical spread, energy payback ratios and land, water and material needs

  12. Connectedness on Soft Multi Topological Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Tokat, Deniz; Osmanoglu, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    In this work, first we recall the concepts ofsoft multiset and soft multi topology. Then we will introduce soft multi connectedness on soft multi topologicalspace and give basic definitions and theorems about it

  13. Soft Tissue Sarcomas and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ZIP code here Soft Tissue Sarcomas and Agent Orange VA presumes some soft tissue sarcomas in Veterans are related to their exposure to Agent Orange or other herbicides during military service. The soft ...

  14. Ayağın sesamoid ve aksesuar kemikleri

    OpenAIRE

    Esenkaya, Irfan; Nalbantoglu, Ufuk; Gorgec, Mucahit; Gurkaynak, Gokhan

    2004-01-01

    ln a normaI foot, there are two types of bones that remain unattached to the main body of any bone. These are the sesamoid and accessory bones. The female patient aged 54 years consulted at the Haydarpaşa Numune State Hospital, Orthopaedics and Traumatology outpatient department, in İstanbul. She complained of abducting the forefoot with weight bearing in the year of 1992. In the orthopaedic and radiologic examination of the case, besides flattening of the medial curve, in addition to the nor...

  15. Some Results Related to Soft Topological Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Peyghan, E.; Samadi, B.; Tayebi, A.

    2014-01-01

    The notion of soft sets is introduced as a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper, we consider the concepts of soft compactness, countably soft compactness and obtain some results. We study some soft separation axioms that have been studied by Min and Shabir-Naz. By constructing a special soft topological space, show that some classical results in general topology are not true about soft topological spaces, for instance every compact Housdorff spaces need not be...

  16. Day residue and screen memory in Freud's dream of the botanical monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palombo, S R

    1988-01-01

    Freud's theory of dream construction allowed the censorship to intervene only when a repressed infantile wish emerged from the unconscious. In his (1899) paper on screen memories, however, he proposed a mechanism for the defensive displacement of current events as they are sorted for introduction into permanent memory. I suggest that Freud was actually describing the conflictual process through which the day residue of the dream is formed. Day residue and screen memory are closely related as elements of the dreamer's present and past experience displaced from his more central instinctual concerns. Freud's dream of the botanical monograph clearly illustrates this relation. Substituted day residues were matched in the dream with relatively innocuous memories of past events of similar cognitive and affective significance. By retracing the substitutions, one can see how a current conflict over Fliess's role in the writing of the dream book recapitulated a series of Freud's earlier conflicts concerning his father and the power of books. PMID:3235760

  17. Soft Hair on Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Stephen W; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been shown that BMS supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft ($i.e.$ zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This paper gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the ho...

  18. Soft Hair on Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  19. Soft Hair on Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W; Perry, Malcolm J; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-10

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units. PMID:27341223

  20. Growing and evolving soft robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieffel, John; Knox, Davis; Smith, Schuyler; Trimmer, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Completely soft and flexible robots offer to revolutionize fields ranging from search and rescue to endoscopic surgery. One of the outstanding challenges in this burgeoning field is the chicken-and-egg problem of body-brain design: Development of locomotion requires the preexistence of a locomotion-capable body, and development of a location-capable body requires the preexistence of a locomotive gait. This problem is compounded by the high degree of coupling between the material properties of a soft body (such as stiffness or damping coefficients) and the effectiveness of a gait. This article synthesizes four years of research into soft robotics, in particular describing three approaches to the co-discovery of soft robot morphology and control. In the first, muscle placement and firing patterns are coevolved for a fixed body shape with fixed material properties. In the second, the material properties of a simulated soft body coevolve alongside locomotive gaits, with body shape and muscle placement fixed. In the third, a developmental encoding is used to scalably grow elaborate soft body shapes from a small seed structure. Considerations of the simulation time and the challenges of physically implementing soft robots in the real world are discussed. PMID:23373976

  1. Soft Decision Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Glen; Lansdowne, Chatwin; Zucha, Joan; Schlensinger, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) is an instrument that combines hardware, firmware, and software to perform realtime closed-loop end-to-end statistical analysis of single- or dual- channel serial digital RF communications systems operating in very low signal-to-noise conditions. As an innovation, the unique SDA capabilities allow it to perform analysis of situations where the receiving communication system slips bits due to low signal-to-noise conditions or experiences constellation rotations resulting in channel polarity in versions or channel assignment swaps. SDA s closed-loop detection allows it to instrument a live system and correlate observations with frame, codeword, and packet losses, as well as Quality of Service (QoS) and Quality of Experience (QoE) events. The SDA s abilities are not confined to performing analysis in low signal-to-noise conditions. Its analysis provides in-depth insight of a communication system s receiver performance in a variety of operating conditions. The SDA incorporates two techniques for identifying slips. The first is an examination of content of the received data stream s relation to the transmitted data content and the second is a direct examination of the receiver s recovered clock signals relative to a reference. Both techniques provide benefits in different ways and allow the communication engineer evaluating test results increased confidence and understanding of receiver performance. Direct examination of data contents is performed by two different data techniques, power correlation or a modified Massey correlation, and can be applied to soft decision data widths 1 to 12 bits wide over a correlation depth ranging from 16 to 512 samples. The SDA detects receiver bit slips within a 4 bits window and can handle systems with up to four quadrants (QPSK, SQPSK, and BPSK systems). The SDA continuously monitors correlation results to characterize slips and quadrant change and is capable of performing analysis even when the

  2. Soft tissue tumors - imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soft Tissue Tumors - Imaging Methods: Imaging methods play an important diagnostic role in soft tissue tumors concerning a preoperative evaluation of localization, size, topographic relationship, dignity, and metastatic disease. The present paper gives an overview about diagnostic methods available today such as ultrasound, thermography, roentgenographic plain films and xeroradiography, radionuclide methods, computed tomography, lymphography, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Besides sonography particularly computed tomography has the most important diagnostic value in soft tissue tumors. The application of a recently developed method, the magnetic resonance imaging, cannot yet be assessed in its significance. (orig.)

  3. Soft Matter under Exogenic Impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Rzoska, Sylwester J

    2007-01-01

    Soft Matter Under Exogenic Impacts’ is fairly unique in supplying a comprehensive presentation of high pressures, negative pressures, random constraints and strong electric field exogenic (external) impacts on various soft matter systems. These are: (i) critical liquids, (ii) glass formers, such as supercooled liquids including water, polymers and resins, (iii) liquid crystals and (iv) bio-liquids. It is, because of this, an excellent guide in this novel and still puzzling research area. Besides new results, the identification of new types of physical behavior, new technological materials, ultimate verification of condensed and soft matter physics models, new applications in geophysics, biophysics, biotechnology, are all discussed in this book.

  4. Soft terms from strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the structure of the soft SUSY-breaking terms obtained from 4-D Strings under the assumption of dilaton/moduli dominance in the process of SUSY-breaking. We first analyze in detail the dilaton-dominated limit because of its finiteness properties and phenomenological predictivity, and second, we consider the new features appearing when several moduli fields contribute to SUSY breaking. In particular, we discuss in detail the case of symmetric Abelian orbifolds. Although some qualitative features indeed change in the multimoduli case with respect to the dilaton dominance one, the most natural mass relations at low-energy, mlq≅Mg, are still similar. Only in some very specific limits these relations might be reversed. We also study the presence of tachyons pointing out that their possible existence may be, in some cases, an interesting advantage in order to break extra gauge symmetries. Finally, we compute explicitly the μ and B parameters in the context of the mechanism for generating a μ-term by the Kaehler potential, as naturally implemented in orbifolds. It leads to the prediction vertical stroke tgβ vertical stroke =1 at the String scale, independently of the Goldstino direction. It is worth noticing that, in this squeme, the dilaton-dominated case, where there is no free parameters, is excluded since it is not consistent with the measured value of the top-quark mass. In this connection, low-energy charge and color breaking minima are also discussed. (orig.)

  5. MICROBIAL DIVERSITY IN SOFT DRINKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shiva Shanker

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 4 carbonated soft drink (CSD samples, from various locations in nine places of India were examined to determine their biological quality. Most samples were not in compliance with microbiological standards set by organizations like the World Health Organization (WHO. The prevailing bacterial isolates were Gluconobacter sp., Lactobacillus sp., and Leuconostoc sp. The prevailing fungal isolates were Penicillium expansum and the next isolate was Penicillium roqueforti. Many microorganisms are found in soft drinks as environmental or raw materials contaminants, but relatively can grow within the acidic and low oxygen environment. It is crucial for soft drink manufacturers to inspect raw materials before they are mixed with other ingredients. Concern with consumer health, safety and the environment will continue to have a positive impact on trend in the soft drink industry.

  6. Cytodiagnosis of soft tissue tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oland, J; Rosen, A; Reif, R; Sayfan, J; Orda, R

    1988-03-01

    The only acceptable definitive diagnosis of a soft tissue mass is histologic or cytologic examination. In recent years, fine-needle aspiration cytology is used in more and more centers for diagnosis of soft tissue masses. We studied 196 aspiration cytologies performed on soft tissue lesions. Out of these, in 48 cases a definitive surgical procedure or open biopsy for histology and further evaluation were performed. There were 25 sarcomas and 23 benign tumors. There was one false negative cytologic result in this group; no false positive cytologies were detected. It seems that cytodiagnosis of soft tissue masses performed by an experienced pathologist is the method of choice, permitting a good diagnostic evaluation, with almost none of the traumatic and oncologic disadvantages of the other methods of biopsy. PMID:3352270

  7. Bone and Soft Tissue Ablation

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Ryan C.B.; Joseph M Stavas

    2014-01-01

    Bone and soft tissue tumor ablation has reached widespread acceptance in the locoregional treatment of various benign and malignant musculoskeletal (MSK) lesions. Many principles of ablation learned elsewhere in the body are easily adapted to the MSK system, particularly the various technical aspects of probe/antenna design, tumoricidal effects, selection of image guidance, and methods to reduce complications. Despite the common use of thermal and chemical ablation procedures in bone and soft...

  8. Imaging of soft tissue tumors.

    OpenAIRE

    Einarsdóttir, Hildur

    2003-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this project on soft tissue tumors, was to evaluate existing imaging methods and test new Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) sequences for diagnosis and assessment of cytotoxic therapy and to relate the imaging studies to cytology to explore the limitations of each procedure. Patients and method The studies were based on patients with a soft tissue lesion diagnosed and treated at the Orthopedic Tumor Service at the Karolinska Hospital 1990-2003. In 17...

  9. Challenges in Soft Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Yuksel, Eser; Choo, Joshua; Wettergreen, Matthew; Liebschner, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Soft tissue engineering strategies targeting restoration of volume loss have inherent critical challenges as they relate to the problem of restoration of defects with a high volume to surface ratio. We outline the problems associated with the limitations of translational applications regarding soft tissue engineering strategies as follows: cell survival, mechanical challenges: macroenvironment (scaffold collapse and on-the-shelf availability), compositional considerations: microenvironment, i...

  10. Trabectedin in Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    OpenAIRE

    Petek, Bradley J.; Loggers, Elizabeth T.; Pollack, Seth M.; Jones, Robin L.

    2015-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are a group of rare tumors derived from mesenchymal tissue, accounting for about 1% of adult cancers. There are over 60 different histological subtypes, each with their own unique biological behavior and response to systemic therapy. The outcome for patients with metastatic soft tissue sarcoma is poor with few available systemic treatment options. For decades, the mainstay of management has consisted of doxorubicin with or without ifosfamide. Trabectedin is a synthetic ag...

  11. Soft Skills im bibliothekarischen Berufsalltag

    OpenAIRE

    Brücken, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    Soft Skills, zu deutsch "weiche Fähigkeiten", sind die Kompetenzen, die über fachliche Qualifikationen hinausgehen, wie beispielsweise Teamfähigkeit, Kommunikationstalent und Durchsetzungsvermögen. In dieser Arbeit wird der Frage nachgegangen, inwieweit Soft Skills in der Praxis bibliothekarischer Arbeit Beachtung finden. Über welche Persönlichkeitsmerkmale sollten Bibliothekare verfügen? Wie sieht der Berufsalltag in Bibliotheken heute aus? Welche Tätigkeiten werden vorwiegend ausgeübt? Wie ...

  12. Soft systems, hard lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, B

    2000-12-01

    This paper is concerned with practical experiences of achieving human factors and safety interventions in the nuclear power and process control industries. It rests upon the premise that, although human factors (HF) and safety may be technological in approach, they nevertheless must operate in a socio-technical environment, within companies with corporate structures and cultures, interacting with regulatory authorities. A crucial ingredient to the successful implementation and integration of human factors into company practices and procedures is therefore the nature of the inter-relationships between human factors personnel and those who control the existing procedures determining all aspects of the design and operational processes. Such inter-relationships can largely determine whether HF is implemented or not. These human-human interactions and interfaces in a socio-technical system may be referred to as soft systems. When training in human factors, much of the training is concerned with technical aspects of the discipline. However, when entering industry or consultancy, one quickly discovers that technical aspects are usually the least of one's problems. This paper is concerned with experiences and guidance to better help the human factors professional starting out in industry. There is little scientific method in the paper. It is, instead, a distillation of this author's and others' experiences in acting either as a practitioner or consultant, or as leader of a human factors unit in industries that have at times been reluctant or even hostile about the perceived 'invasion' of human factors. However, to avoid being purely anecdotal, the experiences are placed in a framework concerned with the life cycle of integrating human factors into an industry, from being the first HF person in a company, to the development of a successful unit, or the absorption of a successful unit into other departments. Within this framework a range of strategic aspects are dealt with

  13. Dissecting soft radiation with factorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An essential part of high-energy hadronic collisions is the soft hadronic activity that underlies the primary hard interaction. It can receive contributions from soft radiation from the primary hard partons, secondary multiple parton interactions (MPI), and factorization violating effects. The invariant mass spectrum of the leading jet in Z+jet and H+jet events is directly sensitive to these effects. We use a QCD factorization theorem to predict the dependence on the jet radius R, jet pT, jet rapidity, and partonic process for both the perturbative and nonperturbative components of primary soft radiation. The nonperturbative contributions involve only odd powers of R, and the linear R term is universal for quark and gluon jets. The hadronization model in PYTHIA8 agrees well with these properties. The perturbative soft initial state radiation (ISR) has a contribution that depends on the jet area in the same way as the underlying event. This degeneracy is broken by the jet pT dependence. The size of this soft ISR contribution is proportional to the color state of the initial partons, yielding the same positive contribution for gg→Hg and gq→Zq, but a negative interference contribution for q anti q→Zg. Hence, measuring these dependencies allows one to separate hadronization, soft ISR, and MPI contributions in the data.

  14. An Approach to the Concept of Soft Fuzzy Proximity

    OpenAIRE

    Vildan Çetkin; Alexander P. Šostak; Halis Aygün

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of soft fuzzy proximity. Firstly, we give the definitions of soft fuzzy proximity and Katsaras soft fuzzy proximity, and also we investigate the relations between the soft fuzzy proximity and slightly modified version of Katsaras soft fuzzy proximity. Secondly, we induce a soft fuzzy topology from a given soft fuzzy proximity by using soft fuzzy closure operator. Then, we obtain the initial soft fuzzy proximity from a given family of soft ...

  15. Strategies and performances of Soft Input Decryption

    OpenAIRE

    Zivic, Natasa

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes performance aspects of Soft Input Decryption and L values. Soft Input Decryption is a novel method which uses L values (soft output) of a SISO channel decoder for the correction of input of Soft Input Decryption (SID blocks) which have been modified during the transmission over a noisy channel. The method is based on the combination of cryptography and channel coding improving characteristics of both of them. The algorithm, strategies and scenarios of Soft Input Decryption...

  16. Interval Valued Neutrosophic Soft Topological Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Mukherjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the concept of interval valued neutrosophic soft topological space together with interval valued neutrosophic soft finer and interval valued neutrosophic soft coarser topology. We also define interval valued neutrosophic interior and closer of an interval valued neutrosophic soft set. Some theorems and examples are cites. Interval valued neutrosophic soft subspace topology are studied. Some examples and theorems regarding this concept are presented.

  17. Interval Valued Neutrosophic Soft Topological Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Anjan Mukherjee; Mithun Datta; Florentin Smarandache

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of interval valued neutrosophic soft topological space together with interval valued neutrosophic soft finer and interval valued neutrosophic soft coarser topology. We also define interval valued neutrosophic interior and closer of an interval valued neutrosophic soft set. Some theorems and examples are cites. Interval valued neutrosophic soft subspace topology are studied. Some examples and theorems regarding this concept are presented.

  18. How researches are done in the law field? : reflections from the study of monographs of law courses in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca Dias, Maria Tereza

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the impact of new technologies on the law through the science of law, it is essential to observe how Law researches are done. This paper pursues the following models of legal science: analytical (theory of formal rule); hermeneutics (interpretation theory) and empirical (decision theory) to appraise methodological procedures used in monograph researches in some Brazilian Law courses. This study was to detect which model of law science was used in the development of Law ...

  19. Radiosensitivity of soft tissue sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, Toru; Iwasaki, Katsuro; Suzuki, Ryohei; Monzen, Yoshio; Hombo, Zenichiro

    1989-05-01

    The correlation between the effectiveness of radiation therapy and the histology of soft tissue sarcomas was investigated. Of 31 cases with a soft tissue sarcoma of an extremity treated by conservative surgery and postoperative radiation of 3,000-6,000 cGy, local recurrence occurred in 12; 5 out of 7 synovial sarcomas, 4 of 9 MFH, one of 8 liposarcomas, none of 4 rhabdomyosarcomas and 2 of 3 others. As for the histological subtyping, the 31 soft tissue sarcomas were divided into spindle cell, pleomorphic cell, myxoid and round cell type, and recurrence rates were 75%, 33.3%, 16.7% and 0%, respectively. From the remarkable difference in recurrent rate, it was suggested that round cell and myxoid type of soft tissue sarcomas showed a high radiosensitivity compared to the spindle cell type with low sensitivity. Clarifying the degree of radiosensitivity is helpful in deciding on the management of limb salvage in soft tissue sarcomas of an extremity. (author).

  20. Towards iconic language for patient records, drug monographs, guidelines and medical search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Duclos, Catherine; Hamek, Saliha; Beuscart-Zéphir, Marie-Catherine; Kerdelhué, Gaetan; Darmoni, Stefan; Favre, Madeleine; Falcoff, Hector; Simon, Christian; Pereira, Suzanne; Serrot, Elisabeth; Mitouard, Thierry; Hardouin, Etienne; Kergosien, Yannick; Venot, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Practicing physicians have limited time for consulting medical knowledge and records. We have previously shown that using icons instead of text to present drug monographs may allow contraindications and adverse effects to be identified more rapidly and more accurately. These findings were based on the use of an iconic language designed for drug knowledge, providing icons for many medical concepts, including diseases, antecedents, drug classes and tests. In this paper, we describe a new project aimed at extending this iconic language, and exploring the possible applications of these icons in medicine. Based on evaluators' comments, focus groups of physicians and opinions of academic, industrial and associative partners, we propose iconic applications related to patient records, for example summarizing patient conditions, searching for specific clinical documents and helping to code structured data. Other applications involve the presentation of clinical practice guidelines and improving the interface of medical search engines. These new applications could use the same iconic language that was designed for drug knowledge, with a few additional items that respect the logic of the language. PMID:20841669

  1. Tools to Ensure Safe Medicines: New Monograph Tests in USP-NF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Sheehan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes USP-NF compendial updates to six ‘high-priority” excipient monographs: Glycerin, Propylene Glycol, Sorbitol Solution, Sorbitol Sorbitan Solution, Noncrystallizing Sorbitol Solution and Maltitol Solution. The USP-NF revisions arose from the Food and DrugAdministration’s (FDA’s requests to include, as part of each monograph’s Identification test, a limit test to detect the presence of Diethylene Glycol (DEG, a toxic adulterant. These revisions alignwith the 2007 FDA Guidance for Industry: Testing of Glycerin for Diethylene Glycol (1, that drug product manufacturers perform a specific identity test for DEG on all containers of all lots ofglycerin before glycerin is used in the manufacture and preparation of drug products. This paper describes several risk factors due to a complex global excipient supply chain, nonspecific specifications, inadequate supply chain qualification, and poor understanding of regulations. Strengthening and conformance to compendial specifications is one of the tools necessary to mitigate risk and help prevent the next DEG adulteration that is part of USP’s efforts to ensure safe medicines.

  2. Biowaiver monographs for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms: codeine phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Arik; Wolk, Omri; Zur, Moran; Amidon, Gordon L; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Groot, D W; Kopp, Sabine; Langguth, Peter; Polli, James E; Shah, Vinod P; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2014-06-01

    The present monograph reviews data relevant to applying the biowaiver procedure for the approval of immediate-release multisource solid dosage forms containing codeine phosphate. Both biopharmaceutical and clinical data of codeine were assessed. Solubility studies revealed that codeine meets the "highly soluble" criteria according to World Health Organization (WHO), the European Medicines Agency (EMA), and the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA). Codeine's fraction of dose absorbed in humans was reported to be high (>90%) based on cumulative urinary excretion of drug and drug-related material following oral administration. The permeability of codeine was also assessed to be high in both Caco-2 monolayers and rat intestinal perfusion studies. The main risks associated with codeine, that is, toxicity (attributed to CYP2D6 polymorphism) and its abuse potential, are present irrespective of the dosage form, and do not need to be taken into account for bioequivalence (BE) considerations. Taken together, codeine is a class 1 drug with manageable risk and is a good candidate for waiver of in vivo BE studies. PMID:24788239

  3. [Project of the historical monograph on the "Origins of Occupational Medicine Associations in the world"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco, A; Porro, A; Berti, Giuseppina Bock; Marri, G

    2003-01-01

    The present contribution regards the project of the historical monograph on the Origins of OH associations in 23 countries, and in particular the chapter on the Origins of the Italian Society of Occupational Health. The Italian chapter is aimed at studying the foundation of the Italian Society of Occupational Health (Naples, October 12, 1929, within the 8th National Congress of Occupational Health) and the first decades of its activity. On account of the complexity and variety of the scientific and social context as well as the particular political period considered, the contribution is divided into 4 different parts. The first deals with the foundation of the Italian Society of Occupational Health and its statutory organization. The second part treats the role and presence of the discipline in the university world as well as the relationships with other cultural institutions such as academies. The third part concerns the law frame (specially as to accidents and work-related diseases) within which the activity of the Italian Society of Occupational Health has started and developed. The fourth part analyses the fascist corporative system and the role played by the trade unions in promoting better life and working conditions, with common issues also with the programmes of the Italian Society of Occupational Health. Finally, some closing remarks and references are provided. PMID:14582260

  4. İlkokul Öğrencileri ve Sınıf Öğretmeni Adaylarının Doğaya İlişkin Algıları ve Sorumluluklarına Yönelik Düşünceleri Elemantary Scholl Students’ And Prospective Elemantary Scholl Teachers’ Perceptions of Nature And Thoughts of Their Responsibilities Towards The Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer KÖŞKER

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nature education provides important opportunities for learningabout nature, being aware of it and protecting it. The best way is tostart education of it from children. Education plays an important roleon the child in shaping his/her perceptions about nature andenvironment. Perception of people about nature affects their behaviorsand attitudes. Defining the perceptions of teachers that direct teachingprocess and students about nature and their responsibility towardsnature will be affective on the composition of nature education. The aimof this research is to define primary school students’ and prospectiveteachers’ perceptions of nature and thoughts of their responsibilitiestowards the nature. Data were collected from 150 primary schoolstudents and 123 prospective primary school teachers. Interview formswere used as data collection instrument Data were evaluated accordingto qualitative descriptive analysis and content analysis. According toresearch results, most of the primary school students define nature asplants while most of prospective primary school teachers define as aplace of life area. According to results, nature evokes those plants suchas tree and forest. Thoughts of their responsibilities towards the naturegathered under two themes: protection and greening. Most ofprospective primary school teachers and primary school students havefocused on their responsibility for protection more. It would be said thatboth students and prospective teachers pay attention to theirenvironment and their awareness level for protecting is very high. Doğayı tanımak, korumak ve farkındalık yaratmak açısından doğaeğitimi önemli fırsatlar yaratacaktır. Bu yönde bir eğitime çocuklardanbaşlamak ise en doğru adım olacaktır. Çocuğun içinde bulunduğu çevreve doğa hakkındaki algılarının şekillenmesinde eğitim belirleyici bir yertutmaktadır. Bireylerin doğaya ilişkin algıları, tutum ve davranışlarınıetkilemektedir.

  5. Soft theorems from anomalous symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yu-tin

    2015-01-01

    We discuss constraints imposed by soft limits for effective field theories arising from symmetry breaking. In particular, we consider those associated with anomalous conformal symmetry as well as duality symmetries in supergravity. We verify these soft theorems for the dilaton effective action relevant for the a-theorem, as well as the one-loop effective action for N=4 supergravity. Using the universality of leading transcendental coefficients in the alpha' expansion of string theory amplitudes, we study the matrix elements of operator R^4 with half maximal supersymmetry. We construct the non-linear completion of R^4 that satisfies both single and double soft theorems up to seven points. This supports the existence of duality invariant completion of R^4.

  6. Hard-soft composite magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghidini, M. [Department of Physics, University of Parma and CNISM, V.le G.P. Usberti 7/A, 43100, Parma (Italy)]. E-mail: ghidini@fis.unipr.it; Asti, G. [Department of Physics, University of Parma and CNISM, V.le G.P. Usberti 7/A, 43100, Parma (Italy); Pellicelli, R. [Department of Physics, University of Parma and CNISM, V.le G.P. Usberti 7/A, 43100, Parma (Italy); Pernechele, C. [Department of Physics, University of Parma and CNISM, V.le G.P. Usberti 7/A, 43100, Parma (Italy); Solzi, M. [Department of Physics, University of Parma and CNISM, V.le G.P. Usberti 7/A, 43100, Parma (Italy)

    2007-09-15

    A thorough micromagnetic analysis of the exchange-spring problem is reported with special emphasis on multilayers constituted by hard-soft exchange-coupled phases. The developed one-dimensional micromagnetic model leads to a complete magnetic phase diagram in terms of layer thicknesses. Both perpendicular and parallel configurations are considered. The phase diagram provides information on the type of demagnetization processes and the critical fields at which nucleation and reversal take place, depending on the intrinsic properties of the chosen soft and hard materials. The model has been applied to a variety of hard magnetic phases (e.g., FePt, CoPt, SmCo and NdFeB), coupled to different soft materials (e.g., Fe, FeCo, FeRh or permalloy) both in the form of bilayers and multilayers. The most significant results will be highlighted.

