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Sample records for aya cancers meetingedit

  1. Unmet Support Service Needs and Health-Related Quality of Life among Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: The AYA HOPE Study

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    Ashley Wilder Smith

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cancer for adolescents and young adults (AYA differs from younger and older patients; AYA face medical challenges while navigating social and developmental transitions. Research suggests that these patients are under- or inadequately served by current support services, which may affect health-related quality of life (HRQOL.Methods: We examined unmet service needs and HRQOL in the National Cancer Institute’s Adolescent and Young Adult Health Outcomes and Patient Experience (AYA HOPE study, a population-based cohort (n=484, age 15-39, diagnosed with cancer 6-14 months prior, in 2007-2009. Unmet service needs were psychosocial, physical, spiritual, and financial services where respondents endorsed that they needed, but did not receive, a listed service. Linear regression models tested associations between any or specific unmet service needs and HRQOL, adjusting for demographic, medical and health insurance variables.Results: Over one-third of respondents reported at least one unmet service need. The most common were financial (16%, mental health (15%, and support group (14% services. Adjusted models showed that having any unmet service need was associated with worse overall HRQOL, fatigue, physical, emotional, social, and school/work functioning, and mental health (p’s<0.0001. Specific unmet services were related to particular outcomes (e.g., needing pain management was associated with worse overall HRQOL, physical and social functioning (p’s<0.001. Needing mental health services had the strongest associations with worse HRQOL outcomes; needing physical/occupational therapy was most consistently associated with poorer functioning across domains.Discussion: Unmet service needs in AYAs recently diagnosed with cancer are associated with worse HRQOL. Research should examine developmentally appropriate, relevant practices to improve access to services demonstrated to adversely impact HRQOL, particularly physical therapy and mental

  2. Online group-based cognitive-behavioural therapy for adolescents and young adults after cancer treatment: A multicenter randomised controlled trial of Recapture Life-AYA

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    Sansom-Daly Ursula M

    2012-08-01

    -based programs in an online modality are highlighted, and the role of both peer and caregiver support in enhancing the effectiveness of this skills-based intervention is also discussed. The innovative videoconferencing delivery method Recapture Life uses has the potential to address the geographic and psychological isolation of adolescents and young adults as they move toward cancer survivorship. It is expected that teaching AYAs coping skills as they resume their normal lives after cancer may have long-term implications for their quality of life. Trial Registration ACTRN12610000717055

  3. Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA) Oncology in the United States: A Specialty in Its Late Adolescence.

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    Shaw, Peter H; Reed, Damon R; Yeager, Nicholas; Zebrack, Bradley; Castellino, Sharon M; Bleyer, Archie

    2015-04-01

    Over the last 30 years, it has become apparent that oncology patients ages 15 to 39 have not reaped the same rewards of improved survival that we have seen in younger and older patients. As a result, in 2006 the Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA) Oncology Progress Review Group convened and examined the factors that impact the care of the 70,000 new cases per year (approximately 7% of all new cases) in the United States and published their findings. The reasons for inferior survival gains are of course multiple and include the settings in which patients are cared for, clinical trial enrollment, insurance coverage, varied treatment of sarcomas, varied treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the psychosocial impact of cancer and cancer survivorship. A new area of a yet-to-be completely defined subspecialty was born out of this meeting: AYA oncology. As a medical community we realized that these patients do not fit neatly into the pediatric nor adult world and, therefore, require a unique approach which many individuals, oncology centers, advocacy groups, and cooperative trial groups have started to address. This group of dedicated providers and advocates has made strides but there is still much work to be done on the local, national, and international level to make up for shortcomings in the medical system and improve outcomes. We review key components of AYA cancer care in 2015 that all providers should be aware of, how far we have come, where this movement is headed, and the obstacles that continue to stand in the way of better cure rates and quality of life after cure for this unique group of patients. Like an adolescent maturing into adulthood, this movement has learned from the past and is focused on moving into the future to achieve its goals.

  4. Image compression with QM-AYA adaptive binary arithmetic coder

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    Cheng, Joe-Ming; Langdon, Glen G., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The Q-coder has been reported in the literature, and is a renorm-driven binary adaptive arithmetic coder. A similar renorm-driven coder, the QM coder, uses the same approach with an initial attack to more rapidly estimate the statistics in the beginning, and with a different state table. The QM coder is the adaptive binary arithmetic coder employed in the JBIG and JPEG image compression algorithms. The QM-AYA arithmetic coder is similar to the QM coder, with a different state table, that offers balanced improvements to the QM probability estimation for the less skewed distributions. The QM-AYA performs better when the probability estimate is near 0.5 for each binary symbol. An approach for constructing effective index change tables for Q-coder type adaptation is discussed.

  5. Fujiwara, Aya, Ethnic Elites and Canadian Identity: Japanese, Ukrainians and Scots, 1919-1971.

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    Heather Metcalfe

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Fujiwara, Aya, Ethnic Elites and Canadian Identity: Japanese, Ukrainians and Scots, 1919-1971. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press, 2012. Pp. xi + 256. ISBN 978-0-8875-737-8 (paperback. $27.95.

  6. Introduction to Adolescent and Young Adult Cancers

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    Cancer researchers, advocates, and a cancer survivor introduce the topic of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancers, covering distinct aspects of cancer in these patients and research questions to answer.

  7. Augmented Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster Therapy in Adolescents and Young Adults (AYA) with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)

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    Rytting, Michael E; Thomas, Deborah A; O'Brien, Susan M; Ravandi-Kashani, Farhad; Jabbour, Elias J; Franklin, Anna R; Kadia, Tapan M; Pemmaraju, Naveen; Daver, Naval G.; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Konopleva, Marina Y; Cortes, Jorge E; Borthakur, Gautham; Garris, Rebecca; Cardenas-Turanzas, Maria; Schroeder, Kurt; Jorgensen, Jeffrey L; Kornblau, Steven M; Kantarjian, Hagop M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Various trials report improved outcomes for adolescents and young adults (AYA) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with pediatric- based regimens. This prompted the investigation of the pediatric Augmented Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (ABFM) regimen in AYA patients. Results were compared with the hyper–fractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, Adriamycin and dexamethasone (hyper-CVAD) regimen in a similar population. Methods Eighty-five patients age 12 to 40 years with Philadelphia chromosome- (Ph) negative ALL were treated with ABFM from 10/2006 through 4/2012. Their outcome was compared to 71 historical AYA patients treated with hyper-CVAD from our institution. Patient and disease characteristics, as well as status of minimal residual disease (MRD), were analyzed for their impact on outcomes. Results The complete remission (CR) rate with ABFM was 94%. The 3-year complete remission duration (CRD) and overall survival (OS) rates were 70% and 74%, respectively. The 3-year CRD and OS were 72% and 85%, respectively, with age ≤ 21 years, and 69% and 60%, respectively, with age 21-40 years. Initial white blood cell count was an independent predictive factor of OS and CRD. The MRD status on Day 29 and Day 84 of therapy were also predictive of long-term outcomes. Severe regimen toxicities included transient hepatotoxicity in 35-39%, pancreatitis in 11%, osteonecrosis in 11%, and thrombosis in 22%. The 3-year OS rate was 74% with ABFM versus 71% with hyper-CVAD; the 3-year CRD rate was 70% with ABFM versus 66% with hyper-CVAD. Conclusion ABFM was tolerable in AYA patients with ALL but was not associated with significant improvements in CRD and OS compared with hyper-CVAD. PMID:25042398

  8. Recruitment of representative samples for low incidence cancer populations: Do registries deliver?

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    Sanson-Fisher Rob

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recruiting large and representative samples of adolescent and young adult (AYA cancer survivors is important for gaining accurate data regarding the prevalence of unmet needs in this population. This study aimed to describe recruitment rates for AYAs recruited through a cancer registry with particular focus on: active clinician consent protocols, reasons for clinicians not providing consent and the representativeness of the final sample. Methods Adolescents and young adults aged 14 to19 years inclusive and listed on the cancer registry from January 1 2002 to December 31 2007 were identified. An active clinician consent protocol was used whereby the registry sent a letter to AYAs primary treating clinicians requesting permission to contact the survivors. The registry then sent survivors who received their clinician's consent a letter seeking permission to forward their contact details to the research team. Consenting AYAs were sent a questionnaire which assessed their unmet needs. Results The overall consent rate for AYAs identified as eligible by the registry was 7.8%. Of the 411 potentially eligible survivors identified, just over half (n = 232, 56% received their clinician's consent to be contacted. Of those 232 AYAs, 65% were unable to be contacted. Only 18 AYAs (7.8% refused permission for their contact details to be passed on to the research team. Of the 64 young people who agreed to be contacted, 50% (n = 32 completed the questionnaire. Conclusions Cancer registries which employ active clinician consent protocols may not be appropriate for recruiting large, representative samples of AYAs diagnosed with cancer. Given that AYA cancer survivors are highly mobile, alternative methods such as treatment centre and clinic based recruitment may need to be considered.

  9. Global assessment of cancer incidence and survival in adolescents and young adults.

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    Bleyer, Archie; Ferrari, Andrea; Whelan, Jeremy; Barr, Ronald D

    2017-02-28

    In high-income countries, cancer remains the commonest cause of disease-related death in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) despite survival improvements. With more than 1,000,000 new diagnoses of cancer in AYAs annually worldwide, and their number of life-years affected by cancer being greatest of all ages, the global burden of cancer in AYAs exceeds that in all other ages. In low- and middle-income countries, where the great majority of the world's 3 billion AYAs reside, the needs of those with cancer have been identified and demand attention. Unique to the age group but universal, the psychosocial challenges they face are the utmost across life's spectrum. This lead-off article of a new series in Pediatric Blood and Cancer on AYA oncology attempts to assess the global status of this emerging discipline. The review includes the changing incidence and survival of the common cancers in AYAs-there is no other age group with a similar array of malignancies-and the specific challenges to quality and quantity of life that compromise their lives.

  10. Reimagining care for adolescent and young adult cancer programs: Moving with the times.

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    Gupta, Abha A; Papadakos, Janet K; Jones, Jennifer M; Amin, Leila; Chang, Eugene K; Korenblum, Chana; Santa Mina, Daniel; McCabe, Lianne; Mitchell, Laura; Giuliani, Meredith E

    2016-04-01

    Literature regarding the development of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer programs has been dominantly informed by pediatric centers and practitioners. However, the majority of young adults are seen and treated at adult cancer centers, in which cancer volumes afford the development of innovative supportive care services. Although the supportive care services in adult cancer centers are helpful to AYAs, some of the most prominent and distinct issues faced by AYAs are not adequately addressed through these services alone. This article describes how the AYA Program at Princess Margaret Cancer Centre has collaborated with existing supportive care services in addition to supplying its own unique services to meet the comprehensive needs of AYAs in the domains of: symptom management (sexuality and fatigue), behavior modification (return to work and exercise), and health services (advanced cancer and survivorship). These collaborations are augmented by patient education interventions and timely referrals. The objective of this article was to assist other centers in expanding existing services to address the needs of AYA patients with cancer.

  11. [Cancer in adolescents and young adults in France: Epidemiology and pathways of care].

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    Desandes, Emmanuel; Lacour, Brigitte; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2016-12-01

    In adolescents and young adults (AYA), cancers are rare but represent the third significant cause of death. The aim of this paper was to investigate epidemiological data and pathways of care of AYA in France. During the 2000-2008 period, overall age-standardized incidence rates (ASR) were 254.1/10(6) in 15-24-year-olds. The most frequently diagnosed cancers in male AYA were malignant gonadal germ-cell tumors and Hodgkin's lymphoma, and were melanoma, thyroid carcinoma and Hodgkin's disease in females. The ASR appeared stable over time. During the 2000-2004 period, the 5-year overall survival for all cancers was 81.8%, with differences between genders and age groups: 78.8% for males and 85.2% for females; 78.5% in 15-19-year-olds and 84.3% in 20-24-year-olds. Survival has significantly improved over time. During the 2006-2007 period, the pathways of care for French adolescent patients with cancer were heterogeneous: 82% were treated in an adult environment, 27% were included in clinical studies, and in 54% of cases the management decisions were taken in the context of a multidisciplinary team. Studies looking at management of AYA with cancer have shown a wide disparity and a lack of collaboration between adult oncologists and pediatric oncologist. An AYA cancer multidisciplinary interest group has been created to determine priorities and coordinate efforts to improve AYA cancer services and care.

  12. PROVIDING AFFORDABLE HIGHER EDUCATION TO RURAL GIRLS IN INDIAN PUNJAB: A CASE STUDY OF BABA AYA SINGH RIARKI COLLEGE

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    RANJIT SINGH GHUMAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights a case study of a rural girls college located in a remote village of Gurdaspur district in Indian Punjab. The idea of this unique college was conceptualised by one Baba Aya Singh, a social and religious activist, from a village near the college way back in 1925. It was really a revolutionary idea because female education in India, particularly higher education, was a distant dream at that time. The college was, however, started with only 14 rural girls after about half-a-century when the great visionary Baba Aya Singh had a dream to educate the rural girls. Access to and affordability of higher education is the uniqueness of this college. The student has to pay only Rs. 5800 (about US $ 65 per annum, which includes both the tuition fee and boarding and lodging. It is equally significant to note that the entire expenses of the college are met by this and the produce of agricultural land of the college. The college does not take any outside help. The meritorious senior class students teach the junior class students. The college in its own humble, but significant, way made a revolutionary contribution to the education of poor rural girls who, otherwise, would not have dreamt of college education. Apart from, class-room teaching and bookish knowledge, the students are taught social, ethical and management skills in a most natural manner. The product of the college has proved to be the agents of change and rural transformation.

  13. Unmet adolescent and young adult cancer survivors information and service needs: A population-based cancer registry study

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    Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Lichtensztajn, Daphne Y.; Kato, Ikuko; Kent, Erin E.; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; West, Michelle M.; Hamilton, Ann S.; Zebrack, Brad; Bellizzi, Keith M.; Smith, Ashley W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We described unmet information and service needs of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors (15-39 years of age) and identified sociodemographic and health-related factors associated with these unmet needs. Methods We studied 523 AYAs recruited from 7 population-based cancer registries, diagnosed with acute lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, germ cell cancer or sarcoma in 2007-08. Participants completed surveys a median of 11 months from diagnosis. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to estimate associations between unmet (information and service) needs and sociodemographic and health-related factors. Results More than half of AYAs had unmet information needs relating to their cancer returning and cancer treatments. AYAs needing services, but not receiving them, ranged from 29% for in-home nursing to 75% for a support group. The majority of AYAs who needed a pain management expert, physical/occupational therapist, mental health worker or financial advice on paying for health care did not receive services. In multivariable analyses, older participants, men, participants of non-White race/ethnicity, and participants who reported less than excellent general health, or fair/poor quality of care were more likely to report unmet information needs. Factors associated with both unmet service and information needs included physical health or emotional problems interfering with social activities or having ≥ 3 physical treatment-related symptoms. Conclusions Recently diagnosed AYA cancer survivors have substantial unmet information needs varying by demographic and health-related factors. Implications for Cancer Survivors We identified subgroups of AYA cancer survivors with high unmet needs that can be targeted for interventions and referrals. PMID:22457219

  14. Oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum strain AYA enhances IgA secretion and provides survival protection against influenza virus infection in mice.

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    Yosuke Kikuchi

    Full Text Available The mucosal immune system provides the first line of defense against inhaled and ingested pathogenic microbacteria and viruses. This defense system, to a large extent, is mediated by the actions of secretory IgA. In this study, we screened 140 strains of lactic acid bacteria for induction of IgA production by murine Peyer's patch cells. We selected one strain and named it Lactobacillus plantarum AYA. We found that L. plantarum AYA-induced production of IL-6 in Peyer's patch dendritic cells, with this production promoting IgA(+ B cells to differentiate into IgA-secreting plasma cells. We also observed that oral administration of L. plantarum AYA in mice caused an increase in IgA production in the small intestine and lung. This production of IgA correlated strongly with protective ability, with the treated mice surviving longer than the control mice after lethal influenza virus infection. Our data therefore reveals a novel immunoregulatory role of the L. plantarum AYA strain which enhances mucosal IgA production and provides protection against respiratory influenza virus infection.

  15. Cancer incidence and survival in adolescents and young adults in France, 2000-2008.

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    Desandes, Emmanuel; Lacour, Brigitte; Belot, Aurélien; Molinie, Florence; Delafosse, Patricia; Tretarre, Brigitte; Velten, Michel; Sauleau, Erik-André; Woronoff, Anne-Sophie; Guizard, Anne-Valérie; Ganry, Olivier; Bara, Simona; Grosclaude, Pascale; Troussard, Xavier; Bouvier, Véronique; Brugieres, Laurence; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to describe cancer incidence (2000-2008) and survival (2000-2004) in France in adolescents and young adults (AYA). All cases of cancer diagnosed in 15-24 years, recorded by all French population-based registries (14% of the French population), over the 2000-2008 period, were included. Incidence change over time was described with the conventional annual percentage change (cAPC). The survival of cases diagnosed (2000-2004) was estimated using Kaplan-Meier method. A total of 1022 in adolescents and 1396 in young adults were diagnosed. Overall incidence rates were 219.4/10(6) in 15-19 year olds and 293.1/10(6) in 20-24 year olds. The most frequently diagnosed cancers in male AYA were malignant gonadal germ-cell tumors and Hodgkin's disease, and were melanoma, thyroid carcinoma, and Hodgkin's disease in females. The age-standardized rates appeared stable over time in AYA, with a cAPC of +2.0% (P = 0.68). The 5-year overall survival for all cancers was different between genders and age groups, with 78.8% (95%CI: 75.6-82.0) for males and 85.2% (95%CI: 82.2-88.1) for females (P = 0.01), and 78.5% (95%CI: 75.0-82.1) in 15-19 year olds and 84.3% (95% CI: 81.6-87.0) in 20-24 year olds (P = 0.02). Noteworthy, the frequency and the distribution of tumor types in AYA are unique and different from the observed at any other age group. Survival in French AYA has improved over time. Epidemiological data might reflect major trends in the risk factors and preventive interventions. Thus, further research into etiology of cancers affecting AYA should become key priorities for cancer control among AYA.

  16. Tailoring the delivery of cancer diagnosis to adolescent and young adult patients displaying strong emotions: An observational study of two cases

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    Live Korsvold

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Delivering the bad news of a cancer diagnosis to adolescent and young adult (AYA patients who display strong emotions is particularly challenging not the least because AYAs are at a vulnerable developmental stage. Due to the lack of research on how to personalize the delivery of bad news to AYA patients’ emotions we report a case study of the communicative behavior of oncologists in two such consultations to describe the complexity of the phenomena at study. We audio-recorded and transcribed consultations where oncologists delivered cancer diagnoses to nine AYAs aged 12–25 years. Two of these patients displayed particularly strong emotional behavior (anger, fear, and sadness and were chosen as cases. An interpretative analysis in three steps was applied to investigate the oncologists’ communicative behavior when delivering bad news. The focus was on how the oncologists responded to the strong but different emotional behaviors of the AYAs. We also related the oncologists’ communicative behavior to elements from a widely used protocol for delivering bad news. We found that the oncologists applied five communication strategies: elicit patient perspective, provide information, respond to patient's expression of emotion (acknowledging and containing emotions, encourage commitment to treatment, and provide hope. The findings illustrate how oncologists’ communicative behavior may be tailored to individual expressions of emotions in AYA cancer patients.

  17. Being Young and Getting Cancer: Development of a Questionnaire Reflecting the Needs and Experiences of Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Cecilie Dyg; Petersen, Gitte Stentebjerg; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi;

    2016-01-01

    is to describe the development of a questionnaire targeting AYAs with cancer aiming to evaluate treatment and survivorship from the perspective of the patients. METHODS: Identification of themes and development of items included in the questionnaire were based on a synthesis of literature and qualitative...... interviews with AYAs in an iterative process involving both a professional advisory panel and a youth panel. During the development process, items were validated through cognitive interviews. RESULTS: The final questionnaire contained 151 closed- and open-ended items divided into 6 sections regarding: (1...... indexes. The questionnaire combined different types of items such as needs, preferences, experiences, and patient-reported outcomes. CONCLUSION: This is one of few developed questionnaires aiming to evaluate the perspective of AYAs with cancer through their whole cancer trajectory. Results from...

  18. Cancer incidence and survival among adolescents and young adults in Korea.

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    Eun-Kyeong Moon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Korea, cancer is the third leading cause of death among adolescents and young adults (AYAs. However, cancer incidence and survival trends among AYAs (15-29 years have never been studied in Korea. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the incidence and relative survival rates and their trends among AYAs in Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cancer incidence data from 1999-2010 were obtained from the Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR. Each cancer was classified into subgroups according to the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER AYA site recode. Percent distributions, age-specific incidence rates, age-standardized incidence rates per million, and annual percent changes (APCs were calculated for AYAs according to sex. Five-year relative survival rates were estimated for cases diagnosed between 1993 and 2010 and followed up to 2011. RESULTS: The age-standardized incidence rates of all cancers combined were 196.4 and 367.8 per million for males and females, respectively (male-to-female (M/F ratio: 0.5. The age-standardized incidence rates increased from 208.7 per million in 1999 to 396.4 per million in 2010, and the APC was 6.3% (P<0.001. The five most common cancers among AYAs were thyroid carcinoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, stomach carcinoma, breast carcinoma, and acute myeloid leukemia. In males, the 5-year relative survival rate improved, from 46.5% in 1993-1995 to 75.9% in 2006-2010. In females, the 5-year relative survival rate also improved, from 66.7% in 1993-1995 to 89.1% in 2006-2010. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed increases in cancer incidence and improvements in the 5-year relative survival rate among Korean AYAs. This study also provides additional data regarding temporal and geographic trends in cancer that may enhance future efforts to identify factors affecting cancer incidence and responses to treatment among AYAs.

  19. Registration and classification of adolescent and young adult cancer cases.

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    Pollock, Brad H; Birch, Jillian M

    2008-05-01

    Cancer registries are an important research resource that facilitate the study of etiology, tumor biology, patterns of delayed diagnosis and health planning needs. When outcome data are included, registries can track secular changes in survival related to improvements in early detection or treatment. The surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) registry has been used to identify major gaps in survival for older adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients compared with younger children and older adults. In order to determine the reasons for this gap, the complete registration and accurate classification of AYA malignancies is necessary. There are inconsistencies in defining the age limits for AYAs although the Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology Progress Review Group proposed a definition of ages 15 through 39 years. The central registration and classification issues for AYAs are case-finding, defining common data elements (CDE) collected across different registries and the diagnostic classification of these malignancies. Goals to achieve by 2010 include extending and validating current diagnostic classification schemes and expanding the CDE to support AYA oncology research, including the collection of tracking information to assess long-term outcomes. These efforts will advance preventive, etiologic, therapeutic, and health services-related research for this understudied age group.

  20. Çayağzı Deresi’nin (Antalya) Ekonomik Yeşil Algleri Konusunda Bir Ön Çalışma

    OpenAIRE

    TURNA, İbrahim İsmail; Durucan, Furkan; Mete KUŞAT

    2012-01-01

    Yeşil algler özellikle uzak doğu ve Akdeniz ülkelerinde gıda, kozmetik, farmakoji, tıp vb. amaçlarla değerlendirilirler. Bu çalışmada, Çayağzı Deresi’nde (Antalya) dağılım gösteren yeşil alglerden Gayralia oxysperma (Kützing) K.L.Vinogradova ex Scagel et al.ve Enteromorpha intestinalis (Linnaeus) Nees’in yoğunlukları ortaya konulmuştur. Örnekler sonbahar 2011 tarihinde, bölgede 4 ayrı noktadan kuadrat yöntemiyle (50x50 cm) (Dodolahi-Sohrab A, et.al.2012) toplanmış ve taze ağırlıkları saptanmı...

  1. Strategies to improve adherence to treatment in adolescents and young adults with cancer: a systematic review

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    Robertson EG

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Eden G Robertson,1,2 Claire E Wakefield,1,2 Kate H Marshall,2 Ursula M Sansom-Daly1–3 1Discipline of Paediatrics, School of Women's and Children's Health, UNSW Medicine, University of New South Wales, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, Australia; 2Behavioural Sciences Unit, Kids Cancer Centre, Sydney Children's Hospital, 3Sydney Youth Cancer Service, Prince of Wales/Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick, NSW, Australia Purpose: Adolescents and young adults (AYAs with cancer have higher rates of nonadherence to treatment relative to younger and older cancer patients. Efforts to improve adherence in this population are therefore increasing. This review aimed: 1 to synthesize recommendations and strategies used to improve treatment adherence in AYAs with cancer, and 2 to summarize the available evidence supporting the efficacy of adherence-promoting strategies for AYAs with cancer.Methods: We conducted a systematic review with two stages: 1 a narrative stage, to analyze expert recommendations, and 2 an evaluative stage, to summarize quantitative evidence for interventions. Four electronic databases were searched for studies involving AYAs, aged 10–39 years, with cancer, published from 2005 to 2015. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines were used to ensure quality of the review. The Delphi list was used to assess study quality.Results: Nine articles were identified in the narrative stage of the review. For the evaluative stage, out of 113 screened abstracts, only one eligible intervention was identified. Common themes of adherence-promoting strategies were grouped into five domains: developmental, communication, educational, psychological well-being, and logistical/management strategies. Strategies to address developmental stage and to improve communication were the most highly recommended to improve adherence. Few strategies focused on the role of the patient in adherence. One

  2. Using plain language skills to create an educational brochure about sperm banking for adolescent and young adult males with cancer.

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    Nagel, Kim; Wizowski, Lindsay; Duckworth, JoAnn; Cassano, Jane; Hahn, Shirley Ann; Neal, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Writing in plain language makes it easier for patients to read, understand, and make informed decisions about sperm banking. Greater attention to the issue and properly designed educational brochures for use by nurses in oncology and reproductive health is of evident importance but of unknown impact. A multidisciplinary clinical team followed an evidence-based, patient-centered approach to develop "plain language" patient education materials about sperm banking for adolescent and young adult (AYA) males with cancer. A patient education booklet was produced and implemented as part of the planned patient education for AYA male oncology patients at McMaster Children's Hospital, Hamilton Health Sciences, in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The patient education booklet for use by health professionals as a teaching tool to facilitate discussion with AYA males has been produced with the hope that it will contribute to better informed decision making regarding sperm banking and increased use of this technology for fertility preservation.

  3. Psychosocial interventions for adolescents and young adult cancer patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Richter, Diana; Koehler, Michael; Friedrich, Michael; Hilgendorf, Inken; Mehnert, Anja; Weißflog, Gregor

    2015-09-01

    Adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients experience unique psychosocial needs and developmental challenges. A cancer diagnosis can stress this development and disrupt AYAs in their normal life. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the impact of psychosocial interventions on mental health in AYAs. A literature research was conducted, which resulted in twelve eligible studies. The standardized mean difference between intervention and control conditions was 0.13 (95% CI: -0.16 to 0.42) for quality of life, 0.27 (95% CI: -0.22 to 0.76) for cancer-related knowledge and -0.16 (95% CI: -0.73 to 0.42) on psychological distress indicating, small and non-significant effects for interventions improving mental health. This work strengthens the need for age-appropriated interventions in psycho-oncology. Future research should develop interventions more graduated by age. Randomized intervention studies with larger samples and focusing psychosocial outcomes are needed to establish evidence-based psycho-oncological interventions for AYAs.

