WorldWideScience

Sample records for axles

  1. REDESIGNING OF TRACTOR TROLLEY AXLE USING ANSYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish V. Katore,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In Central India, various small scale industries are adopting the crude methodologies for designing & manufacturing the machine components. One such industry producing tractor trolleys for agricultural use has been identified for this study. The existing trolley designed by the industry uses heavy axle without consideringstatic and dynamic loading conditions which in turn leads to higher factor of safety increasing the overall cost of the axle. In this study, existing trolley axle is redesigned considering the static and dynamic load conditions. A CAD model is prepared using CATIA V5 as a tool. Minimum cross section for the axle is calculated which resulted in the 24.8 % reduction in the weight of the axle. The axle dimensions are redesigned to 75 X 75 mm which is comparatively smaller than the old axle. The design is optimized based on the manufacturing cost of the axle. The failure analysis is performed on the axle of trolley used in agricultural area. These results provide atechnical basis to prevent future damage to the location axle.

  2. 49 CFR 215.105 - Defective axle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... plain bearing journal on the axle, or the fillet on the axle, has— (1) A ridge; (2) A depression; (3) A... conjunction with a plain bearing, has an end collar that is broken or cracked; (d) A journal on the car...

  3. Structural basis for Gas6–Axl signalling

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Takako; Knyazev, Pjotr G; Clout, Naomi J; Cheburkin, Yuri; Göhring, Walter; Ullrich, Axel; TIMPL, RUPERT; Hohenester, Erhard

    2005-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases of the Axl family are activated by the vitamin K-dependent protein Gas6. Axl signalling plays important roles in cancer, spermatogenesis, immunity, and platelet function. The crystal structure at 3.3 Å resolution of a minimal human Gas6/Axl complex reveals an assembly of 2:2 stoichiometry, in which the two immunoglobulin-like domains of the Axl ectodomain are crosslinked by the first laminin G-like domain of Gas6, with no direct Axl/Axl or Gas6/Gas6 contacts. There a...

  4. AXL Inhibitors in Cancer: A Medicinal Chemistry Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Samuel H; Brunton, Valerie G; Unciti-Broceta, Asier

    2016-04-28

    Dysregulation of the AXL receptor tyrosine kinase has been associated with many types of cancer. It has not been until recently, however, that targeting AXL has come under the spotlight because of ever accumulating evidence of its strong correlation with poor prognosis and drug resistance. The entry of the first AXL-branded inhibitor in clinical trials in 2013 marked an important milestone for the clinical validation of AXL as an anticancer target. Nevertheless, to weigh the current contribution and potential future impact of AXL inhibition in the clinic, it is fundamental to recognize that several kinase inhibitors approved or in clinical development have AXL as either a prominent secondary or even the primary target. Through this review, the chemical and biological properties of the main inhibitors targeting AXL (either intentionally or unintentionally) will be discussed, along with the prospects and challenges to translate AXL inhibitors into a bona fide therapeutic option. PMID:26555154

  5. Imaging Axl expression in pancreatic and prostate cancer xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimmagadda, Sridhar, E-mail: snimmag1@jhmi.edu [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Pullambhatla, Mrudula; Lisok, Ala [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Hu, Chaoxin [Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Maitra, Anirban [Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Pomper, Martin G, E-mail: mpomper@jhmi.edu [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •Axl is overexpressed in a variety of cancers. •Axl overexpression confers invasive phenotype. •Axl imaging would be useful for therapeutic guidance and monitoring. •Axl expression imaging is demonstrated in pancreatic and prostate cancer xenografts. •Graded levels of Axl expression imaging is feasible. -- Abstract: The receptor tyrosine kinase Axl is overexpressed in and leads to patient morbidity and mortality in a variety of cancers. Axl–Gas6 interactions are critical for tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. The goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of imaging graded levels of Axl expression in tumors using a radiolabeled antibody. We radiolabeled anti-human Axl (Axl mAb) and control IgG1 antibodies with {sup 125}I with high specific radioactivity and radiochemical purity, resulting in an immunoreactive fraction suitable for in vivo studies. Radiolabeled antibodies were investigated in severe combined immunodeficient mice harboring subcutaneous CFPAC (Axl{sup high}) and Panc1 (Axl{sup low}) pancreatic cancer xenografts by ex vivo biodistribution and imaging. Based on these results, the specificity of [{sup 125}I]Axl mAb was also validated in mice harboring orthotopic Panc1 or CFPAC tumors and in mice harboring subcutaneous 22Rv1 (Axl{sup low}) or DU145 (Axl{sup high}) prostate tumors by ex vivo biodistribution and imaging studies at 72 h post-injection of the antibody. Both imaging and biodistribution studies demonstrated specific and persistent accumulation of [{sup 125}I]Axl mAb in Axl{sup high} (CFPAC and DU145) expression tumors compared to the Axl{sup low} (Panc1 and 22Rv1) expression tumors. Axl expression in these tumors was further confirmed by immunohistochemical studies. No difference in the uptake of radioactivity was observed between the control [{sup 125}I]IgG1 antibody in the Axl{sup high} and Axl{sup low} expression tumors. These data demonstrate the feasibility of imaging Axl expression in pancreatic

  6. Targeting Axl and Mer kinases in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anupam; Warner, Steven L; Vankayalapati, Hariprasad; Bearss, David J; Sharma, Sunil

    2011-10-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) are cell-surface transmembrane receptors that contain regulated kinase activity within their cytoplasmic domain and play an important role in signal transduction in both normal and malignant cells. The mammalian TAM RTK family includes 3 closely related members: Tyro-3, Axl, and Mer. Overexpression or ectopic expression of the TAM receptors has been detected in a wide array of human cancers. Growth arrest-specific gene 6 has been identified as the major ligand for these TAM RTKs, and its binding to the receptors has been shown to promote proliferation and survival of cancer cells in vitro. Abnormal expression and activation of Axl or Mer can provide a survival advantage for certain cancer cells. Inhibition of Axl and Mer may enhance the sensitivity of cancer cells to cytotoxic agents and would potentially be a therapeutic strategy to target cancer cells. This review elucidates the role of Axl and Mer in normal cellular function and their role in oncogenesis. In addition, we review the potential to inhibit these RTKs for the development of therapeutic targets in treatment of cancer. PMID:21933973

  7. Structural basis for Gas6–Axl signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takako; Knyazev, Pjotr G; Clout, Naomi J; Cheburkin, Yuri; Göhring, Walter; Ullrich, Axel; Timpl, Rupert; Hohenester, Erhard

    2006-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases of the Axl family are activated by the vitamin K-dependent protein Gas6. Axl signalling plays important roles in cancer, spermatogenesis, immunity, and platelet function. The crystal structure at 3.3 Å resolution of a minimal human Gas6/Axl complex reveals an assembly of 2:2 stoichiometry, in which the two immunoglobulin-like domains of the Axl ectodomain are crosslinked by the first laminin G-like domain of Gas6, with no direct Axl/Axl or Gas6/Gas6 contacts. There are two distinct Gas6/Axl contacts of very different size, both featuring interactions between edge β-strands. Structure-based mutagenesis, protein binding assays and receptor activation experiments demonstrate that both the major and minor Gas6 binding sites are required for productive transmembrane signalling. Gas6-mediated Axl dimerisation is likely to occur in two steps, with a high-affinity 1:1 Gas6/Axl complex forming first. Only the minor Gas6 binding site is highly conserved in the other Axl family receptors, Sky/Tyro3 and Mer. Specificity at the major contact is suggested to result from the segregation of charged and apolar residues to opposite faces of the newly formed β-sheet. PMID:16362042

  8. Clinical, Pathological, and Molecular Features of Lung Adenocarcinomas with AXL Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Katsuaki; Suda, Kenichi; Shimizu, Shigeki; Sakai, Kazuko; Mizuuchi, Hiroshi; Tomizawa, Kenji; Takemoto, Toshiki; Nishio, Kazuto; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase AXL is a member of the Tyro3-Axl-Mer receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily. AXL affects several cellular functions, including growth and migration. AXL aberration is reportedly a marker for poor prognosis and treatment resistance in various cancers. In this study, we analyzed clinical, pathological, and molecular features of AXL expression in lung adenocarcinomas (LADs). We examined 161 LAD specimens from patients who underwent pulmonary resections. When AXL protein ...

  9. Dynamic analysis of rail vehicle axle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ferhat Dikmen; Meral Bayraktar; Rahmi Guclu

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, in order to obtain the dynamic forces on the passenger coach axle, a full rail vehicle model with 19-dof (degrees of freedom) has been considered. For a specific example, the variations of these dynamic forces with velocity of the passenger coach, suspension characteristics and way conditions have been examined. Dynamic forces found in the resonance regions at the range of 2–5 m/s (7.2–18 km/h) has been discussed. Theoretical results obtained for the dynamic forces have been successfully compared with the experimental results of German Railways (Deutsche Bahn-DB).

  10. Failure analysis of axle shaft of a fork lift

    OpenAIRE

    Souvik Das; Goutam Mukhopadhyay; Sandip Bhattacharyya

    2015-01-01

    An axle shaft of fork lift failed at operation within 296 h of service. The shaft transmits torque from discrepancy to wheel through planetary gear arrangement. A section of fractured axle shaft made of induction-hardened steel was analyzed to determine the root cause of the failure. Optical microscopies as well as field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) along with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were carried out to characterize the microstructure. Hardness profile thro...

  11. [2]Pseudorotaxane composed of heteroditopic macrobicycle and pyridine N-oxide based axle: recognition site dependent axle orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Subrata; Santra, Saikat; Ghosh, Pradyut

    2015-04-17

    A strategy for threading an axle having a hydrogen bond acceptor unit in the cavity of a C3v symmetric amido-amine macrobicycle is investigated. The macrobicycle acts as a wheel in its neutral as well as triprotonated states to form threaded architectures with a pyridine N-oxide derivative. The negative oxygen dipole of the axle is capable of [2]pseudorotaxane formation in two different orientations with the wheel in its neutral and triprotonated states. PMID:25825821

  12. Axl, a receptor tyrosine kinase, mediates flow-induced vascular remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunov, Vyacheslav A; Mohan, Amy M; Georger, Mary A; Berk, Bradford C

    2006-06-01

    Intima-media thickening (IMT) in response to hemodynamic stress is a physiological process that requires coordinated signaling among endothelial, inflammatory, and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Axl, a receptor tyrosine kinase, whose ligand is Gas6, is highly induced in VSMC after carotid injury. Because Axl regulates cell migration, phagocytosis and apoptosis, we hypothesized that Axl would play a role in IMT. Vascular remodeling in mice deficient in Axl (Axl(-/-)) and wild-type littermates (Axl(+/+)) was induced by ligation of the left carotid artery (LCA) branches maintaining flow via the left occipital artery. Both genotypes had similar baseline hemodynamic parameters and carotid artery structure. Partial ligation altered blood flow equally in both genotypes: increased by 60% in the right carotid artery (RCA) and decreased by 80% in the LCA. There were no significant differences in RCA remodeling between genotypes. However, in the LCA Axl(-/-) developed significantly smaller intima+media compared with Axl(+/+) (31+/-4 versus 42+/-6x10(-6) microm3, respectively). Quantitative immunohistochemistry of Axl(-/-) LCA showed increased apoptosis compared with Axl(+/+) (5-fold). As expected, p-Akt was decreased in Axl(-/-), whereas there was no difference in Gas6 expression. Cell composition also changed significantly, with increases in CD45+ cells and decreases in VSMC, macrophages, and neutrophils in Axl(-/-) compared with Axl(+/+). These data demonstrate an important role for Axl in flow-dependent remodeling by regulating vascular apoptosis and vascular inflammation. PMID:16627783

  13. A New Approach for Reliability Life Prediction of Rail Vehicle Axle by Considering Vibration Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Bayraktar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of vibration on the axle has been considered. Vibration measurements at different speeds have been performed on the axle of a running rail vehicle to figure out displacement, acceleration, time, and frequency response. Based on the experimental works, equivalent stress has been used to find out life of the axles for 90% and 10% reliability. Calculated life values of the rail vehicle axle have been compared with the real life data and it is found that the life of a vehicle axle taking into account the vibration effects is in good agreement with the real life of the axle.

  14. Axl Phosphorylates Elmo Scaffold Proteins To Promote Rac Activation and Cell Invasion

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Thuraia, Afnan; Gauthier, Rosemarie; Chidiac, Rony; Fukui, Yoshinori; Screaton, Robert A; Gratton, Jean-Philippe; Côté, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase Axl contributes to cell migration and invasion. Expression of Axl correlates with metastatic progression in cancer patients, yet the specific signaling events promoting invasion downstream of Axl are poorly defined. Herein, we report Elmo scaffolds to be direct substrates and binding partners of Axl. Elmo proteins are established to interact with Dock family guanine nucleotide exchange factors to control Rac-mediated cytoskeletal dynamics. Proteomics and mutagenes...

  15. Optimization of Front Axle Suspension System of Articulated Dump Truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Thomas Heegaard; Christensen, Brian B.; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.;

    2010-01-01

    that has been subjected to comfort improvement is a two axle articulated dump truck. The comfort has been in terms of whole body vibration exposure and the overall improvement has been made possible by adding front axle suspension. However, a hydraulic stabilizing system between the tractor and trailer...... to evaluate the whole body vibrations. By use of a multibody simulation model of the dump truck the whole body vibration exposure has been computed using the predefined work cycle as model input. The design parameters comprise the components of the hydraulic subsystem of the suspension, i.e., the size...

  16. Clinical, Pathological, and Molecular Features of Lung Adenocarcinomas with AXL Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Katsuaki; Suda, Kenichi; Shimizu, Shigeki; Sakai, Kazuko; Mizuuchi, Hiroshi; Tomizawa, Kenji; Takemoto, Toshiki; Nishio, Kazuto; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase AXL is a member of the Tyro3-Axl-Mer receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily. AXL affects several cellular functions, including growth and migration. AXL aberration is reportedly a marker for poor prognosis and treatment resistance in various cancers. In this study, we analyzed clinical, pathological, and molecular features of AXL expression in lung adenocarcinomas (LADs). We examined 161 LAD specimens from patients who underwent pulmonary resections. When AXL protein expression was quantified (0, 1+, 2+, 3+) according to immunohistochemical staining intensity, results were 0: 35%; 1+: 20%; 2+: 37%; and 3+: 7% for the 161 samples. AXL expression status did not correlate with clinical features, including smoking status and pathological stage. However, patients whose specimens showed strong AXL expression (3+) had markedly poorer prognoses than other groups (P = 0.0033). Strong AXL expression was also significantly associated with downregulation of E-cadherin (P = 0.025) and CD44 (P = 0.0010). In addition, 9 of 12 specimens with strong AXL expression had driver gene mutations (6 with EGFR, 2 with KRAS, 1 with ALK). In conclusion, we found that strong AXL expression in surgically resected LADs was a predictor of poor prognosis. LADs with strong AXL expression were characterized by mesenchymal status, higher expression of stem-cell-like markers, and frequent driver gene mutations. PMID:27100677

  17. Shape Optimization Of Front Axle Support Of Tractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shree Dewangan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The front axle support of tractor is the part of tractor which holds the engine of tractor and also gives support to it and lies between engine and front axle of tractor. According to the present market demand of off highway vehicle the low cost and light weight vehicle is in demand to fulfill the requirement of cost efficient vehicle. In this paper analysis of front axle support is done for study of stress generated in the component and then after optimization of its shape and according to the shape its weight will also reduced. Considering the effect of forces acted on such a heavy parts in tractor designed by casting having dynamic loads of less frequency with greater amplitude may cause great damage to the component. According to the production techniques of components in tractor front axle requires a properly designed support with high stiffness. The design of component was modeled in Creo parametric 2.0 and the analysis was performed in solid works. Shape optimization technique is used for performing optimization cause miserable reduction in weight of connecting rod. The optimized component is 10.35% lighter compare to initial design.

  18. Sunitinib activates Axl signaling in renal cell cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mijn, Johannes C; Broxterman, Henk J; Knol, Jaco C; Piersma, Sander R; De Haas, Richard R; Dekker, Henk; Pham, Thang V; Van Beusechem, Victor W; Halmos, Balazs; Mier, James W; Jiménez, Connie R; Verheul, Henk M W

    2016-06-15

    Mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics provides a unique unbiased approach to evaluate signaling network in cancer cells. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib is registered as treatment for patients with renal cell cancer (RCC). We investigated the effect of sunitinib on tyrosine phosphorylation in RCC tumor cells to get more insight in its mechanism of action and thereby to find potential leads for combination treatment strategies. Sunitinib inhibitory concentrations of proliferation (IC50) of 786-O, 769-p and A498 RCC cells were determined by MTT-assays. Global tyrosine phosphorylation was measured by LC-MS/MS after immunoprecipitation with the antiphosphotyrosine antibody p-TYR-100. Phosphoproteomic profiling of 786-O cells yielded 1519 phosphopeptides, corresponding to 675 unique proteins including 57 different phosphorylated protein kinases. Compared to control, incubation with sunitinib at its IC50 of 2 µM resulted in downregulation of 86 phosphopeptides including CDK5, DYRK3, DYRK4, G6PD, PKM and LDH-A, while 94 phosphopeptides including Axl, FAK, EPHA2 and p38α were upregulated. Axl- (y702), FAK- (y576) and p38α (y182) upregulation was confirmed by Western Blot in 786-O and A498 cells. Subsequent proliferation assays revealed that inhibition of Axl with a small molecule inhibitor (R428) sensitized 786-O RCC cells and immortalized endothelial cells to sunitinib up to 3 fold. In conclusion, incubation with sunitinib of RCC cells causes significant upregulation of multiple phosphopeptides including Axl. Simultaneous inhibition of Axl improves the antitumor activity of sunitinib. We envision that evaluation of phosphoproteomic changes by TKI treatment enables identification of new targets for combination treatment strategies. PMID:26815723

  19. Axl phosphorylates Elmo scaffold proteins to promote Rac activation and cell invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Thuraia, Afnan; Gauthier, Rosemarie; Chidiac, Rony; Fukui, Yoshinori; Screaton, Robert A; Gratton, Jean-Philippe; Côté, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase Axl contributes to cell migration and invasion. Expression of Axl correlates with metastatic progression in cancer patients, yet the specific signaling events promoting invasion downstream of Axl are poorly defined. Herein, we report Elmo scaffolds to be direct substrates and binding partners of Axl. Elmo proteins are established to interact with Dock family guanine nucleotide exchange factors to control Rac-mediated cytoskeletal dynamics. Proteomics and mutagenesis studies reveal that Axl phosphorylates Elmo1/2 on a conserved carboxyl-terminal tyrosine residue. Upon Gas6-dependent activation of Axl, endogenous Elmo2 becomes phosphorylated on Tyr-713 and enters into a physical complex with Axl in breast cancer cells. Interfering with Elmo2 expression prevented Gas6-induced Rac1 activation in breast cancer cells. Similarly to blocking of Axl, Elmo2 knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of Dock1 abolishes breast cancer cell invasion. Interestingly, Axl or Elmo2 knockdown diminishes breast cancer cell proliferation. Rescue of Elmo2 knockdown cells with the wild-type protein but not with Elmo2 harboring Tyr-713-Phe mutations restores cell invasion and cell proliferation. These results define a new mechanism by which Axl promotes cell proliferation and invasion and identifies inhibition of the Elmo-Dock pathway as a potential therapeutic target to stop Axl-induced metastases. PMID:25332238

  20. Inhibition of Axl improves the targeted therapy against ALK-mutated neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Fei [Department of Neurology, Sichuan Medical Science Institute and Sichuan Provincial Hospital, Chengdu 610072 (China); Li, Hongling [Department of Radiotherapy, Shanghai First People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Sun, Yong, E-mail: sunfanqi2010@163.com [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Huai’an First People’s Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Huai’an 223300 (China)

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • First reported Axl is co-expressed with ALK in neuroblastoma tissues and cell lines. • Axl activation promotes cell growth and impairs the efficiency of ALK inhibitor. • Further found silence of Axl leads to increased sensitivity to ALK inhibitors. • Axl inhibitor promotes the efficiency of targeted therapy in vitro and in vivo. • Axl activation should be considered in the clinical application of ALK inhibitors. - Abstract: Neuroblastoma (NB) patients harboring mutated ALK can be expected to potentially benefit from targeted therapy based on ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), such as crizotinib and ceritinib. However, the effect of the treatment varies with different individuals, although with the same genic changes. Axl receptor tyrosine kinase is expressed in a variety of human cancers, but little data are reported in NB, particularly in which carrying mutated ALK. In this study, we focus on the roles of Axl in ALK-mutated NB for investigating rational therapeutic strategy. We found that Axl is expressed in ALK-positive NB tissues and cell lines, and could be effectively activated by its ligand GAS6. Ligand-dependent Axl activation obviously rescued crizotinib-mediated suppression of cell proliferation in ALK-mutated NB cells. Genetic inhibition of Axl with specific small interfering RNA markedly increased the sensitivity of cells to ALK-TKIs. Furthermore, a small-molecule inhibitor of Axl significantly enhanced ALK-targeted therapy, as an increased frequency of apoptosis was observed in NB cells co-expressing ALK and Axl. Taken together, our results demonstrated that activation of Axl could lead to insensitivity to ALK inhibitors, and dual inhibition of ALK and Axl might be a potential therapeutic strategy against ALK-mutated NB.

  1. Inhibition of Axl improves the targeted therapy against ALK-mutated neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • First reported Axl is co-expressed with ALK in neuroblastoma tissues and cell lines. • Axl activation promotes cell growth and impairs the efficiency of ALK inhibitor. • Further found silence of Axl leads to increased sensitivity to ALK inhibitors. • Axl inhibitor promotes the efficiency of targeted therapy in vitro and in vivo. • Axl activation should be considered in the clinical application of ALK inhibitors. - Abstract: Neuroblastoma (NB) patients harboring mutated ALK can be expected to potentially benefit from targeted therapy based on ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), such as crizotinib and ceritinib. However, the effect of the treatment varies with different individuals, although with the same genic changes. Axl receptor tyrosine kinase is expressed in a variety of human cancers, but little data are reported in NB, particularly in which carrying mutated ALK. In this study, we focus on the roles of Axl in ALK-mutated NB for investigating rational therapeutic strategy. We found that Axl is expressed in ALK-positive NB tissues and cell lines, and could be effectively activated by its ligand GAS6. Ligand-dependent Axl activation obviously rescued crizotinib-mediated suppression of cell proliferation in ALK-mutated NB cells. Genetic inhibition of Axl with specific small interfering RNA markedly increased the sensitivity of cells to ALK-TKIs. Furthermore, a small-molecule inhibitor of Axl significantly enhanced ALK-targeted therapy, as an increased frequency of apoptosis was observed in NB cells co-expressing ALK and Axl. Taken together, our results demonstrated that activation of Axl could lead to insensitivity to ALK inhibitors, and dual inhibition of ALK and Axl might be a potential therapeutic strategy against ALK-mutated NB

  2. Fatigue crack propagation in steels for railway axles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Náhlík, Luboš; Pokorný, Pavel; Hutař, Pavel; Matušek, P.

    Zurich: Trans Tech Publications, 2014 - (Šandera, P.), s. 254-257. (Key Engineering Materials. 592-593). ISBN 978-3-03785-934-6. ISSN 1013-9826. [MSMF 7 - International Conference on Materials Structure & Micromechanics of Fracture /7./. Brno (CZ), 01.07.2013-03.07.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0214 Grant ostatní: VUT(CZ) FSIJ- 13-2046 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : railway axle * crack retardation * variable loading amplitude * generalized Willenborg model Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  3. EVALUATION OF DYNAMIC INDICATORS OF SIX-AXLE LOCOMOTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper is devoted to dynamic characteristics evaluation of the locomotive with prospective design and determination the feasibility of its use on the Ukrainian railways. Methodology. The methods of mathematical and computer modeling of the dynamics of railway vehicles, as well as methods for the numerical integration of systems of ordinary nonlinear differential equations were used to solve the problem. Findings. The calculated diagram of a locomotive on three-axle bogies was built to solve the problem, and it is a system of rigid bodies connected by various elements of rheology. The mathematical model of the locomotive movement, allowing studying its spatial vibrations at driving on straight and curved sections of the track with random irregularities in plan and profile was developed with use of this calculated diagram. At compiling the mathematical model took into account both geometric (nonlinearity profile of the wheel roll surface and physical nonlinearity of the system (the work forces of dry friction, nonlinearity characteristics of interaction forces between wheels and rails. The multivariate calculations, which allowed assessing the dynamic qualities of the locomotive at its movement along straight and curved sections of the track, were realized with the use of computer modeling. The smoothness movement indicators of the locomotive in horizontal and vertical planes, frame strength, coefficients of vertical dynamics in the first and second stages of the suspension, the load factor of resistance against the derailment of the wheel from the rail were determined at the period of research. In addition, a comparison of the obtained results with similar characteristics is widely used on the Ukrainian railways in six-axle locomotive TE 116. The influence of speed and technical state of the track on the locomotive traffic safety was determined.Originality. A mathematical model of the spatial movement of a six-axle locomotive with

  4. Multi-axle dynamic steering system of truck-howitzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanliang LI; Xiuhua GAO; Chunqiu ZHANG; Yubo SUN

    2008-01-01

    A two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) steering model of multi-axle vehicle was established. The steering center position, the relationship between the steering angle and the vehicle velocity, and the minimum turn radius were deduced on the basis of the proportional control with a zero sideslip angle. Results indicate that the system stability is decided by the vehicle barycenter position and the lateral stiffness of a tire. Under this control, the steady value of the lateral acceleration is obviously diminished and the yaw angular velocity changes little under any vehicle velocity. The system rapidly responds, the vehicle smoothly steers, and its handling stability is prominently improved.

  5. AXL-SKILL LANGUAGE BASED ALLEGRO PACKAGE TOOL SECONDARY DEVELOPMENT%基于AXL-SKILL语言的Allegro封装工具的二次开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄琦; 李伟; 葛立峰

    2012-01-01

    着重研究基于AXL-SKILL语言的Cadence Allegro封装设计的二次开发技术.介绍AXL-SKILL语言,分析自建封装工具的方法和步骤,并针对几种不同焊盘和封装类型加以研究.结合实际经验,制定封装规则,实现封装工具的二次开发.%This paper focuses on the secondary development technology for AXL-SKILL language based Cadence Allegro package and design, introduces AXL-SKILL language, analyzes methods and procedures for packaging creation tools, then researches on a few different pad types and package types, combining with practical experiences, establishes package rules and realizes the secondary development of package tools.

  6. Heating Processes Of The Axle-Boxes Of Rolling-Stock On Railway Track Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olegas Lunys

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the heating process of the axle-boxes ofrolling stock when the train is in motion and discusses the forcesacting on the wheel-set when rolling stock moves along the trackcurves. The paper analyses scientific publications relevant tothe forces acting on the wheel-set of rolling stock and focuseson the axle-box heating process. The article also discusses theresults of theoretical studies on wheel-set forces that affect theheat exchange process of axle-boxes for a railway vehicle. Theresearch has determined a change in heating temperatures ofdifferent axle-boxes of rolling stock and reasons for their variationsand tendencies. The paper has estimated an effect of thetrain running along the track curves on the heating intensity ofthe axle-box. Finally, valid conclusions and recommendationshave been provided.

  7. Analysis of Tendencies Towards Changes in Temperatures of Railway Vehicle Axle Boxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olegas Lunys

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes variations in the temperature of axle-box heating of railroad rolling stock considering two modes of the train - driving and parking position. Additionally, the article describes the influence of the axle load and season on the heat of the axle-box, forecasts intolerable residual resources and explains a possibility of detecting likely breakage at the very beginning of defects. The paper also deals with scientific literature related to axle-box heating and focuses on the conducted practical and theoretical experiments. The carried out research has established the rates of operating heating and critical heating. The application of numerical values for the algorithm of automatic control devices could help with detecting the breakdowns of the axle-box before they reach a critical state and assist in forecasting residual operating resources.

  8. Fatigue life analysis of die forged railway axle manufactured from C30 steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Trško

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With respect to the manufacturing process, different parts of one structural component can have different fatigue properties. In this study, the fatigue life of a railway axle manufactured from C30 steel by die forging is evaluated in the part of the axle bolster and axle body. According to the fatigue test results obtained at high frequency tension - compression fatigue tests (f ≈ 20 kHz, R = -1, T = 20 ± 5 °C, due to the higher level of work hardening of the axle bolster, the fatigue strength of material in this part is significantly higher than in the axle body. Different fatigue strength of these parts were observed despite the fact, that results of static tensile tests did not proved any important differences in the ultimate tensile strength, yield point and elongation. 

  9. Failure analysis of axle shaft of a fork lift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvik Das

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An axle shaft of fork lift failed at operation within 296 h of service. The shaft transmits torque from discrepancy to wheel through planetary gear arrangement. A section of fractured axle shaft made of induction-hardened steel was analyzed to determine the root cause of the failure. Optical microscopies as well as field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM along with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS were carried out to characterize the microstructure. Hardness profile throughout the cross-section was evaluated by micro-hardness measurements. Chemical analysis indicated that the shaft was made of 42CrMo4 steel grade as per specification. Microstructural analysis and micro-hardness profile revealed that the shaft was improperly heat treated resulting in a brittle case, where crack was found to initiate from the case in a brittle mode in contrast to ductile mode within the core. This behaviour was related to differences in microstructure, which was observed to be martensitic within the case with a micro-hardness equivalent to 735 HV, and a mixture of non-homogeneous structure of pearlite and ferrite within the core with a hardness of 210 HV. The analysis suggests that the fracture initiated from the martensitic case as brittle mode due to improper heat treatment process (high hardness. Moreover the inclusions along the hot working direction i.e. in the longitudinal axis made the component more susceptible to failure.

  10. Dominant-negative inhibition of the Axl receptor tyrosine kinase suppresses brain tumor cell growth and invasion and prolongs survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajkoczy, Peter; Knyazev, Pjotr; Kunkel, Andrea; Capelle, Hans-Holger; Behrndt, Sandra; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Kiessling, Fabian; Eichelsbacher, Uta; Essig, Marco; Read, Tracy-Ann; Erber, Ralf; Ullrich, Axel

    2006-01-01

    Malignant gliomas remain incurable brain tumors because of their diffuse-invasive growth. So far, the genetic and molecular events underlying gliomagenesis are poorly understood. In this study, we have identified the receptor tyrosine kinase Axl as a mediator of glioma growth and invasion. We demonstrate that Axl and its ligand Gas6 are overexpressed in human glioma cell lines and that Axl is activated under baseline conditions. Furthermore, Axl is expressed at high levels in human malignant glioma. Inhibition of Axl signaling by overexpression of a dominant-negative receptor mutant (AXL-DN) suppressed experimental gliomagenesis (growth inhibition >85%, P 72 days). A detailed analysis of the distinct hallmarks of glioma pathology, such as cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and tumor angiogenesis, revealed that inhibition of Axl signaling interfered with cell proliferation (inhibition 30% versus AXL-WT), glioma cell migration (inhibition 90% versus mock and AXL-WT, P < 0.05), and invasion (inhibition 62% and 79% versus mock and AXL-WT, respectively; P < 0.05). This study describes the identification, functional manipulation, in vitro and in vivo validation, and preclinical therapeutic inhibition of a target receptor tyrosine kinase mediating glioma growth and invasion. Our findings implicate Axl in gliomagenesis and validate it as a promising target for the development of approaches toward a therapy of these highly aggressive but, as yet, therapy-refractory, tumors. PMID:16585512

  11. Development of a Test Machine for IVECO Drive Axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Liang-mo; WANG He-fu; CHEN Jin-rong; LING Zhi-liang; CAO Yu-hua

    2007-01-01

    To improve the automation level of the vehicle drive axle test and better simulate a vehicle′s actual operation, an advanced test machine has been developed. The load system of the machine consists of hand brakes and electric cylinders. It is simple-structured and low-cost. The major motor of the machine is controlled by a transducer and its speed can be adjusted easily. In addition, the programmed machine can automatically test such parameters as the grinding condition, the differential speed, the noise level, etc. It can also adjust the test procedures according to different requirements. Detailed discussion of the structure and mechanism of the test machine is given in this paper.

  12. CONOCOPHILLIPS FUEL EFFICIENT HIGH-PERFORMANCE(FEHP) SAE 75W90 REAR AXLE GEAR LUBRICANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report is on the Environmental Verification Test of a ConocoPhillips real axle gear lubricant to determine whether it could save vehicle fuel. It determined that a verifyable fuel savings could be measured.

  13. Cyclic Fracture Toughness of Railway Axle and Mechanisms of its Fatigue Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorochak Andriy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main regularities in fatigue fracture of the railway axle material - the OSL steel - are found in this paper. Micromechanisms of fatigue crack propagation are described and systematized, and a physical-mechanical interpretation of the relief morphology at different stages of crack propagation is proposed for fatigue cracks in specimens cut out of the surface, internal and central layers of the axle.

  14. Prerequisites for Increasing the Axle Load on Railway Tracks in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lidmila

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with problems of increasing the axle load on Czech Railways (ED tracks to 250 kN or 300 kN, respectively. The results of a numerical analysis of the effects of increased axle loads on the track bed structure were verified by experimental measurements carried out on track bed construction models in an experimental box on a 1:1 scale. The results of the research are applicable for routine use on ED. 

  15. Deformation effect simulation and optimization for double front axle steering mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jungang; Zhang, Siqin; Yang, Qinglong

    2013-03-01

    This paper research on tire wear problem of heavy vehicles with Double Front Axle Steering Mechanism from the flexible effect of Steering Mechanism, and proposes a structural optimization method which use both traditional static structural theory and dynamic structure theory - Equivalent Static Load (ESL) method to optimize key parts. The good simulated and test results show this method has high engineering practice and reference value for tire wear problem of Double Front Axle Steering Mechanism design.

  16. Mice lacking Axl and Mer tyrosine kinase receptors are susceptible to experimental autoimmune orchitis induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Liu, Zhenghui; Zhang, Yue; Chen, Qiaoyuan; Liu, Peng; Cheng, C Yan; Lee, Will M; Chen, Yongmei; Han, Daishu

    2015-03-01

    The mammalian testis is an immunoprivileged organ where male germ cell autoantigens are immunologically ignored. Both systemic immune tolerance to autoantigens and local immunosuppressive milieu contribute to the testicular immune privilege. Testicular immunosuppression has been intensively studied, but information on systemic immune tolerance to autoantigens is lacking. In the present study, we aimed to determine the role of Axl and Mer receptor tyrosine kinases in maintaining the systemic tolerance to male germ cell antigens using the experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) model. Axl and Mer double-knockout (Axl(-/-)Mer(-/-)) mice developed evident EAO after a single immunization with germ cell homogenates emulsified with complete Freund's adjuvant. EAO was characterized by the accumulation of macrophages and T lymphocytes in the testis. Damage to the seminiferous epithelium was also observed. EAO induction was associated with pro-inflammatory cytokine upregulation in the testes, impaired permeability of the blood-testis barrier and generation of autoantibodies against germ cell antigens in Axl(-/-)Mer(-/-) mice. Immunization also induced mild EAO in Axl or Mer single-gene-knockout mice. By contrast, a single immunization failed to induce EAO in wild-type mice. The results indicate that Axl and Mer receptors cooperatively regulate the systemic immune tolerance to male germ cell antigens. PMID:25403570

  17. Two axles threaded using a single template site: active metal template macrobicyclic [3]rotaxanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldup, Stephen M; Leigh, David A; McGonigal, Paul R; Ronaldson, Vicki E; Slawin, Alexandra M Z

    2010-01-13

    Template approaches to rotaxanes normally require at least n - 1 template sites to interlock n components. Here we describe the one-pot synthesis of [3]rotaxanes in which a single metal template site induces formation of axles through each cavity of a bicyclic macrocycle. Central to the approach is that a portion of the bicyclic molecule acts as a ligand for a transition metal ion that mediates covalent bond formation through one or other macrocyclic cavity, depending on the ligand's orientation, making a mechanical bond. The ligand can then rotate so that the transition metal can catalyze the formation of a second axle through the other macrocycle. Using this strategy with the Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (the CuAAC reaction) generates a [3]rotaxane with two identical axles in up to 86% yield. [3]Rotaxanes with two different axles threaded through the macrobicyclic rings can also be created using a single template site, either by having copper(I) sequentially form both mechanical bonds (via the CuAAC reaction) using different sets of building blocks for each axle or by using two different reactions catalyzed by two different metal ions: a palladium(II)-mediated alkyne homocoupling to assemble the first thread through one cavity, followed by a copper(I)-mediated CuAAC reaction to form the second axle through the other ring. PMID:19968281

  18. Influence of polygonal wear of railway wheels on the wheel set axle stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xingwen; Chi, Maoru; Wu, Pingbo

    2015-11-01

    The coupled vehicle/track dynamic model with the flexible wheel set was developed to investigate the effects of polygonal wear on the dynamic stresses of the wheel set axle. In the model, the railway vehicle was modelled by the rigid multibody dynamics. The wheel set was established by the finite element method to analyse the high-frequency oscillation and dynamic stress of wheel set axle induced by the polygonal wear based on the modal stress recovery method. The slab track model was taken into account in which the rail was described by the Timoshenko beam and the three-dimensional solid finite element was employed to establish the concrete slab. Furthermore, the modal superposition method was adopted to calculate the dynamic response of the track. The wheel/rail normal forces and the tangent forces were, respectively, determined by the Hertz nonlinear contact theory and the Shen-Hedrick-Elkins model. Using the coupled vehicle/track dynamic model, the dynamic stresses of wheel set axle with consideration of the ideal polygonal wear and measured polygonal wear were investigated. The results show that the amplitude of wheel/rail normal forces and the dynamic stress of wheel set axle increase as the vehicle speeds rise. Moreover, the impact loads induced by the polygonal wear could excite the resonance of wheel set axle. In the resonance region, the amplitude of the dynamic stress for the wheel set axle would increase considerably comparing with the normal conditions.

  19. Low MITF/AXL ratio predicts early resistance to multiple targeted drugs in melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Judith; Krijgsman, Oscar; Tsoi, Jennifer; Robert, Lidia; Hugo, Willy; Song, Chunying; Kong, Xiangju; Possik, Patricia A.; Cornelissen-Steijger, Paulien D.M.; Foppen, Marnix H. Geukes; Kemper, Kristel; Goding, Colin R.; McDermott, Ultan; Blank, Christian; Haanen, John; Graeber, Thomas G.; Ribas, Antoni; Lo, Roger S.; Peeper, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Increased expression of the Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) contributes to melanoma progression and resistance to BRAF pathway inhibition. Here we show that the lack of MITF is associated with more severe resistance to a range of inhibitors, while its presence is required for robust drug responses. Both in primary and acquired resistance, MITF levels inversely correlate with the expression of several activated receptor tyrosine kinases, most frequently AXL. The MITF-low/AXL-high/drug-resistance phenotype is common among mutant BRAF and NRAS melanoma cell lines. The dichotomous behaviour of MITF in drug response is corroborated in vemurafenib-resistant biopsies, including MITF-high and -low clones in a relapsed patient. Furthermore, drug cocktails containing AXL inhibitor enhance melanoma cell elimination by BRAF or ERK inhibition. Our results demonstrate that a low MITF/AXL ratio predicts early resistance to multiple targeted drugs, and warrant clinical validation of AXL inhibitors to combat resistance of BRAF and NRAS mutant MITF-low melanomas. PMID:25502142

  20. A Design Method of Automotive Driving Axle Casing under the Random Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Yanping

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite life design of automobile components is an important method for lightening the automotive structure and improving vehicle performances. During driving the most typical vibration is the random vibration caused by the road roughness. In this study, by combining mechanical probabilistic fatigue analytical theory with random vibration theory and using CAD/CAE method, the correct finite element vibration analytical model of automotive driving axle casing was established. Based on the fatigue analysis model, a method of finite life design for the driving axle casing was proposed. According to ISO/TC108/SC2N67 the D grade road surface was taken as an example road in this study. The random dynamic load caused by road roughness and the static load of fully loaded vehicle was taken as the analytical load. Combining the Steinberg three-interval method of finite element analysis with Miner linear cumulative damage rule the fatigue life of driving axle casing was estimated. According tothe compulsive end-of-life standard for motor vehicles in China the finite life of driving axle casing can be designed on account of the vehicle end-of-life mileage which is six hundred thousand kilometers. Study results show that the proposed method is feasible and which will provide references for the finite life design of automotive driving axle casing under the random load from actual road surface.

  1. Dynamics of two-axle railway freight wagons with UIC standard suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Mark; True, Hans

    2006-01-01

    The dynamics of two different two-axle railway freight wagons is investigated theoretically and compared. Fully nonlinear models are considered. The hysteresis from dry friction and the effect of impacts between elements of the suspension are included. Bifurcation diagrams are shown in order to...

  2. 4-Oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamide Derivatives as New Axl Kinase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Li; Zhang, Zhang; Gao, Donglin; Luo, Jinfeng; Tu, Zheng-Chao; Li, Zhengqiu; Peng, Lijie; Ren, Xiaomei; Ding, Ke

    2016-07-28

    Axl is a new potential target for anticancer drug discovery. A series of 4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamides were designed and synthesized as highly potent Axl kinase inhibitors. One of the most promising compounds, 9im, tightly bound with Axl protein and potently inhibited its kinase function with a Kd value of 2.7 nM and an IC50 value of 4.0 nM, respectively, while was obviously less potent against most of the 403 wild-type kinases evaluated at a relatively high concentration. The compound dose-dependently inhibited the TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and suppressed the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. In addition, 9im also demonstrated reasonable pharmacokinetics properties in rats and exhibited in vivo therapeutic effect on hepatic metastasis in a xenograft model of highly metastatic 4T1 murine breast cancer cells. Compound 9im may serve as a lead compound for new anticancer drug discovery and a valuable research probe for further biological investigation on Axl. PMID:27379978

  3. Inhibiting receptor tyrosine kinase AXL with small molecule inhibitor BMS-777607 reduces glioblastoma growth, migration, and invasion in vitro and in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Onken, J.; Torka, R.; Korsing, S; J Radke; Krementeskaia, I.; M. Nieminen; Bai, X.; A. Ullrich; Heppner, F.; Vajkoczy, P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Receptor tyrosine kinase AXL (RTK-AXL) is regarded as suitable target in glioma therapy. Here we evaluate the anti-tumoral effect of small molecule inhibitor BMS-777607 targeting RTK-AXL in a preclinical glioma model and provide evidence that RTK-AXL is expressed and phosphorylated in primary and recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Experimental design: We studied the impact of BMS-777607 targeting RTK-AXL in GBM models in vitro and in vivo utilizing glioma cells SF126 and U118MG...

  4. Effect of GAS6 and AXL Gene Polymorphisms on Adiposity, Systemic Inflammation, and Insulin Resistance in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Fone-Ching Hsiao; Yuh-Feng Lin; Po-Shiuan Hsieh; Nain-Feng Chu; Yii-Der Ida Chen; Yi-Shing Shieh; Chang-Hsun Hsieh; Chien-Hsing Lee; Ting-I Lee; Yi-Jen Hung

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to explore the effects of GAS6 and AXL gene polymorphisms on adiposity, systemic inflammation, and insulin resistance in adolescents. After multistage sampling from the data of the Taipei Children Heart Study-III, we collected 358 boys and 369 girls with an average age of 13.3 years. We genotyped the adolescents' GAS6 rs8191973, GAS6 rs8191974, AXL rs4802113, and AXL rs2304232 polymorphisms. Significantly higher body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), a...

  5. Resource planning for internal logistics : A tool designed for the material handling department at Scania Axles and Gearboxes

    OpenAIRE

    Axin, Kajsa; Jonzon, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    This master thesis is performed at Scania Axles and Gearboxes, a production plant located in Södertälje. Within the plant axles, gearboxes as well as central gears are assembled from components to finished products. All production is conducted on production lines, with a pre-determined rate, which is supplied with components by the material handling department. Since the production quantity and the mix of product variants produced on the production line is customer order-based, the number and...

  6. Combination of an Improved FRF-Based Substructure Synthesis and Power Flow Method with Application to Vehicle Axle Noise Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, C Q

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, an improved FRF-based substructure synthesis method combined with power flow analysis is presented and is used for performing a vehicle axle noise analysis. The major transfer paths of axle noise transmitted from chassis to vehicle body are identified and ranked based on power flows transmitted through bushings between the chassis and body. To calculate the power flows, it is necessary to know the reaction forces and the vibrations at the bushing locations on the body side. To ...

  7. Glycoxidised LDL induced the upregulation of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase and its ligand in mouse mesangial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Sook Kim

    Full Text Available AIM/HYPOTHESIS: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL is subjected to glycoxidation in diabetes, and a novel signalling mechanism by which glycoxidised LDL functions in glomerular mesangial cells remains to be ascertained. METHODS: We performed gene expression analysis in mouse glomerular mesangial cells treated with LDL modified by glycation and oxidation (GO-LDL, 100 µg/ml for 48 h by using DNA microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR. We examined the GO-LDL-specific changes in gene and protein expression in mesangial cells and glomeruli of type 2 diabetic Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats. RESULTS: By microarray profiling, we noted that GO-LDL treatment increased Axl receptor tyrosine kinase (Axl mRNA expression (∼2.5-fold, p<0.05 compared with normal LDL (N-LDL treatment in mesangial cells. Treatment with GO-LDL also increased the protein levels of Axl and its ligand Gas6 as measured by Western blotting. These increases were inhibited by neutralising Axl receptor-specific antibody. Silencing Gas6 by siRNA inhibited GO-LDL-induced Axl expression in mesangial cells. Axl and Gas6 protein were also increased in cells cultured in high glucose (30 mM or methylglyoxal (200 µM. Gas6 treatment increased the expression and secretion of TGF-β1 protein, a key regulator of extracellular matrix expression in the glomeruli of diabetic kidneys. Immunohistochemical analyses of glomeruli from 20-week-old ZDF rats exhibited increased Axl protein expression. Rottlerin, a selective PKC-δ inhibitor, completely blocked Gas6-induced TGF-β1 expression. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: These data suggest that LDL modified by glycoxidation may mediate Axl/Gas6 pathway activation, and this mechanism may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy.

  8. Loss of the receptor tyrosine kinase Axl leads to enhanced inflammation in the CNS and delayed removal of myelin debris during Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto Anne L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Axl, together with Tyro3 and Mer, constitute the TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases. In the nervous system, Axl and its ligand Growth-arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6 are expressed on multiple cell types. Axl functions in dampening the immune response, regulating cytokine secretion, clearing apoptotic cells and debris, and maintaining cell survival. Axl is upregulated in various disease states, such as in the cuprizone toxicity-induced model of demyelination and in multiple sclerosis (MS lesions, suggesting that it plays a role in disease pathogenesis. To test for this, we studied the susceptibility of Axl-/- mice to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model for multiple sclerosis. Methods WT and Axl-/- mice were immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35-55 peptide emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant and injected with pertussis toxin on day 0 and day 2. Mice were monitored daily for clinical signs of disease and analyzed for pathology during the acute phase of disease. Immunological responses were monitored by flow cytometry, cytokine analysis and proliferation assays. Results Axl-/- mice had a significantly more severe acute phase of EAE than WT mice. Axl-/- mice had more spinal cord lesions with larger inflammatory cuffs, more demyelination, and more axonal damage than WT mice during EAE. Strikingly, lesions in Axl-/- mice had more intense Oil-Red-O staining indicative of inefficient clearance of myelin debris. Fewer activated microglia/macrophages (Iba1+ were found in and/or surrounding lesions in Axl-/- mice relative to WT mice. In contrast, no significant differences were noted in immune cell responses between naïve and sensitized animals. Conclusions These data show that Axl alleviates EAE disease progression and suggests that in EAE Axl functions in the recruitment of microglia/macrophages and in the clearance of debris following demyelination. In addition, these data

  9. Effect of Mn on hardenability of 25CrMo axle steel by an improved end-quench test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yutuo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available With the sixth large-scale railway speed-up, the quality of the axles is essential to the safety of the locomotive. According to the high-speed axle technical standard for the control of alloy elements in axle steel, optimization experiments of 25CrMo steel composition were performed by vacuum inductive melting. In order to study the hardenability of high-speed rail axles, an improved end-quench test was put forward. The advantage is that it enables the heat to transfer along the axial direction, thus avoiding edge effects. The hardenability of 25CrMo axle steels with Mn content of 0.60wt.% and 0.80wt.% was investigated mainly by means of optical microscopy and hardness tests. The experimental results indicate that the Mn has a pronounced effect on the hardenability of the steel. With an increase in Mn content from 0.60wt.% and 0.80wt.%, the hardenability of 25CrMo axle steel increases and the hard microstructure is maintained at an increasing distance from the quenched end. From the surface of the water quenched end to the center of the sample, the microstructure is martensite, martensite with bainite, and bainite.

  10. Expression Analysis Highlights AXL as a Candidate Zika Virus Entry Receptor in Neural Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Tomasz J; Pollen, Alex A; Di Lullo, Elizabeth; Sandoval-Espinosa, Carmen; Bershteyn, Marina; Kriegstein, Arnold R

    2016-05-01

    The recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil has been linked to substantial increases in fetal abnormalities and microcephaly. However, information about the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms connecting viral infection to these defects remains limited. In this study we have examined the expression of receptors implicated in cell entry of several enveloped viruses including ZIKV across diverse cell types in the developing brain. Using single-cell RNA-seq and immunohistochemistry, we found that the candidate viral entry receptor AXL is highly expressed by human radial glial cells, astrocytes, endothelial cells, and microglia in developing human cortex and by progenitor cells in developing retina. We also show that AXL expression in radial glia is conserved in developing mouse and ferret cortex and in human stem cell-derived cerebral organoids, highlighting multiple experimental systems that could be applied to study mechanisms of ZIKV infectivity and effects on brain development. PMID:27038591

  11. Optimization of Assembly of Rear Axle Carrier (Transmission System Through Ergonomic Consideration: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Kaustubh N. Kalaspurkar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Increased competition in the market, ever increasing demands of products and delivery of the quality product within committed dates forcing the manufacturers to involve newer and more optimized techniques in their production scheduling. This technique either involves costly Automation and Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS or the techniques forcing on elimination of unnecessary and unproductive operation (i.e. motion during the production. An assembly line is designed by determining the sequences of operations for manufacture of each component as well as the final product. In this paper, a case study at one of leading tractor manufacturing company in India for one of its production operation i.e. assembly of Rear Axle Carrier (Transmission System of tractor is presented using the technique of time and motion study. For this technique such as Predetermined Motion Time Study (PMTS, Method Time Measurement (MTM, various process charts are used for analysis and optimize their present methodology of assembling Rear Axle Carrier (RAC.

  12. THE EFFECT OF THRESHOLD VALUE ON THE RESIDUAL FATIGUE LIFETIME OF RAILWAY AXLES

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Pavel; Náhlík, Luboš; Hutař, Pavel

    Brno: Brno University of Technology, 2014 - (Fuis, V.), s. 496-499 ISBN 978-80-214-4871-1. ISSN 1805-8248. [Engineering Mechanics 2014 /20./. Svratka (CZ), 12.05.2014-15.05.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0214 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : railway axle * threshold value * fatigue crack * residual fatigue lifetim Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  13. Residual fatigue lifetime estimation of railway axles for various loading spectra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Pavel; Hutař, Pavel; Náhlík, Luboš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 82, APR (2016), s. 25-32. ISSN 0167-8442 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0214; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Fatigue failure * Residual fatigue lifetime * Crack propagation * Railway axle * Load spectrum Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.262, year: 2014

  14. A layered cooling process in whole quenching process for lightweight front axle beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Kai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the uniformity of martensite distribution and obtain consistent mechanical performance during the quenching process of front axle beam, a layered cooling process was presented in this paper. The fluid-solid coupled temperature field were investigated by finite element modeling and the prediction of micro-structure and hardness distributions were also carried out. The experimental result verifies the reliability of this model.

  15. A Design Method of Automotive Driving Axle Casing under the Random Load

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Yanping; He Zhengang; Xu Xiaomei

    2013-01-01

    Finite life design of automobile components is an important method for lightening the automotive structure and improving vehicle performances. During driving the most typical vibration is the random vibration caused by the road roughness. In this study, by combining mechanical probabilistic fatigue analytical theory with random vibration theory and using CAD/CAE method, the correct finite element vibration analytical model of automotive driving axle casing ...

  16. Influence of crack retardation on fatigue crack propagation in steels for railway axles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Náhlík, Luboš; Pokorný, Pavel; Hutař, Pavel

    Zurich : Trans Tech Publications, 2014 - (Clark, G.; Wang , C.), s. 351-356 ISBN 978-3-03835-008-8. ISSN 1022-6680. - (Advanced Materials Research. 891-892). [Fatigue 2014 - International Fatigue Congress /11./. Melbourne (AU), 02.03.2014-07.03.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0214 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : railway axle * fatigue crack * generalized Willenborg model * crack retardation Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  17. Motor-integrated high-efficiency drive axle for hybrid electric truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, S.; Takeda, N.; Susuki, Y.; Motooka, A.; Kumagai, N. [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    The development of an ultra-efficient hybrid electric truck by Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (MMC) was discussed. The Japanese government has initiated a program entitled the Advanced Clean Energy (ACE) Car Project in its ongoing effort to reduce energy consumption and to promote the efficient use of natural resources. The impetus for the development of the truck was to develop a vehicle that is is more energy efficient and emits fewer carbon dioxides than conventional diesel-engine trucks. MMC combined a compressed-natural gas (CNG) engine with a newly developed series/parallel hybrid system. An overview of the motor-integrated rear axle developed by MMC for its ACE Project test vehicle was presented. In addition to being very energy efficiency, the rear axle has the added benefit that it can be fitted in place of the rear axle in a conventional diesel-engine without major modifications to the suspension system or body structure. A maximum efficiency of about 94 per cent can be expected from the designed motor operating in isolation. The vehicle was also designed to allow maximum braking energy to be recovered. Performance testing of this vehicle will take place in 2002. refs., tabs., figs.

  18. Active noise reduction at the rear axle drive; Aktive Geraeuschminderung am Hinterachsgetriebe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eulert, Sebastian; Luehrs, Georg [Volkswagen AG, Kassel (Germany); Braeunig, Jan; Bucht, Andre; Kunze, Holger [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkzeugmaschinen und Umformtechnik, Dresden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In this article we present the results of a research project of Volkswagen AG and Fraunhofer IWU. It shows new approaches in the development of active mass dampers for transmission applications. The proposed active controlled system enables to reduce the interior sound pressure level of the rear axle gear mesh order by more than 5 dB. By detailed pre-examination of the drivetrain vibrations and transfer paths we gained new insights into the phenomenon of rear axle gear whine. In order to develop solutions to realise the damping of the vibrations we designed and constructed a test bench which consists of the main components of the rear axle unit and its bearings. The vibration phenomenon was replicated by synthetic excitation. Thus we could acquire an adequate control concept combined with a corresponding actuator and experimentally established control parameters. Validations on an experimental vehicle under synthetic excitation and finally under real driving conditions adduced the evidence for the functionality of the proposed system. (orig.)

  19. Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing: Five-Axle Combination Tractor-Flatbed Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, in coordination with the Federal Highway Administration, sponsored the Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing (HOVBT) program in order to provide information about the effect of gross vehicle weight (GVW) on braking performance. Because the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations limit the number of braking system defects that may exist for a vehicle to be allowed to operate on the roadways, the examination of the effect of brake defects on brake performance for increased loads is also relevant. The HOVBT program seeks to provide relevant information to policy makers responsible for establishing load limits, beginning with providing test data for a combination tractor/trailer. This testing was conducted on a five-axle combination vehicle with tractor brakes meeting the Reduced Stopping Distance requirement rulemaking. This report provides a summary of the testing activities, the results of various analyses of the data, and recommendations for future research. Following a complete brake rebuild, instrumentation, and brake burnish, stopping tests were performed from 20 and 40 mph with various brake application pressures (15 psi, 25 psi, 35 psi, 45 psi, 55 psi, and full system pressure). These tests were conducted for various brake conditions at the following GVWs: 60,000, 80,000, 91,000, 97,000, 106,000, and 116,000 lb. The 80,000-lb GVWs included both balanced and unbalanced loads. The condition of the braking system was also varied. To introduce these defects, brakes (none, forward drive axle, or rear trailer axle) were made inoperative. In addition to the stopping tests, performance-based brake tests were conducted for the various loading and brake conditions. Analysis of the stopping test data showed the stopping distance to increase with load (as expected) and also showed that more braking force was generated by the drive axle brakes than the trailer axle brakes. The constant-pressure stopping test data

  20. Axl glycosylation mediates tumor cell proliferation, invasion and lymphatic metastasis in murine hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Fu Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effects of Axl deglycosylation on tumor lymphatic metastases in mouse hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. METHODS: Western blotting was used to analyze the expression profile of Axl glycoprotein in mouse hepatocellular carcinoma cell line Hca-F treated with tunicamycin and PNGase F 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol(-zyl-3,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay, extracellular matrix (ECM invasion assay (in vitro and tumor metastasis assay (in vivo were utilized to evaluate the effect of Axl deglycosylation on the Hca-F cell proliferation, invasion and lymphatic metastasis. RESULTS: Tunicamycin and PNGase F treatment markedly inhibited Axl glycoprotein synthesis and expression, proliferation, invasion, and lymphatic metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. In the MTT assay, proliferation was apparent in untreated Hca-F cells compared with treated Hca-F cells. In the ECM invasion assay (in vitro, treated cells passed through the ECMatrix gel in significantly smaller numbers than untreated cells (tunicamycin 5 μg/mL: 68 ± 8 vs 80 ± 9, P = 0.0222; 10 μg/mL: 50 ± 6 vs 80 ± 9, P = 0.0003; 20 μg/mL: 41 ± 4 vs 80 ± 9, P = 0.0001; (PNGase F 8 h: 66 ± 7 vs 82 ± 8, P = 0.0098; 16 h: 49 ± 4 vs 82 ± 8, P = 0.0001; 24 h: 34 ± 3 vs 82 ± 8, P = 0.0001. In the tumor metastasis assay (in vivo, average lymph node weights of the untreated Hca-F group compared with treated Hca-F groups (tunicamycin 5 μg/mL: 0.84 ± 0.21 g vs 0.72 ± 0.19 g, P = 0.3237; 10 μg/mL: 0.84 ± 0.21 g vs 0.54 ± 0.11 g, P = 0.0113; 20 μg/mL: 0.84 ± 0.21 g vs 0.42 ± 0.06 g, P = 0.0008; (PNGase F 8 h: 0.79 ± 0.15 g vs 0.63 ± 0.13 g, P = 0.0766; 16 h: 0.79 ± 0.15 g vs 0.49 ± 0.10 g, P = 0.0022; 24 h: 0.79 ± 0.15 g vs 0.39 ± 0.05 g, P = 0.0001. Also, average lymph node volumes of the untreated Hca-F group compared with treated Hca-F groups (tunicamycin 5 μg/mL: 815 ± 61 mm3 vs 680 ± 59 mm3, P = 0.0613; 10 μg/mL: 815 ± 61 mm3 vs 580 ± 29 mm3, P = 0

  1. MiR-34a suppresses ovarian cancer proliferation and motility by targeting AXL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Shi, Xuejun; Ling, Fengyu; Wang, Chunguang; Liu, Junxia; Wang, Wei; Li, Ming

    2015-09-01

    Increasing evidence has suggested that dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) could contribute to tumor progression. The miR-34 family is directly transactivated by tumor suppressor p53 which is frequently mutated in various cancers; however, the effect of miR-34a on the ovarian cancer cells remains unclear. The aim of the paper was to study the expression of miR-34a in ovarian cancer and miR-34a's relation to the cell proliferation and metastasis in ovarian cancer in vitro. miR-34a expression was determined by quantitative RT-PCR in a panel of 60 human ovarian cancer samples. Functional characterization of miR-34a was accomplished by reconstitution of miR-34a expression in ovarian cancer cells by determining changes in proliferation, migration, and invasion. Our results showed that miR-34a is downregulated in ovarian cancer tissues compared with the corresponding adjacent non-neoplastic tissues, and the expression level of miR-34a was significantly lower in ovarian cancer cell lines in comparison with normal human fallopian tube epithelial cell line. The 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo(-z-y1)-3,5-diphenytetrazoliumromide (MTT) assay revealed significant cell proliferation inhibition in miR-34a transfectant compared with the control from HO8910 and SKOV3 cells, which displayed lowest expressions of miR-34a. Furthermore, the transwell assay also showed significant cell migration inhibition in miR-34a transfectant, compared with cell lines transfected with NC. Overexpression of miR-34a led to the inhibition of AXL expression, indicating that AXL is a target gene for miR-34a. Our data suggest that miR-34a may function as a tumor suppressor through repression of oncogenic AXL in ovarian cancer. PMID:25895459

  2. Influence of different crack propagation rate descriptions on the residual fatigue lifetime of railway axles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Pavel; Náhlík, Luboš; Hutař, Pavel

    Zürich: Trans Tech publications, 2015 - (Alfaiate, J.; Aliabadi, M.), s. 469-472. (Key Engineering Materials. 627). ISBN 978-3-03835-235-8. ISSN 1013-9826. [FDM 2014 International Conference on Fracture and Damage Mechanics /13./. São Miguel Island, Azores (PT), 23.09.2014-25.09.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0063 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : residual fatigue lifetime * fatigue crack * fatigue crack propagation * railway axle Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  3. Influence of threshold values on residual fatigue lifetime of railway axles under variable amplitude loading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Pavel; Náhlík, Luboš; Hutař, Pavel

    Vol. C. Amsterdam: Elsevier Ltd, 2015 - (Papuga, J.; Ružička, M.), s. 380-385. (Procedia Engineering. 101). ISSN 1877-7058. [VAL 2015 - International Conference on Material and Component Performance under Variable Amplitude Loading /3./. Praha (CZ), 23.03.2015-26.03.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0214 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : railway axle * residual fatigue lifetime * fatigue crack * EA4T Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187770581500644X

  4. The TRAIL receptor agonist drozitumab targets basal B triple-negative breast cancer cells that express vimentin and Axl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dine, Jennifer L; O'Sullivan, Ciara C; Voeller, Donna; Greer, Yoshimi E; Chavez, Kathryn J; Conway, Catherine M; Sinclair, Sarah; Stone, Brandon; Amiri-Kordestani, Laleh; Merchant, Anand S; Hewitt, Stephen M; Steinberg, Seth M; Swain, Sandra M; Lipkowitz, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we found that GST-tagged tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand preferentially killed triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells with a mesenchymal phenotype by activating death receptor 5 (DR5). The purpose of this study was to explore the sensitivity of breast cancer cell lines to drozitumab, a clinically tested DR5-specific agonist; identify potential biomarkers of drozitumab-sensitive breast cancer cells; and determine if those biomarkers were present in tumors from patients with TNBC. We evaluated viability, caspase activity, and sub-G1 DNA content in drozitumab-treated breast cancer cell lines and we characterized expression of potential biomarkers by immunoblot. Expression levels of vimentin and Axl were then explored in 177 TNBC samples from a publically available cDNA microarray dataset and by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in tumor tissue samples obtained from 53 African-American women with TNBC. Drozitumab-induced apoptosis in mesenchymal TNBC cell lines but not in cell lines from other breast cancer subtypes. The drozitumab-sensitive TNBC cell lines expressed the mesenchymal markers vimentin and Axl. Vimentin and Axl mRNA and protein were expressed in a subset of human TNBC tumors. By IHC, ~15 % of TNBC tumors had vimentin and Axl expression in the top quartile for both. These findings indicate that drozitumab-sensitive mesenchymal TNBC cells express vimentin and Axl, which can be identified in a subset of human TNBC tumors. Thus, vimentin and Axl may be useful to identify TNBC patients who would be most likely to benefit from a DR5 agonist. PMID:26759246

  5. Intelligent Energy Management Strategy for a Separated-Axle Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Fallahi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV in addition to provide the benefits of electric vehicles could satisfy consumers for some performances of conventional internal combustion engine (ICE vehicles such as acceleration and long range. On this way, suitable energy optimization strategies should be employed to get desired efficiency, less fuel consumption and pollution. One of the favorite and simple configurations of HEVs is parallel type. A student team at University of Kashan, IRAN have designed and manufactured Shaheb 2 hybrid electric vehicle. It is a separated-axle (or Through-to-Road (TTR parallel HEV type based on Pride platform. Employed energy management in Shaheb 2 is on/off strategy and three modes; motor, engine and hybrid have been implemented. This paper investigates the modeling of separated-axle (or TTR parallel type of HEV in ADVISOR software and then evaluates two control strategies for Shaheb 2; on/off strategy and an intelligent control based on fuzzy logic. On this way, maximizing the engine is considered as objective function. The simulation results indicate that the fuzzy strategy leads to less fuel consumption and lower pollution for given UDDS driving cycle rather than on/off strategy for Shaheb 2.

