WorldWideScience

Sample records for aya cancers meetingedit

  1. AYAs Are Not Alone: Confronting Psychosocial Challenges of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolescents and young adults with cancer have unique and specific psychosocial needs. Getting support to meet those needs is critical for enabling AYAs to adapt and cope as they navigate the course of their illness and beyond.

  2. Patterns of unmet needs in adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors: in their own words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alex W K; Chang, Ting-Ting; Christopher, Katrina; Lau, Stephen C L; Beaupin, Lynda K; Love, Brad; Lipsey, Kim L; Feuerstein, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Categorization of the needs of AYA cancer survivors is primarily based on quantitative analyses of epidemiological and observational research. The present study classified the phenomenological experiences of AYA survivors based on their own language. A systematic approach for selecting qualitative studies of unmet needs in AYA cancer survivors was used. Following selection based on quality, survivor statements were entered verbatim and thematic analysis was conducted using NVivo qualitative research software. A total of 1993 AYA cancer survivors (post-treatment) were included in 58 studies (78% individual interviews). Mean age was 27.6 with an average of 8.6 years post-primary treatment. The organizational framework reported in this study was based on a heterogeneous group of cancer types. Thirteen themes including symptoms, function, reproductive health, emotional well-being, health management, health care system, social interaction, romantic relationships, cancer disclosure, normalcy, career development and employment, and school and fiscal concerns were identified. Forty-eight subthemes were also identified covering such areas as fertility, integrative health services, advice for cancer disclosure, family interaction, and insurance challenges. Direct analysis of text identified many common unmet needs similarly reported in the quantitative literature. The phenomenological data also provided a breakdown of unmet needs into subthemes or elements of unmet needs. This information can help form the basis for a personalized, valid, and reliable evaluation tool of the range of unmet needs in AYA survivors.

  3. A mutational comparison of adult and adolescent and young adult (AYA) colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricoli, James V; Boardman, Lisa A; Patidar, Rajesh; Sindiri, Sivasish; Jang, Jin S; Walsh, William D; McGregor, Paul M; Camalier, Corinne E; Mehaffey, Michele G; Furman, Wayne L; Bahrami, Armita; Williams, P Mickey; Lih, Chih-Jian; Conley, Barbara A; Khan, Javed

    2018-03-01

    It is possible that the relative lack of progress in treatment outcomes among adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer is caused by a difference in disease biology compared with the corresponding diseases in younger and older individuals. There is evidence that colon cancer is more aggressive and has a poorer prognosis in AYA patients than in older adult patients. To further understand the molecular basis for this difference, whole-exome sequencing was conducted on a cohort of 30 adult, 30 AYA, and 2 pediatric colon cancers. A statistically significant difference in mutational frequency was observed between AYA and adult samples in 43 genes, including ROBO1, MYC binding protein 2 (MYCBP2), breast cancer 2 (early onset) (BRCA2), MAP3K3, MCPH1, RASGRP3, PTCH1, RAD9B, CTNND1, ATM, NF1; KIT, PTEN, and FBXW7. Many of these mutations were nonsynonymous, missense, stop-gain, or frameshift mutations that were damaging. Next, RNA sequencing was performed on a subset of the samples to confirm the mutations identified by exome sequencing. This confirmation study verified the presence of a significantly greater frequency of damaging mutations in AYA compared with adult colon cancers for 5 of the 43 genes (MYCBP2, BRCA2, PHLPP1, TOPORS, and ATR). The current results provide the rationale for a more comprehensive study with a larger sample set and experimental validation of the functional impact of the identified variants along with their contribution to the biologic and clinical characteristics of AYA colon cancer. Cancer 2018;124:1070-82. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  4. Clinical Trials Offer a Path to Better Care for AYAs with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The slow progress against adolescent and young adult cancers is due, in part, to this populations lack of participation in clinical trials. Researchers are testing innovative ways to enroll more AYAs in clinical trials—using expanded access, patient navigation, community outreach, and collaborations between academic and community doctors.

  5. Clinical application of genomic profiling to find druggable targets for adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients with metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Soojin; Lee, Jeongeun; Shin, Jong-Yeon; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Sim, Sung Hoon; Keam, Bhumsuk; Kim, Tae Min; Kim, Dong-Wan; Heo, Dae Seog; Lee, Se-Hoon; Kim, Jong-Il

    2016-01-01

    Although adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancers are characterized by biological features and clinical outcomes distinct from those of other age groups, the molecular profile of AYA cancers has not been well defined. In this study, we analyzed cancer genomes from rare types of metastatic AYA cancers to identify driving and/or druggable genetic alterations. Prospectively collected AYA tumor samples from seven different patients were analyzed using three different genomics platforms (whole-exome sequencing, whole-transcriptome sequencing or OncoScan™). Using well-known bioinformatics tools (bwa, Picard, GATK, MuTect, and Somatic Indel Detector) and our annotation approach with open access databases (DAVID and DGIdb), we processed sequencing data and identified driving genetic alterations and their druggability. The mutation frequencies of AYA cancers were lower than those of other adult cancers (median = 0.56), except for a germ cell tumor with hypermutation. We identified patient-specific genetic alterations in candidate driving genes: RASA2 and NF1 (prostate cancer), TP53 and CDKN2C (olfactory neuroblastoma), FAT1, NOTCH1, and SMAD4 (head and neck cancer), KRAS (urachal carcinoma), EML4-ALK (lung cancer), and MDM2 and PTEN (liposarcoma). We then suggested potential drugs for each patient according to his or her altered genes and related pathways. By comparing candidate driving genes between AYA cancers and those from all age groups for the same type of cancer, we identified different driving genes in prostate cancer and a germ cell tumor in AYAs compared with all age groups, whereas three common alterations (TP53, FAT1, and NOTCH1) in head and neck cancer were identified in both groups. We identified the patient-specific genetic alterations and druggability of seven rare types of AYA cancers using three genomics platforms. Additionally, genetic alterations in cancers from AYA and those from all age groups varied by cancer type. The online version of this article

  6. Psychosocial outcomes and interventions among cancer survivors diagnosed during adolescence and young adulthood (AYA): a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Marie; McDonnell, Glynnis; DeRosa, Antonio; Schuler, Tammy; Philip, Errol; Peterson, Lisa; Touza, Kaitlin; Jhanwar, Sabrina; Atkinson, Thomas M.; Ford, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A cancer diagnosis during adolescence or young adulthood (AYA; defined as ages 15–39) generates unique medical and psychosocial needs as developmental milestones are simultaneously impacted. Past research highlights that AYAs’ experiences and psychosocial outcomes are different, and more research and attention is needed. We aimed to identify and synthesize literature regarding psychosocial outcomes, unique needs, and existing psychosocial interventions pertaining to individuals diagnosed with cancer exclusively during AYA, and to highlight areas for future research. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE, Cochrane, Web of Science, and PsycINFO (via OVID). Grey literature was searched using key term variations and combinations. Overall, 15,301 records were assessed by two independent reviewers, with 38 studies meeting inclusion criteria. Results Data synthesis of the 38 articles was organized by four main themes based on quality of life and survivorship: physical well-being (7 studies), psychological well-being (8 studies), social well-being (9 studies), and survivorship care (14 studies). The paucity of studies for such broad inclusion criteria highlights that this population is often combined or subsumed under other age groups, missing needs unique to these AYAs. Conclusions AYA cancer survivors’ experiences are nuanced, with interacting variables contributing to post-treatment outcomes. AYAs require age-appropriate and flexible care, informational needs and treatment-related education that foster autonomy for long-term survivorship, as well as improved follow-up care and psychological outcomes. Implications for Cancer Survivors By incorporating these findings into practice, the informational and unmet needs of AYAs can be addressed effectively. Education and programming is lacking specific and general subject matter specific to AYAs, incorporating ranging needs at different treatment stages. PMID

  7. Assessment of psychological distress among Asian adolescents and young adults (AYA) cancer patients using the distress thermometer: a prospective, longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alexandre; Poon, Eileen; Goh, Wei Lin; Gan, Yanxiang; Tan, Chia Jie; Yeo, Kelvin; Chua, Annabelle; Chee, Magdalene; Law, Yi Chye; Somasundaram, Nagavalli; Kanesvaran, Ravindran; Ng, Quan Sing; Tham, Chee Kian; Toh, Chee Keong; Lim, Soon Thye; Tao, Miriam; Tang, Tiffany; Quek, Richard; Farid, Mohamad

    2018-04-11

    Since few studies have investigated whether the Distress Thermometer (DT) in Asian adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients (between 15 and 39 years), we investigated the appropriateness of the DT as a screening tool for psychological symptom burden in these AYA patients and to evaluate AYA patients' distress across a trajectory of three time points longitudinally over a 6-month period. This was a prospective, longitudinal study. Recruited Asian AYA patients were diagnosed with lymphomas, sarcomas, primary brain malignancies, or germ cell tumors. Patients completed the DT, PedsQL Generic Core Scales, and the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist. Data were analyzed using STATA version 15. Approximately half of the patients experienced clinically significant DT distress (distress score ≥ 4) early in their cancer journey with 43.1% patients presenting with distress at time of diagnosis and 47.7% patients 1 month after diagnosis. Among AYA patients > 24 years old, worry (68.3%), insurance/financial issues (61%), treatment decisions (43.9%), work/school issues (41.5%), nervousness (41.5%), and sadness (41.5%) were the top five identified problems. On the other hand, the top five identified problems among AYA ≤ 24 years were worry (54.2%), nervousness (41.7%), bathing/dressing problems (37.5%), work/school issues (33.3%), and fatigue (33.3%). DT scores were significantly associated with certain psychological symptom burden items such as worry (p psychological distress in AYA cancer patients with clinically significant distress being identified in the early phases of the cancer journey.

  8. ENRICH: A promising oncology nurse training program to implement ASCO clinical practice guidelines on fertility for AYA cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadaparampil, Susan T; Gwede, Clement K; Meade, Cathy; Kelvin, Joanne; Reich, Richard R; Reinecke, Joyce; Bowman, Meghan; Sehovic, Ivana; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2016-11-01

    We describe the impact of ENRICH (Educating Nurses about Reproductive Issues in Cancer Healthcare), a web-based communication-skill-building curriculum for oncology nurses regarding AYA fertility and other reproductive health issues. Participants completed an 8-week course that incorporated didactic content, case studies, and interactive learning. Each learner completed a pre- and post-test assessing knowledge and a 6-month follow-up survey assessing learner behaviors and institutional changes. Out of 77 participants, the majority (72%) scored higher on the post-test. Fifty-four participants completed the follow-up survey: 41% reviewed current institutional practices, 20% formed a committee, and 37% gathered patient materials or financial resources (22%). Participants also reported new policies (30%), in-service education (37%), new patient education materials (26%), a patient navigator role (28%), and workplace collaborations with reproductive specialists (46%). ENRICH improved nurses' knowledge and involvement in activities addressing fertility needs of oncology patients. Our study provides a readily accessible model to prepare oncology nurses to integrate American Society of Clinical Oncology guidelines and improve Quality Oncology Practice Initiative measures related to fertility. Nurses will be better prepared to discuss important survivorship issues related to fertility and reproductive health, leading to improved quality of life outcomes for AYAs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Validation of modified forms of the PedsQL generic core scales and cancer module scales for adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer or a blood disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Jane E; King, Madeleine T; Smith, Narelle F

    2009-03-01

    To validate two health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measures, the PedsQL Generic Core and Cancer Module adolescent forms (13-18 years), after modification for 16-25-year-old adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer or a blood disorder. AYA patients and nominated proxies were recruited from three Sydney hospitals. Modified forms were administered by telephone or in clinics/wards. Analyses included correlations, factor analysis, and analysis of variance of known-groups (defined by the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale). Eighty-eight patients and 79 proxies completed questionnaires. Factor structures consistent with those of the unmodified forms confirmed construct validity. Cronbach's alpha ranged 0.81-0.98. Inter-scale correlations were as hypothesized, confirming discriminant validity. Statistically significant differences between groups with mild, moderate, and severe symptoms (P < 0.05) confirmed clinical validity. These modified forms provide reliable and valid measures of HRQOL in AYA with cancer or a blood disorder, suitable for clinical trials, research, and practice.

  10. Unmet Support Service Needs and Health-Related Quality of Life among Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: The AYA HOPE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Wilder Smith

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cancer for adolescents and young adults (AYA differs from younger and older patients; AYA face medical challenges while navigating social and developmental transitions. Research suggests that these patients are under- or inadequately served by current support services, which may affect health-related quality of life (HRQOL.Methods: We examined unmet service needs and HRQOL in the National Cancer Institute’s Adolescent and Young Adult Health Outcomes and Patient Experience (AYA HOPE study, a population-based cohort (n=484, age 15-39, diagnosed with cancer 6-14 months prior, in 2007-2009. Unmet service needs were psychosocial, physical, spiritual, and financial services where respondents endorsed that they needed, but did not receive, a listed service. Linear regression models tested associations between any or specific unmet service needs and HRQOL, adjusting for demographic, medical and health insurance variables.Results: Over one-third of respondents reported at least one unmet service need. The most common were financial (16%, mental health (15%, and support group (14% services. Adjusted models showed that having any unmet service need was associated with worse overall HRQOL, fatigue, physical, emotional, social, and school/work functioning, and mental health (p’s<0.0001. Specific unmet services were related to particular outcomes (e.g., needing pain management was associated with worse overall HRQOL, physical and social functioning (p’s<0.001. Needing mental health services had the strongest associations with worse HRQOL outcomes; needing physical/occupational therapy was most consistently associated with poorer functioning across domains.Discussion: Unmet service needs in AYAs recently diagnosed with cancer are associated with worse HRQOL. Research should examine developmentally appropriate, relevant practices to improve access to services demonstrated to adversely impact HRQOL, particularly physical therapy and mental

  11. Online group-based cognitive-behavioural therapy for adolescents and young adults after cancer treatment: a multicenter randomised controlled trial of Recapture Life-AYA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansom-Daly, Ursula M; Wakefield, Claire E; Bryant, Richard A; Butow, Phyllis; Sawyer, Susan; Patterson, Pandora; Anazodo, Antoinette; Thompson, Kate; Cohn, Richard J

    2012-08-03

    peer and caregiver support in enhancing the effectiveness of this skills-based intervention is also discussed. The innovative videoconferencing delivery method Recapture Life uses has the potential to address the geographic and psychological isolation of adolescents and young adults as they move toward cancer survivorship. It is expected that teaching AYAs coping skills as they resume their normal lives after cancer may have long-term implications for their quality of life. ACTRN12610000717055.

  12. Online group-based cognitive-behavioural therapy for adolescents and young adults after cancer treatment: A multicenter randomised controlled trial of Recapture Life-AYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sansom-Daly Ursula M

    2012-08-01

    -based programs in an online modality are highlighted, and the role of both peer and caregiver support in enhancing the effectiveness of this skills-based intervention is also discussed. The innovative videoconferencing delivery method Recapture Life uses has the potential to address the geographic and psychological isolation of adolescents and young adults as they move toward cancer survivorship. It is expected that teaching AYAs coping skills as they resume their normal lives after cancer may have long-term implications for their quality of life. Trial Registration ACTRN12610000717055

  13. The Description Of 1 Liter Of Tears Written By Aya Kito

    OpenAIRE

    Yendie, Rizka

    2011-01-01

    Tulisan ini membahas arti dari judul novel 1 liter of Tears. Novel ini dibuat berdasarkan diary sang penulis Aya Kito dalam berjuang melawan penyakit yang tidak ada obatnya yaitu Spinocerebellar Ataxia (SCA), penyakit yang menyerang sel-sel penopang sel saraf. Awalnya penderita merasakan tubuhnya melemah. Berangsur-angsur kemampuan motorik penderita menurun. Sampai-sampai Aya-chan mengalami kesulitan menelan makanan, berbicara dan bahkan tersenyum. Aya-chan mulai merasakan gejala penyakit...

  14. Introduction to Adolescent and Young Adult Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer researchers, advocates, and a cancer survivor introduce the topic of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancers, covering distinct aspects of cancer in these patients and research questions to answer.

  15. Threading the cloak: palliative care education for care providers of adolescents and young adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Lori; Weaver, Meaghann Shaw; Bell, Cynthia J; Sansom-Daly, Ursula M

    2015-01-09

    Medical providers are trained to investigate, diagnose, and treat cancer. Their primary goal is to maximize the chances of curing the patient, with less training provided on palliative care concepts and the unique developmental needs inherent in this population. Early, systematic integration of palliative care into standard oncology practice represents a valuable, imperative approach to improving the overall cancer experience for adolescents and young adults (AYAs). The importance of competent, confident, and compassionate providers for AYAs warrants the development of effective educational strategies for teaching AYA palliative care. Just as palliative care should be integrated early in the disease trajectory of AYA patients, palliative care training should be integrated early in professional development of trainees. As the AYA age spectrum represents sequential transitions through developmental stages, trainees experience changes in their learning needs during their progression through sequential phases of training. This article reviews unique epidemiologic, developmental, and psychosocial factors that make the provision of palliative care especially challenging in AYAs. A conceptual framework is provided for AYA palliative care education. Critical instructional strategies including experiential learning, group didactic opportunity, shared learning among care disciplines, bereaved family members as educators, and online learning are reviewed. Educational issues for provider training are addressed from the perspective of the trainer, trainee, and AYA. Goals and objectives for an AYA palliative care cancer rotation are presented. Guidance is also provided on ways to support an AYA's quality of life as end of life nears.

  16. Perceived impact of cancer among adolescents and young adults: Relationship with health-related quality of life and distress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husson, O.; Zebrack, B.J.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether perceptions of the impact of cancer are related to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and psychological distress among survivors of cancer in adolescence and young adulthood (AYA). METHODS: One hundred seventy-three AYA cancer survivors (aged 18-35 and 15-29 years

  17. Remission rate of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (all) in adolescents and young adults (aya)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallacha, A.; Haider, G.; Kumar, D.

    2018-01-01

    To determine the remission rate in adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Study Design:Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study:Department of Oncology, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC), Karachi from January, 2016 to March, 2017. Methodology:Adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients aged 15-39 years, newly diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia from January, 2016 to March, 2017. Diagnosis was confirmed by bone marrow trephine biopsy and immuno-phenotyping. All the patients were treated with daunorubicin, vincristine, prednisone, and L-asparaginase in the induction phase. The response evaluation was done on day 35 of the induction phase and the remission rate was assessed by the bone marrow examination. Results:Of the total 50 AYA patients diagnosed with ALL, 41 patients could complete induction phase and 9 patients died during the first week of induction, therefore excluded from the study. Forty (97.8%) patients were <35years of age, 28 (68.3%) were male, of female 10 (24.4%) were housewives, 33 (80.5%) patients belonged to Sindh, 28 (68.3%) presented with fever and body ache, 17 (41.5%) patients had precursor B cell type ALL, with 7 (17.1%) patients had hemoglobin of <7 g/dL,11 (26.8%) patients had white cell count of >30x10/sup 9//L, platelet count of <20x103/mu L in 6 (14.6%) patients and complete morphological remission was reported in 29 (70.7%) patients. Conclusion:The remission induction rate was 70.7% in the adolescents and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia at the study centre. (author)

  18. Rezension zu: Ruth Ayaß: Kommunikation und Geschlecht. Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer Verlag 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Goll

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Ruth Ayaß gibt in der vorliegenden Einführung einen Überblick über den Forschungsstand und die wesentlichen Diskussionsstränge zum Thema Kommunikation und Geschlecht. Sie zeigt dabei, ob und wie sich männliche von weiblichen Gesprächstilen unterscheiden lassen und wie verschiedene Geschlechter erst interaktiv, nämlich durch kommunikative Prozesse, erzeugt werden. Der Band eignet sich hervorragend als Lehrbuch in soziologischen und sprachwissenschaftlichen Studiengängen, bietet aber auch für die konstruktivistische Genderforschung wichtige Anknüpfungspunkte.

  19. Applying Social Network Analysis to Identify the Social Support Needs of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Patients and Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltai, Kolina; Walsh, Casey; Jones, Barbara; Berkelaar, Brenda L

    2018-04-01

    This article examines how theoretical and clinical applications of social network analysis (SNA) can inform opportunities for innovation and advancement of social support programming for adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients and survivors. SNA can help address potential barriers and challenges to initiating and sustaining AYA peer support by helping to identify the diverse psychosocial needs among individuals in the AYA age range; find strategic ways to support and connect AYAs at different phases of the cancer trajectory with resources and services; and increase awareness of psychosocial resources and referrals from healthcare providers. Network perspectives on homophily, proximity, and evolution provide a foundational basis to explore the utility of SNA in AYA clinical care and research initiatives. The uniqueness of the AYA oncology community can also provide insight into extending and developing current SNA theories. Using SNA in AYA psychosocial cancer research has the potential to create new ideas and pathways for supporting AYAs across the continuum of care, while also extending theories of SNA. SNA may also prove to be a useful tool for examining social support resources for AYAs with various chronic health conditions and other like groups.

  20. Sociodemographic disparities in survival for adolescents and young adults with cancer differ by health insurance status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRouen, Mindy C; Parsons, Helen M; Kent, Erin E; Pollock, Brad H; Keegan, Theresa H M

    2017-08-01

    To investigate associations of sociodemographic factors-race/ethnicity, neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES), and health insurance-with survival for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with invasive cancer. Data on 80,855 AYAs with invasive cancer diagnosed in California 2001-2011 were obtained from the California Cancer Registry. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate overall survival. Associations of public or no insurance with greater risk of death were observed for 11 of 12 AYA cancers examined. Compared to Whites, Blacks experienced greater risk of death, regardless of age or insurance, while greater risk of death among Hispanics and Asians was more apparent for younger AYAs and for those with private/military insurance. More pronounced neighborhood SES disparities in survival were observed among AYAs with private/military insurance, especially among younger AYAs. Lacking or having public insurance was consistently associated with shorter survival, while disparities according to race/ethnicity and neighborhood SES were greater among AYAs with private/military insurance. While health insurance coverage associates with survival, remaining racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities among AYAs with cancer suggest additional social factors also need consideration in intervention and policy development.

  1. Prevalence and impact of severe fatigue in adolescent and young adult cancer patients in comparison with population-based controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poort, Hanneke; Kaal, Suzanne E J; Knoop, Hans; Jansen, Rosemarie; Prins, Judith B; Manten-Horst, Eveliene; Servaes, Petra; Husson, Olga; van der Graaf, Winette T A

    2017-09-01

    The current study determined the prevalence of severe fatigue in adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients (aged 18-35 years at diagnosis) consulting a multidisciplinary AYA team in comparison with gender- and age-matched population-based controls. In addition, impact of severe fatigue on quality of life and correlates of fatigue severity were examined. AYAs with cancer (n = 83) completed questionnaires including the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS-fatigue), Quality of Life (QoL)-Cancer Survivor, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (reflecting psychological distress), and the Cancer Worry Scale (reflecting fear of cancer recurrence or progression). The vast majority of participants had been treated with chemotherapy (87%) and had no active treatment at the time of participation (73.5%). Prevalence of severe fatigue (CIS-fatigue score ≥35) in AYAs with cancer (48%, n = 40/83) was significantly higher in comparison with matched population-based controls (20%, n = 49/249; p fatigued AYAs with cancer reported lower QoL compared to non-severely fatigued AYAs with cancer (p fatigue severity (p fatigue based on a validated cut-off score was highly prevalent in this group of AYAs with cancer. QoL is significantly affected by severe fatigue, stressing the importance of detection and management of this symptom in those patients affected by a life-changing diagnosis of cancer in late adolescence or young adulthood.

  2. Manifestasi Kebutuhan Bertingkat Tokoh Aya Kito Dalam Novel One Liter of Tears Melalui Pendekatan Psikologi Humanistik Abraham Maslow

    OpenAIRE

    RACHMAWATI, DEVI SHINTA

    2013-01-01

    Novel is one of literary fiction exciting and in demand by today's society. Novel One Liter of Tears can be analyzed through a variety of approaches one through the psychological approach, in this case the approach of humanistic psychology of Abraham Maslow. This study answers the formulation of the problem, namely, how the needs of multilevel manifestation Aya character in the novel One Litre of Tears through the approach of humanistic psychology of Abraham Maslow. Analyzed from the humanist...

  3. Weight-Related Correlates of Psychological Dysregulation in Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA) Females with Severe Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowey, Marissa A.; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Becnel, Jennifer; Peugh, James; Mitchell, James E.; Zeller, Meg H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Severe obesity is the fastest growing pediatric subgroup of excess weight levels. Psychological dysregulation (i.e., impairments in regulating cognitive, emotional, and/or behavioral processes) has been associated with obesity and poorer weight loss outcomes. The present study explored associations of dysregulation with weight-related variables among adolescent and young adult (AYA) females with severe obesity. Methods Fifty-four AYA females with severe obesity (MBMI=48.71 kg/m2; Mage=18.29, R=15–21 years; 59.3% White) completed self-report measures of psychological dysregulation and weight-related constructs including meal patterns, problematic eating behaviors, and body and weight dissatisfaction, as non-surgical comparison participants in a multi-site study of adolescent bariatric surgery outcomes. Pearson and bivariate correlations were conducted and stratified by age group to analyze associations between dysregulation subscales (affective, behavioral, cognitive) and weight-related variables. Results Breakfast was the most frequently skipped meal (consumed 3–4 times/week). Eating out was common (4–5 times/week) and mostly occurred at fast-food restaurants. Evening hyperphagia (61.11%) and eating in the absence of hunger (37.04%) were commonly endorsed, while unplanned eating (29.63%), a sense of loss of control over eating (22.22%), eating beyond satiety (22.22%), night eating (12.96%), and binge eating (11.11%) were less common. Almost half of the sample endorsed extreme weight dissatisfaction. Dysregulation was associated with most weight-related attitudes and behaviors of interest in young adults but select patterns emerged for adolescents. Conclusions Higher levels of psychological dysregulation are associated with greater BMI, problematic eating patterns and behaviors, and body dissatisfaction in AYA females with severe obesity. These findings have implications for developing novel intervention strategies for severe obesity in AYAs that may

  4. Information needs of adolescent and young adult cancer patients and their parent-carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Maria C; McNeil, Robyn; Drew, Sarah; Orme, Lisa; Sawyer, Susan M

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to explore health-related information needs of adolescent and young adults (AYAs) and their parent-carers and to examine demographic and clinical variables associated with unmet information needs, including patient activation. In a national cross-sectional study, 196 Australian AYAs diagnosed with cancer between 15 and 25 years and within 24 months of diagnosis and 204 parent-carers reported on total and unmet needs for cancer and health-related information. Fifty-one percent of AYAs were male, 81% had completed treatment and 86% were treated in adult hospitals. AYAs and parents reported high levels of total need for information. The mean number of unmet needs was 5.63 and 6.82 for AYAs and parents, respectively. AYAs reported the highest unmet needs in relation to their cancer (e.g. late effects and cancer recurrence, and having children in the future). The highest unmet parent information needs were related to medical information about their child as well as information on financial issues for their children and themselves. Unmet information need was associated with psychological distress (posttraumatic stress symptoms) for AYAs and parents. Patient activation was negatively associated with unmet information needs for AYAs. Demographic and treatment variables were not significantly associated with information needs. These findings indicate the importance of information needs for AYAs and their carers. The association between patient activation and information needs suggests that promoting young people's engagement with healthcare is a key opportunity within AYA care. Parent information needs and associated emotional distress additionally highlight the importance of family-centered care.

  5. Unmet need for healthcare services in adolescents and young adults with cancer and their parent carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Susan M; McNeil, Robyn; McCarthy, Maria; Orme, Lisa; Thompson, Kate; Drew, Sarah; Dunt, David

    2017-07-01

    Cancer in adolescents in and young adults (AYA) has the potential to disrupt health, well-being and developmental trajectories. This study aimed to describe the healthcare support service needs of AYAs with cancer and parent carers and to explore the association of unmet need and emotional distress. As part of a national Australian survey of 15-25 year olds with cancer and a nominated parent carer, 196 AYAs reported total and unmet need for 10 clinical services and 204 parents reported on their child's and their own healthcare service needs. Proportions of total and unmet need for specific clinical services are reported. The association of unmet service needs and distress (measured using the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist) was also examined. AYAs and parent carers expressed high total need for clinical services during treatment. Leading AYA unmet needs were for an exercise therapist (37%), genetic counsellor (30%), dietitian (26%), peer support group (26%) and educational and vocational advisor (24%). After treatment, AYAs and parents had fewer total needs. However, 60% of AYA and 38% of parents had two or more unmet needs, similar to during treatment. Female gender and receiving treatment in an adult setting were significantly associated with unmet need for clinical services. After treatment, higher distress levels in AYAs and parents were associated with two or more unmet service needs. AYAs and parents had high levels of total and unmet service need, which were associated with greater emotional distress. These results highlight opportunities to re-orientate services to better meet AYA and parent needs.

  6. Recruitment of representative samples for low incidence cancer populations: Do registries deliver?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanson-Fisher Rob

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recruiting large and representative samples of adolescent and young adult (AYA cancer survivors is important for gaining accurate data regarding the prevalence of unmet needs in this population. This study aimed to describe recruitment rates for AYAs recruited through a cancer registry with particular focus on: active clinician consent protocols, reasons for clinicians not providing consent and the representativeness of the final sample. Methods Adolescents and young adults aged 14 to19 years inclusive and listed on the cancer registry from January 1 2002 to December 31 2007 were identified. An active clinician consent protocol was used whereby the registry sent a letter to AYAs primary treating clinicians requesting permission to contact the survivors. The registry then sent survivors who received their clinician's consent a letter seeking permission to forward their contact details to the research team. Consenting AYAs were sent a questionnaire which assessed their unmet needs. Results The overall consent rate for AYAs identified as eligible by the registry was 7.8%. Of the 411 potentially eligible survivors identified, just over half (n = 232, 56% received their clinician's consent to be contacted. Of those 232 AYAs, 65% were unable to be contacted. Only 18 AYAs (7.8% refused permission for their contact details to be passed on to the research team. Of the 64 young people who agreed to be contacted, 50% (n = 32 completed the questionnaire. Conclusions Cancer registries which employ active clinician consent protocols may not be appropriate for recruiting large, representative samples of AYAs diagnosed with cancer. Given that AYA cancer survivors are highly mobile, alternative methods such as treatment centre and clinic based recruitment may need to be considered.

  7. ‘Reaching Out’: international models for transitional care for teenage and young adult cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Weston

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: This article will give an overview of ‘Reaching Out’, a project to identify international models of transitional care for adolescent and young adult (AYA cancer patients. Aims: •\tExplore provision of AYA cancer care in a different cultural context •\tIdentify new models of care for supporting transition between paediatric, AYA and adult care, and between acute and primary care •\tIdentify relevant resources and service designs that could be adapted for use in AYA services in the UK Methods: Three-week observational visit in a range of international healthcare settings. Findings: Similarities and differences between Australian and UK healthcare systems were observed. Models of care using a range of resources, including structured health and wellbeing programmes, were identified to support transitional care. Models of collaborative working across organisations were observed. The implementation of innovative programmes to improve efficiency of services and limit unnecessary impact on patient time and finances were identified, including the use of Skype for collaborative consultations between acute and community healthcare providers. Conclusions: Recommendations to benefit AYA patients with an improved range of supportive, holistic services and improved person-centred care include: •\tJoint AYA nursing posts between AYA centres to support transition •\tStructured AYA post-treatment health and wellbeing programme •\tProgramme of creative wellbeing projects to support transition at the end of treatment Scope use of Skype appointments within the AYA service Implications for practice: Observing service provision and healthcare practice in an international setting provides the opportunity to improve cross-cultural competence, which is essential to culturally competent care. Cross-cultural competence supports the improvement of patient care through experiential learning, sharing of ideas and connecting with others. The

  8. Being Young and Getting Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Cecilie; Petersen, Gitte Stentebjerg; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Cancer is the leading cause of nonaccidental deaths among adolescents and young adults (AYAs). In Denmark, there are substantial gaps in knowledge concerning how AYAs with cancer perceive their diagnostic and therapeutic trajectory and report health-related outcomes. The aim of this study......) “Time before treatment,” (2) “Being told about your illness,” (3) “Being a young patient,” (4) “Your treatment,” (5) “Receiving help living with and after Cancer,” and (6) “How are you feeling today?.” One hundred one items were specifically developed for this study, while 50 were standardized validated...... is to describe the development of a questionnaire targeting AYAs with cancer aiming to evaluate treatment and survivorship from the perspective of the patients. Methods: Identification of themes and development of items included in the questionnaire were based on a synthesis of literature and qualitative...