  4. Assessment of psychosocial outcomes in adolescents and young adults with cancer: a systematic review of available instruments

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    Wakefield CE

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Claire E Wakefield,1,2 Pandora Patterson,3 Fiona E J McDonald,3 Helen L Wilson,1,2 Esther Davis,3 Ursula M Sansom-Daly2,41School of Women's and Children's Health, UNSW Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Centre for Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders, Sydney Children's Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3CanTeen, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaPurpose: Given the burgeoning body of research relating to the psychosocial needs of adolescents and young adults (AYAs with cancer, this review aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties and appropriateness of the instruments available for use in this unique population. Specifically, we reviewed published instruments developed to assess psychological distress (depression, anxiety, stress, and fear of recurrence, psychological growth (resilience, posttraumatic growth, and benefit finding, unmet needs, coping, quality of life, identity, and mindfulness-based practices and skills in AYAs with cancer. Given the dearth of validated instruments targeting AYAs with cancer, this review also provides a summary of promising measures yet to be formally validated in this population.Methods: Five electronic databases were searched by a team of six researchers, and studies involving AYAs (who have or have had cancer aged 15–30 years, and published between 1982 and 2012 were reviewed. Of 410 abstracts, 7 instruments were identified as validated in this population, with a further 19 identified as promising.Results: While there are numerous scales to assess psychosocial outcomes in cancer, few have been specifically validated for AYAs affected by cancer, particularly in the domains of psychological distress, psychological growth, coping, unmet needs, and identity. There are relatively more instruments validated, or promising, for assessment of quality of life than scales for other domains.Conclusion: In the AYA context

  5. Nursing care for adolescents and young adults with cancer: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Juliet; Schwartz-Attias, Irit

    2014-01-01

    Cancer patients belonging to the adolescent and young adult (AYA) age group have unique and very specific needs, which require special attention from the caring staff. The difficulty in maintaining the personal and professional development at this age is both natural and normal. Adding to this, coping with a life-threatening disease turns this stage in life into a period with many dilemmas and challenges of quite a complex nature. AYA patients have to deal with issues above and beyond the disease itself, which create a very complex coping picture. On top of that, prognosis for this age group has not improved in recent years, unlike the situation in other age groups like children and adults. The literature on this subject is extensive and comprehensive. However, most of the papers on this subject are very specific and narrow in their approach, each dealing with a specific topic. In this article, we bring together many different papers which make a wide and comprehensive picture of the subject of AYAs coping with cancer, coupled with recommendations for the caring staff. In this review we focus on the various aspects of the disease and treatments in AYAs, based on the conceptual model of quality of life proposed by Ferrell and colleagues [Cancer Nurs 1992;15:153-160; Cancer Nurs 1992;15:247-253], including physical, social, emotional and spiritual aspects. From the psychological standpoint, most of the papers discuss the negative aspects; however, in this article we try to include some articles from the positive psychology school of thought. From our findings it is apparent that there is an opportunity and need to further explore research in this regard. It is apparent that taking a unique approach to AYA cancer patients is needed in order to deal with the unique needs of this age group. This article aims at putting a framework around this issue, with actionable recommendations for the caring staff.

  6. Internet-based psychotherapy in young adult survivors of pediatric cancer: feasibility and participants' satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Diana C M; Knaevelsrud, Christine; Duran, Gabriele; Waadt, Sabine; Goldbeck, Lutz

    2014-09-01

    Abstract The Internet-based psychotherapeutic intervention Onco-STEP for adolescent and young adult (AYA)-aged survivors of pediatric cancer was developed, implemented, and participants' satisfaction was evaluated by use of questionnaires. The intervention consisted of two modules: "Looking Back," aimed to reduce posttraumatic stress symptoms, and "Looking Ahead," supported coping with cancer-related fears of relapse and progression. The writing program was fully completed by 20 participants (Mage=27.3±4.8 years at study; 70% female). The majority was satisfied and perceived the treatment components as helpful. Results demonstrate that an Internet-based psychotherapeutic intervention for AYA-aged survivors of pediatric cancer is feasible and accepted by the target population.

  7. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Ovarian cancer Pancreatic cancer Testicular cancer Thyroid cancer Uterine cancer Symptoms Symptoms of cancer ... tumor Obesity Pancreatic cancer Prostate cancer Stomach cancer Testicular cancer Throat or larynx cancer Thyroid cancer Patient Instructions ...

  8. Body Image Discomfort of Adolescent and Young Adult Hematologic Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchetti, Giulia; Bellini, Simona; Bertolotti, Marina; Bona, Francesca; Biasin, Eleonora; Bertorello, Nicoletta; Tirtei, Elisa; Fagioli, Franca

    2017-01-23

    This study focuses on body image discomfort (BID) of 50 adolescent and young adult (AYA) hematologic cancer survivors (age range 15-23; 52% males). The study results were obtained through data from a self-report questionnaire: the Body Uneasiness Test. Findings differed according to gender: a greater proportion of females were in the Risk category of impaired body image than males (χ(2) = 5.258, p < 0.05). No significant body image differences were found according to the type of diagnosis or to the length of survival. To manage survivors' BIDs and to improve their quality of life, assessing BID in AYA cancer survivors is important for identifying those who might be in need of additional supportive care or a program.

  9. Adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes following treatment of adolescent and young adult cancer: a population-based cohort study.

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    Fatima A Haggar

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate obstetric and perinatal outcomes among female survivors of adolescent and young adult (AYA cancers and their offspring. METHODS: Using multivariate analysis of statewide linked data, outcomes of all first completed pregnancies (n = 1894 in female survivors of AYA cancer diagnosed in Western Australia during the period 1982-2007 were compared with those among females with no cancer history. Comparison pregnancies were matched by maternal age-group, parity and year of delivery. RESULTS: Compared with the non-cancer group, female survivors of AYA cancer had an increased risk of threatened abortion (adjusted relative risk 2.09, 95% confidence interval 1.51-2.74, gestational diabetes (2.65, 2.08-3.57, pre-eclampsia (1.32, 1.04-1.87, post-partum hemorrhage (2.83, 1.92-4.67, cesarean delivery (2.62, 2.22-3.04, and maternal postpartum hospitalization>5 days (3.01, 1.72-5.58, but no excess risk of threatened preterm delivery, antepartum hemorrhage, premature rupture of membranes, failure of labor to progress or retained placenta. Their offspring had an increased risk of premature birth (<37 weeks: 1.68, 1.21-2.08, low birth weight (<2500 g: 1.51, 1.23-2.12, fetal growth restriction (3.27, 2.45-4.56, and neonatal distress indicated by low Apgar score (<7 at 1 minute (2.83, 2.28-3.56, need for resuscitation (1.66, 1.27-2.19 or special care nursery admission (1.44, 1.13-1.78. Congenital abnormalities and perinatal deaths (intrauterine or ≤7 days of birth were not increased among offspring of survivors. CONCLUSION: Female survivors of AYA cancer have moderate excess risks of adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes arising from subsequent pregnancies that may require additional surveillance or intervention.

  10. Cancer incidence and mortality trends in Australian adolescents and young adults, 1982–2007

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    Haggar Fatima A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing incidence and lack of survival improvement in adolescents and young adults (AYAs with cancer have led to increased awareness of the cancer burden in this population. The objective of this study was to describe overall and type-specific cancer incidence and mortality trends among AYAs in Western Australia from 1982–2007. Methods Age–adjusted incidence and mortality rates were calculated for all malignancies combined and for each of the most common diagnostic groups, using five-year age–specific rates. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to derive annual percentage changes (APC for incidence and mortality rates. Results The annual incidence rate for all cancers combined increased in males from 1982 until 2000 (APC = 1.5%, 95%CI: 0.9%; 2.1% and then plateaued, whilst rates for females remained stable across the study period (APC = −0.1%; 95%CI: −0.2%; 0.4% across the study period. For males, significant incidence rate increases were observed for germ cell tumors, lymphoblastic leukemia and thyroid cancer. In females, the incidence of Hodgkin’s lymphoma, colorectal and breast cancers increased. Significant incidence rate reductions were noted for cervical, central nervous system and lung cancers. Mortality rates for all cancers combined decreased from 1982 to 2005 for both males (APC = −2.6%, 95%CI:−3.3%;−2.0% and females (APC = −4.6%, 95%CI:−5.1%;−4.1%. With the exception of bone sarcoma and lung cancer in females, mortality rates for specific cancer types decreased significantly for both sexes during the study period. Conclusions Incidence of certain AYA cancers increased, whilst it decreased for others. Mortality rates decreased for most cancers, with the largest improvement observed for breast carcinomas. Further research is needed to identify the reasons for the increasing incidence of certain cancers.

  11. A review of mobile applications to help adolescent and young adult cancer patients

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    Wesley KM

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kimberly M Wesley,1 Philip J Fizur2 1Department of Psychology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, 2Department of Psychology, La Salle University, Philadelphia, PA, USA Objective: To review research articles utilizing mobile applications with adolescent and young adult (AYA cancer patients. Materials and methods: We identified articles via online searches and reference lists (eg, PsycInfo, PubMed. Articles were reviewed by two study team members for target population, stated purpose, technological utilization, sample size, demographic characteristics, and outcome data. Strengths and weaknesses of each study were described. Results: Of 19 identified manuscripts, six met full inclusion criteria for this review (four smartphone applications and two tablet applications. One additional article that included an application not specific to oncology but included AYA patients with cancer within the target sample was also reviewed. Uses of these applications included symptom tracking, pain management, monitoring of eating habits following bone marrow transplant, monitoring of mucositis, and improving medication management. Utility results from pilot studies are presented. Conclusion: Mobile applications are growing in number and increasingly available to AYAs with and without chronic illness. These applications may prove useful in helping to support AYAs throughout their cancer treatment and beyond. However, few applications provide empirical data supporting their utility. Numerous strengths and benefits of these applications include increased accessibility to educational resources and self-management strategies, more frequent physical and emotional symptom tracking, and increased access to peer support. Despite these strengths, numerous limitations are identified, highlighting the need for future research in this area. Keywords: adolescent, young adult, cancer, smartphone, mobile, applications

  12. Preliminary development and psychometric evaluation of an unmet needs measure for adolescents and young adults with cancer: the Cancer Needs Questionnaire - Young People (CNQ-YP

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    Clinton-McHarg Tara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents and young adult (AYA cancer survivors may have unique physical, psychological and social needs due to their cancer occurring at a critical phase of development. The aim of this study was to develop a psychometrically rigorous measure of unmet need to capture the specific needs of this group. Methods Items were developed following a comprehensive literature review, focus groups with AYAs, and feedback from health care providers, researchers and other professionals. The measure was pilot tested with 32 AYA cancer survivors recruited through a state-based cancer registry to establish face and content validity. A main sample of 139 AYA cancer patients and survivors were recruited through seven treatment centres and invited to complete the questionnaire. To establish test-retest reliability, a sub-sample of 34 participants completed the measure a second time. Exploratory factor analysis was performed and the measure was assessed for internal consistency, discriminative validity, potential responsiveness and acceptability. Results The Cancer Needs Questionnaire - Young People (CNQ-YP has established face and content validity, and acceptability. The final measure has 70 items and six factors: Treatment Environment and Care (33 items; Feelings and Relationships (14 items; Daily Life (12 items; Information and Activities (5 items; Education (3 items; and Work (3 items. All domains achieved Cronbach's alpha values greater than 0.80. Item-to-item test-retest reliability was also high, with all but four items reaching weighted kappa values above 0.60. Conclusions The CNQ-YP is the first multi-dimensional measure of unmet need which has been developed specifically for AYA cancer patients and survivors. The measure displays a strong factor structure, and excellent internal consistency and test-retest reliability. However, the small sample size has implications for the reliability of the statistical analyses undertaken

  13. Examining relationship between burnout level and socio-demographic characteristics of teachers: A case study for Ayaş, Güdül, Beypazarı, Nallıhan

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    Burhan Başoğlu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to determine the relationship between 533 teachers’ level of burnout; who work in Ayaş, Güdül, Beypazarı and Nallıhan provinces in the northern of Ankara in different positions and their socio-demographic variables. According to obtained data results; number of children, staff position and felt wealth level in desensitisation dimension and gender, education level and staff position in personal success dimension were determined as significant. It was concluded that marital status, duration of experience in job and staff position in management were not statistically significant on emotional exhaustion, desensitisation and personal success.

  14. The Age Conundrum: A Scoping Review of Younger Age or Adolescent and Young Adult as a Risk Factor for Clinical Distress, Depression, or Anxiety in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Michael J; David, Victoria; Giese-Davis, Janine

    2015-12-01

    This scoping review was conducted to understand the extent, range, and nature of current research on adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer and distress, depression, and anxiety (DDA). This information is necessary to find and aggregate valuable data on the AYA population embedded in generalized studies of DDA. Keyword searches of six relevant electronic databases identified 2156 articles, with 316 selected for abstract review and 40 for full text review. Full-text reviews and data extraction resulted in 34 studies being included, which ranged widely in design, sample size, age-range categorization, analysis methods, DDA measurement tool, overall study rigor, and quality of evidence. Studies very seldom reported using theory to guide their age categorization, with only four studies giving any rationale for their age-group definitions. All 34 studies found a significant association between at least one DDA construct and the younger age group relative to the older age groups at some point along the cancer trajectory. However, age as an independent risk factor for DDA is still unclear, as the relationship could be confounded by other age-related factors. Despite the wide range of definitions and effect sizes in the studies included in this review, one thing is clear: adolescents and young adults, however defined, are a distinct group within the cancer population with an elevated risk of DDA. Widespread adoption of a standard AYA age-range definition will be essential to any future meta-analytical psycho-oncology research in this population.

  15. Adolescent and Young Adult Patient Engagement and Participation in Survey-Based Research: A Report From the "Resilience in Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer" Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Abby R; Bona, Kira; Wharton, Claire M; Bradford, Miranda; Shaffer, Michele L; Wolfe, Joanne; Baker, Kevin Scott

    2016-04-01

    Conducting patient-reported outcomes research with adolescents and young adults (AYAs) is difficult due to low participation rates and high attrition. Forty-seven AYAs with newly diagnosed cancer at two large hospitals were prospectively surveyed at the time of diagnosis and 3-6 and 12-18 months later. A subset participated in 1:1 semistructured interviews. Attrition prompted early study closure at one site. The majority of patients preferred paper-pencil to online surveys. Interview participants were more likely to complete surveys (e.g., 93% vs. 58% completion of 3-6 month surveys, P = 0.02). Engaging patients through qualitative methodologies and using patient-preferred instruments may optimize future research success.

  16. Validation of the distress thermometer for use among adolescents and young adults with cancer in Australia: a multicenter study protocol

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    Patterson P

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pandora Patterson,1,2 Fiona EJ McDonald,1,2 Antoinette Anazodo,3 Daniel SJ Costa,4 Claire E Wakefield,5,6 Kate White,2 Kate Thompson,7 Michael P Osborn8 1Research, Evaluation and Social Policy, CanTeen Australia, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Cancer Nursing Research Unit, Sydney Nursing School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Sydney Youth Cancer Service, Sydney Children's Hospital and Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, NSW, Australia; 4Psycho-oncology Co-operative Research group, School of Psychology, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 5School of Women's and Children's Health, UNSW Medicine, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, Australia; 6Behavioural Sciences Unit, Kids Cancer Centre, Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick, NSW, Australia; 7Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 8Youth Cancer Service SA/NT, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA, Australia Background: Adolescents and young adults (AYAs diagnosed with cancer commonly experience elevated levels of distress. Routinely administered distress screening tools can be effective in identifying individuals in need of referral to psychosocial services. The distress thermometer and problem checklist are widely used screening tools that have been validated among some cancer populations, but which have not to date been validated for use among AYAs with cancer. The primary aim of this study is to validate the distress thermometer and a modified problem checklist for use with AYA cancer patients, aged 15–25 years. Specifically, we aim to 1 determine appropriate cutoffs for clinical referral on the distress thermometer; 2 investigate the content validity of the modified problem checklist; and 3 assess the clinical utility of the tool from the perspectives of both patients and health care professionals. The secondary aims of the study are to 4 establish prevalence and predictors of distress in AYA cancer patients and 5 examine the

  17. Health Related Quality of Life, Lifestyle Behaviors, and Intervention Preferences of Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Hoda; Chandra, Joya; Paxton, Raheem J.; Ater, Joann L.; Urbauer, Diana; Cruz, Cody Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) are at increased risk for poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and chronic health conditions -- both of which can be exacerbated by unhealthy lifestyle behaviors. Developing a clearer understanding of the associations between HRQOL, lifestyle behaviors, and medical and demographic variables (e.g., age/developmental stage at time of diagnosis) is an important step toward developing more targeted behavioral interventions for this population. METHOD Cross-sectional questionnaires were completed by 170 CCSs who were diagnosed with leukemia, lymphoma, sarcoma, or a cancer of the central nervous system (CNS) and treated at a comprehensive cancer center between 1992 and 2007. Questionnaires addressed weight status, lifestyle behaviors, aspects of HRQOL, and intervention preferences. RESULTS Adolescent and young adult survivors (AYAs) and survivors of CNS tumors or lymphoma reported significantly (pexercise interventions. CONCLUSION Findings support the premise that females, AYAs, and survivors of cancers of the CNS or lymphoma are “at risk” subgroups within the CCS population for poor dietary practices, sedentary behaviors, and poor HRQOL. Future research should focus on developing diet and PA interventions to improve HRQOL that target these groups. IMPLICATIONS FOR SURVIVORS Greater consideration of the role of gender, developmental stage, and the HRQOL challenges facing CCSs may help researchers to develop targeted behavioral interventions for those who stand to benefit the most. PMID:23749663

  18. Barriers to the Use of Psychosocial Support Services Among Adolescent and Young Adult Survivors of Pediatric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Molly H; Barnes, Margaux J; Bopanna, Shilpa; Davis, Caroline S; Cotton, Pat B; Heron, Bethany L; Henninger, Alison; Alva, Elizabeth; Gleason, Michael W; Whelan, Kimberly F; Madan-Swain, Avi

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivors of pediatric cancer commonly report both functional and emotional difficulties, yet many of their mental health needs are not met. Given the unique needs of these survivors, this study examined barriers to psychosocial support service utilization in this population, including accessibility, personal preferences, and practical barriers such as insurance and transportation. Methods: Thirty-six adolescent and young adult survivors of pediatric cancer (aged 15-29) with mental health difficulties (i.e., anxiety or depression) completed surveys assessing access and utilization of services and barriers to utilization. Services assessed included the use of mental health professionals, a pastor or someone in a place of worship, and support groups. Results: Half of the participants utilized a mental health professional, but other forms of support were used less frequently. Utilization of services was related to insurance status and use of prescription medication. Greater time since completion of treatment was a barrier to utilizing psychosocial support services. Conclusion: Use of psychosocial support services is linked closely with use of other healthcare services, including taking prescription medication for mood difficulties. Results have implications for how primary care and oncology providers address barriers to these services among AYA survivors of pediatric cancer.

  19. Cancer

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    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  20. Cancer

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    ... uses a surgical tool to remove the tumor.Mohs' surgery. Layers of cancer cells are removed one ... usually have not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The medicine may have ...

  1. CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kavoussi

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many carcinogenetic elements in industry and it is for this reason that study and research concerning the effect of these materials is carried out on a national and international level. The establishment and growth of cancer are affected by different factors in two main areas:-1 The nature of the human or animal including sex, age, point and method of entry, fat metabolism, place of agglomeration of carcinogenetic material, amount of material absorbed by the body and the immunity of the body.2 The different nature of the carcinogenetic material e.g. physical, chemical quality, degree of solvency in fat and purity of impurity of the element. As the development of cancer is dependent upon so many factors, it is extremely difficult to determine whether a causative element is principle or contributory. Some materials are not carcinogenetic when they are pure but become so when they combine with other elements. All of this creates an industrial health problem in that it is almost impossible to plan an adequate prevention and safety program. The body through its system of immunity protects itself against small amounts of carcinogens but when this amount increases and reaches a certain level the body is not longer able to defend itself. ILO advises an effective protection campaign against cancer based on the Well –equipped laboratories, Well-educated personnel, the establishment of industrial hygiene within factories, the regular control of safety systems, and the implementation of industrial health principles and research programs.

  2. İlkokul Öğrencileri ve Sınıf Öğretmeni Adaylarının Doğaya İlişkin Algıları ve Sorumluluklarına Yönelik Düşünceleri Elemantary Scholl Students’ And Prospective Elemantary Scholl Teachers’ Perceptions of Nature And Thoughts of Their Responsibilities Towards The Nature

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    Nilüfer KÖŞKER

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nature education provides important opportunities for learningabout nature, being aware of it and protecting it. The best way is tostart education of it from children. Education plays an important roleon the child in shaping his/her perceptions about nature andenvironment. Perception of people about nature affects their behaviorsand attitudes. Defining the perceptions of teachers that direct teachingprocess and students about nature and their responsibility towardsnature will be affective on the composition of nature education. The aimof this research is to define primary school students’ and prospectiveteachers’ perceptions of nature and thoughts of their responsibilitiestowards the nature. Data were collected from 150 primary schoolstudents and 123 prospective primary school teachers. Interview formswere used as data collection instrument Data were evaluated accordingto qualitative descriptive analysis and content analysis. According toresearch results, most of the primary school students define nature asplants while most of prospective primary school teachers define as aplace of life area. According to results, nature evokes those plants suchas tree and forest. Thoughts of their responsibilities towards the naturegathered under two themes: protection and greening. Most ofprospective primary school teachers and primary school students havefocused on their responsibility for protection more. It would be said thatboth students and prospective teachers pay attention to theirenvironment and their awareness level for protecting is very high. Doğayı tanımak, korumak ve farkındalık yaratmak açısından doğaeğitimi önemli fırsatlar yaratacaktır. Bu yönde bir eğitime çocuklardanbaşlamak ise en doğru adım olacaktır. Çocuğun içinde bulunduğu çevreve doğa hakkındaki algılarının şekillenmesinde eğitim belirleyici bir yertutmaktadır. Bireylerin doğaya ilişkin algıları, tutum ve davranışlarınıetkilemektedir.

  3. Post-traumatic stress symptoms and post-traumatic growth in 223 childhood cancer survivors: predictive risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eTremolada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available With modern therapies and supportive care, survival rates of childhood cancer have increased considerably. However, there are long-term psychological sequelae of these treatments that may not manifest until pediatric survivors are into adulthood. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in young adult survivors of childhood cancer ranges from 6.2% to 22%; associated risk factors are young age at the assessment, female gender, low education level and some disease-related factors. The aim of this study was to investigate, in adolescent and young adult (AYA survivors of childhood cancer, the incidence and severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS, and to identify the risk factors and the associated post-traumatic growth (PTG index.Participants were 223 AYA cancer survivors recruited during follow-up visits in the Oncohematology Clinic of the Department of Child and Woman’s Health, University of Padua. Data were collected from self-report questionnaires on PTSS incidence, PTG mean score, perceived social support, and medical and socio-demographic factors. Ex-patients’ mean age at the assessment was 19.33 years (SD = 3.01, 15-25, 123 males and 100 females, with a mean of years off-therapy of 9.64 (SD=4.17. Most (52.5% had survived an hematological disorder and 47.5% a solid tumor when they were aged, on average, 8.02 years (SD=4.40.The main results indicated a moderate presence of clinical (≥9 symptoms: 9.4% and sub-clinical PTSS (6-8 symptoms: 11.2%, with the avoidance criterion most often encountered. Re-experience symptoms and PTG mean score were significantly associated (r=0.24 p=0.0001. A hierarchical regression model (R2 = 0.08; F = 1.46; p = 0.05 identified female gender (β = 0.16; p = 0.05 and less perceived social support (β = -0.43; p = 0.05 as risk factors to developing PTSS. Another hierarchical regression model assessed the possible predictors of the PTG total score (R2 = 0.36; F = 9.1; p = 0.0001, with

  4. Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms and Post-traumatic Growth in 223 Childhood Cancer Survivors: Predictive Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremolada, Marta; Bonichini, Sabrina; Basso, Giuseppe; Pillon, Marta

    2016-01-01

    With modern therapies and supportive care, survival rates of childhood cancer have increased considerably. However, there are long-term psychological sequelae of these treatments that may not manifest until pediatric survivors are into adulthood. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder in young adult survivors of childhood cancer ranges from 6.2 to 22%; associated risk factors are young age at the assessment, female gender, low education level, and some disease-related factors. The aim of this study was to investigate, in adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivors of childhood cancer, the incidence and severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs), and to identify the risk factors and the associated post-traumatic growth (PTG) index. Participants were 223 AYA cancer survivors recruited during follow-up visits in the Oncohematology Clinic of the Department of Child and Woman's Health, University of Padua. Data were collected from self-report questionnaires on PTSS incidence, PTG mean score, perceived social support, and medical and socio-demographic factors. Ex-patients' mean age at the assessment was 19.33 years (SD = 3.01, 15-25), 123 males and 100 females, with a mean of years off-therapy of 9.64 (SD = 4.17). Most (52.5%) had survived an hematological disorder and 47.5% a solid tumor when they were aged, on average, 8.02 years (SD = 4.40). The main results indicated a moderate presence of clinical (≥9 symptoms: 9.4%) and sub-clinical PTSS (6-8 symptoms: 11.2%), with the avoidance criterion most often encountered. Re-experience symptoms and PTG mean score were significantly associated (r = 0.24; p = 0.0001). A hierarchical regression model (R (2) = 0.08; F = 1.46; p = 0.05) identified female gender (β = 0.16; p = 0.05) and less perceived social support (β = -0.43; p = 0.05) as risk factors to developing PTSS. Another hierarchical regression model assessed the possible predictors of the PTG total score (R (2) = 0.36; F = 9.1; p = 0.0001), with

  5. Assessing the Quality, Feasibility, and Efficacy of Electronic Patient Platforms Designed to Support Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer: A Systematic Review Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Background A range of innovative websites, mobile technologies, eHealth and mHealth platforms have emerged to support adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer. Previous reviews have identified these various applications and solutions, but no review has summarized the quality, feasibility, and efficacy of existing patient platforms (inclusive of websites, mobile technologies, mHealth and eHealth platforms) developed specifically for young people with cancer. Objective This paper describes the design of a protocol to conduct a review of published studies or reports which describe or report on an existing platform designed specifically for AYAs who have had a cancer diagnosis. Methods A search string was developed using a variety of key words and Medical Subject Heading and applied to bibliographic databases. General data (sample characteristics, patient platform development, design and, if applicable, pilot testing outcomes) will be extracted from reports and studies. Drawing on a previously developed coding schematic, the identified patient platforms will be coded for mode of delivery into (1) automated functions, (2) communicative functions, and (3) use of supplementary modes. An adapted version of the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS) will be used to assess the of quality of each identified patient platform. The methodological quality of included studies will be assessed using the Quality Assessment Criteria for Evaluating Primary Research Papers from a Variety of Fields (QualSyst). Both authors will independently screen eligible studies for final inclusion and will both be responsible for data extraction and appraisal. Data will be synthesized narratively to provide an overview of identified patient platforms. Results The review began in October 2016 and is currently in progress. The review paper will be submitted for peer-review and publication in the summer of 2017. Conclusions This review will be unique in its focus on assessing, where possible, the

  6. Colon cancer

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    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... In the United States, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths due to cancer. Early diagnosis can often lead to a complete cure. Almost ...

  7. Psychosocial Strength Enhancing Resilience in Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Akiko; Okamura, Jun; Ueda, Reiko; Sunami, Shosuke; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Ogawa, Junko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore ways of enhancing psychosocial strengths in newly diagnosed and relapsed adolescents and young adults (AYAs) to improve their resilience. A descriptive case study was used. The adolescent resilience model (ARM) and the self-sustaining process model were applied as theories. The data were analyzed using pattern-matching logic. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 18 patients aged 12 to 24 years and discharged within 10 years. We found that the newly diagnosed and the relapsing AYAs developed the 5 strength factors of the ARM during and after treatment. Whether the individuals cultivated a positive attitude and sense of purpose early or late, the AYAs developed resilience eventually. A positive attitude and sense of purpose during the early phase of care may be essential for improving resilience. The AYAs benefited from the support of their parents, friends, and previous experience. Individualized support and social resources may be important to develop these strengths. Further research is needed to develop strengths and improve resilience in newly diagnosed AYAs.

