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Sample records for axles

  1. Giving AXL the axe: targeting AXL in human malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Carl M; Balaji, Kavitha; Byers, Lauren Averett

    2017-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase AXL, activated by a complex interaction between its ligand growth arrest-specific protein 6 and phosphatidylserine, regulates various vital cellular processes, including proliferation, survival, motility, and immunologic response. Although not implicated as an oncogenic driver itself, AXL, a member of the TYRO3, AXL, and MERTK family of receptor tyrosine kinases, is overexpressed in several haematologic and solid malignancies, including acute myeloid leukaemia, non-small cell lung cancer, gastric and colorectal adenocarcinomas, and breast and prostate cancers. In the context of malignancy, evidence suggests that AXL overexpression drives wide-ranging processes, including epithelial to mesenchymal transition, tumour angiogenesis, resistance to chemotherapeutic and targeted agents, and decreased antitumor immune response. As a result, AXL is an attractive candidate not only as a prognostic biomarker in malignancy but also as a target for anticancer therapies. Several AXL inhibitors are currently in preclinical and clinical development. This article reviews the structure, regulation, and function of AXL; the role of AXL in the tumour microenvironment; the development of AXL as a therapeutic target; and areas of ongoing and future investigation. PMID:28072762

  2. 49 CFR 215.105 - Defective axle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.105 Defective axle. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if— (a) An axle on the car has a crack or is broken; (b) An axle on the car has a gouge in the surface that is— (1)...

  3. REDESIGNING OF TRACTOR TROLLEY AXLE USING ANSYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish V. Katore,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In Central India, various small scale industries are adopting the crude methodologies for designing & manufacturing the machine components. One such industry producing tractor trolleys for agricultural use has been identified for this study. The existing trolley designed by the industry uses heavy axle without consideringstatic and dynamic loading conditions which in turn leads to higher factor of safety increasing the overall cost of the axle. In this study, existing trolley axle is redesigned considering the static and dynamic load conditions. A CAD model is prepared using CATIA V5 as a tool. Minimum cross section for the axle is calculated which resulted in the 24.8 % reduction in the weight of the axle. The axle dimensions are redesigned to 75 X 75 mm which is comparatively smaller than the old axle. The design is optimized based on the manufacturing cost of the axle. The failure analysis is performed on the axle of trolley used in agricultural area. These results provide atechnical basis to prevent future damage to the location axle.

  4. A model for equivalent axle load factors

    OpenAIRE

    Amorim, Sara I.R.; Pais, Jorge; Vale, Aline C.; Minhoto, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Most design methods for road pavements require the design traffic, based on the transformation of the traffic spectrum, to be calculated into a number of equivalent passages of a standard axle using the equivalent axle load factors. Generally, these factors only consider the type of axle (single, tandem or tridem), but they do not consider the type of wheel on the axles, i.e., single or dual wheel. The type of wheel has an important influence on the calculation of the design traffic. The exis...

  5. IDEAL BRAKE FORCE DISTRIBUTION BETWEEN THE AXLES OF THE TWO-AXLE VEHICLE SERVICE BRAKE APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Podryhalo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The obtained analytical expressions allow us to evaluate the stability of two-axle vehicles at various slowdowns. An analytical expression for calculating the ideal according to condition stability ensuring of a two-axle vehicle at service brake applications of brake force distribution allows to offer automatic control devices for brake force adjucement. With decellerationg growth of the two-axle vehicle at service braking the braking force acting on the front axle should decrease relative to the brake force on the rear axle.

  6. Investigation on features and tendencies of axle-box heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olegas LUNYS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Breakdown of rolling stock axle-boxes if not detected in due time may cause a rail accident or disaster. At present, a lot of advanced technologies, modern equipment and devices, which “recognizes” faulty axle-boxes when the train is in motion, have been implemented. However, the timely identification of breakdown of rolling stock axle-boxes still is an acute problem, the initial stage of damage emergence being especially problematic. Presently, rolling stock axle-box breakdown is determined according to the higher than permissible temperature of the axle-box body. The article provides statistical data of dangerously heated axle-boxes, determined train delay durations, the number of delayed trains by danger level, and dependence of damage on the season. After systematization of data on axle-box damage and heating temperatures of broken axle-boxes, heating tendencies of axle-boxes of freight wagons are described. Finally, basic conclusions are given.

  7. Imaging Axl expression in pancreatic and prostate cancer xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimmagadda, Sridhar, E-mail: snimmag1@jhmi.edu [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Pullambhatla, Mrudula; Lisok, Ala [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Hu, Chaoxin [Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Maitra, Anirban [Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Pomper, Martin G, E-mail: mpomper@jhmi.edu [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •Axl is overexpressed in a variety of cancers. •Axl overexpression confers invasive phenotype. •Axl imaging would be useful for therapeutic guidance and monitoring. •Axl expression imaging is demonstrated in pancreatic and prostate cancer xenografts. •Graded levels of Axl expression imaging is feasible. -- Abstract: The receptor tyrosine kinase Axl is overexpressed in and leads to patient morbidity and mortality in a variety of cancers. Axl–Gas6 interactions are critical for tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. The goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of imaging graded levels of Axl expression in tumors using a radiolabeled antibody. We radiolabeled anti-human Axl (Axl mAb) and control IgG1 antibodies with {sup 125}I with high specific radioactivity and radiochemical purity, resulting in an immunoreactive fraction suitable for in vivo studies. Radiolabeled antibodies were investigated in severe combined immunodeficient mice harboring subcutaneous CFPAC (Axl{sup high}) and Panc1 (Axl{sup low}) pancreatic cancer xenografts by ex vivo biodistribution and imaging. Based on these results, the specificity of [{sup 125}I]Axl mAb was also validated in mice harboring orthotopic Panc1 or CFPAC tumors and in mice harboring subcutaneous 22Rv1 (Axl{sup low}) or DU145 (Axl{sup high}) prostate tumors by ex vivo biodistribution and imaging studies at 72 h post-injection of the antibody. Both imaging and biodistribution studies demonstrated specific and persistent accumulation of [{sup 125}I]Axl mAb in Axl{sup high} (CFPAC and DU145) expression tumors compared to the Axl{sup low} (Panc1 and 22Rv1) expression tumors. Axl expression in these tumors was further confirmed by immunohistochemical studies. No difference in the uptake of radioactivity was observed between the control [{sup 125}I]IgG1 antibody in the Axl{sup high} and Axl{sup low} expression tumors. These data demonstrate the feasibility of imaging Axl expression in pancreatic

  8. AXL is an oncotarget in human colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Erika; Troiani, Teresa; Liguori, Giuseppina; Vitagliano, Donata; Napolitano, Stefania; Morgillo, Floriana; Rinaldi, Barbara; Melillo, Rosa Marina; Liotti, Federica; Nappi, Anna; Bianco, Roberto; Berrino, Liberato; Ciuffreda, Loreta Pia; Ciardiello, Davide; Iaffaioli, Vincenzo; Botti, Gerardo; Ferraiolo, Fiorella; Ciardiello, Fortunato

    2015-01-01

    AXL is a tyrosine kinase receptor activated by GAS6 and regulates cancer cell proliferation migration and angiogenesis. We studied AXL as new therapeutic target in colorectal cancer (CRC). Expression and activation of AXL and GAS6 were evaluated in a panel of human CRC cell lines. AXL gene silencing or pharmacologic inhibition with foretinib suppressed proliferation, migration and survival in CRC cells. In an orthotopic colon model of human HCT116 CRC cells overexpressing AXL, foretinib treatment caused significant inhibition of tumour growth and peritoneal metastatic spreading. AXL and GAS6 overexpression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) were found in 76,7% and 73.5%, respectively, of 223 human CRC specimens, correlating with less differentiated histological grading. GAS6 overexpression was associated with nodes involvement and tumour stage. AXL gene was found amplified by Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in 8/146 cases (5,4%) of CRC samples. Taken together, AXL inhibition could represent a novel therapeutic approach in CRC. PMID:25966280

  9. Dynamic analysis of rail vehicle axle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ferhat Dikmen; Meral Bayraktar; Rahmi Guclu

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, in order to obtain the dynamic forces on the passenger coach axle, a full rail vehicle model with 19-dof (degrees of freedom) has been considered. For a specific example, the variations of these dynamic forces with velocity of the passenger coach, suspension characteristics and way conditions have been examined. Dynamic forces found in the resonance regions at the range of 2–5 m/s (7.2–18 km/h) has been discussed. Theoretical results obtained for the dynamic forces have been successfully compared with the experimental results of German Railways (Deutsche Bahn-DB).

  10. Design Rules Discussion for Improving Multi-axle Vehicle Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xuebin; JIANG Yingquan; GAO Feng

    2006-01-01

    A whole vehicle dynamic model is built, and the modeling method of connected hydragas spring suspension and multi-axle grouping steer system is also explained. Firstly, a kinematical analysis of suspension is implemented to achieve optimized suspension geometry parameters according to the stable requirement. Then, based on the evaluation of whole vehicle handling character with regard to various tire characters, driving configurations and super structures, the design rules are summarized to improve the stability of multi-axle vehicle.

  11. A New Approach for Reliability Life Prediction of Rail Vehicle Axle by Considering Vibration Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Bayraktar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of vibration on the axle has been considered. Vibration measurements at different speeds have been performed on the axle of a running rail vehicle to figure out displacement, acceleration, time, and frequency response. Based on the experimental works, equivalent stress has been used to find out life of the axles for 90% and 10% reliability. Calculated life values of the rail vehicle axle have been compared with the real life data and it is found that the life of a vehicle axle taking into account the vibration effects is in good agreement with the real life of the axle.

  12. Influence of Initial Inclined Surface Crack on Estimated Residual Fatigue Lifetime of Railway Axle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Náhlík, Luboš; Pokorný, Pavel; Ševčík, Martin; Hutař, Pavel

    2016-11-01

    Railway axles are subjected to cyclic loading which can lead to fatigue failure. For safe operation of railway axles a damage tolerance approach taking into account a possible defect on railway axle surface is often required. The contribution deals with an estimation of residual fatigue lifetime of railway axle with initial inclined surface crack. 3D numerical model of inclined semi-elliptical surface crack in railway axle was developed and its curved propagation through the axle was simulated by finite element method. Presence of press-fitted wheel in the vicinity of initial crack was taken into account. A typical loading spectrum of railway axle was considered and residual fatigue lifetime was estimated by NASGRO approach. Material properties of typical axle steel EA4T were considered in numerical calculations and lifetime estimation.

  13. MULTI-AXLE VEHICLE STABILITY BASED ON WHOLE VEHICLE MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xuebin; GAO Feng

    2007-01-01

    From the analysis of experiment data of the multi-axle vehicle chassis searching process, it is less accurate to predict multi-axle vehicle dynamic characteristic with simplified two-axle vehicle model. So it is important to find out a more effective modeling method in the study of multi-vehicle stability. In the development of heat transfer fluid(HTF) six-axle vehicle, a whole vehicle multi-body dynamic model is built through collaborate flowchart using Teamcenter Engineering, UG NX3 and MSC. Adams. The modeling method of connected hydragas spring suspension is validated by running test results. Based on this whole vehicle model, a kinematical analysis of suspension is implemented to achieve optimized suspension geometry parameters according to the stable requirement. Then, different handling simulations are carried out with regard to various tire characteristics, driving configurations, and equipments. According to the evaluation of whole vehicle handling characteristic, some design rules are summarized to improve the stability of multi-axle vehicle.

  14. The Application of Phased Array Ultrasonic Techniques for Inspection of Railway Axles from Their End Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaptsis, D.; Cooper, I.; Boyle, K.; Nicholson, P. I.

    2011-06-01

    As part of the development of a non destructive testing (NDT) system combining complementary inspection techniques, an inspection system based on phased array ultrasonic testing (PAUT) for detection of transverse cracking in solid railway axles is being developed. This paper presents the initial study, which includes the PAUT experimental setup and the initial results obtained after testing the system on railway axle blocks. The inspection of solid axles from their axle end face is investigated.

  15. Capacitated vehicle routing problem with sequence-based pallet loading and axle weight constraints

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce and study the capacitated vehicle routing problem with sequence-based pallet loading and axle weight constraints. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that axle weight restrictions are incorporated in a vehicle routing model. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that incorporating axle weight restrictions in a vehicle routing model is possible and necessary for a feasible route planning. Axle weight limits impose a great challenge for transportatio...

  16. Shape Optimization Of Front Axle Support Of Tractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shree Dewangan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The front axle support of tractor is the part of tractor which holds the engine of tractor and also gives support to it and lies between engine and front axle of tractor. According to the present market demand of off highway vehicle the low cost and light weight vehicle is in demand to fulfill the requirement of cost efficient vehicle. In this paper analysis of front axle support is done for study of stress generated in the component and then after optimization of its shape and according to the shape its weight will also reduced. Considering the effect of forces acted on such a heavy parts in tractor designed by casting having dynamic loads of less frequency with greater amplitude may cause great damage to the component. According to the production techniques of components in tractor front axle requires a properly designed support with high stiffness. The design of component was modeled in Creo parametric 2.0 and the analysis was performed in solid works. Shape optimization technique is used for performing optimization cause miserable reduction in weight of connecting rod. The optimized component is 10.35% lighter compare to initial design.

  17. Inhibition of Axl improves the targeted therapy against ALK-mutated neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Fei [Department of Neurology, Sichuan Medical Science Institute and Sichuan Provincial Hospital, Chengdu 610072 (China); Li, Hongling [Department of Radiotherapy, Shanghai First People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Sun, Yong, E-mail: sunfanqi2010@163.com [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Huai’an First People’s Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Huai’an 223300 (China)

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • First reported Axl is co-expressed with ALK in neuroblastoma tissues and cell lines. • Axl activation promotes cell growth and impairs the efficiency of ALK inhibitor. • Further found silence of Axl leads to increased sensitivity to ALK inhibitors. • Axl inhibitor promotes the efficiency of targeted therapy in vitro and in vivo. • Axl activation should be considered in the clinical application of ALK inhibitors. - Abstract: Neuroblastoma (NB) patients harboring mutated ALK can be expected to potentially benefit from targeted therapy based on ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), such as crizotinib and ceritinib. However, the effect of the treatment varies with different individuals, although with the same genic changes. Axl receptor tyrosine kinase is expressed in a variety of human cancers, but little data are reported in NB, particularly in which carrying mutated ALK. In this study, we focus on the roles of Axl in ALK-mutated NB for investigating rational therapeutic strategy. We found that Axl is expressed in ALK-positive NB tissues and cell lines, and could be effectively activated by its ligand GAS6. Ligand-dependent Axl activation obviously rescued crizotinib-mediated suppression of cell proliferation in ALK-mutated NB cells. Genetic inhibition of Axl with specific small interfering RNA markedly increased the sensitivity of cells to ALK-TKIs. Furthermore, a small-molecule inhibitor of Axl significantly enhanced ALK-targeted therapy, as an increased frequency of apoptosis was observed in NB cells co-expressing ALK and Axl. Taken together, our results demonstrated that activation of Axl could lead to insensitivity to ALK inhibitors, and dual inhibition of ALK and Axl might be a potential therapeutic strategy against ALK-mutated NB.

  18. Soluble Axl is generated by ADAM10-dependent cleavage and associates with Gas6 in mouse serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budagian, Vadim; Bulanova, Elena; Orinska, Zane; Duitman, Erwin; Brandt, Katja; Ludwig, Andreas; Hartmann, Dieter; Lemke, Greg; Saftig, Paul; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia

    2005-11-01

    Axl receptor tyrosine kinase exists as a transmembrane protein and as a soluble molecule. We show that constitutive and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced generation of soluble Axl (sAxl) involves the activity of disintegrin-like metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10). Spontaneous and inducible Axl cleavage was inhibited by the broad-spectrum metalloproteinase inhibitor GM6001 and by hydroxamate GW280264X, which is capable of blocking ADAM10 and ADAM17. Furthermore, murine fibroblasts deficient in ADAM10 expression exhibited a significant reduction in constitutive and inducible Axl shedding, whereas reconstitution of ADAM10 restored sAxl production, suggesting that ADAM10-mediated proteolysis constitutes a major mechanism for sAxl generation in mice. Partially overlapping 14-amino-acid stretch deletions in the membrane-proximal region of Axl dramatically affected sAxl generation, indicating that these regions are involved in regulating the access of the protease to the cleavage site. Importantly, relatively high circulating levels of sAxl are present in mouse sera in a heterocomplex with Axl ligand Gas6. Conversely, two other family members, Tyro3 and Mer, were not detected in mouse sera and conditioned medium. sAxl is constitutively released by murine primary cells such as dendritic and transformed cell lines. Upon immobilization, sAxl promoted cell migration and induced the phosphorylation of Axl and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Thus, ADAM10-mediated generation of sAxl might play an important role in diverse biological processes.

  19. Soluble Axl Is Generated by ADAM10-Dependent Cleavage and Associates with Gas6 in Mouse Serum†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budagian, Vadim; Bulanova, Elena; Orinska, Zane; Duitman, Erwin; Brandt, Katja; Ludwig, Andreas; Hartmann, Dieter; Lemke, Greg; Saftig, Paul; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia

    2005-01-01

    Axl receptor tyrosine kinase exists as a transmembrane protein and as a soluble molecule. We show that constitutive and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced generation of soluble Axl (sAxl) involves the activity of disintegrin-like metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10). Spontaneous and inducible Axl cleavage was inhibited by the broad-spectrum metalloproteinase inhibitor GM6001 and by hydroxamate GW280264X, which is capable of blocking ADAM10 and ADAM17. Furthermore, murine fibroblasts deficient in ADAM10 expression exhibited a significant reduction in constitutive and inducible Axl shedding, whereas reconstitution of ADAM10 restored sAxl production, suggesting that ADAM10-mediated proteolysis constitutes a major mechanism for sAxl generation in mice. Partially overlapping 14-amino-acid stretch deletions in the membrane-proximal region of Axl dramatically affected sAxl generation, indicating that these regions are involved in regulating the access of the protease to the cleavage site. Importantly, relatively high circulating levels of sAxl are present in mouse sera in a heterocomplex with Axl ligand Gas6. Conversely, two other family members, Tyro3 and Mer, were not detected in mouse sera and conditioned medium. sAxl is constitutively released by murine primary cells such as dendritic and transformed cell lines. Upon immobilization, sAxl promoted cell migration and induced the phosphorylation of Axl and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Thus, ADAM10-mediated generation of sAxl might play an important role in diverse biological processes. PMID:16227584

  20. Sunitinib activates Axl signaling in renal cell cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mijn, Johannes C; Broxterman, Henk J; Knol, Jaco C; Piersma, Sander R; De Haas, Richard R; Dekker, Henk; Pham, Thang V; Van Beusechem, Victor W; Halmos, Balazs; Mier, James W; Jiménez, Connie R; Verheul, Henk M W

    2016-06-15

    Mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics provides a unique unbiased approach to evaluate signaling network in cancer cells. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib is registered as treatment for patients with renal cell cancer (RCC). We investigated the effect of sunitinib on tyrosine phosphorylation in RCC tumor cells to get more insight in its mechanism of action and thereby to find potential leads for combination treatment strategies. Sunitinib inhibitory concentrations of proliferation (IC50) of 786-O, 769-p and A498 RCC cells were determined by MTT-assays. Global tyrosine phosphorylation was measured by LC-MS/MS after immunoprecipitation with the antiphosphotyrosine antibody p-TYR-100. Phosphoproteomic profiling of 786-O cells yielded 1519 phosphopeptides, corresponding to 675 unique proteins including 57 different phosphorylated protein kinases. Compared to control, incubation with sunitinib at its IC50 of 2 µM resulted in downregulation of 86 phosphopeptides including CDK5, DYRK3, DYRK4, G6PD, PKM and LDH-A, while 94 phosphopeptides including Axl, FAK, EPHA2 and p38α were upregulated. Axl- (y702), FAK- (y576) and p38α (y182) upregulation was confirmed by Western Blot in 786-O and A498 cells. Subsequent proliferation assays revealed that inhibition of Axl with a small molecule inhibitor (R428) sensitized 786-O RCC cells and immortalized endothelial cells to sunitinib up to 3 fold. In conclusion, incubation with sunitinib of RCC cells causes significant upregulation of multiple phosphopeptides including Axl. Simultaneous inhibition of Axl improves the antitumor activity of sunitinib. We envision that evaluation of phosphoproteomic changes by TKI treatment enables identification of new targets for combination treatment strategies.

  1. Passivation and Corrosion Behavior of Modified Ferritic-Pearlitic Railway Axle Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, A. P.; Sangal, S.; Srivastav, Simant; Gajbhiye, N. S.; Mondal, K.

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical polarization behavior of two newly developed ferritic-pearlitic railway axle steels (MS3 and MS6) and the standard Indian conventional axle steel has been studied in sodium borate buffer solution of pH 8.4 with and without the presence of NaCl. The polarization behavior of both the new axle steels shows close resemblance, whereas, different polarization behavior has been observed for the conventional axle steel. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements have clearly reflected significantly improved passivation behavior for the newly developed steels compared to that of the conventional axle steel. NaCl salt fog exposure tests have also shown superior corrosion resistance of the newly developed axle steels as compared to the conventional axle steel. Higher surface roughness on the corroded conventional axle steel has also been observed compared to the smoother surface in case of the new axle steels. Higher corrosion resistance of the new axle steels has been attributed to their finer microstructure and strongly adherent protective rusts.

  2. Expression of Axl in Lung Adenocarcinoma and Correlation with Tumor Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Shing Shinh

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We used the Transwell system to select highly invasive cell lines from minimally invasive parent cells, and we compared gene expression in paired cell lines with high and low invasive potentials. Axl was relatively overexpressed in the highly invasive cell lines when compared with their minimally invasive counterparts. However, there is only limited information about the role of Axl in cancer invasion. The biologic function of Axl in tumor invasion was investigated by overexpression of full-length Axl in minimally invasive cells and by siRNA knockdown of Axl expression in highly invasive cells. Overexpression of Axl in minimally invasive cells increased their invasiveness. siRNA reduced cell invasiveness as Axl was downregulated in highly invasive cells. We further investigated the protein expression of Axl by immunohistochemistry and its correlation with clinicopathologic features. Data from a study of 58 patient specimens showed that Axl immunoreactivity was statistically significant with respect to lymph node status (P < .0001 and the patient's clinical stage (P < .0001. Our results demonstrate that Axl protein kinase seems to play an important role in the invasion and progression of lung cancer.

  3. Dynamic Axle Load of an Automotive Vehicle When Driven on a Mobile Measurement Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagiełowicz-Ryznar C.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the dynamic axle load of an automotive vehicle (AV when it is driven on a mobile measurement platform is presented in this paper. During the ride, the time characteristic of the dynamic force N(t, acting on the axle, was recorded. The effect of the vehicle axle mass on the maximum dynamic force value and the dynamic coefficient were studied. On this basis it was attempted to calculate the total vehicle’s weight. Conclusions concerning the dynamic loads of the vehicle axles in relation to the reduced axle mass, were drawn. The optimal axle mass value, for which the dynamic coefficient reaches a minimum, was calculated

  4. Dynamic Modelling of Axle Tramp in a Sport Type Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zargartalebi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant dynamic aspects of coupled vibration of transmission system and dependent type suspension systems is axle tramp. The tramp is defined as undesirable oscillation of rigid live axle around roll axis. In spite of utilizing powerful engines in some type of sport cars, tramp occurrence causes loss of longitudinal performance. The aim of this paper is to derive a mathematical model for predicting and classifying of the tramp. A parameter study reveals that, some parameters such as engine torque, moving parts moment of inertia, car and wheels weight and the material used in suspension system play important role in controlling the tramp. It is shown that large difference between sprung and unsprung mass moment of inertia around the roll-axis, low vehicle mass, short rear track and medium damping values have significant effects on the severity of tramp.

  5. Accelerated Life Test Design for Tractor Powertrain Front Axle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Azianti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated Life Test (ALT has been applied in the manufacturing for many years due to rapid changing technologies, more complex products, speedier product development, and more demanding customer requirements. These reasons have pushed the manufacturers to acquire reliability information faster. ALT allows reducing the time needed to show the reliability of the product. The purpose of this study is to design accelerated life testing which involved determination of normal test time, acceleration factor, acceleration test time, and finally experimental setup. This case study provides the basis for ALT designs for the tractor front axle based on customer usage and field failure analysis, which were conducted to estimate the current reliability, especially on the B10 life during the operational stage of the product. The accelerated life test conducted has guaranteed the B10 life of 4,000 hours with 90% confidence level for lesser time needed for testing to show the reliability of the front axle assembly.

  6. Influence of axle-wheel interface on ultrasonic testing of fatigue cracks in wheelset.

    OpenAIRE

    Makino, Kazunari; Biwa, Shiro

    2013-01-01

    For the ultrasonic testing at the wheel seat of railway axles, quantitative investigation of the reflection and transmission phenomena at the axle-wheel interface is important. This paper describes the influence of the axle-wheel interface on the ultrasonic testing of a fatigue crack in a wheelset by applying the spring interface model. The normal and tangential stiffnesses were identified experimentally for an as-manufactured wheelset at the normal incidence, and the reflection coefficient f...

  7. Monitoring of the Structural Integrity of Wheelset Axles Using Guided Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Grzeszkowski, Mateusz; Prager, Jens

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The structural integrity of wheelset axles of high speed trains as well as freight wagons is of major importance for safety of rail transport. Up to now the inspection of wheelset axles is part of a periodic maintenance which is expensive due to long inspection times and highly influenced by the human factor, especially if those inspections are carried out during night time. Permanently installed SHM-systems at each axle would be able to monitor the structural integrit...

  8. Soluble AXL: a possible circulating biomarker for neurofibromatosis type 1 related tumor burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Gunnar; Peng, Po-Chun; Huang, Po-Yuan; Chien, Hsiung-Fei; Hua, Kuo-Tai; Kuo, Min-Liang; Chen, Chin-Tin; Lee, Ming-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is the most common tumor predisposition disorder affecting 1/3500 worldwide. Patients are at risk of developing benign (neurofibromas) and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST). The AXL receptor tyrosine kinase has been implicated in several kinds of cancers, but so far no studies have investigated the role of AXL in NF1 related tumorigenesis. Recently, the soluble fraction from the extracellular domain of AXL (sAXL) has been found in human plasma, and its level was correlated to poor prognosis in patients with renal cancer. Compared to normal human Schwann cells, a significantly high expression level of AXL was found in three of the four MPNST cell lines and two of the three primary MPNST tissues. Similarly, the level of sAXL in conditioned media corresponded to the protein and mRNA levels of AXL in the MPNST cell lines. Furthermore, in two different human MPNST xenograft models, the human sAXL could be detected in the mouse plasma. Its level was proportionate to the size of the xenograft tumors, while no human sAXL was detect prior to the formation of the tumors. Treatment with a newly developed photodynamic therapy, prevented further tumor growth and resulted in drastically reduced the levels of sAXL compared to that of the control group. Finally, the level of sAXL was significantly increased in patients with plexiform tumors compared to patients with only dermal neurofibromas, further supporting the role of sAXL as a marker for NF1 related tumor burden.

  9. Soluble AXL: a possible circulating biomarker for neurofibromatosis type 1 related tumor burden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Johansson

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 is the most common tumor predisposition disorder affecting 1/3500 worldwide. Patients are at risk of developing benign (neurofibromas and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST. The AXL receptor tyrosine kinase has been implicated in several kinds of cancers, but so far no studies have investigated the role of AXL in NF1 related tumorigenesis. Recently, the soluble fraction from the extracellular domain of AXL (sAXL has been found in human plasma, and its level was correlated to poor prognosis in patients with renal cancer. Compared to normal human Schwann cells, a significantly high expression level of AXL was found in three of the four MPNST cell lines and two of the three primary MPNST tissues. Similarly, the level of sAXL in conditioned media corresponded to the protein and mRNA levels of AXL in the MPNST cell lines. Furthermore, in two different human MPNST xenograft models, the human sAXL could be detected in the mouse plasma. Its level was proportionate to the size of the xenograft tumors, while no human sAXL was detect prior to the formation of the tumors. Treatment with a newly developed photodynamic therapy, prevented further tumor growth and resulted in drastically reduced the levels of sAXL compared to that of the control group. Finally, the level of sAXL was significantly increased in patients with plexiform tumors compared to patients with only dermal neurofibromas, further supporting the role of sAXL as a marker for NF1 related tumor burden.

  10. Rotation of artificial rotor axles in rotary molecular motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Mihori; Iwamoto, Kousuke; Iino, Ryota; Ueno, Hiroshi; Hara, Mayu; Nakanishi, Atsuko; Kishikawa, Jun-Ichi; Noji, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Ken

    2016-10-04

    F1- and V1-ATPase are rotary molecular motors that convert chemical energy released upon ATP hydrolysis into torque to rotate a central rotor axle against the surrounding catalytic stator cylinder with high efficiency. How conformational change occurring in the stator is coupled to the rotary motion of the axle is the key unknown in the mechanism of rotary motors. Here, we generated chimeric motor proteins by inserting an exogenous rod protein, FliJ, into the stator ring of F1 or of V1 and tested the rotation properties of these chimeric motors. Both motors showed unidirectional and continuous rotation, despite no obvious homology in amino acid sequence between FliJ and the intrinsic rotor subunit of F1 or V1 These results showed that any residue-specific interactions between the stator and rotor are not a prerequisite for unidirectional rotation of both F1 and V1 The torque of chimeric motors estimated from viscous friction of the rotation probe against medium revealed that whereas the F1-FliJ chimera generates only 10% of WT F1, the V1-FliJ chimera generates torque comparable to that of V1 with the native axle protein that is structurally more similar to FliJ than the native rotor of F1 This suggests that the gross structural mismatch hinders smooth rotation of FliJ accompanied with the stator ring of F1.

  11. A promiscuous liaison between IL-15 receptor and Axl receptor tyrosine kinase in cell death control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budagian, Vadim; Bulanova, Elena; Orinska, Zane; Thon, Lutz; Mamat, Uwe; Bellosta, Paola; Basilico, Claudio; Adam, Dieter; Paus, Ralf; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia

    2005-12-21

    Discrimination between cytokine receptor and receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling pathways is a central paradigm in signal transduction research. Here, we report a 'promiscuous liaison' between both receptors that enables interleukin (IL)-15 to transactivate the signaling pathway of a tyrosine kinase. IL-15 protects murine L929 fibroblasts from tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha)-induced cell death, but fails to rescue them upon targeted depletion of the RTK, Axl; however, Axl-overexpressing fibroblasts are TNFalpha-resistant. IL-15Ralpha and Axl colocalize on the cell membrane and co-immunoprecipitate even in the absence of IL-15, whereby the extracellular part of Axl proved to be essential for Axl/IL-15Ralpha interaction. Most strikingly, IL-15 treatment mimics stimulation by the Axl ligand, Gas6, resulting in a rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of both Axl and IL-15Ralpha, and activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. This is also seen in mouse embryonic fibroblasts from wild-type but not Axl-/- or IL-15Ralpha-/- mice. Thus, IL-15-induced protection from TNFalpha-mediated cell death involves a hitherto unknown IL-15 receptor complex, consisting of IL-15Ralpha and Axl RTK, and requires their reciprocal activation initiated by ligand-induced IL-15Ralpha.

  12. Axl receptor tyrosine kinase is a novel target of apigenin for the inhibition of cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Chan; Choi, Eun-Ha; Lee, Chuhee

    2014-08-01

    The Axl receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), along with Tyro 3 and Mer, belongs to the TAM subfamily that promotes survival, stimulates proliferation and/or inhibits apoptosis. In various types of human cancer, including breast, lung and prostate cancer, Axl expression is increased and correlates with an advanced clinical stage. In this study, we examined whether apigenin has an effect on Axl expression, which in turn can affect cell proliferation. The treatment of the non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, A549 and H460, with apigenin decreased Axl mRNA and protein expression in a dose‑dependent manner. Axl promoter activity was also inhibited by apigenin, indicating that apigenin suppressed Axl expression at the transcriptional level. Upon treatment with apigenin, the viability of both the A549 and H460 cells was gradually decreased and the anti-proliferative effects were further confirmed by the dose‑dependent decrease in the clonogenic ability of the apigenin‑treated cells. Subsequently, we found that the viability and clonogenic ability of the cells treated with apigenin was less or more affected by transfection of the cells with a Axl-expressing plasmid or Axl targeting siRNA, compared to transfection with the empty vector or control siRNA, respectively. In addition, apigenin increased the expression of p21, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, but reduced the expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). These cell cycle arrest and pro-apoptotic effects of apigenin were also attenuated or augmented by the up- or downregulation of Axl expression, respectively, which suggests that Axl is a novel target of apigenin through which it exerts its inhibitory effects on cell proliferation. Taken together, our data indicate that apigenin downregulates Axl expression, which subsequently results in the inhibition of NSCLC cell proliferation through the increase and decrease of p21 and XIAP expression, respectively.

  13. Axl Mediates ZIKA Virus Entry in Human Glial Cells and Modulates Innate Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Meertens

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ZIKA virus (ZIKV is an emerging pathogen responsible for neurological disorders and congenital microcephaly. However, the molecular basis for ZIKV neurotropism remains poorly understood. Here, we show that Axl is expressed in human microglia and astrocytes in the developing brain and that it mediates ZIKV infection of glial cells. Axl-mediated ZIKV entry requires the Axl ligand Gas6, which bridges ZIKV particles to glial cells. Following binding, ZIKV is internalized through clathrin-mediated endocytosis and traffics to Rab5+ endosomes to establish productive infection. During entry, the ZIKV/Gas6 complex activates Axl kinase activity, which downmodulates interferon signaling and facilitates infection. ZIKV infection of human glial cells is inhibited by MYD1, an engineered Axl decoy receptor, and by the Axl kinase inhibitor R428. Our results highlight the dual role of Axl during ZIKV infection of glial cells: promoting viral entry and modulating innate immune responses. Therefore, inhibiting Axl function may represent a potential target for future antiviral therapies.

  14. Expression of Axl and its prognostic significance in human breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Gaoyuan; Wang, Zhenzhen; Wang, Jianguang; Zhang, Like; Chen, Yanbin; Yuan, Pengfei; Liu, Dechun

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant cancer and second leading cause of cancer-related death among women, and its prevalence continues to increase. Axl overexpression has been identified in the many types of human cancer, and it has been demonstrated to participate in signaling pathways related to carcinogenesis and cancer development. In the present study, Axl expression was examined by performing immunohistochemical staining in 60 breast cancer tumors and 40 benign breast lesions (25 mammary dysplasia and 15 breast fibroadenoma). In total, 34 (56.67%) cancer tissues and 13 (32.5%) benign breast lesions were classified as exhibiting high levels of Axl expression, indicating a significant association between malignancy and high Axl expression. High Axl expression was also associated with estrogen receptor (ER) positivity (P=0.028), progesterone receptor (PR) positivity (P=0.007), and poor tumor differentiation (P=0.033). No significant associations were observed between Axl expression and age, tumor size, lymph node metastasis, tumor node metastasis staging, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and Ki67 antigen. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard model both demonstrated that there was no statistical difference between Axl expression and breast cancer prognosis. However, it remains unclear whether the expression of Axl is correlated with the prognosis of luminal type breast cancer patients. PMID:28356938

  15. 49 CFR 230.100 - Defects in tender truck axles and journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defects in tender truck axles and journals. 230... Steam Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.100 Defects in tender truck axles and journals. (a... wheel seats that is more than 1/8 of an inch in depth. (b) Tender truck journal condemning...

  16. Heating Processes Of The Axle-Boxes Of Rolling-Stock On Railway Track Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olegas Lunys

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the heating process of the axle-boxes ofrolling stock when the train is in motion and discusses the forcesacting on the wheel-set when rolling stock moves along the trackcurves. The paper analyses scientific publications relevant tothe forces acting on the wheel-set of rolling stock and focuseson the axle-box heating process. The article also discusses theresults of theoretical studies on wheel-set forces that affect theheat exchange process of axle-boxes for a railway vehicle. Theresearch has determined a change in heating temperatures ofdifferent axle-boxes of rolling stock and reasons for their variationsand tendencies. The paper has estimated an effect of thetrain running along the track curves on the heating intensity ofthe axle-box. Finally, valid conclusions and recommendationshave been provided.

  17. Analysis of Tendencies Towards Changes in Temperatures of Railway Vehicle Axle Boxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olegas Lunys

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes variations in the temperature of axle-box heating of railroad rolling stock considering two modes of the train - driving and parking position. Additionally, the article describes the influence of the axle load and season on the heat of the axle-box, forecasts intolerable residual resources and explains a possibility of detecting likely breakage at the very beginning of defects. The paper also deals with scientific literature related to axle-box heating and focuses on the conducted practical and theoretical experiments. The carried out research has established the rates of operating heating and critical heating. The application of numerical values for the algorithm of automatic control devices could help with detecting the breakdowns of the axle-box before they reach a critical state and assist in forecasting residual operating resources.

  18. EVALUATION OF DYNAMIC INDICATORS OF SIX-AXLE LOCOMOTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper is devoted to dynamic characteristics evaluation of the locomotive with prospective design and determination the feasibility of its use on the Ukrainian railways. Methodology. The methods of mathematical and computer modeling of the dynamics of railway vehicles, as well as methods for the numerical integration of systems of ordinary nonlinear differential equations were used to solve the problem. Findings. The calculated diagram of a locomotive on three-axle bogies was built to solve the problem, and it is a system of rigid bodies connected by various elements of rheology. The mathematical model of the locomotive movement, allowing studying its spatial vibrations at driving on straight and curved sections of the track with random irregularities in plan and profile was developed with use of this calculated diagram. At compiling the mathematical model took into account both geometric (nonlinearity profile of the wheel roll surface and physical nonlinearity of the system (the work forces of dry friction, nonlinearity characteristics of interaction forces between wheels and rails. The multivariate calculations, which allowed assessing the dynamic qualities of the locomotive at its movement along straight and curved sections of the track, were realized with the use of computer modeling. The smoothness movement indicators of the locomotive in horizontal and vertical planes, frame strength, coefficients of vertical dynamics in the first and second stages of the suspension, the load factor of resistance against the derailment of the wheel from the rail were determined at the period of research. In addition, a comparison of the obtained results with similar characteristics is widely used on the Ukrainian railways in six-axle locomotive TE 116. The influence of speed and technical state of the track on the locomotive traffic safety was determined.Originality. A mathematical model of the spatial movement of a six-axle locomotive with

  19. Multi-axle dynamic steering system of truck-howitzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanliang LI; Xiuhua GAO; Chunqiu ZHANG; Yubo SUN

    2008-01-01

    A two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) steering model of multi-axle vehicle was established. The steering center position, the relationship between the steering angle and the vehicle velocity, and the minimum turn radius were deduced on the basis of the proportional control with a zero sideslip angle. Results indicate that the system stability is decided by the vehicle barycenter position and the lateral stiffness of a tire. Under this control, the steady value of the lateral acceleration is obviously diminished and the yaw angular velocity changes little under any vehicle velocity. The system rapidly responds, the vehicle smoothly steers, and its handling stability is prominently improved.

  20. Role of AXL expression in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaohan; Liu, Jinlu; Zhong, Xinwen; Li, Xi; Zhang, Qigang

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the expression profile of AXL in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its clinical significance. The current study included 257 NSCLC patients, tyrosine-protein kinase receptor UFO (AXL) expression in paired lung cancer and adjacent normal lung tissues of NSCLC patients were compared by immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). These methods were used to detect the expression of the AXL gene and protein in fresh tissues from 35 patients. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was transfected into the H1299 lung cancer cell line to knock down AXL expression; the effects of AXL-siRNA on cell proliferation and migration were examined by MTT and Transwell migration assay, respectively. It was found that AXL staining density in lung cancer tissues was significantly increased compared with adjacent normal lung tissues (55.25 vs. 26.85%; P<0.01); and the expression level of AXL in NSCLC patients was significantly associated with the degree of tumor differentiation (P<0.01) and the clinical stage of disease (P<0.01). Western blotting and qPCR showed that AXL expression was significantly higher in cancer tissues compared with that in adjacent lung tissue (P<0.05). Additionally, the current study also showed that AXL-siRNA inhibited H1299 cell proliferation and migration in vitro. The present study demonstrates the association between increased expression of AXL in NSCLC and the low differentiation phenotype, and its effects on cell proliferation and migration, suggesting its potential clinical values for the prognosis of NSCLC.

  1. Oxidative stress enhances Axl-mediated cell migration through an Akt1/Rac1-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jhy-Shrian; Cho, Chun-Yu; Hong, Chih-Chen; Yan, Ming-De; Hsieh, Mao-Chih; Lay, Jong-Ding; Lai, Gi-Ming; Cheng, Ann-Lii; Chuang, Shuang-En

    2013-12-01

    Persistent oxidative stress is common in cancer cells because of abnormal generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and has been associated with malignant phenotypes, such as chemotherapy resistance and metastasis. Both overexpression of Axl and abnormal ROS elevation have been linked to cell transformation and increased cell migration. However, the relationship between Axl and ROS in malignant cell migration has not been previously evaluated. Using an in vitro human lung cancer model, we examined the redox state of lung adenocarcinoma cell lines of low metastatic (CL1-0) and high metastatic (CL1-5) potentials. Here we report that Axl activation elicits ROS accumulation through the oxidase-coupled small GTPase Rac1. We also observed that oxidative stress could activate Axl phosphorylation to synergistically enhance cell migration. Further, Axl signaling activated by H2O2 treatment results in enhancement of cell migration via a PI3K/Akt-dependent pathway. The kinase activity of Axl is required for the Axl-mediated cell migration and prolongs the half-life of phospho-Akt under oxidative stress. Finally, downregulation of Akt1, but not Akt2, by RNAi in Axl-overexpressing cells inhibits the amount of activated Rac1 and the ability to migrate induced by H2O2 treatment. Together, these results show that a novel Axl-signaling cascade induced by H2O2 treatment triggers cell migration through the PI3K/Akt1/Rac1 pathway. Elucidation of redox regulation in Axl-related malignant migration may provide new molecular insights into the mechanisms underlying tumor progression.

  2. Failure analysis of axle shaft of a fork lift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvik Das

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An axle shaft of fork lift failed at operation within 296 h of service. The shaft transmits torque from discrepancy to wheel through planetary gear arrangement. A section of fractured axle shaft made of induction-hardened steel was analyzed to determine the root cause of the failure. Optical microscopies as well as field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM along with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS were carried out to characterize the microstructure. Hardness profile throughout the cross-section was evaluated by micro-hardness measurements. Chemical analysis indicated that the shaft was made of 42CrMo4 steel grade as per specification. Microstructural analysis and micro-hardness profile revealed that the shaft was improperly heat treated resulting in a brittle case, where crack was found to initiate from the case in a brittle mode in contrast to ductile mode within the core. This behaviour was related to differences in microstructure, which was observed to be martensitic within the case with a micro-hardness equivalent to 735 HV, and a mixture of non-homogeneous structure of pearlite and ferrite within the core with a hardness of 210 HV. The analysis suggests that the fracture initiated from the martensitic case as brittle mode due to improper heat treatment process (high hardness. Moreover the inclusions along the hot working direction i.e. in the longitudinal axis made the component more susceptible to failure.

  3. Gas6/Axl pathway promotes tumor invasion through the transcriptional activation of Slug in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsin-Jung; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Chen, Yu-Ling; Chung, Ling; Yuan, Ray-Hwang

    2014-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common fatal cancers worldwide. Other than the sorafenib treatment, no effective systemic therapy has been available thus far. Most targets in molecularly targeted therapy for cancer are receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Therefore, identifying activated RTKs in HCC is critical for developing new molecularly targeted therapies. Using a phospho-RTK array, we found that Axl is one of the most frequently activated RTKs in liver cancer cell lines. The knockdown of Axl by RNA interference significantly reduced cell migration and invasion in the HCC cell lines HA22T and Mahlavu. Stimulation of HCC cell lines by Axl ligand growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6) enhanced cell migration and invasion. The Gas6/Axl pathway enhanced the expression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition-inducing transcription factor Slug, which is essential for the invasion-promoting activity of Axl. Treating HCC cells with the Axl inhibitor bosutinib suppressed Slug expression and decreased the invasiveness of HCC cell lines. These findings indicate that Gas6/Axl regulates tumor invasion through the transcriptional activation of Slug.

  4. Axl tyrosine kinase protects against tubulo-interstitial apoptosis and progression of renal failure in a murine model of chronic kidney disease and hyperphosphataemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth D Hyde

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is defined as the progressive loss of renal function often involving glomerular, tubulo-interstitial and vascular pathology. CKD is associated with vascular calcification; the extent of which predicts morbidity and mortality. However, the molecular regulation of these events and the progression of chronic kidney disease are not fully elucidated. To investigate the function of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase in CKD we performed a sub-total nephrectomy and fed high phosphate (1% diet to Axl+/+ and Axl-/- mice. Plasma Gas6 (Axl' ligand, renal Axl expression and downstream Akt signalling were all significantly up-regulated in Axl+/+ mice following renal mass reduction and high phosphate diet, compared to age-matched controls. Axl-/- mice had significantly enhanced uraemia, reduced bodyweight and significantly reduced survival following sub-total nephrectomy and high phosphate diet compared to Axl+/+ mice; only 45% of Axl-/- mice survived to 14 weeks post-surgery compared to 87% of Axl+/+ mice. Histological analysis of kidney remnants revealed no effect of loss of Axl on glomerular hypertrophy, calcification or renal sclerosis but identified significantly increased tubulo-interstitial apoptosis in Axl-/- mice. Vascular calcification was not induced in Axl+/+ or Axl-/- mice in the time frame we were able to examine. In conclusion, we identify the up-regulation of Gas6/Axl signalling as a protective mechanism which reduces tubulo-interstitial apoptosis and slows progression to end-stage renal failure in the murine nephrectomy and high phosphate diet model of CKD.

  5. Axl tyrosine kinase protects against tubulo-interstitial apoptosis and progression of renal failure in a murine model of chronic kidney disease and hyperphosphataemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Gareth D; Taylor, Rebecca F; Ashton, Nick; Borland, Samantha J; Wu, Hon Sing Geoffrey; Gilmore, Andrew P; Canfield, Ann E

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as the progressive loss of renal function often involving glomerular, tubulo-interstitial and vascular pathology. CKD is associated with vascular calcification; the extent of which predicts morbidity and mortality. However, the molecular regulation of these events and the progression of chronic kidney disease are not fully elucidated. To investigate the function of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase in CKD we performed a sub-total nephrectomy and fed high phosphate (1%) diet to Axl+/+ and Axl-/- mice. Plasma Gas6 (Axl' ligand), renal Axl expression and downstream Akt signalling were all significantly up-regulated in Axl+/+ mice following renal mass reduction and high phosphate diet, compared to age-matched controls. Axl-/- mice had significantly enhanced uraemia, reduced bodyweight and significantly reduced survival following sub-total nephrectomy and high phosphate diet compared to Axl+/+ mice; only 45% of Axl-/- mice survived to 14 weeks post-surgery compared to 87% of Axl+/+ mice. Histological analysis of kidney remnants revealed no effect of loss of Axl on glomerular hypertrophy, calcification or renal sclerosis but identified significantly increased tubulo-interstitial apoptosis in Axl-/- mice. Vascular calcification was not induced in Axl+/+ or Axl-/- mice in the time frame we were able to examine. In conclusion, we identify the up-regulation of Gas6/Axl signalling as a protective mechanism which reduces tubulo-interstitial apoptosis and slows progression to end-stage renal failure in the murine nephrectomy and high phosphate diet model of CKD.

  6. Development of a Test Machine for IVECO Drive Axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Liang-mo; WANG He-fu; CHEN Jin-rong; LING Zhi-liang; CAO Yu-hua

    2007-01-01

    To improve the automation level of the vehicle drive axle test and better simulate a vehicle′s actual operation, an advanced test machine has been developed. The load system of the machine consists of hand brakes and electric cylinders. It is simple-structured and low-cost. The major motor of the machine is controlled by a transducer and its speed can be adjusted easily. In addition, the programmed machine can automatically test such parameters as the grinding condition, the differential speed, the noise level, etc. It can also adjust the test procedures according to different requirements. Detailed discussion of the structure and mechanism of the test machine is given in this paper.

  7. CONOCOPHILLIPS FUEL EFFICIENT HIGH-PERFORMANCE(FEHP) SAE 75W90 REAR AXLE GEAR LUBRICANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report is on the Environmental Verification Test of a ConocoPhillips real axle gear lubricant to determine whether it could save vehicle fuel. It determined that a verifyable fuel savings could be measured.

  8. Prerequisites for Increasing the Axle Load on Railway Tracks in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lidmila

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with problems of increasing the axle load on Czech Railways (ED tracks to 250 kN or 300 kN, respectively. The results of a numerical analysis of the effects of increased axle loads on the track bed structure were verified by experimental measurements carried out on track bed construction models in an experimental box on a 1:1 scale. The results of the research are applicable for routine use on ED. 

  9. AXL as a modulator of sunitinib response in glioblastoma cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Martinho, Olga Catarina Lopes; Zucca, Luís Eduardo; Reis,R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) targeted therapy has been explored for glioblastoma treatment. However, it is unclear which RTK inhibitors are the most effective and there are no predictive biomarkers available. We recently identified the RTK AXL as a putative target for the pan-RTK inhibitors cediranib and sunitinib, which are under clinical trials for glioblastoma patients. Here, we provide evidence that AXL activity can modulate sunitinib response in glioblastoma cell lines. We found that A...

  10. Cyclic Fracture Toughness of Railway Axle and Mechanisms of its Fatigue Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorochak Andriy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main regularities in fatigue fracture of the railway axle material - the OSL steel - are found in this paper. Micromechanisms of fatigue crack propagation are described and systematized, and a physical-mechanical interpretation of the relief morphology at different stages of crack propagation is proposed for fatigue cracks in specimens cut out of the surface, internal and central layers of the axle.