  9. Weight-related correlates of psychological dysregulation in adolescent and young adult (AYA) females with severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowey, Marissa A; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Becnel, Jennifer; Peugh, James; Mitchell, James E; Zeller, Meg H

    2016-04-01

    Severe obesity is the fastest growing pediatric subgroup of excess weight levels. Psychological dysregulation (i.e., impairments in regulating cognitive, emotional, and/or behavioral processes) has been associated with obesity and poorer weight loss outcomes. The present study explored associations of dysregulation with weight-related variables among adolescent and young adult (AYA) females with severe obesity. Fifty-four AYA females with severe obesity (MBMI = 48.71 kg/m(2); Mage = 18.29, R = 15-21 years; 59.3% White) completed self-report measures of psychological dysregulation and weight-related constructs including meal patterns, problematic eating behaviors, and body and weight dissatisfaction, as non-surgical comparison participants in a multi-site study of adolescent bariatric surgery outcomes. Pearson and bivariate correlations were conducted and stratified by age group to analyze associations between dysregulation subscales (affective, behavioral, cognitive) and weight-related variables. Breakfast was the most frequently skipped meal (consumed 3-4 times/week). Eating out was common (4-5 times/week) and mostly occurred at fast-food restaurants. Evening hyperphagia (61.11%) and eating in the absence of hunger (37.04%) were commonly endorsed, while unplanned eating (29.63%), a sense of loss of control over eating (22.22%), eating beyond satiety (22.22%), night eating (12.96%), and binge eating (11.11%) were less common. Almost half of the sample endorsed extreme weight dissatisfaction. Dysregulation was associated with most weight-related attitudes and behaviors of interest in young adults but select patterns emerged for adolescents. Higher levels of psychological dysregulation are associated with greater BMI, problematic eating patterns and behaviors, and body dissatisfaction in AYA females with severe obesity. These findings have implications for developing novel intervention strategies for severe obesity in AYAs that may have a multidimensional

  10. Disparities in Adolescent and Young Adult Survival After Testicular Cancer Vary by Histologic Subtype: A Population-Based Study in California 1988–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujahid, Mahasin; Srinivas, Sandy; Keegan, Theresa H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Testicular cancer is the most common cancer among adolescent and young adult (AYA) men 15–39 years of age. This study aims to determine whether race/ethnicity and/or neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) contribute independently to survival of AYAs with testicular cancer. Methods: Data on 14,249 eligible AYAs with testicular cancer diagnosed in California between 1988 and 2010 were obtained from the population-based California Cancer Registry. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine overall and testicular cancer-specific survival and survival for the seminoma and nonseminoma histologic subtypes according to race/ethnicity, census-tract level neighborhood SES, and other patient and clinical characteristics. Results: Compared with White AYAs, Hispanic AYAs had worse overall and testicular cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07–1.37) and Black AYAs had worse overall survival (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.01–1.97), independent of neighborhood SES and other demographic and clinical factors. Racial/ethnic disparities in survival were more pronounced for nonseminoma than for seminoma. AYAs residing in middle and low SES neighborhoods experienced worse survival across both histologic subtypes independent of race/ethnicity and other factors, while improvements in survival over time were more pronounced for seminoma. Longer time to treatment was also associated with worse survival, particularly for AYAs with nonseminoma. Conclusion: Among AYAs, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood SES are independently associated with survival after testicular cancer. Variation in disparities by histologic type according to demographic factors, year of diagnosis, and time to treatment may reflect differences in prognosis and extent of treatment for the two histologies. PMID:26812451

  11. Disparities in Adolescent and Young Adult Survival After Testicular Cancer Vary by Histologic Subtype: A Population-Based Study in California 1988-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRouen, Mindy C; Mujahid, Mahasin; Srinivas, Sandy; Keegan, Theresa H M

    2016-03-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common cancer among adolescent and young adult (AYA) men 15-39 years of age. This study aims to determine whether race/ethnicity and/or neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) contribute independently to survival of AYAs with testicular cancer. Data on 14,249 eligible AYAs with testicular cancer diagnosed in California between 1988 and 2010 were obtained from the population-based California Cancer Registry. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine overall and testicular cancer-specific survival and survival for the seminoma and nonseminoma histologic subtypes according to race/ethnicity, census-tract level neighborhood SES, and other patient and clinical characteristics. Compared with White AYAs, Hispanic AYAs had worse overall and testicular cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.37) and Black AYAs had worse overall survival (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.01-1.97), independent of neighborhood SES and other demographic and clinical factors. Racial/ethnic disparities in survival were more pronounced for nonseminoma than for seminoma. AYAs residing in middle and low SES neighborhoods experienced worse survival across both histologic subtypes independent of race/ethnicity and other factors, while improvements in survival over time were more pronounced for seminoma. Longer time to treatment was also associated with worse survival, particularly for AYAs with nonseminoma. Among AYAs, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood SES are independently associated with survival after testicular cancer. Variation in disparities by histologic type according to demographic factors, year of diagnosis, and time to treatment may reflect differences in prognosis and extent of treatment for the two histologies.

  12. PROVIDING AFFORDABLE HIGHER EDUCATION TO RURAL GIRLS IN INDIAN PUNJAB: A CASE STUDY OF BABA AYA SINGH RIARKI COLLEGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RANJIT SINGH GHUMAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights a case study of a rural girls college located in a remote village of Gurdaspur district in Indian Punjab. The idea of this unique college was conceptualised by one Baba Aya Singh, a social and religious activist, from a village near the college way back in 1925. It was really a revolutionary idea because female education in India, particularly higher education, was a distant dream at that time. The college was, however, started with only 14 rural girls after about half-a-century when the great visionary Baba Aya Singh had a dream to educate the rural girls. Access to and affordability of higher education is the uniqueness of this college. The student has to pay only Rs. 5800 (about US $ 65 per annum, which includes both the tuition fee and boarding and lodging. It is equally significant to note that the entire expenses of the college are met by this and the produce of agricultural land of the college. The college does not take any outside help. The meritorious senior class students teach the junior class students. The college in its own humble, but significant, way made a revolutionary contribution to the education of poor rural girls who, otherwise, would not have dreamt of college education. Apart from, class-room teaching and bookish knowledge, the students are taught social, ethical and management skills in a most natural manner. The product of the college has proved to be the agents of change and rural transformation.

  13. Initial Evaluation of an Electronic Symptom Diary for Adolescents with Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Baggott, C; Gibson, F; Coll, B; Kletter, R; Zeltzer, P; Miaskowski, C

    2012-01-01

    Background: The delivery of optimal care depends on accurate communication between patients and clinicians regarding untoward symptoms. Documentation of patients’ symptoms necessitates reliance on memory, which is often imprecise. We developed an electronic diary (eDiary) for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer to record symptoms. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to describe the utility of an eDiary designed for AYAs with cancer, including dependability of the mobile applic...

  14. [Usefulness of social and educational approach in adolescents and young adults with cancer: The Lille team's experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquot, Julie; Delbarre-Philippart, Marie; Bricout, Hélène; Lervat, Cyril; Carbonnelle, Guillaume; Leblond, Pierre; Defachelles, Anne-Sophie; Penel, Nicolas; Sudour-Bonnange, Hélène

    2016-12-01

    Within the second "Cancer plan" 2009-2013, the French national institute of cancer (INCa) recommended the implementation of programs dedicated to adolescents and youngs adults (AYA) with cancer. In this context and in parallel to the specific medical care developed for AYA, the Oscar-Lambret center created a psycho-social-educational team including among others a social worker (SW) and a special educational teacher (SET), offering multidisciplinary qualifications and views. The social approach, realized as a pair by SW-SET, takes into account every aspect of each AYA (family, academic, career/professional, personal, cultural aspects…). We expose the first 2 years' experience of this special program for AYA through diagnosis to remission time. For this period, 164 AYA were seen by the social professionals, with a total of 602 consultations in the unit. The number of these consultations depended on the needs of AYA and their family. Nevertheless, only 10 AYA required no further intervention (6.1 %). The study highlights that the social interventions are most frequently about scolarity, work and disability recognition. These 2 years of experience of the SW-SET team offered a way to reflect upon our values and our culture, and on the role of the social worker in a medical setting. Each AYA has a personal story, which affects significantly the way to overcome the challenges that come with the disease. Our findings underscore the need for AYA with cancer to have access to personalized supportive care, encouraging them in pursing their personal goals and rewarding themselves. Copyright © 2016 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Parental perspectives on a behavioral health music intervention for adolescent/young adult resilience during cancer treatment: report from the children's oncology group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Sharron L; Robb, Sheri L; Phillips-Salimi, Celeste; Cherven, Brooke; Stegenga, Kristin; Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna; Roll, Lona; Donovan Stickler, Molly; Haase, Joan

    2013-02-01

    This article describes parental perspectives on the helpfulness and meaningfulness of a behavioral health music therapy intervention targeted to adolescents/young adults (AYA) with cancer undergoing stem cell transplantation. We demonstrate how qualitative methods may be used to understand critical aspects of an intervention and mechanisms by which the intervention impacts the target AYA outcomes of resilience and quality of life. A qualitative descriptive design was used to obtain parents' perspectives. A maximum-variation purposive sampling technique was used to sample 16 parents whose AYA had been randomized to the intervention group. A semistructured open-ended interview was conducted between 100 and 160 days after the AYA's transplant. Results were grouped into three categories: (1) helpfulness and meaningfulness of the intervention to AYA adjustment to the transplantation experience; (2) helpfulness and meaningfulness of the intervention for parents; and (3) AYA ability to participate in the intervention during the acute phase of transplant. Parents observed and interacted with their AYA who participated in a targeted behavioral intervention. Thus, parents were able to describe mechanisms through which the intervention was helpful and meaningful for the AYA and indirect personal benefits for themselves. The results suggest the importance of the targeted outcomes identified in the Resilience in Illness Model and mechanisms of action in the Contextual Support Model of Music Therapy, and identify approaches for future study. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Doctor and Hospital View this video on YouTube. Experts in the field of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancers and cancer survivors answer the ... trials. Fertility Preservation Options View this video on YouTube. ... on fertility is a special concern for young cancer patients. It is important to talk with ...

  17. Oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum strain AYA enhances IgA secretion and provides survival protection against influenza virus infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Kikuchi

    Full Text Available The mucosal immune system provides the first line of defense against inhaled and ingested pathogenic microbacteria and viruses. This defense system, to a large extent, is mediated by the actions of secretory IgA. In this study, we screened 140 strains of lactic acid bacteria for induction of IgA production by murine Peyer's patch cells. We selected one strain and named it Lactobacillus plantarum AYA. We found that L. plantarum AYA-induced production of IL-6 in Peyer's patch dendritic cells, with this production promoting IgA(+ B cells to differentiate into IgA-secreting plasma cells. We also observed that oral administration of L. plantarum AYA in mice caused an increase in IgA production in the small intestine and lung. This production of IgA correlated strongly with protective ability, with the treated mice surviving longer than the control mice after lethal influenza virus infection. Our data therefore reveals a novel immunoregulatory role of the L. plantarum AYA strain which enhances mucosal IgA production and provides protection against respiratory influenza virus infection.

  18. Contributors and Inhibitors of Resilience Among Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi-Frazier, Joyce P.; Wharton, Claire; Gordon, Karen; Jones, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Self-perceived resilience may enable coping and mitigate poor psychosocial outcomes among adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer. In order to inform the development of resilience-promoting interventions, we aimed to: (1) describe AYA patient-reported resilience and (2) identify AYA patient-reported contributors and inhibitors of resilience. Methods: The “Resilience in Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer” study was a prospective longitudinal mixed-methods study. Consecutive Caucasian patients aged 14–25 years old enrolled 14–60 days following their diagnosis of cancer and completed one-on-one semi-structured interviews both at the time of enrollment and 3–6 months later. Constant comparative analyses identified salient themes describing modifiable contributors and inhibitors to patient-perceived resilience. Results: Seventeen patients (85% of those approached) enrolled in the study. The mean age was 17 years (SD=2.6) and 53% were female. All patient definitions of resilience inferred an ability to handle adversity. Five themes emerged as predominant contributors or inhibitors of resilience: (1) stress and coping; (2) goals, purpose, and planning; (3) optimism; (4) gratitude and meaning; and (5) connection and belonging. Merged analyses suggested that AYA resilience was a balance that may be enabled by promoting certain skills. Conclusion: AYA patients with cancer perceive resilience as a balance. Learned skills in stress management, goal-setting, and benefit-finding may empower AYAs during their cancer experience, in turn improving long-term psychosocial outcomes. PMID:25969794

  19. The burden of cancer in 25-29 year olds in New Zealand: a case for a wider adolescent and young adult age range?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantine, Kirsten R; Utley, Victoria; Watson, Heidi; Sullivan, Michael J; Spearing, Ruth

    2018-01-19

    New Zealand currently defines the adolescent and young adult (AYA) group for cancer services as young people 12-24 years of age, while other countries favour a designation of 15-29 years. This study was undertaken to compare cancer incidence and survival among 25-29 year olds to New Zealand's younger AYA population and to assess survival for our 15-29 year population against international benchmarks. Diagnostic and demographic information for cancer registrations between 2000 and 2009 for 25-29 year olds was obtained from the New Zealand Cancer Registry. Incidence rates (IR) and five-year relative survival estimates were calculated according to AYA diagnostic group/sub-group, sex and prioritised ethnicity. 1,541 new primary malignant cancers were diagnosed (IR: 588 per million). Five-year relative survival was 85%, but was significantly lower for Māori and Pacific peoples (both 77%) compared to non-Māori/non-Pacific peoples (88%). In the overall 15-29 year AYA cohort, disease-specific outcomes for bone tumours (46%) and breast cancer (64%) were inferior to international standards. New Zealand 25 to 29 year olds are at twice the risk of developing cancer as those 15-24 years. Given that the survival disparities identified were remarkably consistent with those for younger AYA, consideration should be given widening New Zealand's AYA age range.

  20. Assessing the psychosocial needs and program preferences of adolescents and young adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Lamia P; Galtieri, Liana R; Szalda, Dava; Schwartz, Lisa A

    2016-02-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYA) are a developmentally distinct cancer group, vulnerable to psychosocial late effects and with a range of unmet psychosocial needs. We sought to better understand psychosocial care needs and program preferences to inform development of more easily accessible and effective AYA psychosocial programs. AYA on and off treatment for cancer (n = 111, ages 12-25 years) were approached during an outpatient clinic visit and completed a survey as part of a quality improvement initiative. The survey comprised an open-ended question on challenges related to cancer and treatment and closed-ended questions on access to and preference for various services and programs. Qualitative analyses were used to summarize themes for most significant challenges, and descriptive statistics were used for closed-ended questions. Most common themes for challenges included treatments and associated physical changes, barriers to pursuit of academic/vocational goals, and social isolation. For preferred program focus, AYA ranked highest increasing strength and endurance/reintegration into sports and dealing with physical changes resulting from treatment. AYA's preferred modalities for program delivery were one-on-one/in person and message boards/Facebook. Most of the sample indicated that lack of awareness prevented their accessing available programs. New information was identified that can be used to address access barriers and to offer AYA psychosocial programs in formats that might improve interest and accessibility. Ongoing evaluation of AYA psychosocial programs is recommended to determine acceptability, feasibility, and effectiveness to meet the evolving needs of AYA patients with cancer.

  1. Age-Specific Patient Navigation Preferences Among Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannier, Samantha T; Warner, Echo L; Fowler, Brynn; Fair, Douglas; Salmon, Sara K; Kirchhoff, Anne C

    2017-11-23

    Patient navigation is increasingly being directed at adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients. This study provides a novel description of differences in AYA cancer patients' preferences for navigation services by developmental age at diagnosis. Eligible patients were diagnosed with cancer between ages 15 and 39 and had completed at least 1 month of treatment. Between October 2015 and January 2016, patients completed semi-structured interviews about navigation preferences. Summary statistics of demographic and cancer characteristics were generated. Differences in patient navigation preferences were examined through qualitative analyses by developmental age at diagnosis. AYAs were interviewed (adolescents 15-18 years N = 8; emerging adults 19-25 years N = 8; young adults 26-39 years N = 23). On average, participants were 4.5 years from diagnosis. All age groups were interested in face-to-face connection with a navigator and using multiple communication platforms (phone, text, email) to follow-up. Three of the most frequently cited needs were insurance, finances, and information. AYAs differed in support, healthcare, and resource preferences by developmental age; only adolescents preferred educational support. While all groups preferred financial and family support, the specific type of assistance (medical versus living expenses, partner/spouse, child, or parental assistance) varied by age group. AYAs with cancer have different preferences for patient navigation by developmental age at diagnosis. AYAs are not a one-size-fits-all population, and navigation programs can better assist AYAs when services are targeted to appropriate developmental ages. Future research should examine fertility and navigation preferences by time since diagnosis. While some navigation needs to span the AYA age range, other needs are specific to developmental age.

  2. Preferences for support services among adolescents and young adults with cancer or a blood disorder: a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, Stephen; King, Madeleine; Ewing, Jane; Smith, Narelle; Kenny, Patricia

    2012-10-01

    Life-threatening illnesses in young people are traumatic for patients and their families. Support services can help patients and families deal with various non-medical impacts of diagnosis, disease and treatment. The aim of this study was to determine which types of support are most valued by adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer or blood disorders and their families. A discrete choice experiment (DCE). Separate experiments were conducted with AYA and their carers. Completed surveys were returned by 83 patients and 78 carers. AYA preferred emotional support for themselves (either by counsellors and/or peers), emotional support for their family, financial support and assistance returning to school/work over services relating to cultural and spiritual needs. Covariate analysis indicated female AYA were more likely than males to prefer emotional support, while males were more likely to prefer assistance returning to work/school. Carers preferred emotional support for their AYA and assistance returning to school/work. Like AYA, they were indifferent about services relating to cultural and spiritual needs. Providing the types of support services that people prefer should maximise effectiveness. This study suggests that AYA patients require support services that included financial aid, assistance returning to work/study, emotional support for themselves and for their family. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Decision-making by adolescents and parents of children with cancer regarding health research participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Kate; Fernandez, Conrad Vincent; Gao, Jun; Strahlendorf, Caron; Moghrabi, Albert; Pentz, Rebecca Davis; Barfield, Raymond Carlton; Baker, Justin Nathaniel; Santor, Darcy; Weijer, Charles; Kodish, Eric

    2009-09-01

    Low rates of participation of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) in clinical oncology trials may contribute to poorer outcomes. Factors that influence the decision of AYAs to participate in health research and whether these factors are different from those that affect the participation of parents of children with cancer. This is a secondary analysis of data from validated questionnaires provided to adolescents (>12 years old) diagnosed with cancer and parents of children with cancer at 3 sites in Canada (Halifax, Vancouver, and Montreal) and 2 in the United States (Atlanta, GA, and Memphis, TN). Respondents reported their own research participation and cited factors that would influence their own decision to participate in, or to provide parental authorization for their child to participate in health research. Completed questionnaire rates for AYAs and parents were 86 (46.5%) of 185 and 409 (65.2%) of 627, respectively. AYAs (n = 86 [67%]) and parents (n = 409 [85%]) cited that they would participate in research because it would help others. AYAs perceived pressure by their family and friends (16%) and their physician (19%). Having too much to think about at the time of accrual was an impediment to both groups (36% AYAs and 47% parents). The main deterrent for AYAs was that research would take up too much time (45%). Nonwhite parents (7 of 56 [12.5%]) were more apt to decline than white parents (12 of 32 [3.7%]; P < .01). AYAs identified time commitment and having too much to think about as significant impediments to research participation. Addressing these barriers by minimizing time requirements and further supporting decision-making may improve informed consent and impact on enrollment in trials.

  4. Cancer-Related Fatigue in Adolescents and Young Adults After Cancer Treatment: Persistent and Poorly Managed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spathis, Anna; Hatcher, Helen; Booth, Sara; Gibson, Faith; Stone, Paddy; Abbas, Laura; Barclay, Matt; Brimicombe, James; Thiemann, Pia; McCabe, Martin G; Campsey, Rachel; Hooker, Louise; Moss, Wendy; Robson, Jane; Barclay, Stephen

    2017-09-01

    Cancer-related fatigue is the most prevalent and distressing symptom experienced by adolescents and young adults (AYAs). An electronic survey was undertaken to ascertain current fatigue management and perceptions of its effectiveness. Eighty-five percent of responders (68/80) experienced fatigue, and it was worse more than 1 year after cancer treatment ended, compared to fatigue management. Although advice to exercise was the most frequent intervention, the greatest impact of fatigue was on the ability to exercise and most did not find exercise advice helpful. Early intervention is warranted, supporting AYAs to persevere with increasing activity.

  5. Use of Lactobacillus plantarum as Starter Culture and Its Influence on Physicochemical, Microbiological, and Sensory Characteristics of Kunnu-Aya Produced from Sorghum and Tigernut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Olaoye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kunun-aya is a traditional nonalcoholic beverage in the northern part of Nigeria, normally prepared from cereals. In this investigation Lactobacillus plantarum, isolated from fermenting kunun, was applied as starter culture during production of kunun-aya from varying combinations of sorghum and tigernut. The quality attributes of the product indicated increase in ash and protein contents of product inoculated with starter culture (PISC over the uninoculated control sample (UCS. The highest values of 4.43% and 6.95% were recorded for ash and protein, respectively, in the product from fifty percent each of sorghum and tigernut (50SOR/50TIG. Titratable acidity was higher in PISC compared to UCS; the 50SOR/50TIG sample had the highest value of 0.92. The PISC recorded reduced counts of Salmonella, coliforms, and Staphylococci. The SCIS were preferred by panellists in the sensory attributes of appearance, aroma, taste, mouthfeel, and general acceptability. It was concluded that the use of L. plantarum as starter culture in the production of kunun-aya was advantageous as a result of enhanced nutritional, sensory, and microbial qualities recorded compared to UCS. Reduction in Salmonella, coliforms, and Staphylococci in PISC may be of public health significance. This on quality improvement of the traditional beverage has not been previously reported.

  6. Parental Perspectives on a Behavioral Health Music Intervention for Adolescent/Young Adult Resilience during Cancer Treatment: Report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Sharron L.; Robb, Sheri L.; Phillips-Salimi, Celeste; Cherven, Brooke; Stegenga, Kristin; Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna; Roll, Lona; Stickler, Molly Donovan; Haase, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This paper describes parental perspectives on the helpfulness and meaningfulness of a behavioral health music therapy intervention targeted to adolescents/young adults (AYA) with cancer undergoing stem cell transplantation. We demonstrate how qualitative methods may be used to understand critical aspects of an intervention and mechanisms by which the intervention impacts the target AYA outcomes resilience and quality of life. Methods A qualitative descriptive design was used to obtain parents’ perspectives. Maximum variation purposive sampling was used to sample 16 parents whose AYA had been randomized to the intervention group. A semi-structured, open-ended interview was conducted between 100 and 160 days following their AYA’s transplant. Results Results are grouped into three categories: (1) helpfulness and meaningfulness of the intervention to AYA adjustment to the transplantation experience; (2) helpfulness and meaningfulness of the intervention for parents; and (3) AYA ability to participate in the intervention during acute phase of transplantation. Conclusions Parents observed and interacted with their AYA who participated in a targeted, behavioral intervention. Thus parents were able to describe mechanisms through which the intervention was helpful and meaningful for the AYA and indirect personal benefits for themselves. The results suggest the importance of the targeted outcomes identified in the Resilience in Illness Model and mechanisms of action in the Contextual Support Model of Music Therapy and identifies approaches for future study. PMID:23332481

  7. Development of cancer needs questionnaire for parents and carers of adolescents and young adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Mariko L; Clinton-McHarg, Tara; Sanson-Fisher, Robert William; Shakeshaft, Anthony

    2012-05-01

    In order to improve the service delivery for the parents and carers of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer, it is important to develop measures which assess the specific issues and concerns faced by this group. The aims of this study were to describe the development and acceptability of a measure of unmet needs of parents and carers of AYA cancer survivors and to assess the prevalence of unmet needs among the respondents. A literature search and focus groups with consumers and health professionals were used to inform item development. AYA cancer survivors and their parents and carers were identified from seven hospitals in Australia. Parents and carers who consented for their contact details to be released to the research team were sent a paper-and-pencil questionnaire. One mailed reminder and one phone call reminder were made to non-responders. The unmet needs survey consisted of eight domains and 150 items: (1) cancer treatment staff, (2) cancer treatment centre, (3) study, (4) work, (5) information, (6) feelings, (7) relationships and (8) daily life. Eighty-three parents and carers completed the survey. The mean number of high or very high unmet needs reported was 24, with information needs among the most prevalent high/very high unmet needs. The questionnaire developed has demonstrable face and content validity and acceptability. Unmet needs are prevalent among parents and carers of AYA cancer survivors, suggesting the need for further psychometric testing of the measure.

  8. Predictors of unmet needs and psychological distress in adolescent and young adult siblings of people diagnosed with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, F E J; Patterson, P; White, K J; Butow, P; Bell, M L

    2015-03-01

    Predictors of psychological distress and unmet needs amongst adolescents and young adults (AYAs) who have a brother or sister diagnosed with cancer were examined. There were 106 AYAs (12-24 years old) who completed questionnaires covering demographics, psychological distress (Kessler 10), unmet needs (Sibling Cancer Needs Instrument) and family relationships (Family Relationship Index; Adult Sibling Relationship Questionnaire; Sibling Perception Questionnaire (SPQ)). Three models were analysed (demographic variables, cancer-specific variables and family functioning variables) using multiple linear regression to determine the role of the variables in predicting psychological distress and unmet needs. Unmet needs were higher for AYA siblings when treatment was current or a relapse had occurred. Higher scores on the SPQ-Interpersonal subscale indicating a perceived decrease in the quality of relationships with parents and others were associated with higher levels of distress and unmet needs. The age and gender of the AYA sibling, whether it was their brother or sister who was diagnosed with cancer, the age difference between them, the number of parents living with the AYA sibling, parental birth country, time since diagnosis, Family Relationship Index, Adult Sibling Relationship Questionnaire and the SPQ-Communication subscale did not significantly impact outcome variables. These results highlight the variables that can assist in identifying AYA siblings of cancer patients who are at risk and have a greater need for psychosocial assistance. Variables that may be associated with increased distress and unmet needs are reported to assist with future research. The results are also useful in informing the development of targeted psychosocial support for AYA siblings of cancer patients. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Tailoring the delivery of cancer diagnosis to adolescent and young adult patients displaying strong emotions: An observational study of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Live Korsvold

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Delivering the bad news of a cancer diagnosis to adolescent and young adult (AYA patients who display strong emotions is particularly challenging not the least because AYAs are at a vulnerable developmental stage. Due to the lack of research on how to personalize the delivery of bad news to AYA patients’ emotions we report a case study of the communicative behavior of oncologists in two such consultations to describe the complexity of the phenomena at study. We audio-recorded and transcribed consultations where oncologists delivered cancer diagnoses to nine AYAs aged 12–25 years. Two of these patients displayed particularly strong emotional behavior (anger, fear, and sadness and were chosen as cases. An interpretative analysis in three steps was applied to investigate the oncologists’ communicative behavior when delivering bad news. The focus was on how the oncologists responded to the strong but different emotional behaviors of the AYAs. We also related the oncologists’ communicative behavior to elements from a widely used protocol for delivering bad news. We found that the oncologists applied five communication strategies: elicit patient perspective, provide information, respond to patient's expression of emotion (acknowledging and containing emotions, encourage commitment to treatment, and provide hope. The findings illustrate how oncologists’ communicative behavior may be tailored to individual expressions of emotions in AYA cancer patients.

  10. Assessing and optimizing health-related quality of life during and after cancer treatment in adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szalda D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dava Szalda,1 Esther Kim,2 Jill P Ginsberg1,2 1Division of Oncology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 2Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Adolescent and young adults (AYAs with cancer have needs unique from their pediatric or adult counterparts at diagnosis, during treatment, and throughout survivorship care. Healthcare teams may find it difficult to assess and manage the complex psychosocial needs of AYA patients, however, attention to the multi-faceted care of the AYA oncology patient may directly affect health outcomes and quality of life. Comprehensive AYA care therefore must be maximized during treatment and in transition to survivorship care by including assessments of general health, sexual health, mental health, health behaviors, and conversations concerning transition to survivorship and adulthood with AYA patients. Identifying and treating issues that arise in the AYA population may help promote adherence to treatment, engagement in follow-up care, and ultimately quality of life for this unique group of patients. Keywords: quality of life, sexual health, health behaviors, mental health, transition, survivorship

  11. Small Numbers, Big Challenges: Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Incidence and Survival in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantine, Kirsten R; Watson, Heidi; Macfarlane, Scott; Winstanley, Mark; Corbett, Robin P; Spearing, Ruth; Stevanovic, Vladimir; Yi, Ma; Sullivan, Michael J

    2017-06-01

    This study was undertaken to determine cancer survival and describe the unique spectrum of cancers diagnosed among New Zealand's adolescents and young adult (AYA) population. Registrations for 1606 15-24 year olds diagnosed with a new primary malignant tumor between 2000 and 2009 were obtained from the New Zealand Cancer Registry and classified according to AYA diagnostic group and subgroup, age, sex, and prioritized ethnicity. Age-standardized incidence rates (IRs) per million person years and 5-year relative survival ratios were calculated. Cancer incidence was 228.6 per million for adolescents aged 15-19 years and 325.7 per million for young adults aged 20-24 years. Overall IRs were consistent across all ethnic groups but there were unique ethnic differences by tumor group including a higher incidence of bone tumors, carcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract, and gonadal germ cell tumors among Maori, a higher incidence of leukemia among Pacific peoples, and a higher incidence of melanoma among non-Maori/non-Pacific peoples. Five-year relative survival for adolescents (75.1%) and AYA overall (80.6%) appeared poorer than had been achieved in other high-income countries. Maori (69.5%) and Pacific (71.3%) AYA had lower 5-year survival compared to non-Maori/non-Pacific peoples (84.2%). The survival disparities observed require further investigation to identify and address the causes of these inferior outcomes. The newly established AYA Cancer Network Aotearoa has been tasked with improving cancer survival and care and ensuring equality of access for New Zealand AYAs with cancer.

  12. Psychometric Evaluation of an Adolescent and Young Adult Module of the Impact of Cancer Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, Olga; Zebrack, Bradley J

    2017-03-01

    To develop and evaluate a new instrument that measures unique aspects of long-term survivorship for people diagnosed with cancer as Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA), not measured by existing tools. A new candidate instrument-the Impact of Cancer for Adolescent and Young Adult (IOC-AYA) cancer survivors-was developed and administered to AYA cancer survivors aged 18-35 years who were 15-29 years old when diagnosed with cancer. Psychometric properties of newly derived scales were assessed. Factor analyses of items derived seven new and specific subscales: Social Life; Uncertainties, Worries and Wonders; Cognitive Function; Sense of Purpose/Life Goals; Identity; Health Behaviors; and Health Literacy. Two separate and conditional subscales were formed: Relationship Concerns (partnered/unpartnered) and Having Children (at least one child/no children). Internal consistency measurements for these subscales ranged from 0.70 to 0.90. Expected associations within and among IOC-AYA subscales and standardized measures of quality of life were observed. Psychometric analyses indicated that this initial version of the IOC-AYA measures distinct and relevant constructs for survivors diagnosed with cancer in adolescence and young adulthood. Future work is needed to confirm the responsiveness to change and further validate the instrument in multiple and representative samples. Use of the IOC-AYA instrument in research and clinical practice will inform the development of psychosocial and supportive care interventions that not only minimize or prevent long-term deleterious effects of cancer but also promote positive adaptation, resilience, and the achievement of age-specific developmental tasks.