  6. POD curves for non-maximizable ultrasonic responses: Statistical derivation and application to solid freight axles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carboni, Michele; Cantini, Stefano

    2016-02-01

    The most relevant standards on ultrasonic testing, and an effective inspection practice, require the maximization of echo responses due to indications before their evaluation in terms of amplitude and size. This is achieved effectively pointing the acoustic axis of the sound beam to the indication, in a way to get back the maximum possible sound energy. Considering some operative cases, however, such a response maximization is not always feasible, mainly due to geometrical constraints impeding the inspection of the whole control area with a constant sensitivity. The traditional end inspection of solid railway axles by a rotating probe mounting conventional sensors falls back into this kind of inspections. In particular, inspection angles are fixed and the probe holder cannot move along the axle allowing response maximization of in-service damages located, for example, along the cylindrical body. It follows some control areas cannot be inspected using the maximum sound pressure. The present research shows how the derivation of "Probability of Detection" curves for non-maximizable ultrasonic responses cannot be carried out by the traditional statistical approach and a novel one, of the "Model-Assisted Probability of Detection" kind, is consequently proposed based on experiments and numerical simulations.

  7. Analysis of axle and vehicle load properties through Bayesian networks based on weigh-in-motion data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Napoles, O.; Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) systems are used, among other applications, in pavement and bridge reliability. The system measures quantities such as individual axle load, vehicular loads, vehicle speed, vehicle length and number ofaxles. Because ofthe nature ofúamc configuration, the quantities measured are

  8. NEW APPROACH FOR TECHNOLOGY OF VOLUMETRIC – SUPERFICIAL HARDENING OF GEAR DETAILS OF THE BACK AXLE OF MOBILE MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Mihluk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The new approach for technology of volumetric – superficial hardening of gear details of the back axle made of steel lowered harden ability is offered. This approach consisting in formation of intense – hardened condition on all surface of a detail.

  9. Vitamin K2 regression aortic calcification induced by warfarin via Gas6/Axl survival pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoyu; Tao, Huiren; Qiu, Cuiting; Ma, Xiaolei; Li, Shan; Guo, Xian; Lv, Anlin; Li, Huan

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamin K2 on aortic calcification induced by warfarin via Gas6/Axl survival pathway in rats. A calcification model was established by administering 3mg/g warfarin to rats. Rats were divided into 9 groups: control group (0W, 4W, 6W and 12W groups), 4W calcification group, 6W calcification group, 12W calcification group, 6W calcification+6W normal group and 6W calcification+6W vitamin K2 group. Alizarin red S staining measured aortic calcium depositions; alkaline phosphatase activity in serum was measured by a kit; apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL assay; protein expression levels of Gas6, Axl, phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), and Bcl-2 were determined by western blotting. The calcium content, calcium depositions, ALP activity and apoptosis were significantly higher in the calcification groups than control group. Gas6, Axl, p-Akt and Bcl-2 expression was lower in the calcification group than control group. 100μg/g vitamin K2 treatment decreased calcium depositions, ALP activity and apoptosis significantly, but increased Gas6, Axl, p-Akt and Bcl-2 expression. 100μg/g vitamin K2 reversed 44% calcification. Pearson correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between formation calcification and apoptosis (R(2)=0.8853, Pvitamin K2 can inhibit warfarin-induced aortic calcification and apoptosis. The regression of aortic calcification by vitamin K2 involved the Gas6/Axl axis. This data may provide a theoretical basis for future clinical treatments for aortic calcification. PMID:27212383

  10. Testosterone delays vascular smooth muscle cell senescence and inhibits collagen synthesis via the Gas6/Axl signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Qing; Zhao, Jing; Jin, Cheng-Wei; Li, Yi-Hui; Tang, Meng-Xiong; Wang, Zhi-Hao; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yun; Li, Li; Zhong, Ming

    2016-06-01

    Testosterone deficiency is associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular diseases in men. However, its effect on cell senescence, which plays a causal role in vascular aging, remains unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that testosterone alleviated vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) senescence and collagen synthesis via growth arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6)/Axl- and Akt/FoxO1a-dependent pathways. Testosterone significantly ameliorated angiotensin II-induced VSMC senescence and collagen overexpression. In addition, testosterone inhibited angiotensin II-induced matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity, which played a pivotal role in facilitating age-related collagen deposition. Testosterone increased the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 but decreased the expression of MMP-2 and membrane type-1 metalloproteinase which contributed to increase MMP-2 activity. The effects on VSMCs senescence and collagen synthesis were mediated by restoration of angiotensin II-induced downregulation of Gas6 and Axl expression and a subsequent reduction of Akt and FoxO1a phosphorylation. The effects of testosterone were reversed by a Gas6 blocker, Axl-Fc, and a specific inhibitor of Axl, R428. Treatment of VSMCs with PI3K inhibitor LY294002 abrogated the downregulating effect of testosterone on MMP-2 activity. Furthermore, when FoxO1a expression was silenced by using a specific siRNA, the inhibitory effect of testosterone on MMP-2 activity was revered as well, that indicated this process was Akt/FoxO1a dependence. Taken together, Gas6/Axl and Akt/FoxO1a were involved in protective effects of testosterone on VSMCs senescence and collagen synthesis. Our results provide a novel mechanism underlying the protective effect of testosterone on vascular aging and may serve as a theoretical basis for testosterone replacement therapy. PMID:27206970

  11. Inhibiting receptor tyrosine kinase AXL with small molecule inhibitor BMS-777607 reduces glioblastoma growth, migration, and invasion in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onken, Julia; Torka, Robert; Korsing, Sören; Radke, Josefine; Krementeskaia, Irina; Nieminen, Melina; Bai, Xi; Ullrich, Axel; Heppner, Frank; Vajkoczy, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Receptor tyrosine kinase AXL (RTK-AXL) is regarded as suitable target in glioma therapy. Here we evaluate the anti-tumoral effect of small molecule inhibitor BMS-777607 targeting RTK-AXL in a preclinical glioma model and provide evidence that RTK-AXL is expressed and phosphorylated in primary and recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Experimental design We studied the impact of BMS-777607 targeting RTK-AXL in GBM models in vitro and in vivo utilizing glioma cells SF126 and U118MG. Impact on proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis was investigated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and functional assays in vitro and in vivo. Tumor growth was assessed with MRI. Human GBM tissue was analyzed in terms of RTK-AXL phosphorylation by immunoprecipitation and immunohistochemistry. Results BMS-777607 displayed various anti-cancer effects dependent on increased apoptosis, decreased proliferation and migration in vitro and ex vivo in SF126 and U118 GBM cells. In vivo we observed a 56% tumor volume reduction in SF126 xenografts and remission in U118MG xenografts of more than 91%. The tube formation assay confirmed the anti-angiogenic effect of BMS-777607, which became also apparent in tumor xenografts. IHC of human GBM tissue localized phosphorylated RTK-AXL in hypercellular tumor regions, the migratory front of tumor cells in pseudo-palisades, and in vascular proliferates within the tumor. We further proved RTK-AXL phosphorylation in primary and recurrent disease state. Conclusion Collectively, these data strongly suggest that targeting RTK-AXL with BMS-777607 could represent a novel and potent regimen for the treatment of primary and recurrent GBM. PMID:26848524

  12. Analysis of the nonlinear dynamics of a 2-axle freight wagon in curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Gialleonardo, Egidio; Bruni, Stefano; True, Hans

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the study of the nonlinear dynamic behaviour of 2-axle freight wagons in curves, considering the case of one single wagon (neglecting inter-car coupling forces) and of multiple wagons interacting through the buffers and the couplers. A multi-body model of a single wagon and of...... a three-car assembly is introduced, paying particular attention to the nonlinear and nonsmooth modelling of the suspensions and of the inter-car coupling elements. Using this model, a numerical analysis of the steady-state solution reached after the negotiation of curve transition is presented and...... is shown that the coupling forces exchanged by the wagons significantly affect their dynamics in a curve, reducing the amplitude of vibration....

  13. Design and Development of Animal Drawn Ground Metered Axle Mechanism Boom Sprayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Amonye

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A spraying technology was developed for use by rural farmers in Northern Nigeria. The farming systems in these areas are put into consideration and in keeping with appropriate technology initiative. The technology was designed to offer the farmers an equitable sprayer that shall be drawn by animal farm power and that is effective and affordable. The equipment was constructed using the parameters obtained from design and tested at a farmland within the University premises of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, in Nigeria. The equipment consists of a boom with multiple Controlled Droplet Applicator (CDA atomizer nozzles, a gear pump, a chemical tank, and chair for an operator; all attached to a framework bolted to a rear axle. It was observed that the Dynamic Wheel Load assuming even distribution of load was found to be 1575N and a net pull of 820N. The net pull offers convenient task and shall easily swallow energy requirement for spraying uphill terrains.

  14. Design of Model Following Variable Structure Controller for Three-axle Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管西强; 张建武; 屈求真

    2003-01-01

    An optimal control procedure is developed for the front and rear wheels of a three-axle vehicle moving on a complex typical road based on model following variable structure control strategy. The actual vehicle may be considered as an uncertain system. Cornering stiffness of front and rear wheels and external disturbances are varied in a limited range. The model-following variable structure control method is used to control both front and rear wheels steering operations of the vehicle, so that steering responses of the vehicle follow from those of the reference model. By numerical results obtained from computer simulation, it is demonstrated that the control system model can cope with the effects of parameter perturbations and outside disturbances.

  15. Development of a new time domain-based algorithm for train detection and axle counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allotta, B.; D'Adamio, P.; Meli, E.; Pugi, L.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an innovative train detection algorithm, able to perform the train localisation and, at the same time, to estimate its speed, the crossing times on a fixed point of the track and the axle number. The proposed solution uses the same approach to evaluate all these quantities, starting from the knowledge of generic track inputs directly measured on the track (for example, the vertical forces on the sleepers, the rail deformation and the rail stress). More particularly, all the inputs are processed through cross-correlation operations to extract the required information in terms of speed, crossing time instants and axle counter. This approach has the advantage to be simple and less invasive than the standard ones (it requires less equipment) and represents a more reliable and robust solution against numerical noise because it exploits the whole shape of the input signal and not only the peak values. A suitable and accurate multibody model of railway vehicle and flexible track has also been developed by the authors to test the algorithm when experimental data are not available and in general, under any operating conditions (fundamental to verify the algorithm accuracy and robustness). The railway vehicle chosen as benchmark is the Manchester Wagon, modelled in the Adams VI-Rail environment. The physical model of the flexible track has been implemented in the Matlab and Comsol Multiphysics environments. A simulation campaign has been performed to verify the performance and the robustness of the proposed algorithm, and the results are quite promising. The research has been carried out in cooperation with Ansaldo STS and ECM Spa.

  16. Design, Synthesis, and Validation of Axl-Targeted Monoclonal Antibody Probe for microPET Imaging in Human Lung Cancer Xenograft

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shuanglong; Li, Dan; Guo, Jiacong; Canale, Nicolette; Li, Xiuqing; Liu, Ren; Krasnoperov, Valery; Gill, Parkash S.; Conti, Peter S.; Shan, Hong; Li, Zibo

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating experimental evidence indicates that overexpression of the oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase, Axl, plays a key role in the tumorigenesis and metastasis of various types of cancer. The objective of this study is to design a novel imaging probe based on the monoclonal antibody, h173, for microPET imaging of Axl expression in human lung cancer. A bifunctional chelator, DOTA, was conjugated to h173, followed by radiolabeling with 64Cu. The binding of DOTA-h173 to the Axl receptor wa...

  17. Biodegradable interstitial release polymer loading a novel small molecule targeting Axl receptor tyrosine kinase and reducing brain tumour migration and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, S-Y; Chen, S-R; Hsieh, J; Li, Y-S; Chuang, S-E; Chuang, H-M; Huang, M-H; Lin, S-Z; Harn, H-J; Chiou, T-W

    2016-04-28

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive brain tumour. The neoplasms are difficult to resect entirely because of their highly infiltration property and leading to the tumour edge is unclear. Gliadel wafer has been used as an intracerebral drug delivery system to eliminate the residual tumour. However, because of its local low concentration and short diffusion distance, patient survival improves non-significantly. Axl is an essential regulator in cancer metastasis and patient survival. In this study, we developed a controlled-release polyanhydride polymer loading a novel small molecule, n-butylidenephthalide (BP), which is not only increasing local drug concentration and extending its diffusion distance but also reducing tumour invasion, mediated by reducing Axl expression. First, we determined that BP inhibited the expression of Axl in a dose- and time-dependent manner and reduced the migratory and invasive capabilities of GBM cells. In addition, BP downregulated matrix metalloproteinase activity, which is involved in cancer cell invasion. Furthermore, we demonstrated that BP regulated Axl via the extracellular signal-regulated kinases pathway. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is related to epithelial cells in the invasive migratory mesenchymal cells that underlie cancer progression; we demonstrated that BP reduced the expression of EMT-related genes. Furthermore, we used the overexpression of Axl in GBM cells to prove that Axl is a crucial target in the inhibition of GBM EMT, migration and invasion. In an in vivo study, we demonstrated that BP inhibited tumour growth and suppressed Axl expression in a dose-dependent manner according to a subcutaneous tumour model. Most importantly, in an intracranial tumour model with BP wafer in situ treatment, we demonstrated that the BP wafer not only significantly increased the survival rate but also decreased Axl expression, and inhibited tumour invasion. These results contribute to the

  18. Reversible photoswitching of rotaxane character and interplay of thermodynamic stability and kinetic lability in a self-assembling ring-axle molecular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncini, Massimo; Silvi, Serena; Venturi, Margherita; Credi, Alberto

    2010-10-11

    We have designed, synthesized, and investigated a self-assembling system that can be reversibly interconverted between thermodynamically stable (pseudorotaxane) and kinetically inert (rotaxane) forms by light irradiation. The system is composed of a dibenzo[24]crown-8 ring and an axle comprised of a dibenzylammonium recognition site and two azobenzene end groups. The isomeric form of the azobenzene units of the axle has a little influence on the stability constants of the respective pseudorotaxanes but greatly affects the threading-dethreading rate constants. In fact, equilibration of the ring and the axle in its EE isomeric form occurs within seconds in acetonitrile at room temperature, whereas the ZZ axle threads-dethreads the ring at least four orders of magnitude slower. Moreover, we show that a change in the stability of the complex, achieved by deprotonating the dibenzylammonium recognition site on the axle, affects its kinetic behavior. We compare the results of these experiments with those observed upon dethreading the (pseudo)rotaxane by using a competitive guest for the ring, an approach which does not inherently destabilize the ring-axle interaction. This study outlines a general strategy for the reversible photochemical control of motion kinetics in threaded and interlocked compounds and constitutes a starting point for the construction of multicomponent structures that can behave as photochemically driven nanomachines. PMID:20842670

  19. Optic-electronic systems for measurement the three-dimension angular deformation of axles at the millimeter wave range radiotelescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konyakhin, Igor A.; Kopylova, Tatyana V.; Konyakhin, Alexsey I.; Smekhov, Andrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Researches in the millimetre wave range require the high accuracy for position of the mirror components of the radiotelescope. A mirror weight is the cause of the three-dimension angular deformation of the elevation axle and azimuth axle relatively bearings. At result the elevation angle and azimuth angle of a parabolic mirror axis orientation is not equal to the set values. For the measuring roll, pitch and yaw angular deformations the autocollimation system with new type of the reflector are used. Reflector for autocollimation measurements as compositions of the anamorphic prism and special tetrahedral reflector is described. New methods for roll, pitch, yaw angles measuring are discussed. Optical scheme for the measurement system, structure the anamorphic prism and tetrahedral reflector are proposed. Equations for the static characteristic of the measuring system are shown.

  20. Shifting Control Algorithm for a Single-Axle Parallel Plug-In Hybrid Electric Bus Equipped with EMT

    OpenAIRE

    Yunyun Yang; Sen Wu; Xiang Fu

    2014-01-01

    Combining the characteristics of motor with fast response speed, an electric-drive automated mechanical transmission (EMT) is proposed as a novel type of transmission in this paper. Replacing the friction synchronization shifting of automated manual transmission (AMT) in HEVs, the EMT can achieve active synchronization of speed shifting. The dynamic model of a single-axle parallel PHEV equipped with the EMT is built up, and the dynamic properties of the gearshift process are also described. I...

  1. Fault Prognosis and Diagnosis of an Automotive Rear Axle Gear Using a RBF-BP Neural Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rear axle gear is one of the key parts of transmission system for automobiles. Its healthy state directly influences the security and reliability of the automotives. However, non-stationary and nonlinear characteristics of gear vibration due to load and speed fluctuations, makes it difficult to detect and diagnosis the faults from the transmission gear. To solve this problem a fault prognosis and diagnosis method based on a combination of radial basis function(RBF) and back-propagation (BP) neural networks is proposed in this paper. Firstly, a moving average pretreatment is used to suppress the time series fluctuation of vibration characteristic parameter tie series and reduce the interference of random noise. Then, the RBF network is applied to the pretreated parameter sequences for fault prognosis. Furthermore, based on self-learning ability of neural networks, characteristic parameters for different common faults are learned by a BP network. Then the trained BP neural network is utilized for fault diagnosis of the rear axle gear. The results show that the proposed method has a good performance in prognosing and diagnosing different faults from the rear axle gear.

  2. Faults Diagnostics of Railway Axle Bearings Based on IMF’s Confidence Index Algorithm for Ensemble EMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Yi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As train loads and travel speeds have increased over time, railway axle bearings have become critical elements which require more efficient non-destructive inspection and fault diagnostics methods. This paper presents a novel and adaptive procedure based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD and Hilbert marginal spectrum for multi-fault diagnostics of axle bearings. EEMD overcomes the limitations that often hypothesize about data and computational efforts that restrict the application of signal processing techniques. The outputs of this adaptive approach are the intrinsic mode functions that are treated with the Hilbert transform in order to obtain the Hilbert instantaneous frequency spectrum and marginal spectrum. Anyhow, not all the IMFs obtained by the decomposition should be considered into Hilbert marginal spectrum. The IMFs’ confidence index arithmetic proposed in this paper is fully autonomous, overcoming the major limit of selection by user with experience, and allows the development of on-line tools. The effectiveness of the improvement is proven by the successful diagnosis of an axle bearing with a single fault or multiple composite faults, e.g., outer ring fault, cage fault and pin roller fault.

  3. Analysis of axle and vehicle load properties through Bayesian Networks based on Weigh-in-Motion data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) systems are used, among other applications, in pavement and bridge reliability. The system measures quantities such as individual axle load, vehicular loads, vehicle speed, vehicle length and number of axles. Because of the nature of traffic configuration, the quantities measured are evidently regarded as random variables. The dependence structure of the data of such complex systems as the traffic systems is also very complex. It is desirable to be able to represent the complex multidimensional-distribution with models where the dependence may be explained in a clear way and different locations where the system operates may be treated simultaneously. Bayesian Networks (BNs) are models that comply with the characteristics listed above. In this paper we discuss BN models and results concerning their ability to adequately represent the data. The paper places attention on the construction and use of the models. We discuss applications of the proposed BNs in reliability analysis. In particular we show how the proposed BNs may be used for computing design values for individual axles, vehicle weight and maximum bending moments of bridges in certain time intervals. These estimates have been used to advise authorities with respect to bridge reliability. Directions as to how the model may be extended to include locations where the WIM system does not operate are given whenever possible. These ideas benefit from structured expert judgment techniques previously used to quantify Hybrid Bayesian Networks (HBNs) with success

  4. Acceleration Slip Regulation Strategy for Distributed Drive Electric Vehicles with Independent Front Axle Drive Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfei Wu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an acceleration slip regulation strategy for distributed drive electric vehicles with two motors on the front axle. The tasks of the strategy include controlling the slip ratio to make full use of the road grip and controlling the yaw rate to eliminate the lateral movement due to the difference between motor torques. The rate of the slip ratio change can be controlled by controlling the motor torque, so that the slip ratio can be controlled by applying a proportional-integral control strategy to control the rate of the slip ratio change. The yaw rate can be controlled to almost zero by applying torque compensation based on yaw rate feedback. A coordination control strategy for the slip ratio control and yaw rate control is proposed based on analysis of the priorities and features of the two control processes. Simulations were carried out using MATLAB/Simulink, and experiments were performed on a hardware-in-loop test bench with actual motors. The results of the simulations and experiments showed that the proposed strategy could improve the longitudinal driving performance and straight line driving stability of the vehicle.

  5. Control of A Five-axle, Three-steering Coupled-vehicle System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroaki; Mori, Masato; Kawakami, Atsushi

    This paper presents a new type of coupled-vehicle system: a five-axle, three-steering coupled-vehicle system and its path following feedback control law. The coupled-vehicle system consists of two car-like mobile robots, two carriers and a steering system. One of the two car-like mobile robots is coupled by one of the two carriers via a revolute joint passively rotating and the other car-like mobile robot is also coupled by one remaining carrier via a passive revolute joint, and the two carriers are coupled via another passive revolute joint. The steering system is attached to one of the carriers and its steering axis is located at the same position of the rotating axis of the passive revolute joint coupling the two carriers. We first show that, by assuming virtual mechanical elements, it is possible to convert the kinematical equation of the coupled-vehicle system into three-chain, single-generator chained form in a coordinate system in which a path two times differentiable is an axis and a straight line perpendicular to the tangent of the path is another axis. Based on chained form, we secondly derive the path following feedback control law which enables the orientations of the two carriers relative to the tangent of the path to be controllable. By the feedback control law, it is possible to cause the two carriers to form a line-shaped composed carrier or a V-shaped composed carrier and to cause them to keep such shapes while performing a path following behavior, which means that the coupled-vehicle system is able to adapt the shape of the composed carrier to the shape of a transported object. The validity of the mechanical design of the coupled-vehicle system and its path following feedback control law has been verified experimentally.

  6. Vibration control of bridge subjected to multi-axle vehicle using multiple tuned mass friction dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisal, Alka Y.; Jangid, R. S.

    2016-06-01

    The effectiveness of tuned mass friction damper (TMFD) in reducing undesirable resonant response of the bridge subjected to multi-axle vehicular load is investigated. A Taiwan high-speed railway (THSR) bridge subjected to Japanese SKS (Salkesa) train load is considered. The bridge is idealized as a simply supported Euler-Bernoulli beam with uniform properties throughout the length of the bridge, and the train's vehicular load is modeled as a series of moving forces. Simplified model of vehicle, bridge and TMFD system has been considered to derive coupled differential equations of motion which is solved numerically using the Newmark's linear acceleration method. The critical train velocities at which the bridge undergoes resonant vibration are investigated. Response of the bridge is studied for three different arrangements of TMFD systems, namely, TMFD attached at mid-span of the bridge, multiple tuned mass friction dampers (MTMFD) system concentrated at mid-span of the bridge and MTMFD system with distributed TMFD units along the length of the bridge. The optimum parameters of each TMFD system are found out. It has been demonstrated that an optimized MTMFD system concentrated at mid-span of the bridge is more effective than an optimized TMFD at the same place with the same total mass and an optimized MTMFD system having TMFD units distributed along the length of the bridge. However, the distributed MTMFD system is more effective than an optimized TMFD system, provided that TMFD units of MTMFD system are distributed within certain limiting interval and the frequency of TMFD units is appropriately distributed.

  7. Kinome-wide shRNA Screen Identifies the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase AXL as a Key Regulator for Mesenchymal Glioblastoma Stem-like Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Cheng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is a highly lethal cancer for which novel therapeutics are urgently needed. Two distinct subtypes of glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs were recently identified: mesenchymal (MES and proneural (PN. To identify mechanisms to target the more aggressive MES GSCs, we combined transcriptomic expression analysis and kinome-wide short hairpin RNA screening of MES and PN GSCs. In comparison to PN GSCs, we found significant upregulation and phosphorylation of the receptor tyrosine kinase AXL in MES GSCs. Knockdown of AXL significantly decreased MES GSC self-renewal capacity in vitro and inhibited the growth of glioblastoma patient-derived xenografts. Moreover, inhibition of AXL with shRNA or pharmacologic inhibitors also increased cell death significantly more in MES GSCs. Clinically, AXL expression was elevated in the MES GBM subtype and significantly correlated with poor prognosis in multiple cancers. In conclusion, we identified AXL as a potential molecular target for novel approaches to treat glioblastoma and other solid cancers.

  8. Comparative analysis into the tractor-trailer braking dynamics: tractor with single axle brakes, tractor with all wheel brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasoiu, Mircea; Ispas, Nicolae

    2014-06-01

    The paper elaborates a mathematical model in order to conduct a study into the dynamics of tractor-trailer systems during braking. The braking dynamics is analyzed by considering two versions for the braking system: 1) braking applied on the rear axle and 2) braking applied on all four wheels. In both versions the trailer is braked on all wheels. The mathematical model enables us to determine and graphically illustrate the evolution of the following parameters: braking deceleration, braking speed and the distance traveled by the tractor during braking. The mathematical model elaborated is applied on a tractor-trailer system completing transportation works.

  9. Thoughts on Process Design of Ji'nan West Wheel Axle Workshop%济南西轮轴车间工艺设计思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵勇

    2012-01-01

    This paper, according to the relevant design contents of wheel axle workshop of Ji'nan West Rolling Stock Depot, investigates comprehensively the whole maintenance process and the equipment configuration of wheel axle's overhaul, from several aspects such as the function partitioning of inspection and repair depots, wheelset-input inspection , wheelset-export inspection, mechanical processing of wheel axle, HMIS system and so on. Moreover, the paper introduces emphatically the working principle, main features and the related functions about the process line which consists of the loading and unloading robot, axle transmission line, wheel transmission line, and the press-fit units. In addition, this paper summarizes the entire maintenance process in relation to the wheel axle's automation and process line's maintenance, with a view to provide reference for wheel axle repair design of other projects.%根据济南西车辆段轮轴车间设计相关内容,从轮轴检修库房工艺功能划分、轮对收入检查部分、轮对支出检查部分、车轴轮片机械加工部分、HMIS系统等几个方面入手,全面探讨轮轴大修的整个检修工艺流程和设备配置情况,并着重介绍上下料机械手、车轴输送线、车轮输送线和压装单元组成的工艺流水线的工作原理、主要特点和相关功能.总结轮轴自动化、流水线检修的整个检修工艺流程,可为其他工程轮轴检修设计提供参考依据.

  10. Neither Helix in the Coiled Coil Region of the Axle of F1-ATPase Plays a Significant Role in Torque Production

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Mohammad Delawar; Furuike, Shou; Maki, Yasushi; Adachi, Kengo; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Kohori, Ayako; Itoh, Hiroyasu; Yoshida, Masasuke; Kinosita, Kazuhiko

    2008-01-01

    F1-ATPase is an ATP-driven rotary molecular motor in which the central γ-subunit rotates inside the cylinder made of α 3 β 3 subunits. The amino and carboxy termini of the γ-subunit form the axle, an α-helical coiled coil that deeply penetrates the stator cylinder. We previously truncated the axle step by step, starting with the longer carboxy terminus and then cutting both termini at the same levels, resulting in a slower yet considerably powerful rotation. Here we examine the role of each h...

  11. Hopf Bifurcation Characteristics of Dual-Front Axle Self-Excited Shimmy System for Heavy Truck considering Dry Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daogao Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiaxle steering is widely used in commercial vehicles. However, the mechanism of the self-excited shimmy produced by the multiaxle steering system is not clear until now. This study takes a dual-front axle heavy truck as sample vehicle and considers the influences of mid-shift transmission and dry friction to develop a 9 DOF dynamics model based on Lagrange’s equation. Based on the Hopf bifurcation theorem and center manifold theory, the study shows that dual-front axle shimmy is a self-excited vibration produced from Hopf bifurcation. The numerical method is adopted to determine how the size of dry friction torque influences the Hopf bifurcation characteristics of the system and to analyze the speed range of limit cycles and numerical characteristics of the shimmy system. The consistency of results of the qualitative and numerical methods shows that qualitative methods can predict the bifurcation characteristics of shimmy systems. The influences of the main system parameters on the shimmy system are also discussed. Improving the steering transition rod stiffness and dry friction torque and selecting a smaller pneumatic trail and caster angle can reduce the self-excited shimmy, reduce tire wear, and improve the driving stability of vehicles.

  12. On "impact of surface type, wheelchair weight, and axle position on wheelchair propulsion by novice older adults".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprigle, Stephen

    2009-07-01

    The mechanical efficiency of propelling manual wheelchairs is a very important topic. Wheelchair users, clinicians, manufacturers and payers would all benefit from better understanding of mechanical efficiency. However, the measurement of the mechanical efficiency is a nontrivial challenge. Cowan et al deserve a lot of credit for tackling such a difficult problem in their article "Impact of surface type, wheelchair weight, and axle position on wheelchair propulsion by novice older adults." The study demonstrated good internal validity in detecting a 4% difference in peak propulsion forces in wheelchairs that differed in mass by 9.1 kg. However, the instrumentation used to measure forces altered both the mass and inertia of the wheelchair-occupant system--2 factors that directly affect system energy. This approach, therefore, affects external validity, and the results cannot be extended to infer differences across wheelchair codes. That said, this study adds important information to the body of work into mechanical efficiency of wheelchairs. We now have evidence to suggest that addition of 9 kg and an 8 cm posterior displacement of axle position adversely affects propulsion biomechanics in an elderly cohort. Improved methodology can lead to mechanical efficiency measurement of different wheelchair models and different wheelchair options. PMID:19577018

  13. Portable axle temperature alarming device for railway train%铁路列车便携式轴温报警装置的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐超凡; 姜璐; 刘飞; 康旭韡; 曹源

    2016-01-01

    The high temperature of the train axle could bring dangerous to the train operation, so it is very important to detect train axle temperature. This research was different from the design of other axle temperature detection. Mobile phone with Android platform and ARM11 development board was used to communicate with each other in order to implement real-time monitoring of temperature. Wi-Fi technology was used to receive real-time data from the development board, and the mobile phone was used to receive data in the socket communication process, while the ARM development board worked as the client to send temperature data, so that the mechanical engineer could observe the temperature values of each axle at any position of the train. After testing, the portable axle temperature alarming device for railway train could implement the function of axle temperature detection and transmit the data of axle temperature to the intelligent handheld terminal through wireless communication.%列车轴温过高会给列车运行带来危险,因此列车轴温检测系统的意义重大。本研究不同于其他轴温检测设计,采用Android平台手机与ARM11开发板相互通信以实现对温度的实时监测。设计中采用Wi-Fi技术进行实时接收开发板采集的轴温数据,并将手机作为Socket通信过程中的服务器端接收数据,ARM开发板作为客户端发送轴温数据,使机械师能够在列车的任意位置对每一车轴的温度值进行实时观测。经测试,研制的铁路列车便携式轴温报警装置基本实现了轴温检测和无线发送轴温数据到智能手持终端的功能。

  14. KCH0302 Central Type Harvester Steering Drive Axle%KCH0302中置式收割机转向驱动桥

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张传龙; 武辉; 冯晓宾

    2012-01-01

    KCH0302中置式收割机转向驱动桥是宽幅距收割机的核心部件,根据给定的整机参数,按照传统设计方法并参考同类桥型确定该桥总体参数,再确定主减速器、差速器、半轴和桥壳的结构类型。该桥设计过程中基本保证结构合理,符合实际应用,总成及零部件设计能尽量满足零件的标准化,部件的通用化和产品变型的要求,修理、保养方便.机件工艺性好.制造容易。%KCH0302 mid-set type harvester steering drive axle is a core components of wide harvester. According to the given machine parameters, in accordance with the traditional design method and referencing similar bridge, the overall parameters of the axle is determined. Then structrue types of main reducer, differential, axle and axle housing are also determined. During the design process ,we can basically ensure that the axle has a reasonable structure and better consistency with the fact. In designing assembly and parts,we try to meet the requirements of part standardization,component interchangeability and product variant. The maintenance is simple,and the parts has a good manufacturability and easy manufacturing.

  15. Shifting Control Algorithm for a Single-Axle Parallel Plug-In Hybrid Electric Bus Equipped with EMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyun Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining the characteristics of motor with fast response speed, an electric-drive automated mechanical transmission (EMT is proposed as a novel type of transmission in this paper. Replacing the friction synchronization shifting of automated manual transmission (AMT in HEVs, the EMT can achieve active synchronization of speed shifting. The dynamic model of a single-axle parallel PHEV equipped with the EMT is built up, and the dynamic properties of the gearshift process are also described. In addition, the control algorithm is developed to improve the shifting quality of the PHEV equipped with the EMT in all its evaluation indexes. The key techniques of changing the driving force gradient in preshifting and shifting compensation phases as well as of predicting the meshing speed in the gear meshing phase are also proposed. Results of simulation, bench test, and real road test demonstrate that the proposed control algorithm can reduce the gearshift jerk and the power interruption time noticeably.

  16. The radial hardness-profile and the microstructure of railroad car axle materials treated by surface rolling, determined by novel examination methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface rolling is a cold-working technique used for hardening the surface of steel and ductile cast iron components. This process increases the surface hardness and improves the fatigue properties of components, so it is commonly used to treat railroad car wheel axles. The present paper examines the influence of this surface strengthening technique on the microstructure of the railroad car wheel axle material by hardness tests, optical microscopy (OM), and other novel examination methods, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray line profile analysis (XLPA), non-destructive magnetic evaluation (NDE) and automated electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The results show that surface rolling causes an increase in hardness down to a depth of ∼10 mm. It is also shown, that the increase in hardness is not due to grain refinement or change in grain morphology; thus it is likely to be caused by an increase in dislocation density

  17. The radial hardness-profile and the microstructure of railroad car axle materials treated by surface rolling, determined by novel examination methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berecz, Tibor, E-mail: berecz@eik.bme.hu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1111 Budapest, Bertalan Lajos utca 7 (Hungary); Balogh, Levente, E-mail: levente@metal.elte.hu [Department of Materials Physics, Eötvös Loránd University, 1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/a (Hungary); Mészáros, István, E-mail: meszaros@eik.bme.hu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1111 Budapest, Bertalan Lajos utca 7 (Hungary); Steinbach, Ágoston, E-mail: sa984@hszk.bme.hu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1111 Budapest, Bertalan Lajos utca 7 (Hungary)

    2014-01-13

    Surface rolling is a cold-working technique used for hardening the surface of steel and ductile cast iron components. This process increases the surface hardness and improves the fatigue properties of components, so it is commonly used to treat railroad car wheel axles. The present paper examines the influence of this surface strengthening technique on the microstructure of the railroad car wheel axle material by hardness tests, optical microscopy (OM), and other novel examination methods, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray line profile analysis (XLPA), non-destructive magnetic evaluation (NDE) and automated electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The results show that surface rolling causes an increase in hardness down to a depth of ∼10 mm. It is also shown, that the increase in hardness is not due to grain refinement or change in grain morphology; thus it is likely to be caused by an increase in dislocation density.

  18. 铸钢叉车用桥壳的质量控制%Quality Control of Folk Lifter Axle Housing Steel Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张奕麟; 刘伟

    2011-01-01

    针对叉车用铸钢桥壳的质量问题,如裂纹、气孔等缺陷,通过在配料和熔炼工艺,造型、制芯及合箱等方面加以控制,使得铸钢桥壳的质量大为改善。同时制定了铸钢桥壳缺陷允许焊补的条例,规范了铸件缺陷处理。%With the modification on molding, core making and mould assembling process, the quality of folk lifter axle housing steel casting has been improved especially for crack, porosity and other defects. The guideline of repair welding for axle housing also has been defined in to keep consistency of repairing.

  19. SMED application in the axle housing mold%快速换模在桥壳模具中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷鹏; 贾雄伟; 惠文强

    2014-01-01

    In stamping-welding axle housings products switched, the axle housing mold bulky and heavy-tonnage, resulting in retooling slow and low productivity. Through the SMED application in the axle housings, the distinction between internal and external, transformation operation using a parallel operation. Improving the logistics set up hanging device, increasing the positioning pin. The changeover speed increase more than 50%, reducing the extra inventory, improve production efficiency, resulting in significant economic benefits.%在冲焊桥壳产品切换中,桥壳模具体积大、吨位重、造成换模速度慢,生产效率低。通过快速换模技术在桥壳模具中的应用,区分了内外变换操作,并采用平行作业,改善物流架起吊装置,增加定位销,使换模速度提升了50%以上,减少了不需的额外库存,提高了生产效率,并产生明显的经济效益。

  20. Potential of Active-Steering Bogie for Reducing Lateral Axle Load Caused at Worn Welded Joints of Outer Rail in Curved Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Tatsuya; Tanifuji, Katsuya; Soma, Hitoshi

    This paper deals with the potential of an active-steering bogie to reduce the large lateral axle load that arises at worn welded joints of the outer rail in a curved track when high-speed trains pass. The shape of the worn joint, called lateral ‘angular bent’, is modeled on the basis of the measured irregularity shape of actual joints. Then, numerical simulation of running on a curved track is carried out for a two-axle bogie vehicle to compare an active-steering bogie and a conventional nonsteering bogie. The behavior of the vehicle negotiating the curve is evaluated from the viewpoints of decreasing the peak value of lateral axle load within the allowance limit and maintaining the running stability. To satisfy the requirements, wheelset-supporting parameters and feedback gains for active-steering are optimized on a curved section of 400 m radius by the Genetic Algorithm. On the basis of the optimized wheelset-supporting parameter values, additional sets of feedback gains, which are adjusted for the curves of different radii, are proposed. The numerical simulation shows that the operation speed of a vehicle with active-steering bogies having the optimized parameter values has the potential to be raised to the possible speed for tilting trains while satisfying the criterion of riding comfort.

  1. Vibration levels on rear and front axles of a tractor in agricultural operations - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v36i1.18170

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geice Paula Villibor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive vibrations in agricultural tractors can contribute with mechanical failures and subject the operator to discomfort. This work evaluated the vibration levels on rear and front axles of an agricultural tractor working at different forward speeds and wheel drive conditions in plowing and harrowing operations. Field tests were carried out in a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement 3 x 2 (forward travel speeds x front-wheel-assist enable or disable, with three replications. Tractor vibration was measured using two single axis accelerometers fixed above the rear and front axles. The actual forward speed of the tractor was obtained by means of ultrasonic radar and the angular velocity of the wheels was measured with magnetic transducers. The drawbar force to pull the disc harrow was obtained by a load cell. The results showed that the vibration levels observed for the plowing operation were higher than observed for the harrowing operation. When the front-wheel-assist (FWA was enabled there was a reduction in vertical vibration levels of the tractor axles. The highest vibration levels were observed in the frequency range of 2 to 4Hz for the both soil tillage operations evaluated

  2. In-service parametric modelling a rail vehicle's axle-box hydraulic damper for high-speed transit problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. L.; Yu, D. S.; Zhou, Z.

    2015-10-01

    Due to the high-speed operation of modern rail vehicles and severe in-service environment of their hydraulic dampers, it has become important to establish more practical and accurate damper models and apply those models in high-speed transit problem studies. An improved full parametric model with actual in-service parameters, such as variable viscous damping, comprehensive stiffness and small mounting clearance was established for a rail vehicle's axle-box hydraulic damper. A subtle variable oil property model was built and coupled to the modelling process, which included modelling of the dynamic flow losses and the relief-valve system dynamics. The experiments validated the accuracy and robustness of the established full in-service parametric model and simulation which captured the damping characteristics over an extremely wide range of excitation speeds. Further simulations were performed using the model to uncover the effects of key in-service parameter variations on the nominal damping characteristics of the damper. The obtained in-service parametric model coupled all of the main factors that had significant impacts on the damping characteristics, so that the model could be useful in more extensive parameter effects analysis, optimal specification and product design optimisation of hydraulic dampers for track-friendliness, ride comfort and other high-speed transit problems.

  3. Innovative FEBA coupled single-axle undercarriages for the NSB EMU class 72 regional train set; Neuartige gekoppelte Einzelachsfahrwerke FEBA fuer den Regionaltriebzug NSB Class BM 72

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, D.; Lellis, P. de [Adtranz, Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    A consortium of Ansaldo-Breda (bodies and electrics) and Adtranz PU Bogies Winterthur (undercarriages) is currently supplying Norwegian State Railways with 36 Innovative Class BM 72 four-unit electric regional train sets. The trains have an overall length of 80 m, a maximum speed of 160 km/h and can seat 300 passengers. Part of the floor area is low-level (floor height 750 mm). At either end the trains have a conventional driving bogie. Between the coaches an innovative undercarriage design is used: coupled single-axle undercarriages (the German acronym FEBA stands for 'flexible single-axle module'). Adjoining coach bodies are supported by two single-axle undercarriages linked by coupling rods to form a centre bogie. Unlike with conventional centre bogies, the coupling enables the articulated train to be split easily and quickly for maintenance purposes. In addition, this type of undercarriage coupling allows for a much larger radial adjustment than with conventional centre bogies. (orig.) [German] Das Konsortium Ansaldo-Breda (Wagenkasten und Elektrik) und Adtranz PU Bogies Winterthur (Fahrwerke) liefert den Norwegischen Staatsbahnen derzeit 36 neuartige, vierteilige, elektrische Regionaltriebzuege Class BM 72. Die Zuege weisen eine Gesamtlaenge von 80 m und eine Hoechstgeschwindigkeit von 160 km/h auf und bieten Sitzplaetze fuer 300 Passagiere. Ein Teil der Nutzflaeche ist niederflurig (Fussbodenhoehe 750 mm). Die Zuege besitzen an jedem Ende ein konventionelles Triebdrehgestell. Zwischen den Wagen kommt ein neuartiges Fahrwerkskonzept zum Einsatz: Gekoppelte Einzelachsfahrwerke (Typ FEBA=Flexibler Einzelachs-Baukasten). Hierbei stuetzen sich die benachbarten Wagenkaesten auf zwei Einzelachsfahrwerken ab, die mittels Koppelstangen zu einem Jakobsfahrwerk verbunden sind. Im Unterschied zu herkoemmlichen Jakobsfahrwerken bleibt durch die Kopplung eine leichte und schnelle Trennbarkeit des Gliederzuges fuer Unterhaltszwecke gewaehrleistet. Ausserdem

  4. 工程车辆双桥油气悬架性能对比仿真分析%Simulation Research on the Two Axles Hydro-pneumatic Suspension for Construction Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李魁; 张洪; 蔡言龙

    2015-01-01

    By analyzing the hydraulic system circuit diagram of the all terrain crane ’ s two axles hydro⁃pneumatic suspension ( HPS) , 7 DOF mathematical model of the two axles HPS group was established. The main differences of independent type and parallel type two axles HPS model were also studied, and their simulation models were set up based on AMESim software. The maximum pres⁃sure, tire dynamic load, and vertical acceleration about the independent type and parallel type two axles HPS model were comparatively analyzed. The conclusion is that the performance index of the parallel type two axles HPS is superior to that of the independent two axles HPS.%通过分析全路面起重机双桥油气悬架组的液压系统油路图,建立双桥油气悬架组的7自由度数学模型,分析并联式和独立式双桥油气悬架模型主要区别,并利用AMESim仿真软件建立并联式和独立式双桥油气悬架仿真模型。对比分析了两种悬架系统的压力、轮胎动载荷、垂直加速度等参数的最大值,得出并联式悬架组的性能指标要优于独立双桥悬架的结论。

  5. Nonlinearity-induced time-varying harmonic dynamic axle load and its impact on dynamic stability of car-trailer combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Xiao, Hong; Winner, Hermann

    2016-06-01

    A nonlinearity-induced time-varying harmonic dynamic axle load is found in the road test of a car-trailer combination. To understand its influence on system dynamic stability, a corresponding linear single-track model (STM) is proposed. System dynamic stability is described and sensitivity analysis for the system parameters is achieved. The contribution of the harmonic force is quantified by a derived effective axle load. Because the harmonic effect might be time varying in practice, a time-frequency analysis-based parameter identification method is introduced. Experimental study shows that a time-varying harmonic effect really exists. A yaw-rate-based simulation method is designed to simulate this behaviour. The sensitivity analysis of the influence of the harmonic amplitude or phase on dynamic stability is performed with a simulation study. With appropriate modification of the harmonic amplitude and phase shift applied in selected time windows, the time-varying system characteristics in the road test can be simulated very well.

  6. Helicopter Landing Gear Axle Load Analysis and Finite Element Simulation%直升机起落架机轮轴载荷分析及有限元仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兵; 宋先富; 张东波; 朱英杰; 魏敏

    2014-01-01

    This article by exploring research landing gear axle load and strength, to achieve the purpose of a new type of landing gear axle strength check, and at the same time using digital analysis of ifnite element simu-lation methods and means to further verify the landing gear axle in actual conditions security, the establishment of a ifnite element model of the new landing gear axle parts, by examining the helicopter landing vertical landing and before lfying two kinds of the machine axle of stress and strain in the typical ways, come to the respective condi-tions relfected the law conclusion, based on this proposed recommendations for the reasonable actual operating conditions, then, given reasonable driving helicopter rec-ommendations as well as maintenance method ground of maintenance personnel. Helicopter landing gear axle is the key parts of the landing system, has an extremely impor-tant significance for ensuring the safety of the helicopter landing as well as to extend the service life of the machine axle.%本文通过探讨研究起落架机轮轴的载荷及强度,达到对某新型起落架机轮轴的强度校核的目的,同时采用有限元仿真数字化分析方法来进一步验证起落架机轮轴在实际工况下的安全性,建立了新型起落架机轮轴零件有限元模型,通过考察直升机在垂直降落和前飞着陆时两种典型方式下机轮轴的应力应变,得出了各自工况下反应出来规律结论,基于此,提出了针对实际工况下的合理化建议,给出了合理驾驶直升机方法的建议以及地勤机务维护人员的维护方法。直升机起落架机轮轴是着陆系统的关键部位,对保证直升机的降落安全以及延长其机轮轴的使用寿命有着极其重要的意义。

  7. Structural studies on inclusion compounds and solvent sorption behavior of gradually elongated wheel-and-axle-type diol hosts featuring lateral benzo[b]thiophene units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzsch, Felix; Gruber, Tobias; Weber, Edwin

    2016-06-01

    Based on the wheel-and-axle design strategy, a series of six new clathrate hosts featuring two di(benzo[b]thien-2-yl)hydroxymethyl units attached to both ends of a central linear building element of varying length have been synthesized and their capability to form crystalline inclusion compounds with a fixed range of organic solvents are reported. X-ray crystal structures of relevant inclusion compounds have been determined and are comparatively discussed involving structural modification of the host molecules. Organic vapor sorption behavior of the host compounds coated as solid films on the quartz crystal of a QCM device has been studied. Significant differences in the affinities towards solvent vapors dependent both on structural and polarity properties of host and solvent are observed, indicating potential application as mass sensitive materials.

  8. 基于虚拟仪器的挂车车轴性能测试系统%Performance testing system of trailer axle based on virtual instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟斌; 赵奔; 洪添胜; 赵文锋; 邓小玲; 朱余清; 阮少孟

    2013-01-01

      车轴是直接关系车辆运营安全的重要部件之一,但国内对车轴的检测自动化水平不高。在挂车车轴测试系统原型的基础上,通过Pro/E画图软件实现了测试系统的三维仿真,并进行了系统的构建,系统硬件包括支架、导轨、传感器、AC伺服电机及伺服驱动器;系统软件程序由LabVIEW编写,控制伺服电机的转动来驱动联动装置,通过两压头对模拟车轴进行加载,并通过数据采集卡采集位移和压力作为反馈。经过对位移传感器标定试验,得到定位最大相对误差为5.207%,平均相对误差的绝对值为1.4%;负载应力与电压线性回归方程中 R>0.994, Sig.<0.05,回归显著。最后进行模拟车轴的疲劳、刚度、强度和应力等性能试验和分析,试验结果基本满足项目要求。%The axle is one of the most important components directly relating the safety operation of vehicles. However, the testing method of axle on site used in China is backward and inefficient, while checking failures occur now and then. But the theory of reliability design of fatigue, which has been well developed, is difficult to be applied to the test of axle on site. In recent years, the computing automotive technology is advocated at abroad to solve the complicated problem of how to put the reliability analysis of fatigue into practice. This paper realized the 3D simulation of testing system through the Pro/E software as well as constructed the system, which was based on the trailer axle testing system prototype. The system hardware was comprised of support, guide, sensors, AC servo motor and servo driver; meanwhile, the system software adapted the modularized idea in order to divide the monolithic construction into five parts, including main operation control module and 4 testing modules. Every testing module was constituted by 5 submodules. The system software program was written by LabVIEW. It drove the linkage

  9. Study on Axle Load Conversion for Concrete Base of Durable Asphalt Pavement%耐久性沥青路面混凝土基层轴载换算研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑木莲; 陈拴发; 马庆雷

    2012-01-01

    刚性基层耐久性沥青路面作为一种新型的路面结构,现行规范对于上覆沥青层水泥混凝土路面的设计思路对其并不适用,其轴载换算公式由于没有考虑刚性基层沥青路面结构的特点,得出的结果存在较大误差.依据普通混凝土及贫混凝土的疲劳方程,结合耐久性沥青路面混凝土基层在标准轴载和不同轴-轮型荷载作用下回归得出的荷载应力计算公式,按照混凝土基层等效疲劳损伤原则,推求得出单轴-单轮、单轴-双轮组、双轴-双轮组荷载换算为标准轴载的公式.结果表明:得出的轴载换算公式可充分考虑混凝土基层耐久性沥青路面基层厚度、基层模量、地基模量结构设计参数的影响,具有良好的实用性,可为路面结构设计提供依据.%As a new kind pavement structure, the design method of cement concrete pavement with asphalt surface course in the current specification is not suitable to the durable asphalt pavement with rigid base. Since the characteristics of durable pavement with rigid base are not taken into account, there exists large error in the results getting from the axle-load conversion equation. According to the fatigue equations of popular concrete and lean concrete, the load stress calculation equations rigid base in durable asphalt pavement subjecting standard axle load and different axle-wheel load, and the equivalent fatigue damage principle of concrete base, the axle load conversion equations from the load of single-axle and single-wheel, single-axle and two-wheel and two-axle and two-wheel to the standard axle load are derived. The results show that the axle load conversion equations got in the paper can fully consider the influences of the structure design parameters of base depth, base modulus and subgrade modulus etc. Of durable asphalt pavement with concrete pavement, so the equations have good suitability and can provide basis for pavement structure design.

  10. 拖拉机前桥悬架参数匹配及其对振动特性的影响%Front axle suspension parameters match and its impact on vibration characteristics of tractor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊力达尔·伊力亚斯; 朱思洪; 徐刚; 袁加奇

    2015-01-01

    Compared with cars, buses and trucks, tractor often drives on the dirt road in the field of rural areas, together with the simple vibration damping device, so the vibration of tractor is particularly intense. Severe vibration of tractor would cause serious harm to driver’s health, and cause fatigue and failure of tractor parts and hence seriously affect the life of the tractor. In addition, excessive vibration of the tractor will exacerbate farmland soil compaction and reduce crop yields. How to effectively reduce the vibration of tractors to improve ride comfort and driving safety and reduce farmland damage is an important research topic for researchers and tractor manufacturing enterprises. The study of foreign scholars have found when the tractor is installed with front axle suspension, the ride comfort and driving safety is improved. When farm tools hangs on the front of tractor, tractor damping effect depends on the matching between front axle suspension stiffness and damping coefficient. Installing the front axle suspension of tractor can significantly reduce tractor’s pitching vibration. By the method of theoretical analysis, the theoretical system of front axle suspension of tractor was established, the vibration was analyzed and the theoretical formula was deduced, aiming to provide a theoretical basis for parameter matching of tractor front axle suspension. In this paper, CF700 tractor from Jiang Su Chang-Fa group was taken as the research object, and the theoretical model of front axle suspension tractor was established, including plane vibration model of front axle suspension tractor with 3 degrees of freedom, vibration differential equation and tractor vibration characteristics evaluation. Taking body vertical vibration acceleration, body pitching vibration angular acceleration, seat-mounted vertical vibration acceleration, front and rear wheels’ dynamic load and front axle suspension dynamic deflection as the evaluation means, theoretical

  11. 联合收割机行走半轴载荷测试系统构建与性能试验%Construction and performance experiment of load test system for half axle of combine harvester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李耀明; 叶晓飞; 徐立章; 庞靖; 马征

    2013-01-01

    Half axle is an important part of a walking system in a combine harvester;the damage from half axle is generally fatigue failure, which has a direct effect on the reliability and stability of the combine harvester. Minority combine harvester manufacturers have half axle fatigue test rigs, and most of the loads on the fatigue test rig are set artificially, thus it cannot accurately predict fatigue life of half axle in absence of comprehensive consideration of various alternating loads. Fatigue life analysis and fast in doors simulation of the load fatigue test on the basis of load spectrum can provide the basis for the improvement of half axle. Improvement of fatigue performance of half axle is conducive to the competitiveness of the products on the market at home and abroad. It is not a suitable solution to use traditional shaft or disc torque sensors to test the torque of half axle, because the half axle is closed in the transmission. Operating environments of combine harvesters are complex, and half axles often bear a complex alternating load which puts forward higher requirements on the stability and reliability of the performance of the load test system. To provide a precise and comprehensive load-time course for the compiling of load spectrum of the half axle of a combine harvester, the complex and alternating load signal in typical working conditions must be acquired accurately. Based on an analysis of working characteristics and the construction features of chassis of combine harvesters, a wireless load test system was put forward in this paper by choosing reasonable torque and rotation speed sensors and data acquisition systems composed of hall sensors, rotation speed signal acquisition modules, resistance strain gauges, power modules, torque signal acquisition modules, wireless routers, computers, and software for signals test and analysis. In order to exclude the influence of measured value of torque signals by bending moment, axial force, and temperature

  12. 重型牵引车驱动桥壳厚度及板簧中心距的优化%Optimum Design on Thickness of Heavy Tractor’ s Driving Axle Housing and Leaf Spring Center Distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐杨坤; 李晚霞; 杨灿

    2015-01-01

    A parameterized finite element model of heavy tractor driving axle housing was established, using APDL program-ming language in the finite element analysis software ANSYS.Through optimum design on the thickness of the main body of the driving axle housing and the axle shaft sleeve, the weight of driving axle housing was reduced while its strength was increased, which provides a basis for lightweight design.Through optimum design about leaf spring center distance under the maximum verti-cal force working condition and the braking working condition, the curves of the maximum stress and deformation versus spring center distance were obtained respectively;and the optimum leaf spring center distances under the maximum vertical force condi-tion was determined.The driving axle housing met the strength and stiffness requirements in that rang of leaf spring center dis-tances.The model provides a basis for the design of the driving axle housing and the arrangement of the leaf spring seat.%采用有限元分析软件ANSYS中的APDL编程语言建立了重型牵引车驱动桥壳的参数化有限元模型,通过对桥壳本体厚度、半轴套管厚度进行优化设计,减轻了驱动桥壳的质量并增大了其强度,为轻量化设计提供了依据;分别在最大垂向力工况和制动工况下对板簧中心距进行优化设计,得到了驱动桥壳最大应力和最大变形随板簧中心距变化的曲线,确定了在最大垂向力工况下的最佳板簧中心距,在该板簧中心距范围内,驱动桥壳在制动工况下满足强度刚度要求,为驱动桥壳的设计和板簧座的布置提供了依据。

  13. 自走式谷物联合收割机后桥的有限元分析%Finite element analysis of the rear axle of the self-propelled combine harvester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹彩虹; 周雪花; 赵鹏飞; 徐波

    2011-01-01

    利用ABAQUS有限元分析软件对自走式谷物联合收割机的后桥进行了静力分析,获得了后桥的应力分布结果,2个套管底面靠近内侧处应力最大,最大应力为130.5 MPa.通过结构优化,将后桥设计为空心,其强度仍然满足要求.%The stress distribution of the rear axle of the self-propelled combine harvester was obtained through the static analysis using the finite element analysis software ABAQUS. The results show that the maximum stress was lain on the inner side of two pipes bottom and the maximum stress reached 130.5 Mpa. Furthermore, the optimal design indicated that the the rear axle strength was sufficient even if the hollow rear axle was applied.