  11. Non-intrusive schemes for speed and axle identification in bridge-weigh-in-motion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhori, Hamed; Makki Alamdari, Mehrisadat; Zhu, Xinqun; Samali, Bijan; Mustapha, Samir

    2017-02-01

    Bridge weigh-in-motion (BWIM) is an approach through which the axle and gross weight of trucks travelling at normal highway speed are identified using the response of an instrumented bridge. The vehicle speed, the number of axles, and the axle spacing are crucial parameters, and are required to be determined in the majority of BWIM algorithms. Nothing-on-the-road (NOR) strategy suggests using the strain signals measured at some particular positions underneath the deck or girders of a bridge to obtain this information. The objective of this research is to present a concise overview of the challenges of the current non-intrusive schemes for speed and axle determination through bending-strain and shear-strain based approaches. The problem associated with the global bending-strain responses measured at quarter points of span is discussed and a new sensor arrangement is proposed as an alternative. As for measurement of local responses rather than the global responses, the advantage of shear strains over bending strains is presented. However, it is illustrated that shear strains at quarter points of span can only provide accurate speed estimation but fail to detect the correct number of axles. As a remedy, it is demonstrated that, even for closely-spaced axles, the shear strain at the beginning of the bridge is capable of reliably identifying the number of axles. In order to provide a fully automated speed and axle identification system, appropriate signal processing including low-pass filtering and wavelet transforms are applied to the raw time signals. As case studies, the results of experimental testing in laboratory and on a real bridge are presented.

  12. Vibroacoustic Modeling and Path Control of Air-Borne Axle Whine Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Guo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The axle whine noise will eventually affect the vehicle noise performance. In this study, a systematic modeling approach is developed to analyze the axle whine problem by considering the hypoid gear mesh from the tooth contact process as well as the system dynamics effect with gear design parameters and shaft-bearing-housing system taken into account. Moreover, the tuning of the dominant air-borne path is modeled analytically by using the sound transmission loss idea. First, gear tooth load distribution results are obtained in a 3-dimensional loaded tooth contact analysis program. Then mesh parameters are synthesized and applied to a linear multibody gear dynamic model to obtain dynamic mesh and bearing responses. The bearing responses are used as the excitation force to a housing finite element model. Finally, the vibroacoustic analysis of the axle is performed using the boundary element method; sound pressure responses in the axle surface are then simulated. Transmission losses of different panel partitions are included in the final stage to guide the tuning of air-borne paths to reduce the radiated axle whine noise. The proposed approach gives a more in-depth understanding of the axle whine generation and therefore can further facilitate the system design and trouble-shooting.

  13. Mice lacking Axl and Mer tyrosine kinase receptors are susceptible to experimental autoimmune orchitis induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Liu, Zhenghui; Zhang, Yue; Chen, Qiaoyuan; Liu, Peng; Cheng, C Yan; Lee, Will M; Chen, Yongmei; Han, Daishu

    2015-03-01

    The mammalian testis is an immunoprivileged organ where male germ cell autoantigens are immunologically ignored. Both systemic immune tolerance to autoantigens and local immunosuppressive milieu contribute to the testicular immune privilege. Testicular immunosuppression has been intensively studied, but information on systemic immune tolerance to autoantigens is lacking. In the present study, we aimed to determine the role of Axl and Mer receptor tyrosine kinases in maintaining the systemic tolerance to male germ cell antigens using the experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) model. Axl and Mer double-knockout (Axl(-/-)Mer(-/-)) mice developed evident EAO after a single immunization with germ cell homogenates emulsified with complete Freund's adjuvant. EAO was characterized by the accumulation of macrophages and T lymphocytes in the testis. Damage to the seminiferous epithelium was also observed. EAO induction was associated with pro-inflammatory cytokine upregulation in the testes, impaired permeability of the blood-testis barrier and generation of autoantibodies against germ cell antigens in Axl(-/-)Mer(-/-) mice. Immunization also induced mild EAO in Axl or Mer single-gene-knockout mice. By contrast, a single immunization failed to induce EAO in wild-type mice. The results indicate that Axl and Mer receptors cooperatively regulate the systemic immune tolerance to male germ cell antigens.

  14. Novel wavelet threshold denoising method in axle press-fit zone ultrasonic detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chaoyong; Gao, Xiaorong; Peng, Jianping; Wang, Ai

    2017-02-01

    Axles are important part of railway locomotives and vehicles. Periodic ultrasonic inspection of axles can effectively detect and monitor axle fatigue cracks. However, in the axle press-fit zone, the complex interface contact condition reduces the signal-noise ratio (SNR). Therefore, the probability of false positives and false negatives increases. In this work, a novel wavelet threshold function is created to remove noise and suppress press-fit interface echoes in axle ultrasonic defect detection. The novel wavelet threshold function with two variables is designed to ensure the precision of optimum searching process. Based on the positive correlation between the correlation coefficient and SNR and with the experiment phenomenon that the defect and the press-fit interface echo have different axle-circumferential correlation characteristics, a discrete optimum searching process for two undetermined variables in novel wavelet threshold function is conducted. The performance of the proposed method is assessed by comparing it with traditional threshold methods using real data. The statistic results of the amplitude and the peak SNR of defect echoes show that the proposed wavelet threshold denoising method not only maintains the amplitude of defect echoes but also has a higher peak SNR.

  15. Heightened cleavage of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase by ADAM metalloproteases may contribute to disease pathogenesis in SLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Jacob J; Du, Yong; Vanarsa, Kamala; Mayeux, Jessica; Li, Li; Mutwally, Azza; Arriens, Cristina; Min, Soyoun; Hutcheson, Jack; Davis, Laurie S; Chong, Benjamin F; Satterthwaite, Anne B; Wu, Tianfu; Mohan, Chandra

    2016-08-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by antibody-mediated chronic inflammation in the kidney, lung, skin, and other organs to cause inflammation and damage. Several inflammatory pathways are dysregulated in SLE, and understanding these pathways may improve diagnosis and treatment. In one such pathway, Axl tyrosine kinase receptor responds to Gas6 ligand to block inflammation in leukocytes. A soluble form of the Axl receptor ectodomain (sAxl) is elevated in serum from patients with SLE and lupus-prone mice. We hypothesized that sAxl in SLE serum originates from the surface of leukocytes and that the loss of leukocyte Axl contributes to the disease. We determined that macrophages and B cells are a source of sAxl in SLE and in lupus-prone mice. Shedding of the Axl ectodomain from the leukocytes of lupus-prone mice is mediated by the matrix metalloproteases ADAM10 and TACE (ADAM17). Loss of Axl from lupus-prone macrophages renders them unresponsive to Gas6-induced anti-inflammatory signaling in vitro. This phenotype is rescued by combined ADAM10/TACE inhibition. Mice with Axl-deficient macrophages develop worse disease than controls when challenged with anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) sera in an induced model of nephritis. ADAM10 and TACE also mediate human SLE PBMC Axl cleavage. Collectively, these studies indicate that increased metalloprotease-mediated cleavage of leukocyte Axl may contribute to end organ disease in lupus. They further suggest dual ADAM10/TACE inhibition as a potential therapeutic modality in SLE.

  16. Fault Diagnosis of Train Axle Box Bearing Based on Multifeature Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Failure of the train axle box bearing will cause great loss. Now, condition-based maintenance of train axle box bearing has been a research hotspot around the world. Vibration signals generated by train axle box bearing have nonlinear and nonstationary characteristics. The methods used in traditional bearing fault diagnosis do not work well with the train axle box. To solve this problem, an effective method of axle box bearing fault diagnosis based on multifeature parameters is presented in this paper. This method can be divided into three parts, namely, weak fault signal extraction, feature extraction, and fault recognition. In the first part, a db4 wavelet is employed for denoising the original signals from the vibration sensors. In the second part, five time-domain parameters, five IMF energy-torque features, and two amplitude-ratio features are extracted. The latter seven frequency domain features are calculated based on the empirical mode decomposition and envelope spectrum analysis. In the third part, a fault classifier based on BP neural network is designed for automatic fault pattern recognition. A series of tests are carried out to verify the proposed method, which show that the accuracy is above 90%.

  17. Low MITF/AXL ratio predicts early resistance to multiple targeted drugs in melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Judith; Krijgsman, Oscar; Tsoi, Jennifer; Robert, Lidia; Hugo, Willy; Song, Chunying; Kong, Xiangju; Possik, Patricia A.; Cornelissen-Steijger, Paulien D.M.; Foppen, Marnix H. Geukes; Kemper, Kristel; Goding, Colin R.; McDermott, Ultan; Blank, Christian; Haanen, John; Graeber, Thomas G.; Ribas, Antoni; Lo, Roger S.; Peeper, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Increased expression of the Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) contributes to melanoma progression and resistance to BRAF pathway inhibition. Here we show that the lack of MITF is associated with more severe resistance to a range of inhibitors, while its presence is required for robust drug responses. Both in primary and acquired resistance, MITF levels inversely correlate with the expression of several activated receptor tyrosine kinases, most frequently AXL. The MITF-low/AXL-high/drug-resistance phenotype is common among mutant BRAF and NRAS melanoma cell lines. The dichotomous behaviour of MITF in drug response is corroborated in vemurafenib-resistant biopsies, including MITF-high and -low clones in a relapsed patient. Furthermore, drug cocktails containing AXL inhibitor enhance melanoma cell elimination by BRAF or ERK inhibition. Our results demonstrate that a low MITF/AXL ratio predicts early resistance to multiple targeted drugs, and warrant clinical validation of AXL inhibitors to combat resistance of BRAF and NRAS mutant MITF-low melanomas. PMID:25502142

  18. DAMAGE TOLERANCE ANALYSIS ON HOLLOW AXLES OF HIGH SPEED MOTOR TRAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Suxia; XIE Jilong; YANG Guangxue; XIAO Nan

    2008-01-01

    According to the rules of UIC515-3, the service loads of the axles are defined, which include some different loads cases as follows: the static loads; the impact loads resulted from running through the rail joints and unevenness rails; the loads through curves and from braking. Through the calculating and analysis, the stress distribution of the hollow axles is obtained for 200 km/h high speed motor trains used in China. At the same time, the fatigue crack growth of hollow axles is studied, and the initial surface cracks of 2 mm depth caused by hard objects strike or the other causes are discussed. On the basis of the linear elastic fracture mechanics theory, the stress intensity factor of the crack of the geometry transition outside the wheel seat is also studied. Associated with fatigue crack propagation equation and the corresponding crack propagation threshold, the crack propagation characteristics under different shapes are calculated. Then the running distances are educed with different shapes propagating to the critical length, and the estimation of the residual lives about hollow axles which are the reference values of examine and repair limit of the hollow axle is given.

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Tractor Trolley Axle by Using Finite Element Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Aloni

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Tractor trolley or trailers are very popular and cheaper mode of goods transport in rural as well as urban area. But these trailers are manufactured in small scale to moderate scale industry. Especially in the small- and middle-scale agricultural machinery industry, insufficient use of new technology and new design features can cause problems such as breakdowns and failures during field operations. In Present work finite element analysis approach is used to modify existing rear axle of tractor trolley. Fatigue failure of the rear axle finite element model was predicted after the dynamic load was imposed on it. For analysis, a 6.0 ton 2 wheeler tractor trolley i.e. semitrailer manufactured by Awachat Industries Ltd., Wardha is selected. The finite element analysis of existing rear axle of tractor trolley revealed the stresses distribution on rear axle. So, an effort is made to modify the design of existing rear axle along with change of material so that advantage of weight reduction along with safe stress can be obtained.

  20. Rational Design for Rotaxane Synthesis through Intramolecular Slippage: Control of Activation Energy by Rigid Axle Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masai, Hiroshi; Terao, Jun; Fujihara, Tetsuaki; Tsuji, Yasushi

    2016-05-01

    We describe a new concept for rotaxane synthesis through intramolecular slippage using π-conjugated molecules as rigid axles linked with organic soluble and flexible permethylated α-cyclodextrins (PM α-CDs) as macrocycles. Through hydrophilic-hydrophobic interactions and flipping of PM α-CDs, successful quantitative conversion into rotaxanes was achieved without covalent bond formation. The rotaxanes had high activation barrier for their de-threading, so that they were kinetically isolated and derivatized even under conditions unfavorable for maintaining the rotaxane structures. (1) H NMR spectroscopy experiments clearly revealed that the restricted motion of the linked macrocycle with the rigid axle made it possible to control the kinetic stability by adjusting the length of the rigid axle in the precursor structure rather than the steric bulkiness of the stopper unit.

  1. Hepatitis C Virus Driven AXL Expression Suppresses the Hepatic Type I Interferon Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Read

    Full Text Available Treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is evolving rapidly with the development of novel direct acting antivirals (DAAs, however viral clearance remains intimately linked to the hepatic innate immune system. Patients demonstrating a high baseline activation of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs, termed interferon refractoriness, are less likely to mount a strong antiviral response and achieve viral clearance when placed on treatment. As a result, suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS 3 and other regulators of the IFN response have been identified as key candidates for the IFN refractory phenotype due to their regulatory role on the IFN response. AXL is a receptor tyrosine kinase that has been identified as a key regulator of interferon (IFN signalling in myeloid cells of the immune system, but has not been examined in the context of chronic HCV infection. Here, we show that AXL is up-regulated following HCV infection, both in vitro and in vivo and is likely induced by type I/III IFNs and inflammatory signalling pathways. AXL inhibited type IFNα mediated ISG expression resulting in a decrease in its antiviral efficacy against HCV in vitro. Furthermore, patients possessing the favourable IFNL3 rs12979860 genotype associated with treatment response, showed lower AXL expression in the liver and a stronger induction of AXL in the blood, following their first dose of IFN. Together, these data suggest that elevated AXL expression in the liver may mediate an IFN-refractory phenotype characteristic of patients possessing the unfavourable rs12979860 genotype, which is associated with lower rates of viral clearance.

  2. Application of Computational-Experimental Methods for Designing Optimized Semitrailer Axle Supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Valladares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational and experimental methods were applied to the design and optimization of a semitrailer axle support subjected to fatigue loads. Numerical results based on the finite element method (FEM were correlated with extensometric tests to assess the accuracy of the computational method. This paper is focused on the “minimum radius manoeuvre.” This situation represents the highly critical load case occurring in a semitrailer operation where the tractor vehicle pulls the semitrailer's kingpin at approximately 90° with respect to its longitudinal axis, and high stress and strain phenomena take place in the axle supports’ structure. Loads and boundary conditions that correspond to this load case were first adjusted by means of experimental tests and could be later applied to each semitrailer axle support in the numerical model. In this analysis, the stress-strain elastic-plastic curves of the base material, the welding, and the HAZ have been incorporated to the numerical models. Fatigue S-N curves combined with the maximum Von Mises equivalent stresses obtained in the computational analysis provided a maximum number of cycles that the semitrailer axle support could reach in case of the minimum radius manoeuvre being applied to the vehicle in a repeated manner. The initial design could then be optimized to improve its fatigue life.

  3. Influence of axle-wheel interface on ultrasonic testing of fatigue cracks in wheelset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Kazunari; Biwa, Shiro

    2013-01-01

    For the ultrasonic testing at the wheel seat of railway axles, quantitative investigation of the reflection and transmission phenomena at the axle-wheel interface is important. This paper describes the influence of the axle-wheel interface on the ultrasonic testing of a fatigue crack in a wheelset by applying the spring interface model. The normal and tangential stiffnesses were identified experimentally for an as-manufactured wheelset at the normal incidence, and the reflection coefficient for the shear-wave oblique incidence was calculated. A parametric study was performed to clarify the influence of these interfacial stiffnesses on the incident-angle dependence of the reflection coefficient. The calculated reflection coefficient at the incident angle of 45° qualitatively explained the relative echo-height decrease due to the presence of a wheel observed experimentally for a wheelset in fatigue loading by rotating bending. The quantitative difference between the experimental and calculated results was considered to be due to the reduction of the effective interference of shrink fit by the wear at the axle-wheel interface during the fatigue loading as well as by the applied bending moment. For the estimated relative echo-height decrease to agree with the experimental results, the interfacial stiffnesses were found to be smaller than the values identified for the as-manufactured wheelset by a factor of 0.5-0.7.

  4. Dynamics of two-axle railway freight wagons with UIC standard suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Mark; True, Hans

    2006-01-01

    The dynamics of two different two-axle railway freight wagons is investigated theoretically and compared. Fully nonlinear models are considered. The hysteresis from dry friction and the effect of impacts between elements of the suspension are included. Bifurcation diagrams are shown in order...

  5. Wheeled Vehicle Drive Lines, Axles, and Suspension Systems. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army Ordnance Center and School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

    This course is one of several subcourses that make up the entire Army correspondence course on wheeled vehicle maintenance. The subcourse is designed to provide the student with information about the operation, malfunction diagnosis, maintenance, and repair of wheeled vehicle drive lines, axles, and suspension systems. It provides the basic…

  6. Loss of the receptor tyrosine kinase Axl leads to enhanced inflammation in the CNS and delayed removal of myelin debris during Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto Anne L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Axl, together with Tyro3 and Mer, constitute the TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases. In the nervous system, Axl and its ligand Growth-arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6 are expressed on multiple cell types. Axl functions in dampening the immune response, regulating cytokine secretion, clearing apoptotic cells and debris, and maintaining cell survival. Axl is upregulated in various disease states, such as in the cuprizone toxicity-induced model of demyelination and in multiple sclerosis (MS lesions, suggesting that it plays a role in disease pathogenesis. To test for this, we studied the susceptibility of Axl-/- mice to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model for multiple sclerosis. Methods WT and Axl-/- mice were immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35-55 peptide emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant and injected with pertussis toxin on day 0 and day 2. Mice were monitored daily for clinical signs of disease and analyzed for pathology during the acute phase of disease. Immunological responses were monitored by flow cytometry, cytokine analysis and proliferation assays. Results Axl-/- mice had a significantly more severe acute phase of EAE than WT mice. Axl-/- mice had more spinal cord lesions with larger inflammatory cuffs, more demyelination, and more axonal damage than WT mice during EAE. Strikingly, lesions in Axl-/- mice had more intense Oil-Red-O staining indicative of inefficient clearance of myelin debris. Fewer activated microglia/macrophages (Iba1+ were found in and/or surrounding lesions in Axl-/- mice relative to WT mice. In contrast, no significant differences were noted in immune cell responses between naïve and sensitized animals. Conclusions These data show that Axl alleviates EAE disease progression and suggests that in EAE Axl functions in the recruitment of microglia/macrophages and in the clearance of debris following demyelination. In addition, these data

  7. Effect of Mn on hardenability of 25CrMo axle steel by an improved end-quench test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yutuo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available With the sixth large-scale railway speed-up, the quality of the axles is essential to the safety of the locomotive. According to the high-speed axle technical standard for the control of alloy elements in axle steel, optimization experiments of 25CrMo steel composition were performed by vacuum inductive melting. In order to study the hardenability of high-speed rail axles, an improved end-quench test was put forward. The advantage is that it enables the heat to transfer along the axial direction, thus avoiding edge effects. The hardenability of 25CrMo axle steels with Mn content of 0.60wt.% and 0.80wt.% was investigated mainly by means of optical microscopy and hardness tests. The experimental results indicate that the Mn has a pronounced effect on the hardenability of the steel. With an increase in Mn content from 0.60wt.% and 0.80wt.%, the hardenability of 25CrMo axle steel increases and the hard microstructure is maintained at an increasing distance from the quenched end. From the surface of the water quenched end to the center of the sample, the microstructure is martensite, martensite with bainite, and bainite.

  8. Effect of GAS6 and AXL Gene Polymorphisms on Adiposity, Systemic Inflammation, and Insulin Resistance in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fone-Ching Hsiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to explore the effects of GAS6 and AXL gene polymorphisms on adiposity, systemic inflammation, and insulin resistance in adolescents. After multistage sampling from the data of the Taipei Children Heart Study-III, we collected 358 boys and 369 girls with an average age of 13.3 years. We genotyped the adolescents’ GAS6 rs8191973, GAS6 rs8191974, AXL rs4802113, and AXL rs2304232 polymorphisms. Significantly higher body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and hsCRP levels were found in boys with the GG genotype of GAS6 rs8191974 than A allele carriers; higher IL-6 and insulin levels and increased HOMA-IR were found in boys with the GG genotype of AXL rs2304232 than the A allele carriers. There was a significant difference in hsCRP levels of boys with the TT, TC, and CC genotypes of AXL rs4802113. Boys with both the GG genotype of GAS6 rs8191973 and the GG genotype of GAS6 rs8191974 exhibited higher BMI, WC, IL-6, and hsCRP levels than the boys carrying both the C allele of the GAS6 rs8191973 and the A allele of the GAS6 rs8191974. In conclusion, GAS6 and AXL polymorphisms are associated with adiposity, systemic inflammation, and insulin resistance in adolescents, especially in boys.

  9. OPTIMAL KINEMATIC DESIGN OF A CAR AXLE GUIDING MECHANISM IN MBS SOFTWARE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin ALEXANDRU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the optimal kinematic design of the guiding mechanism used for the rear axle of a motor vehicle. A guiding mechanism of type 2S1C (S - sphere, C - circle is taken into consideration, the optimization study being conducted by using the multi-body systems (MBS software environment ADAMS of MSC. The global cartesian coordinates of some design points (the locations of the joints between the guiding arms and car body are used as independent design variables for the optimization study. The main design objectives refer to the longitudinal displacement of the axle and its proper rotation (around the transversal axis, the kinematic optimization goal being to minimize these variations.

  10. FLEXIBLE 2-DOF STEERING MODEL OF MULTI-AXLE HEAVY-DUTY VEHICLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Bo; Wang Xuelin; Hu Yujin; Li Chenggang

    2004-01-01

    A flexible two degrees of freedom (2-DOF) steering model of multi-axle vehicle (MAV) is presented with considering the effect of frame flexibility based on the classic 2-DOF model. A method to calculate the frame flexibility is derived by using three moments equation. The steering stability of MAV is analyzed. The steering performance of MAV is also researched in frequency domain. Simulation results show that the dynamic effects of flexible model are more severe than rigid model and the flexible effect of frame will weaken the steering stability of MAV. Different disposals of steering axles lead to different steering characteristics of MAV. The in-phase steering mode improves the steering characteristics and stability at high speed. The anti-phase steering mode increases the steering mobility at low vehicle speed.

  11. IMPACT OF CARBURIZING AND BOROSILICONIZING ON VIBROACCELERATION OF BEVEL GEAR FRONT DRIVE AXLE SKIDDERS DURING OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Pischov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is now established that the main causes of failure of the transmission parts of the forest machines is wear of their working surfaces. The destruction of the contact surfaces of bevel gears front axle of skidder TTP-401 during its operation is usually connected, with the formation of plastic deformation on the teeth. According to modern concepts of the theory of the destruction of the details revealed that after the formation of plastic deformations leads to microcracks, the development of micro tracks depends on the magnitude and sign of residual stresses. This article presents dependance graphs of vibration acceleration bevel gears front axle skidder subiect to the method of hardening.

  12. Optimization of Assembly of Rear Axle Carrier (Transmission System Through Ergonomic Consideration: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Kaustubh N. Kalaspurkar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Increased competition in the market, ever increasing demands of products and delivery of the quality product within committed dates forcing the manufacturers to involve newer and more optimized techniques in their production scheduling. This technique either involves costly Automation and Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS or the techniques forcing on elimination of unnecessary and unproductive operation (i.e. motion during the production. An assembly line is designed by determining the sequences of operations for manufacture of each component as well as the final product. In this paper, a case study at one of leading tractor manufacturing company in India for one of its production operation i.e. assembly of Rear Axle Carrier (Transmission System of tractor is presented using the technique of time and motion study. For this technique such as Predetermined Motion Time Study (PMTS, Method Time Measurement (MTM, various process charts are used for analysis and optimize their present methodology of assembling Rear Axle Carrier (RAC.

  13. Expression Analysis Highlights AXL as a Candidate Zika Virus Entry Receptor in Neural Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Tomasz J; Pollen, Alex A; Di Lullo, Elizabeth; Sandoval-Espinosa, Carmen; Bershteyn, Marina; Kriegstein, Arnold R

    2016-05-01

    The recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil has been linked to substantial increases in fetal abnormalities and microcephaly. However, information about the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms connecting viral infection to these defects remains limited. In this study we have examined the expression of receptors implicated in cell entry of several enveloped viruses including ZIKV across diverse cell types in the developing brain. Using single-cell RNA-seq and immunohistochemistry, we found that the candidate viral entry receptor AXL is highly expressed by human radial glial cells, astrocytes, endothelial cells, and microglia in developing human cortex and by progenitor cells in developing retina. We also show that AXL expression in radial glia is conserved in developing mouse and ferret cortex and in human stem cell-derived cerebral organoids, highlighting multiple experimental systems that could be applied to study mechanisms of ZIKV infectivity and effects on brain development.

  14. Simulation Research on Stress Intensity Factors of Different Crack Aspect Ratios on Hollow Axles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Suxia; XIE Jilong

    2009-01-01

    Because of the wicked service environment of the high speed train, it is possible that the hollow axle of the train may encounter the foreign object damage and form a sharp notch. Under the fatigue loading a crack can initiate from the notch and propagate to failure. It is noted that the stress intensity factor is the control parameter of the crack propagating, for the purpose of getting the more exact propagation characteristics, the stress intensity factor is studied mainly. The service loads of hollow axles are defined, and the stress distribution of hollow axles is obtained according to the load spectrum. The semi-ellipse crack configuration is defined with three parameters:the aspect ratio, the relative depth and the relative location along the crack front. Quarter point 20-node isoparametric degenerate singular elements are used for the region near the crack tip. The finite element model of crack extension of hollow axle is created, and the crack front is dispersed which can realize orthogonal extension. Based on this the stress intensity factors of crack front were calculated, and the distribution rules of the stress intensity factors of different initial crack shapes are obtained. The conclusions are compared with that of the analytic method and they agree with each other very well, and the calculating results show that there is a close relationship between the stress intensity factor and the initial crack shape. For a round crack the stress intensity factor at the surface point increases faster than the one at the center point with the crack propagation. However, for a narrow crack, the results are in contrast with that of a round one. So, all the cracks with different shapes propagate toward to a similar shape, and they grow at this shape to end. The study may contribute to the crack propagate characteristics research.

  15. The dynamics of European two-axle railway freight wagons with UIC standard suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Mark; True, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of two-axle railway freight wagons with the UIC standard Suspension is investigated theoretically and the dynamic behaviour is explained. Fully nonlinear models are considered. The hysteresis from dry friction and the effect of impacts between elements of the suspension are included....... Different wheel-rail geometries are investigated and the results commented. Bifurcation diagrams ale used to describe the eigen-dynamics of the wagons....

  16. Study on End Milling Generation Surface Model and Simulation in View of Main Axle s Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In accordance with the relative movement between end-milling cutter and workpiece surface, a theoretical generation model for milled surface was established with the movement error of principal axle considered. Then the milled surfaces under various cutting condition were simulated, the results of which showed that end milled surfaces were of "vaulted profile", heights of surface irregularty at various points to be different with maximum value in the middle and smaller at both sides, the difference were ...

  17. A layered cooling process in whole quenching process for lightweight front axle beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Kai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the uniformity of martensite distribution and obtain consistent mechanical performance during the quenching process of front axle beam, a layered cooling process was presented in this paper. The fluid-solid coupled temperature field were investigated by finite element modeling and the prediction of micro-structure and hardness distributions were also carried out. The experimental result verifies the reliability of this model.

  18. A Flexible Arrayed Eddy Current Sensor for Inspection of Hollow Axle Inner Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenguo Sun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A reliable and accurate inspection of the hollow axle inner surface is important for the safe operation of high-speed trains. In order to improve the reliability of the inspection, a flexible arrayed eddy current sensor for non-destructive testing of the hollow axle inner surface was designed, fabricated and characterized. The sensor, consisting of two excitation traces and 28 sensing traces, was developed by using the flexible printed circuit board (FPCB technique to conform the geometric features of the inner surfaces of the hollow axles. The main innovative aspect of the sensor was the new arrangement of excitation/sensing traces to achieve a differential configuration. Finite element model was established to analyze sensor responses and to determine the optimal excitation frequency. Experimental validations were conducted on a specimen with several artificial defects. Results from experiments and simulations were consistent with each other, with the maximum relative error less than 4%. Both results proved that the sensor was capable of detecting longitudinal and transverse defects with the depth of 0.5 mm under the optimal excitation frequency of 0.9 MHz.

  19. Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing: Five-Axle Combination Tractor-Flatbed Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, in coordination with the Federal Highway Administration, sponsored the Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing (HOVBT) program in order to provide information about the effect of gross vehicle weight (GVW) on braking performance. Because the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations limit the number of braking system defects that may exist for a vehicle to be allowed to operate on the roadways, the examination of the effect of brake defects on brake performance for increased loads is also relevant. The HOVBT program seeks to provide relevant information to policy makers responsible for establishing load limits, beginning with providing test data for a combination tractor/trailer. This testing was conducted on a five-axle combination vehicle with tractor brakes meeting the Reduced Stopping Distance requirement rulemaking. This report provides a summary of the testing activities, the results of various analyses of the data, and recommendations for future research. Following a complete brake rebuild, instrumentation, and brake burnish, stopping tests were performed from 20 and 40 mph with various brake application pressures (15 psi, 25 psi, 35 psi, 45 psi, 55 psi, and full system pressure). These tests were conducted for various brake conditions at the following GVWs: 60,000, 80,000, 91,000, 97,000, 106,000, and 116,000 lb. The 80,000-lb GVWs included both balanced and unbalanced loads. The condition of the braking system was also varied. To introduce these defects, brakes (none, forward drive axle, or rear trailer axle) were made inoperative. In addition to the stopping tests, performance-based brake tests were conducted for the various loading and brake conditions. Analysis of the stopping test data showed the stopping distance to increase with load (as expected) and also showed that more braking force was generated by the drive axle brakes than the trailer axle brakes. The constant-pressure stopping test data

  20. Dethreading of a Photoactive Azobenzene-Containing Molecular Axle from a Crown Ether Ring: A Computational Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Gloria; Silvi, Serena; Venturi, Margherita; Credi, Alberto; Fois, Ettore

    2016-06-17

    Pseudorotaxanes formed by a dibenzo[24]crown-8 ring (R) and a dialkylammonium axle bearing either two E- or two Z-azobenzene units (EE-A or ZZ-A) revealed useful for the construction of light-powered molecular machines and motors, as they provide the opportunity of photocontrolling self-assembly/disassembly processes. The potential energies profiles for the dethreading of these complexes have been investigated by adopting a combination of first-principles molecular dynamics, metadynamics and quantum-chemical geometry optimization approaches. While the dethreading of the EE-A axle is associated with a monotonic energy increase, for that of the ZZ-A axle a transition state and an intermediate structure, in which the components are still threaded together, are found. The rate determining step for the dethreading of the ZZ axle has a higher energy barrier than that of the EE axle, in agreement with the experimental kinetic data. Moreover, the results suggest that the elliptic shape of the ring cavity is important for discriminating between the E and Z terminal azobenzene during dethreading.

  1. 200 km/h 八轴客运电力机车轴重转移分析%Axle - load Transfer Analysis of 200 km/h Eight - axle Passenger Electric Locomotive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕凯凯; 王开云; 张志和

    2015-01-01

    An axle - load transfer model for a new 200 km/ h eight - axle passenger electric locomotive is established in this paper. Comparisons between calculation results obtained from the established model and that from the commercial dynamic software under the quasi - static condition are made. Some factors that affect the locomotive axle - load transfer are analyzed. The result shows that the axle - load of the first axle and second axle are reducing,while for the third axle and fourth axle they are increasing. The maxi-mum load - increasing ratio is happened to the fourth axle,which is 6. 28 percent,and the maximum load- reducing ratio is for the first axle,which is also 6. 28 percent. The calculation result is similar to that by using the commercial dynamic software where the difference is only about 0. 8 percent. Compared with the traction motor suspended on wheel - set,the traction motor suspended on frame could reduce the axle- load transfer by about 5. 77 percent. The optimal traction height for the 200 km/ h eight - axle passen-ger electric locomotive is 260 mm. Reducing the distance between motor front and rear suspension points can improve the adhesion weight usage of a locomotive.%针对一种新型的200 km/ h 八轴客运电力机车,建立了轴重转移计算模型。利用该模型计算其轴重转移,与动力学软件在准静态条件下的仿真结果进行对比,并分析影响机车轴重转移的因素。研究表明,该机车第一、二轴为减载,第三、四轴为增载,且第四轴增载最大,增载6.28%,第一轴减载最大,减载6.28%;模型计算结果与动力学软件仿真结果相差0.8%;机车牵引电机采用架悬方式能有效减小机车轴重转移,相比电机采用轴悬方式,机车轴重转移减小5.77%;该机车最优牵引点高度为260 mm;减小电机前后悬挂点之间的纵向跨距能有效提高机车黏着重量利用率。

  2. Stress Analysis and Fatigue Analysis of Front Axle of Heavy-Duty Truck using ANSYS Ncode Design Life for Different Loading Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant L. Aghav

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Front axle of heavy duty truck is the important component of vehicle and needs good design under the various loading conditions of the complete vehicle. Aim of the project is to stress analysis and predict the life of front axle for vertical, and vertical and braking loading case. The fatigue life of front axle is generally estimated by stress life approach and strain life approach method. Front axle beam assembly was modeled in the NX cad software. Meshing and Stress analysis is performed by ANSYS workbench and fatigue analysis is performed by NCODE design life ANSYS tool under different loading cases. Fatigue life of axle obtained by FEA method is more than 2 x 105 cycles, which is considered as safe for vertical loading case. Similarly, Fatigue life of axle obtained is more than 4 x 103 cycles, which is considered as safe for vertical and braking loading case. The max stress region is below spring pad of axle for vertical loading and in the goose neck of axle for vertical and braking loading case

  3. NEW TECHNOLOGY AND MACHINE TOOL FOR THE FORMING OF THE REAR AXLE SHAFT OF LIGHT TRUCK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Yingchun; Yu Duonian; Wang Xueming

    2004-01-01

    A new technology of forward extrusion and cross rolling has been developed to process the rear axle shaft sleeve of light truck with the use of tube billets. This technology is characterized by large reductions of material, energy and cost of production and has significant economical benefits. This technology is stable and reliable. The three rolls transverse rolling mill built based on this technology has novelty construction, higher production efficiency, non-vibration and noise. The research results have been extensively applied to light trucks and farm transport with load of 1 to 3 tones.

  4. Intelligent Energy Management Strategy for a Separated-Axle Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Fallahi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV in addition to provide the benefits of electric vehicles could satisfy consumers for some performances of conventional internal combustion engine (ICE vehicles such as acceleration and long range. On this way, suitable energy optimization strategies should be employed to get desired efficiency, less fuel consumption and pollution. One of the favorite and simple configurations of HEVs is parallel type. A student team at University of Kashan, IRAN have designed and manufactured Shaheb 2 hybrid electric vehicle. It is a separated-axle (or Through-to-Road (TTR parallel HEV type based on Pride platform. Employed energy management in Shaheb 2 is on/off strategy and three modes; motor, engine and hybrid have been implemented. This paper investigates the modeling of separated-axle (or TTR parallel type of HEV in ADVISOR software and then evaluates two control strategies for Shaheb 2; on/off strategy and an intelligent control based on fuzzy logic. On this way, maximizing the engine is considered as objective function. The simulation results indicate that the fuzzy strategy leads to less fuel consumption and lower pollution for given UDDS driving cycle rather than on/off strategy for Shaheb 2.

  5. Analysis of axle and vehicle load properties through Bayesian networks based on weigh-in-motion data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Napoles, O.; Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) systems are used, among other applications, in pavement and bridge reliability. The system measures quantities such as individual axle load, vehicular loads, vehicle speed, vehicle length and number ofaxles. Because ofthe nature ofúamc configuration, the quantities measured are

  6. NEW APPROACH FOR TECHNOLOGY OF VOLUMETRIC – SUPERFICIAL HARDENING OF GEAR DETAILS OF THE BACK AXLE OF MOBILE MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Mihluk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The new approach for technology of volumetric – superficial hardening of gear details of the back axle made of steel lowered harden ability is offered. This approach consisting in formation of intense – hardened condition on all surface of a detail.

  7. Study on control schemes of flexible steering system of a multi-axle all-wheel-steering robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingxia Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that a multi-axle wheeled robot possesses larger load capability and also higher drive performance. However, its steering flexibility is degraded due to the large number of wheels. In order to solve this problem, in this article, we proposed three control schemes based on the center of rotation or the steering angles of both the first- and last-axle wheels. To release these control schemes, steering mode selection and also the left wheel’s steering angle in a specific axle are added approaching a practical application. Thereafter, the remaining wheels’ steering angles can be calculated with the Ackerman steering theorem. In order to verify the control effects, a five-axle all-wheel-steering wheeled robot has been developed with the Bluetooth wireless monitor system. Based on the newly designed robot, validation experiments are carried out, such as lateral movement, situ rotation, and multi-mode steering within a narrow space. The results indicate that the proposed design in this article can ensure a more flexible and faster movement within a narrow space. It shows large potential in obstacle avoidance compared with the conventional partial-wheel steering mode.

  8. Phyllodes tumor of the breast: role of Axl and ST6GalNAcII in the development of mammary phyllodes tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dongliang; Li, Yanyan; Gong, Yanxin; Xu, Jingchao; Miao, Xiaolong; Li, Xiangnan; Liu, Chen; Jia, Li; Zhao, Yongfu

    2014-10-01

    Phyllodes tumor exhibits an aggressive growth. The expression of many biological markers has been explored to discriminate between different grades of phyllodes tumor and to predict their behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implications of Axl and ST6GalNAcII in phyllodes tumors. Real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemical were used to analyze differential expression of ST6GalNAcII and Axl in phyllodes tumor (PT) cell lines and tissue specimens. RNAi assay, ECM invasion assay, and tumorigenicity assay were used to analyze the altered expression of ST6GalNAcII gene effects on the expression of Axl and invasive ability of phyllodes tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Compared to benign tumors, borderline and malignant ones showed a remarkable increase in mRNA levels of Axl and ST6GalNAcII gene, and it was higher in malignant tumor cells than in borderline tumor cells. When ST6GalNAcII was silenced, compared to the control, the expression level of Axl was significantly reduced in malignant tumor cell transfectants and knockdown of ST6GalNAcII gene significantly inhibited invasive activity in malignant tumor cells. The high expression of ST6GalNAcII and Axl was significantly correlated with tumor grade and distance metastasis by immunohistochemical analysis. Axl and ST6GalNAcII expression increases with increasing tumor grade in mammary phyllodes tumors. ST6GalNAc II might be participated in the glycosylation of Axl, and this Axl glycosylation may mediate the tumorigenicity, invasion, and distant metastasis of PT cells.

  9. Optimization Design of Vehicle Front Axle Structure Based on ABAQUS and TOSCA%基于ABAQUS与TOSCA的汽车前桥结构优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马瑞雪; 王欣; 覃祯员; 张科峰

    2012-01-01

    应用ABAQUS软件对汽车前桥进行强度分析,针对车桥强度不足问题,通过TOSCA优化软件对前桥进行拓扑优化设计,在保证承栽能力的前提下有效减轻其重量。%The author analyze the vehicle front axle for the strength by ABAQUS software. In view of the axle strength shortage problem, they use TOSCA optimization software designing the front axle topological optimization structure,in order to effectively reduce its weight under the condition of its bearing capacity.

  10. Testosterone delays vascular smooth muscle cell senescence and inhibits collagen synthesis via the Gas6/Axl signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-qing; Zhao, Jing; Jin, Cheng-wei; Li, Yi-hui; Tang, Meng-xiong; Wang, Zhi-hao; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yun; Li, Li; Zhong, Ming

    2016-06-01

    Testosterone deficiency is associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular diseases in men. However, its effect on cell senescence, which plays a causal role in vascular aging, remains unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that testosterone alleviated vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) senescence and collagen synthesis via growth arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6)/Axl- and Akt/FoxO1a-dependent pathways. Testosterone significantly ameliorated angiotensin II-induced VSMC senescence and collagen overexpression. In addition, testosterone inhibited angiotensin II-induced matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity, which played a pivotal role in facilitating age-related collagen deposition. Testosterone increased the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 but decreased the expression of MMP-2 and membrane type-1 metalloproteinase which contributed to increase MMP-2 activity. The effects on VSMCs senescence and collagen synthesis were mediated by restoration of angiotensin II-induced downregulation of Gas6 and Axl expression and a subsequent reduction of Akt and FoxO1a phosphorylation. The effects of testosterone were reversed by a Gas6 blocker, Axl-Fc, and a specific inhibitor of Axl, R428. Treatment of VSMCs with PI3K inhibitor LY294002 abrogated the downregulating effect of testosterone on MMP-2 activity. Furthermore, when FoxO1a expression was silenced by using a specific siRNA, the inhibitory effect of testosterone on MMP-2 activity was revered as well, that indicated this process was Akt/FoxO1a dependence. Taken together, Gas6/Axl and Akt/FoxO1a were involved in protective effects of testosterone on VSMCs senescence and collagen synthesis. Our results provide a novel mechanism underlying the protective effect of testosterone on vascular aging and may serve as a theoretical basis for testosterone replacement therapy.

  11. Levels of vibration transmitted to the operator of the tractor equipped with front axle suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Pochi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the comfort and the preservation of the health of the operators became central issues in the evolution of agricultural machinery and led to the introduction of devices aimed at improving working conditions. Thereby, for instance, the presence of air conditioner, soundproof cab and driver seat suspension became normal on agricultural tractors. The vibrations are one of the most complex issues to deal with, being determined by the characteristics and interaction of elements such as tyres, axles, mainframe, cab and seat suspension. In this respect, manufacturers are trying to improve their products, even integrating these elements with new devices such as the suspension on the front axle of the tractor, aimed at reducing the level of vibrations during the transfers at high speed. One of these underwent tests at CRA-ING. Since its purpose is to reduce the level of vibration transmitted to the driver, their measurements in different points of the tractor and in different operating conditions, were compared in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the device, expressed as time of exposure. The suspension system of the front axle is designed to absorb the oscillations (especially pitching determined by irregularities in the road surface, allowing an increased control of the vehicle at high speed, as demonstrated by the test results and confirmed by the driving impressions outlined by the operator. The action of the device under these conditions results in an increase of the exposure time, important fact because of the relevance of the road transfer operations of tractors with mounted implements or trailers to tow and of the tendency to increase the speed limit for the road tractors (in Germany were brought to 50 km h–1 for several years. The action just described is less evident with increasing irregularity of the road surface and with the decrease of the travel speed. Nevertheless, in such conditions, the device appears to

  12. Design and Development of Animal Drawn Ground Metered Axle Mechanism Boom Sprayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Amonye

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A spraying technology was developed for use by rural farmers in Northern Nigeria. The farming systems in these areas are put into consideration and in keeping with appropriate technology initiative. The technology was designed to offer the farmers an equitable sprayer that shall be drawn by animal farm power and that is effective and affordable. The equipment was constructed using the parameters obtained from design and tested at a farmland within the University premises of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, in Nigeria. The equipment consists of a boom with multiple Controlled Droplet Applicator (CDA atomizer nozzles, a gear pump, a chemical tank, and chair for an operator; all attached to a framework bolted to a rear axle. It was observed that the Dynamic Wheel Load assuming even distribution of load was found to be 1575N and a net pull of 820N. The net pull offers convenient task and shall easily swallow energy requirement for spraying uphill terrains.

  13. Design of Model Following Variable Structure Controller for Three-axle Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管西强; 张建武; 屈求真

    2003-01-01

    An optimal control procedure is developed for the front and rear wheels of a three-axle vehicle moving on a complex typical road based on model following variable structure control strategy. The actual vehicle may be considered as an uncertain system. Cornering stiffness of front and rear wheels and external disturbances are varied in a limited range. The model-following variable structure control method is used to control both front and rear wheels steering operations of the vehicle, so that steering responses of the vehicle follow from those of the reference model. By numerical results obtained from computer simulation, it is demonstrated that the control system model can cope with the effects of parameter perturbations and outside disturbances.

  14. PROBABILISTIC MODELS FOR LONG FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH RATES OF LZ50 AXLE STEEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yong-xiang; HE Chao-ming; YANG Bing; HUANG Yu-zhong; GAO Qing; WU Ping-bo

    2005-01-01

    Experimental study is performed on the probabilistic models for the long fatigue crack growth rates (da/dN) of LZ50 axle steel. An equation for crack growth rate was derived to consider the trend of stress intensity factor range going down to the threshold and the average stress effect. The probabilistic models were presented on the equation. They consist of the probabilistic da/dN-△K relations, the confidence-based da/dN-△K relations, and the probabilistic- and confidence-based da/dN-△K relations.Efforts were made respectively to characterize the effects of probabilistic assessments due to the scattering regularity of test data, the number of sampling, and both of them.These relations can provide wide selections for practice. Analysis on the test data of LZ50 steel indicates that the present models are available and feasible.

  15. Development of a new time domain-based algorithm for train detection and axle counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allotta, B.; D'Adamio, P.; Meli, E.; Pugi, L.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an innovative train detection algorithm, able to perform the train localisation and, at the same time, to estimate its speed, the crossing times on a fixed point of the track and the axle number. The proposed solution uses the same approach to evaluate all these quantities, starting from the knowledge of generic track inputs directly measured on the track (for example, the vertical forces on the sleepers, the rail deformation and the rail stress). More particularly, all the inputs are processed through cross-correlation operations to extract the required information in terms of speed, crossing time instants and axle counter. This approach has the advantage to be simple and less invasive than the standard ones (it requires less equipment) and represents a more reliable and robust solution against numerical noise because it exploits the whole shape of the input signal and not only the peak values. A suitable and accurate multibody model of railway vehicle and flexible track has also been developed by the authors to test the algorithm when experimental data are not available and in general, under any operating conditions (fundamental to verify the algorithm accuracy and robustness). The railway vehicle chosen as benchmark is the Manchester Wagon, modelled in the Adams VI-Rail environment. The physical model of the flexible track has been implemented in the Matlab and Comsol Multiphysics environments. A simulation campaign has been performed to verify the performance and the robustness of the proposed algorithm, and the results are quite promising. The research has been carried out in cooperation with Ansaldo STS and ECM Spa.

  16. Strong Expression of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α (HIF-1α Is Associated with Axl Expression and Features of Aggressive Tumors in African Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa Nalwoga

    Full Text Available Inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF and Axl receptor tyrosine kinase is being evaluated for targeted therapy in solid tumors. Both HIF-1α and Axl influence tumor growth and metastatic potential, and they have been linked to treatment failure in many cancers. However, there is a lack of reports on HIF-1α expression in African breast cancer, which has a poor prognosis, and novel treatment targets must therefore be established. Here, we aimed to evaluate HIF-1α in relation to Axl expression, angiogenesis markers, and other tumor characteristics in a series of African breast cancer.Using immunohistochemistry, we examined 261 invasive breast cancers on tissue microarrays for HIF-1α and Axl as well as several other markers, and a subset of 185 cases had information on VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor expression, microvessel density (MVD, proliferating microvessel density (pMVD and vascular proliferation index (VPI for important comparisons.Strong HIF-1α expression was associated with increased Axl (p = 0.007, VEGF (p<0.0005, and p53 (p = 0.032 expression, as well as high tumor cell proliferation by Ki-67 (p = 0.006, and high tumor grade (p = 0.003. Tumors with strong HIF-1α expression had significantly higher MVD (p = 0.019 and higher pMVD (p = 0.027 than tumors with weak expression.High HIF-1α expression is significantly associated with Axl and VEGF expression, and with markers of poor prognosis in this series of breast cancer, suggesting HIF-1α and Axl as potential therapeutic targets in African breast cancer.

  17. Acceleration Slip Regulation Strategy for Distributed Drive Electric Vehicles with Independent Front Axle Drive Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfei Wu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an acceleration slip regulation strategy for distributed drive electric vehicles with two motors on the front axle. The tasks of the strategy include controlling the slip ratio to make full use of the road grip and controlling the yaw rate to eliminate the lateral movement due to the difference between motor torques. The rate of the slip ratio change can be controlled by controlling the motor torque, so that the slip ratio can be controlled by applying a proportional-integral control strategy to control the rate of the slip ratio change. The yaw rate can be controlled to almost zero by applying torque compensation based on yaw rate feedback. A coordination control strategy for the slip ratio control and yaw rate control is proposed based on analysis of the priorities and features of the two control processes. Simulations were carried out using MATLAB/Simulink, and experiments were performed on a hardware-in-loop test bench with actual motors. The results of the simulations and experiments showed that the proposed strategy could improve the longitudinal driving performance and straight line driving stability of the vehicle.

  18. Kinome-wide shRNA Screen Identifies the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase AXL as a Key Regulator for Mesenchymal Glioblastoma Stem-like Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Cheng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is a highly lethal cancer for which novel therapeutics are urgently needed. Two distinct subtypes of glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs were recently identified: mesenchymal (MES and proneural (PN. To identify mechanisms to target the more aggressive MES GSCs, we combined transcriptomic expression analysis and kinome-wide short hairpin RNA screening of MES and PN GSCs. In comparison to PN GSCs, we found significant upregulation and phosphorylation of the receptor tyrosine kinase AXL in MES GSCs. Knockdown of AXL significantly decreased MES GSC self-renewal capacity in vitro and inhibited the growth of glioblastoma patient-derived xenografts. Moreover, inhibition of AXL with shRNA or pharmacologic inhibitors also increased cell death significantly more in MES GSCs. Clinically, AXL expression was elevated in the MES GBM subtype and significantly correlated with poor prognosis in multiple cancers. In conclusion, we identified AXL as a potential molecular target for novel approaches to treat glioblastoma and other solid cancers.