  8. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  9. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  10. Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Cancer Treatment Coping With Cancer en español Cáncer infantil Every cell in the body has a system that controls its growth, interaction with other cells, and even its life span. ... cancer . Different kinds of cancer have different signs, symptoms, ...

  11. Program CSR Berbasis Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Menuju Kemandirian Ekonomi Pasca Tambang di Desa Sarij aya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa Ria Pranoto

    2016-09-01

    any indicator PT Pertamina EP is able to apply a good CSR refers to the MDGs documents, regulations regulations and ISO 26000. this study aimed to measure the effi ciency of the implementation as well as the response and participation in the implementation of CSR programs conducted.

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and ... of Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research ...

  13. What Is Thymus Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Thymus Cancer About Thymus Cancer What Is Thymus Cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body ... Research and Treatment for Thymus Cancer? More In Thymus Cancer About Thymus Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  14. Penile cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - penis; Squamous cell cancer - penis; Glansectomy; Partial penectomy ... Cancer of the penis is rare. Its exact cause is unknown. However, certain risk factors include: Uncircumcised men who don't keep the ...

  15. Cancer Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... controlled way. Cancer cells keep growing without control. Chemotherapy is drug therapy for cancer. It works by killing the cancer ... It depends on the type and amount of chemotherapy you get and how your body reacts. Some ...

  16. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the head, face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ... cancer is found early. If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. ...

  17. Testicular cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testicular cancer is cancer that starts in the testicles, the male reproductive glands located in the scrotum. ... developing testicular cancer increases if he has: Abnormal testicle development Exposure to certain chemicals Family history of ...

  18. Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deaths than other female reproductive cancers. The sooner ovarian cancer is found and treated, the better your chance for recovery. But ovarian cancer is hard to detect early. Women with ovarian ...

  19. Cancer Moonshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Moonshot, led by Vice President Joe Biden, will marshal resources across the federal government to speed progress in cancer research and lead to improved cancer prevention, detection, and treatment.

  20. Uterine Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is pregnant. There are different types of uterine cancer. The most common type starts in the endometrium, ... the uterus. This type is also called endometrial cancer. The symptoms of uterine cancer include Abnormal vaginal ...

  1. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  2. Stomach Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with stomach acid and helps digest protein. Stomach cancer mostly affects older people - two-thirds of people ... Smoke cigarettes Have a family history of stomach cancer It is hard to diagnose stomach cancer in ...

  3. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  4. Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunotherapy is a cancer treatment that helps your immune system fight cancer. It is a type of biological therapy. Biological therapy uses substances ... t yet use immunotherapy as often as other cancer treatments, such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. ...

  5. Throat Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... food. Surgery to remove cancerous lymph nodes (neck dissection). If throat cancer has spread deep within your ... neck cancers. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2015. Freedman ND, et al. Fruit ...

  6. Optimal management of venous thromboembolism in adolescent and young adult oncology patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKillop S

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarah McKillop,1 Cynthia Wu,2 Aisha Bruce,1 Joseph Brandwein2 1Division of Immunology, Hematology, Oncology, Palliative Care and Environmental Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, 2Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Abstract: Venous thromboembolism (VTE is a serious complication experienced by adolescents and young adults (AYAs diagnosed with cancer. Data exist in the adult literature to guide the management of cancer-associated thrombosis. Unfortunately, little is known regarding the epidemiology of cancer-associated thrombosis in AYAs. As a result, evidence on the treatment and prevention of thrombosis in this vulnerable population is lacking, posing a great challenge to physicians caring for AYAs with cancer. It is clear that the basic principles of VTE likely apply to AYAs and that low-molecular-weight heparin is the drug of choice for the treatment of VTE regardless of age. We review the available data on the epidemiology, diagnostic methods, and management of AYAs with cancer and VTE. Recognizing the lack of accepted guidelines for the prevention or management of VTE in this population, we offer expert opinion recommendations to serve as guidance to improve management of thrombosis in AYA cancer patients. Keywords: adolescents, young adults, thrombosis, cancer, venous thromboembolism, anticoagulation

  7. Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaginal cancer is a rare type of cancer. It is more common in women 60 and older. You are also more likely to get it if you have had a human ... test can find abnormal cells that may be cancer. Vaginal cancer can often be cured in its ...

  8. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Talking about Advanced Cancer Coping with Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer and Caregivers Questions ... Talking About Advanced Cancer Coping With Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer ...

  10. What Is Thyroid Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment? Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer What Is Thyroid Cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... cell) Medullary Anaplastic (an aggressive undifferentiated tumor) Differentiated thyroid cancers Most thyroid cancers are differentiated cancers. The cells ...

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer ... grade, which refers to how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope. Grade provides clues about ...

  12. Diet and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  13. Breast Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer > Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Overview Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... bean-shaped organs that help fight infection. About breast cancer Cancer begins when healthy cells in the breast ...

  14. What Is Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research? Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer What Is Breast Cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... spread, see our section on Cancer Basics . Where breast cancer starts Breast cancers can start from different parts ...

  15. American Institute for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Cancer By Cancer Site What Is Cancer Foods That Fight Cancer Tools You Can Use Cancer Infographics & Multimedia Studying ... About Cancer By Cancer Site What Is Cancer Foods That Fight Cancer Tools You Can Use Cancer Infographics & Multimedia Studying ...

  16. Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prasad

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer screening is a means to detect cancer early with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a reasonable consensus regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cances and the role of screening is under trial in case of cancers of the lung,  ovaries and prostate. On the other hand, good screening tests are not available for some of the commonest cancers in India like the oral, pharyngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers.

  17. Cancer Research Repository for Individuals With Cancer Diagnosis, High Risk Individuals, and Individuals With No History of Cancer (Control)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-14

    Pancreatic Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Lung Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Thymus Cancer; Colon Cancer; Rectal Cancer; GIST; Anal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Liver Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer; Peritoneal Surface Malignancies; Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; Lynch Syndrome; Bladder Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Penile Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Cancer; Ureter Cancer; Urethral Cancer; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Laryngeal Cancer; Lip Cancer; Oral Cavity Cancer; Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Nasal Cavity Cancer; Salivary Gland Cancer; Skin Cancer; CNS Tumor; CNS Cancer; Mesothelioma; Breastcancer; Leukemia; Melanoma; Sarcoma; Unknown Primary Tumor; Multiple Myeloma; Ovarian Cancer; Endometrial Cancer; Vaginal Cancer

  18. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. Later, ...

  19. Oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some oral cancers begin as a white plaque ( leukoplakia ) or as a mouth ulcer . Men develop oral ... use and safe drinking Cancer Dental care - adult Leukoplakia Metastasis Mouth ulcers Patient Instructions Dry mouth during ...

  20. Cancer Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Portfolio Snapshots Milestones in Cancer Research & Discovery Stories of ... Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Hazard Evaluation and Technical Assistance Branch Health Hazard Evaluation (HHE) ...

  1. Endometrial cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be at a higher risk of endometrial cancer: Colon or breast cancer Diabetes Gallbladder disease High blood ... laparoscopic - discharge Hysterectomy - vaginal - discharge Pelvic radiation - discharge Review Date 4/5/2016 Updated by: Irina Burd, ...

  2. Cancer prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Introduction A 44 year old woman attends your surgery,distressed by the fact that her closest friend has just been given a diagnosis of colorectal cancer. She wants to know how to minimise her risk of developing cancer.

  3. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  4. Nasal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the way to your throat as you breathe. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is ... be like those of infections. Doctors diagnose nasal cancer with imaging tests, lighted tube-like instruments that ...

  5. Gallbladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your gallbladder and liver to your small intestine. Cancer of the gallbladder is rare. It is more ... the abdomen It is hard to diagnose gallbladder cancer in its early stages. Sometimes doctors find it ...

  6. Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of ... men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more ...

  7. Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hormones that help control blood sugar levels. Pancreatic cancer usually begins in the cells that produce the juices. Some risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer include Smoking Long-term diabetes Chronic pancreatitis Certain ...

  8. Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic information about cancer disparities in the U.S., factors that contribute to the disproportionate burden of cancer in some groups, and examples of disparities in incidence and mortality among certain populations.

  9. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  10. Thymus Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell. These cells help protect you from infections. Cancer of the thymus is rare. You are more ... Sometimes there are no symptoms. Other times, thymus cancer can cause A cough that doesn't go ...

  11. Intestinal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  12. Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from your throat to your stomach. Early esophageal cancer usually does not cause symptoms. Later, you may ... You're at greater risk for getting esophageal cancer if you smoke, drink heavily, or have acid ...

  13. Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevented? Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors A risk factor is anything that ... Cancer? Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  14. Lung Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  15. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer During Pregnancy Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Treatment Surgery for Breast Cancer Surgery is a common treatment ... removed (breast reconstruction) Relieve symptoms of advanced cancer Surgery to remove breast cancer There are two main ...

  16. Skin Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? ... prevent cancer are being studied. General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Childhood Cancer Genomics Study ... Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood ...

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and ... Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Snapshots Milestones in Cancer Research and Discovery Stories of Discovery R& ...

  20. Targeted therapies for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of these cancers: Leukemia and lymphoma Breast cancer Colon cancer Skin cancer Lung cancer Prostate Other cancers ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 44. Review Date 9/13/2015 Updated by: Todd Gersten, ...

  1. Throat or larynx cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocal cord cancer; Throat cancer; Laryngeal cancer; Cancer of the glottis; Cancer of oropharynx or hypopharynx ... use tobacco are at risk of developing throat cancer. Drinking too much alcohol over a long time ...

  2. Surgery for Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stage Testicular Cancer Treating Testicular Cancer Surgery for Testicular Cancer Surgery is typically the first treatment for all ... Testicular Cancer, by Type and Stage More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  3. What Is Testicular Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment? Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer What Is Testicular Cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... respond well to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Secondary testicular cancers Cancers that start in another organ and then ...

  4. Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Eggener, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer continues to be a significant public health issue worldwide, particularly in countries where men have life expectancies long enough to clinically manifest the disease. In many countries, it remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality.Although significant progress has been made over the past few decades, many elements regarding the diagnosis and management of patients with prostate cancer remain enigmatic. In this Prostate Cancer special issue, o...

  5. Prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R., Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results.

  6. Profiling cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciro, Marco; Bracken, Adrian P; Helin, Kristian

    2003-01-01

    In the past couple of years, several very exciting studies have demonstrated the enormous power of gene-expression profiling for cancer classification and prediction of patient survival. In addition to promising a more accurate classification of cancer and therefore better treatment of patients......, gene-expression profiling can result in the identification of novel potential targets for cancer therapy and a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cancer....

  7. Breast cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  8. Cancer Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cervical Cancer Solid Tumors Selected References Pardoll D. Cancer immunology. In: Abeloff M, Armitage J, Niederhuber J, Kastan ... 178(4):1975–1979. [PubMed Abstract] Finn OJ. Cancer immunology. New England Journal of Medicine 2008;358(25): ...

  9. Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of skin behind the penis. You can get cancer in one or both testicles. Testicular cancer mainly affects young men between the ages of ... undescended testicle Have a family history of the cancer Symptoms include pain, swelling, or lumps in your ...

  10. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  11. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... consisted of treatment with just two drugs, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and leucovorin. A third drug, irinotecan, was approved ... FDA in 1996 for use in combination with 5-FU and leucovorin in treating metastatic colorectal cancer (cancer ...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening ...

  13. Childhood Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room Employment Feedback Contact Select Page Childhood Cancer Statistics Home > Cancer Resources > Childhood Cancer Statistics Childhood Cancer Statistics – Graphs and Infographics Number of Diagnoses Incidence Rates ...

  14. Lymphedema After Surgery in Patients With Endometrial Cancer, Cervical Cancer, or Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-23

    Lymphedema; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  15. Cancer immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cairns, Linda; Aspeslagh, Sandrine; Anichini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This report covers the Immunotherapy sessions of the 2016 Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) Oncology Days meeting, which was held on 15th-17th June 2016 in Brussels, Belgium. Immunotherapy is a potential cancer treatment that uses an individual's immune system to fight the tumour....... In recent years significant advances have been made in this field in the treatment of several advanced cancers. Cancer immunotherapies include monoclonal antibodies that are designed to attack a very specific part of the cancer cell and immune checkpoint inhibitors which are molecules that stimulate...... or block the inhibition of the immune system. Other cancer immunotherapies include vaccines and T cell infusions. This report will summarise some of the research that is going on in this field and will give us an update on where we are at present....

  16. Cancer in Patients With Gabapentin (GPRD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    Pain, Neuropathic; Epilepsy; Renal Pelvis Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Breast Cancer; Nervous System Cancer; Chronic Pancreatitis; Stomach Cancer; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Diabetes; Bladder Cancer; Bone and Joint Cancer; Penis Cancer; Anal Cancer; Cancer; Renal Cancer

  17. Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-03-06

    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.  Created: 3/6/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 4/25/2007.

  18. METİNDİLBİLİMSEL YÖNTEM İLE ÇÖZÜMLENEN SAİT FAİK’İN DÜLGER BALIĞININ ÖLÜMÜ’NDE İNSANIN DOĞAYA TAHAKKÜMÜ VE ÖTEKİLEŞTİRİLMESİ / MAN’S DESPOTISM AND ALIENATION OVER NATURE IN SAIK FAIK’S DÜLGER BALIĞININ ÖLÜMÜ THAT IS RESOLVED WITH THE TEXTLINGUISTICS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan GÜRGÜN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Metindilbilim, F. De Saussure’in açtığı yolda ilerleyen araştırmacılar sayesinde 1960’ların başlarında ortaya çıkmış, yazılı veya sözlü ürünlerin metinselliğini inceleyen bir araştırma yöntemidir. Yazılı veya sözlü bir ürünün metin olabilmesi için “bağlaşıklık, bağdaşıklık, amaç, durumsallık, kabul edilebilirlik, bilgisellik, metinler arası ilişki” şeklinde yedi metinsellik ölçütüne sahip olması gerektiğini ileri sürer ve ürünleri bu yedi ölçüte göre değerlendirir. Bu ölçütlerin arasından “bağdaşıklık” ve “bağlaşıklık” metnin doğrudan kendisine yönelik olduğundan edebi ürünlerin metinselliği için iki temel ölçüttür. Çalışmada metindilbilimin bağlaşıklık ve bağdaşıklık başlıkları ve onların alt başlıkları hakkında kısaca bilgi verilmiş ardından durum öyküsünün usta kalemi Sait Faik Abasıyanık’ın Dülger Balığının Ölümü1 öyküsü bu iki temel ölçüte göre çözümlenmiştir. Eserin metinselliğini tespit etmek için yüzey yapıdan derin yapıya uzanan bir inceleme yolu izlenmiştir. Bu inceleme sayesinde eserin estetik yapısı ve derin yapıdaki “insanın doğaya tahakkümü ve ötekileştirilmesi” eleştirel tavrı görünür kılınmaya çalışılmıştır. / Textlinguistics which was emerged in early 1960s thanks to the researchers that follow the path of F. De Saussure is a research method that studies textuality of oral and written works. It puts forward the principle that if an oral or written work can be assumed as a text it must meet seven textual requirements such as “cohesion, coherence, intentionality, situationality, acceptability, informativity, intertextuality’’ and evaluates the works according to these criterions. Among these criterions “cohesion” and “coherence” are two basic criterions for literary texts. In this study a brief information is given about “cohesion” and

  19. Improving Access to Standardized Fertility Preservation Information for Older Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: Using a User-Centered Approach with Young Adult Patients, Survivors, and Partners to Refine Fertility Knowledge Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Seline; Puri, Natasha; Stephens, Derek; Mitchell, Laura; Giuliani, Meredith; Papadakos, Janet; Gupta, Abha A

    2016-09-27

    Adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients under 40 should be made aware of their fertility risks and preservation options throughout their care. However, discussions on fertility preservation (FP) do not routinely occur. With a dearth of FP resources, oncology providers may lack knowledge around FP. Thus, informational needs can be unmet, leading to anxiety and distress in patients. Provision of pertinent and timely information can help patients cope better with their diagnosis. FP pamphlets were developed for men and women with cancer. A cross-sectional in-house survey, using convenience sampling, evaluated the pamphlets' effectiveness and measured ease of understanding, acceptability, and perceived utility. Patients and partners were also asked to provide recommendations and complete the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA) measuring health literacy level. This helps determine if health literacy influences perception of pamphlet effectiveness. All participants (n = 56) reviewed both pamphlets. Fifty-four participants (96 %) found the pamphlet for men useful, while 29 participants (52 %) improved their male fertility knowledge. The pamphlet for women was useful for 52 participants (93 %) and improved knowledge in 35 (63 %) of them. Although the majority of participants had adequate health literacy (98 %), there was insufficient sample diversity to determine if health literacy influenced the pamphlet's effectiveness. Participants indicated preference in receiving verbal (73 %) and written (66 %) information over watching videos or in-class education. They recommended including fertility clinics, financial resources, and statistics in the brochures. These FP pamphlets were concluded as effective in supporting patients in making FP decisions.

  20. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics ... Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics ...

  2. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Request Permissions Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 11/2015 What is hereditary diffuse gastric cancer? Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is an inherited ...

  3. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... has stayed about the same since 2005. Stomach (gastric) cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells ...

  4. What Is Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Graphics Infographic Stay Informed Cancer Home What Is Lung Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... cancer starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer. Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may ...

  5. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using ... Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance ...

  7. Breast Cancer Research Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Research Update Winter 2017 Table of Contents National Cancer Institute ... Addressing Breast Cancer's Unequal Burden / Breast Cancer Research Update Winter 2017 Issue: Volume 11 Number 4 Page ...

  8. Children's cancer centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric cancer center; Pediatric oncology center; Comprehensive cancer center ... Treating childhood cancer is not the same as treating adult cancer. The cancers are different. So are the treatments and the ...

  9. Testicular Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professional Testicular Cancer Treatment Testicular Cancer Screening Testicular Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Testicular Cancer Key Points Testicular cancer is a disease in ...

  10. Learning about Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What do we know about heredity and colon cancer? Colon cancer, a malignant tumor of the large intestine, ... page Additional Resources for Information on Hereditary Colon Cancer Colon and Rectal Cancer Information [cancer.gov] The most ...

  11. Ontario-wide Cancer TArgeted Nucleic Acid Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-14

    Breast Cancer; Lung Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Melanoma; Gynecological Cancer; Genitourinary Cancer; Pancreatobiliary Cancer; Gastrointestinal Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Rare Cancer; Unknown Primary Cancer

  12. Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Eggener

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer continues to be a significant public health issue worldwide, particularly in countries where men have life expectancies long enough to clinically manifest the disease. In many countries, it remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality.

  13. Renal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, Enrichetta; Betti, Maura; Gatta, Gemma; Roila, Fausto; De Mulder, Pieter H. M.

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all acknowle

  14. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you ever get a bad sunburn that caused blisters when you were a child?Does your skin ... Cancer InstituteMelanoma International FoundationAmerican Cancer Society ResourcesDiagnosis and Management of Malignant Melanoma by BG Goldstein, AO Goldstein( ...

  15. Occupational Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regulation and Policy OSHA Standards Surveillance NIOSH Data & Statistics by Industry Sector - Cancer Click on one of the eight Sector Tabs at the top of the screen to find available cancer statistics for that Sector Work-Related Lung Disease Surveillance ...

  16. Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? Most people with thyroid cancer have ... Cancer? Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  17. Breast Cancer -- Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  18. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaginal, and vulvar cancers. It is recommended for preteens (both boys and girls) aged 11 to 12 ... index. • D on’t smoke. • Use condoms during sex. * • Limit your number of sexual partners. * HPV infection ...

  19. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... underneath the retina that contains connective tissue and melanocytes, which are pigmented (colored) cells, and nourishes the ... cancer in adults. It begins when cells called melanocytes grow uncontrollably. Intraocular melanoma is also called uveal ...

  20. Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the ovary, fallopian tube, and peritoneum: Epidemiology and risk factors. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Feb. 18, 2014. Havrilesky LJ, et al. Oral contraceptive pills as primary prevention for ovarian cancer: A systematic ...

  1. Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or testicles that aren't shaped normally.Have Klinefelter's syndrome (a genetic condition where male infants are born ... contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Tags: cryptorehidism, Klinefelter's syndrome, malignancies, scrotal mass, scrotal masses, testicular cancer, testicular ...

  2. Cancer nanotheranostics

    CERN Document Server

    Gopinath, P; Matai, Ishita; Bhushan, Bharat; Malwal, Deepika; Sachdev, Abhay; Dubey, Poornima

    2015-01-01

    This Brief provides a clear insight of the recent advances in the field of cancer theranostics with special emphasis upon nano scale carrier molecules (polymeric, protein and lipid based) and imaging agents (organic and inorganic).

  3. Stomach cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the stomach for a long time (chronic atrophic gastritis ) Have pernicious anemia (low number of red blood ... HealthProfessional . Accessed December 21, 2016. Read More Cancer Gastritis Malignancy Pernicious anemia Review Date 11/10/2016 ...

  4. Esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakil, Nimish; Affi, Aboud

    2002-07-01

    Despite advances in our knowledge of esophageal cancer, 50% of patients present with incurable disease, and the overall survival after diagnosis is poor. The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus is rising at a rapid rate in developed countries. Recent advances in the epidemiology of esophageal cancer offer insights into preventive strategies in patients who are at risk. New developments in diagnosis may help detect the disease at an early stage. New diagnostic modalities permit more accurate staging procedures and allow appropriate selection of therapy. New studies provide more information on multimodality therapy for esophageal cancer, and new endoscopic techniques allow resection of small lesions without surgery. New stent designs provide better palliation by providing tumor ingrowth. These developments in the treatment of esophageal cancer are the focus of this review.

  5. Cancer Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inactivity, nutrition, sun exposure, and even exposure to infectious agents, such as hepatitis B, human papillomavirus, or helicobacter ... The extramural research program reaches nearly 650 universities, hospitals, cancer centers, and other sites in the United ...

  6. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you may be eligible to receive a medication (potassium iodide) that blocks the effects of radiation on the ... occur, you and your family could take the potassium iodide tablets to help prevent thyroid cancer. Contact your ...

  7. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may help you cope with your distress, including: Art therapy Dance or movement therapy Exercise Meditation Music ... www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/prostate-cancer/basics/definition/CON-20029597 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  8. Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  9. Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  10. Vaginal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker NF. Vulvar and vaginal cancer. In: Hacker NF, Gambone JC, Hobel CJ, eds. Hacker and Moore's Essentials of Obstetrics and Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 40. Jhingran ...

  11. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other things may increase the risk of developing cancer following a high-risk HPV infection. These other things include: Smoking Having HIV or reduced immunity Taking birth control pills for a long time ( ...

  12. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Balslev, Ingegerd; Logager, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data.......To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data....

  13. Cancer nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdale Swati

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer nanotechnology is the latest trend in cancer therapy. It helps the pharmacist to formulate the product with maximum therapeutic value and minimum or negligible range side effects. Cancer is the disease in which the abnormal cells are quite similar to the normal cell with just minute functional or genetic change. Thus, it is very hard to target the abnormal cells by the conventional method of the drug delivery system. Nanotechnology is probably the only method that can be used for site-specific action without causing the side effects by killing the normal cells. This review article describes the possible way to exploit the nanotechnology to targeted drug therapy in cancer. The various methods used are: systemic delivery systems, passive targeting, active targeting, intracellular delivery, subcellular localization, and nanoparticle drugs. Different cancer detection techniques like carbon nanotubes, nanorods, and biosensors are also available. This review article gives an idea about the possible potential of nanotechnology in drug delivery, drug targeting, and the diagnosis of cancer.

  14. Pediatric Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Patient Health Information News media ... and neck issues, should be consulted. Types of thyroid cancer in children: Papillary : This form of thyroid cancer ...

  15. What Causes Thyroid Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention What Causes Thyroid Cancer? Thyroid cancer is linked with a number of ... inside a cell, without an outside cause. Papillary thyroid cancer Several DNA mutations (changes) have been found in ...

  16. Anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000352.htm Anaplastic thyroid cancer To use the sharing features on this page, ... of cancer of the thyroid gland. Causes Anaplastic thyroid cancer is an invasive type of thyroid cancer that ...

  17. Chemotherapy for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Type and Stage Thyroid Cancer Treating Thyroid Cancer Chemotherapy for Thyroid Cancer Chemotherapy (chemo) uses anti-cancer drugs that are injected ... vein or muscle, or are taken by mouth. Chemotherapy is systemic therapy, which means that the drug ...

  18. What Is Liver Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment? Liver Cancer About Liver Cancer What Is Liver Cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body ... structure and function of the liver. About the liver The liver is the largest internal organ. It ...

  19. Surgery for Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Tumor Pancreatic Cancer Treating Pancreatic Cancer Surgery for Pancreatic Cancer Two general types of surgery ... how far the cancer has spread. Potentially curative surgery Studies have shown that removing only part of ...

  20. Skin Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the ... A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics The Skin Cancer Foundation's Champions for Change Gala 2016 Learn ...

  1. Uterine Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research AMIGAS Fighting Cervical Cancer Worldwide Stay Informed Statistics for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal ( ... Skin Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer Home Uterine Cancer Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  2. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  3. Esophageal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the lower part of the esophagus, near the stomach. See the following PDQ summaries for more information about esophageal cancer: Esophageal Cancer Screening Esophageal Cancer Treatment Esophageal cancer is found more ...

  4. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect ...

  5. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  6. Breast cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Overview Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening Tests Research Diagnosis and Staging Symptoms Diagnosis Staging Prognosis ... Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening Tests Diagnosis & Staging Symptoms Diagnosis Staging Prognosis Treatment Types ...

  8. Learning about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Breast Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast ... Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast cancer? Breast cancer is a common disease. Each year, ...

  9. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have revolutionized breast cancer treatment: tamoxifen (Nolvadex) and trastuzumab (Herceptin). Bernard Fisher, M.D., of the University of ... breast tumors. Dr. Slamon and his colleagues developed trastuzumab (Herceptin). Trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody, was the first ...

  10. Cancer Surgery: Physically Removing Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in cancer diagnosis, staging, treatment and symptom relief. Robotic surgery. In robotic surgery, the surgeon sits away from the operating table ... to maneuver surgical tools to perform the operation. Robotic surgery helps the surgeon operate in hard-to-reach ...

  11. Publicaciones paragüayas en el área de la psicología: 1960-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. García

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La madurez y vitalidad científica de una disciplina académica se reconocen en gran parte a través de su producción investigativa. En este sentido, la psicología latinoamericana abarca niveles muy variados de avance y productividad. La psicología en Paraguay ha experimentado algunos progresos, pero sus niveles de visibilidad todavía son escasos. En este artículo se realiza una revisión de las publicaciones paraguayas en el área de la psicología, de 1960 al 2005. En forma genérica, se enumeran las publicaciones en las áreas de la salud mental, psicología clínica, psicologías alternativas, psicoanálisis, psicología educacional, psicología del desarrollo, formación académica de los psicólogos, educación universitaria, psicología social, psicología política, violencia contra la mujer y los niños, historia de la psicología, epistemología, drogodependencias e ingesta de sustancias, publicaciones extranjeras de psicólogos paraguayos y otros campos. Finalmente, se discuten algunas causas probables que podrían explicar la reducida productividad de la psicología paraguaya

  12. Afatinib in Advanced Refractory Urothelial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-06

    Distal Urethral Cancer; Proximal Urethral Cancer; Recurrent Bladder Cancer; Recurrent Urethral Cancer; Stage III Bladder Cancer; Stage III Urethral Cancer; Stage IV Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Urethral Cancer; Ureter Cancer

  13. Brief Introduction of NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines for Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xin-en

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is always a main factor threatening human’s health and life, and its incidence and mortality are gradually increasing in recent years. However, some advances have been made with the unremitting efforts and exploration human made and the improvement is mainly made in cancer treatment of young children and older adults, while little in adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients, who are generally defined as individuals of 15 to 39 years old at the time of initial cancer diagnosis due to many factors. To highlight the issues of this unique population, National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) absorbs a large amount of information and previous researches and develops a set of clinical practice guidelines. Though the guidelines are more supportive care guidelines than treatment guidelines, they give us the opportunity to learn the latest international developments in AYA treatment and more survival chance for the treatment of AYA patients.