  7. Soft Pneumatic Actuators for Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Belforte

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pneumatic artificial muscles are pneumatic devices with practical and various applications as common actuators. They, as human muscles, work in agonistic-antagonistic way, giving a traction force only when supplied by compressed air. The state of the art of soft pneumatic actuators is here analyzed: different models of pneumatic muscles are considered and evolution lines are presented. Then, the use of Pneumatic Muscles (PAM in rehabilitation apparatus is described and the general characteristics required in different applications are considered, analyzing the use of proper soft actuators with various technical properties. Therefore, research activity carried out in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering in the field of soft and textile actuators is presented here. In particular, pneumatic textile muscles useful for active suits design are described. These components are made of a tubular structure, with an inner layer of latex coated with a deformable outer fabric sewn along the edge. In order to increase pneumatic muscles forces and contractions Braided Pneumatic Muscles are studied. In this paper, new prototypes are presented, based on a fabric construction and various kinds of geometry. Pressure-force-deformation tests results are carried out and analyzed. These actuators are useful for rehabilitation applications. In order to reproduce the whole upper limb movements, new kind of soft actuators are studied, based on the same principle of planar membranes deformation. As an example, the bellows muscle model and worm muscle model are developed and described. In both cases, wide deformations are expected. Another issue for soft actuators is the pressure therapy. Some textile sleeve prototypes developed for massage therapy on patients suffering of lymph edema are analyzed. Different types of fabric and assembly techniques have been tested. In general, these Pressure Soft Actuators are useful for upper/lower limbs treatments

  8. Soft subalgebras and soft ideals of BCK/BCI-algebras related to fuzzy set theory

    OpenAIRE

    Jun, Young Bae; Song, Seok Zun

    2009-01-01

    The notion of $in$-soft set and {rm q}-soft set based on a fuzzy set is introduced, and characterizations for an $in$-soft set and a {rm q}-soft set to be (idealistic) soft BCK/BCI-algebras are provided. Using the notion of $(in,in! vee , {rm q})$-fuzzy BCK/BCI subalgebras/ideals, characterizations for an $in$-soft set and a {rm q}-soft set to be (idealistic) soft BCK/BCI-algebras are established.

  9. Properties of Soft Semi-open and Soft semi-closed Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Sabir

    2014-01-01

    Molodstov[10] introduced soft set theory as a new mathematical approach for solving problems having uncertainties. Many researchers worked on the findings of structures of soft set theory and applied to many problems having uncertainties. Recently, Bin Chen [3-4] introduced and explored the properties of soft semi-open sets and soft-semi-closed sets in soft topological spaces. In this paper we continue to investigate the properties of soft semi-open and soft semi-closed sets in soft topologic...

  10. Soft QGP probes with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Graczykowski, Łukasz Kamil

    2016-01-01

    In heavy-ion collisions at the LHC a hot and dense medium of deconfided partons, the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), is created. Its global properties can be characterized by the measurements of particles in the low transverse momentum (or "soft") regime, which represent the majority of created particles. In this report we outline a selection of measurements of the soft probes by the ALICE experiment in pp, p--Pb, and Pb--Pb collisions. The paper focuses on recent flow measurements via angular correlations and femtoscopic studies. The first ever preliminary analysis of $\\mathrm{K}^0_{\\rm S}\\mathrm{K}^{\\pm}$ femtoscopy is also presented.

  11. Soft theorems from string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Vecchia, Paolo [The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University (Sweden); Marotta, Raffaele [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Napoli (Italy); Mojaza, Matin [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University (Sweden)

    2016-04-15

    Soft behaviour of closed string amplitudes involving dilatons, gravitons and anti-symmetric tensors, is studied in the framework of bosonic string theory. The leading double soft limit of gluons is analysed as well, starting from scattering amplitudes computed in the open bosonic string. Field theory expressions are then obtained by sending the string tension to infinity. The presented results have been derived in the papers of Ref [1]. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. ``Soft X-ray transient'' outbursts which are not soft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Brocksopp; R.M. Bandyopadhyay; R.P. Fender

    2004-01-01

    We have accumulated multiwavelength (X-ray, optical, radio) lightcurves for the eight black hole X-ray binaries which have been observed to enter a supposed `soft X-ray transient' outburst, but remained in the low/hard state throughout the outburst. Comparison of the lightcurve morphologies, spectra

  13. Fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control strategies for non-linear systems analytical and soft computing approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Witczak, Marcin

    2014-01-01

      This book presents selected fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control strategies for non-linear systems in a unified framework. In particular, starting from advanced state estimation strategies up to modern soft computing, the discrete-time description of the system is employed Part I of the book presents original research results regarding state estimation and neural networks for robust fault diagnosis. Part II is devoted to the presentation of integrated fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant systems. It starts with a general fault-tolerant control framework, which is then extended by introducing robustness with respect to various uncertainties. Finally, it is shown how to implement the proposed framework for fuzzy systems described by the well-known Takagi–Sugeno models. This research monograph is intended for researchers, engineers, and advanced postgraduate students in control and electrical engineering, computer science,as well as mechanical and chemical engineering.

  14. Biocompatible mesoporous and soft nanoarchitectures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Angelova, A.; Angelov, Borislav; Mutafchieva, R.; Lesieur, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 2 (2015), s. 214-232. ISSN 1574-1443 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/1600 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : soft nanoarchitectures * lipid bilayer building block * self-assembled nanochannel networks Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.160, year: 2014

  15. Pediatric soft tissue oral lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Andres; Haberland, Christel M; Baker, Suher

    2014-04-01

    This article provides an overview of common color changes and soft tissue oral nodular abnormalities in children and adolescents. The clinical presentation and treatment options to address these conditions are presented in a concise approach, highlighting key features relevant to the oral health care professional. PMID:24655531

  16. Nanomedicine a soft matter perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Dipanjan

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a broad introduction to soft matters for nanomedicinal applications, with a deeper discussion of the individual modalities for molecular imaging. It includes a general introduction to the opportunities provided by this technology in chemistry, materials, biology and nanomedicine. It is designed and written with the perspective that anyone, with or without previous knowledge of nanotechnology, would benefit.

  17. Hard Thinking about Soft Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Guy; Costa, Arthur L.; Kallick, Bena

    2016-01-01

    People use various terms to refer to traits and tendencies connected to social-emotional behavior and ways of thinking or approaching problems--from 21st century skills to mindsets to habits of mind. Such traits are also often called soft skills or non-cognitive skills. The authors contend that these latter terms imply that these traits and…

  18. Operation Soft Boot. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molek, Carol

    Operation Soft Boot was a program designed to develop a computer literacy curriculum for use with adult basic education (ABE) students at their educational level. Computer literacy instruction included a review of the component parts of a personal computer system and their operation and a review of basic keyboarding skills. Instruction also…

  19. Metrics for Soft Goods Merchandising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students interested in soft goods merchandising, this instructional package is one of five for the marketing and distribution cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…

  20. Soft methods in primary schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2002-01-01

    New legislation has been imposed on Danish primary schools to increase the use of information technology (IT), without giving guidelines on practical implementation. We suggest that IT strategy development can be supported by soft OR methods. We present three case studies that illustrate different...

  1. Dissecting Soft Radiation with Factorization

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Iain W; Waalewijn, Wouter J

    2014-01-01

    An essential part of high-energy hadronic collisions is the soft hadronic activity that underlies the primary hard interaction. It can receive contributions from soft radiation from the primary hard partons, secondary multiple parton interactions (MPI), and factorization violating effects. The invariant mass spectrum of the leading jet in $Z$+jet and $H$+jet events is directly sensitive to these effects. We use a QCD factorization theorem to predict the dependence on the jet radius $R$, jet $p_T$, jet rapidity, and partonic process for both the perturbative and nonperturbative components of primary soft radiation. The nonperturbative contributions involve only odd powers of $R$, and the linear $R$ term is universal for quark and gluon jets. The hadronization model in PYTHIA8 agrees well with these properties. The perturbative soft initial state radiation (ISR) has a contribution that depends on the jet area in the same way as the underlying event. This degeneracy is broken by the jet $p_T$ dependence. The siz...

  2. Soft skills analysis of selected manager

    OpenAIRE

    Kratochvílová, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The manager. This term is generally known but not everyone know all the circumstances of managers' work. The field of my bachelor thesis are soft skills and its analysis. Theoretical part serves general overview of the most important soft skills which the manager should dispose. There are mentioned not only particular levels of managers but as well introduced the aim of soft skills which are very important characteristics of manager. Soft skills analysis of selected manager is incorporated in...

  3. Distributed Soft Coding with a Soft Input Soft Output (SISO) Relay Encoder in Parallel Relay Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yonghui

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new distributed coding structure with a soft input soft output (SISO) relay encoder for error-prone parallel relay channels. We refer to it as the distributed soft coding (DISC). In the proposed scheme, each relay first uses the received noisy signals to calculate the soft symbol estimate (SSE) of the source symbols. A simple SISO encoder is developed to encode the SSEs of source symbols based on a constituent code generator matrix. The SISO encoder outputs at different relays are then forwarded to the destination and form a distributed codeword. The performance of the proposed scheme is analyzed. It is shown that its performance is determined by the generator sequence weight (GSW) of the relay constituent codes, where the GSW of a constituent code is defined as the number of ones in its generator sequence. A new coding design criterion for optimally assigning the constituent codes to all the relays is proposed based on the analysis. Results show that the proposed DISC can effectiv...

  4. How Soft are “Soft Skills” in Engineering Educations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun-Pedersen, Jon Ram; Kofoed, Lise

    2015-01-01

    Engineering education communities have long recognized that graduates not only need to poses technical knowledge in their chosen disciplines, but also need to be better educated in areas of communication skills, teamwork and leadership. Several studies mention these so-called “soft” skills as...... they can transfer theory into practice. In addition to their project, students have to make a “Process Analysis”, which is an evaluation of their experience of the soft skills or process competences. Results show that “Soft Skills” are hard to learn....... increasingly important for future engineers. Such skills include communication, cooperation, creativity, leadership and organization. For many years, the engineering educations at Aalborg University have been working with the Problem Based and Project Organized Learning pedagogical approach. An important part...

  5. Hardware for soft computing and soft computing for hardware

    CERN Document Server

    Nedjah, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Single and Multi-Objective Evolutionary Computation (MOEA),  Genetic Algorithms (GAs), Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Fuzzy Controllers (FCs), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Ant colony Optimization (ACO) are becoming omnipresent in almost every intelligent system design. Unfortunately, the application of the majority of these techniques is complex and so requires a huge computational effort to yield useful and practical results. Therefore, dedicated hardware for evolutionary, neural and fuzzy computation is a key issue for designers. With the spread of reconfigurable hardware such as FPGAs, digital as well as analog hardware implementations of such computation become cost-effective. The idea behind this book is to offer a variety of hardware designs for soft computing techniques that can be embedded in any final product. Also, to introduce the successful application of soft computing technique to solve many hard problem encountered during the design of embedded hardware designs. Reconfigurable em...

  6. Closed Int Soft $\\mathrm{BCI}$ -Ideals and Int Soft c- $\\mathrm{BCI}$ -Ideals

    OpenAIRE

    Young Bae Jun; Kyoung Ja Lee; Eun Hwan Roh

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to lay a foundation for providing a soft algebraic tool in considering many problems that contain uncertainties. In order to provide these soft algebraic structures, the notions of closed intersectional soft $\\mathrm{BCI}$ -ideals and intersectional soft commutative $\\mathrm{BCI}$ -ideals are introduced, and related properties are investigated. Conditions for an intersectional soft $\\mathrm{BCI}$ -ideal to be closed are provided. Characterizations of an inter...

  7. Soft Computing Approaches To Fault Tolerant Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Prakash Srivastava

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present in this paper as an introduction to soft computing techniques for fault tolerant systems and the terminology with different ways of achieving fault tolerance. The paper focuses on the problem of fault tolerance using soft computing techniques. The fundamentals of soft computing approaches and its type with introduction of fault tolerance are discussed. The main objective is to show how to implement soft computing approaches for fault detection, isolation and identification. The paper contains details about soft computing application with an application of wireless sensor network as fault tolerant system.

  8. Soft lithography contacts to organics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia W.P. Hsu

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic materials play an increasingly important role in (optoelectronics, particularly in low-cost or flexible devices. A major challenge is the contact between the electrodes and the organic material. Processes developed for inorganic semiconductors are inapplicable because of the sensitivity of organic materials to heat, radiation, and chemicals. Deposition of metal(s through shadow masks onto organic materials is commonly used, despite problems with ill-controlled interfaces and material damage. In addition, conventional approaches restrict device size to >1 μm. Clearly, a better technique is needed. In this article, two soft lithography methods for making contacts to organic materials are reviewed: nanotransfer printing (nTP and soft-contact lamination (ScL. These new approaches produce devices that outperform those made by conventional methods. The link between better device performance and better interfacial control is explained, and nanoscale devices are described.

  9. Soft substrates suppress droplet splashing

    CERN Document Server

    Howland, Christopher J; Style, Robert W; Castrejón-Pita, A A

    2015-01-01

    Droplets splash when they impact dry, flat substrates above a critical velocity that depends on parameters such as droplet size, viscosity and air pressure. We show that substrate stiffness also impacts the splashing threshold by imaging ethanol drops impacting silicone gels of different stiffnesses. Splashing is significantly suppressed: droplets on the softest substrates need over 70% more kinetic energy to splash than they do on rigid substrates. We show that splash suppression is likely to be due to energy losses caused by deformations of soft substrates during the first few microseconds of impact. We find that solids with Youngs modulus $\\lesssim O(10^5)$Pa suppress splashing, in agreement with simple scaling arguments. Thus materials like soft gels and elastomers can be used as simple coatings for effective splash prevention.

  10. In Defense of Soft Universalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    2011-01-01

    The present paper is work in progress, a preliminary attempt to present a position of soft universalism as regards human rights. The position is not seen as a compromise between contradicting perceptions, universalism and relativism, but rather as a better and more correct position. It takes as a...... improved considerably since the time of the natural rights theories and the enlightenment. As a consequence prevailing international human rights are not the only possible human rights, and soft universalism is therefore partially open as regards the content of human rights, even though non discrimination...... point of departure that human beings are a gregarious species with a highly developed capacity i.a. for individuality and for rights, thus avoiding the liberalists’ mistake of putting the individual first and the communitarians’ of putting society first. The relevant group or society for international...

  11. SOFT SYSTEMS THINKING IN INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Sandrock

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The industrial milieu is a traditional area for hard systems analysis, and the optimization of processes using reductionist approaches.
    Soft Systems Thinking, with its powerful use of conceptual modelling, has been neglected in the West, but has been applied by the Japanese - with some very surprising results.
    It is suggested that South African industry could benefit from an injection of soft systems thinking.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die bedryfsomgewing is h tradisionele gebied vir die toepassing van hardestelselontleding, en die optimalisering van prosesse deur die gebruik van benaderings wat die probleme maklik kan herlei.
    Sagtestelselontleding, met die klem op konsepsuele modulering, word min in Westerse lande gebruik, maar het in Japan verbasende resultate opgelewer.
    Dit word voorgestel dat ondernemings in Suid Afrika sal kan baat deULgebruik te maak van die sagtestelselbenadering.

  12. Soft computing for business intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Rafael; Cobo, Angel; Marx, Jorge; Valdés, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The book Soft Computing for Business Intelligence is the remarkable output of a program based on the idea of joint trans-disciplinary research as supported by the Eureka Iberoamerica Network and the University of Oldenburg. It contains twenty-seven papers allocated to three sections: Soft Computing, Business Intelligence and Knowledge Discovery, and Knowledge Management and Decision Making. Although the contents touch different domains they are similar in so far as they follow the BI principle “Observation and Analysis” while keeping a practical oriented theoretical eye on sound methodologies, like Fuzzy Logic, Compensatory Fuzzy Logic (CFL), Rough Sets and other softcomputing elements. The book tears down the traditional focus on business, and extends Business Intelligence techniques in an impressive way to a broad range of fields like medicine, environment, wind farming, social collaboration and interaction, car sharing and sustainability.

  13. Lubrication of soft viscoelastic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Anupam; Venner, Kees; Snoeijer, Jacco

    2015-01-01

    Lubrication flows appear in many applications in engineering, biophysics, and in nature. Separation of surfaces and minimisation of friction and wear is achieved when the lubrication fluid builds up a lift force. In this paper we analyse soft lubricated contacts by treating the solid walls as viscoelastic: soft materials are typically not purely elastic, but dissipate energy under dynamical loading conditions. We present a method for viscoelastic lubrication and focus on three canonical examples, namely Kelvin-Voigt-, Standard Linear-, and Power Law-rheology. It is shown how the solid viscoelasticity affects the lubrication process when the timescale of loading becomes comparable to the rheological timescale. We derive asymptotic relations between lift force and sliding velocity, which give scaling laws that inherit a signature of the rheology. In all cases the lift is found to decrease with respect to purely elastic systems.

  14. MICROBIAL DIVERSITY IN SOFT DRINKS

    OpenAIRE

    Shiva Shanker, A.; Ashwitha Kodaparthi; Pavan Kumar Pindi

    2012-01-01

    A total of 4 carbonated soft drink (CSD) samples, from various locations in nine places of India were examined to determine their biological quality. Most samples were not in compliance with microbiological standards set by organizations like the World Health Organization (WHO). The prevailing bacterial isolates were Gluconobacter sp., Lactobacillus sp., and Leuconostoc sp. The prevailing fungal isolates were Penicillium expansum and the next isolate was Penicillium roqueforti. Many microorg...

  15. Soft Lithography using Nectar Droplets

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Saheli; Chakrabarti, Aditi; Chateauminois, Antoine; Wandersman, Elie; Prevost, Alexis M.; Chaudhury, Manoj K.

    2016-01-01

    In spite of significant advances in replication technologies, methods to produce well-defined three dimensional structures are still at its infancy. Such a limitation would be evident if we were to produce a large array of simple and, especially, compound convex lenses, also guaranteeing that their surfaces would be molecularly smooth. Here, we report a novel method to produce such structures by cloning the 3D shape of nectar drops, found widely in nature, using conventional soft lithography....

  16. Hard Evidence on Soft Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Heckman, James J.; Kautz, Tim

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent evidence on what achievement tests measure; how achievement tests relate to other measures of "cognitive ability" like IQ and grades; the important skills that achievement tests miss or mismeasure, and how much these skills matter in life. Achievement tests miss, or perhaps more accurately, do not adequately capture, soft skills--personality traits, goals, motivations, and preferences--that are valued in the labor market, in school, and in many other domains. The ...

  17. SOFT SKILLS AND ECONOMIC EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Suciu Marta Christina; Lacatus Maria Liana

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at highlighting the importance of soft skills and economic education towards an economist’ career management & development within the complex context of a knowledge-based society. The authors believe strongly that economic education like life long learning in general is at a turning point. Starting from the most important requirements of the labour market but taken also into account the trends regarding the social & occupational evolution in the long-run we have to identify wh...

  18. Welfare Notions for Soft Paternalism

    OpenAIRE

    Grüne-Yanoff, Till

    2009-01-01

    Recently, evidence from behavioural research has given rise to new arguments against anti-paternalism. This anti-anti-paternalism argues that certain kinds of paternalism - interventions in people's choices that improve their own good - are indeed permissible even when people's liberty is an important objective. These permissible kinds of paternalism are distinguished from non-permissible kinds by their characterisation as 'soft','weak', 'libertarian' or 'asymmetric'. In this paper, I argue t...

  19. Soft impacts on aerospace structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrate, Serge

    2016-02-01

    This article provides an overview of the literature dealing with three types of soft impacts of concern for the aerospace applications, namely impacts of rain drops, hailstones and birds against aircraft. It describes the physics of the problem as it has become better understood through experiments, analyses, and numerical simulations. Some emphasis has been placed on the material models and the numerical approaches used in modeling these three types of projectiles.

  20. Microwave applications of soft ferrites

    CERN Document Server

    Pardavi-Horvath, M P

    2000-01-01

    Signal processing requires broadband, low-loss, low-cost microwave devices (circulators, isolators, phase shifters, absorbers). Soft ferrites (garnets, spinels, hexaferrites), applied in planar microwave devices, are reviewed from the point of view of device requirements. Magnetic properties, specific to operation in high-frequency electromagnetic fields, are discussed. Recent developments in thick film ferrite technology and device design are reviewed. Magnetic losses related to planar shape and inhomogeneous internal fields are analyzed.

  1. Capillary fracture of soft gels

    OpenAIRE

    Bostwick, Joshua B.; Daniels, Karen E.

    2013-01-01

    A liquid droplet resting on a soft gel substrate can deform that substrate to the point of material failure, whereby fractures develop on the gel surface that propagate outwards from the contact-line in a starburst pattern. In this paper, we characterize i) the initiation process in which the number of arms in the starburst is controlled by the ratio of surface tension contrast to the gel's elastic modulus and ii) the propagation dynamics showing that once fractures are initiated they propaga...

  2. Soft Gluons in Logarithmic Summations

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Jyh-Liong; Li, Hsiang-nan

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate that all the known single- and double-logarithm summations for a parton distribution function can be unified in the Collins-Soper resummation technique by applying soft approximations appropriate in different kinematic regions to real gluon emissions. Neglecting the gluon longitudinal momentum, we obtain the $k_T$ (double-logarithm) resummation for two-scale QCD processes, and the Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov (single-logarithm) equation for one-scale processes. Neglecting the ...

  3. Time matters in soft proofing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Y. Hardeberg

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available One of latest developments for pre-press applications is the concept of soft proofing, which aims to provide an accurate preview on a monitor of how the final document will appear once it is printed. At the core of this concept is the problem of identifying, for any printed color, the most similar color the monitor can display. This problem is made difficult by such factors as varying viewing conditions, color gamut limitations, or the less studied color memory shift.Color matching experiments are usually done by examining samples viewed simultaneously. However, in soft proofing applications, the proof and the print are not always viewed together. This paper attempts to shed more light on the difference between simultaneous and time-spaced color matching, in order to contribute to improving the accuracy of soft proofs. A color matchingexperiment setup has been established in which observers were asked to match a color patch displayed on a LCD monitor, by adjusting its RGB values, to another color patch printed out on paper. In the first part of the experiment the two colors were viewed simultaneously. In the second part, the observers were asked to produce the match according to a previously memorized color. According to the obtained results, the color appearance attributes lightness and chroma were the most difficult components for the observers to remember, generating huge differences with the simultaneous match, whereas hue was the component which varied the least. This indicates that for soft proofing, getting the hues right is of primordial importance.

  4. Soft Budgets And Highway Franchising

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Engel; Ronald Fischer; Alexander Galetovic

    2004-01-01

    Latin American governments progressively substituted build–operate–and–transfer (BOT) contracts for government–provided highways during the nineties. Because under BOT a private franchise holder finances and operates the road in exchange for tolls, it is often claimed that BOT represents a privatization of highways. We argue that, as currently applied, the BOT model is an imperfect and incomplete privatization, because the franchise holders’ budget constraint has been soft, with losses being ...

  5. Advance Trends in Soft Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Kreinovich, Vladik; Kacprzyk, Janusz; WCSC 2013

    2014-01-01

    This book is the proceedings of the 3rd World Conference on Soft Computing (WCSC), which was held in San Antonio, TX, USA, on December 16-18, 2013. It presents start-of-the-art theory and applications of soft computing together with an in-depth discussion of current and future challenges in the field, providing readers with a 360 degree view on soft computing. Topics range from fuzzy sets, to fuzzy logic, fuzzy mathematics, neuro-fuzzy systems, fuzzy control, decision making in fuzzy environments, image processing and many more. The book is dedicated to Lotfi A. Zadeh, a renowned specialist in signal analysis and control systems research who proposed the idea of fuzzy sets, in which an element may have a partial membership, in the early 1960s, followed by the idea of fuzzy logic, in which a statement can be true only to a certain degree, with degrees described by numbers in the interval [0,1]. The performance of fuzzy systems can often be improved with the help of optimization techniques, e.g. evolutionary co...

  6. Low energy (soft) x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosimetry of low-energy (soft) X rays produced by the SOFTEX Model CMBW-2 was performed using Nuclear Associates Type 30 - 330 PTW, Exradin Type A2, and Shonka-Wyckoff ionization chambers with a Keithley Model 602 electrometer. Thermoluminescent (BeO chip) dosimeters were used with a Harshaw Detector 2000-A and Picoammeter-B readout system. Beam quality measurements were made using aluminum absorbers; exposure rates were assessed by the current of the X-ray tube and by exposure times. Dose distributions were established, and the average factors for non-uniformity were calculated. The means of obtaining accurate absorbed and exposed doses using these methods are discussed. Survival of V79 cells was assessed by irradiating them with soft X rays, 200 kVp X rays, and 60Co gamma rays. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for soft X rays with 0, 0.2, 0.7 mm added thicknesses of aluminum were 1.6, which were compared to 60Co. The RBE of 200 kVp X rays relative to 60Co was 1.3. Results of this study are available for reference in future RERF studies of cell survival. (author)

  7. Gluing Soft Interfaces by Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhen; Dobrynin, Andrey

    Using a combination of the molecular dynamics simulations and scaling analysis we studied reinforcement of interface between two soft gel-like materials by spherical nanoparticles. Analysis of the simulations shows that the depth of penetration of a nanoparticle into a gel is determined by a balance of the elastic energy of the gel and nanoparticle deformations and the surface energy of nanoparticle/gel interface. In order to evaluate work of adhesion of the reinforced interface, the potential of mean force for separation of two gels was calculated. These simulations showed that the gel separation proceeds through formation of necks connecting nanoparticle with two gels. The shapes of the necks are controlled by a fine interplay between nanoparticle/gel surface energies and elastic energy of the neck deformation. Our simulations showed that by introducing nanoparticles at soft interfaces, the work required for separation of two gels could be 10-100 times larger than the work of adhesion between two gels without nanoparticle reinforcement. These results provide insight in understanding the mechanism of gluing soft gels and biological tissues by nano- and micro-sized particles. NSF DMR-1409710.