  19. Dynamic Response Characteristics of Asphalt Pavement Under Multi-axle Moving Load%多轴移动荷载下沥青路面的动态响应特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴建中; 吴浩; 陈勇; 王秉纲

    2011-01-01

    In order to analyze dynamic response characteristics of asphalt pavement under muhi axle moving load,a three-dimensional finite element model of asphalt pavement was established by field investigation. The influences of axle load with uniform distribution of single rear axle, dual rear axles and three rear axles and the axle load with non-uniform distribution of three rear axles and the three rear axles vehicles with impending front axle on pavement were studied respectively. Results show that the effect of each axle on pavement is independent when the wheelbase of multi axle vehicle is bigger than 3 m. Increase of number of axle makes the vertical displacement of pavement superpose and makes the maximal shear stress and compressive stress of pavement change inconspicuously. The influence of the middle axle of three rear axles vehicle on the vertical displacement of pavement is the greatest which increases by 23. 7% and 18. 2% compared with those of the front axle and rear axle respectively. Besides, the middle axle and rear axle has certain influence on the shear stress of pavement, but each axle has ahnost no influence on the maximal compressive stress of pavement. The research results indicate that the non uniform distribution of axle load of multi axle vehicle has significant influence on pavement faliure.%为分析多轴移动荷载下沥青路面的动态响应特性,通过现场调查建立了不同轴型作用下沥青路面的三维有限元模型,分别研究了单后轴、双后轴及三后轴轴载均匀分布、三后轴车轴载不均匀分布及三后轴车前轴悬空条件下对路面的影响。结果表明:多轴车轴距大于3m时,各轴对路面的作用相互独立,轴数的增加对路面竖向位移产生叠加作用,对路表最大剪应力及压应力影响不明显;三后轴车中轴对路面竖向位移作用最大,较前轴及后轴分别增大23.7%和18.2%,中轴及后轴对路表剪应力有一定影响,

  20. 拖拉机前驱动桥的涂装工艺研究%Research of Coating Process of Tractor Front Drive Axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王智红

    2012-01-01

    For appearance quality requirements of front drive axles used in tractors ,the coating process of front drive axles is researched and designed. The production practices prove that the coated front drive axle has a good corrosion resistance, and this can lengthen Service life and improve use value of the product.%针对拖拉机前驱动桥外观品质的要求,研究并设计了前驱动桥涂装工艺。生产实践证明,涂装后的前驱动桥具有良好的耐腐蚀性,不仅延长了使用寿命,而且还提高了产品的使用价值。

  1. On Methods of Solving the Axle Grinding Produces Denim and Burns%浅析解决车轴磨削产生斜纹及烧伤的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王长峰; 郭文荣

    2013-01-01

    车轴表面磨削加工中存在斜纹一直是困扰车轴生产的主要问题。通过对车轴磨削过程中砂轮、工装、设备、皂化液等因素的研究,查找车轴磨削表面产生斜纹、烧伤的原因,并提出相应的解决办法,为提高车轴生产质量提供保障。%The present axle twill surface grinding axle production has been plagued major problem. Through the process of grinding wheel axle, tooling, equipment, and other factors saponification research.In this paper, we find the axle grinding sur-face twill, burn causes and propose appropriate solutions to improve production quality axle to provide protection.

  2. Vibration control of bridge subjected to multi-axle vehicle using multiple tuned mass friction dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisal, Alka Y.; Jangid, R. S.

    2016-06-01

    The effectiveness of tuned mass friction damper (TMFD) in reducing undesirable resonant response of the bridge subjected to multi-axle vehicular load is investigated. A Taiwan high-speed railway (THSR) bridge subjected to Japanese SKS (Salkesa) train load is considered. The bridge is idealized as a simply supported Euler-Bernoulli beam with uniform properties throughout the length of the bridge, and the train's vehicular load is modeled as a series of moving forces. Simplified model of vehicle, bridge and TMFD system has been considered to derive coupled differential equations of motion which is solved numerically using the Newmark's linear acceleration method. The critical train velocities at which the bridge undergoes resonant vibration are investigated. Response of the bridge is studied for three different arrangements of TMFD systems, namely, TMFD attached at mid-span of the bridge, multiple tuned mass friction dampers (MTMFD) system concentrated at mid-span of the bridge and MTMFD system with distributed TMFD units along the length of the bridge. The optimum parameters of each TMFD system are found out. It has been demonstrated that an optimized MTMFD system concentrated at mid-span of the bridge is more effective than an optimized TMFD at the same place with the same total mass and an optimized MTMFD system having TMFD units distributed along the length of the bridge. However, the distributed MTMFD system is more effective than an optimized TMFD system, provided that TMFD units of MTMFD system are distributed within certain limiting interval and the frequency of TMFD units is appropriately distributed.

  3. Differential expression of the ufo/axl oncogene in human leukemia-lymphoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challier, C; Uphoff, C C; Janssen, J W; Drexler, H G

    1996-05-01

    The ufo protein (also termed axl) is a member of a new family of receptor tyrosine kinases and is encoded by a transforming gene that was initially isolated from primary human myeloid leukemia cells by DNA-mediated transformation of NIH/3T3 cells. The ligand, Gas6, a protein S-related molecule lacking any known function yet, has recently been identified. We report the expression pattern of ufo mRNA in a panel of 76 human continuous leukemia-lymphoma cell lines. The gene was not expressed in cell lines derived from lymphoid malignancies (n=28), but transcription was seen in 3/11 myeloid, 0/6 monocytic, 9/13 erythroid and 11/18 megakaryocytic cell lines. Several cell lines were treated with phorbol ester leading to significant upregulation of the ufo message in constitutively positive cells. An apparent ufo mRNA overexpression was not found in any of the positive leukemia cell lines, but was identified in the drug-resistant subclones of the cervix carcinoma cell line HeLa. Southern blot analysis of restriction enzyme-digested genomic DNA did not provide evidence for gene amplification, but the HeLa subclones showed banding patterns suggestive of gene rearrangement. Two main ufo mRNA bands of 3.2 and 5.0 kb were identified; no differences in the half-lives (t1/2 = 2.5 h) of these two mRNA species could be identified. In summary, ufo, representing a novel type of receptor tyrosine kinase, is expressed solely in myeloid and erythro-megakaryocytic leukemias but not in lymphoid malignancies. These and previous data suggest an involvement of the ufo receptor tyrosine kinase in normal and malignant myelopoiesis; however, its exact role, if any, and mode of operation in leukemogenesis remains to be determined.

  4. Propiedades estructurales de ejes huecos y sólidos con una grieta plana//Structural proprieties of hollow and whole axles, with a flat crack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon‐Ariza De‐Miguel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudiaron las diversas ventajas constructivas que los ejes huecos presentan respecto a los sólidos, como la reducción de masa, mejor control de calidad, menores defectos en producción y facilidad de acoplamiento. De ahí su profusión en aplicaciones industriales, como ejes de ferrocarril, de reductores o en calandrias. Dichas ventajas se ven alteradas cuando el eje trabaja a fatiga en flexión rotativa y aparece una grieta sobre el mismo. Se comprobaron dichas ventajas y sus variaciones sobre un modelo inicial de una grieta plana superficial, y se ha observado que los ejes huecos resultan más perjudicados por estas grietas para ciertos valores del diámetro interior, mientras que para otros son ventajosos. Se concluye del presente estudio que puede establecerse un rango de valores para el diámetro interior de ejes huecos en el cual su aprovechamiento seríaóptimo.Palabras claves: ejes huecos y sólidos, propiedades estructurales, grieta plana.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThis work studies the several advantages hollow axles show when compared to whole ones, such as lightness, better quality control, less manufacturing defects, coupling simplicity. Thence their being profusely employed in industry, in applications like railway axles, gearboxes or calenders. Theseadvantages are altered when the axle works under bending with rotation under fatigue and a crack appears on its surface. An analytical research upon a flat surface crack model has been made of these advantages and their variations and it has been observed that hollow axles suffer more from these cracks than whole ones for certain inner diameter values, whereas for others even less than whole ones. It can be deduced that a gap for the inner diameter can be ascertained, where the axle´s rendering would be optimal.Key words: hollowand whole axles, structural properties, flat crack.

  5. 基于ANSYS Workbench 的前轴分析和优化设计%ANSYS Workbench Based Analysis and Optimization Design of Front Axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凯; 曾亿山; 牛家忠

    2015-01-01

    汽车车桥是汽车上主要承载构件之一,对其进行分析和优化十分必要。以某公司生产的前桥前轴为例,先建立前轴的Pro/E三维模型,后导入 ANSYS Workbench ,在几种不同的路况上对前轴进行静态分析,结果表明前轴在应力大小方面能满足要求。在此基础上结合实际情况,并以质量最小化为最终目的,对前轴进行了形状优化和尺寸优化,为前轴的实际制造和优化改进提供理论依据。%As one of the main carrying components of automobile , the analysis and optimization of automobile axle is necessary . Firstly ,the three‐dimensional model of the front axle was set up in Pro/E ,the model was imported into ANSYS Workbench ,and the static analysis of the front axle in several different conditions was conducted ,the results showed that the front axle in the stress could meet the requirements .Then ,based on the static analysis ,the shape and size of the front axle were optimized ,and the ultimate aim was to minimize the mass ,it would provide a theoretical basis for the practical manufacturing and optimization of front axle .

  6. Thoughts on Process Design of Ji'nan West Wheel Axle Workshop%济南西轮轴车间工艺设计思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵勇

    2012-01-01

    This paper, according to the relevant design contents of wheel axle workshop of Ji'nan West Rolling Stock Depot, investigates comprehensively the whole maintenance process and the equipment configuration of wheel axle's overhaul, from several aspects such as the function partitioning of inspection and repair depots, wheelset-input inspection , wheelset-export inspection, mechanical processing of wheel axle, HMIS system and so on. Moreover, the paper introduces emphatically the working principle, main features and the related functions about the process line which consists of the loading and unloading robot, axle transmission line, wheel transmission line, and the press-fit units. In addition, this paper summarizes the entire maintenance process in relation to the wheel axle's automation and process line's maintenance, with a view to provide reference for wheel axle repair design of other projects.%根据济南西车辆段轮轴车间设计相关内容,从轮轴检修库房工艺功能划分、轮对收入检查部分、轮对支出检查部分、车轴轮片机械加工部分、HMIS系统等几个方面入手,全面探讨轮轴大修的整个检修工艺流程和设备配置情况,并着重介绍上下料机械手、车轴输送线、车轮输送线和压装单元组成的工艺流水线的工作原理、主要特点和相关功能.总结轮轴自动化、流水线检修的整个检修工艺流程,可为其他工程轮轴检修设计提供参考依据.

  7. 转向前轴轮毂轴承游隙探讨分析%Analysis of Hub Bearing Clearance on Front Axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德林

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the classification of hub bearing clearance on front axle, and the affect of clearance to bearing. Meanwhile discuss the adjust and test way of bearing clearance, cliff the bearing clearances between truck and bus front axles.%本文介绍了转向前轴轮毂轴承游隙的分类,游隙大小对轴承的影响,探讨了轴承游隙的调整与检测方法,区分了货车与客车前轴轴承游隙。

  8. Rear axle structure design of DD32/120 series%DD32/120系列后桥结构设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖红利; 杨爱民

    2012-01-01

    详细论了DD32/120系列后桥设计方案,对从动齿轮与桥壳间隙及从动齿轮与主减速器壳前轴承座间隙进行了计算。%Detailed discuss the rear axle design scheme of DD32/120 series,make calculation for driven gear and axle housing clearance and driven gear and front-end bearing pedestal of main reducing housing.

  9. Hopf Bifurcation Characteristics of Dual-Front Axle Self-Excited Shimmy System for Heavy Truck considering Dry Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daogao Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiaxle steering is widely used in commercial vehicles. However, the mechanism of the self-excited shimmy produced by the multiaxle steering system is not clear until now. This study takes a dual-front axle heavy truck as sample vehicle and considers the influences of mid-shift transmission and dry friction to develop a 9 DOF dynamics model based on Lagrange’s equation. Based on the Hopf bifurcation theorem and center manifold theory, the study shows that dual-front axle shimmy is a self-excited vibration produced from Hopf bifurcation. The numerical method is adopted to determine how the size of dry friction torque influences the Hopf bifurcation characteristics of the system and to analyze the speed range of limit cycles and numerical characteristics of the shimmy system. The consistency of results of the qualitative and numerical methods shows that qualitative methods can predict the bifurcation characteristics of shimmy systems. The influences of the main system parameters on the shimmy system are also discussed. Improving the steering transition rod stiffness and dry friction torque and selecting a smaller pneumatic trail and caster angle can reduce the self-excited shimmy, reduce tire wear, and improve the driving stability of vehicles.

  10. Vehicle design influences whole body vibration exposures: effect of the location of the front axle relative to the cab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Ryan P; Rynell, Patrik W; Johnson, Peter W

    2011-06-01

    Using a repeated measure design, this study compared differences in whole body vibration (WBV) exposures among 13 drivers who drove a truck with the cab over the front axle (cab-over design) and a truck with the cab situated behind the front axle (non-cab-over design). The drivers drove both trucks over a standardized route that comprised three distinct segments: a freeway segment, a city street segment with stop-and-go driving (traffic lights), and a city street segment without traffic lights. A portable WBV data acquisition system collected tri-axial time-weighted and raw WBV data per ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5 standards. Simultaneous global positioning system (GPS) data were also collected to compare vehicle speeds. The GPS data indicated that there were no speed differences between the two vehicles. However, average and impulsive z-axis vibration levels were significantly higher for the cab-over design than for the non-cab-over design. In addition, significant WBV exposure differences between road types were found, with the freeway segments having the lowest exposures and the city street segments without traffic lights having the highest exposures. Vehicle type and the associated WBV exposures should be considered when purchasing vehicles to be used by full-time professional vehicle operators.

  11. Control allocation for for regenerative braking of electric vehicles with an electric motor at the front axle using the state-dependent Riccati equation control technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanarachos, S.A.; Alirezaei, M.; Jansen, S.T.H.; Maurice, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the systematic development of an integrated braking controller for a vehicle driven by an electric motor on the front axle is presented. The objective is to engage the electric motor only during braking, up to the point at which the vehicle reaches its manoeuvrability and stability lim

  12. 汽车前轴动态特性的可靠性优化设计%Reliability Optimization Design of Dynamic Characteristics of Automotive Front Axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧献国; 于德介; 姚凌云

    2011-01-01

    Combining with the reliability analysis and the optimization technique, a reliability optimization design method was presented for improving the dynamic characteristics of automotive front axle.A reliability optimization model of dynamic characteristics of automotive front axle was established, the first order mode frequency and the velocity admittance of driving point of engine excitation were used as design constraints of reliability—based optimization, the total mass of front axle was used as the design objective.The reliability-based optimization problem of a micro—car front axle was solved, which shows that the dynamic characteristics of front axle are improved and the goals of reliability optimization design are achieved.%将可靠性分析与优化技术相结合,提出一种改善汽车前轴动态特性的可靠性优化设计方法.该方法建立了汽车前轴动态特性的可靠性优化模型,以一阶模态频率和发动机激励点的驱动点速度导纳为动态特性约束,以前轴总质量为优化目标,对前轴进行可靠性优化.对某微车前轴动态特性的可靠性优化设计结果表明,该方法有效酶善了前轴的动态特性,动态特性约束满足了可靠度设计要求,达到了可靠性优化设计的目的.

  13. An integrated control strategy for the composite braking system of an electric vehicle with independently driven axles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fengchun; Liu, Wei; He, Hongwen; Guo, Hongqiang

    2016-08-01

    For an electric vehicle with independently driven axles, an integrated braking control strategy was proposed to coordinate the regenerative braking and the hydraulic braking. The integrated strategy includes three modes, namely the hybrid composite mode, the parallel composite mode and the pure hydraulic mode. For the hybrid composite mode and the parallel composite mode, the coefficients of distributing the braking force between the hydraulic braking and the two motors' regenerative braking were optimised offline, and the response surfaces related to the driving state parameters were established. Meanwhile, the six-sigma method was applied to deal with the uncertainty problems for reliability. Additionally, the pure hydraulic mode is activated to ensure the braking safety and stability when the predictive failure of the response surfaces occurs. Experimental results under given braking conditions showed that the braking requirements could be well met with high braking stability and energy regeneration rate, and the reliability of the braking strategy was guaranteed on general braking conditions.

  14. Influence of process parameters on the microstructural evolution of a rear axle tube during cross wedge rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jia-wei; Yang, Cui-ping; Zheng, Zhen-hua; Zhang, Kang-sheng; Ma, Wen-yu

    2016-11-01

    In the shaping process of cross wedge rolling (CWR), metal undergoes a complex microstructural evolution, which affects the quality and mechanical properties of the product. Through secondary development of the DEFORM-3D software, we developed a rigid plastic finite element model for a CWR-processed rear axle tube, coupled with thermomechanical and microstructural aspects of workpieces. Using the developed model, we investigated the microstructural evolution of the CWR process. Also, the influence of numerous parameters, including the initial temperature of workpieces, the roll speed, the forming angle, and the spreading angle, on the grain size and the grain-size uniformity of the rolled workpieces was analyzed. The numerical simulation was verified through rolling and metallographic experiments. Good agreement was obtained between the calculated and experimental results, which demonstrated the reliability of the model constructed in this work.

  15. Shifting Control Algorithm for a Single-Axle Parallel Plug-In Hybrid Electric Bus Equipped with EMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyun Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining the characteristics of motor with fast response speed, an electric-drive automated mechanical transmission (EMT is proposed as a novel type of transmission in this paper. Replacing the friction synchronization shifting of automated manual transmission (AMT in HEVs, the EMT can achieve active synchronization of speed shifting. The dynamic model of a single-axle parallel PHEV equipped with the EMT is built up, and the dynamic properties of the gearshift process are also described. In addition, the control algorithm is developed to improve the shifting quality of the PHEV equipped with the EMT in all its evaluation indexes. The key techniques of changing the driving force gradient in preshifting and shifting compensation phases as well as of predicting the meshing speed in the gear meshing phase are also proposed. Results of simulation, bench test, and real road test demonstrate that the proposed control algorithm can reduce the gearshift jerk and the power interruption time noticeably.

  16. 有限元分析在汽车后桥壳设计中的应用%Finite element analysis in the design of automotive Rear axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄在璐

    2012-01-01

      运用软件Solidworks建立汽车后桥壳的三维模型,并利用有限元分析软件COSMOSWorks对该后桥壳进行静态受力分析,获取该零件的应力分布云图,从而为零件的合理设计提供有价值的参考。%  In this paper, the three-dimensional model of the software Solidworks to automotive rear axle,and use of finite element analysis software COSMOSWorks the rear axle for static stress analysis,Get the part of the stress contours,Provide a valuable reference for the rational design of parts.

  17. Broken Analysis of Shell Axle Before Bevel Gear Differential%差速器前壳杆的断裂分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡士祥; 刘胜勇

    2011-01-01

    针对STR桥差速器前壳杆花键部位及其R1.6处易断裂问题,借鉴实心圆轴扭转变形时的横截面应力模型的分析,推导出差速器前壳杆扭矩传递效率的影响因素,并提出相应的改进建议。%There is a broken problem at the spline part and its R1.6 position of the shell axle before STR bevel gear differential.On the basis of analysis about cross-section stress model when solid round shaft is twisted,three factors are drew,which deduce influencing factors to torque-transfer efficiency of the shell axle before STR bevel gear differential,and appropriate improving suggestions are brought forward.

  18. A receptor tyrosine kinase, UFO/Axl, and other genes isolated by a modified differential display PCR are overexpressed in metastatic prostatic carcinoma cell line DU145.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, A N; Kalapurakal, J; Davidson, W R; Kandpal, G; Dunson, N; Prashar, Y; Kandpal, R P

    1999-01-01

    We have used a modified differential display PCR protocol for isolating 3' restriction fragments of cDNAs specifically expressed or overexpressed in metastatic prostate carcinoma cell line DU145. Several cDNA fragments were identified that matched to milk fat globule protein, UFO/Axl, a receptor tyrosine kinase, human homologue of a Xenopus maternal transcript, laminin and laminin receptor, human carcinoma-associated antigen, and some expressed sequence tags. The transcript for milk fat globule protein, a marker protein shown to be overexpressed in breast tumors, was elevated in DU145 cells. The expression of UFO/Axl, a receptor tyrosine kinase, was considerably higher in DU145 cells as compared to normal prostate cells and prostatic carcinoma cell line PC-3. The overexpression of UFO oncogene in DU145 cells is discussed in the context of prostate cancer metastasis.

  19. Transcriptional activation of the Axl and PDGFR-α by c-Met through a ras- and Src-independent mechanism in human bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tseng Vincent S

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A cross-talk between different receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs plays an important role in the pathogenesis of human cancers. Methods Both NIH-Met5 and T24-Met3 cell lines harboring an inducible human c-Met gene were established. C-Met-related RTKs were screened by RTK microarray analysis. The cross-talk of RTKs was demonstrated by Western blotting and confirmed by small interfering RNA (siRNA silencing, followed by elucidation of the underlying mechanism. The impact of this cross-talk on biological function was demonstrated by Trans-well migration assay. Finally, the potential clinical importance was examined in a cohort of 65 cases of locally advanced and metastatic bladder cancer patients. Results A positive association of Axl or platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFR-α with c-Met expression was demonstrated at translational level, and confirmed by specific siRNA knock-down. The transactivation of c-Met on Axl or PDGFR-α in vitro was through a ras- and Src-independent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/ERK pathway. In human bladder cancer, co-expression of these RTKs was associated with poor patient survival (p p Conclusions In addition to c-Met, the cross-talk with Axl and/or PDGFR-α also contributes to the progression of human bladder cancer. Evaluation of Axl and PDGFR-α expression status may identify a subset of c-Met-positive bladder cancer patients who may require co-targeting therapy.

  20. Design the Rocker Arm Mechanism in Double Front Axle Steering Mechanism%双前桥转向机构中摇臂机构的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兰兰; 王健楠

    2012-01-01

    为了适当调整摇臂机构的设计参数,根据已有的基本型双前桥转向的摇臂机构.用作图法计算出二桥节臂转角肛,再计算出二桥节臂理论转角β2理,根据β2-β2理=δ古是否小于1°来判断该机构是否合理:如不合理,通过改变摇臂长度R的尺寸得到合理的数值后,再用三维模型进行了校核,得到了合适的设计数据。此方法缩短了设计周期,为双摇臂机构的设计提供了参考。%Abstract according the existing rocker mechanism about the double front axle steering mechanism, the comer of the knuckle arm about the second steering axle β2 was calculated from the comer of knuckle arm about the first steering axle r, by graphical method, and the theory comer of knuckle arm of the second steering axle β2L, was counted, then the rocker mechanism's rationality was determined according the formula β2- β2L=δ;if δ≤ 1°,the mechanism is reasonable ;if δ 〉 1°,then the parameter R was changed to obtain the reasonable data about the rocker mechanism ;final, the corresponding 3D model was build to check the design. Design time was saved by this method, and reference was given to the other designers.

  1. 快速换模在桥壳模具中的应用%SMED application in the axle housing mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷鹏; 贾雄伟; 惠文强

    2014-01-01

    In stamping-welding axle housings products switched, the axle housing mold bulky and heavy-tonnage, resulting in retooling slow and low productivity. Through the SMED application in the axle housings, the distinction between internal and external, transformation operation using a parallel operation. Improving the logistics set up hanging device, increasing the positioning pin. The changeover speed increase more than 50%, reducing the extra inventory, improve production efficiency, resulting in significant economic benefits.%在冲焊桥壳产品切换中,桥壳模具体积大、吨位重、造成换模速度慢,生产效率低。通过快速换模技术在桥壳模具中的应用,区分了内外变换操作,并采用平行作业,改善物流架起吊装置,增加定位销,使换模速度提升了50%以上,减少了不需的额外库存,提高了生产效率,并产生明显的经济效益。

  2. Vibration levels on rear and front axles of a tractor in agricultural operations - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v36i1.18170

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geice Paula Villibor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive vibrations in agricultural tractors can contribute with mechanical failures and subject the operator to discomfort. This work evaluated the vibration levels on rear and front axles of an agricultural tractor working at different forward speeds and wheel drive conditions in plowing and harrowing operations. Field tests were carried out in a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement 3 x 2 (forward travel speeds x front-wheel-assist enable or disable, with three replications. Tractor vibration was measured using two single axis accelerometers fixed above the rear and front axles. The actual forward speed of the tractor was obtained by means of ultrasonic radar and the angular velocity of the wheels was measured with magnetic transducers. The drawbar force to pull the disc harrow was obtained by a load cell. The results showed that the vibration levels observed for the plowing operation were higher than observed for the harrowing operation. When the front-wheel-assist (FWA was enabled there was a reduction in vertical vibration levels of the tractor axles. The highest vibration levels were observed in the frequency range of 2 to 4Hz for the both soil tillage operations evaluated

  3. 驱动桥桥壳建模及模型网格化处理%Modeling the Drive axle housing and Meshing the model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖焱曦; 赵冰; 史培龙; 张建; 常海雷

    2012-01-01

    Driving axle shell is one of the main parts on cars.It is not only the load bearing part,the transmising force and torque part but also is the main reducer,differential and wheel transmission device shell.So the quality of driving axle shell greatly affect the safe use of vehicles. Along with the economical development and the increasing vehicle possession,vehicles are developing to high-speed,continuous lightweight,low energy consumption and high performance.This requires that axle housing not only has enough intensity and rigidity,also requires mass has been reduced to structure and the vibration characteristic must be analysed.This paper mainly research on how to use the Hypermesh meshing the model which is modeled by pro-E after simplifying the drive axle housing,and check the mesher and modify the mesher the meaning of this paper is to provide a foundation model to finite element analysis of drive axle housing.%驱动桥壳是汽车上的主要零件之一,桥壳不仅是承载件还是传力件,同时又是主减速器、差速器及车轮传动装置的外壳。故驱动桥壳的质量极大影响了车辆的安全使用。随着经济发展,车辆保有量的日益增长,车辆不断向高速、轻量、低能耗和高性能发展。这要求桥壳不仅有足够的强度和刚度,还要求减轻质量以及必须对结构的振动特性分析。本文主要研究在对驱动桥壳简化及通过PROE建模后,如何在Hypermesh把模型网格化及对网格的修改和检查,本文的意义在于对驱动桥壳的有限元分析提供一个基础模型。

  4. Cost-benefit analysis of the construction of different flexible pavement structures considering the axle load and type of binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Dotto Bueno

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The status of Brazilian highways reflects a deficient pavement performance when they are subjected to loadings imposed by heavy traffic. Current legislation, as enacted by Contran (National Traffic Council, has increased the axle weight limit for cargo vehicles by up to 10%. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine a cost-benefit ratio by using different types of structures, asphalt binders and load intensities. Typical pavements were determined and then analyzed by the software AEMC (SisPav to obtain the horizontal tensile strain (εt values at the bottom of the asphalt concrete layer and, later, the NFATIGUE value. It was found that the increase in weight, within values covered by legislation, might result in a reduction of approximately 50% in the NFATIGUE value for the pavement structures analyzed. As for economic impact, the same weight increase caused a mean increase of 120% in the cost of repeated loading on pavement structures (R$ NFATIGUE-1. It was also observed that structures with more robust asphalt concrete layers can provide the best R$ NFATIGUE-1 ratios. The best results for granular materials were found with thinner layers, associated with a thicker coating. The benefits of modified binders were shown by the analyses of the best structural options: both the polymer-modified binder and the rubber asphalt binder offer significant structural and economic improvements to the structure.

  5. Dynamic Analysis of Light Automotive Front Axle Based on FEM%轻型载货汽车前轴的有限元动态特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王科

    2015-01-01

    汽车前轴是汽车最重要的承重件之一,其设计的可靠性直接影响整车性能的发挥。利用有限元方法研究汽车前轴的动态特性,并通过频率响应提取动刚度,为前轴设计提供了频域的设计方法。%Front axle of the light truck is one of the most important load-bearing parts. Its design reliability has impact on the vehicle performance. In this paper, the dynamic characteristics of the automotive front axle is researched by using the finite el-ement method ( FEM) , and its dynamic stiffness is also extracted with frequency response. We hope that would provide a de-sign method for front axle in the frequency domain.

  6. Design and application of the car front axle road simulation test%轿车前桥道路模拟台架疲劳试验设计及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩峰; 李国峰; 于翠

    2016-01-01

    This paper based on the vertical force, vertical force, lateral force of automobile front axle head and the hydraulic system (MTS), and one vehicle model in the proving ground of front axle load spectrum to design bench test for fatigue. Road simulation was carried out on the front axle. To reduce the design cost, shorten the design time, produce good economic benefit.%文章基于前桥轴头垂直力、纵向力、侧向力和 MTS 液压系统,以及某车型在试验场实测得到的前桥载荷谱,单纯对前桥进行台架道路模拟耐久试验设计。降低设计成本,缩短设计周期,产生较好的经济效益。

  7. 多轴汽车驻车制动性能分析方法%Analysis Method of Parking Braking Performance for Multi-axle Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何仁; 童成前; 何建清

    2011-01-01

    Taking three-axle vehicle as an example, the calculation formula of parking grade limit of multiaxle vehicle is derived with its influencing factors analyzed. On this basis, an analysis method for parking-braking performance of multi-axle vehicle is proposed, in which the maximum parking grade is determined by comparing parking grade limit and the maximum parking grade calculated by torque method. In addition, a concept named utilization rate of grade limit is proposed as a supplement to the analysis indicators of parking braking performance.The results of real sample analysis show that the method proposed is simple, pragmatic and can effectively analyze the parking braking performance of multi-axle vehicles.%以三轴汽车为例,推导出多轴汽车的驻车极限坡度计算公式,并对其影响因素进行分析.在此基础上,提出了多轴汽车的驻车制动性能分析方法,即通过对驻车极限坡度与力矩法求出的最大驻车坡度进行比较而获得汽车的最大驻车坡度:外,提出了极限坡度利用率的概念,作为对驻车制动性能分析指标的补充.实例分析结果表明,该方法简单、实用,能对多轴汽车驻车制动性能进行有效分析.

  8. Non-contacting fluid ring seal systems for railcar axle bearing systems: Quarterly progress report No. 1, June 15 to September 15, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The main objectives of this DOE contract is the technical development of a practical, cost effective Fluid Ring seal system capable of: Drastically reducing locomotive drawbar traction power requirements by lowering seal friction losses prevalent in present railcar axle bearing systems; increasing reliability and safety of railroad cars by minimizing bearing lubricant leakage and minimizing bearing ''hot boxes''; and improving the productivity of the railway transportation systems by reducing rolling stock ''outages'' due to long seal life. 14 refs.

  9. Non-contacting fluid ring seal systems for railcar axle bearing systems: Quarterly progress report No. 4, March 16-June 15, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    The main objectives of this DOE contract is the technical development of a practical, cost effective Fluid Ring seal system capable of: Drastically reducing locomotive drawbar traction power requirements by lowering seal friction losses prevalent in present railcar axle bearing systems; increasing reliability and safety of railroad cars by minimizing bearing lubricant leakage and minimizing bearing ''hot boxes''; and improving the productivity of the railway transportation systems by reducing rolling stock ''outages'' due to long seal life. Listed in this report are the seal test data.

  10. Finite Element Analysis of A Front Axle in Lateral Sliding to Limit Condition%某载货车前轴侧滑工况有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯美波; 刘新荣; 李秀波

    2015-01-01

    利用有限元分析软件Workbench对某载货车前轴进行有限元分析,得出其在极限侧滑工况下的应力分布,从而为前轴的设计提供一定的理论依据。%Using finite element analysis software Workbench to analyze a front axle when working on lateral sliding to limit condition, and the stress distribution is obtained. So it can provide certain theoretical basis for the design of front axle.

  11. 高速公路路段交通量分析及轴载换算%Analysis of Traffic Volume and Equivalent Axle Load Factors in Freeway Sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱靓雯; 刘黎萍

    2016-01-01

    交通荷载数据对沥青路面设计和管理有重要作用。轴载谱方法可以更为全面、准确地描述交通荷载。文中收集了江西省部分高速公路荷载站点的实测轴载数据和交通量数据。通过对每一辆车进出收费站的名称识别,结合公路网分布统计得到各路段的交通荷载数据集合。对各路段实测轴载数据特征、交通增长率和累计标准轴次等进行分析,建立了轴载谱数据和交通量数据之间的关系,并给出了调查地区的当量轴次换算系数参考值。%Traffic loading data is very important for asphalt pavement design and management.Axle load spectrum is more comprehensive and accurate in describing the traffic load.This study collected the measured axle load data and traffic volume data of asphalt pavement freeways from toll gates in Jiangxi Province.Traffic loading data in freeway sections is obtained through the data from the en-trance and exit toll gate,combined with the highway network.The data was used to analyze the axle load spectrum factors,the number of accumulated equivalent axle loads,and the growth rate of equiv-alent axle loads.It has been found that the growth rate of equivalent axle loads in some highway sec-tions is negative.In addition,the relationship between axle load data and traffic volume data was de-veloped through the equivalent axle load factors,the value of which in investigated area was listed at last.

  12. 基于轴荷平衡的双联轴货车钢板平衡悬架参数优化%Parameter Optimization of the Leaf-spring Balanced Suspension in a Tandem Axle Truck Based on Axle-load Balance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡延平; 宋东奇; 陈一锴; 张卫华; 柏海舰

    2015-01-01

    [ Abstract] For thoroughly improving the overall driving performance of tandem-axle truck,a parameter optimiza-tion scheme for the leaf-spring balanced suspension of a tandem axle truck is proposed with consideration of dynamic axle load balance. Firstly a six DOF half-vehicle model with leaf-spring balanced suspension and a single-rut random excita-tion time-domain model are created respectively based on numerical analysis, and a corresponding dynamic vehicle-road coupled model is also built with MATLAB/Simulink accordingly. Then an overall driving performance indicator of tandem axle truck is put forward, which comprehensively reflect the dynamic axle load balance and ride comfort of vehicle and the degree of influence of suspension parameters on the overall driving performance of vehicle is explored based on orthog-onal experiment. Finally a thorough optimization of key suspension parameters is achieved by range analysis and variance analysis. The results indicate that compared with original truck, the overall driving performance indicator of truck after parameter optimization is enhanced by some 30% at the speed range of 20 to 90km/h.%为全面改善双联轴货车的综合行驶性能,提出一种考虑动态轴荷平衡的货车双联轴钢板平衡悬架参数优化方法。首先,基于数值分析法分别建立带钢板平衡悬架的6自由度1/2车辆模型和单轮辙随机激励时域模型,并在MATLAB/Simulink中构建相应的车路耦合动力学模型。进而提出综合反映动态轴荷平衡和平顺性的多联轴货车综合行驶性能指标,依据正交试验探索悬架各参数对车辆综合行驶性能的影响程度。最后通过极差和方差分析实现悬架关键参数的全面优化。结果表明,在20~90km/h车速下,相对于原货车,参数优化后货车的综合行驶性能指标约提高了30%。

  13. Nonlinearity-induced time-varying harmonic dynamic axle load and its impact on dynamic stability of car-trailer combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Xiao, Hong; Winner, Hermann

    2016-06-01

    A nonlinearity-induced time-varying harmonic dynamic axle load is found in the road test of a car-trailer combination. To understand its influence on system dynamic stability, a corresponding linear single-track model (STM) is proposed. System dynamic stability is described and sensitivity analysis for the system parameters is achieved. The contribution of the harmonic force is quantified by a derived effective axle load. Because the harmonic effect might be time varying in practice, a time-frequency analysis-based parameter identification method is introduced. Experimental study shows that a time-varying harmonic effect really exists. A yaw-rate-based simulation method is designed to simulate this behaviour. The sensitivity analysis of the influence of the harmonic amplitude or phase on dynamic stability is performed with a simulation study. With appropriate modification of the harmonic amplitude and phase shift applied in selected time windows, the time-varying system characteristics in the road test can be simulated very well.

  14. Intracellular signaling of the Ufo/Axl receptor tyrosine kinase is mediated mainly by a multi-substrate docking-site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunger, J; Schleithoff, L; Schulz, A S; Kessler, H; Lammers, R; Ullrich, A; Bartram, C R; Janssen, J W

    1997-06-05

    Ufo/Axl belongs to a new family of receptor tyrosine kinases with an extracellular structure similar to that of neural cell adhesion molecules. In order to elucidate intracellular signaling, the cytoplasmic moiety of Ufo/Axl was used to screen an expression library according to the CORT (cloning of receptor targets) method. Three putative Ufo substrates were identified: phospholipase Cgamma1 (PLCgamma), as well as p85alpha and p85beta subunits of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3-kinase). Subsequently, chimeric EGFR/Ufo receptors consisting of the extracellular domains of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the transmembrane and intracellular moiety of Ufo were engineered. Using different far-Western blot analyses and coimmunoprecipitation assays, receptor binding of PLCgamma and p85 proteins as well as GRB2, c-src and lck was examined in vitro and in vivo. Competitive inhibition of substrate binding and mutagenesis experiments with EGFR/Ufo constructs revealed C-terminal tyrosine 821 (EILpYVNMDEG) as a docking site for multiple effectors, namely PLCgamma, p85 proteins, GRB2, c-src and lck. Tyrosine 779 (DGLpYALMSRC) demonstrated an additional, but lower binding affinity for the p85 proteins in vitro. In addition, binding of PLCgamma occurred through tyrosine 866 (AGRpYVLCPST). Moreover, our in vivo data indicate that further direct or indirect binding sites for PLCgamma, GRB2, c-src and lck on the human Ufo receptor may exist.

  15. 载重汽车双前桥转向机构优化设计%Optimization Design of Double - front - axle Steering Mechanism of Heavy Truck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕾; 董恩国; 梁立学

    2012-01-01

    Based on multi-body dynamitic theory and the software of ADAMS, it builds a simulation model on a double-front-axle steering mechanism, establishes a mathematic model on a steering mechanism and rocker mechanism. The simulation analysis is performance according to the minimum steering error of the double-front-axle steering mechanism. Based on the simulation, it obtains the optimization results and researches the steering performance evaluation conclusions.%以多体系统动力学理论为基础,应用多体动力学软件ADAMS建立了载重汽车双前桥转向机构动力学仿真模型,以及转向梯形机构及中间摇臂机构的数学模型.基于各机构转角误差最小对设计参数进行了仿真优化分析.通过仿真分析,得到了双前桥转向机构的优化结果以及转向性能的评价结论.

  16. FEM analysis of front axle vertical finishing process and mold development%前轴垂直整形工艺模拟与模具开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾琦; 蒋鹏

    2013-01-01

    Front axle is one of the important load parts in automobiles, the possibility of the front axle vertical finishing process was analyzed, the process parameters and mold structure of vertical finishing process were simulated and optimized with the help of computer numerical simulation technology. A kind of vertical finishing mold with hydraulic clamping system was designed on the basis of simulations. After vertical finishing process in the vertical finishing mold, the upper and lower surfaces of the spring seat are flattening, which can be drilled bolt holes and mounted directly. It is benefit for reducing the subsequent processing amount and meeting, which mounting requirements of spring seat.%前轴是汽车重要的承载件之一,本文分析了前轴锻件垂直整形工艺的可行性,通过计算机数值模拟技术模拟并优化垂直整形的工艺参数和模具结构,在模拟分析基础上设计出液压夹紧式垂直整形模.经垂直整形后,锻件弹簧座的上下表面基本压平,可以直接加工螺栓孔并进行安装,减少了后续加工量,并保证了弹簧座的安装要求.

  17. THE LIFETIME EXTENSION OF CAR AXLES TYPES OF RU1 AND RUSH WHEELSET FREIGHT CARS, RESTORED BY THE METHOD OF PLASMA-ARC METALLIZATION OF THE NECK AND UNDER PARTS MANUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Zelenin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The restoration method for the journals and wheel seats of the freight wagon wheelsets by means of plasma-arc metallization is presented and the results of the bench fatigue tests with the advisable operation life of the axles restored are given.

  18. 1580热轧R2粗轧机主传动十字轴失效分析%Invalidation analysis for main driving cross axle of R2 roughing mill in 1580 hot rolling mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖永锋

    2011-01-01

    对宝钢1580热轧R2粗轧机主传动十字轴的失效原因进行了分析,指出该十字轴主要是在1.5倍额定负荷以上的工况条件下产生接触疲劳破坏,并提出了对十字轴表面重新加工处理,使其恢复表面硬度和粗糙度,重新单配轴承的修复方案,延长了十字轴的使用寿命.%The invalidation reason of R2 main driving cross axle in Baosteel 1580 hot rolling mill is analyzed.It is pointed out that the contact fatigue failure of the cross axle is due to more than 1.5 times of nominal load under working condition.An approach to treat the damaged working surface of the cross axle, and recover its surface stiffness and roughness, then make up bearing is put forward, and that service life of cross axle is prolonged.

  19. ORNL-GM: Development of Ionic Liquid-Additized, GF-5/6 Compatible Low-Viscosity Oils for Automotive Engine and Rear Axle Lubrication for 4% Improved Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhou, Yan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Luo, Huimin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Toops, Todd J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brookshear, Daniel W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stump, Benjamin C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Viola, Michael B. [General Motors (GM) Technical Center, Pontiac, MI (United States); Zreik, Khaled [General Motors (GM) Technical Center, Pontiac, MI (United States); Ahmed, Tasfia [General Motors (GM) Technical Center, Pontiac, MI (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The overall objective of this project are as follows: Further develop ionic liquid (IL)-additized lowviscosity engine oils meeting the GF-5/6 specifications and possessing superior lubricating characteristics; Expand the IL additive technology to rear axle lubricants; and Seek a combined improvement in the vehicle fuel economy

  20. The Strength Analysis of a driving axle housing for a low-floor bus%某低地板客车用驱动桥壳强度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭克刚; 王锋刚; 肖云娜

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the form of installation and main technical parameters of a driving axle for a low-floor bus, and provides an analytical method for driving axle housing, then does the strength analysis for the driving axle housing in the following typical working conditions: vertical bending, braking, comering and maximum traction conditions based on finite element analysis software HyperWorks. The above analysis results of the text provide some reference for finite element analysis of the follow-up to the driving axle housing.%本文介绍了某低地板客车用驱动桥的安装形式及主要技术参数,基于有限元分析软件HyperWorks提供了一种驱动桥壳的分析方法,并对该驱动桥壳进行了以下典型工况的强度分析:垂直弯曲、制动、转弯和最大牵引力工况。本文对后续驱动桥壳的有限元分析具有一定的参考作用。

  1. Modeling and Simulation Analysis of Multi-Axle Steering Vehicle Based on Virtual Prototype Technology%基于虚拟样机技术的多轴转向车辆建模与仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊友; 贺翠华

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the precision of multi-axle vehicles model, three-axis vehicles was taken as the research object, and the virtual prototype technology of three-axle steering vehicle was established using ADAMS/CAR. Based on zero side-slip angle of mass center and proportional control strategy, the three axles steering were set The handling stability of the three-axle steering vehicle were simulated, compared with traditional front wheel steering vehicle, and the results showed that three-axle steering steering vehicle has better performance.%为提高目前多轴转向车辆模型的精确度,以三轴车辆为研究对象,利用虚拟样机技术,在ADAMS/CAR中建立了三轴全轮转向车辆的动力学模型,依据三轴全轮转向车辆的零质心侧偏角转角控制策略,对全轮转向进行了相应设置.为验证车辆的操纵稳定性能,对其进行了仿真分析,主要考查其在低速大转角和高速小转角行驶情况下的响应特性,并与传统的前轮转向车辆进行了对比,结果表明全轮转向车辆在低速转弯时机动性高,中高速转向时稳定性好.

  2. 四轴车辆全轮转向之自动模式研究%A Research on the Automatic Mode of All-wheel Steering for Four-axle Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈思忠; 郑凯锋

    2015-01-01

    在第2轴转角比例于第1轴转角,第3轴转角比例于第4轴转角的条件下,从理论上分析了全轮转向与双前桥转向之间的差异。接着以质心侧偏角为零,设计了控制器一和控制器二两种控制器,并再次分析了双前桥转向、带控制器一的全轮转向和带控制器二的全轮转向三者之间的区别与联系,为四轴车辆的全轮转向技术的研究提供了理论参考。%Under the condition of that the wheel turning angles in second and third axles are respectively proportional to those of first and fourth axles, the differences between all wheel steering and double-front-axle steer-ing are analyzed theoretically. Then with the sideslip angle of mass center set to zero, controller 1 and controller 2 are designed, and the differences and connections between double-front-axle steering, all wheel steering with con-troller 1 and all wheel steering with controller 2 are analyzed again, providing theoretical references for the research on the all wheel steering technique for four-axle vehicle.

  3. Axle Lubricant Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-09

    increased to 7.8%. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Fuel Consumption, Fuel Economy , FMTV, SCPL, Gear Oil, Engine Oil, Transmission Oil, Fuel, SAE J1321 16...program that had shown beneficial effects in previous laboratory testing for fuel economy and engine durability [6]. For all oil changes a double...mile circular track where the current program was performed. Table 3 provides the operating speeds and distances for the highway cycle and a comparison

  4. Extended-Kalman-filter-based regenerative and friction blended braking control for electric vehicle equipped with axle motor considering damping and elastic properties of electric powertrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chen; Zhang, Junzhi; Li, Yutong

    2014-11-01

    Because of the damping and elastic properties of an electrified powertrain, the regenerative brake of an electric vehicle (EV) is very different from a conventional friction brake with respect to the system dynamics. The flexibility of an electric drivetrain would have a negative effect on the blended brake control performance. In this study, models of the powertrain system of an electric car equipped with an axle motor are developed. Based on these models, the transfer characteristics of the motor torque in the driveline and its effect on blended braking control performance are analysed. To further enhance a vehicle's brake performance and energy efficiency, blended braking control algorithms with compensation for the powertrain flexibility are proposed using an extended Kalman filter. These algorithms are simulated under normal deceleration braking. The results show that the brake performance and blended braking control accuracy of the vehicle are significantly enhanced by the newly proposed algorithms.

  5. Numerical Analysis for Precision Roll Forging of Front Axle%前轴精密辊锻成形过程的数值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑明玉; 喻建军; 沙奔; 陈池; 陈文琳

    2012-01-01

    The three passes roll forging process was simulated for front axle by using the rigid-plastic finite element model. The transformation law of blank, the roll forging torque and the effective stress distribution were analyzed during the three passes roll forging process. The result of the simulation has important significance for guiding the practical production and improving the level of die design.%采用刚塑性有限元模型对前轴辊锻3道次进行了有限元模拟,分析了辊锻过程中坯料的变化规律、等效应力分布及辊锻力矩的变化规律.模拟结果对于指导实际生产,提高模具设计水平具有重要意义.

  6. 拖拉机前桥悬架参数匹配及其对振动特性的影响%Front axle suspension parameters match and its impact on vibration characteristics of tractor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊力达尔·伊力亚斯; 朱思洪; 徐刚; 袁加奇

    2015-01-01

    Compared with cars, buses and trucks, tractor often drives on the dirt road in the field of rural areas, together with the simple vibration damping device, so the vibration of tractor is particularly intense. Severe vibration of tractor would cause serious harm to driver’s health, and cause fatigue and failure of tractor parts and hence seriously affect the life of the tractor. In addition, excessive vibration of the tractor will exacerbate farmland soil compaction and reduce crop yields. How to effectively reduce the vibration of tractors to improve ride comfort and driving safety and reduce farmland damage is an important research topic for researchers and tractor manufacturing enterprises. The study of foreign scholars have found when the tractor is installed with front axle suspension, the ride comfort and driving safety is improved. When farm tools hangs on the front of tractor, tractor damping effect depends on the matching between front axle suspension stiffness and damping coefficient. Installing the front axle suspension of tractor can significantly reduce tractor’s pitching vibration. By the method of theoretical analysis, the theoretical system of front axle suspension of tractor was established, the vibration was analyzed and the theoretical formula was deduced, aiming to provide a theoretical basis for parameter matching of tractor front axle suspension. In this paper, CF700 tractor from Jiang Su Chang-Fa group was taken as the research object, and the theoretical model of front axle suspension tractor was established, including plane vibration model of front axle suspension tractor with 3 degrees of freedom, vibration differential equation and tractor vibration characteristics evaluation. Taking body vertical vibration acceleration, body pitching vibration angular acceleration, seat-mounted vertical vibration acceleration, front and rear wheels’ dynamic load and front axle suspension dynamic deflection as the evaluation means, theoretical

  7. 联合收割机行走半轴载荷测试系统构建与性能试验%Construction and performance experiment of load test system for half axle of combine harvester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李耀明; 叶晓飞; 徐立章; 庞靖; 马征

    2013-01-01

    Half axle is an important part of a walking system in a combine harvester;the damage from half axle is generally fatigue failure, which has a direct effect on the reliability and stability of the combine harvester. Minority combine harvester manufacturers have half axle fatigue test rigs, and most of the loads on the fatigue test rig are set artificially, thus it cannot accurately predict fatigue life of half axle in absence of comprehensive consideration of various alternating loads. Fatigue life analysis and fast in doors simulation of the load fatigue test on the basis of load spectrum can provide the basis for the improvement of half axle. Improvement of fatigue performance of half axle is conducive to the competitiveness of the products on the market at home and abroad. It is not a suitable solution to use traditional shaft or disc torque sensors to test the torque of half axle, because the half axle is closed in the transmission. Operating environments of combine harvesters are complex, and half axles often bear a complex alternating load which puts forward higher requirements on the stability and reliability of the performance of the load test system. To provide a precise and comprehensive load-time course for the compiling of load spectrum of the half axle of a combine harvester, the complex and alternating load signal in typical working conditions must be acquired accurately. Based on an analysis of working characteristics and the construction features of chassis of combine harvesters, a wireless load test system was put forward in this paper by choosing reasonable torque and rotation speed sensors and data acquisition systems composed of hall sensors, rotation speed signal acquisition modules, resistance strain gauges, power modules, torque signal acquisition modules, wireless routers, computers, and software for signals test and analysis. In order to exclude the influence of measured value of torque signals by bending moment, axial force, and temperature

  8. 重型牵引车驱动桥壳厚度及板簧中心距的优化%Optimum Design on Thickness of Heavy Tractor’ s Driving Axle Housing and Leaf Spring Center Distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐杨坤; 李晚霞; 杨灿

    2015-01-01

    A parameterized finite element model of heavy tractor driving axle housing was established, using APDL program-ming language in the finite element analysis software ANSYS.Through optimum design on the thickness of the main body of the driving axle housing and the axle shaft sleeve, the weight of driving axle housing was reduced while its strength was increased, which provides a basis for lightweight design.Through optimum design about leaf spring center distance under the maximum verti-cal force working condition and the braking working condition, the curves of the maximum stress and deformation versus spring center distance were obtained respectively;and the optimum leaf spring center distances under the maximum vertical force condi-tion was determined.The driving axle housing met the strength and stiffness requirements in that rang of leaf spring center dis-tances.The model provides a basis for the design of the driving axle housing and the arrangement of the leaf spring seat.%采用有限元分析软件ANSYS中的APDL编程语言建立了重型牵引车驱动桥壳的参数化有限元模型,通过对桥壳本体厚度、半轴套管厚度进行优化设计,减轻了驱动桥壳的质量并增大了其强度,为轻量化设计提供了依据;分别在最大垂向力工况和制动工况下对板簧中心距进行优化设计,得到了驱动桥壳最大应力和最大变形随板簧中心距变化的曲线,确定了在最大垂向力工况下的最佳板簧中心距,在该板簧中心距范围内,驱动桥壳在制动工况下满足强度刚度要求,为驱动桥壳的设计和板簧座的布置提供了依据。

  9. 汽车驱动桥壳壳盖优化设计二次开发研究%Secondary Development on the Optimization of Drive Axle Housing Cover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    揭钢; 余显忠; 丁玉辉; 万雄飞; 陈田兵

    2011-01-01

    采用非线性有限元分析软件ABAQUS对驱动桥壳壳盖成型过程进行了仿真分析,并通过ABAQUS自带脚本程序Python建立的参数化有限元模型对壳盖的毛坯进行优化循环计算,得出了合理的毛坯尺寸.通过试验验证了优化设计的正确性.%In this paper, the forming process of driving axle housing cover is simulated based on the no-linear finite element analysis software ABAQUS, and optimized cycle calculation was made to axle housing cover blanks with the parameterized FE model established with ABAQUS script Python, and reasonable dimensions of blanks were obtained. The optimized design is validated with test.