  14. Brief Introduction of NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines for Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Xin-en

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is always a main factor threatening human’s health and life, and its incidence and mortality are gradually increasing in recent years. However, some advances have been made with the unremitting efforts and exploration human made and the improvement is mainly made in cancer treatment of young children and older adults, while little in adolescent and young adult (AYA patients, who are generally defined as individuals of 15 to 39 years old at the time of initial cancer diagnosis due to many factors. To highlight the issues of this unique population, National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN absorbs a large amount of information and previous researches and develops a set of clinical practice guidelines. Though the guidelines are more supportive care guidelines than treatment guidelines, they give us the opportunity to learn the latest international developments in AYA treatment and more survival chance for the treatment of AYA patients.

  15. How Is Thyroid Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Tests for Thyroid Cancer Thyroid cancer may be diagnosed after a person ... Health Care Team About Thyroid Cancer? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  16. What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Cancer About Melanoma Skin Cancer What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the ... pigment, causing the skin to tan or darken. Melanoma skin cancers Melanoma is a cancer that begins ...

  17. How Is Stomach Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging How Is Stomach Cancer Diagnosed? Stomach cancers are usually found when a ... Ask Your Doctor About Stomach Cancer? More In Stomach Cancer About Stomach Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  18. Key Statistics for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Treatment? Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Key Statistics for Thyroid Cancer How common is thyroid cancer? ... remains very low compared with most other cancers. Statistics on survival rates for thyroid cancer are discussed ...

  19. How Is Ovarian Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging How Is Ovarian Cancer Diagnosed? If you have symptoms of ovarian cancer ... Ask Your Doctor About Ovarian Cancer? More In Ovarian Cancer About Ovarian Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  20. Radiation Therapy for Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testicular Cancer Treating Testicular Cancer Radiation Therapy for Testicular Cancer Radiation therapy uses a beam of high-energy ... Testicular Cancer, by Type and Stage More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  1. [Gastrointestinal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yutaka

    2004-08-01

    Although their sensitivity is not high, SCC, TPA and IAP are useful for esophageal cancer. The sensitivity of CEA, CA 19-9, is relatively high, especially in well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of gastric cancer with lymph node metastasis. AFP is specific to liver metastasis from gastric cancer, and CA 125 is also specific to peritoneal dissemination. CA 72-4 and NCC-ST-439 are useful markers for advanced staging. CEA, CA 19-9, is useful for colon cancer, especially for predicting preoperative staging. Half-life and doubling time of tumor markers is useful in some cases for the evaluation of operation and chemotherapy. We showed our data concerning postoperative CEA and/or CA 19-9 monitoring after operation for gastric cancer in 120 recurrent patients. Positivities of CEA and CA 19-9 for recurrence were 65.8% and 85.0%, respectively, both of which were significantly higher than the preoperative sensitivities (28.3% and 45.0%, respectively). In most patients with high levels of preoperative CEA and/or CA 19-9, these tumor markers increased again at recurrence. Recurrent diseases were detected between 5 months after detection by diagnostic imagings and 12 months before detection by diagnostic imagings (mean of 3.1+/-3.6 months before detection by diagnostic imagings) and between 10 months after detection by diagnostic imagings and 13 months before detection by diagnostic imagings (mean 2.2+/-3.9 months before detection by diagnostic imagings) by CEA and CA 19-9 monitorings, respectively. These results suggest that CEA and/or CA 19-9 monitoring after operation was useful to predict the recurrence of gastric cancer, especially in almost all the patients with high preoperative levels of these markers.

  2. Cancer cachexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunze Philipp

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years many efforts of researchers and clinicians were made to improve our knowledge of cachexia syndrome. Not only cancer, but also many chronic or end-stage diseases such as AIDS, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, rheumatoid arthritis, tuberculosis and Crohn's disease are associated with cachexia, a condition of abnormally low weight, weakness, and general bodily decline which deteriorates quality of life and reduces the prognosis of the patients who suffer from it. In the present editorial we will focus cachexia related on cancer and provide some insight into this prognosis-limiting syndrome.

  3. [Cervix cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointreau, Y; Ruffier Loubière, A; Denis, F; Barillot, I

    2010-11-01

    Cervix cancers declined in most developed countries in recent years, but remain, the third worldwide leading cause of cancer death in women. A precise staging, based on clinical exam, an abdominal and pelvic MRI, a possible PET-CT and a possible lymph node sampling is necessary to adapt the best therapeutic strategy. In France, the treatments of tumors of less than 4 cm without nodal involvement are often based on radiotherapy followed by surgery and, whereas tumors larger than 4 cm and involved nodes are treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Based on an illustrated clinical case, indications, delineation, dosimetry and complications expected with radiotherapy are demonstrated.

  4. Cancer immunology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herberman, R.B. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (US))

    1986-01-01

    This book contains seven chapters. They are: Immunlogy of human T-cell leukemia/lymphonma (lymphotropic) viruses (the HTLV 'family'); Tumor specific antigens induced by mutagens and DNA hypomethylating agents: implications for the immunobiology of neoplasia; Destruction of tumor cells by macrophages: mechanisms of recognition and lysis and their regulation; Mechanisms of NK-cell mediated cytotoxicity; Role of natural killer (NK) cells in the control of tumor growth and metastatic spread; Monoclonal antibody therapy of cancer; preclinical models and investigations in humans; and Abnormalities in interleukin 2 production and response in cancer and possible therapeutic approaches.

  5. Penile Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Peter E.; Spiess, Philippe E.; Agarwal, Neeraj; Biagioli, Matthew C.; Eisenberger, Mario A.; Greenberg, Richard E.; Herr, Harry W.; Inman, Brant A.; Kuban, Deborah A.; Kuzel, Timothy M.; Lele, Subodh M.; Michalski, Jeff; Pagliaro, Lance; Pal, Sumanta K.; Patterson, Anthony; Plimack, Elizabeth R.; Pohar, Kamal S.; Porter, Michael P.; Richie, Jerome P.; Sexton, Wade J.; Shipley, William U.; Small, Eric J.; Trump, Donald L.; Wile, Geoffrey; Wilson, Timothy G.; Dwyer, Mary; Ho, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis represents approximately 0.5% of all cancers among men in the United States and other developed countries. Although rare, it is associated with significant disfigurement, and only half of the patients survive beyond 5 years. Proper evaluation of both the primary lesion and lymph nodes is critical, because nodal involvement is the most important factor of survival. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Penile Cancer provide recommendations on the diagnosis and management of this devastating disease based on evidence and expert consensus. PMID:23667209

  6. Prostate cancer is not breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Venniyoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancers of the prostate and breast are hormone dependent cancers. There is a tendency to equate them and apply same algorithms for treatment. It is pointed out that metastatic prostate cancer with bone-only disease is a potentially fatal condition with a much poorer prognosis than metastatic breast cancer and needs a more aggressive approach.

  7. Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have two kidneys. They are fist-sized organs on either side of your backbone above your waist. The tubes inside filter and ... blood, taking out waste products and making urine. Kidney cancer forms in the lining of tiny tubes ...

  8. Colon Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-11-05

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses colon cancer and the importance of early detection.  Created: 11/5/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  9. Breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... women: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med . 2014;160:271-281. PMID: 24366376 www.ncbi. ... Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med . [Epub ahead of print 12 January 2016] doi: ...

  10. Esophageal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, M. B.

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas in esophageal cancer (EC) has changed, and focus directed towards tumors of the distal esophagus and the esophagogastric junction. The genetic events leading to EC are not fully clarified, but important risk factors have been...

  11. Lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H H; Rørth, M

    1999-01-01

    The results of the many clinical trials published in 1997 had only modest impact on the treatment results using either cytostatic agents alone or combined with radiotherapy in lung cancer. In SCLC, combination chemotherapy including platin-compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin) and the podophyllotoxins...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Quiz Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment ...

  13. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gastric Cancer Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... from the . There is no standard or routine screening test for stomach cancer. Several types of screening tests have been ...

  14. Engagement of Patients With Advanced Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-15

    End of Life; Advanced Cancer; Lung Neoplasm; Gastric Cancer; Colon Cancer; Glioblastoma Multiforme; Head and Neck Neoplasms; Rectum Cancer; Melanoma; Kidney Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Neoplasms; Liver Cancer; Cancer of Unknown Origin

  15. Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stage for Kidney Cancer Kidney Cancer Treating Kidney Cancer Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer The goal of biologic therapy ... Therapy for Kidney Cancer Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer Chemotherapy for Kidney Cancer Pain ...

  16. cancers coliques

    OpenAIRE

    ali cherif, mohamed el amine; aliane, fatma

    2010-01-01

    - le cancer colique est un pathologie maligne de l'appareil digestif en plein recrudescence dont l'étiologies elle est polygénique = héréditaire et surtout le changement des habitudes alimentaires qui sont les principales causes d'apparition des polypes dont leurs dégénérescence évolue vers le cancer colique. D'après les étude faite dans notre service: - 07 cas sur oans d'étude (ig8i-i987). - 12 cas sur ians d' étude (1990-2002). Notre étude de oans (2005-2009) r...

  17. 1985 Cancer Facts and Figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Cancer Society, Inc., New York, NY.

    Information and statistical data about cancer are provided in seven categories. They include: (1) basic cancer data (considering how cancer works, trends in diagnosis and treatment, new cancer cases and deaths for 1985, and other areas); (2) major cancer sites (discussing lung cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, 5-year survival rates/trends…

  18. How Are Childhood Cancers Found?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... term effects of Cancer Treatment on Children References: Cancer in Children If Your Child Has Cancer Cancer in Children Finding Cancer in ... term effects of Cancer Treatment on Children References: Cancer in Children If Your Child Has Cancer Back To Top Imagine a world ...

  19. Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... future bladder cancer research through the Patient Survey Network. Read More... The JPB Foundation 2016 Bladder Cancer ... 2016 Young Investigator Awardees The Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network (BCAN) has announced the recipients of the 2016 ...

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trials Information A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about ... Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to ...

  1. Cervical Cancer Stage IVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 756x576 ... Large: 3150x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; drawing and inset ...

  2. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Program Cancer Reporting Fellowships Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Events Cancer Currents ... Media Contacts Multicultural Media Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Cancer Currents Blog ...

  4. Ovarian Cancer FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increased risk of breast cancer and ovarian cancer. CA 125: A substance in the blood that may increase in the presence of some cancerous tumors. Colonoscopy: An exam of the entire colon using a small, lighted instrument. Computed Tomography: A ...

  5. Coping with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Most people face some degree of depression, anxiety, fear or distress when cancer becomes part of their ... who has cancer. Distress in People With Cancer Anxiety, Fear, and Depression Depression Anxiety, Fear, and Emotional Distress ...

  6. Stages of Gallbladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer. Tests that examine the gallbladder and nearby organs are used to detect (find), diagnose, and stage ... cancer cells or to make cancer cells more sensitive to the effects of radiation therapy and certain ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... type Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Portfolio Snapshots Milestones in Cancer Research & Discovery Stories of ... greatly. Also, it takes years to see the benefit of new treatments and ways of finding cancer. ...

  8. Chemotherapy for Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Type and Stage Testicular Cancer Treating Testicular Cancer Chemotherapy for Testicular Cancer Chemotherapy (chemo) is the use of drugs to treat ... that is only in the testicle. Doctors give chemotherapy in cycles, with each period of treatment followed ...

  9. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the body, such as the lymph nodes, lung, liver, intestine, or bone. Stage IVB cervical cancer. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Cervical Cancer Staging Type: Color, ...

  10. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or ...

  11. Photodynamic Therapy for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... References Dolmans DE, Fukumura D, Jain RK. Photodynamic therapy for cancer. Nature Reviews Cancer 2003; 3(5):380–387. [PubMed Abstract] Wilson BC. Photodynamic therapy for cancer: principles. Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology 2002; ...

  12. Laryngeal (Voice Box) Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Voice Box (Laryngeal) Cancer Voice Box (Laryngeal) Cancer Patient Health Information News media ... laryngeal cancer can be severe with respect to voice, breathing, or swallowing. It is fundamentally a preventable ...

  13. Dealing with chronic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000933.htm Dealing with chronic cancer To use the sharing features on this ... be controlled for a period of time. Controlling Chronic Cancer When you have a chronic cancer, the ...

  14. Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Salivary Gland ... in diagnosing salivary gland cancer. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). The treatment ...

  15. Prostate Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... P 2 rovocative Questions PCCTC Scientific Retreat Coffey-Holden Research News Faces of Prostate Cancer [4] Survivors ... Foundation News The Prostate Cancer Foundation’s 2016 Coffey-Holden Prostate Cancer Academy Meeting accelerates advances in the ...

  16. Snapshot of Stomach Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and vegetables. There is no standard or routine screening test for stomach cancer. Standard treatments for stomach cancer include surgery , ... NCI Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Home Page Information about stomach ... causes, screening, clinical trials, research and statistics from the National ...

  17. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, signs and symptoms of oral cancer, and the importance of detecting the disease in its early ...

  18. Pancreatic Cancer Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risks of other cancers (or other health problems). Examples of genetic syndromes that can cause exocrine pancreatic cancer include: Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome , caused by mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes Familial atypical ...

  19. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer include exposure to radiation, a family history of breast cancer, and having high estrogen levels, which can happen with diseases like cirrhosis or Klinefelter's syndrome. Treatment for male breast cancer is usually ...

  20. Identifying cancer genes from cancer mutation profiles by cancer functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    It is of great importance to identify new cancer genes from the data of large scale genome screenings of gene mutations in cancers. Considering the alternations of some essential functions are indispensable for oncogenesis, we define them as cancer functions and select, as their approximations, a group of detailed functions in GO (Gene Ontology) highly enriched with known cancer genes. To evaluate the efficiency of using cancer functions as features to identify cancer genes, we define, in the screened genes, the known protein kinase cancer genes as gold standard positives and the other kinase genes as gold standard negatives. The results show that cancer associated functions are more efficient in identifying cancer genes than the selection pressure feature. Furthermore, combining cancer functions with the number of non-silent mutations can generate more reliable positive predictions. Finally, with precision 0.42, we suggest a list of 46 kinase genes as candidate cancer genes which are annotated to cancer functions and carry at least 3 non-silent mutations.

  1. Breast cancer in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Iris; Lindsay, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Pregnancy-associated breast cancer is defined as breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or in the first postpartum year. Breast cancer is one of the more common malignancies to occur during pregnancy and, as more women delay childbearing, the incidence of breast cancer in pregnancy is expected to increase. This article provides an overview of diagnosis, staging, and treatment of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Recommendations for management of breast cancer in pregnancy are discussed.

  2. Living with Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Cancer is regarded as a formidable threat to mankind. Every yem’ in Shanghai, which has a high cancer rate, 15,000 people are diagnosed with the disease and 12,000 die of cancer. Because many people believe that "cancer equals death," a special cancer rehabilitation center has appeared in Shanghai. The center creates an environment where cancer patients can exchange experiences and receive psychological group therapy. In this way those patients

  3. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  4. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  5. Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis If you’ve been diagnosed with breast cancer, ... Prevention Early Detection and Diagnosis Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis Treatment Breast Reconstruction Surgery Living as a Breast ...

  6. Renal pelvis or ureter cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis or ureter; Kidney cancer - renal pelvis; Ureter cancer ... Cancer can grow in the urine collection system, but it is uncommon. Renal pelvis and ureter cancers ...

  7. How Is Ovarian Cancer Staged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging How Is Ovarian Cancer Staged? Staging is the process of finding out ... Ask Your Doctor About Ovarian Cancer? More In Ovarian Cancer About Ovarian Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  8. How Is Testicular Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging How Is Testicular Cancer Diagnosed? Testicular cancer is usually found as a ... the tumor might have returned. Surgery to diagnose testicular cancer Most types of cancer are diagnosed by removing ...

  9. Living with Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer treatment and can improve many aspects of health, including muscle strength, balance, fatigue, cardiovascular fitness, and depression. Physical activity after a prostate cancer diagnosis is linked to ...

  10. Types of Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    An infographic from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) describing the four broad categories of cancer research: basic research, clinical research, population-based research, and translational research.

  11. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  12. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and areas that are painted white. The higher ... - skin - squamous cell; Skin cancer - squamous cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer - squamous ...

  13. Global cancer statistics, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Lindsey A; Bray, Freddie; Siegel, Rebecca L; Ferlay, Jacques; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2015-03-01

    Cancer constitutes an enormous burden on society in more and less economically developed countries alike. The occurrence of cancer is increasing because of the growth and aging of the population, as well as an increasing prevalence of established risk factors such as smoking, overweight, physical inactivity, and changing reproductive patterns associated with urbanization and economic development. Based on GLOBOCAN estimates, about 14.1 million new cancer cases and 8.2 million deaths occurred in 2012 worldwide. Over the years, the burden has shifted to less developed countries, which currently account for about 57% of cases and 65% of cancer deaths worldwide. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among males in both more and less developed countries, and has surpassed breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer death among females in more developed countries; breast cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death among females in less developed countries. Other leading causes of cancer death in more developed countries include colorectal cancer among males and females and prostate cancer among males. In less developed countries, liver and stomach cancer among males and cervical cancer among females are also leading causes of cancer death. Although incidence rates for all cancers combined are nearly twice as high in more developed than in less developed countries in both males and females, mortality rates are only 8% to 15% higher in more developed countries. This disparity reflects regional differences in the mix of cancers, which is affected by risk factors and detection practices, and/or the availability of treatment. Risk factors associated with the leading causes of cancer death include tobacco use (lung, colorectal, stomach, and liver cancer), overweight/obesity and physical inactivity (breast and colorectal cancer), and infection (liver, stomach, and cervical cancer). A substantial portion of cancer cases and deaths could be prevented by broadly

  14. Cervical Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  15. Ovarian Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  16. Testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, M

    1988-01-01

    Testicular cancer, which predominantly occurs in young men, has become increasingly common; it is presently the most common malignancy in men aged 20-34. Despite a lack of knowledge of aetiology, empirical advances, particularly in the management of patients with advanced disease, have been dramatic. Prior to the development of effective chemotherapy in the 1970s, less than 10% of men with metastatic non-seminomatous germ cell tumours were cured; nowadays approximately 90% of patients are potentially curable. The introduction of effective chemotherapy has led to a reappraisal of surgery and radiotherapy in the management of early stage disease and the introduction of a policy of surveillance in patients without evidence of metastases at the time of removal of the primary tumour. Following chemotherapy, surgery is required in approximately 25% of patients with advanced disease to excise residual masses, which in one-fifth of cases will show evidence of residual malignancy. In a proportion of patients, testicular cancer develops on a background of long-standing infertility, whereas in many men there is temporary oligospermia, despite a previous history of fertility. The majority of patients with prior evidence of spermatogenesis recover this function following chemotherapy and there is no evidence that children fathered by such patients have an increased risk of malformation. Despite physician optimism and excellent prospects for cure, significant psycho-social morbidity is associated with the diagnosis and treatment of testicular cancer. Factors contributing to this are being identified and will lead, hopefully, to the minimisation of such problems by appropriate intervention.

  17. [Gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belén Fraile, M; Serra Bartual, M; Segarra Sánchez, J; Richart Rufino, M J

    1991-11-01

    Gastric cancer represents a disorder which incidence has come down last years. Its etiology is unknown, but diet is the principal determinant risk of suffering it. Clinic history is not much useful, because in the early stage symptoms can fail and in the late stage are inespecific. Election diagnosis is endoscopy. Surgery is the only curative treatment. By these features, it would be useful to left under vigilance to: a) patients 40 years older with dispepsia; b) patients following gastric operations; c) patients with disorders presenting aclorhidria. The authors report a clinic case that can be of frequent presentation in primary assistance.

  18. Comparison of survival of adolescents and young adults with hematologic malignancies in Osaka, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata-Yamada, Kayo; Inoue, Masami; Ioka, Akiko; Ito, Yuri; Tabuchi, Takahiro; Miyashiro, Isao; Masaie, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Jun; Hino, Masayuki; Tsukuma, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    The survival gap between adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with hematological malignancies persists in many countries. To determine to what extent it does in Japan, we investigated survival and treatment regimens in 211 Japanese AYAs (15-29 years) in the Osaka Cancer Registry diagnosed during 2001-2005 with hematological malignancies, and compared adolescents (15-19 years) with young adults (20-29 years). AYAs with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) had a poor 5-year survival (44%), particularly young adults (29% vs. 64% in adolescents, p = 0.01). Additional investigation for patients with ALL revealed that only 19% of young adults were treated with pediatric treatment regimens compared with 45% of adolescents (p = 0.05). Our data indicate that we need to focus on young adults with ALL and to consider establishing appropriate cancer care system and guidelines for them in Japan.

  19. Collection of Biospecimen & Clinical Information in Patients w/ Gastrointestinal Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    Gastrointestinal Neoplasms; Gynecologic Cancers; Gynecologic Cancers Cervical Cancer; Gastric (Stomach) Cancer; Gastro-Esophageal(GE) Junction Cancer; Gastrointenstinal Stromal Tumor (GIST); Colon/Rectal Cancer; Colon/Rectal Cancer Colon Cancer; Colon/Rectal Cancer Rectal Cancer; Colon/Rectal Cancer Anal Cancer; Anal Cancer; Hepatobiliary Cancers; Hepatobiliary Cancers Liver; Pancreatic Cancer

  20. Breast cancer awareness

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is rising among women in many European countries, affecting up to 1 in 16 women and has become the most common cause of cancer in European women. In Malta breast cancer is the commonest oncological cause of death in females. In fact 5.2% of all deaths in females in 2010 was from breast cancer.

  1. Cancer and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # ... CDC.gov . Cancer Home Kinds of Cancer Bladder Breast Cervical Colorectal (Colon) Head and Neck Kidney Leukemia ... Anxiety and Depression Medicine Use Among Cancer Survivors Breast Cancer Rates Among Black Women and White Women ...

  2. Advanced Cancer Detection Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    Coeur d’Alene, ID IASLC 9th World Conference on Lung Cancer, Cellular Targeting in the Molecular Diagnosis of Lung Cancer, Tokyo, Japan The...World Conference on Lung Cancer, Cellular Targeting in the Molecular Diagnosis of Lung Cancer, Tokyo, Japan The first International Conference on

  3. Report: Human cancer genetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Marilyn; ALBERTSON Donna

    2006-01-01

    The short report will be focused on the genetic basis and possible mechanisms of tumorigenesis, common types of cancer, the importance of genetic diagnosis of cancer, and the methodology of cancer genetic diagnosis. They will also review presymptomatic testing of hereditary cancers, and the application of expression profiling to identify patients likely to benefit from particular therapeutic approaches.

  4. Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 4059 FWCinfo@sgo.org Copyright © 2017 Foundation for Women’s Cancer. All rights reserved. Site Design by Nov. 6, 2016 REGISTER ... to End Women’s Cancer Press Release: Foundation for Women’s Cancer ... Gynecologic Cancer Awareness Movement (GCAM) to be Featured on Times Square “Super ...

  5. Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Informed Cancer Home What Are the Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Gynecologic cancer symptoms diaries Ovarian cancer may cause the following signs and symptoms— Vaginal ...

  6. Staging of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is important for two reasons. First, staging your lung cancer helps decide which therapy (or therapies) should be used. Second, lung cancer ... 422-6237 http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/wyntk/lung/page8 http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/non- small-cell-lung/Patient/page2 National Lung ...

  7. Human cancer genetics*

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The short report will be focused on the genetic basis and possible mechanisms of tumorigenesis, common types of cancer, the importance of genetic diagnosis of cancer, and the methodology of cancer genetic diagnosis. They will also review presymptomatic testing of hereditary cancers, and the application of expression profiling to identify patients likely to benefit from particular therapeutic approaches.

  8. | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Cigar Smoking and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer and other diseases? Yes. Cigar smoking causes cancer of the oral cavity, larynx, esophagus, and lung. It may also cause cancer ... directly expose their lips, mouth, tongue, throat, and larynx to smoke and its toxic and cancer-causing chemicals. In addition, when saliva containing the ...

  10. Breast cancer in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...

  11. What Is Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Carcinoma)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment? Kidney Cancer About Kidney Cancer What Is Kidney Cancer? Kidney cancer is a cancer that starts ... and spread, see What Is Cancer? About the kidneys To understand more about kidney cancer, it helps ...

  12. Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... En Español Category Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis Breast cancer is sometimes ... cancer screening is so important. Learn more. Can Breast Cancer Be Found Early? Breast cancer is sometimes found ...

  13. Cancer Biomarkers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    [[{"fid":"175","view_mode":"default","fields":{"format":"default","field_file_image_alt_text[und][0][value]":"Cancer Biomarkers Research Group Homepage Logo","field_file_image_title_text[und][0][value]":"Cancer Biomarkers Research Group Homepage Logo","field_folder[und]":"15"},"type":"media","attributes":{"alt":"Cancer Biomarkers Research Group Homepage Logo","title":"Cancer Biomarkers Research Group Homepage Logo","height":"266","width":"400","style":"width: 400px; height: 266px;","class":"i | Research to identify, develop and validate biomarkers for early cancer detection and risk assessment.

  14. [The Dutch Cancer Society Cancer Risk Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Sjoerd G; Grooters, Hilda G; Bausch-Goldbohm, R A Sandra; van den Brandt, Piet A; Kampman, Ellen; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Peeters, Petra H M; de Vries, Esther; Wigger, Stefan; Kiemeney, L A L M Bart

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch Cancer Society developed the 'KWF Kanker Risico Test' (Cancer Risk Test) to improve the information available to the Dutch population regarding cancer risk factors. This Internet test, based under licence on the American 'Your Disease Risk' test, informs users about risk factors for 12 common types of cancer. The test provides an estimate of individual risk of a specific type of cancer and gives specific lifestyle advice that could lower that risk. This paper describes the development of the test, how it works, and its strengths and limitations.

  15. Telomerers rolle i cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Laila; Kølvraa, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Telomeres are a double-edged sword when it comes to cancer. On one hand, telomeres limit the cells' ability to divide and thereby restrict the uninhibited growth seen in cancer. On the other hand, short telomeres can initiate the chromosome instability that characterizes cancer. Diseases...... with the combination of short telomeres and high cancer risk are seen, but until now the use of telomeres as predictors of cancer has, in general, been unsuccessful. Telomeres and telomerase play an important role in further cancer development. Researchers are trying to exploit this in the development of new cancer...

  16. Inherited pancreatic cancer syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Sheila; Das, Siddhartha; Brand, Randall; Whitcomb, David C

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer remains one of the most challenging of all cancers. Genetic risk factors are believed to play a major role, but other than genes coding for blood group, genetic risks for sporadic cases remain elusive. However, several germline mutations have been identified that lead to hereditary pancreatic cancer, familial pancreatic cancer, and increased risk for pancreatic cancer as part of a familial cancer syndrome. The most important genes with variants increasing risk for pancreatic cancer include BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, ATM, CDKN2A, APC, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, PRSS1, and STK11. Recognition of members of high-risk families is important for understanding pancreatic cancer biology, for recommending risk reduction strategies and, in some cases, initiating cancer surveillance programs. Because the best methods for surveillance have not been established, the recommendation to refer at-risk patients to centers with ongoing research programs in pancreatic cancer surveillance is supported.