  13. A reflection on the work of Gianni Bonadonna from the viewpoint of the global challenge of adolescents and young adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ronald D; Bleyer, W Archie

    2017-11-23

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs - ages 15 to 39) constitute approximately 40% of the world's population and contribute an estimated one million new cases of cancer annually, the great majority in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In high-income countries (HICs) cancer is the commonest cause of disease-related death in AYAs, though overall 5-year survival rates now exceed 80%. A very different circumstance likely holds in LMICs, but accurate assessments are not readily available.Breast cancer accounts for 40% of tumours in female AYAs and this age group includes the peak incidence of Hodgkin lymphoma. The late Professor Gianni Bonadonna contributed importantly to improved survival in patients with these two diseases. Accordingly, he would be justifiably proud of the advances in AYA oncology that are being made in Italy, especially the impact of his colleagues at the Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori (INT). The initiatives of the Associazione Italiana Ematologia Pediatrica and the Società Italiana Adolescenti con Malattie Onco-ematologiche are particularly noteworthy, with the accomplishment of productive collaboration between paediatric and adult cancer care providers serving as a model for other countries to emulate.Exporting these advances can be successful through the vehicle of "twinning": establishing sustainable cooperation between institutions in HICs and partners in LMICs. Colleagues in Monza and at INT have been leaders in such programmes for decades. Cancer in AYAs remains a global challenge to which Gianni Bonadonna surely would have risen with enthusiasm and leadership while securing measurable achievements.

  14. Psychometric Evaluation of an Adolescent and Young Adult Module of the Impact of Cancer Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husson, O.; Zebrack, B.J.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop and evaluate a new instrument that measures unique aspects of long-term survivorship for people diagnosed with cancer as Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA), not measured by existing tools. METHODS: A new candidate instrument-the Impact of Cancer for Adolescent and Young Adult

  15. Music's relevance for adolescents and young adults with cancer: a constructivist research approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Clare; Barry, Philippa; Thompson, Kate

    2012-04-01

    Music is one of the most widely used activities amongst young people, significant in personal and group identity, motivation, physical release, and emotional support. Adolescents and young adults with cancer (AYA) require specialized care because of intensified challenges related to developmental vulnerability, treatment toxicity effects, and slower improvements in survival rates compared to other age groups. To advance effective supportive care for AYA, understanding their thoughts about music is necessary. This study examines AYAs' perspectives about music's role in their lives. A constructivist research approach with grounded theory design was applied. Twelve people, 15 to 25 years old, known to onTrac@PeterMac Victorian Adolescent & Young Adult Cancer Service, participated. Respondents completed a brief music demographic questionnaire and participated in a semi-structured interview. Qualitative inter-rater reliability was integrated. Participants mostly reported music's calming, supportive, and relaxing effects, which alleviated hardship associated with their cancer diagnoses. Themes encompassed: music backgrounds, changed "musicking", endurance and adjustment, time with music therapists, and wisdom. Music provided supportive messages, enabled personal and shared understandings about cancer's effects, and elicited helpful physical, emotional, and imagery states. Music therapy could also promote normalized and supportive connections with others. A musician, however, struggled to get music "back" post-treatment. Supportive music-based strategies were recommended for other AYA and their health care providers. Music can signify and creatively enable AYAs' hope, endurance, identity development, and adjustment through cancer treatment and post-treatment phases. Health professionals are encouraged to support AYAs' music-based self-care and "normalized" activities.

  16. The Experience of Adolescents and Young Adults Treated for Cancer in an Adult Setting: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Steve; Grinyer, Anne; Limmer, Mark

    2018-02-13

    The purpose of this review is to explore the literature on the experience of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) having cancer treatment in an adult setting, rather than on a specialist adolescent cancer unit. The integrative review method was used to explore the current literature. Primary research on the topic was located systematically and then synthesized into a thematic narrative. The experience of AYAs undergoing treatment in an adult setting was generally negative. This can be attributed to three themes: feeling isolated in the adult setting; the lack of empathy from staff working in the adult setting; and the inappropriateness of the adult environment for this age group. As many AYAs with cancer will continue to have treatment in adult settings, staff working in this environment should be aware of the negative experience of this cohort and the impact this can have on a vulnerable group of patients. Staff could consider simple ways of improving the AYA experience, such as connecting AYA patients with their peers to reduce isolation; adapting their approach to take account of the unique emotional needs of this age group; and considering ways of making the environment more welcoming and age-appropriate.

  17. Model of care for adolescents and young adults with cancer: the Youth Project in Milan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Magni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents and young adults (AYA with cancer form a particular group of patients with unique characteristics, who inhabit a so-called no man’s land between pediatric and adult services. In the last ten years, the scientific oncology community has started to pay attention to these patients, implementing dedicated programs. A standardized model of care directed towards patients in this age range has yet to be developed and neither the pediatric nor the adult oncologic systems perfectly fit these patients’ needs. The Youth Project of the Istituto Nazionale Tumori in Milan, dedicated to adolescents and young adults with pediatric-type solid tumors, can be seen as a model of care for AYA patients, with its heterogeneous multidisciplinary staff and close cooperation with adult medical oncologists and surgeons. Further progress in the care of AYA cancer patients is still needed to improve their outcomes.

  18. Improved nutrition in adolescents and young adults after childhood cancer - INAYA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quidde, J; von Grundherr, J; Koch, B; Bokemeyer, C; Escherich, G; Valentini, L; Buchholz, D; Schilling, G; Stein, A

    2016-11-08

    Multimodality treatment improves the chance of survival but increases the risk for long-term side effects in young cancer survivors, so-called" Adolescents and Young Adults"(AYAs). Compared to the general population AYAs have a 5 to 15-fold increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Thus, improving modifiable lifestyle risk factors is of particular importance. The INAYA trial included AYAs between 18 and 39 years receiving an intensified individual nutrition counseling at four time points in a 3-month period based on a 3-day dietary record. At week 0 and 12 AYAs got a face-to-face counseling, at week 2 and 6 by telephone. Primary endpoint was change in nutritional behavior measured by Healthy Eating Index - European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (HEI-EPIC). Twenty-three AYAs (11 female, 12 male, median age 20 years (range 19-23 years), median BMI: 21.4 kg/m 2 (range: 19.7-23.9 kg/m 2 ) after completion of cancer treatment for sarcoma (n = 2), carcinoma (n = 2), blastoma (n = 1), hodgkin lymphoma (n = 12), or leukemia (n = 6) were included (median time between diagnosis and study inclusion was 44 month). The primary endpoint was met, with an improvement of 20 points in HEI-EPIC score in 52.2 % (n = 12) of AYAs. At baseline, median HEI-EPIC score was 47.0 points (range from 40.0 to 55.0 points) and a good, moderate and bad nutritional intake was seen in 4.3, 73.9 and 21.7 % of AYAs. At week 12, median HEI-EPIC improved significantly to 65.0 points (range from 55.0 to 76.0 points) (p ≤ 0.001) and a good, moderate and bad nutritional intake was seen in 47.8, 52.2 and 0 % of AYAs. No change was seen in quality of life, waist-hip ratio and blood pressure. Intensified nutrition counseling is feasible and seem to improve nutritional behavior of AYAs. Further studies will be required to demonstrate long-term sustainability and confirm the results in a randomized design in larger cohorts. Clinical trial identifier

  19. Psychological morbidities in adolescent and young adult blood cancer patients during curative-intent therapy and early survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Lori S; Hlubocky, Fay J; Khan, Niloufer; Wroblewski, Kristen; Breitenbach, Katherine; Gomez, Joseline; McNeer, Jennifer L; Stock, Wendy; Daugherty, Christopher K

    2016-03-15

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer face unique psychosocial challenges. This pilot study was aimed at describing the prevalence of psychological morbidities among AYAs with hematologic malignancies during curative-intent therapy and early survivorship and at examining provider perceptions of psychological morbidities in their AYA patients. Patients aged 15 to 39 years with acute leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, or Hodgkin lymphoma who were undergoing curative-intent therapy (on-treatment group) or were in remission within 2 years of therapy completion (early survivors) underwent a semistructured interview that incorporated measures of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress (PTS). A subset of providers (n = 15) concomitantly completed a survey for each of the first 30 patients enrolled that evaluated their perception of each subject's anxiety, depression, and PTS. Sixty-one of 77 eligible AYAs participated. The median age at diagnosis was 26 years (range, 15-39 years), 64% were male, and 59% were non-Hispanic white. On-treatment demographics differed significantly from early-survivor demographics only in the median time from diagnosis to interview. Among the 61 evaluable AYAs, 23% met the criteria for anxiety, 28% met the criteria for depression, and 13% met the criteria for PTS; 46% demonstrated PTS symptomatology. Thirty-nine percent were impaired in 1 or more psychological domains. Psychological impairments were as frequent among early survivors as AYAs on treatment. Provider perceptions did not significantly correlate with patient survey results. AYAs with hematologic malignancies experience substantial psychological morbidities while they are undergoing therapy and during early survivorship, with more than one-third of the patients included in this study meeting the criteria for anxiety, depression, or traumatic stress. This psychological burden may not be accurately identified by their oncology providers. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  20. Facing the Maze: Young Cancer Survivors' Return to Education and Work-A Professional Expert Key Informant Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Kaspar Jessen; Boisen, Kirsten Arntz; Midtgaard, Julie; Elsbernd, Abbey; Larsen, Hanne Baekgaard

    2018-03-13

    An insufficient transition to normal life after cancer treatment in adolescent and young adults (AYAs) may lead to decreased occupational and educational opportunities throughout a survivor's lifespan. Key informant interviews were used to access unique knowledge of the healthcare, educational, and social systems. We used key informant interviews with professionals representing disciplines from healthcare, educational, and social systems (n = 15). Informants were recruited through purposive sampling and snowball sampling. Interviews were analyzed thematically using Malterud's Systematic Text Condensation and verified by member checking. We found four major themes: the impact of late effects, navigating the system, social reintegration, and the drive of youth. Although legal frameworks are often in place to assist AYA cancer survivors, navigating the public, educational, and social systems is a complex task and many AYAs do not have the required skill set or energy. Furthermore, AYA survivors often feel different from their peers and misunderstood by their surroundings, which may hinder reintegration into normal social life. In Scandinavia, healthcare and education are free of charge with equal access for all, primarily funded by government taxes. Therefore, insurance status and tuition fees should not constitute barriers for returning to education and work. However, this study finds that the public and educational systems are complex to navigate, and that AYAs face trouble mobilizing the energy to receive needed support.

  1. Perceived impact of cancer among adolescents and young adults: Relationship with health-related quality of life and distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, O; Zebrack, B J

    2017-09-01

    To examine whether perceptions of the impact of cancer are related to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and psychological distress among survivors of cancer in adolescence and young adulthood (AYA). One hundred seventy-three AYA cancer survivors (aged 18-35 and 15-29 years at time of diagnosis) completed a mailed survey assessing impact of cancer (IOC-AYA), HRQoL (SF-36), and distress (BSI-18). Hierarchical linear regression models analyzed the independent effects of perceived impacts of cancer on HRQoL and distress after controlling for clinical and sociodemographic characteristics. Multivariate analyses also examined the extent to which positive and negative perceptions attenuated the effects of control variables on HRQoL and distress. Being unemployed or not in school, and self-reported health problems were significantly associated with worse physical HRQoL. Mental HRQoL and psychological distress appeared as a function of reporting both positive and negative impacts of cancer; mental health outcomes were better in AYAs reporting more positive and less negative impact of cancer in their lives. Perceived impact of cancer, in both positive and negative ways, attenuated the effects of sociodemographic and clinical factors on mental HRQoL and psychological distress. Results suggest that mental HRQoL and psychological distress, but not physical HRQoL, are a function of survivors' perceptions of how cancer has affected them and continues to affect them in both positive and negative ways. Findings suggest that opportunities for AYA cancer survivors to reframe or better understand the context of cancer in their lives may result in improved mental health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Creating a standardized process to offer the standard of care: continuous process improvement methodology is associated with increased rates of sperm cryopreservation among adolescent and young adult males with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Kroon, Leah; Jeffries, Howard; Johnson, Rebecca

    2012-11-01

    There is limited literature on strategies to overcome the barriers to sperm banking among adolescent and young adult (AYA) males with cancer. By standardizing our process for offering sperm banking to AYA males before cancer treatment, we aimed to improve rates of sperm banking at our institution. Continuous process improvement is a technique that has recently been applied to improve health care delivery. We used continuous process improvement methodologies to create a standard process for fertility preservation for AYA males with cancer at our institution. We compared rates of sperm banking before and after standardization. In the 12-month period after implementation of a standardized process, 90% of patients were offered sperm banking. We demonstrated an 8-fold increase in the proportion of AYA males' sperm banking, and a 5-fold increase in the rate of sperm banking at our institution. Implementation of a standardized process for sperm banking for AYA males with cancer was associated with increased rates of sperm banking at our institution. This study supports the role of standardized health care in decreasing barriers to sperm banking.

  3. Strategies to improve adherence to treatment in adolescents and young adults with cancer: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson EG

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Eden G Robertson,1,2 Claire E Wakefield,1,2 Kate H Marshall,2 Ursula M Sansom-Daly1–3 1Discipline of Paediatrics, School of Women's and Children's Health, UNSW Medicine, University of New South Wales, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, Australia; 2Behavioural Sciences Unit, Kids Cancer Centre, Sydney Children's Hospital, 3Sydney Youth Cancer Service, Prince of Wales/Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick, NSW, Australia Purpose: Adolescents and young adults (AYAs with cancer have higher rates of nonadherence to treatment relative to younger and older cancer patients. Efforts to improve adherence in this population are therefore increasing. This review aimed: 1 to synthesize recommendations and strategies used to improve treatment adherence in AYAs with cancer, and 2 to summarize the available evidence supporting the efficacy of adherence-promoting strategies for AYAs with cancer.Methods: We conducted a systematic review with two stages: 1 a narrative stage, to analyze expert recommendations, and 2 an evaluative stage, to summarize quantitative evidence for interventions. Four electronic databases were searched for studies involving AYAs, aged 10–39 years, with cancer, published from 2005 to 2015. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines were used to ensure quality of the review. The Delphi list was used to assess study quality.Results: Nine articles were identified in the narrative stage of the review. For the evaluative stage, out of 113 screened abstracts, only one eligible intervention was identified. Common themes of adherence-promoting strategies were grouped into five domains: developmental, communication, educational, psychological well-being, and logistical/management strategies. Strategies to address developmental stage and to improve communication were the most highly recommended to improve adherence. Few strategies focused on the role of the patient in adherence. One

  4. Preliminary development and psychometric evaluation of an unmet needs measure for adolescents and young adults with cancer: the Cancer Needs Questionnaire - Young People (CNQ-YP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton-McHarg, Tara; Carey, Mariko; Sanson-Fisher, Rob; D'Este, Catherine; Shakeshaft, Anthony

    2012-01-30

    Adolescents and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors may have unique physical, psychological and social needs due to their cancer occurring at a critical phase of development. The aim of this study was to develop a psychometrically rigorous measure of unmet need to capture the specific needs of this group. Items were developed following a comprehensive literature review, focus groups with AYAs, and feedback from health care providers, researchers and other professionals. The measure was pilot tested with 32 AYA cancer survivors recruited through a state-based cancer registry to establish face and content validity. A main sample of 139 AYA cancer patients and survivors were recruited through seven treatment centres and invited to complete the questionnaire. To establish test-retest reliability, a sub-sample of 34 participants completed the measure a second time. Exploratory factor analysis was performed and the measure was assessed for internal consistency, discriminative validity, potential responsiveness and acceptability. The Cancer Needs Questionnaire - Young People (CNQ-YP) has established face and content validity, and acceptability. The final measure has 70 items and six factors: Treatment Environment and Care (33 items); Feelings and Relationships (14 items); Daily Life (12 items); Information and Activities (5 items); Education (3 items); and Work (3 items). All domains achieved Cronbach's alpha values greater than 0.80. Item-to-item test-retest reliability was also high, with all but four items reaching weighted kappa values above 0.60. The CNQ-YP is the first multi-dimensional measure of unmet need which has been developed specifically for AYA cancer patients and survivors. The measure displays a strong factor structure, and excellent internal consistency and test-retest reliability. However, the small sample size has implications for the reliability of the statistical analyses undertaken, particularly the exploratory factor analysis. Future studies with a

  5. Pediatric advance care planning (pACP) for teens with cancer and their families: Design of a dyadic, longitudinal RCCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Katherine B; Watson, Anne E; Wang, Jichuan; Okonkwo, Obianuju C; Lyon, Maureen E

    2017-11-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of disease-related death for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) in the United States. Parents of AYAs with life-threatening illnesses have expressed the desire to talk to their children about end of life (EOL) care, yet, like caregivers of adult patients, struggle to initiate this conversation. Building Evidence for Effective Palliative/End of Life Care for Teens with Cancer is a longitudinal, randomized, controlled, single-blinded clinical trial aimed at evaluating the efficacy of FAmily CEntered disease-specific advance care planning (ACP) for teens with cancer (FACE-TC). A total of 130 dyads (260 subjects) composed of AYAs 14-20years old with cancer and their family decision maker (≥18years old) will be recruited from pediatric oncology programs at Akron Children's Hospital and St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. Dyads will be randomized to either the FACE-TC intervention or Treatment as Usual (TAU) control. FACE-TC intervention dyads will complete three 60-minute ACP sessions held at weekly intervals. Follow-up data will be collected at 3, 6, 12, and 18months post-intervention by a blinded research assistant (RA). The effects of FACE-TC on patient-family congruence in treatment preferences, quality of life (QOL), and advance directive completion will be analyzed. FACE-TC is an evidenced-based and patient-centered intervention that considers QOL and EOL care according to the AYA's representation of illness. The family is involved in the ACP process to facilitate shared decision making, increase understanding of the AYA's preferences, and make a commitment to honor the AYA's wishes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Second Primary Malignant Neoplasms and Survival in Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Theresa H M; Bleyer, Archie; Rosenberg, Aaron S; Li, Qian; Goldfarb, Melanie

    2017-11-01

    Although the increased incidence of second primary malignant neoplasms (SPMs) is a well-known late effect after cancer, few studies have compared survival after an SPM to survival of the same cancer occurring as first primary malignant neoplasm (PM) by age. To assess the survival impact of SPMs in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) (15-39 years) compared with that of pediatric (cancer in 13 Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results regions in the United States diagnosed from 1992 to 2008 and followed through 2013. Data analysis was performed between June 2016 and January 2017. Five-year relative survival was calculated overall and for each cancer occurring as a PM or SPM by age at diagnosis. The impact of SPM status on cancer-specific death was examined using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. A total of 15 954 pediatric, 125 750 AYAs, and 878 370 older adult patients diagnosed as having 14 cancers occurring as a PM or SPM were included. Overall, 5-year survival after an SPM was 33.1% lower for children, 20.2% lower for AYAs, and 8.3% lower for older adults compared with a PM at the same age. For the most common SPMs in AYAs, the absolute difference in 5-year survival was 42% lower for secondary non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 19% for secondary breast carcinoma, 15% for secondary thyroid carcinoma, and 13% for secondary soft-tissue sarcoma. Survival by SPM status was significantly worse in younger vs older patients for thyroid, Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, acute myeloid leukemia, soft-tissue sarcoma, and central nervous system cancer. Adolescents and young adults with secondary Hodgkin lymphoma (hazard ratio [95% CI], 3.5 [1.7-7.1]); soft-tissue sarcoma (2.8 [2.1-3.9]); breast carcinoma (2.1 [1.8-2.4]); acute myeloid leukemia (1.9 [1.5-2.4]); and central nervous system cancer (1.8 [1.2-2.8]) experienced worse survival compared with AYAs with the same PMs. The adverse impact of SPMs on survival is substantial for AYAs and may partially

  7. Post-Traumatic Growth and Resilience in Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Patients: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greup, Suzanne R.; Kaal, Suzanne E. J.; Jansen, Rosemarie; Manten-Horst, Eveliene; Thong, Melissa S. Y.; van der Graaf, Winette T. A.; Prins, Judith B.; Husson, Olga

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the literature on post-traumatic growth (PTG) and resilience among adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients. A literature search in Embase, PsychInfo, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Cinahl was carried out. Thirteen articles

  8. Advance Care Planning Discussions with Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Patients Admitted to a Community Palliative Care Service: A Retrospective Case-Note Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Sophie; Hughes, Rachel; Pickstock, Sarah; Auret, Kirsten

    2018-02-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer are a cohort requiring specialized healthcare models to address unique cognitive and physical challenges. Advance care planning (ACP) discussions likely warrant age-appropriate adaptation, yet, there is little Australian research data available to inform best practice for this group. The goal of this work is to inform future models of ACP discussions for AYA. Retrospective medical record audit of AYA patients and an adult comparison group, diagnosed with a malignancy and referred to a community hospice service, in Western Australia, in the period between January 1, 2012 and December 1, 2015. Information was collected regarding end-of-life care discussions, documentation of agreed plan of care, and care received. Twenty-seven AYA and 37 adult medical records were reviewed. Eighteen (66.7%) AYA patients died at home, compared with 19 (51.4%) adults (p = 0.028). Desire to pursue all available oncological therapies, including clinical trials, was documented for 14 (51.9%) AYA patients compared with 9 (24.3%) of the adult group (p = 0.02). Eleven AYA patients (40.7%) received chemotherapy during the last month of life compared with two (5.4%) adults (p = 0.001). The results indicate that end-of-life care preferences for this unique cohort may differ from those of the adult population and need to be captured and understood. An ACP document incorporating a discussion regarding goals of care, preferred location of care, preference for place of death, and consent to future intervention, including cardiopulmonary resuscitation and prompts for review, could assist in pursuing this objective.

  9. A Diversified Recruitment Approach Incorporating Social Media Leads to Research Participation Among Young Adult-Aged Female Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Jessica R; Roberts, Samantha C; Dominick, Sally A; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Dietz, Andrew C; Su, H Irene

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Cancer survivors in their adolescent and young adult (AYA) years are an understudied population, possibly in part because of the high effort required to recruit them into research studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the specific recruitment strategies used in four studies recruiting AYA-aged female cancer survivors and to identify the highest yielding approaches. We also discuss challenges and recommendations. Methods: We recruited AYA-aged female cancer survivors for two studies conducted locally and two conducted nationally. Recruitment strategies included outreach and referral via: healthcare providers and clinics; social media and the internet; community and word of mouth; and a national fertility information hotline. We calculated the yield of each recruitment approach for the local and national studies by comparing the number that participated to the number of potential participants. Results: We recruited a total of 534 participants into four research studies. Seventy-one percent were diagnosed as young adults and 61% were within 3 years of their cancer diagnosis. The highest-yielding local recruitment strategy was healthcare provider and clinic referral. Nationally, social media and internet outreach yielded the highest rate of participation. Overall, internet-based recruitment resulted in the highest number and yield of participants. Conclusion: Our results suggest that outreach through social media and the internet are effective approaches to recruiting AYA-aged female cancer survivors. Forging collaborative relationships with survivor advocacy groups' members and healthcare providers also proved beneficial.

  10. Clinical Trial Participation and Time to Treatment Among Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer: Does Age at Diagnosis or Insurance Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Helen M.; Harlan, Linda C.; Seibel, Nita L.; Stevens, Jennifer L.; Keegan, Theresa H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Because adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer have experienced variable improvement in survival over the past two decades, enhancing the quality and timeliness of cancer care in this population has emerged as a priority area. To identify current trends in AYA care, we examined patterns of clinical trial participation, time to treatment, and provider characteristics in a population-based sample of AYA patients with cancer. Methods Using the National Cancer Institute Patterns of Care Study, we used multivariate logistic regression to evaluate demographic and provider characteristics associated with clinical trial enrollment and time to treatment among 1,358 AYA patients with cancer (age 15 to 39 years) identified through the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Results In our study, 14% of patients age 15 to 39 years had enrolled onto a clinical trial; participation varied by type of cancer, with the highest participation in those diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (37%) and sarcoma (32%). Multivariate analyses demonstrated that uninsured, older patients and those treated by nonpediatric oncologists were less likely to enroll onto clinical trials. Median time from pathologic confirmation to first treatment was 3 days, but this varied by race/ethnicity and cancer site. In multivariate analyses, advanced cancer stage and outpatient treatment alone were associated with longer time from pathologic confirmation to treatment. Conclusion Our study identified factors associated with low clinical trial participation in AYA patients with cancer. These findings support the continued need to improve access to clinical trials and innovative treatments for this population, which may ultimately translate into improved survival. PMID:21931022

  11. Spending on Hospital Care and Pediatric Psychology Service Use Among Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrady, Meghan E; Peugh, James L; Brown, Gabriella A; Pai, Ahna L H

    2017-10-01

    To examine the relationship between need-based pediatric psychology service use and spending on hospital care among adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer. Billing data were obtained from 48 AYAs with cancer receiving need-based pediatric psychology services and a comparison cohort of 48 AYAs with cancer not receiving services. A factorial analysis of covariance examined group differences in spending for hospital care. Pending significant findings, a multivariate analysis of covariance was planned to examine the relationship between need-based pediatric psychology service use and spending for inpatient admissions, emergency department (ED) visits, and outpatient visits. Spending for hospital care was higher among AYAs receiving need-based pediatric psychology services than in the comparison cohort (p psychology services. The behavioral and psychosocial difficulties warranting need-based pediatric psychology services may predict higher health care spending. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Assessment of psychosocial outcomes in adolescents and young adults with cancer: a systematic review of available instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakefield CE

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Claire E Wakefield,1,2 Pandora Patterson,3 Fiona E J McDonald,3 Helen L Wilson,1,2 Esther Davis,3 Ursula M Sansom-Daly2,41School of Women's and Children's Health, UNSW Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Centre for Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders, Sydney Children's Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3CanTeen, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaPurpose: Given the burgeoning body of research relating to the psychosocial needs of adolescents and young adults (AYAs with cancer, this review aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties and appropriateness of the instruments available for use in this unique population. Specifically, we reviewed published instruments developed to assess psychological distress (depression, anxiety, stress, and fear of recurrence, psychological growth (resilience, posttraumatic growth, and benefit finding, unmet needs, coping, quality of life, identity, and mindfulness-based practices and skills in AYAs with cancer. Given the dearth of validated instruments targeting AYAs with cancer, this review also provides a summary of promising measures yet to be formally validated in this population.Methods: Five electronic databases were searched by a team of six researchers, and studies involving AYAs (who have or have had cancer aged 15–30 years, and published between 1982 and 2012 were reviewed. Of 410 abstracts, 7 instruments were identified as validated in this population, with a further 19 identified as promising.Results: While there are numerous scales to assess psychosocial outcomes in cancer, few have been specifically validated for AYAs affected by cancer, particularly in the domains of psychological distress, psychological growth, coping, unmet needs, and identity. There are relatively more instruments validated, or promising, for assessment of quality of life than scales for other domains.Conclusion: In the AYA context

  13. Patient-Reported Measures of Hearing Loss and Tinnitus in Pediatric Cancer and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Daniel; Rosenberg, Abby R.; Johnston, Donna; Knight, Kristin; Caperon, Lizzie; Uleryk, Elizabeth; Frazier, A. Lindsay; Sung, Lillian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We identified studies that described use of any patient-reported outcome scale for hearing loss or tinnitus among children and adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients. Method: In this systematic review, we performed electronic searches of OvidSP MEDLINE, EMBASE, and…

  14. The Benefits and Burdens of Cancer: A Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study of Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straehla, Joelle P; Barton, Krysta S; Yi-Frazier, Joyce P; Wharton, Claire; Baker, Kevin Scott; Bona, Kira; Wolfe, Joanne; Rosenberg, Abby R

    2017-05-01

    Adolescents and early young adults (AYAs) with cancer are at high risk for poor outcomes. Positive psychological responses such as benefit-finding may buffer the negative impacts of cancer but are poorly understood in this population. We aimed to prospectively describe the content and trajectory of benefit- and burden-finding among AYAs to develop potential targets for future intervention. One-on-one semistructured interviews were conducted with English-speaking AYA patients (aged 14-25 years) within 60 days of diagnosis of a noncentral nervous system malignancy requiring chemotherapy, 6-12 and 12-18 months later. Interviews were coded using directed content analyses with a priori schema defined by existing theoretical frameworks, including changed sense of self, relationships, philosophy of life, and physical well-being. We compared the content, raw counts, and ratios of benefit-to-burden by patient and by time point. Seventeen participants at one tertiary academic medical center (mean age 17.1 years, SD = 2.7) with sarcoma (n = 8), acute leukemia (n = 6), and lymphoma (n = 3) completed 44 interviews with >100 hours of transcript-data. Average benefit counts were higher than average burden counts at each time point; 68% of interviews had a benefit-to-burden ratio >1. Positive changed sense-of-self was the most common benefit across all time points (44% of all reported benefits); reports of physical distress were the most common burden (32%). Longitudinal analyses suggested perceptions evolved; participants tended to focus less on physical manifestations and more on personal strengths and life purpose. AYAs with cancer identify more benefits than burdens throughout cancer treatment and demonstrate rapid maturation of perspectives. These findings not only inform communication practices with AYAs but also suggest opportunities for interventions to potentially improve outcomes.

  15. Trends in Cancer Mortality Among Adolescents and Young Adults in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmant, Nathalie Vieira; de Souza Reis, Rejane; de Oliveira Santos, Marceli; Pinto Oliveira, Julio; de Camargo, Beatriz

    2017-06-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer comprise an intermediate age group between pediatric and adult oncology, and have a spectrum of different types of cancers. Survival among this group has not improved as much as in younger children with cancer. The aim of this study was evaluate the trends in cancer mortality of AYA aged 15-29 years in Brazil. Data were extracted from the Atlas of Cancer Mortality databases from 1979 to 2013. Age-specific mortality rates were calculated based on the deaths from each type of cancer and the period via a direct method using the proposed world population age groups. To identify significant changes in the trends, we performed joinpoint regression analysis. The mortality rates per million were 54 deaths in those aged 15-19 years, 61 deaths in those aged 20-24 years, and 88 deaths in those aged 25-29 years. Leukemias, lymphomas, and central nervous system (CNS) tumors occurred at high rates in all age groups. Rates of cervical cancer were highest in those aged 25-29 years. There were significant increases in mortality trends in the North and Northeast regions for all tumor groups, especially CNS tumors. A small decrease in the mortality rate from lymphomas was observed in the South and Southeast regions. Mortality in Brazilian AYA was slightly higher than in other studies conducted throughout the world. When separated by tumor type, Brazil presents a specific pattern, with high mortality from cervical cancer.

  16. Cancer in adolescents and young adults in north Netherlands (1989-2003) : increased incidence, stable survival and high incidence of second primary tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gaal, J. C.; Bastiaannet, E.; Schaapveld, M.; Otter, R.; Kluin-Nelemans, J. C.; de Bont, E. S. J. M.; van der Graaf, W. T. A.