  10. Dynamics of Drive Axle System with Effects of Input Torque%输入转矩对驱动桥系统动力学特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周驰; 王琪; 丁炜琦; 桂良进; 范子杰

    2016-01-01

    Driveline and housings are connected by roller bearings. The bearing stiffness is nonlinear and coupling in all directions and changes with the input torque of drive axle, which leads to variation in the drive axle system dynamics. Based on the nonlinear bearing theory, the finite element method and modal synthesis method, a drive axle final drive gear transmission system dynamic model with final drive gear transmission assembly, differential gear transmission assembly, hub assembly and housings etc. is built. According to the magnitude of the input torque of the pinion shaft, the load cases are set out into light load, medium load and heavy load. Nonlinear bearing stiffness is calculated corresponding to each load case. The axial stiffness and radial stiffness of final drive roller bearing with load change characteristics are analyzed. Dynamic analysis of the whole drive axle system to a unit harmonic transmission error at the hypoid gear mesh is performed in the case of different input torques. The influence of the input torque on the drive axle is researched. The frequency response characteristics of final drive hypoid gear dynamic meshing force is analyzed when the drive axle system works in different load cases. The results show that the drive axle system dynamics change with the size of the input torque with a certain regularity, and can guide the design of the vibration and noise reduction of drive axle system in order to avoid dangerous conditions effectively.%在驱动桥系统中,滚子轴承是连接轴系与壳体的关键部件,其刚度具有各向耦合性和非线性特性,且与输入转矩有关。为准确高效地分析输入转矩对驱动桥系统动力学特性的影响,基于非线性轴承理论、有限元法和模态综合方法,建立包含主减速器总成、差速器总成、轮毂总成和桥壳等部件的完整驱动桥系统动力学分析模型,根据输入转矩大小的不同,定义轻载、中载和重载三种

  11. 59/74kW轮式拖拉机前驱动桥桥壳的柔性加工工艺设计%Flexible Manufacturing Process of 59/74 kW Tractor Front Drive Axle Housing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王智红; 张强; 赵利飞; 周珍珠

    2012-01-01

    针对59/74kw轮式拖拉机前驱动桥壳体,分析了整体式桥壳的结构特点和其主减安装面、转向节孔和半轴轴承座孔的工艺要求,并研究设计了加工工艺。经生产实践证明,该工艺不仅生产效率高,而且产品质量稳定。%For front drive axle housing of 59/74 kW tractors,we analyzed the overall structural features of the integral axle housing and process requirements for main mounting surface, steering knuckle hole and half shaft bearing seat hole. Then the process technics are designed. The productions prove that the process has a high efficiency and stabile product quality.

  12. 大马力拖拉机驱动桥有限元分析及试验研究%Finite element analysis and experiment of big horsepower tractor drive axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董玉德; 姚亮亮; 刘振; 曹文钢; 邓磊; 王凯亮; 刘月在

    2012-01-01

    驱动桥作为拖拉机的传动和承载部件,受力较大且使用频繁,通过对桥壳模型的有限元分析,可以验证设计的安全性并可以通过分析结果来改进设计.首先采用Pro/E对拖拉机驱动桥壳、转向节、半轴进行三维建模并导入Hypermesh中进行有限元分析的前处理工作,然后将导出的文件输入ANSYS中进行有限元分析.最后通过桥壳的刚度试验和疲劳试验验证了此驱动桥的安全性,并给出了改进意见.%Drive axle sustains heavy force and is frequently used to transmit power and bear weight of the tractor. Security of design can be verified and improved by the result of the finite element analysis. First, hypermesh is used to proceed the preprocessing of the finite element analysis to axle housing, steering joint, half-axle model which is designed by Pro/E, ANSYS is used to proceed finite element analysis. By the result of the analysis and rigidity experiment, fatigue experiment to housing, the correctness of design can be verified, and some advices are given to increase the rigidity and fatigue lifetime for big horsepower tractor drive axle.

  13. 考虑侧偏角影响的双前桥转向角匹配研究%Research on steer angle for double front axles steering systems considering with slip angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃刚; 孙营

    2011-01-01

    研究了双前桥转向系统中,整车的侧向加速度所造成的车轮侧偏角对实际车轮转向角的影响,提出了考虑侧偏角影响时双前桥转向的阿克曼条件.首先推导了存在车轮侧偏角时双前桥各车轮转向角之间的变化规律,提出了包含车轮侧偏角在内的阿克曼转角公式;其次以某双前桥转向的重型卡车为应用对象,将所推导的设计公式应用于该重型卡车的设计中,建立相应的多体动力学模型,借助于Adams软件的仿真分析对各车轮转向角进行了设计;最后通过实车试验验证了经修正后的阿克曼转角公式的正确性.%What the slip angle caused by lateral acceleration has influence on the actual steer angle for double front axles steering system was mainly researched,and the Ackerman law of double front axles considering the influence of slip angle was proposed.Firstly,the variation of each wheel steer angle in double front axles truck considering slip angle was derived,and the Ackerman law containing slip angle was proposed.Secondly,using the proposed theory on a double front axles truck,the multibody dynamics model was built,and the wheel steer angle was designed based on the software Adams.Lastly,the real vehicle experiment validated the correctness of the amended Ackerman law.

  14. Reliability-based optimization of front-axle with non-normal distribution parameters%非正态分布参数前轴的可靠性优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张义民; 贺向东; 刘巧伶; 闻邦椿

    2003-01-01

    讨论了随机参数服从非正态分布前轴的可靠性优化设计问题.在基本随机参数的前四阶矩已知的情况下,应用随机摄动法和Edgeworth级数方法对前轴进行可靠性优化设计,通过计算机程序可以实现随机参数服从非正态分布的前轴可靠性优化设计,迅速准确地得到了前轴的可靠性优化设计信息.计算结果表明,在对随机参数服从非正态分布的前轴进行可靠性优化设计时,该文所提出的方法有效和实用.%This paper examines the reliability optimization design for front-axle with non-normal distribution parameters. Using techniques from the probabilistic perturbation method and the Edgeworth series technique, a practical and effective method for the reliability optimization design for front-axle with non-normal distribution parameters of vehicle on the condition of known first four moments of basic random variables is presented. The respective program can be used to obtain the reliability optimization design information of front-axle with non-normal distribution parameters accurately and quickly. The numerical results demonstrate that the method proposed is an effective and practical approach to computing reliability and designing front-axle with non-normal distribution parameters.

  15. 正挤横轧式农用车后桥半轴套管的研究开发%Study and Development of the Rear Axle Shaft Sleeves of Farm Transport Vehicle by Forward Extrusion and Cross Rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩英淳; 王学明; 唐志强

    2001-01-01

    在成功地开发轻型车正挤与横轧式后桥半轴套管的基础上,自主开发了1608型、2310型及2815型农用运输车的正挤与横轧式后桥半轴套管,并实现系列化规模生产,获得了显著的社会经济效益。%On the basis of the development of the rear axle shaft sleeve of the light truck CA1040 by forward extrusion and cross rolling, to adapt to the rapid growth of farm transport vehicle, the rear axle shaft sleeve of farm transport vehicle 1608,2310,2815 have been developed successively and manufactured on a big scale. In accordance with the characteristic in geometrical shape of the rear axle shaft sleeve, we change it into a detached structure based on the equal strength theory. Since the detached sleeve bodies have a small difference in diameter, they can be formed with technology of the forward extrusion and cross rolling.

  16. Study on Rear Axle Gear Residual Life Predication based on RBF Network%基于RBF网络的后桥齿轮残余寿命预测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾宇露; 祝志芳

    2012-01-01

    为有效预测汽车后桥齿轮的残余寿命,针对后桥的非线性特性,提出了一种递归预处理与RBF网络相结合的齿轮残余寿命预测方法,并验证了该方法的可行性.利用该方法进行了汽车后桥齿轮残余寿命预测,结果表明,该方法对齿轮残余寿命的预测结果与齿轮疲劳试验结果吻合,预测精度高.%For the non-linearity property of rear axle, a new method, which consists of a recursive pretreatment and RBF neural networks, is presented in this paper to accurately predict residual life of rear axle gear. Simulation and experiment results have proved feasibility of this method. This method can be used to predict the residual life of rear axle gear, the results show that predication of gear residual life with this method is very accurate, and consistent with gear fatigue test results.

  17. 重型载重车前轴分层淬火工艺仿真分析%Simulation analysis of layer by layer quenching process of a heavy truck front axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱振华; 秦训鹏; 高恺; 陈绪梁

    2016-01-01

    针对重型载重车前轴在传统整体式淬火强化后各部位马氏体含量、力学性能不均匀的问题,提出一种分层淬火工艺,并利用数值分析方法对某重型载重车前轴在分层淬火工艺条件下的温度场和微观组织进行仿真计算。计算结果证明分层淬火工艺能使截面尺寸变化大的前轴在淬火冷却过程中有效改善马氏体分布不均匀现象,提高其综合力学性能。%For the nonuniformity of martensite content and mechanical properties in each part of a heavy truck front axle after traditional integral hardening, a layer by layer quenching process was presented. Temperature field and microstructure content in a heavy truck front axle under the quenching process were calculated by numerical simulation analysis. The calculated results show that the layer by layer quenching process can improve the nonuniformity of martensite distribution in the front axle with large varying of cross section and enhance the comprehensive mechanical properties.

  18. Optimum design of double-front-axle steering based on ADAMS Secondary Development%基于 ADAMS 二次开发的双前桥转向机构优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德光

    2013-01-01

      With the development of market demand, the user demand for double front axle commercial vehicle is more and more big. This paper introduces the principle of double-front-axle steering theory, and the dynamic simulation analysis software ADAMS two development platform, software system for heavy commercial vehicle design and optimization of double front axle steering system, the optimized design of the steering mechanism.%  随着市场需求的发展,用户对双前桥商用车的需求越来越大。文中介绍了双前轴转向汽丰的转向原理,以及以动力学仿真分析软件 ADAMS 为二次开发平台,建立针对重型双前桥商用车转向系统设计及优化的专用软件系统,对转向机构进行了优化设计。

  19. 45#车轴钢疲劳性能试验研究%Experimental Study on the Fatigue Properties of 45# Axle Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄国; 黄海明; 王超; 李玮洁

    2013-01-01

    In the non-metallic inclusion inspection and tensile test at room temperature,the metallurgy quality and mechanical properties of materials were checked whether they were up to standards.And then the fatigue properties of 45# axle steel were studied by rotary bending fatigue testing method and fracture analysis.The results show that,compared with smooth specimen,the fatigue limit of notched specimens with the notch depth of 0.75 mm is decreased 44%,and the left slope of its S—N curve is greater than that of the smooth.The sensitive coefficient of notched specimen is 0.79.Moreover,the initiation of fatigue cracks in the smooth specimen is due to the stress concentration on the surface of specimen.There are multi-source areas of fatigue on the cross sections of the notched specimens and the cracks initiate at the lip of the notch,which is mainly caused by the stress concentration at the notch.In addition,larger size non-metallic inclusions may also lead to the initiation of fatigue cracks in axle steel.%通过非金属夹杂物检验和室温拉伸试验,在确保材料的冶金质量和力学性能符合标准要求的基础上,进行旋转弯曲疲劳试验和断口分析,对45#车轴钢的疲劳性能进行研究.结果表明:与光滑试件相比,带有深度为0.75 mm缺口的试件,其疲劳极限应力降低44%,其S—N曲线左段部分的斜率更大;其缺口敏感系数为0.79;表面应力集中是导致光滑试件萌生疲劳裂纹的原因;在有缺口的试件断口截面上存在多个疲劳源区,裂纹萌生在缺口的前缘,而且主要是由于缺口处应力集中所致;较大尺寸的非金属夹杂物也是导致车轴钢可能产生疲劳裂纹的启裂源.

  20. Axl基因在口腔鳞状细胞癌中的表达及意义%Expression and clinical significance of the Axl gene in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊杰; 赵腾达; 刘兴光; 朱王勇; 梁培盛; 陶谦

    2016-01-01

    目的:检测Axl( Anexelekto)在口腔鳞状细胞癌中的表达,探索Axl与口腔鳞状细胞癌发生、发展的关系。方法免疫组织化学法( IHC)检测42例口腔鳞状细胞癌患者的癌组织(口腔癌组)及其相应的癌旁组织(癌旁组) Axl的表达状况。原代培养正常人口腔上皮细胞( HOEC ),并培养1株永生化正常口腔角化上皮细胞系( NOK )及2株人舌鳞状细胞癌细胞系(UM1、UM2)。实时荧光定量聚合酶链反应(qRT-PCR)和蛋白免疫印迹分析(Western blot)检测上述4种细胞中的Axl的mR-NA和蛋白的表达情况。结果 Axl在口腔鳞状细胞癌组织中的阳性表达率(61.9%)高于其相应的癌旁正常组织(26.2%),差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05),qRT-PCR和Western blot结果示在HOEC、NOK、UM2、UM1中Axl基因的mRNA表达和蛋白表达逐步增高,且在UM2、UM1中明显高于HOEC、NOK。结论 Axl在口腔癌组织及口腔癌细胞株中的表达较口腔正常组织和正常口腔上皮细胞者中高表达,提示Axl基因可能与口腔鳞状细胞癌的发生、发展相关。%Objective To investigate the relationship between the expression of Axl gene and oncogenesis of oral squamous cell carci-noma ( OSCC) . Methods The immunohistochemical expressions of Axl genes in tumor tissues from 42 patients with OSCC ( OSCC group) and in correspondingly adjacent tissues ( adjacent group) were examined. In vitro, expression of mRNA and protein of Axl in normal human oral epithelium cell ( HOEC) , immortalized normal oral keratinocyte cell ( NOK) , tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell lines UM1 and UM2 were detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction ( qRT-PCR ) and Western blot (WB), respectively. Results There was significant difference between OSCC group and adjacent group (61. 9% vs. 26. 2%, P<0. 05) in immunohistochemical expression of Axl. Expression of mRNA and proteins of Axl in UM2 and UM1 were significantly higher than those in HOEC

  1. rse, a novel receptor-type tyrosine kinase with homology to Axl/Ufo, is expressed at high levels in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, M R; Scadden, D T; Wang, Z; Gu, Q; Goddard, A; Godowski, P J

    1994-04-08

    We have isolated cDNA clones that encode the human and murine forms of a novel receptor-type tyrosine kinase termed Rse. Sequence analysis indicates that human Rse contains 890 amino acids, with an extracellular region composed of two immunoglobulin-like domains followed by two fibronectin type III domains. Murine Rse contains 880 amino acids and shares 90% amino acid identity with its human counterpart. Rse is structurally similar to the receptor-type tyrosine kinase Axl/Ufo, and the two proteins have 35 and 63% sequence identity in their extracellular and intracellular domains, respectively. To study the synthesis and activation of this putative receptor-type tyrosine kinase, we constructed a version of Rse (termed gD-Rse, where gD represents glycoprotein D) that contains an NH2-terminal epitope tag. NIH3T3 cells were engineered to express gD-Rse, which could be detected at the cell surface by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Moreover, gD-Rse was rapidly phosphorylated on tyrosine residues upon incubation of the cells with an antibody directed against the epitope tag, suggesting that rse encodes an active tyrosine kinase. In the human tissues we examined, the highest level of expression of rse mRNA was observed in the brain; rse mRNA was also detected in the premegakaryocytopoietic cell lines CMK11-5 and Dami. The gene for rse was localized to human chromosome 15.

  2. Research on Heating Problem of Rotary Kiln Axle Tile Care%回转窑托轮轴瓦发热问题的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    和春梅; 杨晓杰; 罗玉银

    2011-01-01

    The rotary kiln, as the "heart" equipment of cement production, often appears the phenomenon of tile prop shaft heat in the using process,which lead to the low efficiency of rotary kiln.This article analyzes the main causes of heating problem of the rotary kiln tile axle from the two aspects of the lubrication and load distribution condition, and proposes the appropriate preventive measures.%回转窑作为水泥生产时的"心脏"设备,在使用过程中常常出现托轮轴瓦发热的现象,这是导致回转窑工作效率降低的最直接和最普遍的问题.本文主要从润滑状态和载荷分布情况与两个方面,分析了回转窑托轮轴瓦发热的主要原因,并指出了相应的预防措施.

  3. Characterization of Gas6, a member of the superfamily of G domain-containing proteins, as a ligand for Rse and Axl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, M R; Chen, J; Hammonds, R G; Sadick, M; Godowsk, P J

    1996-04-19

    Rse, Ax1, and c-Mer comprise a family of cell adhesion molecule-related tyrosine kinase receptors. Human Gas6 was recently shown to act as a ligand for both human Rse (Godowski et al., 1995) and human Ax1 (Varnum et al., 1995). Gas6 contains an NH2-terminal Gla domain followed by four epidermal growth factor-like repeats and tandem globular (G) domains. The G domains are related to those found in sex hormone-binding globulin and to those utilized by laminin and agrin for binding to the dystroglycan complex. A series of Gas6 variants were tested for their ability to bind to Rse and Ax1. The Gla domain and epidermal growth factor-like repeats were not required for receptor binding, as deletion variants of Gas6 which lacked these domains bound to the extracellular domains of both Rse and Axl. A deletion variant of Gas6 containing just the G domain region was shown to activate Rse phosphorylation. These results provide evidence that G domains can act as signaling molecules by activating transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinases. Furthermore, they provide a structural link between the activation of cell adhesion related receptors and the control of cell growth and differentiation by the G domain-containing superfamily of proteins.

  4. Design and optimization of I-beam precision roll forging process for heavy truck front axle%某重卡前轴工字梁辊锻成形工艺设计及优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张黎; 文琍; 夏江梅

    2012-01-01

    The under-filling defect of the I-beam, one of the typical defects on a heavy truck front axle in the precision roll forging process and die forging process was studied Firstly, the design of the precision roll forging process for the I-beam of the front axle was described. Then, the finite element numerical simulation analysis model was established with Deform-3D, and the influence of the thickness on the I-beam in the third step and the friction factor in the third and fourth step on filling percent of the die cavity was analyzed. Lastly, optimization for the precision roll forging process of the heavy truck front axle was finished. The optimized simulation results show that the I-beam forms well and can be filled fully to meet the requirements of design drawings.%针对某重卡前轴成形辊锻-模锻复合工艺中的典型缺陷——工字梁部位充不满展开研究.介绍了重卡前轴工字梁在辊锻成形工艺中各道次的孔型设计,通过Defoem-3D建立了有限元数值模拟分析模型,研究了第3道次预辊锻成形中工字梁壁厚和第3、4道次中摩擦因子对模具型腔填充率的影响规律,最后完成了重卡前轴工字梁在辊锻成形中的优化设计.优化后的模拟结果表明,工字梁成形良好、填充饱满,满足图纸设计要求.

  5. Subjective evaluation experiments for minicar's rear axle driving gear%某微型汽车后桥驱动齿轮噪声的主观评价实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田锐

    2011-01-01

    The rear axle driving gear is the main component of the vehicle driving axle, and noise is one of the main specifications for it. In this paper, the minicar's rear axle bevel gear produced by a factory in Guangdong is taken as a noise source, and the noise generated under the steady-state operation is the object of the experimental study, the paired comparison method is used for noise evaluation training and the scoring method for noise subjective evaluation expe-riments. Combining the objective noise parameters to conduct the subjective and objective sample correlation analysis shows that for the equal SPL gear noise, the greater the loudness value, the lower the people's preference extent. So, in addition to actively taking measures to reduce gear sound pressure level, reducing the loudness value is also an important approach to improving gear noise.%汽车后桥驱动齿轮是汽车驱动桥的主要部件,噪声是其主要指标之一.以广东某汽车后桥齿轮厂的微型汽车后桥锥齿轮为噪声源,采集其稳态运行情况下的噪声作为研究对象,以成对比较法进行噪声评价训练,采用等级评分法进行噪声的主观评价实验,结合噪声样本的客观参数进行主客观相关分析,说明在等声压级的齿轮噪声中,响度值越大的,人们对其偏好性越低,因此除积极采取措施降低齿轮声压级以外,降低响度值亦是改善价齿轮噪声的重要途径.

  6. 基于DEFORM和正交试验法的前轴辊锻工艺优化%Research on optimization of front-axle roll forging technique based on DEFORM-3D and orthogonal experimental method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏科; 王高潮; 李宁; 王志录

    2012-01-01

    正交试验主要用于解决科研和生产中多因素、多水平的问题,运用正交试验法可以在减少试验次数的情况下获得最佳的参数组合,可有效节约人力、物力和时间.在DEFORM-3D有限元数值模拟过程中应用正交试验优化设计方法,对前轴制坯辊锻模具弹簧座截面的圆角值、辊锻模具角速度、摩擦因子及坯料初始温度四因素、三水平问题,进行前轴制坯辊锻模具结构及工艺优化研究,分析影响前轴辊锻成形过程中最大成形载荷的因素,研究结果有利于前轴辊锻模具结构及工艺的优化,而且可有效提高辊锻模具的使用寿命.%The structure of front axle roll forging die and the roll forging process were optimized based on orthogonal experimental design method, using DEF0RM-3D software in finite element numerical simulation, adopting three levels and four factors, the latter including the fillet values of the spring seat section of the front axle roll forging die, the angular velocity of the roll forging die, the friction factor and the initial temperature of billets. The effecting factors of maximal forming load in the roll forging process of front axle were analyzed. The results can also increase the service life of roll forging die.

  7. Application Research on Virtual Assembly of Tractor's Front Drive Axle%拖拉机前驱动桥虚拟装配应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹文钢; 程五四; 宋军

    2011-01-01

    在分析和总结了虚拟装配技术研究现状的基础上,阐述了其原理,实施步骤以及关键技术的应用,并以拖拉机前驱动桥为虚拟装配对象,在计算机虚拟装配环境(Division Mockup)中装配并进行相应的装配检验,介绍生成装配序列与装配路径,并制作成装配动画的步骤,形象地展现产品的装配全过程.在(Division Mockup)中,以第三方插件为桥梁,借助由数据手套、位置跟踪器(FOB)、偏振眼镜和投影系统组建的虚拟现实环境,可以实现入机交互操作,并介绍了人机交互接口定义的规则和方法.%This paper analyzes and summarizes the current status of the virtual assembly technology research and elaborates its principle and implementing process. By taking the tractor's front drive axle as an object, a virtual assembly and its corresponding inspection is conducted in the computer virtual environment (Division Mockup). The generation assembly orders and routes are introduced. The procedure of assembly animation is set up to vividly exhibit the whole process of product assembly. By virtue of the third-party plug-in units and the virtual reality environment consisting of data gloves, polarization glasses, projection system, and position tracker (FOB), human-computer interaction can be achieved in Division Mockup. The rules and methods of human-computer interaction interface definitions are introduced as well.

  8. Ride comfort optimization of a multi-axle heavy motorized wheel dump truck based on virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bian Gong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of hydro-pneumatic suspension parameters of a multi-axle heavy motorized wheel dump truck is carried out based on virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging model in this article. The root mean square of vertical vibration acceleration, in the center of sprung mass, is assigned as the optimization objective. The constraints are the natural frequency, the working stroke, and the dynamic load of wheels. The suspension structure for the truck is the adjustable hydro-pneumatic suspension with ideal vehicle nonlinear characteristics, integrated with elastic and damping elements. Also, the hydraulic systems of two adjacent hydro-pneumatic suspension are interconnected. Considering the high complexity of the engineering model, a novel kind of meta-model called virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging is proposed in this article. The interpolation principle and the construction of virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging model were elucidated. Being different from traditional Kriging, virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging combines the respective advantages of actual test and Computer Aided Engineering simulation. Based on the virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging model, the optimization results, obtained by experimental verification, showed significant improvement in the ride comfort by 12.48% for front suspension and 11.79% for rear suspension. Compared with traditional Kriging, the optimization effect was improved by 3.05% and 3.38% respectively. Virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging provides an effective way to approach the optimal solution for the optimization of high-complexity engineering problems.

  9. Design on the Reversible Horizontal Axle Plate Ditching Machine%可换向水平轴圆盘开沟机的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭辉; 苏刚; 韩长杰

    2013-01-01

    Based on the development status of ditching machine , especially for the rotating disc ditching machine , we de-sign this type of reversible horizontal axle plate ditching machine .The machine can overcome the weakness of the tradi-tional rotating disc offset ditching machine .Through prototype trial and test , the result is favorable and meets the require-ments of the design .The ditching machine has added a new type of equipment for the orchard .The ditching machine has the characteristic of flexible working in the orchard .The problem on the traditional machine has been resolved .%  针对开沟机特别是旋转圆盘式开沟机的发展现状,设计了一种可换向式水平轴圆盘开沟机。该机能够克服传统旋转圆盘式开沟机只能单侧开沟的不足,并对其关键工作部件进行了全面的设计。通过样机的试制和试验,效果良好,达到了设计的各项要求,为果园作业又增添了新型机具。可换向式开沟机具有灵活的特点,能够在果园环境工作,弥补了传统机具这方面的不足。

  10. 采用移轴技术在SAP5程序实现刚体模态计算%Using the technology of moving the axle to compute the pattern of rigid body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施群德

    2001-01-01

    Elaborates how to use the technology of moving the axle to compute the pattern of rigid body,introduces this technology into the program SAP5 and realizes the calculation of the pattern of rigid body.%论述了如何采用移轴技术实现对刚体模态的计算,并将移轴求刚体模态的技术引入著名的SAP5程序中,实现了对刚体模态的计算。

  11. 前桥摆转式四轮底盘转向系统的转向机理研究%Research on the Steering Theory of Front Axle Swing Sowing Four-wheel Chassis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕莹; 张静; 李志伟

    2016-01-01

    四轮底盘在小地块水田作业时,减少地头空行转弯时间是提高作业时间利用率的重要环节。为实现四轮底盘小半径转弯,以提高水田播插底盘作业率为主要研究目标,对四轮底盘在90°、180°等不同转弯形式下进行分析,得出适合小地块水稻播插作业时以较小转弯半径的转弯方式;前桥摆转四轮底盘在转向时,通过控制前桥驱动轮的转动,使前驱动桥主动围绕着转向装置转动,可以带动底盘以任意角度转向。采用ADAMS软件对四轮底盘后轮轨迹进行模拟,在确保后轮完全不吃入已完成作业区的倒U转弯方式的情况下,提出设计前桥摆转式四轮底盘转向系统的可行性。%Four-wheel chassis when working in a small piece of paddy field, reduce blank line turning time is an important link in work utilization rate operation time. In this paper, in order to realize four-wheel chassis small turning radius, increase the paddy field on chassis operation efficiency as the main research target, 90°, 180° in the four-wheel chassis under different forms of turning modeling analysis, and concluded that suitable turning way of smaller turning radius for small plot rice sowing operations ; When the front axle Swing four-wheel chassis steering, By controlling the rotation of the front drive axle, to the front drive axle can rotate active around the steering device, and drive the chassis steering in an arbitrary Angle; Through ADAMS soft-ware for simulating four-wheel chassis rear wheel track, and ensuring the rear wheels do not enter that the as-signments section has been completed, put forward to design front axle pendulum type four-wheel chassis steer-ing system operability.

  12. Light Weight Design and Analysis on Monocoque Coach with Whole Front Axle%整体前桥全承载车型轻量化设计与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈乐强; 房继刚; 王淑丽; 许夏

    2014-01-01

    The authors simulate a monocoque coach with whole front axle by the CAE method in order to effectively reduce its weight under the condition of its bearing capacity. At the same time, the authors analyse the reliability and security of the steering gear fixture especially to the light weitht structure.%利用CAE仿真技术对公司某整体前桥全承载车型进行轻量化设计,为保证转向的安全性、可靠性,对减重后的转向安装结构进行单独分析。

  13. 桥壳中段同轴度测量装置的结构设计%The Structure Design of Concentricity Measurement Device for the Middle Casting Shell of Axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡士祥

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracy and effectiveness of measurement for the middle cast axle we use special measuring equipment for onsite measurement , and control important characteristics of the product . Through deep analysis of the structure and measurement requirements for the product , we find solutions to multi-point probe structure , probe point protection and fast switching devices among different products , which guarantees the middle cast axle to be measured onsite based on the device ,and also makes a creative exploration for the dynamic control of the product's quality .%为提高铸造桥壳中段测量精度和测量效率,文中提出采用专用测量设备实现在线测量,动态控制产品重要特性指标。通过对产品结构和测量要求的深入分析,找出了测量装置设计中多点测头、测头防护、多品种快速切换装置等技术难点的解决方案,实现了铸造桥壳中段基于该装置实时在线测量,为桥壳中段的动态质量控制做出了创造性的探索。

  14. 艺术铸造领域CNC机器人七轴加工设备用于石膏模型雕塑%Application of CNC Robot Seven-axle Working Equipment to Carving Gypsum Mold in Art Casting Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡春良

    2016-01-01

    CNC robot seven-axle working equipment consists of a power-driven main shaft controlled by the robot, an automatic programming software and a software used for controlling manipulator operation, and makes it possible to realize automatic carving of a complex stereometric moulding. The special equipment used in carving gypsum mould by the CNC robot seven-axle working equipment allow large-scale sculpture templating technology to obtain signiifcant progress.%CNC机器人七轴加工设备由一个工业机器人控制电动主轴、多轴自动编程软件和用于控制机械手运行的软件组合而成,可实现复杂立体造型的自动化雕刻加工。CNC机器人七轴加工雕塑石膏模型专用设备,实现了艺术铸造大型雕塑放样的一大跨越。

  15. The Optimization Design of Steering Trapezium Frame for A double front axles truck%某双前桥载货车转向梯形机构优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊伟; 王定华; 李海波

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the turning angles relationship of the internal and exernal wheels in the first axle was gotten in analytic method. And the optimization equations were established by the length of steering trapezium armm and steering trapezium cornerθ. Then the program about the optimization of steering trapezium structure was written with MATLAB and emulated for the steering trapezium of double front axle truck. The result was improved obviously after optimization.%文章采用解析法推导了前桥内外轮之间的转角关系,并以梯形臂长 m,梯形底角θ为优化变量建立优化方程,最后并应用MATLAB软件编制了“转向梯形机构优化设计”程序,对某双前桥载货车转向梯形进行了优化,优化结果显示优化效果明显,达到了设计目的。

  16. Failure Forms and Restoration Methods of the Automotive Front Axle Roll Forging Die%汽车前轴辊锻模的失效形式与修复方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪强; 姬程程; 夏华

    2012-01-01

    The automotive front axle roll forging die works in severe conditions and its stress state is more complex. Based on the consideration of materials selection, structural design, manufacturing process, heat treatment procedure as well as the installation and maintenance of the mould, the analysis of the causes of the automotive front axle roll forging die's main failure forms (fracture, wear, deformation, and so on) is introduced, and the improvement measures and restoration methods are proposed correspondingly.%从材料的选择、结构设计、制造工艺、热处理工艺以及模具的安装维护等方面分析汽车前轴辊锻模的主要失效形式(断裂、磨损、变形等)产生的原因,并提出相应的改进措施和修复方法。

  17. Analysis on the Residual Braking Performance of Multi-axle Vehicles Based on ECE Regulation%基于ECE法规的多轴汽车剩余制动性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童成前; 何仁; 周燕; 高树新

    2011-01-01

    根据ECE制动法规对行车制动失效条件下的多轴汽车剩余制动性能的要求,提出基于ECE制动法规的多轴汽车剩余制动性能分析方法,包括理论分析和试验验证.在理论分析中,最大减速度采用作图分析方法求得.最后,通过实例来说明本方法的分析过程.结果表明:该方法简单、实用.%According to the requirements of residual braking performance of multi-axle vehicles in the event of service braking failure specified in ECE regulation, an analysis method of residual braking performance of multi-axle vehicles based on ECE regulation is proposed, including theoretical analysis and test verification. In theoretical analysis,the maximum deceleration is evaluated by mapping. Finally,the method is illustrated by an analysis on a real case. The results indicate that the method is simple and practical.

  18. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYROTAXANES MADE FROM α-CDs THREADED ONTO TRIBLOCK COPOLYMERS WITH PEG AS A CENTRAL AXLE AND FLANKED BY TWO LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT POLYSTYRENES AS OUTER STOPPERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-ming Tong; Dan-dan Hou; Xiao-wen Zhang; Lin Ye; Ai-ying Zhang; Zeng-guo Feng

    2008-01-01

    A study has been conducted on the synthesis and characterization of a kind of novel polyrotaxanes comprising α cyclodextrins (α-CDs) threaded on triblock copolymers with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as a central axle and flanked by two low molecular weight polystyrenes as outer stoppers.Styrene was allowed to telomerize with polypseudorotaxanes as chain transfer agents made from the self-assembly of a distal thiol-capped PEG with a varying amount of α-CDs in the presence of a redox initiation system at 40℃ in aqueous solutions.The resulting polyrotaxanes were characterized in detail by 1H-NMR,FTIR,XRD,TG and DSC analyses.The findings from the study demonstrated that the low molecular weight polystyrenes were successfully attached to two axle terminals of polypseudorotaxanes,and the number of α-CDs threaded onto the PEG backbone was tunable by varying its molar feeding ratio to some extent,while the polymerization degree of PS nearly remained constant in this radical telomerization process.

  19. Estimation of Automobile Front/rear Axle Cornering Stiffness Based on the Adaptive FFRLS%基于自适应FFRLS的汽车前后轴侧偏刚度估计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王其东; 黄鹤; 陈无畏; 张荣芸

    2012-01-01

    汽车前、后轴侧偏刚度与汽车的操纵特性紧密联系,是汽车动力学控制中的重要参数.受轮胎特性变化的影响,在汽车使用中线性侧偏刚度发生变化.针对传统估计方法不利于在量产汽车上应用的问题,在车载传感器配置的基础上,提出应用自适应遗忘因子递推最小二乘方法(Forgetting-factor recursive least square method,FFRLS)的前、后轴线性侧偏刚度估计方法.设计出在制动工况下对轮胎特性变化具有鲁棒特性的侧向速度观测方法,由此计算估计模型中的前、后轴侧偏角.提出并应用最大侧向力计算估计模型中的前、后轴侧向力.通过设定合适的估计触发条件实现基于工况的在线参数估计.基于veDYNA的仿真结果表明在轮胎侧偏刚度突变时自适应FFRLS方法相比普通FFRLS方法参数能够更快地收敛.最后在驾驶员在环混合仿真平台环境下,针对触发条件受限的工况通过实时仿真验证了估计算法的有效性.%Front/rear axle cornering stiffness coefficient is an important parameter in automobile dynamic control system, which is linked closely with automobile maneuverability. In the real world front/rear axle linear cornering stiffness often changes with the tire properties. To overcome the deficiencies of the traditional method in the estimation of linear cornering stiffness for wide-spread application, a method based on adaptive forgetting-factor recursive Least square(FFRLS) is proposed to estimate this parameter in which only common sensors in modern automobiles are used. A lateral velocity estimation method with the robustness of tire properties is given, which is further used to calculate axle sideslip angle. Maximum lateral force is proposed and applied in the computation of axle lateral force. Some adequate toggle conditions are set to identify front/rear axle linear cornering stiffness. Simulation results based on veDYNA show that adaptive FFRLS has better

  20. 压痕对车轴钢疲劳极限的影响%Indentation effect on the fatigue limit of axle steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高杰维; 戴光泽; 赵君文; 李恒奎; 徐磊

    2016-01-01

    A hardness tester was used to make indentations on the hourglass fatigue specimens of axle steel, and notches were machined by electronic discharge machining ( EDM) . The fatigue limits of both indentation specimens and notched ones were exam-ined and compared with the theoretical values according to the Murakami formula based on material hardness and defect projected area. The fracture surface was observed by scanning electron microscopy. It is found that local work hardening and residual stress caused by plastic deformation of indentations have no significant effect on the fatigue limits in comparison with the predicted values by the Murakami equation. Fatigue cracks originate from the bottom of indentations due to stress concentration effect. The fatigue limits of notched specimens are lower than the calculated values because of secondary notches caused by the high roughness of notch surfaces and the existence of microcracks and micropores within the re-cast layers. Cracks initiate from multiple sites on the bottom of electronic discharge machining notches.%利用硬度计在光滑沙漏状车轴钢疲劳试样上制造压痕,同时利用电火花在试样上加工缺陷,通过疲劳试验研究两种缺陷尺寸与试样疲劳极限之间的关系。将两类试样的测试结果和基于材料硬度、缺陷投影面积的Murakami模型计算结果进行对比。利用扫描电镜观察试样疲劳断口。结果表明,与计算结果相比较,压痕局部塑性变形导致的加工硬化和残余应力对试样的疲劳强度没有影响,裂纹依然从应力集中最大的压痕底部起裂。电火花缺陷表面粗糙度较大引起二次缺口效应,表面硬脆的重铸白层上还有微孔和微裂纹存在,导致此类试样疲劳强度低于模型计算结果,裂纹从电火花缺口底部多处萌生。

  1. Analysis on handing stability of three-axle vehicle based on fuzzy grey correlation%基于模糊灰色关联的三轴汽车操纵稳定性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 赵亮

    2015-01-01

    为研究三轴汽车各轴主要悬架K & C特性对操纵稳定性的影响程度,在考虑三轴汽车轴荷分配和侧倾力矩作用下左、右车轮垂直载荷重新分配的基础上,建立了基于悬架K & C特性参数的三轴汽车三自由度动力学模型。并以该模型为基础,采用模糊隶属度余弦值和欧氏距离公式建立三轴汽车悬架K & C特性模糊灰色关联分析模型,对影响三轴汽车稳态响应特性的主要悬架 K & C特性的重要性程度进行了模糊灰色关联度分析。结果表明:车速为15 km/h时,对于稳态响应阶段的侧倾角、横摆角速度和侧向加速度,各影响因素模糊灰色关联度排序皆为 R4> R2> R3> R1> R6> R5;对于质心侧偏角,R5(β)> R6(β)> R1(β)> R2(β)> R3(β)> R4(β)。同理可得车速为35 km/h和55 km/h时各个影响因素模糊灰色关联度排序。从而可以得出:三轴汽车各轴悬架K & C特性参数中,前桥侧倾转向特性对稳态响应阶段的侧倾角、横摆角速度、侧向加速度影响最大;中、后桥侧倾转向特性对质心侧偏角影响较大,且两者相差不大。%In order to study the influencing degree of main suspension K & C characteristic param‐eters on handling stability ,a 3‐DOF dynamic model of three‐axle vehicle based on its suspension K & C characteristic parameters was established with considering of the axle load distribution of three‐axle vehicle and reallocation of vertical load on both sides of wheels under roll torque .Mo‐reover ,on the basis of the 3‐DOF model ,fuzzy grey correlation analysis model based on main suspension K & C characteristic parameters of three‐axle vehicle was established using the cosine value of fuzzy membership and Euclidean distance formula to make fuzzy grey correlation analysis on the influencing degree of main suspension K & C characteristic parameters on steady‐state re

  2. Parametric Aided Design System of Axle Based on AutoCAD VBA%基于AutoCAD VBA的参数化辅助轴设计系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏

    2014-01-01

    Based on the AutoCAD ActiveX and VBA technology, a kind of parametric aided design system of axle is developed through carrying out the secondary development on AutoCAD. It could complete the axle’s design checking to the theory of axle’s strength. And it would generate the drawing of the axle automatically according to the users’ inputted parameters. In order to realize the automation of the process of axle’ s aided design, structural design, data processing and inquiring, mechanical calculation, strength checking and parametric drawing modules are integrated to axle aided design system, which based on the theory of solid modeling of feature and the technology of dimension-driving. The system can reduce the workload of designers effectively, improve design quality and efficiency, and have certain applicable value.%基于AutoCAD ActiveX和VBA技术,通过对AutoCAD进行二次开发,构建了一种轴的参数化辅助设计系统。系统能按照用户输入的相关参数,根据轴的强度校核理论完成轴的设计工作,最终自动生成零件图。为了实现轴的辅助设计流程的自动化,系统集成了结构设计、数据处理与查询、力学计算、强度校核和参数化绘图等模块,同时,利用基于特征实体造型理论和参数化尺寸驱动技术进行系统的开发。该系统可有效减少设计人员的工作量、提高设计质量和设计效率,具有一定的应用价值。

  3. The Wheel and the Axle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall McLuhan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Touch is the resonant interval or frontier of change and process, and is indispensable for the study of technological effects. Interface is the basis of the relationship between the visual and acoustic space. Much of present-day confusion and ferment stems from the divergent experience of the Western literate man on the one hand, and his new surroundings of simultaneous and acoustic knowledge on the other. Part of this problem stems from an inadequate understanding of the nature of the archetype. An archetype has both an overt and hidden side (figure and ground. The tetrad reveals both. The hidden effects of any archetypal situation are the aspects that truly shape our behavior. Many academic fields of inquiry have been stymied by a misunderstanding of how visual and acoustic space relate to the notions of the diachronic and synchronic. This confusion mirrors the whole disjointedness of Western education, which emphasizes left-brain over right-brain cognition, and which may be traced back to the works of both Plato and Aristotle. The tetradic analysis corrects this imbalance.

  4. D3.5-2型两驱玉米收获机驱动桥设计%Design of Drive Axle of Type D3.5-2 Two Drives Corn Harvesting Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许颖

    2014-01-01

    Harvest operation is the important process in corn production, it urgently needs to reach mechanization. This article analyzes the problems of domestic existing corn harvesting machine, provides optimal design of dive axle of two drivs corn harvesting machine, of-fers theoretical basis for the development of 3 lines joint corn harvesting machinery.%收获作业是玉米生产过程中的重要环节,亟需实现机械化作业。针对国内现有玉米收获机械存在的问题,提出两驱玉米收获机驱动桥的优化设计方案,为3行联合玉米收获机械的研制提供理论基础。

  5. 基于HyperWorks的某轻型汽车前桥有限元分析及疲劳寿命预测%Finite Element Analysis and Prediction on Fatigue Life of Front Axle of a light Vehicle Based on HyperWorks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔振海; 王良模; 荣如松; 王国林; 宋怀兰

    2013-01-01

    Front axle is one of the important components which is connected with body and wheels. Its intensity reliablity decides the vehicle safety. Finite element analysis on the front axle of a light vehicle by CAE method was carried out here. The FEA model of front axle was established by taking CHEXA and CTETRA as basic units after model was simplified and imported to Hypermesh. The knuckle pin was simulated by bar element which had beam property. A nalysis of four typical working conditions were carried out by using RADIOSS as solver. The results show that the maximum stress of the front axle are no more than material yield strength in four conditions, and its minimum fatigue life is 994,000 times which satisfies the fatigue requirements, and also verifies the design is correct.%前桥是连接车身与车轮的重要部件,其强度是否可靠直接决定整车的安全性.应用CAE分析方法对某轻型汽车前桥进行有限元分析和疲劳寿命分析.将前桥的三维实体模型进行简化,导入Hypermesh中建立以CHEXA和CTETRA为基本单元的有限元模型,利用具有梁属性的bar单元模拟主销连接,并以RADIOSS为求解器进行前桥的强度和疲劳分析.结果表明,前桥在四种典型工况下最大应力均未超过材料屈服强度,其最低疲劳寿命为99.4万次,满足疲劳寿命的要求,验证了设计的合理性.

  6. 重型车湿式桥非线性传动能量流耗分析%Analyzing on Nonlinear Transmission Energy Flows and Loss for the Wet Axle in the Heavy Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘升; 孙冬野; 秦大同

    2015-01-01

    重型车湿式桥传动系统能量流动与损耗研究是车辆经济性、安全性及动力性的基础。现有研究主要简单分析单工况下齿轮箱的能量损耗,缺乏复杂工况下基于人车路的传动系统能量流耗精细综合研究。针对典型重型车辆循环作业下的湿式桥传动系统能量流耗进行综合分析,建立不同能量损耗类型的数学模型。考虑车辆循环作业能量流耗影响因素,基于键合图理论分析总成及系统能量流耗情况后,建立整个传动系统的能量流耗模型。此动力学模型与实车试验数据结合不但可以研究一般工况下的人车路湿式桥非线性能量流耗,还可以分析驱动滑转、制动滑移、转弯、轮荷及重心转移等复杂工况,这为今后研究和精确实车复杂工况下的能量流耗情况提供了一套可行的方法。%The study on transmission energy flows and loss for the wet axle in the heavy vehicle are the base of economy, security, power performance of vehicle. The existing researches focus on gear box energy loss under simple operating model, and the fine comprehensive study of transmission system energy flows and loss based on diver vehicle road under complicated operating model is scarce. The energy flows and loss of transmission system in wet axle under typical cycle operation of heavy vehicle are analyzed, and the mathematical models of different energy loss style are built. The influencing factors of energy flows and loss under vehicle cycle operating are considered, after the assemblies and system energy flows and loss are analyzed based on bond graph theory, the total transmission system energy flows and loss models are built in the end. The nonlinear energy flows and loss in wet axle on driver vehicle road under general operating model can be analyzed on the combination of this dynamic model with vehicle experimental data, even under complicated operating model as drive slipping, brake

  7. Analysis of Lateral Stability Control Strategy of Three-axle Steering Vehicles%三轴转向车辆侧向稳定性控制策略分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李耀旭; 王云超; 冯培锋

    2013-01-01

    According to the established linear 2 - DOF dynamics model of three - axle steering vehicle, the relationships between dynamic parameters and longitudinal displacement of vehicle turning center were deduced based on zero vehicle sideslip angle control. By considering the conditions of lateral stability of whole vehicles and analyzing the influences of longitudinal displacement of turning center on the lateral stability and turning mobility of whole vehicles , the formulas of the critical value of longitudinal displacement of vehicle turning center and transition angle of first axle were obtained. On the basis of the conditions of lateral stability and the conditions of applicable vehicle sideslip angle, zero vehicle sideslip angle dispatching control strategy was proposed. The main characteristic parameters of the two control methods were compared by quantitative analysis using MATLAB, and the results demonstrate the consistency with that of the theoretical analysis.%关于汽车转向稳定性能优化问题,根据三轴转向车辆线性二自由度动力学模型,推导了基于质心零侧偏角控制策略的三轴转向车辆各动力学参数与转向中心纵向位移的关系;结合整车侧向稳定性条件,通过分析转向中心纵向位移对整车侧向稳定性和转向灵活性的影响,得出了转向中心纵向位移临界值和前轮过渡角的表示公式;根据整车侧向稳定性条件和适度质心侧偏角条件,提出了质心零侧偏角调度控制策略;利用MATLAB对质心零侧偏角控制策略和质心零侧偏角调度控制策略进行了定量对比分析,结果证明理论分析的一致性.

  8. A Study on the Fatigue Life of Hub Bearings in Front Steering Axle of a Heavy Duty Truck%重型载货汽车转向前桥轮毂轴承疲劳寿命的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国权; 张红松; 张良城

    2012-01-01

    为揭示重型载货汽车转向前桥轮毂轴承寿命不长的原因,制定了轮毂轴承寿命分析的汽车行驶工况,确定了相应的载荷谱.以Lundberg-Palmgren和Ioannidis-Harris轴承寿命理论为依据,用Romax软件建立了轮毂轴承疲劳寿命分析模型,计算了7.5t转向前桥额定载荷时轮毂轴承的疲劳寿命和损伤率.结果表明,轮毂内轴承满足设计要求,但轮毂外轴承均不满足设计要求.其中寿命最短的右侧轮毂外轴承,内、外国有明显的错位,滚子承载不均匀,内圈挡肩上轴向载荷的合力方向偏离旋转轴线,产生弯曲力矩,内、外圈存在严重的应力集中.%To reveal the reason for the short life of hub bearings in the front steering axle of a heavy duty truck, the vehicle driving conditions for hub bearing life analysis is worked out with their corresponding load spectra defined. Based on Lundberg-Palmgren and Ioannidis-Harris bearing life theories, a fatigue life analysis model for hub bearings is established with Romax software, and the fatigue life and the damage rate of hub bearings in a 7. 5 t front steering axle under rated loading conditions are calculated. The results show that the inner bearing in inner wheel hub meets the design requirements, but the bearings in outer wheel hub don't. Among them the bearing in right outer wheel hub has the shortest life, and there is apparent misalignment between its inner and outer rings with uneven roller loads. Moreover, the direction of resultant force of axial loads acting on inner ring rib deviates from rotating axis, generating bending moment and causing severe stress concentration in both inner and outer rings.

  9. Study and Application of Repair Technology in Rear Axle Housing in Mining Truck%矿用汽车后桥壳体修复工艺的探索及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖丽安; 刘圣林

    2012-01-01

    针对矿用汽车后桥壳体修复工艺中存在的焊接材料和焊机不易选择、焊件表面较难清理干净、坡口形式与裂缝尺寸不匹配、焊接工艺处理不当等疑难问题,提出了选用低氢钠型碱性焊条及直流逆变焊机等解决方案。经用户使用检验,修复后的车辆连续运行30000km以上均未出现异常,节约了维修成本。%Regarding the problem of choose equipment, surface clearing, groove type and mismatch of the size and technique treatment in the repairing of rear axle housing in mining truck, the solution of low hydrogen sodium alkaline electrode and dc arc welding inverter was put forward. After test by customer, there no problem accuring in the running of 30 000 km, and the maintenance cost was saved.