  14. Experimental Study on Strengthening Method of Track Structure for 30 t Axle Load in Shenchi-Huanghua Railway%30t轴重下朔黄铁路轨道结构强化技术试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛继连

    2015-01-01

    本文针对朔黄铁路开行30 t轴重货车时既有轨道的适应性与强化措施等问题,进行了系统的理论与试验研究。采用动力仿真分析与30 t轴重货车实车试验相结合的方法,分析30 t轴重下轨道结构的适应性。朔黄铁路既有轨道结构能满足大轴重货车近期少量开行的要求,但大轴重货车作用于轨道的动态荷载会明显增加,既有轨道结构面临轨道部件伤损增加、疲劳寿命缩短、小半径曲线稳定性储备不足等问题。根据30 t轴重下轨道结构荷载特点,有针对性地开展轨道结构强化措施的研究,重点开展SH‐Ⅰ型重载轨枕与SH‐Ⅰ型重载扣件、小半径强化措施、75 kg/m钢轨移动闪光焊技术、直线钢轨打磨廓面、重载道岔的研发等工作,各强化措施均已在朔黄铁路实施。对朔黄铁路既有轨道结构的强化改造,可全面提升轨道结构等级,能满足30 t轴重货车的运营要求。%The feasibility and strengthening measures for the existing track of Shenchi‐Huanghua Railway where the trains with the axle load of 30 t operate were studied using theoretical and testing technologies .By applying dynamic simulation analysis in combination with actual test involving a 30 t axle load freight train , the feasibili‐ty of the track structure under 30 t axle load was evaluated . The analysis results showed that the existing track structure meets the operating requirements of a small number of trains with heavy axle load over a certain peri‐od of time . However , the dynamic loads by heavy axle load freight cars acting on the track increased signifi‐cantly . The existing track structure faces problems such as increased failures and shortened life of track parts , and insufficient stability reserve of sharp curves . Based on the characteristics of dynamic loads of the track structure induced by trains with the axle load of 30 t ,an analysis was performed on the

  15. Kinematics Analysis and Simulation of Loading and Unloading Robot System for Bent Axle%曲轴上下料机器人系统的运动学分析及仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅雪川; 林粤科

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at requirements of the automatic loading and unloading of bent axle of compressor in refrigerator during the grinding process,the mathematical model of loading and unloading motion system of robot was set up. Based on SolidWorks Motion, motion characteristics of robot during the loading and unloading process was simulated and researched. The simulation result showed that on the condition of 5s of time for operation of each bent axle and in limited workspace,the robot could fulfill all the requirements. The loading and unloading robot of bent axle is under the successful application in practical production,and creates a precedent in grinding process.%针对冰箱压缩机曲轴在磨削加工中自动上下料要求,建立了曲轴上下料机器人系统运动过程中的数学模型,基于SolidWorks Motion仿真研究了上下料过程机器人的运动特性。仿真结果表明:机器人在有限工作空间和限制节拍5 s的条件下实现上下料操作的可行性。该曲轴上下料机器人成功应用于实际生产中,开创了曲轴磨削加工中自动上下料的先例。

  16. 载荷谱技术在越野车驱动桥开发中的应用研究%Applied Research on Load Spectrum Technology in the Development of Off-Road Vehicle Drive Axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李响; 曹正林; 魏文广; 刘再生; 宋双贺

    2014-01-01

    为实现某中型越野车的轻量化和高可靠性,探讨了越野车疲劳载荷谱测试方法,并结合载荷谱的浓缩编辑技术建立了完整的越野车零部件开发载荷谱数据库,为该越野车驱动桥总成开发提供了真实的载荷输入条件,并得到了越野车驱动桥疲劳强度校核与道路耐久性试验考核一致的结果。通过载荷谱技术的应用,新结构越野车驱动桥顺利通过了整车可靠性道路试验。%To improve lightweight performance and reliability of a mid-sized off-road vehicle, we investigate the fatigue load spectrum test method, and combine with the enriched load spectrum editing technique to establish a complete load spectrum database of components development for off-road vehicle. We provide real world load input conditions for the development of drive axle assembly of this off-road vehicle, and get the results of fatigue strength check for drive axle, which are consistent with that of the road durability test. With the application of load spectrum technology, the new drive axle structure for the off-road vehicle passes vehicle reliability test successfully.

  17. Industrial Robot and External Axle Calibration Based on Particle Swarm Optimization%基于粒子群优化算法的工业机器人与外部轴标定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄进; 胡英; 马孜; 汪洋

    2009-01-01

    提出一种新的标定方法标定外部轴工作台与机器人工具间的坐标转换关系.该方法分为三步:首先,建立系统的数学模型,并根据模型标定机器人手腕与接触式距离传感器间的坐标转换关系,从而机器人和距离传感器组成机器人测量系统.然后,按预定程序移动检测目标,利用标定好的机器人测量系统测量并采集数据,初步标定出外部轴的转轴和俯仰两轴与机器人基础坐标系间的转换关系.最后,确定优化的目标函数,利用粒子群优化算法优化关键参数以提高系统的整体精度.试验结果验证了该标定方法的有效性.%A novel calibrating approach is proposed to determine the transformation relationship between the robot tool coordinate and the external axle worktable coordinate. The whole approach is divided into three steps. Firstly, the geometric model of the system is established. After calibrating the transformation relationship between the robot wrist and the contact position sensor according to the geometric model, a robot measurement system is composed of the robot and the range sensor. Secondly, the detection target is moved according to the preset program, the data is obtained and sampled with the calibrated robot measurement system, the transformation relationship between the robot base coordinate and the external rotating axle and pitching axle coordinates is preliminarily calibrated. Finally, the fitness function is chosen and the key parameters are optimized by particle swarm optimization algorithm to improve the system precision. The effectiveness of the presented approach is demonstrated via some experiments.

  18. 基于模块化建模的多轴车辆转向杆系优化%Optimization of steering linkage for multi-axle vehicle based on modular modeling method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云超; 高秀华; 凌锡亮

    2011-01-01

    针对多轴转向车辆轮胎磨损严重的问题,对其主要影响因素之一的转向杆系进行优化分析,提出了基于ADAMS软件的多轴转向杆系的模块化建模和优化方法.以五轴车辆为例,进行了建模和优化分析,首先通过对14个优化变量的灵敏度分析,确定7个优化变量.通过对比优化前后的结果可知,各轴的转角误差降低了(24.5~37.5)%.最后通过对整车虚拟样机模型的仿真和实车的试验测试,分析验证了转向杆系的受力合理性,进一步表明优化后的转向杆系具有较强的实践指导作用.%Tyre wear was a serious problem for multi-steering vehicle.Steering linkage of multi-alxe vehicle was one of the main influential footers for tyre wear.The modular modeling and optimization method of multi-axle steering linkage was brought forward based on ADAMS.Took: a five-alxe vehicle for example, the model was built and optimized. Firstly, a sensitivity analysis was done for fourteen design variables and seven design variables were choose.Compare to the optimized and original results,the steering angular errors of every axle were reduced by (24.5~37.5)%. Finally, the full vehicle model was constructed and simu-lated.The real vehicle was tested and the rationality of steering linkage stress was verified.So it further indicated the optimized results of steering linkage had more practical guide.

  19. 转向驱动桥变径全空心半轴的设计及力学特性%Design of steering drive axles variable diameter hollow half shaft and its mechanical characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪朝晖; 朱发渊; 吕密; 王法平

    2015-01-01

    基于材料低载强化特性,研发设计了一种新型转向驱动桥变径全空心半轴结构,建立了包含英制渐开线花键齿和合理的圆角过渡等精细特征的新型半轴三维模型,运用有限元法对新型半轴的模态振型、等效应力及疲劳寿命等力学特性进行了分析,结果表明:半轴的前10阶非零振型主要为弯曲变形,新型半轴的固有频率与实心半轴的固有频率相近,在使用过程中可有效避免共振;新型半轴等效应力最大值发生在花键末端圆角过渡部位,低于半轴材料的抗扭强度,满足强度设计要求;在扭矩为1500N·m的交变载荷下,新型半轴疲劳寿命最小值发生在花键末端圆角过渡处,与半轴应力集中节点位置一致,实际加工制造时应采用半轴冷精锻和花键轴向冷挤成型技术,以提高新型半轴的强度和使用寿命。%Based on the characteristics of low‐loading strengthening for material design ,a new type of steering drive axle variable diameter hollow half shaft structure was designed ,and its three‐dimen‐sional mode including imperial involute spline teeth ,reasonable transition fillet and other fine features was established .The modal vibration mode ,equivalent stress and fatigue life of the mechanical char‐acteristics of the new type half shaft were analyzed by finite element methods .The results show that the first ten order non‐zero mode of half shaft is mainly bending deformation ,and the natural frequen‐cy of the new half shaft and the solid half shaft is similar ,which can avoid resonance effectively during the half shaft using process .Maximum equivalent stress of new half shaft occurs to the end of transi‐tion fillet ,and less than torsional strength of the half shaft material ,which satisfies the requirements for strength design of the shaft .When the torque of the new half shaft is 1 500 N · m under cyclic loading ,the minimum fatigue life

  20. 基于非线性疲劳损伤的沥青路面轴载换算%AXLE LOAD CONVERSION OF ASPHALT PAVEMENT BASED ON NONLINEAR FATIGUE DAMAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕松涛

    2012-01-01

    In order to establish the non-linear fatigue damage evolution equation of asphalt mixture and the axial load conversion method of asphalt pavement,the aggregate gradation and optimum asphalt-aggregate ratios are determined by a proportion design of asphalt mixture.Then,the fatigue damage variable is defined by the modulus decay basing on the basic theory of damage mechanics.The fatigue damage equation was deduced.The direct tensile fatigue test results were fitted from using the fatigue damage equation.The regularities of model parameters and damage with a stress ratio are given out.The new axle load conversion method is established for asphalt pavement.The results indicate that the fatigue damage evolution has the apparent non-linear properties of asphalt mixture.The Miner linear fatigue damage theory is not suitable to describe the process of fatigue damage evolution for asphalt pavement.It is not safe to use the axial load conversion method deriving from the Miner equation.The new axial load conversion method basing on the nonlinear fatigue damage evolution can consider the influence of loading history and damage history.%为了建立沥青混合料的非线性疲劳损伤演化方程,同时为完善沥青路面的轴载换算方法,首先进行沥青混合料的配合比设计,确定矿料级配及最佳油石比,然后从损伤力学基本理论出发,定义模量衰减为其疲劳损伤参量,由此推导得到了疲劳损伤方程,并以此方程对小梁直接拉伸疲劳试验结果进行拟合,得到了模型参数和损伤随应力比的变化规律,建立了沥青路面轴载换算新方法。结果表明:沥青混合料的疲劳损伤演化具有明显的非线性,用Miner线性疲劳损伤理论来描述沥青路面疲劳损伤演化过程不合适,由此推导得到的轴载换算方法偏不安全,建立在非线性疲劳损伤演化基础上的轴载换算方法考虑了加载历史和损伤历史的影响。

  1. Desenvolvimento de metodologia para previsão do fenômeno de vibrações decorrentes da interferência entre eixos de um trator com tração dianteira auxiliar (TDA Development of methodology to predict power hop of the axle interference of a front wheel assist tractor (FWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Schlosser

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi desenvolvido um ensaio de campo com o objetivo de avaliar as condições da ocorrência do fenômeno do "galope" do trator, que consiste em vibrações de baixa freqüência e grande amplitude. Este fenômeno físico é muito comum nos tratores de tração integral, principalmente nos que possuem pneus de diferentes diâmetros no eixo dianteiro e traseiro. Para provocar o "galope", determinaram-se diferentes condições de distribuição de peso, pressão interna dos pneus e da magnitude da carga na barra de tração. Ao final dos ensaios, determinaram-se as condições de ocorrência do fenômeno por meio de uma metodologia bastante simples em função dos raios dos pneus. O método utilizado para a determinação das condições de ocorrência do galope foi plenamente satisfatório, pois pôde prever com bastante precisão as condições em que iria ocorrer o fenômeno.A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the conditions for the appeareance of the power hope phenomenon. It consists in low frequency vibrations and great amplitude. This physical phenomenon is very common in FWA tractors, mainly with unequal tires diameter in front and rear axle. To promote power hope, different weight distribution conditions, different tire pressure and different drawbar force were used. Power hope occurence conditions were determined using simple methodology, which uses tire radio in the calculations.

  2. Will the requirement by the US FDA to simultaneously co-develop companion diagnostics (CDx delay the approval of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK inhibitors for RTK-rearranged (ROS1-, RET-, AXL-, PDGFR-a-, NTRK1- non-small cell lung cancer globally?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai-HongIgnatiusOu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK rearrangement in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC in 2007 and the approval of crizotinib for the treatment of advanced ALK-rearranged NSCLC in 2011 represents a landmark in the development of targeted oncology therapy. The approval of crizotinib was accompanied simultaneously by the approval of approval of the Vysis (Abbott Molecular break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization test as the companion diagnostic (CDx test to detect ALK rearrangement. Pfizer, the manufacturer of crizotinib, sponsored the screening of thousands of patients and the standardization of the ALK FISH test as part of the approval process for crizotinib, a first in class ALK inhibitor. Many pharmaceutical companies are now using the FDA-approved ALK FISH assay to enroll patients onto trials for their own respective ALK inhibitors. In essence they are “piggybacking” on the FDA-approved ALK FISH assay without having to pay for the development of a CDx, nor screening for ALK-rearranged NSCLC patients in the protocols because screening for ALK rearrangement is now the standard of care in NSCLC after the approval of crizotinib. Since 2007, rearrangement in more RTKs such as ROS1, RET, AXL, PDGFR-α, and NTRK1 have been discovered in NSCLC but the incidence of each subtype of RTK-rearranged NSCLC is quite rare. Crizotinib has now demonstrated significant clinical activity in ROS1-rearranged NSCLC patients. Whether crizotinib will gain official FDA approval for use in ROS1-rearranged NSCLC, on the other hand, remains unclear as there is no test for ROS1 rearrangement currently being developed to support US FDA approval as a CDx. This may be due in part to the fact that the full cost associated with the development of a pre-market approved (PMA-approved CDx must be borne by the company seeking the first drug approval in a new indication. Given the low incidence of ROS1 rearrangement in NSCLC, and the availability of

  3. Evaluation of the 30 Ton CHA Crane Wheel Axle Modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An existing design for eccentric bushings was utilized and updated as necessary to accommodate minor adjustment as required to correct wheel alignment on the North West Idler wheel. The design is revised to install eccentric bushings on only one end

  4. SAFETY MARGIN CRITERION OF NONLINEAR UNBALANCE ELASTIC AXLE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈予恕; 李银山; 薛禹胜

    2003-01-01

    The safety margin criterion of nonlinear dynamic question of an elastic rotor system are given. A series of observing spaces were separated from integral space by resolving and polymerizing method. The stable-state trajectory of high dimensional nonlinear dynamic systems was got within integral space. According to international standard of rotor system vibration, energy limits of safety criterion were determined. The safety margin was calculated within a series of observing spaces by comparative positive-area criterion (CPAC) method. A quantitative example calculating safety margin for unbalance elastic rotor system was given by CPAC. The safety margin criterion proposed includes the calculation of current stability margin in engineering. This criterion is an effective method to solve quantitative calculation question of safety margin and stability margin for nonlinear dynamic systems.

  5. 30 t轴重重载列车作用下隧底脱空对基底结构受力的影响%Inf luence of separation from tunnel's bottom on bearing capacity of base structure under train loading of 30 t axle load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐新利

    2015-01-01

    采用无损检测及现场钻孔法对一既有重载隧道基底进行了探测,依据探测结果分析了隧底吊空对基底结构受力的影响。同时,利用ANSYS建立围岩—隧道结构—轨道结构三维动力分析模型,依据现场取样试验并结合实车动态试验结果,分析了30 t轴重重载列车通过隧道时基底吊空对基底结构受力的影响。分析结果表明,在Ⅴ级围岩条件下,当隧底混凝土厚度1.0~1.2 m时,轻重车线同时吊空且纵向吊空超过3.2 m、重车线吊空且纵向吊空超过5.5 m、重车线半幅吊空且纵向吊空超过8.0 m后,隧底最大主应力均超过其容许应力。疲劳分析结果表明,当基底仰拱沿纵向吊空从2.5 m增加到4.8 m时,其疲劳寿命降低最为明显;从4.8 m增加至8.0 m后,其疲劳寿命降低速率逐渐减弱;超过8.0 m后,其疲劳寿命基本趋于稳定且不足1年。因此,对于隧底出现的吊空病害应该及时加固处理,以保证列车安全。%T he existing overloaded tunnel basement was detected by nondestructive testing and field drilling method and the effect of tunnel bottom hanging on basement structure force was analyzed according to the detecting results. Combining with the field sampling test and real vehicle dynamic experiments,the influence of tunnel bottom hanging on basement structure force when heavy haul train passing through the tunnel with 30 t axle load is analyzed by establishing three-dimensional dynamic analysis model of surrounding rock-tunnel structure-track structure with ANSYS. T he analysis results showed that both light and heavy vehicle line hang together and vertical hanging length is over 3. 2 m ,the heavy vehicle line hangs and the vertical hanging length is over 5. 5 m in the V surrounding rock conditions when the concrete thickness of tunnel bottom is in 1. 0 ~1. 2 m,the maximum principal force of tunnel bottom is 0. 5 M Pa more than the allowable stress when

  6. On the influence of microstructural gradients in the fatigue lifetime estimation of a railway axle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baudoin Pierre

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at characterizing the influence of gradients at different scales (loading, geometry, microstructure... on fatigue strength through a multi-scale finite element modeling associated to several high cycle fatigue criteria. This is a necessary step in the perspective of conducting a relevant experimental campaign on notched specimen exhibiting a gradient of mechanical properties.

  7. THE PREDICTION OF THE TWO-AXLES DEVELOPMENT OF FREIGHT CAR TRUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical methods of calculation and analysis of patent fund enable estimation of progress of technical object trends. Using these methods, certain directions of development of biaxial bogie of freight carriage, in particular promising ones and directions, which exhausted the potential, are determined.

  8. Algorithm of orthogonal bi-axle for auto-separating of watermelon seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Guan, Miao; Yu, Daoqin; Wang, Jing

    2007-11-01

    During the process of watermelon seeds characteristic extraction as well as separation, watermelon seeds' major and minor axes, the length and width ratio have played a very important role in appearance regulating degree evaluation. It is quite difficult to find the answer of orthogonal bi-axes because the watermelon seeds are flat and irregular in shape and what's more there is no rule to follow. After a lot of experiments and research, the author proposed the algorithm of orthogonal bi-axes algorithm for granulated object. It has been put into practice and proved in the application of auto-separation system for watermelon seeds. This algorithm has the advantage of lower time complexity and higher precision compared with other algorithms. The algorithm can be used in the solution of other similar granulated objects, and has the widespread application value.

  9. Mulige interaksjoner mellom tyrosin kinase reseptoren Axl, metabolisme og proliferasjon i brystkreftceller (MDA-MB-231)

    OpenAIRE

    Bergslien, Ingunn

    2009-01-01

    Metabolismen i kreftceller er assosiert med økt aerob glykolyse, et fenomen omtalt som Warburg effekten. Den forhøyede glykolytiske raten utgjør en av de større forskjellene, som skiller normale celler fra kreftceller, og forståelse av de underliggende mekanismene er viktig for å kunne utvikle målrettet kreftterapi. Brystkreft cellelinjen MDA-MB-231 er karakterisert som aggressiv og invasiv, og viser høye rater av aerob glykolyse, sammenlignet med brystkreft cellelinjer med lavere invasivi...

  10. Reliability design of mono-leaf spring for front-axle suspension of large-sized trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savaidis, G. [Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering (Greece); Schwaiger, F. [MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Munich (Germany); Momiyama, F.; Yamazumi, T.; Muramatsu, K. [Horikiri Inc., Chiba-Pref. (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    This paper deals with the development of a fatigue-accurate suspension system for large-sized trucks based on mono-leaf steel springs, It shows the fulfillment of the demands for lightweight construction, sufficient fatigue life and fail-safe behaviour. The paper contains the fatigue load assumptions used for the non-linear finite-element stress-strain analysis, the experimental verification by means of measured load, stress and strain data determined by driving quasi-static manoeuvres and over various rough road segments with a prototype vehicle, as well as the experimental uniaxial and multiaxial fatigue tests required for the durability approval. The fatigue lives achieved, confirm the adequate service life of the developed spring. In addition, appropriate vehicle tests on a test track with a custom-made mono-leaf spring system confirmed the fail-safe design of the suspension system. (orig.)

  11. Influence of wheel and rail profile shape on the initiation of rolling contact fatigue cracks at high axle loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Ulrich; Desmond Fröhling, Robert; Schalk Els, Pieter

    2016-05-01

    The influence of wheel and rail profile shape features on the initiation of rolling contact fatigue (RCF) cracks is evaluated based on the results of multi-body vehicle dynamics simulations. The damage index and surface fatigue index are used as two damage parameters to assess the influence of the different features. The damage parameters showed good agreement to one another and to in-field observations. The wheel and rail profile shape features showed a correlation to the predicted RCF damage. The RCF damage proved to be most sensitive to the position of hollow wear and thus bogie tracking. RCF initiation and crack growth can be reduced by eliminating unwanted shape features through maintenance and design and by improving bogie tracking.

  12. 气动转轴结构成形模设计%Design of the Pneumatic Forming Die of Rotational Axle Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许小东

    2004-01-01

    介绍了1副适用于表面要求较高的钣金件的成形模结构及工作过程,解决了钣金件成形过程中的擦伤问题.模具利用压缩气体为动力,不需压力机就能工作,减少了设备的投资.

  13. 后桥钢板激光-MIG复合焊接优化研究%Optimization Research on Laser-MIG Composite Welding for Rear Axle Steel Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚远; M.Wouters; J.Powell; K.Nilsson; A.Kaplan

    2008-01-01

    研究了两种后桥桥壳用低合金钢板在激光-MIG复合焊接中,接头形状、接头间隙及MIG参数变化(大、中、小MIG参数)对焊缝形状及焊缝喉厚的影响.研究结果表明,MIG参数应设置成大、中MIG参数水平,以保证在一定的接头间隙下有充足的焊接材料填入间隙而形成部分焊透的焊缝,使焊缝喉厚满足焊接强度要求;过高的MIG输入能量和过多的焊料(丝)填入将导致焊缝横截面积增大,但对焊缝喉厚的影响不是很明显;当MIG参数设置成小MIG参数水平时,0.5 mm的接头间隙或切角面为3 mm×2 mm时,对获得较大的焊缝喉厚有利.

  14. α-Lipoic acid attenuates vascular calcification via reversal of mitochondrial function and restoration of Gas6/Axl/Akt survival pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Han-Jong; Lee, Kyunghee; Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Hee Sun; KIM, JAE-RYONG; Ha, Chae-Myeong; Choi, Young-Keun; Lee, Sun Joo; Kim, Joon-young; Harris, Robert A.; Jeong, Daewon; Lee, In-Kyu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Vascular calcification is prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease and leads to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although several reports have implicated mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease, little is known about the potential role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the process of vascular calcification. This study investigated the effect of α-lipoic acid (ALA), a naturally occurring antioxidant that improves mitochond...

  15. Kinematics Simulation of Rigid-Flexible Coupled Rigid Axle Suspension%刚柔耦合非独立悬架系统的建模和仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜兢; 王小芳

    2009-01-01

    利用ADAMS/CAR软件建立非独立悬架系统刚柔耦合仿真模型,分析并评价了该悬架在运动过程中主要性能参数的变化规律及对操纵稳定性的影响,为悬架设计奠定基础.与传统建模方法相比,刚柔耦合建模技术能有效提高非独立悬架的仿真分析精度.

  16. Research on Workshop Layout Based on Product Structure Trees of Auto Rear Axle%基于产品结构树的汽车后桥车间布置方式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱华炳; 余锋; 唐自玉; 王龙

    2011-01-01

    通过对传统的生产车间布置方法进行研究,提出了一种基于产品结构树的多色集合车间布置方法,建立了车间布局模型并给出了优化目标.最后以某企业厂房布置为例进行了验证,证明了该方法能较大幅度地减小车间物流费用,提高厂房面积利用率,具有很强的实用性,为解决多目标优化的车间布置问题提供了一个新途径.%By studying on traditional method of production workshop layout, this paper puts forward a polychromatic method of production workshop layout which is based on product structure tree and builds up models of production workshop layout.And it has given the optimized objectives. Finally,an example of workshop layout of some enterprise was demonstrated to show that the method could largely reduce logistics costs and increase utilization of production area. In addition, it has also proved that the method is practicable and provided a new way to solve multi-objective optimization of workshop layout problem.

  17. A Molecular Rotor Possessing an H-M-H "Spoke" on a P-M-P "Axle": A Platinum(II) trans-Dihydride Spins Rapidly Even at 75 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prack, Ernest; O'Keefe, Christopher A; Moore, Jeremy K; Lai, Angel; Lough, Alan J; Macdonald, Peter M; Conradi, Mark S; Schurko, Robert W; Fekl, Ulrich

    2015-10-28

    A new class of low-barrier molecular rotors, metal trans-dihydrides, is suggested here. To test whether rapid rotation can be achieved, the known complex trans-H2Pt(P(t)Bu3)2 was experimentally studied by (2)H and (195)Pt solid-state NMR spectroscopy (powder pattern changes with temperature) and computationally modeled as a (t)Bu3P-Pt-P(t)Bu3 stator with a spinning H-Pt-H rotator. Whereas the related chloro-hydride complex, trans-H(Cl)Pt(P(t)Bu3)2, does not show rotational behavior at room temperature, the dihydride trans-H2Pt(P(t)Bu3)2 rotates fast on the NMR time scale, even at low temperatures down to at least 75 K. The highest barrier to rotation is estimated to be ∼3 kcal mol(-1), for the roughly 3 Å long rotator in trans-H2Pt(P(t)Bu3)2. PMID:26448538

  18. Comparison of Structure Style and Usage Effect of Three Kinds of Axle Sleeves in Port Machinery%港口机械三种轴套结构形式及使用效果对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成治鹏; 赵开春

    2013-01-01

    轴套的磨损是工程机械中最常见的故障之一.为消除此故障,保证工作装置的轴套间有良好的润滑是最有效的方法.介绍这种轴套结构形式和保持良好润滑的做法.可供参考.

  19. The petroleum and its products pipeline network as articulate axle of the social-environmental transformation; A malha dutoviaria de transporte de petroleo e derivados como eixo articulador de transformacao socio-ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Filho, Aluisio Teles [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude; Dias, Janice; Vieira, Roberto Gomes [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The article describes the experience of the area of Social Responsibility in TRANSPETRO, a wholly Brazilian Subsidiary of PETROBRAS, which operates in the field of transport of petroleum, its by-products and gas, by way of oil and gas pipeline networks. Pipeline is the safety option for the transport of these products, but requires monitoring and the permanent management of the use and occupation of the soil and surrounding area. This care does not only depend on the Company as responsibility is much wider. Active participation by the communities affected by the operations is essential, principally in incorporating the rules of occupation and the use of the soil in the land surrounding the strips and the terminals. This participation is justified given that the action of third parties represents a significant proportion (70%) of the irregular situations registered by the Company. Community Relationship Management is one of the principal strategies to increase the safety of the pipelines integrated into the Company's programs of maintenance and operational control. Therefore, a plan of Community Relations has been implanted, focusing on the transformation of values to construct a community culture of co-habitation and co-responsibility for the pipeline land. (author)

  20. The pulse electronics brush plates the repair rolling mill tooth wheel axle to brush plates the craft practice%脉冲电刷镀修复轧机齿轮轴刷镀工艺实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高兴勇

    2009-01-01

    根据某厂齿轮轴颈的技术要求及工况条件,制定了脉冲电刷镀修复方案,并详细介绍了此方案的工艺方法.结果表明,脉冲电镀工艺能增加镀层厚度,增强镀层硬度,效果明显优于直流电刷镀工艺.

  1. Static Tensional Strength Analysis and Structure Optimization of Motor Tricycle Axle Shaft%三轮摩托车半轴静扭强度分析及结构优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘焕领; 景亚兵; 马娜; 白伟

    2015-01-01

    针对三轮摩托车全浮式半轴法兰和轴结合处的断裂问题,进行了静扭强度分析,分析发现该结合处的应力较其他位置的应力大.为解决这个问题,对该结合处的结构利用结构优化方法提出优化方案.

  2. Influence of Roll Characteristics of Multi-axle Steering Vehicle in Hydro-pneumatic Suspension Type%油气悬挂类型对多轴转向车辆侧倾特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑东强; 周梅

    2011-01-01

    Based on the modeling and simulation study of the system of twin-accumulator hydro-pneumatic suspension(HPS),the virtual prototype of the dependent and linked hydro-pneumatic suspension and the virtual test platform of vehicle roll over characteristic were built,the effects of the dependent and linked hydro-pneumatic suspension on the vehicle roll over characteristic were analyzed.It discovered from emulation analysis that the stiffness characteristics of the dependent HPS would be higher than the linked HPS.The results of this research provided references for the design of HPS and for the improving of the maneuvering stability.%对单个双气室油气悬挂系统进行建模与仿真分析,构建了连通式和非独立式油气悬挂系统的虚拟样机模型及车辆侧倾特性的虚拟试验平台,研究了连通式及非独立式这2类油气悬挂类型对多轴转向车辆侧倾特性影响的规律。仿真分析结果表明,非独立式油气悬挂系统的侧倾刚度比连通式油气悬挂系统大。该研究成果可为改进油气悬挂系统的设计及提高车辆操纵稳定性提供参考依据。

  3. Modeling and Simulation of the Two Axles Hydro-pneumatic Suspension for Construction Vehicles%工程车辆双气室油气悬架建模与仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李魁; 张洪; 蔡言龙

    2014-01-01

    分析某工程车辆的双气室悬架液压缸的结构和工作原理,建立了其非线性数学模型;然后利用AMESim建立悬架仿真模型,并运用AMESim软件对比分析了正弦信号激励下悬架液压缸输出力的位移、速度特性曲线。%The structure and working principle of the double chamber suspension cylinder are analyzed, and nonlin-ear mathematical models of the double chamber suspension cylinder is also established. Then its simulation model is set up based on AMESim software. Comparative analysis of the displacement and velocity characteristic curve of suspension cylinder's output force under the sine excitation signal is carried out based on AMESim software. This study establishes the foundation for further studies of the double chamber suspension system.

  4. The pickup truck rear axle tire bolts fracture problem analysis and optimization%某皮卡车后桥轮胎螺栓断裂问题分析及优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾德钦

    2015-01-01

    文章主要通过对某皮卡车后桥轮胎螺栓断裂问题进行分析,找出了螺栓断裂产生的原因和机理,并相应进行了改进设计,最后对改进设计的样件进行了实物验证,证明了改进是有效的.通过本次故障分析和优化设计,也为同类结构的轮胎螺栓设计提供了几个关键控制因素,为解决同类问题提供可供参考的思路.

  5. A Piston-Rotaxane with Two Potential Stripes: Force Transitions and Yield Stresses

    OpenAIRE

    Edith M. Sevick; David R.M. Williams

    2013-01-01

    We examine a rod piston-rotaxane system, where the positions of several mobile rings on the axle are controlled by an external force acting on one of the rings. This allows us to access the translational entropy of the rings. For a simple rotaxane molecule with an axle that has uniform ring-axle interactions along its length, the molecule behaves like a miniature piston filled with a one-dimensional ideal gas. We then examine the effect of two stripes on the axle, having different ring-axle i...

  6. Effect of Component Mobility on the Properties of Macromolecular [2]Rotaxanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Aoki, Daisuke; Uchida, Satoshi; Marubayashi, Hironori; Nojima, Shuichi; Takata, Toshikazu

    2016-02-18

    Macromolecular [2]rotaxanes comprising a polymer axle and crown ether wheel were synthesized to evaluate the effect of component mobility on the properties of the axle polymer, especially its crystallinity. Living ring-opening polymerization of δ-valerolactone with a pseudorotaxane initiator with a hydroxy group at the axle terminus was followed by end-capping with a bulky isocyanate. This yielded macromolecular [2]rotaxanes (M2Rs) possessing polyester axles of varying molecular weights. The crystallinity of the axle polymers of two series of M2Rs, with either fixed and movable components, was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry. The results revealed that the effect of component mobility was significant in the fixed and movable M2Rs with a certain axle length, thus suggesting that the properties of the axle polymer depend on the mobility of the polyrotaxane components. PMID:26806916

  7. Structural Design of Asphalt Pavement for Low Cost Rural Roads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Goulin; Chen Rongshen

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the equivalent axle load action frequency, the traffic classifications of rural roads as well as their corresponding types are classified. The asphalt pavement structure, road surface types and thickness of the rural roads are suggested for the various action frequency of the equivalent axle load. Furthermore, the roadbase thickness graphs are provided according to different equivalent axle load action frequency with different roadbed modulus and road surface modulus taken into account.

  8. 78 FR 72861 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 20-Suffolk, Virginia, Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... assemblies; guide pulleys; winches; axles; tire-rim assemblies; clips; pins; brackets; bolts; junction plates; tower masts; shaped springs; shaped pipes; brackets; mufflers; stabilizer legs; locks; top covers;...

  9. Preparing for emergency situations on French nuclear power plants. Participation of the Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN). Safety analysis of emergency plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the French organizations for nuclear safety, the Institute of Protection and Nuclear safety (IPSN) is a technical support for the public authority. This technical support is jointed about 3 axles: - safety analysis of emergency plans - insertion in the national crisis organizations - improvement of evaluations and previsions of accidental situations. In this paper, these 3 axles are developed

  10. 76 FR 4264 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model CL-600-2C10 (Regional Jet Series 700, 701, & 702...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact... before it is returned to service. (3) Reporting Requirements: A Federal agency may not conduct or sponsor... fretting between the inboard axle sleeve and axle thrust face, damage to the protective coating...

  11. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    the results obtained using the numerical models given in details in "Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges : dynamic modelling of vehicles and bridges". The models are established using a ordinary vehicle which consists of a 48 t Scania with a 3 axle tractor and a 3 axle trailer, joined in a flexible hinge...

  12. Drive component for vehicles with an electric motor and an internal combustion engine. Antriebsbaugruppe fuer Kraftfahrzeuge mit einem Elektromotor und einem Verbrennungsmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, H.

    1983-06-30

    Drive component for vehicles with an electric motor, which works on the driving axle of the vehicle and with an internal combustion engine working on the shaft of the electric motor via a clutch, which can be disconnected. There is a gearbox with an associated starting and circuit clutch in the unit between the electric motor and the driving axle of the vehicle.

  13. A piston-rotaxane with two potential stripes: force transitions and yield stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevick, Edith M; Williams, David R M

    2013-01-01

    We examine a rod piston-rotaxane system, where the positions of several mobile rings on the axle are controlled by an external force acting on one of the rings. This allows us to access the translational entropy of the rings. For a simple rotaxane molecule with an axle that has uniform ring-axle interactions along its length, the molecule behaves like a miniature piston filled with a one-dimensional ideal gas. We then examine the effect of two stripes on the axle, having different ring-axle interactions with the mobile rings, so that one section is of high energy (repulsive) for the rings and another section is of lower energy (or attractive). This kind of rotaxane can exhibit rapid changes in displacement or force, and in particular, this molecule can exhibit a yield stress in which the piston suddenly compresses under a small increase in the applied force. PMID:24177696

  14. A Piston-Rotaxane with Two Potential Stripes: Force Transitions and Yield Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith M. Sevick

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine a rod piston-rotaxane system, where the positions of several mobile rings on the axle are controlled by an external force acting on one of the rings. This allows us to access the translational entropy of the rings. For a simple rotaxane molecule with an axle that has uniform ring-axle interactions along its length, the molecule behaves like a miniature piston filled with a one-dimensional ideal gas. We then examine the effect of two stripes on the axle, having different ring-axle interactions with the mobile rings, so that one section is of high energy (repulsive for the rings and another section is of lower energy (or attractive. This kind of rotaxane can exhibit rapid changes in displacement or force, and in particular, this molecule can exhibit a yield stress in which the piston suddenly compresses under a small increase in the applied force.

  15. Análise de falha por fadiga em eixo de transmissão utilizando o método dos elementos finitos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Azevedo Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to present the application of the finite element method to perform stress and fatigue analysis on a mechanical drive axle. Drive axles are widely used in rotating machinery and are subject to fatigue problems. The rotary transmission axle in this study is supported in bearings loaded by an alternating force of 6.8 kN, wherein the axle has rounding radii all 0.003 m in size and a ground surface of AISI 1050 steel with Young’s elasticity modulus of 206.8 GPa and Poisson modulus of 0.28. We present the rupture conditions ensuing from tension as well as fatigue, for a lifetime of the transmission axle of 350,000 cycles. The quantitative results compared satisfactorily to the empirical fatigue data.

  16. Analysis of Causes to Failure of Resilient Nodal Points on Axle Box Rotary Arm on CW-2B Type Bogie and Counter Measures%CW-2B型转向架轴箱转臂弹性节点失效的原因分析及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭琳; 何益文; 辛平

    2003-01-01

    @@ 广深铁路股份公司广深机辆事业部自2001年10月开始采用装有 CW-2B型转向架的客车担当岳阳-深圳间的运营任务,1年来,该批车辆共发生了14起轴箱弹簧折断故障,经分析是由于其轴箱转臂弹性节点严重失效引起,这对行车安全造成了不良隐患,严重影响了旅客列车的运行品质.

  17. Torque Generation in F1-ATPase Devoid of the Entire Amino-Terminal Helix of the Rotor That Fills Half of the Stator Orifice

    OpenAIRE

    Kohori, Ayako; Chiwata, Ryohei; Hossain, Mohammad Delawar; Furuike, Shou; Shiroguchi, Katsuyuki; Adachi, Kengo; Yoshida, Masasuke; Kinosita, Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    F1-ATPase is an ATP-driven rotary molecular motor in which the central γ-subunit rotates inside a cylinder made of α3β3 subunits. The amino and carboxyl termini of the γ rotor form a coiled coil of α-helices that penetrates the stator cylinder to serve as an axle. Crystal structures indicate that the axle is supported by the stator at two positions, at the orifice and by the hydrophobic sleeve surrounding the axle tip. The sleeve contacts are almost exclusively to the longer carboxyl-terminal...

  18. Pembuatan Model Poros Roda Depan Vespa pada Mesin Bubut CNC EMCOTURN 242 Menggunakan Software AutoCAD 2004 dan Program Simulasi Mastercam X

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniawan

    2011-01-01

    This research aims to make product in the form of vespa front axle model using CNC lathe ET 242. AutoCAD 2004 software is used for making of engineering drawings of vespa front axle model and Mastercam X software has also been used for the machining process planning. The result of design using AutoCAD 2004 software is obtained the technical drawing of vespa front axle model then transferred to the software Mastercam X. In Mastercam X is done through the machining process planning by creating ...

  19. Guide for rotating sucker rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrel, R.D.

    1986-11-04

    This patent describes an improved guide for use in a string of sucker rods rotated in a tubing string in a borehole, the sucker rods having threaded male ends, the guide comprising: an elongated upright solid cylindrical coupling body of external diameter less than the internal diameter of tubing in which it is to be used; a pair of spaced apart axle holders positioned in three recess; an axle received in each recess in the coupling body, the axis of each axle being parallel and spaced from the body longitudinal axis; a roller rotatably received on each axle, the periphery of each roller extending exteriorly of the external cylindrical surface of the coupling body; and means to retain each of the holders in the coupling body recess.

  20. Educational Materials Development in Primary Science: Simple Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Frank L.; Butterfield, Lawrence H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Evaluated was the ability of 27 legally blind elementary students to identify and manipulate the parts of the following adapted simple machines: lever, inclined plane, wheel and axle, and pulley. (SBH)

  1. Instability of Vibration of a Moving-Train Coupling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, D. Y.; Fan, S. C.

    2002-08-01

    This paper presents the derivation of the governing equations for the stability of vibration of an integrated system comprising a moving train and the railway track. The train consists of a convoy of articulated two-axle wagons. The equations are applicable to any arbitrary number of axles at arbitrary spacing. Each axle is modelled as a mass-spring-damper vibration unit. The railway track is an infinitely long Euler beam subjected to an axial compressive force and rests on a visco-elastic foundation. The governing equations for the integrated system are coupled differential equations, which can be transformed to algebraic equations by Fourier and Laplace transforms. Subsequent inverse Fourier transform and contour integration yield the instability equation. Critical parameter is identified. It follows by parametric studies on the instability of vibration due to different train configurations. Illustrative examples for trains having up to 20 wagons or 40 axles are given.

  2. An Acceleration Slip Regulation Strategy for Four-Wheel Drive Electric Vehicles Based on Sliding Mode Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen He

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an acceleration slip regulation (ASR system for four-wheel drive (4WD electric vehicles, which are driven by the front and rear axles simultaneously. The ASR control strategy includes three control modes: average distribution of inter-axle torque, optimal distribution of inter-axle torque and independent control of optimal slip rate, respectively, which are designed based on the torque adaptive principle of inter-axle differential and sliding mode control theory. Furthermore, in order to accurately describe the longitudinal tyre force characteristic, a slip rate calculation formula in the form of a state equation was used for solving the numerical problem posed by the traditional way. A simulation was carried out with the MATLAB/Simulink software. The simulation results show that the proposed ASR system can fully use the road friction condition, inhibit the drive-wheels from slipping, and improve the vehicle longitudinal driving stability.

  3. 40 CFR Appendix D to Subpart S of... - Steady-State Short Test Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... capacity. The dynamometer shall be capable of supporting a driving axle weight up to four thousand (4,000) pounds or greater. (4) Between roll wheel lifts. These shall be controllable and capable of lifting...

  4. Simple Machines Simply Put.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, James J.

    1994-01-01

    Students explore the workings of the lever, wheel and axle, and the inclined plane as they build simple toys--a bulldozer and a road grader. The project takes four weeks. Diagrams and procedures are included. (PR)

  5. A pH-Sensitive Peptide-Containing Lasso Molecular Switch

    OpenAIRE

    Karine Fournel-Marotte; Caroline Clavel; Frédéric Coutrot

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of a peptide-containing lasso molecular switch by a self-entanglement strategy is described. The interlocked [1] rotaxane molecular machine consists of a benzometaphenylene[25]crown-8 (BMP25C8) macrocycle surrounding a molecular axle. This molecular axle contains a tripeptidic sequence and two molecular stations: a N-benzyltriazolium and a pH-sensitive anilinium station. The tripeptide is located between the macrocycle and the triazolium station, so that its conformation can be ...

  6. Static Analysis of Loader Backhoe Chassis 770 Model.

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Thorat; G.V.R Seshagiri Rao

    2013-01-01

    Construction industry is undoubtedly the backbone and propelling force behind our progress. In response to booming construction industry, utilization of earth moving equipment has increased considerably leading to high rate of failure. Backhoe Loader chassis is the skeleton of a commercial vehicles. The main function of the truck chassis is to support the different components like engine, cabin, transmission, front axle and rear axle. So it is necessary to analyze chassis to avoid failure whi...

  7. Automotive stamped part fatigue design

    OpenAIRE

    Caudoux Mélanie; Facchinetti Matteo Luca; Raynal Renaud

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue design of automotive axle parts is of prior concern because of these are high safety parts and they are expected to drive the overall vehicle mass reduction. In this framework, the stamping process is widely used to form axle parts, before assembling them by welding. Consequently, the mechanical and physical characteristics of the blank sheet are modified, having a strong influence on the fatigue behavior. In this paper, we address the consequences of the stamped process on the fatigu...

  8. The Influence of Wagon Structure Part Shape Optimization on Ultimate Fatigue Strength

    OpenAIRE

    Milovanović, Vladimir; Živković, Miroslav; Jovičić, Gordana; Živković, Jelena; Kozak, Dražan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how shape optimisation affects the ultimate fatigue strength of a mechanical part. The mechanical part chosen for this investigation is an axle guard of running gear elements of the Hccrrs 2x2 axle car-carrying wagon. The static and fatigue strength analysis procedure according to the UIC 517 standard and numerical methods have been applied. Material properties were determined experimentally and the necessary numerical calculations were performed by using the finite el...

  9. Site Verification of Weigh-in-Motion Traffic and TIRTL Classification Data

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shuo; Du, Yingzi (Eliza); Jiang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Quality weigh-in-motion (WIM) traffic data is essential not only in general transportation application, but also in pavement design. The new AASHTO Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) for New and Rehabilitated Pavement Structures requires information on the detailed truck traffic, such as truck traffic volume, truck traffic monthly and hourly variations, vehicle class distribution, axle load, and axle load distributions, instead of the traditional ESALs. In addition, the India...

  10. Pavement Response to Variable Tyre Pressure of Heavy Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Arshad Ahmad Kamil; Haron Hairol Anuar; Abd Rahman Zanariah; Abdul Halim A.G.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the effect of overinflated tyre pressure and increased heavy vehicles’ axle load on flexible pavements has become a subject of great concern because of the higher stress levels induced and damage caused to road pavements. This paper aims to evaluate the effect of variable tyre inflation pressures (using actual tyre contact/footprint area) to determine the responses of flexible pavement. A full scale experiment was conducted on a heavy vehicle with 1:1:2 axle configuration, 10...

  11. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Type-selection design of axle box bearing for high-speed passenger car bogie LIANG Yun, XIA Chun-jing (Changchun Railway Vehicle Co., Ltd., Chang- chun 130062, China) Abstract: This paper elaborates type-selection analysis of axle box bearings for high-speed passenger ear bogie and introduces the main influence factors of type- selection and life calculation of bearings.

  12. Gas6 induces cancer cell migration and epithelial–mesenchymal transition through upregulation of MAPK and Slug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yunhee [Department of Chemistry, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Immunotherapy Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mira [Immunotherapy Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Semi, E-mail: semikim@kribb.re.kr [Department of Chemistry, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Immunotherapy Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-26

    Highlights: •We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying Gas6-mediated cancer cell migration. •Gas6 treatment and subsequent Axl activation induce cell migration and EMT via upregulation of Slug. •Slug expression mediated by Gas6 is mainly through c-Jun and ATF-2 in an ERK1/2 and JNK-dependent manner. •The Gas6/Axl-Slug axis may be exploited as a target for anti-cancer metastasis therapy. -- Abstract: Binding of Gas6 to Axl (Gas6/Axl axis) alters cellular functions, including migration, invasion, proliferation, and survival. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying Gas6-mediated cell migration remain poorly understood. In this study, we found that Gas6 induced the activation of JNK and ERK1/2 signaling in cancer cells expressing Axl, resulting in the phosphorylation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factors c-Jun and ATF-2, and induction of Slug. Depletion of c-Jun or ATF-2 by siRNA attenuated the Gas6-induced expression of Slug. Slug expression was required for cell migration and E-cadherin reduction/vimentin induction induced by Gas6. These results suggest that Gas6 induced cell migration via Slug upregulation in JNK- and ERK1/2-dependent mechanisms. These data provide an important insight into the molecular mechanisms mediating Gas6-induced cell migration.

  13. The effect of steady torsion on fatigue crack growth under rotating bending loading on aluminium alloy 7075-T6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. da Fonte

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Axles and shafts are of prime importance concerning safety in the transportation industry and railway in particular. Design rules for axles and shafts are mainly based on endurance curves for the material used according to the established standards and procedures. Recently, the knowledge of fatigue crack growth under typical loading conditions of axles and shafts with rotating bending and steady torsion is being object of research and industrial studies in order to apply damage tolerance concepts, mainly for maintenance purposes. The effect of a steady torsion on fatigue crack growth under rotating bending is focused in this paper. While axles and shafts in the transportation industry are traditionally designed on steels, the need for weight reduction due to fuel economy and eco-design constraints, lightweight materials must be considered for these applications. In this study, fatigue crack growth on rotating bending axles and shafts with or without an applied steady torsion is presented. Fracture mechanics approaches are used to analyze the results based on Stress Intensity Factors developed for bending and torsion in shafts and show fatigue crack growth retardation when steady torsion is applied. Fractographic observations using SEM are presented and helped to explain the fatigue crack growth retardation observed when steady torsion is applied to rotating bending. Results are compared for the same loading conditions on steels and relevant differences on fatigue crack growth are commented.

  14. Effects of Variation in Truck Factor on Pavement Performance in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Chaudry

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variation coupled with heavy axle loading is the key factor in rapid road deterioration in Pakistan. The serviceability loss is further accelerated by the fact that truck drivers and owners consider overloading as a profitable practice unaware of the adverse effects of this practice. Weigh-in-motion data from two stations located between two major cities of Pakistan (Peshawar and Rawalpindi on Grand Trunk Road (N-5 were collected and analyzed. Analysis of variance and comparison of actual and designed truck factor were performed to identify the most damaging axle truck type. It was found that axle truck type 3 (single/tandem axle is most damaging among all truck types. The actual truck factor for axle truck type 3 is 6.4 times greater than design truck factor. Regression expressions of different forms were also investigated to determine the relationship between truck factor and gross vehicular weight for the specified truck types. An optimum generalization strategy was used to prevent over-generalization and ensure accuracy. For data analysis, 75% of data was used to develop regression models and remaining 25% was to validate those models. The results show that the polynomial expressions performed best and provide a robust relationship that can be employed by the highway authorities to estimate truck factor from gross vehicular weight with a high degree of confidence. It was also observed that damaging effect of various types of trucks was very severe and quite high.

  15. Refuelling machine for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed manipulating means consists of housing, wherein a gripping means is arranged to grip a fuel assembly being transferred. The gripping means is coupled to a drive having a chain which is in contact with a sprocket mounted on an axle arranged in the sealed housing. The driving force of the drive is transmitted to the gripping means. The driving force is controlled by a force regulator mounted on the gripping means. The force regulator comprises two force tranducers mounted on the sealed housing, and a spring suspension member installed in the gripping means. Some clearance is allowed where the drive sprocket axle is secured in the walls of the sealed housing. The ends of the axle extend outside the sealed housing and are coupled to sensitive elements of the force transducers

  16. Hybrid concepts of the co-operation GETRAG-BOSCH and their realisation in a demonstrator car; Hybridkonzepte der Kooperation GETRAG-BOSCH am Beispiel eines Demonstratorfahrzeugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankenbach, Bernd; Blessing, Uli Christian [GETRAG KG, Untergruppenbach (Germany); Imaseki, Takashi; Richter, Boyke [Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    At present, the partners of hybrid co-operation Getrag KG (Untergruppenbach, Federal Republic of Germany) and Robert Bosch GmbH (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) develop a hybrid demonstrator vehicle. The BMW Mini Clubman with a hybridized double clutch transmission and an electrical rear axle is the fundament. In the case of the six-speed double clutch transmission, the E-machine alternatively can be coupled to one of the two torque split hybrid. Using the demonstrator vehicle, on the one hand the hybrid operating strategy shall be optimized. On the other hand, it is used for presentations whereby the axle-split hybrid variants are presentable. For this vehicle, numerical simulations prove consumption reductions of approximately 6 % (micro hybrid), 18 % (axle split hybrid) and 24 % (torque split hybrid). Aspects of comfort and aspects of driving dynamics already are considered.

  17. Adhesion-related kinase induction of migration requires phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and ras stimulation of rac activity in immortalized gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen-Preiss, Sheila M; Allen, Melissa P; Xu, Mei; Linseman, Daniel A; Pawlowski, John E; Bouchard, R J; Varnum, Brian C; Heidenreich, Kim A; Wierman, Margaret E

    2007-06-01

    GnRH neurons migrate into the hypothalamus during development. Although migratory defects may result in disordered activation of the reproductive axis and lead to delayed or absent sexual maturation, specific factors regulating GnRH neuronal migration remain largely unknown. The receptor tyrosine kinase, adhesion-related kinase (Ark) (also known as Axl, UFO, and Tyro7), has been implicated in the migration of GnRH neuronal cells. Binding of its ligand, growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6), promotes cytoskeletal remodeling and migration of NLT GnRH neuronal cells via Rac and p38 MAPK. Here, we examined the Axl effectors proximal to Rac in the signaling pathway. Gas6/Axl-induced lamellipodia formation and migration were blocked after phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibition in GnRH neuronal cells. The p85 subunit of PI3K coimmunoprecipitated with Axl and was phosphorylated in a Gas6-sensitive manner. In addition, PI3K inhibition in GnRH neuronal cells diminished Gas6-induced Rac activation. Exogenous expression of a dominant-negative form of Ras also decreased GnRH neuronal lamellipodia formation, migration, and Rac activation. PI3K inhibition blocked Ras in addition to Rac activation and migration. In contrast, pharmacological blockade of the phospholipase C gamma effectors, protein kinase C or calcium/calmodulin protein kinase II, had no effect on Gas6/Axl signaling to promote Rac activation or stimulate cytoskeletal reorganization and migration. Together, these data show that the PI3K-Ras pathway is a major mediator of Axl actions upstream of Rac to induce GnRH neuronal cell migration. PMID:17332061

  18. Bridge weigh-in-motion on steel orthotropic decks and application to bridge assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Bernard; Ieng, Sio Song; SCHMIDT, Franziska

    2012-01-01

    Bridge weigh-in-motion uses an instrumented bridge as a scale to weigh vehicles. Several types of bridges may be used, if being sensitive to wheel or axle loads. Here some strains of steel orthotropic deck bridges are measured by extensometers and analyzed by software, to calculate axle loads and gross vehicle weights. Between 2009 and 2011, several large scale tests were done on the Millau viaduct (France), the tallest cable stayed bridge in the world. These tests showed that the system meet...

  19. THE CYTOGENETIC EFFECTS WITH LEAD NITROGENOUS TREATMENT AT HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L. FAVORIT AND PR64A83 CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Vlad-Rusen

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of some cytogenetic parameters shows that the nitrogenous lead application on Favorit and PR64A83 cultivars of sunflower exercises a light mutagenic effect on the cells of the root apex. At same time an intensification of the frequency of the ana-telophases with aberration takes place, especially of those with bridges, with lagging chromosomes, but also of those with fragments, demonstrating the perturbatory action that this substance exercises on the division axle. The apparition of a great number of metaphases with displayed chromosomes proves the perturbation of well function to division axle, effect signalized especially at the Favorit cultivar.

  20. Анализ структуры осей железнодорожного подвижного состава, выкованных на гидравлической машине радиальной ковки типа SMX

    OpenAIRE

    Кнауф, Ф.; Фест, Р.; Холь, А.; Нишвитц, П.-И.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the high level of investment needed in countries such as e.g. Europe and Asia, there is an increasing demand for machines for the manufacture of rails, railway wheels and railway axles. At the moment railway axles are in most cases forged in a series of different forming processes. In an initial rolling process for example possible defects in the starting material are closed in order to get a homogenous microstructure. In a subsequent forging process, due to the low depth penetration c...

  1. REDUCING THE NEGATIVE INFLUENCE OF KINEMATIC DISCREPANCY IN THE TRANSMISSION OF FOUR-WHEEL DRIVE WHEELED VEHICLES

    OpenAIRE

    Ismailov V. A.; Melikov I. M.

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses different types of drive axles of all-wheel drive machine. It is shown that if blocked drive of driving axle easy, it is able to provide the best traction drive qualities of the all-wheel car, if compensation of kinematic mismatch in movement of front and rear wheels. The article provides analysis of the causes of kinematic mismatch and its consequences. The analysis was given for the existing methods to reduce negative influence of kinematic discrepancy on the work of t...

  2. HESS lighTram3 {sup registered}; HESS lighTram3 {sup registered}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gisler, H.J. [Carrosserie HESS AG, Bellach (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    The Double Articulated Trolleybus concept lighTram3 is consequently designed to the actual needs of modern public passenger transport. Based on the experience of the first two Swisstrolley generations the concept was consequently developed with clear targets. Reliable technology is combined with attractive and custom friendly design, as well as 100% full low floor compartments. Guidance behaviour with the guided 4th-axle is outstanding. The modern 2-axle-drive technology with three-phase alternating current asynchronous engines and intelligent control systems is responsible for safety in driving during winter or difficult topographic conditions. (orig.)

  3. Vision-based industrial automatic vehicle classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanipov, Timur; Koptelov, Ivan; Grigoryev, Anton; Kuznetsova, Elena; Nikolaev, Dmitry

    2015-02-01

    The paper describes the automatic motor vehicle video stream based classification system. The system determines vehicle type at payment collection plazas on toll roads. Classification is performed in accordance with a preconfigured set of rules which determine type by number of wheel axles, vehicle length, height over the first axle and full height. These characteristics are calculated using various computer vision algorithms: contour detectors, correlational analysis, fast Hough transform, Viola-Jones detectors, connected components analysis, elliptic shapes detectors and others. Input data contains video streams and induction loop signals. Output signals are vehicle enter and exit events, vehicle type, motion direction, speed and the above mentioned features.

  4. Sucker rod centralizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezewski, J.

    1988-01-26

    This patent describes an oil well sucker rod guide consisting of an elongated body having a number of radial slots. Each slot is disposed at equiangular spaced positions, and contains a roller rotatably supported upon an axle transverse to the slot, such that the roller projects outside the periphery of the body from only one end of the slot

  5. The Fluid Foil: The Seventh Simple Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    A simple machine does one of two things: create a mechanical advantage (lever) or change the direction of an applied force (pulley). Fluid foils are unique among simple machines because they not only change the direction of an applied force (wheel and axle); they convert fluid energy into mechanical energy (wind and Kaplan turbines) or vice versa,…

  6. 49 CFR 571.110 - Tire selection and rims and motor home/recreation vehicle trailer load carrying capacity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GAWR of the axle system as specified on the vehicle's certification label required by 49 CFR part 567... certification label specified in 49 CFR part 567. Additionally, each trailer must on its placard contain a cargo... safety standards. (d) A designation that identifies the manufacturer of the rim by name, trademark,...

  7. Self-supporting refrigerated truck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukers, A.; De Winter, S.E.E.; Brouwer, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    Self-supporting refrigerated truck comprising a floor, two side walls, a front bulkhead and a roof. The components are all constructed as sandwich panels. The connection between the rear axle construction of the refrigerated truck and the front is not provided with longitudinal beams. The function o

  8. Simple Machines Made Simple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Andre, Ralph E.

    Simple machines have become a lost point of study in elementary schools as teachers continue to have more material to cover. This manual provides hands-on, cooperative learning activities for grades three through eight concerning the six simple machines: wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw, pulley, wedge, and lever. Most activities can be…

  9. Fun with Physics in the Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    Primary grade pupils can become fascinated with simple machines. This paper suggests that teachers have simple machines in the classroom for a unit of study. It proposes some guidelines to create a unit of study for six simple machines that include the fulcrum, inclined plane, pulley, wheel and axle, wedge, and screw. Friction, gravity, force, and…

  10. Simple Machine Junk Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herald, Christine

    2010-01-01

    During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,…

  11. Electromagnetic piston engine

    OpenAIRE

    Божко, А. Е.; Иванов, Е. М.; ИВАНОВА З.А.

    2012-01-01

    In-process the presented features of functioning of electromagnetic reciprocator, that contains the pistons with flows, united by means of general knee axle with a fly-wheel, are accommodated in the cylinders equipped by the solenoids set in dead centers.

  12. 挂车

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of dynamic lateral response for a multi-axle-steering tractor and trailer, Application of the Vortex Methods for Automotive Flows, Assessment of highway pavements for tire/road noise generation, Assessment of open-loop rollover control of articulated vehicles under different manoeuvres, Assistance systems for loading agricultural products。

  13. Verge and Foliot Clock Escapement: A Simple Dynamical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The earliest mechanical clocks appeared in Europe in the 13th century. From about 1250 CE to 1670 CE, these simple clocks consisted of a weight suspended from a rope or chain that was wrapped around a horizontal axle. To tell time, the weight must fall with a slow uniform speed, but, under the action of gravity alone, such a suspended weight would…

  14. Self Healing of Asphalt Mixtures: Towards a Better Understanding of the Mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, J.