  8. Soft robotics: a bioinspired evolution in robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangbae; Laschi, Cecilia; Trimmer, Barry

    2013-05-01

    Animals exploit soft structures to move effectively in complex natural environments. These capabilities have inspired robotic engineers to incorporate soft technologies into their designs. The goal is to endow robots with new, bioinspired capabilities that permit adaptive, flexible interactions with unpredictable environments. Here, we review emerging soft-bodied robotic systems, and in particular recent developments inspired by soft-bodied animals. Incorporating soft technologies can potentially reduce the mechanical and algorithmic complexity involved in robot design. Incorporating soft technologies will also expedite the evolution of robots that can safely interact with humans and natural environments. Finally, soft robotics technology can be combined with tissue engineering to create hybrid systems for medical applications. PMID:23582470

  9. Soft Skills for Hard Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorov, Ivo; Davidson, Joy; Knoth, Petr; Kuchma, Iryna; Schmidt, Birgit; Rettberg, Najla; Rogrigues, Eloy

    2015-04-01

    Marine and Earth Science graduates will be under increasing pressure in future to delve into research questions of relevance to societal challenges. Even fundamental research focused on basic processes of the environment and universe will in the coming decade need to justify their societal impact. As the Research Excellence Frameworks (REF) for research evaluation shift more and more away from the classical Impact Factor and number of peer-reviewed publications to "societal impact", the question remains whether the current graduates, and future researchers, are sufficiently prepared to deal with this reality. The essential compliment of skills beyond research excellence, rigor and method are traditionally described as "soft skills". This includes how to formulate an argument, how to construct a scientific publication, how to communicate such publications to non-experts, place them in context of societal challenges and relevant policies, how to write a competitive proposal and "market" one's research idea to build a research group around an interesting research topic. Such "soft skills" can produce very measurable and concrete impact for career development, but are rarely provided systematically and coherently by graduate schools in general. The presentation will focus on Open Science as a set of "soft skills", and demonstrate why graduate schools should train Open Science competencies alongside research excellence by default. Open Science is about removing all barriers to research process and outputs, both published and unpublished, and directly supports transparency and reproducibility of the research process. Open Science as a set of news competencies can also foster unexpected collaborations, engage citizen scientists into co-creation of solutions to societal challenges, as well as use concepts of Open Science to transfer new knowledge to the knowledge-based private sector, and help them with formulating more competitive research proposals in future.

  10. Hard Identity and Soft Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Rachik

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Often collective identities are classified depending on their contents and rarely depending on their forms. Differentiation between soft identity and hard identity is applied to diverse collective identities: religious, political, national, tribal ones, etc. This classification is made following the principal dimensions of collective identities: type of classification (univocal and exclusive or relative and contextual, the absence or presence of conflictsof loyalty, selective or totalitarian, objective or subjective conception, among others. The different characteristics analysed contribute to outlining an increasingly frequent type of identity: the authoritarian identity.

  11. Register file soft error recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Bruce M.; Fox, Thomas W.; Wait, Charles D.; Muff, Adam J.; Watson, III, Alfred T.

    2013-10-15

    Register file soft error recovery including a system that includes a first register file and a second register file that mirrors the first register file. The system also includes an arithmetic pipeline for receiving data read from the first register file, and error detection circuitry to detect whether the data read from the first register file includes corrupted data. The system further includes error recovery circuitry to insert an error recovery instruction into the arithmetic pipeline in response to detecting the corrupted data. The inserted error recovery instruction replaces the corrupted data in the first register file with a copy of the data from the second register file.

  12. Promoting renewables through soft loans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DtA, founded in 1950s, is a federal institution owned by the German government. It assists the government to implement its economic, environmental and social policy. Financial assistance is being granted mainly through soft loans. Such loans are a flexible instrument, permitting to partially correct prices without severely distorting market forces. They assure total financing while spreading the subsidy over the entire period of the engagement. This avoids windfall opportunities often related to direct subsidies. Investors, therefore, have an intrinsic motivation to only submit sound and profitable projects. (orig./RHM)

  13. From Supercurrents to Soft Terms

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Sibo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper hidden sectors of Ferrara-Zumino multiplets are investigated in framework of gravity mediation. The two-point correlator of Ferrara-Zumino multiplets can be parameterized, which implies the wave function renormalizations of components fields in gravity supermultiplet can be evaluated in relatively simple form. Soft terms are calculated via supercurrent approach. We find gaugino masses are independent of sfermion masses on general grounds. The unification of gaugino masses is not universal. In comparison with general gauge mediation, there are no sum rules for sfermion masses of each generation.

  14. Statistical thermodynamics of soft surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, S. A.

    2002-03-01

    We review the continuum, statistical thermodynamics of surfaces and interfaces in soft matter where both the energy and entropy of the surface are comparable. These systems include complex fluids that are dominated by either surface tension or the interfacial curvature, such as: fluid and solid interfaces, colloidal dispersions, macromolecular solutions, membranes, and other self-assembling aggregates such as micelles, vesicles, and microemulsions. The primary focus is on the theoretical concepts, their universality, and the role of fluctuations and inhomogeneities with connections to relevant experimental systems.

  15. Ordering multiple soft gluon emissions

    CERN Document Server

    Ángeles-Martínez, René; Seymour, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    We present an expression for the QCD amplitude for a general hard scattering process with any number of soft gluon emissions, to one-loop accuracy. The amplitude is written in two different but equivalent ways: as a product of operators ordered in dipole transverse momentum and as a product of loop-expanded currents. We hope that these results will help in the development of an all-orders algorithm for multiple emissions that includes the full colour structure and both the real and imaginary contributions to the amplitude.

  16. Imaging of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turecki, Marcin B.; Taljanovic, Mihra S.; Holden, Dean A.; Hunter, Tim B.; Rogers, Lee F. [University of Arizona HSC, Department of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Stubbs, Alana Y. [Southern Arizona VA Health Care System, Department of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Graham, Anna R. [University of Arizona HSC, Department of Pathology, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Prompt and appropriate imaging work-up of the various musculoskeletal soft tissue infections aids early diagnosis and treatment and decreases the risk of complications resulting from misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis. The signs and symptoms of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections can be nonspecific, making it clinically difficult to distinguish between disease processes and the extent of disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the imaging modality of choice in the evaluation of soft tissue infections. Computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, radiography and nuclear medicine studies are considered ancillary. This manuscript illustrates representative images of superficial and deep soft tissue infections such as infectious cellulitis, superficial and deep fasciitis, including the necrotizing fasciitis, pyomyositis/soft tissue abscess, septic bursitis and tenosynovitis on different imaging modalities, with emphasis on MRI. Typical histopathologic findings of soft tissue infections are also presented. The imaging approach described in the manuscript is based on relevant literature and authors' personal experience and everyday practice. (orig.)

  17. Acoustomechanical constitutive theory for soft materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Fengxian; Lu, Tian Jian

    2016-07-01

    Acoustic wave propagation from surrounding medium into a soft material can generate acoustic radiation stress due to acoustic momentum transfer inside the medium and material, as well as at the interface between the two. To analyze acoustic-induced deformation of soft materials, we establish an acoustomechanical constitutive theory by combining the acoustic radiation stress theory and the nonlinear elasticity theory for soft materials. The acoustic radiation stress tensor is formulated by time averaging the momentum equation of particle motion, which is then introduced into the nonlinear elasticity constitutive relation to construct the acoustomechanical constitutive theory for soft materials. Considering a specified case of soft material sheet subjected to two counter-propagating acoustic waves, we demonstrate the nonlinear large deformation of the soft material and analyze the interaction between acoustic waves and material deformation under the conditions of total reflection, acoustic transparency, and acoustic mismatch.

  18. Soft Contributions to Hard Pion Photoproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Afanasev, Andrei; Carlson, Carl E.; Wahlquist, Christian

    1999-01-01

    Hard, or high transverse momentum, pion photoproduction can be a tool for probing the parton structure of the beam and target. We estimate the soft contributions to this process, with an eye toward delineating the region where perturbatively calculable processes dominate. Our soft process estimate is based on vector meson dominance and data based parameterizations of semiexclusive hadronic cross sections. We find that soft processes dominate in single pion photoproduction somewhat past 2 GeV ...

  19. Subleading soft factor for string disk amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Burkhard U. W.

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the behavior of superstring disk scattering amplitudes in the presence of a soft external momentum at finite string tension. We prove that there are no α'-corrections to the field theory form of the subleading soft factor S (1). At the end of this work, we also comment on the possibility to find the corresponding subleading soft factors in closed string theory using our result and the KLT relations.

  20. Subleading Soft Factor for String Disk Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Schwab, Burkhard U W

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of superstring disk scattering amplitudes in the presence of a soft external momentum at finite string tension. We prove that there are no $\\alpha'$-corrections to the field theory form of the subleading soft factor $S^{(1)}$. At the end of this work, we also comment on the possibility to find the corresponding subleading soft factors in closed string theory using our result and the KLT relations.

  1. Camouflage and Display for Soft Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Morin, Stephen A.; Shepherd, Robert F.; Kwok, Sen Wai; Stokes, Adam A.; Nemiroski, Alex; Whitesides, George M.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic systems cannot easily mimic the color-changing abilities of animals such as cephalopods. Soft machines—machines fabricated from soft polymers and flexible reinforcing sheets—are rapidly increasing in functionality. This manuscript describes simple microfluidic networks that can change the color, contrast, pattern, apparent shape, luminescence, and surface temperature of soft machines for camouflage and display. The color of these microfluidic networks can be changed simultaneously i...

  2. Soft And Hard Skills of Social Worker

    OpenAIRE

    HANTOVÁ, Libuše

    2011-01-01

    The work deals with soft and hard skills relevant to the profession of social worker. The theoretical part at first evaluates and analyzes important soft and hard skills necessary for people working in the field of social work. Then these skills are compared. The practical part illustrates the use of soft and hard skills in practice by means of model scenes and deals with the preferences in three groups of people ? students of social work, social workers and people outside the sphere, namely ...

  3. Soft palate hypoplasia in a horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several imaging techniques were used to diagnose hypoplasia of the soft palate in a horse. The absence of the caudal soft palate, hypertrophied lymphoid tissue and the formation of a pseudouvula were observed endoscopically. Plain and contrast radiography were used to demonstrate a soft palate remnant and to identify structures rostral to the epiglottis. Retrograde endoscopy of the pharynx via a tracheotomy incision is described

  4. Soft errors in modern electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolaidis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive presentation of the most advanced research results and technological developments enabling understanding, qualifying and mitigating the soft errors effect in advanced electronics, including the fundamental physical mechanisms of radiation induced soft errors, the various steps that lead to a system failure, the modelling and simulation of soft error at various levels (including physical, electrical, netlist, event driven, RTL, and system level modelling and simulation), hardware fault injection, accelerated radiation testing and natural environment testing, s

  5. The “Soft Five” in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    An employability of individuals became dependent not only on their qualification, but also on their soft skills. Therefore, this paper tries to examine an importance of soft competencies for Romanian labour market and evaluate gap between soft competencies of graduates and unemployed registered at Employment Offices and employers’ requirements. The survey among 277 employers (representing 36,268 employees) was realized in 7 NUTS-3 regions of Romania in March 2011 to ensure relevant informatio...

  6. The Separate Universe Approach to Soft Limits

    CERN Document Server

    Kenton, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    We develop a formalism for calculating soft limits of $n$-point inflationary correlation functions using separate universe techniques. Our method naturally allows for multiple fields and leads to an elegant diagrammatic approach. As an application we focus on the trispectrum produced by inflation with multiple light fields, giving explicit formulae for all possible single- and double-soft limits. We also investigate consistency relations and present an infinite tower of inequalities between soft correlation functions which generalise the Suyama-Yamaguchi inequality.

  7. Marine metabolites: The sterols of soft coral

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, N.S.; Krishna, M.S.; Pasha, Sk.G.; Rao, T.S.P.; Venkateswarlu, Y.; Parameswaran, P.S.

    in 1978 (Ethakota, India). He received his B.Sc. in 1999, his M.Sc. in Chemistry in 2001, and his Ph.D. in 2006 from Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, India. His Ph.D. supervisor was Professor Nittala S. Sarma, and his work dealt with the organic... lipid biomarkers with application in climate research. He has coauthored four papers and two chapters in a monograph. Gouse Pasha Shaik was born in 1975 (Nuzvid, India). He received his B.Sc. from Nagarjuna University and his M.Sc. from Andhra University...

  8. Postcolonial Times: Lock the Gate or Pull Down the Fences? A special Monograph Edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Boyd

    2013-06-01

    understands but that does not actually express what you mean, or speak your own language and risk the other party not understanding what you mean. Copyright © Bill Boyd 2013. This text may be archived and redistributed both in electronic form and in hard copy, provided that the author and journal are properly cited and no fee is charged. Coolabah, No.12, 2013, ISSN 1988-5946, Observatori: Centre d’Estudis Australians, Australian Studies Centre, Universitat de Barcelona 2 From a postcolonial studies perspective, this example reminds students of two key processes. First, students need to master the intellectual skills of the humanities in order to provide critical analysis of social situations. Secondly, students need to know that, as western scholars, they are as much part of any postcolonial problem as those in power, and therefore need to develop good reflective skills and to learn to think ‘otherwise’. This invited monograph is the text of the lecture, supplemented with further comments and illustrations, delivered to second year Humanities students at the University of Barcelona, Catalonia, on Monday 8th April 2013

  9. Non-equilibrium soft matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ota, T

    2012-01-01

    Soft matter is a concept which covers polymers, liquid crystals, colloids, amphiphilic molecules, glasses, granular and biological materials. One of the fundamental characteristic features of soft matter is that it exhibits various mesoscopic structures originating from a large number of internal degrees of freedom of each molecule. Due to such intermediate structures, soft matter can easily be brought into non-equilibrium states and cause non-linear responses by imposing external fields such as an electric field, a mechanical stress or a shear flow. Volume 4 of the series in Soft Condensed Ma

  10. Distributed Wind Soft Costs: A Beginning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Tony; Forsyth,Trudy; Preus, Robert; Christol, Corrie; Orrell, Alice; Tegen, Suzanne

    2016-06-14

    Tony Jimenez presented this overview of distributed wind soft costs at the 2016 Small Wind Conference in Stevens Point, Wisconsin, on June 14, 2016. Soft costs are any non-hardware project costs, such as costs related to permitting fees, installer/developer profit, taxes, transaction costs, permitting, installation, indirect corporate costs, installation labor, and supply chain costs. This presentation provides an overview of soft costs, a distributed wind project taxonomy (of which soft costs are a subset), an alpha data set project demographics, data summary, and future work in this area.

  11. [Injury potential of soft-air pistols].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadjem, Hadi; Braunwarth, Roland; Pollak, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Report on a case in which an 8-year-old girl was injured on the left anterior thoracic wall by two shots fired by her 14-year-old cousin from a soft-air pistol (replica of mod. 17 make Glock, cal. 6 mm, solid plastic bullets); the projectiles caused two skin lesions, both reaching into the subcutis. The results of our own shooting tests with 2 different soft-air pistols and the injuries seen in our case confirm that soft-air pistols may cause penetrating soft-tissue injuries when fired from a short distance. PMID:15012039

  12. The Genetics Revolution: Programs and Issues for the Community College. A Monograph Highlighting the Winners of the Exxon Education Foundation Innovation Awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Marilyn Elaine, Ed.

    Presented at a 1996 conference on the implications of the Human Genome Project for community and technical colleges, the 30 papers included in this monograph describe methods for incorporating genetics studies into the two-year college curriculum. Among the papers provided are: (1) "Facing the Unknown: The Ethical Challenges of Biotechnology" (J.…

  13. Using the Method of Paulo Freire in Nutrition Education: An Experimental Plan for Community Action in Northeast Brazil. Cornell International Nutrition Monograph Series, Number 3 (1975).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummon, Therese; Lotham, Michael C., Ed.

    This monograph provides an interpretation of the work and ideas of Paulo Freire and describes an attempt to use his methods in a preliminary trial of a small scale nutrition program in four villages in Maranhao State, Northeast Brazil. The introductory chapter indicates the seriousness of the nutritional problems of the rural poor as well as the…

  14. Designing Successful Transitions: A Guide for Orienting Students to College. 3rd Edition. The First-Year Experience Monograph Series No. 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Roof, Jeanine A., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 edition of this monograph addresses many topics (e.g., administration of orientation programs, family involvement, student characteristics and needs, assessment, and orientation for specific student populations and institutional types) that were included in previous editions but approaches them with new information, updated data, and…

  15. Monograph of Arctium L. (Asteraceae). Generic delimitation (including Cousinia Cass, p.p.), revision of the species, pollen morphology, and hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duistermaat, Helena

    1996-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is a monograph of the genus Arctium, now including also five species formerly placed into Cousinia. Based on herbarium material and some field observations, this study presents new insights on three subjects: a) the generic delimitation of Arctium, b) the species delimitat

  16. The Decline in Breastfeeding: An Analysis of the Role of the Nestle Corporation from Two Perspectives. Cornell International Nutrition Monograph Series, Number 11 (1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Carolyn E.

    An attempt is made to analyze the ascendancy of formula feeding of infants in terms of the conflicting ideologies of Marxism and capitalism. The decline of breastfeeding is traced, and is linked with the interrelated phenomena of free market economics and the domination of women by men in Western society. The monograph has two sections:…

  17. The use of soft matrices on soft multisets in an optimal decision process

    OpenAIRE

    Erdem, Arzu; Aras, Cigdem Gunduz; Sonmez, Ayse; Çakallı\\, Hüseyİn

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a concept of a soft matrix on a soft multiset, and investigate how to use soft matrices to solve decision making problems. An algorithm for a multiple choose selection problem is also provided. Finally, we demonstrate an illustrative example to show the decision making steps.

  18. Cyclic Soft Groups and Their Applications on Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacı Aktaş

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In crisp environment the notions of order of group and cyclic group are well known due to many applications. In this paper, we introduce order of the soft groups, power of the soft sets, power of the soft groups, and cyclic soft group on a group. We also investigate the relationship between cyclic soft groups and classical groups.

  19. Soft Theorems from Conformal Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lipstein, Arthur E

    2015-01-01

    Strominger and collaborators recently proposed that soft theorems for gauge and gravity amplitudes can be interpreted as Ward identities of a 2d CFT at null infinity. In this paper, we will consider a specific realization of this CFT known as ambitwistor string theory, which describes 4d Yang-Mills and gravity with any amount of supersymmetry. Using 4d ambitwistor string theory, we derive soft theorems in the form of an infinite series in the soft momentum which are valid to subleading order in gauge theory and sub-subleading order in gravity. Furthermore, we describe how the algebra of soft limits can be encoded in the braiding of soft vertex operators on the worldsheet and point out a simple relation between soft gluon and soft graviton vertex operators which suggests an interesting connection to color-kinematics duality. Finally, by considering ambitwistor string theory on a genus one worldsheet, we compute the 1-loop correction to the subleading soft graviton theorem due to infrared divergences.

  20. Novelty Search for Soft Robotic Space Exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Methenitis, G.; Hennes, D.; Izzo, D.; Visser, A.

    2015-01-01

    The use of soft robots in future space exploration is still a far-fetched idea, but an attractive one. Soft robots are inherently compliant mechanisms that are well suited for locomotion on rough terrain as often faced in extra-planetary environments. Depending on the particular application and requ

  1. Media Translation and Cultural Soft Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段蕾

    2015-01-01

    Media translation is a kind of applied translation,it is the symbol of a country’s development,and the demonstration of its cultural soft power.This essay mainly talks about how does media translation affect a country’s cultural soft power from three forms of media translation—news,movie and television,newspapers and magazines.

  2. Media Translation and Cultural Soft Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段蕾

    2015-01-01

    Media translation is a kind of applied translation,itis the symbol of a country’s development,and the demonstration of its cultural soft power.This essay mainly talks about how does media translation affect a country’s cultural soft power from three forms of media translation-news,movie and television,newspapers and magazines.

  3. Soft theorems from conformal field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipstein, Arthur E.

    2015-06-01

    Strominger and collaborators recently proposed that soft theorems for gauge and gravity amplitudes can be interpreted as Ward identities of a 2d CFT at null infinity. In this paper, we will consider a specific realization of this CFT known as ambitwistor string theory, which describes 4d Yang-Mills and gravity with any amount of supersymmetry. Using 4d ambtwistor string theory, we derive soft theorems in the form of an infinite series in the soft momentum which are valid to subleading order in gauge theory and sub-subleading order in gravity. Furthermore, we describe how the algebra of soft limits can be encoded in the braiding of soft vertex operators on the worldsheet and point out a simple relation between soft gluon and soft graviton vertex operators which suggests an interesting connection to color-kinematics duality. Finally, by considering ambitwistor string theory on a genus one worldsheet, we compute the 1-loop correction to the subleading soft graviton theorem due to infrared divergences.

  4. Why mercury prefers soft ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccardi, Demian M [ORNL; Guo, Hao-Bo [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL; Summers, Anne [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Miller, S [University of California, San Francisco; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a major global pollutant arising from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Defining the factors that determine the relative affinities of different ligands for the mercuric ion, Hg2+, is critical to understanding its speciation, transformation, and bioaccumulation in the environment. Here, we use quantum chemistry to dissect the relative binding free energies for a series of inorganic anion complexes of Hg2+. Comparison of Hg2+ ligand interactions in the gaseous and aqueous phases shows that differences in interactions with a few, local water molecules led to a clear periodic trend within the chalcogenide and halide groups and resulted in the well-known experimentally observed preference of Hg2+ for soft ligands such as thiols. Our approach establishes a basis for understanding Hg speciation in the biosphere.

  5. Thin films of soft matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2007-01-01

    A detailed overview and comprehensive analysis of the main theoretical and experimental advances on free surface thin film and jet flows of soft matter is given. At the theoretical front the book outlines the basic equations and boundary conditions and the derivation of low-dimensional models for the evolution of the free surface. Such models include long-wave expansions and equations of the boundary layer type and are analyzed via linear stability analysis, weakly nonlinear theories and strongly nonlinear analysis including construction of stationary periodic and solitary wave and similarity solutions. At the experimental front a variety of very recent experimental developments is outlined and the link between theory and experiments is illustrated. Such experiments include spreading drops and bubbles, imbibitions, singularity formation at interfaces and experimental characterization of thin films using atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry and contact angle measurements and analysis of patterns using Minkows...

  6. Soft Lithography Using Nectar Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Saheli; Chakrabarti, Aditi; Chateauminois, Antoine; Wandersman, Elie; Prevost, Alexis M; Chaudhury, Manoj K

    2015-12-01

    In spite of significant advances in replication technologies, methods to produce well-defined three-dimensional structures are still at its infancy. Such a limitation would be evident if we were to produce a large array of simple and, especially, compound convex lenses, also guaranteeing that their surfaces would be molecularly smooth. Here, we report a novel method to produce such structures by cloning the 3D shape of nectar drops, found widely in nature, using conventional soft lithography.The elementary process involves transfer of a thin patch of the sugar solution coated on a glass slide onto a hydrophobic substrate on which this patch evolves into a microdroplet. Upon the absorption of water vapor, such a microdroplet grows linearly with time, and its final size can be controlled by varying its exposure time to water vapor. At any stage of the evolution of the size of the drop, its shape can be cloned onto a soft elastomer by following the well-known methods of molding and cross-linking the same. A unique new science that emerges in our attempt to understand the transfer of the sugar patch and its evolution to a spherical drop is the elucidation of the mechanics underlying the contact of a deformable sphere against a solid support intervening a thin liquid film. A unique aspect of this work is to demonstrate that higher level structures can also be generated by transferring even smaller nucleation sites on the surface of the primary lenses and then allowing them to grow by absorption of water vapor. What results at the end is either a well-controlled distribution of smooth hemispherical lenses or compound structures that could have potential applications in the fundamental studies of contact mechanics, wettability, and even in optics. PMID:26563988

  7. Soft x-ray interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the soft x-ray interferometry workshop held at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory was to discuss with the scientific community the proposed technical design of the soft x-ray Fourier-transform spectrometer being developed at the ALS. Different design strategies for the instrument's components were discussed, as well as detection methods, signal processing issues, and how to meet the manufacturing tolerances that are necessary for the instrument to achieve the desired levels of performance. Workshop participants were encouraged to report on their experiences in the field of Fourier transform spectroscopy. The ALS is developing a Fourier transform spectrometer that is intended to operate up to 100 eV. The motivation is solely improved resolution and not the throughput (Jaquinot) or multiplex (Fellgett) advantage, neither of which apply for the sources and detectors used in this spectral range. The proposed implementation of this is via a Mach-Zehnder geometry that has been (1) distorted from a square to a rhombus to get grazing incidence of a suitable angle for 100 eV and (2) provided with a mirror-motion system to make the path difference between the interfering beams tunable. The experiment consists of measuring the emergent light intensity (I(x)) as a function of the path difference (x). The resolving power of the system is limited by the amount of path difference obtainable that is 1 cm (one million half-waves at 200 angstrom wavelength) in the design thus allowing a resolving power of one million. The free spectral range of the system is limited by the closeness with which the function I(x) is sampled. It is proposed to illuminate a helium absorption cell with roughly 1%-band-width light from a monochromator thus allowing one hundred aliases without spectral overlap even for sampling of I(x) at one hundredth of the Nyquist frequency

  8. Soft Space Planning in Cities unbound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian

    This paper analyses contemporary experiments of building governance capacity in new soft spaces in Denmark through processes of spatial strategy-making. The paper argues that new soft spaces are emerging in Danish spatial planning, which set out to promote more effective forms of strategic spatial...... critical questions about whether the normative arguments in the soft space literature are unfounded, or whether the significance of soft spaces is simply overrated in the planning literature. Furthermore, it is argued that critical attention needs to be paid to the prevalence of soft spaces in spatial...... planning, and how their obsession with promoting economic development at the expense of wider planning responsibilities support contemporary neoliberal transformations of strategic spatial planning....

  9. A Maximal Tractable Class of Soft Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, D; Jeavons, P; Krokhin, A; 10.1613/jair.1400

    2011-01-01

    Many researchers in artificial intelligence are beginning to explore the use of soft constraints to express a set of (possibly conflicting) problem requirements. A soft constraint is a function defined on a collection of variables which associates some measure of desirability with each possible combination of values for those variables. However, the crucial question of the computational complexity of finding the optimal solution to a collection of soft constraints has so far received very little attention. In this paper we identify a class of soft binary constraints for which the problem of finding the optimal solution is tractable. In other words, we show that for any given set of such constraints, there exists a polynomial time algorithm to determine the assignment having the best overall combined measure of desirability. This tractable class includes many commonly-occurring soft constraints, such as 'as near as possible' or 'as soon as possible after', as well as crisp constraints such as 'greater than'. F...

  10. Soft computing techniques in engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhong, Baojiang

    2014-01-01

    The Soft Computing techniques, which are based on the information processing of biological systems are now massively used in the area of pattern recognition, making prediction & planning, as well as acting on the environment. Ideally speaking, soft computing is not a subject of homogeneous concepts and techniques; rather, it is an amalgamation of distinct methods that confirms to its guiding principle. At present, the main aim of soft computing is to exploit the tolerance for imprecision and uncertainty to achieve tractability, robustness and low solutions cost. The principal constituents of soft computing techniques are probabilistic reasoning, fuzzy logic, neuro-computing, genetic algorithms, belief networks, chaotic systems, as well as learning theory. This book covers contributions from various authors to demonstrate the use of soft computing techniques in various applications of engineering.  

  11. 4th World Conference on Soft Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Abbasov, Ali; Yager, Ronald; Shahbazova, Shahnaz; Reformat, Marek

    2016-01-01

    This book reports on advanced theories and cutting-edge applications in the field of soft computing. The individual chapters, written by leading researchers, are based on contributions presented during the 4th World Conference on Soft Computing, held May 25-27, 2014, in Berkeley. The book covers a wealth of key topics in soft computing, focusing on both fundamental aspects and applications. The former include fuzzy mathematics, type-2 fuzzy sets, evolutionary-based optimization, aggregation and neural networks, while the latter include soft computing in data analysis, image processing, decision-making, classification, series prediction, economics, control, and modeling. By providing readers with a timely, authoritative view on the field, and by discussing thought-provoking developments and challenges, the book will foster new research directions in the diverse areas of soft computing. .