  10. 某型载货汽车前桥横拉杆断裂失效模式分析%A type of truck front axle tie rod fracture failure mode analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张传业

    2012-01-01

    因某型轻型载货汽车前桥转向横拉杆连续出现断裂现象,需要分析其断裂模式和原因,提出改进措施和方法。通过建立零件三维模型,导入ansys中进行仿真,并与计算结果进行比较。结果计算与仿真结果与文中假设的失效模式一致。最终得出应力集中是导致该故障发生的主要原因,根据文中的提出的改进方法进行实施后,问题得到解决。%for a certain type of light truck front axle steering tie rod continuous cracking, needs the analysis of its fracture mode and reason, put forward the improvement measures and methods. Through the establishment of three-dimensional part model, through ANSYS simulation, and the results were compared with. The results of calculation and simulation results and the failure mode consistent hypothesis. Finally obtains the stress concentration is the main cause of the fault, according to the proposed method implemented, problems to be resolved.

  11. 基于蒙特卡罗方法的汽车双前桥转向机构稳健分析%Robust Analysis on Double-front-axle Steering Mechanism based on Monte Carlo Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董恩国; 张蕾; 关志伟

    2012-01-01

    Robustness on double-front-axle steering mechanism of a heavy truck is analyzed with Monte Carlo method. The optimum objectives are the minimum steering angle error of each steering trapezoid mechanism and middle connection mechanism. The design variables are the structure parameters of 13 on steering trapezoid mechanism and middle connection mechanism. The constraint condition is steering angle error and dimension limit constrain. Secondly, the result robustness attained by certainty optimum method is analyzed with Monte Carlo method.%应用蒙特卡罗方法对某重型汽车双前桥六杆转向机构进行了稳健性能分析.以前、后桥转向梯形机构转角以及中间摇臂转角误差最小为优化目标,以转向梯形机构、中间摇臂的13个结构参数为设计变量,以各机构的转角误差、尺寸限制等为约束条件建立双前桥转向机构数学模型;应用蒙特卡罗方法分析了采用确定性优化方法所得结果的稳健性能.

  12. Design of Steering System of Three-axle Trailer based on Proportional Control%基于比例控制的某三轴挂车转向系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊啟要; 徐伟

    2013-01-01

    A four-wheel turning of three-axle trailer was researched,model car of linear two degrees of freedom four-wheel turning and gains of steady state yaw velocity of that were derived.The results of steady state computing and optimi zation showed that good turning characters can be reached on the condition of reasonable control of all distance between axes arrangement and steering angle proportion of front and back wheel.%对某三轴挂车四轮转向系统的特性进行了研究,推导出其线性二自由度四轮转向汽车模型和稳态横摆角速度增益.稳态计算和优化结果表明,只要各轴间距布置合理及前后轮转向角比例控制合理,就能使该四轮转向系统达到较优的转向性能.

  13. Study on Numerical Simulation of Hot Extrusion Process of Automobile's Hollow Front Axle%汽车前桥空心短轴的热挤压成形工艺数值模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦国强; 管延锦; 朱立华; 解振东; 孙德朋

    2016-01-01

    A hot extrusion process was proposed to improve the productivity and the material utilization in the manufacture of automobile's hollow front axle . Numerical simulations under various conditions designed by the orthogonal method were done to optimize parameters of the final step of hot extrusion process . Finally the production efficiency , material utilization and product quality were improved and the optimal shaping quality was achieved .%针对某汽车前桥短轴类零件成形制造中存在的生产效率和材料利用率低的问题,提出并设计了热挤压成形制造工艺。通过正交法设计多组参数条件进行数值模拟,实现了热挤压终成形工步的工艺参数优化,获得了最优的成形效果,达到了提高生产效率、材料利用率以及零件质量的目标。

  14. Values of Dual Front Axle Card Before Binding Instrument Based on Dynamic Adjustment Sensor%基于力传感动态调整仪的双前轴重卡前束值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏渊; 史智理; 张瑞斌; 王双峰

    2015-01-01

    文章通过应用力传感动态调整仪采集双前桥重型卡车前轮在转动状态下的受力情况,从而用来验证车辆在实际行驶中前束设计值的合理性。通过对某车型大量数据采集并分析验证,得出车辆的合理前束值,为车辆的前束值设计提供依据。%By dynamically adjusting the application force sensing instrument collects double-front-axle steering heavy truck wheel rotational state in the forces, which is used to verify the reasonableness of the vehicle in real driving toe design values. Based on a large amount of data collection and analysis model verification, the reasonable value of the vehicle before the beam, provide the basis for the design of the vehicle front toe.

  15. 汽车后桥从动齿轮断齿和齿面损伤失效分析%Fatigue Analysis of Tooth Surface Damage and Fracture for Rear Axle Passive Gear of Truck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红霞; 杨明; 位立刚

    2011-01-01

    采用宏观微观形貌观察、化学成分分析、金相检验、硬度测试和有效硬化层深测量等方法对失效的齿轮进行了分析.结果表明:齿轮失效因为在于齿轮齿根部有较深的切削沟槽,导致齿根部应力加大,形成裂纹源,并产生高周疲劳引起齿根部断裂,进而波及其他齿产生断裂和剥落;用户在使用时也存在齿轮润滑油选用不当等问题.%In order to find out the reason for the rear axle passive gear being failure, the macro characteristics,micro-morphology, microstructure of the damaged teeth were observed and analyzed The composition, hardness and carburized layer depth were measured The results show that the failure reason of passive gear is because the gear bottom has cutting groove in cool work, which leads to the high stress and high cycle fatigue crack, causing the start tooth broken, and thus getting other teeth broken The less important problem is that the lubricating oil of gear is unwise.

  16. Lightweight Design of A Heavy Axle Itousing Based on Topology Optimization%基于拓扑优化的某重型车桥桥壳轻量化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁炜琦; 孙超

    2011-01-01

    对某重型车桥桥壳在设计工况下的静强度性能进行了有限元分析,并对该桥壳结构进行了轻量化设计。采用拓扑优化方法,以初始设计作为优化的基结构,以重量最轻为目标函数,以结构的静强度性能为约束条件,进行了优化迭代计算。轻量化设计后,减轻了桥壳的重量,且轻量化结构满足强度要求。%Finite element analysis was performed on the static strength properties under design conditions of a heavy axle housing, and lightweight design was performed. Using topology optimization method, iterative calculations for optimization were performed, the original design was taken as the base structure of optimization, the lightest weight was taken as the objective function, the structural static strength properties was taken as the constraints. After the lightweight design, the housing weight was reduced, and the lightweight structure met strength requirements

  17. 主动悬架与多桥转向混合控制器的设计与仿真分析%Design and simulation of hybrid controller of active suspension and multi-axle steering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欢; 高秀华; 杨铭; 杨圣印; 陈建凯

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the handling stability and the ride performance of multi-axle vehicle, through building a 5+2n degree of freedom multi-axle vehicle dynamic model, a LQG controller was designed. According to the simulation test, the responses of active suspension vehicle and passive suspension vehicle to the performance index of the step signal at low and high speed were analyzed and compared. Results of the analysis indicated that the peak side angle decreased by 0.03 rad, the peak vehicle yaw rate, by 0.1 rad/s, the peak rolling angle, by 0.015 rad, the peak pitching angle, by 0.015 rad, the peak vehicle vertical acceleration, by 0.3 m/s2 and the peak tire dynamic displacement, by 0.009 m, comparing active suspension vehicle with passive suspension vehicle at low-speed. At high-speed, the peak of performance indexes above respectively decreased by 0.095 rad, 0.4 rad/s, 0.075 rad, 0.09 rad, 2.1 m/s2 and 0.018 m. The handling stability and the ride performance of active suspension vehicle are improved significantly comparing with passive suspension vehicle.%为了改善多桥车辆操纵稳定性和行驶平顺性,通过建立多桥车辆的5+2n自由度动力学模型,设计了主动悬架与多桥转向线性系统二次型最优控制(LQG)综合控制器.通过仿真试验,对比分析了采用与不采用综合控制器2种情况下,多桥车辆不同车速下对阶跃信号的各项性能指标的响应.结果表明:低速情况下,采用综合控制器较不采用控制器的多桥车辆侧偏角峰值减小0.03 rad、横摆角速度峰值减小0.1 rad/s、车身侧倾角峰值减小0.015 rad、俯仰角峰值减小0.015 rad、车身垂直加速度峰值减小0.3 m/s2、轮胎动位移峰值减小0.009 m:高速情况下,以上各性能指标峰值分别减小0.095 rad、0.4 rad/s、0.075 rad、0.09 rad、2.1 m/s2、0.018 m.多桥车辆采用综合控制器相对于不采用控制器时的操纵稳定性和行驶平顺性都有显著改善.

  18. Experimental Study on Tribological Property of Nano-Grease for High-Speed Railway Axle Box Bearings%高速铁路轴箱轴承纳米润滑脂摩擦学性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹延经; 何强; 杨立芳; 王世峰; 牛青波

    2015-01-01

    以WS2和Si3 N4纳米颗粒作为高速客车轴箱轴承润滑脂添加剂,依据完全析因试验方案,合成了高速客车轴箱轴承纳米润滑脂。采用四球摩擦磨损试验机对其抗磨减摩和抗极压性能进行了研究,使用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)分析了钢球磨斑表面形貌,运用双因素方差分析法探究了WS2-Si3 N4复合纳米颗粒对纳米润滑脂润滑性能影响。研究表明:当WS2添加量为1.5%,Si3 N4添加量为0.1%时,合成的纳米润滑脂PB 值最大,摩擦因数最低,钢球磨斑形貌平整光滑;WS2和Si3 N4纳米颗粒均可提高纳米润滑脂的润滑性能,对复合纳米润滑脂润滑性能的提高交互作用显著。%The WS2 and Si3 N4 nanoparticles are used as additives in lubricating grease of axle box bearings for high-speed passenger cars,the nano-grease of axle box bearings for high-speed passenger cars is synthesized based on full factorial experiment scheme.Its anti-wear,friction-reduction and anti-extreme pressure properties are investigated by using four ball friction and wear tester.The surface morphology of wear scar on steel balls is analyzed by using SEM, the effects of complex nano-particles of WS2 and Si3 N4 on lubricating properties of nano-grease are investigated by u-sing double factors variance analysis method.The results show that the PB value for synthetic nano -grease is maxi-mum,the friction coefficient is minimum,and the surface morphology of wear scar on steel balls is flat and smooth when adding 1.5%WS2 and 0.1%Si3 N4.The WS2 and Si3 N4 nano-particles improve lubricating properties of nano-grease,which have significantly interaction for improving lubricating properties of complex nano-grease.

  19. 带平衡悬架三轴商用车多目标联合优化%Multi-objective optimization for tri-axle vehicle with tandem suspension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凌阳; 张云清; 付文奎; 覃刚

    2012-01-01

    推导了带平衡悬架三轴商用车的平顺性和操纵稳定性运动方程,采用半车模型分析平顺性,采用三自由度模型分析操纵稳定性.选取10个优化变量,并运用社区培养遗传算法(NCGA)对各模型进行了多目标优化,用蛛网图法将10个Pareto有效解直观地表示出来.根据目标极值法、目标均衡法、理想值法、单目标最优法这4种不同的设计需求标准,从10个Pareto有效解中筛选出4种不同的优化方案,有效地提高了整车的平顺性和操纵稳定性.%Both motion equations describing ride and handling characteristics of tri-axle commercial ve- hicle with tandem suspension were derived respectively. Half-vehicle model was used to analyze ride. 3-DOF model was used to analyze handling. 10 parameters were chosen and NCGA (neighborhood cultivation genetic algorithm) was selected to optimize the commercial vehicle. 10 pareto solutions were shown straightforwardly by spider graph and according to different design requirements, 4 dif- ferent design schemes were proposed, which greatly improve the ride and handling characteristic of the full vehicle.

  20. 用试验方法分析轿车后桥在运输过程中的损伤%Analysis of the Damage of Rear Axle of a Car during Its Land Transportation by Using Test Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鋐; 冯展辉; 周炜

    2001-01-01

    In accordance with the phenomena that the bolts connecting the rear axle and the break back plate of a car become loose or broken during its transportation by a land vehicle, a static test of a car-transport vehicle system is made to study the influence of the tied conditions between the car and the transport vehicle and the up and down motion of the car on the forces exerted on the bolts. Combined with the results of the static test, a dynamic test of the car is also made on an indoor road simulate rig to analyze the possible factors effecting the damage of the bolts. Some workable suggestions as to avoid the damage of the bolts during transportation are offered.%针对轿车在运输过程中出现后桥与制动器底板联接螺栓松动与断裂的损伤现象,通过静态试验了解捆绑安装情况以及车身运动对联接螺栓受力的影响,并采用室内道路模拟设备,通过动态试验在室内台架上模拟该轿车的运输工况,同时结合静态试验来分析产生这种损伤现象的可能因素,为避免这种情况的发生提出合理的建议。

  1. The tight fit analyses of drive axle housing of self-dumping truck%运用接触分析的自卸车驱动桥壳过盈公差分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 雷刚; 孙永刚

    2011-01-01

    The nonlinear software Marc is adapted to study in detail for the tight fit of heavy truck driving axle housing. Firstly the analysis is applied on the tight fit under different outer load and the interference closure, these two factors are acted on the housing singularly or together, the effect of every factor to the housing is studied; on the base of this, the reliable range of the interference closure is assured; according to priority tolerance choosing principle, the dimension tolerance is redesigned in the reliable interference closure of FEA result to make the interference closure safety.%针对重型车驱动桥壳的过盈接触问题,采用非线性有限元软件MSC.Marc对其进行较为详细的研究.首先分别就外部载荷和过盈量变化对过盈接触的影响做出分析,用这两种影响非线性的因素单独或组合作用于整个桥壳模型,研究每个因素对过盈配合处接触应力的影响;在此基础上,确定了桥壳安全配合过盈量的合理区间;在有限元结果的合理过盈量区间内,依据优先配合原则,重新设计配合公差,使过盈昔在安全的区间内.

  2. 基于数值模拟的前轴辊锻件精确成形的研究与应用%Research and application of front-axle forging precision forming based on numerical simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏科; 王高潮; 王志录; 陈小杰; 徐学春

    2012-01-01

    根据辊锻设计要求,论述了汽车前轴辊锻件的弹簧座截面、工字型截面、两端拳头截面各道次变化规律;在各道次变化过程中,依据各截面的尺寸参数变化对辊锻模具进行精确设计并选择合理的坯料,以保证坯料能够充满模具型槽.应用Deform-3D软件对辊锻模具模型进行模拟分析,模拟结果与实际生产结果相吻合,进一步验证了辊锻模具设计的准确性和可靠性.该文的论述对前轴辊锻模具的精确设计及辊锻件的生产提供了理论参考依据.%According to the roll-forging design requirements, the changing rule of roll-foging's spring section, H-shaped cross section and fist section ends was discussed. In each step change process, according to the cross-section's parameters, the roll forging die could be precisely designed, meanwhile, the reasonable billet was selected to ensure that the die cavity could be fully filled. Then, Deform-3D finite element simulation software was used to analyze the roll forging process. The simulation results coincided with the actual production results, which further validate the accuracy and reliability of the roll forging die design. The results provide theoretical guidance on the front axle roll forging die and roll forging precision design.

  3. Aplicación de Prácticas de Manufactura Esbelta y Tecnología de Simulación Dentro del Proceso de Administración del Ciclo de Vida del Producto Caso de Estudio: Dana Heavy Axle México

    OpenAIRE

    de la Cerda Ramos, Sara C.

    2004-01-01

    El propósito de este proyecto de Tesis es poner en práctica conceptos y principios de la Manufactura Esbelta aplicados a un proyecto de Administración del Ciclo de Vida de Producto, utilizando una mejor práctica que es la simulación, todo esto aterrizado a un caso de estudio en la empresa Dana Heavy Axle México, específicamente en la planta Monterrey. Como objetivo es analizar una línea de producción y definir los cambios apropiados para aumentar la capacidad de producción usando DELMIA (Módu...

  4. Design and engineering structure analysis on paddy-field chassis steering drive axle with standard all-wheel-drive%标准四驱水田自走底盘转向驱动桥设计与工程结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宏新; 郑利双; 徐高伟; 王晨

    2015-01-01

    In the main grain crop production in China, comprehensive mechanization level for paddy field is the lowest. At the same time, there exists the“bottleneck”problem of“bottleneck”problem such as rice planting mechanization. In the case of transplanter, although we have grasped the core technology of key components, overall machinery can not be popularized and applied due to lack of the support of cost-effective chassis. At present, in Chinese market, most of chassis are imported from Japan and South Korea, which widely use hydraulic transmission and variable speed technology. Because paddy planting operation has the characteristics of stable load and constant speed, using hydraulic transmission and continuous variable device causes low efficiency and has no much practical significance, and meanwhile, the demand for the power increases from 9 to 13 and even 15 kw. Northeast Agricultural University has designed a standard all-wheel drive light paddy self-propelled chassis with diesel-power and mechanical transmission for this situation, whose most prominent shape feature is that four wheels have same size and the front axle is different from any existing paddy field chassis structure. The chassis has the advantages of high transmission efficiency, large torque reserve, anti-sink capacity, dynamic stabilization, and good performance of crossing the earth bank between the paddy fields. As a transmission part, steering drive axle not only is a carrier installed, but also needs to bear the weight of chassis and the effect of impulsive load, and have the function of deflection wheel, and hence its structure is more complex than the traditional shell. The operating environment of paddy field chassis is harsher than general vehicle, which has stricter requirement of sludge, subsidence, bank and over load on axle. So, engineering analysis of structural design process is particularly important, however, conventional theoretical analysis and calculation method can not

  5. 某重型卡车前轴成形辊锻工艺设计与优化%Design and optimization of the precision roll forging on a heavy truck front axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周杰; 柳豪; 刘旭光; 万煦义; 佘科能

    2012-01-01

    针对某牌号重型卡车前轴锻件成形辊锻、模锻工艺调试中遇到的典型缺陷——工字梁充填不满开展研究,基于前期某锻造公司大量的生产调试数据和有限元分析软件,建立了前轴成形辊锻、模锻有限元分析模型;在此基础上,研究了工字梁充填不饱满缺陷的产生机理,重点分析了第3道次模具工字梁型腔部位的3个关键参数宽度B3、圆角R3、斜度A3对成形质量的影响规律,重新设计了前3道次辊锻模具工字梁部位孔型和尺寸,并完成了辊锻模具制造。生产结果表明,工字梁部位充填饱满,产品尺寸合格。基于数值模拟的设计方法有效增加了模具设计的准确程度,减少了模具修改次数,缩短了调试周期,保证了最终产品的质量。%The under-filling defect of I-beam in a heavy truck front axle which occurs in the process debugging of the precision roll-forging and die-forging is studied.Finite element models of precision roll-forging and die-forging are established based on FEM software and the previous productive results.Then,the mechanism of the under-filing defect in I-beam is studied.And the effects of the three variables including width B,radius R and slope A of I-beam in the third step on the forging quality are investigated.In addition,the roll-forging die constructions for I-beam in previous three steps are redesigned and manufactured.The productive results show that I-beam can be fully filled,the debugging cycle is reduced significantly and the products quality is guaranteed.

  6. 基于模糊自适应PID控制器的多轴车辆转向控制系统设计及仿真%Design of Multi-axle Vehicle Steering Control System and Simulation Based on Fuzzy Adaptive PID Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文桂林; 韩汪利; 周兵

    2011-01-01

    A 2-DOF model of the five-axle all terrain crane with some simplifications is proposed, and based on the assumption of zero side-slip angle of mass center and the proportional control strategy, the function relating the angles of the rear and the front axles. and the velocity are derived. With some simplifications with respect to the proportional valve and the cylinder, a mathematical model of the steering system in Matlab/Simulink is established. In order to overcome the weakness of the traditional PID controller, a fuzzy adaptive PID controller of the rear axle steering angle is built in Matlab by using its fuzzy logic control toolbox. Through the real-time determination of the PID parameters, a high control precision is achieved. A steady state correring simulation is carried out under 25km/h, and the comparison of the simulation and theoretical values shows that fhe fuzzy adaptive PID controller works well, with quick system response and good following peformance.%通过对多轴转向车辆数学模型进行简化,获得某型号五轴全路面起重机的二自由度操纵动力学模型,并基于零质心侧偏角控制策略推导出各后轮转角与前轮转角及车速的函数关系.在对比例阀和转向执行机构(液压缸)进行简化的基础上,在Matlab/Simulink中建立了转向系统完整的数学模型.为克服传统PID控制器的缺点,基于Matlab模糊逻辑控制模块建立了转向系统模糊自适应PID控制器,对PID控制器各个控制参数进行在线整定,以此获得较高的控制精度.以25km/h速度下稳态回转试验对该控制器进行仿真验证.经过仿真分析后发现,该模糊控制器取得很好的效果,系统响应迅速,跟随性好,完全能满足控制需要.

  7. Laboratory Based Axle Lubricant Efficiency Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    cycle. From there the current gear ratio of the transmission was used to calculate the output torque and speed leaving the transmission. The torque ... gear ratio at speed, S TTransOut = Estimated transmission output torque at speed, S STransOut = Transmission output speed and engine speed...were the engine speed, engine load at speed, transmission gear , transmission output shaft speed, vehicle speed, and the torque converter lockup

  8. 轴重30t重载列车作用下新黄土区隧道适应性及强化措施研究%Adaptability and strengthening research of 30 t axle heavy haul railway tunnel in new loess area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘聪; 彭立敏; 雷明锋; 施成华

    2016-01-01

    Based on the typical tunnel structure of Menghua railway which is still under construction,a numerical study was performed,mainly focusing on the dynamic response,fatigue life and strengthening measures of loess heavy haul rail-way tunnel.The results show that:with an increase of axle load and railway freight transport volume,the existing railway tunnel cannot meet the long-term safety requirement without strengthening measures.The adaptability of loess heavy haul railway tunnel cannot be improved effectively by using sole systematic bolt,system anchoring bolt combined with ground treatment should be adopted (the length should reach to 4 m or more).Then the safety operation requirement of the heavy haul train can be satisfied.The research indicates that the centre of secondary lining of inverted arch,and sidewall and inverted arch joint of initial support are the most unfavorable load positions of the tunnel's bottom structures under the ac-tion of 30 t axle heavy haul train.In order to satisfy the 100 a safety design service life of tunnel structures under the op-eration of 30 t axle heavy haul train,the upper-limit fatigue strength of initial and secondary lining of new loess tunnel were deduced,which are 1.30 MPa and 1.62 MPa,respectively.The results can provide reference for present design of heavy haul tunnel structures.%以在建的蒙华铁路典型隧道结构型式为基础,针对新黄土区重载铁路隧道结构动力响应、疲劳寿命以及合理强化措施等问题,采用数值模拟的方法进行研究.结果表明:随着轴重和运量的增加,既有铁路隧道无法满足30 t轴重列车长期安全运营的要求,应采取强化措施.而单一的系统锚杆注浆加固强化能力有限,须采用系统锚杆与隧底地基加固(加固深度4 m及其以上)的联合强化措施方能满足其疲劳寿命要求.通过研究,指出30 t轴重列车荷载作用下隧底结构疲劳易损位置,即二次衬砌仰拱中心、初期支护仰

  9. Design and Research on Heavy-Haul Railway Turnout for 75 kg/m Rail with 30 t Axle Load Used in Central and Southern Shanxi Railway%山西中南部铁路30 t轴重75 kg/m钢轨重载道岔设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东风

    2014-01-01

    30t轴重重载运输是货物运输的主要发展方向之一。结合山西中南部铁路的建设,前期研究开发了30t轴重60kg/m钢轨12号、18号重载道岔,经在既有线上道试验,总体使用效果良好。但根据目前的相关技术标准,30t轴重重载线路应使用75kg/m钢轨,为此有必要研究开发75kg/m钢轨重载道岔。简要介绍75kg/m钢轨12号、18号重载道岔的研究设计,包括平面线型及结构设计,通过增大导曲线半径、尖轨加宽技术,设置轨撑、采用镶嵌式合金钢组合辙叉和高锰钢组合辙叉(爆炸硬化)等优化道岔结构设计,经动力学仿真分析研究表明:75kg/m钢轨重载道岔的结构部件位移及加速度均低于标准限值,并且能够满足行车安全性要求。%Heavy-haul railway transportation with 30 t axle load is one of the main development directions for goods transportation. In the early days, combining with the construction of Central and Southern Shanxi Railway, we had researched and developed the heavy-haul railway turnout No. 12 and No. 18 for 60 kg/m rail with 30 t axle load;and by means of field test on existing railway lines it could be seen that the overall application effect had been good. But according to the current technical standards, the heavy-haul railway of 30t axle load should be with 75 kg/m steel rail. So it is necessary to research and develop heavy-haul railway turnout for 75 kg/m rail. In this study, the research and design of the heavy-haul railway turnout No. 12 and No. 18 for 75 kg/m rail were introduced, including the horizontal geometric shape and structure design. Meanwhile, some technical measures were employed to optimize the structure design of this turnout, such as increasing the radius of derived curve, widening the switch rail, installing the rail brace, using inlaid alloy steel composite frog, as well as using high manganese steel frog ( explosion hardening) , and so on. The result of analysis and research of

  10. Desenvolvimento de metodologia para previsão do fenômeno de vibrações decorrentes da interferência entre eixos de um trator com tração dianteira auxiliar (TDA Development of methodology to predict power hop of the axle interference of a front wheel assist tractor (FWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Schlosser

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi desenvolvido um ensaio de campo com o objetivo de avaliar as condições da ocorrência do fenômeno do "galope" do trator, que consiste em vibrações de baixa freqüência e grande amplitude. Este fenômeno físico é muito comum nos tratores de tração integral, principalmente nos que possuem pneus de diferentes diâmetros no eixo dianteiro e traseiro. Para provocar o "galope", determinaram-se diferentes condições de distribuição de peso, pressão interna dos pneus e da magnitude da carga na barra de tração. Ao final dos ensaios, determinaram-se as condições de ocorrência do fenômeno por meio de uma metodologia bastante simples em função dos raios dos pneus. O método utilizado para a determinação das condições de ocorrência do galope foi plenamente satisfatório, pois pôde prever com bastante precisão as condições em que iria ocorrer o fenômeno.A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the conditions for the appeareance of the power hope phenomenon. It consists in low frequency vibrations and great amplitude. This physical phenomenon is very common in FWA tractors, mainly with unequal tires diameter in front and rear axle. To promote power hope, different weight distribution conditions, different tire pressure and different drawbar force were used. Power hope occurence conditions were determined using simple methodology, which uses tire radio in the calculations.

  11. Optimization of Front Axle Suspension System of Articulated Dump Truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Thomas Heegaard; Christensen, Brian B.; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.

    2010-01-01

    of the hydraulic accumulators and the initial gas pressure as well as the size of the damping orifices. The design criteria has been the comfort as evaluated from the typical work cycle with a number of side constraints such as availability of components, available space, collision avoidance and design rules given...

  12. Accelerated Life Test Design for Tractor Powertrain Front Axle

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated Life Test (ALT) has been applied in the manufacturing for many years due to rapid changing technologies, more complex products, speedier product development, and more demanding customer requirements. These reasons have pushed the manufacturers to acquire reliability information faster. ALT allows reducing the time needed to show the reliability of the product. The purpose of this study is to design accelerated life testing which involved determination of normal test time, accelera...

  13. Determination of design axle loads for bridges from measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.; Morales Napoles, O.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the new Eurocode 1 was introduced dealing with traffic load on bridges. In order to establish the National Annex for the design traffic load, measurements of the traffic load were carried out in several highways in The Netherlands using the Weigh In Motion system. The goal was to assure th

  14. Analysis of the nonlinear dynamics of a 2-axle freight wagon in curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Gialleonardo, Egidio; Bruni, Stefano; True, Hans

    2014-01-01

    and bifurcations are identified for some particular values of the curve radius. For the single car case, it is shown that depending on the curve radius and the vehicle speed the carbody may experience severe periodic oscillations at speeds lying in the operating range of the vehicle. For the car-assembly case...

  15. Fatigue of bridges with a horizontal rotation axle under random wind load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The operating mechanisms of movable bridges are subjected to various types of fluctuating loads which may induce fatigue damage. Wind load acting on the bridge deck - when the bridge is open - is one of the important load types. A wind load model is proposed that can be used in the fatigue design ve

  16. Dynamic Axle Loads as a Main Source of Railway Track Degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, M.J.M.M.; De Jong, E.; Zoeteman, A.

    2015-01-01

    During train operation, geometrical irregularities develop in soil-supported ballasted railway tracks as a function of born tonnage. This form of degradation is combatted by periodic maintenance in the form of tamping by specially equipped trains in order to guarantee predefined levels of structural

  17. Development of an Army Stationary Axle Efficiency Test Stand - Interim Report TFLRF No. 471

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    2012 - See Phillips 66 Deltaven S.A. Planta Distribucion PDVSA Yagua Via Variante Barbula Distribuidor Yagua Valencia Estado Carabobo Venezuela 31-Jul-15...PRI GL 0428 Translub EP SAE 80W-90 Deltaven S.A. Planta Distribucion PDVSA Yagua Via Variante Barbula Distribuidor Yagua Valencia Estado Carabobo

  18. Effect on Service Life of Axles by the knock,Scratch and Rust of Axle Journals%轴颈碰划伤和锈蚀对车轴使用寿命的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜新春

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1 问题 在对客车轮对的检修中,经常会发现轴颈碰伤、磕伤、划伤和锈蚀情况.青岛车辆段1999年11月-2001年11月的轮对入厂记录显示,2年中发送车轮工厂施修的轮对共298条,其中,轴颈碰磕、划伤21条,轴颈严重锈蚀20条,合计41条,占2年入厂施修轮对总数的13.8%.

  19. Design of integrative wheels and axles sideslip tester for double-front-axle steering automobile%双前轴转向汽车轮间与轴间侧滑量一体化检测合设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧云; 苏建

    2008-01-01

    为解决现有侧滑台无法检测双前轴转向汽车轴间侧滑量的现状,应用Solidworks平台设计了能同时检测轮间与轴间侧滑量的一体化检验台.试验表明:该侧滑台能够完成对双前轴转向汽车轴间侧滑量的检测.受检车辆的轴间侧滑量为4.2m/km,为汽车性能的评价提供了依据.

  20. Reliability design of mono-leaf spring for front-axle suspension of large-sized trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savaidis, G. [Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering (Greece); Schwaiger, F. [MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Munich (Germany); Momiyama, F.; Yamazumi, T.; Muramatsu, K. [Horikiri Inc., Chiba-Pref. (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    This paper deals with the development of a fatigue-accurate suspension system for large-sized trucks based on mono-leaf steel springs, It shows the fulfillment of the demands for lightweight construction, sufficient fatigue life and fail-safe behaviour. The paper contains the fatigue load assumptions used for the non-linear finite-element stress-strain analysis, the experimental verification by means of measured load, stress and strain data determined by driving quasi-static manoeuvres and over various rough road segments with a prototype vehicle, as well as the experimental uniaxial and multiaxial fatigue tests required for the durability approval. The fatigue lives achieved, confirm the adequate service life of the developed spring. In addition, appropriate vehicle tests on a test track with a custom-made mono-leaf spring system confirmed the fail-safe design of the suspension system. (orig.)

  1. Force analysis and design of bus front axle%客车前桥受力分析及设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温述波

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 前言 随着公路交通的发展和人民生活水平的提高,人们对乘用车的安全性、承载能力等方面提出了更高的要求.前桥做为汽车底盘的关键部件,其在实现汽车转向、制动以及支撑等诸方面起着至关重要的作用.因此,做好汽车前桥产品的设计开发,才能不断满足汽车底盘的要求.这里对前桥的主要功能、受力分析和设计计算等方面进行初步的探讨.

  2. Design of Die Forging of Heavy Truck Front Axle%重型卡车前轴模锻设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许淑珍; 田晨

    2006-01-01

    整体模锻汽车前轴已在各厂家普遍使用,但对于100kg以上的重型卡车前轴,其生产中还存在诸多问题,如弯曲、扭曲、充不满等.本文分析了其模锻工艺,设计了锤锻模和切边模.

  3. Non-contacting fluid ring seal systems for railcar axle bearing systems: Fifth quarterly report, June 16, 1988--September 15, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-10-01

    During this fifth quarter the evaluation of D-size fluid ring sealed roller bearing assemblies was completed with the evaluation of seal configuration MT 3008 and 3016, 3016a and 3016b (different static contact seal concepts), when exposed to intensive dust and rain storms generated within an enclosure surrounding the nondriven side of test rig /number sign/3 over the entire speed range from 0 to 1220 RPM bearing test speed. During the test rig /number sign/3 shake down test runs it became apparent that the intensity of the dust and rain storms surrounding the fluid ring sealed bearing end within the ''mini'' climate chamber could be appropriately observed through small windows at 12:00 and 6:00 o'clock provided in the endwall of the ''mini-climate'' chamber, rig /number sign/3 was accordingly modified and the dust and rain exposure tests were conducted at numerous levels of severity. 6 figs.

  4. Non-contacting fluid ring seal systems for railcar axle bearing systems: Quarterly progress report No. 3, December 16, 1987-March 15, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    One test rig was completed, and a FR seal prototype test was initiated. No leaks of grease were detected. A used ''D'' sized lip seal was evaluated. New FR seals are being designed. 6 figs. (DLC)

  5. 平行轴行星齿轮变速器结构与仿真%Structure and simulation for Parallel-axle planetary transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史炎

    2015-01-01

    本文提出一种新型自动变速器,动力由行星齿轮输出端通过一对相互啮合的圆柱齿轮传递到输出轴,控制制动器换挡。基于SIMPACK软件平台,建立变速器的仿真模型,依据仿真模型对车辆的起动、换挡动态性能进行仿真。仿真结果表明,此变速器起动时扭矩增长可控,换挡过程动力不中断。%Proposed a new type of automatic transmission, power transmission from the output of the planetary gear to the output shaft by a pair of output terminals of cylindrical gears meshing with each other, Shift control by Brake. SIMPACK software used to establish transmission simulation model, based on the simulation model of the vehicle starting, shifting dynamics simulation. The simulation results show that this increase starting torque transmission is easy to control, power shifting process is not interrupted.

  6. 重型货车驱动桥壳的静力学分析%Static Analysis on Heavy Truck Drive Axle Housing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丰元; 刘长磊; 刘超

    2013-01-01

    对重型货车驱动桥壳进行了强度计算、有限元仿真分析和试验验证,得出驱动桥壳的应力和变形分布.该驱动桥壳具有足够的静强度和刚度,满足设计要求.有限元仿真分析具有高的经济性和实用性,并为汽车驱动桥的强度评价及疲劳寿命估算提供了相关数据.

  7. 驱动桥信息化设计系统框架研究%Driving axle information design system sketch research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周群辉; 王丰元; 马浩; 杨朝会

    2007-01-01

    为改善驱动桥传统的设计方式,采用CAD/CAE集成技术和新型数据信息交换方法,以CAD/CAE软件为开发平台,数据库为数据管理工具,完成驱动桥的三维设计、有限元分析、动力学仿真和二维工程图样智能化的生成,最终实现驱动桥设计分析制造的虚拟化和一体化.

  8. Retrofit of Connector of Axle with High Temperature Butterfly Valve%高温蝶阀阀轴连接键结构改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁亚; 孙艳萍; 张元元

    2012-01-01

    重油催化裂化装置高温蝶阀是烟气轮机入口管线上控制高温烟气流量的重要设备,本文对高温蝶阀存在的问题进行了分析,并通过对高温蝶阀转轴与阀板的连接键进行结构改造,解决了高温蝶阀因阀板变形而导致的密封失效问题,节约了检修时间及费用.%High temperature butterfly valve of the heavy oil catalytic cracker is the important equipment that controling high temperature flue gas flow with inlet line of flue gas turbine.The problems of seal failure on high temperature butterfly valve was analyzed, and the problem was solved through retrofiting of connection key. The transformation save repairing time of expense.

  9. The improvements of tongs for boring lute hole of rear-axle housing%后桥壳镗琵琶孔夹具的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲力戈

    2005-01-01

    原汽车后桥壳镗琵琶孔夹具的两端顶尖只能对单一尺寸的后桥壳进行定位,现对原夹具顶尖进行改进设计,改为组合式顶尖,加工不同型号的后桥壳时,可随时更换与之对应的顶尖,简单、灵活、方便、适用范围广.

  10. 基于μCOS-II技术的考勤机设计%Design based on ethernet in axle tracing management terminal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文虎; 杨峰

    2014-01-01

    Designed a attendance system terminal which used a STM32 microprocessor as the core. On the hardware side, the terminal includes the STM32F207 minimum system, Ethernet communication unit, SD card storage unit, ID card recognition unit, video unit, TFT LCD touch unit, detection and control unit and power supply circuit. On the software side, the terminal is embedded a real-time operating system (μC/OS-Ⅱ), the the the lightweight IP protocol stack(LWIP) and a graphical user interface (μC/GUI). On the one hand, the terminal corresponding to the ID card information stored in document form to the local SD card for the query; The other hand, the information is transmitted via Ethernet, and the host computer handles the attendance statistics, which garanteed the efficiency, fairness and truthfulness. Used the Keil MDK and the dragon STM32F207 development board to do the simulation experiment, these futrues make the terminal working reliable, transmissing stable and facing friendly, and basicly realized the attendence function.%基于STM32系列微处理器的考勤系统终端,硬件包括STM32F207最小系统、以太网通信单元、SD卡存储单元、ID卡识别单元、摄像单元、TFT液晶触摸单元、检测及控制单元及电源供电电路;软件嵌入了实时操作系统μC/OS-Ⅱ、LWIP轻型IP协议栈及用户图形界面μC/GUI.终端采取无源ID卡识别与头像数据采集同步进行的方式记录员工的出勤情况,一方面将与 ID 卡对应的头像信息以文件形式保存至本地 SD 卡,以供查询;另一方面将信息通过以太网传送至上位机,并由上位机完成考勤统计.利用Keil MDK软件及金龙STM32F207开发板实验仿真表明:终端运行可靠,传输稳定,操作界面友好,实现了设计功能.

  11. Study on cracks of axle-hang box for SS7 locomotive%SS7机车抱轴箱体裂纹研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张运伟; 封全保; 杨俊杰

    2005-01-01

    介绍抱轴箱体的结构特征和运行情况.利用有限元法对SS7型电力机车抱轴箱体3种结构的静强度做对比分析,证实了局部几何性应力集中对过早裂损的影响;利用电镜扫描技术对裂纹进行分析,结果表明抱轴箱体的裂纹断口特征相近,裂纹性质属于多源性低周疲劳裂纹,铸件中的夹杂、气孔等内部缺陷是导致过早裂损的主要原因.

  12. Front axle structure design and analysis of wheel-mounted paver%轮胎式摊铺机前桥设计浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振权; 李林; 陆国栋; 管辉

    2013-01-01

    @@%轮胎式摊铺机前桥结构设计一直是整机的难点和重点,结构的好坏直接影响整机的性能.本文主要从轮胎的选用,前后轮转向角计算,转向油缸安装位置和三点悬浮地盘结构四方面进行分析探讨,力求找出最优化设计方案,提高整机的性能和稳定性,延长零部件的使用寿命.

  13. Research on the Special Drill Jig Design of Automobile Front Axle%汽车前轴专用钻床夹具的设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段小锋; 刘耀松; 王宪; 郑贺

    2016-01-01

    针对某汽车前轴两端钻孔大小不一且无法保证对称性而造成次品率较高的问题,设计了一种专用钻床夹具.其采用一面两销的定位和绞链夹紧机构,并对加工精度进行了理论研究计算.结果表明,该设计满足使用要求且在大批量生产中能够获得较高的精度和生产效率.

  14. Optimization design of reliability of automobile front-axle%汽车前轴的可靠性优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张义民; 贺向东; 刘巧伶

    2002-01-01

    在基本随机变量的概率特性已知的情况下,应用随机摄动法和约束随机方向法对汽车前轴进行可靠性优化设计,通过计算机程序可以直接实现汽车前轴可靠性优化设计,迅速准确地得到汽车前轴的可靠性优化设计信息.

  15. 9.5吨转向前轴分析设计%Analysis and Design of 9.5T Front Axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙超

    2010-01-01

    通过设计计算和分析,将市场需求转化为公司产品,建立了前轴工字梁、转向节、主销等关键零部件设计计算公式.为今后同类产品的研发积累了一定的经验,提供了一定的思路和方法.

  16. Reliability sensitivity design for front-axle of vehicle%车辆前轴的可靠性灵敏度设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张义民

    2004-01-01

    将可靠性设计理论与灵敏度分析方法相结合,讨论了前轴的可靠性灵敏度设计问题,提出了可靠性灵敏度设计的计算方法,给出了可靠性灵敏度的变化规律,研究了设计参数的改变对前轴可靠性的影响,为前轴的可靠性设计提供了理论依据.

  17. 农用运输车前桥主销后倾角的设计%Front axle kingpin caster angle design of farm transporter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王常清; 王立祥; 锁利君

    2004-01-01

    主要论述了车辆主销后倾角的影响因素,以及在设计阶段中,怎样去保证主销后倾角的值在一定范围内,并提出主销后销角是与车型相关,而不是前桥的一个参数.并由此提出一个简易的主销后倾角测量方法.

  18. Design for a truck's double front axles steering-transmission system%一种载货车双前桥转向机构的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王定华; 李龙银

    2007-01-01

    以总布置为基础选定载货车双前桥转向机构的布置型式,建立转向梯形及摆臂机构的数学模型以及基于转向误差最小的优化模型进行接近真实工作条件的仿真,力求保证载货车双前桥汽车转向轮的运动协调性,以满足双前桥转向的严格要求.

  19. 汽车前轴锻造模具快速设计方法%Fast design method of automobile front axle forging die

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁聪明

    2011-01-01

    为满足产业市场的快速发展,缩短产品开发周期,提高品质,提升设计效率.结合生产实际和锻造模具CAD设计理念,提出锻造模具快速设计方法,增强企业的竞争力.

  20. Automotive Front Axle Roll Forging Precision Performing Step And Groove Design%汽车前轴辊锻精制坯工步及孔型设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金吕; 王高潮

    2005-01-01

    根据汽车前轴锻件的特点、技术条件与要求,分析了前轴辊锻工艺的难点,包括确定辊锻件图,选择毛坯尺寸,确定辊锻道次,典型截面特征孔型设计和延伸分配等.本文以NHR前轴为例,进行了精密辊锻制坯工步及孔型设计的研究,设计出前轴制坯、预成型、终成型辊锻件图.

  1. Sensitivity analysis on reliability of automobile front axle based on NESSUS%基于NESSUS的汽车前桥可靠性灵敏度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周新建; 万正平; 周长国

    2009-01-01

    介绍了结构的设计验算点与可靠性灵敏度分析的基本概念.针对前桥结构参数的随机性,首先在Pro/E中建立了前桥的三维精确模型,利用ANSYS对导入模型进行有限元分析,然后采用了机械零部件和系统的概率分析软件NESSUS对前桥做可靠性分析.在计算过程中可靠度计算软件作为主程序,有限元软件作为子程序被调用.最后得出了前桥结构可靠指标值和各个参数的灵敏度和结构的设计验算点,为前桥的可靠性设计提供了依据.

  2. Model and dynamic simulation analysis of double front axles steering system%双前桥转向系统建模与动态仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨斌久; 郝文权; 甄鹏

    2009-01-01

    简述了多轴转向汽车的转向原理,利用多体动力学软件ADAMS建立了某重型汽车双前桥转向系统动力学模型,并根据设计参数对其进行了仿真分析,得出转向性能评价结论.

  3. A Research on Optimization Design of Double Front Axle Steering Mechanism%双前桥转向机构优化设计方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王阳阳; 靳晓雄; 张代胜

    2006-01-01

    双前桥转向机构包含两个独立的转向梯形机构和双前桥间的转向联动机构-双摇臂系统.文中分析了双前桥转向机构应实现的功能、运动规律和与其它系统可能造成的运动干涉,提出了同时保证双前桥汽车车轮转向时做纯滚动和杆系干涉造成的车轮异常磨损最小的多目标优化设计方法.

  4. DC704前驱动桥的设计要点%Main Points on Designing DC 704 Front Drive Axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝喜斌

    2004-01-01

    大齿集团是我国定点生产拖拉机前驱动桥的厂家.DC 704前驱动桥是专门为匹配中马力(60马力~70马力)拖拉机而设计的.阐述了这种驱动桥的设计思想及要点,概括介绍了主要部件的设计方法与计算.

  5. Research on fatigue life of front axle beam from heavy-duty truck%重型载货汽车前梁疲劳寿命研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 李丽君; 柴山

    2015-01-01

    前梁是汽车转向桥的重要部件之一,近年来其疲劳破坏问题越来越突出.文中应用ANSYS Workbench软件的Fatigue Tool工具,对前梁进行有限元分析,选取第1主应力查看其强度情况;考虑平均应力的影响,进行疲劳寿命分析,并与试验结果进行了对比.确定前梁的危险区域,为其结构改进提供一定的依据.

  6. Design of Steering Mechanism of the Double-front Axle%新型双前桥转向机构的设计开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕召全; 华从波; 杨士钦

    2008-01-01

    利用新的设计方法.对开发的某型双前桥载货汽车的转向机构进行了全新的设计.分别就转向梯形机构和转向摇臂机构进行了理论计算和ADAMS仿真,并对转向特性进行了优化.随后的道路试验证明,新设计的转向机构性能符合要求,新的设计方法值得推广应用.

  7. 三轴拖车平顺性仿真分析%Simulation and Analysis on the Ride Comfort of a Three-axle Tractor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勇; 任卫群; 陈立平

    2007-01-01

    以某三轴拖车为动力学模型,在ADAMS软件的基础上进行二次开发,得到参数化的建模分析软件.建模中考虑钢板弹簧、减振器和橡胶衬套的非线性特性,并以不同的路面输入条件为激励,通过仿真可以得到整车模型上任意位置的动力学参数的分析结果.通过与该车的试验报告比较,验证了该平顺性分析方法的有效性和高效性.

  8. Build-up restoration of the journals of wheelset axles%轮对车轴轴颈的喷涂修复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    В·A·ОКОВИТЫЙ

    2004-01-01

    就经济方面而言,金属喷涂修复工艺可为企业创造巨大的经济效益.文章介绍了用该方法修复内燃机车车轴轴颈的详细过程.同时,还对经修复的车轴进行了装车试验,效果显著.

  9. Study on the life-time of axle journals and axle bushing of the crankshaft and reliability of CA488 engines%CA488型发动机曲轴轴颈轴瓦耐磨寿命及可靠性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范秀红

    2005-01-01

    根据5台CA488型发动机维修过程中实测到的一组数据,运用零件的磨损规律,用数理统计的方法研究了曲轴轴颈与轴瓦磨损配合间隙与其使用寿命的关系,并提出了提高其耐磨寿命的具体措施.

  10. 双前桥转向系统瞬时转动中心理论分析及二轴转角的确定%Instantaneous Turning Center Theory Analysis and the Second Axle Steering Angle Calculation of Dual-front Axle Steering System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛务本; 耿坤龙; 刁锦桥; 谭玉萍

    2006-01-01

    建立了双前桥转向系统瞬时转动中心的数学模型,进行了理论分析和数学公式推导,得出了转动中心位置的一般公式以及一轴、二轴转角关系式.以某车型为例讨论了二轴转角、偏移和转动半径分别在不同双后轴距离处以及一轴不同转角条件下的变化规律.结果表明,瞬时转动中心不在后二轴中心线上,而是相对后二轴中心向后偏移,且偏移量随后二轴轴距增大而增大;前一轴转角对于瞬时转动中心的影响不大.转向半径随着后二轴轴距增大而增大;当一轴转角较小时,转向半径变化很大,当一轴转角最大时转向半径达到最小.

  11. 新一代货车用25 t轴重转向架%The Bogie with the Axle Load of 25 t for Freight Cars of the New Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    В.С.КОССОВ; 邢澍; 陈明资

    2009-01-01

    介绍了全俄机车车辆设计和工艺科学研究院研制的26.B.503型 25 t轴重货车转向架的结构特点,摇枕和侧架的静强度和疲劳试验,以及该转向架装用于敞车的走行运用试验结果.

  12. Bogies with an axle load of 25t for the new generation of freight cars%轴重为25t的新一代货车用转向架

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    В.С.Косов; 谢小海

    2009-01-01

    文章介绍了俄罗斯科研所所研制的新型货车转向架,重点介绍了摇枕、侧架各种情况下的计算、设计和试验过程.同时也介绍了轴箱承载鞍及其弹性元件和弹性旁承,简要介绍了所用材料及其理由.

  13. Analysis on electromagnetic and thermal characteristics for axle-end generator of express freight train%快捷货运列车轴端发电机电磁和热特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张劲; 陆正刚; 孙效杰

    2014-01-01

    对快捷货运列车车载监控系统运行需求进行分析,提出车载轴端发电机的基本参数要求,并通过对样机的试验为后续分析提供参数支持.根据试验所得数据,利用经典理论以及Ansoft和ANSYS等软件计算发电机在不同状态和工况下的磁感应强度、铁损和温升等试验难以精确测定的物理量.电气电磁特性分析的计算结果与之前对样机进行试验所获得的数据吻合得很好,对温升的模拟则精确计算出该电机的热平衡温度.结果表明该轴端发电机可安全应用于快捷货运列车上.

  14. 基于ADVISOR的4轴全轮驱动车辆驱动系统仿真模块的开发%Development of the Drivetrain Simulation Module for 4-axle AWD Vehicle in ADVISOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱诗顺; 王星博; 骆素君; 朱道伟

    2008-01-01

    在研究4轴全轮驱动车辆的动力学特征基础上,对ADVISOR车辆仿真软件系统进行了二次开发,建立了该仿真系统不具备的某4轴全驱特定车型的动力系统仿真模型,并针对几种有代表性的循环行驶工况,利用该模型进行了整车性能的仿真和分析.