    2012-01-01

    Traffic is increasing rapidly in terms of number of vehicles and also in axle loads. In order to maximize the availability of the pavement and to minimize hindrances to traffic because of maintenance works, long life pavements are needed. An asphalt pavement with self repairing capabilities is belie

  15. Sequence Classification: 891153 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available calized to COPII-coated vesicles, involved in vesicle formation and incorporation of specific secretory cargo; required for the deliv...ery of bud-site selection protein Axl2p to cell surface; related to Drosophila cornichon; Erv14p || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/6321384 ...

  16. Toward Regular Arrays of Artificial Surface-Mounted Dipolar Molecular Rotors on Monolayer Covered Surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Younes, Ali; Michl, Josef

    Praha: -, 2013. s. 197-197. [ESOR 2013. European Symposium on Organic Reactivity /14./. 01.09.2013-06.09.2013, Praha] EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 227756 - DIPOLAR ROTOR ARRAY Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : dipolar molecular rotors * axle-carrying connectors Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  17. PARAMETERS OPTIMIZATION OF OF SETS OF LEAF-SPRING TRUCKS OF PASSENGER CAR

    OpenAIRE

    S. V. Myamlin; O. M. Pshinko

    2005-01-01

    In article the problem about a finding of optimum values of parameters of spring complete sets axle box and the central suspension of the carriage is put and solved. It allows increasing constructional speed of the carriage till the speeds above 160…200 km/h.

  18. 49 CFR 571.109 - Standard No. 109; New pneumatic and certain specialty tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and on GPO..., decorations, or protective bands or ribs. Ply means a layer of rubber-coated parallel cords. Ply separation... tire and wheel assembly on a test axle and press it against a flat-faced steel test wheel 1708 mm...

  19. The Effect of Friction in Pulleys on the Tension in Cables and Strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martell, Eric C.; Martell, Verda Beth

    2013-01-01

    Atwood's machine is used in countless introductory physics classes as an illustration of Newton's second law. Initially, the analysis is performed assuming the pulley and string are massless and the axle is frictionless. Although the mass of the pulley is often included when the problem is revisited later in the context of rotational dynamics, the…

  20. Rolling Friction on a Wheeled Laboratory Cart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    A simple model is developed that predicts the coefficient of rolling friction for an undriven laboratory cart on a track that is approximately independent of the mass loaded onto the cart and of the angle of inclination of the track. The model includes both deformation of the wheels/track and frictional torque at the axles/bearings. The concept of…

  1. Förster resonance energy transfer by formation of a mechanically interlocked [2]rotaxane

    OpenAIRE

    Ogoshi, T.; Yamafuji, D.; Yamagishi, T.; Brouwer, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    A[2]rotaxane has been constructed from a di-pyrene appended pillar[5]arene wheel, a pyridinium axle, and a perylene stopper. It shows efficient Forster resonance energy transfer from pyrene to perylene by formation of a mechanically interlocked [2]rotaxane.

  2. Tappet Chill Depth Measuring by Magnetic Permeability and Inductance Displacement Meter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is possible to measure different position along the axle direction of tappet. According to the maximum output of signal, the boundary of white iron structure and mottled iron structure can be deduced, and at the same time, it is possible to use inductance displacement meter to show the chill depth which is the distance from the boundary to the end.

  3. Vibration reduction on automotive shafts using piezoceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Holger; Riedel, Mathias; Schmidt, Knut; Bianchini, Emanuele

    2003-08-01

    This paper reports an experimental study on active vibration reduction for automotive shafts with the use of piezoelectric material. The work focuses on an axle of an Audi A2. The demand in the automobile sector for higher comfort in the vehicle is of a great importance alongside the requirements of lighter weight and low fuel consumption. These requirements are typically in conflict with each other. One solution is the use of intelligent materials instead of viscoelastic materials and proof mass absorbers. These solutions are quite heavy especially at low frequencies. Active vibration control and piezoelectric devices are advantageous in this application due to their low mass to performance ratio. Our research study explores the use of such piezoelectric devices for an axle. In conjunction with electronics it will reduce vibrations in the first natural bending mode of the axle. Laboratory tests simulated the condition present in the road. At first a stationary set up was used, then a simulated disturbance was input at the attachment points of the shaft. Finally, a test with rotating shaft was performed. Piezoelectric devices (custom QuickPacks from ACX, a Division of Cymer) were used as sensors and as actuators to properly control the axle during the different operating conditions. The power consumption of each actuator pair was less than 20W. The work described here details the test setup, the control strategy, the hardware implementation as well as the test results obtained.

  4. Sucker rod guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R.C.

    1988-10-25

    This patent describes an improved guide for use in a string of sucker rods for reciprocation in a tubing string in a borehole, the sucker rods having threaded male ends, the guide comprising: an elongated upright cylindrical member of external diameter less than the internal diameter of tubing in which it is to be used, the member having sucker rod receiving female threaded openings at the upper and lower ends, the threaded openings being coaxial of the member cylindrical axis whereby the member may be positioned in a string of sucker rods, and including a plurality of spaced-apart parallel sided slots within the member, each slot being of semi-circular configuration and of depth greater than the radius and less than the diameter of the cylindrical member, the sidewalls of each slot being parallel to and equally spaced from a plane of the member cylindrical axis; the member having an axle bore therein for each of the slots, the axle bores being parallel and spaced apart from each other, a plane of the axis of each bore being perpendicular the member cylindrical axis and the axis of each bore being displaced away from the member cylindrical axis; an axle received in each axle bore; and a wheel received on each axle the diameter of each wheel being approximately the diameter of the cylindrical member, the periphery of each wheel extending beyond the member cylindrical wall whereby the wheels are positioned to engage and roll on the internal cylindrical surface of tubing, the planes of adjacent slots in the member being rotationally displaced from each other, a portion of each wheel extending beyond the cylindrical surface of the member, the opposed portion of each wheel being within the confines of the member cylindrical surface whereby each wheel can contact a tubing wall at only one point on its cylindrical surface.

  5. Assessment of Open-Angle Glaucoma Peripapillary and Macular Choroidal Thickness Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography (SS-OCT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ju Song

    Full Text Available To compare peripapillary and macular choroidal thickness (PCT and MCT between open-angle glaucoma (OAG and normal controls using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT, and to evaluate global and localized relationships between choroidal thickness and various factors in OAG, also using SS-OCT.In this cross-sectional comparative study, 134 OAG patients and 73 normal controls were examined. PCT (global, 12 clock-hour sectors, MCT (global, six sectors were measured by SS-OCT. The difference in choroidal thickness between the OAG patients and the normal controls was analyzed. The relationships between choroidal thickness and various factors including age, sex, spherical equivalent (SE, axial length (AXL, central corneal thickness (CCT, intraocular pressure (IOP, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (pRNFLT, visual field mean deviation (MD, ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness (GCIPLT, and disc area were analyzed by univariate and multivariate linear regression. Global and regional analyses were performed in 12 segments of the peripapillary circle and in six sectors of the macula.There were significant differences in global PCT and MCT between the OAG patients and the normal controls (115.22±41.17 vs. 138.89±44.70, P<0.001, (184.36±57.15 vs. 209.25±61.11, P = 0.004. The difference in global PCT remained, both after adjusting for age, AXL (117.08±3.45 vs. 135.47±4.70, P = 0.002 and also after adjusting for age, AXL, disc area (117.46±3.46 vs. 135.67±4.67, P = 0.002. But the difference in global MCT did not remain after adjusting for age, AXL, SE (188.18±4.46 vs. 202.25±6.08, P = 0.066. PCT showed significant differences between the groups in all of the 12 clock-hour sectors. These differences remained after adjusting for age, AXL and for age, AXL, disc area, with the exception of the 10 o'clock (o/c sector. MCT in six sectors showed differences between the two groups, but they did not remain after adjusting

  6. Dynamic Measurement for the Diameter of A Train Wheel Based on Structured-Light Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Gong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheels are very important for the safety of a train. The diameter of the wheel is a significant parameter that needs regular inspection. Traditional methods only use the contact points of the wheel tread to fit the rolling round. However, the wheel tread is easily influenced by peeling or scraping. Meanwhile, the circle fitting algorithm is sensitive to noise when only three points are used. This paper proposes a dynamic measurement method based on structured-light vision. The axle of the wheelset and the tread are both employed. The center of the rolling round is determined by the axle rather than the tread only. Then, the diameter is calculated using the center and the contact points together. Simulations are performed to help design the layout of the sensors, and the influences of different noise sources are also analyzed. Static and field experiments are both performed, and the results show it to be quite stable and accurate.

  7. Plug-in Hybrid Power Platform for Technology Development%插电式混合动力轿车动力平台技术开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩友国; 王若飞

    2015-01-01

    本文以某款PHEV轿车为研究对象,对混合动力平台进行开发研究,研究前桥混合动力驱动系统的集成及优化,对后桥电子驱动系统的设计及布置合理性进行分析讨论,并对整车安全性能进行研究分析,最终得出确定此混合动力平台技术可行。%Based on chery G3 PHEV cars as the research object, research on hybrid platform for development, research front axle hybrid drive system integration and optimization, the rear axle of electronic drive system design and arrangement of rationality analysis discussion, and through analyzing the performance of the vehicle safety, ultimately determine the hybrid platform technology is feasible.

  8. Static Analysis of Loader Backhoe Chassis 770 Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Thorat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Construction industry is undoubtedly the backbone and propelling force behind our progress. In response to booming construction industry, utilization of earth moving equipment has increased considerably leading to high rate of failure. Backhoe Loader chassis is the skeleton of a commercial vehicles. The main function of the truck chassis is to support the different components like engine, cabin, transmission, front axle and rear axle. So it is necessary to analyze chassis to avoid failure while it is in working condition. Computer simulation techniques provides a great leverage in design optimization for weight reduction, better material utilization, shorter design cycles and elimination of major part of prototype testing. Static analysis of the chassis shows the equivalent stress and deformation contour when Backhoe Loader is in working condition. From static analysis, high stress area can be found out when Backhoe Loader is in different load condition. Also by providing some design changes, stress can be minimized.

  9. Structural Elucidation of the DFG-Asp in and DFG-Asp out States of TAM Kinases and Insight into the Selectivity of Their Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah Messoussi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Structural elucidation of the active (DFG-Asp in and inactive (DFG-Asp out states of the TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases is required for future development of TAM inhibitors as drugs. Herein we report a computational study on each of the three TAM members Tyro-3, Axl and Mer. DFG-Asp in and DFG-Asp out homology models of each one were built based on the X-ray structure of c-Met kinase, an enzyme with a closely related sequence. Structural validation and in silico screening enabled identification of critical amino acids for ligand binding within the active site of each DFG-Asp in and DFG-Asp out model. The position and nature of amino acids that differ among Tyro-3, Axl and Mer, and the potential role of these residues in the design of selective TAM ligands, are discussed.

  10. Dynamic Measurement for the Diameter of A Train Wheel Based on Structured-Light Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zheng; Sun, Junhua; Zhang, Guangjun

    2016-01-01

    Wheels are very important for the safety of a train. The diameter of the wheel is a significant parameter that needs regular inspection. Traditional methods only use the contact points of the wheel tread to fit the rolling round. However, the wheel tread is easily influenced by peeling or scraping. Meanwhile, the circle fitting algorithm is sensitive to noise when only three points are used. This paper proposes a dynamic measurement method based on structured-light vision. The axle of the wheelset and the tread are both employed. The center of the rolling round is determined by the axle rather than the tread only. Then, the diameter is calculated using the center and the contact points together. Simulations are performed to help design the layout of the sensors, and the influences of different noise sources are also analyzed. Static and field experiments are both performed, and the results show it to be quite stable and accurate. PMID:27104543

  11. Soliton gyroscopes in media with spatially growing repulsive nonlinearity

    CERN Document Server

    Driben, Rodislav; Malomed, Boris A; Meier, Torsten; Torner, Lluis

    2013-01-01

    We find that the recently introduced model of self-trapping supported by a spatially growing strength of a repulsive nonlinearity gives rise to robust vortex-soliton tori, i.e., three-dimensional vortex solitons, with topological charges S. The family with S=1 is completely stable, while the one with S=2 has alternating regions of stability and instability. The families are nearly exactly reproduced in an analytical form by the Thomas-Fermi approximation (TFA). Unstable states with S=2 and 3 split into persistently rotating pairs or triangles of unitary vortices. Application of a moderate torque to the vortex torus initiates a persistent precession mode, with the torus' axle moving along a conical surface. A strong torque heavily deforms the vortex solitons, but, nonetheless, they restore themselves with the axle oriented according to the vectorial addition of angular momenta.

  12. Long-range movement of large mechanically interlocked DNA nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Jonathan; Falgenhauer, Elisabeth; Kopperger, Enzo; Pardatscher, Günther; Simmel, Friedrich C.

    2016-08-01

    Interlocked molecules such as catenanes and rotaxanes, connected only via mechanical bonds have the ability to perform large-scale sliding and rotational movements, making them attractive components for the construction of artificial molecular machines and motors. We here demonstrate the realization of large, rigid rotaxane structures composed of DNA origami subunits. The structures can be easily modified to carry a molecular cargo or nanoparticles. By using multiple axle modules, rotaxane constructs are realized with axle lengths of up to 355 nm and a fuel/anti-fuel mechanism is employed to switch the rotaxanes between a mobile and a fixed state. We also create extended pseudo-rotaxanes, in which origami rings can slide along supramolecular DNA filaments over several hundreds of nanometres. The rings can be actively moved and tracked using atomic force microscopy.

  13. 车身

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    [ 篇名 ] A hybrid method for vehicle axle noise simulation with experimental validation,[ 篇名 ] A linearized turbulent production in the k- ε model for engineering applications,[ 篇名 ] A Method for Estimating Axle Weights of In-motion Vehicles and Its Evaluation,[ 篇名 ] A new concept for occupant deceleration control in a crash - part 2,[ 篇名 ] A new experimental methodology to estimate chassis force transmissibility and applications to road NVH improvement,[ 篇名 ] A SMART ECOBIKE WITH RIM-MOTOR,[ 篇名 ] A study on optimum design for thin-walled beam structures of vehicles,[ 篇名 ] A study on the distortion characteristic due to spot welding of body structure assembly for passenger car,[ 篇名 ] A VIBRO-ACOUSTICAL INVESTIGATION FOR CAR ROLLING NOISE CHARACTERIZATION AND OPTIMIZATION,[ 篇名 ] 780 N/mm{sup }2 grade hot-rolled high-strength steel sheet for automotive suspension system。

  14. Noncircular rolling joints for vibrational reduction in slewing maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Meng-Sang; Juang, Jer-Nan; Yang, Li-Farn

    1992-09-01

    A rolling joint is provided for obtaining slewing maneuvers for various apparatus including space structures, space vehicles, robotic manipulators, and simulators. Two noncircular cylinders, namely a drive and a driven cylinder, are provided in driving contact with one another. This contact is maintained by two pairs of generally S-shaped bands, each pair forming a generally 8-shaped coupling tightly about the circumferential periphery of the noncircular drive and driven cylinders. A stationarily fixed arm extends between and is rotatably journalled with a drive axle and a spindle axle respectively extending through selected rotational points of the drive cylinder and of the driven cylinder. The noncircular cylinders are profiled to obtain the desired varying gear ratio. The novelty of the present invention resides in using specifically profiled noncircular cylinders to obtain a desired varying gear ratio.

  15. Marginal overweight operating scenario for DOE's initiative I highway casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assesses the potential transport of high-capacity Initiative I highway casks under development by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) as permitted marginal overweight shipments that: exceed a gross vehicle weight (gvw) limit of 80,000, but weight less than 96,000 pounds; follow axle and axle group weight limits adopted by the Surface Transportation Assistance Act (STAA) of 1982; conform to dimensional restrictions to operate on most major highways; and comply with the Federal Bridge Formula. The marginal overweight tractor-trailer would operate in normal open-quotes over-the-roadclose quotes mode and comply with all laws and regulations. The vehicle would have a sleeper berth and two drivers - one to drive while the other provides escort and communications services and accumulates required off-duty time

  16. Electric locomotive EH500; EH500 gata denki kikansha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The advanced AC/DC electric locomotive delivered to Japan Freight Railway Co. is in wagon traction test on real lines after confirmation of the basic performance. The locomotive adopts a PWM converter using IGBT devices for the main circuit equipment to reduce harmonics and improve a power factor, and also adopts vector control by fast MPU to attain high-adhesion control and excellent traction performance. The locomotive allows through operation over the DC/AC section from Tokyo to Hokkaido without any locomotive exchange with expectation of fast freight transport. Main specifications are as follows: (1) Electric system: DC 1,500V, AC 20kV-50/60Hz, (2) Axle arrangement type: (Bo-Bo)- (Bo-Bo) (Bo: double driving axle bogie), (3) Total operation mass: 134.4t, (4) Rated output: 4,000kW (one hour), and (5) Maximum operation speed: 110km/h. (translated by NEDO)

  17. Fatigue life research for the push chain of shearing machine based on ANSYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combined with the theories of fatigue life prediction, according to the empirical formula S-N curve of parts was estimated, Splitting the push chain of shearing machine into a model of chain axles and external chain plates and a model of inner sleeves and inner chain plates, by using the fatigue analysis module of ANSYS software stress, the fatigue life of the push chain has been analyzed. Stress and fatigue life nephogram of inner sleeve. chain axle, inner chain plate, and external chain plate have also been obtained in this paper. As a result, the area near the hole of chain plate is the vulnerable part of the push chain, and external chain plate can only bear 73594 times of pressure. while inner chain plate can bear 212430 times of pressure. (authors)

  18. Structural Changes of a Doubly Spin-Labeled Chemically Driven Molecular Shuttle Probed by PELDOR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Paola; Bleve, Valentina; Mezzina, Elisabetta; Schäfer, Christian; Ragazzon, Giulio; Albertini, Marco; Carbonera, Donatella; Credi, Alberto; Di Valentin, Marilena; Lucarini, Marco

    2016-06-20

    Gaining detailed information on the structural rearrangements associated with stimuli-induced molecular movements is of utmost importance for understanding the operation of molecular machines. Pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR) was employed to monitor the geometrical changes arising upon chemical switching of a [2]rotaxane that behaves as an acid-base-controlled molecular shuttle. To this aim, the rotaxane was endowed with stable nitroxide radical units in both the ring and axle components. The combination of PELDOR data and molecular dynamic calculations indicates that in the investigated rotaxane, the ring displacement along the axle, caused by the addition of a base, does not alter significantly the distance between the nitroxide labels, but it is accompanied by a profound change in the geometry adopted by the macrocycle. PMID:27123774

  19. Fast tracking using edge histograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokita, Przemyslaw

    1997-04-01

    This paper proposes a new algorithm for tracking objects and objects boundaries. This algorithm was developed and applied in a system used for compositing computer generated images and real world video sequences, but can be applied in general in all tracking systems where accuracy and high processing speed are required. The algorithm is based on analysis of histograms obtained by summing along chosen axles pixels of edge segmented images. Edge segmentation is done by spatial convolution using gradient operator. The advantage of such an approach is that it can be performed in real-time using available on the market hardware convolution filters. After edge extraction and histograms computation, respective positions of maximums in edge intensity histograms, in current and previous frame, are compared and matched. Obtained this way information about displacement of histograms maximums, can be directly converted into information about changes of target boundaries positions along chosen axles.

  20. Repeated Load Permanent Deformation Behavior of Mixes With and Wihtout Modified Bituments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Hafeez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature rutting in flexible pavement structure is being observed on most of the road network of Pakistan. It initiates primarily due to uncontrolled axle loading and high ambient temperatures. NHA (National Highway Authority, Pakistan has continuously been modifying aggregate gradations and penetration grade of bitumen, without any prior investigation of the mix behaviour under the prevailing axle load and environmental conditions of the country. A comprehensive laboratory investigation was carried out on six mixes ranging from finer to coarser. Specimens were subjected to cyclic loading on UTM-5P (Universal Testing Machine to study the resistance against permanent deformation of the mixes at 25, 40 and 550C. At low temperatures and stress levels, both coarse and fine graded mixes showed less accumulated strain, whereas at higher temperatures and stress levels, coarse graded mix with PMB (Polymer Modified Bitumen showed good resistance to permanent deformation.

  1. 基于累积损伤因子的水泥混凝土路面设计%Cement concrete pavement design based on cumulative damage factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡良才; 朱占卿; 吴爱红; 潘正华; 王维国

    2012-01-01

    Based on the compositive fatigue equation of load fatigue stress and temperature fatigue stress, the coverage-to-pass ratios of single-axle-single-wheel load and single-axle-double-wheel load were calculated by adopting cumulative damage factor. A direct calculating method of total cumulative fatigue damage of pavement structure produced by multi-axle load and a new design method of cement concrete pavement were put forward by replacing design axle load with cumulative damage factor. The accuracy and application feasibility of calculating fatigue damage produced by multi-axle load were done through a design example with two types of traffic volumes. Analysis result indicates that the acting times of multi-axle load at all points on the cross section of highway are different, and the peak value of cumulative damage of each axle load may be not at the same location. The thicknesses of worst pavement places under the traffic volumes calculated by the design method based on cumulative damage factor are all 22 cm, which meets the design requirement, and the thicknesses of other places can reduce according to the cumulative damage curve. Thereby, it can avoid the differences and localizations of present specification design method of concrete pavement based on standard axle load and equivalent fatigue consumption principle. 1 tab, 8 figs, 12 refs.%考虑荷载疲劳应力和温度疲劳应力的综合疲劳方程,计算了单轴单轮及单轴双轮轴载的覆盖通行率,利用累积损伤因子替代标准轴载在交通量换算中的作用,提出了直接计算各级轴载对路面结构总的累积疲劳损伤方法和新的水泥混凝土路面设计方法,并采用两组交通量对轴载累积损伤量的计算方法的准确性与可行性进行了验证。分析结果表明:公路横断面上各点处轴载的作用次数是不同的,各级轴载的累积疲劳损伤峰值不一定在同一位置,利用基于累积损伤因子的水泥混凝土路面设计

  2. Geometric Filtering Effect of Vertical Vibrations in Railway Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Dumitriu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper herein examines the geometric filtering effect coming from the axle base of a railway vehicle upon the vertical vibrations behavior, due to the random irregularities of the track. For this purpose, the complete model of a two-level suspension and flexible carbody vehicle has been taken into account. Following the modal analysis, the movement equations have been treated in an original manner and brought to a structure that points out at the symmetrical and anti-symmetrical decoupled movements of vehicle and their excitation modes. There has been shown that the geometric filtering has a selective behavior in decreasing the level of vibrations, and its contribution is affected by the axle base magnitude, rolling speed and frequency range.

  3. Stress Analysis and Determination of Effective k-value for Rigid Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundan Meshram

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available EverFE is a user-friendly 3D finite-element analysis tool for simulating the response of jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP systems to axle loads and environmental effects. EverFE is useful for both concrete pavement researchers and designers who must perform either complex nonlinear or simple linear stress analyses of JPCP.With help of this develop any type of model of rigid pavement considering practical condition thus getting more accurate and advance analysis for rigid pavement. It can also determine effective k-values for different combination of granular sub-base and dry lean concrete. A comparative study is done for two types of loading i.e. single and tandem axle. Edge and Corner stresses are also calculated for Class-AA of loading. Also calculate moment and shear force transfer by dowel bar by EverFE.

  4. Dynamic Measurement for the Diameter of A Train Wheel Based on Structured-Light Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zheng; Sun, Junhua; Zhang, Guangjun

    2016-01-01

    Wheels are very important for the safety of a train. The diameter of the wheel is a significant parameter that needs regular inspection. Traditional methods only use the contact points of the wheel tread to fit the rolling round. However, the wheel tread is easily influenced by peeling or scraping. Meanwhile, the circle fitting algorithm is sensitive to noise when only three points are used. This paper proposes a dynamic measurement method based on structured-light vision. The axle of the wheelset and the tread are both employed. The center of the rolling round is determined by the axle rather than the tread only. Then, the diameter is calculated using the center and the contact points together. Simulations are performed to help design the layout of the sensors, and the influences of different noise sources are also analyzed. Static and field experiments are both performed, and the results show it to be quite stable and accurate. PMID:27104543

  5. Konstrukce závodního speciálu Ford Focus T16

    OpenAIRE

    Chott, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor work describes realization and all other issues concerning building of Ford Focus MK1 T16 racing car and it is focused on axles and engine with transmission within the three-year full-time Bachelor Degree study programme at Faculty of Engineering, accredited course: Road Transport and City Traffic (RTCT). They are some special manufacturing processes and interesting points of the vehicle construction mentioned in this work. The work directs on body construction, its framing and ...

  6. Self Healing of Asphalt Mixtures: Towards a Better Understanding of the Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, J.

    2012-01-01

    Traffic is increasing rapidly in terms of number of vehicles and also in axle loads. In order to maximize the availability of the pavement and to minimize hindrances to traffic because of maintenance works, long life pavements are needed. An asphalt pavement with self repairing capabilities is believed to be very useful to this respect. The self healing phenomenon of asphalt mixtures is known for many years by road engineers. Bituminous materials are expected to repair themselves during hot s...

  7. Prediction of fatigue life of reinforced concrete bridges using Fracture Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Biondini, Fabio; Frangopol, Dan; Rocha, Marina; Brühwiler, Eugen

    2012-01-01

    With the occurrence of higher and more frequent axle loads, bridges are more solicited by fatigue loading. Bridge elements like deck slabs are subjected to a high number of stress cycles at relatively small stress magnitudes. The application of Fracture Mechanics as a useful tool for the analysis of fatigue crack growth in steel elements was demonstrated by Paris et al. in the early 1960s. With respect to reinforced concrete, the fatigue strength of the steel reinforcement is determinant. The...

  8. The Otto-engine-equivalent vehicle concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, M. W.; Couch, M. D.

    1978-01-01

    A vehicle comparison methodology based on the Otto-Engine Equivalent (OEE) vehicle concept is described. As an illustration of this methodology, the concept is used to make projections of the fuel economy potential of passenger cars using various alternative power systems. Sensitivities of OEE vehicle results to assumptions made in the calculational procedure are discussed. Factors considered include engine torque boundary, rear axle ratio, performance criteria, engine transient response, and transmission shift logic.

  9. Economic Effects of Lifting the Spring Load Restriction Policy in Minnesota

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Smalkoski; Ning Li; David Levinson

    2006-01-01

    Spring load restrictions (SLR) regulate the weight per axle carried by heavy trucks during the spring thaw period. This policy aims to reduce pavement damage caused by heavy vehicles and extend the useful life of roads, but it also imposes costs on the trucking industry due to detouring or increased number of truckloads. Although the policies have been implemented for many years, their resulting economic effect has been unclear. The Minnesota Local Road Research Board (LRRB) and the Minnesota...

  10. Análisis de la solución de vía ferroviaria en balasto frente a vía en placa y montaje de superestructura en la línea de alta velocidad Madrid-Zaragoza-Barcelona-frontera francesa. Tramo puente de Ebro-Lleida. Construcción y montaje de la vía en placa.

    OpenAIRE

    CASES VILLAR, JAVIER

    2015-01-01

    [EN] This thesis makes a comparative analysis between slab track and ballasted track. The common part consists of geotechnical, topographical, plotted, receipt of track and axle exchanger annexes. The study focuses on Puente de Ebro-Lerida stretch of the Madrid-Zaragoza-Barcelona-Frontera Francesa high speed railway. The study begins with the outline of soil constructions finished. Its aim is to decide from this point, the more profitable type of track. The geotechnical annex introduce...

  11. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF DYNAMIC QUALITIES OF FREIGHT CARS WITH BOGIES OF DIFFERENT DESIGNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. With the advent of new designs of freright cars the task of designing the more modern bogies, assessment of their dynamic properties depending on the type and structure of pecularities, accounting the axle loadings, providing the dynamic and running characteristics, meeting the conditions of impact on the track, stability, and frame forces intensity etc. becomes especially important. In order to launch the new production into manufacture and to assess the dynamic properties using different designs of bogies the running testes were conducted. They allowed one to compare the dynamic performance of the new bogie with the existing models. Methodology. The study was conducted using the method of numerical integration and mathematical modeling of dynamic loading of freight cars using the software package «Dynamics of Rail Vehicles» («DYNRAIL». Findings. The results of studies of dynamic characteristics of open cars with new and worn wheels of bogie models 18-9771, 18-9770 and 18-578 in graphical and tabular form are presented. All figures are within the normative values and do not exceed the maximum admissible ones. Originality. When designing the bogie for loading 23.5 t/axle almost all available technical solutions to improve the characteristics of the freight car bogies (elastic bearers, cassette bearing in axle boxes, axle boxe adapter of original design, bilinear central spring suspension, etc. were used. Practical value. As a result of the engineering works on projecting and manufacturing of the improved designs of freight car bogies a new design was received. It is highly competitive with the dynamic qualities of the best ones. Made choice of rational values of elastic-dissipative parameters of the bogie allows one to create standard series of running gears for freight cars for promising operating conditions.The results are of practical importance. They have found reflection in the number of author’spublications in special and

  12. Fuel efficiency and CO2 emissions of biomass based haulage in Ireland - A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Devlin, Ger; Klvac, Radomir; McDonnell, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse how biomass based haulage in Ireland performed as a measure of efficiency under 4 main criteria; distance travelled, fuel consumption, fuel consumption per unit of biomass hauled and diesel CO2 emissions. The applicability of truck engine diagnostic equipment was tested to analyse the schedule of engine data that could be recorded in real-time from a 5 axle articulated biomass truck. This identified how new on board truck technology in Ireland could be...

  13. Very high cycle fatigue of duplex stainless steels and stress intensity calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Tofique, Muhammad Waqas

    2014-01-01

    Very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) is generally considered as the domain of fatigue lifetime beyond 10 million (107) load cycles. Few examples of structural components which are subjected to 107-109 load cycles during their service life are engine parts, turbine disks, railway axles and load-carrying parts of automobiles. Therefore, the safe and reliable operation of these components depends on the knowledge of their fatigue strength and the prevalent damage/failure mechanisms. Moreover, the fati...

  14. Catalog of components for electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissler, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    This catalog of commercially available electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion system components is intended for designers and builders of these vehicles and contains 50 categories of components. These categories include those components used between the battery terminals and the output axle hub, as well as some auxiliary equipment. An index of the components and a listing of the suppliers and their addresses and phone numbers are included.

  15. Epithelial cell-directed efferocytosis in the post-partum mammary gland is necessary for tissue homeostasis and future lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Earp H Shelton; Strunk Karen E; Hunter Debra M; Sandahl Melissa; Cook Rebecca S

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Mammary glands harbor a profound burden of apoptotic cells (ACs) during post-lactational involution, but little is known regarding mechanisms by which ACs are cleared from the mammary gland, or consequences if this process is interrupted. We investigated AC clearance, also termed efferocytosis, during post-lactational remodeling, using mice deficient for MerTK, Axl, and Tyro3, three related receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) regulating macrophage-mediated efferocytosis in mo...

  16. Comparative Study of French and Chinese Asphalt Pavement Design Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Guy Atangana Njock; Li Yueguang

    2015-01-01

    This study deals with the comparison of French and Chinese approaches for the design of flexible pavement. The Finite Element Analysis (FEA using ANSYS) was used to compute and compare the mechanical responses in four typical pavement structures used in France and China, for respective axle type and loads. The study concluded that the maximum deflection in typical structure of stabilized asphalt pavement in China is greater than that obtained in the typical treated bases asphalt pavement in F...

  17. 细长轴车削加工工艺%The slender shaft turning processing technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铭勳

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, factors influencing the machining parts precision slender shaft is not high, analyzes how to raise processing precision of slender axle parts, gives the specific methods to solve the problem.%文章针对影响加工细长轴零件精度不高等因素,分析了如何提细长轴零件的加工精度,给出解决问题的具体方法。

  18. Optimization of Fuel Consumption in a Hybrid Powertrain

    OpenAIRE

    Sivertsson, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Increased environmental awareness together with new legislative demands on lowered emissions and a rising fuel cost have put focus on increasing the fuel efficiency in new vehicles. Hybridization is a way to increase the efficiency of the powertrain.The Haldex electric Torque Vectoring Device is a rear axle with a built in electric motor, designed to combine all-wheel drive with hybrid functionality. A method is developed for creating a real time control algorithm that minimizes the fuel cons...

  19. Algorithms for Pallet Building and Truck Loading in an Interdepot Transportation Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Teresa Alonso; Ramon Alvarez-Valdes; Francisco Parreño; Jose Manuel Tamarit

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of a logistics company that has to serve its customers by first putting the products on pallets and then loading the pallets into trucks. Besides the standard geometric constraints of products not overlapping each other and not exceeding the dimensions of pallets and trucks, in this real problem, there are many other constraints, related to the total weight of the load, the maximum weight supported by each axle, and the distribution of the load inside the tru...

  20. Views on unlawful water abstractions along the Liebenbergsvlei River, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gouws, Catharina Maria; Gouws, Claudia; Gunster, M.; Maki, Harri Raimo Juhani; Mathipa, R; Motloung, Sysman; Nyandoro, Mark; Tempelhoff, Johann Wilhelm Nicolaas

    2010-01-01

    As a result of the growing demand for additional water supplies, officials at the National Department of Water Affairs (DWA) continually monitor consumption patterns. The unlawful abstraction of water for irrigation purposes along the Axle and Liebenbergsvlei water transfer scheme, a South African river catchment, has been identified as a potential over-consumption hotspot. An investigation into the evolution of modern farming and irrigation developments along this important wa...

  1. Steered wheel for the support and/or steering of a vehicle, particularly hovercraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duell, H.J.; Kirchner, G.

    1977-04-07

    The invention concerns a steered wheel for the support or steering of a hovercraft, whose wheel suspension is provided with an eccentric journal for automatic setting in the direction of travel. So that the vehicle will not leave its track during changes of direction when the wheel is turned around the eccentric axis, according to the invention the wheel is supported on movable bearings at the journal in the direction of the driving axle.

  2. ELASTO-KINEMATIC COMPUTATIONAL MODEL OF SUSPENSION WITH FLEXIBLE SUPPORTING ELEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Tomáš Vrána; Josef Bradáč; Jan Kovanda

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of flexibility of individual supporting elements of independent suspension on its elasto-kinematic characteristics. The toe and camber angle are the geometric parameters of the suspension, which waveforms and their changes under the action of vertical, longitudinal and transverse forces affect the stability of the vehicle. To study these dependencies, the computational multibody system (MBS) model of axle suspension in the system HyperWorks is created. There are...

  3. DIFERENÇAS DE FINALIDADE E MODIFICAÇ’ES ESTRUTURAIS NA FILIÈRE DO ARROZ BIODINÂMICO: O CASO DE SENTINELA DO SUL, RS

    OpenAIRE

    Hoff, Debora Nayar; Bruch, Kelly Lissandra

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to study the implications that result from the purpose differences between the biodynamic rice producer systems and the industry of this product in the filière structure. The theoretical approach includes system comprehension and the company vision in the systemic approach, while focusing on the purpose of productive systems according to three possible axles: economic, financial and social. An approach on filière helps in the visualization of the impacts the purpose that sys...

  4. Etude numérique de l’influence du comportement non linéaire et de l’hétérogénéité des matériaux dans la réponse de la voie ferrée

    OpenAIRE

    Alves Fernandes, Vinicius

    2014-01-01

    An increasing demand for railway transportation is observed in many countries around the world. Achieving higher network capacity requires the evaluation of the existing structure regarding the required traffic, speed and axle load, as well as the reduction of maintenance interventions. A higher track performance in terms of these metrics can be achieved by enhanced design standards and predictive tools accounting for the whole structure’s life span.Within this context, this thesis aims to pr...

  5. Predictive Control Strategies Used to Solve Challenges Related to Modern Railway Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Ngigi, R. W.; Pislaru, Crinela; Ball, Andrew; Fengshou, Gu; Anyakwo, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to collate and critically appraise the recent advances in control strategies used to solve challenges related to railway vehicles which present nonlinearities and uncertainties. These strategies concentrate on stability of solid axle-wheelsets, guidance for wheelsets to provide the function of track following and curving to reduce all unnecessary creep forces and associated wear/noise. The focus is on active primary and secondary suspensions, braking and trac...

  6. FATIGUE LIFE PREDICTION OF COMPOSITE SEMI - ELLIPTICA L LEAF SPRING FOR HEAVY VEHICLE

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep B. Tapkir; Prof. Balaji Nelge

    2015-01-01

    A leaf spring is a simple form of spring, commonly used for the suspension in wheeled vehicles. Leaf Springs are long and narrow plates attached to the frame of a trailer that rest above or below the trailer's axle. There are mono leaf springs, or single - l eaf springs, that consist of simply one plate of spring steel. These are usually thick in the middle and taper out toward the end, and they don't typically offer too much strength and su...

  7. Dual involvement of growth arrest-specific gene 6 in the early phase of human IgA nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojiro Nagai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gas6 is a growth factor that causes proliferation of mesangial cells in the development of glomerulonephritis. Gas6 can bind to three kinds of receptors; Axl, Dtk, and Mer. However, their expression and functions are not entirely clear in the different glomerular cell types. Meanwhile, representative cell cycle regulatory protein p27 has been reported to be expressed in podocytes in normal glomeruli with decreased expression in proliferating glomeruli, which inversely correlated with mesangial proliferation in human IgA nephropathy (IgAN. METHODS: The aim of this study is to clarify Gas6 involvement in the progression of IgAN. Expression of Gas6/Axl/Dtk was examined in 31 biopsy proven IgAN cases. We compared the expression levels with histological severity or clinical data. Moreover, we investigated the expression of Gas6 and its receptors in cultured podocytes. RESULTS: In 28 of 31 cases, Gas6 was upregulated mainly in podocytes. In the other 3 cases, Gas6 expression was induced in endothelial and mesangial cells, which was similar to animal nephritis models. Among 28 podocyte type cases, the expression level of Gas6 correlated with the mesangial hypercellularity score of IgAN Oxford classification and urine protein excretion. It also inversely correlated with p27 expression in glomeruli. As for the receptors, Axl was mainly expressed in endothelial and mesangial cells, while Dtk was expressed in podocytes. In vitro, Dtk was expressed in cultured murine podocytes, and the expression of p27 was decreased by Gas6 stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: Gas6 was uniquely upregulated in either endothelial/mesangial cells or podocytes in IgAN. The expression pattern can be used as a marker to classify IgAN. Gas6 has a possibility to be involved in not only mesangial proliferation via Axl, but also podocyte injury via Dtk in IgAN.

  8. Diesel locomotive MaK 2000 in a configuration with hydrodynamic transmission; Auslegung der Diesellokomotive MaK 2000 mit hydrodynamischer Leistungsuebertragung. Teil 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, W.; Zwicker, D. [Vossloh Locomotives GmbH, Kiel (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The MaK 2000 locomotive from Vossloh Locomotives GmbH was designed as a four-axle bogie loco with tractive power of 2240 kW, hydrodynamic transmission, two end cabs and a length between buffers of 17.4 m. A new version with power raised to 2700 kW while retaining the major components of the power train and the loco structure will shortly be ready for the market. (orig.)

  9. The Mechanical Fracture of a Railway Bogie under Cyclic Loading by Ansys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zellagui Redouan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective this study has been to modeling a train bogie in order to highlight some flaws. Indeed, during the operation, premature deterioration of the bogie axles was observed. The purpose of this model is to present a numerical model to predict the mechanical behavior under different cyclic form of stress. The numeric and geometric model will be directed by Ansys software.

  10. Mertk Deficiency Affects Macrophage Directional Migration via Disruption of Cytoskeletal Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yong; Wu, Shen; Liu, Qian; Xie, Jiayi; Zhang, Jingxue; Han, Dong; Lu, Qingxian; Lu, Qingjun

    2015-01-01

    Mertk belongs to the Tyro3, Axl and Mertk (TAM) family of receptor tyrosine kinases, and plays a pivotal role in regulation of cytoskeletal rearrangement during phagocytosis. Phagocytosis by either professional or non-professional phagocytes is impaired in the Mertk deficient individual. In the present study, we further investigated the effects of Mertk mutation on peritoneal macrophage morphology, attachment, spreading and movement. Mertk-mutated macrophages exhibited decreased attachment, w...

  11. Analysis of Ebola Virus Entry Into Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlmann, F; Biedenkopf, N.; Babler, A; Jahnen-Dechent, W; Karsten, CB; Gnirß, K; Schneider, H; Wrensch, F; O'Callaghan, CA; Bertram, S. (Sabine); Herrler, G; Becker, S.; Pöhlmann, S; Hofmann-Winkler, H

    2015-01-01

    Ebolaviruses constitute a public health threat, particularly in Central and Western Africa. Host cell factors required for spread of ebolaviruses may serve as targets for antiviral intervention. Lectins, TAM receptor tyrosine kinases (Tyro3, Axl, Mer), T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM) proteins, integrins, and Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) have been reported to promote entry of ebolaviruses into certain cellular systems. However, the factors used by ebolaviruses to invade macrophages, maj...

  12. Immunobiology of the TAM receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Lemke, Greg; Rothlin, Carla V.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that the TAM receptor protein tyrosine kinases — TYRO3, AXL and MER — have pivotal roles in innate immunity. They inhibit inflammation in dendritic cells and macrophages, promote the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and membranous organelles, and stimulate the maturation of natural killer cells. Each of these phenomena may depend on a cooperative interaction between TAM receptor and cytokine receptor signalling systems. Although its importance was previously unreco...

  13. GAS6 in systemic inflammatory diseases: with and without infection

    OpenAIRE

    Hurtado, Begoña; García de Frutos, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin K-dependent proteins are not only essential regulators of blood coagulation. A recent paper in Critical Care describes the levels of the vitamin K-dependent GAS6 and the soluble form of its receptor Axl in plasma from patients with sepsis of systemic inflammation. The results confirm that GAS6 is elevated during septicemia, but the fact that inflammatory conditions without infection produce a similar effect suggests it is inflammation that induces the synthesis of GAS6, rather than th...

  14. Stress Analysis on Behaviour of Rails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Kameswara Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is axiomatic to say that the rails used nowadays have been subjected to heavier axle loads and high operating speeds. This may lead to derailment and eventually loss of life. In this paper Transient analysis (Dynamic analysis for rail by using ANSYS 12.1 Software is discussed. In this analysis deflection and stress are compared with wheel diameter, load, speed and range of distribution of contact load. Result is analyzed by the effect of variation of these parameters.

  15. Hardening XL. Induction technology with rotating crankshaft; Haerten XL. Induktionstechnik mit rotierender Kurbelwelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dappen, Stefan; Schibisch, Dirk M. [SMS Elotherm GmbH, Remscheid (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    Crankshafts are used in combustion engines, transforming the con rod's stroke into a rotary motion for driving the axle shaft. Along with this, torsional and flexural fatigue appears and demands a special heat treatment process. The induction hardening with a rotating crankshaft has mostly replaced competitive methods and provides the engine builders with a flexible production process for varying geometries, different hardening zones as well as increasing production rates. (orig.)

  16. Handling Stability of Tractor Semitrailer Based on Handling Diagram

    OpenAIRE

    Ren Yuan-yuan; Zheng Xue-lian; Li Xian-sheng

    2012-01-01

    Handling instability is a serious threat to driving safety. In order to analyze the handling stability of a tractor semitrailer, a handling diagram can be used. In our research, considering the impact of multiple nonsteering rear axles and nonlinear characteristics of tires on vehicle handling stability, the handling equations are developed for description of stability of tractor semi-trailer. Then we obtain handling diagrams so as to study the influence of driving speed, loaded mass, and fif...

  17. An Analysis of Overweighed Higher Education Cost in Impoverished Countryside Families

    OpenAIRE

    Guoqiang Tang; Xian Zhan

    2010-01-01

    In 1997, China’s general universities carried on the "the axle" policy on tuition charging, and then the tuition of general higher education increases rapidly. Students’ education charges keep increasing and occupy a large proportion of people’s household income. The excessive burden undertook by private families, especially impoverished countryside families has beyond their capacity. The soaring tuition of higher education will directly lead to the poverty of rights and opportunities of educ...

  18. Analysis of Load Test on Composite I-Girder Bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Huseynov, F.; Brownjohn, J. M. W.; O'Brien, Eugene J.; Hester, David

    2016-01-01

    This paper showcases the importance of field testing in efforts to deal with the deteriorating infrastructure. It demonstrates a load test performed on a healthy but aging composite reinforced concrete bridges in Exeter, UK. The bridge girders were instrumented with strain transducers and static strains were recorded while a four-axle, 32 tonne lorry remained stationary in a single lane. The results obtained from the field test were used to calculate transverse load distribution factors (DFs)...

  19. Characterisation of pavement profile heights using accelerometer readings and a combinatorial optimisation technique

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Niall K.; González, Arturo; O'Brien, Eugene J.; McGetrick, P.

    2010-01-01

    Pavement surface profiles induce dynamic ride responses in vehicles which can potentially be used to classify road surface roughness. A novel method is proposed for the characterisation of pavement roughness through an analysis of vehicle accelerations. A combinatorial optimisation technique is applied to the determination of pavement profile heights based on measured accelerations at and above the vehicle axle. Such an approach, using low-cost inertial sensors, would provide an inexpensive a...

  20. Effects of Different Tire Configurations on Tractor Performance

    OpenAIRE

    SÜMER, Sarp Korkut

    2005-01-01

    The effects of tire ply constructions (radial and bias) and tire arrangements (singles and duals on rear the axle) on tractor performance were evaluated for 2 gear levels on 2 different fields covered with wheat stubble and having different soil types, clay and sandy-loam. For this purpose, the tractor's overall efficiency, specific fuel consumption, and slip values were determined using parameters measured in the study. The results showed that the use of radial tires provided some advan...

  1. Effect of ocular magnification on macular measurements made using spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohana Kuppuswamy Parthasarathy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to study the effect of ocular magnification on macular measurements made using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty-one subjects were included from the normative study of foveal morphology carried out at our hospital. Subjects underwent comprehensive eye examination and macular scanning using Cirrus high-definition OCT and axial length (AXL measurement. Macular cube 512 × 128 scan protocol was used for scanning the macula. Automated measurements of the fovea namely foveal diameter, foveal slope (lateral measurements and foveal depth (axial measurement were taken. A correction factor for ocular magnification was done using the formula t = p × q × s, where "t0" is the corrected measurement, "p" is the magnification of OCT, "q0" is the ocular magnification, and "s" is the measurement on OCT without correction. The difference between corrected and uncorrected measurements was evaluated for statistical significance. Results: Mean AXL was 22.95 ± 0.78 mm. Refractive error ranged from −3D to +4D. Mean difference between measured and corrected foveal diameter, slope and depth was 166.05 ± 95.37 ΅m (P < 0.001, 0.81° ± 0.53° (P < 0.001 and 0.05 ± 0.49 ΅m (P = 0.178 respectively. AXL lesser than the OCT calibrated value of 24.46 mm showed an increased foveal diameter (r = 0.961, P < 0.001 and a reduced foveal slope (r = −0.863, P < 0.001 than the corrected value. Conclusion: Lateral measurements made on OCT varied with AXL s other than the OCT calibrated value of 24.46 mm. Therefore, to estimate the actual dimensions of a retinal lesion using OCT, especially lateral dimensions, we recommend correction for the ocular magnification factor.

  2. Implementation of multiple design procedures into MULTI-PAVE.

    OpenAIRE

    Gebrehiwot, Nahusenay K

    2011-01-01

    One particular challenge in pavement design is comparing the results of the different design methods. Some methods, such as the AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials) Flexible design method and the AASHTO Rigid method were developed in the US, and use US units, as well as typical design loads and specifications. The same can be said for the Florida Cracking method. Other methods, such as the Swedish PMS-Object use SI units and different design axle load. T...

  3. Train–Bridge Interaction : Literature Review and Parameter Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Arvidsson, Therese

    2014-01-01

    New railway lines are continuously being constructed and existing lines are upgraded. Hence, there is a need for research directed towards efficient design of the supporting structures. Increasingly advanced calculation methods can be motivated, especially in projects where huge savings can be obtained from verifying that existing structures can safely support increased axle loads and higher speeds. This thesis treats the dynamic response of bridges under freight and passenger train loads. Th...

  4. The new Mercedes-Benz AROCS; Der neue AROCS von Mercedes-Benz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuern, Joerg; Mierisch, Uwe; Mueller-Finkeldei, Rainer; Koellermeyer, Albrecht [Daimler AG, Stuttgart (Germany). Mercedes-Benz Trucks

    2013-03-15

    The requirements placed on modern construction vehicles are very diverse. In quarries and mines, extreme load-carrying capacity and durability are required, whereas transporting concrete demands lightweight construction. From two to four axles, all-wheel configurations must be covered. Vehicle applications include semitrailers and customized chassis frames for dump truck, concrete moving, and special-purpose body designs. The new Mercedes-Benz Arocs satisfies these properties. (orig.)

  5. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankun Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking safety in emergency braking condition; the bottom layer is used to maximize the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency with a reallocated braking torque strategy; the reallocated braking torque strategy can recovery braking energy as much as possible in the premise of meeting battery charging power. The simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical control strategy is reasonable and can adapt to different typical road surfaces and load cases; the vehicle braking stability and safety can be guaranteed; furthermore, the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency can be improved.

  6. Changes in inertia and effect on turning effort across different wheelchair configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayme J. Caspall, MS

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available When executing turning maneuvers, manual wheelchair users must overcome the rotational inertia of the wheelchair system. Differences in wheelchair rotational inertia can result in increases in torque required to maneuver, resulting in greater propulsion effort and stress on the shoulder joints. The inertias of various configurations of an ultralightweight wheelchair were measured using a rotational inertia-measuring device. Adjustments in axle position, changes in wheel and tire type, and the addition of several accessories had various effects on rotational inertias. The configuration with the highest rotational inertia (solid tires, mag wheels with rearward axle exceeded the configuration with the lowest (pneumatic tires, spoke wheels with forward axle by 28%. The greater inertia requires increased torque to accelerate the wheelchair during turning. At a representative maximum acceleration, the reactive torque spanned the range of 11.7 to 15.0 N-m across the wheelchair configurations. At higher accelerations, these torques exceeded that required to overcome caster scrub during turning. These results indicate that a wheelchair's rotational inertia can significantly influence the torque required during turning and that this influence will affect active users who turn at higher speeds. Categorizing wheelchairs using both mass and rotational inertia would better represent differences in effort during wheelchair maneuvers.

  7. Automotive stamped part fatigue design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caudoux Mélanie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue design of automotive axle parts is of prior concern because of these are high safety parts and they are expected to drive the overall vehicle mass reduction. In this framework, the stamping process is widely used to form axle parts, before assembling them by welding. Consequently, the mechanical and physical characteristics of the blank sheet are modified, having a strong influence on the fatigue behavior. In this paper, we address the consequences of the stamped process on the fatigue design and how they may be effectively taken into account in the automotive industry. Actually, the coupling between the stamping process and the fatigue design is under development at PSA Peugeot Citroën Company since several years. Such an analysis deals with some major topics: thickness variation, plastic hardening and deformation, and residual stress. All of these ingredients result in fatigue criteria evolutions: it is important to stress that the stamping process can have advantageous or disadvantageous consequences on the fatigue design. This is here highlighted on some examples, dealing with front and rear axles.

  8. Intelligent control for braking-induced longitudinal vibration responses of floating-type railway bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an intelligent control method and its engineering application in the control of braking-induced longitudinal vibration of floating-type railway bridges. Equations of motion for the controlled floating-type railway bridges have been established based on the analysis of the longitudinal vibration responses of floating-type railway bridges to train braking and axle-loads of moving trains. For engineering applications of the developed theory, a full-scale 500 kN smart magnetorheologic (MR) damper has been designed, fabricated and used to carry out experiments on the intelligent control of braking-induced longitudinal vibration. The procedure for using the developed intelligent method in conjunction with the full-scale 500 kN MR dampers has been proposed and used to control the longitudinal vibration responses of the deck of floating-type railway bridges induced by train braking and axle-loads of moving trains. This procedure has been applied to the longitudinal vibration control of the Tian Xingzhou highway and railway cable-stayed bridge over the Yangtze River in China. The simulated results have shown that the intelligent control system using the smart MR dampers can effectively control the longitudinal response of the floating-type railway bridge under excitations of braking and axle-loads of moving trains

  9. Pavement Response to Variable Tyre Pressure of Heavy Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Ahmad Kamil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the effect of overinflated tyre pressure and increased heavy vehicles’ axle load on flexible pavements has become a subject of great concern because of the higher stress levels induced and damage caused to road pavements. This paper aims to evaluate the effect of variable tyre inflation pressures (using actual tyre contact/footprint area to determine the responses of flexible pavement. A full scale experiment was conducted on a heavy vehicle with 1:1:2 axle configuration, 10 R 20 tyre size and attached trailer with constant axle load. Measurements were made for actual tyre-pavement contact area. KENPAVE linear elastic program was then used to analyse the effects of the measured actual tyre-pavement contact area and the results was compared using conventional circular tyre contact area. A comparative analysis was then made between the actual contact area and the conventional circular tyre contact area. It was found that high tyre inflation pressure produce smaller contact area, giving more detrimental effect on the flexible pavement. It was also found that the temperature of tyres when the heavy vehicles are operational give less significant impact on tyre inflation pressure for the Malaysian climate.

  10. Suppressing Vertical Vibration in Railway Vehicles through Primary Suspension Damping Force Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, Yoshiki; Takigami, Tadao; Sampei, Mitsuji

    Suppression of the vertical bending vibration of carbodies has recently become essential in improving the riding comfort of railway vehicles. In many cases, the resonant frequency of the system (consisting of a bogie frame and axle springs) is close to that of the first mode bending vibration of the carbody, so suppressing the vibration of bogie frames near their resonant frequency effectively reduces carbody vibration. In this paper, we propose a method of suppressing such vibration by controlling the damping force of axle dampers installed between bogie frames and wheel sets. The design of the semi-active controller applied to determine the optimal damping force is based on the sky hook control theory. Numerical simulations using a vehicle model with 16 degrees of freedom as well as excitation tests using a carbody with variable axle dampers at a rolling stock test plant were carried out. The results show that this control method effectively reduces the power spectral density (PSD) of acceleration on the floor and that the riding comfort level (LT) can be improved by about 3 dB.

  11. Method and apparatus for steady-state magnetic measurement of poloidal magnetic field near a tokamak plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Robert D.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the steady-state measurement of poloidal magnetic field near a tokamak plasma, where the tokamak is configured with respect to a cylindrical coordinate system having z, phi (toroidal), and r axes. The method is based on combining the two magnetic field principles of induction and torque. The apparatus includes a rotor assembly having a pair of inductive magnetic field pickup coils which are concentrically mounted, orthogonally oriented in the r and z directions, and coupled to remotely located electronics which include electronic integrators for determining magnetic field changes. The rotor assembly includes an axle oriented in the toroidal direction, with the axle mounted on pivot support brackets which in turn are mounted on a baseplate. First and second springs are located between the baseplate and the rotor assembly restricting rotation of the rotor assembly about its axle, the second spring providing a constant tensile preload in the first spring. A strain gauge is mounted on the first spring, and electronic means to continually monitor strain gauge resistance variations is provided. Electronic means for providing a known current pulse waveform to be periodically injected into each coil to create a time-varying torque on the rotor assembly in the toroidal direction causes mechanical strain variations proportional to the torque in the mounting means and springs so that strain gauge measurement of the variation provides periodic magnetic field measurements independent of the magnetic field measured by the electronic integrators.

  12. Programmable spark counter of tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose, a new set-the programmable all-automatic spark counter AIST-4-has been developed and manufactured. Compared to our previous automated spark counter ISTRA, which was operated by the integrated fixed program, the new set is operated completely by a personal computer. The mechanism for pressing and pulling the aluminized foil is put into action by a step motor operated by a microcontroller. The step motor turns an axle. The axle has two eccentrics. One of them moves a pressing plate up and down. The second eccentric moves the aluminized foil by steps of ∼15mm after the end of each pulse counting. One turnover of the axle corresponds to one pulse count cycle. The step motor, the high-voltage block and the pulse count block are operated by the microcontroller PIC 16C84 (Microstar). The set can be operated either manually by keys on the front panel or by a PC using dialogue windows for radon or neutron measurements (for counting of alpha or fission fragment tracks). A number of algorithms are developed: the general procedures, the automatic stopping of the pulse counting, the calibration curve, determination of the count characteristics and elimination of the short circuit in a track

  13. Trackless centre pivot-steered underground vehicle with electric-motor drive. Gleisloses knickgelenktes Untertagefahrzeug mit Elektromotorantrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillmann, W.; Paus, H.; Drews, E.

    1989-05-03

    Trackless, centre pivot-steered underground vehicle with electric-motor drive of the tractor section, the supply of energy to which takes place via sliding contact line and a current-collecting device which can be driven thereon, and via a connecting cable which is connected electrically and mechanically to the latter and can be unwound from a reel against a restoring force, characterised by the combination of the following features: (a) the connecting cable (supply cable) is connected to the current-collecting device via a slip-ring member which can be rotated about a vertical axle; (b) a cable reel which winds in a spiral and is driven by a hydraulic motor is mounted on the tractor section so as to be rotatable about a vertical axle, the axle being equipped with a slip-ring member; (c) a hydraulically pivotable guide arm is arranged coaxially to the cable reel; (d) a hydrostatic axial piston transmission for the travelling mechanism and drive in (b) and (c) is coupled to a three phase current motor. 1 fig.

  14. Quantitative phosphoproteomics revealed interplay between Syk and Lyn in the resistance to nilotinib in chronic myeloid leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Romain; Leroy, Cédric; Drullion, Claire; Lagarde, Valérie; Etienne, Gabriel; Dulucq, Stéphanie; Lippert, Eric; Roche, Serge; Mahon, François-Xavier; Pasquet, Jean-Max

    2011-08-25

    In this study, we have addressed how Lyn kinase signaling mediates nilotinib-resistance by quantitative phospho-proteomics using Stable Isotope Labeling with Amino acid in Cell culture. We have found an increased tyrosine phosphorylation of 2 additional tyrosine kinases in nilotinib-resistant cells: the spleen tyrosine kinase Syk and the UFO family receptor tyrosine kinase Axl. This increased tyrosine phosphorylation involved an interaction of these tyrosine kinases with Lyn. Inhibition of Syk by the inhibitors R406 or BAY 61-3606 or by RNA interference restored the capacity of nilotinib to inhibit cell proliferation. Conversely, coexpression of Lyn and Syk were required to fully induce resistance to nilotinib in drug-sensitive cells. Surprisingly, the knockdown of Syk also strongly decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of Lyn and Axl, thus uncovering interplay between Syk and Lyn. We have shown the involvement of the adaptor protein CDCP-1 in resistance to nilotinib. Interestingly, the expression of Axl and CDCP1 were found increased both in a nilotinib-resistant cell line and in nilotinib-resistant CML patients. We conclude that an oncogenic signaling mediated by Lyn and Syk can bypass the need of Bcr-Abl in CML cells. Thus, targeting these kinases may be of therapeutic value to override imatinib or nilotinib resistance in CML. PMID:21730355

  15. High Resolution Order Tracking at Extreme Slew Rates Using Kalman Tracking Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håvard Vold

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the periodic components in noise and vibration signals measured on rotating equipment such as car power trains, must be done more and more under rapid changes of an axle, or reference RPM. Normal tracking filters (analog or digital implementations have limited resolution in such situations; wavelet methods, even when applied after resampling the data to be proportional to an axle RPM, must compromise between time and frequency resolution. The authors propose the application of nonstationary Kalman filters for the tracking of periodic components in such noise and vibration signals. These filters are designed to accurately track signals with a known structure among noise and signal components of different, “unknown,” structure. The tracking characteristics of these filters, i.e., the predicted signal amplitude versus time values versus exact signal amplitude versus time values, can be tailored to accurate tracking of harmonics buried in other signal components and noise, even at high rates of change of the reference RPM. A key to the successful construction is the precise knowledge of the structure of the signal to be tracked. For signals that vary with an axle RPM, an accurate estimate of the instantaneous RPM is essential, and procedures to this end will also be presented.