  12. Soft error mechanisms, modeling and mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    Sayil, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces readers to various radiation soft-error mechanisms such as soft delays, radiation induced clock jitter and pulses, and single event (SE) coupling induced effects. In addition to discussing various radiation hardening techniques for combinational logic, the author also describes new mitigation strategies targeting commercial designs. Coverage includes novel soft error mitigation techniques such as the Dynamic Threshold Technique and Soft Error Filtering based on Transmission gate with varied gate and body bias. The discussion also includes modeling of SE crosstalk noise, delay and speed-up effects. Various mitigation strategies to eliminate SE coupling effects are also introduced. Coverage also includes the reliability of low power energy-efficient designs and the impact of leakage power consumption optimizations on soft error robustness. The author presents an analysis of various power optimization techniques, enabling readers to make design choices that reduce static power consumption an...

  13. A Topological Approach to Soft Covering Approximation Space

    OpenAIRE

    Tozlu, Naime; Yuksel, Saziye; Simsekler, Tugba Han

    2015-01-01

    Theories of rough sets and soft sets are powerful mathematical tools for modelling various types of vagueness. Hybrid model combining a rough set with a soft set which is called soft rough set proposed by Feng et al. [3] in 2010. In this paper, we study soft covering based rough sets from the topological view. We present under which conditions soft covering lower approximation operation become interior operator and the soft covering upper approximation become closure operator. Also some new m...

  14. Soft Rough Approximation Operators on a Complete Atomic Boolean Lattice

    OpenAIRE

    Heba I. Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The concept of soft sets based on complete atomic Boolean lattice, which can be seen as a generalization of soft sets, is introduced. Some operations on these soft sets are discussed, and new types of soft sets such as full, keeping infimum, and keeping supremum are defined and supported by some illustrative examples. Two pairs of new soft rough approximation operators are proposed and the relationship among soft set is investigated, and their related properties are given. We show that Järvin...

  15. Soft Rough Approximation Operators on a Complete Atomic Boolean Lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba I. Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of soft sets based on complete atomic Boolean lattice, which can be seen as a generalization of soft sets, is introduced. Some operations on these soft sets are discussed, and new types of soft sets such as full, keeping infimum, and keeping supremum are defined and supported by some illustrative examples. Two pairs of new soft rough approximation operators are proposed and the relationship among soft set is investigated, and their related properties are given. We show that Järvinen's approximations can be viewed as a special case of our approximation. If , then our soft approximations coincide with crisp soft rough approximations (Feng et al. 2011.

  16. Nonspecificity of Chronic Soft Tissue Pain Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldon Tunks

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent (or chronic pain occurs with a prevalence of about 10% in the adult population, and chronic soft tissue pain is especially problematic. Criteria for diagnosis of these soft tissue pain disorders appear to suffer from specificity problems, even though they appear to be sensitive in distinguishing normal from soft tissue pain sufferers. A few decades ago the term 'neuraesthenia' was used as a diagnosis in individuals who now would probably be diagnosed as suffering from fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue and anxiety disorders with fatigue. Soft tissue pain provokes skepticism, especially among third-party payers, and controversy among clinicians. Recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated sex differences in the prevalence of widespread pain and multiple tender points, which are distributed variably throughout the adult population and tend to be correlated with subjective symptoms. Although there is a tendency for these syndromes to persist, follow-up studies show that they tend to vary in extent and sometimes show remissions over longer follow-up, casting doubt about the distinctions between chronic diffuse pains and localized chronic soft tissue pains. Because both accidents and soft tissue pains are relatively prevalent problems, the possibility of chance coincidence of accident and chronic soft tissue pain in an individual creates the need to be cautious in attributing these syndromes to specific accidents in medicolegal situations. At the same time, the available evidence does not support a generally dismissive attitude towards these patients.

  17. ON SOFT COMPUTING TECHNIQUES IN VARIOUS AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Das

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Soft Computing refers to the science of reasoning, thinking and deduction that recognizes and uses the real world phenomena of grouping, memberships, and classification of various quantities under study. As such, it is an extension of natural heuristics and capable of dealing with complex systems because it does not require strict mathematical definitions and distinctions for the system components. It differs from hard computing in that, unlike hard computing, it is tolerant of imprecision, uncertainty and partial truth. In effect, the role model for soft computing is the human mind. The guiding principle of soft computing is: Exploit the tolerance for imprecision, uncertainty and partial truth to achieve tractability, robustness and low solution cost. The main techniques in soft computing are evolutionary computing, artificial neural networks, and fuzzy logic and Bayesian statistics. Each technique can be used separately, but a powerful advantage of soft computing is the complementary nature of the techniques. Used together they can produce solutions to problems that are too complex or inherently noisy to tackle with conventional mathematical methods. The applications of soft computing have proved two main advantages. First, it made solving nonlinear problems, in which mathematical models are not available, possible. Second, it introduced the human knowledge such as cognition, recognition, understanding, learning, and others into the fields of computing. This resulted in the possibility of constructing intelligent systems such as autonomous self-tuning systems, and automated designed systems. This paper highlights various areas of soft computing techniques.

  18. New Concepts and Applications in Soft Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Fodor, János; Várkonyi-Kóczy, Annamária

    2013-01-01

                  The book provides a sample of research on the innovative theory and applications of soft computing paradigms.             The idea of Soft Computing was initiated in 1981 when Professor Zadeh published his first paper on soft data analysis and constantly evolved ever since. Professor Zadeh defined Soft Computing as the fusion of the fields of fuzzy logic (FL), neural network theory (NN) and probabilistic reasoning (PR), with the latter subsuming belief networks, evolutionary computing including DNA computing, chaos theory and parts of learning theory into one multidisciplinary system. As Zadeh said the essence of soft computing is that unlike the traditional, hard computing, soft computing is aimed at an accommodation with the pervasive imprecision of the real world. Thus, the guiding principle of soft computing is to exploit the tolerance for imprecision, uncertainty and partial truth to achieve tractability, robustness, low solution cost and better rapport with reality. ...

  19. Practical applications of soft computing in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Soft computing has been presented not only with the theoretical developments but also with a large variety of realistic applications to consumer products and industrial systems. Application of soft computing has provided the opportunity to integrate human-like vagueness and real-life uncertainty into an otherwise hard computer program. This book highlights some of the recent developments in practical applications of soft computing in engineering problems. All the chapters have been sophisticatedly designed and revised by international experts to achieve wide but in-depth coverage. Contents: Au

  20. A Hybrid Combining Hard and Soft Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes, Adam A.; Shepherd, Robert F.; Morin, Stephen A.; Ilievski, Filip; Whitesides, George McClelland

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript describes a hybrid robotic system combining hard and soft sub-systems. This hybrid comprises a wheeled robot (an iRobot Create©; hard) and a four-legged quadruped (soft). It is capable (using a simple, wireless control system) of rapid locomotion over flat terrain (using the wheeled hard robot), and of gripping and retrieval of an object (using the soft robot). The utility of this system is demonstrated by performing a mission requiring the capabilities of both components: ret...

  1. Shaving off Black Hole Soft Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Mirbabayi, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    A recent, intriguing paper by Hawking, Perry and Strominger suggests that soft photons and gravitons can be regarded as black hole hair and may be relevant to the black hole information paradox. In this note we make use of factorization theorems for infrared divergences of the S-matrix to argue that by appropriately dressing in and out hard states, the soft-quanta-dependent part of the S-matrix becomes essentially trivial. The information paradox can be fully formulated in terms of dressed hard states, which do not depend on soft quanta.

  2. Design, fabrication and control of soft robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Daniela; Tolley, Michael T.

    2015-05-01

    Conventionally, engineers have employed rigid materials to fabricate precise, predictable robotic systems, which are easily modelled as rigid members connected at discrete joints. Natural systems, however, often match or exceed the performance of robotic systems with deformable bodies. Cephalopods, for example, achieve amazing feats of manipulation and locomotion without a skeleton; even vertebrates such as humans achieve dynamic gaits by storing elastic energy in their compliant bones and soft tissues. Inspired by nature, engineers have begun to explore the design and control of soft-bodied robots composed of compliant materials. This Review discusses recent developments in the emerging field of soft robotics.

  3. Novel dielectric elastomer structure of soft robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chi; Xie, Yuhan; Huang, Xiaoqiang; Liu, Junjie; Jin, Yongbin; Li, Tiefeng

    2015-04-01

    Inspired from the natural invertebrates like worms and starfish, we propose a novel elastomeric smart structure. The smart structure can function as a soft robot. The soft robot is made from a flexible elastomer as the body and driven by dielectric elastomer as the muscle. Finite element simulations based on nonlinear field theory are conducted to investigate the working condition of the structure, and guide the design of the smart structure. The effects of the prestretch, structural stiffness and voltage on the performance of the smart structure are investigated. This work can guide the design of soft robot.

  4. A Systematic Approach for Soft Sensor Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Bao; Recke, Bodil; Renaudat, Philippe;

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic approach based on robust statistical techniques for development of a data-driven soft sensor, which is an important component of the process analytical technology (PAT) and is essential for effective quality control. The data quality is obviously of essential...... significance for a data-driven soft sensor. Therefore, preprocessing procedures for process measurements are described in detail. First, a template is defined based on one or more key process variables to handle missing data related to severe operation interruptions. Second, a univariate, followed...... reveal the effectiveness of the systematic framework in deriving data-driven soft sensors that provide reasonably reliable one-step-ahead predictions....

  5. SOFT feature-tracking software handbook

    OpenAIRE

    Cipollini, Paolo; Challenor, Peter

    2003-01-01

    This handbook (SOFT_WP31_handbook.pdf) describes the suite of MATLAB programs developed within Work Package 3, task 3.1 of the SOFT Project, for the tracking of large-scale, westward propagating features (planetary waves or westward-travelling eddies) in altimeter data and the removal of the identified features from the datasets. The suite has been applied to TOPEX/POSEIDON data over the Azores region (one of the SOFT study regions) but its modularity makes it adaptable in a...

  6. CT discography for cervical soft disc hernia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the effectiveness of computed tomographic discography (CTD) in diagnosing cervical soft disc hernia was evaluated. Twenty-five interververtebral discs of 15 cases with cervical soft disc hernia were examined with a discography and then a CT scan. Results of the CT scan were as follows: three discs were protruded, 12 discs were prolapsed, 6 discs were extruded, and 4 discs were sequestrated. The findings were helpful in determining the location of soft disc hernians between the median and posterolateral discs. They were also valuable in classifying types of hernians and surgical aproaches. (author)

  7. Mesoscopic Fractional Quantum in Soft Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, W

    2005-01-01

    Soft matter (e.g., biomaterials, polymers, sediments, oil, emulsions) has become an important bridge between physics and diverse disciplines. Its fundamental physical mechanism, however, is largely obscure. This study made the first attempt to connect fractional Schrodinger equation and soft matter physics under a consistent framework from empirical power scaling to phenomenological kinetics and macromechanics to mesoscopic quantum mechanics. The original contributions are the fractional quantum relationships, which show Levy statistics and fractional Brownian motion are essentially related to momentum and energy, respectively. The fractional quantum underlies fractal mesostructures and many-body interactions of macromolecules in soft matter and is experimentally testable.

  8. Can Soft Drink Taxes Reduce Population Weight?

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher, Jason M.; David Frisvold; Nathan Tefft

    2008-01-01

    Soft drink consumption has been hypothesized as one of the major factors in the growing rates of obesity in the US. Nearly two-thirds of all states currently tax soft drinks using excise taxes, sales taxes, or special exemptions to food exemptions from sales taxes to reduce consumption of this product, raise revenue, and improve public health. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of changes in state soft drink taxes on body mass index (BMI), obesity, and overweight. Our results suggest that ...

  9. Soft particles with anisotropic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurtenberger, Peter

    Responsive colloids such as thermo- or pH-sensitive microgels are ideal model systems to investigate the relationship between the nature of interparticle interactions and the plethora of self-assembled structures that can form in colloidal suspensions. They allow for a variation of the form, strength and range of the interaction potential almost at will. While microgels have extensively been used as model systems to investigate various condensed matter problems such as glass formation, jamming or crystallization, they can also be used to study systems with anisotropic interactions. Here we show results from a systematic investigation of the influence of softness and anisotropy on the structural and dynamic properties of strongly interacting suspensions. We focus first on ionic microgels. Due to their large number of internal counterions they possess very large polarisabilities, and we can thus use external electrical ac fields to generate large dipolar contributions to the interparticle interaction potential. This leads to a number of new crystal phases, and we can trigger crystal-crystal phase transitions through the appropriate choice of the field strength. We then show that this approach can be extended to more complex particle shapes in an attempt to copy nature's well documented success in fabricating complex nanostructures such as virus shells via self assembly. European Research Council (ERC-339678-COMPASS).

  10. SOFT ROBOTICS. A 3D-printed, functionally graded soft robot powered by combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Nicholas W; Tolley, Michael T; Overvelde, Johannes T B; Weaver, James C; Mosadegh, Bobak; Bertoldi, Katia; Whitesides, George M; Wood, Robert J

    2015-07-10

    Roboticists have begun to design biologically inspired robots with soft or partially soft bodies, which have the potential to be more robust and adaptable, and safer for human interaction, than traditional rigid robots. However, key challenges in the design and manufacture of soft robots include the complex fabrication processes and the interfacing of soft and rigid components. We used multimaterial three-dimensional (3D) printing to manufacture a combustion-powered robot whose body transitions from a rigid core to a soft exterior. This stiffness gradient, spanning three orders of magnitude in modulus, enables reliable interfacing between rigid driving components (controller, battery, etc.) and the primarily soft body, and also enhances performance. Powered by the combustion of butane and oxygen, this robot is able to perform untethered jumping. PMID:26160940

  11. Calculating Soft Radiation at One Loop

    CERN Document Server

    Kasemets, Tomas; Zeune, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    We present an efficient way to calculate the effect of soft QCD radiation at one loop, which is needed for predictions at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy. We use rapidity coordinates and isolate the divergences in the integrand. By performing manipulations with cumulative variables, we avoid complications from plus distributions. We address rapidity divergences, divergences with an azimuthal dependence, complicated jet boundaries and multi-differential measurements. The process and measurements can be easily adjusted, as we demonstrate by reproducing many existing soft functions. The results for a general LHC process with multiple Wilson lines are obtained by treating Wilson lines that are not back-to-back using a boost. We also obtain, for the first time, the N-jettiness soft function for generic jet angularities, and the collinear-soft function for the measurement of two angularities.

  12. Calculating soft radiation at one loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasemets, Tomas; Waalewijn, Wouter J.; Zeune, Lisa

    2016-03-01

    We present an efficient way to calculate the effect of soft QCD radiation at one loop, which is needed for predictions at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy. We use rapidity coordinates and isolate the divergences in the integrand. By performing manipulations with cumulative variables, we avoid complications from plus distributions. We address rapidity divergences, divergences with an azimuthal dependence, complicated jet boundaries and multi-differential measurements. The process and measurements can be easily adjusted, as we demonstrate by reproducing many existing soft functions. The results for a general LHC process with multiple Wilson lines are obtained by treating Wilson lines that are not back-to-back using a boost. We also obtain, for the first time, the N-jettiness soft function for generic jet angularities, and the collinear-soft function for the measurement of two angularities.

  13. Weinberg Soft Theorems from Weinberg Adiabatic Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Mirbabayi, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    Soft theorems for the scattering of low energy photons and gravitons and cosmological consistency conditions on the squeezed-limit correlation functions are both understood to be consequences of invariance under large gauge transformations. We apply the same method used in cosmology -- based on the identification of an infinite set of "adiabatic modes" and the corresponding conserved currents -- to derive flat space soft theorems for electrodynamics and gravity. We discuss how the recent derivations based on the asymptotic symmetry groups (BMS) can be continued to a finite size sphere surrounding the scattering event, when the soft photon or graviton has a finite momentum. We give a finite distance derivation of the antipodal matching condition previously imposed between future and past null infinities, and explain why all but one radiative degrees of freedom decouple in the soft limit. In contrast to earlier works on BMS, we work with adiabatic modes which correspond to large gauge transformations that are $...

  14. Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility accommodates a 155mm Howitzer, fired horizontally into a 104-foot long water trough to slow the projectile and recover...

  15. The Geometry of Soft Materials: A Primer

    OpenAIRE

    Kamien, Randall D.

    2002-01-01

    We present an overview of the differential geometry of curves and surfaces using examples from soft matter as illustrations. The presentation requires a background only in vector calculus and is otherwise self-contained.

  16. Imaging modalities for evaluating soft tissue masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In horses, ultrasonography and contrast radiography are useful imaging modalities for evaluating soft tissue masses adjacent to the joint capsule or tendon sheath. Both ultrasound and contrast radiography can differntiate synovial cysts, ganglia, and synovial fistulae. Well-circumscribed soft tissue swellings adjacent to a joint or tendon sheath should be evaluated first via survey radiography. When bone lesions have been ruled out, contrast radiography and ultrasonography are useful in evaluating the soft tissue. Diagnostic differentials for cystic masses located near a joint or tendon sheath include synovial cyst, ganglion, and intersynovial fistula. A synovial cyst can be differentiated from a ganglion by identifying a communication between the soft tissuemass and a synovial structure

  17. Soft Contributions to Hard Pion Photoproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasiev, A V; Wahlquist, C; Afanasev, Andrei; Carlson, Carl E.; Wahlquist, Christian

    2000-01-01

    Hard, or high transverse momentum, pion photoproduction can be a tool for probing the parton structure of the beam and target. We estimate the soft contributions to this process, with an eye toward delineating the region where perturbatively calculable processes dominate. Our soft process estimate is based on vector meson dominance and data based parameterizations of semiexclusive hadronic cross sections. We find that soft processes dominate in single pion photoproduction somewhat past 2 GeV transverse momentum at a few times 10 GeV incoming energy. The recent polarization asymmetry data is consistent with the perturbative asymmetry being diluted by polarization insensitive soft processes. Determining the polarized gluon distribution using hard pion photoproduction appears feasible with a few hundred GeV incoming energy (in the target rest frame).

  18. Responsive polyelectrolyte hydrogels and soft matter micromanipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glazer, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation describes experimental studies on the mechanisms underlying the dynamic response of polyelectrolyte hydrogels when submitted to an external electric potential. In addition, we explore the possibilities of miniaturization and manipulation of responsive gels and other soft matter sys

  19. Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma: Treatment Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney/Wilms Tumor Liver Cancer Lymphoma (Non-Hodgkin) Lymphoma (Hodgkin) Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Retinoblastoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma Thyroid Cancer Understanding Children's Cancer Anxiety Around Procedures Childhood Cancer Statistics Late ...

  20. A Scalable VLSI Architecture for Soft-Input Soft-Output Depth-First Sphere Decoding

    OpenAIRE

    Witte, Ernst Martin; Borlenghi, Filippo; Ascheid, Gerd; Leupers, Rainer; Meyr, Heinrich

    2009-01-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless transmission imposes huge challenges on the design of efficient hardware architectures for iterative receivers. A major challenge is soft-input soft-output (SISO) MIMO demapping, often approached by sphere decoding (SD). In this paper, we introduce the - to our best knowledge - first VLSI architecture for SISO SD applying a single tree-search approach. Compared with a soft-output-only base architecture similar to the one proposed by Studer et al....

  1. Pulmonary metastasectomy from soft tissue sarcomas

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Afonso da Silva Sardenberg; Luiz Poli de Figueiredo; Fábio José Haddad; Jefferson Luiz Gross; Riad Naim Younes

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Isolated pulmonary metastases from soft tissue sarcomas occur in 20-50% of these (the issue is about metastases, not lung cancer) patients, and 70% of these patients will present disease limited only to the lungs. Surgical resection is well accepted as a standard approach to treat metastases from soft tissue sarcomas isolated in the lungs, and many studies investigating this technique have reported an overall 5-year survival ranging from 30-40%. The most consistent predictor of ...

  2. Soft tissue sarcomas of the kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Olivia Köhle; Dominik Abt; Christian Rothermundt; Christian Öhlschlegel; Christiane Brugnolaro; Hans-Peter Schmid

    2015-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are rare mesenchymal tumors. Amongst others, primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) of the kidney and synovial sarcoma of the kidney belong to the group of soft tissue sarcomas. Synovial sarcomas can occur almost anywhere in the body, most frequently, however, in the lower (62%) or upper extremities (21%). Metastases occur in 50-70% of cases, and thus the prognosis is poor. PNETs are rare, highly aggressive neoplastic lesions which mainly occur in the torso or axial skel...

  3. Rational Addiction Evidence From Carbonated Soft Drinks

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoou, Liu

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies the Becker-Murphy (1988) theory of rational addiction to the case of carbonated soft drinks, using a time-varying parameter model and scanner data from 46 U.S. cities. Empirical results provide strong evidence that carbonated soft drinks are rationally addictive, thus opening the door to taxation and regulation. Taking rational addition into account, estimated demand elasticities are much lower than previous estimates using scanner data.

  4. Cosmological Constant and Soft Terms in Supergravity

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kiwoon; Kim, Jihn E.; Nilles, Hans Peter, Ramos-S\\xe1nchez, Sa\\xfal

    1994-01-01

    Some of the soft SUSY breaking parameters in hidden sector supergravity model depend on the expectation value of the hidden sector scalar potential, $$, whose tree level value is equal to the tree level cosmological constant. The current practice of calculating soft parameters assumes that $=0$. Quantum correction to the cosmological constant can differ from the correction to $$ by an amount of order $m^2_{3/2}M_{Pl}^2/8\\pi$. This implies that, for the vanishing cosmological constant, the $$-...

  5. Soft liquidity constraints and precautionary saving

    OpenAIRE

    Emilio Fernandez-Corugedo

    2002-01-01

    The implications for consumption and saving behaviour are explored, when households are allowed to borrow, but face penalties which increase with the amount borrowed. It is shown that the introduction of this type of constraints (soft liquidity constraints) does not lead to consumers behaving very differently from consumers who face constraints which prevent them from borrowing at any time (hard liquidity constraints). However, when hard constraints are relaxed and become soft, the amount of ...

  6. Pediatric rhabdomyosarcomas and nonrhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwala Sandeep

    2006-01-01

    Tumors arising from the soft tissues are uncommon in children, accounting for about 6% of all childhood malignancies. More than half (53%) of these originate from the striated muscles and are called rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS) the remaining are nonrhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcomas (NRSTS). Almost two-thirds of RMS cases are diagnosed in children < 6 years of age. They can arise at varied locations like the head and neck region, genitourinary tract, extremities, trunk and retrope...

  7. Injectable Silk Foams for Soft Tissue Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Bellas, E.; Lo, T.J.; Fournier, E. P.; Brown, J E; Abbott, R.D.; Gil, E.S.; Marra, K.G.; Rubin, J.P.; Leisk, G.G.; Kaplan, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    Soft tissue fillers are needed for restoration of a defect or augmentation of existing tissues. Autografts and lipotransfer have been under study for soft tissue reconstruction but yield inconsistent results, often with considerable resorption of the grafted tissue. A minimally invasive procedure would reduce scarring and recovery time as well as allow for the implant and/or grafted tissue to be placed closer to existing vasculature. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of an injectable silk ...

  8. Soft computing in systems and control technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tzafetas, Spyros G

    1999-01-01

    Soft computing is a branch of computing which, unlike hard computing, can deal with uncertain, imprecise and inexact data. The three constituents of soft computing are fuzzy-logic-based computing, neurocomputing, and genetic algorithms. Fuzzy logic contributes the capability of approximate reasoning, neurocomputing offers function approximation and learning capabilities, and genetic algorithms provide a methodology for systematic random search and optimization. These three capabilities are combined in a complementary and synergetic fashion.This book presents a cohesive set of contributions dea

  9. Applications of soft x-ray lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, C.H.

    1993-08-01

    The high brightness and short pulse duration of soft x-ray lasers provide unique advantages for novel applications. Imaging of biological specimens using x-ray lasers has been demonstrated by several groups. Other applications to fields such as chemistry, material science, plasma diagnostics, and lithography are beginning to emerge. We review the current status of soft x-ray lasers from the perspective of applications, and present an overview of the applications currently being developed.

  10. Keystroke Dynamics Performance Enhancement With Soft Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Idrus, Syed Zulkarnain; Cherrier, Estelle; Rosenberger, Christophe; Mondal, Soumik; Bours, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    It is accepted that the way a person types on a key-board contains timing patterns, which can be used to classify him/her, is known as keystroke dynamics. Keystroke dynamics is a behavioural biometric modality, whose perfor-mances, however, are worse than morphological modalities such as fingerprint, iris recognition or face recognition. To cope with this, we propose to combine keystroke dynamics with soft biometrics. Soft biometrics refers to biometric characteristics that are not sufficient...

  11. Who Holds the Power in Soft Power?

    OpenAIRE

    Nisbett, Melissa Jane

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the concepts of “soft power” and “cultural diplomacy” from both a theoretical perspective as well as thinking about how they manifest in practice. Britain is used as a case study to demonstrate how these terms have shifted in line with the advancement of neoliberal politics. Any belief in intercultural cooperation has been usurped by the notion of global competition, wholeheartedly embraced by market-oriented Western nations. As soft power relies on the resources of the ...

  12. El soft power chino. Un acercamiento

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Villamizar Lamus

    2011-01-01

    The article explains the concept of “soft power”, very much in vogue in the field of International Relations, and proceeds to explain how the People’s Republic of China uses this concept in its foreign policy in general, and how it operates in Latin America, given the different components of “soft power” as applied to Chinese behaviour, such as (i) culture, to the extent that it attracts others, (ii) foreign policy, and (iii) political values.

  13. El soft power chino. Un acercamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Villamizar Lamus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the concept of “soft power”, very much in vogue in the field of International Relations, and proceeds to explain how the People’s Republic of China uses this concept in its foreign policy in general, and how it operates in Latin America, given the different components of “soft power” as applied to Chinese behaviour, such as (i culture, to the extent that it attracts others, (ii foreign policy, and (iii political values.

  14. Local Recurrence of Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Whitney M; Deneve, Jeremiah L

    2016-10-01

    The management of recurrent soft tissue sarcoma is a challenging problem for clinicians and has a significant physical, mental, emotional, and oncologic impact for the patient. Despite excellent limb-preservation therapies, approximately one-quarter of patients may eventually develop recurrence of disease. How to most appropriately manage these patients is a matter of debate. Several treatment options exist, including surgical resection, irradiation, systemic chemotherapy, amputation, and regional therapies. This article highlights the management of recurrent extremity soft tissue sarcoma. PMID:27542648

  15. Double Soft Theorem for Perturbative Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Arnab Priya

    2016-01-01

    Following up on the recent work of Cachazo, He and Yuan \\cite{arXiv:1503.04816 [hep-th]}, we derive the double soft graviton theorem in perturbative gravity. We show that the double soft theorem derived using CHY formula precisely matches with the perturbative computation involving Feynman diagrams. In particular, we find how certain delicate limits of Feynman diagrams play an important role in obtaining this equivalence.