    Background: Lack of survival improvement in adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer has led to increased awareness of this young population. Design: We carried out a population-based study of incidence and survival of primary tumours and second primary tumours in patients aged 12-24 in north

  17. Prevalence and predictors of post-traumatic stress symptoms in adolescent and young adult cancer survivors: a 1-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Minyoung; Zebrack, Brad J; Meeske, Kathleen A; Embry, Leanne; Aguilar, Christine; Block, Rebecca; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon; Li, Yun; Butler, Melissa; Cole, Steven

    2013-08-01

    Post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) have been identified as a meaningful indicator of distress in cancer survivors. Distinct from young adult survivors of childhood cancer, young people diagnosed with cancer as adolescents and young adults (AYAs) face unique psychosocial issues; however, there is little published research of PTSS in the AYA population. This study examines prevalence and predictors of PTSS among AYAs with cancer. As part of a longitudinal study of AYAs with cancer, 151 patients aged 15-39 years completed mailed surveys at 6 and 12 months post-diagnosis. Severity of PTSS was estimated at 6 and 12 months post-diagnosis. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate the predictive effects of socio-demographic and clinical characteristics on changes in PTSS over time. At 6 and 12 months, respectively, 39% and 44% of participants reported moderate to severe levels of PTSS; 29% had PTSS levels suggestive of post-traumatic stress disorder. No significant differences in severity of PTSS between 6 and 12 months were observed. Regression analyses suggested that a greater number of side effects were associated with higher levels of PTSS at 6 months. Currently receiving treatment, having surgical treatment, diagnosis of a cancer type with a 90-100% survival rate, remaining unemployed/not in school, and greater PTSS at 6 months were associated with higher levels of PTSS at 12 months. Post-traumatic stress symptoms were observed as early as 6 months following diagnosis and remained stable at 12-month follow-up. The development of early interventions for reducing distress among AYA patients in treatment is recommended. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Adolescents and young adults with cancer: aspects of adherence – a questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleinke AM

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Anne Marie Kleinke, Carl Friedrich Classen Oncology and Hematology Unit, Children’s Hospital, University Medicine Rostock, Rostock, Germany Purpose: For adolescents and young adults (AYAs, a cancer diagnosis represents an extraordinary strike in a vulnerable phase of life. They have special needs that the medical system has to take into consideration, and they exhibit a lower degree of therapy adherence than both older and younger patients. The purpose of this study was first to analyze the adherence of AYAs with cancer compared to a group of older patients and, second, to determine correlated parameters, with focus on the psychosocial interaction between physicians and patients. Patients and methods: In 2012, a complete 1 year cohort of patients reported, by use of a questionnaire, to the Rostock clinical cancer registry, and a group of older patients were invited to answer a multi-item set of questionnaires on a volunteer basis, leading to a population-based cross-sectional analysis. This included a bias due to non-answering which is unavoidable in such a setting. The questionnaire consisted of well-established standard questionnaires, a questionnaire on adherence that has just recently been published, and a self-written questionnaire focusing on patient–physician relationship. The responses were analyzed for our current study. Results: Gender, religion, education, age, anxiety, family atmosphere, or physician–patient relationship were not significantly correlated to adherence in AYAs. However, markedly more AYAs, as compared to the older patients group, considered breaking off therapy and reported suboptimal communication with the physicians. Only the perceived physical illness could be identified as a factor related to adherence among the AYA group.Conclusion: Our findings confirm the need for more focused approaches to serve the special needs of AYAs, with particular attention on specific items that showed up discriminating AYAs from

  19. Nursing young people with cancer: What is "different" about it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sue; Soanes, Louise

    2016-12-01

    Nursing Adolescents and Young Adults (AYA) with cancer is a relatively new specialty, with much work having been undertaken across Europe. As this evolving specialty develops, nurses are required to develop networks, learn from each other and help to shape services across countries. Describing the cancer journey, this paper looks at the literature and, merging it with over 20years of experience, describes 'what is different' about looking after this group of young people. Looking at the specific issues about caring for AYA, including those issues that are pertinent in this age range: i.e. education/employment, fertility, body image, peers, family relationships, it discusses the development of specific services for this cohort of patients; one that is centred around the young person and their friends and families. Taking into account the need to develop multidisciplinary teams, it also highlights the needs of nurses who work in these teams, the education, skills and attributes needed to develop gold standard services for these challenging young people. The further development of nursing networks internationally is urged in order to share practice and expertise, nurture teams and bring the AYA with cancer into sharp focus. Copyright © 2016 Société Française du Cancer. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychological outcomes and health beliefs in adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood cancer and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak, Anne E; Derosa, Branlyn Werba; Schwartz, Lisa A; Hobbie, Wendy; Carlson, Claire; Ittenbach, Richard F; Mao, Jun J; Ginsberg, Jill P

    2010-04-20

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to compare adolescent and young adult (AYA) pediatric cancer survivors and peers without a history of serious illness on psychological distress, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), health beliefs; examine age at diagnosis and cancer treatment intensity on these outcomes; and examine relationships between number of health problems and the outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS AYA cancer survivors (n = 167) and controls (n = 170), recruited during visits to a cancer survivorship clinic and primary care, completed self-report questionnaires of distress, health problems, and health beliefs. For survivors, providers rated treatment intensity and health problems. Results There were no statistically significant differences between survivors and controls in psychological distress or HRQOL. Cancer survivors had less positive health beliefs. Survivors diagnosed as adolescents had significantly greater psychological distress and fewer positive health beliefs than those diagnosed earlier. Survivors with the highest level of treatment intensity had greater anxiety and fewer positive health beliefs than those with less intense treatments. Provider report of current health problems related to survivors' beliefs and mental HRQOL only, whereas patient report of health problems correlated significantly with most psychosocial outcomes and beliefs. CONCLUSION AYA cancer survivors did not differ from peers in psychological adjustment but did endorse less adaptive health beliefs. Survivors diagnosed during adolescence and who had more intensive cancer treatments evidenced poorer psychosocial outcomes. Beliefs about health may be identified and targeted for intervention to improve quality of life, particularly when patient perceptions of current health problems are considered.

  1. Symptoms and Symptom Clusters Identified by Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer Using a Symptom Heuristics App.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameringer, Suzanne; Erickson, Jeanne M; Macpherson, Catherine Fiona; Stegenga, Kristin; Linder, Lauri A

    2015-12-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer experience multiple distressing symptoms during treatment. Because the typical approach to symptom assessment does not easily reflect the symptom experience of individuals, alternative approaches to enhancing communication between the patient and provider are needed. We developed an iPad-based application that uses a heuristic approach to explore AYAs' cancer symptom experiences. In this mixed-methods descriptive study, 72 AYAs (13-29 years old) with cancer receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy used the Computerized Symptom Capture Tool (C-SCAT) to create images of the symptoms and symptom clusters they experienced from a list of 30 symptoms. They answered open-ended questions within the C-SCAT about the causes of their symptoms and symptom clusters. The images generated through the C-SCAT and accompanying free-text data were analyzed using descriptive, content, and visual analyses. Most participants (n = 70) reported multiple symptoms (M = 8.14). The most frequently reported symptoms were nausea (65.3%), feeling drowsy (55.6%), lack of appetite (55.6%), and lack of energy (55.6%). Forty-six grouped their symptoms into one or more clusters. The most common symptom cluster was nausea/eating problems/appetite problems. Nausea was most frequently named as the priority symptom in a cluster and as a cause of other symptoms. Although common threads were present in the symptoms experienced by AYAs, the graphic images revealed unique perspectives and a range of complexity of symptom relationships, clusters, and causes. Results highlight the need for a tailored approach to symptom management based on how the AYA with cancer perceives his or her symptom experience. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Cancer in adolescents and young adults: Who remains at risk of poor social functioning over time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, Olga; Zebrack, Bradley J; Aguilar, Christine; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon; Cole, Steve

    2017-07-15

    The objective of the current study was to examine social functioning among adolescents and young adults (AYAs) within the first 2 years after a cancer diagnosis and compare their scores with population norms and identify trajectories of social functioning over time and its correlates. A multicenter, longitudinal study was conducted among 215 AYA patients with cancer aged 14 to 39 years. A total of 141 patients completed a self-report measure of social functioning within the first 4 months of diagnosis and again at 12 months and 24 months later. AYA patients with cancer were found to have significantly worse social functioning scores around the time of diagnosis (52.0 vs 85.1; Pcancer who had consistently low social functioning were more often off treatment at the time of follow-up, reported more physical symptoms and higher levels of distress at baseline and follow-up, and perceived less social support at baseline compared with the other 3 groups. Although improved over time, social functioning still was found to be compromised 24 months after the primary diagnosis. Nearly one-third of these patients remain at risk of poor social functioning. Reducing physical symptoms and psychological distress and enhancing social support by interventions during the period after treatment may potentially help these young survivors to better reintegrate into society. Cancer 2017;123:2743-51. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  3. Body Image Discomfort of Adolescent and Young Adult Hematologic Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchetti, Giulia; Bellini, Simona; Bertolotti, Marina; Bona, Francesca; Biasin, Eleonora; Bertorello, Nicoletta; Tirtei, Elisa; Fagioli, Franca

    2017-06-01

    This study focuses on body image discomfort (BID) of 50 adolescent and young adult (AYA) hematologic cancer survivors (age range 15-23; 52% males). The study results were obtained through data from a self-report questionnaire: the Body Uneasiness Test. Findings differed according to gender: a greater proportion of females were in the Risk category of impaired body image than males (χ 2  = 5.258, p < 0.05). No significant body image differences were found according to the type of diagnosis or to the length of survival. To manage survivors' BIDs and to improve their quality of life, assessing BID in AYA cancer survivors is important for identifying those who might be in need of additional supportive care or a program.

  4. Empowerment in adolescents and young adults with cancer: Relationship with health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaal, Suzanne E J; Husson, Olga; van Duivenboden, Saskia; Jansen, Rosemarie; Manten-Horst, Eveliene; Servaes, Petra; Prins, Judith B; van den Berg, Sanne W; van der Graaf, Winette T A

    2017-10-15

    The difficulties adolescents and young adults (AYAs) encounter during a cancer experience may result in a reduction in or absence of empowerment. The aims of the current study were to assess levels of empowerment and associated (demographic, clinical, or psychological) factors and examine the association between empowerment and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among AYA patients with cancer. Patients aged 18 to 35 years at time of cancer diagnosis and who were seen by 1 of the members of the specialized multidisciplinary AYA team of the Radboud University Medical Center were invited to complete questionnaires regarding empowerment; HRQOL; and sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics (autonomy, coping, unmet social support needs, and psychological distress). A total of 83 AYA patients completed the questionnaires. The mean age of the participants at the time of diagnosis was 27.5 years. The vast majority had been treated with chemotherapy (86%), had a more advanced stage of disease, and had completed treatment at the time of participation (74%). The mean empowerment level was 154.1 (standard deviation, 17.8) with a range of 114 to 200. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the autonomy subscales of self-awareness (β = .35), capacity for managing new situations (β = .19), and social support (β = .35) were found to be positively associated with empowerment. Coping difficulties (β = -.19) were found to be negatively associated with empowerment. Empowerment was independently associated with physical (β = .31), psychological (β = .50), social (β = .39), religious (β = .33), and total HRQOL (β = .52; all Pempowerment were associated with low levels of autonomy and social support, female sex, and coping difficulties among AYA patients with cancer. Recognizing these patients as candidates for empowerment interventions ultimately could help to improve HRQOL in late adolescence and young adulthood. Cancer 2017;123:4039-47. © 2017 The

  5. Adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes following treatment of adolescent and young adult cancer: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima A Haggar

    Full Text Available To investigate obstetric and perinatal outcomes among female survivors of adolescent and young adult (AYA cancers and their offspring.Using multivariate analysis of statewide linked data, outcomes of all first completed pregnancies (n = 1894 in female survivors of AYA cancer diagnosed in Western Australia during the period 1982-2007 were compared with those among females with no cancer history. Comparison pregnancies were matched by maternal age-group, parity and year of delivery.Compared with the non-cancer group, female survivors of AYA cancer had an increased risk of threatened abortion (adjusted relative risk 2.09, 95% confidence interval 1.51-2.74, gestational diabetes (2.65, 2.08-3.57, pre-eclampsia (1.32, 1.04-1.87, post-partum hemorrhage (2.83, 1.92-4.67, cesarean delivery (2.62, 2.22-3.04, and maternal postpartum hospitalization>5 days (3.01, 1.72-5.58, but no excess risk of threatened preterm delivery, antepartum hemorrhage, premature rupture of membranes, failure of labor to progress or retained placenta. Their offspring had an increased risk of premature birth (<37 weeks: 1.68, 1.21-2.08, low birth weight (<2500 g: 1.51, 1.23-2.12, fetal growth restriction (3.27, 2.45-4.56, and neonatal distress indicated by low Apgar score (<7 at 1 minute (2.83, 2.28-3.56, need for resuscitation (1.66, 1.27-2.19 or special care nursery admission (1.44, 1.13-1.78. Congenital abnormalities and perinatal deaths (intrauterine or ≤7 days of birth were not increased among offspring of survivors.Female survivors of AYA cancer have moderate excess risks of adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes arising from subsequent pregnancies that may require additional surveillance or intervention.

  6. Initial evaluation of an electronic symptom diary for adolescents with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggott, Christina; Gibson, Faith; Coll, Beatriz; Kletter, Richard; Zeltzer, Paul; Miaskowski, Christine

    2012-12-11

    The delivery of optimal care depends on accurate communication between patients and clinicians regarding untoward symptoms. Documentation of patients' symptoms necessitates reliance on memory, which is often imprecise. We developed an electronic diary (eDiary) for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer to record symptoms. The purpose of this paper is to describe the utility of an eDiary designed for AYAs with cancer, including dependability of the mobile application, the reasons for any missing recorded data, patients' adherence rates to daily symptom queries, and patients' perceptions of the usefulness and acceptability of symptom data collection via mobile phones. Our team developed an electronic symptom diary based on interviews conducted with AYAs with cancer and their clinicians. This diary included daily severity ratings of pain, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and sleep. The occurrence of other selected physical sequelae was assessed daily. Additionally, patients selected descriptors of their mood. A 3-week trial of the eDiary was conducted with 10 AYA cancer patients. Mobile phones with service plans were loaned to patients who were instructed to report their symptoms daily. Patients completed a brief questionnaire and were interviewed to elicit their perceptions of the eDiary and any technical difficulties encountered. Overall adherence to daily symptom reports exceeded 90%. Young people experienced few technical difficulties and reported benefit from daily symptom reports. Symptom occurrence rates were high and considerable inter- and intra-patient variability was noted in symptom and mood reports. We demonstrated the utility of an eDiary that may contribute insight into patients' symptom patterns to promote effective symptom management.

  7. The relationship between unmet needs and distress amongst young people with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Gavin J; Thompson, Kate; Palmer, Susan; Thomas, David M; Schofield, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    Most psychosocial research in cancer has been restricted to paediatric or older adult populations. This study aimed to explore psychological distress and unmet needs in adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer and identify predictors of distress among demographic and illness characteristics and supportive care needs. Fifty-three patients between 16 and 30 years completed a cross-sectional survey, administered shortly after presentation to an AYA oncology service and within 4 months of diagnosis. Measures included the Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen (BDI-FS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-State Form (STAI-S) and the Supportive Care Needs Survey. Level of distress-related sypmtomatology in this population was based on previous work, whereby a cut-off score of 4 or greater was used for the BDI-FS, and one standard deviation above the sample population mean was used for the STAI-S. Prevalence of distress (25%) was lower than that found previously in AYA with cancer. Physical and daily living needs were the most frequently unmet needs overall, followed by psychological needs, health system and information needs and care and support needs. Lastly, being pre-treatment predicted increased depression and state anxiety, while having treatment post-surgery predicted reduced state anxiety. After controlling for treatment status, however, the main predictors of depression and state anxiety were physical and daily living needs and health system and information needs, respectively. Lower levels of distress and unmet psychological needs were related to the few participants (17%) in this study who were pre-treatment, when distress was most likely. However, physical needs and information needs, which are almost inevitable throughout treatment and beyond, were more important predictors of distress. Further exploration must consider the psychosocial difficulties underlying this association and the needs of AYA at transitions between critical periods in their cancer journey

  8. Post-Traumatic Growth and Resilience in Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Patients: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greup, Suzanne R; Kaal, Suzanne E J; Jansen, Rosemarie; Manten-Horst, Eveliene; Thong, Melissa S Y; van der Graaf, Winette T A; Prins, Judith B; Husson, Olga

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the literature on post-traumatic growth (PTG) and resilience among adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients. A literature search in Embase, PsychInfo, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Cinahl was carried out. Thirteen articles met the pre-defined inclusion criteria. Qualitative interview studies showed that AYA cancer patients report PTG and resilience: PTG is described by AYA cancer patients in terms of benefit finding, including changing view of life and feeling stronger and more confident, whereas resilience is described as a balance of several factors, including stress and coping, goals, optimism, finding meaning, connection, and belonging. Quantitative studies showed that sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were not associated with PTG. Enduring stress was negatively, and social support positively, associated with PTG. Symptom distress and defensive coping were negatively and adaptive cognitive coping was positively associated with resilience. Both PTG and resilience were positively associated with satisfaction with life and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Resilience was found to be a mediator in the relationship between symptom distress and HRQoL. Two interventions aiming to promote resilience, a stress management and a therapeutic music video-intervention, were not successful in significantly increasing overall resilience. Most AYA cancer patients report at least some PTG or resilience. Correlates of PTG and resilience, including symptom distress, stress, coping, social support, and physical activity, provide further insight to improve the effectiveness of interventions aimed at promoting these positive outcomes and potentially buffer negative outcomes.

  9. A review of mobile applications to help adolescent and young adult cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley KM

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kimberly M Wesley,1 Philip J Fizur2 1Department of Psychology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, 2Department of Psychology, La Salle University, Philadelphia, PA, USA Objective: To review research articles utilizing mobile applications with adolescent and young adult (AYA cancer patients. Materials and methods: We identified articles via online searches and reference lists (eg, PsycInfo, PubMed. Articles were reviewed by two study team members for target population, stated purpose, technological utilization, sample size, demographic characteristics, and outcome data. Strengths and weaknesses of each study were described. Results: Of 19 identified manuscripts, six met full inclusion criteria for this review (four smartphone applications and two tablet applications. One additional article that included an application not specific to oncology but included AYA patients with cancer within the target sample was also reviewed. Uses of these applications included symptom tracking, pain management, monitoring of eating habits following bone marrow transplant, monitoring of mucositis, and improving medication management. Utility results from pilot studies are presented. Conclusion: Mobile applications are growing in number and increasingly available to AYAs with and without chronic illness. These applications may prove useful in helping to support AYAs throughout their cancer treatment and beyond. However, few applications provide empirical data supporting their utility. Numerous strengths and benefits of these applications include increased accessibility to educational resources and self-management strategies, more frequent physical and emotional symptom tracking, and increased access to peer support. Despite these strengths, numerous limitations are identified, highlighting the need for future research in this area. Keywords: adolescent, young adult, cancer, smartphone, mobile, applications

  10. Preliminary development and psychometric evaluation of an unmet needs measure for adolescents and young adults with cancer: the Cancer Needs Questionnaire - Young People (CNQ-YP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clinton-McHarg Tara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents and young adult (AYA cancer survivors may have unique physical, psychological and social needs due to their cancer occurring at a critical phase of development. The aim of this study was to develop a psychometrically rigorous measure of unmet need to capture the specific needs of this group. Methods Items were developed following a comprehensive literature review, focus groups with AYAs, and feedback from health care providers, researchers and other professionals. The measure was pilot tested with 32 AYA cancer survivors recruited through a state-based cancer registry to establish face and content validity. A main sample of 139 AYA cancer patients and survivors were recruited through seven treatment centres and invited to complete the questionnaire. To establish test-retest reliability, a sub-sample of 34 participants completed the measure a second time. Exploratory factor analysis was performed and the measure was assessed for internal consistency, discriminative validity, potential responsiveness and acceptability. Results The Cancer Needs Questionnaire - Young People (CNQ-YP has established face and content validity, and acceptability. The final measure has 70 items and six factors: Treatment Environment and Care (33 items; Feelings and Relationships (14 items; Daily Life (12 items; Information and Activities (5 items; Education (3 items; and Work (3 items. All domains achieved Cronbach's alpha values greater than 0.80. Item-to-item test-retest reliability was also high, with all but four items reaching weighted kappa values above 0.60. Conclusions The CNQ-YP is the first multi-dimensional measure of unmet need which has been developed specifically for AYA cancer patients and survivors. The measure displays a strong factor structure, and excellent internal consistency and test-retest reliability. However, the small sample size has implications for the reliability of the statistical analyses undertaken

  11. Kids, Adolescents, and Young Adults Cancer Study-A Methodological Approach in Cancer Epidemiology Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, N. L.; Maurer, E.; Largent, J.; Kent, E.; Sender, E.; Culver, H. A.; Morris, R. A.; Sender, E.

    2009-01-01

    Advances have been made in treatment and outcomes for pediatric cancer. However adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer have not experienced similar relative improvements. We undertook a study to develop the methodology necessary for epidemiologic cancer research in these age groups. Our goal was to create the Kids, Adolescents, and Young Adults Cancer (KAYAC) project to create a resource to address research questions relevant to this population. We used a combination of clinic and population-based ascertainment to enroll 111 cases aged 0-39 for this methodology development study. The largest groups of cancer types enrolled include: breast cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, and melanoma. The overall participation rate is 69.8% and varies by age and tumor type. The study included patients, mothers, and fathers. The methods used to establish this resource are described, and the values of the resource in studies of childhood and young adult cancer are outlined.

  12. Queensland Youth Cancer Service: A Partnership Model to Facilitate Access to Quality Care for Young People Diagnosed with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Natalie K; Henney, Roslyn; Walker, Rick; Walpole, Euan; Kennedy, Glen; Nicholls, Wayne; Pinkerton, Ross

    2018-06-01

    Global recognition of the need to improve outcomes for adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer has led to the development of specific oncology programs and services. In Australia, Youth Cancer Services (YCS) are now established across the country. While each service has been shaped by nationally agreed principles, program development has been influenced by local policy and geographic differences. Queensland is a vast state with a widely dispersed population; coordination of cancer services for young people across this landscape presents unique challenges. The Queensland YCS (QYCS) work in a consultative partnership model with primary treating teams, across both pediatric and adult tertiary cancer services. Understanding how cancer services approach challenges and service development can provide guidance for other developing services. In this article, we describe the goals and development of QYCS and review the outcomes achieved in the service to date. We reviewed referral data and retrieved statewide clinical activity from the web-based data system. We compared these data with cancer registry data to identify disparities and areas for service development. While the service has achieved notable outcomes, challenges remain. These include recruitment of appropriately skilled and trained health professionals for this newly developing area of oncology. In addition, there is an ongoing need to advocate for this relatively small patient group, and to promote awareness and understanding of the need for AYA-specific services. With the dispersed population and concentration of services in metropolitan Brisbane, identifying and testing new innovative models, including telehealth, to reach all AYA diagnosed with cancer regardless of location of care are priorities.

  13. Health-related quality of life of adolescent and young adult patients with cancer in the United States: the Adolescent and Young Adult Health Outcomes and Patient Experience study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ashley Wilder; Bellizzi, Keith M; Keegan, Theresa H M; Zebrack, Brad; Chen, Vivien W; Neale, Anne Victoria; Hamilton, Ann S; Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Lynch, Charles F

    2013-06-10

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) diagnosed with cancer face numerous physical, psychosocial, and practical challenges. This article describes the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and associated demographic and health-related characteristics of this developmentally diverse population. Data are from the Adolescent and Young Adult Health Outcomes and Patient Experience (AYA HOPE) study, a population-based cohort of 523 AYA patients with cancer, ages 15 to 39 years at diagnosis from 2007 to 2009. Comparisons are made by age group and with general and healthy populations. Multiple linear regression models evaluated effects of demographic, disease, health care, and symptom variables on multiple domains of HRQOL using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) and the Short-Form Health Survey 12 (SF-12). Overall, respondents reported significantly worse HRQOL across both physical and mental health scales than did general and healthy populations. The greatest deficits were in limitations to physical and emotional roles, physical and social functioning, and fatigue. Teenaged patients (ages 15 to 17 years) reported worse physical and work/school functioning than patients 18 to 25 years old. Regression models showed that HRQOL was worse for those in treatment, with current/recent symptoms, or lacking health insurance at any time since diagnosis. In addition, sarcoma patients, Hispanic patients, and those with high school or lower education reported worse physical health. Unmarried patients reported worse mental health. Results suggest that AYAs with cancer have major decrements in several physical and mental HRQOL domains. Vulnerable subgroups included Hispanic patients, those with less education, and those without health insurance. AYAs also experienced higher levels of fatigue that were influenced by current symptoms and treatment. Future research should explore ways to address poor functioning in this understudied group.

  14. Cancer in adolescents and young adults in countries with limited resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrath, Ian; Epelman, Sidnei

    2013-08-01

    Cancer in adolescents and young adults (AYA) represents a higher fraction of all cancer in countries that are still undergoing a demographic transition. Such countries tend to have much younger populations, and therefore unless they have a particularly low incidence of cancer in this age group, will have a higher burden of cancer (absolute number of cases with cancer) in AYA. Cancers in AYA are comprised of the tail end of the incidence curve of cancers that have their peak incidence, or occur almost exclusively in childhood, the beginning of the incidence curve of cancers that primarily affect the elderly, and a third set of cancers that have their peak incidence (or are at least common) in the AYA age group (e.g., testicular cancer, sarcomas, melanoma, thyroid cancer). Many, but not all, of these cancers require radiation or cancer surgery, but the poorest countries do not have a sufficient number of radiation therapy units and surgical oncologists, or indeed medical and pediatric oncologists, to deal with the burden of cancer they face. The AYA age group is particularly important, both with regard to their contribution to the economy now and in the future (the majority are in the "working" age-group defined as 15-64 years), as well as their important role in caring for their families. Moreover, some of these cancers are eminently curable with chemotherapy alone, and more could be cured by simply improving the efficiency of existing health services and providing education and training to both the public as well as oncologists and other specialists required for the care of AYA (although such individuals will not necessarily be exclusively concerned with this age group). Of particular importance is the detection and diagnosis of cancer patients at the earliest possible time in the course of their disease. Avoiding delays in initiating therapy, which are partly due to the poverty and lack of education of the public as well as to a failure on the part of primary

  15. Empowerment in adolescents and young adults with cancer: Relationship with health‐related quality of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaal, Suzanne E.J.; Husson, Olga; van Duivenboden, Saskia; Jansen, Rosemarie; Manten‐Horst, Eveliene; Servaes, Petra; Prins, Judith B.; van den Berg, Sanne W.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND The difficulties adolescents and young adults (AYAs) encounter during a cancer experience may result in a reduction in or absence of empowerment. The aims of the current study were to assess levels of empowerment and associated (demographic, clinical, or psychological) factors and examine the association between empowerment and health‐related quality of life (HRQOL) among AYA patients with cancer. METHODS Patients aged 18 to 35 years at time of cancer diagnosis and who were seen by 1 of the members of the specialized multidisciplinary AYA team of the Radboud University Medical Center were invited to complete questionnaires regarding empowerment; HRQOL; and sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics (autonomy, coping, unmet social support needs, and psychological distress). RESULTS A total of 83 AYA patients completed the questionnaires. The mean age of the participants at the time of diagnosis was 27.5 years. The vast majority had been treated with chemotherapy (86%), had a more advanced stage of disease, and had completed treatment at the time of participation (74%). The mean empowerment level was 154.1 (standard deviation, 17.8) with a range of 114 to 200. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the autonomy subscales of self‐awareness (β = .35), capacity for managing new situations (β = .19), and social support (β = .35) were found to be positively associated with empowerment. Coping difficulties (β = ‐.19) were found to be negatively associated with empowerment. Empowerment was independently associated with physical (β = .31), psychological (β = .50), social (β = .39), religious (β = .33), and total HRQOL (β = .52; all Pempowerment were associated with low levels of autonomy and social support, female sex, and coping difficulties among AYA patients with cancer. Recognizing these patients as candidates for empowerment interventions ultimately could help to improve HRQOL in late adolescence and young adulthood. Cancer

  16. Diagnostic timeliness in adolescents and young adults with cancer: a cross-sectional analysis of the BRIGHTLIGHT cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Annie; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Whelan, Jeremy; Taylor, Rachel M; Barber, Julie; Gibson, Faith; Fern, Lorna A

    2018-03-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) are thought to experience prolonged intervals to cancer diagnosis, but evidence quantifying this hypothesis and identifying high-risk patient subgroups is insufficient. We aimed to investigate diagnostic timeliness in a cohort of AYAs with incident cancers and to identify factors associated with variation in timeliness. We did a cross-sectional analysis of the BRIGHTLIGHT cohort, which included AYAs aged 12-24 years recruited within an average of 6 months from new primary cancer diagnosis from 96 National Health Service hospitals across England between July 1, 2012, and April 30, 2015. Participants completed structured, face-to-face interviews to provide information on their diagnostic experience (eg, month and year of symptom onset, number of consultations before referral to specialist care); demographic information was extracted from case report forms and date of diagnosis and cancer type from the national cancer registry. We analysed these data to assess patient interval (time from symptom onset to first presentation to a general practitioner [GP] or emergency department), the number of prereferral GP consultations, and the symptom onset-to-diagnosis interval (time from symptom onset to diagnosis) by patient characteristic and cancer site, and examined associations using multivariable regression models. Of 1114 participants recruited to the BRIGHTLIGHT cohort, 830 completed a face-to-face interview. Among participants with available information, 204 (27%) of 748 had a patient interval of more than a month and 242 (35%) of 701 consulting a general practitioner had three or more prereferral consultations. The median symptom onset-to-diagnosis interval was 62 days (IQR 29-153). Compared with male AYAs, female AYAs were more likely to have three or more consultations (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1·6 [95% CI 1·1-2·3], p=0·0093) and longer median symptom onset-to-diagnosis intervals (adjusted median interval longer by 24 days [95

  17. The Age Conundrum: A Scoping Review of Younger Age or Adolescent and Young Adult as a Risk Factor for Clinical Distress, Depression, or Anxiety in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Michael J; David, Victoria; Giese-Davis, Janine

    2015-12-01

    This scoping review was conducted to understand the extent, range, and nature of current research on adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer and distress, depression, and anxiety (DDA). This information is necessary to find and aggregate valuable data on the AYA population embedded in generalized studies of DDA. Keyword searches of six relevant electronic databases identified 2156 articles, with 316 selected for abstract review and 40 for full text review. Full-text reviews and data extraction resulted in 34 studies being included, which ranged widely in design, sample size, age-range categorization, analysis methods, DDA measurement tool, overall study rigor, and quality of evidence. Studies very seldom reported using theory to guide their age categorization, with only four studies giving any rationale for their age-group definitions. All 34 studies found a significant association between at least one DDA construct and the younger age group relative to the older age groups at some point along the cancer trajectory. However, age as an independent risk factor for DDA is still unclear, as the relationship could be confounded by other age-related factors. Despite the wide range of definitions and effect sizes in the studies included in this review, one thing is clear: adolescents and young adults, however defined, are a distinct group within the cancer population with an elevated risk of DDA. Widespread adoption of a standard AYA age-range definition will be essential to any future meta-analytical psycho-oncology research in this population.

  18. Sexuality and romantic relationships in young adult cancer survivors: satisfaction and supportive care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geue, Kristina; Schmidt, Ricarda; Sender, Annekathrin; Sauter, Siegfried; Friedrich, Michael

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, psycho-oncology has focused more and more on adolescents and young adults with cancer (AYA). Many studies have concentrated on fertility issues in AYAs, but romantic relationships and sexuality have only been researched to a limited extent. This cross-sectional study examined AYAs' quality of relationships and sexuality satisfaction thereby identifying sex differences. Ninety-nine cancer patients (N = 33 males) diagnosed between 15 and 39 years who were in a romantic relationship at the time of the survey completed questionnaires on their relationship (Partnership Questionnaire), sexuality (Life Satisfaction Questionnaire), and sexuality needs (Supportive Care Needs Survey). Test for mean differences and regression analyses to determine associated variables were performed. Seventy-six percent of AYAs (N = 75) rated their relationship quality as high. About 64% of patients reported having less sexual intercourse since diagnosis, more women than men (72% vs. 45%; p = .011). The need for support was strongest for changes in sexual feelings (N = 38; 38.3%). Duration of relationship (β = -0.224), being on sick leave (β = 0.325), and satisfaction with sexuality (β = 0.409) were associated with satisfaction with relationship (R(2)  = 0.256). Satisfaction with sexuality (R(2)  = 0.344) was regressed on physical function (β = 0.419), satisfaction with relationship (β = 0.428), and male gender (β = -0.175). Sexuality need (R(2)  = 0.436) was associated with fatigue (β = 0.232) and satisfaction with sexuality (β = -0.522). Although they reported high satisfaction with their relationships, AYA patients experienced sexual problems and need support with sexual issues. As a substantial proportion of patients felt stressed because of sexual changes, communication and interventions addressing post-cancer sexuality, particularly in women, are indicated. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Cardiovascular disease incidence in adolescent and young adult cancer survivors: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Theresa H M; Kushi, Lawrence H; Li, Qian; Brunson, Ann; Chawla, X; Chew, Helen K; Malogolowkin, Marcio; Wun, Ted

    2018-06-01

    Few population-based studies have focused on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adolescent and young adult (AYA; 15-39 years) cancer survivors and none have considered whether CVD risk differs by sociodemographic factors. Analyses focused on 79,176 AYA patients diagnosed with 14 first primary cancers in 1996-2012 and surviving > 2 years after diagnosis with follow-up through 2014. Data were obtained from the California Cancer Registry and State hospital discharge data. CVD included coronary artery disease, heart failure, and stroke. The cumulative incidence of developing CVD accounted for the competing risk of death. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression evaluated factors associated with CVD and the impact of CVD on mortality. Overall, 2249 (2.8%) patients developed CVD. Survivors of central nervous system cancer (7.3%), acute lymphoid leukemia (6.9%), acute myeloid leukemia (6.8%), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (4.1%) had the highest 10-year CVD incidence. In multivariable models, African-Americans (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.33-1.81; versus non-Hispanic Whites), those with public/no health insurance (HR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.61-1.96; versus private) and those who resided in lower socioeconomic status neighborhoods had a higher CVD risk. These sociodemographic differences in CVD incidence were apparent across most cancer sites. The risk of death was increased by eightfold or higher among AYAs who developed CVD. While cancer therapies are known to increase the risk of CVD, this study additionally shows that CVD risk varies by sociodemographic factors. The identification and mitigation of CVD risk factors in these subgroups may improve long-term patient outcomes.