  16. REDUCING THE NEGATIVE INFLUENCE OF KINEMATIC DISCREPANCY IN THE TRANSMISSION OF FOUR-WHEEL DRIVE WHEELED VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismailov V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses different types of drive axles of all-wheel drive machine. It is shown that if blocked drive of driving axle easy, it is able to provide the best traction drive qualities of the all-wheel car, if compensation of kinematic mismatch in movement of front and rear wheels. The article provides analysis of the causes of kinematic mismatch and its consequences. The analysis was given for the existing methods to reduce negative influence of kinematic discrepancy on the work of the four-wheel drive wheeled machine in locked mode. The method of reduction of kinematic mismatch by regulations of the air pressure in the tires of the wheels with one-time control of the leading moments on the axes was suggested. We show the relationship between the difference of kinematic radii of the wheels of different axles and the difference of the moments leading to them. The algorithm and description for the system of automatic control of air pressure in the tire, which realizes the proposed method, were presented. We have described experimental methods of determining the energy losses evaluation from kinematic mismatch when moving all-wheel drive machine. The article presents the results of the this assessment in relation to the agricultural wheel tractor of class 5 moving at different substructures

  17. Contact-less magneto-elastic torsional sensor based on phase-shift measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the development of a contact-less measurement technique for torsional shear stress τ in ferromagnetic axles or hollow shafts, based on the magneto-elastic effect. In general, two different measuring principles for ferromagnetic materials can be realized, based on: the evaluation of the change of magnetic polarization influenced by shear stress ΔJ(τ) or the change of the magnetic susceptibility ΔχA(τ). The comprehension of the magnetic polarization or the magnetic susceptibility in a sensor concept requires an external magnetic field. Alternating magnetic fields were used as shear stress can disturb not only the amplitude but also the phase distribution of the applied magnetic field. As a result of a torsional moment acting on an axle or hollow shaft, an angle of twist η appears, which is constant over the length of the twisted object. This angle of twist can be understood as a shift of infinitesimal thin cross-sections in which the whole length of the axle is separated. Besides the macroscopic deformation effect, shear forces also affect the Weiss-domains in the micro-scale of the ferromagnetic material. The effects in the micro-scale are the base of the magneto-elastic effect. The combination of the deformation effect in the macro-scale and the deformation of the Weiss-domains in the micro-scale leads to a sophisticated measurement principle for torsional stress in axles or hollow shafts. Magneto-sensitive detectors along or around the measurement object open up the possibility for a contact-less detection of torsional stress in ferromagnetic materials. Besides a strong measuring signal, free from electromagnetic interference, the introduced contact-less measurement principle offers different advantages, like independence from compression strength, nominal tensile stress, impact load, ferromagnetic hysteresis effects and independence of the temperature-dependent electrical conductivity of the axle or hollow shaft. The characteristics of such a

  18. A Research on the ABS Test Method for Four-Wheel-Drive Vehicle Equipped with Viscous Coupler%装备黏性联轴器四驱车辆的ABS试验方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢东明; 苑林; 郭勇; 梁荣亮; 高吉强; 李卫军; 齐辉平

    2012-01-01

    In the antilock braking system ( ABS) test for four-wheel-drive vehicle equipped with viscous coupler, when traditional disposal ( making failure of one axle's braking) is adopted, the adhesion coefficient obtained of low-adhesion lane far exceeds the real value. The reason is revealed through the in-depth analyses in this paper that when one axle's braking fails, there is a significant difference between the rotation speeds of front and rear axles caused by the variation of tires slip ratio, leading to the occurrence of hump phenomena in viscous coupler, then the front and rear axles become quasi-rigid connected and all the wheels involve in braking. Therefore it is suggested that in the ABS test for four-wheel-drive vehicle equipped with viscous coupler, the input shaft of viscous coupler should be dismounted for making only one axle involved in braking, so that a right adhesion coefficient can be obtained.%装备黏性联轴器的四驱车辆在进行防抱死制动系统的试验中,按照传统的使单轴制动失效的办法获得的低附路面附着系数远高于试验路面实际的附着系数.文中通过分析揭示了其原因是:单轴制动失效时前、后轴轮胎滑移率变化造成转速差过大而产生驼峰现象,前、后轴形成准刚性连接而共同参与制动.因此,装备黏性联轴器的四驱车辆在进行ABS路面附着系数试验时应将黏性联轴器输入轴拆除,使之仅有单轴参与制动,才能获得正确的路面附着系数.

  19. None of the rotor residues of F1-ATPase are essential for torque generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiwata, Ryohei; Kohori, Ayako; Kawakami, Tomonari; Shiroguchi, Katsuyuki; Furuike, Shou; Adachi, Kengo; Sutoh, Kazuo; Yoshida, Masasuke; Kinosita, Kazuhiko

    2014-05-20

    F1-ATPase is a powerful rotary molecular motor that can rotate an object several hundred times as large as the motor itself against the viscous friction of water. Forced reverse rotation has been shown to lead to ATP synthesis, implying that the mechanical work against the motor's high torque can be converted into the chemical energy of ATP. The minimal composition of the motor protein is α3β3γ subunits, where the central rotor subunit γ turns inside a stator cylinder made of alternately arranged α3β3 subunits using the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. The rotor consists of an axle, a coiled coil of the amino- and carboxyl-terminal α-helices of γ, which deeply penetrates the stator cylinder, and a globular protrusion that juts out from the stator. Previous work has shown that, for a thermophilic F1, significant portions of the axle can be truncated and the motor still rotates a submicron sized bead duplex, indicating generation of up to half the wild-type (WT) torque. Here, we inquire if any specific interactions between the stator and the rest of the rotor are needed for the generation of a sizable torque. We truncated the protruding portion of the rotor and replaced part of the remaining axle residues such that every residue of the rotor has been deleted or replaced in this or previous truncation mutants. This protrusionless construct showed an unloaded rotary speed about a quarter of the WT, and generated one-third to one-half of the WT torque. No residue-specific interactions are needed for this much performance. F1 is so designed that the basic rotor-stator interactions for torque generation and control of catalysis rely solely upon the shape and size of the rotor at very low resolution. Additional tailored interactions augment the torque to allow ATP synthesis under physiological conditions. PMID:24853745

  20. Epithelial cell-directed efferocytosis in the post-partum mammary gland is necessary for tissue homeostasis and future lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earp H Shelton

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammary glands harbor a profound burden of apoptotic cells (ACs during post-lactational involution, but little is known regarding mechanisms by which ACs are cleared from the mammary gland, or consequences if this process is interrupted. We investigated AC clearance, also termed efferocytosis, during post-lactational remodeling, using mice deficient for MerTK, Axl, and Tyro3, three related receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs regulating macrophage-mediated efferocytosis in monocytes. MerTK expression, apoptosis and the accumulation of apoptotic debris were examined in histological sections of MerTK-deficient, Axl/Tyro3-deficient, and wild-type mammary glands harvested at specific time points during lactation and synchronized involution. The ability of primary mammary epithelial cells (MECs to engulf ACs was assessed in culture. Transplant of MerTK-deficient mammary epithelium into cleared WT mammary fat pads was used to assess the contribution of WT mammary macrophages to post-lactational efferocytosis. Results ACs induced MerTK expression in MECs, resulting in elevated MerTK levels at the earliest stages of involution. Loss of MerTK resulted in AC accumulation in post-lactational MerTK-deficient mammary glands, but not in Axl and Tyro3-deficient mammary glands. Increased vascularization, fibrosis, and epithelial hyperproliferation were observed in MerTK-deficient mammary glands through at least 60 days post-weaning, due to failed efferocytosis after lactation, but did not manifest in nulliparous mice. WT host-derived macrophages failed to rescue efferocytosis in transplanted MerTK-deficient mammary epithelium. Conclusion Efferocytosis by MECs through MerTK is crucial for mammary gland homeostasis and function during the post-lactational period. Efferocytosis by MECs thus limits pathologic consequences associated with the apoptotic load following lactation.

  1. Development of the electromagnetic technology for broken rail detection from a mobil platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, Yuri; Raghunathan, Arun; Kumar, Ajith; Noffsinger, Joseph; Fries, Jeffrey; Ehret, Steven; Frangieh, Tannous; Palanganda, Samhitha

    2016-02-01

    Timely detection of breaks in running rails remains a topic of significant importance for the railroad industry. GE has been investigating new ideas of the Rail Integrity Monitoring or RIM technology that can be implemented on a wide range of the rolling stock platforms including locomotives, passenger and freight cars. The focus of the project is to establish a simple, non-contact, and inexpensive means of nondestructive inspection by fusion of known solutions with new technology development that can result in detection with high reliability. A scaled down model of a typical locomotive-track system has been developed at GE Global research for detailed study of the detection process. In addition, a finite element model has been established and used to understand distribution of the magnetic field and currents in such a system. Both models have been using the rails and wheel-axles geometry to establish a realistic model that would provide the electric current and magnetic field distribution close to the real world phenomenon. Initial magnetic field maps were obtained by scanning a 1:15 model constructed of steel bars using a 3D scanner and an inductive coil. Sensitivity to a broken rail located between two locomotive axles simulated by an opening in this metallic frame was demonstrated. Further investigation and optimization was conducted on a larger, 1:3 scale, physical model and by running mathematical simulations. Special attention was paid to consistency between the finite element and physical model results. The obtained results allowed establishment of a working frequency range, inductive current injection into the rail-wheel-axle loop and measuring the electromagnetic response to a broken rail. The verification and full scale system prototype tests are following the laboratory experiments and mathematical simulations.

  2. Dynamic performance of freight cars on bogies model 18-1711

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Mankevych

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the results of study of dynamic parameters of the tank-car model 15-1900 and gondola car model 12-1905, equipped with the bogies model 18-1711 with axle loading of 25 ton and unified according to major parts and joints with the cars of previous generation. According to results of the study to conclude about the possibility of using bogies model 18-1711 as the running parts of the freight rolling stock of the new generation of 1520 mm track with increased axle loading. Methodology. The dynamic performance of the rolling stock running parts directly affects the safety of railway traffic. Experimental studies of the car dynamic qualities are an important step in the modernization of existing bogie constructions and in the creation of the new ones. These tests allow one to confirm the results of theoretical studies and to check the correctness of the constructive solutions. Findings. Basic results of dynamic studies are presented as the graphs of dynamic performance dependencies on the motion speed of the experimental train. Results show that the freight cars on the bogies model 18-1711 have satisfactory dynamic properties meeting current regulatory requirements. Originality. The dynamic characteristics of freight cars on bogies model 18-1711, which give a complete view of the car loading allow us to estimate the dependency of the car dynamic performance on the bogie design parameters. Practical value. The bogie model 18-1711 with axle loading 25 ton can be used as a freight car undercarriages of the new generation of 1520 mm track.

  3. Antibody-Array-Based Proteomic Screening of Serum Markers in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Discovery Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tianfu; Ding, Huihua; Han, Jie; Arriens, Cristina; Wei, Chungwen; Han, Weilu; Pedroza, Claudia; Jiang, Shan; Anolik, Jennifer; Petri, Michelle; Sanz, Ignacio; Saxena, Ramesh; Mohan, Chandra

    2016-07-01

    A discovery study was carried out where serum samples from 22 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and matched healthy controls were hybridized to antibody-coated glass slide arrays that interrogated the level of 274 human proteins. On the basis of these screens, 48 proteins were selected for ELISA-based validation in an independent cohort of 28 SLE patients. Whereas AXL, ferritin, and sTNFRII were significantly elevated in patients with active lupus nephritis (LN) relative to SLE patients who were quiescent, other molecules such as OPN, sTNFRI, sTNFRII, IGFBP2, SIGLEC5, FAS, and MMP10 exhibited the capacity to distinguish SLE from healthy controls with ROC AUC exceeding 90%, all with p serum markers were next tested in a cohort of 45 LN patients, where serum was obtained at the time of renal biopsy. In these patients, sTNFRII exhibited the strongest correlation with eGFR (r = -0.50, p = 0.0014) and serum creatinine (r = 0.57, p = 0.0001), although AXL, FAS, and IGFBP2 also correlated with these clinical measures of renal function. When concurrent renal biopsies from these patients were examined, serum FAS, IGFBP2, and TNFRII showed significant positive correlations with renal pathology activity index, while sTNFRII displayed the highest correlation with concurrently scored renal pathology chronicity index (r = 0.57, p = 0.001). Finally, in a longitudinal cohort of seven SLE patients examined at ∼3 month intervals, AXL, ICAM-1, IGFBP2, SIGLEC5, sTNFRII, and VCAM-1 demonstrated the ability to track with concurrent disease flare, with significant subject to subject variation. In summary, serum proteins have the capacity to identify patients with active nephritis, flares, and renal pathology activity or chronicity changes, although larger longitudinal cohort studies are warranted. PMID:27211902

  4. Case depth verification of hardened samples with Barkhausen noise sweeps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An interesting topic of recent Barkhausen noise (BN) method studies is the application of the method to case depth evaluation of hardened components. The utilization of BN method for this purpose is based on the difference in the magnetic properties between the hardened case and the soft core. Thus, the detection of case depth with BN can be achieved. The measurements typically have been carried out by using low magnetizing frequencies which have deeper penetration to the ferromagnetic samples than the conventional BN measurement. However, the penetration depth is limited due to eddy current damping of the signal. We introduce here a newly found sweep measurement concept for the case depth evaluation. In this study sweep measurements were carried out with various magnetizing frequencies and magnetizing voltages to detect the effect of different frequency and voltage and their correspondence to the actual case depth values verified from destructive characterization. Also a BN measurement device that has an implemented sweep analysis option was utilised. The samples were either induction or case-hardened samples and sample geometry contained both rod samples and gear axle samples with different case depth values. Samples were also further characterized with Xray diffraction to study the residual stress state of the surface. The detailed data processing revealed that also other calculated features than the maximum slope division of the 1st derivative of the BN signal could hold the information about the case depth value of the samples. The sweep method was able to arrange the axles into correct order according to the case depth value even though the axles were used

  5. Low-Noise Spiral Bevel Gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, David G.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Coy, John J.; Henry, Zachary; Thomas, John; Litvin, Faydor L.

    1994-01-01

    Modified spiral bevel gears that generate relatively little noise and vibration designed and fabricated for use in U.S. Army OH-58D helicopter. Noise reduced by 12 to 19 dB. Similar low-noise, low-vibration spiral bevel gears used in other helicopters, with consequent benefits in comfort and health of pilots and passengers, enhancement of pilots' performance and safety through reduction of audible distraction, and reduction in cost and weight of helicopters through reduction in amount of sound-proofing material. Low-noise, low-vibration spiral bevel gears also used in drive axles of cars and trucks for smoother, quieter rides.

  6. Assessment of a Bridge WIM System on Integral Concrete Bridges and on Steel Orthotropic Decks

    OpenAIRE

    Ieng, Sio Song; SCHMIDT, Franziska; ROMBONI, Frédéric; Jacob, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Bridge-Weigh-In-Motion uses bridges as a scale to weigh vehicles. Practically, this is done by measuring the strains in that bridge, and relating them to the weight and dimensions of a truck called “calibration trucks” whose shape and axle weights are well known. This article summarizes different B-WIM experiments the institute IFSTTAR (formerly called LCPC) realized and the lessons drawn from this experience. First, the system has been tested on frame-type bridges with integral s...

  7. Highway Bridge Assessment for Dynamic Interaction with Critical Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Cantero, Daniel; O'Brien, Eugene J.; González, Arturo; et al

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic vehicle-bridge interaction is often considered for the most common classes of vehicle such as the 5-axle articulated truck. However, the dynamic response of bridges to this type of trucks is quite different to the response to the vehicles more likely to feature in maximum-in-lifetime traffic loading events. This paper focuses on large (>100 tonne) cranes and crane-type vehicles that have been recorded at Weigh-in-Motion sites in Europe. This paper analyses the total bending moment due...

  8. Device to relieve sucker rod torque below ground level in a petroleum well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dysarz, E.D.

    1987-12-22

    An apparatus is described for use in a sucker rod string having a polished rod for relieving torque below the polished rod and inside of a well while the sucker rod string is moving up and down inside of the well, comprising: a body, the body that is suitably fastened to the lower end of the polished rod; at least one set of rollers that are suitably mounted within the body by axles, the rollers with a diameter greater than the width of the body; a lower swivel, and a guide. The guide is a tube that is square in section and is set vertically within the well.

  9. Experimental and Dynamic Study of the Piston Rod Lateral Friction for the Twin-Tube Hydraulic Shock Absorber

    OpenAIRE

    Yanqing Liu; Jianwu Zhang; Xiaoming Cheng

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, dynamic loads acting on a twin-tube hydraulic shock absorber are derived out both in wheel and axle planes by modeling mechanically car rear suspensions, and internal and external forces that yield lateral surface damage and wear-out of the piston rod for the absorber are analyzed according to bench and real road test measures. From viewpoint of vehicle system dynamics and experiment, such key factors as road unevenness, very high car speed and severe shock induced vibrations a...

  10. GAS6 Enhances Repair Following Cuprizone-Induced Demyelination

    OpenAIRE

    Vladislav Tsiperson; Xiaosong Li; Schwartz, Gary J; Raine, Cedric S.; Bridget Shafit-Zagardo

    2010-01-01

    Growth arrest-specific protein 6 (gas6) activities are mediated through the Tyro3, Axl, and Mer family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Gas6 is expressed and secreted by a wide variety of cell types, including cells of the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that administration of recombinant human Gas6 (rhGas6) protein into the CNS improves recovery following cuprizone withdrawal. After a 4-week cuprizone diet, cuprizone was removed and PBS or rhGas6 (400 ng/ml...

  11. Optimal Design of an Axial-Flux Permanent-Magnet Middle Motor Integrated in a Cycloidal Reducer for a Pedal Electric Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Yee-Pien Yang; Jia-Ming Jiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimal design of a middle motor integrated into a mid-drive unit for pedal electric cycles. This middle motor is an axial-flux permanent magnet brushless DC motor with a stator plate. Facing this plate is a rotor plate that acts as an eccentric component of a cycloidal reducer next to the stator. Both the middle motor and cycloidal reducer are easily installed on the same axle of the bike crankset. In the preliminary design, driving requirements are used to make the mi...

  12. 3-year follow-up of a long-term registry-based multicentre study on vitamin E diffused polyethylene in total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Nanna H; Greene, Meridith E; Nebergall, Audrey K;

    2016-01-01

    early adverse events from using this new biomaterial. METHODS: The enrolled patients (n = 977) have received either a porous titanium coated or porous plasma sprayed acetabular shell with either a E-XLPE liner or a medium cross-linked (AXL) liner. At each follow-up 5 patient-reported outcome measures...... (PROMs) were completed: Harris Hip Score, Case Mix Indicator, UCLA Activity Score, SF-36, and EQ-5D. Radiographs were measured for cup and stem position, as well as femoral head penetration into the liner (wear). Postoperative complications and revisions were collected. RESULTS: At 3 years follow...

  13. Verification of the Stabilizer Bar of an Articulated Trolleybus

    OpenAIRE

    Polach, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    At the modernization of the ŠKODA 22 Tr low-floor articulated trolleybus a different type of an articulated joint and a different type of driving axles were used in its construction besides other changes. During test drives with the modernized trolleybus, which were focused on the driving stability of the vehicle, a large roll of the rear section appeared. A suitable structural solution for reducing the rear section roll angle of the modernized trolleybus was the using of a rear section stabi...

  14. ПЕРСПЕКТИВЫ ПРИМЕНЕНИЯ УГЛЕРОДИСТЫХ СТАЛЕЙ ДЛЯ ПОДШИПНИКОВ И ШЕСТЕРЕН С УПРОЧНЕНИЕМ УПРАВЛЯЕМОЙ ОБЪЕМНО-ПОВЕРХНОСТНОЙ ЗАКАЛКОЙ С ИНДУКЦИОННОГО НАГРЕВА

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gurchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience of the Minsk automobile plant and bearing plant in production, research and test of pilot batches of gear wheels of the drive axle of MAZ trucks and MZSh bearings from U8A steel with hardening by their volume and superficial hardening with application of induction heating and the operated surface hardening cooling is given. Experience of the Minsk automobile plant on introduction in manufacturing application of wheel gears of wheel gearing of MAZ trucks from steel 60PP is considered.

  15. Deformation Properties and Fatigue of Bituminous Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Frantisek Schlosser; Jan Mikolaj; Viera Zatkalikova; Juraj Sramek; Dominika Durekova; Lubos Remek

    2013-01-01

    Deformation properties and fatigue performance are important characteristics of asphalt bound materials which are used for construction of pavement layers. Viscoelastic asphalt mixtures are better characterized via dynamic tests. This type of tests allows us to collate materials with regard to axle vibrations which lie usually in the range of 6 Hz–25 Hz for standard conditions. Asphalt modified for heat sensitivity in the range from −20°C to +60°C has significant impact on the overall charact...

  16. Ultrasonic examination for shrunk-on disk of turbine rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the development by Toshiba of nondestructive inspection technology for assuming the reliability of steam turbines in which a shrunk-on rotor wheel system has been applied, are reported. Particular emphasis is placed on a method of precise inspection which can be applied to a shrunk-on rotor wheel while it is still in position on its axle. The ultrasonic examination system developed is described. It consists of a mechanical scanner, data collection system, data analysis system and rotor turning equipment. It has already been applied to in-service inspection of nuclear power turbines and found to be reliable. (U.K.)

  17. Dissipation Effect in the Hunting Motion Stability of Wheel Set with Elastic Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Baldovin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The axle hunting is a coupled lateral and yaw self oscillatory motion which is largely determined by wheel–rail contact geometry. The stability of this motion is an important dynamic problem that determines the maximum operating speed of railway vehicle. To improve the stability performances, without increasing the rail-wheel interaction forces above safety limits, elastic joints and dissipative devices are used to connect the wheelset to the bogy frame. In this paper is studied the influence of passive linear and non-linear dissipative horizontal forces on the hunting motion stability of a wheelset with elastic joints.

  18. Bayesian updating, a powerful tool for updating engineering models using results of testing and monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    L. Neves; Wiśniewski, Dawid F.; Cruz, Paulo J.S.

    2007-01-01

    Many of the European railway bridges are getting c/ose to the end of their service life. AI the same time the railway operators demand higher axle loads for freight trains and higher speeds for passenger trains. This requires new and better methods, models and tools that can be used in the assessment of existing bridges, which will let to more realistic evaluation of their load carrying capacity and also more accurate evaluation of their remaining service life. This paper presents a mathemati...

  19. Lightweight differentials - functionally and cost-optimized design concepts; Leichtbau-Differenziale - Funktions- und kostenoptimierte Designkonzepte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutmann, P. [Forschung und Entwicklung, ThyssenKrupp Praezisionsschmiede, Muenchen (Germany)

    2005-12-01

    Light weight and long life are the key challenges in differential gear construction today. Long-term development partnerships with OEMs and producers of gears and axles provide a basis for full competence in application, design and production. The development of new tooth types have developed important strength potentials which are not achieveable by metal cutting. Further developments were in the evolutionary development of differential components with regard to their function within the sytem. Key criteria are weight reduction and modular design. Light metal components and design-optimized steel sheet casings, together with hybrid material combinations, have opened up the field of effective lightweight differentials. (orig.)

  20. Simple machines

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Just how simple are simple machines? With our ready-to-use resource, they are simple to teach and easy to learn! Chocked full of information and activities, we begin with a look at force, motion and work, and examples of simple machines in daily life are given. With this background, we move on to different kinds of simple machines including: Levers, Inclined Planes, Wedges, Screws, Pulleys, and Wheels and Axles. An exploration of some compound machines follows, such as the can opener. Our resource is a real time-saver as all the reading passages, student activities are provided. Presented in s

  1. Simple machines made simple a teacher resource manual

    CERN Document Server

    Andre, Ralph E St

    1993-01-01

    This book allows you to present scientific principles and simple mechanics through hands-on cooperative learning activities. Using inexpensive materials (e.g., tape, paper clips), students build simple machines-such as levers, pulleys, spring scales, gears, wheels and axles, windmills, and wedges-that demonstrate how things work. Activities have easy-to-locate materials lists, time requirements, and step-by-step directions (usually illustrated) on presentation. Ideas for bulletin boards, learning centers, and computer-assisted instruction are an added bonus.

  2. Universal turbine for drinking-water power stations; Universell einsetzbare Turbine fuer Wasserversorgungen. Nutzung von Druckreduzierenergie im Gegendruckbereich - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindelholz, B.; Fritschi, M.

    2009-03-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a universal turbine for use in drinking-water power stations. The aims of the project are discussed and the importance of the turbine's axle seal is stressed. The use of this Pelton turbine operating in a cushion of compressed air is discussed. Counter-pressure control is discussed, as is the air inflow which is needed to replace the air carried out by the water. Industry-partners involved in the project are noted. The importance of using such small-hydro schemes to help meet energy needs is discussed.

  3. Structural analysis in real time using continuous monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunstein, Juergen; Viano, Charles; Hodac, Bernard

    2005-05-01

    OSMOS developed a completely automatic monitoring-system, which is ideal for the determination and monitoring of the structural state of civil engineering structures. Static and dynamic data are recorded as needed and are available via internet for further analysis. In case of bridges, automatic calculation of the axle load of the flowing traffic is implemented, a weigh in motion system (WIMS). When configurable thresholds are exceeded alarms are sent by SMS, e-mail, SNMP-trap for facility-management-systems or by fax.

  4. Synthesis of perylene-bridged bis(dibenzo-24-crown-8) and its assembly behavior with a fullerene-based secondary dibenzylammonium salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of a perylene-bridged bis(crown ether) through the condensation reaction between primary amine-armed dibenzo-24-crown-8 and 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride.Pseudorotaxane with a perylene moiety at the wheel and a fullerene unit in the middle of the axle was prepared,which was evidenced by 1H NMR and fluorescence experiments.Subsequent investigations show that the formation and disassociation of the pseudorotaxane can be controlled by the alternating addition of KPF6 and 18-crown-6,following the change of the florescence intensity of perylene.

  5. Radialtätning till Retarder

    OpenAIRE

    Danielsson, Olov; Karlsson, Johan

    2009-01-01

    This thesis has the overall objective to develop the optimum sealing system between the retarder and transmission. Today, there is a pressure-relief and two radial seals separation between the retarder and transmission. It has been found that carbon residue formation may occur between retarder axle and seal lips with, in some cases, leakage as a result. We have in this thesis tried to explain the phenomenon of carbon residue, how it is formed and why it can be seen just on the seals? A rig te...

  6. Experimental Study of the Weptos Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Larsen, Tommy;

    2012-01-01

    absorbed wave energy and which is connected to a common power take off system (one for each leg). The study investigates the performance of the device in a large range of wave states and estimates the performance in terms of mechanical power available to the power take off system of the WEPTOS WEC for two...... loads in extreme wave conditions. This A-shaped floating structure absorbs the energy in the waves through a multitude of rotors, the shape of which is based on the renowned Salter’s Duck. These rotors pivot around a common axle, one for each leg of the structure, to which the rotors transfer the...

  7. RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF CRANE BRAKE PARAMETERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The high failure rate of crane brake results from improper choice of braking torque. The mathematical model of reliability for the crane brake parameters is introduced. Based on large amount of actual data the parameter reliabilities of 5~50 t general overhead travelling cranes are calculated,the probabilities that the braking torque is less than the static torque acting on the axle when the load moves down are obtained. Moreover,the ways to improve the reliability of brake parameters are discussed,the most reasonable values of braking safety coefficient are given.

  8. Problems of Automobile KD Existed in Seaborne Export Packing%汽车KD件海运出口包装存在的问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 张俏

    2012-01-01

    The common metal corrosion of the automotive KD maritime introduced, the corresponding prevent the engine, axle and the body sheet in rust generation method and cleaning KD parts were introduced. occurred during transport was method of corrosion factors, and%主要介绍了汽车KD件海运运输中常见的金属锈蚀问题,产生锈蚀的因素,并且以KD件中发动机、车桥和车身板材为主介绍相应的避免锈蚀产生的方法和清洗方法。

  9. Photovoltaic panel clamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Malcolm P.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Miros, Robert H. J.; Stancel, Robert

    2013-03-19

    A photovoltaic panel clamp includes an upper and lower section. The interface between the assembled clamp halves and the module edge is filled by a flexible gasket material, such as EPDM rubber. The gasket preferably has small, finger like protrusions that allow for easy insertion onto the module edge while being reversed makes it more difficult to remove them from the module once installed. The clamp includes mounting posts or an integral axle to engage a bracket. The clamp also may include a locking tongue to secure the clamp to a bracket.

  10. Review of some results of the author's fatigue investigations with applications in engineering and material science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, A.

    1994-04-01

    This document deals with research results mainly connected with the problem of fatigue calculations and various aspects of fatigue. It contains the following topics: Correlation between fatigue limits and ultimate tensile strength, Fatigue properties of pure metals, Analytical approach to notch-size effects in fatigue of aircraft sheet materials, Torsional fatigue life of axle shafts under program loading, Fatigue properties of aircraft lugs with interference fit, Comparison of various aircraft loading test results with the aid of Relative-Miner-Rule, The Relative Method in the case of Local-Strain-Approach, and Prediction of fatigue life.

  11. Review of some results of the author`s fatigue investigations with applications in engineering and material science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buch, A.

    1994-04-01

    This document deals with research results mainly connected with the problem of fatigue calculations and various aspects of fatigue. It contains the following topics: Correlation between fatigue limits and ultimate tensile strength, Fatigue properties of pure metals, Analytical approach to notch-size effects in fatigue of aircraft sheet materials, Torsional fatigue life of axle shafts under program loading, Fatigue properties of aircraft lugs with interference fit, Comparison of various aircraft loading test results with the aid of Relative-Miner-Rule, The Relative Method in the case of Local-Strain-Approach, and Prediction of fatigue life.

  12. Combined deformation of filament-wound cylinder and application to torsion vibration control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉兰

    2002-01-01

    The combined deformation and mechanical propetries of filament-wound cylinder of filament reinforced composite materials are investigated.A method of using filament-winding composited to reduce the amplitude of torsion vibration in the case of special stimulated vibration is established.A design formula of anisotropic filament-wound cylinder to reduce the torsion vibration of axle components is obtained.The results indicate that by puting the filament-wound cylinder on an axis,the torsion vibration of the axis can be reduced effectively.

  13. 汽车等速传动轴挠性万向节的优化设计%Optimization design of automotive constant speed propeller shaft flexible universal joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥伟; 李光明; 谢磊

    2012-01-01

    针对某车型存在的后桥共振现象,通过试验找出了共振的原因,在此基础上提出三种优化方案,并分别进行了对比分析,最终确定了最佳方案。%Aim at rear axle resonance phenomenon of some vehicle model,find out the reason of resonance phenomenon through experiment,on that basis put forward three kinds of optimization scheme.and contrastive analyse respectively,finally determine the optimal inplementation scheme.

  14. Stress Analysis and Determination of Effective k-value for Rigid Pavement

    OpenAIRE

    Kundan Meshram; H.S. Goliya; Akhilesh Poddar

    2013-01-01

    EverFE is a user-friendly 3D finite-element analysis tool for simulating the response of jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP) systems to axle loads and environmental effects. EverFE is useful for both concrete pavement researchers and designers who must perform either complex nonlinear or simple linear stress analyses of JPCP.With help of this develop any type of model of rigid pavement considering practical condition thus getting more accurate and advance analysis for rigid pavement. It ca...

  15. Flow Visualization around a Simplified Two-Wheel Landing Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekci, Alis; Feltham, Graham

    2013-11-01

    The flow topology around a simplified two-wheel landing gear model is investigated experimentally by employing the hydrogen bubble flow visualization technique in a recirculating water channel. The landing gear test model consists of two identical wheels, an axle, a main strut and a support strut. The flow Reynolds number based on wheel diameter is 31,500 and wheels with varying geometric details are considered. Flow structures have been identified through analysis of long-time video recordings and linked to the model geometry. In the flow region above the wheels (wing side), the flow in the inter-wheel region either separates prematurely from the inner surfaces of the wheels and forms slant vortices in the near-wake, or remains attached till the aft wheel perimeter. Inclusion of interior wheel wells are found to result in a jet-like ejection as a result of the interaction with the axle and main strut. In the flow region below the wheels (ground side) the near wake contains periodically forming, complex, large-scale structures.

  16. Vorticity amplification near the stagnation point of landing gear wheels: effect of the orientation of the impinging vorticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mingyao; Feltham, Graham; Ekmekci, Alis

    2014-11-01

    When oncoming streams of weak vorticity aligned with the axle axis of a two-wheel landing gear impinge near the forward stagnation point of the wheels, a mechanism for vorticity collection, growth, amplification into discrete large-scale vortices, and shedding was formerly shown to exist. In the current study, the impinging vorticity streams are perpendicular to the axle axis, i.e. in a vertical orientation as opposed to the horizontal orientation before. Experiments are conducted in a recirculating water channel using hydrogen bubble visualization and particle image velocimetry at a Reynolds number of 32,500 (based on the wheel diameter). As with the horizontal orientation, vorticity collection and amplification are observed, but the large-scale vortices thus formed are stretched around the wheel circumference in contrast to being stretched around the wheel sides, as observed for the horizontal orientation. This flow behavior varies with the impingement location of the vorticity streams across the wheel width. Maximum vorticity amplification occurs at a critical impingement location and drastically alters the flow separation along the wheel circumference. In addition, the instantaneous vortical structures are identified and tracked using a Galilean-invariant criterion.

  17. Landing-gear noise prediction using high-order finite difference schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Wook Kim, Jae; Zhang, Xin; Angland, David; Caruelle, Bastien

    2013-07-01

    Aerodynamic noise from a generic two-wheel landing-gear model is predicted by a CFD/FW-H hybrid approach. The unsteady flow-field is computed using a compressible Navier-Stokes solver based on high-order finite difference schemes and a fully structured grid. The calculated time history of the surface pressure data is used in an FW-H solver to predict the far-field noise levels. Both aerodynamic and aeroacoustic results are compared to wind tunnel measurements and are found to be in good agreement. The far-field noise was found to vary with the 6th power of the free-stream velocity. Individual contributions from three components, i.e. wheels, axle and strut of the landing-gear model are also investigated to identify the relative contribution to the total noise by each component. It is found that the wheels are the dominant noise source in general. Strong vortex shedding from the axle is the second major contributor to landing-gear noise. This work is part of Airbus LAnding Gear nOise database for CAA validatiON (LAGOON) program with the general purpose of evaluating current CFD/CAA and experimental techniques for airframe noise prediction.

  18. Analysis of Ebola Virus Entry Into Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlmann, Franziska; Biedenkopf, Nadine; Babler, Anne; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Karsten, Christina B.; Gnirß, Kerstin; Schneider, Heike; Wrensch, Florian; O'Callaghan, Christopher A.; Bertram, Stephanie; Herrler, Georg; Becker, Stephan; Pöhlmann, Stefan; Hofmann-Winkler, Heike

    2015-01-01

    Ebolaviruses constitute a public health threat, particularly in Central and Western Africa. Host cell factors required for spread of ebolaviruses may serve as targets for antiviral intervention. Lectins, TAM receptor tyrosine kinases (Tyro3, Axl, Mer), T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM) proteins, integrins, and Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) have been reported to promote entry of ebolaviruses into certain cellular systems. However, the factors used by ebolaviruses to invade macrophages, major viral targets, are poorly defined. Here, we show that mannose-specific lectins, TIM-1 and Axl augment entry into certain cell lines but do not contribute to Ebola virus (EBOV)-glycoprotein (GP)–driven transduction of macrophages. In contrast, expression of Mer, integrin αV, and NPC1 was required for efficient GP-mediated transduction and EBOV infection of macrophages. These results define cellular factors hijacked by EBOV for entry into macrophages and, considering that Mer and integrin αV promote phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, support the concept that EBOV relies on apoptotic mimicry to invade target cells. PMID:25877552

  19. 重载铁路桥台设计%Abutment Design of Heavy Haul Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严章荣

    2012-01-01

    针对山西中南部铁路通道采用的30 t轴重荷载,分析目前国内外重栽铁路的发展特点,拟定桥台的设计标准、设计荷载以及荷载检算模式,通过对台身偏心及应力检算,确定了空心桥台的结构尺寸.设计的矩形空心桥台台长随填土高增加而增加,其结构整体刚度好、台身圬工量较省、方便施工,能够满足30t轴重列车的运营要求.%Focusing on the axle load of 30 tons which was applied to the Railway Passage in Central and Southern Shanxi, the development characteristics of heavy haul railway at home and abroad at present were analyzed. The design criteria, design load and the load calculation model were formulated. After the eccentricities and the stresses are checked out, the structure size of hollow abutment was defined. The design results show that the rectangular hollow abutment which the abutment length increases with the increase of earth filling's height, has a good rigidity with less amount of masonry, can be convenient for construction, and can meet the requirements of train's operation under 30t axle load.

  20. Modeling on energy harvesting from a railway system using piezoelectric transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianjun; Shi, Zhifei; Xiang, Hongjun; Song, Gangbing

    2015-10-01

    Theoretical models of piezoelectric energy harvesting from railway systems using patch-type and stack-type piezoelectric transducers are studied. An infinite Euler-Bernoulli beam on a Winkler foundation subjected to moving multi-loads is adopted to describe the dynamic behavior of railway track. The voltage and electric power of piezoelectric transducers installed at the bottom of a steel rail are derived analytically. Comparisons with earlier works and experimental results are given, indicating that the present solutions are reliable. Additionally, a parametric study is conducted to discuss the effects of axle loads, running velocity and load resistors on the solutions. The numerical results show that patch-type and stack-type piezoelectric transducers can harvest the available energy from track vibration to supply power for a wireless sensor network node and can also serve as sensors to monitor basic train information, such as the running velocity, the location and the axle load. The present investigations provide a theoretical guide in the design of piezoelectric patch and stack energy harvesters used in railway systems, which can serve as power sources for distributed wireless sensor networks in remote areas. The research results also demonstrate the potential of piezoelectric patches and stack harvesters in designing self-powered wireless sensor networks used in railway systems to ensure train operation safety.

  1. Pneumatic and electronic damping control for commercial vehicles; Pneumatische und elektronische Fahrwerksregelung fuer Nutzfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutsche, T. [Mannesmann Sachs, Schweinfurt (Germany); Becher, H.O. [Wabco, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-12-01

    The combination of the electronic shock absorber control CDC in the motor vehicle and the pneumatic shock absorber control PDC in the trailer or semi-trailer improves the overall handling significant. Both applications are ideally adapted to the specific situation. CDC in the truck provides best comfort for the driver while PDC in the trailer or semi-trailer protect the cargo of severes shocks. Both systems have been introduced sucessfully: CDC by Mercedes-Benz Actros, MAN F 2000 and Hino Selega (Seightseeing Bus), PDC by axle manufacturers Bergische Achsen and Sauer. Contacts with worldwide truck and axle manufacturers shows a chance to launch CDC and PDC worldwide in the next years. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aufgrund der unterschiedlichsten Anforderungen und Randbedingungen an Nutzfahrzeugen ist eine optimale Abstimmung der Fahrwerkskomponenten Feder und Stossdaempfer mit konventionellen Methoden nahezu unmoeglich. Das fuehrte zu einem steigenden Anteil an luftgefederten Lastwagen mit mechanischer oder elektronischer Regelung. Zusaetzlich zu diesen Systemen entwickelte Mannesmann Sachs regelbare Stossdaempfer fuer den Serieneinsatz in Nutzfahrzeuge: Mit ihnen kann die Daempfung entweder pneumatisch dem Beladungszustand oder elektronisch dem Fahrzeug-, Fahr- und Strassenzustand angepasst werden. (orig.)

  2. Applicability of hydraulic dynamometer for measuring load mass on forwarders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandur Zdravko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, with the start of wood biomass production from wood residues, the need for determining the quantity of extracted wood residuals on a landing site has appeared. The beginning of intensive usage of wood residues for wood biomass starts in lowland forest where all wood residues are extracted with forwarders. There are several ways to determine load mass on a forwarder, first and probably most accurate is the use of load cells which are installed between forwarder undercarriage and loading space. In Croatia, as far as it is known, there is no forwarder with such equipment, although manufacturers offer the installation of such equipment when buying a new forwarder. The second option is using a portable measuring platform (axle scale which was already used for research of axle loads of trucks and forwarders. The data obtained with the measuring platform are very accurate, while its deficiency is relatively great mass, large dimensions and high price. The third option is determining mass by using hydraulic dynamometer which is installed on crane between the rotator and the telescopic boom. The production and installation of such a system is very simple, and with the price it can easily compete with previously described measuring systems. The main deficiency of this system is its unsatisfying accuracy. The results of assortment mass measuring with hydraulic dynamometer installed on a hydraulic crane and discussion on factors influencing obtained results will be presented in this paper.

  3. Design and development of split-parallel through-the road retrofit hybrid electric vehicle with in-wheel motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, S. A.; Syaifuddin Mohd, M.; Maharun, M.; Bakar, N. S. A.; Idris, S.; Samsudin, S. H.; Firmansyah; Adz, J. J.; Misbahulmunir, M.; Abidin, E. Z. Z.; Syafiq Mohd, M.; Saad, N.; Aziz, A. R. A.

    2015-12-01

    One configuration of the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is the split-axle parallel hybrid, in which an internal combustion engine (ICE) and an electric motor provide propulsion power to different axles. A particular sub-type of the split-parallel hybrid does not have the electric motor installed on board the vehicle; instead, two electric motors are placed in the hubs of the non-driven wheels, called ‘hub motor’ or ‘in-wheel motor’ (IWM). Since propulsion power from the ICE and IWM is coupled through the vehicle itself, its wheels and the road on which it moves, this particular configuration is termed ‘through-the-road’ (TTR) hybrid. TTR configuration enables existing ICE-powered vehicles to be retrofitted into an HEV with minimal physical modification. This work describes design of a retrofit- conversion TTR-IWM hybrid vehicle - its sub-systems and development work. Operating modes and power flow of the TTR hybrid, its torque coupling and resultant traction profiles are initially discussed.

  4. EVALUATION OF RUTTING DEPTH IN FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS BY USING FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS AND LOCAL EMPIRICAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa H. Abed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to predict rut depth in local flexible pavements. Predication model in pavement performance is the process that used to estimate the parameter values which related to pavement structure, environmental condition and traffic loading. The different local empirical models have been used to calculate permanent deformation which include environmental and traffic conditions. Finite element analysis through ANSYS computer software is used to analyze two dimensional linear elastic plane strain problem through (Plane 82 elements. Standard Axle Load (ESAL of 18 kip (80 kN loading on an axle with dual set of tires, the wheel spacing is 13.5 in (343 mm with tire contact pressure of 87 psi (0.6 MPa is used. The pavement system is assumed to be an elastic multi-layers system with each layer being isotropic, homogeneous with specified resilient modulus and Poisson ratio. Each layer is to extend to infinity in the horizontal direction and have a finite thickness except the bottom layer. The analysis of results show that, although, the stress level decrease 14% in the leveling course and 27% in the base course, the rut depth is increased by 12 and 28% in that layers respectively because the material properties is changed.

  5. Use of Finite Elements Analysis for a Weigh-in-Motion Sensor Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Goanta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available High speed weigh-in-motion (WIM sensors are utilized as components of complex traffic monitoring and measurement systems. They should be able to determine the weights on wheels, axles and vehicle gross weights, and to help the classification of vehicles (depending on the number of axles. WIM sensors must meet the following main requirements: good accuracy, high endurance, low price and easy installation in the road structure. It is not advisable to use cheap materials in constructing these devices for lower prices, since the sensors are normally working in harsh environmental conditions such as temperatures between –40 °C and +70 °C, dust, temporary water immersion, shocks and vibrations. Consequently, less expensive manufacturing technologies are recommended. Because the installation cost in the road structure is high and proportional to the WIM sensor cross section (especially with its thickness, the device needs to be made as flat as possible. The WIM sensor model presented and analyzed in this paper uses a spring element equipped with strain gages. Using Finite Element Analysis (FEA, the authors have attempted to obtain a more sensitive, reliable, lower profile and overall cheaper elastic element for a new WIM sensor.

  6. Quantification of uncertainty in the prediction of railway induced ground vibration due to the use of statistical track unevenness data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombaert, G.; Galvín, P.; François, S.; Degrande, G.

    2014-09-01

    Environmental vibrations due to railway traffic are predominantly due to dynamic axle loads caused by wheel and track unevenness and impact excitation by rail joints and wheel flats. Because of its irregular character, track unevenness is commonly processed statistically and represented by its power spectral density function or its root mean square (RMS) value in one-third octave bands. This statistical description does not uniquely define the track unevenness at a given site, however, and different track unevenness profiles matching the statistical description will lead to different predictions of dynamic axle loads and resulting ground vibration. This paper presents a methodology that allows quantifying the corresponding variability in ground vibration predictions. The procedure is derived assuming the geometry of the track and soil to be homogeneous along the track. The procedure is verified by means of Monte Carlo simulations and its usefulness for assessing the mismatch between predicted and measured ground vibrations is demonstrated in a case study. The results show that the response in time domain and its narrow band spectrum exhibit significant variability which is reduced when the running RMS value or the one-third octave band spectrum of the response is considered.

  7. Accumulative deformation in railway track induced by high-speed traffic loading of the trains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bian Xuecheng; Jiang Hongguang; Chen Yunmin

    2010-01-01

    Prediction and control of the permanent settlement of a track caused by traffic loading from trains is crucial to high-speed railway design and maintenance. In this study, a unified prediction model of accumulative deformation of geomaterials used in railway construction subjected to cyclic loadings is introduced and calibrated using physical model testing. Based on this versatile model, a calculation approach to determine the track structure settlement under repeated loadings caused by the movement of the wheel axle of the train is proposed. Regression analysis on the physical model testing is adopted to determine the parameters involved in the computational approach. Comparison of model test data and computed results shows that the parameters obtained from the back-analysis are consistent throughout the various testing conditions, and the proposed calculation approach is capable of satisfactorily predicting the accumulative settlement of the railway roadbed and subgrade soil for various axle loads and loading cycles. A case study of a high-speed railway is performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach in realistic engineering applications. The computation results from the settlement development of a roadbed and subgrade soil are presented and discussed.

  8. A Mathematical Model and Numerical Simulation of the Static Stability of a Tractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Demšar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tractor overturning remains a serious problem in agricultural activities. A detailed analysis of problems and causes leading to a tractor overturn have revealed that by improving tractor’s static stability we can positively influence the safety as early as during the concept phase. We designed a mathematical model and a numerical simulation of the static stability of a tractor with an oscillating front axle in relation to its position on a slope. It was followed by analysing the changes of individual parameters, such as the position of the centre of gravity, the wheelbase, the wheel track width and the height of the oscillating axle mounting point, and their impact on tractor’s static stability in relation to its position on a slope. Results show that manipulating these parameters can significantly increase tractor’s static stability. A better static stability is directly proportional to improved dynamic stability, resulting in a better safety in a view of the tractor overturn, particularly while working on a sloping terrain.

  9. Analysis of bifurcation and stability for a tractor semi-trailer in planar motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Nenggen; Shi, Xiaobo; Zhang, Yipeng; Chen, Wen

    2014-12-01

    This paper is intended for bifurcation analysis of a nonlinear tractor semi-trailer vehicle model in planar motion and for investigating its stability under constant running conditions. Bifurcation analysis shows that bifurcation diagrams of a tractor semi-trailer are quite different from those of a single-unit vehicle. Some instability phenomena of the vehicle system such as jackknifing, sideslip, and spinning are explained by correlating them with the behaviour in the neighbourhood of unstable fixed points based on analysis of eigenvectors, phase trajectories, and status of lateral tyre force saturation. It is also found that yaw planar instability of a tractor semi-trailer is caused by lateral tyre force saturation of the tractor's rear axles and/or the trailer's axles. Moreover, the stability region in the state space is demarcated, and a stability index for evaluating size of the stability region in a feasible domain is proposed. Yaw stability under constant driving conditions is analysed by using the proposed stability index.

  10. Driver Assistance System for Passive Multi-Trailer Vehicles with Haptic Steering Limitations on the Leading Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio J. Reina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Driving vehicles with one or more passive trailers has difficulties in both forward and backward motion due to inter-unit collisions, jackknife, and lack of visibility. Consequently, advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS for multi-trailer combinations can be beneficial to accident avoidance as well as to driver comfort. The ADAS proposed in this paper aims to prevent unsafe steering commands by means of a haptic handwheel. Furthermore, when driving in reverse, the steering-wheel and pedals can be used as if the vehicle was driven from the back of the last trailer with visual aid from a rear-view camera. This solution, which can be implemented in drive-by-wire vehicles with hitch angle sensors, profits from two methods previously developed by the authors: safe steering by applying a curvature limitation to the leading unit, and a virtual tractor concept for backward motion that includes the complex case of set-point propagation through on-axle hitches. The paper addresses system requirements and provides implementation details to tele-operate two different off- and on-axle combinations of a tracked mobile robot pulling and pushing two dissimilar trailers.

  11. Detection of rail corrugation based on fiber laser accelerometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efficient inspection methods are necessary for detection of rail corrugation to improve the safety and ride quality of railway operations. This paper presents a novel fiber optic technology for detection of rail corrugation based on fiber laser accelerometers (FLAs), tailored to the measurement of surface damage on rail structures. The principle of detection of rail corrugation using double integration of axle-box acceleration is presented. Then we present the theoretical model and test results of FLAs which are installed on the bogie to detect the vertical axle-box acceleration of the train. Characteristics of high sensitivity and large dynamic range are achieved when using fiber optic interferometric demodulation. A flexible inertial algorithm based on double integration and the wavelet denoising method is proposed to accurately estimate the rail corrugation. A field test is carried out on the Datong–Qinhuangdao Railway in north China. The test results are compared with the results of a rail inspection car, which shows that the fiber laser sensing system has a good performance in monitoring rail corrugation. (paper)

  12. Waveband Analysis of Track Irregularities in High-Speed Railway from On-Board Acceleration Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Seok; Choi, Sunghoon; Kim, Sang-Soo; Kim, Young Guk; Kim, Seog Won; Park, Choonsoo

    This paper is focused on waveband analysis of the lateral and vertical track irregularities from the on-board acceleration measurement of in-service high-speed trains. The track irregularities play important roles to determine dynamic stability of vehicles and ride quality of passengers, so that their amplitude and wavelength should be monitored continuously and carefully. Measuring acceleration at the axle-box or bogie of the trains has been under consideration for low-cost implementation and robust to a harsh railway environment. To estimate the track irregularities, lateral and vertical vibration caused by the wheel/track interaction is measured by the axle-box and bogie mounted accelerometers of an in-service high-speed train. A Kalman filter is used to prevent unrealistic drifts in the estimation. By applying the waveband-pass and compensation filters to the estimated displacement, it is possible to estimate the track irregularities. A distance-wavelength representation is used to identify their waveband in an intuitive way. It is verified by comparing with a commercial track geometry measurement system. From their comparison, it confirms that the representation can produce a satisfactory result.

  13. Detection of rail corrugation based on fiber laser accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenzhu; Zhang, Wentao; Du, Yanliang; Sun, Baochen; Ma, Huaixiang; Li, Fang

    2013-09-01

    Efficient inspection methods are necessary for detection of rail corrugation to improve the safety and ride quality of railway operations. This paper presents a novel fiber optic technology for detection of rail corrugation based on fiber laser accelerometers (FLAs), tailored to the measurement of surface damage on rail structures. The principle of detection of rail corrugation using double integration of axle-box acceleration is presented. Then we present the theoretical model and test results of FLAs which are installed on the bogie to detect the vertical axle-box acceleration of the train. Characteristics of high sensitivity and large dynamic range are achieved when using fiber optic interferometric demodulation. A flexible inertial algorithm based on double integration and the wavelet denoising method is proposed to accurately estimate the rail corrugation. A field test is carried out on the Datong-Qinhuangdao Railway in north China. The test results are compared with the results of a rail inspection car, which shows that the fiber laser sensing system has a good performance in monitoring rail corrugation.

  14. Development of Microcontroller-Based Ball and Beam Trainer Kit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Dewantoro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE A ball and beam trainer kit based on microcontroller was developed for teaching control system course for the sophomore students. This specially-purposed kit consists of a ball located on a beam with a fixed axle at one of its end. At the other end, a servomotor was employed to control the position of the ball by adjusting the rotation angle of the servomotor. Seven predetermined positions were set to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 cm relative to the fixed axle of the beam. The Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID scheme was then used to compensate the error. This kit is equipped with a user interface to configure controller coefficients, select the set points, plot the actual ball position, and display parameter values. The user interface program runs on PC or notebook connected to microcontroller via serial communications. A questionnaire-based assessment about the use of this kit was conducted by 17 students taking the course, giving a rating value of 94.12%.

  15. Development of dynamic models of wagons on models 18-9810 and 18-9855 bogies taking into account wheel wear research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Saidova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Wear parameters clarification in wear simulation is an actual goal because of absence of corresponding data for freight cars in condition of using them on Russian railways. Research is devoted to development of dynamic models of wagons on three-peace two-axle models 18-9810 and 18-9855 bogies with maximum axle-loads 23,5 ts and 25 ts, and to choice of factors, with varying which parameters in the model of wheel wear can be identified. Methodology. The problem is solved by method of mathematic simulation in «MEDYNA» software. Wear calculation is based on abrasive wear theory (Archard’s theory. Findings. Clarification of wheels’ wear model may be done with varying of friction coefficient between wheel and rail for different wheel profile areas (flange and tread, wear coefficient in Archard’s model for mild and heavy wear and transition between them. Originality. Dynamic models of universal gondola on models 18-9810 and 18-9855 bogies are developed. It is established, that rail treads irregularities size effect wheel wear insignificantly, when car is running on circle track of constant radius. Practical value. Developed dynamic models of wagons on models 18-9810 and 18-9855 bogies may be used in wear simulation, determination of car running characteristics, interaction of car and rail of different type, construction, condition and etc. Research results of some factors influence on freight car wheel wear may be interesting for people, who study this problem.

  16. Microlaminography for high-resolution BGA and flip-chip inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassov, A.; Luypaert, F. [SkyScan, Aartselaar (Belgium)

    2000-07-01

    Laminographical methods were developed initially for medical application as a ''non-computerized'' layer-by-layer visualization of human body. In this case an inclined initial X-ray beam project image of specific layer of object to the detector surface with defocusing of other layers during synchronous coplanar rotation of object and photoplate. In medical area this method recently completely changed to computerized tomography because of advantages in image sharpness and possibilities to get analytical information about local densities. In the same time all computerized tomographical (CT) methods have one strong limitation. During investigation an object should be completely displaced inside field of view. This requirement can be satisfied in medical applications, but most electronic devices and boards are the planar structures and cannot be completely rotated around axle in the device plane. By another hand big multilayer assemblies cannot be transmitted by X-ray through the direction in parallel to the object surface. Both listed CT limitations not exist in the classical laminography scanning geometry. For laminography the internal 3D-structure can be visualized layer by layer during rotation around axle orthogonal to the object surface. Combination of classical laminography approach with modern digital acquisition technique allows improving spatial resolution and image quality. (orig.)

  17. A new track inspection car based on a laser camera system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengwei Ren; Shiping Gu; Guiyang Xu; Zhan Gao; Qibo Feng

    2011-01-01

    @@ We develop and build a new type of inspection car.A beam that is not rigidly connected to the train axle boxes and can absorb the vibration and impact caused by the high speed train is used, and a laser-camera measurement system based on the machine vision method is adopted.This method projects structural light onto the track and measures gauge and longitudinal irregularity.The measurement principle and model are discussed.Through numerous practical experiments, the rebuilt car is found to considerably eliminate the measurement errors caused by vibration and impact, thereby increasing measurement stability under high speeds.This new kind of inspection cars have been used in several Chinese administration bureaus.%We develop and build a new type of inspection car. A beam that is not rigidly connected to the train axle boxes and can absorb the vibration and impact caused by the high speed train is used, and a laser-camera measurement system based on the machine vision method is adopted. This method projects structural light onto the track and measures gauge and longitudinal irregularity. The measurement principle and model are discussed. Through numerous practical experiments, the rebuilt car is found to considerably eliminate the measurement errors caused by vibration and impact, thereby increasing measurement stability under high speeds. This new kind of inspection cars have been used in several Chinese administration bureaus.

  18. Risk appraisal of passing zones on two-lane rural highways and policy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwesige, Godfrey; Farah, Haneen; Koutsopoulos, Haris N

    2016-05-01

    Passing on two-lane rural highways is associated with risks of head-on collision resulting from unsafe completion of passing maneuvers in the opposite traffic lane. In this paper, we explore the use of time-to-collision (TTC) as a surrogate safety measure of the risk associated with passing maneuvers. Logistic regression models to predict the probability to end the passing maneuver with TTC less than 2 or 3s-threshold were developed with the time-gap from initiation of the maneuver to arrival of the opposite vehicle (effective accepted gap), and the passing duration as explanatory variables. The data used for model estimation was collected using stationary tripod-mounted camcorders at 19 passing zones in Uganda. Results showed that passing maneuvers completed with TTC less than 3s are unsafe and often involved sudden speed reduction, flashing headlights, and lateral shift to shoulders. Model sensitivity analysis was conducted for observed passing durations involving passenger cars or short trucks (2-3 axles), and long trucks (4-7 axles) as the passed vehicles for 3s TTC-threshold. Three risk levels were proposed based on the probability to complete passing maneuvers with TTC less than 3s for a range of opposite direction traffic volumes. Applications of the results for safety improvements of two-lane rural highways are also discussed. PMID:26874293

  19. Molecular recognition of 4′-Nitrobenzo-15-crown-5 by bis(benzimidazolium)propane borontetrafluoride in acetonitrile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, Tandrima, E-mail: tanchem_bu@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, Dr. Bhupendranath Dutta Smriti Mahavidyalaya, Burdwan 713407 (India); Karmakar, Animesh [Department of Chemistry, Dr. Bhupendranath Dutta Smriti Mahavidyalaya, Burdwan 713407 (India); Ghosh, Sabari; Mukhopadhyay, Chhanda [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 APC Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Pal, Sunanda [Department of Chemistry, Dr. Bhupendranath Dutta Smriti Mahavidyalaya, Burdwan 713407 (India); Banerjee, Manas [Department of Chemistry, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan 713104, West Bengal (India)

    2015-05-15

    ICT based ratiometric sensing due to H-bonding interaction among three different crown ethers (C): Dibenzo-24-crown-8 (DB24C8 or C1), Benzo-15-crown-5 (B15C5 or C2) and 4′-Nitrobenzo-15-crown-5 (4′–NB15C5 or C3) along with the axle bis(benzimidazolium)propane borontetrafluoride (BBIM-propane) (3a–3d) have been studied. The association were initially ascertained from isosbestic formation and later corroborated by iso-emissive formation where C3 fails to establish iso-emissive. Stoichiometry of adducts were 1:1 both in the ground as well as in excited state. The threading or external association was finally distinguished by Monte Carlo simulation and frontier molecular orbital interaction. - Highlights: • The first report of ICT–based wavelength ratiometric interaction of crown–axle system. • Photophysical recognition of 4′-Nitrobenzo-15-crown-5 (4′-NB15C5 or C3) in acetonitrile. • Evidence of charge transfer interaction along with H-bond formation even in excited state is reported. • Monte Carlo simulation and FMO interaction justified the experimental findings.

  20. Secondary Excavation of the Koguryo Mountain Castle at ,Shitaizi,Shenyang City,Liaoning%辽宁沈阳市石台子高句丽山城第二次发掘简报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈阳市文物考古工作队

    2001-01-01

    The secondary excavation of the Shitaizi mountain castle was carried out on the basis of the first digging. It covered an area of 450 sq m. The recorded remains include the excavated sites of the northwestern, eastern, southern and southwestern city-gates, the reservoir and officers-mustering terrace vestiges known through trial diggings, and the drains discovered at the northwestern and eastern city-gates. Among the unearthed objects are pottery (the urn, jar, dish, basin, fu cauldron, bowl, dou stemmed vessel, vessel cover, spindle whorl and disc), bronzes (the buckle, arrowhead and plaque), irons(the arrowhead, armor plate, nail, paring knife, awl, hook, ring, axe, door-nail, door-axle and its base,and cap-like cover), stone tools (the perforated stone, grindstone, spindle whorl and adze) and bone and antler artifacts. The present excavation indicates that this mountain castle was twice damaged by fire.The city-gate structural members found on the gate-sites, such as iron-cast door-leaves, door-axles and their bases, rivets and loops, are all discovered for the first time at Koguryo mountain castle and provide very valuable material for studying the shape and structure of mountain-castle gates in that period.