  16. AN INTERIM REPORT ON SOFT SYSTEMS EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viljem Rupnik

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available As application areas rapidly grow beyond the theoretical framework of fundamental decision theory we are very often temptated to see whether or not soft systems may promise some efficient modelling of real life problems. The pioneering bust towards soft systems methodology has come from the needs of mathematical sociology. Its contemporary definition as well as its applied architecture have been dealt with as in a paper proposed.

  17. Extramedullary Plasmacytoma of Soft Tissues and Gingiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrit Kaur Kaler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP is a rare plasma cell neoplasm of soft tissue without bone marrow involvement or other systemic characteristics of multiple myeloma. It accounts for 3% of all plasma cell tumors. Multiple extramedullary plasmacytoma is defined when there is more than one extramedullary tumor of clonal plasma cells and such presentation has not been described earlier. We report such rare case of multiple extramedullary plasmacytoma involving multiple soft tissues in chest, abdomen, mandible, maxilla, and gingiva.

  18. Nonlinear Properties of Soft Glass Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Henrik

    This thesis builds around the investigation into using soft glass materials for midinfrared and THz applications. Soft glasses is a term that cov ers a wide range of chemical compositions where many are yet to be fully investigated. The work in this thesis is separated in two parts, the mid-infra...... reflection measurements to determine the complex refractive index. Knowledge of the index and loss is key in determining if these glasses will be interesting candidates for future applications....

  19. Soft tissue balancing in total shoulder replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Maike; Hoy, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Total shoulder arthroplasty is now capable of recreating near anatomic reproduction of native bony shoulder anatomy, but the function and longevity of anatomic shoulder replacement is dependent on a competent soft tissue envelope and adequate motoring of all musculo-tendinous units about the shoulder. Balancing the soft tissues requires understanding of the anatomy and pathology, as well as technical skills. The advent of reverse shoulder biomechanics has brought with it special requirements ...

  20. Exact Soft Confidence-Weighted Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jialei; Zhao, Peilin; Hoi, Steven C. H.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new Soft Confidence-Weighted (SCW) online learning scheme, which enables the conventional confidence-weighted learning method to handle non-separable cases. Unlike the previous confidence-weighted learning algorithms, the proposed soft confidence-weighted learning method enjoys all the four salient properties: (i) large margin training, (ii) confidence weighting, (iii) capability to handle non-separable data, and (iv) adaptive margin. Our experimental results show ...

  1. Monograph of Arctium L. (Asteraceae). Generic delimitation (including Cousinia Cass, p.p.), revision of the species, pollen morphology, and hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Duistermaat, Helena

    1996-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is a monograph of the genus Arctium, now including also five species formerly placed into Cousinia. Based on herbarium material and some field observations, this study presents new insights on three subjects: a) the generic delimitation of Arctium, b) the species delimitation within the A. minus-complex, and c) the occurrence of hybridisation. It soon became clear, rather surprisingly, that five species of Cousinia possess hooked involucral bracts like Arctium in it...

  2. Extreme Mechanics in Soft Pneumatic Robots and Soft Microfluidic Electronics and Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Carmel

    2012-02-01

    In the near future, machines and robots will be completely soft, stretchable, impact resistance, and capable of adapting their shape and functionality to changes in mission and environment. Similar to biological tissue and soft-body organisms, these next-generation technologies will contain no rigid parts and instead be composed entirely of soft elastomers, gels, fluids, and other non-rigid matter. Using a combination of rapid prototyping tools, microfabrication methods, and emerging techniques in so-called ``soft lithography,'' scientists and engineers are currently introducing exciting new families of soft pneumatic robots, soft microfluidic sensors, and hyperelastic electronics that can be stretched to as much as 10x their natural length. Progress has been guided by an interdisciplinary collection of insights from chemistry, life sciences, robotics, microelectronics, and solid mechanics. In virtually every technology and application domain, mechanics and elasticity have a central role in governing functionality and design. Moreover, in contrast to conventional machines and electronics, soft pneumatic systems and microfluidics typically operate in the finite deformation regime, with materials stretching to several times their natural length. In this talk, I will review emerging paradigms in soft pneumatic robotics and soft microfluidic electronics and highlight modeling and design challenges that arise from the extreme mechanics of inflation, locomotion, sensor operation, and human interaction. I will also discuss perceived challenges and opportunities in a broad range of potential application, from medicine to wearable computing.

  3. SoftLab: A Soft-Computing Software for Experimental Research with Commercialization Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzadeh-T, M.-R.; Shaikh, T. S.; Ren, J.; Hubbell, Rob; Kumbla, K. K.; Jamshidi, M

    1998-01-01

    SoftLab is a software environment for research and development in intelligent modeling/control using soft-computing paradigms such as fuzzy logic, neural networks, genetic algorithms, and genetic programs. SoftLab addresses the inadequacies of the existing soft-computing software by supporting comprehensive multidisciplinary functionalities from management tools to engineering systems. Furthermore, the built-in features help the user process/analyze information more efficiently by a friendly yet powerful interface, and will allow the user to specify user-specific processing modules, hence adding to the standard configuration of the software environment.

  4. Spin waves in the soft layer of exchange-coupled soft/hard bilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-min Xiong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic dynamical properties of the soft layer in exchange-coupled soft/hard bilayers have been investigated numerically using a one-dimensional atomic chain model. The frequencies and spatial profiles of spin wave eigenmodes are calculated during the magnetization reversal process of the soft layer. The spin wave modes exhibit a spatially modulated amplitude, which is especially evident for high-order modes. A dynamic pinning effect of surface magnetic moment is observed. The spin wave eigenfrequency decreases linearly with the increase of the magnetic field in the uniformly magnetized state and increases nonlinearly with field when spiral magnetization configuration is formed in the soft layer.

  5. Capillary fracture of soft gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, Joshua B; Daniels, Karen E

    2013-10-01

    A liquid droplet resting on a soft gel substrate can deform that substrate to the point of material failure, whereby fractures develop on the gel surface that propagate outwards from the contact line in a starburst pattern. In this paper, we characterize (i) the initiation process, in which the number of arms in the starburst is controlled by the ratio of the surface tension contrast to the gel's elastic modulus, and (ii) the propagation dynamics showing that once fractures are initiated they propagate with a universal power law L[proportional]t(3/4). We develop a model for crack initiation by treating the gel as a linear elastic solid and computing the deformations within the substrate from the liquid-solid wetting forces. The elastic solution shows that both the location and the magnitude of the wetting forces are critical in providing a quantitative prediction for the number of fractures and, hence, an interpretation of the initiation of capillary fractures. This solution also reveals that the depth of the gel is an important factor in the fracture process, as it can help mitigate large surface tractions; this finding is confirmed with experiments. We then develop a model for crack propagation by considering the transport of an inviscid fluid into the fracture tip of an incompressible material and find that a simple energy-conservation argument can explain the observed material-independent power law. We compare predictions for both linear elastic and neo-Hookean solids, finding that the latter better explains the observed exponent. PMID:24229192

  6. Soft magnetic memory of silk cocoon membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Manas; Dubey, Amarish; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Philip, Deepu; Sarkar, Sabyasachi; Bajpai, Alok; Das, Mainak

    2016-01-01

    Silk cocoon membrane (SCM), a solid matrix of protein fiber, responds to light, heat and moisture and converts these energies to electrical signals. Essentially it exhibits photo-electric and thermo-electric properties; making it a natural electro-magnetic sensor, which may influence the pupal development. This raises the question: 'is it only electricity?', or 'it also posses some kind of magnetic memory?' This work attempted to explore the magnetic memory of SCM and confirm its soft magnetism. Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, Gd were found in SCM, in traces, through energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Presence of iron was ascertained by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). In addition, EPR-spectra showed the presence of a stable pool of carbon-centric free radical in the cocoon structure. Carbon-centric free radicals behaves as a soft magnet inherently. Magnetic-Hysteresis (M-H) of SCM confirmed its soft magnetism. It can be concluded that the soft bio-magnetic feature of SCM is due to the entrapment of ferromagnetic elements in a stable pool of carbon centric radicals occurring on the super-coiled protein structure. Natural soft magnets like SCM provide us with models for developing eco-friendly, protein-based biological soft magnets. PMID:27374752

  7. 7 CFR 51.1563 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1563 Section 51.1563... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1563 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or leaky condition of the tissue such as slimy...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1582 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1582 Section 51.1582... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1582 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or leaky condition of the tissue such as slimy...

  9. Effective Strategies and Activities for Developing Soft Skills, Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaszczynski, Carol; Green, Diana J.

    2012-01-01

    Employers seek employees who possess soft skills. Employees who do not have excellent soft skills may not experience success in obtaining and sustaining employment. McEwen's (2010) framework for skill-building--introduce, explain, practice, and reinforce--was used to describe activities for enhancing soft skills. Assessment of soft skills…

  10. Effective Strategies and Activities for Developing Soft Skills, Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Diana J.; Blaszczynski, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Employers seek employees who possess soft skills. Employees who do not have excellent soft skills may not experience success in obtaining and sustaining employment. McEwen's (2010) framework for skill-building--introduce, explain, practice, and reinforce--was used to describe activities for enhancing soft skills. Soft skills building activities…

  11. On single and double soft behaviors in NLSM

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Yi-Jian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the single and double soft behaviors of the tree level off-shell currents and on-shell amplitudes in nonlinear sigma model by Berends-Giele recursion. We first propose and prove the leading soft behavior of the tree level currents with a single soft particle. In the on-shell limit, this single soft emission becomes the Adler's zero. Then we establish the leading and subleading soft behaviors of the tree level currents with two soft particles. With a careful analysis of the on-shell limit, we obtain the double soft behavior of the on-shell amplitudes from their off-shell currents version.

  12. Clinical roundtable monograph: Recent advances in the treatment of mantle cell lymphoma: a post-ASH 2009 discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuczman, Myron S; Leonard, John P; Williams, Michael E

    2010-04-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma characterized by CD5 expression and a t(11;14) cytogenetic translocation that results in overexpression of the cyclin D1 gene. Currently, there is no standard of care for the treatment of MCL, and patient prognosis is poor. Traditional treatments for MCL rely on conventional chemotherapy agents, including cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP). The addition of the immunotherapeutic agent rituximab to this regimen (CHOP-R) has helped to improve patient response to treatment. These treatments often provide good initial responses that are difficult to sustain. Therefore, a number of newer agents and combinations have been investigated to produce more durable benefit. Several of these advances were reported at the 51st American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting and Exposition, held December 5-8, 2009 in New Orleans, Louisiana. In this clinical roundtable monograph, new strategies in the treatment of MCL are discussed. Some of the drug classes examined here are proteasome inhibitors, inhibitors of the protein mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the unique alkylating agent bendamustine, and immunomodulatory agents. PMID:20539272

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF METHOD OF QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF BIRD CHERRY FRUIT FOR INCLUSION IN THE MONOGRAPH OF STATE PHARMACOPOEIA OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenchyk L.V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bird cherry Padus avium Mill, Rosaceae, is widespread in Ukraine, especially in forests and forest-steppe areas. Bird cherry fruits have long been used in medicine and is a valuable medicinal raw materials. They stated to posess astringent, anti-inflammatory, phytoncidal properties. Bird cherry fruits are included in the USSR Pharmacopoeia IX ed., The State Pharmacopoeia of the Russian Federation, The State Pharmacopoeia of Republic of Belarus. In Ukraine there are no contemporary normative documents for this medicinal plant material, therefore it is the actual to develop projects in the national monographs "dry bird cherry fruit" and "fresh bird cherry fruit" to be included in the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine. According to European Pharmacopoeia recommendation method of thin-layer chromatography (TLC is prescribed only for the identification of the herbal drug. The principles of thin-layer chromatography and application of the technique in pharmaceutical analysis are described in State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine. As it is effective and easy to perform, and the equipment required is inexpensive, the technique is frequently used for evaluating medicinal plant materials and their preparations. The TLC is aimed at elucidating the chromatogram of the drug with respect to selected reference compounds that are described for inclusion as reagents. Aim of this study was to develop methods of qualitative analysis of bird cherry fruits for a monograph in the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine (SPU. Materials and Methods. The object of our study was dried bird cherry fruits (7 samples and fresh bird cherry fruits (7 samples harvested in 2013-2015 in Kharkiv, Poltava, Luhansk, Sumy, Lviv, Mykolaiv regions and the city Mariupol. Samples were registered in the department of SPU State Enterprise "Pharmacopeia center". In accordance with the Ph. Eur. and SPU requirements in "identification C" determination was performed by TLC. TLC was performed on

  14. Zur Dialektik von Soft Skills und fachlicher Kompetenz

    OpenAIRE

    Jendrowiak, Hans-Werner

    2010-01-01

    [Der Autor stellt folgende Thesen zur Dialektik von Soft Skills und fachlicher Bildung auf:] 1. Soft Skills sind normale Bildungskategorien und Teil einer Allgemeinen Bildung. […] 2. Soft Skills sind als personalgebundene Kriterien auch immer schon Gegenstand bildungstheoretischer Debatten. […] 3. Soft Skills ist eine trendorientierte Bezeichnung für Bildung. […] 4. Soft Skills sind Ausdruck von Vorstellungen, Ideen und Theorien (Schulkultur, Unternehmenskultur, Unternehmensphilosophie). 5. S...

  15. Soft Active Materials for Actuation, Sensing, and Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Rebecca Krone

    2012-01-01

    Future generations of robots, electronics, and assistive medical devices will include systems that are soft and elastically deformable, allowing them to adapt their morphology in unstructured environments. This will require soft active materials for actuation, circuitry, and sensing of deformation and contact pressure. The emerging field of soft robotics utilizes these soft active materials to mimic the inherent compliance of natural soft-bodied systems. As the elasticity of robot components ...

  16. Separation Axioms in Bi-soft Topological Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Naz, Munazza; Shabir, Muhammad; Ali, Muhammad Irfan

    2015-01-01

    Concept of bi-soft topological spaces is introduced. Several notions of a soft topological space are generalized to study bi-soft topological spaces. Separation axioms play a vital role in study of topological spaces. These concepts have been studied in context of bi-soft topological spaces. There is a very close relationship between topology and rough set theory. An application of bi-soft topology is given in rough set theory.

  17. Building China’s soft power for a peaceful rise

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xin; Worm, Verner

    2009-01-01

    With China’s rapid economic progress and steady increase in its international influence, China has gradually embarked on the soft power idea and has made developing its soft power as its national strategy. We argue that China’s soft power strategy is in accordance to Chinese Confucian culture and political value and fits well with its grand strategy of peaceful rise. Based on existing conceptualizations of soft power, we expanded the sources of soft power to six pillars: cul...

  18. Soft factors for double parton scattering at NNLO

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimirov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    We show at NNLO that the soft factors for double parton scattering (DPS) for both integrated and unintegrated kinematics, can be presented entirely in the terms of the soft factor for single Drell-Yan process, i.e. the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) soft factor. Using the linearity of logarithm of TMD soft factor in rapidity divergences, we decompose the DPS soft factor matrices into a product of matrices with rapidity divergences in given sectors, and thus, define individual double part...

  19. Plasma characteristics during soft disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A significant class of disruptive discharges in tokamaks is characterized by an irreversible but rather slow current decay occurring while the electron temperature is still high. For definitiveness we refer to typical JET cases, where the observed rate of current decay is of the order of 2-3MA/s and the electron temperature Te measured by the ECE polychromator may decay as fast as 6keV/s in the center and 1.5 keV/s at the position of the q=2 surface. The influx of impurities is moderate and Zeff ∼6. The Ohmic resistance ROhm calculated with the proper plasma geometry and the ECE profiles is of the order of 1 μΩ plasma during the disruptive decay and these observations cannot be reconciled with the model of a choking effect of the plasma caused solely by a sudden inflow of impurities which may drive a radiative collapse of the plasma temperature to a few eV on a ms time scale. The discharge evolution is conveniently described by the trajectories on the plane of the parameters li (internal inductance) and q(a) (safety factor). Inspection of the path followed shows that the soft disruption phase often traces backwards the current ramp up phase, where an accelerated peaking up of the current profile may be associated to the effects of observed enhancement of MHD activity, as measured by the poloidal and toroidal magnetic pick-up coils. The observed irreversible process suggests that the effective resistance Reff of the plasma may be due indeed to temperature independent MHD effects. The problem is discussed comparing the difference between the effective and the Ohmic resistances with the expected value of a model based on the coupling of unstable tearing modes with resonant surfaces close together, around the q=2 surface where a saturated background mode is assumed. The time scales of the process observed require that the power input to the plasma be evaluated considering the full coupling with the external active and passive circuit elements since it is incorrect

  20. Fuzzy logic, neural networks, and soft computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadeh, Lofti A.

    1994-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed a rapid growth of interest in a cluster of modes of modeling and computation which may be described collectively as soft computing. The distinguishing characteristic of soft computing is that its primary aims are to achieve tractability, robustness, low cost, and high MIQ (machine intelligence quotient) through an exploitation of the tolerance for imprecision and uncertainty. Thus, in soft computing what is usually sought is an approximate solution to a precisely formulated problem or, more typically, an approximate solution to an imprecisely formulated problem. A simple case in point is the problem of parking a car. Generally, humans can park a car rather easily because the final position of the car is not specified exactly. If it were specified to within, say, a few millimeters and a fraction of a degree, it would take hours or days of maneuvering and precise measurements of distance and angular position to solve the problem. What this simple example points to is the fact that, in general, high precision carries a high cost. The challenge, then, is to exploit the tolerance for imprecision by devising methods of computation which lead to an acceptable solution at low cost. By its nature, soft computing is much closer to human reasoning than the traditional modes of computation. At this juncture, the major components of soft computing are fuzzy logic (FL), neural network theory (NN), and probabilistic reasoning techniques (PR), including genetic algorithms, chaos theory, and part of learning theory. Increasingly, these techniques are used in combination to achieve significant improvement in performance and adaptability. Among the important application areas for soft computing are control systems, expert systems, data compression techniques, image processing, and decision support systems. It may be argued that it is soft computing, rather than the traditional hard computing, that should be viewed as the foundation for artificial

  1. NEW THEORY IN TUNNEL STABLILITY CONTROL OF SOFT ROCK ——MECHANICS OF SOFT ROCK ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何满朝

    1996-01-01

    Tunnel stability control is a world-wide difficult problem. For the sake of solving it,the new theory of soft rock engineering mechanics has been estabilished. Some key points,such as the definition and classification of soft rock, mechanical deformation mechanism of a soft rock tunnel, the critical support technique of soft rock tunnel and the new theory of the soft rock tunnel stability control are proposed in this paper.

  2. Carbon nanotubes and graphene towards soft electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Sang Hoon; Lee, Young Hee

    2014-04-01

    Although silicon technology has been the main driving force for miniaturizing device dimensions to improve cost and performance, the current application of Si to soft electronics (flexible and stretchable electronics) is limited due to material rigidity. As a result, various prospective materials have been proposed to overcome the rigidity of conventional Si technology. In particular, nano-carbon materials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene are promising due to outstanding elastic properties as well as an excellent combination of electronic, optoelectronic, and thermal properties compared to conventional rigid silicon. The uniqueness of these nano-carbon materials has opened new possibilities for soft electronics, which is another technological trend in the market. This review covers the recent progress of soft electronics research based on CNTs and graphene. We discuss the strategies for soft electronics with nano-carbon materials and their preparation methods (growth and transfer techniques) to devices as well as the electrical characteristics of transparent conducting films (transparency and sheet resistance) and device performances in field effect transistor (FET) (structure, carrier type, on/off ratio, and mobility). In addition to discussing state of the art performance metrics, we also attempt to clarify trade-off issues and methods to control the trade-off on/off versus mobility). We further demonstrate accomplishments of the CNT network in flexible integrated circuits on plastic substrates that have attractive characteristics. A future research direction is also proposed to overcome current technological obstacles necessary to realize commercially feasible soft electronics.

  3. Soft Computing in Humanities and Social Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    González, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    The field of Soft Computing in Humanities and Social Sciences is at a turning point. The strong distinction between “science” and “humanities” has been criticized from many fronts and, at the same time, an increasing cooperation between the so-called “hard sciences” and “soft sciences” is taking place in a wide range of scientific projects dealing with very complex and interdisciplinary topics. In the last fifteen years the area of Soft Computing has also experienced a gradual rapprochement to disciplines in the Humanities and Social Sciences, and also in the field of Medicine, Biology and even the Arts, a phenomenon that did not occur much in the previous years.   The collection of this book presents a generous sampling of the new and burgeoning field of Soft Computing in Humanities and Social Sciences, bringing together a wide array of authors and subject matters from different disciplines. Some of the contributors of the book belong to the scientific and technical areas of Soft Computing w...

  4. The mechanics of soft biological composites.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thao D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Grazier, John Mark; Boyce, Brad Lee; Jones, Reese E. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2007-10-01

    Biological tissues are uniquely structured materials with technologically appealing properties. Soft tissues such as skin, are constructed from a composite of strong fibrils and fluid-like matrix components. This was the first coordinated experimental/modeling project at Sandia or in the open literature to consider the mechanics of micromechanically-based anisotropy and viscoelasticity of soft biological tissues. We have exploited and applied Sandia's expertise in experimentation and mechanics modeling to better elucidate the behavior of collagen fibril-reinforced soft tissues. The purpose of this project was to provide a detailed understanding of the deformation of ocular tissues, specifically the highly structured skin-like tissue in the cornea. This discovery improved our knowledge of soft/complex materials testing and modeling. It also provided insight into the way that cornea tissue is bio-engineered such that under physiologically-relevant conditions it has a unique set of properties which enhance functionality. These results also provide insight into how non-physiologic loading conditions, such as corrective surgeries, may push the cornea outside of its natural design window, resulting in unexpected non-linear responses. Furthermore, this project created a clearer understanding of the mechanics of soft tissues that could lead to bio-inspired materials, such as highly supple and impact resistant body armor, and improve our design of human-machine interfaces, such as micro-electrical-mechanical (MEMS) based prosthetics.

  5. Soft Computing Techniques for Process Control Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Malhotra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Technological innovations in soft computing techniques have brought automation capabilities to new levelsof applications. Process control is an important application of any industry for controlling the complexsystem parameters, which can greatly benefit from such advancements. Conventional control theory isbased on mathematical models that describe the dynamic behaviour of process control systems. Due to lackin comprehensibility, conventional controllers are often inferior to the intelligent controllers. Softcomputing techniques provide an ability to make decisions and learning from the reliable data or expert’sexperience. Moreover, soft computing techniques can cope up with a variety of environmental and stabilityrelated uncertainties. This paper explores the different areas of soft computing techniques viz. Fuzzy logic,genetic algorithms and hybridization of two and abridged the results of different process control casestudies. It is inferred from the results that the soft computing controllers provide better control on errorsthan conventional controllers. Further, hybrid fuzzy genetic algorithm controllers have successfullyoptimized the errors than standalone soft computing and conventional techniques.

  6. Can soft biometric traits assist user recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anil K.; Dass, Sarat C.; Nandakumar, Karthik

    2004-08-01

    Biometrics is rapidly gaining acceptance as the technology that can meet the ever increasing need for security in critical applications. Biometric systems automatically recognize individuals based on their physiological and behavioral characteristics. Hence, the fundamental requirement of any biometric recognition system is a human trait having several desirable properties like universality, distinctiveness, permanence, collectability, acceptability, and resistance to circumvention. However, a human characteristic that possesses all these properties has not yet been identified. As a result, none of the existing biometric systems provide perfect recognition and there is a scope for improving the performance of these systems. Although characteristics like gender, ethnicity, age, height, weight and eye color are not unique and reliable, they provide some information about the user. We refer to these characteristics as "soft" biometric traits and argue that these traits can complement the identity information provided by the primary biometric identifiers like fingerprint and face. This paper presents the motivation for utilizing soft biometric information and analyzes how the soft biometric traits can be automatically extracted and incorporated in the decision making process of the primary biometric system. Preliminary experiments were conducted on a fingerprint database of 160 users by synthetically generating soft biometric traits like gender, ethnicity, and height based on known statistics. The results show that the use of additional soft biometric user information significantly improves (approximately 6%) the recognition performance of the fingerprint biometric system.

  7. Soft-tissue mineralization in Werner syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leone, Antonio; Costantini, Alessandro Maria; Brigida, Raffaela; Antoniol, Onorina Monica; Bonomo, Lorenzo [Universita Cattolica School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Antonelli-Incalzi, Raffaele [Universita Cattolica School of Medicine, Department of Geriatrics, Rome (Italy)

    2005-01-01

    Werner syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by clinical signs of premature aging, short stature, scleroderma-like skin changes, endocrine abnormalities, cataracts, and an increased incidence of malignancies. We report on a 48-year-old woman with Werner syndrome associated with intracranial meningiomas who had extensive musculoskeletal manifestations including osteoporosis of the extremities, extensive tendinopathy about the ankles, osteomyelitis of the phalanges of the first left toe, abundant soft-tissue calcification, and two dense ossified soft-tissue masses, with cortical bone and trabeculae arising from the posterosuperior aspect of the calcanei and extending into Kager fat pads. A review of previous descriptions of the radiological abnormalities of Werner syndrome indicates that the presence of soft-tissue calcifications has either not been noted or been mentioned only briefly. Moreover, there is no mention of bony masses associated with Werner syndrome in the world literature, and this would appear to be the first report of this kind. (orig.)

  8. Soft x-ray tomography on TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tomographic method used for deriving soft x-ray local emissivities on TFTR, using one horizontal array of 60 soft x-ray detectors, is described. This method, which is based on inversion of Fourier components and subsequent reconstruction, has been applied to the study of a sawtooth crash. A flattening in the soft x-ray profile, which we interpret as an m = 1 island, is clearly visible during the precursor phase and its location and width correlate well with those from electron temperature profiles reconstructed from electron cyclotron emission measurement. The limitations of the Fourier method, due notably to the aperiodic nature of the signals in the fast crash phase and the difficulty of obtaining accurately the higher Fourier harmonics, are discussed. 9 refs., 13 figs

  9. Characteristics of soft X-ray lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A soft X-lens was devised with waveguide X-ray optics of total external reflection (TER). The lens consists of a stack of 1 387 TER waveguides with inner diameter of 0.45 mm and outer diameter of 0.60 mm. With the help of plasma sources of soft X-ray radiation, high density of pure soft X-ray radiation (without plasma expansion fragments) with broad-band spectral range can be obtained at the focus of the lens. As laser-plasma is considered, the radiation density of 1.3 x 105 W/cm2 is obtained, the transmission coefficient is 18.6%, the ratio of the density at the focus with and without the lens is 1000 and the radiation capture is 28.9 degree. The density of 0.5 TW/cm2 can be obtained as far as Qiang-Guang I facility is considered. (authors)

  10. A compliant soft-actuator laterotactile display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoop, Espen; Rossiter, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Humans are extremely adept at eliciting useful information through touch, and the tactile domain has huge potential for handheld and wearable electronic devices. Smart materials may be central to exploiting this potential. The skin is highly sensitive to laterotactile stimulation, where tactile elements move laterally against the skin, and this modality is well suited for wearable devices. Wearable devices should be soft and compliant, in order to move with the user and be comfortable. We present and characterize a laterotactile display using soft and compliant dielectric elastomer actuators. We carry out an initial psychophysical study to determine the absolute sensitivity threshold of laterotactile stimulation, and find that at low frequencies sensitivity is higher than for normal tactile stimulation. Our results suggest that the mechanoreceptors close to the skin surface (SA1, FA1) have improved sensitivity to laterotactile stimulation. We believe our results lay the foundation for a range of new soft robotic human interface devices using smart materials.