  20. [Does consumption of tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis in adolescents and young adults with cancer affect the use of analgesics during hospitalizations?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, A; Boyle, H; Moreaux, J; Guillot, L; Chvetzoff, G; Charbonnel, J-F; Marec-Berard, P

    2016-04-01

    The specificities of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) aged 15-25 years with cancer are now well recognized. Dedicated care was initiated in 2012 in France under the leadership of the INCa (National Cancer Institute). Research on supportive care and particularly pain management are still rare. This study aimed to evaluate the consumption of toxic substances (tobacco, cannabis, alcohol) in AYAs with cancer as well as its progression during the month following the diagnosis and to analyze its influence on opioid analgesic prescriptions during treatment. This is a prospective study including all new patients aged 15-25 years in two centers between January and June 2013. Data on consumption of psychoactive substances were obtained during an individual interview with a questionnaire. National surveys were used to compare this cohort with the general population. Data on opioid treatments were collected from the computerized prescription software and computerized patient record. Thirty-seven AYAs were eligible and 30 were included; 67% of them were male and the median age was 18.7 years. The questionnaire on tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis consumption at diagnosis was well accepted. Consumption profiles were comparable to the general population. Changes in behavior were observed during the 1st month after diagnosis, with a decrease or cessation of consumption, particularly among young people. This study showed differences in the use and requirements for opioid analgesics during hospitalization according to these consumption data. Prevention and support for AYAs who are regular consumers of toxic substances must be organized during initial care in oncology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. A Fitbit and Facebook mHealth intervention for promoting physical activity among adolescent and young adult childhood cancer survivors: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Jason A; Baker, K Scott; Moreno, Megan A; Whitlock, Kathryn; Abbey-Lambertz, Mark; Waite, Alan; Colburn, Trina; Chow, Eric J

    2017-12-01

    Physical activity (PA) may be important for preventing chronic diseases for adolescent and young adult (AYA) childhood cancer survivors. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of PA interventions for AYA survivors are sparse, but necessary to determine effective programs for increasing PA among this population. Thus, we conducted a pilot RCT, testing the feasibility of a mobile health (mHealth) intervention to promote PA among AYA survivors. We recruited 14- to 18-year-olds who were ≥1-year post cancer therapy from Seattle Children's Hospital. The 10-week intervention consisted of a wearable PA-tracking device (Fitbit Flex) and a peer-based virtual support group (Facebook group). Research staff helped set step goals and awarded badges weekly. Controls received usual care. Baseline assessments occurred before randomization and follow-up assessments occurred during weeks 8-10 of the intervention period. Feasibility criteria are defined below. Qualitative interviews assessed acceptability. Exploratory outcomes included PA, quality of life, and motivation for PA. All feasibility criteria were met: we recruited 60 survivors, intervention participants wore the Fitbit on the majority (71.5%) of intervention days, and ≥90% of all participants completed questionnaires. Qualitative data confirmed intervention acceptability. Exploratory analyses found no significant adjusted group differences for change in moderate-to-vigorous PA (4.4 vs. 5.0 min/day; P = 0.92) or sedentary time (-4.5 vs. 1.0 min/day; P = 0.73), comparing intervention subjects to controls. Some modest differences were found for select subscales of quality of life and motivation for PA. This mHealth PA intervention was feasible and acceptable to AYA childhood cancer survivors and warrants a fully powered RCT. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Among Adolescent and Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer: Importance of Monitoring Survivors' Experiences of Family Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamibeppu, Kiyoko; Murayama, Shiho; Ozono, Shuichi; Sakamoto, Naoko; Iwai, Tsuyako; Asami, Keiko; Maeda, Naoko; Inada, Hiroko; Kakee, Naoko; Okamura, Jun; Horibe, Keizo; Ishida, Yasushi

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among Japanese long-term childhood cancer survivors (CCSs). Subjects comprised 185 adolescent and young adult (AYA) CCSs who completed anonymous self-report questionnaires. Attending physicians also completed an anonymous disease/treatment data sheet. Mean age of survivors was approximately 8 years at diagnosis and 23 years at participation. Multiple regression analysis showed that family functioning, satisfaction with social support, being female, and interactions between family functioning and gender and age at the time of diagnosis were associated with PTSS among survivors. This study revealed family functioning as the most predictive factor of PTSS among AYA CCSs in Japan. Even when the survivor may have unchangeable risk factors, family functioning can potentially moderate the effects on PTSS. Thus, it is crucial for health professionals to carefully monitor and attend to survivors' experiences of family functioning to mitigate PTSS. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Adolescent and Young Adult Patient Engagement and Participation in Survey-Based Research: A Report From the "Resilience in Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer" Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Abby R; Bona, Kira; Wharton, Claire M; Bradford, Miranda; Shaffer, Michele L; Wolfe, Joanne; Baker, Kevin Scott

    2016-04-01

    Conducting patient-reported outcomes research with adolescents and young adults (AYAs) is difficult due to low participation rates and high attrition. Forty-seven AYAs with newly diagnosed cancer at two large hospitals were prospectively surveyed at the time of diagnosis and 3-6 and 12-18 months later. A subset participated in 1:1 semistructured interviews. Attrition prompted early study closure at one site. The majority of patients preferred paper-pencil to online surveys. Interview participants were more likely to complete surveys (e.g., 93% vs. 58% completion of 3-6 month surveys, P = 0.02). Engaging patients through qualitative methodologies and using patient-preferred instruments may optimize future research success. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Health promotion and psychological interventions for adolescent and young adult cancer survivors: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Natalie Katrina; Chan, Raymond Javan

    2017-04-01

    The effects of cancer and treatment have severe and long lasting negative impacts on quality of life. Adolescents and Young Adults (AYA) have high survival rates but may not reach their full life potential because of these consequences. This review aims to identify, appraise and synthesise the effects of health promotion and psychological interventions for AYA after cancer treatment. The review was undertaken using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. Included studies were identified though a range of electronic databases through to May 2016. Studies were critically appraised using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Seventeen studies, comprising a total of 2314 participants aged 13-39years were included in this review. Participants in 15 studies were survivors of childhood cancer, with only two studies specifically recruiting survivors of cancer diagnosed during young adulthood. Ten studies were randomised controlled trials (RCTs); the remaining seven were before and after studies. The quality of studies was variable across all appraised domains; risk of bias was evident in regards to recruitment, measures of exposure and outcomes, confounding factors, attrition and lost-to follow-up. Studies evaluated a range of health promotion and psychological interventions to improve health related and process outcomes. Eleven studies reported modest positive outcomes, with psychological and physical activity interventions achieving greater success compared to general health promotion interventions. This review highlights the lack of high-quality studies for optimising the health and well-being of AYA cancer survivors. No conclusive evidence favouring specific interventions were identified, although recommendations for future studies are made. Interventions delivered face-to-face and those that facilitate peer-to-peer support hold promise. Harnessing social media and technology to deliver interventions is likely to increase and these

  5. Development of a text messaging system to improve receipt of survivorship care in adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, Jacqueline; Goyal, Anju; Bryman, Jason; Alquaddoomi, Faisal; Ganz, Patricia A; Lidington, Emma; Macadangdang, Joshua; Estrin, Deborah

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to develop and examine the acceptability, feasibility, and usability of a text messaging, or Short Message Service (SMS), system for improving the receipt of survivorship care for adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivors of childhood cancer. Researchers developed and refined the text messaging system based on qualitative data from AYA survivors in an iterative three-stage process. In stage 1, a focus group (n = 4) addressed acceptability; in stage 2, key informant interviews (n = 10) following a 6-week trial addressed feasibility; and in stage 3, key informant interviews (n = 23) following a 6-week trial addressed usability. Qualitative data were analyzed using a constant comparative analytic approach exploring in-depth themes. The final system includes programmed reminders to schedule and attend late effect screening appointments, tailored suggestions for community resources for cancer survivors, and messages prompting participant feedback regarding the appointments and resources. Participants found the text messaging system an acceptable form of communication, the screening reminders and feedback prompts feasible for improving the receipt of survivorship care, and the tailored suggestions for community resources usable for connecting survivors to relevant services. Participants suggested supplementing survivorship care visits and forming AYA survivor social networks as future implementations for the text messaging system. The text messaging system may assist AYA survivors by coordinating late effect screening appointments, facilitating a partnership with the survivorship care team, and connecting survivors with relevant community resources. The text messaging system has the potential to improve the receipt of survivorship care.

  6. Hacking the hospital environment: young adults designing youth-friendly hospital rooms together with young people with cancer experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisen, Kirsten A; Boisen, Anne; Thomsen, Stine Legarth; Matthiesen, Simon Meggers; Hjerming, Maiken; Hertz, Pernille Grarup

    2015-12-09

    There is a need for youth-friendly hospital environments as the ward environment may affect both patient satisfaction and health outcomes. To involve young people in designing youth-friendly ward environment. We arranged a design competition lasting 42 h (Hackathon). Students in architecture, design, engineering, communication and anthropology participated (27 young adults) - forming eight groups. Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with current or former cancer experience participated as sparring partners. We provided workspace and food during the weekend. The groups presented their products to a jury and relevant stakeholders. The groups created eight unique design concepts. The young designers were extremely flexible listening to ideas and experiences from the young patients, which led to common features including individual and flexible design, privacy in two-bed wardrooms and social contact with other hospitalized AYA. The winning project included an integrated concept for both wardrooms and the AYA day room, including logos and names for the rooms and an 'energy wall' in the day room. A hackathon event was an effective mode of youth participation. The design concepts and ideas were in line with current evidence regarding pleasing hospital environment and youth-friendly inpatient facilities and may be applicable to other young patients.

  7. Disparities in location of death of adolescents and young adults with cancer: A longitudinal, population study in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeshuni, Nitya; Johnston, Emily E; Saynina, Olga; Sanders, Lee M; Chamberlain, Lisa J

    2017-11-01

    Patients with a terminal illness should have access to their chosen location of death. Cancer is the leading cause of non-accidental death among adolescents and young adults (AYAs; those aged 15-39 years). Although surveys have suggested that a majority of these patients prefer a home death, to the authors' knowledge, little is known regarding their barriers to accessing their preferred location of death. As a first step, the authors sought to determine, across a large population, 20-year trends in the location of death among AYA patients with cancer. Using the Vital Statistics Death Certificate Database of the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development, the authors performed a retrospective, population-based analysis of California patients with cancer aged 15 to 39 years who died between 1989 and 2011. Sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with hospital death were examined using multivariable logistic regression. Of 30,573 AYA oncology decedents, 57% died in a hospital, 33% died at home, and 10% died in other locations (eg, hospice facility or nursing facility). Between 1989 and 1994, hospital death rates decreased from 68.3% to 53.6% and at-home death rates increased from 16.8% to 35.5%. Between 1995 and 2011, these rates were stable. Those individuals who were more likely to die in a hospital were those aged deaths occurred in a hospital, with a 5-year shift to more in-home deaths that abated after 1995. In-hospital deaths were more common among younger patients, patients of minority race/ethnicities, and those with a leukemia or lymphoma diagnosis. Further study is needed to determine whether these rates and disparities are consistent with patient preferences. Cancer 2017;123:4178-4184. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  8. 1978-IJBCS-Article-Aya carole Bonny

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Salmonella. Kentucky for example, involved in an explosion of salmonellosis since 2002 in Europe and Africa, with poultry as primary vector (Le Hello et al., 2011). Salmonella Manhattan has also been involved in a large outbreak of salmonellosis associated with meat products of porcine origin in France (Noel et al.,. 2006).

  9. Evaluating Questionnaires Used to Assess Self-Reported Physical Activity and Psychosocial Outcomes Among Survivors of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer: A Cognitive Interview Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurz, Amanda; Brunet, Jennifer

    2017-09-01

    Physical activity is increasingly being studied as a way to improve psychosocial outcomes (e.g., quality of life, self-efficacy, physical self-perceptions, self-esteem, body image, posttraumatic growth) among survivors of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer. Assessing levels of and associations between self-reported physical activity and psychosocial outcomes requires clear, appropriate, and relevant questionnaires. To explore how survivors of AYA cancer interpreted and responded to the following eight published questionnaires: Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire, Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale, Physical Self-Description Questionnaire, Rosenberg Global Self-Esteem Scale, Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G), RAND 36-Item Health Survey 1.0 (RAND-36), cognitive interviews were conducted with three men and four women age 18-36 years who were diagnosed with cancer at age 16-35 years. Initially, the first seven questionnaires listed above were assessed. Summaries of the interviews were prepared and compared across participants. Potential concerns were identified with the FACT-G; thus, a second interview was conducted with participants to explore the clarity, appropriateness, and relevance of the RAND-36. Concerns identified for the FACT-G related mostly to the lack of relevance of items pertaining to cancer-specific aspects of quality of life given that participants were posttreatment. No or few concerns related to comprehension and/or structure/logic were identified for the other questionnaires. In general, the questionnaires assessed were clear, appropriate, and relevant. Participants' feedback suggested they could be used to assess self-reported physical activity and varied psychosocial outcomes in studies with survivors of AYA cancer, either with or without slight modifications.

  10. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  11. Barriers and Facilitators of Healthy Diet and Exercise Among Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivors: Implications for Behavioral Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yelena P; Yi, Jaehee; McClellan, Jessica; Kim, Jonghee; Tian, Tian; Grahmann, Bridget; Kirchhoff, Anne C; Holton, Avery; Wright, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    This study uses qualitative methods to identify barriers to and facilitators of exercise and healthy eating among adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors (survivors currently aged 18-39 years and diagnosed with cancer anytime in their lives), as reported by survivors and their primary supporters. Survivors (M(age) = 27.6 years, SD = 6.6 years) had completed active cancer therapy. Survivors and supporters (i.e., nominated by survivors as someone who was a main source of support) attended separate focus group sessions (five survivor focus groups, five supporter focus groups) and were asked to complete a self-reported questionnaire assessing demographic and cancer history and engagement in exercise and healthy eating. In total, 25 survivors and 19 supporters participated. The three overarching themes identified were barriers to exercise and healthy eating (e.g., lack of resources, negative thoughts and feelings, negative social and environmental influences), facilitators of exercise and healthy eating (e.g., cognitive motivators, tools for health behavior implementation, social relationships), and intervention implications (e.g., informational needs, desire for social support). AYA cancer survivors and their supporters identified barriers to and facilitators of healthy lifestyle behaviors, which should be considered when designing interventions to improve the long-term health of survivors.

  12. Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer: Oncology Nurses Report Attitudes and Barriers to Discussing Fertility Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobel Murray, Alexandra; Chrisler, Joan C; Robbins, Mark L

    2016-08-01

    Fertility issues have been found to be an important topic for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer. Medical technology has made fertility preservation (FP) increasingly effective for postpubertal patients whose treatment course may inhibit their future ability to achieve biologic parenthood. Oncology providers' recommendations have been shown to vary, potentially affecting patients' decision-making processes regarding FP. This study was designed to assess oncology nurses' recommendations for patients to consider FP options and to explore what patient-related factors may influence discussion of FP with AYAs with cancer. 116 oncology nurses participated in this study and were randomized to read one of four vignettes about a patient whose proposed treatment course could affect his or her fertility. Participants' recommendations to partake in FP were analyzed to test for differences by patient age and gender. Open-ended responses to questions about their experiences as oncology nurses were analyzed descriptively. Nurses strongly recommended that all patients explore FP options before the start of treatment. Oncology nurses endorsed stronger opinions that young adult female patients should be given independent decision-making power to delay treatment for FP, compared to male and female adolescent patients and young adult male patients. Participants mentioned barriers to discussions that included concerns about exacerbating negative emotions and the decision-making capacity of young patients.

  13. Towards an Ontology-driven Framework to Enable Development of Personalized mHealth Solutions for Cancer Survivors' Engagement in Healthy Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Sahiti; Amith, Muhammad; Geng, Yimin; Tao, Cui

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA) cancer survivors manage an array of health-related issues. Survivorship Care Plans (SCPs) have the potential to empower these young survivors by providing information regarding treatment summary, late-effects of cancer therapies, healthy lifestyle guidance, coping with work-life-health balance, and follow-up care. However, current mHealth infrastructure used to deliver SCPs has been limited in terms of flexibility, engagement, and reusability. The objective of this study is to develop an ontology-driven survivor engagement framework to facilitate rapid development of mobile apps that are targeted, extensible, and engaging. The major components include ontology models, patient engagement features, and behavioral intervention technologies. We apply the proposed framework to characterize individual building blocks ("survivor digilegos"), which form the basis for mHealth tools that address user needs across the cancer care continuum. Results indicate that the framework (a) allows identification of AYA survivorship components, (b) facilitates infusion of engagement elements, and (c) integrates behavior change constructs into the design architecture of survivorship applications. Implications for design of patient-engaging chronic disease management solutions are discussed.

  14. Development and validation of the BRIGHTLIGHT Survey, a patient-reported experience measure for young people with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachel M; Fern, Lorna A; Solanki, Anita; Hooker, Louise; Carluccio, Anna; Pye, Julia; Jeans, David; Frere-Smith, Tom; Gibson, Faith; Barber, Julie; Raine, Rosalind; Stark, Dan; Feltbower, Richard; Pearce, Susie; Whelan, Jeremy S

    2015-07-28

    Patient experience is increasingly used as an indicator of high quality care in addition to more traditional clinical end-points. Surveys are generally accepted as appropriate methodology to capture patient experience. No validated patient experience surveys exist specifically for adolescents and young adults (AYA) aged 13-24 years at diagnosis with cancer. This paper describes early work undertaken to develop and validate a descriptive patient experience survey for AYA with cancer that encompasses both their cancer experience and age-related issues. We aimed to develop, with young people, an experience survey meaningful and relevant to AYA to be used in a longitudinal cohort study (BRIGHTLIGHT), ensuring high levels of acceptability to maximise study retention. A three-stage approach was employed: Stage 1 involved developing a conceptual framework, conducting literature/Internet searches and establishing content validity of the survey; Stage 2 confirmed the acceptability of methods of administration and consisted of four focus groups involving 11 young people (14-25 years), three parents and two siblings; and Stage 3 established survey comprehension through telephone-administered cognitive interviews with a convenience sample of 23 young people aged 14-24 years. Stage 1: Two-hundred and thirty eight questions were developed from qualitative reports of young people's cancer and treatment-related experience. Stage 2: The focus groups identified three core themes: (i) issues directly affecting young people, e.g. impact of treatment-related fatigue on ability to complete survey; (ii) issues relevant to the actual survey, e.g. ability to answer questions anonymously; (iii) administration issues, e.g. confusing format in some supporting documents. Stage 3: Cognitive interviews indicated high levels of comprehension requiring minor survey amendments. Collaborating with young people with cancer has enabled a survey of to be developed that is both meaningful to young

  15. Communication About Prognosis With Adolescent and Young Adult Patients With Cancer: Information Needs, Prognostic Awareness, and Outcomes of Disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Jennifer W; Fasciano, Karen M; Block, Susan D

    2018-04-23

    Purpose Communication about prognosis affects decisions patients and family members make about cancer care, and most patients say they want to know about their chances of cure. We sought to evaluate experiences with prognosis communication among adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer. Patients and Methods We surveyed 203 AYAs with cancer age 15 to 29 years (response rate, 74%) treated at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and their oncologists. Patients were approached within 6 weeks of diagnosis and asked to report on their prognosis communication preferences and experiences, their beliefs about likelihood of cure, and psychosocial outcomes of communication, such as trust (using an item from the Trust in Physician Scale), peace of mind (using select items from the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being Scale), and anxiety and depression (using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Oncologists were asked to report the patient's likelihood of cure. Results Most patients (83%, 167 of 203 patients) considered prognostic information to be extremely or very important. Patients who reported having received more extensive prognostic disclosure had higher odds of trust in the oncologist (odds ratio [OR], 1.30; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.67; P = .05), peace of mind (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.29 to 3.51; P = .002), and hope related to physician communication (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.59; P = .04), after adjusting for patient sex, age, race or ethnicity, prognosis, and diagnosis. Disclosure was also associated with lower distress related to knowing about prognosis (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.95; P = .03). However, a majority of patients (62%) reported prognostic estimates that exceeded those reported by physicians (McNemar P < .001). Conclusion Most AYAs with cancer value receiving prognostic information, which is positively associated with aspects of well-being. However, most overestimate chances of cure relative to oncologists, highlighting the

  16. A comparison of heterosexual and LGBTQ cancer survivors' outlooks on relationships, family building, possible infertility, and patient-doctor fertility risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Russell, Andrea; Galvin, Kathleen M; Harper, Maya M; Clayman, Marla L

    2016-10-01

    Little research about cancer-related infertility has examined the experiences and needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ) cancer survivors. This research seeks to understand how LGBTQ survivors are similar to or different from heterosexual survivors with respect to cancer treatments' effects on relationships, plans for parenthood, and fertility preservation decision making. Semi-structured telephone interviews conducted with adolescent or young adult (AYA) cancer survivors (n = 56) were coded for themes. Interviews consisted of questions about pre- and post-diagnosis thoughts about relationships, parenthood, possible infertility, and how information about fertility risks was received. While LGBTQ (n = 22) and heterosexual (n = 34) survivors reported similar challenges when dating post-diagnosis, heterosexual survivors were more likely to report fertility concerns as affecting romantic relationships (p LGBTQ survivors seemed more open to raising non-biological children or not becoming a parent than heterosexual survivors. LGBTQ survivors generally reported being satisfied with or indifferent to the information that they were given regarding fertility loss, despite reporting receiving similar amounts of information as compared to heterosexual patients (p LGBTQ patients' views on relationships, parenthood, and family building seemed to result in less distress when faced with infertility. However, interventions facilitating information exchange about dating, fertility risks, and family building options may be valuable to LGBTQ and heterosexual cancer survivors. LGBTQ cancer survivors may display more adaptive coping with respect to relationships and fertility loss. Oncology professionals may want to proactively introduce positive coping strategies to reduce distress among AYA cancer survivors at risk for infertility.

  17. Small Scale Manufacture of Replacement Crankshaft | Nyang'aya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local production of spares has been recognised to have direct economic advantage for the national economy in which the equipment operates. The crankshaft of a single cylinder diesel engine for which the approximate cost of a replacement is a third of the cost of a new engine was considered a prime product for local ...

  18. "Perhaps I will die young." Fears and worries regarding disease and death among Danish adolescents and young adults with cancer. A mixed method study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Timm, Helle U; Graugaard, Christian

    2016-01-01

    worries about death; hereof, more than half of them expressed quite a bit or very much. The analysis showed significant gender differences, whereas age and duration of disease did not have any significant impact on such thoughts. Q2: One third had not talked to anybody about his or her worries. Q3...... about dying; (Q2) with whom, if anyone, they had shared those worries; and finally, (Q3) how fears and worries influenced their daily life. The emphasis will be on Q3. METHODS: A 151-item questionnaire (including two closed- and one open-ended questions about fears of death and dying) was distributed...... dying, but one third of them had not talked to anybody about those thoughts. It is an important clinical point that young age does not preclude fears and worries about dying in AYAs with cancer....

  19. A content analysis of emotional concerns expressed at the time of receiving a cancer diagnosis: An observational study of consultations with adolescent and young adult patients and their family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsvold, Live; Mellblom, Anneli Viktoria; Finset, Arnstein; Ruud, Ellen; Lie, Hanne Cathrine

    2017-02-01

    Little is known about the emotional concerns expressed by adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients in consultations when a diagnosis of cancer is delivered. Here, we investigated the content of such concerns and how health care providers respond to them. We audio-recorded nine consultations with AYA cancer patients (ages: 12-25 years) at the time of diagnosis. We have previously identified and coded 135 emotional concerns and the responses to these in the nine consultations using the Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequences (VR-CoDES) framework. Here, we used qualitative content analysis to study these emotional concerns and categorize them according to overarching themes. We then quantitatively explored associations between the themes of the concerns and whether the responses to them varied according to their themes. We identified four themes for the content of concerns: "Side-effects/late-effects" (39%), "What happens in the near future/practical aspects" (16%), "Fear" (27%) and "Sadness" (17%) (e. g. crying, sighing or other sounds that expressed sadness). Health care providers' responses did not appear to vary according to the different themes of concerns, but typically consisted of providing medical information. The content analysis revealed that patients and family members expressed a wide range of emotional concerns. Health care providers tended to respond to the content-aspect of the concerns, but did rarely explicitly acknowledge the affective-aspect of the concerns. The effect of responses to patients' emotional concerns in the important first consultations about the cancer diagnosis and planned treatment should be investigated in future studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... National Cancer Institute. PDQ lip and oral cavity cancer ... September 25, 2015. www.cancer.gov/types/head-and-neck/hp/lip- ...

  1. Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Cancer Statistics Cancer has a major impact on society in ... success of efforts to control and manage cancer. Statistics at a Glance: The Burden of Cancer in ...

  2. Colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma; Colon carcinoma ... eat may play a role in getting colon cancer. Colon cancer may be linked to a high-fat, ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Research Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... Genomics Research Research on Causes of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer ...

  4. Post-traumatic stress symptoms and post-traumatic growth in 223 childhood cancer survivors: predictive risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eTremolada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available With modern therapies and supportive care, survival rates of childhood cancer have increased considerably. However, there are long-term psychological sequelae of these treatments that may not manifest until pediatric survivors are into adulthood. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in young adult survivors of childhood cancer ranges from 6.2% to 22%; associated risk factors are young age at the assessment, female gender, low education level and some disease-related factors. The aim of this study was to investigate, in adolescent and young adult (AYA survivors of childhood cancer, the incidence and severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS, and to identify the risk factors and the associated post-traumatic growth (PTG index.Participants were 223 AYA cancer survivors recruited during follow-up visits in the Oncohematology Clinic of the Department of Child and Woman’s Health, University of Padua. Data were collected from self-report questionnaires on PTSS incidence, PTG mean score, perceived social support, and medical and socio-demographic factors. Ex-patients’ mean age at the assessment was 19.33 years (SD = 3.01, 15-25, 123 males and 100 females, with a mean of years off-therapy of 9.64 (SD=4.17. Most (52.5% had survived an hematological disorder and 47.5% a solid tumor when they were aged, on average, 8.02 years (SD=4.40.The main results indicated a moderate presence of clinical (≥9 symptoms: 9.4% and sub-clinical PTSS (6-8 symptoms: 11.2%, with the avoidance criterion most often encountered. Re-experience symptoms and PTG mean score were significantly associated (r=0.24 p=0.0001. A hierarchical regression model (R2 = 0.08; F = 1.46; p = 0.05 identified female gender (β = 0.16; p = 0.05 and less perceived social support (β = -0.43; p = 0.05 as risk factors to developing PTSS. Another hierarchical regression model assessed the possible predictors of the PTG total score (R2 = 0.36; F = 9.1; p = 0.0001, with

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver ... on Causes of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer Treatment Research Cancer & ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver ... of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer Treatment Research Cancer & Public Health ...

  7. Eyelid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  8. Anal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  9. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  10. Appendix Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  11. Testicular cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Germ cell tumor; Seminoma testicular cancer; Nonseminoma testicular cancer; Testicular neoplasm ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 86. National Cancer Institute. PDQ testicular cancer treatment. Updated February 17, 2016. www.cancer. ...

  12. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... of colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  13. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer ...

  14. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Childhood Cancer Genomics Study Findings Metastatic Cancer Metastatic Cancer Research Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate ... Genomics Research Research on Causes of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer ...

  17. Lung Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer ... following PDQ summaries for more information about lung cancer: Lung Cancer Screening Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment ...

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver ... Genomics Research Research on Causes of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer ...

  19. Collaboration and Networking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husson, O.; Manten-Horst, E.; Graaf, W.T.A. van der

    2016-01-01

    Awareness of the need for collaboration across pediatric and adult cancer to care for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) arose from the recognition of the unique characteristics of AYAs with cancer. Neither pediatric nor adult oncology hospital departments are able to provide age-appropriate care

  20. Metastatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metastatic cancer is cancer that spreads from its site of origin to another part of the body. Learn how cancer spreads, possible symptoms, common sites where cancer spreads, and how to find out about treatment options.

  1. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer (BRCA1 or BRCA2) or a very strong family history of breast cancer, your risk of prostate cancer may be higher. Obesity. Obese men diagnosed with prostate cancer may be more likely ...

  2. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I find more information about cervical and other gynecologic cancers? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: 800-CDC-INFO or www. cdc. gov/ cancer/ gynecologic National Cancer Institute: 800-4-CANCER or www. ...

  3. Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I find more information about ovarian and other gynecologic cancers? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: 800-CDC-INFO or www. cdc. gov/ cancer/ gynecologic National Cancer Institute: 800-4-CANCER or www. ...

  4. Lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisner, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Pathology of Lung Cancer; Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Cancer of the Lung; Chemotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; Immunotherapy in the Management of Lung Cancer; Preoperative Staging and Surgery for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; and Prognostic Factors in Lung Cancer

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer ... to Z List of Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Understanding Cancer What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Understanding Cancer What Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening Cancer ... Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview ...

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers ... Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s ...

  9. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next three ...

  10. Urological Cancers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results. A total of 8829 cancers were diagnosed over the 15 year study period, 749 (8.4%) were Urological malignancies. The male to female ratio of the. Urological cancers was 10.7 to 1. Cancer of the prostate was the most common urological malignancy (54.6%), followed by cancer of the bladder (21.1%) and cancer of ...

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung ... need for different kinds of information about her colorectal cancer prognosis. Diving Out of the Dark View this ...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer ... need for different kinds of information about her colorectal cancer prognosis. Diving Out of the Dark View ...

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung ... need for different kinds of information about her colorectal cancer prognosis. Diving Out of the Dark View this ...

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening ... What Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening ...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening ... Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid ... and where it is in your body The stage of the cancer, which refers to the size ...

  17. Cancer and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Infographics Cancer and Alcohol Web Features Breast Cancer Awareness Breast Cancer in Young Women Cancer and Men ... in Childhood Cancer, the Flu, and You Cervical Cancer Awareness Colorectal Cancer Awareness Gynecologic Cancer Awareness Health Disparities ...

  18. CDC's Cervical Cancer Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Infographics Cancer and Alcohol Web Features Breast Cancer Awareness Breast Cancer in Young Women Cancer and Men ... in Childhood Cancer, the Flu, and You Cervical Cancer Awareness Colorectal Cancer Awareness Gynecologic Cancer Awareness Health Disparities ...

  19. Cancer and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Infographics Cancer and Alcohol Web Features Breast Cancer Awareness Breast Cancer in Young Women Cancer and Men ... in Childhood Cancer, the Flu, and You Cervical Cancer Awareness Colorectal Cancer Awareness Gynecologic Cancer Awareness Health Disparities ...

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by ... Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role ...

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer Treatment Research Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health ... Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer Treatment Research Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Clinical Trials Global ... Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials Global ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Coping with Your Feelings During Advanced Cancer Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer and Caregivers Questions ... Talking About Advanced Cancer Coping With Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer ...

  4. Stages of Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... cancer cells have places where hormones can attach ( receptors ), drugs , surgery, or radiation therapy is used to ...