  1. Analysis of Ebola Virus Entry Into Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlmann, Franziska; Biedenkopf, Nadine; Babler, Anne; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Karsten, Christina B; Gnirß, Kerstin; Schneider, Heike; Wrensch, Florian; O'Callaghan, Christopher A; Bertram, Stephanie; Herrler, Georg; Becker, Stephan; Pöhlmann, Stefan; Hofmann-Winkler, Heike

    2015-10-01

    Ebolaviruses constitute a public health threat, particularly in Central and Western Africa. Host cell factors required for spread of ebolaviruses may serve as targets for antiviral intervention. Lectins, TAM receptor tyrosine kinases (Tyro3, Axl, Mer), T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM) proteins, integrins, and Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) have been reported to promote entry of ebolaviruses into certain cellular systems. However, the factors used by ebolaviruses to invade macrophages, major viral targets, are poorly defined. Here, we show that mannose-specific lectins, TIM-1 and Axl augment entry into certain cell lines but do not contribute to Ebola virus (EBOV)-glycoprotein (GP)-driven transduction of macrophages. In contrast, expression of Mer, integrin αV, and NPC1 was required for efficient GP-mediated transduction and EBOV infection of macrophages. These results define cellular factors hijacked by EBOV for entry into macrophages and, considering that Mer and integrin αV promote phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, support the concept that EBOV relies on apoptotic mimicry to invade target cells. PMID:25877552

  2. A hub dynamometer for measurement of wheel forces in off-road bicycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, D S; Hull, M L

    1999-02-01

    A dynamometric hubset that measures the two ground contact force components acting on a bicycle wheel in the plane of the bicycle during off-road riding while either coasting or braking was designed, constructed, and evaluated. To maintain compatibility with standard mountain bike construction, the hubs use commercially available shells with modified, strain gage-equipped axles. The axle strain gages are sensitive to forces acting in the radial and tangential directions, while minimizing sensitivity to transverse forces, steering moments, and variations in the lateral location of the center of pressure. Static calibration and a subsequent accuracy check that computed differences between applied and apparent loads developed during coasting revealed root mean squared errors of 1 percent full-scale or less (full-scale load = 4500 N). The natural frequency of the rear hub with the wheel attached exceeded 350 Hz. These performance capabilities make the dynamometer useful for its intended purpose during coasting. To demonstrate this usefulness, sample ground contact forces are presented for a subject who coasted downhill over rough terrain. The dynamometric hubset can also be used to determine ground contact forces during braking providing that the brake reaction force components are known. However, compliance of the fork can lead to high cross-sensitivity and corresponding large (> 5 percent FS) measurement errors at the front wheel. PMID:10080099

  3. Impact of Vehicle Class and Tire Pressure on Pavement Performance in MEPDG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed I. E. Attia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The new Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG design and analysis procedures defines the exact traffic loading by defining the specific number of each vehicle class and the use of axle load distribution factors instead of the equivalent single axle load (ESAL. The number of traffic inputs (parameters in MEPDG was found to be 17024. This research aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of the predicted flexible pavement distress to vehicle class and tire pressure in MEPDG. To evaluate the impact of vehicle (truck class on pavement sections, different cases of loading were analyzed. For each case, the MEPDG Ver. 1.1 was used to evaluate the effect of tire pressure by solving each case for a tire pressure of 120 and 140 psi. The effect of the traffic parameters on asphalt pavement (AC rutting, base rutting, subgrade rutting, international roughness index (IRI, longitudinal cracking and fatigue (alligator cracking were investigated. It was found that vehicle class distribution (VCD would cause clear impact (comparable to the effect of AADTT level only if the major traffic is of specific class (very light or very heavy. If this is not the case, the vehicle class distribution will not be a significant factor that affects the final design because most of the trucks had similar impact on flexible pavement distresses. The impact of tire pressure is clear on longitudinal cracking, fatigue cracking and AC rutting, and have no significant impact on both base and subgrade rutting.

  4. Influence of shock absorber condition on pavement fatigue using relative damage concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Kubo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of the road transportation nowadays, concerns related to pavement deterioration and maintenance have become relevant subjects. Especially for commercial vehicles, the vertical dynamic load (characterized by the tire-road interaction is directly related to wear on the road surface. Given this, the main objective of this paper is to analyse effects of vertical loads applied on the flexible pavement, considering the variation of the condition of shock absorbers from a truck's front suspension. The measurements were performed on a rigid truck, with 2 steering front axles, in a durability test track located in Brazil. With a constant load of 6 tons on the front suspension (the maximum allowed load on front axles according to Brazilian legislation, 3 different shock absorber conditions were evaluated: new, used and failed. By applying the relative damage concept, it is possible to conclude that the variation of the shock absorber conditions will significantly affect the vertical load applied on the pavement. Although the results clearly point to a dependent relationship between the load and the condition of the shock absorbers, it is recommended to repeat the same methodology, in future to analyse the influence of other quarter car model variants (such as spring rate, mass and tire spring stiffness.

  5. Electric wheel-drive for motor vehicles, in particular for nondestructive hybridization of automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handel, P.H.; Handel, P.

    1986-04-29

    This patent describes a motor vehicle including an internal combustion engine, four wheels mounted for rotation to the vehicle, each of the wheels having an axle, a first pair of the wheels being operatively connected to the internal combustion engine so as to be driven thereby, a pair of bearings mounted on the axle, a support tube mounted for rotation to the bearings, the improvement comprising means for providing an electric drive for the non-internal combustion engine driven pair of the wheels. The electric drive means consists of a homopolar axial field motor including a stator and a rotor, the stator forming a brake shoe and the rotor forming one of a brake drum and disc for respective ones of the non-internal combustion engine driven wheel pair, a permanent magnet of high energy density material mounted to the support tube and rotatable therewith, at least one iron disc mounted on the support tube in close proximity to the permanent magnet. The stator includes an enclosure, a plurality of support elements mounted to the enclosure and extending radially inwardly therefrom, and a plurality of coils mounted on the support elements in spaced relationship to one another, a plurality of pole rings mounted on the permanent magnet, the pole rings including radially extending support arms, and a plurality of axially magnetized pole pieces, the pole pieces being constructed of high energy density material, respective ones of the pole pieces being positioned between respective pairs of the coil.

  6. DF_(11)和DF_(4D)型内燃机车空心轴套的焊材选用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成理; 周纲

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe the material status of hollow axle sleeve in DFll and DF4D (quasi-high speed) diesel locomotives, and give correct understandings on the materials. The authors suggest the suitable welding consumables used for the welding repair of hollow axle sleeves of these two types of locomotives. Meanwhile, welding procedure test and mechanical properties of welded joints test are both carried out, the test results show that the post-welding performance of the selected welding consumables meets the requirements.%介绍DF11和DF4D准高速型内燃机车空心轴套的材质状态和对材质的正确理解,提出适合这2种车型的空心轴套焊修时所应采用的焊材型号,同时进行了焊接工艺试验和焊接接头力学性能测试,试验结果表明,所选焊材的焊后性能符合要求。

  7. Evaluasi Sistem Penggerak dan Modifikasi Mesin Penanam Jagung Bertenaga Traktor Tangan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wawan Hermawan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To improve the performance of corn planter powered by hand tractor, the following efforts were carried out: a the evaluation of minimum tillage (strip tillage using rotary tiller, b the evaluation of the performance of the drive system for seed metering device; and c modifications of the planting and fertilizing units. The machine capacity to be improved by using two planting rows in one pass. The machine was driven by a hand tractor equipped with a rotary tiller unit. The experiment results show that the strip tillage using the rotary tiller could be done when the soil is plowed, in a relatively loose condition. Among the five types of drive wheel to rotate the seed metering device, lugged rubber wheel had the lowest level of sliding (21- 22%, and produced seed spacing of the closest to the target (19-21 cm. The evaluation showed that one drive wheel is not able to drive two units of seed metering device and two units of fertilizer metering device. Rotation of tractor axle can be used effectively to drive the rotor of two units of the fertilizer applicator and corn seed metering devices of two planter units, using the sprocket-chain transmission. Modifications were constructed for two planting units; two fertilizing units; and the addition of drive system for the metering devices using rotation of the tractor axle.

  8. Active flow control on a 1:4 car model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Till; Springer, Matthias; Lienhart, Hermann; Kniesburges, Stefan; Othmer, Carsten; Becker, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Lift and drag of a passenger car are strongly influenced by the flow field around its rear end. The bluff body geometry produces a detached, transient flow which induces fluctuating forces on the body, affecting the rear axle, which may distress dynamic stability and comfort significantly. The investigations presented here deal with a 1:4 scale model of a simplified test car geometry that produces fluctuating lift and drag due to its strongly rounded rear geometry. To examine the influence of active flow control on this behavior, steady air jets were realized to exhaust from thin slots across the rear in three different configurations. Investigations were performed at and included the capturing of effective integral lift and drag, velocity measurements in the surrounding flow field with Laser Doppler Anemometry, surface pressure measurements and surface oil flow visualization on the rear. The flow field was found to be dominated by two longitudinal vortices, developing from the detachment of the flow at the upper C-pillar positions, and a recirculating, transverse vortex above the rear window. With an air jet emerging from a slot across the surface right below the rear window section, tangentially directed upstream toward the roof section, total lift could be reduced by more than 7 %, with rear axle lift reduction of about 5 % and negligible drag affection (1 %).

  9. Star/linear polymer topology transformation facilitated by mechanical linking of polymer chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Daisuke; Uchida, Satoshi; Takata, Toshikazu

    2015-06-01

    Topology transformation of a star polymer to a linear polymer is demonstrated for the first time. A three-armed star polymer possessing a mechanical linking of two polymer chains was synthesized by the living ring-opening polymerization of δ-valerolactone initiated by a pseudo[2]rotaxane having three hydroxy groups as the initiator sites on the wheel component and at both axle termini. The polymerization was followed by the propagation end-capping reaction with a bulky isocyanate not only to prevent the wheel component deslippage but also to introduce the urethane moiety at the axle terminal. The resulting rotaxane-linked star polymer with a fixed rotaxane linkage based on the ammonium/crown ether interaction was subjected to N-acetylation of the ammonium moiety, which liberated the components from the interaction to move the wheel component to the urethane terminal as the interaction site, eventually affording the linear polymer. The physical property change caused by the present topology transformation was confirmed by the hydrodynamic volume and viscosity. PMID:25892579

  10. Top-of-Rail lubricant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alzoubi, M. F.; Fenske, G. R.; Erck, R. A.; Boparai, A. S.

    2000-07-14

    Analysis of the volatile and semivolatile fractions collected after use of the TOR lubricant indicated that other than contaminants in the collection laboratory, no compounds on the EPA's Target Compound Lists (Tables 2 and 5) were detected in these fractions. The data of these qualitative analyses, given in the various tables in the text, indicate only the relative amounts of the tentatively identified compounds. The authors recommend that quantitative analysis be performed on the volatile and semivolatile fractions to allow confirmation of the tentatively identified compounds and to obtain absolute amounts of the detected compounds. Additionally, the semivolatile fraction should be analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify compounds that are not chromatographable under the temperature program used for determination of semivolatile compounds. Introducing the top-of-rail (TOR) lubricant into the wheel/rail interface results in a reduction of almost 60% of lateral friction force over the forces encountered under dry conditions. This reveals good potential for energy savings, as well as wear reduction, for railroad companies. In TOR lubrication, an increase in the angle of attack and axle load results in increased lateral friction and rate of lubricant consumption. The most efficient TOR lubricant quantity to be used in the wheel/rail interface must be calculated precisely according to the number of cars, axle loads, train speed, and angle of attack.

  11. The TAM receptor Mertk protects against neuroinvasive viral infection by maintaining blood-brain barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Jonathan J; Daniels, Brian P; Shrestha, Bimmi; Proenca-Modena, Jose L; Lew, Erin D; Lazear, Helen M; Gorman, Matthew J; Lemke, Greg; Klein, Robyn S; Diamond, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    The TAM receptors Tyro3, Axl and Mertk are receptor tyrosine kinases that dampen host innate immune responses following engagement with their ligands Gas6 and Protein S, which recognize phosphatidylserine on apoptotic cells. In a form of apoptotic mimicry, many enveloped viruses display phosphatidylserine on the outer leaflet of their membranes, enabling TAM receptor activation and downregulation of antiviral responses. Accordingly, we hypothesized that a deficiency of TAM receptors would enhance antiviral responses and protect against viral infection. Unexpectedly, mice lacking Mertk and/or Axl, but not Tyro3, exhibited greater vulnerability to infection with neuroinvasive West Nile and La Crosse encephalitis viruses. This phenotype was associated with increased blood-brain barrier permeability, which enhanced virus entry into and infection of the brain. Activation of Mertk synergized with interferon-β to tighten cell junctions and prevent virus transit across brain microvascular endothelial cells. Because TAM receptors restrict pathogenesis of neuroinvasive viruses, these findings have implications for TAM antagonists that are currently in clinical development. PMID:26523970

  12. A rapid in vivo screen for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocal, Ozhan; Pashkov, Victor; Kollipara, Rahul K; Zolghadri, Yalda; Cruz, Victoria H; Hale, Michael A; Heath, Blake R; Artyukhin, Alex B; Christie, Alana L; Tsoulfas, Pantelis; Lorens, James B; Swift, Galvin H; Brekken, Rolf A; Wilkie, Thomas M

    2015-10-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and is projected to be second by 2025. It has the worst survival rate among all major cancers. Two pressing needs for extending life expectancy of affected individuals are the development of new approaches to identify improved therapeutics, addressed herein, and the identification of early markers. PDA advances through a complex series of intercellular and physiological interactions that drive cancer progression in response to organ stress, organ failure, malnutrition, and infiltrating immune and stromal cells. Candidate drugs identified in organ culture or cell-based screens must be validated in preclinical models such as KIC (p48(Cre);LSL-Kras(G12D);Cdkn2a(f/f)) mice, a genetically engineered model of PDA in which large aggressive tumors develop by 4 weeks of age. We report a rapid, systematic and robust in vivo screen for effective drug combinations to treat Kras-dependent PDA. Kras mutations occur early in tumor progression in over 90% of human PDA cases. Protein kinase and G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling activates Kras. Regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins are coincidence detectors that can be induced by multiple inputs to feedback-regulate GPCR signaling. We crossed Rgs16::GFP bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mice with KIC mice and show that the Rgs16::GFP transgene is a Kras(G12D)-dependent marker of all stages of PDA, and increases proportionally to tumor burden in KIC mice. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis of cultured primary PDA cells reveals characteristics of embryonic progenitors of pancreatic ducts and endocrine cells, and extraordinarily high expression of the receptor tyrosine kinase Axl, an emerging cancer drug target. In proof-of-principle drug screens, we find that weanling KIC mice with PDA treated for 2 weeks with gemcitabine (with or without Abraxane) plus inhibitors of Axl signaling

  13. A rapid in vivo screen for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozhan Ocal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and is projected to be second by 2025. It has the worst survival rate among all major cancers. Two pressing needs for extending life expectancy of affected individuals are the development of new approaches to identify improved therapeutics, addressed herein, and the identification of early markers. PDA advances through a complex series of intercellular and physiological interactions that drive cancer progression in response to organ stress, organ failure, malnutrition, and infiltrating immune and stromal cells. Candidate drugs identified in organ culture or cell-based screens must be validated in preclinical models such as KIC (p48Cre;LSL-KrasG12D;Cdkn2af/f mice, a genetically engineered model of PDA in which large aggressive tumors develop by 4 weeks of age. We report a rapid, systematic and robust in vivo screen for effective drug combinations to treat Kras-dependent PDA. Kras mutations occur early in tumor progression in over 90% of human PDA cases. Protein kinase and G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR signaling activates Kras. Regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS proteins are coincidence detectors that can be induced by multiple inputs to feedback-regulate GPCR signaling. We crossed Rgs16::GFP bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC transgenic mice with KIC mice and show that the Rgs16::GFP transgene is a KrasG12D-dependent marker of all stages of PDA, and increases proportionally to tumor burden in KIC mice. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq analysis of cultured primary PDA cells reveals characteristics of embryonic progenitors of pancreatic ducts and endocrine cells, and extraordinarily high expression of the receptor tyrosine kinase Axl, an emerging cancer drug target. In proof-of-principle drug screens, we find that weanling KIC mice with PDA treated for 2 weeks with gemcitabine (with or without Abraxane plus inhibitors of Axl signaling

  14. Protein S blocks the extrinsic apoptotic cascade in tissue plasminogen activator/N-methyl D-aspartate-treated neurons via Tyro3-Akt-FKHRL1 signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Robert S

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thrombolytic therapy with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA benefits patients with acute ischemic stroke. However, tPA increases the risk for intracerebral bleeding and enhances post-ischemic neuronal injury if administered 3-4 hours after stroke. Therefore, combination therapies with tPA and neuroprotective agents have been considered to increase tPA's therapeutic window and reduce toxicity. The anticoagulant factor protein S (PS protects neurons from hypoxic/ischemic injury. PS also inhibits N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA excitotoxicity by phosphorylating Bad and Mdm2 which blocks the downstream steps in the intrinsic apoptotic cascade. To test whether PS can protect neurons from tPA toxicity we studied its effects on tPA/NMDA combined injury which in contrast to NMDA alone kills neurons by activating the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Neither Bad nor Mdm2 which are PS's targets and control the intrinsic apoptotic pathway can influence the extrinsic cascade. Thus, based on published data one cannot predict whether PS can protect neurons from tPA/NMDA injury by blocking the extrinsic pathway. Neurons express all three TAM (Tyro3, Axl, Mer receptors that can potentially interact with PS. Therefore, we studied whether PS can activate TAM receptors during a tPA/NMDA insult. Results We show that PS protects neurons from tPA/NMDA-induced apoptosis by suppressing Fas-ligand (FasL production and FasL-dependent caspase-8 activation within the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. By transducing neurons with adenoviral vectors expressing the kinase-deficient Akt mutant AktK179A and a triple FKHRL1 Akt phosphorylation site mutant (FKHRL1-TM, we show that Akt activation and Akt-mediated phosphorylation of FKHRL1, a member of the Forkhead family of transcription factors, are critical for FasL down-regulation and caspase-8 inhibition. Using cultured neurons from Tyro3, Axl and Mer mutants, we show that Tyro3, but not Axl and Mer, mediates

  15. OFF-ROAD CAPABILITY IMPROVEMENT OF MAZ-AUTOMOBILE HAVING AGRICULTURAL MODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Bobrovnik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains requirements to parameters of an automobile being designed with axle arrangement 6x4 and technically permissible mass of 25 tons with its all year round operation in agricultural industry with the purpose to ensure in-time load transportation and technological cycle in crop production of the agricultural complex in accordance with time schedule of the executed mechanized works. The future automobile should also have a power takeoff device.The paper presents operation chart flowsheets for cultivation of main crops on mineral and peat soils with indication of automobile motion modes and type of transported loads. Specific properties of peat-bog soils are given in the paper. The paper considers off-road capability of mobile machines when they are moving on soils with low bearing capacity. The paper indicates field applications of automobiles with limited and high off-road capability. Description of wheel interaction with bearing surface area, values of soil resistivity after multiple automobile passages have been given in the paper.The paper specifies values of rolling resistance coefficient and adhesion coefficient of the automobile undercarriage systems in spring and autumn for wheeled and crawler units. Schemes of the automobile front axle drives (electric, hydraulic, mechanical and their characteristics have been analyzed in the paper. An elastic flexible drive with separation of flow power has been proposed for reduction of dynamic loads in a power transmission drive. The paper describes a drive system of auto-analogue steering wheels with hydraulic hydrostatic drive which is located within a front wheel hub that ensure additional thrust. Recommendations for MAZ-automobile modernization with axle arrangement 6x4 have been given with the purpose to improve its off- road capability.Metallic anti-skid chain, segment and small link, track and crawler chains, wideners have obtained a wide application for improvement of automobile

  16. LIGAMENTOPLASTY IN THE STABILITY KNEE AUT THE TIBIAL PROXIMAL THIRD FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ungurianu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at presenting a correct therapeutic behavior in treating the tibial proximal third fractures with the purpose of achieving a stable, painless, mobile, correctly anatomically reduced articulation, to minimize the risk of posttraumatic arthrosis. Methods: In the Clinic of Orthopedics of the Emergency Clinical Hospital of Galati, during the last 5 years (2005 – 2009 were hospitalized 11231 patients presenting different fractures, out of which 210 patients displayed a tibial proximal third fracture with or without intra-articulary line, which represent 1,87% of the total hospitalized fractures. Results: 55 cases (26,19% were treated orthopedically either by reduction and gypsum apparatus or extension and gypsum apparatus, and 155 cases were underwent surgery. Out of 155 cases, 4 cases were worked out by using osteosynthesis with external fixing device (2,57% and the other 151 cases were operated either by closed reduction and percussive osteosynthesis with grooved screws 21 cases – 13,61% or by open reduction and osteosynthesis involving different materials (screws, plates of the blade type, L or T type of plates – these representing 130 cases – 86,39%. There should be noticed that out of the total of orthopedically operated fractures (55 cases, 71% of the patients displayed a satisfactory result regarding the pain, 85% displayed over 90 degrees mobility and 68% did not have post-traumatic laxity (37 cases. Out of the post-traumatic laxity cases, 18 cases -32%, 5 patients underwent another surgery applying an external ligamentoplasty. The measurement of the axles shows the reconstruction of the anatomical axles in 57% of the cases. The x-rays focused on the knee display the persistence of a distortion of the tibial plates in 80% of the cases and a femuropatelary arthrosis in 52% of the cases. The surgical treatment has shown a better recovery rate taking into account the SOFCOT quotation. Out of the total of 155

  17. Layout design and energetic analysis of a complex diesel parallel hybrid electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Layout design, energetic and cost analysis of complex parallel hybrid vehicles. • Development of global and real-time optimizers for control strategy identification. • Rule-based control strategies to minimize fuel consumption and NOx. • Energy share across each working mode for battery and thermal engine. - Abstract: The present paper is focused on the design, optimization and analysis of a complex parallel hybrid electric vehicle, equipped with two electric machines on both the front and rear axles, and on the evaluation of its potential to reduce fuel consumption and NOx emissions over several driving missions. The vehicle has been compared with two conventional parallel hybrid vehicles, equipped with a single electric machine on the front axle or on the rear axle, as well as with a conventional vehicle. All the vehicles have been equipped with compression ignition engines. The optimal layout of each vehicle was identified on the basis of the minimization of the overall powertrain costs during the whole vehicle life. These costs include the initial investment due to the production of the components as well as the operating costs related to fuel consumption and to battery depletion. Identification of the optimal powertrain control strategy, in terms of the management of the power flows of the engine and electric machines, and of gear selection, is necessary in order to be able to fully exploit the potential of the hybrid architecture. To this end, two global optimizers, one of a deterministic nature and another of a stochastic type, and two real-time optimizers have been developed, applied and compared. A new mathematical technique has been developed and applied to the vehicle simulation model in order to decrease the computational time of the optimizers. First, the vehicle model equations were written in order to allow a coarse time grid to be used, then, the control variables (i.e., power flow and gear number) were discretized, and the

  18. NONLINEAR DYNAMICAL BIFURCATION AND CHAOTIC MOTION OF SHALLOW CONICAL LATTICE SHELL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin-zhi; HAN Ming-jun; ZHAO Yan-ying; ZHAO Yong-gang

    2006-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamical equations of axle symmetry are established by the method of quasi-shells for three-dimensional shallow conical single-layer lattice shells. The compatible equations are given in geometrical nonlinear range. A nonlinear differential equation containing the second and the third order nonlinear items is derived under the boundary conditions of fixed and clamped edges by the method of Galerkin. The problem of bifurcation is discussed by solving the Floquet exponent. In order to study chaotic motion, the equations of free oscillation of a kind of nonlinear dynamics system are solved. Then an exact solution to nonlinear free oscillation of the shallow conical single-layer lattice shell is found as well. The critical conditions of chaotic motion are obtained by solving Melnikov functions, some phase planes are drawn by using digital simulation proving the existence of chaotic motion.

  19. Phase transformations of under-cooled austenite of new bainitic materials for scissors crossovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pacyna

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains CCT diagrams presenting a transformation kinetics of under-cooled austenite from two new bainitic cast steels which the scissors crossovers for heavy-duty railway tracks (min. 230kN/axle at the speed up to 200 km/h are made of. The cooling ranges of UIC60 type railway tracks plot on the CCT diagrams indicate that there is a 100% bainitic structure in the scissors crossovers made of these cast steels as well, but mainly it would be a favourable for cracking resistance lower bainite. The achievable hardness of scissors crossovers made of new materials make it possible to use high–temperature tempering resulting in obtaining of good crack resistance. However one should provide a good quality of castings made.

  20. Rolling test of turbine generator by non-nuclear steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object and procedure of rolling turbine generator test by non-nuclear steam in Qinshan NPP are presented. The steam source of rolling test is compared and chosen. The steam quantity during the rolling test is simply calculated. The limits of parameters of the test and the preparing for rolling of turbine generator are introduced. Procedures of rolling test are divided into three stage of speed: 600 r/min, 1200 r/min, 3000 r/min. Parameters measured as a result of rolling test, such as absolute vibration of axle, metal temperature of bearings, temperature of oil from the exit of bearings and vacuity of condenser etc, show that the design, manufacture, installation and speed control of turbine generator are satisfactory

  1. Fire protection system management in nuclear facilities: strengthening factor of integrated management system - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study investigated and analyzed the importance of a system of integrated safety manage, environment and health in a nuclear installation, having as perspective, the fire protection manage. The inquiry was made using a qualitative research involving a case study, where the considered environment was the Reconversion and UO2 Plant of the Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), located in Resende, Rio de Janeiro and the studied population, the managers and the staff directly involved with the aspects related to the safety of the industrial complex of the related company. The motivation for the research was the search of a bigger interaction of the questions related to the safety, environment and health in the nuclear industry having, as axle of the investigation, the fire protection. As a result, it was observed that in a nuclear installation, although dealing with diversified safety processes, integration is possible and necessary, since there are more reasons for integration than otherwise. (author)

  2. Comparison of Classical and Modern Uncertainty Qualification Methods for the Calculation of Critical Speeds in Railway Vehicle Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigoni, Daniele; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; True, Hans

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the application of Uncertainty Quantification methods to a railway vehicle dynamical example. Uncertainty Quantification methods take the probability distribution of the system parameters that stems from the parameter tolerances into account in the result. In...... this paper the methods are applied to a lowdimensional vehicle dynamical model composed by a two-axle bogie, which is connected to a car body by a lateral linear spring, a lateral damper and a torsional spring. Their characteristics are not deterministically defined, but they are defined by probability...... distributions. The model - but with deterministically defined parameters - was studied in [1], and this article will focus on the calculation of the critical speed of the model, when the distribution of the parameters is taken into account. Results of the application of the traditional Monte Carlo sampling...

  3. Quantitative analysis of the sediments from the Solimoes/Amazonas river flood plain using energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology for quantitative analysis of geological, biological and environmental samples with a high fraction of light elements (atomic number less than 13), using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique with radioisotopic excitation, is proposed. The proposed procedure is based on the method of Fundamental Parameters for analytical elements (≥->13 evaluation, and coherent and incoherent scattered radiation for the quantitation of the light fraction of the matrix. In the order to obtain the characteristic X-ray of the elements in the Mn to Zr range a Cd-109 annular radioactive source (1,70 GBq) was used, and for Al to CR, Fe-55 (o,74 GBq). For the X-ray detection a Si (Li) detector coupled to a multichannel emulation card was employed. The characteristic X-ray net intensity as well as the coherent and incoherent scattered intensities were obtained by using the AXL software for spectrum analysis. (author). 89 refs., 37 figs., 32 tabs

  4. Integration and road tests of a self-sensing CNT concrete pavement system for traffic detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a self-sensing carbon nanotube (CNT) concrete pavement system for traffic detection is proposed and tested in a roadway. Pre-cast and cast-in-place self-sensing CNT concrete sensors were simultaneously integrated into a controlled pavement test section at the Minnesota Road Research Facility (MnROAD), USA. Road tests of the system were conducted by using an MnROAD five-axle semi-trailer tractor truck and a van, respectively, both in the winter and summer. Test results show that the proposed self-sensing pavement system can accurately detect the passing of different vehicles under different vehicular speeds and test environments. These findings indicate that the developed self-sensing CNT concrete pavement system can achieve real-time vehicle flow detection with a high detection rate and a low false-alarm rate. (paper)

  5. PS main supply: motor-generator set.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    In picture 04 the motor is on the right in the background and the main view is of the generator. The peak power in each PS cycle drawn from the generator, up to 96 MW, is taken from the rotational kinetic energy of the rotor (a heavy-weight of 80 tons), which makes the rotational speed drop by only a few percent. The motor replenishes the average power of 2 to 4 MW. Photo 05: The motor-generator set is serviced every year and, in particular, bearings and slip-rings are carefully checked. To the left is the motor with its slip-rings visible. It has been detached from the axle and moved to the side, so that the rotor can be removed from the huge generator, looming at the right.

  6. Integration and road tests of a self-sensing CNT concrete pavement system for traffic detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Baoguo; Zhang, Kun; Burnham, Tom; Kwon, Eil; Yu, Xun

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a self-sensing carbon nanotube (CNT) concrete pavement system for traffic detection is proposed and tested in a roadway. Pre-cast and cast-in-place self-sensing CNT concrete sensors were simultaneously integrated into a controlled pavement test section at the Minnesota Road Research Facility (MnROAD), USA. Road tests of the system were conducted by using an MnROAD five-axle semi-trailer tractor truck and a van, respectively, both in the winter and summer. Test results show that the proposed self-sensing pavement system can accurately detect the passing of different vehicles under different vehicular speeds and test environments. These findings indicate that the developed self-sensing CNT concrete pavement system can achieve real-time vehicle flow detection with a high detection rate and a low false-alarm rate.

  7. In-service performance and behavior characterization of the hybrid composite bridge system - a case study

    CERN Document Server

    Civitillo, John M; Gheitasi, Amir; Saliba, Mark; Kassner, Bernard L

    2014-01-01

    The Hybrid Composite Beam (HCB) system is an innovative structural technology that has been recently used in bridge construction within the U.S. transportation network. In this system, the superstructure consists of a conventional reinforced concrete deck supported by Hybrid Composite Beams. Each beam is comprised of a glassfiber reinforced polymer (FRP) box shell containing a tied parabolic concrete arch. Inclined stirrups provide shear integrity and enforce composite action between the HCBs and the concrete deck. This paper focuses on evaluating the in-service performance of a newly constructed HCB bridge superstructure located on Route 205 in Colonial Beach, Virginia. A live load test was conducted using tandem axle dump trucks under both quasi-static and dynamic conditions. Results obtained from the experimental investigation were used to determine three key behavior characteristics. Dynamic amplification and lateral load distribution were found to be reasonable in comparison to the assumed design values....

  8. Active Esters as Pseudostoppers for Slippage Synthesis of [2]Pseudorotaxane Building Blocks: A Straightforward Route to Multi-Interlocked Molecular Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legigan, Thibaut; Riss-Yaw, Benjamin; Clavel, Caroline; Coutrot, Frédéric

    2016-06-20

    The efficient synthesis and very easy isolation of dibenzo[24]crown-8-based [2]pseudorotaxane building blocks that contain an active ester motif at the extremity of the encircled molecular axle and an ammonium moiety as a template for the dibenzo[24]crown-8 is reported. The active ester acts both as a semistopper for the [2]pseudorotaxane species and as an extensible extremity. Among the various investigated active ester moieties, those that allow for the slippage process are given particular focus because this strategy produces fewer side products. Extension of the selected N-hydroxysuccinimide ester based pseudorotaxane building block by using either a mono- or a diamino compound, both containing a triazolium moiety, is also described. These provide a pH-dependent two-station [2]rotaxane molecular machine and a palindromic [3]rotaxane molecular machine, respectively. Molecular machinery on both interlocked compounds through variation of pH was studied and characterized by means of NMR spectroscopy. PMID:27239975

  9. Identification of Zika Virus and Dengue Virus Dependency Factors using Functional Genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savidis, George; McDougall, William M; Meraner, Paul; Perreira, Jill M; Portmann, Jocelyn M; Trincucci, Gaia; John, Sinu P; Aker, Aaron M; Renzette, Nicholas; Robbins, Douglas R; Guo, Zhiru; Green, Sharone; Kowalik, Timothy F; Brass, Abraham L

    2016-06-28

    The flaviviruses dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are severe health threats with rapidly expanding ranges. To identify the host cell dependencies of DENV and ZIKV, we completed orthologous functional genomic screens using RNAi and CRISPR/Cas9 approaches. The screens recovered the ZIKV entry factor AXL as well as multiple host factors involved in endocytosis (RAB5C and RABGEF), heparin sulfation (NDST1 and EXT1), and transmembrane protein processing and maturation, including the endoplasmic reticulum membrane complex (EMC). We find that both flaviviruses require the EMC for their early stages of infection. Together, these studies generate a high-confidence, systems-wide view of human-flavivirus interactions and provide insights into the role of the EMC in flavivirus replication. PMID:27342126

  10. Statistical physics of shear flow: a non-equilibrium problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R. M. L.

    2010-09-01

    Complex fluids are easily and reproducibly driven into non-equilibrium steady states by the action of shear flow. The statistics of the microstructure of non-equilibrium fluids is important to the material properties of every complex fluid that flows, e.g. axle grease on a rotating bearing; blood circulating in capillaries; molten plastic flowing into a mould; the non-equilibrium onion phase of amphiphiles used for drug delivery; the list is endless. Such states are as diverse and interesting as equilibrium states, but are not governed by the same statistics as equilibrium materials. I review some recently discovered principles governing the probabilities of various types of molecular re-arrangements taking place within a sheared fluid. As well as providing new foundations for the study of non-equilibrium matter, the principles are applied to some simple models of particles interacting under flow, showing that the theory exhibits physically convincing behaviour.

  11. Brake caliper with offset pads: Innovative brake technology for commercial vehicles offers opportunities to reduce weight and cost; Bremssattel mit tangential versetzten Bremsbelaegen: Innovative Radbremsentechnologie fuer Nutzfahrzeuge bietet neue Moeglichkeiten zur Gewichts- und Kostenreduzierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antony, P.; Blatt, P. [WABCO Radbremsen GmbH, Mannheim (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Continuous optimizations and technical improvements showed no further potential for cost and weight reductions on basis of the conventional technique of a sliding caliper and two supported pads in the carrier. Additionally, global and technical needs are growing. With its 4th generation of air disc brakes and a new caliper concept, WABCO accounts to these developments. Characteristically for the New Generation (NG) is the caliper concept with pad offset in circumferential direction. This presentation describes construction and basics of the system, shows the usage of FEM and elements of Bionic methods and proofs its effectiveness with test bench results. Additional potential for the design of a new interfaces between brake and axle are identified. A significant improved disc cracking behavior offers possibilities for additional cost and weight savings. (orig.)

  12. Characterization of the powertrain components for a hybrid quadricycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, M.; Agnelli, S.; Silvestri, L.; Di Ilio, G.; Giannini, O.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the experimental characterization of a prototyping hybrid electric quadricycle, which is equipped with two independently actuated hub (in-wheel) motors and powered by a 51 V 132 Ah LiFeYPO4 battery pack. Such a vehicle employs two hub motors located in the rear axles in order to independently drive/brake the rear wheels; such architecture allows to implement a torque vectoring system to improve the vehicle dynamics. Due to its actuation flexibility, energy efficiency and performance potentials, this architecture is one of the promising powertrain design for electric quadricycle. Experimental data obtained from measurements on the vehicle powertrain components going from the battery pack to the inverter and to the in-wheel motor were employed to generate the hub motor torque response and power efficiency maps in both driving and regenerative braking modes. Furthermore, the vehicle is equipped with a gasoline internal combustion engine as range extender whose efficiency was also characterized.

  13. Detection of generator bearing inner race creep by means of vibration and temperature analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros; Dragiev, Ivaylo G.; Hilmisson, Reynir;

    2015-01-01

    weighted average descriptor calculated based on the 3rd up to 6th harmonic orders. Two cases of different bearing creep severity are presented, showing the consistency of the combined vibration and temperature data utilization. In general, vibration monitoring reveals early signs of abnormality several......Vibration and temperature analysis are the two dominating condition monitoring techniques applied to fault detection of bearing failures in wind turbine generators. Relative movement between the bearing inner ring and generator axle is one of the most severe failure modes in terms of secondary...... damages and development. Detection of bearing creep can be achieved reliably based on continuous trending of the amplitude of vibration running speed harmonic and temperature absolute values. In order to decrease the number of condition indicators which need to be assessed, it is proposed to exploit a...

  14. Energy harvester for rotating environments using offset pendulum and nonlinear dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an energy harvester for environments that rotate through the Earth’s gravitational field. Example applications include shafts connected to motors, axles, propellers, fans, and wheels or tires. Our approach uses the unique dynamics of an offset pendulum along with a nonlinear bistable restoring spring to improve the operational bandwidth of the system. Depending on the speed of the rotating environment, the system can act as a bistable oscillator, monostable stiffening oscillator, or linear oscillator. We apply our approach to a tire pressure monitoring system mounted on a car rim. Simulation and experimental test results show that the prototype generator is capable of directly powering an RF transmission every 60 s or less over a speed range of 10 to 155 kph. (paper)

  15. Rutting based evaluation of asphalt mixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavement rutting is one of the most common and destructive pavement distresses being observed in flexible pavements, which is primarily due to a-x-le loads that exceed legal limit and high ambient temperatures, and also poor mix design is one of the cause of rutting. The drastic increase in traffic volume during last few decades has resulted in premature pavement fillers of almost the whole road structure in Pakistan. In this scenario it is the time to investigate this problem and propose appropriate solution. Physical properties of aggregates and bitumen were evaluated in the laboratory. Mechanical Properties of three mixes. i.e., Marshall, Super pave and Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA) were evaluated by performing creep test. indirect tensile test and dynamic modulus in order to compare the performance of mixes under prevailing load and environmental conditions of Pakistan. The study revealed that Super pave mixes performed better than Marshall and SMA. (author)

  16. Coupling between elytra of some beetles: Mechanism, forces and effect of surface texture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Lightweight materials, structures and coupling mechanisms are very important for realizing advanced flight vehicles. Here, we obtained the geometric structures and morphologies of the elytra of beetles and ascertained its coupling zone by using the histological section technique and SEM. We set up a three-dimensional motion observing system to monitor the opening and closing behaviour of elytra in beetles and to determine the motion mechanism. We constructed a force measuring system to measure the coupling forces between elytra. The results show that elytra open and close by rotating about a single axle, where the coupling forces may be as high as 160 times its own bodyweight, the elytra coupling with the tenon and mortise mechanism, surface texture and opening angle between elytra heavily influence the coupling forces. These results may provide insights into the design mechanism and structure for future vehicles of flight.

  17. Mathematical model of complex technical asymmetric system based on numerical-analytical boundary elements method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina V. Lazareva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new mathematical model of asymmetric support structure frame type is built on the basis of numerical-analytical boundary elements method (BEM. To describe the design scheme used is the graph theory. Building the model taken into account is the effect of frame members restrained torsion, which presence is due to the fact that these elements are thin-walled. The built model represents a real object as a two-axle semi-trailer platform. To implement the BEM algorithm obtained are analytical expressions of the fundamental functions and vector load components. The effected calculations are based on the semi-trailer two different models, using finite elements and boundary elements methods. The analysis showed that the error between the results obtained on the basis of two numerical methods and experimental data is about 4%, that indicates the adequacy of the proposed mathematical model.

  18. Identification of Zika Virus and Dengue Virus Dependency Factors using Functional Genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Savidis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The flaviviruses dengue virus (DENV and Zika virus (ZIKV are severe health threats with rapidly expanding ranges. To identify the host cell dependencies of DENV and ZIKV, we completed orthologous functional genomic screens using RNAi and CRISPR/Cas9 approaches. The screens recovered the ZIKV entry factor AXL as well as multiple host factors involved in endocytosis (RAB5C and RABGEF, heparin sulfation (NDST1 and EXT1, and transmembrane protein processing and maturation, including the endoplasmic reticulum membrane complex (EMC. We find that both flaviviruses require the EMC for their early stages of infection. Together, these studies generate a high-confidence, systems-wide view of human-flavivirus interactions and provide insights into the role of the EMC in flavivirus replication.

  19. ac propulsion system for an electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert, S.

    1980-01-01

    It is pointed out that dc drives will be the logical choice for current production electric vehicles (EV). However, by the mid-80's, there is a good chance that the price and reliability of suitable high-power semiconductors will allow for a competitive ac system. The driving force behind the ac approach is the induction motor, which has specific advantages relative to a dc shunt or series traction motor. These advantages would be an important factor in the case of a vehicle for which low maintenance characteristics are of primary importance. A description of an EV ac propulsion system is provided, taking into account the logic controller, the inverter, the motor, and a two-speed transmission-differential-axle assembly. The main barrier to the employment of the considered propulsion system in EV is not any technical problem, but inverter transistor cost.

  20. Time-frequency analysis of railway bridge response in forced vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantero, Daniel; Ülker-Kaustell, Mahir; Karoumi, Raid

    2016-08-01

    This paper suggests the use of the Continuous Wavelet Transform in combination with the Modified Littlewood-Paley basis to analyse bridge responses exited by traversing trains. The analysis provides an energy distribution map in the time-frequency domain that offers a better resolution compared to previous published studies. This is demonstrated with recorded responses of the Skidträsk Bridge, a 36 m long composite bridge located in Sweden. It is shown to be particularly useful to understand the evolution of the energy content during a vehicle crossing event. With this information it is possible to distinguish the effect of several of the governing factors involved in the dynamic response including vehicle's speed and axle configuration as well as non-linear behaviour of the structure.

  1. Modelling and modal properties of the railway vehicle bogie with two individual wheelset drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeman V.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with mathematical modelling of vibration and modal analysis of two-axled bogie of a railway vehicle. In comparison with recent publications introducing mathematical models of an individual wheelset drive, this paper is focused on modelling of complex bogie vibration. The bogie frame is linked by primary suspension to the two wheelset drives with hollow shafts and by secondary suspension to the car body. The method is based on the system decomposition into three subsystems – two individual wheelset drives including the mass of the rail and the bogie frame coupled with a half of the car body – and on modelling of couplings among subsystems. The eigenvalues of a linearized autonomous model and stability conditions are investigated in dependence on longitudinal creepage and forward velocity of the railway vehicle. The nonlinear model will be used for investigating the dynamic loading of bogie components caused by different types of excitation.

  2. Experimental Semiautonomous Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.; Mishkin, Andrew H.; Litwin, Todd E.; Matthies, Larry H.; Cooper, Brian K.; Nguyen, Tam T.; Gat, Erann; Gennery, Donald B.; Firby, Robert J.; Miller, David P.; Loch, John L.; Slack, Marc G.

    1993-01-01

    Semiautonomous rover vehicle serves as testbed for evaluation of navigation and obstacle-avoidance techniques. Designed to traverse variety of terrains. Concepts developed applicable to robots for service in dangerous environments as well as to robots for exploration of remote planets. Called Robby, vehicle 4 m long and 2 m wide, with six 1-m-diameter wheels. Mass of 1,200 kg and surmounts obstacles as large as 1 1/2 m. Optimized for development of machine-vision-based strategies and equipped with complement of vision and direction sensors and image-processing computers. Front and rear cabs steer and roll with respect to centerline of vehicle. Vehicle also pivots about central axle, so wheels comply with almost any terrain.

  3. Mechanical characterization of journal superconducting magnetic bearings: stiffness, hysteresis and force relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superconducting magnetic bearings (SMBs) can provide stable levitation without direct contact between them and a magnetic source (typically a permanent magnet). In this context, superconducting magnetic levitation provides a new tool for mechanical engineers to design non-contact mechanisms solving the tribological problems associated with contact at very low temperatures. In the last years, different mechanisms have been proposed taking advantage of superconducting magnetic levitation. Flywheels, conveyors or mechanisms for high-precision positioning. In this work the mechanical stiffness of a journal SMBs have been experimentally studied. Both radial and axial stiffness have been considered. The influence of the size and shape of the permanent magnets (PM), the size and shape of the HTS, the polarization and poles configuration of PMs of the journal SMB have been studied experimentally. Additionally, in this work hysteresis behavior and force relaxation are considered because they are essential for mechanical engineer when designing bearings that hold levitating axles.

  4. Vibration analysis of medium and small span bridges subjected to mixed marshalling freight trains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    It has been reported several times that train derailment occurs when mixed marshalling freight trains traverse bridges at high speeds in China.This study aims to explain this phenomenon numerically based on the train-bridge coupling vibration theory and its associated computer program.The train-bridge vibration characteristic is analyzed by a computer program when mixed marshalling freight trains traverse 32-meter-span prestressed concrete simple beam bridges.The mechanism that dynamic responses of the bridges are prominent and that empty trains are inclined to derail are derived from the dynamic responses analysis.The analysis indicates that the significant differences of axle loads between heavy vehicles and empty vehicles produce periodic forced loadings of large amplitudes.These periodic loadings cause severe vibration of bridges.In turn,severe vibration of the bridges produces intensive counteraction to empty vehicles.

  5. Identification of GPR65, a novel regulator of matrix metalloproteinases using high through-put screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongbo; Chen, Xiaohong; Huang, Junwei; Deng, Weiwei; Zhong, Qi; Yue, Changli; Wang, Pingzhang; Huang, Zhigang

    2013-06-21

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are over-expressed in nearly all cancers. To study novel regulatory factors of MMP expression in head and neck cancer (HNC), we screened a total of 636 candidate genes encoding putative human transmembrane proteins using MMP promoter reporter in a dual luciferase assay system. Three genes GPR65, AXL and TNFRSF10B dramatically activated the induction of MMP3 expression. The induction of MMP expression by GPR65 was further confirmed in A549 and/or FaDu cells. GPR65 mediated MMP induction under acidic conditions. The AP-1 binding site in MMP3 promoter was crucial for MMP3 induction. Moreover, the A549 cells infected by recombinant adenovirus of GPR65 showed accelerated cell invasion. In conclusion, we validate that GPR65 is vital regulatory genes upstream of MMP3, and define a novel mechanism of MMP3 regulation by proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptors. PMID:23707809

  6. The IMO-1 mobile irradiation unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IMO-I is made up by a gamma irradiation bucket and a fixed source, mounted on a trailer specially designed. This equipment has been completed with a radiocomunication device. The irradiator unit consist of two fixed and one movable body. The irradiation bucket has a volume of 30 x 40 x 30 cm and is moved through an hydraulic system with allows its vertical movement between the upper or charging position and the bottom or irradiation position. The telecontrol device has been installed in the room contiguous to the irradiator. The conventional industrial sources of Co60, are vertically located in stainless steel source holders at the botton fixed body and they can be changed according with the desired geometry. The trailer has been built over a plain chassis assembled structure with a double axle at the rear. It consists of two rooms, one for the irradiator machine and the other one for the telecontrol device and the radiocomunication facility. (author)

  7. Study on Self-Repairing Performance of Mineral Powder Lubrication Oil Additive to Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yan-bao; XU Bin-shi; XU Yi

    2004-01-01

    By means of the engine shelf test, the gas escape amount of bent axle box was measured before and after adding hydroxyl silicate mineral powder lubrication oil additives, and discovered that gas escape amount after self-repaired is obviously smaller than before, the average gas escape amount of each rotate speed descend 6.5 %. Watching friction surface with SEM, discovered that the part of net veins in the cylinder inner surface are smoothly patched. Analysis with energy spectroscopy, discovered that there are some changing of atom component. Proofed that through rub chemical reaction, hydroxyl silicate mineral powder lubrication oil additives can generate new substance layer on friction surface, and can increase cylinder inner surface bulk, thereby get the repaired effects.

  8. Efficiency Improvement through Reduction in Friction and Wear in Powertrain Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Killian

    2009-09-30

    The objective of this project is to improve the efficiency of truck drivelines through reduction of friction and parasitic losses in transmission and drive axles. Known efficiencies for these products exceeded 97 percent, so the task was not trivial. The project relied on a working relationship between modeling and hardware testing. Modeling was to shorten the development cycle by guiding the selection of materials, processes and strategies. Bench top and fixture tests were to validate the models. Modeling was performed at a world class, high academic level, but in the end, modeling did not impact the hardware development as much as intended. Insights leading to the most significant accomplishments came from bench top and fixture tests and full scale dynamometer tests. A key development in the project was the formulation of the implementation strategy. Five technical elements with potential to minimize friction and parasitic losses were identified. These elements included churning, lubrication, surface roughness, coatings and textures. An interesting fact is that both Caterpillar and Eaton independently converged on the same set of technical elements in formulating their implementation strategies. Exploiting technical elements of the implementation strategy had a positive impact on transmission and drive axle efficiencies. During one dynamometer test of an Eaton Best Tech 1 transmission, all three gear ranges tested: Under drive, direct drive and over drive, showed efficiencies greater than 99 percent. Technology boosts to efficiency for transmissions reached 1 percent, while efficiency improvements to drive axle pushed 2 percent. These advancements seem small, but the accomplishment is large considering that these products normally run at greater than 97 percent efficiency. Barriers and risks to implementing these technology elements are clear. Schemes using a low fill sump and spray tubes endanger the gears and bearings by lubricant starvation. Gear coatings have

  9. Study of the railway vehicle suspension using the multibody method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe GHITA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a mathematical model for the study of a passenger coach hunting motion using the multibody approach. The model comprises the lateral displacement, rolling and yawing motions for the main constitutive elements: axles, bogies and case. The equation system is written applying energetic methods. The forced vibrations determined by the irregular profile of the tracks are considered. The wheel – rail contact forces are expressed using the creepage coefficients established according to Kalker's linear theory. The equations system is solved through numeric methods using specialized calculus programs. The response of the system – passenger coach on a tangent track, the critical speed and the influence of the constructive characteristics of the coach on its performances are determined.

  10. Rear wheel torque vectoring model predictive control with velocity regulation for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siampis, Efstathios; Velenis, Efstathios; Longo, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we propose a constrained optimal control architecture for combined velocity, yaw and sideslip regulation for stabilisation of the vehicle near the limit of lateral acceleration using the rear axle electric torque vectoring configuration of an electric vehicle. A nonlinear vehicle and tyre model are used to find reference steady-state cornering conditions and design two model predictive control (MPC) strategies of different levels of fidelity: one that uses a linearised version of the full vehicle model with the rear wheels' torques as the input, and another one that neglects the wheel dynamics and uses the rear wheels' slips as the input instead. After analysing the relative trade-offs between performance and computational effort, we compare the two MPC strategies against each other and against an unconstrained optimal control strategy in Simulink and Carsim environment.

  11. Dynamic wheelset drive load of the railway vehicle caused by short-circuit motor moment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeman V.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with mathematical modelling of dynamic response of the railway vehicle wheelset drives caused by short-circuit traction motor torque. The individual wheelset drive with hollow graduated shaft is one of subsystems of the two-axled vehicle bogie with two wheelset drives. The model respects the viscoelastic suspension of the both engine stators with gear housings mounted on the bogie frame and all the other couplings among bogie drive components. The dynamic response is investigated in dependence on longitudinal creepage and forward velocity of the vehicle at the moment of the sudden short-circuit in one asynchronous traction motor. The method is applied to bogie of the electric locomotive developed for speed about 200 km/h by the company ŠKODA TRANSPORTATION, s. r. o. The wheelset drive vibration is confronted with stability conditions of the whole bogie.

  12. Um estudo sobre a psicanálise aplicada em um hospital geral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Gomes Cruz Dutra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This work came from a dissertation of mastership, witch main objective was to verify how psychoanalysis practice inserts in institutional contexts guided by other discourses. To point out the function of the psychoanalyst in the General Hospital, specially in the Núcleo de Investigação em Anorexia e Bulimia (NIAB of the Hospital das Clínicas of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG, constitutes the main target of this study, which was carried out as far as bibliographical revision on applied psychoanalysis is concerned and also of interviews with thirteen professionals of the NIAB, where practice of psychoanalysis makes a known work in the state of Minas Gerais. The data obtained in the interviews with these thirteen professionals were organized under the form of eleven subject-axles, that made possible the analysis of content of them and the survey of basic questions, then considered under the perspective of the psychoanalysis of lacanian orientation.

  13. Operation mechanism of a molecular machine revealed using time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panman, Matthijs R; Bodis, Pavol; Shaw, Daniel J; Bakker, Bert H; Newton, Arthur C; Kay, Euan R; Brouwer, Albert M; Buma, Wybren Jan; Leigh, David A; Woutersen, Sander

    2010-06-01

    Rotaxanes comprise macrocycles that can shuttle between docking stations along an axle. We explored the nanosecond shuttling mechanism by reversing the relative binding affinities of two stations through ultraviolet-induced transient reduction. We monitored the ensuing changes in the CO-stretching bands of the two stations and the shuttling macrocycle by means of an infrared probing pulse. Because hydrogen-bond scission and formation at the initial and final stations led to well-resolved changes in the respective CO-stretch frequencies, the departure and arrival of the macrocycle could be observed separately. We found that the shuttling involves two steps: thermally driven escape from the initial station, followed by rapid motion along the track ending either at the initial or final station. By varying the track's length, we found that the rapid motion approximates a biased one-dimensional random walk. However, surprisingly, the direction of the overall motion is opposite that of the bias. PMID:20522770

  14. Water lubricates hydrogen-bonded molecular machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panman, Matthijs R; Bakker, Bert H; den Uyl, David; Kay, Euan R; Leigh, David A; Buma, Wybren Jan; Brouwer, Albert M; Geenevasen, Jan A J; Woutersen, Sander

    2013-11-01

    The mechanical behaviour of molecular machines differs greatly from that of their macroscopic counterparts. This applies particularly when considering concepts such as friction and lubrication, which are key to optimizing the operation of macroscopic machinery. Here, using time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy and NMR-lineshape analysis, we show that for molecular machinery consisting of hydrogen-bonded components the relative motion of the components is accelerated strongly by adding small amounts of water. The translation of a macrocycle along a thread and the rotation of a molecular wheel around an axle both accelerate significantly on the addition of water, whereas other protic liquids have much weaker or opposite effects. We tentatively assign the superior accelerating effect of water to its ability to form a three-dimensional hydrogen-bond network between the moving parts of the molecular machine. These results may indicate a more general phenomenon that helps explain the function of water as the 'lubricant of life'. PMID:24153370

  15. Water lubricates hydrogen-bonded molecular machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panman, Matthijs R.; Bakker, Bert H.; den Uyl, David; Kay, Euan R.; Leigh, David A.; Buma, Wybren Jan; Brouwer, Albert M.; Geenevasen, Jan A. J.; Woutersen, Sander

    2013-11-01

    The mechanical behaviour of molecular machines differs greatly from that of their macroscopic counterparts. This applies particularly when considering concepts such as friction and lubrication, which are key to optimizing the operation of macroscopic machinery. Here, using time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy and NMR-lineshape analysis, we show that for molecular machinery consisting of hydrogen-bonded components the relative motion of the components is accelerated strongly by adding small amounts of water. The translation of a macrocycle along a thread and the rotation of a molecular wheel around an axle both accelerate significantly on the addition of water, whereas other protic liquids have much weaker or opposite effects. We tentatively assign the superior accelerating effect of water to its ability to form a three-dimensional hydrogen-bond network between the moving parts of the molecular machine. These results may indicate a more general phenomenon that helps explain the function of water as the ‘lubricant of life’.

  16. Fire protection system management in nuclear facilities: strengthening factor of integrated management system - a case study; Gestao de sistema de protecao contra incendio em instalacoes nucleares: fator de fortalecimento do sistema de gestao integrada - um estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Joao Regis dos

    2005-07-01

    The present study investigated and analyzed the importance of a system of integrated safety manage, environment and health in a nuclear installation, having as perspective, the fire protection manage. The inquiry was made using a qualitative research involving a case study, where the considered environment was the Reconversion and UO{sub 2} Plant of the Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), located in Resende, Rio de Janeiro and the studied population, the managers and the staff directly involved with the aspects related to the safety of the industrial complex of the related company. The motivation for the research was the search of a bigger interaction of the questions related to the safety, environment and health in the nuclear industry having, as axle of the investigation, the fire protection. As a result, it was observed that in a nuclear installation, although dealing with diversified safety processes, integration is possible and necessary, since there are more reasons for integration than otherwise. (author)

  17. Time-frequency processing of track irregularities in high-speed train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Jing; Lin, Jianhui; Zhang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Track irregularities are the main source of vehicle vibration. With the increase in the speed, the track irregularities have become a more significant issue of concerned. The axle box acceleration signals can be obtained for analyzing the track irregularities, but the signals are usually non-stationary and signal processing results are not normally satisfied with the ordinary way. Thus, time-frequency distribution analysis is proposed to use in this study. To minimize the cross-terms, a new method based on Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and Cohen's class distribution has been developed and advanced. This approach has been tested with three typical simulation signals and then applied to analyze the track irregularities. The result is consistent with the result from track inspection cars. This indicates this new algorithm is suitable for analyzing the track irregularities. It can be applied in rail irregularity measurement to compensate some shortages of the track inspection cars.

  18. Strength properties of the jointed rock mass medium under dynamic cyclic loading *

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The dynamic strength properties of the intermittently jointed mediums are studied using model test to investigate the jointed rock mass behavior under dynamic cyclic load. The model test results demonstrate that (i) the dynamic strength of the jointed samples increases with the loading frequency and decreases with the loading loops; (ii) the dynamic residual strength will not be zero like the static residual strength under one-axle loading condition; (iii) the dynamic strength changes greatly with the joint density and joint angle, and it differs from that of the static strength which reaches the lowest at an angle of 45° + ψ/2, while in the dynamic case, the lowest strength is at the angle of 45°.

  19. 基于FFT、光电传感器的多功能健身监测仪的研究%Research on Multifunctional Fitness Monitor Based on FFT and Photoelectric Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田鹤; 朱欢燕; 张钰; 张珣

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a multifunctional fitness monitor based on FFT and photoelectric sensor, which uses pulse-type and non-invasive detection method to complete the analysis of the human blood oxygen saturation and heart rate. The system col ects the absorption of red and infrared light absorbed by fingertip, then by programmable gain amplifier and the Fast Fourier analysis, it extracts the amplitude, frequency of the AC signal. PIC24FJ128GA010 is used to complete the col ection, automatic gain judgment and signal processing. Final y, the result is calibrateed by pulse blood oxygen emulator. Furthermore, it realizes the pedometer function based on three axles acceleration sensors MMA7260, which enhances fitness monitor’s usability and al ows people to obtain dynamic physiological signs when exercising.

  20. The sophisticated control of the tram bogie on track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan DOLECEK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problems of routing control algorithms of new conception of tram vehicle bogie. The main goal of these research activities is wear reduction of rail wheels and tracks, wear reduction of traction energy losses and increasing of running comfort. The testing experimental tram vehicle with special bogie construction powered by traction battery is utilized for these purposes. This vehicle has a rotary bogie with independent rotating wheels driven by permanent magnets synchronous motors and a solid axle. The wheel forces in bogie are measured by large amounts of the various sensors placed on the testing experimental tram vehicle. Nowadays the designed control algorithms are implemented to the vehicle superset control system. The traction requirements and track characteristics have an effect to these control algorithms. This control including sophisticated routing brings other improvements which is verified and corrected according to individual traction and driving characteristics, and opens new possibilities.

  1. Control of AWD System for Vehicle Performance and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hojin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AWD (All-Wheel Drive system transfers drive force to all wheels so that it can help vehicle escape low mu surface or climb hill more conveniently. Recently, AWD system for on road vehicle has become popular to improve vehicle driving performance. However, there has not been enough research of applying AWD system for vehicle stability especially for lateral movement. Compared with ESC (Electronic Stability Control, AWD system does not cause any inconveniences to the driver because it controls vehicle only by distributing front and rear drive torque, without using brake. By allowing slipping/locking of wet clutch inside the transfer case, AWD system can distribute different amount of torque between front and rear axle. This paper introduces modelling of AWD system and suggests the control of AWD system based on peak slip ratio and slip angle at which tyre saturates. Carsim based vehicle simulation results of AWD controller is presented.

  2. Stress Ratio Effect on Ratcheting Behavior of AISI 4340 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divya Bharathi, K.; Dutta, K.