  11. Carbon nanofibre reinforcement of soft materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In elastomeric matrices carbon nanofibres are found to be twenty times more effective than carbon black as a reinforcing filler. In hard matrices, by contrast, reinforcement is minimal. Tensile and dynamic mechanical tests were performed to elucidate the mechanism of reinforcement in order to explain the superior performance in soft matrices. Small-angle neutron scattering and ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering were used to quantify filler morphology, which turns out to be the key factor that limits reinforcement potential. The presence of fractal cluster formed by agglomeration of the nanofibres reduces the effective aspect ratio of the nanotubes. Clustering, however, introduces a new reinforcement mechanism based on elastic deformation of the fibre clusters. This mechanism is operative in soft matrices but not in hard matrices, thus explaining the enhanced performance in soft matrices.

  12. Soft Modes Contribution into Path Integral

    CERN Document Server

    Belyaev, V M

    1993-01-01

    A method for nonperturbative path integral calculation is proposed. Quantum mechanics as a simplest example of a quantum field theory is considered. All modes are decomposed into hard (with frequencies $\\omega^2 >\\omega^2_0$) and soft (with frequencies $\\omega^2 <\\omega^2_0$) ones, $\\omega_0$ is a some parameter. Hard modes contribution is considered by weak coupling expansion. A low energy effective Lagrangian for soft modes is used. In the case of soft modes we apply a strong coupling expansion. To realize this expansion a special basis in functional space of trajectories is considered. A good convergency of proposed procedure in the case of potential $V(x)=\\lambda x^4$ is demonstrated. Ground state energy of the unharmonic oscillator is calculated.

  13. Hybrid soft computing approaches research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Paramartha; Chakraborty, Susanta

    2016-01-01

    The book provides a platform for dealing with the flaws and failings of the soft computing paradigm through different manifestations. The different chapters highlight the necessity of the hybrid soft computing methodology in general with emphasis on several application perspectives in particular. Typical examples include (a) Study of Economic Load Dispatch by Various Hybrid Optimization Techniques, (b) An Application of Color Magnetic Resonance Brain Image Segmentation by ParaOptiMUSIG activation Function, (c) Hybrid Rough-PSO Approach in Remote Sensing Imagery Analysis,  (d) A Study and Analysis of Hybrid Intelligent Techniques for Breast Cancer Detection using Breast Thermograms, and (e) Hybridization of 2D-3D Images for Human Face Recognition. The elaborate findings of the chapters enhance the exhibition of the hybrid soft computing paradigm in the field of intelligent computing.

  14. Hydrophilic synthetic polymers for soft contact lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process for preparing a hydrophilic synthetic polymer usable as soft contact lenses is provided. The process comprises copolymerizing 20 parts (by wt.) of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate with 0.5 to 3 parts of vinyl acetate and 0.1 to 1 part of a cross-linking monomer (A). The polymerization is carried out either catalytically or by radiation. The resulting copolymer is mechanically fabricated and then swollen with water to give soft contact lenses. The lenses are stable both dynamically and optically, do not injure the cornea, and are capable of correcting regular astigmatism. In one example, 20 parts of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate were copolymerized in a mold with 1 part of vinyl acetate and 0.5 part of divinylbenzene (A) by irradiation with Co 60 radiation (1 x107 r) and then thermally treated. A transparent hydrophilic polymer usable as soft contact lenses was obtained. (Kaichi, S.)

  15. Capping soft tailings from a floating platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, M.; Van Kesteren, W.; Hedblom, E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Oil Sands Tailings Research Facility

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed methods of capping oil sands soft tailings from a floating platform. Caps on soft sediments at various locations throughout the world were analyzed in order to determine their water content and surface shear strength. A small-scale raining project was conducted at Stryker Bay to cap tailings with 150,000 m{sup 3} of sand. A small-scale rainbowing project at Soda Lake delivered sand at a rate of between 20 to 60 m{sup 3}/hr. A large-scale rainbowing project in Rotterdam delivered 2000 m{sup 3}/hr of sand. The capping and dredging project cost $12 per m{sup 3}. Case studies of various capping projects were presented in order to describe and demonstrate the floating platform technique as well as the installation of wicks and drains. The method can be used to cap very soft tailings with thin, uniform lifts. tabs., figs.

  16. NTP-CERHR monograph on the potential human reproductive and developmental effects of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelby, Michael D

    2006-11-01

    The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) conducted an updated evaluation of the potential for DEHP to cause adverse effects on reproduction and development in humans. The first CERHR expert panel evaluation of DEHP was completed in 2000 by the Phthalates Expert Panel. CERHR selected DEHP for an updated evaluation because of: (1) widespread human exposure, (2) public and government interest in adverse health effects, (3) recently available human exposure studies, and (4) the large number of relevant toxicity papers published since the earlier evaluation. DEHP (CAS RN: 117-81-7) is a high production volume chemical used as a plasticizer of polyvinyl chloride in the manufacture of a wide variety of consumer goods, such as building products, car products, clothing, food packaging, children's products (but not in toys intended for mouthing), and in medical devices made of polyvinyl chloride. The public can be exposed to DEHP by ingesting food, drink or dust that has been in contact with DEHP-containing materials, by inhaling contaminated air or dust, or by undergoing a medical procedure that uses polyvinyl chloride medical tubing or storage bags. It is estimated that the general population of the United States is exposed to DEHP levels ranging from 1 to 30 microg/kg bw/day (micrograms per kilogram body weight per day). The results of this DEHP update evaluation are published in an NTP-CERHR monograph that includes: (1) the NTP Brief, (2) the Expert Panel Update on the Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of DEHP, and (3) public comments on the expert panel report. The NTP reached the following conclusions on the possible effects of exposure to DEHP on human development and reproduction. Note that the possible levels of concern, from lowest to highest, are negligible concern, minimal concern, some concern, concern, and serious concern. There is serious concern that certain intensive medical treatments of

  17. Quantification and validation of soft tissue deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Thomas Hammershaimb; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Christensen, Lars Bager

    2009-01-01

    We present a model for soft tissue deformation derived empirically from 10 pig carcases. The carcasses are subjected to deformation from a known single source of pressure located at the skin surface, and the deformation is quantified by means of steel markers injected into the tissue. The steel...... markers are easy to distinguish from the surrounding soft tissue in 3D computed tomography images. By tracking corresponding markers using methods from point-based registration, we are able to accurately quantify the magnitude and propagation of the induced deformation. The deformation is parameterised by...

  18. Soft x-ray resonant magnetic diffraction.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkins, S. B.; Hatton, P. D.; Roper, M.D.; Prabhakaran, D.; Boothroyd, A. T.

    2003-01-01

    We have conducted the first soft x-ray diffraction experiments from a bulk single crystal, studying the bilayer manganite La22xSr12xMn2O7 with x 0:475 in which we were able to access the (002) Bragg reflection using soft x rays. The Bragg reflection displays a strong resonant enhancement at the LIII and LII manganese absorption edges. We demonstrate that the resonant enhancement of the magnetic diffraction of the (001) is extremely large, indeed so large that it exceeds that of t...

  19. Magnetism and metallurgy of soft magnetic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Chih-Wen

    2011-01-01

    Soft magnetic materials are economically and technologically the most important of all magnetic materials. In particular, the development of new materials and novel applications for the computer and telecommunications industries during the past few decades has immensely broadened the scope and altered the nature of soft magnetic materials. In addition to metallic substances, nonmetallic compounds and amorphous thin films are coming increasingly important. This thorough, well-organized volume - on of the most comprehensive treatments available - offers a coherent, logical presentation of the p

  20. Asymptotic symmetries and subleading soft graviton theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campiglia, Miguel; Laddha, Alok

    2014-12-01

    Motivated by the equivalence between the soft graviton theorem and Ward identities for the supertranslation symmetries belonging to the Bondi, van der Burg, Metzner and Sachs (BMS) group, we propose a new extension (different from the so-called extended BMS) of the BMS group that is a semidirect product of supertranslations and Diff(S2) . We propose a definition for the canonical generators associated with the smooth diffeomorphisms and show that the resulting Ward identities are equivalent to the subleading soft graviton theorem of Cachazo and Strominger.

  1. Onsager's Variational Principle in Soft Matter Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Masao

    2012-02-01

    It is shown that Onsager's variational principle gives us a unified frame-work in discussing various dynamics of soft matter such as diffusion, rheology and their coupling. The variational principle gives kinetic equations which satisfy Onsager's reciprocal relation. With many examples, it is shown that the kinetic equations are usually written as non-linear partial differential equations for state variables and can describe various non-linear and non-equilibrium phenomena in soft matter. The physics underlying the variational principle is discussed.

  2. Soft radiative strength in warm nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present data on the soft (Eγ 172Yb and 57Fe have produced unexpected results. In the first case, a strong (B(M1 ↑) = 6.5 μN2) resonance at E = 3.3 MeV was identified. In the second case, a large (more than a factor of 10) enhancement compared to theoretical estimates of the very soft (Eγ (le) 3 MeV), summed RSF for transitions between warm states was observed. A somewhat weaker (factor ∼ 3) enhancement of the RSF in Mo isotopes observed within the Oslo method still awaits confirmation from TSC experiments

  3. Erraticity Analysis of Soft Production by ECOMB

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Z J

    2000-01-01

    Event-to-event fluctuations of the spatial patterns of the final states of high-enery collisions, referred to as erraticity, are studied for the data generated by a soft-interaction model called ECOMB. The moments $C_{p,q}$ do not show simple power-law dependences on the bin size. New measures of erraticity are proposed that generalizes the bin-size dependence. The method should be applied not only to the soft production data of NA22 and NA27 to check the dynamical content of ECOMB, but also to other collision processes, such as $e^+e^-$ annihilation and heavy-ion collisions.

  4. [Adjuvant chemotherapy of adults soft tissue sarcomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui-Nguyen, B; Italiano, A; Delva, F; Toulmond, M

    2010-06-01

    The main progress in the management of soft tissue sarcomas have been obtained in the field of local control. Although the main evolutive, vital, risk of these diseases is metastatic dissemination, efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy remains a controversial issue. Thus, adjuvant chemotherapy cannot be considered as a standard for any situation. The last results of clinical trials, meta-analysis and population studies are presented and discussed in this article. New therapeutic strategies are to be developed to prevent metastases in soft tissue sarcomas. This needs a better understanding of the biology of those tumors, of metastases risk factors and of the determinants of systemic therapies efficacy in these tumors. PMID:20547481

  5. International Conference on Soft Computing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Panigrahi, Bijaya

    2016-01-01

    The book is a collection of high-quality peer-reviewed research papers presented in International Conference on Soft Computing Systems (ICSCS 2015) held at Noorul Islam Centre for Higher Education, Chennai, India. These research papers provide the latest developments in the emerging areas of Soft Computing in Engineering and Technology. The book is organized in two volumes and discusses a wide variety of industrial, engineering and scientific applications of the emerging techniques. It presents invited papers from the inventors/originators of new applications and advanced technologies.

  6. Production costs of Soft Wheat in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Tiberti, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates production costs of soft wheat by applying the FACEPA cost of production model to the Italian data (RICA) for 2005-2009. Estimates are obtained by carrying out a SUR, allowing for correlated errors between the set of equations and for imposing constraints to coefficients The main aim of this study is to provide a robust analysis of the cost, per hectare and per quintal, of soft wheat in order to analytically support a negotiation bargain on the contractual price for so...

  7. Soft tissue sarcoma of the extremity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooper, T M

    2012-02-03

    A retrospective review of 33 cases of soft tissue sarcoma of the extremity presenting over a 10 year period was undertaken. The history, patterns of referral, diagnostic investigations, procedures undertaken and outcomes were studied. We found there was a frequent delay in diagnosis and sometimes misinterpretation of biopsy specimens. Patients were seen by a variety of specialists from disciplines such as general surgery, plastic surgery, orthopaedic surgery and rheumatology. Considerable progress has been made in the treatment of soft tissue sarcomas, often allowing local control of the tumour without amputation. We believe there should be early referral of patients having these tumours to a centre where a combined multidisciplinary approach can be undertaken.

  8. Soft Sensors - Modern Chemical Engineering Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bolf

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Control systems and optimization procedures require regular and reliable measurements at the appropriate frequency. At the same time, legal regulations dictate strict product quality specifications and refinery emissions. As a result, a greater number of process variables need to be measured and new expensive process analyzers need to be installed to achieve efficient process control. This involves synergy between plant experts, system analysts and process operators. One of the common problems in industrial plants is the inability of the real time and continuous measurement of key process variables.Absence of key value measurement in a timely manner aggravates control, but it does not mean that it is always an impossible step. As an alternative, the use of soft sensors as a substitute for process analyzers and laboratory testing is suggested. With the soft sensors, the objective is to develop an inferential model to estimate infrequently measured variables and laboratory assays using the frequently measured variables. By development of soft sensors based on measurement of continuous variables (such as flow, temperature, pressure it is possible to estimate the difficult- -to-measure variables as well as product quality and emissions usually carried by laboratory assays.Software sensors, as part of virtual instrumentation, are focused on assessing the system state variables and quality products by applying the model, thus replacing the physical measurement and laboratory analysis. Multiple linear/nonlinear regression methods and artificial intelligence methods (such as neural network, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms are usually applied in the design of soft sensor models for identification of nonlinear processes.Review of published research and industrial application in the field of soft sensors is given with the methods of soft sensor development and nonlinear dynamic model identification. Based on soft sensors, it is possible to estimate

  9. Receptor binding studies of soft anticholinergic agents

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Fenglei; Buchwald, Peter; Browne, Clinton E.; Farag, Hassan H.; Wu, Wnei-Mei; Ji, Fubao; Hochhaus, Guenther; Bodor, Nicholas

    2001-01-01

    Receptor binding studies were performed on 24 soft anticholinergic agents and 5 conventional anticholinergic agents using 4 cloned human muscarinic receptor subtypes. The measured pKi values of the soft anticholinergic agents ranged from 6.5 to 9.5, with the majority being in the range of 7.5 to 8.5. Strong correlation was observed between the pKis determined here and the pA2 values measured earlier in guinea pig ileum contraction assays. The corresponding correlation coefficients (r2) were 0...

  10. Soft Budget Constraints in Professional Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.; Nielsen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    European professional football clubs go out of business even though they operate chronically on the edge of financial collapse? The paper argues that the paradox can be explained by the fact that professional football clubs operate within soft budget constraints in a way which is similar to the role of...... large companies in socialist economies – a phenomenon which was first identified by the Hungarian Economist János Kornai. More generally, it is argued that our understanding of the peculiar economics of professional team sports can be enhanced significantly by applying the soft budget constrain concept...

  11. Planar elongation of soft polymeric networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Krog; Hassager, Ole; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Bach, Anders; Koldbech, Henning Vitus

    2010-01-01

    A new test fixture for the filament stretch rheometer (FSR) has been developed to measure planar elongation of soft polymeric networks with application towards pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs). The concept of this new geometry is to elongate a tube-like sample by keeping the perimeter constant....... To validate this new technique, soft polymeric networks of poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) were investigated during deformation. Particle tracking and video recording were used to detect to what extent the imposed strain rate and the sample perimeter remained constant. It was observed that, by using an...

  12. Preliminary Findings of Soft Yaw Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole;

    2011-01-01

    As wind turbines increase in size and the demands for lifetime also increases, new methods of load reduction needs to be examined. One method is to make the yaw system of the turbine soft/flexible and hence dampen the loads to the system. This paper presents work previous done on this subject wit...... foucus on hydraulic yaw systems. By utilizing the HAWC2 aeroelastic code and an extended model of the NREL 5MW turbine studies shows that a significant reduction in fatigue loads to the yaw system and rotor shaft is possible by the soft yaw drive concept....

  13. Pressure Model of Soft Body Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Maciej, M; Maciej, Matyka; Mark, Ollila

    2004-01-01

    Motivated by existing models used for soft body simulation which are rather complex to implement, we present a novel technique which is based on simple laws of physics and gives high quality results in real-time. We base the implementation on simple thermodynamics laws and use the Clausius-Clapeyron state equation for pressure calculation. In addition, this provides us with a pressure force that is accumulated into a force accumulator of a 3D mesh object by using an existing spring-mass engine. Finally after integration of Newtons second law we obtain the behavior of a soft body with fixed or non-fixed air pressure inside of it.

  14. Soft matter nanotechnology from structure to function

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Using the well-honed tools of nanotechnology, this book presents breakthrough results in soft matter research, benefitting from the synergies between the chemistry, physics, biology, materials science, and engineering communities. The team of international authors delves beyond mere structure-making and places the emphasis firmly on imparting functionality to soft nanomaterials with a focus on devices and applications. Alongside reviewing the current level of knowledge, they also put forward novel ideas to foster research and development in such expanding fields as nanobiotechnology and nanom

  15. Soft-wall modelling of meson spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Afonin, S S

    2016-01-01

    The holographic methods inspired by the gauge/gravity correspondence from string theory have been actively applied to the hadron spectroscopy in the last eleven years. Within the phenomenological bottom-up approach, the linear Regge-like trajectories for light mesons are naturally reproduced in the so-called "Soft-wall" holographic models. I will give a very short review of the underlying ideas and technical aspects related to the meson spectroscopy. A generalization of soft-wall description of Regge trajectories to arbitrary intercept is proposed. The problem of incorporation of the chiral symmetry breaking is discussed.

  16. Sensorless soft starters for loaded induction motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrisanov, V.I.; Konovalov, Y.N. [Power Plearonics Department, State University of Telecommunication, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The paper is devoted to the research and design of sensorless thyristor soft starters for loaded induction motors (IM) with short circuited squirrel case rotors. It is shown that the applied direct converter topology depends on the output power and consists of a small number of thyristors with special algorithm of switching to realize voltage - frequency control of IM drive systems at low speeds of starting. Sensorless control is realized from the both sides when neither direct converter nor drive system consists of any additional transducers for soft starting operation. (orig.) 4 refs.

  17. Bayesian Soft Sensing in Cold Sheet Rolling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dedecius, Kamil; Jirsa, Ladislav

    Praha: ÚTIA AV ČR, v.v.i, 2010. s. 45-45. [6th International Workshop on Data–Algorithms–Decision Making. 2.12.2010-4.12.2010, Jindřichův Hradec] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7D09008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : soft sensor * bayesian statistics * bayesian model averaging Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/AS/dedecius-bayesian soft sensing in cold sheet rolling.pdf

  18. Soft-collinear mode for jet cross sections in soft collinear effective theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yang-Ting; Hornig, Andrew; Lee, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We propose the addition of a new "soft-collinear" mode to soft collinear effective theory (SCET) below the usual soft scale to factorize and resum logarithms of jet radii R in jet cross sections. We consider exclusive 2-jet cross sections in e+e- collisions with an energy veto Λ on additional jets. The key observation is that there are actually two pairs of energy scales whose ratio is R : the transverse momentum Q R of the energetic particles inside jets and their total energy Q , and the transverse momentum Λ R of soft particles that are cut out of the jet cones and their energy Λ . The soft-collinear mode is necessary to factorize and resum logarithms of the latter hierarchy. We show how this factorization occurs in the jet thrust cross section for cone and kT -type algorithms at O (αs) and using the thrust cone algorithm at O (αs2) . We identify the presence of hard-collinear, in-jet soft, global (veto) soft, and soft-collinear modes in the jet thrust cross section. We also observe here that the in-jet soft modes measured with thrust are actually the "csoft" modes of the theory SCET+ . We dub the new theory with both csoft and soft-collinear modes "SCET++ ." We go on to explain the relation between the "unmeasured" jet function appearing in total exclusive jet cross sections and the hard-collinear and csoft functions in measured jet thrust cross sections. We do not resum logs that are nonglobal in origin, arising from the ratio of the scales of soft radiation whose thrust is measured at Q τ /R and of the soft-collinear radiation at 2 Λ R . Their resummation would require the introduction of additional operators beyond those we consider here. The steps we outline here are a necessary part of summing logs of R that are global in nature and have not been factorized and resummed beyond leading-log level previously.

  19. Resistance and perspectives in soft tissue sarcomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Rudy

    2003-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are rare malignancies originating from mesenchymal origin. They may occur at any age, but the incidence increases with age: about 50% of the patients are over 60 years of age. A distinct peak incidence is made up by embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas that mostly afflict children at age

  20. Biomarkers of necrotising soft tissue infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marco Bo; Simonsen, Ulf; Garred, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The mortality and amputation rates are still high in patients with necrotising soft tissue infections (NSTIs). It would be ideal to have a set of biomarkers that enables the clinician to identify high-risk patients with NSTI on admission. The objectives of this study are to evaluate...

  1. Adverse reactions to injectable soft tissue fillers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Requena, Luis; Requena, Celia; Christensen, Lise;

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, injections with filler agents are often used for wrinkle-treatment and soft tissue augmentation by dermatologists and plastic surgeons. Unfortunately, the ideal filler has not yet been discovered and all of them may induce adverse reactions. Quickly biodegradable or resorbable ag...

  2. Sweetness flavour interactions in soft drinks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahon, D.F.; Roozen, J.P.; Graaf, de C.

    1996-01-01

    Sucrose can be substituted by intense sweeteners to lower the calorie content of soft drinks. Although the sweetness is kept at the same level as much as possible, the flavour of the product often changes. This change could be due to both the mechanism of sensory perception and interactive effects o

  3. Economic Soft Landing:A Common Desir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUOYUANJUN

    2005-01-01

    An economic soft landing refers to steady deceleration of an overheated economy to a mole moderate rate of growth. As such, it may appear to relate to government macro,adjustmentrrather than the desire of the common people. But its effect is one of cooling down fleree economic growth that exerts high pressure on daily life and is, therefore, of social benefif.

  4. Meeting the Demand: Teaching "Soft" Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, William J.; Logan, Joyce; Smith, Sheila M.; Szul, Linda F.

    This document contains four papers (and an introduction by William Wilhelm) on teaching "soft" skills in business education programs. "The Skill Building Challenge: Preparing a Bridge for the Workforce Skills Gap" (Sheila M. Smith) examines the following topics: the workforce skills gap; the importance of academic and behavioral skills; and public…

  5. Soft Governance Instruments in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    Following recent theoretical and conceptual developments this paper examines the extent to which the gradual introduction and unfolding of new soft instruments in the European Union is in fact changing the EUs system of governance and the nature of the European integration process. The paper...

  6. Lipid protrusions membrane softness, and enzymatic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Østergaard; Høyrup, P.; Callisen, T.H.;

    2004-01-01

    protrusion modes and mechanical softness of phospholipid bilayers and on the other side the activity of enzymes acting on lipid bilayers composed of different unsaturated lipids. Specifically, our experiments show a correlation between the bilayer bending rigidity and the apparent Arrhenius activation energy...

  7. Lasers in soft tissue dental surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, Robert M.

    1990-06-01

    In the field of periodontics and oral surgery, the laser is a relatively new, but rapidly emerging, surgical tool. In the new area of soft tissue surgery, i.e., benign lesion and growths, the laser can completely replace the scalpel and offer the periodontist and the oral and maxillofacial surgeon a new and exciting alternative.

  8. Evaluation of a Soft Skills Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoensap-Kelly, Piyawan; Broussard, Lauren; Lindsly, Mallory; Troy, Megan

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a soft skills employee training program. We examined willingness to learn and delivery methods (face-to-face vs. online) and their associations with the training outcomes in terms of learning and behavioral change. Results showed that neither participants' willingness to learn nor delivery…

  9. Developing Soft Skills Using "Literature Circles"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Mohd Nazri Bin Latiff

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of the implementation of "Literature Circles" in an Active Learning classroom in relations to developing soft skills among university students. The use of Literature Circles is a well-known strategy in teaching the students to be more creative, independent, and think out of the box. A group of…

  10. Dielectric Elastomer Based "Grippers" for Soft Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shian, Samuel; Bertoldi, Katia; Clarke, David R

    2015-11-18

    The use of few stiff fibers to control the deformation of dielectric elastomer actuators, in particular to break the symmetry of equi-biaxial lateral strain in the absence of prestretch, is demonstrated. Actuators with patterned fibers are shown to evolve into unique shapes upon electrical actuation, enabling novel designs of gripping actuators for soft robotics. PMID:26418227

  11. Real Life Applications of Soft Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Anupam

    2010-01-01

    The application of soft computing techniques in industrial control, security, data mining, software world, robotics, can be easily seen. This book uncovers such applications, explaining the underlying technology and its implementation. It demonstrates how they can be modeled, designed, and implemented.

  12. Soft thrombus formation in radiofrequency catheter ablation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demolin, JM; Eick, OJ; Munch, K; Koullick, E; Nakagawa, H; Wittkampf, FHM

    2002-01-01

    During RF catheter ablation, local temperature elevation can result in coagulum formation on the ablation electrode, resulting in impedance rise. A recent study has also demonstrated the formation of a so-called soft thrombus during experimental ablations. This deposit poorly adhered to the catheter

  13. MRI evaluation of soft tissue hydatid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infestation in soft tissue by Echinococcus granulosus is not a common disease, and its diagnosis is based on clinical, laboratory data and radiological findings. The aim of our retrospective study is to give an overview of the different signs and patterns shown by MRI that can be useful in characterizing soft tissue hydatid disease. The MRI images obtained in seven patients with soft tissue and subcutaneous hydatidosis were reviewed. Typical signs of hydatidosis were multivesicular lesions with or without hypointense peripheral ring (''rim sign''). Related to the presence and absence, respectively, of viable scolices in the microscopic exam, daughter cysts were presented either as high signal intensity or low signal intensity on T2-weighted images. Low-intensity detached layers within the cyst and peripheral enhancement with gadolinium-DTPA were also presented. Atypical signs were presented in an infected muscular cyst, a subcutaneous unilocular cyst and several unilocular cysts. Knowledge of the different patterns in MRI of soft tissue hydatid disease can be useful in diagnosing this entity. We observed that the ''rim sign'' is not as common as in other locations, and in addition, MRI seems to be of assistance when evaluating the vitality of the cysts. (orig.)