  17. Lung cancer after treatment for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorigan, Paul; Califano, Raffaele; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Howell, Anthony; Thatcher, Nick

    2010-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and the second most common cause of cancer death after lung cancer. Improvements in the outcome of breast cancer mean that more patients are living longer and are, therefore, at risk of developing a second malignancy. The aim of this review is to present the current understanding of the risk of lung cancer arising in patients previously treated for early stage breast cancer. We review data on the effect of treatment factors (ie, surgery type, radiotherapy technique, and adjuvant chemotherapy) and patient factors (ie, age and smoking) on the risk of developing a subsequent lung cancer. The evidence suggests that older radiotherapy techniques were associated with a substantially increased risk of developing lung cancer in the ipsilateral lung, but there is no clear evidence of an increased risk with modern techniques. Smoking is an important risk factor, and increases the risk of lung cancer in those receiving radiotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not significantly associated with an increased risk. The risk of developing lung cancer increases with time elapsed since treatment, but any effect of age at treatment is unclear.

  18. National Cancer Institute Prostate Cancer Genetics Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalona, William J; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Camp, Nicola J; Chanock, Stephen J; Cooney, Kathleen A; Easton, Douglas F; Eeles, Rosalind A; FitzGerald, Liesel M; Freedman, Matthew L; Gudmundsson, Julius; Kittles, Rick A; Margulies, Elliott H; McGuire, Barry B; Ostrander, Elaine A; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Stanford, Janet L; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Witte, John S; Isaacs, William B

    2011-05-15

    Compelling evidence supports a genetic component to prostate cancer susceptibility and aggressiveness. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified more than 30 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with prostate cancer susceptibility. It remains unclear, however, whether such genetic variants are associated with disease aggressiveness--one of the most important questions in prostate cancer research today. To help clarify this and substantially expand research in the genetic determinants of prostate cancer aggressiveness, the first National Cancer Institute Prostate Cancer Genetics Workshop assembled researchers to develop plans for a large new research consortium and patient cohort. The workshop reviewed the prior work in this area and addressed the practical issues in planning future studies. With new DNA sequencing technology, the potential application of sequencing information to patient care is emerging. The workshop, therefore, included state-of-the-art presentations by experts on new genotyping technologies, including sequencing and associated bioinformatics issues, which are just beginning to be applied to cancer genetics.

  19. Diabetes and pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Hsu; Muhammad Wasif Saif

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Risk factors for pancreatic cancer are smoking, family history, chronic pancreatitis, and diabetes. There is controversy with regards to the causal relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer because many patients with pancreatic cancer have new onset diabetes. Abstracts presented at the 2011 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting highlighted and supported the positive association ...

  20. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: sdoyle2@nhs.net [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  1. Colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Randall W; Cannon, Jamie A; David, Donald S; Early, Dayna S; Ford, James M; Giardiello, Francis M; Halverson, Amy L; Hamilton, Stanley R; Hampel, Heather; Ismail, Mohammad K; Jasperson, Kory; Klapman, Jason B; Lazenby, Audrey J; Lynch, Patrick M; Mayer, Robert J; Ness, Reid M; Provenzale, Dawn; Rao, M Sambasiva; Shike, Moshe; Steinbach, Gideon; Terdiman, Jonathan P; Weinberg, David; Dwyer, Mary; Freedman-Cass, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Mortality from colorectal cancer can be reduced by early diagnosis and by cancer prevention through polypectomy. These NCCN Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Screening describe various colorectal screening modalities and recommended screening schedules for patients at average or increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. In addition, the guidelines provide recommendations for the management of patients with high-risk colorectal cancer syndromes, including Lynch syndrome. Screening approaches for Lynch syndrome are also described.

  2. Compensation for Occupational Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Inah; Kim, Eun-A; Kim, Jae Young

    2014-01-01

    The legal scope and criteria for occupational cancer in Korea was out of date. The aim of this study was to review the current criteria for occupational cancer and amend the existent criteria on the basis of recent scientific evidence. The scientific evidence and the legal list of occupational cancer were analyzed to identify the causes of occupational cancer on a global scale. The relationship between compensated occupational cancer cases and carcinogen exposure in Korea was examined. The fa...

  3. Pancreatic Cancer Early Detection Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-30

    Pancreatic Cancer; Pancreas Cancer; Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma; Familial Pancreatic Cancer; BRCA 1/2; HNPCC; Lynch Syndrome; Hereditary Pancreatitis; FAMMM; Familial Atypical Multiple Mole Melanoma; Peutz Jeghers Syndrome

  4. Triapine, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer or Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-21

    Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer; Therapy-related Toxicity

  5. A new prospect in cancer therapy: targeting cancer stem cells to eradicate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Sha Chen; An-Xin Wang; Bing Dong; Ke-Feng Pu; Li-Hua Yuan; Yi-Min Zhu

    2012-01-01

    According to the cancer stem cell theory,cancers can be initiated by cancer stem cells.This makes cancer stem cells prime targets for therapeutic intervention.Eradicating cancer stem cells by efficient targeting agents may have the potential to cure cancer.In this review,we summarize recent breakthroughs that have improved our understanding of cancer stem cells,and we discuss the therapeutic strategy of targeting cancer stem cells,a promising future direction for cancer stem cell research.

  6. Women and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, K; Stjernswärd, J; Koroltchouk, V

    1987-01-01

    The primary cause of death in women in the world is cancer. In most developing countries cancer of the cervix is the most prevalent cancer. Breast cancer has this distinction in Latin America and the developed countries of North America, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. It is also the most prevalent cancer worldwide. The most common cancer in Japan and the Soviet Union is stomach cancer. Effective early detection programs can reduce both breast and cervical cancer mortality and also the degree and duration of treatment required. In Iceland, cervical cancer mortality declined 60% between the periods of 1959-1970 and 1975-1978. Programs consist of mammography, physician breast and self examination, and Pap smear. The sophisticated early detection equipment and techniques are expensive and largely located in urban areas, however, and not accessible to urban poor women and rural women, especially in developing countries. Tobacco smoking attributes to 80-90% of all lung cancer deaths worldwide and 30% of all cancer deaths. Passive smoking increases the risk of lung cancer to 25-35% in nonsmokers who breathe in tobacco smoke. Since smoking rates of women are skyrocketing, health specialists fear that lung cancer will replace cervical and breast cancers as the most common cancer in women worldwide in 20-30 years. Tobacco use also contributes to the high incidence of oral cancer in Southern and South Eastern Asia. For example, in India, incidence of oral cancer in women is 3-7 times higher than in developed countries with the smoking and chewing of tobacco in betel quid contributing. Techniques already exist to prevent 1/3 of all cancers. If cases can be discovered early enough and adequate treatment applied, another 1/3 of the cases can be cured. In those cases where the cancer cannot be cured, drugs can relieve 80-90% of the pain.

  7. Immunotherapy for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, Antonius; Fisher, Scott A; Robinson, Bruce W

    2016-07-01

    Treatment of lung cancer remains a challenge, and lung cancer is still the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Immunotherapy has previously failed in lung cancer but has recently emerged as a very effective new therapy, and there is now growing worldwide enthusiasm in cancer immunotherapy. We summarize why immune checkpoint blockade therapies have generated efficacious and durable responses in clinical trials and why this has reignited interest in this field. Cancer vaccines have also been explored in the past with marginal success. Identification of optimal candidate neoantigens may improve cancer vaccine efficacy and may pave the way to personalized immunotherapy, alone or in combination with other immunotherapy such as immune checkpoint blockade. Understanding the steps in immune recognition and eradication of cancer cells is vital to understanding why previous immunotherapies failed and how current therapies can be used optimally. We hold an optimistic view for the future prospect in lung cancer immunotherapy.

  8. Cancer stem cells and personalized cancer nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gener, Petra; Rafael, Diana Fernandes de Sousa; Fernández, Yolanda; Ortega, Joan Sayós; Arango, Diego; Abasolo, Ibane; Videira, Mafalda; Schwartz, Simo

    2016-02-01

    Despite the progress in cancer treatment over the past years advanced cancer is still an incurable disease. Special attention is pointed toward cancer stem cell (CSC)-targeted therapies, because this minor cell population is responsible for the treatment resistance, metastatic growth and tumor recurrence. The recently described CSC dynamic phenotype and interconversion model of cancer growth hamper even more the possible success of current cancer treatments in advanced cancer stages. Accordingly, CSCs can be generated through dedifferentiation processes from non-CSCs, in particular, when CSC populations are depleted after treatment. In this context, the use of targeted CSC nanomedicines should be considered as a promising tool to increase CSC sensitivity and efficacy of specific anti-CSC therapies.

  9. Vaccine Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back After Treatment Prostate Cancer Treating Prostate Cancer Vaccine Treatment for Prostate Cancer Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) is ... less advanced prostate cancer. Possible side effects of vaccine treatment Side effects from the vaccine tend to ...

  10. Spirituality in Cancer Care (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as cancer, may cause spiritual distress. Religious and spiritual values are important to patients coping with cancer. ... both. Serious illness, such as cancer, may cause spiritual distress. Serious illnesses like cancer may cause patients ...

  11. Uterine/Endometrial Cancer: Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types of Gynecologic Cancers Uterine/Endometrial Cancer Chemotherapy Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy for endometrial cancer is usually given intravenously (injected ...

  12. Survival Rates for Thymus Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Survival Rates for Thymus Cancer Survival rates are often used by doctors ... Ask Your Doctor About Thymus Cancer? More In Thymus Cancer About Thymus Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Bladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Treatment Bladder Cancer Screening Research Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Bladder Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on ...

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Colon Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Colon Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  15. Treatment Option Overview (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Cervical Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) depends on ...

  16. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  17. Cancer rehabilitation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Ploug; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental assumption behind cancer rehabilitation in many Western societies is that cancer survivors can return to normal life by learning to deal with the consequences of their illness and their treatment. This assumption is supported by increasing political attention to cancer rehabilitation...... and a growth in residential cancer-rehabilitation initiatives in Denmark (Danish Cancer Society 1999; Government of Denmark 2003). On the basis of their ethnographic fieldwork in residential-cancer rehabilitation courses, the authors examine the new rehabilitation discourse. They argue that this discourse has...

  18. Cancer immunology and colorectal cancer recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Luca

    2011-06-01

    The recurrence of a cancer - local or distant (metastasis) - is manifested by the persistence of cancer cells in the organism after the ablation of the primary lesion, an ineffective anticancer immune response, and by the activity of biological/immunological factors that can stimulate and sustain its development. This review focuses on colorectal carcinoma and discusses some aspects of cancer immunology regarding cancer development and its recurrence. It is addressed also to the clinician to provide new insights helpful for designing better therapeutic strategies and patient's follow up. Therapeutic approaches used during and after surgical treatments, found capable of modulating immunity (differently affecting disease outcome), will also be described.

  19. [Guideline "Cancer rehabilitation"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Jan-Paul; Velthuis, Miranda J; Gijsen, Brigitte C M; Lindeman, Eline; van der Pol, Marjolein A; Hillen, Harry F P

    2011-01-01

    Initiated by IKNL (Integraal Kankercentrum Nederland), a multidisciplinary guideline for cancer rehabilitation for adult oncology patients has been developed. The guideline describes the rehabilitation care of adult patients with cancer, during and after treatment. The guideline focuses on (a) prevalence of complaints either resulting from cancer or the treatment, (b) detection of these complaints and indicated referral, (c) the intake procedure before cancer rehabilitation, (d) intervention and evaluation within cancer rehabilitation and (e) the importance of patient empowerment. The guideline is directed at all professionals giving care to patients with cancer. It concerns those (such as medical specialists, general practitioners and nurses) who are responsible for detecting cancer-related complaints and for referral to cancer rehabilitation, as well as health care professionals involved in cancer rehabilitation care (such as consultants in rehabilitation medicine, physiotherapists and psychologists). The main goal of the guideline is that every cancer patient or ex-cancer patient with (residual) complaints resulting from cancer or its treatment receives timely and appropriate cancer rehabilitation.

  20. Meat, dairy, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Zaynah; Cross, Amanda J; Sinha, Rashmi

    2014-07-01

    In 2007 the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) report judged that the evidence for an association between red and processed meat consumption and colorectal cancer was convincing. In addition, the effect of other animal products on cancer risk has been studied, and the WCRF/AICR report concluded that milk probably decreases the risk of colorectal cancer but diets high in calcium probably increase the risk of prostate cancer, whereas there was limited evidence for an association between milk and bladder cancer and insufficient evidence for other cancers. There are several potential mechanisms relating meat to cancer, including heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, N-nitroso compounds, and heme iron. Although the evidence in favor of a link between red and processed meat and colorectal cancer is convincing, the relations with other cancers are unclear. In this review, we summarize cohort studies conducted by the National Cancer Institute on meat and dairy intake in relation to cancer since the 2007 WCRF/AICR report. We also report the findings of meta-analyses published since 2007.

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cancer-specific survival is based on causes of death listed in medical records. Relative survival This statistic ... does not use information about the cause of death. It is the percentage of cancer patients who ...

  2. Tests for Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has come back after treatment Alpha-fetoprotein blood (AFP) test AFP is normally present at high levels in the ... liver disease, liver cancer, or other cancers. If AFP levels are very high in someone with a ...

  3. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is present in the body. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used tumor marker for ... and other types of cancer, may also increase AFP levels. Specific tumor markers that may lead to ...

  4. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary ... in children and adults. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less likely to be caused by ...

  5. Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000331.htm Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma To use the sharing features on ... the lower neck. Causes About 80% of all thyroid cancers diagnosed in the United States are the papillary ...

  6. Cabozantinib (thyroid cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used to treat a certain type of thyroid cancer that is getting worse and that has spread ... only gives information about cabozantinib capsules (Cometriq) for thyroid cancer. If you are using this medication for advanced ...

  7. Prostate cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Friis, S; Kjaer, S K

    1998-01-01

    To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period.......To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period....

  8. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exposure and risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2006; 15(8):1509–1514. [PubMed Abstract] ... MR, Ascherio A. Diethylstilbestrol exposure in utero and depression in women. American Journal of Epidemiology 2010; 171( ...

  9. Prostate cancer - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment can help relieve symptoms and prevent further growth and spread of cancer. But it does not cure the cancer. The main type of hormone therapy is called a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormones (LH- ...

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Events Cancer Currents Blog All Press Releases 2017 2016 2015 2014 ... Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Cancer Currents Blog About NCI NCI Overview History Contributing to ...

  11. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are at increased risk for HPV infections. Other risk factors for cervical cancer include: Giving birth to many children. Smoking cigarettes. Using oral contraceptives ("the Pill"). Having a weakened immune system . Cervical Cancer Screening ...

  12. Tobacco and cancer (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobacco and its various components increase the risk of several types of cancer especially cancer of the lung, mouth, larynx, esophagus, bladder, kidney, pancreas, and cervix. Smoking also increases ...

  13. Ovarian Cancer Stage IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organs and tissues outside the abdomen, including the lung, liver, bone, and lymph nodes in the groin. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Ovarian Cancer Cells or Tissue -- ...

  14. American Cancer Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t let that stop her from pursuing her dreams. Why Lung Cancer Strikes Non-smokers Thousands of ... significant cancer risk of excess body weight, poor nutrition and physical inactivity. Where Does Your Money Go? ...

  15. Cancer during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as radioactive iodine used to treat thyroid cancer, may also get into breast milk and harm the infant. How pregnancy affects risks from cancer Pregnancy itself does not appear to affect how ...

  16. Anal Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... outside of the body. This is called a colostomy . Lymph nodes that contain cancer may also be ... this operation. Enlarge Resection of the colon with colostomy. Part of the colon containing the cancer and ...

  17. Stages of Anal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... outside of the body. This is called a colostomy . Lymph nodes that contain cancer may also be ... this operation. Enlarge Resection of the colon with colostomy. Part of the colon containing the cancer and ...

  18. Prostate Cancer FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Prostate Cancer Annual Report & Financials Our Leadership Leadership Team Board Members A Legacy of Leadership Featured Take ... Partners Faces of Prostate Cancer Annual Report & Financials Leadership Team Board Members Featured A Legacy of Leadership Take ...

  19. What Is Cancer Immunotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Side Effects Treatment Types Immunotherapy What is cancer immunotherapy? Immunotherapy is treatment that uses certain parts of ... so that it will destroy them. Types of cancer immunotherapy The main types of immunotherapy now being used ...

  20. Cancer immunotherapy in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    More often than not, cancer immunotherapies that work in adults are used in modified ways in children. Seldom are new therapies developed just for children, primarily because of the small number of pediatric patients relative to the adult cancer patient

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... History Committees of Interest Legislative Resources Recent Public Laws Contact Overview History of NCI Contributing to Cancer ... History Committees of Interest Legislative Resources Recent Public Laws Careers Visitor Information Search Search Home About Cancer ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding ... Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources ...

  3. Cancer Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacogenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI has an increasing focus on pharmacoepidemiology related to pharmaceutical use and cancer risk, recurrence and survival, as well as pharmacoepidemiology related to treatment response and adverse outcomes from chemotherapeutic agents and other medications used to treat cancer.

  4. National Ovarian Cancer Coalition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... List Signs & Symptoms Potential signs and symptoms of ovarian cancer: Bloating Pelvic or abdominal pain Trouble eating or ... to urinate urgently or often Other symptoms of ovarian cancer can include: Fatigue Upset stomach or heartburn Back ...

  5. Screening for Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Ovarian Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Ovarian Cancer . This recommendation is for ...

  6. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See ... this brochure includes information on symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected ...

  7. Cancer and Thrombosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏涓

    2011-01-01

    @@ Relationship between cancer and thromboembolic disease, the research has been going on for more than a century.Armand trousseau in 1865 first reported the formation of venous thrombosis prone patients with gastric cancer.

  8. CDC WONDER: Cancer Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The United States Cancer Statistics (USCS) online databases in WONDER provide cancer incidence and mortality data for the United States for the years since 1999, by...

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Events Cancer Currents Blog All Press Releases 2017 ... Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Cancer Currents Blog About NCI NCI Overview History ...

  10. Stages of Oropharyngeal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adjuvant therapy . New types of surgery, including transoral robotic surgery , are being studied for the treatment of oropharyngeal cancer. Transoral robotic surgery may be used to remove cancer from hard- ...

  11. Find a Cancer Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Find a Cancer Doctor Find a Cancer Doctor Status message Locating you... The Find an Oncologist ... and caregivers. The database includes the names of physicians and other health professionals from certain ASCO membership ...

  12. Cancer Alternative Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have many choices to make about your cancer treatment. One choice you might be thinking about ... are acupuncture, chiropractic, and herbal medicines. People with cancer may use CAM to Help cope with the ...

  13. Cancer in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer begins in the cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, new cells form ... can form a tumor. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Malignant tumor cells can ...

  14. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  15. Cryotherapy for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000907.htm Cryotherapy for prostate cancer To use the sharing features ... first treatment for prostate cancer. What Happens During Cryotherapy Before the procedure, you will be given medicine ...

  16. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the exam can detect oral cancer early—when it can be treated more successfully. Publications​ For Health ... and the importance of detecting the disease in its early stages. The Oral Cancer Exam Step-by- ...

  17. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  18. Breast Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  19. Living as a Thyroid Cancer Survivor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Working Thyroid Cancer After Treatment Living as a Thyroid Cancer Survivor For many people with thyroid cancer, treatment ... Cancer Treatments Are No Longer Working More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  20. Can Thyroid Cancer Be Found Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thyroid Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Can Thyroid Cancer Be Found Early? Many cases of thyroid cancer ... Health Care Team About Thyroid Cancer? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  1. What Happens After Treatment for Stomach Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer After Treatment What Happens After Treatment for Stomach Cancer? For some people with stomach cancer, treatment may ... Treatment for Stomach Cancer Stops Working More In Stomach Cancer About Stomach Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  2. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search Category Cancer A-Z Colorectal Cancer Colon Cancer Videos Thanks to improvements in prevention, early detection, ... also personal stories from colon cancer survivors. Colon Cancer Prevention & Risk Reduction Play Play Colorectal Cancer: A ...

  3. What Happens After Treatment for Testicular Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer After Treatment What Happens After Treatment for Testicular Cancer? For most people with testicular cancer, treatment removes ... Treatment for Testicular Cancer Stops Working More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  4. Can Testicular Cancer Be Found Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testicular Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Can Testicular Cancer Be Found Early? Most testicular cancers can be ... Ask Your Doctor About Testicular Cancer? More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  5. Do We Know What Causes Testicular Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Factors, and Prevention Do We Know What Causes Testicular Cancer? The exact cause of most testicular cancers is ... Cancer? Can Testicular Cancer Be Prevented? More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  6. Do We Know What Causes Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research? Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer How Does Breast Cancer Form? Changes or mutations in DNA can cause ... requests, please contact permissionrequest@cancer.org . More In Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer Risk and Prevention Early Detection ...

  7. Nanomedicine and cancer therapies

    CERN Document Server

    Sebastian, Mathew; Elias, Eldho

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Nanotechnological-Based Systems for CancerIn vivo Spectroscopy for Detection and Treatment of GBM with NPt® ImplantationNanobiotechnology for Antibacterial Therapy and DiagnosisChitosan NanoparticlesSynthesis and Biomedical Application of Silver NanoparticlesRecent Advances in Cancer Therapy Using PhytochemicalsMitochondrial Dysfunction and Cancer: Modulation by Palladium-Lipoic Acid ComplexUnity of Mind and Body: The Concept of Life Purpose DominantThuja Occidentalis and Breast Cancer ChemopreventionAntioxidants and Com

  8. Obesity and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Calle, Eugenia E.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence associating obesity and cancer accumulated over last two decades pointing to potentially preventable forms of cancer disease. Observational prospective analyses point to breast and colon cancer as most influenced by obesity-linked lifestyle habits. Other tumor-types can comprise to this group as well (endometrium, esophagus, liver, stomach, thyroid, pancreas, and prostate cancer), according to epidemiological data, but with lesser level of certainty. Randomized studi...

  9. Breast Cancer and Infertility

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women and may accompany infertility. The relationship between infertility treatment and breast cancer has not yet been proven. However, estrogen exposure is well known to cause breast cancer. Recent advances in treatment options have provided young patients with breast cancer a chance of being mother [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000): 317-323

  10. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JuhuaZhou; YinZhong

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  11. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juhua Zhou; Yin Zhong

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy,radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future.

  12. Evolutionary theory of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attolini, Camille Stephan-Otto; Michor, Franziska

    2009-06-01

    As Theodosius Dobzhansky famously noted in 1973, "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution," and cancer is no exception to this rule. Our understanding of cancer initiation, progression, treatment, and resistance has advanced considerably by regarding cancer as the product of evolutionary processes. Here we review the literature of mathematical models of cancer evolution and provide a synthesis and discussion of the field.

  13. Cancer notification in India

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmaiah, K. C.; Guruprasad, B.; Lokesh, K. N.; Veena, V. S.

    2014-01-01

    In many developed countries, notification of cancer cases is compulsory. Developing countries including India accounts for more than half of new cancer cases in the world, however notification of cancer is not yet mandatory. The primary purpose of notification is to effect prevention and control and better utilization of resources. It is also a valuable source for incidence, prevalence, mortality and morbidity of the disease. Notification of cancer will lead to improved awareness of common et...

  14. Early Detection Of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V B Bhatnagar

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available Farly detection of cancer is based upon three fundamental assumptions, firstly that the trea'ment of benign and precancerous lesions reduces the incidence of cancer, secondly, that the treatment of in situ cancers is conducive to total cure and thirdly that early diagnosis and management of invasive cancer ensures be.ter survival. When patient seeks medical advice for vague symptoms, which could however be due to a possible malignant tumour at a particular site, the alert clinician should investigate the patient immediately to exclude cancer. At this stage cancer is usually not significantly advanced.Currently the U. I. C. C. (International Union for Cancer Control} is studying the epidemiology of cancers in various countries The importance of this is two folds : Firstly by focussing attention on a section of population vulnerable to a particular cancer an early detection is facilitated Secondly by changing the causative factors responsible to a particular cancer, the incidence of that cancer can be reduced e. g. reduction in lung cancer following campaigns against ciguette smoking and reductioi in breast cancer after campaigns for advocating breast feeding of infants, lowering fat consumption and encouraging self palpation of breast regularly.Indeed early diagnosis of cancer implies diagnosis of cancer in almost a symptomatic stage It involves motiva’ion of the population towards acquisitio : of knowledge, attitude and practice.. Epidemiologies and clinicians should be able to recognise high risk cases exposed to particular neoplasia and knowledge of alarming symptoms should be pro- pogated for wide publicity through common available media and means. Probable cases should have regular clhrcal examination periodically and relevant investigations including radiological, imaging techniques and Bio-Chemical examination should be undertaken as and when desired Suspicious lesions should be investigated by specific tests including smear cytology

  15. Foods That Fight Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯江宁

    1995-01-01

    Diet is now considered a major weapon against cancer.The National Cancer Institute estimates that about one-third of all cancers are linked to diet. and recent research indicated that what you eat may help to significantly reduce your risk.

  16. Lung Cancer Indicators Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study describes prognostic factors for lung cancer spread and recurrence, as well as subsequent risk of death from the disease. The investigators observed that regardless of cancer stage, grade, or type of lung cancer, patients in the study were more

  17. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  18. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ducts that carry milk to the nipples, and fat. During puberty, women begin developing more breast tissue, and men do not. But because men are born with a small amount of breast tissue, they can develop breast cancer. Types of breast cancer diagnosed in men include: Cancer ...

  19. Cell phones and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer and cell phones; Do cell phones cause cancer? ... Several major studies show no link between cell phones and cancer at this time. However, since the information available is based on short-term studies, the impact of many years of ...

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Cancer Treatment Types of Cancer Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Information A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & ... Interest Legislative Resources Recent Public Laws Careers Visitor Information Search ... Oncologist Anthony L. Back, M.D., a national expert on doctor-patient communications, talks with one of his patients about what ...

  1. Multiple Primary Cancer Monograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    To identify groups of cancer survivors that are at increased risk for multiple primary cancers, investigators led an effort to provide the first comprehensive population-based analysis of the risk of subsequent cancer in the U.S., resulting in a monograph.

  2. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Prevention en español Cáncer de mama You may have heard about special events, like walks or races, to raise money for breast cancer research. Or maybe you've seen people wear ...

  3. Radon and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exposure and lung cancer: the Iowa Radon Lung Cancer Study. American Journal of Epidemiology 2000; 151(11):1091–1102. [PubMed Abstract] Frumkin H, Samet JM. Radon. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2001; 51(6):337–344. [ ...

  4. Basics of cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Yuki; Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi

    The immune system is the body's defense against infectious organisms and other invaders including cancer cells. Cancer immunotherapy, which employs our own immune systems to attack cancer cells, is now emerging as a promising modality of cancer treatment based upon the clinical successes of immune checkpoint blockade and adoptive T cell transfer. In hematologic malignancies, clinical application of anti-PD-1 mAb and CAR (chimeric antigen receptor) T therapy is now being extensively tested in Hodgkin's disease, multiple myeloma, and CD19(+) acute lymphocytic leukemia. In sharp contrast to conventional anti-cancer reagents which directly kill cancer cells, cancer immunotherapy activates various types of immune effector cells to attack cancer cells. However, more than half of the treated patients showed no activation of anti-tumor CD8(+) killer T cells and CD4(+) helper T cells and failed to respond to immune therapies such as immune checkpoint blockade, even when administered in combination regimens. Thus, development of novel immunotherapies to achieve more effective activation of anti-cancer immunity and immuno-monitoring of biomarkers, allowing proper evaluation of immune responses in cancer patients in order to detect responders, are urgent issues. Additionally, we must pay attention to characteristic immunological side effects not observed following treatment with conventional anti-cancer reagents. Herein, we present a summary outline and discuss the future direction of cancer immunotherapy.