    2016-02-01

    Ratcheting is known as accumulation of plastic strain during asymmetric cyclic loading of metallic materials under non-zero mean stress. This phenomenon reduces fatigue life of engineering materials and thus limits the life prediction capacity of Coffin-Manson relationship. This study intends to investigate the ratcheting behavior in AISI 4340 steel which is mainly used for designing of railway wheel sets, axles, shafts, aircraft components and other machinery parts. The effect of stress ratio on the ratcheting behaviour in both annealed and normalised conditions were investigated for investigated steel. Ratcheting tests were done at different stress ratios of -0.4, -0.6 and -0.8. The results showed that the material responds to hardening behavior and nature of strain accumulation is dependent on the magnitude of stress ratio. The post ratcheted samples showed increase in tensile strength and hardness which increases with increasing stress ratio and these variations in tensile properties are correlated with the induced cyclic hardening.

  3. Maintenance management of Holke milling machine's universal dividing head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Management in general can be interpreted as a rule for controlling the number of people to achieve the goals desired. Management of maintenance activities can be developed from the above definition by describing the activities of the universal dividing head treatment at Holke milling machine. The equipment is a major tool in the milling machine used to manufacture a wide range of very precise grooves, the hole and diameter should have the same distance, and the even and uneven distribution. The tool was damaged and cannot be functioned. The bearing of fulcrum axle was crushed and the screw shaft was worn out due to aging. Therefore, maintenance activity was carried out by replacing of bearing. Function test was then made, and the result shows that the universal dividing head can function well. (author)

  4. Optimization analysis of a new vane MRF damper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary purpose of this study was to provide the optimization analysis certain characteristics and benefits of a vane MRF damper. Based on the structure of conventional vane hydraulic damper for heavy vehicle, a narrow arc gap between clapboard and rotary vane axle, which one rotates relative to the other, was designed for MRF valve and the mathematical model of damping was deduced. Subsequently, the finite element analysis of electromagnetic circuit was done by ANSYS to perform the optimization process. Some ways were presented to augment the damping adjustable multiple under the condition of keeping initial damping forces and to increase fluid dwell time through the magnetic field. The results show that the method is useful in the design of MR dampers and the damping adjustable range of vane MRF damper can meet the requirement of heavy vehicle semi-active suspension system.

  5. Deformation Properties and Fatigue of Bituminous Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantisek Schlosser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Deformation properties and fatigue performance are important characteristics of asphalt bound materials which are used for construction of pavement layers. Viscoelastic asphalt mixtures are better characterized via dynamic tests. This type of tests allows us to collate materials with regard to axle vibrations which lie usually in the range of 6 Hz–25 Hz for standard conditions. Asphalt modified for heat sensitivity in the range from −20°C to +60°C has significant impact on the overall characteristics of the mixture. Deformation properties are used as inputs for empirical mixture design, and fatigue performance of asphalt mixtures reflects the parameters of functional tests. Master curves convey properties of asphalt mixtures for various conditions and allow us to evaluate them without the need of time expensive testing.

  6. 沥青层模量累积疲劳损伤衰减的试验研究%Experimental Study on Modulus Degradation of Asphalt Layer due to Cumulative Fatigue Damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛连旭; 陈少幸; 张肖宁

    2008-01-01

    在加速加载试验过程中,采用落锤式弯沉仪测量不同轴载作用次数下路面弯沉,反算沥青层模量,得到路面整个寿命周期的沥青层模量衰减模型.结果表明,累积疲劳损伤下,沥青层模量与加载作用在半对数坐标成线性相关.%Falling weight deflectometer Was used tomeasure the deflection of surface pavement under different ALF axle loading in accelerated loading test.Back-calculated the modulus of asphalt layer.determined the reduetion in modulus of the asphalt layer during the whole life of pavement are presented.The result shows a linear relationship between asphalt layer modulus and cumulative fatigue damage plated on semilog scales.

  7. The TAM family: phosphatidylserine sensing receptor tyrosine kinases gone awry in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Douglas K; DeRyckere, Deborah; Davies, Kurtis D; Earp, H Shelton

    2014-12-01

    The TYRO3, AXL (also known as UFO) and MERTK (TAM) family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are aberrantly expressed in multiple haematological and epithelial malignancies. Rather than functioning as oncogenic drivers, their induction in tumour cells predominately promotes survival, chemoresistance and motility. The unique mode of maximal activation of this RTK family requires an extracellular lipid–protein complex. For example, the protein ligand, growth arrest-specific protein 6 (GAS6), binds to phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) that is externalized on apoptotic cell membranes, which activates MERTK on macrophages. This triggers engulfment of apoptotic material and subsequent anti-inflammatory macrophage polarization. In tumours, autocrine and paracrine ligands and apoptotic cells are abundant, which provide a survival signal to the tumour cell and favour an anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive microenvironment. Thus, TAM kinase inhibition could stimulate antitumour immunity, reduce tumour cell survival, enhance chemosensitivity and diminish metastatic potential. PMID:25568918

  8. Coal transportation road damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy trucks are primarily responsible for pavement damage to the nation's highways. In this paper we evaluate the pavement damage caused by coal trucks. We analyze the chief source of pavement damage (vehicle weight per axle, not total vehicle weight) and the chief cost involved (the periodic overlay that is required when a road's surface becomes worn). This analysis is presented in two stages. In the first section we present a synopsis of current economic theory including simple versions of the formulas that can be: used to calculate costs of pavement wear. In the second section we apply this theory to a specific example proximate to the reference environment for the Fuel Cycle Study in New Mexico in order to provide a numerical measure of the magnitude of the costs

  9. Multibody simulations of trolleybus vertical dynamics and influences of spring-damper structural elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polach P.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Vertical dynamic properties of the ŠKODA 21 Tr low-floor trolleybus were investigated on an artificial test track when driving with a real vehicle and when simulating driving with a multibody model along a virtual test track. Driving along the artificial test track was aimed to determine vertical dynamic properties of the real trolleybus and on the basis of them to verify computer trolleybus models. Time histories and extreme values of the air springs relative deflections are the monitored quantities. Due to differences of the experiments and the computer simulations results the influences of the characteristics of the spring-damper structural elements of the axles suspension and the radial characteristics of the tires used in the trolleybus multibody model on the extreme values of the monitored quantities are evaluated.

  10. Rating forces grip and driving and accelerations of the car with drive different configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalski Mariusz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows a typical drive systems used in today's vehicles, mainly cars. Approximated scheme of the formation of the driving force of the vehicle and the necessary mathematical relations for the calculation. For example, a typical passenger car BMW 320 was analyzed and calculations obtained a driving force, of adhesion and acceleration. The calculations were performed for the drive system, the classical (i.e. the rear axle of the vehicle for front-wheel drive and four-wheel drive (4×4. Virtually assumed that to the above mentioned vehicle it is possible buildings of each of said system. These are shown graphically in diagrams bearing a distribution of the forces acting on the substrate and the reactions - the data necessary for the calculations. The resulting calculation is graphically shown in the diagrams, in which is illustrated a change value of the resulting adhesive strength, and the acceleration depending on the drive type vehicle.

  11. Axis Problem of Rough 3-Valued Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhua Dai; Weidong Chen; Yunhe Pan

    2006-01-01

    The collection of all the rough sets of an approximation space has been given several algebraic interpretations, including Stone algebras, regular double Stone algebras, semi-simple Nelson algebras, pre-rough algebras and 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebras. A 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebra is a Stone algebra, a regular double Stone algebra, a semi-simple Nelson algebra, a pre-rough algebra. Thus, we call the algebra constructed by the collection of rough sets of an approximation space a rough 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebra. In this paper,the rough 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebras, which are a special kind of 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebras, are studied. Whether the rough 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebra is a axled 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebra is examined.

  12. MCF-10A-NeoST: A New Cell System for Studying Cell-ECM and Cell-Cell Interactions in Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zantek, Nicole Dodge; Walker-Daniels, Jennifer; Stewart, Jane; Hansen, Rhonda K.; Robinson, Daniel; Miao, Hui; Wang, Bingcheng; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Bissell, Mina J.; Kinch, Michael S.

    2001-08-22

    There is a continuing need for genetically matched cell systems to model cellular behaviors that are frequently observed in aggressive breast cancers. We report here the isolation and initial characterization of a spontaneously arising variant of MCF-10A cells, NeoST, which provides a new model to study cell adhesion and signal transduction in breast cancer. NeoST cells recapitulate important biological and biochemical features of metastatic breast cancer, including anchorage-independent growth, invasiveness in threedimensional reconstituted membranes, loss of E-cadherin expression, and increased tyrosine kinase activity. A comprehensive analysis of tyrosine kinase expression revealed overexpression or functional activation of the Axl, FAK, and EphA2 tyrosine kinases in transformed MCF-10A cells. MCF-10A and these new derivatives provide a genetically matched model to study defects in cell adhesion and signaling that are relevant to cellular behaviors that often typify aggressive breast cancer cells.

  13. Power Tillers for Demining: Blast Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Elisa Cepolina

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Power tillers are very simple and versatile machines with large scale diffusion in developing countries, where they are commonly used both for agriculture and for transportation purposes. A new integrated participatory approach that makes use of and improves local end-users knowledge has been used to design a new robotic system for humanitarian demining applications in Sri Lanka, using power tiller as core module. A demining machine composed by a tractor unit, a ground processing tool and a vegetation cutting tool is here presented together with results obtained from the first blast test on the preliminary version of tractor unit armouring. Different breakable connections between wheels and axle have been designed to cause physical detachment and interrupt the transmission of the shock wave released by the explosion of a mine under one wheel. Effects of explosions on different types of wheels and on the chassis have been recorded and commented.

  14. In-Service Evaluation of HVOF Coated Main Landing Gear on Navy P-3 Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereaux, jon L.; Forrest, Clint

    2008-01-01

    Due to the environmental and health concerns with Electroplated Hard Chrome (EHC), the Hard Chrome Alternatives Team (HCAT) has been working to provide an alternative wear coating for EHC. The US Navy selected Tungsten-Carbide Cobalt (WC- 17Co) High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coating for this purpose and completed service evaluations on select aircraft components to support the HCAT charter in identifying an alternative wear coating for chrome plating. Other benefits of WC-Co thermal spray coatings over EHC are enhanced corrosion resistance, improved durability, and exceptional wear properties. As part of the HCAT charter and to evaluate HVOF coatings on operational Navy components, the P-3 aircraft was selected for a service evaluation to determine the coating durability as compared to chrome plating. In April 1999, a VP-30 P-3 aircraft was outfitted with a right-hand Main Landing Gear (MLG) shock strut coated with WCCo HYOF thermal spray applied to the piston barrel and four axle journals. The HVOF coating on the piston barrel and axle journals was applied by Southwest United Industries, Inc. This HVOF coated strut assembly has since completed 6,378 landings. Teardown analysis .for this WC-Co HVOF coated MLG asset is significant in assessing the durability of this wear coating in service relative to EHC and to substantiate Life Cycle Cost (LCC) data to support a retrograde transition from EHC to HVOF thermal spray coatings. Findings from this teardown analysis may also benefit future transitions to HVOF thermal spray coatings by identifying enhancements to finishing techniques, mating bearing and liner material improvements, improved seal materials, and improvements in HVOF coating selection.

  15. Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Defects Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL

    2012-12-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), along with the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), has an interest in overweight commercial motor vehicles, how they affect infrastructure, and their impact on safety on the nation s highways. To assist both FHWA and FMCSA in obtaining more information related to this interest, data was collected and analyzed from two separate sources. A large scale nationwide data collection effort was facilitated by the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance as part of a special study on overweight vehicles and an additional, smaller set, of data was collected from the state of Tennessee which included a much more detailed set of data. Over a six-month period, 1,873 Level I inspections were performed in 18 different states that volunteered to be a part of this study. Of the 1,873 inspections, a vehicle out-of-service (OOS) violation was found on 44.79% of the vehicles, a rate significantly higher than the national OOS rate of 27.23%. The main cause of a vehicle being placed OOS was brake-related defects, with approximately 30% of all vehicles having an OOS brake violation. Only about 4% of vehicles had an OOS tire violation, and even fewer had suspension and wheel violations. Vehicle weight violations were most common on an axle group as opposed to a gross vehicle weight violation. About two thirds of the vehicles cited with a weight violation were overweight on an axle group with an average amount of weight over the legal limit of about 2,000 lbs. Data collection is scheduled to continue through January 2014, with more potentially more states volunteering to collect data. More detailed data collections similar to the Tennessee data collection will also be performed in multiple states.

  16. A Novel Vehicle Classification Using Embedded Strain Gauge Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper presents a new vehicle classification and develops a traffic monitoring detector to provide reliable vehicle classification to aid traffic management systems. The basic principle of this approach is based on measuring the dynamic strain caused by vehicles across pavement to obtain the corresponding vehicle parameters – wheelbase and number of axles – to then accurately classify the vehicle. A system prototype with five embedded strain sensors was developed to validate the accuracy and effectiveness of the classification method. According to the special arrangement of the sensors and the different time a vehicle arrived at the sensors one can estimate the vehicle’s speed accurately, corresponding to the estimated vehicle wheelbase and number of axles. Because of measurement errors and vehicle characteristics, there is a lot of overlap between vehicle wheelbase patterns. Therefore, directly setting up a fixed threshold for vehicle classification often leads to low-accuracy results. Using the machine learning pattern recognition method to deal with this problem is believed as one of the most effective tools. In this study, support vector machines (SVMs were used to integrate the classification features extracted from the strain sensors to automatically classify vehicles into five types, ranging from small vehicles to combination trucks, along the lines of the Federal Highway Administration vehicle classification guide. Test bench and field experiments will be introduced in this paper. Two support vector machines classification algorithms (one-against-all, one-against-one are used to classify single sensor data and multiple sensor combination data. Comparison of the two classification method results shows that the classification accuracy is very close using single data or multiple data. Our results indicate that using multiclass SVM-based fusion multiple sensor data significantly improves

  17. MicroRNA expression and clinical outcome of small cell lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Hsiang Lee

    Full Text Available The role of microRNAs in small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC is largely unknown. miR-34a is known as a p53 regulated tumor suppressor microRNA in many cancer types. However, its therapeutic implication has never been studied in SCLC, a cancer type with frequent dysfunction of p53. We investigated the expression of a panel of 7 microRNAs (miR-21, miR-29b, miR-34a/b/c, miR-155, and let-7a in 31 SCLC tumors, 14 SCLC cell lines, and 26 NSCLC cell lines. We observed significantly lower miR-21, miR-29b, and miR-34a expression in SCLC cell lines than in NSCLC cell lines. The expression of the 7 microRNAs was unrelated to SCLC patients' clinical characteristics and was neither prognostic in term of overall survival or progression-free survival nor predictive of treatment response. Overexpression or downregulation of miR-34a did not influence SCLC cell viability. The expression of these 7 microRNAs also did not predict in vitro sensitivity to cisplatin or etoposide in SCLC cell lines. Overexpression or downregulation of miR-34a did not influence sensitivity to cisplatin or etoposide in SCLC cell lines. In contrast to downregulation of the miR-34a target genes cMET and Axl by overexpression of miR-34a in NSCLC cell lines, the intrinsic expression of cMET and Axl was low in SCLC cell lines and was not influenced by overexpression of miR-34a. Our results suggest that the expression of the 7 selected microRNAs are not prognostic in SCLC patients, and miR-34a is unrelated to the malignant behavior of SCLC cells and is unlikely to be a therapeutic target.

  18. Yeast Ste23p shares functional similarities with mammalian insulin-degrading enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, Benjamin J; Rowse, Jarrad W; Schmidt, Walter K

    2009-11-01

    The S. cerevisiae genome encodes two M16A enzymes: Axl1p and Ste23p. Of the two, Ste23p shares significantly higher sequence identity with M16A enzymes from other species, including mammalian insulin-degrading enzymes (IDEs). In this study, recombinant Ste23p and R. norvegicus IDE (RnIDE) were isolated from E. coli, and their enzymatic properties compared. Ste23p was found to cleave established RnIDE substrates, including the amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta1-40) and insulin B-chain. A novel internally quenched fluorogenic substrate (Abz-SEKKDNYIIKGV-nitroY-OH) based on the polypeptide sequence of the yeast P2 a-factor mating propheromone was determined to be a suitable substrate for both Ste23p and RnIDE, and was used to conduct comparative enzymological studies. Both enzymes were most active at 37 degrees C, in alkaline buffers and in high salt environments. In addition, the proteolytic activities of both enzymes towards the fluorogenic substrate were inhibited by metal chelators, thiol modifiers, inhibitors of cysteine protease activity and insulin. Characteristics of STE23 expression were also evaluated. Our analysis indicates that the 5' terminus of the STE23 gene has been mischaracterized, with the physiologically relevant initiator corresponding to residue M53 of the publicly annotated protein sequence. Finally, we demonstrate that, unlike haploid-specific Axl1p, Ste23p is expressed in both haploid and diploid cell types. Our study presents the first comprehensive biochemical analysis of a yeast M16A enzyme, and provides evidence that S. cerevisiae Ste23p has enzymatic properties that are highly consistent with mammalian IDEs and other M16A enzymes. PMID:19750477

  19. Relação cinemática em um trator 4x2 com tração dianteira auxiliar equipado com pneus radiais na eficiência de tração Kinematic relation on radial tires in a front wheel assist tractor on traction efficience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Fernando Ferreira

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes combinações de pressões internas dos pneus do trator pode afetar a interferência entre eixos motrizes dos tratores agrícolas, principalmente com pneus do tipo radial. Um trator 4x2 com tração dianteira auxiliar foi analisado quanto a seu desempenho em tração. Pneus de carcaça radial com diferentes pressões internas foram utilizados, com o objetivo de variar as relações cinemá ticas entre os eixos. Mediram-se o patinamento das rodas dianteiras e traseiras, a resistência ao rolamento e a força de tração, em duas condições de solo (firme e solto. Os resultados obtidos permitiram verificar que a eficiência de tração não foi significativamente influenciada pela variação das relações cinemáticas de 0,962 a 1,102. As máximas eficiências de tração ocorreram com relaçõ es cinemáticas variáveis dentro da faixa estudada e de acordo com as cargas impostas à barra de tração.Different combinations of tractor tire inflating pressure may affect interference between tractor axles, mainly with radial tires type. A front wheel assist tractor was studied in its traction performance. Radial tires with different inflation pressure were used, changing kinematic relations between axles. The measured parameters were: front and rear slip, rolling resistence and drawbar pull in two soil conditions (firm and loose. The results indicate that traction efficience was not significantly influenced by kinematic relations variation between 0.962 to 1.102. The maximum traction efficiency ocurred within the range studied and according to drawbar pull.

  20. TCS Strategy for Four-wheel Drive Vehicle%四轮驱动汽车 TCS 控制策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王顺民; 邓亚东

    2015-01-01

    提出了一种控制发动机输出力矩和轴间扭矩分配的控制策略,并添加行驶工况识别模块,针对不同工况制定了不同的控制策略,使四轮驱动汽车能够充分利用路面附着系数。以控制驱动车轮滑移率为目标,在TESIS-DYNAware中建立发动机节气门控制模型及轴间转矩分配系统控制模型,并进行有无牵引力控制系统的直线加速对比仿真试验。试验结果表明,所建牵引力控制策略可有效抑制驱动轮滑转,提高汽车动力性能。%A strategy which controls the output of engine torque and the distribution between the axle torques was proposed to fully use the road friction.The switch model of dynamic condition was established;which contains different strategy to control the vehicle.A dynamic model on four-wheel-drive vehicle was established in TESIS -DYNAware.It was a real time simulation platform.Through modifying and establishing the Simulink model of engine control and inner-axle torque control, a simulation test was running with and without the control system.The result shows that Torque Control System ( TCS) can restrain the slip rate of the drive wheels.

  1. The Potential and Beneficial Use of Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) Systems Integrated with Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Systems for Characterizing Disposal of Waste Debris to Optimize the Waste Shipping Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Buckner Jr, Dooley [ORNL; Newton, David D [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) system provides a portable and/or semi-portable means of accurately weighing vehicles and its cargo as each vehicle crosses the scales (while in motion), and determining (1) axle weights and (2) axle spacing for vehicles (for determination of Bridge Formula compliance), (3) total vehicle/cargo weight and (4) longitudinal center of gravity (for safety considerations). The WIM system can also weigh the above statically. Because of the automated nature of the WIM system, it eliminates the introduction of human errors caused by manual computations and data entry, adverse weather conditions, and stress. Individual vehicles can be weighed continuously at low speeds (approximately 3-10 mph) and at intervals of less than one minute. The ORNL WIM system operates and is integrated into the Bethel Jacobs Company Transportation Management and Information System (TMIS, a Radio-Frequency Identification [RFID] enabled information system). The integrated process is as follows: Truck Identification Number and Tare Weight are programmed into a RFID Tag. Handheld RFID devices interact with the RFID Tag, and Electronic Shipping Document is written to the RFID Tag. The RFID tag read by an RFID tower identifies the vehicle and its associated cargo, the specific manifest of radioactive debris for the uniquely identified vehicle. The weight of the cargo (in this case waste debris) is calculated from total vehicle weight information supplied from WIM to TMIS and is further processed into the Information System and kept for historical and archival purposes. The assembled data is the further process in downstream information systems where waste coordination activities at the Y-12 Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) are written to RFID Tag. All cycle time information is monitored by Transportation Operations and Security personnel.

  2. The Potential and Beneficial Use of Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) Systems Integrated with Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Systems for Characterizing Disposal of Waste Debris to Optimize the Waste Shipping Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) system provides a portable and/or semi-portable means of accurately weighing vehicles and its cargo as each vehicle crosses the scales (while in motion), and determining (1) axle weights and (2) axle spacing for vehicles (for determination of Bridge Formula compliance), (3) total vehicle/cargo weight and (4) longitudinal center of gravity (for safety considerations). The WIM system can also weigh the above statically. Because of the automated nature of the WIM system, it eliminates the introduction of human errors caused by manual computations and data entry, adverse weather conditions, and stress. Individual vehicles can be weighed continuously at low speeds (approximately 3-10 mph) and at intervals of less than one minute. The ORNL WIM system operates and is integrated into the Bethel Jacobs Company Transportation Management and Information System (TMIS, a Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) enabled information system). The integrated process is as follows: Truck Identification Number and Tare Weight are programmed into a RFID Tag. Handheld RFID devices interact with the RFID Tag, and Electronic Shipping Document is written to the RFID Tag. The RFID tag read by an RFID tower identifies the vehicle and its associated cargo, the specific manifest of radioactive debris for the uniquely identified vehicle. The weight of the cargo (in this case waste debris) is calculated from total vehicle weight information supplied from WIM to TMIS and is further processed into the Information System and kept for historical and archival purposes. The assembled data is the further process in downstream information systems where waste coordination activities at the Y-12 Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) are written to RFID Tag. All cycle time information is monitored by Transportation Operations and Security personnel.

  3. Real-world PM, NO x, CO, and ultrafine particle emission factors for military non-road heavy duty diesel vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongzi; Nussbaum, Nicholas J.; Kuhns, Hampden D.; Chang, M.-C. Oliver; Sodeman, David; Moosmüller, Hans; Watson, John G.

    2011-05-01

    Training on US military bases involves nonroad diesel vehicles with emissions that can affect base personnel, nearby communities, and attainment of air quality standards. Nonroad diesel engines contribute 44% of diesel PM and 12% of total NO x emissions from mobile sources nationwide. Although military sector fuel use accounts for only ≈0.4% of distillate fuel use in US, emissions factors measured for these engines improve the representation of the relatively small (as compared to onroad sources) database of nonroad emission factors. Heavy-duty multi-axle, all-wheel drive military trucks are not compatible with regular single-axle dynamometers and their emissions cannot be measured under standard laboratory conditions. We have developed a novel in-plume technique to measure in-use emissions from vehicles with elevated stack. Real-world gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emission factors (EFs) from ten 7-ton 6-wheel drive trucks and two 8-wheel drive heavy tactical Logistics Vehicle System (LVS) vehicles were measured using in-plume sampling. The EFs of these trucks are comparable to those of onroad trucks while the PM EFs of 2-stroke LVS are ≈10 times higher than those of onroad vehicles. Lower EC/PM ratio was observed for LVS compared with MTVR. PM number emission factors were 5.9 × 10 14 particles km -1 for the trucks and 2.5 × 10 16 particles km -1 for the LVSs, three orders of magnitude higher than the proposed European Union standard of 6 × 10 11 particles km -1. The EFs sampled can be extended to engines used in the broader nonroad sector including agriculture and mining and used as inputs to the NONROAD model.

  4. Mechanisms of acquired resistance to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor in Korean patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite an initial good response to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), resistance to treatment eventually develops. Although several resistance mechanisms have been discovered, little data exist regarding Asian patient populations. Among patients at a tertiary referral hospital in Korea who initially responded well to gefitinib and later acquired resistance to treatment, we selected those with enough tissues obtained before EGFR-TKI treatment and after the onset of resistance to examine mutations by mass spectrometric genotyping technology (Asan-Panel), MET amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and analysis of AXL status, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and neuroendocrine markers by immunohistochemistry. Twenty-six patients were enrolled, all of whom were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma with EGFR mutations (19del: 16, L858R: 10) except one (squamous cell carcinoma with 19del). Secondary T790M mutation was detected in 11 subjects (42.3%) and four of these patients had other co-existing resistance mechanisms; increased AXL expression was observed in 5/26 patients (19.2%), MET gene amplification was noted in 3/26 (11.5%), and one patient acquired a mutation in the phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha isoform (PIK3CA) gene. None of the patients exhibited EMT; however, increased CD56 expression suggesting neuroendocrine differentiation was observed in two patients. Interestingly, conversion from L858R-mutant to wild-type EGFR occurred in one patient. Seven patients (26.9%) did not exhibit any known resistance mechanisms. Patients with a T790M mutation showed a more favorable prognosis. The mechanisms and frequency of acquired EGFR-TKI resistance in Koreans are comparable to those observed in Western populations; however, more data regarding the mechanisms that drive EGFR-TKI resistance are necessary

  5. DYNAMICS OF FREIGHT CARS ON BOGIES MODEL 18-1711 WITH DIFFERENT WEDGE DE-SIGNS OF SPRING SUSPENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Mankevych

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the results of the study of dynamic parameters of a gondola car, model 12-1704-04 with axle load 23.5 ton in bogies, models 18-1750 and two gondola cars, model 12-1905 with axial load of 25 ton, one of which is equipped with bogies, model 18-1711 with friction wedges of spring suspension with spatial form with increased angle to the horizontal line of intersection of the contact surfaces between the wedge and bolster, the other gondola car, model 12-1905 is equipped with bogies of the same model on which the friction wedges fitted with a flat form of contact surface. It has an angle of inclination like a wedge of bogie, model 18-100. On the basis of the obtained results to draw conclusions about the feasibility of unification design bogie bolster, model 18-1711 with bogie, model 18-100 by contact surfaces with elements of spring suspension. Methodology. Research on dynamic performance of cars was performed during running dynamic tests of specimens of freight cars in experimental train consisting of two locomotives, a laboratory, and three gondola cars of the above mentioned models. Findings. Main results of dynamic studies are presented as graphs of indicators on the speed of the train and the experimental evidence that the freight gondola cars on bogies, model 18-1711 with flat-shaped wedges, in most cases are better than the others. Originality. Research results of cars on bogies, model 18-1711 were obtained. They let assess the dependence of the dynamic performance of the car from the design of the friction wedges of spring suspension. Practical value. Cast parts of bogie, model 18-1711 with 25 ton axle load can be used as a replacement of defective parts of bogie, model 18-100 and its analogs.

  6. A new method for designing floor slabs on grade due to the difficulty of applying simplified design methods, amongst them being the Portland Cement Association (PCA and Wire Reinforcement Institute (WRI methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Ernesto Camero Sanabrial

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a methodology for designing slabs on grade for industrial floors where there is an eccentricity between the slab centroid and the gravity centre loads of the loaded axle of forklift trucks travelling over the floor. An example was used for analysing how Portland Cement Association (PCA and the Wire Reinforcement Institute (WRI methods are inadequate for designing floors sublected to this condition. The new proposal for designing slabs on grade for industrial floors has been called the Camero method. An example of an industrial floor designed to be capable of sustaining an infinite number of load applications (or 50-year life was compared to the results of the Camero method and PCA and WRI’s simplified methods. Industrial floors should be capable of sustaining an infinite number of load applications (50-year life if designed with the Camero method; on the other hand, if designed using PCA and WRI methods they will only last one year (in this example the number of axle load applications in a 1-year period was equal to the number of allowable repetitions because they will not be able to sustain an infinite number of load applications. It was concluded that designing plain concrete slabs (without reinforcement on grade according to PCA and the WRI methods leads to slab fatigue, even though extreme fibre stress should not exceed 50 percent (50% of static modulus of concrete rupture and slabs should sustain an infinite number of load repetitions (infinite amount of forklift truck traffic were considered parameters in their design.

  7. DualX E-drive. A flexible power train for plug-in hybrids; DualX E-Drive. Ein flexibles Antriebskonzept fuer Plug-in Hybride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Martin W.; Blankenbach, Bernd; Schaefer, Juergen; Walliser, Dirk; Kuehn, Michael [MBtech Group GmbH und Co. KGaA, Sindelfingen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    On one hand, plug-in hybrids enable emission-free driving over appreciable distances. On the other hand, this is achieved by means of a correspondingly large and thus correspondingly expensive traction battery. The cost pressure for this component, as with all other hybrid components, is thus extremely high. MBtech developed the DualX E-Drive concept as part of an in-house plug-in hybrid project for a van. The results of an MBtech study regarding the requirements for the hybridization of light commercial vehicles served as the starting point. As with ''P4'' or ''through-the-road'' power trains, the DualX E-Drive combines a conventional combustion engine power train with an electromotive traction unit which power different axles. In addition to the advantages of a hybrid, the DualX E-Drive also provides an all-wheel drive power train. The ''off the shelf'' combustion engine powers the front wheels via a five-speed automated manual transmission. The electromotive power train, consisting of a high-speed synchronous motor and a two-speed transmission, powers the rear axle. The maximum torque and power values of the drive units have been optimized by means of simulations. For the vehicle investigated here this means that the maximum performance of both drive units is approximately the same. In addition to the range, fuel consumption and driving dynamics requirements, this also takes into account additional aspects such as cost, weight and installation space. Depending on the desired approach - ''green'' versus ''high range at low cost'' - the conventional power train can be powered by a CNG, diesel or gasoline engine. The use of an intelligent hybrid control in combination with the large battery makes the use of a high-voltage starter generator unnecessary. (orig.)

  8. To the question of modeling of wheels and rails wear processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Myamlin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. There is a need of wear process modeling in the wheel-rail system. This is related to the fact that the wear processes in this system are absolutely different in the initial and final stages. The profile change of rail and, especially, of the wheels caused by the wear significantly affects the rolling stock dynamics, traffic safety and the resource of the wheels and rails. Wear modeling and the traffic safety evaluation requires the accounting of the low frequency component forces (including the modeling of transitional areas affecting the wheel on the side of the rail and carriage in motion of rolling stock, so the statistical analysis is not possible. Methodology. The method of mathematical modeling of the wheel set and the rail interaction was used during the research conducting. Findings. As a result of the modeling of the wheel set motion on the rail track, the mathematic model with 19 freedom degrees was obtained. This model takes into account the axle torque and studies wheels constructions as the components of the mechanical systems, consisting of a hub and tire. Originality. The mathematic model allows evaluating the wear degree of the wheels and rails when using on the rolling stock not only all-metal wheel sets, but also compound ones with the use of spring wheels and independent rotation of semi-axes with the wheels. Practical value. The development of the improved mathematical model of freight car wheel set motion with differential rotation of the wheels and compound axles allows studying the wear processes of wheels and rails.

  9. DOE Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Test Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yimin [Advanced Vehicle Research Center, Danville, VA (United States)

    2012-03-31

    Based on the contract NT-42790 to the Department of Energy, “Plug-in Hybrid Ethanol Research Platform”, Advanced Vehicle Research Center (AVRC) Virginia has successfully developed the phase I electric drive train research platform which has been named as Laboratory Rapid Application Testbed (LabRAT). In phase II, LabRAT is to be upgraded into plug-in hybrid research platform, which will be capable of testing power systems for electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles running on conventional as well as alternative fuels. LabRAT is configured as a rolling testbed with plentiful space for installing various component configurations. Component connections are modularized for flexibility and are easily replaced for testing various mechanisms. LabRAT is designed and built as a full functional vehicle chassis with a steering system, brake system and four wheel suspension. The rear drive axle offers maximum flexibility with a quickly changeable gear ratio final drive to accommodate different motor speed requirements. The electric drive system includes an electric motor which is mechanically connected to the rear axle through an integrated speed/torque sensor. Initially, a 100 kW UQM motor and corresponding UQM motor controller is used which can be easily replaced with another motor/controller combination. A lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery pack is installed, which consists of 108 cells of 100 AH capacity, giving the total energy capacity of 32.5 kWh. Correspondingly, a fully functional battery management system (BMS) is installed to perform battery cell operation monitoring, cell voltage balancing, and reporting battery real time operating parameters to vehicle controller. An advanced vehicle controller ECU is installed for controlling the drive train. The vehicle controller ECU receives traction or braking torque command from driver through accelerator and brake pedal position sensors and battery operating signals from the BMS through CAN BUS

  10. Tocoferois do músculo dorsal e cavidade ocular do matrinxã (Brycon cephalus proveniente da Bacia Amazônica em diferentes épocas sazonais Tocopherol at the dorsal muscle and orbital cavity of the matrinxã fish (Brycon cephalus from the Brazilian Amazonian Area captured in different seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neiva Maria de Almeida

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar o teor de tocoferois no músculo e cavidade ocular do matrinxã (Brycon cephalus, capturados na Amazônia Central - Brasil, no período da cheia e seca. A coleta dos peixes foi realizada em diferentes épocas sazonais, constituindo-se de três lotes com cinco exemplares. As análises seguiram a metodologia da AOCS Ce 8-89 (1996 em cromatógrafo HPLC PERKIN ELMER - Bomba isocrática LC 250 acoplado a detector de fluorescência (SHIMADZU - RF-10AxL. O a-tocoferol foi predominante nas diferentes sazonalidades. No músculo do peixe capturado na época da cheia e seca, o teor de tocoferois variou de 0,04 a 0,43mg 100g-1 e 0,06 a 8,23mg 100g-1, respectivamente. O teor de tocoferois na cavidade ocular, na época da cheia e seca, variou de 0,02 a 0,09mg 100g-1 e 0,03 a 0,42mg 100g-1, respectivamente.This research aimed to determine the content of different tocopherol levels in muscle and ocular cavity of matrinxã fishes captured in the Central Amazon Region - Brazil. For the antioxidants determination, three batches, each consisting of 5 fish, during two different seasons. The analyses were performed according to the AOCS Ce 8-89 (1993 methodology in chromatography HPLC PERKIN ELMER - Isocratic LC 250 pump couple to fluorescence detector (SHIMADZU - RF - 10AxL. The a-tocopherol was predominant in the different seasons. The tocopherol content ranged from 0.43 to 0.04mg 100-1 and from 8.2 to 0.06mg 100g-1 in the muscle of matrinxã captured in the flood ad dry season, respectively. The tocopherol content in the adipose tissue of the orbital cavity of matrinxã captured in the flood ad dry season showed ranged from 0.09 a 0.02mg 100g-1 and from 0.42 to 0.03mg 100g-1, respectively.

  11. Evaluation of the Changes in Anterior Segment Morphology After Laser Peripheral Iridotomy Through One-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulviye Yiğit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the long-term changes in anterior segment morphology after laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI in eyes with primary angle-closure suspect (PACS, primary angle closure (PAC, and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG using Scheimpflug camera (SC. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six eyes of 30 patients diagnosed as PACS, PAC, and PACG were included prospectively in this study. In addition to full ophthalmic examination and intraocular pressure (IOP assessment, anterior-posterior length (AxL values of the eyes were recorded. With use of SC, average anterior chamber angle (AACA, central anterior chamber depth (CACD, and anterior chamber volume (ACV were documented preoperatively and at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after LPI. The results have been evaluated statistically. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of mean age, gender, and AxL (p>0.05. AACA, CACD, and ACV measurements showed significant difference between baseline and months 1.3, 6, and 12 in all groups (p<0.05. AACA was statistically significantly decreased between months 6 and 12 in PACS group; between months 1 and 12, months 3 and 12, months 6 and 12 in PAC and PACG groups (p<0.05. CACD measurements demonstrated statistically significant decrease between months 6 and 12 in PAC group, between months 3 and 6, months 3 and 12 in PACG group (p<0.05. ACV was statistically significantly decreased between months 6 and 12 in PAC group, between months 1 and 12, months 3 and 12 in PACG group (p<0.05. Conclusion: LPI led to dramatic changes in anterior segment morphology. In our study, the course of the changes caused by LPI was observed through one-year follow-up with SC. In the early period, a positive effect on all parameters was detected. The trends in the course of measurements should be followed up for longer time in larger series to investigate whether the changes show continuity or not. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014

  12. Analysis of Traffic Noise along Oyemekun - Oba-Adesida Road Akure Ondo State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. J Oyedepo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of the research is to quantify and analyze the traffic noise emissions along Oba-Adesida –Oyemekun Road. Measurements of noise were recorded in decibel (dBA using digital sound level meters (IEC651 Type 2. While, the traffic volume and spot speed were obtained using cine –camera at six selected locations namely Alagbaka(L1, Biological Garden(L2, Adegbola(L3, Ondo Bye Pass(L4, Ilesha Garage(L5 and FUTA junction(L6 along ObaAdesida- Oyemekun road during the peak period(7:30am -8:30 am & 4:00pm-5:00pm and off peak period(11:30pm- 12:30pm, repeated 3-5 times to account for time-fluctuation of these variables. All measurements were taken on a weighting frequency network, at a height of about 1.5m from the ground level. The vehicles were divided into five categories namely Cars, buses, motorcycles,2-axle load, and 3-axle loads; and were converted into “Passenger Car Units” (PCU by multiplying with recommended factors in accordance with Nigerian Federal Highway Capacity Manual 2006.The average L10(dBA are 72.8, 73.8, 73.4, 74.4, 73.9, and 75.0dBA ; while average combine sound pressure level(SPL in dBA are 76, 77, 78, 78, 77, and 78dBA for L1, L2, L3, L4, L5,and L6 respectively. Findings indicated that traffic generated noise pollution is at or above, the standard outdoor limits in most locations and area can adversely affect the welfare activities. The present study revealed that the study area is getting noisier due to high traffic density and lack of traffic management, practical action to limit and control the exposure to environmental noise are essential. However, road traffic noise by treatments at source (such as to reduce engine noise, exhaust pipe noise etc. is to be encouraged as the principal method of control. The techniques include road design, the management of traffic flow and the use of screens and barriers.

  13. Análise de agrupamento, com base na composição físico-química, de amostras de méis produzidos por Apis mellifera L. no Estado de São Paulo Cluster analysis, with basis in physico-chemical composition, of samples of honey produced by Apis mellifera L. in São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Marchini

    2005-03-01

    conductivity and amount of K, in axle X and the formol index and humidity, in axle Y.

  14. Pressão de insuflagem dos pneus no desempenho do conjunto trator-grade de discos Tire inflation pressure effects on tractor disc harrow performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Manuel Pereira Ramalho Serrano

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da pressão de insuflagem dos pneus nos parâmetros de desempenho do conjunto trator-grade de discos. As pressões avaliadas foram: 100 kPa nos pneus da frente e 70 kPa nos pneus atrás; 140 kPa nos quatro pneus; 190 kPa nos quatro pneus. Os testes de um trator com grades de discos foram desenvolvidos em condições de campo, em solos de textura franca, mobilizados e secos. Os parâmetros de avaliação foram: o patinamento, a velocidade, a capacidade de trabalho, a eficiência energética global e o consumo de combustível por hectare. Entre as situações de pressão de insuflagem dos pneus indicadas pelo fabricante do trator e a pressão de insuflagem indicada pelo fabricante dos pneus, não se verificam diferenças significativas, tanto na capacidade de trabalho como no consumo de combustível por hectare. A utilização de elevadas pressões de insuflagem dos pneus conduz a uma redução da ordem de 3 a 5% na capacidade de trabalho e um aumento significativo entre 10 e 25% do consumo de combustível por hectare, mesmo em condições de boa aderência dos pneus, refletidas no intervalo de 7 a 15% de patinamento registrados.The objective of this work was to evaluate the tire inflation pressure effects on tractor disc harrow performance. The pressures tested were: 100 kPa in front tires and 70 kPa in rear tires; 140 kPa in the tires of both axles; 190 kPa in the tires of both axles. Field tests with disc harrow in secondary tillage were performed under real working conditions, in tilled and dry medium textured soils. The evaluation parameters were: the slip, the actual forward speed, the work capacity, the overall energy efficiency and the fuel consumption per hectare. Concerning the situations of tire inflation pressure specified by the tractor manufacturer and the inflation pressure specified by the tire manufacturer, there were no significant differences, both in work capacity and in fuel

  15. KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS MODELS OF CYLINDRICAL ROLLER BEARING OF RAILWAY TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Gaydamaka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Lack of kinematics models and imperfection of the known dynamics models of the roller bearings of railway rolling stock axle-boxes do not allow designing the optimal structure of bearing cages, providing the required service life and reliability of bearing units of wheel sets for cars and locomotives. The studies of kinematics and dynamics of roller bearings of axle boxes for cars and locomotives and modeling of their parts interaction to create the analytical method of bearing cages calculation are necessary. Methodology. This purpose has been achieved due to the modeling of kinematics of the ideal (without gaps and real (taking account the gaps, manufacturing and installation errors bearings, substantiation of the transfer mechanism of motion from the rollers to bearing cage, modeling the dynamics of rolling, research of interaction forces of the rollers with bearing cage. Findings. It is established that the kinematics of ideal bearing is determined by the contact deformations of the rollers and rings, when the kinematics of real bearing depends mainly on the side gaps in the windows of the bearing cage. On the basis of studies of the real bearing kinematics the dynamics models of the rollers and bearing cage interaction were constructed. The conducted studies of kinematics and dynamics of rolling bearings have changed our view of them as of the planetary mechanism, explained the reason of bearing cage loading, and confirmed the possibility of destruction during operation. Originality. It was first proposed a mechanism for motion transfer from the rollers to the bearing cage of roller bearings, consisting in that the side gap in the bearing cage window is reduced gradually multiple of the number of rollers of radial loading area according to the bearing cage motion. The models of roller bearing dynamics, which allow calculating the interaction forces of parts for all modes of operation, were improved. Practical value. Use of the

  16. Benchmarking study of industry practices during commercial long haul transport of cattle in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, L A; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S; Bryan, M; Silasi, R; Brown, F

    2012-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to document current commercial practices during long haul transport (≥400 km) of cattle in Alberta through surveys delivered to truck drivers (6,152 journeys that transported 290,362 animals). The live beef export industry to the United States (89% of all journeys) had a large influence on long haul transport. This was particularly true for fat cattle going to slaughter (82%) and backgrounded feeders going to feed yards (15%). Most drivers had either limited (31% with 10 yr) experience hauling cattle. The type of tractors and trailers used most frequently were those with more number of axles (quad-axle trailers pulled with push tractors) because they can accommodate extra weight. Mean (± SD) distance travelled was 1,081 ± 343 km (maximum of 2,560 km) whereas time animals spent on truck averaged 15.9 ± 6.3 h with a maximum of 45 h. However, only 5% of all journeys were greater than 30 h. The most frequent cause of delay was at the Canada-United States border crossing due to paperwork and veterinary inspections. Border delays occurred on 77% of all journeys which had a mean of 1.3 ± 1.9 h and up to 15-h long. Driver rest stops and waiting to unload cattle at destination were the second most frequent and longest cause of delay. Ambient temperature across all journeys ranged from -42 to 45°C with a mean value of 18 ± 11.8°C while temperature variation within a journey was from 0 to 46°C with mean value of 15 ± 6.6°C. The proportion of dead, non-ambulatory, and lame cattle for all journeys was 0.011, 0.022, and 0.011%, respectively. The cattle transport industry showed compliance with federal regulations and to a lesser extent with recommendations. Findings showed extreme values and very large variability in transport conditions however further research is needed to assess their impact on animal welfare outcomes. Delays within the journey as a result of border crossing, weather conditions, time on truck, shrink and

  17. A fast-moving copper-based molecular shuttle: synthesis and dynamic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durola, Fabien; Lux, Jacques; Sauvage, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Fast-track changes: The synthesis of a new copper-based molecular shuttle is described, with a coordinating macrocycle based on a nonhindering but endocyclic ligand (see scheme), which makes the ligand exchange easier, and thus the motions of the ring along the thread faster.The present report deals with the synthesis of a two-station [2]rotaxane consisting of a dpbiiq-incorporating macrocycle (dpbiiq: 8,8'-diphenyl-3,3'-biisoquinoline) threaded by a coordinating fragment whose complexing units are a dpp and a terpy ligand (dpp: 2,9-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline; terpy: 2,2',6',2"-terpyridine). The [2]rotaxane was prepared in 11 steps from commercially available or easy-to-make molecules, without taking into account the preparation of the dpbiiq-containing 39-membered ring, which was available in our group. The ring-incorporated bidentate chelate is at the same time endocyclic and sterically nonhindering, which is a specific property of the dpbiiq-coordinating unit. This unique feature has a profound influence on the rate of the ring-and-copper translation motion between the two stations of the axle. Based on an analogous multistep strategy, a related molecular shuttle has also been prepared that contains exactly the same axle and stoppers as the first compound but whose threaded ring incorporates the sterically hindering dpp chelate. The translation motions of this other system are several orders of magnitude slower than the corresponding movements of the dpbiiq-based compound. The motion corresponding to the rearrangement of the unstable five-coordinate copper(I) form of the compounds is relatively fast for both shuttles; the half lifetime of the five-coordinate Cu(I) species being below 20 ms for the dpbiiq-containing system and below 1 s for the dpp-based molecule. The reverse motion corresponding to the rearrangement of the four-coordinate copper(II) complexes is much slower, especially for the dpp-based system. It is of the order of several hours for the dpp

  18. Between Ni(mnt)2 and Ni(tfd)2 dithiolene complexes: the unsymmetrical 2-(trifluoromethyl)acrylonitrile-1,2-dithiolate and its nickel complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeannin, Olivier; Delaunay, Jacques; Barrière, Frédéric; Fourmigué, Marc

    2005-12-26

    A novel 1,2-dithiolate ligand, that is, the 2-(trifluoromethyl)acrylonitrile-1,2-dithiolate, abbreviated here as tfadt, is prepared from the corresponding cyclic dithiocarbonate. This ligand, substituted with both a CN and a CF(3) group, is compared with the well-known maleonitrile- and bis(trifluoromethyl)ethane-1,2-dithiolates. The preparation, electrochemical properties, and X-ray crystal structures of the square-planar nickel complexes, in both their dianionic diamagnetic [Ni(tfadt)(2)](2)(-) and their monoanionic paramagnetic [Ni(tfadt)(2)](*)(-) forms, are reported, as n-Bu(4)N(+), PPh(4)(+), and (18-crown-6)Na(+) salts, respectively. In the [(18-crown-6)Na](2)[Ni(tfadt)(2)] salt, each CN moiety of the [Ni(tfadt)(2)](2)(-) dianion is coordinated to a (18-crown-6)Na(+) cation through a CN...Na interaction [N...Na = 2.481(3) A], affording an "axle with wheels" model where two MeOH molecules act as axle caps. On the other hand, in [(18-crown-6)Na][Ni(tfadt)(2)], each (18-crown-6)Na(+) cation is coordinated on both sides by the CN groups of two monoanionic [Ni(tfadt)(2)](*)(-) complexes with N...Na(+) distances at 2.434(5) and 2.485(4) A, giving rise to heterobimetallic chains with alternating (18-crown-6)Na(+) and [Ni(tfadt)(2)](*)(-) ions. These two examples demonstrate the attractive ability of the CN moieties in the [Ni(tfadt)(2)](2)(-)(,)(*)(-) complexes to coordinate metallic cationic centers. The paramagnetic salts of the anionic [Ni(tfadt)(2)](*)(-) complex follow Curie-type law in the 2-300 K temperature range, indicating the absence of intermolecular magnetic interactions in the solid state. The complexes are found in their trans form in all crystal structures, while density functional theory calculations establish that both forms have essentially the same energy. A cis-trans interconversion process is observed by variable-temperature NMR on the dianionic [Ni(tfadt)(2)](2)(-) complex with a coalescence temperature T(c) of 260 K and a free energy of

  19. 履带拖拉机三点悬挂机构多目标优化设计%Multi-objective optimization design of three-point hitch mechanism for crawler tractors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄琪伟; 应保胜

    2015-01-01

    建立履带拖拉机后置三点悬挂机构的运动学数学模型,通过分析得到农具提升过程中悬挂轴处的提升力及悬挂轴与下拉杆铰接点处的垂直上升速度与液压缸运动速度的比值。运用遗传算法的基本思想,以某型号履带拖拉机悬挂机构作为设计算例,将悬挂机构的提升能力及提升过程的平稳性和速度作为优化目标,采用线性加权和法对悬挂杆件的几何尺寸进行多目标优化。结果表明,采用基于遗传算法的优化方法优化后,三点悬挂机构的提升力增强,提升过程的平稳性明显提高。%The kinematical mathematic model of the rear mounted three-point hitch mechanism of crawler tractors was established.The lifting force at the suspension axle and the ratio of the vertical speed at the hinged joint between the suspension axle and lower rod and the speed of hydraulic cylinder during the lifting process of agricultural implements were obtained.Guided by the basic ideas of genet-ic algorithm and with a certain type of crawler tractor hitch system as an example,the geometry sizes of the hanging bar were optimized objectively by the linear weighted sum method in order to raise the lifting capacity of the hitch mechanism and improve the stability and speed of the lifting process.The results show that after the optimization based on the genetic algorithm,the lifting force and stability of the three-point hitch mechanism have obviously been improved.

  20. 深施型液态施肥机扎穴机构动力学优化%Dynamics optimization for pricking hole mechanism of deep-fertilization liquid fertilizer applicator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金武; 王金峰; 鞠金艳

    2011-01-01

    In order to assure good reliability for liquid fertilizer applicator in high working speed, the pricking hole mechanism of liquid fertilizer applicator was taken as research object, and the maximum force and undulation force ofx and y directions of sun gear were taken as objective function. Optimization results of kinematics was used as constraint conditions of objective function, and the dynamics optimization software was developed based on the improved "interspecies competition" genetic algorithm by using Visual Basic 6.0 software. Optimized parameters were obtained by this software, where the initial angle between the line connecting spraying-fertilizer needle-tip or planet wheel axle and planet flame is -42°, and the initial angular of planet frame is 45°, and the distance between spraying-fertilizer needle-tip and the planetary gear axle center is 285 mm. According to the dynamic optimization results, the pricking hole mechanism of liquid fertilizer applicator was designed and simulated by using Pro/E and ADAMS. The simulation results showed that the pricking hole mechanism with the optimized parameters can satisfy the operation requirements and has good mechanical properties.%为保证液态施肥机在高速作业下仍具有良好的可靠性,以液态施肥机扎穴机构为研究对象,将太阳轮x、y方向峰值力和波动力作为目标函数,运动学优化结果作为目标函数的约束条件,应用Visual Basic 6.0软件开发出基于"种间竞争"改进遗传算法动力学优化软件.软件得到优化参数为:喷肥针尖和行星轮轴连线与行星架的初始夹角-42°、行星架初始角位移45°、喷肥针尖与行星轮轴心距离285mm.根据动力学优化结果,应用Pro/E和ADAMS对扎穴机构进行设计与仿真验证.结果表明,根据优化参数设计的扎穴机构既能满足工作要求,又具有较好的力学特性.

  1. 路基回弹模量对刚性路面疲劳寿命的影响分析%Effect Analysis of Subgrade Resilient Modulus on Pavement Fatigue Life for Rigid Pavement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林小平; 凌建明; 周亮

    2012-01-01

    Based on ABAQUS, a 3D finite element model for rigid pavement was established with respect to two types of pavement structures and axle loads, and pavement structural response was calculated with various subgrade resilient modulus. Combined with concrete fatigue function, the effect of subgrade resilient modulus on pavement fatigue life was analyzed. The results indicate that the value of stress in slab bottom and its change rate decrease linearly with the increase of subgrade resilient modulus, while pavement fatigue life and its reduction rate change non-linearly with the increase of subgrade resilient modulus, and pavement fatigue life change more significantly than stress in slab bottom with the variety of subgrade resilient modulus. The pavement fatigue life increase more significantly with the increase of subgrade resilient modulus which in the range of 40~60kPa, and decrease remarkably with the increase of axle load.%基于大型通用有限元软件ABAQUS,建立水泥混凝土路面结构体系三维有限元模型,针对2种路面结构形式和2种轴重的轴载作用,计算不同路基回弹模量下的路面结构响应,结合水泥混凝土疲劳方程,分析路基回弹模量对路面结构疲劳寿命的影响.结果表明,随着路基模量的增加,板底应力水平及变化率近似呈线性水平降低,而路面疲劳寿命与疲劳寿命折减率则呈现出较为明显的非线性变化,应力水平变化不大的条件将使得路面结构疲劳寿命产生显著影响;提高路基回弹模量在较高区间(40~60 kPa)将更加显著增大路面疲劳寿命,另外,增大轴载会使路面结构疲劳寿命显著降低.

  2. Study on Asphalt Pavement Fatigue-Damage with Forecasting Axial Load Spectrum%按预测轴载谱分析沥青路面的疲劳损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马林; 葛折圣; 胡晓倩; 黄明波

    2011-01-01

    现行《公路沥青路面设计规范》(JTGG D50-2006)轴载等效换算方法难以反映超载、重载交通对路面结构的影响.结构层参数取值未考虑结构层在疲劳过程中的材料损伤,是重载交通沥青路面出现早期破坏的原因之一.采用预测轴载谱和Miner法则,计算分析了路面结构的疲劳损伤累积过程,并考虑不同使用阶段路面基层模量衰减对路面结构损伤进程的影响.结果表明,半刚性基层厚沥青面层路面结构的疲劳损伤累积进程明显优于目前国内较典型的半刚性基层沥青路面结构.研究结果为重载交通沥青路面结构设计指明了方向.%In Specifications for Design of Highway Asphalt Pavement (JTG D50-2006), the method of Equivalent Axle Loads could not reflect the influence on pavement structure by overload and heavy-load transportation. And the parameter of structural layers was no considering the material damage in the process of fatigue. It is one of the reasons why asphalt pavement is damaged early. The fatigue-damage accumulation in pavement structure was analyzed by using the forecasting axle load spectrum and Miner law. And the parameter of structural layers attenuated while the material damage in the process of fatigue. The results show that the fatigue damage accumulation process of semi-rigid base total thickness asphalt pavement structure is significantly better than the current domestic typical semi-rigid bituminous pavement structure. So this research results can help the development of structure design of heave-load asphalt pavement.

  3. WIM calibration and data quality management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D P G de Wet

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Weigh-in-motion (WIM scales are installed on various higher order roads in South Africa to provide traffic loading information for pavement design, strategic planning and law enforcement. Some WIM systems produce anomalies that cannot be satisfactorily explained even by highly experienced professionals. Much of the problem relates to the difficulty in determining the appropriate calibration factors to correct systematic measurement error for WIM systems and the inadequacy of data quality management methods. The author has developed a post-calibration method for WIM data, called the Truck Tractor (TT method, to correct the magnitude of recorded axle loads in retrospect. In addition, it incorporates a series of data quality checks. The TT method is robust, accurate and adequately simple for use on a routine basis for a wide variety of South African WIM systems. The calibration module of the TT method (i.e. the procedure to determine the calibration factor, kTT has been accepted by SANRAL and incorporated into the model it uses to quantify the cost of overloading on toll concessions. Some of the data quality checking concepts are also being considered for further use and threshold values for tests are being refined by SANRAL for this purpose.

  4. A problem to determine short term mechanical properties changes of ferrite-martensite and austenitic steels as materials of fuel assembly of fast reactors under high dose neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of mechanical tests of flat and ring-shaped samples of two ferrite-martensite steels C0.1-Cr13-Mo2-Nb-V-W and C0.1-Cr12-Mo-Nb-V-W irradiated to different damage doses (up to 100 dpa) have been performed in this work. It have been shown that values of plasticity and strength characteristics determined on this sample types are different. Specific elongation takes the values 8-12% for the flat samples, at the same time, t takes the values 1-3% for the ring-shaped samples at room temperature. A character of fluence dependence of mechanical properties is identical. The steels show viscous damage in all tests. Samples of fuel pin cladding fabricated from the austenitic steel C0.1-Cr16-Ni15-Mo3 were also investigated after there working out in BN-600 reactor up to 76 dpa. Ring-shaped samples were tested at standard single-axle tension. Tube samples were tested by internal pressure of solid filler. All samples were fabricated from one and the same section, mechanical properties obtained are different. Specific elongation of the brittlest section of fuel pin was 0-0.9% for the ring-shaped samples and 2-7% for the tube samples at room temperature. Fractographic investigations were carried out on the samples after mechanical tests. Possible reasons of such difference have been discussed in the work. (author)

  5. Landing Gear Aerodynamic Noise Prediction Using Building-Cube Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Sasaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Landing gear noise prediction method is developed using Building-Cube Method (BCM. The BCM is a multiblock-structured Cartesian mesh flow solver, which aims to enable practical large-scale computation. The computational domain is composed of assemblage of various sizes of building blocks where small blocks are used to capture flow features in detail. Because of Cartesian-based mesh, easy and fast mesh generation for complicated geometries is achieved. The airframe noise is predicted through the coupling of incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solver and the aeroacoustic analogy-based Curle’s equation. In this paper, Curle’s equation in noncompact form is introduced to predict the acoustic sound from an object in flow. This approach is applied to JAXA Landing gear Evaluation Geometry model to investigate the influence of the detail components to flows and aerodynamic noises. The position of torque link and the wheel cap geometry are changed to discuss the influence. The present method showed good agreement with the preceding experimental result and proved that difference of the complicated components to far field noise was estimated. The result also shows that the torque link position highly affects the flow acceleration at the axle region between two wheels, which causes the change in SPL at observation point.

  6. Experimental and Dynamic Study of the Piston Rod Lateral Friction for the Twin-Tube Hydraulic Shock Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanqing Liu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, dynamic loads acting on a twin-tube hydraulic shock absorber are derived out both in wheel and axle planes by modeling mechanically car rear suspensions, and internal and external forces that yield lateral surface damage and wear-out of the piston rod for the absorber are analyzed according to bench and real road test measures. From viewpoint of vehicle system dynamics and experiment, such key factors as road unevenness, very high car speed and severe shock induced vibrations are investigated, by which stochastic bending moments and dramatically increasing shock loading are introduced directly to the piston rod. From viewpoint of the whole car assembly, on the other hand, due to hardly perfectly placements of the piston rods in their positions between the car suspension and body, unacceptable manufacturing quality of the body may cause additional dynamic forces on the piston rod. Significant results obtained by theoretical and experimental analysis of lateral frictions of the piston rod are presented systematically for improving design of the shock absorber.

  7. Reverse Anomeric Effect in Large-Amplitude Pyridinium Amide-Containing Mannosyl [2]Rotaxane Molecular Shuttles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riss-Yaw, Benjamin; Waelès, Philip; Coutrot, Frédéric

    2016-06-17

    The reverse anomeric effect (RAE) was investigated in different mannosyl [2]rotaxane molecular shuttle isomers that contain dibenzo-24-crown-8 (DB24C8) as the macrocycle, and anilinium and pyridinium amide as molecular stations. The switching on or off of the RAE was possible depending on both the pyridinium amide motif and the localization of the DB24C8 along the thread. The (1) C4 mannopyranosyl chair-like conformation was observed in all the non-interlocked molecules because the anomeric carbon of the mannose is linked to the positively charged nitrogen of the pyridinium unit. In the protonated rotaxanes, the (1) C4 chair conformation of the mannose end remains because the DB24C8 resides around the best anilinium station, which is located at the other end of the axle. Upon deprotonation of the anilinium, the DB24C8 shuttles with a large-amplitude motion toward the pyridinium amide stations, where it interacts in a different fashion depending on the pyridinium motif. In one molecular shuttle, the RAE could be switched on or off with control at one end of the encircled thread upon protonation/deprotonation of the other end, through shuttling of the DB24C8. PMID:27062432

  8. Vibration immission forecast by means of train equivalent synthetic vibration experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinhauser Peter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration abatement measures at a railway track require forecasts before the rails are put into place. Due to the multiple feedback system between train, track, geodynamics of the local underground and the dynamic behavior of the neighbourhood buildings these prognoses become very elaborate. All the parameters of the dynamic system scatter extremely as the results from numerous investigations prove. This concerns vibration emission spectra, tunnel mobility, geodynamic vibration loss along the transfer through the underground as well as the natural frequencies from buildings and ceilings. Therefore experimental in-situ investigations are indispensable for trustworthy forecasts. In this paper the VibroScan method is presented, whose basic idea is to implement the principle of equivalence between the synthetic vibrations used for the experiments and train vibration emissions at the highest possible degree. This is focused on emission spectra, force of excitation, unsprung wheelset mass and axle load. The necessary experimental provisions are discussed and some examples of results are given like the protection of the Musikverein building in Vienna or the Sagrada Familia basilica in Barcelona against vibrations from tunnels in the immediate neighbourhood.