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening ... Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and ... of Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer Treatment Research Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Clinical Trials ... Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials ...

  8. Stomach Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with stomach acid and helps digest protein. Stomach cancer mostly affects older people - two-thirds of people ... Smoke cigarettes Have a family history of stomach cancer It is hard to diagnose stomach cancer in ...

  9. Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI is the nation's leader in cancer research. Learn more about NCI's cancer research areas, key initiatives, progress made in cancer research, and resources for researchers like research tools, specimens and data.

  10. Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunotherapy is a cancer treatment that helps your immune system fight cancer. It is a type of biological therapy. Biological therapy uses substances ... t yet use immunotherapy as often as other cancer treatments, such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. ...

  11. Uterine Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is pregnant. There are different types of uterine cancer. The most common type starts in the endometrium, ... the uterus. This type is also called endometrial cancer. The symptoms of uterine cancer include Abnormal vaginal ...

  12. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  13. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  14. Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toxins. In children, a genetic condition, such as Down syndrome , can sometimes increase the risk of cancer. Kids who have had chemotherapy or radiation treatment for cancer are more likely to get cancer ...

  15. Stomach Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Men, Seniors, WomenTags: cancer, gastric cancer, stomach cancer May 1, 1999 Copyright © American Academy ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ...

  16. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... and nerves. If the cancer starts inside the eyeball it's called intraocular cancer. The most common intraocular ...

  17. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral cancer can form in any part of the mouth. Most oral cancers begin in the flat cells that cover the ... your mouth, tongue, and lips. Anyone can get oral cancer, but the risk is higher if you are ...

  18. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...

  19. Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common cancers in the United States. Cancer Home Kidney Cancer Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Anatomy of the male urinary system (left panel) and ...

  20. Cancer Disparities - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blog posts on cancer health disparities research—including factors that influence disparities, disparities-related research efforts, and diversity in the cancer research workforce—from NCI Cancer Currents.

  1. Cancer Technology - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blog posts on technologies that affect cancer research and care—including new technologies for detecting cancer, testing treatments, storing/analyzing data, and improving patient care—from NCI Cancer Currents.

  2. Uterine Cancer: Cancer of the Uterus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe To receive Publications email updates Submit Uterine cancer Cancer of the uterus (uterine cancer) is cancer ... Institute . Expand all | Collapse all What is uterine cancer? Cancer is a disease in which certain body ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Clinical Trials Global Cancer Research Key Initiatives The RAS Initiative Cancer Moonshot℠ Immunotherapy ...

  4. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  5. Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaginal cancer is a rare type of cancer. It is more common in women 60 and older. You are also more likely to get it if you have had a human ... test can find abnormal cells that may be cancer. Vaginal cancer can often be cured in its ...

  6. Gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglass, H.O.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 selections. Some of the titles are: Radiation therapy for gastric cancer; Experimental stomach cancer: Drug selection based on in vitro testing; Western surgical adjuvant trials in gastric cancers: Lessons from current trials to be applied in the future; and Chemotherapy of gastric cancer

  7. Diet and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic ... grade, which refers to how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope. Grade provides clues about ...

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood ... A to Z List of Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic ...

  10. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... white women. Inflammatory breast tumors are frequently hormone receptor negative, which means they cannot be treated with ...

  11. Stages of Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... VEGF inhibitors and angiogenesis inhibitors . Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor therapy: EGFRs are proteins found on ...

  12. Stages of Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... VEGF inhibitors and angiogenesis inhibitors . Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor therapy: EGFRs are proteins found on ...

  13. Obesity and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... hormone therapy and for tumors that express hormone receptors . Obesity is also a risk factor for breast ...

  14. Testicular Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... undescended testicle) is a risk factor for testicular cancer. Testicular cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... Testicular Cancer Treatment for more information about testicular cancer. Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in men ...

  15. Occupational cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, N.

    1987-01-01

    Cancer resulting from occupational exposure is now receiving major attention, focusing on identification, regulation, and control of cancer-causing agents. Such cancer can result from exposure to chemicals and ionizing and nonionizing radiation. Extended exposure (often years) and an extended latent period of perhaps decades may intervene before tumor appearance. Although the actual extent of occupational cancer is in debate, estimates have ranged from 4 to 15 per cent of all cancer

  16. Occupational cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderson, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book aims to review the occurrence and causes of occupational cancer and is aimed at assisting medical and safety staff, management and health and safety representatives. It is presented in the following chapters: 1) Epidemiological method 2) Agents causing occupationally induced cancer, including radiation 3) Occupations associated with risk of cancer 4) Aetiology of cancer 5) Control of occupationally induced cancer, research, prevention, legislation, national and international bodies, control of specific occupational carcinogens, including irradiation. (U.K.)

  17. Program CSR Berbasis Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Menuju Kemandirian Ekonomi Pasca Tambang di Desa Sarij aya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa Ria Pranoto

    2016-09-01

    any indicator PT Pertamina EP is able to apply a good CSR refers to the MDGs documents, regulations regulations and ISO 26000. this study aimed to measure the effi ciency of the implementation as well as the response and participation in the implementation of CSR programs conducted.

  18. Arrow injuries in North Eastern Nigeria | Na'Aya | Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Arrow injuries are common presentation at the Federal Medical Centre (FMC), Nguru, North East Nigeria. The injuries are mostly unreported and there is neither a policy nor an action plan to curb their incidence. Aim: To establish an accurate data base for this clinical entity in this part of Nigeria and suggest ...

  19. Long-Term Effects of Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation after Pediatric Cancer: A Qualitative Analysis of Life Experiences and Adaptation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Lahaye

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT improves the survival rate of children and adolescents with malignant and non-malignant conditions; however, the physical, psychological and social burden of such a procedure is considerable both during and after treatment. The present qualitative study investigated the long-term effects of HSCT after pediatric cancer. Thirty adolescent and young adult (AYA survivors (Mage = 23.61 years, SD = 5.21 participated in individual interviews and were invited to speak about their life experiences following their treatment and strategies they use to deal with their past medical experiences and the long-term sequelae. Our results showed the presence of ongoing physical and psychosocial consequences of their past illness and its treatments with wide ranging psychosocial impacts, such as affected self-image, social withdrawal, sense of lack of choice, and need for specific attention. Different strategies were reported to overcome these consequences, such as talking about illness, giving a sense to their past medical experiences, and developing meaningful social relationships. Clinical and research implications are also discussed.

  20. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  1. Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of ... men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more ...

  2. Gallbladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your gallbladder and liver to your small intestine. Cancer of the gallbladder is rare. It is more ... the abdomen It is hard to diagnose gallbladder cancer in its early stages. Sometimes doctors find it ...

  3. Nasal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the way to your throat as you breathe. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is ... be like those of infections. Doctors diagnose nasal cancer with imaging tests, lighted tube-like instruments that ...

  4. Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic information about cancer disparities in the U.S., factors that contribute to the disproportionate burden of cancer in some groups, and examples of disparities in incidence and mortality among certain populations.

  5. Thymus Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell. These cells help protect you from infections. Cancer of the thymus is rare. You are more ... Sometimes there are no symptoms. Other times, thymus cancer can cause A cough that doesn't go ...

  6. Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hormones that help control blood sugar levels. Pancreatic cancer usually begins in the cells that produce the juices. Some risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer include Smoking Long-term diabetes Chronic pancreatitis Certain ...

  7. Intestinal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  8. Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from your throat to your stomach. Early esophageal cancer usually does not cause symptoms. Later, you may ... You're at greater risk for getting esophageal cancer if you smoke, drink heavily, or have acid ...

  9. Cancer treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000901.htm Cancer treatments To use the sharing features on this page, ... or IV. Immunotherapy Immunotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that relies on the body's ability to fight ...

  10. Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organ in your lower abdomen that stores urine. Bladder cancer occurs in the lining of the bladder. It ... urinate Low back pain Risk factors for developing bladder cancer include smoking and exposure to certain chemicals in ...

  11. Breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can help you know how to prevent breast cancer. Breast implants, using antiperspirants, and wearing underwire bras do not increase the risk for breast cancer. There is also no evidence of a direct ...

  12. Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kind of kidney cancer called Wilms' tumor. The incidence of kidney cancer seems to be increasing. One ... doesn't go away Loss of appetite Unexplained weight loss Tiredness Fever, which usually comes and goes ( ...

  13. Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thick and show changes that look like cancer. Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common sign of EIN. Diagnosis and ... The most common symptom of endometrial cancer is abnormal uterine bleeding. For women who are premenopausal, this includes irregular ...

  14. Breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A collaborative article gives an overview of breast cancer in LICs, ... approach to the problem; therefore they are published as two separate ... attached to the diagnosis of breast cancer. ... Their founding statement in its early form is included.

  15. Cancer - vulva

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... freckle, which may be pink, red, white, or gray Skin thickening or lump Skin sore (ulcer) Other ... vulvar cancer; HPV - vulvar cancer Images Female perineal anatomy References Jhingran A, Russell AH, Seiden MV, et ...

  16. Cancer - penis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an organ that makes up part of the male reproductive system. Causes Cancer of the penis is rare. Its ... penis; Glansectomy; Partial penectomy Images Male reproductive anatomy Male reproductive system References Heinlen JE, Culkin DJ. Cancer of the ...

  17. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. Later, ...

  18. Cancer Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The treatment of cancer using medication is called chemotherapy . Certain cancers respond well to chemo, which often can be given on an outpatient basis. Someone who is having chemotherapy may experience nausea, fatigue, hair loss, or other ...

  19. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R.; Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results

  20. Prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R., Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results.

  1. Profiling cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciro, Marco; Bracken, Adrian P; Helin, Kristian

    2003-01-01

    In the past couple of years, several very exciting studies have demonstrated the enormous power of gene-expression profiling for cancer classification and prediction of patient survival. In addition to promising a more accurate classification of cancer and therefore better treatment of patients......, gene-expression profiling can result in the identification of novel potential targets for cancer therapy and a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cancer....

  2. Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  3. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors increase or decrease the risk of lung cancer. Lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about lung cancer: Lung Cancer Prevention Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment ...

  4. Nutrition for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Become An Advocate Volunteer Ways To Give Lung Cancer www.lung.org > Lung Health and Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > ... Cancer Learn About Lung Cancer What Is Lung Cancer Lung Cancer Basics Causes & Risk Factors Lung Cancer Staging ...

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National ... Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National ...

  6. Throat or larynx cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocal cord cancer; Throat cancer; Laryngeal cancer; Cancer of the glottis; Cancer of oropharynx or hypopharynx ... use tobacco are at risk of developing throat cancer. Drinking too much alcohol over a long time ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Coping with Cancer Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self-Image & Sexuality ... Talking about Your Advanced Cancer Coping with Your Feelings During Advanced Cancer Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced ...

  8. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... can be addressed as quickly as possible. Recurrent breast cancer If the cancer does return after treatment for ...

  9. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  10. Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of skin behind the penis. You can get cancer in one or both testicles. Testicular cancer mainly affects young men between the ages of ... undescended testicle Have a family history of the cancer Symptoms include pain, swelling, or lumps in your ...

  11. Breast cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by ... Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role ...

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Biology Research Cancer Genomics Research Research on Causes of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early ... Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public ...

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual ...

  15. Childhood Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Watchdog Ratings Feedback Contact Select Page Childhood Cancer Statistics Home > Cancer Resources > Childhood Cancer Statistics Childhood Cancer Statistics – Graphs and Infographics Number of Diagnoses Incidence Rates ...

  16. Patterns of care and outcomes in adolescent and young adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Lori; Alvarez, Elysia; Lichtensztajn, Daphne; Abrahão, Renata; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Keegan, Theresa

    2018-04-24

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs, 15-39 years) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) represent a heterogeneous population who receive care in pediatric or adult cancer settings. Using the California Cancer Registry, we describe AYA ALL patterns of care and outcomes over the past decade. Sociodemographics, treatment location, and front-line therapies administered to AYAs diagnosed with ALL between 2004 and 2014 were obtained. Cox regression models evaluated associations between ALL setting and regimen and overall survival (OS) and leukemia-specific survival (LSS) for the entire cohort, younger AYA (<25 years), and AYAs treated in the adult cancer setting only. Of 1473 cases, 67.7% were treated in an adult setting; of these, 24.8% received a pediatric ALL regimen and 40.7% were treated at a National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated center. In multivariable analyses, front-line treatment in a pediatric (vs adult) setting (OS HR = 0.53, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.76; LSS HR = 0.51, 95% CI, 0.35-0.74) and at an NCI/Children's Oncology Group (COG) center (OS HR = 0.80, 95% CI, 0.66-0.96; LSS HR = 0.80, 95% CI, 0.65-0.97) were associated with significantly superior survival. Results were similar when analyses were limited to younger AYAs. Outcomes for AYAs treated in an adult setting did not differ following front-line pediatric or adult ALL regimens. Our population-level findings demonstrate that two-thirds of AYAs with newly diagnosed ALL are treated in an adult cancer setting, with the majority receiving care in community settings. Given the potential survival benefits, front-line treatment of AYA ALL at pediatric and/or NCI/COG-designated cancer centers should be considered. © 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.

  17. Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghfoor, Irfan; Perry, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Since tobacco smoking is the cause in vast majority of cases, the incidence of lung cancer is expected to rise in those countries with high or rising incidence of tobacco smoking. Even though population at a risk of developing lung cancer are easily identified, mass screening for lung cancer is not supported by currently available evidence. In case of non-small cell lung cancer, a cure may be possible with surgical resection followed by post-operative chemotherapy in those diagnosed at an early stage. A small minority of patients who present with locally advanced disease may also benefit from preoperative chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy to down stage the tumor to render it potentially operable. In a vast majority of patients, however, lung cancer presents at an advanced stage and a cure is not possible with currently available therapeutic strategies. Similarly small cell lung cancer confined to one hemi-thorax may be curable with a combination of chemotherapy and thoracic irradiation followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation, if complete remission is achieved at the primary site. Small cell lung cancer that is spread beyond the confines of one hemi-thorax is however, considered incurable. In this era of molecular targeted therapies, new agents are constantly undergoing pre-clinical and clinical testing with the aim of targeting the molecular pathways thought to involved in etiology and pathogenesis of lung cancer. (author)

  18. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... sensitive breast cancer cells contain proteins called hormone receptors that become activated when hormones bind to them. ...

  19. General Information About Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... cancer cells have places where hormones can attach ( receptors ), drugs , surgery, or radiation therapy is used to ...

  20. Treatment Option Overview (Endometrial Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... cancer cells have places where hormones can attach ( receptors ), drugs , surgery, or radiation therapy is used to ...

  1. Cancer immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cairns, Linda; Aspeslagh, Sandrine; Anichini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This report covers the Immunotherapy sessions of the 2016 Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) Oncology Days meeting, which was held on 15th-17th June 2016 in Brussels, Belgium. Immunotherapy is a potential cancer treatment that uses an individual's immune system to fight the tumour....... In recent years significant advances have been made in this field in the treatment of several advanced cancers. Cancer immunotherapies include monoclonal antibodies that are designed to attack a very specific part of the cancer cell and immune checkpoint inhibitors which are molecules that stimulate...... or block the inhibition of the immune system. Other cancer immunotherapies include vaccines and T cell infusions. This report will summarise some of the research that is going on in this field and will give us an update on where we are at present....

  2. Oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, S J

    1990-01-01

    In the U.S. oral cancer accounts for 2.1% of all cancers and 1% of cancer deaths. Two to three times as many males as females are affected. Blacks have more intra-oral cancer than whites, and their incidence and mortality rates have increased in recent years. The etiologic process very likely involves several factors. The major etiologic agents are tobacco (all types) and alcoholic beverages. Herpes simplex virus, human papilloma virus, and Candida have been implicated. Host factors include poor state of dentition, nutritional aberrations, cirrhosis of liver, lichen planus, and immunologic impairmant. Cellular changes include amplification of some oncogenes, alterations in antigen expression, production of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and disturbance of keratin and involucrin production. Experimentally, cancer is readily produced on the hamster cheek pouch and rat oral mucosa. Unlike oral cancer in humans, most experimental lesions are exophytic, and they rarely metastasize.

  3. Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  4. Gallbladder Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Español ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  5. Vulvar Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer ... cancer’s grade, which refers to how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope. Grade provides clues about ...

  7. Breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gablerová, Pavlína

    2010-01-01

    In this work the topic of breast cancer treated more generally and mainly focused on risk factors for the development. The theoretical part describes the general knowledge about breast cancer as a stage or treatment. The practical part is to have clarified the risk factors that have some bearing on the diagnosis of breast cancer. What level are involved in the probability of occurrence? Can we eliminate them? As a comparison of risk factors examined in the Czech Republic, England, Australia a...

  8. Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-03-06

    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.  Created: 3/6/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 4/25/2007.

  9. Cancer cachexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Rotovnik Kozjek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article presents the Slovenian multidisciplinary agreement statement on the definition, staging, clinical classification and multimodal approach to the treatment of cachexia in cancer patients. The consensus was reached during a multidisciplinary plenary session, and is based on the international definition of cancer cachexia adopted in 2011. Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial metabolic syndrome defined by an ongoing loss of skeletal muscle with or without concomitant loss of fat, which cannot be fully reversed by conventional nutritional support and leads to progressive functional impairment. Its pathophysiology is characterized by a negative energy and protein balance due to a variable combination of reduced food intake and metabolic changes. In cancer patients, the cachexia syndrome can develop progressively through various stages – from precachexia to cachexia and finally, to refractory cachexia–represent-ing a continuum of metabolic changes, clini-cal signs and symptoms. Patients can progress from precachexia to cachexia, and reverse from cachexia into precachectic stages, while (as the term itself implies, the condition of refractory or irreversible cachexia has poor therapeutic response. A clinical algorithm for recognition and treatment of cachexia in cancer patients is presented. All cancer patients should be screened for cachexia and precachexia on presentation. Patients who fulfil diagnostic criteria for cancer cachexia should have its clinical stage determined. According to phenotype / clinical stage, a multimodal approach should be adopted in the treatment of all cases of cancer cachexia. A typical multimodal management plan in cachectic patients consists of early dietary intervention, exercise, anti-inflammatory therapy and early cancer-related symptom relief. The cachexia treatment pathway should be adopted as a pathway parallel to conventional cancer treatment. Practical implementation of cancer cachexia

  10. Pattern of hematological malignancies in adolescents and young adults in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md Mahbub; Raheem, Enayetur; Sultana, Tanvira Afroze; Hossain, Mohammad Sorowar

    2017-12-01

    The adolescent and young adult (AYA) age group (15-39 years) bears distinct characteristics in terms of cancer biology, long-term health and treatment-related complications and psychosocial aspects. The overall scenario of cancer including hematological malignancies (HMs) is largely unknown in Bangladesh, where a significant proportion of people (44% of total population) belong to AYA age group. This study aims to describe the patterns of HM among AYA in the context of Bangladesh METHODS: Two previously published datasets (on hematological malignancies and childhood and adolescent cancer) were merged to construct a comprehensive dataset focusing exclusively on HMs in AYA age group. Univariate descriptive statistics were calculated and bivariate association were tested using Pearson's Chi-square test. A total of 2144 diagnosed HM related cases over a period of 2007-2014 were analyzed. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was the most frequent HM (35.1%) in AYAs, which was followed by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) constituting 22.7% and 20.8%, respectively. Among lymphomas, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) constituted 13.9% of all HMs while 4.6% was for Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). This is the first attempt to provide a glimpse on the pattern and distribution of HMs among AYA in Bangladesh. Future studies are essential to get a better insight on the epidemiology, biology, potential risk factors and treatment outcomes for the AYA age group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spera, G.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of prostate cancer. The techniques used are: transrectal ultrasound, laparascopy, bone scan, chest x-ray, radiography, chemoterapy and radiotherapy

  12. Esophagus cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Ways of metastatic spreading of esophagus cancer, depending on segmental division of esophagus are considered. Classification of esophagus cancer according to morphological structure, domestic clinical classification according to stages and international classification according to TNM system are presented. Diagnosis of esophagus cancer should be complex and based on results of clinical examination of patients, radiological, endoscopic and morphological investigations. Radiological, surgical and combined (preoperative radiotherapy with successive operation) methods of treatment are used in the case of esophagus cancer. Versions of preoperative radiotherapy are given. Favourable results of applying combined surgical treatment with preoperative radiotherapy are shown

  13. Gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salek, T.

    2007-01-01

    Gastric cancer is still a major health problem and a leading cause of cancer mortality despite a worldwide decline in incidence. Primarily due to early detection of the disease, the results of treatment for gastric cancer have improved in Japan, Korea and several specialized Western centres. Surgery offers excellent long-term survival results for early gastric cancer (EGC). In the Western world, however more than 80 % of patients at diagnosis have an advanced gastric cancer with a poor prognosis. The aim of surgery is the complete removal of the tumour (UICC R0-resection), which is known to be the only proven, effective treatment modality and the most important treatmentrelated prognostic factor. The prognosis after surgical treatment of gastric cancer remains poor. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a rising option in locally advanced gastric cancer. Adjuvant chemoradiation has been shown to be beneficial in gastric cancer patients who have undergone suboptimal surgical resection. The benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy alone seem to be very small, Untreated metastatic gastric cancer is associated with a median survival of only 3 - 4 months, but this can be increased to 8 - 10 months, associated with improved quality of life, with combination chemotherapy. Currently, no standard combination chemotherapy regimen exists, although regimens utilizing both cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil, such as epirubicin/cisplatin/fluorouracil (ECF) or docetaxel/cisplatin/fluorouracil (DCF) are amongst the most active. Newer chemotherapeutic agents, including irinotecan, oxaliplatin and taxanes, show promising activity, and are currently being tested with biologics in clinical trials. (author)

  14. Endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephanie

    2002-08-01

    To provide an update for nurses involved in the care of women at risk or being treated for endometrial cancer. Review articles, research reports, and medical and nursing text-books. Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy. Although most women with endometrial cancer present with early stage disease and have an excellent chance of cure, approximately 6,600 women in the United States are expected to die from the disease in 2002. Treatment of patients with advanced or recurrent disease remains challenging, with no proven best standard of treatment. Nursing plays an important role in prevention and early detection of endometrial cancer, patient education, patient care, and rehabilitation.

  15. Prostate Cancer FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundraise for PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us Prostate Cancer FAQs Top 10 Things You Should Know About ... prostate cancer detected? What are the symptoms of prostate cancer? If the cancer is caught at its earliest ...

  16. Cancer during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Older Adults Prevention and Healthy Living Cancer.Net Videos Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About Us You are here Home > Navigating Cancer Care > Dating, Sex, and Reproduction > Cancer During Pregnancy Request Permissions Cancer ...

  17. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics ... Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics ...

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual ...

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Research Cancer Genomics Research Research on Causes of ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  1. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self-Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers ... Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support for ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Research Cancer Genomics Research ... Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators ... Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists ...

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System ... The RAS Initiative Cancer Moonshot℠ Immunotherapy Progress Annual Report to the Nation Milestones in Cancer Research and ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Cancer Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self-Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for ... Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support ...

  7. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Request Permissions Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 10/2017 What is hereditary diffuse gastric cancer? Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is a rare ...

  8. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a disease in ...

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask About Cancer Research Advanced Cancer Choices for Care Talking about Your Advanced Cancer Coping with Your ... to Ask about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance ...

  10. Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma). Use the menu below to ...

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Caregivers Questions to Ask about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical ... Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs ...

  12. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer is a ...

  13. Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... from starting. Risk-reducing surgery . General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers Survivorship Questions to Ask About Cancer Research Advanced ... Cancer Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer and Caregivers Questions to Ask about Advanced Cancer Research Managing ...

  15. Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Miguel A; Zakaria, Alan; Nizran, Parminder

    2015-12-01

    Skin cancer accounts for most malignancies across the globe. They are primarily divided into melanoma and nonmelanoma skin malignancies. Nonmelanoma skin cancer includes basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Fair skin and chronic ultraviolet B exposure are the most important risk factors. Primary prevention is achieved by avoiding sun exposure and tanning beds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cancer Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and number of cases of each type, the age of the people with cancer, and the area and time period over which the cancers were diagnosed. They also ask about specific environmental hazards or concerns in the affected area. If the review of ...

  17. Renal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, E.; Betti, M.; Gatta, G.; Roila, F.; Mulder, P.H.M. de

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  18. Skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Michiko

    1992-01-01

    This chapter reviews the development of skin cancer associated with radiation, focusing on the knowledge of A-bomb radiation-induced skin cancer. Since the discovery of X radiation in 1895, acute and chronic radiation dermatitis has been the first matter of concern. Then, in 1902, skin cancer found among radiological personnel has posed a social problem. In earlier study determining the relationship between skin cancer and A-bomb radiation, there is no increase in the incidence of either skin cancer or precancerous condition during the first 20 years after A-bombing. More recent studies have showed that there is a significant correlation between the incidence of skin cancer and distance from the hypocenter; and the incidence of skin cancer is found to be remarkably increased since 1975 in the group exposed at ≤2,000 m. Excess relative risk is 2.2 at one Gy dose. The incidence of skin cancer is also found to be extremely increased with aging. Relative risk is high in younger A-bomb survivors at the time of exposure. Histologically, basal cell carcinoma is more senstitive to ionizing radiation than squamous cell carcinoma. (N.K.)

  19. Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.

  20. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... layer of tissue underneath the retina that contains connective tissue and melanocytes, which are pigmented (colored) cells, and nourishes the inside of the eye. The choroid is the most common site for a tumor. Types of intraocular cancer The most common intraocular cancer in adults is ...

  1. Renal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, Enrichetta; Betti, Maura; Gatta, Gemma; Roila, Fausto; De Mulder, Pieter H. M.

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  2. Occupational cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choril, A.C.; McCracken, W.J.; Dowd, E.C.; Stewart, Charles; Burton, D.F.; Dyer, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews the experience of the Workmen's Compensation Board of Ontario in identifying cases of cancer that could be attributed to occupational hazards. Workers' claims for compensation are allowed if there is reasonable medical evidence that their cancer was caused by exposure to risk factors associated with their occupation. Details of the types of cancers associated with specific carcinogens or fields of employment are discussed. About 50% of the cases were related to exposure in particular industrial operations that functioned for relatively brief periods. The number of deaths from cancer identified as being caused by occupational factors is compared with the total for cancer from all causes in Ontario during the period 1971 through 1975. Although all workers eligible for compensation may not have been identified, the data suggest that less than 1% is presently caused by occupational factors

  3. Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Masayoshi

    1992-01-01

    More than 20-year follow-up of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has a crucial role in determining the relationship of radiation to the occurrence of breast cancer. In 1967, Wanebo et al have first reported 27 cases of breast cancer during the period 1950-1966 among the Adult Health Study population of A-bomb survivors. Since then, follow-up surveys for breast cancer have been made using the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, and the incidence of breast cancer has increased year by year; that is breast cancer was identified in 231 cases by the first LSS series (1950-1969), 360 cases by the second LSS series (1950-1974), 564 cases by the third LSS series (1950-1980), and 816 cases in the fourth LSS series (1950-1085). The third LSS series have revealed a high risk for radiation-induced breast cancer in women aged 10 or less at the time of exposure (ATE). Both relative and absolute risks are found to be decreased with increasing ages ATE. Based on the above-mentioned findings and other studies on persons exposed medical radiation, radiation-induced breast cancer is characterized by the following: (1) the incidence of breast cancer is linearly increased with increasing radiation doses; (2) both relative and absolute risks for breast cancer are high in younger persons ATE; (3) age distribution of breast cancer in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors is the same as that in both distally A-bomb survivors and non-exposed persons, and there is no difference in histology between the former and latter groups. Thus, immature mammary gland cells before the age of puberty are found to be most radiosensitive. (N.K.)

  4. Genetics Home Reference: lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Lung cancer Lung cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... cancer, childhood Additional NIH Resources (3 links) National Cancer Institute: Lung Cancer Overview National Cancer Institute: Lung Cancer Prevention ...

  5. Get Tested for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print This Topic En español Get Tested for Cervical Cancer Browse Sections The Basics Overview Cervical Cancer Cervical ... Cervical Cancer 1 of 5 sections The Basics: Cervical Cancer What is cervical cancer? Cervical cancer is cancer ...

  6. General Information about Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... VEGF inhibitors and angiogenesis inhibitors . Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor therapy: EGFRs are proteins found on ...

  7. General Information about Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... VEGF inhibitors and angiogenesis inhibitors . Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor therapy: EGFRs are proteins found on ...

  8. Treatment Option Overview (Colon Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... VEGF inhibitors and angiogenesis inhibitors . Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor therapy: EGFRs are proteins found on ...

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Rectal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... VEGF inhibitors and angiogenesis inhibitors . Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor therapy: EGFRs are proteins found on ...

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... only hormone therapy after a hysterectomy . Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). Aromatase inhibitors . Less exposure of breast ...

  11. Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... compete with androgens for binding to the androgen receptor. By competing for binding to the androgen receptor, ...

  12. Vaginal Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Vaginal Cancer Vaginal Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Vaginal Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Vaginal Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors and ...

  13. Breast Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer Breast Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the Overview/ ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  14. Breast Cancer -- Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  15. Cancer world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, E.R.

    1981-01-01

    The author attempts to point out the relationships between various factors of our environment favouring disease (profession, chemicals, air pollution, nuclear power plants, ultra-violet rays etc.) respectively our ways of living (nutrition, drink, smoking), and the incidence and frequence of cancer. In his opinion, cancer is the toll man has to pay for industrialization and the destruction of the environment, and cancer therapy must begin long before the patient's treatment by changing that same einvironment. The different carcinogenous factors are discussed in detail and each chapter concludes with recommendations to those concerned and request for legislation. (MG) [de

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening Tests Research Diagnosis and Staging Symptoms Diagnosis Staging Prognosis Questions ...

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Talking About Advanced Cancer Coping With Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer ... 1: Application Development & Submission Step 2: Application Receipt & Assignment Step 3: ...

  18. Physical Activity and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Physical Activity and Cancer On This Page What is physical activity? What is known about the relationship between physical ...

  19. Regulatory barriers to clinical trial enrollment of adolescent and young adult oncology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felgenhauer, Judy; Hooke, Mary C

    2014-06-01

    Adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer may face unique challenges if they and their families wish to participate in clinical oncology trials. Regulatory guidelines and funding requirements put in place to protect patients may actually raise barriers to enrollment in clinical trials. Hospital age guidelines may need to be readdressed to better suit the needs of AYA patients. Finally, the creation of the National Clinical Trials Network will provide new opportunities for pediatric and medical oncologists to collaborate in the care of AYA patients. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, L.; Krygier, G.; Castillo, C.

    2009-01-01

    This article is about the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of breast cancer. Positive diagnosis is based on clinical mammary exam, mammography, mammary ultrasonography, and histological study. Before the chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment are evaluated the risks

  1. Lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causing chemicals such as uranium, beryllium, vinyl chloride, nickel chromates, coal products, mustard gas, chloromethyl ethers, gasoline, and diesel exhaust Exposure to radon gas Family history of lung cancer ...

  2. Lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Toshio

    1982-01-01

    Based on the own experience and world literatures, contribution of radiation in the treatment of lung cancer was reviewed and discussed. Although the patients with advanced cancer were referred to radiation usually, the results of radiotherapy were superior to those by chemotherapy. Of course the radiotherapy was a local one, radiation combined with chemotherapy was highly recommended, besides systemic administration of chemotherapeutics, special methods such as bronchial arterial infusion (BAI) and chemoembolization would be more favourable in selected patients. Treatment of undifferentiated small cell carcinoma was becoming more dependent on chemotherapy, radiation showed as excellent local control as ever. To treat locally extended cancer patients with involvement of the thoracic wall and Pancoast's syndrome, external radiation alone were not successful, interstitial radiation or a single exposure with a large dose during the thoracotomy would be promising. Finally, data indicated that aged and poor risk patients in early stage of cancer might be treated by radiation instead of unjustifiable operation. (author)

  3. Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemicals used in the manufacture of dyes, rubber, leather, textiles and paint products. Previous cancer treatment. Treatment ... instructions to avoid exposure. Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables. Choose a diet rich in a ...

  4. Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... getting it in the other one? Is my son more likely to get testicular cancer if I ... and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional ...