  5. Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukari, Ammar; Nagasaka, Misako; Al-Hadidi, Ameer; Lum, Lawrence G

    2016-11-01

    Hanahan and Weinberg described six distinct biological properties of cancer cells that enable tumor growth and metastasis. These properties were referred to as the traditional hallmarks of cancer. Recent discoveries further elucidated hallmarks including evasion of immune destruction by tumor cells that disrupt anticancer response pathways. This review discusses cancer immunology and new treatment strategies aimed at restoration of antitumor immune responses.

  6. Ovarian cancer and smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beral, V; Gaitskell, K; Hermon, C;

    2012-01-01

    Smoking has been linked to mucinous ovarian cancer, but its effects on other ovarian cancer subtypes and on overall ovarian cancer risk are unclear, and the findings from most studies with relevant data are unpublished. To assess these associations, we review the published and unpublished evidence....

  7. Cancer and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 4 Pancreas 12.2 9.5 1.3 Stomach 4.2 1.8 2.3 Source: NCI 2016. Seer Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2013. Tables 1.21 http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2013/sections.html Screening Breast Cancer Percent of women age 40 and ...

  8. Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  9. Infertility with Testicular Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Kevin A; Walsh, Thomas J

    2015-08-01

    Testicular germ cell cancer is one of the most curable cancers. Most patients are treated during their reproductive years, making infertility a significant quality of life issue after successful treatment. This focused review evaluates the factors that contribute to infertility and specific fertility risks with the various testicular cancer treatments. Timing of patient discussions and current fertility treatments are reviewed.

  10. What is Prostate Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make most of the fluid for semen. The urethra, which is the tube that carries urine and semen out of the body through the penis, goes through the center of the prostate. Types of prostate cancer Almost all prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas . These cancers ...

  11. Asbestos and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Category Cancer A-Z What Causes Cancer? Asbestos and Cancer Risk What is asbestos? Asbestos is a group of minerals that occur ... in some countries. How are people exposed to asbestos? People can be exposed to asbestos in different ...

  12. Improving Goals of Care Discussion in Advanced Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-20

    Primary Stage IV Hepatobiliary; Esophageal; Colorectal Cancer; Glioblastoma; Cancer of Stomach; Cancer of Pancreas; Melanoma; Head or Neck Cancer; Stage III; Stage IV; Lung Cancers; Pancreatic Cancers

  13. Cancer control in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Bangladesh to be 7.5% in 2005 and 13% in 2030. The two leading causes are in males are lung and oral cancer and in females are breast cancer and cervical cancer. Bangladesh is now in severe shortage of radiation therapy machines, hospital bed, trained oncologists, medical radiation physicists and technologists. Bangladesh having different cancers associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use, Human papilloma virus infection, Hepatitis B and C infection, Helicobacter Pylori infection, arsenic contaminated groundwater, availability of chemical carcinogens mainly formalin treated fruits, fish and vegetables at open market, tannery waste contaminated with chromium (which is used for poultry feed and fish feed preparation). A World Health Organization study revealed the annual cost of illnesses in Bangladesh attributable to tobacco usage is US$ 500 million and the total annual benefit from the tobacco sector is US$ 305 million as tax revenue. Bangladesh has developed a National Cancer Control Strategy and Action Plan with the aim of delivering a universal, quality-based and timely service. Cancer prevention through tobacco control, health promotion and vaccination program, cancer early detection program for oral cavity, breast and cervix has initiated. Cancer detection and diagnostic facilities will be made available at medical colleges and district- hospitals and establish a referral chain. National capacity development, more cancer research will allow Bangladesh to deal effectively

  14. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...... are only ameliorated to a minor degree by a healthy diet....

  15. Hypermutation In Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphris, Jeremy L; Patch, Ann-Marie; Nones, Katia; Bailey, Peter J; Johns, Amber L; McKay, Skye; Chang, David K; Miller, David K; Pajic, Marina; Kassahn, Karin S; Quinn, Michael C J; Bruxner, Timothy J C; Christ, Angelika N; Harliwong, Ivon; Idrisoglu, Senel; Manning, Suzanne; Nourse, Craig; Nourbakhsh, Ehsan; Stone, Andrew; Wilson, Peter J; Anderson, Matthew; Fink, J Lynn; Holmes, Oliver; Kazakoff, Stephen; Leonard, Conrad; Newell, Felicity; Waddell, Nick; Wood, Scott; Mead, Ronald S; Xu, Qinying; Wu, Jianmin; Pinese, Mark; Cowley, Mark J; Jones, Marc D; Nagrial, Adnan M; Chin, Venessa T; Chantrill, Lorraine A; Mawson, Amanda; Chou, Angela; Scarlett, Christopher J; Pinho, Andreia V; Rooman, Ilse; Giry-Laterriere, Marc; Samra, Jaswinder S; Kench, James G; Merrett, Neil D; Toon, Christopher W; Epari, Krishna; Nguyen, Nam Q; Barbour, Andrew; Zeps, Nikolajs; Jamieson, Nigel B; McKay, Colin J; Carter, C Ross; Dickson, Euan J; Graham, Janet S; Duthie, Fraser; Oien, Karin; Hair, Jane; Morton, Jennifer P; Sansom, Owen J; Grützmann, Robert; Hruban, Ralph H; Maitra, Anirban; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A; Schulick, Richard D; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Morgan, Richard A; Lawlor, Rita T; Rusev, Borislav; Corbo, Vincenzo; Salvia, Roberto; Cataldo, Ivana; Tortora, Giampaolo; Tempero, Margaret A; Hofmann, Oliver; Eshleman, James R; Pilarsky, Christian; Scarpa, Aldo; Musgrove, Elizabeth A; Gill, Anthony J; Pearson, John V; Grimmond, Sean M; Waddell, Nicola; Biankin, Andrew V

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is molecularly diverse, with few effective therapies. Increased mutation burden and defective DNA repair are associated with response to immune checkpoint inhibitors in several other cancer types. We interrogated 385 pancreatic cancer genomes to define hypermutation and its causes. Mutational signatures inferring defects in DNA repair were enriched in those with the highest mutation burdens. Mismatch repair deficiency was identified in 1% of tumors harboring different mechanisms of somatic inactivation of MLH1 and MSH2. Defining mutation load in individual pancreatic cancers and the optimal assay for patient selection may inform clinical trial design for immunotherapy in pancreatic cancer.

  16. Preventing cervical cancer globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeler, Kathleen M

    2012-11-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer and cancer-related deaths among women worldwide. More than 85% of cases and deaths occur in the developing world where the availability of effective screening is limited. In this issue of the journal, Pierce and colleagues (beginning on page 1273) describe a novel technique using a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) to diagnose cervical dysplasia. This perspective reviews the limitations of existing cervical cancer screening methods currently in use in low-resource settings and the potential for HRME imaging to contribute to cervical cancer prevention in the developing world.

  17. Industries and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, E M; Burnett, C A; Ruder, A; Davis-King, K

    1997-05-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between selected industries and cancer is reviewed. This article will focus on several industries which have not been covered elsewhere in this volume, briefly describe current research on cancer in the agricultural and construction industries, and discuss surveillance data on cancer mortality in relation to industry listed on US death certificates. Employment in the rubber industry has been associated with bladder cancer, leukemia, stomach, and lung cancer and is considered by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) to have 'sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans.' Studies of workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have reported excess mortality from gastrointestinal neoplasms, hematologic neoplasms, and skin cancer (specifically malignant melanoma); IARC considers that the evidence for carcinogenicity in humans is 'limited.' Employment in the boot and shoe industry has been associated with nasal adenocarcinomas in England and Italy ('sufficient'). Hairdressers and barbers have been found to have excess bladder cancer and less consistent evidence for several other sites ('limited'). Workers exposed to wood dust have excess mortality from cancer of the nasal sinuses and paranasal cavities; there is less consistent evidence for excess laryngeal cancer ('sufficient'). Workers employed in the petroleum industry have limited evidence for excess leukemia and other lymphatic and hematopoietic neoplasms, and skin cancer (particularly malignant melanoma) ('limited').

  18. CANCER CAN BE PREVENTED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Life style factors are contributing significantly in cancer prevention. With the intake of proper and balanced diet ,cancer prevention is possible. Many foods are associated either with incidence or prevention of cancer. Plant based foods like fresh fruits, vegetables and whole grains rich in fiber, b-carotene, vitamins and antioxidants can prevent cancer. Fiber rich foods increase bowel movement, decreasing the absorption of cholesterol. Pumpkin, carrots contain b-carotenes. Leafy vegetables, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, peas and beans are rich in fiber and stimulate cancer preventing enzyme induction. Vitamin C rich citrus fruits can stimulate immune system. Garlic and onions can stimulate enzymes that can suppress tumor growth. Turmeric used in cooking can prevent colorectal cancer. Topical application of turmeric can prevent breast cancer in women. On the other hand, certain foods can cause cancer. Refined foods, high fat foods, deep fried foods, processed foods and low fiber foods increase cancer risk. Red meat, processed meat and barbeques contain a carcinogen called acrylamide. Foods prepared with hydrogenated fats contain transfats which increase risk for breast, ovarian, cervical and lung cancer. Consumption of alcohol increasing the risk for cancers of digestive system. LET US EAT RIGHT FOODS AND AVOID WRONG FOODS.

  19. A cancer help centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, R

    1996-06-01

    The diagnosis of cancer can be shattering to all involved. The treatment of cancer is intense and often very challenging. Prevailing attitudes to cancer are sometimes fearful, negative and depressing. This combination may leave those affected by cancer shocked, disorientated and without hope. Even worse than this, on asking consultants 'What can I do to help myself?' patients are frequently told 'Absolutely nothing'--crushing in one fell swoop their remaining fighting spirit. Not so in the case of Penny Brohn, who, when faced with the diagnosis of breast cancer, travelled the world to find alternative cancer treatments, and having successfully brought her own cancer under control, dedicated her life to creating a Centre for others wishing to fight their disease.

  20. Thyroid Cancer Staging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ja Young; Kim, Soo Jin; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kwak, Jin Young [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    The current prevalence of thyroid cancer in women is high. Likewise, other cancers and thyroid cancer have been based on the TNM classification system. Staging of thyroid cancer has an important role in determining the extent of surgical excision and lymph node dissection, planning the adjuvant therapy after surgery and predicting the recurrence rate and the prognosis of patients. Ultrasonography is the basic imaging modality to identify the tumor size and the extent of lymph node metastasis. More recently, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography provide additional help for the staging of thyroid cancer. So, this article describes the 7th edition of the TNM staging of thyroid cancer, as proposed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, and the details of radiologic evaluation of the T, N and M stages

  1. Lung Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon R. Pine

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer remains a major cause of cancer-related lethality because of high incidence and recurrence in spite of significant advances in staging and therapies. Recent data indicates that stem cells situated throughout the airways may initiate cancer formation. These putative stem cells maintain protumorigenic characteristics including high proliferative capacity, multipotent differentiation, drug resistance and long lifespan relative to other cells. Stem cell signaling and differentiation pathways are maintained within distinct cancer types, and destabilization of this machinery may participate in maintenance of cancer stem cells. Characterization of lung cancer stem cells is an area of active research and is critical for developing novel therapies. This review summarizes the current knowledge on stem cell signaling pathways and cell markers used to identify the lung cancer stem cells.

  2. Evolutionary biology of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Bernard; Summers, Kyle

    2005-10-01

    Cancer is driven by the somatic evolution of cell lineages that have escaped controls on replication and by the population-level evolution of genes that influence cancer risk. We describe here how recent evolutionary ecological studies have elucidated the roles of predation by the immune system and competition among normal and cancerous cells in the somatic evolution of cancer. Recent analyses of the evolution of cancer at the population level show how rapid changes in human environments have augmented cancer risk, how strong selection has frequently led to increased cancer risk as a byproduct, and how anticancer selection has led to tumor-suppression systems, tissue designs that slow somatic evolution, constraints on morphological evolution and even senescence itself. We discuss how applications of the tools of ecology and evolutionary biology are poised to revolutionize our understanding and treatment of this disease.

  3. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...... with vitamins A, C and E and beta-carotene offers no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, beta-carotene supplementation has, in two major randomised intervention trials, resulted in an increased mortality. Smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer. The adverse effects...

  4. Cancer stem cells in human gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Moriya, Chiharu; Igarashi, Hisayoshi; Saitoh, Anri; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Adachi, Yasushi; Imai, Kohzoh

    2016-11-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are thought to be responsible for tumor initiation, drug and radiation resistance, invasive growth, metastasis, and tumor relapse, which are the main causes of cancer-related deaths. Gastrointestinal cancers are the most common malignancies and still the most frequent cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Because gastrointestinal CSCs are also thought to be resistant to conventional therapies, an effective and novel cancer treatment is imperative. The first reported CSCs in a gastrointestinal tumor were found in colorectal cancer in 2007. Subsequently, CSCs were reported in other gastrointestinal cancers, such as esophagus, stomach, liver, and pancreas. Specific phenotypes could be used to distinguish CSCs from non-CSCs. For example, gastrointestinal CSCs express unique surface markers, exist in a side-population fraction, show high aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 activity, form tumorspheres when cultured in non-adherent conditions, and demonstrate high tumorigenic potential in immunocompromised mice. The signal transduction pathways in gastrointestinal CSCs are similar to those involved in normal embryonic development. Moreover, CSCs are modified by the aberrant expression of several microRNAs. Thus, it is very difficult to target gastrointestinal CSCs. This review focuses on the current research on gastrointestinal CSCs and future strategies to abolish the gastrointestinal CSC phenotype.

  5. Immunotherapy in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsueda, Satoko; Graham, David Y

    2014-02-21

    Gastric cancer is the second most common of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In the majority of cases gastric cancer is advanced at diagnosis and although medical and surgical treatments have improved, survival rates remain poor. Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a powerful and promising clinical approach for treatment of cancer and has shown major success in breast cancer, prostate cancer and melanoma. Here, we provide an overview of concepts of modern cancer immunotherapy including the theory, current approaches, remaining hurdles to be overcome, and the future prospect of cancer immunotherapy in the treatment of gastric cancer. Adaptive cell therapies, cancer vaccines, gene therapies, monoclonal antibody therapies have all been used with some initial successes in gastric cancer. However, to date the results in gastric cancer have been disappointing as current approaches often do not stimulate immunity efficiently allowing tumors continue to grow despite the presence of a measurable immune response. Here, we discuss the identification of targets for immunotherapy and the role of biomarkers in prospectively identifying appropriate subjects or immunotherapy. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms by which tumor cells escape host immunosurveillance and produce an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. We show how advances have provided tools for overcoming the mechanisms of immunosuppression including the use of monoclonal antibodies to block negative regulators normally expressed on the surface of T cells which limit activation and proliferation of cytotoxic T cells. Immunotherapy has greatly improved and is becoming an important factor in such fields as medical care and welfare for human being. Progress has been rapid ensuring that the future of immunotherapy for gastric cancer is bright.

  6. Familial pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, A P; Hruban, R H; Brune, K A; Petersen, G M; Goggins, M

    2001-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in both men and women in the United States and will be responsible for an estimated 28,900 deaths in 2001. Relatively little is known of its etiology, and the only well-established risk factor is cigarette smoking. Studies over the past 3 decades have shown that 4%-16% of patients with pancreatic cancer have a family history of the disease. A small fraction of this aggregation can be accounted for in inherited cancer syndromes, including familial atypical multiple-mole melanoma, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, hereditary breast-ovarian cancer, hereditary pancreatitis, and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. These syndromes arise as a result of germline mutations in the BRCA2, pl6 (familial atypical multiple-mole melanoma), mismatch repair (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer), and STK11 (Peutz-Jeghers syndrome) genes. In addition, hereditary plays a role in predisposing certain patients with apparently sporadic pancreatic cancer. Many patients with pancreatic cancers caused by a germline mutation in a cancer-causing gene do not have a pedigree that is suggestive of a familial cancer syndrome. A recent prospective analysis of the pedigrees in the National Familial Pancreatic Tumor Registry found that individuals with a family history of pancreatic cancer in multiple first-degree relatives have a high risk of pancreatic cancer themselves. The identification of such high-risk individuals will help clinicians target screening programs and develop preventive interventions with the hope of reducing the mortality of pancreatic cancer in these families.

  7. Risk of prostate cancer among cancer survivors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.; Schans, S.A. van de; Liu, L.; Kampman, E.; Coebergh, J.W.W.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Soerjomataram, I.; Aben, K.K.H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In parallel with increasing numbers of cancer patients and improving cancer survival, the occurrence of second primary cancers becomes a relevant issue. The aim of our study was to evaluate risk of prostate cancer as second primary cancer in a population-based setting. METHODS: Data from

  8. Risk of prostate cancer among cancer survivors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.G.; Schans, van de S.A.; Liu, L.; Kampman, E.; Coebergh, J.W.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Soerjomataram, I.; Aben, K.K.

    2013-01-01

    In parallel with increasing numbers of cancer patients and improving cancer survival, the occurrence of second primary cancers becomes a relevant issue. The aim of our study was to evaluate risk of prostate cancer as second primary cancer in a population-based setting. Methods Data from the Netherla

  9. Nutrition and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WILLETT WALTER C

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from both animal and epidemiologic studies indicate that throughout life excessive energy intake in relation to requirements increases risk of human cancer. Rapid growth rates in childhood lead to earlier age at menarche, which in turn increases risk of breast cancer, and accumulation of body fat in adulthood in related to cancers of the colon, kidney, and endometrium as well as postmenopausal breast cancer. Higher intake of vegetables and fruits has been associated with lower risks of many cancers. The constituents responsible for these apparent protective effects remain uncertain, although evidence supports a contribution of folic acid. Recent evidence suggests that the percentage of energy from fat in the diet is not a major cause of cancers of the breast or colon. Higher intake of meat and dairy products has been associated with greater risk of prostate cancer, which may be related to their saturated fat content. Also, red meat consumption has been associated with risk of colon cancer in numerous studies, but this appears to be unrelated to its fat content. Excessive consumption of alcohol increases risks of upper gastrointestinal tract and even moderate intake appears to increase cancers of the breast and large bowel. Although many details remain to be learned, evidence is strong that remaining physically active and lean throughout life, consuming an abundance of fruits and vegetables, and avoiding high intakes of red meat, foods high in animal fat, and excessive alcohol will substantially reduce risk of human cancer.

  10. Epidemiology of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katherine D Crew; Alfred I Neugut

    2006-01-01

    The incidence and mortality of gastric cancer have fallen dramatically in US and elsewhere over the past several decades. Nonetheless, gastric cancer remains a major public health issue as the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Demographic trends differ by tumor location and histology. While there has been a marked decline in distal, intestinal type gastric cancers, the incidence of proximal, diffuse type adenocarcinomas of the gastric cardia has been increasing, particularly in the Western countries. Incidence by tumor sub-site also varies widely based on geographic location, race, and socioeconomic status. Distal gastric cancer predominates in developing countries, among blacks, and in lower socioeconomic groups, whereas proximal tumors are more common in developed countries, among whites, and in higher socio-economic classes. Diverging trends in the incidence of gastric cancer by tumor location suggest that they may represent two diseases with different etiologies. The main risk factors for distal gastric cancer include Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection and dietary factors, whereas gastroesophageal reflux disease and obesity play important roles in the development of proximal stomach cancer. The purpose of this review is to examine the epidemiology and risk factors of gastric cancer, and to discuss strategies for primary prevention.

  11. Cancer notification in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmaiah, K C; Guruprasad, B; Lokesh, K N; Veena, V S

    2014-01-01

    In many developed countries, notification of cancer cases is compulsory. Developing countries including India accounts for more than half of new cancer cases in the world, however notification of cancer is not yet mandatory. The primary purpose of notification is to effect prevention and control and better utilization of resources. It is also a valuable source for incidence, prevalence, mortality and morbidity of the disease. Notification of cancer will lead to improved awareness of common etiologic agents, better understanding of common preventable causes and better utilization of health resources with better monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of health programs such as cancer screening and cancer treatment programs, which ultimately might improve survival. Notification of cancer can be done by the doctor or the hospital. Akin to the integrated disease surveillance project where more than 90% of the districts report weekly data through E-mail/portal, notification of cancer can be implemented if it is incorporated into the National Program for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular diseases and Stroke scheme. The need of the hour is cancer notification in India.

  12. Cancer notification in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K C Lakshmaiah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In many developed countries, notification of cancer cases is compulsory. Developing countries including India accounts for more than half of new cancer cases in the world, however notification of cancer is not yet mandatory. The primary purpose of notification is to effect prevention and control and better utilization of resources. It is also a valuable source for incidence, prevalence, mortality and morbidity of the disease. Notification of cancer will lead to improved awareness of common etiologic agents, better understanding of common preventable causes and better utilization of health resources with better monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of health programs such as cancer screening and cancer treatment programs, which ultimately might improve survival. Notification of cancer can be done by the doctor or the hospital. Akin to the integrated disease surveillance project where more than 90% of the districts report weekly data through E-mail/portal, notification of cancer can be implemented if it is incorporated into the National Program for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular diseases and Stroke scheme. The need of the hour is cancer notification in India.

  13. Cancer and orofacial pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvemini, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer pain is a devastating condition. Pain in the orofacial region, may be present as the single symptom of cancer or as a symptom of cancer in its later stages. This manuscript revises in a comprehensive manner the content of the conference entitled “Orofacial Pain and Cancer” (Dolor Orofacial y Cancer) given at the VI Simposio International “Advances in Oral Cancer” on the 22 July, 2016 in Donostia. Material and Methods We have reviewed (pubmed-medline) from the most relevant literature including reviews, systematic reviews and clinical cases, the significant and evidence-based mechanisms and mediators of cancer-associated facial pain, the diverse types of cancers that can be present in the craniofacial region locally or from distant sites that can refer to the orofacial region, cancer therapy that may induce pain in the orofacial region as well as discussed some of the new advancements in cancer pain therapy. Results There is still a lack of understanding of cancer pain pathophysiology since depends of the intrinsic heterogeneity, type and anatomic location that the cancer may present, making more challenging the creation of better therapeutic options. Orofacial pain can arise from regional or distant tumor effects or as a consequence of cancer therapy. Conclusions The clinician needs to be aware that the pain may present the characteristics of any other orofacial pain disorder so a careful differential diagnosis needs to be given. Cancer pain diagnosis is made by exclusion and only can be reached after a thorough medical history, and all the common etiologies have been carefully investigated and ruled out. The current management tools are not optimal but there is hope for new, safer and effective therapies coming in the next years. Key words:Pain, orofacial, facial, cancer. PMID:27694791

  14. Preventing Second Cancers in Colon Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this phase III trial, people who have had curative surgery for colon cancer will be randomly assigned to take sulindac and a placebo, eflornithine and a placebo, both sulindac and eflornithine, or two placebo pills for 36 months.

  15. Occupational cancer in Britain. Preventing occupational cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiqun; Osman, John

    2012-06-19

    Although only a relatively small proportion of cancer is attributable to occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents, the estimated number of deaths due to occupational cancer is high when compared to other deaths due to work-related ill health and injury. However, risk from occupational exposure to carcinogens can be minimised through proportionate but effective risk management. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is the regulator of workplace health and safety in Great Britain. As part of its aim to reduce ill health arising from failures to control properly exposure to hazards at work, HSE commissioned the research presented elsewhere in this supplement to enable it to identify priorities for preventing occupational cancer. The research has shown that occupational cancer remains a key health issue and that low-level exposure of a large number of workers to carcinogens is important. The finding that a small number of carcinogens have been responsible for the majority of the burden of occupational cancer provides key evidence in the development of priorities for significant reduction of occupational cancer. Although the research presented in this supplement reflects the consequences of past exposures to carcinogens, occupational cancer remains a problem. The potential for exposure to the agents considered in this research is still present in the workplace and the findings are relevant to prevention of future disease. In this article, the principle approaches for risk reduction are described. It provides supporting information on some of the initiatives already being undertaken, or those being put in place, to reduce occupational cancer in Great Britain. The need also for systematic collection of exposure information and the importance of raising awareness and changing behaviours are discussed.

  16. Gynecological cancer in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, M Farid

    2009-03-01

    To overview the status of gynecologic cancer in Indonesia. Information regarding Indonesia obtained from World Bank Report and Statistical Yearbook of Indonesia 2007, epidemiological data obtained from Histopathological Data of Cancer in Indonesia 2002, Department of Health-Registry Body of Indonesian Specialist of Pathology Association-Indonesian Cancer Society; Various Hospitals in big Cities in Indonesia. Indonesia is an Archipelago with a total area of 1,922,570.00 km(2), the population is 222,192,000 (2006), the fourth world rank. Female is 49.86% with life expectancy 69 years. Gross National Product per Capita is 690.00 USD. Histopathological report in 2002 revealed that cervical cancer, ovarian cancer and uterine cancer were the most frequent cancer among female, which were the first (2,532 cases), the third (829 cases) and the eighth (316 cases) rank respectively. The peak age for cervical, uterine and ovarian cancer was 45-54 years. HPV 16, 18 were found in 82% of invasive cervical. Data from various academic hospitals in 2007 showed that cervical cancer is the most common malignancy followed by ovary, uterus, vulva and vagina. Five-year survival rate of stage I, II, III, IV cervical cancer were 50%, 40%, 20%, and 0% respectively. Overall five-year survival rate of carcinoma of the ovary was 54.8%. If sub-classified by stage, five-year survival rate are 94.3%, 75.0%, 31%, and 11.7% for stage I, II, III, and IV respectively. Five-year disease-free survival rate of endometrial cancer was 71.9%. Indonesia is the biggest Archipelago with a dense population but the income per capita still low (poor country). The most common gynecologic cancer is cervical cancer, followed by ovarian and uterine cancer. These cancers are included in top ten cancers in Indonesia. HPV 16, 18 were the most cause of cervical cancer. The five-year survival rates are comparable with world report.

  17. Advances in cancer immunology and cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voena, Claudia; Chiarle, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    After decades of setbacks, cancer immunology is living its Golden Age. Recent advances in cancer immunology have provided new therapeutic approaches to treat cancer. The objective clinical response observed in patients treated with antibodies that block the immune checkpoints, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell-death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell-death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathways, has led to their FDA approval for the treatment of melanoma in 2011 and in 2014, respectively. The anti-PD-1 antibody nivolumab has received the FDA-approval in March 2015 for squamous lung cancer treatment. In addition, antibodies targeting PD-1 or PD-L1 have demonstrated their efficacy and safety in additional tumors, including non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), bladder cancer, and Hodgkin's lymphoma. Almost at the same time, the field of adoptive cell transfer has exploded. The chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T technology has provided strong evidence of efficacy in the treatment of B cell malignancies, and different T cell based treatments are currently under investigation for different types of tumors. In this review we will discuss the latest advances in cancer immunology and immunotherapy as well as new treatments now under development in the clinic and potential strategies that have shown promising results in preclinical models.