  9. Identification of GPR65, a novel regulator of matrix metalloproteinases using high through-put screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hongbo; Chen, Xiaohong; Huang, Junwei [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Key Laboratory of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing (China); Deng, Weiwei [Functional Genomics Group, Chinese National Human Genome Center (CHGB) at Beijing (China); Zhong, Qi [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Key Laboratory of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing (China); Yue, Changli [Department of Pathology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Wang, Pingzhang, E-mail: wangpzh@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Peking University Center for Human Disease Genomics, Key Laboratory of Medical Immunology, Ministry of Health (China); Functional Genomics Group, Chinese National Human Genome Center (CHGB) at Beijing (China); Huang, Zhigang, E-mail: enthuangzhigang@sohu.com [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Key Laboratory of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing (China)

    2013-06-21

    Highlights: •A novel mechanism of MMP3 regulation by proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptors was defined. •GPR65 was identified to induce the MMP3 expression. •GPR65 mediated MMP induction under acidic conditions. •AP-1 binding site in MMP3 promoter was crucial for MMP3 induction. •GPR65 overexpression can accelerate the invision of A549 cells. -- Abstract: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are over-expressed in nearly all cancers. To study novel regulatory factors of MMP expression in head and neck cancer (HNC), we screened a total of 636 candidate genes encoding putative human transmembrane proteins using MMP promoter reporter in a dual luciferase assay system. Three genes GPR65, AXL and TNFRSF10B dramatically activated the induction of MMP3 expression. The induction of MMP expression by GPR65 was further confirmed in A549 and/or FaDu cells. GPR65 mediated MMP induction under acidic conditions. The AP-1 binding site in MMP3 promoter was crucial for MMP3 induction. Moreover, the A549 cells infected by recombinant adenovirus of GPR65 showed accelerated cell invasion. In conclusion, we validate that GPR65 is vital regulatory genes upstream of MMP3, and define a novel mechanism of MMP3 regulation by proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptors.

  10. Several Lipophilic Components of Five Elite Genotypes of Romanian Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides subs. carpatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Adrian VESCAN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Seabuckthorn is a spinescent, deciduous and dioecious berry-producing shrub, with a high economical and ecological potential. It is frequently used as a pioneer species in anthropic and eroded soils due to its low pedoclimatic demands, strong rooting system and ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen. Seabuckthorn berries, leaves and bark have a high content of nutritive and active substances which promote this species for use in both food and medical industries. One of the most requested therapeutical products on the market is the seabuckthorn oil, extracted from both pulp and seeds. Two important parameters in analyzing seabuckthorn oil quality are fatty acids and tocopherols. In Transylvania region most of seabuckthorn orchards are established with local, low productive and less uniform planting material, randomly collected from wild flora. In order to assess the opportunity of introducing new seabuckthorn varieties in Transylvania, a selection process was initiated. In this context, five elites were selected from wild populations in the Danube Delta, using biometrical criteria. They were later compared to a representative individual from a local population and to a number of homologated cultivars, with respect to morphology and some lipophilic components (oil content, fatty acids and tocopherols. For both pulp and seeds, total lipids were extracted using a modified Folch method. Fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography using flame ionization detection. Tocopherols were analysed using a Shimadzu VP Series liquid chromatograph with a fluorescence detector FR-10 AXL.

  11. Fore and aft elastic response characteristics of 34 x 9.9, type 7, 14 ply-rating aircraft tires of bias-ply, bias-belted, and radial-belted design. M.S. Thesis - George Washington Univ., May 1973; [static and rolling tests on dry concrete pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the fore-and-aft elastic response characteristics of 34 x 9.9, type VII, 14 ply-rating aircraft tires of bias-ply, bias-belted, and radial-belted design. The investigation consisted of static and rolling tests on dry concrete pavements at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility; statistical techniques which related the measured tire elastic characteristics to variations in the vertical load, inflation pressure, braking force and/or tire vertical deflection; and a semiempirical analysis which related the tire elastic behavior to measured wheel slippage during steady-state braking. The bias-belted tire developed the largest spring constant value for most loading conditions; the radial-belted tire, the smallest. The elastic response of the tire free periphery to static braking included both tread stretch and carcass torsional wind-up about the axle for the bias-ply and bias-belted tires and carcass wind-up alone for the radial-belted tire.

  12. Torsion bar stabilizer for a vehicle and method for mounting the stabilizer on the vehicle frame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauber, C.J.

    1987-01-06

    This patent describes a method of mounting a stabilizing mechanism on a vehicle frame which is supported and biased on a suspension assembly at opposite sides of the frame. The frame includes overload stops riveted to opposite sides of the frame and the suspension assembly includes bracket assemblies which secure the vehicle's suspension springs to a wheel axle. The method comprises the following steps: removing an overload stop from each side of the vehicle frame; mounting a modified overload stop on each side of the frame which serves as both an overload stop and a support for the stabilizing mechanism wherein the modified overload stop is mounted into the holes in the frame left from the removal of the overload stop; removing from each side of the vehicle the top bracket from the bracket assembly; inserting a modified top bracket into each bracket assembly wherein the top bracket assembly is modified to couple with the stabilizing mechanism; and mounting on the modified overload stops a torsion bar whose opposite ends are coupled to the modified top bracket by way of linkages.

  13. Pavement response to vehicular loads: a mechanistic approach involving nondestructive evaluation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, James C., Jr.

    1996-11-01

    The need for effective design in the nation's highways is greater now, more than ever, due to shrinking funds for new construction and rehabilitation/maintenance practices and the need to preserve the lands that are not now part of the roadway system. Most of the nation's highways were constructed within the last 30 years and many of these are due for significant rehabilitation and even reconstruction. Thus, the need to infuse robust design methods into these rehabilitation and reconstruction strategies is paramount. Currently, methods for cost allocation for pavement rehabilitation/maintenance activities and pavement management estimations are based on empirical and semi- empirical founded predictions that come up short, particularly when the roadway i subjected to multi-axle, heavy weight vehicles. Additionally, materials currently used int he construction of the pavement structure do not always behave in an elastic manner and the ability to predict the pavement response in the presence of other than elastic material behavior is essential. Finally, prediction of pavement states of distress based on empirical methods and elastic material behavior are inadequate, particularly when heavy weight vehicular traffic is involved. This paper includes descriptions of the overall methodology for pavement design and the unique requirements for the design and implementation of the structural and environmental sensing elements. Description of the mechanistic aspects in the software for the structural and material models is discussed and comparison of predicted and field measured results are presented.

  14. The “Decisive Moment”: an anarchical aesthetics for the contemporary look O “Instante Decisivo”: uma estética anárquica para o olhar contemporâneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Luiz Contani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this study is to semiotically think abouthow the concept of decisive moment as defined by Henri Cartier-Bresson constructs an anarchical aesthetic which can be perceived in a photographic workmanship. The bases for the anarchical aesthetic are drawn from the concepts in Charles Sanders Peirce’s aesthetic semiotics. The principles also include the inferences through contiguity and resemblance as the two axles that form poetics. The results show that in its simplicity, the extraordinary statement made by the photographer will lead to clean breaking with the photographic look. O objetivo deste estudo é pensar de um modo semiótico como o conceito de instante decisivo definido por Henri Cartier- Bresson constrói uma estética que pode ser percebida numa obra fotográfica. São discutidas as bases da estética anárquica como equivalentes aos conceitos apresentados pela estética semiótica de Charles Sanders Peirce. A fundamentação também situa as inferências por similaridade e contigüidade como os dois eixos que formam a poética. Os resultados apontam que em sua simplicidade, o extraordinário conceito definido pelo fotógrafo estimula ao descondicionamento do olhar fotográfico.

  15. Numerical Simulation of Deforming Manufacture Process for Automobile Bevel Gear Blank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zewu; ZENG Shuqin; YANG Xinhua; WANG Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Aiming at solving the difficulties of deforming manufacture of the automobile rear axle bevel gear blank, the paper presented to adopt the numerical simulation method to study the rolling process of the bevel gear blank instead of the traditional expensive trail-and-error method. A three-dimensional simulation model of the Φ500 bevel gear blank radial ring rolling machine was firstly created based on the general dynamic explicit finite element code ANSYS/LS-DYNA, and then realized the virtual simulation of the entire rolling process of the bevel gear blank within a producing cycle. The simulation results displayed the real-time blank enlarging and fleck generating as well as the stress, strain and displacement contours, which are in good agreements with the real ring rolling process. It is concluded that this numerical simulation method is feasible and can be used to guide the practical rolling process of the bevel gear blank as well as other profile-shaped annular blanks.

  16. Modernisation in nondestructive testing for higher reliability of test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This proceedings volume contains 19 contributions on the following subjects: Concepts and basic developments for embedded multichannel test systems (H. Rieder); Novel ultrasonic converters - principles, production, applications (W. Gebhardt); Adaptation of theoretical models for higher reliability of test methods - the example of concrete (K.J. Langenberg et al.); Sound propagation phenomena as a basis for optimized test methods (H. Ernst et al.); New solutions to old problems - the potential of ultrasonic simulation as illustrated by the example of test bit optimisation (M. Spies); Laser-excited ultrasonic thickness measurement in pipe rolling plants (G.-J. Deppe); Modern concepts of automatic ultrasonic testing - the example of pipeline inspection (H. Willems et al.); A new concept for ultrasonic hollow axle testing (K. Matthies et al.); Ultrasonic methods in concrete testing (V. Schmitz); Auotmatic ultrasonic test facilities - throughput, interference, sensor systems (W.A.K. Deutsch et al.); Mechanised ultrasonic testing of thick-walled containers using phased arrays (N. Poertzgen et al.); Fast ultrasonic testing of pipes and rods using phased arrays (U. Schlengermann et al.); Improved weld testing with model-based inspection system optimisation (A. Erhard); Solutions for testing of austenitic mixed welds using phased arrays (G. Engl et al.); Exemplary innovative efficient inspection systems with phased arrays in industrial applications (R. Meier et al.); Image-based ultrasonic corrosion inspection of aircraft components (E. Grauvogl); Mechanised ultrasonic testing - training requirements (T. Heckel). Four papers can be found as separate records in this database

  17. Cylindrical crystals of molybdenite-3R:sem- and x-ray investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkin, N.; Zhabin, A.

    2003-04-01

    Flat faces are the characteristic feature of ionic crystals; nevertheless, among them there are cleavage-faced ones, up to the crystals with cylindrical shapes. More often they occur among minerals with layer structure or minerals with higher tendency to structural defectiveness (cylindrite, franckeite, asbestos, jamesonite, boulangerite and etc.). We studied exotic cylindrical crystals of molybdenite, discovered in the pegmatite veins of Slyudyanogorsky deposit of muscovite in Middle Ural by Kobyashev Yu. S., Zverev G. F. in 1973. Crystals have cylindrical shape, sometimes with sharpened or flattened wedge-shaped edges. Their length is 2-10 mm, diameter 0.8-mm. At the cross section crystals possess concentrically-laminar composition with tabulated axled canal with diameter about 120mkm. Thin layers arise packages about 15 mkm thickness. In the section crystals are fixed up to 6 such packages visually as well as by methods of X-ray phase-dispersed introscopy. According to the data of monocrystal and powder X-ray molybdenite represents as trigonal polytype 3R-R3m with insignificant quantity of hexagonal polytype 2H-P6@3/mmc. Twisting of leaf-like crystalline germs is one of the reasons of formation of cylindrical crystals due to syngenetic shistosity of containing rocks with crystallization.

  18. Antitumor effect of metformin on cholangiocarcinoma: In vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Takayuki; Kato, Kiyohito; Fujihara, Shintaro; Iwama, Hisakazu; Yamashita, Takuma; Kobayashi, Kiyoyuki; Kamada, Hideki; Morishita, Asahiro; Kobara, Hideki; Mori, Hirohito; Okano, Keiichi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2015-12-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is the most common biliary malignancy and the second most common hepatic malignancy after hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Treatment with the anti-diabetic drug metformin has been associated with reduced cancer incidence in patients with type 2 diabetes. Thus, the present study evaluated the effects of metformin on human CCA cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo and identified the microRNAs associated with its antitumor effects. Metformin inhibited the proliferation of the CCA cell lines HuCCT-1 and TFK-1 and blocked the G0 to G1 cell cycle transition, accompanied by AMP kinase pathway activation. Metformin treatment also led to marked decreases in cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 4 protein levels and retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. However, this drug did not affect p27kip protein expression. In addition, it reduced the phosphorylation of Axl, EphA10, ALK and PYK, as well as tumor proliferation in athymic nude mice with xenograft tumors. Furthermore, it markedly altered microRNA expression. These findings suggest that metformin may have clinical use in the treatment of CCA. PMID:26398221

  19. Influence of crank length on cycle ergometry performance of well-trained female cross-country mountain bike athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdermid, Paul William; Edwards, Andrew M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the differential effects of three commonly used crank lengths (170, 172.5 and 175 mm) on performance measures relevant to female cross-country mountain bike athletes (n = 7) of similar stature. All trials were performed in a single blind and balanced order with a 5- to 7-day period between trials. Both saddle height and fore-aft position to pedal axle distance at a crank angle of 90 degrees was controlled across all trials. The laboratory tests comprised a supra-maximal (peak power-cadence); an isokinetic (50 rpm) test; and a maximal test of aerobic capacity. The time to reach supra-maximal peak power was significantly (P race advantage may be achieved using a shorter crank length than commonly observed. Additionally, there was no impediment to either power output produced at low cadences or indices of endurance performance using the shorter crank length and the advantage of being able to respond quickly to a change in terrain could be of strategic importance to elite athletes. PMID:19771448

  20. Aerodynamics and flow in the new 5-series; Aerodynamik und Waermehaushalt des neuen BMW 5er

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krist, S.; Mayer, J.; Neuendorf, R. [BMW Group (Germany)

    2003-08-01

    One of the goals during the development of the new 5-Series was to combine a design with progressive aerodynamics focussed particularly on handling characteristics and lower consumption values. A very low rear axle lift coefficient of c{sub z2}=0.06 or 0.05 for those variants with more high-powered engines also guarantees stable handling. Extensive aerodynamic improvements to the outer skin, the underbody and flow through the engine compartment led to the achievement of drag coefficients between c{sub x}=0.26 and c{sub x}=0.29. In addition to a body with favourable flow characteristics, active cooling helped to significantly reduce flow resistance. (orig.) [German] Ein neues Design mit einer fortschrittlichen Aerodynamik zu verbinden, die besonders auf Fahrdynamik und geringere Verbrauchswerte fokussiert, war eines der Ziele waehrend der Entwicklung des neuen 5er. Ein sehr geringer Auftriebsbeiwert an der Hinterachse von c{sub z2}=0,06 beziehungsweise 0,05 fuer die hoeher motorisierten Varianten gewaehrleistet daher auch ein stabiles Fahrverhalten. Dank umfangreicher aerodynamischer Verbesserungen an der Aussenhaut, am Unterboden und an der Motorraumdurchstroemung konnten Luftwiderstandsbeiwerte zwischen c{sub x}=0,26 und c{sub x}=0,29 erzielt werden. Neben einer stroemungsguenstigen Karosserie half die aktive Kuehlung dabei, den Durchstroemungswiderstand deutlich zu senken. (orig.)

  1. Car body loads from various sources, especially engine bearing forces, in passenger car powertrains; Karosseriebelastungen aufgrund verschiedener Erregungsquellen, insbesondere aus Motorlagerkraeften, bei Antriebsstraengen in Personenkraftwagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Chung-Jun

    2000-07-01

    The author invested body loads in a rear-wheel driven passenger car from different sources, e.g. engine bearing forces in consideration of the powertrain including the engine/gearbox bearing and back axle suspension. Theoretical calculations were carried out using a specially developed computer program; they were supplemented by experiments using modal analyses and analyses of the vibration patterns during operation. [German] Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit werden die Karosseriebelastungen aufgrund verschiedener Erregungsquellen, insbesondere aus Motorlagerkraeften bei Beruecksichtigung des Antriebsstrangs einschliesslich der Motor-/Getriebelagerung und der Hinterachsaufhaengung, bei einem hinterradangetriebenen Pkw untersucht. Die Untersuchungen der Zielgroessen zur Feststellung der durch die Gelenkwelle gegebenen Kopplungseinfluesse erfolgen durch Vergleich eines mit der Gelenkwelle nicht gekoppelten reduzierten Ersatzsystems mit einem vollstaendigen Ersatzsystem fuer den Antriebsstrang einschliesslich Motor-/Getriebebelagerungen, Gelenkwelle, Differentialgetriebe, Hinterachstraeger und Raeder. Dabei wird besonders die Abhaengigkeit der in die Karosserie eingeleiteten Erregerkraefte von der Groesse der Motorlagerfedersteifigkeiten und von den Ablenkwinkeln der Gelenkwelle betrachtet. Die Untersuchungen werden rechnerisch mit einem erstellten Berechnungsprogramm und experimentell mit Hilfe der Modalanalyse und der Betriebsschwingformanalyse durchgefuehrt. (orig.)

  2. Unmet Medical Needs in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Treatment: How to Design Pre-Emptive Combination Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki Karachaliou

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly expanding catalogue of human oncogenic mutations, coupled with difficulties in identifying the cellular targets of active compounds in phenotypic screens, has refocused drug discovery efforts on inhibitors of specific cellular proteins. This new ‘target-based’ approach has enjoyed some spectacular successes in several types of tumours, including non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutations occur in 17% of NSCLC patients, with notable response to single agent therapy. Unfortunately, all patients eventually develop acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs, while complete remission rate to EGFR TKIs monotherapy is low. Priming BIM, a proapoptotic signalling BH3-only protein, induces sensitivity to erlotinib [Tarceva®] in EGFR-mutant cell lines. Synthetic lethal approaches and pre-emptive therapies based on the initial expression of BIM may significantly improve treatment outcomes. EGFR mutations result in transient pro-death imbalance of survival and apoptotic signalling in response to EGFR inhibition. Src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase 2 is essential to the balance between extracellular signal-regulated kinase, phosphoinositide- 3-kinase/protein kinase B and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activity. Furthermore, stromal hepatocyte growth factor confers EGFR TKI resistance and induces inter-receptor crosstalk with Ephrin Type-A receptor 2, CDCP1, AXL, and JAK1. A better understanding of the complex cancer molecular biology of EGFR mutant lung cancer is crucial for development of effective treatment and design of successful future clinical studies.

  3. Mertk deficiency affects macrophage directional migration via disruption of cytoskeletal organization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Tang

    Full Text Available Mertk belongs to the Tyro3, Axl and Mertk (TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases, and plays a pivotal role in regulation of cytoskeletal rearrangement during phagocytosis. Phagocytosis by either professional or non-professional phagocytes is impaired in the Mertk deficient individual. In the present study, we further investigated the effects of Mertk mutation on peritoneal macrophage morphology, attachment, spreading and movement. Mertk-mutated macrophages exhibited decreased attachment, weak spreading, loss of spindle-like body shape and lack of clear leading and trailing edges within the first few hours of culture, as observed by environmental scanning electron microscopy. Time-lapse video photography recording showed that macrophage without Mertk conducted mainly random movement with oscillating swing around the cell body, and lost the directional migration action seen on the WT cells. Western blotting showed a decreased phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK. Immunocytochemistry revealed that actin filaments and dynamic protein myosin II failed to concentrate in the leading edge of migrating cells. Microtubules were localized mainly in one side of mutant cell body, with no clear MTOC and associated radially-distributed microtubule bundles, which were clearly evident in the WT cells. Our results suggest that Mertk deficiency affects not only phagocytosis but also cell shape and migration, likely through a common regulatory mechanism on cytoskeletons.

  4. High binding yet accelerated guest rotation within a cucurbit[7]uril complex. Toward paramagnetic gyroscopes and rolling nanomachines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casano, G; Poulhès, F; Tran, T K; Ayhan, M M; Karoui, H; Siri, D; Gaudel-Siri, A; Rockenbauer, A; Jeschke, G; Bardelang, D; Tordo, P; Ouari, O

    2015-07-28

    The (15-oxo-3,7,11-triazadispiro[5.1.5.3]hexadec-7-yl)oxidanyl, a bis-spiropiperidinium nitroxide derived from TEMPONE, can be included in cucurbit[7]uril to form a strong (K(a)∼ 2 × 10(5) M(-1)) CB[7]@bPTO complex. EPR and MS spectra, DFT calculations, and unparalleled increased resistance (a factor of ∼10(3)) toward ascorbic acid reduction show evidence of deep inclusion of bPTO inside CB[7]. The unusual shape of the CB[7]@bPTO EPR spectrum can be explained by an anisotropic Brownian rotational diffusion, the global tumbling of the complex being slower than rotation of bPTO around its "long molecular axis" inside CB[7]. The CB[7] (stator) with the encapsulated bPTO (rotator) behaves as a supramolecular paramagnetic rotor with increased rotational speed of the rotator that has great potential for advanced nanoscale machines requiring wheels such as cucurbiturils with virtually no friction between the wheel and the axle for optimum wheel rotation (i.e. nanopulleys and nanocars). PMID:26123621

  5. Zika Virus Targets Different Primary Human Placental Cells, Suggesting Two Routes for Vertical Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Takako; Petitt, Matthew; Puerta-Guardo, Henry; Michlmayr, Daniela; Wang, Chunling; Fang-Hoover, June; Harris, Eva; Pereira, Lenore

    2016-08-10

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy is linked to severe birth defects, but mother-to-fetus transmission routes are unknown. We infected different primary cell types from mid- and late-gestation placentas and explants from first-trimester chorionic villi with the prototype Ugandan and a recently isolated Nicaraguan ZIKV strain. ZIKV infects primary human placental cells and explants-cytotrophoblasts, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and Hofbauer cells in chorionic villi and amniotic epithelial cells and trophoblast progenitors in amniochorionic membranes-that express Axl, Tyro3, and/or TIM1 viral entry cofactors. ZIKV produced NS3 and E proteins and generated higher viral titers in amniotic epithelial cells from mid-gestation compared to late-gestation placentas. Duramycin, a peptide that binds phosphatidylethanolamine in enveloped virions and precludes TIM1 binding, reduced ZIKV infection in placental cells and explants. Our results suggest that ZIKV spreads from basal and parietal decidua to chorionic villi and amniochorionic membranes and that targeting TIM1 could suppress infection at the uterine-placental interface. PMID:27443522

  6. Study on development system of increasing gearbox for high-performance wind-power generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongbin; Yan, Kejun; Zhao, Junyu

    2005-12-01

    Based on the analysis of the development potentiality of wind-power generator and domestic manufacture of its key parts in China, an independent development system of the Increasing Gearbox for High-performance Wind-power Generator (IGHPWG) was introduced. The main elements of the system were studied, including the procedure design, design analysis system, manufacturing technology and detecting system, and the relative important technologies were analyzed such as mixed optimal joint transmission structure of the first planetary drive with two grade parallel axle drive based on equal strength, tooth root round cutting technology before milling hard tooth surface, high-precise tooth grinding technology, heat treatment optimal technology and complex surface technique, and rig test and detection technique of IGHPWG. The development conception was advanced the data share and quality assurance system through all the elements of the development system. The increasing Gearboxes for 600KW and 1MW Wind-power Generator have been successfully developed through the application of the development system.

  7. Control the torsional vibration of the drivetrain of gasoline passenger car with use of post modern control theory; Shinseigyosoku wo mochiita gasoline jidosha kudokei nejiri shindo no yokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, I.; Kamata, M. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-04-20

    This paper describes the following matters on suppressing the torsional vibration (the surge suppression) in the drivetrain of gasoline engine passenger cars. Drivetrain constituting elements were modeled to investigate their step response. As a result, it was found that the drivetrain model can be expressed by a vibration system with one degree of freedom and two material points. For the purpose of directly detecting the drivetrain torsional vibration by incorporating vehicle speed information, and suppressing the vibration, control devices were designed. The devices control the torque in engine output by controlling either ignition timing or the intake air amount. For the former case, the device is designed to reduce sufficiently small the norm for a transfer function of the closed loop from the engine torque to rotation speed difference at both ends of the axle shaft by using the H{infinity} control theory. For the latter case, the {mu} design method was used to provide this transfer function with robust controllability. These control devices were used in cars to verify that torsional vibration can be suppressed sufficiently in the drivetrain. 5 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Expanding Taiwanese Industrial Robot Penetration in Europe and the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hung Huang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of Taiwanese robot manufacturers contract sales and after sales service to their European or American distributors, thus isolating them from the end-user market and increasing the difficulty of responding quickly and accurately to end-user requirements, and indirectly restricting opportunities to discover niche markets. Taiwan enjoys significant market share in Europe and the Americas for Cartesian Coordinate and single-axle robots, but still faces strong competition from Japanese and German products. In the low-end market, Taiwan is challenged on price by companies from mainland China. To address these issues, this research recommends robot manufacturers businesses base product development more closely on market demand and adopt a product differentiation strategy to develop products with potential for niche markets. First, businesses should survey demand in European and American end-user markets to obtain guidance for the development of robotic products that better fit the actual needs of European and American end-users and to gain insight into potential niche market for Taiwanese products. Developing products in response to market demand means more than producing single models but also the systemic integration of processing, production efficiency, product yield rates and system responsiveness. By developing a satisfactory production system, Taiwanese industrial robotics manufacturers can enhance their visibility and create new business opportunities.

  9. Design and Analysis of 40 Tonne Trailer Used in Heavy Commercial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durvesh V. Dandekar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The trailer is main part of a full scale vehicle model. This mainly consists of wheel and axle assembly, landing gears and the most important is frame structure. This trailer frame consists of two main I-sections & endchannel sections, connected by cross members of channel sections. Geometry of various parts has to be modified in consultation with customer to avoid interference. In this study, the purpose of the vehicle is to carry the heavy load of about 40T. Herein the state of trailer will be static or stable. This study addresses the problem of a different kind of trailer frame. This has to sustain and carry a heavy load of 40T. Calculating the behavior of these loads at static, dynamic conditions on the frame is a challenging task. Therefore, study of static and dynamic calculation of chassis frame is very important from the structural point of view. To achieve this, detailed static and dynamics analysis is carried out on the frame structure of chassis and to understand the characters of the frame at those loads.

  10. Algorithms for Pallet Building and Truck Loading in an Interdepot Transportation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Alonso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of a logistics company that has to serve its customers by first putting the products on pallets and then loading the pallets into trucks. Besides the standard geometric constraints of products not overlapping each other and not exceeding the dimensions of pallets and trucks, in this real problem, there are many other constraints, related to the total weight of the load, the maximum weight supported by each axle, and the distribution of the load inside the truck. Although the problem can be decomposed into two phases, pallet loading and truck loading, we have taken a combined approach, building and placing pallets at the same time. For each position in the truck, a pallet is built and tailored for that position according to the constraints of height and weight. We have developed a GRASP algorithm, in which the constructive algorithm is randomized and an improvement phase is added to obtain high-quality solutions. The algorithm has been tested on two sets of real instances with different characteristics, involving up to 44 trucks. The results show that solutions with an optimal or near optimal number of trucks are obtained in very short computing times.

  11. Androgen-targeted therapy induced epithelial mesenchymal plasticity and neuroendocrine transdifferentiation in prostate cancer: an opportunity for intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannan eNouri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Androgens regulate biological pathways to promote proliferation, differentiation and survival of benign and malignant prostate tissue. Androgen receptor targeted therapies exploit this dependence and are used in advanced prostate cancer to control disease progression. Contemporary treatment regimens involve sequential use of inhibitors of androgen synthesis or androgen receptor function. Although targeting the androgen axis has clear therapeutic benefit, its effectiveness is temporary, as prostate tumor cells adapt to survive and grow. The removal of androgens (androgen deprivation has been shown to activate both epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT and neuroendocrine transdifferentiation programs. EMT has established roles in promoting biological phenotypes associated with tumor progression (migration/invasion, tumor cell survival, cancer stem cell-like properties, resistance to radiation and chemotherapy in multiple human cancer types. Neuroendocrine transdifferentiation in prostate cancer is associated with resistance to therapy, visceral metastasis and aggressive disease. Thus, activation of these programs via inhibition of the androgen axis provides a mechanism by which tumor cells can adapt to promote disease recurrence and progression. Brachyury, Axl, MEK and aurora kinase A are molecular drivers of these programs, and inhibitors are currently in clinical trials to determine therapeutic applications. Understanding tumor cell plasticity will be important in further defining the rational use of androgen targeted therapies clinically and provides an opportunity for intervention to prolong survival of men with metastatic prostate cancer.

  12. Fatigue Performance Assessment of Composite Arch Bridge Suspenders Based on Actual Vehicle Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the through arch bridges, the suspenders are the key components connecting the arch rib and the bridge deck in the middle, and their safety is an increasing focus in the field of bridge engineering. In this study, various vehicle traffic flow parameters are investigated based on the actual vehicle data acquired from the long-term structural health monitoring system of a composite arch bridge. The representative vehicle types and the probability density functions of several parameters are determined, including the gross vehicle weight, axle weight, time headway, and speed. A finite element model of the bridge structure is constructed to determine the influence line of the cable force for various suspenders. A simulated vehicle flow, generated using the Monte Carlo method, is applied on the influence lines of the target suspender to determine the stress process, and then the stress amplitude spectrum is obtained based on the statistical analysis of the stress process using the rainflow counting method. The fatigue performance levels of various suspenders are analyzed according to the Palmgren-Miner linear cumulative damage theory, which helps to manage the safety of the suspenders.

  13. 冲击作用下煤矿破碎机锤头有限元分析%Finite Element Analysis of Coal Crusher Hammer Head Under the Action of Impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张士强

    2013-01-01

    Using finite element analysis software ANSYS to crusher key components hammer head for single static analysis, the stress and strain distribution rule of the hammer head are obtained for different materials. Provide a theoretical basis for coal mine crusher of hammer head design, selecting material. Analysis results show that: stress and strain in the hammer head role uneven distribution of surface, the maximum stress occurs in the pin shaft and pin axle hole on the contact edge, three kinds of materials can meet the safety requirements, ZGMn13 hammer head resist deformation ability stronger, and safety coefficient is higher.%利用有限元分析软件ANSYS对煤矿破碎机关键部件锤头进行单体静力分析,得到了使用不同材料锤头的应力、应变分布规律。为煤矿破碎机的锤头设计、选材提供了理论依据。分析结果显示:应力及应变在锤头作用面上分布不均匀,最大应力发生在销轴与销轴孔接触的上边缘处,3种材料均满足安全要求,高锰钢锤头抵抗变形的能力更强,安全系数更高。

  14. Vehicle dynamic effects in the course of passing over turnouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelenka J.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available For the quantification of vehicle dynamic effects at passing over turnouts at a higher speed there was developed a methodology for evaluating of acceleration measured on vehicle axle boxes in the year 2003. The methodology is based on statistical evaluation of lateral and vertical acceleration measured values at passing over both critical parts of a turnout (tongue, frog. The created methodology was used for investigation of vehicle dynamic effects by running at speed up to 230 km/h in the year 2004 in terms of high speed tests of tilting-body unit class 680 CD. There was found relatively high values of dynamic effects already at a speed 160 km/h. In terms of tilting-body unit class 680 tests at a higher speed in curves of chosen track lines of 1st and 2nd corridor of Czech Railways there was carried out also verification of curved turnouts state according to methodology mentioned above with a view to possibility of speed increasing at curved throats of chosen stations. Lateral vehicle dynamic effects at passing over a curved turnout frog area were evaluated. There were carried out simulation calculations of vehicle passing over a turnout based on measured geometric parameters of wheelset as well as chosen turnouts. Results of the calculations were compared with measurements. The increased vehicle dynamic effects found in pulsed beats character influence negatively the turnouts part (not only wheel contacting parts as well as operating life all unsuspended parts of vehicles.

  15. Adaptive sliding control of non-autonomous active suspension systems with time-varying loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Chang; Huang, An-Chyau

    2005-04-01

    An adaptive sliding controller is proposed in this paper for controlling a non-autonomous quarter-car suspension system with time-varying loadings. The bound of the car-body loading is assumed to be available. Then, the reference coordinate is placed at the static position under the nominal loading so that the system dynamic equation is derived. Due to spring nonlinearities, the system property becomes asymmetric after coordinate transformation. Besides, in practical cases, system parameters are not easy to be obtained precisely for controller design. Therefore, in this paper, system uncertainties are lumped into two unknown time-varying functions. Since the variation bound of one of the unknown functions is not available, conventional adaptive schemes and robust designs are not applicable. To deal with this problem, the function approximation technique is employed to represent the unknown function as a finite combination of basis functions. The Lyapunov direct method can thus be used to find adaptive laws for updating coefficients in the approximating series and to prove stability of the closed-loop system. Since the position and velocity measurements of the unsprung mass are lumped into the unknown function, there is no need to install sensors on the axle and wheel assembly in the actual implementation. Simulation results are presented to show the performance of the proposed strategy.

  16. Mechatronic track guidance on disturbed track: the trade-off between actuator performance and wheel wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzeck, Bernhard; Heckmann, Andreas; Wesseler, Christoph; Rapp, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    Future high-speed trains are the main focus of the DLR research project Next Generation Train. One central point of the research activities is the development of mechatronic track guidance for the two-axle intermediate wagons with steerable, individually powered, independently rotating wheels. The traction motors hereby fulfil two functions; they concurrently are traction drives and steering actuators. In this paper, the influence of the track properties - line layout and track irregularities - on the performance requirements for the guidance actuator is investigated using multi-body models in SIMPACK®. In order to compromise on the design conflict between low wheel wear and low steering torque, the control parameters of the mechatronic track guidance are optimised using the DLR in-house software MOPS. Besides the track irregularities especially the increasing inclination at transition curves defines high actuator requirements due to gyroscopic effects at high speed. After introducing a limiter for the actuating variables into the control system, a good performance is achieved.

  17. Simultaneous Identification of Moving Vehicles and Bridge Damages Considering Road Rough Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxia Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for the simultaneous identification of moving vehicles and the damages of the supporting structure from measured responses is presented. A two-axle vehicle model with two degrees of freedom (DOF is adopted. The extent of the damage and the vehicle parameters were chosen as the optimisation variables, which allow ill conditioning to be avoided and decrease the number of sensors required. The identification is performed by minimising the distance between the measured responses and the computed responses to given optimisation variables. The virtual distortion method (VDM was used, such that the response of the damaged structure can be computed from comparison with the intact structure subjected to the same vehicle excitation and to the response-coupled virtual distortions. These are related to the optimisation variables by the system impulse response matrix and are expressed by a linear system, which allowed both types of optimisation variables to be treated in a unified way. The numerical cost is reduced by using a moving influence matrix. The adjoint variable method is used for fast sensitivity analysis. A three-span bridge numerical example is presented, where the identification was verified with 5% root mean square (RMS measurement, and model, error whilst also considering the surface roughness of the road.

  18. A new crane for the LHC magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Last Friday CERN took delivery of the new crane that will be used for handling the LHC magnets. CERN took delivery of its new telescopic mobile crane on Friday, 22 February. It underwent its first operating tests, which consisted of lifting a 37-tonne concrete block. Five drive-steer axles, two engines with a capacity of 544 and 203 hp respectively, a telescopic boom with a 60-metre reach and a lifting capacity of 160 tonnes at 3 metres: these are the impressive characteristics of CERN's new 160-tonne crane. And the handling of the LHC magnets, each weighing a 'trifling' 33 tonnes, demands no less than this. The new crane will be required to load the magnets made in Building SM18 onto a trailer that will take them to the Prévessin site, where they will be put in storage until they can be lowered into the tunnel. The telescopic mobile crane arrived at CERN last Friday and has passed its first operating tests with flying colours. Until now, CERN had two cranes, with a maximum capacity of 40 and 60...

  19. ELASTO-KINEMATIC COMPUTATIONAL MODEL OF SUSPENSION WITH FLEXIBLE SUPPORTING ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vrána

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact of flexibility of individual supporting elements of independent suspension on its elasto-kinematic characteristics. The toe and camber angle are the geometric parameters of the suspension, which waveforms and their changes under the action of vertical, longitudinal and transverse forces affect the stability of the vehicle. To study these dependencies, the computational multibody system (MBS model of axle suspension in the system HyperWorks is created. There are implemented Finite-Element-Method (FEM models reflecting the flexibility of the main supporting elements. These are subframe, the longitudinal arms, transverse arms and knuckle. Flexible models are developed using Component Mode Synthesis (CMS by Craig-Bampton. The model further comprises force elements, such as helical springs, shock absorbers with a stop of the wheel and the anti-roll bar. Rubber-metal bushings are modeled flexibly, using nonlinear deformation characteristics. Simulation results are validated by experimental measurements of geometric parameters of real suspension.

  20. Acoustic teaching apparatus before 1929 at the Case School of Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekje, Peter L.; Fickinger, William

    2001-05-01

    The acoustics apparatus found in the Physics Department of the Case School of Applied Science in the first decades of the 20th century included many items common to other acoustical teaching laboratories, such as organ pipes, tuning forks, Helmholtz resonators, sirens, and manometric flame sound analyzers. The European instrument makers Rudolf Koenig and Max Kohl supplied much of this. Equipment built at Case included the phonodeik, which Dayton C. Miller designed in 1908, and the waveform synthesizer. Miller supplied detailed descriptions of the operations of all this equipment in papers and books. In the phonodeik (to show sound), sound deflects a thin glass diaphragm, which by a silk thread turns a mirror on an axle, causing a spot of light to move across film or a projection screen. A working model of the phonodeik has been reconstructed from pieces of two original ones, and will be demonstrated. Photographs of other extant instruments in the collection, and a selection from Millers lantern slides, will be displayed.

  1. Oncogenic KRAS Regulates Tumor Cell Signaling via Stromal Reciprocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tape, Christopher J; Ling, Stephanie; Dimitriadi, Maria; McMahon, Kelly M; Worboys, Jonathan D; Leong, Hui Sun; Norrie, Ida C; Miller, Crispin J; Poulogiannis, George; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Jørgensen, Claus

    2016-05-01

    Oncogenic mutations regulate signaling within both tumor cells and adjacent stromal cells. Here, we show that oncogenic KRAS (KRAS(G12D)) also regulates tumor cell signaling via stromal cells. By combining cell-specific proteome labeling with multivariate phosphoproteomics, we analyzed heterocellular KRAS(G12D) signaling in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) cells. Tumor cell KRAS(G12D) engages heterotypic fibroblasts, which subsequently instigate reciprocal signaling in the tumor cells. Reciprocal signaling employs additional kinases and doubles the number of regulated signaling nodes from cell-autonomous KRAS(G12D). Consequently, reciprocal KRAS(G12D) produces a tumor cell phosphoproteome and total proteome that is distinct from cell-autonomous KRAS(G12D) alone. Reciprocal signaling regulates tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis and increases mitochondrial capacity via an IGF1R/AXL-AKT axis. These results demonstrate that oncogene signaling should be viewed as a heterocellular process and that our existing cell-autonomous perspective underrepresents the extent of oncogene signaling in cancer. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID:27087446

  2. Making hybrid [n]-rotaxanes as supramolecular arrays of molecular electron spin qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Antonio; Ferrando-Soria, Jesus; Pineda, Eufemio Moreno; Tuna, Floriana; Vitorica-Yrezabal, Iñigo J.; Knappke, Christiane; Ujma, Jakub; Muryn, Christopher A.; Timco, Grigore A.; Barran, Perdita E.; Ardavan, Arzhang; Winpenny, Richard E. P.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum information processing (QIP) would require that the individual units involved--qubits--communicate to other qubits while retaining their identity. In many ways this resembles the way supramolecular chemistry brings together individual molecules into interlocked structures, where the assembly has one identity but where the individual components are still recognizable. Here a fully modular supramolecular strategy has been to link hybrid organic-inorganic [2]- and [3]-rotaxanes into still larger [4]-, [5]- and [7]-rotaxanes. The ring components are heterometallic octanuclear [Cr7NiF8(O2CtBu)16]- coordination cages and the thread components template the formation of the ring about the organic axle, and are further functionalized to act as a ligand, which leads to large supramolecular arrays of these heterometallic rings. As the rings have been proposed as qubits for QIP, the strategy provides a possible route towards scalable molecular electron spin devices for QIP. Double electron-electron resonance experiments demonstrate inter-qubit interactions suitable for mediating two-qubit quantum logic gates.

  3. Variability in traffic monitoring data. Final summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, T.; Hu, P.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Transportation Analysis; Young, J.; Lu, A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-08-01

    For highway maintenance and planning purposes, it is desirable to characterize each road segment by its traffic flow [such as the annual average daily traffic (AADT) and the AADT for each vehicle class], by the weight distribution of vehicles that travel on its roads [such as the annual average daily equivalent single axle loadings (ESAL) and the annual average daily weight per vehicle for each vehicle class]. As with almost any data collection effort, the monitoring data suffer from errors from many sources. This report summarizes results of a two year empirical research effort, which was sponsored by the Federal highway Administration, (i) to study and characterize the variability in the traffic data (volume, classification, and weight) from the continuously monitored road segments, and (ii) to study the extent to which this variability is transferred to, and affects the precision of the data produced form the road segments which are monitored only one or two days each year. The ultimate hope is not only that states will eventually be able to publish an estimate of a characteristic such as AADT for each road segment, but also that each estimate will be accompanied by a statement of how good the estimate is in terms of the estimated variability or precision which will likely be experienced as a coefficient of variation (i.e., the quotient of a standard deviation and a mean). This report provides highlights of research reported in five working papers.

  4. Coupled Vibration of Long-Span Railway Curved Girder Bridges and Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Deshan; Li Qiao

    2005-01-01

    The structure of a long curved girder bridge is represented with a three-dimensional curved finite element model. Each 4-axle vehicle is modeled by a dynamic system of 35 degrees of freedom. The random irregularities of the track are generated from a power spectral density function under the given track condition. The dynamic interaction between the bridge and train is realized through the contact forces between the wheels and track. Then based on these models, the coupled equations of motion are solved by applying the time-integration and iteration techniques to the coupled system. The proposed formulation and the associated computer program are then applied to a real curved girder bridge. The dynamic responses of the bridge-vehicle system and the derailments and offload factors related to the riding and running safeties of vehicles are computed. The results show that the formulation presented in this paper can well predict dynamic behaviors of both bridge and train with reasonable computation efforts.

  5. Leaf spring assembly for wheel suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiyama, K.; Mishima, Y.; Kuwayama, K.

    1986-09-16

    This patent describes a leaf spring assembly which consists of: a longitudinal leaf spring made of fiber reinforced plastics having a first surface to be applied with a tension force and a second surface to be applied with a compression force, the first surface of the leaf spring being a flat surface, and the second surface of the leaf spring being provided with a protrusion located substantially at the central portion of the leaf spring. The protrusion is made of a number of laminated short fibrous sheet-like materials saturated with synthetic resin, the short fibrous sheet-like materials of the protrusion being laminated independently and separately from reinforcement fibrous sheet-like materials in the leaf spring; a pair of pad members of elastic material attached to the first and second surfaces of the leaf spring; a pair of retainer plates attached to the first and second surfaces of the leaf spring through the pad members, one of the retainer plates being formed with an indented portion coupled with the protrusion of the leaf spring through one of the pad members without any clearance to clamp the leaf spring at its central portion and being further provided with a pair of protruded portions which are arranged adjacent to the indented portion to retain the paid member in place by engagement therewith; and means for clamping the retainer plates to the leaf spring and mounting the same on an axle housing.

  6. Directional Molecular Transportation Based on a Catalytic Stopper-Leaving Rotaxane System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zheng; Xiang, Jun-Feng; Chen, Chuan-Feng

    2016-05-01

    Ratchet mechanism has proved to be a key principle in designing molecular motors and machines that exploit random thermal fluctuations for directional motion with energy input. To integrate ratchet mechanism into artificial systems, precise molecular design is a prerequisite to control the pathway of relative motion between their subcomponents, which is still a formidable challenge. Herein, we report a straightforward method to control the transportation barrier of a macrocycle by selectively detaching one of the two stoppers using a novel DBU-catalyzed stopper-leaving reaction in a rotaxane system. The macrocycle was first allowed to thread onto a semidumbbell axle from the open end and subsequently thermodynamically captured into a nonsymmetrical rotaxane. Then, it was driven energetically uphill until it reached a kinetically trapped state by destroying its interaction with ammonium site, and was finally quantitatively released from the other end when the corresponding stopper barrier was removed. Although the directional transportation at the present system was achieved by discrete chemical reactions for the sake of higher transportation efficiency, it represents a new molecular transportation model by the strategy of using stopper-leavable rotaxane. PMID:27078221

  7. Condutivity effect in electro-coagulation-flotation applied to physico-chemical wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Cuba Terán

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on the effect of conductivity on the simultaneous applicability of water electrolysis , chemical coagulation and flotation fundamentals in the treatment of wastewater with large amounts of suspended matter, characterizing electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF . Results from experiments carried out in a pilot study implanted and operated in the Laboratory of Environment Control (LCA, at the State University of Campinas in Limeira are presented. ECF was developed in an electrolytic reactor where water passed through aluminum electrodes connected to a power supply. Electrochemical reactions promoted Al3+ ions emission from anode, neutralizing repulsive pollutant forces, forming flakes. An evolution of micro hydrogen bubbles occurred, carrying the flakes to the top of the solution, causing flotation and polluter removal. System monitoring aimed at reaching optimal operation conditions regarding time of liquid permanence in the reactor, influence of the NaC1 addition on the increase of affluent conductivity, and influence of polarity inversion over cathodic passivation. Results from carwash wastewater treatment reported 86% efficiency rate for color, 90,15% for turbidity and 85,43% for oil and axle-grease removal.

  8. Whole Design Plan of the Conceptual Compound Press Installed Machine with Induction Heating System and Its Hydraulic System Design%感应加热复式压装机总体方案与液压系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张汝贵; 丁振波

    2011-01-01

    汽车桥壳和平衡悬挂部件,需用同一设备完成热压装.本文介绍感应加热复式压装机的总体设计,液压系统、复式液压缸、弹簧浮动自动对中装置的设计.首台感应加热复式压装机于2004年研制成功,至今已在有关企业研制生产了14台.用户使用证明,设备运行质量可靠,性能稳定.取得了显著地社会经济效益.%For assembling the axle housing with balance suspending system in an automobile, it is necessary to do this by hot pressing in one set of equipment. A new designed induction heating reciprocating hydraulic press machine was introduced in the present paper as regarding to the general over all design of machine, the hydraulic system and reciprocating hydraulic cylinder and spring floating automatic alignment device. 14 sets press machines have assembled and put in to use since the trail machine was built in 2004. It was proved by production practice that the press machine is reliable in operating with stable performance and have brought remarkable social and economic benefit.

  9. Finite Element Analysis for Fatigue Damage Reduction in Metallic Riveted Bridges Using Pre-Stressed CFRP Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyas Ghafoori

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many old riveted steel bridges remain operational and require retrofit to accommodate ever increasing demands. Complicating retrofit efforts, riveted steel bridges are often considered historical structures where structural modifications that affect the original construction are to be avoided. The presence of rivets along with preservation requirements often prevent the use of traditional retrofit methods, such as bonding of fiber reinforced composites, or the addition of supplementary steel elements. In this paper, an un-bonded post-tensioning retrofit method is numerically investigated using existing railway riveted bridge geometry in Switzerland. The finite element (FE model consists of a global dynamic model for the whole bridge and a more refined sub-model for a riveted joint. The FE model results include dynamic effects from axle loads and are compared with field measurements. Pre-stressed un-bonded carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP plates will be considered for the strengthening elements. Fatigue critical regions of the bridge are identified, and the effects of the un-bonded post-tensioning method with different pre-stress levels on fatigue susceptibility are explored. With an applied 40% CFRP pre-stress, fatigue damage reductions of more than 87% and 85% are achieved at the longitudinal-to-cross beam connections and cross-beam bottom flanges, respectively.

  10. Traffic weigh-in-motion (WIM measurements and validation of the Texas perpetual pavement structural design concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubinda F. Walubita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, the State of Texas has used perpetual pavement (PP structures on its heavily trafficked highways, where the expected 20-year truck-traffic estimate of 80 kN ESALs (equivalent single axle loads is in excess of 30 million. As a means to validate the Texas PP structural design concept and to make optimal future truck-traffic design recommendations, traffic Weigh In-Motion (WIM measurements were conducted and analyzed for two PP projects. The findings indicated that the initial 80 kN ESAL traffic design estimates for PP were comparable to the projections based on the actual measured WIM traffic data. However, underestimation of the hot mix asphalt layer dynamic moduli resulted in conservative designs for the PP structures. In addition, based on the successful use of the automated WIM data stations for traffic data collection, the paper highlights possible applications and advantages (as compared to conventional manual collection of traffic data of using detailed WIM traffic data information for future analyses of both highway operation and pavement structural design.

  11. The development of a specialized in-vivo body counter for radiation monitoring in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design, construction, calibration and testing of a prototype mobile counting system to measure natural uranium in the lungs of workers in the nuclear fuel industry is described. The measurement method is based on the detection of gamma rays emitted during the decay of the daughters of uranium. The mobile facility consisted of a shadow shield and phoswich detector system mounted in a medium-sized trunk. Care was taken to ensure undistorted visual and verbal contact between the subject and the operator. Tests were made to optimize the location and thickness of the lead shielding. A single axle truck was insulated and a heater was installed for winter operation. There was sufficient room in the box to include a change room and waiting area as well as the shadow shield and electronics rack. An extensive series of test measurements was made at a number of locations. Control group studies of males were carried out and a model was developed which correctly predicted the subject background in the uranium region of the gamma spectrum when no uranium was present. The mobile counter was calibrated using the Rando Phantom. On a field trip to Bancroft In February 1981 the shadow shield configuration was shown to provide adequate background reduction for accurate uranium-in-lung measurements. With repeated measurements, changes in an individual's lung burden as small as 2 mg uranium could be detected. The minimum detectable amount of uranium on the basis of one measurement was 5.4 mg

  12. Stability enhancement and fuel economy of the 4-wheel-drive hybrid electric vehicles by optimal tyre force distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Avesta; Mohammadi, Masoud

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, vehicle stability control and fuel economy for a 4-wheel-drive hybrid vehicle are investigated. The integrated controller is designed within three layers. The first layer determines the total yaw moment and total lateral force made by using an optimal controller method to follow the desired dynamic behaviour of a vehicle. The second layer determines optimum tyre force distribution in order to optimise tyre usage and find out how the tyres should share longitudinal and lateral forces to achieve a target vehicle response under the assumption that all four wheels can be independently steered, driven, and braked. In the third layer, the active steering, wheel slip, and electrical motor torque controllers are designed. In the front axle, internal combustion engine (ICE) is coupled to an electric motor (EM). The control strategy has to determine the power distribution between ICE and EM to minimise fuel consumption and allowing the vehicle to be charge sustaining. Finally, simulations performed in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment show that the proposed structure could enhance the vehicle stability and fuel economy in different manoeuvres.

  13. 基于ADAMS的同步器同步过程仿真分析%Simulation Analysis on the Synchronizing Process of Synchronizer Based on ADAMS 

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈震; 钟再敏; 章桐

    2011-01-01

    运用软件ADAMS建立了同步器的多刚体运动学模型,以模拟同步器同步环的锁止和同步过程,并将仿真得到的同步时间与理论值进行对比,结果只有小于3%的差异.最后分析了换挡力和输入轴转动惯量等参数对同步器同步过程的影响.%A multi-rigid body kinematic model for synchronizer is established with software ADAMS, then a simulation on the synchronizing and locking process of synchronizing ring is performed, and the simulated synchronizing time is compared with theoretical value, resulting in a discrepancy only less than 3%. Finally the effects of parameters such as shifting force and the moment of inertia of input axle on the synchronizing process are analyzed.

  14. Analysing polystyrene-modified asphalt and its incidence in a heat-dense asphalt mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sofía Figueroa Infante

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents some results obtained with an MDC-2 asphalt/polystyrene-modified asphalt mixture as a result of crushing waste glass. The stone, asphalt and polystyrene materials’ were characterised for drawing up the design. The Marshal method was used for obtaining the best asphalt- stone-polystyrene percentages. The Superpave method was used for analysing the asphalt; the mixture’s dynamic behaviour was analysed using a test involving 20ºC and 30ºC trapezoidal fatigue for 90x10-6, 150x10-6 and 220x10-6m deformation. The truck-wheel test was analysed for a 13-ton load, similar to that of the heaviest axle on a Transmilenio (articulated bus. The dynamic module test was analysed for 15ºC, 20ºC and 30ºC and 2.5, 5 and 10 Hz frequencies. Conventional asphalt mixture and modified asphalt results were contrasted, interesting behaviour being observed regarding plastic deformation of the modified mixture in service

  15. Horizontal stresses below two agricultural vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamande, Mathieu André Maurice; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Nielsen, Janne Aalborg;

    and the number of wheels. We measured horizontal stress at two depths (0.3 and 0.5 m) below tires of two slurry spreaders: one self-propelled machine equipped with wide tires (1.050 m) and low inflation pressure (150 kPa) but carrying a high wheel load (120 kN), and one tractor towing a three-axle slurry...... at 0.3 than at 0.5 m for the tractor-trailer combination. At 0.3 m depth it was significantly higher for the tractor-trailer system than for the self-propelled machine. Generally, air permeability was reduced in the track of the tractor-trailer system, while no significant reduction was observed...... for the self-propelled system. Outside but close to the tracks, the latter system increased the air permeability (significantly at 0.3 m). Also the tractor-trailer system tended to increase the air permeability outside the track (significant when compared to the in-track values). Both systems reduced...

  16. The Influence of Tractor-Seat Height above the Ground on Lateral Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gomez-Gil

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Farmers experience whole-body vibrations when they drive tractors. Among the various factors that influence the vibrations to which the driver is exposed are terrain roughness, tractor speed, tire type and pressure, rear axle width, and tractor seat height above the ground. In this paper the influence of tractor seat height above the ground on the lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed is studied by means of a geometrical and an experimental analysis. Both analyses show that: (i lateral vibrations experienced by a tractor driver increase linearly with tractor-seat height above the ground; (ii lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed can equal or exceed vertical vibrations; (iii in medium-size tractors, a feasible 30 cm reduction in the height of the tractor seat, which represents only 15% of its current height, will reduce the lateral vibrations by around 20%; and (iv vertical vibrations are scarcely influenced by tractor-seat height above the ground. The results suggest that manufacturers could increase the comfort of tractors by lowering tractor-seat height above the ground, which will reduce lateral vibrations.

  17. The influence of tractor-seat height above the ground on lateral vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Gil, Jaime; Gomez-Gil, Francisco Javier; Martin-de-Leon, Rebeca

    2014-01-01

    Farmers experience whole-body vibrations when they drive tractors. Among the various factors that influence the vibrations to which the driver is exposed are terrain roughness, tractor speed, tire type and pressure, rear axle width, and tractor seat height above the ground. In this paper the influence of tractor seat height above the ground on the lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed is studied by means of a geometrical and an experimental analysis. Both analyses show that: (i) lateral vibrations experienced by a tractor driver increase linearly with tractor-seat height above the ground; (ii) lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed can equal or exceed vertical vibrations; (iii) in medium-size tractors, a feasible 30 cm reduction in the height of the tractor seat, which represents only 15% of its current height, will reduce the lateral vibrations by around 20%; and (iv) vertical vibrations are scarcely influenced by tractor-seat height above the ground. The results suggest that manufacturers could increase the comfort of tractors by lowering tractor-seat height above the ground, which will reduce lateral vibrations. PMID:25340448

  18. Pre-production series TALGO 350 high-speed power car; Hochgeschwindigkeitstriebkopf TALGO 350 Vorserie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P. [Bombardier Transportation, Zuerich (Switzerland); Braun, B. [Siemens Transportation, Muenchen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The high speed power head ordered by Talgo from Bombardier Transportation and Siemens Krauss-Maffei in spring 1998 together with Talgo cars makes up the high-speed train Talgo 350 preseries, of Renfe for future commercial operation on the Spanish high-speed lines. The latest results from research in aerodynamics are incorporated into the silhouette. Major technical features include the TCN based control system, the IGBT - equipped traction converters with incorporated redundant supply inverters for the three-phase train line and the power head auxiliaries, and the partially suspended transmission unit consisting of a bogie suspended motor and an axle hung gear-box. (orig.) [German] Der Hochgeschwindigkeitstriebkopf TALGO 350 Vorserie, den Talgo an Bombardier (ehem. Adtranz) und an Siemens Krauss Maffei (ehem. Krauss-Maffei Verkehrstechnik) in Auftrag gegeben hat, bildet zusammen mit den Talgo-Wagen den Hochgeschwindigkeitszug TALGO 350 Vorserie der Renfe fuer den zukuenftigen kommerziellen Einsatz auf den spanischen Hochgeschwindigkeitsstrecken. Der Triebkopf ist nach optimierten aerodynamischen Erkenntnissen gebaut und mit modernster Leitelektronik, mit IGBT Stromrichtern mit integriertem Hilfsbetriebeumrichter sowie einem teilabgefederten Querantrieb ausgeruestet worden. (orig.)

  19. Active vibration control for high speed train bogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffer, Alexander; Storm, Stefan; Röder, Arno; Maier, Rudolf; Frank, Paul-Gerhard

    2005-02-01

    This report deals with the design of an active vibration control (AVC) system integrated into the primary suspension of the bogie of a German high-speed train (ICE). As a design case a prototype bogie (WU92) for the ICE2 was taken. This paper comprises all parts and stages of the development of an AVC system. First, a transfer path analysis was performed in order to identify the main paths of propagation and to determine the boundary conditions at the actuator contact points. A detailed FE-analysis performed on the basis of an already existing FE-model serves as a support to investigate the actuator performance and evaluate several actuator concepts. However, the evaluation of a multifold of varying configurations of actuator, error sensor and monitor sensor positions is obviously not possible in the experiment, but is in the simulation. Based on the simulations and the experiments the control system is implemented on a digital signal processor (DSP) system. The structure borne noise level was determined during running tests at the ICE3 and measurements at the WU92 installed in the test rig. The design of the actuator system includes the layout of the specific system as well as the selection of the piezoelectric elements. A specifically developed amplifier drives the actuators. Finally the system is integrated into one axle of the WU92 and tested during roller-rig measurements.

  20. Ground vibration generated by trains in underground tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, J. A.; Hunt, H. E. M.

    2006-07-01

    A popular method used to reduce vibration transmitted from underground railways into nearby buildings is floating-slab track, whereby a concrete slab supporting the two rails is mounted on rubber bearings or steel springs to isolate it from the tunnel invert. This paper adds a track model to a previously developed three-dimensional tunnel model in order to assess the effectiveness of floating-slab track. A slab beam coupled to the tunnel in the wavenumber domain, with the slab bearings represented by an elastic layer, is examined first. A second beam representing the two rails together is then coupled to the slab, and axle masses representing a train are added to the rail beam. Power-spectral densities and RMS levels of soil vibration due to random roughness-displacement excitation between the masses and the rail beam are calculated. Analytical techniques are used to minimise the computational requirements of the model. The results demonstrate the inadequacy of simple mass-spring and Winkler-beam models with rigid foundations for the assessment of the vibration-isolation performance of railway track. They suggest that the achievable insertion loss is modest and that floating the track slab may in fact cause increased transmission of vibration under certain conditions.