  15. The petroleum and its products pipeline network as articulate axle of the social-environmental transformation; A malha dutoviaria de transporte de petroleo e derivados como eixo articulador de transformacao socio-ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Filho, Aluisio Teles [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude; Dias, Janice; Vieira, Roberto Gomes [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The article describes the experience of the area of Social Responsibility in TRANSPETRO, a wholly Brazilian Subsidiary of PETROBRAS, which operates in the field of transport of petroleum, its by-products and gas, by way of oil and gas pipeline networks. Pipeline is the safety option for the transport of these products, but requires monitoring and the permanent management of the use and occupation of the soil and surrounding area. This care does not only depend on the Company as responsibility is much wider. Active participation by the communities affected by the operations is essential, principally in incorporating the rules of occupation and the use of the soil in the land surrounding the strips and the terminals. This participation is justified given that the action of third parties represents a significant proportion (70%) of the irregular situations registered by the Company. Community Relationship Management is one of the principal strategies to increase the safety of the pipelines integrated into the Company's programs of maintenance and operational control. Therefore, a plan of Community Relations has been implanted, focusing on the transformation of values to construct a community culture of co-habitation and co-responsibility for the pipeline land. (author)

  16. 车轴钢超声波探伤缺陷和改锻的研究%Defect Study on Axle steel with Ultrasonic Test and Its Re-forging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟林

    2011-01-01

    Through confirming defect's grade with ultrasonic test, the accuracy of ultrasonic test was improved. The reasonable forging process parameters, such as temperature, deformation amount and stress state, were chosen, so the steel products over the standard request with ultrasonic test were successfully re-forged.%通过检验对超声波探伤发现的缺陷性质进行确定,从而提高了超声波探伤定性的准确性.由此合理选择锻造工艺参教,如温度、变形量、应力状态等,对超声波探伤缺陷超标的钢材进行了成功的改锻.

  17. The Solid Modeling for the Structural Strength of AutomobilesFront Axle Based on ANSYS%基于ANSYS的汽车前桥结构强度实体建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄伟; 项林; 杨钢锋; 何志坚

    2008-01-01

    以某型汽车的前桥结构为例,给出了在ANSYS中建立汽车前桥强度结构模型的过程.首先通过对前桥的结构分析,采用自下而上的建模方法.结合ANSYS命令模式建9-T前桥的强度结构的"壳"模型.

  18. Influences of anvil type parameters on stretching efficiency of axle forgings with arc anvil%弧形砧砧型参数对车轴锻件拔长效率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭波; 易幼平; 何海林

    2014-01-01

    以不同砧型的弧形砧为研究对象,利用Deform-3D有限元模拟软件对车轴锻件的拔长过程进行了数值模拟研究,分析了不同砧型的弧形砧对拔长效率的影响.研究表明:随着弧形砧的圆弧半径R减小、圆弧所对应的圆心角θ增大,拔长效率增加,所需的最大锻造力也增大.相同工况下,使用带预成形段型弧形砧比使用普通弧形砧对设备的吨位要求更低,且能保持较高的拔长效率,适用范围更广.

  19. Numerical simulation study on train axle forgings under different types of anvil%不同型砧下列车轴锻件数值模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙瑞环; 宋建丽; 杜诗文; 张亦工; 赵国栋

    2014-01-01

    车轴倒棱滚圆过程中,合理的砧型结构对于保证锻件质量有重要作用.本文以DEFORM软件为平台,分别利用圆弧砧、平砧两种砧型对方坯倒棱滚圆进行三维数值模拟,比较两种砧型下火车轴倒棱滚圆成形后的尺寸精度和锻件内部应力应变状态;模拟结果表明:圆弧砧倒棱过程中,压下率大于10%后,心部压应力逐渐增大,平砧心部拉应力一直存在;滚圆结束后采用圆弧砧的锻件心部等效应变大于平砧33.3%;从滚圆精度方面分析,圆弧砧滚圆后圆周上测试点方差小于平砧测试点方差,并且平砧滚圆后的锻件平均直径大于理想值1%.说明圆弧砧倒棱滚圆可以得到成形质量和力学性能、精度最佳的火车轴.

  20. How to Minimize Powerlosses in Transmissions,Axles and Steering Systems(Ⅰ)%降低变速器、车桥和转向系统的功率损失(一)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.-J. Joachim; J. B(o)rner; N. Kurz; ZF Friedrichshafen AG

    2012-01-01

    车辆传动系统的最佳设计能够有效降低 CO2 的排放.手动变速器、液力机械变速器、DCT、CVT和混合动力系统等不同的传动系统适用于不同的需求和不同的车辆.通过增加档位和速比范围,发动机可在不降低车辆动力性的前提下燃油经济性更佳.变速器自身的效率可通过采用燃油效率更高的变速器润滑油、改善润滑系统及油泵、优化换档策略和优化齿轮、轴承及密封等得以提高.随着采用能够承受更高负载的轻量化材料和部件,变速器的转矩/质量比大幅提升.在上述领域,未来进一步的改进将集中在新型润滑、材料、部件、制造工艺、成本和用户效益等方面.

  1. 基于Hyper Mesh的商用车驱动桥壳有限元分析%Finite Element Analysis of Drive Axle Housing of Commercial Vehicle based on Hyper Mesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱轶

    2009-01-01

    驱动桥壳是汽车的重要部件之一,应具有足够的强度和刚度.先利用UG建立桥壳的几何模型,然后在Hyper Mesh中进行网格划分、加栽和约束,对驱动桥壳进行有限元分析计算,最后提出改进方案.

  2. 基于ANSYS重型商用车驱动桥壳有限元分析%The finite element analysis for driving axle housing of heavy commercial vehicle based on ANSYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜武华; 李强

    2007-01-01

    驱动桥是汽车中的重要部件,应具有足够的强度和刚度,针对某重型商用车后驱动桥出现局部开裂现象,首先在UG中建立了该桥壳几何模型,然后在Hyper Mesh软件中进行网格划分,最后将其导入到ANSYS有限元分析软件中加载和约束,对该商用车后驱动桥壳进行了有限元分析计算,并提出改进方案.

  3. Research on Workshop Layout Based on Product Structure Trees of Auto Rear Axle%基于产品结构树的汽车后桥车间布置方式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱华炳; 余锋; 唐自玉; 王龙

    2011-01-01

    通过对传统的生产车间布置方法进行研究,提出了一种基于产品结构树的多色集合车间布置方法,建立了车间布局模型并给出了优化目标.最后以某企业厂房布置为例进行了验证,证明了该方法能较大幅度地减小车间物流费用,提高厂房面积利用率,具有很强的实用性,为解决多目标优化的车间布置问题提供了一个新途径.%By studying on traditional method of production workshop layout, this paper puts forward a polychromatic method of production workshop layout which is based on product structure tree and builds up models of production workshop layout.And it has given the optimized objectives. Finally,an example of workshop layout of some enterprise was demonstrated to show that the method could largely reduce logistics costs and increase utilization of production area. In addition, it has also proved that the method is practicable and provided a new way to solve multi-objective optimization of workshop layout problem.

  4. Countermeasure on Exiting Problem of Computer - controlled Wheel - axle Automatic Ultrasonic Fault Detector%轮轴微机控制超声波自动探伤机存在问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫士楷; 祁林祥

    2005-01-01

    微机控制超声波自动探伤机是取代传统的手工探伤,由人控转变为机控,实现铁道车辆检修现代化的重要手段.针对目前微机控制超声波自动探伤机在使用过程中出现的技术性能、设备质量、执行工艺等方面的问题进行了分析,提出了改进措施和建议.

  5. Research and Application of Electric-spark Overlaying Process in Restoring Electric Axle Parts%电火花堆焊技术的研究及在电力轴类修复中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓春; 孙增伟; 刘晓明; 高云鹏

    2010-01-01

    电力轴类常因在运输、装配及运转过程中的磕碰、拉毛、磨损造成局部损伤而导致其过早失效.为了为之提供电火花堆焊修复应用技术和理论支持,研究了电火花堆焊的最佳工艺及堆焊层至母材间的硬度分布,探讨了堆焊层的组织及合金元素的过渡情况.结果表明,在最佳工艺参数下,可成功实现电力轴类部件的电火花堆焊修复,堆焊层至母材间硬度的变化区域较窄,表明其焊接热影响区范围较小,堆焊层与母材合金元素过渡均匀,结合良好.

  6. 轻型车后桥二维载荷谱及其疲劳寿命预测%Two-dimension Load Spectrum and Fatigue Life Prediction for the Rear Axle of Light-truck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖生发; 左惟炜; 沈德平

    2002-01-01

    以雨流法得到的载荷谱为基础,建立了后桥的二维载荷谱,并编制了二维载荷谱的计算机程序.分别利用一维和二维载荷谱对EQ1030T型轻型车后桥进行了疲劳寿命预测.

  7. The Development of On-site Measurement of Diameter of Bullet Train Axle%高速动车车轴轴颈直径现场测量方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏浩; 岩君芳; 杨伟敏; 朱广明

    2014-01-01

    分析了在周期性非稳态温度场中采用比较法测量时,温度对车轴直径示值不确定度的影响,该温场中质量很大的被测物的温度变化滞后参考标准一个恒定值并进行了试验验证.使用该值对车轴轴颈直径进行温度补偿能有效降低车间现场测量不确定度.

  8. A Study on Multi-objective Optimization Design of Spiral Cone Gear in Loader Axles%装载机驱动桥螺旋锥齿轮多目标优化设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞明宝

    2004-01-01

    建立装载机驱动桥螺旋锥齿轮多目标设计的优化模型,按照广义Benders分解法、采用置换率的计算方法进行优化计算,利用V-F语言建立优化程序软件,实例的应用证明了其可行性.

  9. Design and adjustment of clearance of full suspension driving equipment for hollow axle wheel set motor%轮对空心轴式电动机全悬挂驱动装置间隙设计及调整

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏春阳

    2000-01-01

    分析了轮对空心轴电动机全悬挂驱动装置中空心轴与车轴、空心轴套与空心轴之间间隙的重要性及其在机车运行时的作用原理,介绍了驱动装置间隙的设计及在东风9型、东风11型机车上实施的过程.

  10. Realize the Rapid Generation of 3D Model of Axle Parts in VBA%轴类零件的三维仿真模型的快速生成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳芳; 陈定方

    2002-01-01

    介绍了参数化特征建模技术及其实现过程,利用参数化特征建模技术实现了轴类零件的特征分类及参数化建模,建立了相应的特征库;同时,用VBA作为AutoCAD2000的二次开发工具,实现了轴类零件的三维实体模型的快速生成.

  11. FLOYDS Classification of MASTER OT J161308.18+260953.3 as a Type II Supernova and ASASSN-17cq/AT 2017axl as a Type Ia Supernova Near Peak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, G.; Arcavi, I.; Howell, D. A.; McCully, C.; Valenti, S.

    2017-02-01

    We obtained a spectrum of MASTER OT J161308.18+260953.3 (ATel #10099) on 2017 February 21.5 UT with the robotic FLOYDS instrument mounted on the Las Cumbres Observatory (LCO) 2-meter telescope on Haleakala, Hawai'i.

  12. Improvement of front axle tie rod based on modal calculation and vibration test%基于模态计算和振动试验的前桥横拉杆改进设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程志伟; 刘志峰; 曾壮; 郑方明

    2014-01-01

    针对某试制阶段客车在沥青路、卵石路、石块路、搓板路等路面上进行约1万公里可靠性试验之后,前桥转向横拉杆从中部断裂问题;对横拉杆及与其连接的摆臂进行了问题排查,给出了相应的改善方案,并对方案进行了模态计算和装车试验,结果表明:客车的前桥横拉杆加强之后,消除了因路面激励和自激频率引起的横拉杆共振问题.

  13. 汽车起重机双前桥转向系统的匹配计算及验证%Matching Calculation and Verification on the Double Front Axle Steering System of the Truck Crane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍时超; 莫思剑

    2016-01-01

    在汽车转向系统的设计中,各机构运动关系和力学关系的协调是保证转向安全和操纵轻便的前提.本文通过对汽车起重机双前桥转向系统进行分析计算,并利用ADAMS仿真软件对转向机构进行了仿真分析,同时对转向系统进行了试验验证,为多轴汽车起重机专用底盘转向系统的设计提供了一种有效的方法和参考依据.

  14. 重型载货汽车前轴疲劳性能计算及试验验证%Calculation and experiment validation for fatigue property of front axle of heavy truck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈涛; 李海忠; 范文峰; 杨建磊; 徐铁娇

    2013-01-01

    对比某重型载货汽车前轴台架刚度试验计算值与试验值,发现简化边界导致位移计算值偏大.对前轴台架试验的夹具进行测量并在Abaqus中建立其实体有限元模型,使得位移计算值和试验值误差在2.5%以内,从而保证疲劳计算输入的应力谱的准确性.根据前轴疲劳试验标准QC/T513-1999规定的工况,利用FEMFAT计算某重型载货汽车前轴的疲劳寿命,并与试验得到的破坏位置和寿命进行对比,验证疲劳计算的可靠性.在对前轴应力和疲劳计算结果进行分析的基础上,提出提高前轴疲劳寿命的改进建议.

  15. 重型车双前轴转向梯形及杆系的设计与计算%Design and Calculation of steering trapezium and steering linkage of dual front axle steering for heavy-duty vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李焕

    2014-01-01

    转向梯形机构的几何参数决定汽车转向时内、外转向轮转角的几何关系,在汽车转向时,各车轮的转向必须保证纯滚动而无滑动,使各车轮的转角必须保证有统一的瞬时转向中心.本文主要概述了重型车双前轴转向梯形及杆系的设计与计算.

  16. 铝挤压机前梁出口导正辊的优化设计%Optimization Design of Guide Roller of Front-axle Beam Exit of Aluminium Extruder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖敏; 孙成妮

    2014-01-01

    通过介绍导正辊的结构,对传统的导正辊机械结构进行了优化设计,并计算验证了优化后结构的合理性。%Through introducing structure of guide roller, the authors was did optimization design to mechanical structure, and calculated rationality of optimization structure.

  17. Structural Mechanics Analysis and Optimum Design of Front Axle Steering Knuckle in Semitrailer Tank Truck%半挂运油车前轴转向节结构力学分析与优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴成武; 韩景伟; 周晶

    2012-01-01

    以某半挂运油车前轴转向节为研究对象,分析了该载重车前轴转向节在不同工况下的强度和疲劳寿命,发现转向节不同部位的交汇处存在应力集中,疲劳寿命低于安全使用值.通过结构尺寸的优化,并重新进行有限元分析,结果表明,改进后的转向节零件结构强度和使用寿命均满足该半挂运油车在不同路况的行驶要求.

  18. 汽车前轴制坯辊锻工艺分析与三维数值模拟%Blank-making roll forging process and numerical simulation of 3-D deformation for automotive front axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李如雄; 王金铝

    2010-01-01

    采用基于热力耦合的刚粘塑性有限元法对汽车前轴制坯辊锻成形工艺进行了模拟,分析了三道次辊锻过程中坯料的金属流动、温度场、模具受载情况,为进一步掌握前轴精密制坯辊锻成形机理、制订合理的工艺参数提供了可靠的理论依据.

  19. 双前桥重型汽车转向液压助力缸的设计%Design of dual power cylinder in the steering system of double-front-axle heavy trucks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仲奎; 张代胜; 沈国清; 周福庚

    2006-01-01

    在对国外某型号的双前桥重型汽车转向系统分析研究的基础上,对转向液压助力缸的工作特点、结构参数和动力缸计算进行了讨论,提出了转向系统液压助力缸的设计方案,并建立了双前桥重型汽车动力缸的数学模型;通过此方案可以准确快速确定主副动力缸的主要结构参数,其结果得到实车验证,能达到良好的转向效果,可推广应用于其他型号的双前桥转向系动力缸的设计.

  20. MSC Adams在双前桥转向机构设计中的应用%Application of MSC Adams in Design of Steering Mechanism of Double-Front Axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕召全; 华从波; 周福庚

    2006-01-01

    本论文对双前桥载货汽车的转向机构进行了全新的设计,在理论计算的基础上利用MSC Adams软件分别对转向梯形和转向摇臂机构进行了运动学仿真,并对其转向特性进行了优化. 随后的道路试验结果表明新设计的转向机构性能符合设计要求.

  1. 前轴主销孔及端面的数控加工工艺和工装设计%The NC machining process and tooling design of front axle main pin hole and end face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任国强; 罗啸峰

    2012-01-01

    汽车前轴是汽车上承受载荷较大的重要部件之一,其质量的好坏直接关系着汽车的安全性,以及行驶、转向的稳定性.本文通过分析前轴的结构,拟定除了前轴主销孔及上下端面的数控加工工艺,设计出了加工前轴的专用工装,通过对前轴的工件试切发现了工装设计中存在的问题并对工装作出了改进.

  2. Multi-objective Reliability Based on Robust Optimization Design for Vehicle Front-axles%车辆前轴的多目标可靠性稳健优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张义民; 刘仁云; 于繁华

    2006-01-01

    应用车辆零部件可靠性稳健优化设计的理论方法,对车辆前轴进行了可靠性稳健优化设计.通过模糊多目标粒子群算法求出所有满足约束性条件的pareto解集,结合实际情况,依据pareto解集确定零部件的设计规格.实验证明该方法能迅速有效地获得可靠性稳健设计的信息.

  3. The design of a aimulation test bench of auto front axle rocker%汽车前桥摇臂强化模拟试验台架的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志强; 徐兆坤; 吴伟蔚

    2013-01-01

    @@%为了对前桥摇臂进行有效而又快速的动态强度耐久试验,运用相似理论,设计了刚度可变的三角构件用于摇臂约束装置,使试验台上的摇臂实时处于与实车上同样的刚度特性,即轴向是线性,径向是非线性,使得偏离实际工况下的高强度、大负荷试验时得到的结果更加准确,以达到高效而又准确地揭示零部件失效的内在规律的目的.

  4. IMPROVED DESIGN OF FRONT AXLE OF HEAVY TRUCK WITH THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD%用有限元法对重卡前轴结构改进设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周福庚; 华从波; 吕召全

    2006-01-01

    使用ANSYS有限元分析软件和PRO/E三维制图软件,模拟台架试验条件,对重型卡车前轴进行静力和模态分析.有限元分析的结果与前轴台架疲劳试验结果相吻合,并根据此结果对前轴结构进行改进设计,提高了前轴的强度和疲劳寿命.

  5. 9.5T、13T客车前桥刮蹄机的设计%Design of 9.5T, 13T Bus Front Axle Scraping Shoes Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张汝贵

    2012-01-01

    大型货车和客车一般都采用鼓式刹车,但由于零部件制造及装配误差等原因,常使车桥两端刹车鼓与刹车蹄之间受力不均,造成刹车跑偏.文章所设计的刮蹄机,较好地解决了上述刹车弊病.其刮蹄精度高,是一项实用、可靠的设计.

  6. Modal analysis and design improvement of front axle carrier structure for small wheeled tractor%小型轮拖前桥托架的结构模态分析及改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋科军; 刘成晔; 张炎

    2013-01-01

    为了提高小型轮拖前桥托架的结构可靠性,利用ABAQUS软件对某小型轮拖前桥托架进行了模态分析,分析结果表明该前桥托架具有疲劳损坏的可能性,针对这一结果,对该前桥托架进行了两种可行的改进,改进结果表明该前桥托架结构低阶弹性模态频率及振型有较大的改善,能有效避免疲劳损坏.

  7. Optimization Design of Double Front Axle Steering Swing Arm Mechanism in Heavy-duty Trucks%重卡双前桥转向摇臂机构的优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古玉锋; 方宗德; 沈云波

    2009-01-01

    针对重卡双前桥转向摇臂机构传统单目标优化方法考虑因素的不足,提出了以二轴左轮转角误差最小、转向杆系与悬架运动的最大干涉量最小、左右转向力不均匀性最小为综合优化目标的多目标优化模型.车轮转角误差模型通过将摇臂机构拆分的方法得到,悬架与转向杆系的干涉模型通过建立转向直拉杆与悬架的空间运动模型得到,左右转向力不均匀性通过计算转向传动机构传动比得到.优化结果证明,多目标优化方法优于传统优化方法,有利于减小转向轮的磨损、改善车辆的操纵稳定性及转向轻便性.

  8. 双前桥载货汽车侧滑检测系统设计研究%Sideslip Detecting System's Design of Double-front-axle Steering Automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨承明

    2013-01-01

    双前桥载货汽车随着行驶里程的不断增加,转向系统会发生故障,影响行驶安全.而现有的检测设备不能完成对其侧滑的检测,因此,在对双前桥载货汽车轮间侧滑及轴间侧滑的产生机理进行分析的基础上,根据汽车综合性能检测站的要求设计了双前桥载货汽车的侧滑检测系统.实验结果表明,该系统工作安全可靠、快速、准确,并且数据重复性好,可以直接应用于现在的检测线.

  9. YQ153A前轴精密辊锻孔型系统的选择和辊锻工步设计%Selection of groove system for precision forging and steps designing for YQ153A front axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋鹏; 曹飞; 罗守靖

    2004-01-01

    介绍了YQ153A前轴精密辊锻工艺,包括热收缩率的选择,辊锻件图的确定,毛坯直径尺寸的选定,各典型截面特征孔型设计与延伸率的分配,第3、2、1道辊锻件图设计等.

  10. 汽车前轴制坯辊锻工艺分析与模具设计%Blank-making roll-forging process and die design for automotive front axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李如雄; 王金铝

    2010-01-01

    根据汽车前轴锻件的特点、技术条件与要求,对精密辊锻制坯工艺及模具设计进行研究,设计出前轴制坯辊锻、预成形辊锻和终成形辊锻模具,并分析了具有礼帽形型槽的异性截面和上压力札制方式对制坯辊锻工艺的影响和作用.

  11. Design of NC machine tool based on front axle brake drum drilling,tapping, chamfering%前桥制动鼓钻孔、攻丝、倒角数控专用机床设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯广超

    2016-01-01

    在分析研究汽车零部件市场行情的基础上,利用公司自身加工制造能力,研发了前桥制动鼓钻孔、攻丝、倒角、反倒角数控专用机床,整机采用立式、多工位结构,满足了客户提效、扩量、降成本和高互换性的要求,促进了汽车行业的发展.

  12. 纠正前轴总成跑偏的合车工艺装置设计%Design of Assembly Processing Equipment for Rectifying a Deviation of Front Axle Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾少胜; 王大鹏; 张丽华

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1 前言 丹东五一八内燃机配件集团公司主要产品1160前轴总成是为陕汽斯太尔汽车的配套产品.由于1160前轴总成自身的结构特点,装车后发生跑偏现象在15%左右.跑偏的主要原因是总成某侧制动鼓与摩擦片接触不良.纠正跑偏的主要方……

  13. Roll-Forging Technology of Automotive Front Axle Precision Performing and Die Design%汽车前轴精制坯辊锻工艺及模具设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金吕; 王高潮

    2005-01-01

    根据汽车前轴锻件的特点、技术条件与要求,分析了前轴辊锻工艺的难点,包括确定辊锻件图,选择毛坯尺寸,确定辊锻,典型截面特征孔型设计,计算前滑量并分析其对锻件长度的影响.本文以NHR前轴为例,进行了精密辊锻制坯工艺及模具设计的研究,设计出前轴制坯辊锻、预成型辊锻和终成型辊锻模具.

  14. The Oil Seal Cover Mould Design of Automobile Front Axle Based on Pro/E%基于Pro/E的汽车前轴油封盖冲压模具设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董延春; 宋微; 刘毅

    2010-01-01

    冲压成型在制造业中占有十分重要的地位.为了促进模具的发展,计算机技术在模具制造方面的应用已越来越广泛.文中介绍了传统模具设计方法和在Pro/E辅助下设计的优点.

  15. A Simulation Study on Ride Comfort of Multi-Axle Vehicle Based on Flexible Model%基于柔性模型的多轴汽车平顺性的仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 王学林; 胡于进; 李成刚

    2003-01-01

    基于弹性梁弯曲振动理论和模态分析法建立了多轴汽车平顺性分析的柔性模型.按照汽车行驶平顺性评价方法,运用建立的柔性模型,分析了车速、路面等级、悬挂质量的分布、车架刚度以及悬架系统的刚度和阻尼对多轴汽车平顺性的影响.分析结果表明:悬挂质量的弯曲振动是影响多轴汽车行驶平顺性的一个不可忽略的重要因素;常用的刚体模型不能准确地描述多轴汽车的平顺性,不适合用于多轴汽车平顺性的分析.

  16. Sobrecompactación del suelo agricola parte I: influencia diferencial del peso y del número de pasadas Overcompaction of agricultural soil part I: differential influence of axle load and number of passes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jorajuria

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Han sido objetivos principales de este trabajo, tanto el discriminar la responsabilidad de las variables independientes, peso y número de pasadas, en la distribución vertical de la compactación inducida, como obtener evidencia que permita decidir la conveniencia entre conjuntos ligeros que rueden muchas veces sobre la superficie trabajada, o conjuntos más grandes y pesados que resuelvan la tarea con menos pasajes. Se trabajó sobre un suelo de textura fina, con alta humedad presente. Las variables experimentales independientes configuraron dos tratamientos, tractor pesado y ligero, y tres diferentes número de pasadas, 1, 5 y 10, resultaron en seis subtratamientos de diferente intensidad de tráfico, más una parcela testigo sin tráfico. Los resultados no mostraron diferencias entre los tratamientos pesado y ligero, en el rango más superficial evaluado, sin embargo siempre fueron muy significativas las diferencias si se considera el rango de mayor profundidad. Disminuciones del rendimiento del pastizal del orden de 7 a 25% fueron medidas en las zonas adyacentes a las huellas, mientras que esas pérdidas ascendieron al rango de 52 a 76% dentro de la impronta dejada por las huellas del tráfico. Se pudo concluir que, el número de pasadas reiteradas sobre la misma senda, puede emular, e incluso reemplazar, al factor peso sobre el eje, en la responsabilidad principal de inducir compactaciones en el subsuelo. Diez pasadas, es el número crítico de rodadas, a partir del cual se pierden las ventajas de traficar con un tractor ligero, como alternativa a uno pesado con menos pasadas.The main objectives of this research were: to determine the responsability of weight, number of passes and independent variables, on the vertical distribution of subsoil compaction and to obtain evidence to decide upon the convenience of matching equipments with light or heavy tractors, according to their differences in passes on the field. Field tests were carried out on grassland, on a typic Argiudol with a soil moisture below, but near to field capacity. The dependent experimental variable was the induced soil compaction and was related to bulk density (assessed with gamma probe, penetration resistance (measured with an electronic cone penetrometer, and remaining grassland yield, six and eight months after traffic treatments were applied. Data from two tests, with two phases of data logging were analysed, totalizing a three year period of assessment pursuit. Results did not show differences between heavy and light treatments in the shallower depth range. Nevertheless, highly significant differences were shown if the deepest range is considered. Decrease in grassland yields ranging from 7 to 25% were measured in out-of-track areas, and 52 to 76% in intrack areas. It was concluded that the number of repeated passes on the same tramlines of a light tractor, can do as much or even greater damage than the heavier tractor with fewer passes. Ten is the critical number of passes, beyond it, advantages taken from the use of a light tractor are lost.

  17. 30 t轴重浴盆式敞车车体非线性分析%The Nonlinear Analysis of the Bathtub Type Gondola Car with the Axle Load of 30 t

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤礼鹏; 刘国伟

    2010-01-01

    利用ANSYS软件建立了30 t轴重浴盆式敞车车体的有限元模型,并基于材料非线性和几何非线性特性对车体进行了分析,得到了车体结构的Von Mises应力云图和结构响应曲线.分析结果表明,车体结构的应力-应变响应曲线满足材料的本构关系, 在规定的纵向压缩载荷下不会发生屈曲失稳现象,满足AAR M-1001的要求.

  18. Discussion and Analysis of Trouble on the Axle Hung traction Motor for DF48 Type Locomotive%DF4B型机车牵引电机抱轴承故障分析与探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段国清; 杨学清; 史宝玉

    2004-01-01

    DF4B型电传动内燃机车的牵引电机采用轴悬式的悬挂结构,牵引电机的一侧通过抱轴承刚性地支撑在轮轴上,另一侧通过弹性元件和吊杆悬挂在转向架构架上。抱轴承是悬挂装置的重要组成部分,其实质是剖分式滑动轴承,这种悬挂方式结构简单,容易检修,拆装方便。但是抱轴承间隙会在车轴和电枢轴传动齿

  19. 机车牵引电机转轴探伤磁痕的分析与处理%Analysis and Treatment of the Magnetic Mark of the Defect in the Traction Motor Axle of the Locomotive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚汤伟; 蒋洪奎; 朱建昌

    2006-01-01

    针对机车牵引电机转轴磁粉探伤中的磁痕显示现象,综合磁痕分析、补充检测、实际印证的结果,得到有该磁痕显示现象的电机转轴不必采用更先进的探伤技术重新检测仍可继续使用的结论.

  20. Analysis of the traction motor' s rolling axle suspension bearing box for DF5 locomotive%浅析东风5型机车牵引电机滚动抱轴箱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓小军

    2002-01-01

    对东风5型机车牵引电机滚动抱轴箱进行了静强度和疲劳强度的有限元分析,指出在抱轴箱与电机垂直配合面上加工凹槽有利于减小抱轴箱的应力,而采用电机滚动抱轴悬挂结构的机车能否适应较高速度的要求,主要取决于机车簧下垂向加速度值和牵引电机的自重.

  1. Influence of Roll Characteristics of Multi-axle Steering Vehicle in Hydro-pneumatic Suspension Type%油气悬挂类型对多轴转向车辆侧倾特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑东强; 周梅

    2011-01-01

    Based on the modeling and simulation study of the system of twin-accumulator hydro-pneumatic suspension(HPS),the virtual prototype of the dependent and linked hydro-pneumatic suspension and the virtual test platform of vehicle roll over characteristic were built,the effects of the dependent and linked hydro-pneumatic suspension on the vehicle roll over characteristic were analyzed.It discovered from emulation analysis that the stiffness characteristics of the dependent HPS would be higher than the linked HPS.The results of this research provided references for the design of HPS and for the improving of the maneuvering stability.%对单个双气室油气悬挂系统进行建模与仿真分析,构建了连通式和非独立式油气悬挂系统的虚拟样机模型及车辆侧倾特性的虚拟试验平台,研究了连通式及非独立式这2类油气悬挂类型对多轴转向车辆侧倾特性影响的规律。仿真分析结果表明,非独立式油气悬挂系统的侧倾刚度比连通式油气悬挂系统大。该研究成果可为改进油气悬挂系统的设计及提高车辆操纵稳定性提供参考依据。

  2. Probabilistic Models for the Long Fatigue Crack Growth Rates of LZ50 Axle Steel%LZ50车轴钢疲劳长裂纹扩展的概率模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永翔; 何朝明; 杨冰; 黄郁仲; 高庆; 邬平波

    2005-01-01

    试验研究了随机疲劳长裂纹扩展率概率模型.首先发展了考虑平均应力影响和低应力强度因子范围趋于门槛值现象的扩展率方程.进而提出了同时考虑试验数据分散性规律与样本数量对概率评价影响的概率模型,模型参量由线性回归法结合极大似然统计分析原理测定.IZ50钢的试验数据分析,验证了方法的有效性与实用性.

  3. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Jiankun Peng; Hongwen He; Wei Liu; Hongqiang Guo

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking s...

  4. Structural Design of Asphalt Pavement for Low Cost Rural Roads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Goulin; Chen Rongshen

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the equivalent axle load action frequency, the traffic classifications of rural roads as well as their corresponding types are classified. The asphalt pavement structure, road surface types and thickness of the rural roads are suggested for the various action frequency of the equivalent axle load. Furthermore, the roadbase thickness graphs are provided according to different equivalent axle load action frequency with different roadbed modulus and road surface modulus taken into account.

  5. 英文摘要

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Faulty Axles On Fast Trains Problems with China's high-speed rail network run deeper than suggested by a deadly collision and subsequent recall of 54 fast trains. In mid-July, technicians conducting a safety check found a crack in a train car's power axle system. The manufacturer secretly made repairs but ordered no further tests. he axles were made by a company controlled by Ding Shumiao, whom authorities say bribed a for- mer rail minister accused of graft. Ihe recall by train builder China CNR Corp. didn't cite axle problems,

  6. The G6 - a heavy-duty six-wheeled shunting locomotive; Dreiachsige Hochleistungsrangierlokomotive G6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, Tim [Vossloh Locomotives GmbH, Kiel (Germany). Entwicklung und Standardisierung

    2009-03-15

    With the three-axle shunter G6, exhibited at Innotrans 2008, the renowned producer of rail vehicles Vossloh Locomotives GmbH marks the beginning of a generational change - not only for three-axle but also for four-axle locomotives. In order to replace the type G765C the G6 has been developed in close cooperation with potential customers. Their request concerning robustness and reliability as well as the equipment options set standards for central driver's cab locomotives in general and lead the way for future four-axle replacements within the Vossloh product family. (orig.)

  7. Method and instrumentation for detection of rail defects, in particular rail top defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Z.; Molodova, M.

    2011-01-01

    A method and instrumentation for detection of rail defects, in particular rail top defects, in a railway-track by measuring an axle box acceleration signal of a rail vehicle, wherein a longitudinal axle box acceleration signal is used as a measure to detect the occurrence of said rail defects, in pa

  8. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    the results obtained using the numerical models given in details in "Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges : dynamic modelling of vehicles and bridges". The models are established using a ordinary vehicle which consists of a 48 t Scania with a 3 axle tractor and a 3 axle trailer, joined in a flexible hinge...

  9. 78 FR 23105 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... machined with a radius as small as 0.4 millimeters. This AD requires replacing the wheel axle of the MLG... have been machined with a radius as small as 0.4 mm. This condition, if not corrected, has a... prompted by a report that revealed the wheel axles were machined with a radius as small as 0.4...

  10. 49 CFR 393.207 - Suspension systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension systems. 393.207 Section 393.207... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393.207 Suspension systems. (a) Axles. No axle positioning part shall be cracked, broken, loose or...

  11. 49 CFR 393.48 - Brakes to be operative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) The steering axle of a three-axle dolly which is steered by a co-driver; (5) Loaded house moving... times be capable of operating. (b) Devices to reduce or remove front-wheel braking effort. A commercial motor vehicle may be equipped with a device to reduce the front wheel braking effort (or in the case...

  12. Replacements for Obsolete Secondary Items 20-Ton Rough Terrain Crane Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    operational requirements of SCD D13213E9493. Item 2 of this RFQ specified the same axle with a built-in 3 dropbox which locates the input drive shaft...requirements for a separate dropbox to be used in conjunction with the standard planetary drive steer axle specified by Item 1 of RFQ No. 1. The following

  13. Developing of a software for determining advanced brake failures in brakes test bench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Köylü

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available At present time, the brake test bench conducts the braking and suspension tests of front or rear axles and the test results are evaluated through one axle. The purpose of the brake testing system is to determine braking force and damping coefficient dissymmetry of one axle. Thus, this test system evaluates the performance of service brake, hand brake and suspension systems by considering separately front and rear axle dissymmetry. For this reason, the effects of different braking and damping forces applied by right and left wheels of both axles on braking performance of all vehicle are not determined due to available algorithm of the test bench. Also, the other brake failures are not occurred due to the algorithm of brake test system. In this study, the interface has been developed to determine the other effects of dissymmetry and the other brake failures by using the one axle results of brake test bench. The interface has algorithm computing the parameters according to the interaction between front and rear axles by only using measured test results. Also, it gives the warnings by comparing changes in the parameters with braking performance rules. Braking and suspension tests of three different vehicles have been conducted by using brake test bench to determine the performance of the algorithm. Parameters based on the axle interaction have been calculated by transferring brake test results to the interface and the test results have been evaluated. As a result, the effects of brake and suspension failures on braking performance of both axle and vehicle have been determined thanks to the developed interface.

  14. Amuvatinib has cytotoxic effects against NRAS- but not BRAF-mutant melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorenko, Inna V.; Fang, Bin; Koomen, John M; Gibney, Geoffrey T.; Smalley, Keiran S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Effective targeted therapy strategies are still lacking for the 15–20% of melanoma patients whose melanomas are driven by oncogenic NRAS. We here report on the NRAS-specific behavior of amuvatinib, a kinase inhibitor with activity against c-KIT, Axl, PDGFRα and Rad51. An analysis of BRAF- and NRAS-mutant melanoma cell lines showed the NRAS-mutant cohort to be enriched for targets of amuvatinib, including Axl, c-KIT and the Axl ligand Gas6. Increasing concentrations of amuvatinib selectively i...

  15. Modeling and dynamics simulation of the swing type rigid axle rear suspension with main and auxiliar y spring based on Adams/Car%摆杆式非独立后悬架Adams/Car建模及动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张三川; 褚铮; 王婷婷

    2014-01-01

    针对一种大型场馆电动特勤车的摆杆式非独立后悬架进行了Adams/Car模型开发创建,丰富了Adams/Car悬架模板库。在此基础上,采用同向激振分析对此后悬架进行了动力学仿真与分析。结果表明:根据车辆类型和参数以及悬架的前后载荷比、挠度与偏频等对悬架添加副弹簧,可以使悬架的弹性特性得到改善。

  16. Application of Pro/E Motion Simulation Module in Dual-front Axle Steering Linkage match Design%Pro/E机构运动仿真模块在双前轴转向传动机构匹配设计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹华清; 杨庆丽

    2010-01-01

    介绍了应用Pro/E机构运动仿真模块进行运动仿真的工作流程.通过应用Pro/E机构运动仿真模块对双前轴转向传动机构进行匹配设计的实例,论述了商用车双前轴转向传动机构的设计理论要求、初步的传动机构实体建模方法以及转角特性分析方法、理论模型与实体模型的转角特性数据处理与分析,以及实体模型的优化设计方法,并简要介绍了转向传动机构与悬架系统的运动十涉分析方法.

  17. The Action and Influence of Front Axle Design Parameters of Mobile Crane on the Steady of Mobile%汽车起重机前桥设计参数对汽车稳定性的作用与影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇春艳

    2009-01-01

    转向从动前桥不仅用以在车架与车轮之间传递载荷。承受和传递制动力矩,而且是车辆安全、稳定行驶的重要保障,汽车起重机转向从动前桥从结构上主要由前梁、转向节及转向主销组成。工程机械的公路车辆汽车起重机在机械转向的情况下。通常在车桥的转向节上端安装转向主动节臂.后者与转向直拉杆相连:而在转向节的下端装着与转向横拉杆相连接的转向梯形臂。

  18. NEW DESIGN OF TRANSPORT ROBOT USED IN AUTO ROLLER FORGING UNIT FOR THE FINE FORMATION OF CAR'S FRONT AXLE%汽车前轴精辊成形自动辊锻机组搬运机器人的新设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金魏; 辛洪兵

    2004-01-01

    介绍了用于汽车前轴精辊成形自动辊锻机组对配置的辊锻搬运机器人的工艺要求,比较了德国EUMUCO公司和北京机电研究所产品的特点,根据设计要求,提出了新的总体结构设计及各自由度、夹爪和补偿机构的实现方案,以及提高定位及运动精度的措施.

  19. 万向轴在5-50/10吨桥式起重机大车运行机构中的应用%Application of cardan axle in the travelling mechanism of the larger traveller of 5-50/10t bridge crane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯振霞; 刘传贺

    2002-01-01

    分析起重机大车运行机构齿轮联轴器损坏原因;介绍大车运行机构选用万向轴应注意的三个问题;列举最大工作扭矩、临界转速、万向轴传动效率计算方法,阐述万向轴的优越性.

  20. An Acceleration Slip Regulation Strategy for Four-Wheel Drive Electric Vehicles Based on Sliding Mode Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen He

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an acceleration slip regulation (ASR system for four-wheel drive (4WD electric vehicles, which are driven by the front and rear axles simultaneously. The ASR control strategy includes three control modes: average distribution of inter-axle torque, optimal distribution of inter-axle torque and independent control of optimal slip rate, respectively, which are designed based on the torque adaptive principle of inter-axle differential and sliding mode control theory. Furthermore, in order to accurately describe the longitudinal tyre force characteristic, a slip rate calculation formula in the form of a state equation was used for solving the numerical problem posed by the traditional way. A simulation was carried out with the MATLAB/Simulink software. The simulation results show that the proposed ASR system can fully use the road friction condition, inhibit the drive-wheels from slipping, and improve the vehicle longitudinal driving stability.

  1. Learning the Lessons of Leadership: Case Method Teaching with Interactive Computer-Based Tools and Film-Based Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    technology. This report describes the technological capabilities of the AXL system, as well as the case method pedagogy underlying the AXL approach. The...to read and comprehend, these scenarios generally lack a story-like plot structure, well- developed characters and dialog , and the elements of...it the dialog or the talking head? In U. Hoppe, F. Verdejo & J. Kay (Eds.) Proceedings ofArtificial Intelligence in Education (pp. 47-54). Amsterdam

  2. Wind turbines with vertical main axes and with vertically standing turbine blades rotating round their own vertical axe and which are placed in the best position for the direction of wind over toothed gears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickel, H.

    1976-09-16

    The discovery concerns a wind turbine rotating round a vertical axle with vertically standing turbine blades rotating round their own vertical axle. The turbine rotates round the bearing mast and several such turbines can be arranged so as to save space. The turbine blades are adjusted over the toothing gears, which are, e.g., powered by an electronic control system, to suit the wind direction at the time.

  3. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Type-selection design of axle box bearing for high-speed passenger car bogie LIANG Yun, XIA Chun-jing (Changchun Railway Vehicle Co., Ltd., Chang- chun 130062, China) Abstract: This paper elaborates type-selection analysis of axle box bearings for high-speed passenger ear bogie and introduces the main influence factors of type- selection and life calculation of bearings.

  4. Investigation of Axial Length-Disc Area Ratio in Hyperopic Anisometropic Amblyopia.%远视性屈光参差性弱视眼轴/视盘面积比的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵萍; 徐梅; 张萌

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨远视性屈光参差性弱视患者眼轴长度(AXL)、视盘面积(DA)及眼轴(AXL)/视盘面积(DA)比.方法 选择2006年1月至2007年1月来我院门诊就诊的单眼远视性屈光参差性弱视惠儿28例及同期正常儿童20名为研究对象,分为正常儿童组(组1),40眼,远视性屈光参差性弱视眼的对侧眼组(组2),28眼,远视性屈光参差性弱视眼组(组3),28眼,行AXL测量和眼底照相及DA测量.计算AXL/DA比并进行比较.结果 组1 AXL为(22.4±1.0)mm,DA为(2.8±0.6)mm2,AXL/DA为(9.2±2.3)mm-1:组2 AXL为(21.6±1.1)mm,DA为(2.1±0.4)mm2,AXL/DA为(10.2±3.6)mm-1;组3 AXL为(21.0±1.1)mm,DA 为(1.4±0.4)mm2,AXL/DA为(15.7±4.0)mm-1.组2与组1相比AXL缩短、DA缩小、AXL/DA比增大(P<0.05).组3与组2相比AXL缩短、DA缩小、AXL/DA比增大(P<0.05).组3与组1相比AXL缩短、DA缩小、AXL/DA比增大,(P<0.01).结论 远视屈光参差性弱视患者中AXL/DA比增大,AXL缩短,DA缩小可能是解释视功能受损的一个重要因素.2.1±0.4)mm2,AXL/DA为(10.2±3.6)mm-1;组3 AXL为(21.0±1.1)mm,DA 为(1.4±0.4)mm2,AXL/DA为(15.7±4.0)mm-1.组2与组1相比AXL缩短、DA缩小、AXL/DA比增大(P<0.05).组3与组2相比AXL缩短、DA缩小、AXL/DA比增大(P<0.05).组3与组1相比AXL缩短、DA缩小、AXL/DA比增大,(P<0.01).结论 远视屈光参差性弱视患者中AX/DA比增大,AXL缩短,DA缩小可能是解释视

  5. Analysis of Semi-Active and Passive Suspensions System for Off-Road Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    BenLahcene, Zohir; Faris, Waleed F.; Khan, M. D. Raisuddin

    2009-03-01

    The speed of off-road vehicles over rough terrain is generally determined by the ride quality not by the engine power. For this reason, researches are currently being undertaking to improve the ride dynamics of these vehicles using an advanced suspension system. This study intends to provide a preliminary evaluation of whether semi-active suspensions are beneficial to improving ride and handling in off-road vehicles. One of the greatest challenges in designing off-road vehicle suspension system is maintaining a good balance between vehicle ride and handling. Three configurations of these vehicles; 2-axle, 3-xle and 4-axles have been studied and their performances are compared. The application of several control policies of semi-active suspension system, namely skyhook; ground-hook and hybrid controls have been analyzed and compared with passive systems. The results show that the hybrid control policy yields better comfort than a passive suspension, without reducing the road-holding quality or increasing the suspension displacement. The hybrid control policy is also shown to be a better compromise between comfort, road-holding and suspension displacement than the skyhook and ground-hook control policies. Results show an improvement in ride comfort and vehicle handling using 4-axle over 3-axle and 2-axle when emphasis is placed on the response of the vehicle body acceleration, suspension and tyre deflection.

  6. Effects of Variation in Truck Factor on Pavement Performance in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Chaudry

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variation coupled with heavy axle loading is the key factor in rapid road deterioration in Pakistan. The serviceability loss is further accelerated by the fact that truck drivers and owners consider overloading as a profitable practice unaware of the adverse effects of this practice. Weigh-in-motion data from two stations located between two major cities of Pakistan (Peshawar and Rawalpindi on Grand Trunk Road (N-5 were collected and analyzed. Analysis of variance and comparison of actual and designed truck factor were performed to identify the most damaging axle truck type. It was found that axle truck type 3 (single/tandem axle is most damaging among all truck types. The actual truck factor for axle truck type 3 is 6.4 times greater than design truck factor. Regression expressions of different forms were also investigated to determine the relationship between truck factor and gross vehicular weight for the specified truck types. An optimum generalization strategy was used to prevent over-generalization and ensure accuracy. For data analysis, 75% of data was used to develop regression models and remaining 25% was to validate those models. The results show that the polynomial expressions performed best and provide a robust relationship that can be employed by the highway authorities to estimate truck factor from gross vehicular weight with a high degree of confidence. It was also observed that damaging effect of various types of trucks was very severe and quite high.

  7. Kinetic Study of [2]Pseudorotaxane Formation with an Asymmetrical Thread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Miguel; Parajó, Mercedes; Rodríguez-Dafonte, Pedro; García-Río, Luis

    2016-06-28

    Kinetic and thermodynamic studies on cyclodextrin (CD)-based [2]pseudorotaxane formation have been carried out by a combination of NMR and calorimetric techniques using bolaform surfactants as axles. Experimental evidence of the formation of an external complex between the trimethylammonium head groups of the axle and the external hydrogen atoms of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) is reported. Inclusion of this external complex in the reaction pathway allows us to explain the kinetic behavior as well as the nonlinear dependence of the observed rate constant on CD concentrations. The equilibrium constant for [2]pseudorotaxane formation is strongly affected by the spacer length of the axle. This effect is a consequence of increasing rotaxane stability because the threading rate constant is almost independent of the spacer length, but dethreading strongly decreases on increasing the axle size. Using a nonsymmetrical axle with tripropyl and trimethylammonium cations precludes CD threading by the large head side. CDs will thread this asymmetrical bolaform by both their wide and narrow sides, yielding two isomeric [2]pseudorotaxanes. Threading by the wide side of the CD is 60% more favorable than that by the narrow one, but dethreading rate constants are the same for both isomers.

  8. Amuvatinib has cytotoxic effects against NRAS-mutant melanoma but not BRAF-mutant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorenko, Inna V; Fang, Bin; Koomen, John M; Gibney, Geoffrey T; Smalley, Keiran S M

    2014-10-01

    Effective targeted therapy strategies are still lacking for the 15-20% of melanoma patients whose melanomas are driven by oncogenic NRAS. Here, we report on the NRAS-specific behavior of amuvatinib, a kinase inhibitor with activity against c-KIT, Axl, PDGFRα, and Rad51. An analysis of BRAF-mutant and NRAS-mutant melanoma cell lines showed the NRAS-mutant cohort to be enriched for targets of amuvatinib, including Axl, c-KIT, and the Axl ligand Gas6. Increasing concentrations of amuvatinib selectively inhibited the growth of NRAS-mutant, but not BRAF-mutant melanoma cell lines, an effect associated with induction of S-phase and G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis. Mechanistically, amuvatinib was noted to either inhibit Axl, AKT, and MAPK signaling or Axl and AKT signaling and to induce a DNA damage response. In three-dimensional cell culture experiments, amuvatinib was cytotoxic against NRAS-mutant melanoma cell lines. Thus, we show for the first time that amuvatinib has proapoptotic activity against melanoma cell lines, with selectivity observed for those harboring oncogenic NRAS.

  9. Gas6 induces cancer cell migration and epithelial–mesenchymal transition through upregulation of MAPK and Slug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yunhee [Department of Chemistry, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Immunotherapy Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mira [Immunotherapy Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Semi, E-mail: semikim@kribb.re.kr [Department of Chemistry, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Immunotherapy Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-26

    Highlights: •We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying Gas6-mediated cancer cell migration. •Gas6 treatment and subsequent Axl activation induce cell migration and EMT via upregulation of Slug. •Slug expression mediated by Gas6 is mainly through c-Jun and ATF-2 in an ERK1/2 and JNK-dependent manner. •The Gas6/Axl-Slug axis may be exploited as a target for anti-cancer metastasis therapy. -- Abstract: Binding of Gas6 to Axl (Gas6/Axl axis) alters cellular functions, including migration, invasion, proliferation, and survival. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying Gas6-mediated cell migration remain poorly understood. In this study, we found that Gas6 induced the activation of JNK and ERK1/2 signaling in cancer cells expressing Axl, resulting in the phosphorylation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factors c-Jun and ATF-2, and induction of Slug. Depletion of c-Jun or ATF-2 by siRNA attenuated the Gas6-induced expression of Slug. Slug expression was required for cell migration and E-cadherin reduction/vimentin induction induced by Gas6. These results suggest that Gas6 induced cell migration via Slug upregulation in JNK- and ERK1/2-dependent mechanisms. These data provide an important insight into the molecular mechanisms mediating Gas6-induced cell migration.