  14. MRI evaluation of soft tissue hydatid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Diez, A.I.; Ros Mendoza, L.H.; Villacampa, V.M.; Cozar, M.; Fuertes, M.I. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital Miguel Servet, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2000-03-01

    Infestation in soft tissue by Echinococcus granulosus is not a common disease, and its diagnosis is based on clinical, laboratory data and radiological findings. The aim of our retrospective study is to give an overview of the different signs and patterns shown by MRI that can be useful in characterizing soft tissue hydatid disease. The MRI images obtained in seven patients with soft tissue and subcutaneous hydatidosis were reviewed. Typical signs of hydatidosis were multivesicular lesions with or without hypointense peripheral ring (''rim sign''). Related to the presence and absence, respectively, of viable scolices in the microscopic exam, daughter cysts were presented either as high signal intensity or low signal intensity on T2-weighted images. Low-intensity detached layers within the cyst and peripheral enhancement with gadolinium-DTPA were also presented. Atypical signs were presented in an infected muscular cyst, a subcutaneous unilocular cyst and several unilocular cysts. Knowledge of the different patterns in MRI of soft tissue hydatid disease can be useful in diagnosing this entity. We observed that the ''rim sign'' is not as common as in other locations, and in addition, MRI seems to be of assistance when evaluating the vitality of the cysts. (orig.)

  15. Bangladesh looks for a soft loan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems faced by developing countries in embarking on a nuclear power programme are considered. It is argued that an international funding agency should be set up by the IAEA and the World Bank to provide developing countries with help in the form of a loan at soft interest rates and longer repayment periods. (U.K.)

  16. Novel experimentally observed phenomena in soft matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ranjini Bandyopadhyan

    2013-07-01

    Soft materials such as colloidal suspensions, polymer solutions and liquid crystals are constituted by mesoscopic entities held together by weak forces. Their mechanical moduli are several orders of magnitude lower than those of atomic solids. The application of small to moderate stresses to these materials results in the disruption of their microstructures. The resulting flow is non-Newtonian and is characterized by features such as shear rate-dependent viscosities and nonzero normal stresses. This article begins with an introduction to some unusual flow properties displayed by soft matter. Experiments that report a spectrum of novel phenomena exhibited by these materials, such as turbulent drag reduction, elastic turbulence, the formation of shear bands and the existence of rheological chaos, flow-induced birefringence and the unusual rheology of soft glassy materials, are reviewed. The focus then shifts to observations of the liquid-like response of granular media that have been subjected to external forces. The article concludes with examples of the patterns that emerge when certain soft materials are vibrated, or when they are displaced with Newtonian fluids of lower viscosities.

  17. Soft materials for linear electromechanical energy conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Jakli, Antal; Eber, Nandor

    2014-01-01

    We briefly review the literature of linear electromechanical effects of soft materials, especially in synthetic and biological polymers and liquid crystals (LCs). First we describe results on direct and converse piezoelectricity, and then we discuss a linear coupling between bending and electric polarization, which maybe called bending piezoelectricity, or flexoelectricity.

  18. Soft tissue Burkitt's lymphoma: radiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An unusual case is reported of a soft tissue mass in the lower extremity, without bone involvement, in an 85-year-old woman; the histopathological diagnosis was Burkitt's lymphoma. Pertinent clinical history, histological examination, and imaging procedures allowed early diagnosis. To our knowledge, the radiological findings in Burkitt's lymphoma with this unusual clinical presentation have not been described previously. (orig.)

  19. Reversible thermal gelation in soft spheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapnistos, M.; Vlassopoulos, D.; Fytas, G.;

    2000-01-01

    Upon heating, concentrated solutions of star polymers and block copolymer micelles in a good solvent, representing soft spheres, undergo a reversible gelation. This phenomenon is attributed to the formation of clusters causing a partial dynamic arrest of the swollen interpenetrating spheres at high...... temperatures. A phase diagram analogous to that of sterically stabilized colloids is proposed....

  20. Soft ridge in proton-proton collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Azarkin, M. Yu.; Dremin, I. M.; Leonidov, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    It is shown that the soft mechanism of multiparticle production by Lund hadronic strings formed by colliding constituent degrees of freedom generates a shape of angular correlations similar to the ridge structure observed in the pp collisions at 7 TeV at the LHC.

  1. Soft x rays for radiobiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lethal effects and chromosome aberrations induced in cells exposed to low energy (soft) X rays demonstrated that these relatively low energy X rays are just as effective as those of higher energy for radiobiological studies, and even more effective for irradiating cultured mammalian cells than laboratory animals. (author)

  2. Soft magnetic moldable composites: Properties and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type of electromagnetic soft magnetic material (SMM) is introduced, based on spherical iron powder particles and a suitable polymer binder. A key feature of this material is that it can be cast or molded into almost any 3D shape, hence the denotation soft magnetic moldable composite (SM2C). The SM2C is compared with a set of reference materials, such as ferrites, laminated steels, and soft magnetic composites, in terms of primary properties such as permeability and loss, and other properties, such as thermal conductivity and manufacturability. The SM2C has the obvious disadvantage of relatively low permeability, but offers benefits such as relatively low losses and high potential for close integration into electromagnetic circuits. Some recent SM2C applications are illustrated, and design and manufacturing aspects are discussed. - Highlights: ► A new type of soft magnetic composite is introduced. ► Properties are compared to other flux core materials. ► The new material has low losses but also low permeability. ► Potential benefits in freedom of design and manufacturing issues.

  3. Dynamics and Rheology of Soft Colloidal Glasses

    KAUST Repository

    Wen, Yu Ho

    2015-01-20

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. The linear viscoelastic (LVE) spectrum of a soft colloidal glass is accessed with the aid of a time-concentration superposition (TCS) principle, which unveils the glassy particle dynamics from in-cage rattling motion to out-of-cage relaxations over a broad frequency range 10-13 rad/s < ω < 101 rad/s. Progressive dilution of a suspension of hairy nanoparticles leading to increased intercenter distances is demonstrated to enable continuous mapping of the structural relaxation for colloidal glasses. In contrast to existing empirical approaches proposed to extend the rheological map of soft glassy materials, i.e., time-strain superposition (TSS) and strain-rate frequency superposition (SRFS), TCS yields a LVE master curve that satis fies the Kramers-Kronig relations which interrelate the dynamic moduli for materials at equilibrium. The soft glassy rheology (SGR) model and literature data further support the general validity of the TCS concept for soft glassy materials.

  4. Dependencies between soft proofing and prepress production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuijn, Chris

    2008-01-01

    In order to save time and money, more and more printing organizations are investing in on-line customer portals to allow uploading content and giving formal approvals based on soft proofs before the final production process (plate making and printing) can be initiated. The approvals are typically made on soft proofs of pages whereas, obviously, the images used for plate making are so-called imposed flats (a combination of pages rotated in such a way that the printed matter can be obtained after folding and cutting). The main goal of a soft proof of a page is to simulate accurately on a display device how the page will be finally printed. The quality expectations of a soft proof are very high since a formal approval implies contractual obligations from the printing organization. This quality, however, can be influenced by many parameters. By definition, soft proofs will be displayed on a monitor (being a light emitting device), whereas a print on paper can only be seen as the reflection of a light source. As a consequence, monitors can be described by an additive color model whereas printers or presses will be modeled by a subtractive color model. Other differences relate to how the image is generated: presses can only output binary information (ink or no ink) and continuous tones are simulated by using screening techniques whereas, on a monitor, a multi-level signal can generate different shades of a specific color. The differences described above are addressed by many color management systems available on the market today. An upcoming requirement in this area is that people do not only expect the color management software to behave well but also expect this software to validate its behavior. Another range of problems with soft proofs relates to the rendering (converting vector-based page data into bitmaps) and separation process. These can be divided in two classes: spatial issues (related to resolution differences, high-frequency patterns, aliasing problems etc

  5. Dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, and psoriasis drug products containing coal tar and menthol for over-the-counter human use; amendment to the monograph. Final rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule amending the final monograph (FM) for over-the-counter (OTC) dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, and psoriasis drug products to include the combination of 1.8 percent coal tar solution and 1.5 percent menthol in a shampoo drug product to control dandruff. FDA did not receive any comments or data in response to its previously proposed rule to include this combination. This final rule is part of FDA's ongoing review of OTC drug products.

  6. U.S. Teens Less Sweet on Soft Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_159765.html U.S. Teens Less Sweet on Soft Drinks Survey finds consumption dropped one-third in just ... News) -- American teens are turning their backs on soft drinks, says a new government survey that shows soda ...

  7. Do We Know What Causes Soft Tissue Sarcomas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic Can soft tissue sarcomas be prevented? Do we know what causes soft tissue sarcomas? Scientists still ... the instructions for nearly everything our cells do. We usually look like our parents because they are ...

  8. Soft Error Vulnerability of Iterative Linear Algebra Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronevetsky, G; de Supinski, B

    2008-01-19

    Devices are increasingly vulnerable to soft errors as their feature sizes shrink. Previously, soft error rates were significant primarily in space and high-atmospheric computing. Modern architectures now use features so small at sufficiently low voltages that soft errors are becoming important even at terrestrial altitudes. Due to their large number of components, supercomputers are particularly susceptible to soft errors. Since many large scale parallel scientific applications use iterative linear algebra methods, the soft error vulnerability of these methods constitutes a large fraction of the applications overall vulnerability. Many users consider these methods invulnerable to most soft errors since they converge from an imprecise solution to a precise one. However, we show in this paper that iterative methods are vulnerable to soft errors, exhibiting both silent data corruptions and poor ability to detect errors. Further, we evaluate a variety of soft error detection and tolerance techniques, including checkpointing, linear matrix encodings, and residual tracking techniques.

  9. Phoneme-based speech segmentation using hybrid soft computing framework

    CERN Document Server

    Sarma, Mousmita

    2014-01-01

    The book discusses intelligent system design using soft computing and similar systems and their interdisciplinary applications. It also focuses on the recent trends to use soft computing as a versatile tool for designing a host of decision support systems.

  10. Curvature-driven assembly in soft matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Iris B; Sharifi-Mood, Nima; Stebe, Kathleen J

    2016-07-28

    Control over the spatial arrangement of colloids in soft matter hosts implies control over a wide variety of properties, ranging from the system's rheology, optics, and catalytic activity. In directed assembly, colloids are typically manipulated using external fields to form well-defined structures at given locations. We have been developing alternative strategies based on fields that arise when a colloid is placed within soft matter to form an inclusion that generates a potential field. Such potential fields allow particles to interact with each other. If the soft matter host is deformed in some way, the potential allows the particles to interact with the global system distortion. One important example is capillary assembly of colloids on curved fluid interfaces. Upon attaching, the particle distorts that interface, with an associated energy field, given by the product of its interfacial area and the surface tension. The particle's capillary energy depends on the local interface curvature. We explore this coupling in experiment and theory. There are important analogies in liquid crystals. Colloids in liquid crystals elicit an elastic energy response. When director fields are moulded by confinement, the imposed elastic energy field can couple to that of the colloid to define particle paths and sites for assembly. By improving our understanding of these and related systems, we seek to develop new, parallelizable routes for particle assembly to form reconfigurable systems in soft matter that go far beyond the usual close-packed colloidal structures.This article is part of the themed issue 'Soft interfacial materials: from fundamentals to formulation'. PMID:27298434

  11. Soft tissue grafting to improve implant esthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moawia M Kassab

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Moawia M KassabDivision of Periodontics, Marquette University, School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI, USAAbstract: Dental implants are becoming the treatment of choice to replace missing teeth, especially if the adjacent teeth are free of restorations. When minimal bone width is present, implant placement becomes a challenge and often resulting in recession and dehiscence around the implant that leads to subsequent gingival recession. To correct such defect, the author turned to soft tissue autografting and allografting to correct a buccal dehiscence around tooth #24 after a malpositioned implant placed by a different surgeon. A 25-year-old woman presented with the chief complaint of gingival recession and exposure of implant threads around tooth #24. The patient received three soft tissue grafting procedures to augment the gingival tissue. The first surgery included a connective tissue graft to increase the width of the keratinized gingival tissue. The second surgery included the use of autografting (connective tissue graft to coronally position the soft tissue and achieve implant coverage. The third and final surgery included the use of allografting material Alloderm to increase and mask the implant from showing through the gingiva. Healing period was uneventful for the patient. After three surgical procedures, it appears that soft tissue grafting has increased the width and height of the gingiva surrounding the implant. The accomplished thickness of gingival tissue appeared to mask the showing of implant threads through the gingival tissue and allowed for achieving the desired esthetic that the patient desired. The aim of the study is to present a clinical case with soft tissue grafting procedures.Keywords: case report, connective tissue, dental implants, allograft, coronally positioned flap

  12. Injectable Tissue-Engineered Soft Tissue for Tissue Augmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Rhee, Sung-Mi; You, Hi-Jin; Han, Seung-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Soft tissue augmentation is a process of implanting tissues or materials to treat wrinkles or soft tissue defects in the body. Over the years, various materials have evolved to correct soft tissue defects, including a number of tissues and polymers. Autogenous dermis, autogenous fat, autogenous dermis-fat, allogenic dermis, synthetic implants, and fillers have been widely accepted for soft tissue augmentations. Tissue engineering technology has also been introduced and opened a new venue of o...

  13. Ultrasonography of soft tissue “oops lesions”

    OpenAIRE

    Hye Won Chung; Kil-Ho Cho

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I would like to define “oops lesions” as soft tissue mass-like lesions that involve surprise or embarrassment for radiologists following the final diagnosis. Examples of “oops lesions” include malignant tumors that appear benign, malignancy-mimicking benign tumors, incorrect identification of epidermal inclusion cysts, and soft tissue pseudotumors. Ultrasonography (US) findings are very helpful in the diagnosis of soft tissue tumors; however, the diagnosis of soft tissue tumo...

  14. Soft Skills – An Important Key for Employability in the

    OpenAIRE

    Ilana Lavy; Aharon Yadin

    2013-01-01

    The shift from production to a service driven economy in recent years has increased the importance of soft skills among graduates in general and IT (Information Technology) in particular. While a decade ago the market requirements focused mainly on the candidate's technical expertise, currently there is an increased attention to the soft skills as well. This study that maps the real market soft-skills' requirements, was initiated due to employers' complains about the lack of soft skills among...

  15. Soft Skills and Their Wage Returns: Overview of Empirical Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Balcar Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Psychological traits, attitudes and soft skills represent factors whose effect on an individual’s wages has begun to be examined recently. Today, there is an extensive empirical body on wage returns to the first two factors, but still a relatively small one on wage returns to soft skills, such as communication, cooperation, leadership etc. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of empirical literature on wage returns to soft skills. It suggests that soft skills are connected with sig...

  16. Soft Pneumatic Bending Actuator with Integrated Carbon Nanotube Displacement Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Giffney; Mengying Xie; Aaron Yong; Andrew Wong; Philippe Mousset; Andrew McDaid; Kean Aw

    2016-01-01

    The excellent compliance and large range of motion of soft actuators controlled by fluid pressure has lead to strong interest in applying devices of this type for biomimetic and human-robot interaction applications. However, in contrast to soft actuators fabricated from stretchable silicone materials, conventional technologies for position sensing are typically rigid or bulky and are not ideal for integration into soft robotic devices. Therefore, in order to facilitate the use of soft pneumat...

  17. Algebraic Soft-Decision Decoding of Hermitian Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kwankyu; O'Sullivan, Michael E.

    2008-01-01

    An algebraic soft-decision decoder for Hermitian codes is presented. We apply Koetter and Vardy's soft-decision decoding framework, now well established for Reed-Solomon codes, to Hermitian codes. First we provide an algebraic foundation for soft-decision decoding. Then we present an interpolation algorithm finding the Q-polynomial that plays a key role in the decoding. With some simulation results, we compare performances of the algebraic soft-decision decoders for Hermitian codes and Reed-S...

  18. Supracolloidal helices from soft Janus particles by tuning the particle softness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Qing-Zhi; Li, Zhan-Wei; Lu, Zhong-Yuan; Sun, Zhao-Yan

    2016-02-01

    Because of the unique architectures and promising potential applications of biomimetic helical structures in biotechnology and nanotechnology, the design and fabrication of these structures by experimentally realizable anisotropic colloidal particles remain one of the most challenging tasks in materials science. Here we show how soft Janus particles self-assemble into supracolloidal helices with distinctive structural characteristics, including single helices, double helices, and Bernal spirals, by appropriately tuning the particle softness. We further examine the kinetic mechanisms governing the formation of different helical structures by using particle-based dynamics simulations. Our results provide a new way for experimentally fabricating structure-controllable supracolloidal helices solely from the self-assembly of soft Janus particles.Because of the unique architectures and promising potential applications of biomimetic helical structures in biotechnology and nanotechnology, the design and fabrication of these structures by experimentally realizable anisotropic colloidal particles remain one of the most challenging tasks in materials science. Here we show how soft Janus particles self-assemble into supracolloidal helices with distinctive structural characteristics, including single helices, double helices, and Bernal spirals, by appropriately tuning the particle softness. We further examine the kinetic mechanisms governing the formation of different helical structures by using particle-based dynamics simulations. Our results provide a new way for experimentally fabricating structure-controllable supracolloidal helices solely from the self-assembly of soft Janus particles. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/C5NR07011B

  19. Erosion effect of a newly developed soft drink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysmans, M.C.; Voss, H.P.; Ruben, J.L.; Jager, D.J.; Vieira, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the erosion effect of a newly developed soft drink available in 3 different flavours is compared with the erosion effect of some common soft drinks. Several basic parameters of the soft drinks were determined: pH, titratable acidity, and the calcium as well as phosphate concentratio

  20. Soft electromagnetic radiations from relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photons and dileptons have long been considered as excellent probes of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) expected to be formed in relativistic heavy ion collisions. To evaluate soft photons and dileptons from quark matter as well as soft photon approximation (SPA) is applied. The estimations of soft electromagnetic radiations that exists in the literature have certain discrepancies and efforts were made to correct them

  1. "Soft Skills": A Phrase in Search of Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteson, Miriam L.; Anderson, Lorien; Boyden, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Soft skills are a collection of people management skills, important to many professions and job positions, including academic librarianship. Yet the concept of soft skills lacks definition, scope, instrumentation, and systematic education and training. This literature review explores the definition of "soft skills"; contrasts skills with…

  2. Soft Skills Assessment: Theory Development and the Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Soft skills have become a subject of increasing interest in lifelong learning. Soft skills development is intended to enable and enhance personal development, participation in learning and success in employment. The assessment of soft skill is therefore widely practised, but there is little in the way of research or evidence on how well this…

  3. Edited Volumes, Monographs, and Book Chapters in the Book Citation Index (BCI) and Science Citation Index (SCI, SoSCI, A&HCI)

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, Thomson-Reuters introduced the Book Citation Index (BCI) as part of the Science Citation Index (SCI). The interface of the Web of Science version 5 enables users to search for both "Books" and "Book Chapters" as new categories. Books and book chapters, however, were always among the cited references, and book chapters have been included in the database since 2005. We explore the two categories with both BCI and SCI, and in the sister databases for the social sciences (SoSCI) and the arts and humanities (A&HCI). Book chapters in edited volumes can be highly cited. Books contain many citing references, but are relatively less cited. We suggest that this may find its origin in the slower circulation of books then of journal articles. It is possible to distinguish scientometrically between monographs and edited volumes among the "Books". Monographs may be underrated in terms of citation impact or overrated using publication performance indicators because individual chapters are counted separately as ...

  4. Government Conduct: The Guiding Force for Developing National Soft Power

    OpenAIRE

    TANG Daixing; Li, Xiaoping; Chen, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Only the conduct of a government that strives to serve the people that empowered it can produce governmental soft power. The soft power of a government constitutes the guiding and consolidating force for the soft power of a country. In order to give full play to these forces, great attention should be paid to the dynamic composition of soft power. In the structural system of governmental soft power, the character of the head of state is the soul while universal values constitute the soil; the...

  5. Large poroelastic deformation of a soft material

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMinn, Christopher W.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Wettlaufer, John S.

    2014-11-01

    Flow through a porous material will drive mechanical deformation when the fluid pressure becomes comparable to the stiffness of the solid skeleton. This has applications ranging from hydraulic fracture for recovery of shale gas, where fluid is injected at high pressure, to the mechanics of biological cells and tissues, where the solid skeleton is very soft. The traditional linear theory of poroelasticity captures this fluid-solid coupling by combining Darcy's law with linear elasticity. However, linear elasticity is only volume-conservative to first order in the strain, which can become problematic when damage, plasticity, or extreme softness lead to large deformations. Here, we compare the predictions of linear poroelasticity with those of a large-deformation framework in the context of two model problems. We show that errors in volume conservation are compounded and amplified by coupling with the fluid flow, and can become important even when the deformation is small. We also illustrate these results with a laboratory experiment.

  6. Distance and Similarity Measures for Soft Sets

    CERN Document Server

    Kharal, Athar

    2010-01-01

    In [P. Majumdar, S. K. Samanta, Similarity measure of soft sets, New Mathematics and Natural Computation 4(1)(2008) 1-12], the authors use matrix representation based distances of soft sets to introduce matching function and distance based similarity measures. We first give counterexamples to show that their Definition 2.7 and Lemma 3.5(3) contain errors, then improve their Lemma 4.4 making it a corllary of our result. The fundamental assumption of Majumdar et al has been shown to be flawed. This motivates us to introduce set operations based measures. We present a case (Example 28) where Majumdar-Samanta similarity measure produces an erroneous result but the measure proposed herein decides correctly. Several properties of the new measures have been presented and finally the new similarity measures have been applied to the problem of financial diagnosis of firms.

  7. Soft and hard product attributes in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Boelskifte, Per

    2003-01-01

    Products are to a growing extend being sold based on their soft values such as design and styling and the image they can bring the owner. This makes it more important that people involved in product development can communicate these more soft or intangible values. Works within this area is pursued...... a number of places (Lopez 2003, Pascalle 2000, Goovers 2003, Warell 2001). The authors have experienced the need when searching for materials that can give the product a certain expression (www.designinsite.dk). In a previous study an interdisciplinary group of 14 students (coming from industrial...... design, business and engineering) showed consensus on assigning certain words to specific products in order to express the sensory and perceived experiences (Johnson et al. 2003). An initial vocabulary was formulated based on input from the design literature. The study showed that a significant amount of...

  8. Bubble growth and rise in soft sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Bernard P.; Algar, Chris; Johnson, Bruce D.; Croudace, Ian; Reed, Allen; Furukawa, Yoko; Dorgan, Kelley M.; Jumars, Peter A.; Grader, Abraham S.; Gardiner, Bruce S.

    2005-06-01

    The mechanics of uncemented soft sediments during bubble growth are not widely understood and no rheological model has found wide acceptance. We offer definitive evidence on the mode of bubble formation in the form of X-ray computed tomographic images and comparison with theory. Natural and injected bubbles in muddy cohesive sediments are shown to be highly eccentric oblate spheroids (disks) that grow either by fracturing the sediment or by reopening preexisting fractures. In contrast, bubbles in soft sandy sediment tend to be spherical, suggesting that sand acts fluidly or plastically in response to growth stresses. We also present bubble-rise results from gelatin, a mechanically similar but transparent medium, that suggest that initial rise is also accomplished by fracture. Given that muddy sediments are elastic and yield by fracture, it becomes much easier to explain physically related phenomena such as seafloor pockmark formation, animal burrowing, and gas buildup during methane hydrate melting.

  9. Physics of soft impact and cratering

    CERN Document Server

    Katsuragi, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the impact dynamics and cratering of soft matter to describe its importance, difficulty, and wide applicability to planetary-related problems. A comprehensive introduction to the dimensional analysis and constitutive laws that are necessary to discuss impact mechanics and cratering is first provided. Then, particular coverage is given to the impact of granular matter, which is one of the most crucial constituents for geophysics. While granular matter shows both solid-like and fluid-like behaviors, neither solid nor fluid dynamics is sufficient to fully understand the physics of granular matter. In order to reveal its fundamental properties, extensive impact tests have been carried out recently. The author reveals the findings of these recent studies as well as what remains unsolved in terms of impact dynamics. Impact crater morphology with various soft matter impacts also is discussed intensively. Various experimental and observational results up to the recent Itokawa asteroid’s terrain...

  10. Soft x-ray polarimeter laboratory tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kendrah D.; Marshall, Herman L.; Schulz, Norbert S.; Jenks, Kevin; Sommer, Sophie J. B.; Marshall, Eric A.

    2010-07-01

    Multilayer-coated optics can strongly polarize X-rays and are central to a new design of a broad-band, soft X-ray polarimeter. We have begun laboratory work to verify the performance of components that could be used in future soft X-ray polarimetric instrumentation. We have reconfigured a 17 meter beamline facility, originally developed for testing transmission gratings for Chandra, to include a polarized X-ray source, an X-ray-dispersing transmission grating, and a multilayer-coated optic that illuminates a CCD detector. The X-rays produced from a Manson Model 5, multi-anode source are polarized by a multilayer-coated flat mirror. The current configuration allows for a 180 degree rotation of the source in order to rotate the direction of polarization. We will present progress in source characterization and system modulation measurements as well as null and robustness tests.

  11. Effective action of softly broken supersymmetric theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the renormalization of (softly) broken supersymmetric theories at the one loop level in detail. We perform this analysis in a superspace approach in which the supersymmetry breaking interactions are parameterized using spurion insertions. We comment on the uniqueness of this parameterization. We compute the one loop renormalization of such theories by calculating superspace vacuum graphs with multiple spurion insertions. To preform this computation efficiently we develop algebraic properties of spurion operators, that naturally arise because the spurions are often surrounded by superspace projection operators. Our results are general apart from the restrictions that higher super covariant derivative terms and some finite effects due to non-commutativity of superfield dependent mass matrices are ignored. One of the soft potentials induces renormalization of the Kaehler potential. (author)

  12. Deformation behaviour of soft particles: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, K.-K. [Institute of Science and Technology in Medicine, School of Medicine (Hartshill Campus), Keele University, Stoke-on-Trent, ST4 7QB (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-07

    The study of soft particle deformation is of paramount importance for the advancement of fundamental colloidal science as well as its biomedical applications, particularly in drug delivery and cell mechanics/adhesion. Recent developments of both theoretical modelling and experimental techniques have made it possible to measure the deformation behaviour of a single micro-/nano-particle under both adhesive and non-adhesive deformation and, therefore, to facilitate the determination of its mechanical and interfacial properties. This review aims to introduce several modern experimental techniques, such as atomic force microscopy, the micro-compression method and reflectance interference contrast microscopy, and a number of theoretical models, which have been applied to characterize the mechanical and interfacial properties of the soft particles in a quantitative manner. More specifically, their recent applications to biomimetic/biological particles or vesicles, which normally inherit non-linear elasticity and inhomogeneous structure, will also be reviewed. (topical review)

  13. Soft gamma repeaters activity in time

    CERN Document Server

    Popov, S B

    2008-01-01

    In this short note I discuss the hypothesis that bursting activity of magnetars evolves in time analogously to the glitching activity of normal radio pulsars (i.e. sources are more active at smaller ages), and that the increase of the burst rate follows one of the laws established for glitching radio pulsars. If the activity of soft gamma repeaters decreases in time in the way similar to the evolution of core-quake glitches ($\\propto t^{5/2}$), then it is more probable to find the youngest soft gamma repeaters, but the energy of giant flares from these sources should be smaller than observed $10^{44}$ --$10^{46}$ ergs as the total energy stored in a magnetar's magnetic field is not enough to support thousands of bursts similar to the prototype 5 March 1979 flare.