  18. Chemoprevention of Skin Cancer Program Project | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the world. One out of three new cancers is a skin cancer. More than 1 million cases of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) (basal cell carcinoma [BCC] and squamous cell cancers [SCC]) occur annually. While the incidence rates for non-melanoma skin cancers continue to rise, there continues to be a substantial impact on morbidity, health and health care costs. |

  19. Immunotherapy for Gastroesophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Emily F.; Smyth, Elizabeth C.

    2016-01-01

    Survival for patients with advanced oesophageal and stomach cancer is poor; together these cancers are responsible for more than a million deaths per year globally. As chemotherapy and targeted therapies such as trastuzumab and ramucirumab result in modest improvements in survival but not long-term cure for such patients, development of alternative treatment approaches is warranted. Novel immunotherapy drugs such as checkpoint inhibitors have been paradigm changing in melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer and urothelial cancers. In this review, we assess the early evidence for efficacy of immunotherapy in patients with gastroesophageal cancer in addition to considering biomarkers associated with response to these treatments. Early results of Anti- Programmed Cell Death Protein-1 (anti-PD-1), anti-PD-L1 and anti-Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte assosciated protein-4 (anti-CTLA4) trials are examined, and we conclude with a discussion on the future direction for immunotherapy for gastroesophageal cancer patients. PMID:27669318

  20. Immunotherapy for Gastroesophageal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily F. Goode

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Survival for patients with advanced oesophageal and stomach cancer is poor; together these cancers are responsible for more than a million deaths per year globally. As chemotherapy and targeted therapies such as trastuzumab and ramucirumab result in modest improvements in survival but not long-term cure for such patients, development of alternative treatment approaches is warranted. Novel immunotherapy drugs such as checkpoint inhibitors have been paradigm changing in melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer and urothelial cancers. In this review, we assess the early evidence for efficacy of immunotherapy in patients with gastroesophageal cancer in addition to considering biomarkers associated with response to these treatments. Early results of Anti- Programmed Cell Death Protein-1 (anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1 and anti-Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte assosciated protein-4 (anti-CTLA4 trials are examined, and we conclude with a discussion on the future direction for immunotherapy for gastroesophageal cancer patients.

  1. Epidemiology of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Muhammad Naeem

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy among males worldwide, and is the second leading cause of cancer death among men in United States. According to GLOBOCAN (2012), an estimated 1.1 million new cases and 307,000 deaths were reported in 2012. The reasons for the increase of this disease are not known, but increasing life expectancy and modified diagnostic techniques have been suggested as causes. The established risk factors for this disease are advancing age, race, positive family history of prostate cancer and western diet (use of fat items). Several other risk factors, such as obesity, physical activity, sexual activity, smoking and occupation have been also associated with prostate cancer risk, but their roles in prostate cancer etiology remain uncertain. This mini-review aims to provide risk factors, disease knowledge, prevalence and awareness about prostate cancer.

  2. Cancer in Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palafox, Neal A; Yamada, Seiji; Ou, Alan C; Minami, Jill S; Johnson, David B; Katz, Alan R

    2004-09-01

    Between November 1998 and December 1999, trained medical record abstractors visited the Micronesian jurisdictions of Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, and Yap (the four states of the Federated States of Micronesia), as well as the Republic of Palau (Belau), the Republic of Kiribati, the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), and the Republic of Nauru to review all available medical records in order to describe the epidemiology of cancer in Micronesia. Annualized age-adjusted, site-specific cancer period prevalence rates for individual jurisdictions were calculated. Site-specific cancer occurrence in Micronesia follows a pattern characteristic of developing nations. At the same time, cancers associated with developed countries are also impacting these populations. Recommended are jurisdiction-specific plans that outline the steps and resources needed to establish or improve local cancer registries; expand cancer awareness and screening activities; and improve diagnostic and treatment capacity.

  3. Multiscale cancer modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deisboeck, Thomas S; Wang, Zhihui; Macklin, Paul; Cristini, Vittorio

    2011-08-15

    Simulating cancer behavior across multiple biological scales in space and time, i.e., multiscale cancer modeling, is increasingly being recognized as a powerful tool to refine hypotheses, focus experiments, and enable more accurate predictions. A growing number of examples illustrate the value of this approach in providing quantitative insights in the initiation, progression, and treatment of cancer. In this review, we introduce the most recent and important multiscale cancer modeling works that have successfully established a mechanistic link between different biological scales. Biophysical, biochemical, and biomechanical factors are considered in these models. We also discuss innovative, cutting-edge modeling methods that are moving predictive multiscale cancer modeling toward clinical application. Furthermore, because the development of multiscale cancer models requires a new level of collaboration among scientists from a variety of fields such as biology, medicine, physics, mathematics, engineering, and computer science, an innovative Web-based infrastructure is needed to support this growing community.

  4. Cancer and aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jacob K; Engholm, Gerda; Skytthe, Axel

    2016-01-01

    studies of cancer epidemiology and minimized the challenges often faced in many countries, such as uncertain identification of the study base, age misreporting, and low validity of the cancer diagnoses. However, methodological challenges still remain to be addressed, especially in cancer epidemiology...... studies among the elderly and the oldest-old. For example, a characteristic pattern for many cancer types is that the incidence increases up to a maximum at about ages 75-90 years and is then followed by a decline or a leveling off at the oldest ages. It has been suggested that the oldest individuals may...... be asymptomatic, or even insusceptible to cancer. An alternative interpretation is that this pattern is an artifact due to lower diagnostic intensity among the elderly and oldest-old caused by higher levels of co-morbidities in this age group. Currently, the available cancer epidemiology data are not able...

  5. Bioprinting for cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Stephanie; Onal, Sevgi; Yu, Chu Hsiang; Zhao, Jean J; Tasoglu, Savas

    2015-09-01

    Bioprinting offers the ability to create highly complex 3D architectures with living cells. This cutting-edge technique has significantly gained popularity and applicability in several fields. Bioprinting methods have been developed to effectively and rapidly pattern living cells, biological macromolecules, and biomaterials. These technologies hold great potential for applications in cancer research. Bioprinted cancer models represent a significant improvement over previous 2D models by mimicking 3D complexity and facilitating physiologically relevant cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Here we review bioprinting methods based on inkjet, microextrusion, and laser technologies and compare 3D cancer models with 2D cancer models. We discuss bioprinted models that mimic the tumor microenvironment, providing a platform for deeper understanding of cancer pathology, anticancer drug screening, and cancer treatment development.

  6. Plasminogen activation and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danø, Keld; Behrendt, N.; Hoyer-Hansen, G.

    2005-01-01

    Breakdown of the extracellular matrix is crucial for cancer invasion and metastasis. It is accomplished by the concerted action of several proteases, including the serine protease plasmin and a number of matrix metalloproteases.The activity of each of these proteases is regulated by an array......, the regulation of extracellular proteolysis in cancer involves a complex interplay between cancer cells and non-malignant stromal cells in the expression of the molecular components involved. For some types of cancer, this cellular interplay mimics that observed in the tissue of ori- gin during non......-neoplastic tissue remodelling processes.We propose that cancer invasion can be considered as uncontrolled tissue remodelling. Inhibition of extracellular proteases is an attractive approach to cancer therapy. Because proteases have many different functions in the normal organism, efficient inhibition will have...

  7. Danish Gynecological Cancer Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sarah Mejer; Bjørn, Signe Frahm; Jochumsen, Kirsten Marie

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD) is a nationwide clinical cancer database and its aim is to monitor the treatment quality of Danish gynecological cancer patients, and to generate data for scientific purposes. DGCD also records detailed data on the diagnostic measures...... for gynecological cancer. STUDY POPULATION: DGCD was initiated January 1, 2005, and includes all patients treated at Danish hospitals for cancer of the ovaries, peritoneum, fallopian tubes, cervix, vulva, vagina, and uterus, including rare histological types. MAIN VARIABLES: DGCD data are organized within separate...... Danish personal identification number (CPR number). DESCRIPTIVE DATA: Data from DGCD and registers are available online in the Statistical Analysis Software portal. The DGCD forms cover almost all possible clinical variables used to describe gynecological cancer courses. The only limitation...

  8. Cancer and Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulcan Gulec

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer diagnosis which is used as synonym of “death”, “pain” and “sorrow” leads to a hard-coping period in these patients which requires a rapid intervention. Studies conducted in cancer patients regarding prevalance of psychiatric illnesses reported rates ranging from 9 % to 60%. In many cancer patients, psychiatric disorders can be seen as a reaction to disease or cancer tratment, while in ten precent of cases it can be seen as an aggrevation of premorbid personality disorders or anxiety disorders. Although psychiatric disorders in cancer patients can be treated and by this way, morbidity and mortality of these disorders can be prevented, these disorders are underdiagnosed and not properly treated in many patients. In this article, we briefly reviewed literature about psychiatric disorders and symptoms in cancer patients, their diagnosis and treatment suggestions.

  9. CIN-ful cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Harith; Lengauer, Christoph

    2004-09-01

    Aneuploidy has long been recognized to be a cardinal feature of many neoplasias. However, the role of aneuploidy in tumorigenesis continues to be a matter of debate. We believe that aneuploidy in cancers is the result of chromosomal instability, a process in which dividing cancer cells segregate their chromosomes with decreased fidelity. Here we discuss our definition of chromosomal instability, evidence for its causal role in tumor development, and suggestions regarding the mechanisms that initiate chromosomal instability in cancer cells.

  10. Cancer care in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Tey, J; Baggarley, S; Lee, KM

    2008-01-01

    Singapore is a small country, but it is ideally and centrally located to conveniently serve not only its population but also patients from the surrounding regions. It’s economy is sufficiently strong to maintain highly sophisticated and expensive equipment to manage a high level of healthcare, including oncology services. Cancer incidences in Singapore are on an upward trend based on the report of the Singapore Cancer Registry for the period of 2001-2005. Cancer is the number one cause of dea...

  11. German cancer statistics 2004

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background For years the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) has been annually pooling and reviewing the data from the German population-based cancer registries and evaluating them together with the cause-of-death statistics provided by the statistical offices. Traditionally, the RKI periodically estimates the number of new cancer cases in Germany on the basis of the available data from the regional cancer registries in which registration is complete; this figure, in turn, forms the basis fo...

  12. Oncogenic viruses and cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangxiang; George; Luo; Jing-hsiung; James; Ou

    2015-01-01

    <正>This special issue of the journal is dedicated to the important topic of oncogenic viruses and cancer.It contains seven review articles covering all known oncogenic viruses except for human T-lymphotropic virus type1(HTLV-1).These review articles are contributed by experts on specific viruses and their associated human cancers.Viruses account for about 20%of total human cancer cases.Although many viruses can cause various tumors in animals,only seven of them

  13. Advances in Cancer Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan BF, Sonveaux P

    2011-01-01

    The book "Advances in Cancer Therapy" is a new addition to the Intech collection of books and aims at providing scientists and clinicians with a comprehensive overview of the state of current knowledge and latest research findings in the area of cancer therapy. For this purpose research articles, clinical investigations and review papers that are thought to improve the readers' understanding of cancer therapy developments and/or to keep them up to date with the most recent advances in this fi...

  14. Marilyn Hacker's Cancer Poems

    OpenAIRE

    Twiddy, Iain

    2012-01-01

    Marilyn Hacker's 1994 collection Winter Numbers attempts to come to terms with cancer, including the death of friends from the disease, and Hacker's own mastectomy and chemotherapy. Cancer is problematic for poetry, and for elegy in particular, for a number of conceptual, ethical and mimetic reasons. As it seeks to make progress away from the disease through the patterning of rhyme and meter, metaphor, and the assertion of fertility, cancer poetry finds itself replicating the creatively destr...

  15. Pathophysiology of cancer cachexia

    OpenAIRE

    Younes Riad N.; Noguchi Yoshikazu

    2000-01-01

    Cancer cachexia is a frequent complication observed in patients with malignant tumors. Although several decades have passed since the first focus on the metabolic dysfunction's associated with cancer, few effective therapeutic interventions have been successfully introduced into the medical armamentarium. The present study thoroughly reviews the basic pathophysiology of cancer cachexia and the treatment options already investigated in that field. Experimental and clinical studies were evaluat...

  16. Drugs Approved for Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for liver cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  17. Drugs Approved for Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for vulvar cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  18. Drugs Approved for Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for esophageal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  19. Drugs Approved for Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to prevent vaginal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  20. Drugs Approved for Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for endometrial cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  1. Drugs Approved for Penile Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for penile cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  2. Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer Cabozantinib-S-Malate Caprelsa (Vandetanib) Cometriq (Cabozantinib-S-Malate) Doxorubicin ...

  3. Stages of Renal Cell Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in tubules of the kidney. Renal cell ... diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the kidney or to other ...

  4. Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... listed here. Drugs Approved for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Abitrexate (Methotrexate) Abraxane (Paclitaxel Albumin-stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation) ...

  5. Lung Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... incidence data are currently available. Rates of Getting Lung Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  6. Collaborators | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The TARGET initiative is jointly managed within the National Cancer Institute (NCI) by the Office of Cancer Genomics (OCG)Opens in a New Tab and the Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program (CTEP)Opens in a New Tab.

  7. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for skin cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  8. Drugs Approved for Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bone cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  9. Your cancer survivorship care plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000822.htm Your cancer survivorship care plan To use the sharing features on this page, ... get one. What Is a Cancer Survivorship Care Plan? A cancer survivorship care plan is a document ...

  10. Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are available to help. HELPFUL WEB SITES ON LUNG CANCER American Lung Association www.lung.org Lungcancer.org www.lungcancer.org Lung Cancer Alliance www.lungcanceralliance.org Lung Cancer Online www. ...

  11. Hospitals report on cancer centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, T

    2001-01-01

    Woman's Hospital, Baton Rouge, La., is first-place winner among cancer centers. Holy Cross Hospital's Michael and Dianne Bienes Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ft. Lauderdale, Fla., is named second; and, Cardinal Health System's Ball Cancer Center, Muncie, Ind., third.

  12. Treatment Options for Gallbladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer. Tests that examine the gallbladder and nearby organs are used to detect (find), diagnose, and stage ... cancer cells or to make cancer cells more sensitive to the effects of radiation therapy and certain ...

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Gallbladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer. Tests that examine the gallbladder and nearby organs are used to detect (find), diagnose, and stage ... cancer cells or to make cancer cells more sensitive to the effects of radiation therapy and certain ...

  14. Linking International Cancer Screening Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drs. Sudha Sivaram and Steve Taplin speak at the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) Meeting, which brings together individuals involved in cancer screening research and cancer screening programs from the ICSN’s member countries.

  15. Nutrition for Children with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children and Cancer When Your Child Has Cancer Nutrition for Children with Cancer Nutrition is an important part of the health of ... help you ensure your child is getting the nutrition he or she needs. Why good nutrition is ...

  16. HPV-Associated Cancers Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What CDC Is Doing Related Links Stay Informed Statistics for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal ( ... Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer Home HPV-Associated Cancer Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  17. Can Ovarian Cancer Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ovarian Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Can Ovarian Cancer Be Prevented? Most women have one or more ... strategies for women with a family history of ovarian cancer or BRCA mutation If your family history suggests ...

  18. Treatment Options for Urethral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Health Professional Urethral Cancer Treatment Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Urethral Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Laryngeal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Laryngeal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Laryngeal Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. Prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on the ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... neoplasm of lung malignant tumor of lung pulmonary cancer pulmonary carcinoma pulmonary neoplasms respiratory carcinoma Related Information How are genetic conditions and genes named? Additional Information & Resources ... Encyclopedia: Lung Cancer--Non-Small Cell Encyclopedia: Lung Cancer--Small Cell ...

  1. Inside Knowledge about Gynecologic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 000 women die from a gynecologic cancer. Inside Knowledge: Get the Facts About Gynecologic Cancer Campaign CDC’s Inside Knowledge: Get the Facts About Gynecologic Cancer campaign raises ...

  2. Understanding your colon cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon cancer - prevention; Colon cancer - screening ... We do not know what causes colon cancer, but we do know some of the things that may increase the risk of getting it, such as: Age. Your risk increases ...

  3. Discovery – Preventing Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer research includes stopping cancer before it spreads. NCI funded the development of the Melanoma Risk Assessment Tool and the ABC method. Both help to diagnose high-risk patients and prevent melanoma earlier in the fight against skin cancer.

  4. Breast Cancer in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NPCR 2017 CDC National Cancer Conference Stay Informed Breast Cancer in Young Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Syndicate this page Marleah's family history of breast cancer was her motivation for pursuing a career where ...

  5. Cancer and the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Robert Albertella

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The applications of functional genomics, proteomics and informatics to cancer research have yielded a tremendous amount of information, which is growing all the time. Much of this information is available publicly on the Internet and ranges from general information about different cancers from a patient or clinical viewpoint, through to databases suitable for cancer researchers of all backgrounds, to very specific sites dedicated to individual genes or molecules. A simple search for ‘cancer’ from a typical Web browser search engine yields more than half a million hits; an even more specific search for ‘leukaemia’ (>40 000 hits or ‘p53’ (>5700 hits yields far too many hits to allow one to identify particular sites of interest. This review aims to provide a brief guide to some of the resources and databases that can be used as springboards to home in rapidly on information relevant to many fields of cancer research. As such, this article will not focus on a single website but hopes to illustrate some of the ways that postgenomic biology is revolutionizing cancer research. It will cover genomics and proteomics approaches that have been applied to studying global expression patterns in cancers, in addition to providing links ranging from general information about cancer to specific cancer gene mutation databases.

  6. Dairy products and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Johanna W

    2011-10-01

    Cancer is a group of more than 100 diseases in which cells display uncontrolled growth, invasion, and sometimes metastasis. Milk and dairy products contain micronutrients and several bioactive constituents that may influence cancer risk and progression. Much of the focus of human, population-based studies has been on the effects of intake of milk and total dairy products or of calcium intake. Based on a systematic review of the epidemiologic literature, the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research report concluded there was a probable association between milk intake and lower risk of colorectal cancer, a probable association between diets high in calcium and increased risk of prostate cancer, and limited evidence of an association between milk intake and lower risk of bladder cancer. For other cancers, the evidence was mixed or lacking. Since the 2007 report, several additional, large-cohort studies have been published, including two that show an inverse association between intake of cultured dairy products and bladder cancer. Little is known about the potential effect of various bioactives produced during rumen microbe metabolism on cancer risk. Furthermore, studies support a role of live microbes present in some dairy products in the modulation of the human gut microbial community and gut metabolism. Given the growing appreciation for the role of the gut microbial community in relation to immune function and health and disease, including cancer, the potential role of various dairy products in the modulation of the human gut microbiome warrants further evaluation. Key teaching points: As a dietary exposure, dairy products are a complex group of foods and composition varies by region, which makes evaluation of their association with disease risk difficult. For most cancers, associations between cancer risk and intake of milk and dairy products have been examined only in a small number of cohort studies, and data are inconsistent or

  7. Global cancer research initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R Love

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Richard R LoveThe Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Cancer is an increasing problem for low- and middle-income countries undergoing an epidemiologic transition from dominantly acute communicable disease to more frequent chronic disease with increased public health successes in the former domain. Progress against cancer in high-income countries has been modest and has come at enormous expense. There are several well-conceived global policy and planning initiatives which, with adequate political will, can favorably impact the growing global cancer challenges. Most financial resources for cancer, however, are spent on diagnosis and management of patients with disease in circumstances where specific knowledge about effective approaches is significantly limited, and the majority of interventions, other than surgery, are not cost-effective in resource-limited countries by global standards. In summary, how to intervene effectively on a global scale for the majority of citizens who develop cancer is poorly defined. In contrast to technology-transfer approaches, markedly increased clinical research activities are more likely to benefit cancer sufferers. In these contexts, a global cancer research initiative is proposed, and mechanisms for realizing such an effort are suggested.Keywords: breast cancer, research, global, international, low-income, middle-income

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Report (RPPR) Grant Closeout Grant Resources NCI Grants Management Legal Requirements NCI Grant Policies Grants Management Contacts Training Cancer Training at NCI Funding for ...

  9. Early bile duct cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jae Myung Cha; Myung-Hwan Kim; Se Jin Jang

    2007-01-01

    Bile duct cancers are frequently diagnosed as advanced diseases. Over half of patients with advanced bile duct cancer present with unresectable malignancies and their prognosis has been very poor even after curative resections. Although there has been a need to diagnose bile duct cancer at its early stage, it has been a difficult goal to achieve due to our lack of knowledge regarding this disease entity. Early bile duct cancer may be defined as a carcinoma whose invasion is confined within the fibromuscular layer of the extrahepatic bile duct or intrahepatic large bile duct without distant metastasis irrespective of lymph node involvement. Approximately 3%-10% of resected bile duct cancers have been reported to be early cancers in the literature. The clinicopathological features of patients with early bile duct cancer differ from those of patients with advanced bile duct cancer, with more frequent asymptomatic presentation, characteristic histopathological findings,and excellent prognosis. This manuscript is organized to emphasize the need for convening an international consensus to develop the concept of early bile duct cancer.

  10. Met in Urological Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Yasuyoshi, E-mail: int.doc.miya@m3.dion.ne.jp; Asai, Akihiro; Mitsunari, Kensuke; Matsuo, Tomohiro; Ohba, Kojiro; Mochizuki, Yasushi; Sakai, Hideki [Department of Urology, Nagasaki University Hospital, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8501 (Japan)

    2014-12-16

    Met is a tyrosine kinase receptor that is considered to be a proto-oncogene. The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-Met signaling system plays an important role in tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis in many types of malignancies. Furthermore, Met expression has been reported to be a useful predictive biomarker for disease progression and patient survival in these malignancies. Many studies have focused on the clinical significance and prognostic role of Met in urological cancers, including prostate cancer (PCa), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and urothelial cancer. Several preclinical studies and clinical trials are in progress. In this review, the current understanding of the pathological role of Met in cancer cell lines, its clinical significance in cancer tissues, and its predictive value in patients with urological cancers are summarized. In particular, Met-related malignant behavior in castration-resistant PCa and the different pathological roles Met plays in papillary RCC and other histological types of RCC are the subjects of focus. In addition, the pathological significance of phosphorylated Met in these cancers is shown. In recent years, Met has been recognized as a potential therapeutic target in various types of cancer; therapeutic strategies used by Met-targeted agents in urological cancers are summarized in this review.

  11. CCL21 Cancer Immunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yuan, E-mail: yuanlin@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Head and Neck Cancer Program, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Clinical and Translational Science Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 37-131 CHS, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Sharma, Sherven [Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Clinical and Translational Science Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 37-131 CHS, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Veterans’ Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, CA 90073 (United States); John, Maie St. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Head and Neck Cancer Program, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Clinical and Translational Science Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    Cancer, a major health problem, affects 12 million people worldwide every year. With surgery and chemo-radiation the long term survival rate for the majority of cancer patients is dismal. Thus novel treatments are urgently needed. Immunotherapy, the harnessing of the immune system to destroy cancer cells is an attractive option with potential for long term anti-tumor benefit. Cytokines are biological response modifiers that stimulate anti-tumor immune responses. In this review, we discuss the anti-tumor efficacy of the chemotactic cytokine CCL21 and its pre-clinical and clinical application in cancer.

  12. Endometrial Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk of endometrial cancer: Endometrial hyperplasia Estrogen Tamoxifen Obesity, weight gain, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes Genetic factors The following protective factors decrease the risk of ...

  13. Exercise in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajarajeswaran P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise has attracted increased interest in rehabilitation of oncological patients. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature and summarize the evidence of physical exercise in preventing cancer, its ability in attenuating the effect of cancer and its treatments and to provide guidelines for exercise prescription Review of recent literature by electronic search of MEDline (Pub Med, Cancer lit, Cochrane libraries, CINAHL were done using Keywords and the variables were identified and systematically evaluated. There is strong evidence for reduced risk of colorectal and breast cancer with possible association for prostate, endometrial and lung cancer with increasing physical activity. Exercise helps cancer survivors cope with and recover from treatment; exercise may improve the health of long term cancer survivors and extend survival. Physical exercise will benefit throughout the spectrum of cancer. However, an understanding of the amount, type and intensity of exercise needed has not been fully elucidated. There is sufficient evidence to promote exercise in cancer survivors following careful assessment and tailoring on exercise prescription.

  14. Coal, oil and cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steingraber, Sandra

    2011-09-15

    The author believes contaminants in our external environment play a significant role in causing cancer in humans and the cumulative impact of exposure to chemical carcinogens over a lifetime has also to be considered. An efficient method to prevent cancer is to restrict the presence of chemical carcinogens not only indoor, but also in outdoor, environments. Due to collective efforts to reduce tobacco use, lung cancer rates are falling in the USA. Most chemical carcinogens are derived from coal and petroleum, so finding substitutes for these two substances is the right way to proceed in cancer prevention efforts, the author states.

  15. Cancer and orofacial pain

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer pain is a devastating condition. Pain in the orofacial region, may be present as the single symptom of cancer or as a symptom of cancer in its later stages. This manuscript revises in a comprehensive manner the content of the conference entitled “Orofacial Pain and Cancer” (Dolor Orofacial y Cancer) given at the VI Simposio International “Advances in Oral Cancer” on the 22 July, 2016 in Donostia. Material and Methods We have reviewed (pubmed-medline) from the most relevant l...

  16. Basal stamcellebiologi og cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porse, Bo T; Petersen, Ole W; Helin, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    The finding that tumours, like normal tissues, are endowed with varying degrees of cellular heterogeneity has far-reaching consequences for our understanding of cancer. The cancer stem cell and clonal evolution models have both been proposed to explain tumour-associated cellular heterogeneity. Here......, we briefly review these two non-exclusive models with special emphasis on how they aid our understanding of cancer and their implications for therapeutic strategies. Finally, we discuss the close association between basic stem cell biology and cancer, focusing on the role of self-renewal....

  17. Prostate Cancer and Sexual Function

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun, Jae Saog

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer is now ranked fifth in incidence among cancers in Korean adult males. This is attributable to the more Westernized dietary style which increases the morbidity of prostate cancer and the development of cancer diagnostic technologies, such as prostate-specific antigen and advanced medical systems, increasing the rate of prostate cancer diagnosis. Prostate cancer effects include not only erectile dysfunction caused by the disease itself, but also by psychiatric disorders caused b...

  18. Breast Cancer Center Support Grant

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    also occur with increased frequency in gene carriers, such prostate cancer. First-degree relatives of individuals with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation have...Tumor M 36 Asian Prostate Cancer M 52 Caucasian Ovarian Cancer F 56 Caucasian Cervical Cancer F 43 Caucasian Breast Cancer F 45 Caucasian Cancer of...address transportation barriers, alternate mechanisms were put in place for provision of parking and taxi vouchers. It was expected that many of the women

  19. Biology of cancer and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, F F; Wilson, J; Blesch, K S; Kaesberg, P R; Miller, R; Sprott, R

    1991-12-01

    The greatest risk factor for cancer is aging. Human cancer incidence increases exponentially with advancing age. Cancer growth rate and potential for metastatic spread may be influenced by age-specific change in host response. Because cancer and aging are, thus, inextricably linked, the American Cancer Society should encourage submission of research proposals that address the mechanisms of aging and how aging alters cancer development.

  20. Signs and Symptoms of Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Signs and Symptoms of Thyroid Cancer Thyroid cancer can cause any of the following ... Health Care Team About Thyroid Cancer? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  1. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... personal stories from colon cancer survivors. Colon Cancer Prevention & Risk Reduction Play Play Colorectal Cancer: A Resource ... Cancer About Colorectal Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treatment After Treatment ...

  2. Surgery for Bile Duct (Cholangiocarcinoma) Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Situation Bile Duct Cancer Treating Bile Duct Cancer Surgery for Bile Duct Cancer There are 2 general ... also help plan the operation to remove it. Surgery for resectable cancers For resectable cancers, the type ...

  3. Can Thymus Cancer Be Found Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thymus Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Can Thymus Cancer Be Found Early? Screening is testing for ... Ask Your Doctor About Thymus Cancer? More In Thymus Cancer About Thymus Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  4. Can Ovarian Cancer Be Found Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ovarian Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Can Ovarian Cancer Be Found Early? About 20% of ovarian cancers ... cancer in its earliest stage. Ways to find ovarian cancer early Regular women's health exams During a pelvic ...