  10. Measurement-Based Vehicle Load Model for Urban Expressway Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant changes in vehicle loads have occurred in China due to the development of the automobile industry and transportation within the past two decades, particularly the rapid increase in traffic flow and the large-scale emergence of heavy trucks. However, research into vehicle loadings on urban bridges is not well developed. In this study, based on traffic flow data collected using a weigh-in-motion system installed on an expressway in an urban logistics zone, we analyzed the traffic flow, vehicle types, and gross vehicle weight (GVW features and developed models for the vehicle load and fatigue load. According to the axle space, axle types, and axle number, the trucks in the traffic flow were classified into 10 representative vehicle types. The probability distribution of the GVW was fitted to a three-class mixed log-normal distribution. Using the improved Gumbel method, we determined the extreme value distribution of the vehicle loadings in the purpose reference period and assessed the vehicle loadings of urban bridges. In addition, using the equivalent damage theory, six equivalent vehicle models were established according to the measurements of the axle weight and axle space, thereby obtaining a simplified model of fatigue vehicle loadings on urban expressway bridges.

  11. Small molecule inhibitors block Gas6-inducible TAM activation and tumorigenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimani, Stanley G.; Kumar, Sushil; Bansal, Nitu; Singh, Kamalendra; Kholodovych, Vladyslav; Comollo, Thomas; Peng, Youyi; Kotenko, Sergei V.; Sarafianos, Stefan G.; Bertino, Joseph R.; Welsh, William J.; Birge, Raymond B.

    2017-01-01

    TAM receptors (Tyro-3, Axl, and Mertk) are a family of three homologous type I receptor tyrosine kinases that are implicated in several human malignancies. Overexpression of TAMs and their major ligand Growth arrest-specific factor 6 (Gas6) is associated with more aggressive staging of cancers, poorer predicted patient survival, acquired drug resistance and metastasis. Here we describe small molecule inhibitors (RU-301 and RU-302) that target the extracellular domain of Axl at the interface of the Ig-1 ectodomain of Axl and the Lg-1 of Gas6. These inhibitors effectively block Gas6-inducible Axl receptor activation with low micromolar IC50s in cell-based reporter assays, inhibit Gas6-inducible motility in Axl-expressing cell lines, and suppress H1299 lung cancer tumor growth in a mouse xenograft NOD-SCIDγ model. Furthermore, using homology models and biochemical verifications, we show that RU301 and 302 also inhibit Gas6 inducible activation of Mertk and Tyro3 suggesting they can act as pan-TAM inhibitors that block the interface between the TAM Ig1 ectodomain and the Gas6 Lg domain. Together, these observations establish that small molecules that bind to the interface between TAM Ig1 domain and Gas6 Lg1 domain can inhibit TAM activation, and support the further development of small molecule Gas6-TAM interaction inhibitors as a novel class of cancer therapeutics. PMID:28272423

  12. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiankun; He, Hongwen; Liu, Wei; Guo, Hongqiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking safety in emergency braking condition; the bottom layer is used to maximize the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency with a reallocated braking torque strategy; the reallocated braking torque strategy can recovery braking energy as much as possible in the premise of meeting battery charging power. The simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical control strategy is reasonable and can adapt to different typical road surfaces and load cases; the vehicle braking stability and safety can be guaranteed; furthermore, the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency can be improved.

  13. Synthesis of multivalent host and guest molecules for the construction of multithreaded diamide pseudorotaxanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora L. Löw

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of di-, tri- and tetravalent axles and wheels for the synthesis of pseudorotaxanes bearing the tetralactam macrocycle/diamide axle binding motif was prepared. Starting from iodinated monovalent precursors, Sonogashira cross-coupling reactions were utilized to couple the binding sites to appropriate spacer groups. Through this “Lego” or “toolbox” approach, the convergent synthesis of host and guests with a well-defined number of the binding sites is possible. In addition, the spatial arrangement of the binding sites can be controlled through the quite rigid connections between linker and binding sites. Although a quantitative assessment of binding strengths was not possible by NMR titration experiments, typical and significant shifts of the signals of the diamide moiety indicate qualitatively the formation of pseudorotaxanes from the axle and wheel precursors.

  14. Wishbone Structure for Front Independent Suspension of a Military Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Jagirdar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Wishbone structure for double wishbone front-independent Suspension for a military truck application is presented. At present, the vehicle is equipped with rigid axle with leaf springs. There are two aspects that dictate the design of wishbone structure, viz. the path of relative motion between the constituents of the suspension system and the forces transmitted between them. Also, enhancement of mobility was made possible by maintaining the live axle in the system. A double wishbone, double coil spring with twin damper configuration was employed for this application. MBD Analysis was carried out using MSC ADAMS. A double wishboneindependent suspension has been designed for the front axle and has been successfully integrated with the vehicle.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(2, pp.178-183, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.337

  15. 浅述气压盘式制动器在城市客车上应用的可能性与可行性%Possibility and feasibility of air pressure disc brake applicated in city bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙吉宝; 温述波

    2012-01-01

    Analyse the possiblity and feasibility of air pressure disc brake applicated in city bus,focus on discussing the development of 5.5t disc brake front axle,and calculate the brake moment of disc brake front axle and drum brake front axle.%分析了气压盘式制动器在城市客车上应用的可能性与可行性,重点论述了5.5T盘式制动器前桥的开发,并对盘式制动器前桥与鼓式制动器前桥的制动力矩进行对比计算。

  16. Identification of cell surface molecules involved in dystroglycan-independent Lassa virus cell entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimojima, Masayuki; Ströher, Ute; Ebihara, Hideki; Feldmann, Heinz; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2012-02-01

    Although O-mannosylated dystroglycan is a receptor for Lassa virus, a causative agent of Lassa fever, recent findings suggest the existence of an alternative receptor(s). Here we identified four molecules as receptors for Lassa virus: Axl and Tyro3, from the TAM family, and dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) and liver and lymph node sinusoidal endothelial calcium-dependent lectin (LSECtin), from the C-type lectin family. These molecules enhanced the binding of Lassa virus to cells and mediated infection independently of dystroglycan. Axl- or Tyro3-mediated infection required intracellular signaling via the tyrosine kinase activity of Axl or Tyro3, whereas DC-SIGN- or LSECtin-mediated infection and binding were dependent on a specific carbohydrate and on ions. The identification of these four molecules as Lassa virus receptors advances our understanding of Lassa virus cell entry.

  17. Response of reinforced concrete and corrugated steel pipes to surface load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Geoff R.

    Full-scale simulated live load tests were conducted in a controlled laboratory setting using a single-axle frame on 600-mm-inner-diameter reinforced concrete pipe (RCP) and corrugated steel pipe (CSP) when buried in dense, well-graded sand and gravel. Measurements of the RCP at nominal and working forces and beyond are reported for 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m of soil cover above the pipe crown. The RCP experienced no cracking when buried at 0.3 m under nominal and working CL-625 and CL-800 single-axle design loads. At these loads, the vertical contraction of the pipe diameter was less than 0.08 and 0.10 mm and the largest tensile strains in the pipe were 75 and 100 muepsilon (50-60% of the cracking strain), respectively. A 0.15 (+/-0.05)-mm-wide axial crack developed at the inner crown in the presence of a 6 kNm/m circumferential bending moment (70% of the theoretical ultimate moment capacity) at the fully factored CL-625 load. This crack did not propagate or widen from 3 series of cyclic load-unload tests. At 1300 kN of applied load the change in pipe diameter was less than 3.5 mm. Increasing soil cover from 0.3 to 0.6 to 0.9 m reduced the circumferential crown bending moment from 6.0 to 3.9 to 2.1 kNm/m, respectively, at 400 kN of axle load. A 1.6- and a 2.8-mm-thick CSP were also subjected to axle loading. No yielding or limit states occurred in the 1.6-mm-thick CSP when buried 0.9-m-deep. However, at 0.6 m of cover a 300 kN axle load caused local yielding at the pipe crown. Increasing soil cover from 0.6 to 0.9 m decreased the vertical diameter change from -3.0 to -1.2 mm and the crown bending moment from 0.7 to 0.2 kNm/m (75% and 20% of the yield moment), respectively, at a 250 kN axle load. Deflections of the thicker CSP were less than the thinner pipe below the CL-625 single-axle load, however further increases in applied load produced a greater response in the thicker pipe, likely due to a haunch support issue. Shallow axle loading produced a greater 3-dimensional

  18. On the interaction between wheels and rails in railway dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slivsgaard, Eva Charlotte

    The present thesis is concerned with the mathematical modelling of a railway vehicle. The modelling does not only deal with the vehicle but also the track it runs on. Different models are described and investigated as to how they affect the dynamics of the vehicle. The bulk of the investigations...... of a period adding sequence. For the vehicle we use a two-car test vehicle with a prototype of a single-axle bogie (a so-called KERF bogie). The vehicle is from the Danish State Railways and runs on the Copenhagen network. What is special about this vehicle is that the single axle bogie is steered...

  19. THE CYTOGENETIC EFFECTS WITH LEAD NITROGENOUS TREATMENT AT HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L. FAVORIT AND PR64A83 CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Vlad-Rusen

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of some cytogenetic parameters shows that the nitrogenous lead application on Favorit and PR64A83 cultivars of sunflower exercises a light mutagenic effect on the cells of the root apex. At same time an intensification of the frequency of the ana-telophases with aberration takes place, especially of those with bridges, with lagging chromosomes, but also of those with fragments, demonstrating the perturbatory action that this substance exercises on the division axle. The apparition of a great number of metaphases with displayed chromosomes proves the perturbation of well function to division axle, effect signalized especially at the Favorit cultivar.

  20. Weigh in Motion Based on Parameters Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhi-feng; CAI Ping; CHEN Ri-xing

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic tire forces are the main factor affecting the measurement accuracy of the axle weight of moving vehicle. This paper presents a novel method to reduce the influence of the dynamic tire forces on the weighing accuracy. On the basis of analyzing the characteristic of the dynamic tire forces, the objective optimization equation is constructed. The optimization algorithm is presented to get the optimal estimations of the objective parameters. According to the estimations of the parameters, the dynamic tire forces are separated from the axle weigh signal. The results of simulation and field experiments prove the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Subsoil compaction caused by heavy sugarbeet harvesters in southern Sweden; II. soil displacement during wheeling and model computations of compaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arvidsson, J.; Trautner, A.; Akker, van den J.J.H.; Schjonning, P.

    2001-01-01

    Traffic with high wheel loads in combination with high inflation pressure implies a risk for subsoil compaction, but effects will depend on the soil strength. Soil displacement during traffic with a heavy sugarbeet harvester (total load approximately 35 Mg on two axles) was determined at 0.3, 0.5 an

  2. Mobility Exercise A (MEXA) Field Test Program. Report 4. Performance of Selected MEXA and Military Vehicles in Vertical Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    In the dynamic response model are listed In table Al. Body bounce 19. The vertical bounce of the body of the vehicle with respect to Its center of...for bounce and one for roll. The general equation that describes the vertical bounce of the axles is obtained by summing the total forces acting on

  3. Time-frequency analysis of wheel-rail shock in the presence of wheel flat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming Ding

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Against the deficiencies of traditional time domain and frequency domain analysis in detecting wheel-rail (W-R system hidden risks which wheel flats generate, the time-frequency characteristics of W-R shock caused by wheel flat are analyzed and the vehicle-rail dynamic model with wheel flat is investigated. The 10 degrees of freedom (DOF vehicle model is built up. 90-DOF rail model is constructed. The wheel flat excitation model is built up. The vehicle-track coupling dynamic model including wheel flat excitation is set up through nonlinear Hertzian contact theory. The vertical accelerations of axle box are calculated at different speeds and flat sizes based on the vehicle-track coupling dynamic model with wheel flat. Frequency slice wavelet transform (FSWT is employed to analyze time-frequency characteristics of axle box accelerations to detect the W-R noncontact risks s which the traditional time domain or frequency domain method does not analyze. The results show that the small flat size and high running speed lead to high frequency W-R impact. Large flat size and high running speed result in momentary loss of W-R contact, and there exist security risks between wheel and rail. The conclusion that the phase of axle box accelerations is same to W-R forces lays a theoretical foundation of monitoring W-R contact safety from axle box acceleration instead of traditional W-R force detection.

  4. Energy recuperation in fully electric vehicles subject to stability and drivability requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ólafsdóttir, J.M.; Lidberg, M.; Falcone, P.; Iersel, S. van; Jansen, S.T.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a combined control and estimation framework for energy recuperation in fully electric vehicles. We consider a fully electric powertrain, with a driven front axle operating on low friction road surfaces. Our objective is to find the blending of regenerative and friction braking th

  5. Simple Machine Junk Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herald, Christine

    2010-01-01

    During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,…

  6. The Fluid Foil: The Seventh Simple Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    A simple machine does one of two things: create a mechanical advantage (lever) or change the direction of an applied force (pulley). Fluid foils are unique among simple machines because they not only change the direction of an applied force (wheel and axle); they convert fluid energy into mechanical energy (wind and Kaplan turbines) or vice versa,…

  7. 49 CFR 230.112 - Wheels and tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheels and tires. 230.112 Section 230.112... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.112 Wheels and tires. (a) Mounting. Wheels shall be securely mounted on... wheels mounted on the same axle shall not vary more than 1/4 inch. (d) Tire thickness. Wheels may...

  8. 14 CFR 25.733 - Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tires. 25.733 Section 25.733 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 25.733 Tires. (a) When a landing gear axle is fitted with a single wheel and tire assembly, the wheel must be fitted with...

  9. Fault detection method for railway wheel flat using an adaptive multiscale morphological filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yifan; Zuo, Ming J.; Lin, Jianhui; Liu, Jianxin

    2017-02-01

    This study explores the capacity of the morphology analysis for railway wheel flat fault detection. A dynamic model of vehicle systems with 56 degrees of freedom was set up along with a wheel flat model to calculate the dynamic responses of axle box. The vehicle axle box vibration signal is complicated because it not only contains the information of wheel defect, but also includes track condition information. Thus, how to extract the influential features of wheels from strong background noise effectively is a typical key issue for railway wheel fault detection. In this paper, an algorithm for adaptive multiscale morphological filtering (AMMF) was proposed, and its effect was evaluated by a simulated signal. And then this algorithm was employed to study the axle box vibration caused by wheel flats, as well as the influence of track irregularity and vehicle running speed on diagnosis results. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method was verified by bench testing. Research results demonstrate that the AMMF extracts the influential characteristic of axle box vibration signals effectively and can diagnose wheel flat faults in real time.

  10. Analysis of Rail Vehicle Suspension Spring with Special Emphasis on Curving, Tracking and Tractive Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhalkar, M. A.; Bhope, D. V.; Vanalkar, A. V.

    2016-09-01

    The dynamics of the rail vehicle represents a balance between the forces acting between wheel and rail, the inertia forces and the forces exerted by suspension and articulation. Axial loading on helical spring causes vertical deflection at straight track but failures calls to investigate for lateral and longitudinal loading at horizontal and vertical curves respectively. Goods carrying vehicle has the frequent failures of middle axle inner suspension spring calls for investigation. The springs are analyzed for effect of stress concentration due to centripetal force and due to tractive and breaking effort. This paper also discusses shear failure analysis of spring at curvature and at uphill at various speeds for different loading condition analytically and by finite element analysis. Two mass rail vehicle suspension systems have been analyzed for vibration responses analytically using mathematical tool Matlab Simulink and the same will be evaluated using FFT vibration analyzer to find peak resonance in vertical, lateral and longitudinal direction. The results prove that the suspension acquires high repeated load in vertical and lateral direction due to tracking and curving causes maximum stress concentration on middle axle suspension spring as height of this spring is larger than end axle spring in primary suspension system and responsible for failure of middle axle suspension spring due to high stress acquisition.

  11. 40 CFR 86.094-14 - Small-volume manufacturers certification procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... displacement, the transmission with the highest numerical final gear ratio (including overdrive), the highest numerical axle ratio offered in the engine family, and the maximum fuel flow calibration. (2) Heavy-duty... the order listed, highest fuel flow at the speed of maximum rated torque, the engine with the...

  12. 49 CFR 229.45 - General condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... endanger the safety of the crew, locomotive or train. These conditions include: insecure attachment of components, including third rail shoes or beams, traction motors and motor gear cases, and fuel tanks; fuel... other structural infirmities of components, including quill drives, axles, gears, pinions,...

  13. Basic Skills Resource Center: Teaching Reading Comprehension to Adults in Basic Skills Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    infrahuman, cartoon caveman Ted Nugent, was hospitalized here recently after he took a header into a tree when his Ford Bronco snapped an axle...Am. 3. He crashed into a tree. 4. He was involved in a fight. 30. In this story, the word "throwback" probably means-- 1. a reference to a caveman . 2

  14. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXI, I--MAINTAINING THE AIR SYSTEM--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNDERSTANDING REAR END SUSPENSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE AIR SYSTEM AND REAR AXLE SUSPENSION USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) AIR INDUCTION AND EXHAUST SYSTEM, (2) VALVE MECHANISM, (3) TROUBLESHOOTING THE AIR SYSTEM, (4) PURPOSE OF VEHICLE SUSPENSION, (5) TANDEM…

  15. 23 CFR Appendix C to Part 658 - Trucks Over 80,000 Pounds on the Interstate System and Trucks Over STAA Lengths on the National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... all trailer(s) and converter dolly axles. A brake force limiting valve, sometimes called a “slippery... combination shall consist of a truck tractor, first semitrailer, fifth-wheel converter dolly, and a second semitrailer. The converter dolly may be either a separate unit or an integral component of the...

  16. Steerable wheel structure for ground vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frye, N.V.

    1988-09-27

    This patent describes a ground vehicle having a fore-and-aft body including transversely spaced apart, right and left, fore-and-aft supports: steerable wheel structure comprising transverse axle means disposed between the supports and having right and left end portions respectively adjacent to the right and left supports, a wheel journaled on the axle means intermediate the supports on a transverse horizontal axis, right and left carriers respectively on the right and left supports, each including a fixed element mounted fixedly on the associated support and a movable member arranged for selective fore-and-aft movement relative to the support and relative to each other, right and left connecting means connecting the right and left movable members respectively to the right and left end portions of the axle means for effecting steering of the wheel as one carrier moves forward and the other moves simultaneously rearwardly, and vice versa, at least one of the members at each side of the body being constructed to accommodate fore-and-aft swinging of the axle means during steering of the wheel, and means for moving the movable members simultaneously, one forwardly and the other rearwardly.

  17. Design Specifications for the Hanstholm WEPTOS Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Larsen, Tommy

    2012-01-01

    -moored and floating structure absorbs the energy of the waves through a multitude of rotors. The shape of the rotors is based on the renowned Salter’s Duck. On each leg, the rotors pivot around a common axle, through which the rotors transfer the absorbed power to a common power take off system. The study...

  18. Thermodynamic Analysis of Allosteric and Chelate Cooperativity in Di- and Trivalent Ammonium/Crown-Ether Pseudorotaxanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowosinski, Karol; von Krbek, Larissa K S; Traulsen, Nora L; Schalley, Christoph A

    2015-10-16

    A detailed thermodynamic analysis of the axle-wheel binding in di- and trivalent secondary ammonium/[24]crown-8 pseudorotaxanes is presented. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) data and double mutant cycle analyses reveal an interesting interplay of positive as well as negative allosteric and positive chelate cooperativity thus providing profound insight into the effects governing multivalent binding in these pseudorotaxanes.

  19. Self Healing of Asphalt Mixtures: Towards a Better Understanding of the Mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, J.

    2012-01-01

    Traffic is increasing rapidly in terms of number of vehicles and also in axle loads. In order to maximize the availability of the pavement and to minimize hindrances to traffic because of maintenance works, long life pavements are needed. An asphalt pavement with self repairing capabilities is belie

  20. 40 CFR 86.000-24 - Test vehicles and engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... listed, the highest road-load power, largest displacement, the transmission with the highest numerical final gear ratio (including overdrive), the highest numerical axle ratio offered in that engine family... is projected to be available with air conditioning regardless of the rate of installation of...

  1. 49 CFR 571.138 - Standard No. 138; Tire pressure monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... period corresponding to S7.1 filed pursuant to 49 CFR 585.66. The vehicles are counted in fulfillment of... those vehicles with dual wheels on an axle, according to the phase-in schedule specified in S7 of this....1General. To the extent provided in S7, each vehicle must be equipped with a tire pressure...

  2. Quantifying the effects of conservation practice implementation on predicted runoff and chemical losses under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool with downscaled weather data generated using the MarkSim weather file generator was used to evaluate the impact of long-term conservation practice implementation on runoff, sediment, atrazine, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses in the AXL Watershed located in n...

  3. Rolling Friction on a Wheeled Laboratory Cart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    A simple model is developed that predicts the coefficient of rolling friction for an undriven laboratory cart on a track that is approximately independent of the mass loaded onto the cart and of the angle of inclination of the track. The model includes both deformation of the wheels/track and frictional torque at the axles/bearings. The concept of…

  4. 挂车

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of dynamic lateral response for a multi-axle-steering tractor and trailer, Application of the Vortex Methods for Automotive Flows, Assessment of highway pavements for tire/road noise generation, Assessment of open-loop rollover control of articulated vehicles under different manoeuvres, Assistance systems for loading agricultural products。

  5. 49 CFR 571.109 - Standard No. 109; New pneumatic and certain specialty tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... tire and wheel assembly on a test axle and press it against a flat-faced steel test wheel 1708 mm (67....1, mount the tire and wheel assembly in accordance with S5.4.2.1, and press it against the test... request to the Vehicle Dynamics Division, Office of Crash Avoidance Standards, National Highway...

  6. Reliability Design of the City Rail Train Brake System Based on the Axis Control%基于轴控的城轨列车制动系统的可靠性设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文文; 姚恩涛; 游有鹏; 王辉

    2013-01-01

    压电比例阀是一种新型气动阀,轴控是以列车单轴作为基本控制对象.为提高系统的可靠性,从系统架构出发,分析了轴控制动系统的冗余设计方案;以制动单元为对象,建立了车控制动单元和轴控制动单元的广义随机Petri网(GSPN)的可靠性模型,对两个系统稳态的可靠性进行了对比,为制动系统的进一步完善提供了可靠的数学模型.%The piezoelectric proportional valve is a new type of pneumatic valve, axle control regards the single axle as the basic control object. From the architecture of the system, the redundant design of the axle control brake system is analyzed to improve the system reliability. Based on the brake unit, the reliability model of the vehicle control and axle control brake system of generalized stochastic Petri net( GSPN) is established and the reliability of the system steadiness is compared, which provides reliable mathematical model to improve the brake control system.

  7. Detection of generator bearing inner race creep by means of vibration and temperature analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros; Dragiev, Ivaylo G.; Hilmisson, Reynir;

    2015-01-01

    Vibration and temperature analysis are the two dominating condition monitoring techniques applied to fault detection of bearing failures in wind turbine generators. Relative movement between the bearing inner ring and generator axle is one of the most severe failure modes in terms of secondary da...

  8. Comparison of Classical and Modern Uncertainty Qualification Methods for the Calculation of Critical Speeds in Railway Vehicle Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigoni, Daniele; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; True, Hans

    2012-01-01

    . In this paper the methods are applied to a lowdimensional vehicle dynamical model composed by a two-axle bogie, which is connected to a car body by a lateral linear spring, a lateral damper and a torsional spring. Their characteristics are not deterministically defined, but they are defined by probability...

  9. Tappet Chill Depth Measuring by Magnetic Permeability and Inductance Displacement Meter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is possible to measure different position along the axle direction of tappet. According to the maximum output of signal, the boundary of white iron structure and mottled iron structure can be deduced, and at the same time, it is possible to use inductance displacement meter to show the chill depth which is the distance from the boundary to the end.

  10. Every Day a New 3D Printing Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Bill; Mona, Lynn; Wilson, Greg; Seamans, Jeff; McAninch, Steve; Stout, Heath

    2017-01-01

    A handful of technological episodes: fire, wheel and axle, Industrial Revolution, Faraday's discovery of electromagnetic induction, the transistor, and the digital age, have historically altered humanity. We are now witnessing/participating in the next transformational technology: 3D printing. Although dating back nearly 30 years, the technology…

  11. 78 FR 72861 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 20-Suffolk, Virginia, Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... portable light towers and diesel-powered generator sets for residential, commercial, and industrial applications. Pursuant to 15 CFR 400.14(b), FTZ activity would be limited to the specific foreign-status... assemblies; guide pulleys; winches; axles; tire-rim assemblies; clips; pins; brackets; bolts; junction...

  12. 采埃孚:全面展示未来卡车新技术%ZF Present Latest New Technologies and Products at IAA 2016

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云清

    2016-01-01

    During the event of IAA 2016, ZF demonstrated its latest technologies and products which had been developed in ifting current trend of commercial vehicles, including AVE 130 electronic-powe axle, Powerline auto-transimission, TraXon hybrid power system,etc. Al these products are part of high-efifciency and safety innovative solutions, aiming to realize the goal of Vision Zero.

  13. Vibration reduction on automotive shafts using piezoceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Holger; Riedel, Mathias; Schmidt, Knut; Bianchini, Emanuele

    2003-08-01

    This paper reports an experimental study on active vibration reduction for automotive shafts with the use of piezoelectric material. The work focuses on an axle of an Audi A2. The demand in the automobile sector for higher comfort in the vehicle is of a great importance alongside the requirements of lighter weight and low fuel consumption. These requirements are typically in conflict with each other. One solution is the use of intelligent materials instead of viscoelastic materials and proof mass absorbers. These solutions are quite heavy especially at low frequencies. Active vibration control and piezoelectric devices are advantageous in this application due to their low mass to performance ratio. Our research study explores the use of such piezoelectric devices for an axle. In conjunction with electronics it will reduce vibrations in the first natural bending mode of the axle. Laboratory tests simulated the condition present in the road. At first a stationary set up was used, then a simulated disturbance was input at the attachment points of the shaft. Finally, a test with rotating shaft was performed. Piezoelectric devices (custom QuickPacks from ACX, a Division of Cymer) were used as sensors and as actuators to properly control the axle during the different operating conditions. The power consumption of each actuator pair was less than 20W. The work described here details the test setup, the control strategy, the hardware implementation as well as the test results obtained.

  14. Operation mechanism of a molecular machine revealed using time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R. Panman; P. Bodis; D.J. Shaw; B.H. Bakker; A.C. Newton; E.R. Kay; A.M. Brouwer; W.J. Buma; D.A. Leigh; S. Woutersen

    2010-01-01

    Rotaxanes comprise macrocycles that can shuttle between docking stations along an axle. We explored the nanosecond shuttling mechanism by reversing the relative binding affinities of two stations through ultraviolet-induced transient reduction. We monitored the ensuing changes in the CO-stretching b

  15. Sequence Classification: 891153 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available calized to COPII-coated vesicles, involved in vesicle formation and incorporation of specific secretory cargo; required for the deliv...ery of bud-site selection protein Axl2p to cell surface; related to Drosophila cornichon; Erv14p || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/6321384 ...

  16. 49 CFR 661.11 - Rolling stock procurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... machines (8) Way side signals (9) Impedance bonds (10) Relay rack bungalows (11) Central computer control... of a bus. This list is not all-inclusive. Car body shells, egines, transmissions, front axle... assemblies, air compressor and pneumatic systems, generator/alternator and electrical systems,...

  17. 驱动桥

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Design optimization method for CAD structural components, Empirical models for commercial vehicle brake torque from experimental data, Investigation of the vehicle ride vibration effect on the driveline fluctuations, New auxiliary hydrostatic transmission for ag and forestry machines,New axles for on-highway market applications。

  18. 龆轮

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new approach to control a semi-active suspension using different optimal strategies;Analysis of an electric power-assisted steering system using bond graphs;Angular contact ball bearings for a rear axle differelltial;Application of bond graph technique and computer simulation to the design of passenger car steering system……

  19. Verge and Foliot Clock Escapement: A Simple Dynamical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The earliest mechanical clocks appeared in Europe in the 13th century. From about 1250 CE to 1670 CE, these simple clocks consisted of a weight suspended from a rope or chain that was wrapped around a horizontal axle. To tell time, the weight must fall with a slow uniform speed, but, under the action of gravity alone, such a suspended weight would…

  20. 49 CFR 393.47 - Brake actuators, slack adjusters, linings/pads and drums/rotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.47 Brake actuators... steering axle of a truck, truck-tractor or bus shall not be less than 4.8 mm (3/16 inch) at the shoe...

  1. Preliminary Assessment of Overweight Mainline Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration requested information regarding overweight and oversized vehicle traffic entering inspection stations (ISs) in order to develop strategies for future research efforts and possibly help guide regulatory issues involving overweight commercial motor vehicles (CMVs). For a period of one month, inspection stations in Knox County and Greene County, Tennessee, recorded overweight and oversized vehicles that entered these ISs. During this period, 435 CMVs were recorded using an electronic form filled out by enforcement personnel at the IS. Of the 435 CMVs recorded, 381 had weight information documented with them. The majority (52.2%) of the vehicles recorded were five-axle combination vehicles, and 50.6% of all the vehicles were permitted to operate above the legal weight limit in Tennessee, which is 80,000 lb for vehicles with five or more axles. Only 16.8% of the CMVs recorded were overweight gross (11.5% of permitted vehicles) and 54.1% were overweight on an axle group. The low percentage of overweight gross CMVs was because only 45 of the vehicles over 80,000 lb. were not permitted. On average, axles that were overweight were 2,000 lb. over the legal limit for an axle or group of axles. Of the vehicles recorded, 172 vehicles were given a North American Standard (NAS) inspection during the assessment. Of those, 69% of the inspections were driver-only inspections (Level III) and only 25% of the inspections had a vehicle component (such as a Level I or Level II). The remaining 6% of inspections did not have valid Aspen numbers; the type of was inspection unknown. Data collected on the types of trailers of each vehicle showed that about half of the recorded CMVs could realistically be given a Level I (full vehicle and driver) inspection; this estimate was solely based on trailer type. Enforcement personnel at ISs without an inspection pit have difficulty fully inspecting certain vehicles due to low clearance below the trailer

  2. 8×4重型自卸车制动性能分析%The analysisof braking performance for 8 × 4 heavy-duty dump truck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪伟; 赵刚; 章健国

    2014-01-01

    以某8×4重型自卸车为分析对象,建立了四轴汽车的制动力学模型,对该车在满载、超载情况下进行各轴载荷的计算,前、中、后桥制动力矩和制动力分配分析,在此基础上,提出了多轴汽车的行车制动性能分析方法,并与该车制动性能0型试验结果数据进行对比。实例分析结果表明,该方法简单、实用,能对四轴汽车行车制动性能进行有效分析。%Taking a 8 × 4 heavy-duty dump truck for the analysis of the object, the establishment of a four-axle system dynamics model car, the car at full load and overload conditions for the calculation of each axle load, front, middle and rear axle brake torque and manufacturing power distribution analysis. On this basis, an analysis method for braking performance of four-axle vehicle is proposed, and with the braking performance of the vehicle type-0 test result data are compared. The results of real sample analysis show that the method proposed is simple,pragmatic and can effectively analyze the braking performance of four-axle vehicles.

  3. Roll forging die design based on UG secondary development%UG二次开发在辊锻模具设计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏科; 王高潮; 李宁; 夏春林

    2011-01-01

    综合运用UG表达式法及UG二次开发工具UG/Open API、UG/0pen MenuScript、UG/Open UIStyler和Visual C++6.0,根据汽车前轴锻件的加工原理,开发了汽车前轴精制坯辊锻系统.在该系统中,前轴辊锻件和辊锻模参数化造型易于设计及修改,任何汽车前轴设计人员都能够方便的操作.该系统对提高汽车前轴辊锻模具设计的效率、缩短模具开发周期具有较强的实用价值,同时也为后期的辊锻模具制造和有限元模拟做好了强大的铺垫.%Combined with the method of UG expression and the tools of the UG secondary development including UG/Open MenuScript, UG/Open UIStyler, UG/Open API and Visual C+ +6.0,the roll-forging system of precision and billet on automotive front axle was developed based on the front axle forging process theory. In this system, the front axle forging and die was easily modified, and any front axle forging designer could handle it with much convenience.This method brings practical values for improving efficiency of front axle forging die design and shortening the die development period, meanwhile, making a strong fundament for the following roll-forging die production and finite element method.

  4. Dynamic Bridge Response for a Bridge-friendly Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Šmilauer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A truck with controlled semi-active suspensions traversing a bridge is examined for benefits to the bridge structure. The original concept of a road-friendly truck was extended to a bridge-friendly vehicle, using the same optimization tools. A half-car model with two independently driven axles is coupled with simply supported bridges (beam, slab model with the span range from 5 m to 50 m. Surface profile of the bridge deck is either stochastic or in the shape of a bump or a pot in the mid-span. Numerical integration in the MATLAB/SIMULINK environment solves coupled dynamic equations of motion with optimized truck suspensions. The rear axle generates the prevailing load and to a great extent determines the bridge response. A significant decrease in contact road-tire forces is observed and the mid-span bridge deflections are on average smaller, when compared to commercial passive suspensions. 

  5. Anion recognition and cation-induced molecular motion in a heteroditopic [2]rotaxane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontiev, Alexandre V; Jemmett, Charlotte A; Beer, Paul D

    2011-01-17

    A heteroditopic [2]rotaxane consisting of a calix[4]diquinone-isophthalamide macrocycle and 3,5-bis-amide pyridinium axle components with the capability of switching between two positional isomers in response to barium cation recognition is synthesised. The anion binding properties of the rotaxane's interlocked cavity together with Na(+) , K(+) , NH(4) (+) and Ba(2+) cation recognition capabilities are elucidated by (1) H NMR and UV-visible spectroscopic titration experiments. Upon binding of Ba(2+) , molecular displacement of the axle's positively charged pyridinium group from the rotaxane's macrocyclic cavity occurs, whereas the monovalent cations Na(+) , K(+) and NH(4) (+) are bound without causing significant co-conformational change. The barium cation induced shuttling motion can be reversed on addition of tetrabutylammonium sulfate.

  6. Dynamic Measurement for the Diameter of A Train Wheel Based on Structured-Light Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Gong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheels are very important for the safety of a train. The diameter of the wheel is a significant parameter that needs regular inspection. Traditional methods only use the contact points of the wheel tread to fit the rolling round. However, the wheel tread is easily influenced by peeling or scraping. Meanwhile, the circle fitting algorithm is sensitive to noise when only three points are used. This paper proposes a dynamic measurement method based on structured-light vision. The axle of the wheelset and the tread are both employed. The center of the rolling round is determined by the axle rather than the tread only. Then, the diameter is calculated using the center and the contact points together. Simulations are performed to help design the layout of the sensors, and the influences of different noise sources are also analyzed. Static and field experiments are both performed, and the results show it to be quite stable and accurate.

  7. Comparison of Final Drive Gear Lubricant Field Results to Laboratory Tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To meet the increasing needs to move goods and materials, transportation vehicles are logging an increasing number of kilometers each year. With increasing use of these vehicles comes the need to conserve fuel to save money and to conserve resources. New engines, transmissions and axles are being developed to further conserve fuel and to provide more efficient power sources. Southwest Research Institute, a leader in global automotive research, regularly performs tests to evaluate the power and fuel economy improvement of drive train hardware and lubricants. The Institute has recently provided services to design, develop, and perform test verification of a dynamometer stand that is capable of evaluating the efficiency of axle lubricants in heavy- duty use.

  8. A pH-sensitive peptide-containing lasso molecular switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel, Caroline; Fournel-Marotte, Karine; Coutrot, Frédéric

    2013-09-17

    The synthesis of a peptide-containing lasso molecular switch by a self-entanglement strategy is described. The interlocked rotaxane molecular machine consists of a benzometaphenylene[25]crown-8 (BMP25C8) macrocycle surrounding a molecular axle. This molecular axle contains a tripeptidic sequence and two molecular stations: a N-benzyltriazolium and a pH-sensitive anilinium station. The tripeptide is located between the macrocycle and the triazolium station, so that its conformation can be tailored depending on the shuttling of the macrocycle from one station to the other. At acidic pH, the macrocycle resides around the anilinium moiety, whereas it shuttles around the triazolium station after deprotonation. This molecular machinery thus forces the lasso to adopt a tightened or a loosened conformation.

  9. Long-range movement of large mechanically interlocked DNA nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Jonathan; Falgenhauer, Elisabeth; Kopperger, Enzo; Pardatscher, Günther; Simmel, Friedrich C.

    2016-08-01

    Interlocked molecules such as catenanes and rotaxanes, connected only via mechanical bonds have the ability to perform large-scale sliding and rotational movements, making them attractive components for the construction of artificial molecular machines and motors. We here demonstrate the realization of large, rigid rotaxane structures composed of DNA origami subunits. The structures can be easily modified to carry a molecular cargo or nanoparticles. By using multiple axle modules, rotaxane constructs are realized with axle lengths of up to 355 nm and a fuel/anti-fuel mechanism is employed to switch the rotaxanes between a mobile and a fixed state. We also create extended pseudo-rotaxanes, in which origami rings can slide along supramolecular DNA filaments over several hundreds of nanometres. The rings can be actively moved and tracked using atomic force microscopy.

  10. Dynamic Measurement for the Diameter of A Train Wheel Based on Structured-Light Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zheng; Sun, Junhua; Zhang, Guangjun

    2016-04-20

    Wheels are very important for the safety of a train. The diameter of the wheel is a significant parameter that needs regular inspection. Traditional methods only use the contact points of the wheel tread to fit the rolling round. However, the wheel tread is easily influenced by peeling or scraping. Meanwhile, the circle fitting algorithm is sensitive to noise when only three points are used. This paper proposes a dynamic measurement method based on structured-light vision. The axle of the wheelset and the tread are both employed. The center of the rolling round is determined by the axle rather than the tread only. Then, the diameter is calculated using the center and the contact points together. Simulations are performed to help design the layout of the sensors, and the influences of different noise sources are also analyzed. Static and field experiments are both performed, and the results show it to be quite stable and accurate.

  11. Fast tracking using edge histograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokita, Przemyslaw

    1997-04-01

    This paper proposes a new algorithm for tracking objects and objects boundaries. This algorithm was developed and applied in a system used for compositing computer generated images and real world video sequences, but can be applied in general in all tracking systems where accuracy and high processing speed are required. The algorithm is based on analysis of histograms obtained by summing along chosen axles pixels of edge segmented images. Edge segmentation is done by spatial convolution using gradient operator. The advantage of such an approach is that it can be performed in real-time using available on the market hardware convolution filters. After edge extraction and histograms computation, respective positions of maximums in edge intensity histograms, in current and previous frame, are compared and matched. Obtained this way information about displacement of histograms maximums, can be directly converted into information about changes of target boundaries positions along chosen axles.

  12. Geometric Filtering Effect of Vertical Vibrations in Railway Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Dumitriu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper herein examines the geometric filtering effect coming from the axle base of a railway vehicle upon the vertical vibrations behavior, due to the random irregularities of the track. For this purpose, the complete model of a two-level suspension and flexible carbody vehicle has been taken into account. Following the modal analysis, the movement equations have been treated in an original manner and brought to a structure that points out at the symmetrical and anti-symmetrical decoupled movements of vehicle and their excitation modes. There has been shown that the geometric filtering has a selective behavior in decreasing the level of vibrations, and its contribution is affected by the axle base magnitude, rolling speed and frequency range.

  13. 液下屏蔽电泵在氟化氢领域的应用%The application of canned pump under liquid in hydrofluoric acid field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘松林; 龚孝祥

    2012-01-01

    输送无水氟化氢的液下屏蔽泵常发生泵被卡死、电流偏高、打不起流量等故障,分析了输送无水氟化氢的液下屏蔽泵产生故障的原因,并进行了轴承、轴套、推力盘等相应的改造,保证了屏蔽泵的长周期稳定运行。%As the canned pump under liquid delivering anhydrous hydrofluoric acid broken down often such as the pump seized, electric current increased, flow lowered, so the fault cause of the canned pump was analyzed, then a long - periodic and stable running of the pump has been ensured by improving such axle bearing, axle sleeve, thrust collar etc.

  14. Screening bioactives reveals nanchangmycin as a broad spectrum antiviral active against Zika virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Keiko; Hackett, Brent; Weinbren, Nathan; Reeder, Sophia; Sadovsky, Yoel; Hunter, Christopher; Schultz, David C.; Coyne, Carolyn; Cherry, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus is an emerging arthropod-borne flavivirus for which there are no vaccines or specific therapeutics. We screened a library of 2000 ‘bioactive’ compounds for their ability to block Zika virus infection in three distinct cell-types with two different strains of Zika virus. Using a microscopy-based assay, we validated 38 drugs that inhibited Zika virus infection, including FDA approved nucleoside analogs. Cells expressing high levels of the attachment factor AXL can be protected from infection with receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, while placental-derived cells that lack AXL expression are insensitive to this inhibition. Importantly, we identified nanchangmycin as a potent inhibitor of Zika virus entry across all cell types tested including physiologically relevant primary cells. Nanchanmycin was also active against other medically relevant viruses including West Nile, dengue, and chikungunya virus that use a similar route of entry. This study provides a resource of small molecules to study Zika virus pathogenesis. PMID:28099856

  15. Soliton gyroscopes in media with spatially growing repulsive nonlinearity

    CERN Document Server

    Driben, Rodislav; Malomed, Boris A; Meier, Torsten; Torner, Lluis

    2013-01-01

    We find that the recently introduced model of self-trapping supported by a spatially growing strength of a repulsive nonlinearity gives rise to robust vortex-soliton tori, i.e., three-dimensional vortex solitons, with topological charges S. The family with S=1 is completely stable, while the one with S=2 has alternating regions of stability and instability. The families are nearly exactly reproduced in an analytical form by the Thomas-Fermi approximation (TFA). Unstable states with S=2 and 3 split into persistently rotating pairs or triangles of unitary vortices. Application of a moderate torque to the vortex torus initiates a persistent precession mode, with the torus' axle moving along a conical surface. A strong torque heavily deforms the vortex solitons, but, nonetheless, they restore themselves with the axle oriented according to the vectorial addition of angular momenta.

  16. A novel serrated columnar phased array ultrasonic transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Cheng; Sun, Zhenguo; Cai, Dong; Song, Hongwei; Chen, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Traditionally, wedges are required to generate transverse waves in a solid specimen and mechanical rotation device is needed for interrogation of a specimen with a hollow bore, such as high speed railway locomotive axles, turbine rotors, etc. In order to eliminate the mechanical rotation process, a novel array pattern of phased array ultrasonic transducers named as serrated columnar phased array ultrasonic transducer (SCPAUT) is designed. The elementary transducers are planar rectangular, located on the outside surface of a cylinder. This layout is aimed to generate electrically rotating transverse waveforms so as to inspect the longitudinal cracks on the outside surface of a specimen which has a hollow bore at the center, such as the high speed railway locomotive axles. The general geometry of the SCPAUT and the inspection system are illustrated. A FEM model and mockup experiment has been carried out. The experiment results are in good agreement with the FEM simulation results.

  17. 车身

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    [ 篇名 ] A hybrid method for vehicle axle noise simulation with experimental validation,[ 篇名 ] A linearized turbulent production in the k- ε model for engineering applications,[ 篇名 ] A Method for Estimating Axle Weights of In-motion Vehicles and Its Evaluation,[ 篇名 ] A new concept for occupant deceleration control in a crash - part 2,[ 篇名 ] A new experimental methodology to estimate chassis force transmissibility and applications to road NVH improvement,[ 篇名 ] A SMART ECOBIKE WITH RIM-MOTOR,[ 篇名 ] A study on optimum design for thin-walled beam structures of vehicles,[ 篇名 ] A study on the distortion characteristic due to spot welding of body structure assembly for passenger car,[ 篇名 ] A VIBRO-ACOUSTICAL INVESTIGATION FOR CAR ROLLING NOISE CHARACTERIZATION AND OPTIMIZATION,[ 篇名 ] 780 N/mm{sup }2 grade hot-rolled high-strength steel sheet for automotive suspension system。

  18. Repeated Load Permanent Deformation Behavior of Mixes With and Wihtout Modified Bituments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Hafeez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature rutting in flexible pavement structure is being observed on most of the road network of Pakistan. It initiates primarily due to uncontrolled axle loading and high ambient temperatures. NHA (National Highway Authority, Pakistan has continuously been modifying aggregate gradations and penetration grade of bitumen, without any prior investigation of the mix behaviour under the prevailing axle load and environmental conditions of the country. A comprehensive laboratory investigation was carried out on six mixes ranging from finer to coarser. Specimens were subjected to cyclic loading on UTM-5P (Universal Testing Machine to study the resistance against permanent deformation of the mixes at 25, 40 and 550C. At low temperatures and stress levels, both coarse and fine graded mixes showed less accumulated strain, whereas at higher temperatures and stress levels, coarse graded mix with PMB (Polymer Modified Bitumen showed good resistance to permanent deformation.

  19. Identification of dynamic stiffness matrix of bearing joint region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng HU; Bo WU; Youmin HU; Tielin SHI

    2009-01-01

    The paper proposes an identification method of the dynamic stiffness matrix of a bearing joint region on the basis of theoretical analysis and experiments. The author deduces an identification model of the dynamic stiffness matrix from the synthetic substructure method. The dynamic stiffness matrix of the bearing joint region can be identified by measuring the matrix of frequency response function (FRFs) of the substructure (axle) and whole structure (assembly of the axle, bearing, and bearing housing) in different positions. Considering difficulty in measuring angular displacement, applying moment, and directly measuring relevant FRFs of rotational degree of freedom, the author employs an accurately calibrated finite element model of the unconstrained structure for indirect estimation. With experiments and simulation analysis, FRFs related with translational degree of freedom, which is estimated through the finite element model, agrees with experimental results, and there is very high reliability in the identified dynamic stiffness matrix of the bearing joint region.

  20. System and method for weighing and characterizing moving or stationary vehicles and cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshears, David L [Knoxville, TN; Scudiere, Matthew B [Oak Ridge, TN; White, Clifford P [Seymour, TN

    2008-05-20

    A weigh-in-motion device and method having at least one transducer pad, each transducer pad having at least one transducer group with transducers positioned essentially perpendicular to the direction of travel. At least one pad microcomputer is provided on each transducer pad having a means for calculating first output signal indicative of weight, second output signal indicative of time, and third output signal indicative of speed. At least one host microcomputer is in electronic communication with each pad microcomputer, and having a means for calculating at least one unknown selected from the group consisting of individual tire weight, individual axle weight, axle spacing, speed profile, longitudinal center of balance, and transverse center of balance.

  1. Influence of velocity change on handling and stability of vehicle%车速变化对车辆操纵稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈士安; 顾彬彬; 邱峰; 何仁; 李春

    2009-01-01

    To improve the handling and stability of vehicle while velocity changing, a dynamic steering model was established, and all of the coefficients of differential equations describing the model changed with velocity change. The influence of velocity change on the handling and stability was quantitatively researched by varying parameter dynamic simulations. Study result shows that when vehicle decelerates, part load is transferred from rear axle to front axle caused by the positive longitudinal inertial force of vehicle, the corner stiffness of front axle increases, the corner stiffness of rear axle decreases, and vehicle steering gain increases, so the handling and stability of vehicle deteriorate. Vehicle steering gain increases more rapidly and obviously with higher early velocity and/or bigger deceleration. When vehicle accelerates, part load is transferred from front axle to rear axle caused by the negative longitudinal inertial force of vehicle, the corner stiffness of front axle decreases, the corner stiffness of rear axle increases, and vehicle steering gain decreases. Obviously, avoiding big deceleration, lowing vehicle mass center and enlarging wheelbase as far as possible during vehicle design and manufacture are effective methods to lessen the degree that the handling and stability become worse rapidly in slowing vehicle down. 3 tabs, 5 figs, 14 refs.%为了降低车速变化对车辆操纵稳定性的影响,建立了考虑车速变化的动态车辆转向运动模型,分析了描述模型的微分方程组所有系数都是随车速变化而时变的特性,通过变参数动态仿真,定量研究了车速变化对车辆操纵稳定性的影响.研究结果表明:减速时正的纵向车辆惯性力使后轴负荷向前轴转移,导致前轴侧偏刚度变大,后轴侧偏刚度变小,进而使车辆的横摆角速度增益增大,即车辆操纵稳定性变差;初始车速越高,减速度越大,车辆横摆角速度增益增大越快;加速时负的纵向

  2. Plug-in Hybrid Power Platform for Technology Development%插电式混合动力轿车动力平台技术开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩友国; 王若飞

    2015-01-01

    本文以某款PHEV轿车为研究对象,对混合动力平台进行开发研究,研究前桥混合动力驱动系统的集成及优化,对后桥电子驱动系统的设计及布置合理性进行分析讨论,并对整车安全性能进行研究分析,最终得出确定此混合动力平台技术可行。%Based on chery G3 PHEV cars as the research object, research on hybrid platform for development, research front axle hybrid drive system integration and optimization, the rear axle of electronic drive system design and arrangement of rationality analysis discussion, and through analyzing the performance of the vehicle safety, ultimately determine the hybrid platform technology is feasible.

  3. Increasing the Efficiency of Railway Transport by Improvement of Suspension of Freight Wagons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Petrović

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Railway transport has a very important role in economy of every country. The efficiency of railway transport depends both on the quality of transport organization and on the technical reliability of the railway rolling stock. During operation of the railway freight wagons in the last years, a large number of breaks of suspension system elements have been noticed. This feature is especially reported at four-axle double wagon for coal transport (designated Fbd and three-axle wagon for transport of cars (designated DDam. Frequent breaks of suspension system elements reduce the efficiency of transport and in some cases cause derailment of wagons and lead to large economic losses. In this paper, the causes of breakage of suspension on both wagons (Fbd and DDam have been analyzed, but also the possibilities of how to resolve these problems, i.e. how to reduce them to a minimum or avoid them completely.

  4. Structural Elucidation of the DFG-Asp in and DFG-Asp out States of TAM Kinases and Insight into the Selectivity of Their Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah Messoussi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Structural elucidation of the active (DFG-Asp in and inactive (DFG-Asp out states of the TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases is required for future development of TAM inhibitors as drugs. Herein we report a computational study on each of the three TAM members Tyro-3, Axl and Mer. DFG-Asp in and DFG-Asp out homology models of each one were built based on the X-ray structure of c-Met kinase, an enzyme with a closely related sequence. Structural validation and in silico screening enabled identification of critical amino acids for ligand binding within the active site of each DFG-Asp in and DFG-Asp out model. The position and nature of amino acids that differ among Tyro-3, Axl and Mer, and the potential role of these residues in the design of selective TAM ligands, are discussed.