  5. Colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes colorectal cancer risk in relation to A-bomb radiation. The RERF Life Span Study has revealed the incidence of colorectal cancer to be significantly high in the group of A-bomb survivors than the control group. With regard to relative risk or excess relative risk, there is no definitive difference among sites in the colon. Risk for colon cancer is found to be linearly increased with increasing radiation doses, and in younger A-bomb survivors at the time of exposure. Risk associated with one Gy is estimated to be increased by double. There is no definitive variation between sex and between Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Excess relative risk would be increased rapidly with aging in the whole group of A-bomb survivors and with the cancer-prone age in younger A-bomb survivors at the time of exposure. (N.K.)

  6. Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... possible. Research will help us better understand whether chemotherapy can benefit elderly colorectal cancer patients. Such patients often do not receive chemotherapy due to concerns about side effects. We will ...

  7. Adrenocortical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Payabyab, Eden C.; Balasubramaniam, Sanjeeve; Edgerly, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    The development of new therapies has lagged behind for rare cancers without defined therapeutic targets. Adrenocortical cancer is no exception. Mitotane, an older agent considered "adrenolytic," is used both to control symptoms in advanced disease and as adjuvant therapy after surgical resection....... Molecular characterization of adrenocortical cancer has deepened our understanding of this genetically complex disease while identifying subgroups whose importance remains to be determined. Unfortunately, such studies have yet to demonstrate a therapeutic target for drug development, and to date......, no targeted therapy has achieved meaningful outcomes. Consequently, first-line therapy for metastatic disease remains a combination regimen of etoposide, doxorubicin, and cisplatinum established in a randomized clinical trial. In addition to evaluating recent studies in adrenocortical cancer, we raise one...

  8. Cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bleeding between periods, after intercourse, or after menopause Vaginal discharge that does not stop, and may be pale, ... Instructions Hysterectomy - abdominal - discharge Hysterectomy - laparoscopic - ... Images Cervical cancer Cervical neoplasia ...

  9. Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up of several layers of tissue, including muscle, connective tissue that supports the framework of the body, and an inner lining called the mucosa. Cancer is an abnormal growth of cells (the building ...

  10. Vaginal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker NF. Vulvar and vaginal cancer. In: Hacker NF, Gambone JC, Hobel CJ, eds. Hacker and Moore's Essentials of Obstetrics and Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 40. Jhingran ...

  11. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sunlamps. There are 2 types of UV rays: UVA rays (long-wave) – UVA rays penetrate clouds and glass. They penetrate the ... to cancer. But studies have shown that both UVA and UVB damage the skin and can cause ...

  12. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... modulators and aromatase inhibitors, reduce the risk of breast cancer in women with a high risk of the disease. These medications carry a risk of side effects, so doctors reserve these medications for women who ...

  13. Cancer nanotheranostics

    CERN Document Server

    Gopinath, P; Matai, Ishita; Bhushan, Bharat; Malwal, Deepika; Sachdev, Abhay; Dubey, Poornima

    2015-01-01

    This Brief provides a clear insight of the recent advances in the field of cancer theranostics with special emphasis upon nano scale carrier molecules (polymeric, protein and lipid based) and imaging agents (organic and inorganic).

  14. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Balslev, Ingegerd; Logager, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data.......To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data....

  15. Stomach cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chikako

    1992-01-01

    Malignant tumors have received much attention as delayed effects of A-bomb radiation. Above all, it is of a major concern to determine how the incidence of stomach cancer, commonly observed among Japanese, is influenced by A-bomb radiation. This article focusses on the relationship between A-bomb radiation and the incidence of stomach cancer, and its histological features with a brief review of the literature. Mass screening for stomach cancer has showed in 1973 that the incidence of stomach cancer is definitely high among the heavily exposed A-bomb survivors. Since then, data analyses using the T65DR have showed it to be higher in the 100 rad exposed group than the 0 rad exposed group. On the basis of death certificates, the incidence of stomach cancer is found to be increased around 1976. When using DS86, the calculated lowest dose that produces a significantly high mortality incidence from stomach cancer is 1 Gy at the sheilding kerma and 0.5 Gy at organ absorbed dose. Histopathologically, the incidence of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma is increased with increasing radiation doses; it is significantly increased in the 1 rad exposed group. The incidence of medullary type is decreased and the incidence of scirrhous type is increased with increasing radiation doses. (N.K.)

  16. Prostate Cancer Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundraise for PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us Prostate Cancer Symptoms and Signs Prostate Cancer Basics Risk Factors ... earlier. So what are the warning signs of prostate cancer? Unfortunately, there usually aren’t any early warning ...

  17. Stages of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Prostate Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Prostate ...

  18. Basic Cancer Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Considerations How Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young Adults For Older Adults Prevention and Healthy Living Cancer.Net Videos Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog ...

  19. Cancer Terms: After Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Considerations How Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young Adults For Older Adults Prevention and Healthy Living Cancer.Net Videos Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog ...

  20. Screening for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer screening is checking for cancer in people who don't have symptoms. Screening tests can help doctors find and treat several types of cancer early, but cancer screening can have harms as well as benefits.

  1. What Is Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shareable Graphics Infographics “African-American Men and Lung Cancer” “Lung Cancer Is the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both ... starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer. Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may spread ...

  2. Prostate cancer - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000403.htm Prostate cancer - treatment To use the sharing features on this page, ... drugs is recommended. References National Cancer Institute. Prostate cancer treatment (PDQ): Stages of prostate cancer. Updated July 31, ...

  3. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  4. Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & ...

  5. Stages of Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Skip to content Español 1-800-4-CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer ...

  7. Cancer and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Cancer and obesity Overweight and obesity are associated with cancer Language: ... a cancer associated with overweight and obesity. Problem Obesity is a leading cancer risk factor. What’s happening? ...

  8. Cancer Genetics Services Directory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research NCI Cancer Genetics Services Directory This directory lists professionals who provide services related to cancer genetics (cancer risk assessment, genetic counseling, genetic susceptibility testing, ...

  9. Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grants Bladder Cancer Think Tank Bladder Cancer Research Network Bladder Cancer Genomics Consortium Get Involved Ways to ... us? Who we are The Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network (BCAN) is a community of patients, caregivers, survivors, ...

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self-Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers Survivorship ... Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support for Caregivers ...

  11. Oral Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decrease the risk of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer. Oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer are diseases in ... and treatment of oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer: Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Prevention Lip and Oral ...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Childhood Cancer ... can talk about it in a clear and supportive way. Two viewer guides are also available: for ...

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & ...

  14. Pediatric Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Patient Health Information News media ... and neck issues, should be consulted. Types of thyroid cancer in children: Papillary : This form of thyroid cancer ...

  15. Anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000352.htm Anaplastic thyroid cancer To use the sharing features on this page, ... of cancer of the thyroid gland. Causes Anaplastic thyroid cancer is an invasive type of thyroid cancer that ...

  16. Stephenson Cancer Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson Cancer Center at the University of Oklahoma in Oklahoma City is an NCI-designated cancer center at the forefront of NCI-supported cancer research. Learn more about the Stephenson Cancer Center's mission.

  17. Skin Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the ... Handbook A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics Skin Cancer Treatment Glossary Information on medications and procedures ...

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources ... Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using ...

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Overview Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening Tests Research Diagnosis and Staging Symptoms Diagnosis Staging Prognosis ... Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening Tests Diagnosis & Staging Symptoms Diagnosis Staging Prognosis Treatment Types ...

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment ... Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self ...

  1. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by the cancer. This blockage can cause the kidney to enlarge or stop working. Stage IIIB cervical cancer. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Cervical Cancer Staging Type: Color, ...

  2. Uterine Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Doing AMIGAS Stay Informed Cancer Home Uterine Cancer Statistics Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... the most commonly diagnosed gynecologic cancer. U.S. Cancer Statistics Data Visualizations Tool The Data Visualizations tool makes ...

  3. Cancer in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Navigating Cancer Care > For Older Adults For Older Adults A full-text transcript is available. More than ... Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young Adults For Older Adults Aging and Cancer Cancer Care Decisions for ...

  4. Breast cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... is performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  5. Stages of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  6. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  7. Chemotherapy to Treat Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Learn how chemotherapy works against cancer, why it causes side effects, and how it is used with other cancer treatments.

  8. Lung Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both Men and Women” Stay Informed Trends for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal (Colon) Ovarian Prostate Skin Cancer Home Lung Cancer Trends Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ...

  9. Cancer Surgery: Physically Removing Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the hospital for a time before going home. Your health care team will give you specific directions for your ... Cancer.Net. ... robotics, electronics. In: Sabiston Textbook of Surgery: The Biological ...

  10. More Cancer Types - SEER Cancer Stat Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer Statistical Fact Sheets are summaries of common cancer types developed to provide an overview of frequently-requested cancer statistics including incidence, mortality, survival, stage, prevalence, and lifetime risk.

  11. Gynecologic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Takashi; Katsumata, Noriyuki

    2008-01-01

    Surgery and radiation therapy have been the main types of treatment for gynecologic cancer. However, chemotherapy in gynecologic oncology has recently made dramatic progress and presently is becoming the most widespread treatment. After the discovery of cisplatin in the field of chemotherapy for epithelial ovarian cancer, it has now become the leading treatment modality. According to the result of several important phase III randomized control trials (RCTs), the platinum-taxane combined therapy has now become the standard treatment regimen. Regarding endometrial cancer, Cisplatin-Adriamycin-Cyclophosphamide (CAP) therapy has been used as an effective adjuvant chemotherapy in Japan. The adjuvant chemotherapy (Adriamycin-Cisplatin therapy) for the endometrial cancer has now been recognized worldwide as the standard therapy based on the findings of a phase III RCT. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for cervical cancer has also been recommended as the standard therapy in Japan since 1999 based on the successful results of numerous RCTs which proved its efficacy. The chemotherapy for gynecologic cancers has been investigated and standardized based on the results of numerous clinical trials. These trials have been conducted by many clinical trial groups, such as the Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG), Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG), and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) throughout the world, in addition to the Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG) and the Japanese Gynecologic Oncology Group (JGOG) in Japan. The valuable contributions of these clinical trials are helping in the development of new drug therapies, thus leading to such treatment regimens playing increasingly important and wider roles in the field of gynecologic oncology treatment in the future. (author)

  12. Racial disparities in the survival of American children, adolescents, and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, and Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Justine M; Keegan, Theresa H M; Tao, Li; Abrahão, Renata; Bleyer, Archie; Viny, Aaron D

    2016-09-01

    Race-based survival in children and adolescents with hematologic malignancies has been a national challenge for decades. Large-scale investigations of age- and race-based survival trends over time in these patients have not previously been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate whether race- and age-related differences in pediatric and adolescent and young adult (AYA) leukemia and lymphoma survival persist and to what extent these differences have changed over time. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program, this study investigated the outcomes of black and white (1975-2012; n = 27,369) and white and Hispanic (1992-2012; n = 20,574) children (0-14 years old) and AYAs (15-39 years old) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Estimates of 5- and 10-year relative survival were compared over time. Trends showed a convergence of survival for white and black children with ALL but a divergence in survival for AYA patients. Hispanic children and AYAs both suffered inferior outcomes. Trends for AML revealed persistent survival differences between black and white children and suggested worsening disparities for AYAs. Survival trends in HL revealed sustained survival differences between black and white AYA patients, whereas no differences were found in Hispanic and white patient outcomes for AML or HL. Although survival for children and AYAs with ALL, AML, and HL has improved over the past 4 decades, differences persist between black, white, and Hispanic children and AYAs; survival disparities between black and white children with ALL have been nearly eliminated. Strategies aimed at identifying causality and reducing disparities are warranted. Cancer 2016. © 2016 American Cancer Society. Cancer 2016;122:2723-2730. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  13. Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is almost always due to smoking. TREATING LUNG CANCER Lung cancer treatment depends on several factors, including the ... org TARGETING CANCER CARE Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer Lung cancer is the second most common cancer in ...

  14. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors increase or decrease the risk of skin cancer. Skin cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about skin cancer: Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Genetics ...

  15. Cancer section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1985-01-01

    An overview is presented of the program at ORNL which is concerned with the study of cancer. The studies range from those at the molecular level and the control of gene expression to those concerning cell interactions and the role of immune responses. Since the agents capable of inducing cancer are multiple, the approaches must encompass the specific characteristics of chemical carcinogens, ionizing radiation, ultraviolet radiation and viruses. The approach of the molecular biological studies is centered on the role of activation of transposable gene elements. One investigation is concerned with the study of radiation-induced myelogenous leukemia. The other radiation carcinogenesis studies fall into two major groups. First, there are investigations of various facets of the mechanisms of cancer induction. The molecular and chromosomal studies fall into this category. The second group of studies includes those that are concerned with risk estimates

  16. Improving Access to Standardized Fertility Preservation Information for Older Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: Using a User-Centered Approach with Young Adult Patients, Survivors, and Partners to Refine Fertility Knowledge Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Seline; Puri, Natasha; Stephens, Derek; Mitchell, Laura; Giuliani, Meredith; Papadakos, Janet; Gupta, Abha A

    2016-09-27

    Adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients under 40 should be made aware of their fertility risks and preservation options throughout their care. However, discussions on fertility preservation (FP) do not routinely occur. With a dearth of FP resources, oncology providers may lack knowledge around FP. Thus, informational needs can be unmet, leading to anxiety and distress in patients. Provision of pertinent and timely information can help patients cope better with their diagnosis. FP pamphlets were developed for men and women with cancer. A cross-sectional in-house survey, using convenience sampling, evaluated the pamphlets' effectiveness and measured ease of understanding, acceptability, and perceived utility. Patients and partners were also asked to provide recommendations and complete the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA) measuring health literacy level. This helps determine if health literacy influences perception of pamphlet effectiveness. All participants (n = 56) reviewed both pamphlets. Fifty-four participants (96 %) found the pamphlet for men useful, while 29 participants (52 %) improved their male fertility knowledge. The pamphlet for women was useful for 52 participants (93 %) and improved knowledge in 35 (63 %) of them. Although the majority of participants had adequate health literacy (98 %), there was insufficient sample diversity to determine if health literacy influenced the pamphlet's effectiveness. Participants indicated preference in receiving verbal (73 %) and written (66 %) information over watching videos or in-class education. They recommended including fertility clinics, financial resources, and statistics in the brochures. These FP pamphlets were concluded as effective in supporting patients in making FP decisions.

  17. Cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pointreau, Y.; Ruffier Loubiere, A.; Barillot, I.; Pointreau, Y.; Denis, F.; Barillot, I.

    2010-01-01

    Cervix cancers declined in most developed countries in recent years, but remain, the third worldwide leading cause of cancer death in women. A precise staging, based on clinical exam, an abdominal and pelvic MRI, a possible PET-CT and a possible lymph node sampling is necessary to adapt the best therapeutic strategy. In France, the treatments of tumors of less than 4 cm without nodal involvement are often based on radiotherapy followed by surgery and, whereas tumors larger than 4 cm and involved nodes are treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Based on an illustrated clinical case, indications, delineation, dosimetry and complications expected with radiotherapy are demonstrated. (authors)

  18. Gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineur, L.; Jaegle, E.; Pointreau, Y.; Denis, F.

    2010-01-01

    Radio-chemotherapy Gastro-intestinal inter-group study have demonstrated a convincing local control and overall survival benefit. Oncologists and GI workshops have in the present not had a major interest in the radiotherapy treatment of gastric cancer due to a number of factors. Primary because toxicities may be severe, second physicians may have low experience in definition of clinical target volume and in third perioperative chemotherapy is widely used in this indication. In Summary this issue should be used as guides for defining appropriate radiation planning treatment for the adjuvant postoperative therapy of gastric cancer. (authors)

  19. Esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, O.; Ganem, G.; Denis, F.; Bera, G.; Pointreau, Y.; Pradier, O.; Martin, P.; Mirabel, X.

    2010-01-01

    Esophageal cancers are highly malignant tumours with often a poor prognosis, except for minimal lesions treated with surgery. Radiation therapy, or combined radiation and chemotherapy is the most used therapeutic modality, alone or before oesophagectomy. The delineation of target volumes is now more accurate owing the possibility to use routinely the new imaging techniques (mainly PET). The aim of this work is to precise the radio-anatomical particularities, the pattern of spread of esophageal cancer and the principles of 3D conformal radiotherapy illustrated with a clinical case. (authors)

  20. Penile Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Peter E.; Spiess, Philippe E.; Agarwal, Neeraj; Biagioli, Matthew C.; Eisenberger, Mario A.; Greenberg, Richard E.; Herr, Harry W.; Inman, Brant A.; Kuban, Deborah A.; Kuzel, Timothy M.; Lele, Subodh M.; Michalski, Jeff; Pagliaro, Lance; Pal, Sumanta K.; Patterson, Anthony; Plimack, Elizabeth R.; Pohar, Kamal S.; Porter, Michael P.; Richie, Jerome P.; Sexton, Wade J.; Shipley, William U.; Small, Eric J.; Trump, Donald L.; Wile, Geoffrey; Wilson, Timothy G.; Dwyer, Mary; Ho, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis represents approximately 0.5% of all cancers among men in the United States and other developed countries. Although rare, it is associated with significant disfigurement, and only half of the patients survive beyond 5 years. Proper evaluation of both the primary lesion and lymph nodes is critical, because nodal involvement is the most important factor of survival. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Penile Cancer provide recommendations on the diagnosis and management of this devastating disease based on evidence and expert consensus. PMID:23667209

  1. For Some Skin Cancers, Targeted Drug Hits the Mark

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types ... Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research For Some Skin Cancers, Targeted ...

  2. Cofactor of BRCA1: A new genetic marker for common malignant liver cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A new study has identified a vital gene in the pathogenesis and progression of liver cancer hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, according to a team of biotechnology researchers at The American University in Cairo, Egypt, in a scientific paper published recently by AMOR. The study on human gene ‘Cofactor of BRCA1’ (dubbed COBRA1 and its potential role as a reliable cancer predictor for HCC is especially important due to the disease’s grim outlook. HCC is “ranked as the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world in 2012,” the authors said. “Thus, it is considered as a highly aggressive cancer with poor prognosis,” they added. According to data from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER program, hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for 90% of all liver cancers worldwide. In the United States, HCC represents the fastest growing cause of cancer mortality overall and the second fastest growing cause of cancer deaths among women. Globally, the incidence of HCC in developing nations is over twice that of in developed countries – East Asia having highest incidence of HCC with the rate of 35 male cases per 100,000, followed by the continent of Africa. HCC mortality statistics in the developing countries is also more than double compared to the First World nations, with the annual loss of 33.5 and 23.73 lives per 100,000 in Asia and Africa, respectively. In addition, “HCC is usually diagnosed in the late stages of the tumor where, at some point, treatment is of limited efficacy. Thus, prognoses and follow-ups are necessary to regularly assess the patients and to predict any risks before the deterioration of patients’ condition,” said researcher Aya Youssef and her fellow team members. The behaviour of COBRA1 in the development and progression of several cancers has previously been studied and established, the researchers wrote. “For example, cell lines and tissues isolated from late-stage metastatic breast

  3. Pancreas cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Shigeru; Kato, Hirotoshi; Hara, Ryusuke

    2006-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the pancreas continues to be a significant source of cancer mortality in Japan, resulting in approximately 19,000 deaths a year. It is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Japan, with a less than 5% 5-year expected survival rate. About 70-75% of patients with pancreas cancer present with locally advanced disease or distant metastases and have a median survival time of only 6 months. For unresectable pancreas cancer, the median survival time with external beam radiation (EBRT) was better than with surgical bypass or stents alone. The median survival of EBRT alone was 4 to 7 months. The median survival with combined EBRT and chemotherapy for locally unresectable tumor are 8 to 10 months and better than with the EBRT alone. Local failure of these combined therapies was still 26 to 48%. On the other hand, surgery with curative intent is undertaken in 15-20% of patients. Even after resection, the predicted 5-year survival rates are still less than 20%. Local recurrences in the pancreatic bed are seen in 50% of the patients undergoing presumed curative resection. We examined the effect of carbon ion therapy in terms of reducing the rate of local recurrence in patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the pancreas or undergoing resection for adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. (author)

  4. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... right away. He or she will do a physical exam. They will ask you about your health history and your family’s history of breast cancer. ... and Wellness Staying Healthy Healthy Living Travel Occupational Health First Aid and ... Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food ...

  5. Nasopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleury, B.; Biston, M.C.; Montbarbon, X.; Pommier, P.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to propose recommendations concerning the delineation of the target volume of the nasopharyngeal cancers, the planning of the treatment, and describe the expected results about the efficiency and the toxicities. Theses recommendations are based upon anatomy, natural history of theses tumors, and upon published experiences from different teams working with IMRT. (authors)

  6. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Maria Carlsen; Andersen, Morten Heebøll; Høyer, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Background Active surveillance (AS) of low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) is an accepted alternative to active treatment. However, the conventional diagnostic trans-rectal ultrasound guided biopsies (TRUS-bx) underestimate PCa aggressiveness in almost half of the cases, when compared with the surgical...... lesions. Significant cancer was defined as GS > 6 or GS 6 (3 + 3) lesions with ≥ 6 mm maximal cancer core length (MCCL). Results A total of 78 patients were included and in 21 patients a total of 22 PIRADS-score 4 or 5 lesions were detected. MRGB pathology revealed that 17 (81%) of these and 22......% of the entire AS population harbored significant cancers at AS inclusion. In eight (38%) cases, the GS was upgraded. Also, nine patients (43%) had GS 6 (3 + 3) foci with MCCL ≥ 6 mm. Conclusion In an AS cohort based on TRUS and TRUS-bx diagnostic strategies, supplemental mpMRI and in-bore MRGB were able...

  7. Lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H H; Rørth, M

    1999-01-01

    The results of the many clinical trials published in 1997 had only modest impact on the treatment results using either cytostatic agents alone or combined with radiotherapy in lung cancer. In SCLC, combination chemotherapy including platin-compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin) and the podophyllotoxins...

  8. Esophageal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, M. B.

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas in esophageal cancer (EC) has changed, and focus directed towards tumors of the distal esophagus and the esophagogastric junction. The genetic events leading to EC are not fully clarified, but important risk factors have been...

  9. Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is not your period Changes in the vulvar skin, such as color changes or growths that look like a wart or ulcer You are at greater risk if you've had a human papillomavirus (HPV) infection or have a history of genital warts. Your health care provider diagnoses vulvar cancer with a physical exam ...

  10. Oropharyngeal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafond, C.; Denis, F.; Pointreau, Y.; Calais, G.; Pointreau, Y.; Debelleix, C.; Bourhis, J.; Thariat, J.

    2010-01-01

    Cancers of the oropharynx are common lesions. Their treatment often includes radiation therapy either exclusively or in combination with chemotherapy or after surgery. The definition of target volumes is made difficult by the complex anatomy of this area. The aim of this work is to clarify the principles of 3D conformal radiation illustrated by a case report. (authors)

  11. Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have two kidneys. They are fist-sized organs on either side of your backbone above your waist. The tubes inside filter and ... blood, taking out waste products and making urine. Kidney cancer forms in the lining of tiny tubes ...

  12. Cancer Stem Cells in Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Qi; Zhao, Yue; Renner, Andrea; Niess, Hanno; Seeliger, Hendrik; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Bruns, Christiane J., E-mail: christiane.bruns@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Surgery, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Klinikum Grosshadern, Marchioninistr. 15, D-81377, Munich (Germany)

    2010-08-19

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignant solid tumor well-known by early metastasis, local invasion, resistance to standard chemo- and radiotherapy and poor prognosis. Increasing evidence indicates that pancreatic cancer is initiated and propagated by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Here we review the current research results regarding CSCs in pancreatic cancer and discuss the different markers identifying pancreatic CSCs. This review will focus on metastasis, microRNA regulation and anti-CSC therapy in pancreatic cancer.

  13. Cancer Stem Cells in Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Qi; Zhao, Yue; Renner, Andrea; Niess, Hanno; Seeliger, Hendrik; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Bruns, Christiane J.

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignant solid tumor well-known by early metastasis, local invasion, resistance to standard chemo- and radiotherapy and poor prognosis. Increasing evidence indicates that pancreatic cancer is initiated and propagated by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Here we review the current research results regarding CSCs in pancreatic cancer and discuss the different markers identifying pancreatic CSCs. This review will focus on metastasis, microRNA regulation and anti-CSC therapy in pancreatic cancer. PMID:24281178

  14. Cancer Stem Cells in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-Walter Jauch

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignant solid tumor well-known by early metastasis, local invasion, resistance to standard chemo- and radiotherapy and poor prognosis. Increasing evidence indicates that pancreatic cancer is initiated and propagated by cancer stem cells (CSCs. Here we review the current research results regarding CSCs in pancreatic cancer and discuss the different markers identifying pancreatic CSCs. This review will focus on metastasis, microRNA regulation and anti-CSC therapy in pancreatic cancer.

  15. Reports on Cancer - Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interactive tools for access to statistics for a cancer site by gender, race, ethnicity, calendar year, age, state, county, stage, and histology. Statistics include incidence, mortality, prevalence, cost, risk factors, behaviors, tobacco use, and policies and are presented as graphs, tables, or maps.

  16. Surveillance of rare cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwan, Johannes Martinus

    2016-01-01

    The widespread incidence and effects of cancer have led to a growing development in cancer prevention in the form of screening and research programs and cancer registries. Because of the low number of patients with rare cancers this improvement is not applied to the same extent to all cancer

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment ...

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... content Español 1-800-4-CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes ... and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late ...

  19. Cancer and its management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tobias, Jeffrey S; Hochhauser, Daniel; Souhami, Robert L

    2010-01-01

    ... cancer, 328 19 Testicular cancer, 357 20 Thyroid and adrenal cancer, 374 v9781405170154_1_pre.qxd 28/10/09 16:01 Page vi vi Contents 21 Cancer from an unknown primary site, 388 22 Skin cancer, 393 23...

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Cancer Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self-Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers ... Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support for ...

  1. Treatment Options by Stage (Endometrial Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... cancer cells have places where hormones can attach ( receptors ), drugs , surgery, or radiation therapy is used to ...

  2. Reproductive History and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... 4 ). This risk reduction is limited to hormone receptor –positive breast cancer; age at first full-term ...

  3. Stomach Cancer Following Hodgkin Lymphoma, Testicular Cancer and Cervical Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Ethel S; Curtis, Rochelle E; Hauptmann, Michael

    2017-01-01

    To further understand the risk of stomach cancer after fractionated high-dose radiotherapy, we pooled individual-level data from three recent stomach cancer case-control studies. These studies were nested in cohorts of five-year survivors of first primary Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), testicular cancer...... (TC) or cervical cancer (CX) from seven countries. Detailed data were abstracted from patient records and radiation doses were reconstructed to the site of the stomach cancer for cases and to the corresponding sites for matched controls. Among 327 cases and 678 controls, mean doses to the stomach were...... 15.3 Gy, 24.7 Gy and 1.9 Gy, respectively, for Hodgkin lymphoma, testicular cancer and cervical cancer survivors, with an overall mean dose of 10.3 Gy. Risk increased with increasing radiation dose to the stomach cancer site (P

  4. Cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davila Gomez, Heenry Luis; Garcia Valdes, Abel; Alvarez Castillo, Felix

    2010-01-01

    A retrospective and descriptive study was conducted to characterize the behavior of cervix cancer in a sample of 162 patients with this diagnosis during 2003-2009 in the Isla de la Juventud municipality. From the review of case reports from the National Unit of Cancer the individual medical records of Teaching General Hospital of this municipality and from the National Institute of Oncology and Radiology, as well as the deceased persons, it was possible to note that the 63% of cases were women aged 34-57 and that the 20% was in ages outside the screening program. The NIC and/or infection by HPV and smoking were the more frequent risk factors. There was predominance of large cells epidermoid non-keratinized carcinoma and the O stage or in situ. Most of patients were operated on is initial therapy. The great mortality was between fifth and sixth decades of life with a acceptable survival at 5 years

  5. [Cervix cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointreau, Y; Ruffier Loubière, A; Denis, F; Barillot, I

    2010-11-01

    Cervix cancers declined in most developed countries in recent years, but remain, the third worldwide leading cause of cancer death in women. A precise staging, based on clinical exam, an abdominal and pelvic MRI, a possible PET-CT and a possible lymph node sampling is necessary to adapt the best therapeutic strategy. In France, the treatments of tumors of less than 4 cm without nodal involvement are often based on radiotherapy followed by surgery and, whereas tumors larger than 4 cm and involved nodes are treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Based on an illustrated clinical case, indications, delineation, dosimetry and complications expected with radiotherapy are demonstrated. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. PANCREATIC CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alojz Pleskovič

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The pancreatic cancer is quite common malignant tumor of gastointestinal tract and its incidence is increasing in well developed part of the world. Despite of all advanced diagnostic methods the disease is in most cases recognised too late when the tumor is not resectable.Conclusions. Only in 20–30% of patients with pancreatic cancer surgical resection is possible, and even in this group 5year survival is very low. In the patients where the tumor is not resectable, sometimes only palliative procedures are indicated and sometimes only simptomatic therapy is possible. The average survival period in this group of patients is 12–20 months. Adjuvant chemo and radiotherapy has not shown much of benefit and the prognosis is still very bad.

  7. "Cancer tumor".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronshtehn, V. A.

    The title is a phrase borrowed from a speech by a Leningrad pressman, V. E. Lvov, who called upon those attending a theoretical conference on ideological issues in astronomy held by the Leningrad Branch of the All-Union Astronomic and Geodetic Society (13 - 4 December 1948), "to make a more radical emphasis on the negative role of relativistic cosmology which is a cancer tumor disintegrating the contemporary astronomy theory, and a major ideological enemy of a materialist astronomy".

  8. Biological Therapy in Treating Patients With Metastatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    Breast Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Liver Cancer; Lung Cancer; Metastatic Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Cancer Treatment Types of Cancer Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Information A to Z List of ... Diagnosis Staging Prognosis Treatment Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping ...

  10. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between ... 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. ...

  11. Cancer in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer is a group related diseases. In all types of cancer, some of the body's cells begin to divide ... can be benign or malignant. Benign tumorsaren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Training at NCI Funding for Cancer Training Building a Diverse Workforce Other Fellowships and Internships About ... at NCI (Intramural) Funding for Cancer Training (Extramural) Building a Diverse Workforce Other Fellowships & Internships Training Program ...

  13. Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAGINAL & VULVAR CANCER Get the Facts About Gynecologic Cancer There are five main types of cancer that affect a woman’s reproductive organs: cervical, ovarian, uterine, vaginal, and vulvar. As a group, they are referred ...

  14. Lung Cancer: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professional support team today. Learn More . Find more lung cancer resources. Learn More Donate Today! What is Lung ... to Give How Your Support Helps Events Lung Cancer Awareness © Lung Cancer Alliance. The information presented in this website ...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics ... Legislative Resources Recent Public Laws Careers Visitor Information Search Search Home About Cancer Diagnosis and Staging Diagnosis ...

  16. Working during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000834.htm Working during cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, ... JavaScript. Many people continue to work throughout their cancer treatment. Cancer, or the side effects of treatment, may ...

  17. After Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Better Home Your Health Resources Healthcare Management After Cancer Treatment After Cancer Treatment Share Print From the day you were diagnosed ... of the questions you may have after your cancer treatment ends. Path to well being Will I need ...

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trials Information A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to ...

  19. SCREENING FOR CERVICAL CANCER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Cervical cancer remains a major health concern worldwide, especially in devel- ... Important aspects of cervical cancer screening include the age at which .... High-risk types HPV (16,18) are impli- cated in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer.

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trials Information A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about ... Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to ...

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding Cancer ... Care Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reporting & Auditing Grant Transfer Grant Closeout Contracts & Small Business Training Cancer Training at NCI (Intramural) Resources for ... Media Cancer Currents Blog About NCI NCI Overview History Contributing to Cancer Research Leadership Director's Page Deputy ...

  3. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of breast cancer that can occur in men include Paget's disease of the nipple and inflammatory breast cancer. Inherited genes that increase breast cancer risk Some men inherit abnormal (mutated) genes from their parents that ...

  4. Cancer Nanotechnology Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Nanotechnology Plan serves as a strategic document to the NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer as well as a guiding document to the cancer nanotechnology and oncology fields, as a whole.

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trainees Funding for Cancer Training Building a Diverse Workforce About Center for Cancer Training (CCT) CCT Staff & ... Funding for Cancer Training (Extramural) Building a Diverse Workforce Training Program Contacts News & Events Press Releases Resources ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment ... Oncologist Anthony L. Back, M.D., a national expert on doctor-patient communications, talks with one of ...