  5. Autophagy, Metabolism, and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Eileen; Mehnert, Janice M; Chan, Chang S

    2015-11-15

    Macroautophagy (autophagy hereafter) captures intracellular proteins and organelles and degrades them in lysosomes. The degradation breakdown products are released from lysosomes and recycled into metabolic and biosynthetic pathways. Basal autophagy provides protein and organelle quality control by eliminating damaged cellular components. Starvation-induced autophagy recycles intracellular components into metabolic pathways to sustain mitochondrial metabolic function and energy homeostasis. Recycling by autophagy is essential for yeast and mammals to survive starvation through intracellular nutrient scavenging. Autophagy suppresses degenerative diseases and has a context-dependent role in cancer. In some models, cancer initiation is suppressed by autophagy. By preventing the toxic accumulation of damaged protein and organelles, particularly mitochondria, autophagy limits oxidative stress, chronic tissue damage, and oncogenic signaling, which suppresses cancer initiation. This suggests a role for autophagy stimulation in cancer prevention, although the role of autophagy in the suppression of human cancer is unclear. In contrast, some cancers induce autophagy and are dependent on autophagy for survival. Much in the way that autophagy promotes survival in starvation, cancers can use autophagy-mediated recycling to maintain mitochondrial function and energy homeostasis to meet the elevated metabolic demand of growth and proliferation. Thus, autophagy inhibition may be beneficial for cancer therapy. Moreover, tumors are more autophagy-dependent than normal tissues, suggesting that there is a therapeutic window. Despite these insights, many important unanswered questions remain about the exact mechanisms of autophagy-mediated cancer suppression and promotion, how relevant these observations are to humans, and whether the autophagy pathway can be modulated therapeutically in cancer. See all articles in this CCR Focus section, "Cell Death and Cancer Therapy."

  6. Staging of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Montironi, Rodolfo; Bostwick, David G; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Berney, Daniel M

    2012-01-01

    Prostatic carcinoma (PCa) is a significant cause of cancer morbidity and mortality worldwide. Accurate staging is critical for prognosis assessment and treatment planning for PCa. Despite the large volume of clinical activity and research, the challenge to define the most appropriate and clinically relevant staging system remains. The pathologically complex and uncertain clinical course of prostate cancer further complicates the design of staging classification and a substaging system suitable for individualized care. This review will focus on recent progress and controversial issues related to prostate cancer staging. The 2010 revision of the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (AJCC/UICC) tumour, node and metastasis (TNM) system is the most widely used staging system at this time. Despite general acceptance of the system as a whole, there is controversy and uncertainty about its application, particularly for T2 subclassification. The three-tiered T2 classification system for organ-confined prostate cancer is superfluous, considering the biology and anatomy of PCa. A tumour size-based substaging system may be considered in the future TNM subclassification of pT2 cancer. Lymph node status is one of the most important prognostic factors for prostate cancer. Nevertheless, clinical outcomes in patients with positive lymph nodes are variable. Identification of patients at the greatest risk of systemic progression helps in the selection of appropriate therapy. The data suggest that the inherent aggressiveness of metastatic prostate cancer is closely linked to the tumour volume of lymph node metastasis. We recommend that a future TNM staging system should consider subclassification of node-positive cancer on the basis of nodal cancer volume, using the diameter of the largest nodal metastasis and/or the number of positive nodes.

  7. Breast cancer statistics, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol; Siegel, Rebecca; Bandi, Priti; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including trends in incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 230,480 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 39,520 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2011. Breast cancer incidence rates were stable among all racial/ethnic groups from 2004 to 2008. Breast cancer death rates have been declining since the early 1990s for all women except American Indians/Alaska Natives, among whom rates have remained stable. Disparities in breast cancer death rates are evident by state, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity. While significant declines in mortality rates were observed for 36 states and the District of Columbia over the past 10 years, rates for 14 states remained level. Analyses by county-level poverty rates showed that the decrease in mortality rates began later and was slower among women residing in poor areas. As a result, the highest breast cancer death rates shifted from the affluent areas to the poor areas in the early 1990s. Screening rates continue to be lower in poor women compared with non-poor women, despite much progress in increasing mammography utilization. In 2008, 51.4% of poor women had undergone a screening mammogram in the past 2 years compared with 72.8% of non-poor women. Encouraging patients aged 40 years and older to have annual mammography and a clinical breast examination is the single most important step that clinicians can take to reduce suffering and death from breast cancer. Clinicians should also ensure that patients at high risk of breast cancer are identified and offered appropriate screening and follow-up. Continued progress in the control of breast cancer will require sustained and increased efforts to provide high-quality screening, diagnosis, and treatment to all segments of the population.

  8. Living with Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... right is especially important if you are undergoing cancer therapy. Many foods can be beneficial; for example, nutritionists recommend eating ... federal and state laws affect you as a cancer patient. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is empowered and governed by ...

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cancer’s grade, which refers to how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope. Grade provides clues about ... to grow and spread. Certain traits of the cancer cells Your age and how healthy you were before ...

  10. Cancer immunotherapy targeting neoantigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yong-Chen; Robbins, Paul F

    2016-02-01

    Neoantigens are antigens encoded by tumor-specific mutated genes. Studies in the past few years have suggested a key role for neoantigens in cancer immunotherapy. Here we review the discoveries of neoantigens in the past two decades and the current advances in neoantigen identification. We also discuss the potential benefits and obstacles to the development of effective cancer immunotherapies targeting neoantigens.

  11. BREAST CANCER AND EXERCISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-19

    Prevent Osteoporosis and Osteoporotic Fractures; Improve Quality of Life; Improve Weight Control, and Muscular and Cardiovascular Fitness; Help the Patients to Return to Working Life; Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence; Prevent Other Diseases and Reduce All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Primary Breast Cancer.

  12. Management of vulvar cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hullu, J. A.; van der Avoort, I. A. M.; Oonk, M. H. M.; van der Zee, A. G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Aim The radical surgical approach in the treatment of vulvar cancer patients has led to a favorable prognosis for the majority of the patients with early stage squamous cell cancer. However, the morbidity is impressive, leading to more individualized treatment. The aim of this review is to give an o

  13. Management of vulvar cancers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hullu, J.A. de; Avoort, I.A.M. van der; Oonk, M.H.; Zee, A.G. van der

    2006-01-01

    AIM: The radical surgical approach in the treatment of vulvar cancer patients has led to a favorable prognosis for the majority of the patients with early stage squamous cell cancer. However, the morbidity is impressive, leading to more individualized treatment. The aim of this review is to give an

  14. HIV Excess Cancers JNCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010, an estimated 7,760 new cancers were diagnosed among the nearly 900,000 Americans known to be living with HIV infection. According to the first comprehensive study in the United States, approximately half of these cancers were in excess of what wo

  15. Nanoparticles in Cancer Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Bakhshayeshkaram

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary field as a combination of engineering, biology and medicine. It manipulates atoms and molecules to create devices at atomic, molecular and supramolecular levels for potential clinical use. Cancer nanotechnology as the latest trend in cancer diagnosis and treatment has provided nanoscale tools like biosensors, dendrimers, quantum dots and magnetic nanoparticles such as iron oxide with unique optical, magnetic and electronic properties. They are 100 to 1,000-fold smaller than cancer cells and may be conjugated with several functional molecules like imaging probes, specific ligands and antibodies. The capability of transferring through leaky blood vessels, passive and active targeting, intracellular delivery and subcellular localization has made them dual-purpose and multifunctional probes in cancer. Conventional imaging techniques such as CT and MRI using nontargeted contrast agents have limitations in early and accurate diagnosis and monitoring of treatment that may be eventually removed through the use of nanostructures' properties."nCancer diagnosis in an early stage, which influences the patient's survival, is possible earlier than ever imaginable. For example in contrast to mammography, which can detect breast cancer when it has at least 1000,000 cells, these new tools can accurately detect the tumor when it has less than 100 cells. "nThis article is a review on applications of nanotechnology, as a rapidly growing field for cancer imaging in medicine contributing to the early detection of cancer cells through available imaging techniques.

  16. Immunotherapy for Lung Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yi Ho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Although treatment methods in surgery, irradiation, and chemotherapy have improved, prognosis remains unsatisfactory and developing new therapeutic strategies is still an urgent demand. Immunotherapy is a novel therapeutic approach wherein activated immune cells can specifically kill tumor cells by recognition of tumor-associated antigens without damage to normal cells. Several lung cancer vaccines have demonstrated prolonged survival time in phase II and phase III trials, and several clinical trials are under investigation. However, many clinical trials involving cancer vaccination with defined tumor antigens work in only a small number of patients. Cancer immunotherapy is not completely effective in eradicating tumor cells because tumor cells escape from host immune scrutiny. Understanding of the mechanism of immune evasion regulated by tumor cells is required for the development of more effective immunotherapeutic approaches against lung cancer. This paper discusses the identification of tumor antigens in lung cancer, tumor immune escape mechanisms, and clinical vaccine trials in lung cancer.

  17. Global Cancer Humanitarian Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat Garcia-Gonzalez of the Max Foundation accepted the first annual NCI Global Cancer Medicine Humanitarian Award for her work in chronic myeloid leukemia at the NCI, Center for Global Health Symposium for Global Cancer Research, held in Boston on March 25, 2015.

  18. HPV and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D, Corry J, Rischin D. What is the best treatment for patients with human papillomavirus-positive and -negative oropharyngeal cancer? Cancer 2014; 120(10):1462-1470. [PubMed Abstract] Shi R, Devarakonda S, Liu L, Taylor H, Mills G. Factors associated with genital human ...

  19. Lung Cancer Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Lindsey A; Siegel, Rebecca L; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among both men and women in the United States. It is also the leading cause of cancer death among men and the second leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. Lung cancer rates and trends vary substantially by sex, age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and geography because of differences in historical smoking patterns. Lung cancer mortality rates in the United States are highest among males, blacks, people of lower socioeconomic status, and in the mid-South (e.g., Kentucky, Mississippi, Arkansas, and Tennessee). Globally, rates are highest in countries where smoking uptake began earliest, such as those in North America and Europe. Although rates are now decreasing in most of these countries (e.g., United States, United Kingdom, Australia), especially in men, they are increasing in countries where smoking uptake occurred later. Low- and middle-income countries now account for more than 50% of lung cancer deaths each year. This chapter reviews lung cancer incidence and mortality patterns in the United States and globally.

  20. Pancreatic Cancer: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabar, Cinthya S; Winter, Jordan M

    2016-09-01

    Pancreatic cancer is now the third leading cause of cancer related deaths in the United States, yet advances in treatment options have been minimal over the past decade. In this review, we summarize the evaluation and treatments for this disease. We highlight molecular advances that hopefully will soon translate into improved outcomes.

  1. Immunotherapy for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... immune-system . Accessed August 5, 2016. Pardoll D. Cancer Immunology. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2014:chap ... Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review provided by ...

  2. Biological Therapies for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medicine 2009;7:11. [PubMed Abstract] Pardoll D. Cancer immunology. In: Abeloff M, Armitage J, Niederhuber J, Kastan ... 363(5):411-422. [PubMed Abstract] Finn OJ. Cancer immunology. New England Journal of Medicine 2008;358(25): ...

  3. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage II Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1650x675 View Download Large: 3300x1350 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage II Description: Three-panel drawing of stage ...

  4. Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1530x1350 View Download Large: 3060x2700 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC Description: Drawing of stage IIIC shows ...

  5. Ovarian Cancer Stage I

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage I Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1650x675 View Download Large: 3300x1350 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage I Description: Three-panel drawing of stage ...

  6. Lung Cancer Survivorship

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-10-20

    A lung cancer survivor shares her story about diagnosis, treatment, and community support. She also gives advice for other cancer survivors.  Created: 10/20/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/20/2016.

  7. Dyspnea during Advanced Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by chemotherapy. Conditions that are not related to cancer: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), such as chronic bronchitis or emphysema . ... depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated. Laser therapy for tumors inside large ... Postradiation bronchiolitis obliterans Steroid ...

  8. Breakthrough cancer pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Andrew; Buchanan, Alison; Zeppetella, Giovambattista;

    2013-01-01

    Breakthrough pain is common in patients with cancer and is a significant cause of morbidity in this group of patients.......Breakthrough pain is common in patients with cancer and is a significant cause of morbidity in this group of patients....

  9. Stages of Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH. Purpose of This Summary This PDQ cancer information summary has current information about the treatment of colon cancer. It is meant to inform and help ...

  10. Cancer incidence among waiters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijula, Jere; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    INCIDENCE IN SOME CANCER SITES CAN LIKELY BE EXPLAINED BY HIGHER ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION, THE PREVALENCE OF SMOKING AND OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO TOBACCO SMOKE HOPEFULLY, THE INCIDENCE OF CANCER AMONG WAITERS WILL DECREASE IN THE FUTURE, DUE TO THE BANNING OF TOBACCO SMOKING IN RESTAURANTS AND BARS IN THE NORDIC...

  11. Diabetes and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Sarah E

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes and cancer are common conditions, affecting 384 million and 33 million people worldwide, respectively. Therefore, there is great potential for overlap, with people with diabetes also developing cancer and vice versa. However, people with diabetes may be at increased risk of developing cancer when compared with the general population. This is due to both shared risk factors associated with the two diseases and the metabolic derangements associated with diabetes, such as hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinaemia and oxidative stress. Glucose-lowering therapies may influence the risk of cancer in people with type 2 diabetes due to these therapies' effects on risk factors that are common to both conditions, including hyperglycaemia and obesity, as well as effects that are specific to the class of drug or drugs. Drugs that reduce circulating insulin levels, such as metformin, may reduce cancer risk, and drugs that increase circulating insulin levels, including exogenous insulin and insulin secretagogues, may increase cancer risk. The influence of glucose-lowering therapies on cancer risk may become an important consideration when selecting glucose-lowering therapies to treat people with type 2 diabetes and a high risk of cancer occurrence or recurrence.

  12. Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not spread to the larynx (voice box); or cancer has spread to the larynx or esophagus and is more than 4 centimeters; ... a common treatment for all stages of hypopharyngeal cancer. The following surgical ... to remove the larynx (voice box) and part of the pharynx (throat). ...

  13. Stages of Hypopharyngeal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not spread to the larynx (voice box); or cancer has spread to the larynx or esophagus and is more than 4 centimeters; ... a common treatment for all stages of hypopharyngeal cancer. The following surgical ... to remove the larynx (voice box) and part of the pharynx (throat). ...

  14. Cancer under graviditeten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Berit Woetmann; Storgaard, Lone; Clausen, Mette Borg

    2015-01-01

    Cancer in pregnancy occurs in about one in 1,000 pregnancies. Recent reports have shown that most treatment regimes in second and third trimester are safe for the mother and the child. This has led to a paradigm shift in treating pregnant women with cancer. The management of the pregnant woman...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Questions to Ask about Your Diagnosis Research Understanding Cancer Prognosis Oncologist Anthony L. Back, M.D., a ... for provider care teams (PDF-210KB). Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis Video View this video on YouTube. Three ...

  16. Breast Cancer In Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    This infographic shows the Breast Cancer Subtypes in Women. It’s important for guiding treatment and predicting survival. Know the Science: HR = Hormone receptor. HR+ means tumor cells have receptors for the hormones estrogen or progesterone, which can promote the growth of HR+ tumors. Hormone therapies like tamoxifen can be used to treat HR+ tumors. HER2 = Human epidermal growth Factor receptor, HER2+ means tumor cells overexpress (make high levels of) a protein, called HE2/neu, which has been shown to be associated with certain aggressive types of breast cancer. Trastuzumab and some other therapies can target cells that overexpress HER2. HR+/HER2, aka “LuminalA”. 73% of all breast cancer cases: best prognosis, most common subtype for every race, age, and poverty level. HR-/HER2, aka “Triple Negative”: 13% of all breast cancer cases, Worst prognosis, Non-Hispanic blacks have the highest rate of this subtype at every age and poverty level. HR+/HER2+, aka “Luminal B”, 10% of all breast cancer cases, little geographic variation by state. HR-/HER2+, aka”HER2-enriched”, 5% of all breast cancer cases, lowest rates for all races and ethnicities. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  17. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2010-01-01

    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized...

  18. Understanding cancer onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veldhuis, Djuke

    2015-01-01

    Researchers in Malaysia analysed the genomes of people with a rare genetic disorder to better understand people’s predisposition to cancer across generations.......Researchers in Malaysia analysed the genomes of people with a rare genetic disorder to better understand people’s predisposition to cancer across generations....

  19. What Is Bladder Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the bladder through a tube called the urethra . Start and spread of bladder cancer The wall of the bladder has several layers, ... called the renal pelvis ), the ureters, and the urethra. Patients with bladder cancer sometimes have other tumors in these places, so ...

  20. Cancer in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Berit Woetmann; Storgaard, Lone; Clausen, Mette Borg

    2015-01-01

    Cancer in pregnancy occurs in about one in 1,000 pregnancies. Recent reports have shown that most treatment regimes in second and third trimester are safe for the mother and the child. This has led to a paradigm shift in treating pregnant women with cancer. The management of the pregnant woman...

  1. At cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Tom; Lillelund, Hans Christian Düring; Andersen, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Challenges exist in identifying, recruiting and motivating sedentary patients with cancer to initiate physical activity towards recommended levels. We hypothesise that the onset period of adjuvant chemotherapy can be 'the open window of opportunity' to identify and motivate sedentary patients...... with breast and colon cancers, at risk for developing coronary heart disease, to initiate and sustain lifestyle changes....

  2. [Role of cancer registries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, P

    1995-05-01

    The first Cancer Registries were created in 1975 in France. Their ulterior development and their scientific production have been furthered by the apparition from 1986 under the aegis of the Health Ministry and of the INSERM, of a National Population Registry Committee. Cancer Registries have seriously contributed to a better knowledge of the cancer problem in our country and to describe the french specificities, in particular the importance of the mouth and pharynx cancers. They insure both a monitoring and an alert role; they also contribute to the medical supervision of the Chernobyl accident effects. French registries play a very active role concerning clinical research. They participate to many European studies of health care evaluation. In other respects, many etiological studies have been realized about professional risks of cancer, risks linked with nutritional habits, and on the etiologic role of the Tamoxifen. Finally, certain registries have created DNA banks. If nowadays their role in health planning remains modest, they very actively contribute in evaluating screening actions of breast, cervix and large bowel cancers. They also attracted the attention of Health Authorities on the cervix cancer screening's incoherencies. They evaluate the pilot project of the breast cancer and the registry of the Côte d'Or country evaluates the efficacity of a randomized colo rectal mass screening study. The main difficulties met by the registries are linked with the development of laws protecting more and more the individual freedoms, making it harder and harder the registration exhaustive character.

  3. Immunotherapy in Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Emily H; Horn, Leora

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer has not traditionally been viewed as an immune-responsive tumor. However, it is becoming evident that tumor-induced immune suppression is vital to malignant progression. Immunotherapies act by enhancing the patient's innate immune response and hold promise for inducing long-term responses in select patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Immune checkpoint inhibitors, in particular, inhibitors to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 (PD-1) and programmed death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1) have shown promise in early studies and are currently in clinical trials in both small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer patients. Two large randomized phase III trials recently demonstrated superior overall survival (OS) in patients treated with anti-PD-1 therapy compared to chemotherapy in the second-line setting.

  4. Arterial hypertension and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Alberto; Puglisi, Elisabetta; Ferrari, Laura; Bruno, Giulia; Losano, Isabel; Veglio, Franco

    2014-05-15

    Arterial hypertension and cancer are two of the most important causes of mortality in the world; correlations between these two clinical entities are complex and various. Cancer therapy using old (e.g., mitotic spindle poisons) as well as new (e.g., monoclonal antibody) drugs may cause arterial hypertension through different mechanisms; sometimes the increase of blood pressure levels may be responsible for chemotherapy withdrawal. Among newer cancer therapies, drugs interacting with the VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factors) pathways are the most frequently involved in hypertension development. However, many retrospective studies have suggested a relationship between antihypertensive treatment and risk of cancer, raising vast public concern. The purposes of this brief review have then been to analyse the role of chemotherapy in the pathogenesis of hypertension, to summarize the general rules of arterial hypertension management in this field and finally to evaluate the effects of antihypertensive therapy on cancer disease.

  5. Cancer Pain Physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Sarah; Bannister, Kirsty; Dickenson, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    reorganization within segments of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord receiving nociceptive input from the bone are discussed. Changes in certain neurotransmitters implicated in brain modulation of spinal function are also altered with implications for the affective components of cancer pain. Treatments......Mechanisms of inflammatory and neuropathic pains have been elucidated and translated to patient care by the use of animal models of these pain states. Cancer pain has lagged behind since early animal models of cancer-induced bone pain were based on the systemic injection of carcinoma cells....... This precluded systematic investigation of specific neuronal and pharmacological alterations that occur in cancer-induced bone pain. In 1999, Schwei et al. described a murine model of cancer-induced bone pain that paralleled the clinical condition in terms of pain development and bone destruction, confined...

  6. Epidemiology of colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Andrew R; Nan, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is currently the third deadliest cancer in the United States and will claim an estimated 49,190 U.S. lives in 2016. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of this disease, based on nationally published statistics and information presented in peer-reviewed journal articles. Specifically, this review will cover the following topics: descriptive epidemiology (including time and disease trends both in the United States and abroad), risk factors (environmental, genetic, and gene-environment interactions), screening, prevention and control, and treatment. Landmark discoveries in colorectal cancer risk factor research will also be presented. Based on the information reviewed for this report, we suggest that future U.S. public health efforts aim to increase colorectal cancer screening among African American communities, and that future worldwide colorectal cancer epidemiology studies should focus on researching nutrient-gene interactions towards the goal of improving personalized treatment and prevention strategies.

  7. Skin Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Durga Rao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available : In recent days, skin cancer is seen as one of the most Hazardous form of the Cancers found in Humans. Skin cancer is found in various types such as Melanoma, Basal and Squamous cell Carcinoma among which Melanoma is the most unpredictable. The detection of Melanoma cancer in early stage can be helpful to cure it. Computer vision can play important role in Medical Image Diagnosis and it has been proved by many existing systems. In this paper, we present a survey on different steps which are being to detect the Melanoma Skin Cancer using Image Processing tools. In every step, what are the different methods are be included in our paper

  8. Targeted cancer therapies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yan; Neal Rosen; Carlos Arteaga

    2011-01-01

    With unprecedented understanding of molecular events underlying human cancer in this genomic era, a large number of drugs specifically targeting hypothesized oncogenic drivers to which tumors are potentially addicted to have been developed and continue to be developed. These targeted cancer therapies are being actively tested in clinical trials with mixed successes. This editorial provides an overview on successful targeted cancer drugs on the market and those drugs that are in late clinical development stages. Importantly, the article lays out main challenges in developing molecular targeted therapies and potential path forward to overcome these challenges, as well as opportunities for China in this new era of targeted agents. The editorial serves as an introduction to the Targeted Cancer Therapies serias that will review in depth of major pathways and drugs targeting these pathways to be published in the coming issues of the Chinese Journal of Cancer.

  9. Cancer immunotherapy with surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orita,Kunzo

    1977-08-01

    Full Text Available With the recent advances in the immunological surveillance system, an understanding of the role of host immunity has become essential to the management of carcinogenesis, tumor proliferation, recurrence and metastasis. Although it is important to continue chemical and surgical treatment of cancer, support of the anti-tumor immune system of the host should also be considered. Long term remission has been reported in leukemia by treating with BCG after chemotherapy whereas surgical treatment is usually more effective in preventing cancer recurrence in digestive organ cancer. The first step is extirpating the tumor as thoroughly as possible and the second step is chemo-immunotherapy. Cancer immunity, however weak, constitutes the basis for other treatments in selectively attacking cancer cells remaining after surgery, chemotherapy or irradiation. Immunotherapy should thus not replace chemotherapy or radiotherapy, but these methods should be employed in combination to attain more favorable results.

  10. Gallstones and colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Torben; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    1992-01-01

    The prevalence of gallstone disease in 145 consecutive patients with colorectal cancer was compared with gallstone prevalence in 4,159 subjects randomly selected from a population. The group of patients had a significantly higher prevalence of gallstone disease than the population (odds ratio = 1.......59; 95 percent confidence limits 1.04-2.45), whereas cholecystectomies occurred with equal frequency in the two groups. There was a nonsignificant trend toward more right-sided cancers in patients with gallstones than in patients without. These results, together with available literature, give...... substantial evidence for an association between gallstones and colorectal cancer, an association which is not due to cholecystectomy being a predisposing factor to colorectal cancer. Sporadic findings of an association between cholecystectomy and colorectal cancer can be explained by the above relationship....

  11. Cancer in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Sileny N; Kesic, Vesna I; Van Calsteren, Kristel

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate physicians' attitudes and knowledge regarding the treatment possibilities for patients with cancer in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: A 30-item questionnaire was mailed electronically to physicians across Europe, who were potentially involved in care of pregnant patients and....../or cancer, using the membership directories of different professional societies. RESULTS: 142 surveys were eligible for analysis. A median of 2 (range 0-100) patients with cancer in pregnancy were treated per center in 2010. The vast majority of respondents (94%) agreed that management of pregnant patients...... with cancer should be decided by a multidisciplinary team. When cancer is diagnosed in the first or early second trimester of pregnancy, 44% of respondents prefer termination of pregnancy: if the patient wishes to preserve the pregnancy, 77% consider deliberate delay and treatment later in pregnancy. When...

  12. Prophylaxis against colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Steffen; Kronborg, O

    1996-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is diagnosed in more than 3000 people every year in Denmark, with a population of 5 million, and 2000 die from this disease every year. The aetiology of the disease is complex, but an increasing number of cancers have been related to genetics and Denmark is contributing...... with a well-established register of familial adenomatous polyposis and a recently founded register for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, both with major international relationships. The Danish tradition of epidemiology and clinical trials has also been demonstrated in population screening trials...... for colorectal cancer in average-risk persons as well as high-risk groups with precursors of the disease. The present review places Danish contributions within the prophylaxis of colorectal cancer during the last decade in an international context....

  13. Liver cancer oncogenomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquardt, Jens U; Andersen, Jesper B

    2015-01-01

    Primary liver cancers are among the most rapidly evolving malignant tumors worldwide. An underlying chronic inflammatory liver disease, which precedes liver cancer development for several decades and frequently creates a pro-oncogenic microenvironment, impairs progress in therapeutic approaches....... Molecular heterogeneity of liver cancer is potentiated by a crosstalk between epithelial tumor and stromal cells that complicate translational efforts to unravel molecular mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis with a drugable intend. Next-generation sequencing has greatly advanced our understanding of cancer...... development. With regards to liver cancer, the unprecedented coverage of next-generation sequencing has created a detailed map of genetic alterations and identified key somatic changes such as CTNNB1 and TP53 as well as several previously unrecognized recurrent disease-causing alterations that could...

  14. Cancer stem cell markers in common cancers - therapeutic implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klonisch, Thomas; Wiechec, Emilia; Hombach-Klonisch, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Rapid advance in the cancer stem cell field warrants optimism for the development of more reliable cancer therapies within the next 2-3 decades. Below, we characterize and compare the specific markers that are present on stem cells, cancer cells and cancer stem cells (CSC) in selected tissues...

  15. Center for Cancer Genomics | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Center for Cancer Genomics (CCG) was established to unify the National Cancer Institute's activities in cancer genomics, with the goal of advancing genomics research and translating findings into the clinic to improve the precise diagnosis and treatment of cancers. In addition to promoting genomic sequencing approach

  16. Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Functional Annotation of Cancer Genomes Principal Investigator: William C. Hahn, M.D., Ph.D. The comprehensive characterization of cancer genomes has and will continue to provide an increasingly complete catalog of genetic alterations in specific cancers. However, most epithelial cancers harbor hundreds of genetic alterations as a consequence of genomic instability. Therefore, the functional consequences of the majority of mutations remain unclear.

  18. Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Prostate and Urologic Cancer Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.