  14. Yersinia enterocolitica Monographic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Emil Tirziu; Ciceronis Cumpanasoiu; Radu Valentin Gros; Monica Seres

    2011-01-01

    Germs from Yersinia genus have a vast ecologic niche, being met at different domestic and wild animal species, but also in food, water and soil. The majority of yersinis live in the digestive tract of human and numerous animal species, especially rodents, but also in soil, plant debris, waters etc. Numerous species of Yersinia genus could produce characteristic infections in human, the main source of infections is represented by rodents and hematophagous insects or, more frequently, by water ...

  15. Yersinia enterocolitica Monographic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Tirziu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Germs from Yersinia genus have a vast ecologic niche, being met at different domestic and wild animal species, but also in food, water and soil. The majority of yersinis live in the digestive tract of human and numerous animal species, especially rodents, but also in soil, plant debris, waters etc. Numerous species of Yersinia genus could produce characteristic infections in human, the main source of infections is represented by rodents and hematophagous insects or, more frequently, by water or contaminated food. In a 1999 study, Mead and coauthors established that the Yersinia enterocolitica prevalence in food, in USA, is around 90%. Foods of animal origin more frequently contaminated with Yersinia enterocolitica are: pork, poultry, beef and lamb meat, milk, ice-cream, sea fruits etc., among them pork meat and milk represents the sources of the most numerous toxi-infection outbreaks in human, in different world regions. Bacteria determine infections which interest the digestive tract in numerous animal species and human, with diarrhea, lymphadenitis, pneumonia and abortion are the most important symptoms. Yersinia enterocolitica enter the human body regularly by oral ingestion, and localize itself with predilection in the distal portion of the ileum and at the ileocaecal appendix and proximal colon level, were determine a terminal ileitis with lymphadenitis, acute enterocolitis, and secondary accompanied with nodosum erythema, poliartritis that could be complicated with septicemia, sometimes leading to death.

  16. Monograph: Concluding Remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R. Singh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Private investment in biomedical research has increased over the last few decades. At most places it has been welcomed as the next best thing to technology itself. There are significant costs involved too. Major areas of conflict of interest especially applicable to biomedical research have arisen, as academia interacts with industry. Pharma image stinks because of a number of errors of omission and commission. A recent example is suppression of negative findings about Bayer's Trasylol (Aprotinin and the marketing maneuvers of Eli Lilly's Xigris (rhAPC. A voluntary moratorium over pharma spending to pamper drug prescribers is necessary.The integrity of industry-sponsored clinical research has come under increasing scrutiny. The basic shizm is between the value system of a patient welfare driven professional and that of a profit driven industry . While one wants to avoid control but wants the dough, the other wants to exercise the control by supplying the dough. Clinical practice guidelines (CPG are considered important as they guide diagnostic/therapeutic regimen of a large number of medical professionals and hospitals and provide recommendations on drugs, dosages and criteria for selection. Besides clinical trials, they are another area of growing influence by the pharmaceutical industry. For example, in a recent survey it was found that about 60% of 192 authors of clinical practice guidelines reported they had financial connections with the companies whose drugs were under consideration. This finding casts serious doubt on the credibility of this important pillar of modern clinical practice. It needs urgent reparative action. One of them is prospective and retrospective disclosure of financial conflict of interest by authors of CPGs.A Conference on Guideline Standardization (COGS was convened in April 2002 'to define a standard for guideline reporting that would promote guideline quality and facilitate implementation'. It includes items for standardization, conceptual issues, up gradation, conflict of interest, patient interest and systematization. Even items for individual preferences, choice or values are not neglected. Special mention must be made of items that specify disclosure of conflict of interest both in the Developer (including the organization that develops and the individuals involved in the guideline's formulation, as well as in the sponsor or funding source (and its role in developing and/or reporting the guideline.Recommendations of CPGs and CDR panels are conflicting. One considers effectiveness, the other cost-effectiveness. However, CPGs do not adhere to established methodological standards; critical information that would attest to validity is regularly absent; explicit criteria to grade scientific evidence that supports their recommendations is absent from 82% of guidelines; 87% are not in a position to report whether a systematic literature search was performed; 67% do not describe the type of professionals used in guidelines development; and there is marked variation in the quality of guidelines. Moreover, CPG guideline layers often are conflicted in their interests. The problem can be resolved to a large extent by taking a simple step: making CPG panelists go into cost effectiveness along with recommending Guidelines. What then happens is they have to consider not only effectiveness but also costs. Effectiveness can be fudged, cost cannot. Why? Because, what is the cost is well known. Therapies in Guidelines should be recommended and graded according to whether they are Most, Moderately or Least Cost Effective. For that CPGs will have to perform an economic analysis as well. This will meet with resistance for obvious reasons. Since guideline groups cannot be kept on the straight and narrow path and till we find fool proof ways of keeping them thus, we have no option but to stress that under no circumstances they can mislead, or get misled themselves, in the name of patient advocacy, to recommend costly new therapies which have still not proved their effectiveness conclusively, nor get away with conflicted recommendations, which it is still not obligatory to reveal. A simple rider like making it mandatory for guideline groups to go into both effectiveness and cost effectiveness takes care that this is ensured.The AGREE Collaboration (AGREE stands for Appraisal of Guidelines, Research and Evaluation has created and validated tools by which clinicians can themselves rate guidelines by identifying factors that determine their quality. To facilitate this process, a body like the GAC (Guidelines Advisory Committee applies the AGREE criteria to individual guidelines and rates and endorses the best possible guideline. Clinical Practice Guidelines are another example of an excellent idea likely to go to seed due to sponsor manipulation and forces of the market place camouflaging as evidence based medicine. The need to weed out conflicted experts and make the process of therapy selection transparent must go hand in hand with laying down clear-cut criteria for guideline formulation and rejection of conflicted submissions by vigilant journal publication policies and editors. A number of disease-specific foundations are heavily funded by industry that creates serious conflict of interest likely to result in favourably recommending therapies of sponsors. The case of Alteplase and the American Heart Foundation is a recent example. Whistle blowing papers and research to expose misdemeanours must be undertaken and journals and their editors should welcome such papers as legitimate research, without encouraging a witch-hunt. The USP of journals and researchers is credibility. Credibility can be marketed, but it can't be bought. Sponsors will be forced to seek such credibility without allowing them to compromise it. Such is the game journal publishers/editors and genuine researchers will have to play with sponsors. But they can do so only if they are thoroughly competent and have abiding faith in an uncompromising set of ethical values. The Task Force of the AAMC, in its two reports of 2001 and 2002, recognises the necessity and inevitability of the academia-industry connect, but wants to avoid its undesirable influence on the integrity of research and the welfare of human research subjects. It is specially concerned that public, activist and governmental control and concern does not cast a spanner in the works of a potentially promising relationship.Constant pampering by sponsors has dulled most drug prescribers' critical capabilities. Sponsorship is a potent anaeasthetic to many ethical concerns. It can blunt the thrust of many a sabre-rattling critic.Both medical associations and research journal editors are getting concerned with individual and institutional conflicts of interest in the conduct of clinical research and documents are now available which address these issues.Edits are concerned with whether academic medicine is for sale (Angell, in N Engl J Med 2000; what are the controlling interests of research (Editorial, CMAJ, 2002a; how the invisible hand of the marketing department works (Editorial, CMAJ , 2002b; how contracts affect institutions and academic freedom (Drazen in N Engl J Med , 2002; what are the choices for the academic medical center in collaborating with industry - (Moses et al in N Engl J Med , 2002; how does one ensure integrity of scientific research (Editorial, Lancet , 2002; how one maintains public trust in clinical research (Kelch in N Engl J Med , 2002; how does one ensure academic freedom in clinical research (Nathan and Weatherall, editorial, in N Engl J Med 2002; how to maintain the integrity of the scientific record (Smith R.: [editorial]. BMJ 2001; and is the university-industrial complex going out of control? ( Nature , 2001. The 2001 ICMJE revision call for full disclosure of the sponsor's role in research, as well as assurance that investigators are independent of sponsors, are fully accountable for the design and conduct of the trial, have independent access to all trial data and control all editorial and publication decisions. ICMJE has taken an important step in ensuring greater accountability in the research process, its publication and preventing possible malevolent impact on gullible readers. However the findings of a 2002 study suggest that academic institutions routinely participate in clinical research that does not adhere to ICMJE standards of accountability, access to data and control of publication. An issue of major concern is protection of the interests of research subjects because patients agree to become research subjects not only for personal medical benefit but, as an extension, to benefit the rest of the patient population and also advance medical research. These interests are hardly served if research data is doctored or concealed, as can happen to protect industry interests or if industry dictates the terms and conditions of research contracts.The progress of biomedical research depends on ready availability of research subjects. But such ready availability depends on ethical practices by researchers and sponsoring agencies. The clear-cut power to protect research subjects' interests should be inbuilt in the contract process. Establishment of Best Practice Guidelines for researchers and academic medical centers and Good Publication Practice for sponsoring pharmaceuticals are two important developments worth a close study and replication to assess feasibility across diverse geographical areas. Another area of concern is pharma's focus on the marketability rather than usefulness of products. There is an inevitable slant to produce not necessarily useful but marketable products which ensure profitability of industry and research grants outflow to academia. A disturbing but very relevant finding in this connection is that drugs which can be called "substantial improvements" over available treatments is only, mark the finding, a measly 6%. Industry supports new therapies, not traditional therapy, irrespective of what is effective. Whatever traditional therapy is supported is also most probably because the industry concerned has a product with a big stake there, which has remained a 'gold standard' or which that player thinks still has some 'juice' left.The larger issue of benefit to society also concerns us here when we realize that industry sponsorship is mainly for potential medications, not for trying to determine whether there may be non-pharmacological interventions that may be equally good, if not better. This is the reason why methods like yoga, psychotherapy, meditation, non-medicated non-mechanised relaxation will not find industry sponsors readily and will never be proved useful apart from anecdotal reporting.In the paradigm shift towards biological psychiatry, the role of industry sponsorship is not overt but probably more pervasive than many have realized or the right thinking may consider good for the health of the branch in the long run. Ask yourself a simple question: Why should industry sponsor psychotherapeutic research? And why should industry not sponsor biological research? Which of the two will give rise to drugs? How will the profits pour in? The answer is simple enough.Essentially, there are four types of drugs. First, drugs that work and have minimal side-effects; second, drugs which work but have serious side-effects; third, drugs that do not work but have minimal side-effects; and fourth, drugs which work minimally but have serious side-effects. Pharma's major propelling force can only be producing the first type. They accept the second type only till they can lay their hands on the first and, in any case, never project or accept them as the first. The third type can be occasionally played around with to shore up profits, but never by projecting them as the first type. The fourth type are the laggards, a real threat to credibility and therefore do not deserve any market hype or promotion. What makes pharma adopt even questionable means to make profits? Reasons are mainly three: one, pharma business cannot depend only on genuine discoveries; second, newer drugs with no effect are also with no, or little, side-effects - and that helps; and third, image building needs to balance profit with shored up credibility. Industry players have to strike the right balance between profit making and credibility. In profit making, the marketing champions play their role. In credibility ratings, researchers and paid spokes-persons play their role. All is hunky dory till marketing is based on credibility. When there is nothing available to make for credibility, something is projected as one and marketing carried out, in the calculated hope that profits can accrue, since that must continue endlessly. That is what makes pharma adopt even questionable means to make profits.The process of self-correction set into motion due to greater clout of conscientious researchers, unrelenting expose by medical journalists and supportive editors, patients right activism and law suits against industry will, hopefully, help tilt the balance towards value-based advance, even if belated, and done grudgingly. Major industry players may soften the offensive of such self-correction only by playing the game according to the rules. The earlier the major players understand this, the better it is for all concerned.

  17. Monograph: Concluding Remarks

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.

    2007-01-01

    Private investment in biomedical research has increased over the last few decades. At most places it has been welcomed as the next best thing to technology itself. There are significant costs involved too. Major areas of conflict of interest especially applicable to biomedical research have arisen, as academia interacts with industry. Pharma image stinks because of a number of errors of omission and commission. A recent example is suppression of negative findings about Bayer's Trasylol (Aprot...

  18. Solarium primer. [Monograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Solaria can be used to collect solar energy for space heating and provide an open environment. This primer introduces the basic concepts of an energy-efficient solarium and provides information on the practical aspects of siting, design, and construction. The horticultural use of a solarium as a greenhouse is not dealt with except in explaining the influence this may have on its design and operation. The book shows the characteristics of different types of solaria, their advantages as well as their limitations. It also explains the prerequisite of a successful addition to an existing home. Design and construction details accompany the text. 73 references, 2 tables.

  19. Adipose Tissue Engineering for Soft Tissue Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jennifer H.; Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Lee, Kyongbum; Marra, Kacey G.; Rubin, J. Peter; Yoo, James J; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Kaplan, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Current treatment modalities for soft tissue defects caused by various pathologies and trauma include autologous grafting and commercially available fillers. However, these treatment methods present a number of challenges and limitations, such as donor-site morbidity and volume loss over time. As such, improved therapeutic modalities need to be developed. Tissue engineering techniques offer novel solutions to these problems through development of bioactive tissue constructs that can regenerat...

  20. Soft wall model for a holographic superconductor

    CERN Document Server

    Afonin, S S

    2015-01-01

    We apply the soft wall holographic model from hadron physics to a description of the high-$T_c$ superconductivity. In comparison with the existing bottom-up holographic superconductors, the proposed approach is more phenomenological. On the other hand, it is much simpler and has more freedom for fitting the conductivity properties of the real high-$T_c$ materials. We demonstrate some examples of emerging models and discuss a possible origin of the approach.

  1. Soft tissue augmentation in dermatology - 2009 update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Gold

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of products available to dermatologists for soft tissue augmentation has grown significantly over the past several years in the US. This manuscript will review the various hyaluronic acid fillers and other Food and Drug Administration -approved products we are utilizing for our patients in the rejuvenation process. It is hoped that through this article clinicians will feel more comfortable using these products in their everyday practice of dermatology.

  2. Carbonated Soft Drink Choices and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Rigoberto A. Lopez; Kristen L. Fantuzzi

    2009-01-01

    Although obesity is already the leading public health crisis in the U.S., with an estimated social cost of approximately $120 billion a year and growing (Rowley, 2004), obesity incidence continues to increase at an alarming rate (Kuhn, 2002). The main culprits are the increase in the consumption of high-calorie foods and beverages and a decrease in exercise (Kuhn, 2002; Allhouse, Frazao, and Tupening, 2002). Paralleling the increase in obesity is the increase in consumption of carbonated soft...

  3. Soft tissue sarcoma - diagnosis and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant progress in the treatment of soft tissue sarcoma (STS), both primary tumor and local recurrences/metastatic disease, has been achieved in recent years. Surgery is essential modality, but the use of combined treatment (standard combination of surgery with adjuvant radiotherapy, chemotherapy in selected cases and perioperative rehabilitation) in highly-experienced centers increased possibility of cure and limitations of extent of local surgery. Current combined therapy together with the use of reconstructive methods allows for limb-sparing surgery in majority of soft tissue sarcoma patients (amputation in 10% of cases as compared to approximately 50% in the 1960 - 70s). The slow, but constant, increase of rate of soft tissue sarcoma patients with long-term survival has been observed. Contemporary 5-year overall survival rate in patients with extremity soft tissue sarcomas is 55 -78%. In case of diagnosis of metastatic disease the prognosis is still poor (survival of approximately 1 year). Good results of local therapy may be expected only after planned (e.g., after preoperative biopsy - tru - cut or incisional) radical surgical excision of primary tumor with pathologically negative margins (R0 resection). Following appropriate diagnostic check-up, adjuvant radiotherapy is necessary in the majority of patients treated with radical surgery need, as well as long-term rehabilitation and follow-up examinations in treating center are needed for at least 5 years. The progress is due to the introduction of targeted therapy acting on molecular or genetic cellular disturbances detected during studies on etiopathogenetic mechanisms of sarcoma subtypes. In view of rarity of sarcomas and necessity of multidisciplinary therapy, the crucial issue is that management of these tumors should be hold in experienced oncological sarcoma centers. (authors)

  4. Soft Money and Campaign Finance Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Pastine, Ivan; Pastine, Tuvana

    2013-01-01

    We analyze special interest influence on policy when political contributions are capped but the regulation contains soft-money loopholes. The politician chooses between two policy options. We define special interest influence as the probability the politician chooses the policy he would not have chosen in the absence of contributions. Any binding cap reduces special interest influence but the effect may be nonmonotonic. A ban on contributions can result in greater special interest...

  5. Quantifying structural states of soft mudrocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B.; Wong, R. C. K.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a cm model is proposed to quantify structural states of soft mudrocks, which are dependent on clay fractions and porosities. Physical properties of natural and reconstituted soft mudrock samples are used to derive two parameters in the cm model. With the cm model, a simplified homogenization approach is proposed to estimate geomechanical properties and fabric orientation distributions of soft mudrocks based on the mixture theory. Soft mudrocks are treated as a mixture of nonclay minerals and clay-water composites. Nonclay minerals have a high stiffness and serve as a structural framework of mudrocks when they have a high volume fraction. Clay-water composites occupy the void space among nonclay minerals and serve as an in-fill matrix. With the increase of volume fraction of clay-water composites, there is a transition in the structural state from the state of framework supported to the state of matrix supported. The decreases in shear strength and pore size as well as increases in compressibility and anisotropy in fabric are quantitatively related to such transition. The new homogenization approach based on the proposed cm model yields better performance evaluation than common effective medium modeling approaches because the interactions among nonclay minerals and clay-water composites are considered. With wireline logging data, the cm model is applied to quantify the structural states of Colorado shale formations at different depths in the Cold Lake area, Alberta, Canada. Key geomechancial parameters are estimated based on the proposed homogenization approach and the critical intervals with low strength shale formations are identified.

  6. Soft branes in supersymmetry-breaking backgrounds

    OpenAIRE

    McGuirk, Paul; Shiu, Gary; Ye, Fang

    2012-01-01

    We revisit the analysis of effective field theories resulting from non-supersymmetric perturbations to supersymmetric flux compactifications of the type-IIB superstring with an eye towards those resulting from the backreaction of a small number of anti-D3-branes. Independently of the background, we show that the low-energy Lagrangian describing the fluctuations of a stack of probe D3-branes exhibits soft supersymmetry breaking, despite perturbations to marginal operators that were not fully c...

  7. Soft Computing Applications in Robotic Vision Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala-Ramirez, Victor; Sanchez-Yanez, Raul E.; Garcia-Capulin, Carlos H.; Montecillo-Puente, Francisco J.

    2007-01-01

    Several conclusions arise from our experience applying soft computing (specifically fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms) to develop robotic vision applications. Fuzzy logic is well suited for problems where uncertainty representation is a critical issue. We already applied fuzzy logic to cope with illumination changes when tracking objects in a visual sequence. Another domain for application of fuzzy logic in robotic vision is to use it where only qualitative experience is available to perform...

  8. Immunohistochemistry in Diagnosis of Soft Tissue Tumours

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Immunohistochemistry in soft tissue tumours, and especially sarcomas, is used to identify differentiation in the neoplastic cells. In some cases, specific antigens are expressed; however, an initial panel of antibodies is often required in order to establish the broad lineage, with a subsequent, more focussed panel to allow classification. Immunohistochemical evaluation must be employed with the clinical picture, the morphology, and, when necessary, other ancillary techn...

  9. Soft QCD at ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Yacoob, Sahal; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The talk will summarise measurements of the total inelastic proton-proton cross-section and charged particle distributions by ATLAS and CMS at 13 TeV. These measurements provide necessary inputs to non-perturbative models of soft QCD, and the transition region between non-perturbative and perturbative calculations. The results are compared to popular Monte-Carlo generators in collider, and cosmic shower physics.

  10. Soft and hard nanostructured magnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tailoring of soft and hard magnetic materials can be performed by nanocrystallisation. Random anisotropy and intergranular exchange govern the macroscopic properties of nanocrystalline ferromagnets. The nature and topology of the intergranular region, matrix or grain boundaries, determine the degree of intergranular coupling. Important information about magnetic and topological properties of grain boundaries can be inferred from Moessbauer spectroscopy. The state of the art of those tailored materials is reviewed paying special attention to the correlation between nanostructure and macroscopic properties

  11. Coarse-graining polymers as soft colloids

    OpenAIRE

    Louis, A. A.; Bolhuis, P. G.; Finken, R.; Krakoviack, V.; Meijer, E. J.; Hansen, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    We show how to coarse grain polymers in a good solvent as single particles, interacting with density-independent or density-dependent interactions. These interactions can be between the centres of mass, the mid-points or end-points of the polymers. We also show how to extend these methods to polymers in poor solvents and mixtures of polymers. Treating polymers as soft colloids can greatly speed up the simulation of complex many-polymer systems, including polymer-colloid mixtures.

  12. IMPACT OF SOFT SKILLS ON CAREER GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    Attokaran Varghese Raju ,; Sony Padickal

    2016-01-01

    Globalization and privatization in Indian industries has created a lot of opportunities for the youth. However our country is unable to reap the benefits of this sudden growth of opportunities due to its lack of skilled labour. Though multitudes of colleges have sprouted up in every nook and corner to bring up skilled labour they are unable to employ skilled and trained faculty. As the result the skills of the students are not competent enough. Irrespective of the sector, soft skills have bec...

  13. Heavy flavor, QCD and soft physics

    CERN Document Server

    Viegas Guerreiro Leonardo, Nuno Teotonio

    2016-01-01

    Recent measurements in QCD, soft physics, and heavy flavor made with the CMS detector at the LHC are presented. A selection of first results at the new frontier collision energy of 13 TeV at LHC Run2 is shown. The collision environment is characterized by studying charged particle distributions and correlations. Inclusive jet, exclusive dimuon and b-hadron production cross-section measurements are reported.

  14. Soft-sphere model for liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A semi-empirical soft-sphere model of fluids is modified for application to the thermodynamic properties of liquid metals. Enthalpy, volume, and sound speed are computed as functions of temperature for 13 metals and compared with experimental data. Critical points and coexistence curves are also computed and compared with experimental data, where these have been measured. Strengths and weaknesses of the model are discussed

  15. Geometrochemistry vs Soft Computing of Mendeleev's Brain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gottvald, Aleš

    Brno: Brno University of Technology, 2010, s. 558-564. ISBN 978-80-214-4120-0. [Mendel 2010 - International Conference on Soft Computing /16./. Brno (CZ), 23.06.2010-25.06.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : projective geometry * Law of Mass Action * Mendeleev periodic table * brain information processing * artificial neural networks * cross-ratio * incidence structures Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  16. Soft tissue twisting injuries of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twisting injuries occur as a result of differential motion of different tissue types in injuries with some rotational force. These injuries are well described in brain injuries but, to our knowledge, have not been described in the musculoskeletal literature. We correlated the clinical examination and MR findings of 20 patients with twisting injuries of the soft tissues around the knee. Design and patients: We prospectively followed the clinical courses of 20 patients with knee injuries who had clinical histories and MR findings to suggest twisting injuries of the subcutaneous tissues. Patients with associated internal derangement of the knee (i.e., meniscal tears, ligamentous or bone injuries) were excluded from this study. MR findings to suggest twisting injuries included linear areas of abnormal dark signal on T1-weighted sequences and abnormal bright signal on T2-weighted or short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences and/or signal to suggest hemorrhage within the subcutaneous tissues. These MR criteria were adapted from those established for indirect musculotendinous junction injuries. Results: All 20 patients presented with considerable pain that suggested internal derangement on physical examination by the referring orthopedic surgeons. All presented with injuries associated with rotational force. The patients were placed on a course of protected weight-bearing of the affected extremity for 4 weeks. All patients had pain relief by clinical examination after this period of protected weight-bearing. Twisting injuries of the soft tissues can result in considerable pain that can be confused with internal derangement of the knee on physical examination. Soft tissue twisting injuries need to be recognized on MR examinations as they may be the cause of the patient's pain despite no MR evidence of internal derangement of the knee. The demonstration of soft tissue twisting injuries in a patient with severe knee pain but no documented internal derangement on MR

  17. Biopsy of soft-tissue tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shives, T C

    1993-04-01

    Biopsy is an integral part of the overall management of patients with soft-tissue sarcoma. The types of biopsy are fine needle, trocar, open incision or en bloc excision. There are advantages and disadvantages of each. Open biopsy requires strict adherence to a number of surgical principles. Proper execution requires determination of appropriate biopsy site, meticulous technique, and close collaboration with an experienced pathologist. Failure to adhere to these principles may result in untoward consequences for patients. PMID:8472430

  18. Adaptive scaling for soft-thresholding estimator

    OpenAIRE

    Hagiwara, Katsuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Soft-thresholding is a sparse modeling method that is typically applied to wavelet denoising in statistical signal processing and analysis. It has a single parameter that controls a threshold level on wavelet coefficients and, simultaneously, amount of shrinkage for coefficients of un-removed components. This parametrization is possible to cause excess shrinkage, thus, estimation bias at a sparse representation; i.e. there is a dilemma between sparsity and prediction accuracy. To relax this p...

  19. The management of soft tissue ankle injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Crean, D.

    1981-01-01

    The anatomy of the ankle, and the types of sporting injuries that occur in this joint, are described. Traditional treatment of soft tissue injuries involves immobilisation, and the value of this is questioned. An alternative treatment strategy is described, and involves immobilisation and compression for twenty-four hours, followed by rapid mobilisation using a balance board. This alternative strategy can bring about full functional mobility in 94% of patients within 14 days.

  20. Multipurpose soft contact lens care in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Toshida H; Kadota Y; Suto C; Ohta T; Murakami A

    2012-01-01

    Hiroshi Toshida1,2, Yoshiaki Kadota3, Chikako Suto2, Toshihiko Ohta1, Akira Murakami21Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, Shizuoka, 2Juntendo University School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo, 3Bausch & Lomb Japan Co, Ltd, Research and Development, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: To assess the use of multipurpose lens care products via an online survey conducted among soft contact lens (SCL) wearers in Japan.Methods: The subjects were 1000 men and ...