  7. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... peritoneal cancer; the first panel (stage IIA) shows cancer inside both ovaries that has spread to the uterus and fallopian tube. The second panel (stage IIB) shows cancer inside both ovaries that has spread to the colon. The third ...

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NCI Resources for Trainees Funding for Cancer Training Building a Diverse Workforce About Center for Cancer Training ( ... Resources for Trainees Funding for Cancer Training (Extramural) Building a Diverse Workforce Training Program Contacts News & Events ...

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System ...

  10. Understanding your cancer prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about: Treatment Palliative care Personal matters such as finances Knowing what to expect may make it easier ... treatment. www.cancer.net/navigating-cancer-care/cancer-basics/understanding-statistics-used-guide-prognosis-and-evaluate-treatment . ...

  11. What Are Cancer Disparities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This infographic shows the factors associated with cancer disparities, examples of how the cancer burden differs across certain population groups, and NCI actions to understand and reduce cancer disparities.

  12. Psychosocial cancer care

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    family members to cancer is an increasing interest in education, ... all stages of the cancer journey and is passionate about enabling more professionals in South Africa to provide psychosocial cancer .... therapeutic support together with more.

  13. Skin Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase ... is based on the type of nonmelanoma skin cancer or other skin condition diagnosed: Basal cell carcinoma Enlarge Basal cell ...

  14. Stages of Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase ... is based on the type of nonmelanoma skin cancer or other skin condition diagnosed: Basal cell carcinoma Enlarge Basal cell ...

  15. Squamous cell cancer (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squamous cell cancer involves cancerous changes to the cells of the middle portion of the epidermal skin layer. It is ... malignant tumor, and is more aggressive than basal cell cancer, but still may be relatively slow-growing. It ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System ...

  17. What Is Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the head causes brain cancer or that bad people get cancer. This isn't true! Kids don't do anything wrong to get cancer. But some unhealthy habits, especially cigarette smoking or drinking too much alcohol ...

  18. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  19. Stages of Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is found early. Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer include vaginal bleeding and pelvic pain. These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by cervical cancer or by other conditions . Check with your ...

  20. Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  1. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer Order the free Anyone Can ... rarely, younger children can develop skin cancer. How can people with dark skin get skin cancer? Although ...

  2. Cancer - renal pelvis or ureter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ureter; Kidney cancer - renal pelvis; Ureter cancer Images Kidney anatomy References National Cancer Institute website. Transitional cell cancer (kidney/ureter) treatment (PDQ) - health professional version. www.cancer. ...

  3. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Media Outreach Program Cancer Reporting Fellowships Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Events Cancer Currents Blog All Press ...

  5. Types of Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    An infographic from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) describing the four broad categories of cancer research: basic research, clinical research, population-based research, and translational research.

  6. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Reporting & Auditing Grant Transfer Grant Closeout Contracts & Small Business Training Cancer Training at NCI (Intramural) Funding for Cancer Training ... Media Resources Media ...

  8. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and areas that are painted white. The higher ... - skin - squamous cell; Skin cancer - squamous cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer - squamous ...

  9. Prostate Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  10. Prostate Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  11. Colorectal Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  12. Colorectal Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  13. Bladder Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  14. Kidney Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  15. Cervical Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  16. Cancer research and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzawa, Taiju

    1978-01-01

    An actual condition of cancer, and the basis and a future view of radiotherapy were described by adding generally established biological and biochemical knowledge to the author's research. It was described that the relapse of cancer after irradiation was induced from outside of cancerous mass, and the nature of relapsed cancerous cells group was also stated. The histological structure of cancer from a view of cell movement and radioresistant cancerous cells group were described. The differentiation of cancerous cells were described, and a study of inhibition of cancer by redifferentiation was considered. It is important to grasp characteristics and a limit of radiotherapy for cancer, to systematize and materialize reasonable therapy which uses drug and immunotherapy together with surgery, and to use radiotherapy reasonably together with redifferentiation therapy of cancerous cells by extracting characteristics and a limit of radiationtherapy from an actual condition of cancer. (Serizawa, K.)

  17. Cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubiana, M

    1999-01-01

    Over 70% of human cancers are associated with lifestyle and about half of cancer deaths could be prevented by relatively simple individual actions: no smoking, moderate consumption of alcohol, increased consumption of fruit and vegetables, avoidance of sunbathing, obesity and a too high consumption of saturated lipids. Most of these efforts would also markedly decrease the incidence of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. However, the concept of prevention is currently neither well accepted nor understood by the medical community and the general public. It is often felt that it restricts freedom, imposes a choice between pleasure and duty, and that passing judgement on lifestyle is a form of intolerance. The case of tobacco illustrates the difficulties encountered by prevention, notably among adolescents. The fight against smoking requires information, a societal approach (ban on advertising, increase in price), and a reduction of the example given by adult smoking (parents, peers, teachers, physicians, TV presenters, movie stars, have a great influence on adolescents), while tobacco cessation programs must be promoted. The various approaches should be integrated into a global program of health prevention, including health education at school from 5 to 12 years of age. The efficacy of each of the global program's components should be evaluated. Misconceptions such as overestimation of the impact of pollution on health should also be corrected. Health is created and experienced by people within the setting of their daily lives, in particular during childhood. Prevention is the responsibility of individual members of the community but also of the community as a whole.

  18. HPV and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a group of more than 200 related viruses that can cause several cancers including cervical cancer, anal cancer, and oropharyngeal cancer. Learn more about how HPV is transmitted, the different types of HPV, HPV vaccines, and HPV treatment.

  19. Breast cancer in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...

  20. Staging of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LUNG CANCER MINI-SERIES #2 Staging of Lung Cancer Once your lung cancer is diagnosed, staging tells you and your health care provider about ... at it under a microscope. The stages of lung cancer are listed as I, II, III, and IV ...

  1. Radiotherapy for esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, T.A.; Ajani, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    These proceedings contain 33 papers grouped under the headings of: Heath memorial award lecture; Large bowel cancer; Esophageal cancer; Pancreatic, Endocrime, and Hepatobiliary cancer; Gastric cancer; Joanne Vandenberge hill award and William O. Russell lectureship in anatomic pathology; and Jeffrey A. Gottlieb memorial lecture

  2. Helicobacter pyloriand gastric cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-05-12

    May 12, 2009 ... only common but is second to lung cancer as a leading cause of cancer-related ... in the developing world,4 although cancer records are not readily available for .... gastric cancers are identified at a late stage due to lack of ...

  3. Breast Cancer Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Breast Cancer Surgery The goal of breast cancer surgery is to remove the whole tumor from the breast. Some lymph nodes ... might still be in the body. Types of breast cancer surgery There are two types of breast cancer ...

  4. Current cancer research 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamatiadis-Smidt, H. [ed.

    1998-12-31

    Topics from the Contents: The Fight against Cancer in Germany - A Critical Review. Conditions and Structures in Research. Familial Breast Cancer - A Critical Assessment. Research without Animal Experiments. Cancer Prevention. New Approaches for Tumor Therapy. Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer. Therapy of Brain Tumors with Laser Neurosurgery. The Genome Project. (orig.)

  5. Current cancer research 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamatiadis-Smidt, H.

    1998-01-01

    Topics from the Contents: The Fight against Cancer in Germany - A Critical Review. Conditions and Structures in Research. Familial Breast Cancer - A Critical Assessment. Research without Animal Experiments. Cancer Prevention. New Approaches for Tumor Therapy. Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer. Therapy of Brain Tumors with Laser Neurosurgery. The Genome Project. (orig.)

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & ...

  7. Peralta Cancer Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The investigators in the cell biology program at PCRI have pioneered in the development of techniques for culturing human epithelial cells. The cancer diagnosis program has been concerned with researching new techniques for early diagnosis of breast cancer in women. The cancer treatment program has been concerned with applying cell biology and biochemistry advances to improve cancer management

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español 1-800-4-CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors ... Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding Cancer ...

  9. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... interactions of pregnancy-related mammotrophic factors, ligands, and receptors? What is the time course of pregnancy-related ...

  10. Treatment Options by Stage (Rectal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... VEGF inhibitors and angiogenesis inhibitors . Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor therapy: EGFRs are proteins found on ...

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... back). Tests include the following: Estrogen and progesterone receptor test : A test to measure the amount of ...

  12. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... back). Tests include the following: Estrogen and progesterone receptor test : A test to measure the amount of ...

  13. Treatment Options (by Stage) for Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... VEGF inhibitors and angiogenesis inhibitors . Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor therapy: EGFRs are proteins found on ...

  14. Other Considerations for Pregnancy and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... Tests may include the following: Estrogen and progesterone receptor test : A test to measure the amount of ...

  15. General Information about Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... back). Tests include the following: Estrogen and progesterone receptor test : A test to measure the amount of ...

  16. Telomerers rolle i cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Laila; Kølvraa, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Telomeres are a double-edged sword when it comes to cancer. On one hand, telomeres limit the cells' ability to divide and thereby restrict the uninhibited growth seen in cancer. On the other hand, short telomeres can initiate the chromosome instability that characterizes cancer. Diseases...... with the combination of short telomeres and high cancer risk are seen, but until now the use of telomeres as predictors of cancer has, in general, been unsuccessful. Telomeres and telomerase play an important role in further cancer development. Researchers are trying to exploit this in the development of new cancer...

  17. Colon cancer associated transcripts in human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yincong; Xie, Haibiao; Gao, Qunjun; Zhan, Hengji; Xiao, Huizhong; Zou, Yifan; Zhang, Fuyou; Liu, Yuchen; Li, Jianfa

    2017-10-01

    Long non-coding RNAs serve as important regulators in complicated cellular activities, including cell differentiation, proliferation and death. Dysregulation of long non-coding RNAs occurs in the formation and progression of cancers. The family of colon cancer associated transcripts, long non-coding RNAs colon cancer associated transcript-1 and colon cancer associated transcript-2 are known as oncogenes involved in various cancers. Colon cancer associated transcript-1 is a novel lncRNA located in 8q24.2, and colon cancer associated transcript-2 maps to the 8q24.21 region encompassing rs6983267. Colon cancer associated transcripts have close associations with clinical characteristics, such as lymph node metastasis, high TNM stage and short overall survival. Knockdown of them can reverse the malignant phenotypes of cancer cells, including proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis. Moreover, they can increase the expression level of c-MYC and oncogenic microRNAs via activating a series of complex mechanisms. In brief, the family of colon cancer associated transcripts may serve as potential biomarkers or therapeutic targets for human cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Cancer and tumour markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osifo, B.

    1999-02-01

    Cancer has been a major cause of death world wide and in Nigeria there are six commonest forms of manifestation of cancer known. Of these prostrate cancer is the highest with 16% occurrence of all known cancers according to a study by the Histopathology Department of the UCH. Many factors, amongst them dietary, environmental, lifestyle, age and sedentary work are possible causes. With the global rise in incidents, the IAEA initiated the Tumour Marker Project as a means of screening cancers in 15 African countries including Nigeria. In Nigeria, 4 groups of the commonest cancers have been chosen for screening. These are prostrate cancer, primary liver cancer, cancer of the GI tract and trophoblastic cancer

  19. Thyroid cancer: experiences of Cancer Institute, Madras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, R. Ravi; Mahajan, V.; Ganesh, M.S.; Ayyappan, S.; Suresh, V.; Suryasen, S.

    1999-01-01

    It has been long recognized that Thyroid Cancer (TC) envelopes under its umbrella a spectrum of cancers from the relatively indolent well differentiated papillary and follicular cancers to the aggressive and rapidly fatal anaplastic cancers. Medullary cancers fall in between the two extremes. Recently, poor prognostic variants of well-differentiated cancers have been described. There is also a move to define a group of poorly differentiated TC including the insular variants distinguishing them from anaplastic carcinomas. Of the 1168 patients with thyroid nodules seen at the Cancer Institute (WIA), Chennai between 1956 and 1996, 670 cases proved to be malignant either cytologically or histologically. This report is based on the follow-up of these patients which at 10 years was 75%

  20. The History and Accomplishments of the LIVESTRONG Young Adult Alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews-Bradshaw, Beth; Johnson, Rebecca; Kaplan, Stuart; Craddock, Kelli; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon

    2011-03-01

    This article outlines the history, background, and accomplishments of the LIVESTRONG Young Adult Alliance. The LIVESTRONG Young Adult Alliance, a program of the Lance Armstrong Foundation, was developed as a vehicle for a strategic plan designed to implement the Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology Progress Review Group (AYAO PRG) recommendations. The AYAO PRG was co-sponsored by Lance Armstrong Foundation and the National Cancer Institute (NCI); both LIVESTRONG and NCI provide strategic oversight and guidance to the Alliance. Highlights and accomplishments: The Alliance accomplishments include the publication of disease-specific retrospective analyses, funding of an AYA cohort study and biorepository proposal, publication of two position statements on guidelines for care of AYAs with cancer and training for AYA oncology health professionals, promotion of an international charter of rights for AYA cancer patients, creation and distribution of a survey to college health professionals, creation and implementation of a Cancer Centers Working Group and Institutional Review Board Toolkit, and continued growth and collaboration through an annual meeting. The growth and success of the Alliance has coincided with the growth of AYA oncology as a field. The collaborative environment of the Alliance draws together a diverse group of individuals united in the effort to increase survival rates and improve the quality of life for adolescents and young adults diagnosed with cancer.

  1. The Globalisation of Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potterton, L.

    2010-01-01

    Cancer has gone global. Once seen as the disease of the rich and old, cancer now kills over seven million people a year, with 70% of these deaths occurring in developing countries. The number of cancer cases is growing globally, but developing countries are worst hit by the cancer crisis, since the resources needed to prevent, diagnose and treat cancer are severely limited or nonexistent.

  2. Cancer Data and Statistics Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educational Campaigns Initiatives Stay Informed Cancer Data and Statistics Tools Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Cancer Statistics Tools United States Cancer Statistics: Data Visualizations The ...

  3. Pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, D.; Fisher, B.

    1975-01-01

    Diagnostic and therapeutic advances of the last 30 years have left unchanged the course and prognosis of carcinoma of the exocrine pancreas. The most important reasons for this are the anatomic location and biologic nature of the tumor. An additional factor of importance is the consistently reported 4 to 9 month delay in diagnosis, also unchanged in 30 years. Recent controversy has developed concerning the mainstay of our current surgical treatment surgical treatment, the Whipple pancreaticoduodenectomy and its modifications, and its role as the most efficacious surgical approach to this disease. It is the purpose of this paper to review and summarize the clinical characteristics of carcinoma of the exocrine pancreas and to review and reassess the standard operative approach. Cancer of the head, body, and tail of the pancreas will be considered together because they have many features in common

  4. Multiple primary cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Gyu Sik; Lee, Ouk; Kim, So Sun; Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee; Joh, Young Duck

    1989-01-01

    It is rare for one human being to be afflicted with more than one cancer. However with further advances in therapeutic regimens, histopathologic observation, diagnostic modalities, and increased curiosity, there are increasing number of case reports of multiple primary cancer. The present study evaluates 25 histologically confirmed cases of multiple primary cancer from 1974 to 1988 at Kosin Medical Center. The most frequent site of the first primary cancer in male was stomach and in female, uterine cervix. The first primary cancer in female occurred in endocrine-related organs (breast, uterus and thyroid) in 63.6 percent. Synchronous cancers are diagnosed simultaneously or within an interval of about six months and synchronous cancers were 16 out of 25 cases. Metachronous cancers are diagnosed at interval of more than six months. There were 9 metachronous cancers and average interval between the first and second primary cancer was 22.8 months. The incidence of multiple primary cancer was 0.11 percent. The average age was 51.9 years at the time of the first primary cancer (53.1 years in male and 50.3 years in female). CT scan was most helpful in early detection of multiple primary cancers facilitating biopsy and surgery. Multiple primary cancers are beyond the medical curiosity. Early diagnosis of the disease and careful follow-up study, based on an awareness of the possibility of second cancers, will substantially increase the survival of these patients

  5. A new prospect in cancer therapy: targeting cancer stem cells to eradicate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Sha; Wang, An-Xin; Dong, Bing; Pu, Ke-Feng; Yuan, Li-Hua; Zhu, Yi-Min

    2012-12-01

    According to the cancer stem cell theory, cancers can be initiated by cancer stem cells. This makes cancer stem cells prime targets for therapeutic intervention. Eradicating cancer stem cells by efficient targeting agents may have the potential to cure cancer. In this review, we summarize recent breakthroughs that have improved our understanding of cancer stem cells, and we discuss the therapeutic strategy of targeting cancer stem cells, a promising future direction for cancer stem cell research.

  6. Brief Introduction of NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines for Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Xin-en

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is always a main factor threatening human’s health and life, and its incidence and mortality are gradually increasing in recent years. However, some advances have been made with the unremitting efforts and exploration human made and the improvement is mainly made in cancer treatment of young children and older adults, while little in adolescent and young adult (AYA patients, who are generally defined as individuals of 15 to 39 years old at the time of initial cancer diagnosis due to many factors. To highlight the issues of this unique population, National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN absorbs a large amount of information and previous researches and develops a set of clinical practice guidelines. Though the guidelines are more supportive care guidelines than treatment guidelines, they give us the opportunity to learn the latest international developments in AYA treatment and more survival chance for the treatment of AYA patients.

  7. Cancer in Children and Adolescents | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    View a fact sheet that has statistics as well as information about types, causes, and treatments of cancers in children and adolescents in the United States. https://www.cancer.gov/types/childhood-cancers/child-adolescent-cancers-fact-sheet

  8. Understanding male cancer patients' barriers to participating in cancer rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Charlotte; Lomborg, Kirsten; Nielsen, Claus Vinther

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to describe male cancer survivors' barriers towards participation in cancer rehabilitation as a means to guiding future targeted men's cancer rehabilitation. Symbolic Interactionism along with the interpretive descriptive methodology guided the study of 35 male cancer survivors...

  9. Cancer--Living with Cancer: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during cancer treatment (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Cancer--Living with ... care plan Show More Show Less Related Health Topics Cancer Cancer Chemotherapy Palliative Care National Institutes of ...

  10. Epigenetics and Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Victoria Valinluck; Grady, William M.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths in the world. It results from an accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes in colon epithelial cells that transforms them into adenocarcinomas. There have been major advances in our understanding of cancer epigenetics over the last decade, particularly regarding aberrant DNA methylation. Assessment of the colon cancer epigenome has revealed that virtually all colorectal cancers have aberrantly methylated genes and the average colorectal cancer methylome has hundreds to thousands of abnormally methylated genes. As with gene mutations in the cancer genome, a subset of these methylated genes, called driver genes, is presumed to play a functional role in colorectal cancer. The assessment of methylated genes in colorectal cancers has also revealed a unique molecular subgroup of colorectal cancers called CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP) cancers; these tumors have a particularly high frequency of methylated genes. The advances in our understanding of aberrant methylation in colorectal cancer has led to epigenetic alterations being developed as clinical biomarkers for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic applications. Progress in the assessment of epigenetic alterations in colorectal cancer and their clinical applications has shown that these alterations will be commonly used in the near future as molecular markers to direct the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer. PMID:22009203

  11. Cancer stem cells and personalized cancer nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gener, Petra; Rafael, Diana Fernandes de Sousa; Fernández, Yolanda; Ortega, Joan Sayós; Arango, Diego; Abasolo, Ibane; Videira, Mafalda; Schwartz, Simo

    2016-02-01

    Despite the progress in cancer treatment over the past years advanced cancer is still an incurable disease. Special attention is pointed toward cancer stem cell (CSC)-targeted therapies, because this minor cell population is responsible for the treatment resistance, metastatic growth and tumor recurrence. The recently described CSC dynamic phenotype and interconversion model of cancer growth hamper even more the possible success of current cancer treatments in advanced cancer stages. Accordingly, CSCs can be generated through dedifferentiation processes from non-CSCs, in particular, when CSC populations are depleted after treatment. In this context, the use of targeted CSC nanomedicines should be considered as a promising tool to increase CSC sensitivity and efficacy of specific anti-CSC therapies.

  12. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  13. Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 11/12/2014 Risk Calculator About the Tool Colorectal Cancer Risk Factors Download SAS and Gauss Code Page ... Rectal Cancer: Prevention, Genetics, Causes Tests to Detect Colorectal Cancer and Polyps Cancer Risk Prediction Resources Update November ...

  14. Get Tested for Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print This Topic En español Get Tested for Colorectal Cancer Browse Sections The Basics Overview What to Expect ... section Overview 2 of 6 sections The Basics: Colorectal Cancer What is colorectal cancer? Colorectal cancer is a ...

  15. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Head and neck cancer overview What are my ... and neck cancer. For updated information on new cancer treatments that are available, you should discuss these issues ...

  16. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  17. PET scan for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radioactive substance (called a tracer) to look for breast cancer. This tracer can help identify areas of cancer ... only after a woman has been diagnosed with breast cancer. It is done to see if the cancer ...

  18. Cancer rehabilitation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Ploug; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental assumption behind cancer rehabilitation in many Western societies is that cancer survivors can return to normal life by learning to deal with the consequences of their illness and their treatment. This assumption is supported by increasing political attention to cancer rehabilitation...... and a growth in residential cancer-rehabilitation initiatives in Denmark (Danish Cancer Society 1999; Government of Denmark 2003). On the basis of their ethnographic fieldwork in residential-cancer rehabilitation courses, the authors examine the new rehabilitation discourse. They argue that this discourse has...

  19. Physics of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2015-09-01

    Physics of Cancer focuses on the mechanical properties of cancer cells and their role in cancer disease and metastasis. It discusses the role of the mechanical properties of interacting cells and the connective tissue microenvironment and describes the role of an inflammation during cancer disease. This outstanding book is the first to describe cancer disease from a biophysical point of view without being incomplete in describing the biological site of cancer. Originating in part from the author's own courses on tumor biology and cellular biophysics, this book is suitable for both students and researchers in this dynamic interdisciplinary field, be they from a physical, biological or medical sciences background.

  20. OPT-821 With or Without Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Peritoneal Cancer in Second or Third Complete Remission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-12

    Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  1. Cancer-Related Fatigue in Cancer Survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebede, Chidinma C; Jang, Yongchang; Escalante, Carmen P

    2017-11-01

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) significantly interferes with usual functioning because of the distressing sense of physical, emotional, and cognitive exhaustion. Assessment of CRF is important and should be performed during the initial cancer diagnosis, throughout cancer treatment, and after treatment using a fatigue scoring scale (mild-severe). The general approach to CRF management applies to cancer survivors at all fatigue levels and includes education, counseling, and other strategies. Nonpharmacologic interventions include psychosocial interventions, exercise, yoga, physically based therapy, dietary management, and sleep therapy. Pharmacologic interventions include psychostimulants. Antidepressants may also benefit when CRF is accompanied by depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cancer in Punjab: evidence from cancer atlas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyanarayana Labani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer in Punjab has been a news item in the recent past. It was thought that cases in Punjab exceeded the national average and felt that “Punjab the country’s food bowl was in throes of cancer” (1. This presumption was perhaps incorrect. In order to have clarity on the issue, we aimed to review the report of Cancer Atlas in Punjab state for the year 2012-13, recently released by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR. The main idea of generating data through Cancer Atlas approach is to assess patterns of cancer in various parts of Punjab state and to estimate cancer incidence at various districts in Punjab. The sources of data collection in the state are all medical colleges, pathology labs, civil hospitals and individual oncologist throughout the state. These data collection sources are considered important as over 80-85% of registered cases of cancer are generally with a microscopic diagnosis (2. Patient data details in the Atlas approach included are Cancer site and morphology of the cancer as per guidelines for collecting information on all malignant cases. The similar approach that adopted in Cancer Atlas in India such as internet approach is used in entering core patient data for Punjab Atlas by standardized procedures. 

  3. Opening end-of-life discussions: how to introduce Voicing My CHOiCES™, an advance care planning guide for adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadeh, Sima; Pao, Maryland; Wiener, Lori

    2015-06-01

    Each year, more than 11,000 adolescents and young adults (AYAs), aged 15-34, die from cancer and other life-threatening conditions. In order to facilitate the transition from curative to end-of-life (EoL) care, it is recommended that EoL discussions be routine, begin close to the time of diagnosis, and continue throughout the illness trajectory. However, due largely to discomfort with the topic of EoL and how to approach the conversation, healthcare providers have largely avoided these discussions. We conducted a two-phase study through the National Cancer Institute with AYAs living with cancer or pediatric HIV to assess AYA interest in EoL planning and to determine in which aspects of EoL planning AYAs wanted to participate. These results provided insight regarding what EoL concepts were important to AYAs, as well as preferences in terms of content, design, format, and style. The findings from this research led to the development of an age-appropriate advance care planning guide, Voicing My CHOiCES™. Voicing My CHOiCES™: An Advanced Care Planning Guide for AYA became available in November 2012. This manuscript provides guidelines on how to introduce and utilize an advance care planning guide for AYAs and discusses potential barriers. Successful use of Voicing My CHOiCES™ will depend on the comfort and skills of the healthcare provider. The present paper is intended to introduce the guide to providers who may utilize it as a resource in their practice, including physicians, nurses, social workers, chaplains, psychiatrists, and psychologists. We suggest guidelines on how to: incorporate EoL planning into the practice setting, identify timepoints at which a patient's goals of care are discussed, and address how to empower the patient and incorporate the family in EoL planning. Recommendations for introducing Voicing My CHOiCES™ and on how to work through each section alongside the patient are provided.

  4. Kidney cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajer, M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the epidemiology, diagnostic workup and treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with an emphasis on the Slovenian epidemiological data. RCC represents 2% of all cancers and is the third most common genitourinary tract tumour. It most frequently occurs among people of ages, between 50 and 60 years. Male patients are more prone to it than female. A number of environmental, occupational and genetic factors have been found to be associated with the development of RCC. Patients often have nonspecific symptoms and this is the reason why for half of them the disease is already metastatic when diagnosed. The most common sites of metastases are lungs (75%), followed by soft tissues (36%), bones (20%), liver (18%), skin (8%) and central nerve system (8%). In the evaluation of RCC multiple diagnostic procedures are needed with obligatory image diagnostics. Radical nephrectomy is still the mainstream treatment of localized disease. Nephron sparing techniques have been used in cases, where radical operation would result in an anephric patient. Efficient adjuvant therapy has not been discovered yet. Until recently interpherone and interleukin were the only known effective treatments for metastatic disease, but now new and more efficient biologic agents are being discovered. The most important prognostic factor for survival is stage at the beginning of treatment. The 5-year survival rate is 95% for patients with stage I disease, 88% for stage II, 59% for stage III and 20% for stage IV. (author)

  5. Colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunderson, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    Data have been accumulating to support an increased role for combined radiation therapy and surgery in the initial treatment of many rectal and some colonic carcinomas. These include the following findings: 1. Improvements in surgical survival rates have been minimal in the past 25 to 30 years and are the result of an increase in operability with little change by stage of disease in those patients who have survived a ''curative resection.'' 2. The incidence of local recurrence after potentially curative surgery is high in more advanced stages of disease for both rectal and colon cancer. Although palliation of local recurrence can frequently be obtained, its duration is often limited and the curative potential is low. Therefore, prevention of local recurrence with adjuvant radiation with or without chemotherapy is imperative. 3. When patients present with fixed, unresectable tumors, aggressive treatment combinations appear to improve both local control and survival. Close interaction is required between the surgeon and the radiation oncologist to achieve these results with an acceptable risk of complications

  6. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bey, P.; Beckendorf, V.; Stines, J.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation therapy of prostate carcinoma with a curative intent implies to treat the whole prostate at high dose (at least 66 Gy). According to clinical stage, PSA level, Gleason's score, the clinical target volume may include seminal vesicles and less often pelvic lymph nodes. Microscopic extra-capsular extension is found in 15 to 60% of T1-T2 operated on, specially in apex tumors. On contrary, cancers developing from the transitional zone may stay limited to the prostate even with a big volume and with a high PSA level. Zonal anatomy of the prostate identifies internal prostate, including the transitional zone (5% of the prostate in young people). External prostate includes central and peripheral zones. The inferior limit of the prostate is not lower than the inferior border of the pubic symphysis. Clinical and radiological examination: ultrasonography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), CT-scan identify prognostic factors as tumor volume, capsule effraction, seminal vesicles invasion and lymph node extension. The identification of the clinical target volume is now done mainly by CT-Scan which identifies prostate and seminal vesicles. NMR could be helpful to identify more precisely prostate apex. The definition of margins around the clinical target volume has to take in account daily reproducibility and organ motion and of course the maximum tolerable dose for organs at risk. (authors)

  7. Cancer screening guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoorob, R; Anderson, R; Cefalu, C; Sidani, M

    2001-03-15

    Numerous medical organizations have developed cancer screening guidelines. Faced with the broad, and sometimes conflicting, range of recommendations for cancer screening, family physicians must determine the most reasonable and up-to-date method of screening. Major medical organizations have generally achieved consensus on screening guidelines for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer. For breast cancer screening in women ages 50 to 70, clinical breast examination and mammography are generally recommended every one or two years, depending on the medical organization. For cervical cancer screening, most organizations recommend a Papanicolaou test and pelvic examination at least every three years in patients between 20 and 65 years of age. Annual fecal occult blood testing along with flexible sigmoidoscopy at five-year to 10-year intervals is the standard recommendation for colorectal cancer screening in patients older than 50 years. Screening for prostate cancer remains a matter of debate. Some organizations recommend digital rectal examination and a serum prostate-specific antigen test for men older than 50 years, while others do not. In the absence of compelling evidence to indicate a high risk of endometrial cancer, lung cancer, oral cancer and ovarian cancer, almost no medical organizations have developed cancer screening guidelines for these types of cancer.

  8. What You Need to Know about Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Lung Cancer This booklet is about lung cancer. Learning about ...

  9. What You Need to Know about Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Kidney Cancer This booklet is about cancer that starts in ...

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and where it is in your body The stage of the cancer, which refers to the size ... percentage of patients with a specific type and stage of cancer who have not died from their ...

  11. Prostate cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000397.htm Prostate cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... trials you may be able to join How Prostate Cancer Staging is Done Initial staging is based on ...

  12. Prostate Cancer Foundation News

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Finding a Doctor Treatment Options Side Effects Managing Prostate Cancer Treatment Related Side Effects Clinical Trials Patient Resources Guides Videos Prostate Cancer FAQs Information by Stage Newly Diagnosed with Prostate ...

  13. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different tests to find those ... PSA level may be high if you have prostate cancer. It can also be high if you have ...

  14. Lung cancer in elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagnerova, M.

    2007-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Europe and USA. The median age of diagnosis is currently 69 years, however this is gradually increasing with the aging population. Patients over age of 70 represent 40 % of all patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Age alone has not been found to be a significant prognostic factor in many malignancies, including lung cancer with performance status and stage being of greater importance. In lung cancer it is also evident that older patients gain equivalent benefit from cancer therapies as their younger counterparts. Elderly patients are under-treated in all aspects of their disease course from histological diagnosis to active therapy with surgical resection, radiotherapy or chemotherapy, irrespective of performance status or co-morbidities. Elderly patients are also underrepresented in lung cancer clinical trials. In this review is presented knowledge about lung cancer in elderly. (author)

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Centered Approach View this video on YouTube. Anthony L. Back, M.D., ... Most text on the National Cancer Institute website may be reproduced or reused freely. The National Cancer ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Media Cancer Currents Blog About NCI NCI Overview History Contributing to Cancer Research Leadership Director's Page Deputy ... Information Legislative Activities Hearings & Testimonies Current Congress Legislative History Committees of Interest Legislative Resources Recent Public Laws ...

  17. Advanced Cancer Detection Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruckdeschel, John

    1999-01-01

    ... through screening, and the testing of methods to prevent cancer. In addition, the Center created and supports education programs to provide increased cancer awareness and established working collaborations with the James...

  18. Cancer Alternative Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have many choices to make about your cancer treatment. One choice you might be thinking about ... are acupuncture, chiropractic, and herbal medicines. People with cancer may use CAM to Help cope with the ...

  19. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... spread. Certain traits of the cancer cells Your age and how healthy you were before cancer How ... free survival. Because statistics are based on large groups of people, they cannot be used to predict ...