  5. 细长轴车削加工工艺%The slender shaft turning processing technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铭勳

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, factors influencing the machining parts precision slender shaft is not high, analyzes how to raise processing precision of slender axle parts, gives the specific methods to solve the problem.%文章针对影响加工细长轴零件精度不高等因素,分析了如何提细长轴零件的加工精度,给出解决问题的具体方法。

  6. Correlation of central corneal thickness and axial length to the optic disc and peripapillary atrophy among healthy individuals, glaucoma and ocular hypertension patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis Moschos

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available George Tomais1, Gerasimos Georgopoulos2, Chryssanthi Koutsandrea2, Michalis Moschos21University of Athens, Department of Ophthalmology, Athens, Greece; 2Athens University Medical School, Department of Ophthalmology, Athens, GreecePurpose: Clinical observational study for the correlation between the central corneal thickness (CCT, axial length (AXL, optic disc area (D, cupping area (C and peripapillary atrophy (PPA, in healthy eyes (group A, eyes with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG (group B and eyes with ocular hypertension (OH (group C, in order to assess the possible contribution of this correlation to the diagnosis or prognosis of glaucoma.Methods: Ninety eyes of 90 persons participated in the study (30 eyes of 30 persons in each group. All eyes underwent intraocular pressure measurement, visual field testing, endothelial cell count (ECC, measurement of the CCT and AXL, and gonioscopy. After dilation of the pupil, a digital photograph of each optic disc was performed, followed by PPA, D area and C area measurements.Results: We found a statistically significant difference in the C/D area ratio between healthy and POAG eyes and a moderate negative relationship between AXL and D in healthy eyes. We also found a moderate negative relationship between CCT and C/D area ratio in POAG eyes and a strong negative relationship between PPA and D in OH eyes.Conclusions: CCT was not correlated with PPA and AXL in any one of the three groups. OH eyes seem to have more tolerant and stable disc and peripapillary area compared to healthy and POAG eyes.Keywords: glaucoma, peripapillary, cupping, corneal thickness, axial length, optic disc

  7. Self Healing of Asphalt Mixtures: Towards a Better Understanding of the Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, J

    2012-01-01

    Traffic is increasing rapidly in terms of number of vehicles and also in axle loads. In order to maximize the availability of the pavement and to minimize hindrances to traffic because of maintenance works, long life pavements are needed. An asphalt pavement with self repairing capabilities is believed to be very useful to this respect. The self healing phenomenon of asphalt mixtures is known for many years by road engineers. Bituminous materials are expected to repair themselves during hot s...

  8. Effects of Variation in Truck Factor on Pavement Performance in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Rabia Chaudry; Afsheen Bashir Memon

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal variation coupled with heavy axle loading is the key factor in rapid road deterioration in Pakistan. The serviceability loss is further accelerated by the fact that truck drivers and owners consider overloading as a profitable practice unaware of the adverse effects of this practice. Weigh-in-motion data from two stations located between two major cities of Pakistan (Peshawar and Rawalpindi) on Grand Trunk Road (N-5) were collected and analyzed. Analysis of variance and comparison of...

  9. Network Science Center Research Team’s Visit to Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    metal and old axles. The new model will primarily be constructed of bamboo which is abundant in Ethiopia and is a very durable material. Another...by China State Construction Engineering 3 | P a g e Network Science Center, West Point www.netscience.usma.edu 845.938.0804 Corporation as a...sustainable development. Construction of Road Interchange in Addis Ababa The hub is also supported by Center for Creative Leadership (CCL

  10. Light-powered, artificial molecular pumps: a minimalistic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Ragazzon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The realization of artificial molecular motors capable of converting energy into mechanical work is a fascinating challenge of nanotechnology and requires reactive systems that can operate away from chemical equilibrium. This article describes the design and construction of a simple, supramolecular ensemble in which light irradiation causes the directional transit of a macrocycle along a nonsymmetric molecular axle, thus forming the basis for the development of artificial molecular pumps.

  11. 大功率机车静态称重系统的设计与实现%The design and implementation of high power locomotive static weighing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉东; 伏滨; 高绍和; 杨纪富

    2015-01-01

    Articleabstract:To solve the problem after the new manufacture, use, repair of high power locomotive wheel load, axle load partial load problem, high-power locomotive static weighing system is designed and developed, the system through the detection of locomotive wheel load, axle load, heavy truck and vehicle weight, through computer processing to calculate the vehicle wheel load, axle load difference and unilateral lateral wheel weight difference, determine the plane of center of gravity of the locomotive, and can be calculated based on test result form guide adjustment scheme of locomotive wheel weight deviation, adjusting spring cushioned by the adjustment plan, so as to realize the locomotive wheel load, axle load balance.%为解决新制造、使用中、修理后的大功率机车轮重、轴重偏载问题,设计开发了大功率机车静态称重系统,该系统通过检测机车的轮重、轴重、转向架重及整车重量,经过计算机处理计算出车辆轮重差、轴重差以及单边侧轮重差,确定出机车的平面重心,并能依据检测结果计算形成指导机车轮重偏差的调整方案,依据调整方案进行调簧加垫,从而实现机车轮重、轴重均载平衡。

  12. The Influence of the Mounting Errors in RodToothed Transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Sachkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we consider an approximate transmission. The work is aimed at development of gear-powered transmission on parallel axes, which is RF patent-protected. The paper justifies a relevance of the synthesis of new kinds of engagement with the simplified geometry of the contacting condition. A typical solution for powered mechanisms received by F. L. Livinin and his disciples is characterized.The paper describes the arrangement of the coordinate systems used to obtain the function of the position of the gear-powered transmission consisting of two wheels with fifteen leads. For them, also the coordinates of the contact points are obtained, and errors of function of the position in tooth changeover are calculated. To obtain the function position was used a method of matrix transformation and equality of radius and unit normal vectors at the contact point. This transmission can be used in mechanical and instrumentation engineering, and other sectors of the economy. Both reducers and multipliers can be made on its basis. It has high manufacturability (with no special equipment required for its production, and a displacement function is close to linear.This article describes the influence of the axle spacing error on the quality of the transmission characteristics. The paper presents the graphic based relationships and tabular estimates for nominal axle spacing and offsets within 0.2 mm. This error of axle spacing is significant for gearing. From the results of this work we can say that the transmission is almost insensitive to errors of axle spacing. Engagement occurs without an exit of contact point on the lead edge. To solve the obtained system of equations, the numerical methods of the software MathCAD package have been applied.In the future, the authors expect to consider other possible manufacturing and mounting errors of gear-powered transmission (such as the error of the step, misalignment, etc. to assess their impact on the quality

  13. Damping of roll vibrations of vehicle suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, K. C.; Pieper, A.

    2014-04-01

    Small forced vibrations of an axle model of independent suspensions having four degrees of freedom are studied. The exact analytical solution of the generalised Lagrange equation enables one to produce 3D plots of the normalised amplitudes of forced vibrations versus frequency and excitation ratio or phase difference of the road inputs. The analysis of these plots exhibits some deficiency in damping of roll vibrations of conventional vehicle suspensions. The possibilities of improvement are discussed.

  14. Research present situation and analysis on classification of rock drillability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhi-hong; MA Qin-yong

    2001-01-01

    Rock drillability reflects the drill bit fragments rock hardly or easily. At present, rock drillability classification indexes have rock single-axle compressive strength, point load intensity,fracture stress during chiseling, drill speed, chiseling specific work, acoustic parameter, cutting magnitude, and so on. Every index reflects rock drillability but isn't overall. It is feasible that using many indexes of fuzzy mathematics method etc. to evaluate rock drillability.

  15. Second series of electric double locomotives for the North Scandinavian iron ore railway. Pt. 2. Field experience and project second series; Zweite Doppellokomotiv-Serie fuer die nordskandinavische Erzbahn. T. 2. Betriebserfahrung und Projektabwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambo, Gabor [Bombardier Transportation Schweiz, Zuerich (Switzerland); Olovsson, Jan [LKAB, Kiruna (Sweden); Buchholz, Karl-Heinz [Bombardier Transportation, Kassel (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Nine newly designed twelve axle electrical locomotives for hauling of 8.160 t iron ore trains have been delivered under a fi rst contract in a period till August 2004 to Kiruna, Sweden. After gaining experience on fi eld with subarctic conditions and as the further demand on iron ore in a world market raised in 2007 LKAB decided to call for tenders for further four double locomotives and optional up to three additional locomotives. (orig.)

  16. Planification et exécution de mouvements pour un robot bi-guidable: une approche basée sur la platitude différentielle

    OpenAIRE

    Hermosillo, Jorje

    2003-01-01

    http://emotion.inrialpes.fr/bibemotion/2003/Her03/ voir basilic Inst. Nat. Polytechnique de GrenobleGrenoble (FR); This dissertation addresses the problem of planning and executing motions for a special class of four-wheel robot with double steering axles: we call bi-steerable car a vehicle capable of steering its rear wheels in function of the front steering angle. The differential equations describing the control system set new problems of motion planning and control in mobile robotics. The...

  17. The Otto-engine-equivalent vehicle concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, M. W.; Couch, M. D.

    1978-01-01

    A vehicle comparison methodology based on the Otto-Engine Equivalent (OEE) vehicle concept is described. As an illustration of this methodology, the concept is used to make projections of the fuel economy potential of passenger cars using various alternative power systems. Sensitivities of OEE vehicle results to assumptions made in the calculational procedure are discussed. Factors considered include engine torque boundary, rear axle ratio, performance criteria, engine transient response, and transmission shift logic.

  18. 流体润滑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Self-organization in friction and lubrication processes at cutting;An experimental model for mixed friction during running-in;Spring-supported thrust bearings used in hydroelectric generators: finite element analysis of pad deflection;Spring-supported thrust bearings used in hydroelectric generators: limit of hydrodynamic lubrication;Basic study on transmitted characteristic of crossed axle type traction drive;Characterization of pit geometry in cold-rolled stainless steel strip。

  19. An Efficient Energy Management Strategy, Unique Power Split & Energy Distribution, Based on Calculated Vehicle Road Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    gearbox with pneumatic shift actuator. The differential connects to the final drives at the front axle. There are wheel end reduction units (WERU) at...regenerative braking or simulated engine braking . AVL Hybrid Control System (HCU) coordinates and controls all system components as laid out in Figure...HMMWV for the current given inputs based on the current vehicle speed, acceleration pedal, and brake pedal. From this driver requested power at the

  20. Efficient Hybrid Propulsion System Development and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    utilize real measurements and parameters within the simulation model [3,4,5]. Moreover, it is also important to build a single core control model in...ICE, engine disconnect clutch , ISG, 6-speed automatic transmission, differential, final drives at the rear axle; FMOT, 2-speed manual transmission...calculation, torque management, safety limit monitoring and fault tolerance, component/local and system/global efficiency calculations, power split

  1. An investigation on development of the planetary gearheads for small precision mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joo Han; Chung, Jung Kee; Sung, Ha Kyeong [Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Planetary gearheads are widely used in the transmissions of small precision mechanism, automation, robotics, heavy machinery and marine vehicles. Planetary gearheads have advantages that same-axle structure, high torque transmission, low noise in comparison with spur gearheads. And, planetary gearheads are typically specified in applications where space is limited. In this study included planetary type gearheads design, manufacture, efficiency test. Especially, this time performed gear mesh stiffness simulation and vibration analysis for planetary gearheads.

  2. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF CONCRETE PERFORMANCE USING FINITE ELEMENT APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Parjoko, Y. H.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to understand the effect of applying several parameters: different axle load configuration, concrete properties, subgrade properties, slab thickness, joint characteristics, shoulder construction, bounded HMA overlay on concrete pavement, and bounded and unbounded CTB foundation over subgrade on the fatigue and erosion related distresses in concrete pavements. KENSLAB, an elaborate finite element program is used to determine the concrete pavement responses: stresses and deflect...

  3. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF DYNAMIC QUALITIES OF FREIGHT CARS WITH BOGIES OF DIFFERENT DESIGNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. With the advent of new designs of freright cars the task of designing the more modern bogies, assessment of their dynamic properties depending on the type and structure of pecularities, accounting the axle loadings, providing the dynamic and running characteristics, meeting the conditions of impact on the track, stability, and frame forces intensity etc. becomes especially important. In order to launch the new production into manufacture and to assess the dynamic properties using different designs of bogies the running testes were conducted. They allowed one to compare the dynamic performance of the new bogie with the existing models. Methodology. The study was conducted using the method of numerical integration and mathematical modeling of dynamic loading of freight cars using the software package «Dynamics of Rail Vehicles» («DYNRAIL». Findings. The results of studies of dynamic characteristics of open cars with new and worn wheels of bogie models 18-9771, 18-9770 and 18-578 in graphical and tabular form are presented. All figures are within the normative values and do not exceed the maximum admissible ones. Originality. When designing the bogie for loading 23.5 t/axle almost all available technical solutions to improve the characteristics of the freight car bogies (elastic bearers, cassette bearing in axle boxes, axle boxe adapter of original design, bilinear central spring suspension, etc. were used. Practical value. As a result of the engineering works on projecting and manufacturing of the improved designs of freight car bogies a new design was received. It is highly competitive with the dynamic qualities of the best ones. Made choice of rational values of elastic-dissipative parameters of the bogie allows one to create standard series of running gears for freight cars for promising operating conditions.The results are of practical importance. They have found reflection in the number of author’spublications in special and

  4. Effect of ocular magnification on macular measurements made using spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohana Kuppuswamy Parthasarathy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to study the effect of ocular magnification on macular measurements made using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty-one subjects were included from the normative study of foveal morphology carried out at our hospital. Subjects underwent comprehensive eye examination and macular scanning using Cirrus high-definition OCT and axial length (AXL measurement. Macular cube 512 × 128 scan protocol was used for scanning the macula. Automated measurements of the fovea namely foveal diameter, foveal slope (lateral measurements and foveal depth (axial measurement were taken. A correction factor for ocular magnification was done using the formula t = p × q × s, where "t0" is the corrected measurement, "p" is the magnification of OCT, "q0" is the ocular magnification, and "s" is the measurement on OCT without correction. The difference between corrected and uncorrected measurements was evaluated for statistical significance. Results: Mean AXL was 22.95 ± 0.78 mm. Refractive error ranged from −3D to +4D. Mean difference between measured and corrected foveal diameter, slope and depth was 166.05 ± 95.37 ΅m (P < 0.001, 0.81° ± 0.53° (P < 0.001 and 0.05 ± 0.49 ΅m (P = 0.178 respectively. AXL lesser than the OCT calibrated value of 24.46 mm showed an increased foveal diameter (r = 0.961, P < 0.001 and a reduced foveal slope (r = −0.863, P < 0.001 than the corrected value. Conclusion: Lateral measurements made on OCT varied with AXL s other than the OCT calibrated value of 24.46 mm. Therefore, to estimate the actual dimensions of a retinal lesion using OCT, especially lateral dimensions, we recommend correction for the ocular magnification factor.

  5. Evaluation of Anterior Chamber Volume in Cataract Patients with Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwen He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the anterior chamber volume in cataract patients with Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography (SS-OCT and its influencing factors. Methods. Anterior chamber volume of 92 cataract patients was evaluated with SS-OCT in this cross-sectional study. Univariate analyses and multiple linear regression were used to investigate gender, age, operated eye, posterior vitreous detachment, lens opacity grading, and axial length (AXL related variables capable of influencing the ACV. Results. The average ACV was 139.80 ± 38.21 mm3 (range 59.41 to 254.09 mm3. The average ACV was significantly larger in male patients than in female patients (P=0.001. ACV was negatively correlated with age and LOCS III cortical (C grading of the lens (Pearson’s correlation analysis, r=-0.443, P<0.001, and Spearman’s correlation analysis, ρ=-0.450, P<0.001. ACV was also increased with AXL (Pearson’s correlation analysis, r=0.552, P<0.001. Multiple linear regression showed that, with all of the covariates entered into the model, gender (P=0.002, age (P=0.015, LOCS III C grade (P=0.043, and AXL (P=0.001 were still associated with ACV (F=10.252  P<0.001  R2=0.498. Conclusion. With SS-OCT, we found that, in healthy cataract patients, ACV varied significantly among different subjects. Influencing factors that contribute to reduced ACV were female gender, increased age, LOCS III C grade, and shorter AXL.

  6. Steered wheel for the support and/or steering of a vehicle, particularly hovercraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duell, H.J.; Kirchner, G.

    1977-04-07

    The invention concerns a steered wheel for the support or steering of a hovercraft, whose wheel suspension is provided with an eccentric journal for automatic setting in the direction of travel. So that the vehicle will not leave its track during changes of direction when the wheel is turned around the eccentric axis, according to the invention the wheel is supported on movable bearings at the journal in the direction of the driving axle.

  7. Determination of Practical ESALs Per Truck Values on Indiana Roads

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    The Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) has been using ESAL (Equivalent Single Axle Load) values for pavement design. The current ESAL values were obtained in the late 1970. However, truck deregulation and higher allowable maximum loads have increased the 1970's values. Updated ESAL values are needed for better road designs. The 1998 and 1999 traffic data from the all Weight-in-Motion (WIM) stations were obtained and used to compute updated ESAL values for multiple unit trucks (Class...

  8. STUDIES REGARDING THE DETERMINATION OF THE ADEQUATE ASSEMBLY TOLERANCES DEPENDING ON THE MANUFACTURING COSTS OF THE PARTS PROCESSED ON CLASSIC MACHINE TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanţa RĂDULESCU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a study case regarding the determination of adequate assembly tolerances. The study concerned the assembly of two bearings on an axle. Determining the adequate tolerances of the sizes chains is based on Lagrange’s multipliers use. The optimization criterion for determining the assembly tolerances is the minimization of the product achievement cost. The relation between tolerances and cost will be revealed in a graphic component

  9. Identification and regulation of receptor tyrosine kinases Rse and Mer and their ligand Gas6 in testicular somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, M C; Mather, J P; McCray, G; Lee, W M

    2000-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases act to convey extracellular signals to intracellular signaling pathways and ultimately control cell proliferation and differentiation. Rse, Axl, and Mer belong to a newly identified family of cell adhesion molecule-related receptor tyrosine kinase. They bind the vitamin K-dependent protein growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6), which is also structurally related to the anticoagulation factor Protein S. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible role of Rse/Axl/Mer tyrosine kinase receptors and their ligand in regulating testicular functions. Gene expression of Rse, Axl, Mer, and Gas6 in the testis was studied by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Northern blot analysis. The results indicated that receptors Rse and Mer and the ligand Gas6 were expressed in the rat endothelial cell line (TR1), mouse Leydig cell line (TM3), rat peritubular myoid cell line (TRM), mouse Sertoli cell line (TM4), and primary rat Sertoli cells. Axl was not expressed in the testicular somatic cells by RT-PCR or Northern blot analysis. The highest level of expression of Gas6 messenger RNA (mRNA) was observed in the Sertoli cells, and its expression was responsive to the addition of forskolin in vitro. The effects of serum, insulin, and transferrin on Gas6 expression by TM4 cells were examined. It was shown that they all exhibited an up-regulating effect on Gas6 expression. The forskolin-stimulated Gas6 expression was accompanied by an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of the Rse receptor in vitro, suggesting that Gas6 may exhibit an autocrine effect in the Sertoli cells through multiple tyrosine kinase receptors. Our studies so far have demonstrated that tyrosine kinase receptors Rse and Mer and their ligand Gas6 are widely expressed in the testicular somatic cell lines and may play a marked role in promoting testicular cell survival.

  10. SAE J1321 Testing Using M1083A1 FMTVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Lubrican ts Research Facility (TFLRF) located at Southwest Research I nstitute (SwRI), San Antonio, Texas, perf ormed this work durin g the per iod ...In contrast , the candidate axle oil sh owed a negative im pact on fuel effi ciency between the tested candidate and baseline fluids. A large number...losses and less heat produced in the bulk fluid from this m anner. However, this is coun tered by an in crease in hea t production at the sliding

  11. Targeting Nuclear EGFR: Strategies for Improving Cetuximab Therapy in Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Cambridge, United Kingdom ). With this equip- ment the positively stained DAB reaction was measured and expressed as percentage of positive stained area in...E-Mail: dlwheeler@wisc.edu 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...tyrosine (pan-Tyr). Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc.: AXL (for immunoprecipitation; IP), E-Cadherin, vimentin, and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)– conjugated

  12. Changes in inertia and effect on turning effort across different wheelchair configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspall, Jayme J; Seligsohn, Erin; Dao, Phuc V; Sprigle, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    When executing turning maneuvers, manual wheelchair users must overcome the rotational inertia of the wheelchair system. Differences in wheelchair rotational inertia can result in increases in torque required to maneuver, resulting in greater propulsion effort and stress on the shoulder joints. The inertias of various configurations of an ultralightweight wheelchair were measured using a rotational inertia-measuring device. Adjustments in axle position, changes in wheel and tire type, and the addition of several accessories had various effects on rotational inertias. The configuration with the highest rotational inertia (solid tires, mag wheels with rearward axle) exceeded the configuration with the lowest (pneumatic tires, spoke wheels with forward axle) by 28%. The greater inertia requires increased torque to accelerate the wheelchair during turning. At a representative maximum acceleration, the reactive torque spanned the range of 11.7 to 15.0 N-m across the wheelchair configurations. At higher accelerations, these torques exceeded that required to overcome caster scrub during turning. These results indicate that a wheelchair's rotational inertia can significantly influence the torque required during turning and that this influence will affect active users who turn at higher speeds. Categorizing wheelchairs using both mass and rotational inertia would better represent differences in effort during wheelchair maneuvers.

  13. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankun Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking safety in emergency braking condition; the bottom layer is used to maximize the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency with a reallocated braking torque strategy; the reallocated braking torque strategy can recovery braking energy as much as possible in the premise of meeting battery charging power. The simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical control strategy is reasonable and can adapt to different typical road surfaces and load cases; the vehicle braking stability and safety can be guaranteed; furthermore, the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency can be improved.

  14. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiankun; He, Hongwen; Liu, Wei; Guo, Hongqiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking safety in emergency braking condition; the bottom layer is used to maximize the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency with a reallocated braking torque strategy; the reallocated braking torque strategy can recovery braking energy as much as possible in the premise of meeting battery charging power. The simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical control strategy is reasonable and can adapt to different typical road surfaces and load cases; the vehicle braking stability and safety can be guaranteed; furthermore, the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency can be improved. PMID:26236772

  15. Changes in inertia and effect on turning effort across different wheelchair configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayme J. Caspall, MS

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available When executing turning maneuvers, manual wheelchair users must overcome the rotational inertia of the wheelchair system. Differences in wheelchair rotational inertia can result in increases in torque required to maneuver, resulting in greater propulsion effort and stress on the shoulder joints. The inertias of various configurations of an ultralightweight wheelchair were measured using a rotational inertia-measuring device. Adjustments in axle position, changes in wheel and tire type, and the addition of several accessories had various effects on rotational inertias. The configuration with the highest rotational inertia (solid tires, mag wheels with rearward axle exceeded the configuration with the lowest (pneumatic tires, spoke wheels with forward axle by 28%. The greater inertia requires increased torque to accelerate the wheelchair during turning. At a representative maximum acceleration, the reactive torque spanned the range of 11.7 to 15.0 N-m across the wheelchair configurations. At higher accelerations, these torques exceeded that required to overcome caster scrub during turning. These results indicate that a wheelchair's rotational inertia can significantly influence the torque required during turning and that this influence will affect active users who turn at higher speeds. Categorizing wheelchairs using both mass and rotational inertia would better represent differences in effort during wheelchair maneuvers.

  16. Graftpolyrotaxane: Graft polymer possessing movable graft chains on cyclodextrins as the polyrotaxane wheels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashima, T; Hinoue, K; Kihara, N; Hayashi, M; Koyama, Y; Takata, T, E-mail: ttakata@polymer.titech.ac.j [Department of Organic and Polymeric Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2009-08-01

    Graftpolyrotaxanes having graft chains on the wheel components were prepared from main chain-type polyrotaxane having monofunctional cyclodextrin wheels and terminal end-reactive poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). The well-defined polyrotaxane having mono(6-hydroxyl) permethyl-{alpha}-CD (monoOH-{alpha}-CD) as the wheel components and a polytetrahydrofuran (PTHF) axle with bulky end-capping groups was synthesized by the two pathways; (i) synthesis by solid-state end-capping of pseudopolyrotaxane consisting of monoOAc-{alpha}-CD and hydroxy-terminated PTHF and (ii) one-pot synthesis using monoOH-{alpha}-CD and amine-terminated PTHF in water. The grafting reaction on the wheel moieties of the resulting polyrotaxane was carried out by acylation reaction with PEG-mono-carboxylic acid derivatives in high conversion yields. To estimate the relative rotary movement of CDs and the axle polymer in the polyrotaxane and graftpolyrotaxane, the rotational correlation time ({tau}{sub c}) of polyrotaxanes was estimated from the longitudinal relaxation time (T{sub 1}) of {sup 13}C NMR. The results clearly indicate that the graftpolyrotaxane described here is a new type of graft polymer in terms of the special circumrotation behavior such as the independent rotary movement of CDs with the graft chain and the axle polymer.

  17. Pavement Response to Variable Tyre Pressure of Heavy Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Ahmad Kamil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the effect of overinflated tyre pressure and increased heavy vehicles’ axle load on flexible pavements has become a subject of great concern because of the higher stress levels induced and damage caused to road pavements. This paper aims to evaluate the effect of variable tyre inflation pressures (using actual tyre contact/footprint area to determine the responses of flexible pavement. A full scale experiment was conducted on a heavy vehicle with 1:1:2 axle configuration, 10 R 20 tyre size and attached trailer with constant axle load. Measurements were made for actual tyre-pavement contact area. KENPAVE linear elastic program was then used to analyse the effects of the measured actual tyre-pavement contact area and the results was compared using conventional circular tyre contact area. A comparative analysis was then made between the actual contact area and the conventional circular tyre contact area. It was found that high tyre inflation pressure produce smaller contact area, giving more detrimental effect on the flexible pavement. It was also found that the temperature of tyres when the heavy vehicles are operational give less significant impact on tyre inflation pressure for the Malaysian climate.

  18. Monocyte and plasma expression of TAM ligand and receptor in renal failure: Links to unregulated immunity and chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Iris J; Hilliard, Brendan A; Ulas, Mehriban; Yu, Daohai; Vangala, Chandan; Rao, Swati; Lee, Jean; Gadegbeku, Crystal A; Cohen, Philip L

    2015-06-01

    Chronic inflammation is increased in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Specific immune mechanisms and pathways that drive and maintain chronic inflammation in CKD are not well described. The TAM ligands (Gas6 and protein S) and receptors (Axl and Mer) have been recently recognized as playing a prominent role in immune regulation. The receptors exist in both soluble and cell-bound forms; the soluble receptors (sAxl and sMer) are believed to compete with the bound receptors and thus inhibit their function. In this study, we determined the expression of cell-bound and soluble TAM proteins in patients with CKD. CKD patients had significantly lower expression of Mer in monocytes, yet increased expression of soluble TAM receptors sAxl and sMer in plasma compared to controls. The metalloproteinase ADAM 17, responsible for cleavage of Mer to its soluble form, was increased in patient monocytes. Elevated levels of soluble TAM receptors were more evident in patients with progressive renal failure. These observations suggest that functional deficiency of TAM receptor-mediated regulation of inflammation may contribute to chronic inflammation in patients with CKD.

  19. Evaluation of Anterior Chamber Volume in Cataract Patients with Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenwen; Zhu, Xiangjia; Wolff, Don; Zhao, Zhennan; Sun, Xinghuai; Lu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the anterior chamber volume in cataract patients with Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography (SS-OCT) and its influencing factors. Methods. Anterior chamber volume of 92 cataract patients was evaluated with SS-OCT in this cross-sectional study. Univariate analyses and multiple linear regression were used to investigate gender, age, operated eye, posterior vitreous detachment, lens opacity grading, and axial length (AXL) related variables capable of influencing the ACV. Results. The average ACV was 139.80 ± 38.21 mm(3) (range 59.41 to 254.09 mm(3)). The average ACV was significantly larger in male patients than in female patients (P = 0.001). ACV was negatively correlated with age and LOCS III cortical (C) grading of the lens (Pearson's correlation analysis, r = -0.443, P ACV was also increased with AXL (Pearson's correlation analysis, r = 0.552, P ACV (F = 10.252  P ACV varied significantly among different subjects. Influencing factors that contribute to reduced ACV were female gender, increased age, LOCS III C grade, and shorter AXL.

  20. Automotive stamped part fatigue design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caudoux Mélanie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue design of automotive axle parts is of prior concern because of these are high safety parts and they are expected to drive the overall vehicle mass reduction. In this framework, the stamping process is widely used to form axle parts, before assembling them by welding. Consequently, the mechanical and physical characteristics of the blank sheet are modified, having a strong influence on the fatigue behavior. In this paper, we address the consequences of the stamped process on the fatigue design and how they may be effectively taken into account in the automotive industry. Actually, the coupling between the stamping process and the fatigue design is under development at PSA Peugeot Citroën Company since several years. Such an analysis deals with some major topics: thickness variation, plastic hardening and deformation, and residual stress. All of these ingredients result in fatigue criteria evolutions: it is important to stress that the stamping process can have advantageous or disadvantageous consequences on the fatigue design. This is here highlighted on some examples, dealing with front and rear axles.

  1. Simulating the Effects of Surface Roughness on Reinforced Concrete T Beam Bridge under Single and Multiple Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Kalyankar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the application of the spatial system of finite element modeling for the vehicle-bridge interaction on reinforced concrete US Girder Bridge in order to obtain the effect of surface roughness. Single vehicle and multiple vehicles on reinforced concrete T beam bridge were studied with variable surface roughness profiles. The effects of six different surface roughness profiles (very good, good, measured, average, poor, and very poor were investigated for vehicle-bridge interaction. The values of the Dynamic Amplification Factor (DAF were obtained for single and multiple vehicles on T Beam Bridge for different surface roughness profiles, along with the distances between the axles of heavy vehicle. It was observed that when the bridge has very good, good, measured, and average surface roughness, the DAF values for the single vehicle over the bridge were observed to be within acceptable limits specified by AASHTO. However, for the bridge with multiple vehicles only very good and measured surface roughness profiles showed a DAF and vehicle axle distances within the acceptable limits. From the current studies, it was observed that the spatial system showed reliable responses for predicting the behavior of the bridge under variable road surface roughness conditions and was reliable in vehicle axle detection, and therefore, it has a potential to be use for realistic simulations.

  2. Research on optimization control of braking force further distri-bution for subway train%地铁列车制动力再分配优化控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱琴跃; 王景熙; 申朝旭; 谭喜堂

    2015-01-01

    For the problem that the electro-pneumatic braking force distribution strategy of existing subway trains hasn't fully considered the different demands of braking force applied to different train axles, the optimization control algorithm of the further distribution of braking force on different train axles is presented. On analysis of electro-pneumatic cooperative control strategy of electric brake priority for the basic control unit making up of 2 motor cars and 1 trailer car in the certain Beijing subway train, the optimization algorithm based on the axle load transfer is put forward, which proposes that the braking force is applied proportionally to different train axles in terms of the pressures withstood by their corresponding wheel pairs. By using Matlab/Simulink software to model and simulate above algorithm, the braking force distribution and changes under different braking conditions are analyzed. The results show that the braking force further distribution optimization strategy which is based on the axle load transfer helps to improve the anti-slip property and stable braking effect. And the expected result has been achieved.%针对现有地铁列车在电-空制动力分配控制策略中没有充分考虑各轴应施加制动力存在差异的问题,对制动力再分配优化控制算法进行了研究.在对电制动优先的电-空制动力协调分配算法进行分析的基础上,以北京某地铁列车中2动1拖基本制动单元为研究对象,基于轴重转移原则,提出了根据各轮对所承受压力的大小按比例再分配空气制动力的优化控制算法,并通过Matlab/Simulink软件对地铁列车处于不同制动工况下制动力的再分配情况进行了仿真和分析.仿真结果表明,基于轴重转移的各轴空气制动力再分配优化控制策略有助于改善列车防滑性能、提高列车平稳制动的效果,达到了预期目标.

  3. A Research on the ABS Test Method for Four-Wheel-Drive Vehicle Equipped with Viscous Coupler%装备黏性联轴器四驱车辆的ABS试验方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢东明; 苑林; 郭勇; 梁荣亮; 高吉强; 李卫军; 齐辉平

    2012-01-01

    In the antilock braking system ( ABS) test for four-wheel-drive vehicle equipped with viscous coupler, when traditional disposal ( making failure of one axle's braking) is adopted, the adhesion coefficient obtained of low-adhesion lane far exceeds the real value. The reason is revealed through the in-depth analyses in this paper that when one axle's braking fails, there is a significant difference between the rotation speeds of front and rear axles caused by the variation of tires slip ratio, leading to the occurrence of hump phenomena in viscous coupler, then the front and rear axles become quasi-rigid connected and all the wheels involve in braking. Therefore it is suggested that in the ABS test for four-wheel-drive vehicle equipped with viscous coupler, the input shaft of viscous coupler should be dismounted for making only one axle involved in braking, so that a right adhesion coefficient can be obtained.%装备黏性联轴器的四驱车辆在进行防抱死制动系统的试验中,按照传统的使单轴制动失效的办法获得的低附路面附着系数远高于试验路面实际的附着系数.文中通过分析揭示了其原因是:单轴制动失效时前、后轴轮胎滑移率变化造成转速差过大而产生驼峰现象,前、后轴形成准刚性连接而共同参与制动.因此,装备黏性联轴器的四驱车辆在进行ABS路面附着系数试验时应将黏性联轴器输入轴拆除,使之仅有单轴参与制动,才能获得正确的路面附着系数.

  4. 细胞凋亡在维生素 K2抑制高磷诱导的大鼠血管平滑肌细胞钙化中的作用%Ettects ot Cell Apoptosis on High-phosphorus-induced Rat Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Calcitication Inhibited by Vitamin K2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白亚玲; 徐金升; 张睦清; 张胜雷; 张俊霞; 崔立文; 张慧然

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of vitamin K2 on high - phosphorus - induced calcification of rat vascular smooth muscle cells(VSMCs),and the role played by cell apoptosis. Methods A total of 6 healthy female SD rats aged 8 - 10 weeks were selected,VSMCs from rat thoracic aorta were cultured in vitro,and identified by immunocytochemistry. VSMCs were randomly divided into 5 groups by random number table method:control group,high phosphorus group,vitamin K2 group 1(10μmol/ L),vitamin K2 group 2(25 μmol/ L),vitamin K2 group 3(50 μmol/ L). The cell calcium content,the expression of Axl and Bcl - 2 mRNA,and the cell apoptosis rate were measured. Results There was significant difference in calcium content of VSMCs among 5 groups of rats(P ﹤ 0. 05). The VSMCs calcium level in high phosphorus group,vitamin K2 group 1,vitamin K2 group 2,vitamin K2 group 3 was significantly higher than that in control group,respectively( P ﹤ 0. 05). The VSMCs calcium level in vitamin K2 group 1,vitamin K2 group 2,vitamin K2 group 3 was significantly lower than that in high phosphorus group,respectively(P ﹤ 0. 05). The VSMCs calcium level in vitamin K2 group 2,vitamin K2 group 3 was significantly lower than that in vitamin K2 group 1,respectively(P ﹤ 0. 05). The VSMCs calcium level in vitamin K2 group 3 was significantly lower than that in vitamin K2 group 2( P ﹤ 0. 05). There was significant difference in the expression level of Axl mRNA in VSMCs among 5 groups of rats(P ﹤ 0. 05). The expression level of VSMCs Axl mRNA in high phosphorus group and in vitamin K2 group 1 was significantly lower than that in control group,respectively( P ﹤ 0. 05). The expression level of VSMCs Axl mRNA in vitamin K2 group 3 was significantly higher than that in control group(P ﹤ 0. 05). The expression level of VSMCs Axl mRNA in vitamin K2 group 2 and in vitamin K2 group 3 was significantly higher than that in high phosphorus group,respectively (P ﹤ 0. 05). There was no significant

  5. Dynamic performance of freight cars on bogies model 18-1711

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Mankevych

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the results of study of dynamic parameters of the tank-car model 15-1900 and gondola car model 12-1905, equipped with the bogies model 18-1711 with axle loading of 25 ton and unified according to major parts and joints with the cars of previous generation. According to results of the study to conclude about the possibility of using bogies model 18-1711 as the running parts of the freight rolling stock of the new generation of 1520 mm track with increased axle loading. Methodology. The dynamic performance of the rolling stock running parts directly affects the safety of railway traffic. Experimental studies of the car dynamic qualities are an important step in the modernization of existing bogie constructions and in the creation of the new ones. These tests allow one to confirm the results of theoretical studies and to check the correctness of the constructive solutions. Findings. Basic results of dynamic studies are presented as the graphs of dynamic performance dependencies on the motion speed of the experimental train. Results show that the freight cars on the bogies model 18-1711 have satisfactory dynamic properties meeting current regulatory requirements. Originality. The dynamic characteristics of freight cars on bogies model 18-1711, which give a complete view of the car loading allow us to estimate the dependency of the car dynamic performance on the bogie design parameters. Practical value. The bogie model 18-1711 with axle loading 25 ton can be used as a freight car undercarriages of the new generation of 1520 mm track.

  6. Effect of the first two wheelset bending modes on wheel-rail contact behavior%轮对前2阶弯曲模态对动力学行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuo-qiao ZHONG; Jia-yang XIONG; Xin-biao XIAO; Ze-feng WEN; Xue-song JIN‡

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a new wheel-rail contact model, which is suitable for considering the effect of wheelset bending deformation on wheel-rail contact behavior at high speeds. Dummies of the two half rigid wheelset are intro-duced to describe the spacial positions of the wheels of the deformed wheelset. In modeling the flexible wheelset, the first two wheelset bending modes are considered. Based on the modal synthesis method, these mode values of the wheelset axle are used to solve the motion equations of the flexible wheelset axle modeled as an Euler-Bernoulli beam. The wheel is assumed to be rigid and always perpendicular to the deformed axle at the wheel centre. In the vehicle model, two bogies and one car body are modeled as lumped masses. Spring-damper elements are adopted to model the primary and secondary suspension systems. The ballasted track is modeled as a triple layer discrete elastic supported model. Two high-speed vehicle-track models, one considering rigid wheelset models and the other considering flexible wheelset models, are used to analyze the differences of the numerical results of the two models in both frequency and time domains.In the simulation, a random high-speed railway track irregularity is used as wheel-rail excitations. Wheel-rail forces are calculated and analyzed in the time and frequency domains. The results clarify that this new contact model can characterize very well the influence of the first two bending modes of the wheelset on contact behavior.

  7. Case depth verification of hardened samples with Barkhausen noise sweeps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santa-aho, Suvi; Vippola, Minnamari; Lepistö, Toivo [Tampere University of Technology, Department of Materials Science, P.O. Box 589, 33101 Tampere (Finland); Hakanen, Merja [Stresstech Oy, Tikkutehtaantie 1, 40800 Vaajakoski (Finland); Sorsa, Aki; Leiviskä, Kauko [University of Oulu, Control Engineering Laboratory, P.O. Box 4300, FIN-90014 University of Oulu (Finland)

    2014-02-18

    An interesting topic of recent Barkhausen noise (BN) method studies is the application of the method to case depth evaluation of hardened components. The utilization of BN method for this purpose is based on the difference in the magnetic properties between the hardened case and the soft core. Thus, the detection of case depth with BN can be achieved. The measurements typically have been carried out by using low magnetizing frequencies which have deeper penetration to the ferromagnetic samples than the conventional BN measurement. However, the penetration depth is limited due to eddy current damping of the signal. We introduce here a newly found sweep measurement concept for the case depth evaluation. In this study sweep measurements were carried out with various magnetizing frequencies and magnetizing voltages to detect the effect of different frequency and voltage and their correspondence to the actual case depth values verified from destructive characterization. Also a BN measurement device that has an implemented sweep analysis option was utilised. The samples were either induction or case-hardened samples and sample geometry contained both rod samples and gear axle samples with different case depth values. Samples were also further characterized with Xray diffraction to study the residual stress state of the surface. The detailed data processing revealed that also other calculated features than the maximum slope division of the 1st derivative of the BN signal could hold the information about the case depth value of the samples. The sweep method was able to arrange the axles into correct order according to the case depth value even though the axles were used.

  8. Development of the electromagnetic technology for broken rail detection from a mobil platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, Yuri; Raghunathan, Arun; Kumar, Ajith; Noffsinger, Joseph; Fries, Jeffrey; Ehret, Steven; Frangieh, Tannous; Palanganda, Samhitha

    2016-02-01

    Timely detection of breaks in running rails remains a topic of significant importance for the railroad industry. GE has been investigating new ideas of the Rail Integrity Monitoring or RIM technology that can be implemented on a wide range of the rolling stock platforms including locomotives, passenger and freight cars. The focus of the project is to establish a simple, non-contact, and inexpensive means of nondestructive inspection by fusion of known solutions with new technology development that can result in detection with high reliability. A scaled down model of a typical locomotive-track system has been developed at GE Global research for detailed study of the detection process. In addition, a finite element model has been established and used to understand distribution of the magnetic field and currents in such a system. Both models have been using the rails and wheel-axles geometry to establish a realistic model that would provide the electric current and magnetic field distribution close to the real world phenomenon. Initial magnetic field maps were obtained by scanning a 1:15 model constructed of steel bars using a 3D scanner and an inductive coil. Sensitivity to a broken rail located between two locomotive axles simulated by an opening in this metallic frame was demonstrated. Further investigation and optimization was conducted on a larger, 1:3 scale, physical model and by running mathematical simulations. Special attention was paid to consistency between the finite element and physical model results. The obtained results allowed establishment of a working frequency range, inductive current injection into the rail-wheel-axle loop and measuring the electromagnetic response to a broken rail. The verification and full scale system prototype tests are following the laboratory experiments and mathematical simulations.

  9. Registrations and vehicle miles of travel of light duty vehicles, 1985--1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, P.S.; Davis, S.C.; Schmoyer, R.L.

    1998-02-01

    To obtain vehicle registration data that consistently and accurately reflect the distinction between automobiles and light-duty trucks, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was asked by FHWA to estimate the current and historical vehicle registration numbers of automobiles and of other two-axle four-tire vehicles (i.e., light-duty trucks), and their associated travel. The term automobile is synonymous with passenger car. Passenger cars are defined as all sedans, coupes, and station wagons manufactured primarily for the purpose of carrying passengers. This includes taxicabs, rental cars, and ambulances and hearses on an automobile chassis. Light-duty trucks refer to all two-axle four-tire vehicles other than passenger cars. They include pickup trucks, panel trucks, delivery and passenger vans, and other vehicles such as campers, motor homes, ambulances on a truck chassis, hearses on a truck chassis, and carryalls. In this study, light-duty trucks include four major types: (1) pickup truck, (2) van, (3) sport utility vehicle, and (4) other 2-axle 4-tire truck. Specifically, this project re-estimates statistics that appeared in Tables MV-1 and MV-9 of the 1995 Highway Statistics. Given the complexity of the approach developed in this effort and the incompleteness and inconsistency of the state-submitted data, it is recommended that alternatives be considered by FHWA to obtain vehicle registration data. One alternative is the Polk`s NVPP data (via the US Department of Transportation`s annual subscription to Polk). The second alternative is to obtain raw registration files from individual states` Departments of Motor Vehicles and to decode individual VINs.

  10. Gas6 Delays Senescence in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells through the PI3K/ Akt/FoxO Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-wei Jin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Growth arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6 is a cytokine that can be synthesized by a variety of cell types and secreted into the extracellular matrix. Previous studies have confirmed that Gas6 is involved in certain pathophysiological processes of the cardiovascular system through binding to its receptor, Axl. In the present study, we investigated the role of Gas6 in cellular senescence and explored the mechanisms underlying its activity. Methods: We used vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs to create two cellular senescence models, one for replicative senescence (RS and one for induced senescence (IS, to test the hypothesis that Gas6 delays senescence. Results: Gas6-treated cells appear relatively younger compared with non-Gas6-treated cells. In particular, Gas6-treated cells displayed decreased staining for SA-β-Gal, fewer G1 phase cells, and decreased levels of p16INK4a and p21Cip1 expression; conversely, Gas6-treated cells displayed more S phase cells and significantly increased proliferation indexes. Furthermore, in both the IS and RS models with Gas6 treatment, the levels of PI3K, p-Akt, and p-FoxO3a decreased following Axl inhibition by R428; similarly, the levels of p-Akt and p-FoxO3a also decreased following PI3K inhibition by LY294002. Conclusion: Gas6/Axl signaling is essential for delaying the cellular senescence process regulated by the PI3K/Akt/FoxO signaling pathway.

  11. IMPACT OF THE REPEATED TRACTOR PASSES ON SOME PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SILTY LOAM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravko Filipović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to quantify soil compaction induced by tractor traffic on untilled wet silty loam soil (Mollic Fluvisol. Changes in penetration resistance, bulk density and total porosity were measured for detecting the soil compaction. Treatments include ten passes of a four-wheel drive tractor with the engine power of 54.0 kW and weight of 3560 kg (1580 kg on the front axle and 1980 kg on the rear axle, 2.41 m distance between axles. The tyres on the tractor were cross-ply, front 11.2-24 and rear 16.9-30, with the inflation pressure of 160 kPa and 100 kPa, respectively. The speed of tractor during passes over experimental plots was 5.0 km h-1. In comparison to control, each tractor pass induced an increase in soil penetration resistance at all depths, and the average increment ratios, determined as the average of all layers, were 9.8, 18.5 and 26.1% after one, five and ten passes, respectively. The bulk density also increased with number of tractor passes, but with less percentage increasing. The increment ratios comparison to the control were 3.6, 9.5 and 12.9% after one, five and ten passes, respectively. The total porosity decreased with the number of passes, and the decrement ratios were 4.5, 16.5 and 20.8% after one, five and ten passes, respectively.

  12. 基于传递路径分析的乘用车车内噪声数值模拟%Numerical simulation analysis on vehicle interior noise with Transfer Path Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华良; 熊卉; 万攀; 韦钰芳; 郭钊

    2015-01-01

    本文利用传递路径分析(TPA)方法对某一新型轿车进行轮胎引起的车内噪声分析,首先运用 TPA 方法拟合测试数据以求出路面对轮胎的轮心激励值,再将该值加载到CAE模型内进行数值模拟,计算车内噪声。数值模拟计算中发现乘用车后轴对整车噪声的贡献大于前轴,说明需要对乘用车的后轴进行改进;比较数值模拟结果与路面噪声的实际测试数据,发现分析误差可接受,完全可以反映出车辆车内噪声特性,验证了传递路径分析方法在车内噪声分析中的适用性和准确性。%In this paper, the transfer analysis (TPA) was used to investigate the interior noise of a passenger car. First, the TPA method was used to fitting the test data to obtain the force value caused by the road on wheel center, and then the value was loaded into the CAE model to calculate interior noise. Numerical simulation shows that the rear axle of car contributions more noise than the front axle, rear axle needed to improvement. The CAE simulation result was compared with the actual test data of the car interior noise, the result shows that analytical error can be accepted which fully reflects the vehicle road noise characteristics and verifies the applicability and accuracy of the hybrid model in the analysis of interior noise.

  13. Contact pressures and the impact of farm equipment on Latosol with the presence and absence of sugarcane straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Barboza da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT High contact pressures applied to soil result in a greater degree of compaction, in addition to promoting other negative effects. The objective of this study was to quantify contact areas by using different methodologies, and pressures of farm equipment employed in production activity and evaluate structural changes caused in a Red Latosol with the presence and absence of straw cover. The design was completely randomized in a factorial scheme of type 4 (tire on front axle, tire on rear axle, tire on a sugarcane wagon and metallic track of sugar cane Harvester x 2 (presence and absence of straw. The contact area (CA of the run was obtained by three procedures: analytical measure of the area of an ellipse (CA1; digital measurement of area of an ellipse (CA2; and measurement of real contact area (RCA, with digital resources. The contact pressure was calculated from the ratio of mass of each machine's axle and the contact area of the run. The contact area obtained according to the procedure of the ellipse (CA1 and CA2 is overrated when compared to actual area obtained digitally (RCA. The straw reduces the contact pressure in the soil, due to the deep tire treads and consequently, increased contact area. Areas where the traffic of the machines occurred with soil covered with the presence of straw showed reduced soil resistance to penetration, cone index and pre-consolidation pressure, confirming that the increased contact area produced by straw reduced the pressure applied and the compression power dissipated in the soil.

  14. Serum sex hormone and growth arrest-specific protein 6 levels in male patients with coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown a high prevalence of low serum testosterone levels in men with cardiovascular disease. Moreover, the tyrosine kinase receptor Axl, the ligand of which is growth arrest-specific protein 6 (GAS6, is expressed in the vasculature, and serum GAS6 levels are associated with endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular events. Testosterone regulates GAS6 gene transcription directly, which inhibits calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells and provides a mechanistic insight into the cardioprotective action of androgens. This study was designed to determine the correlation between serum GAS6 and testosterone levels in male patients with coronary heart disease (CHD. We recruited 225 patients with CHD and 102 apparently healthy controls. Serum concentrations of GAS6 and soluble Axl were quantified by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, testosterone, estradiol, and other routine biochemical markers were also measured. Testosterone decreased from 432.69 ± 14.40 to 300.76 ± 6.23 ng dl−1 (P < 0.001 and GAS6 decreased from 16.20 ± 0.31 to 12.51 ± 0.19 ng ml−1 (P < 0.001 in patients with CHD, compared with control subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum testosterone and GAS6 levels were positively associated in male patients with CHD. Alterations in GAS6 levels may influence the development of CHD. Downregulation of GAS6/Axl signaling in the presence of low sex hormone levels during disease progression is a potential mechanism by which GAS6 affects CHD. This study provides novel results regarding the influence of sex hormones on serum GAS6 levels in patients with CHD.

  15. 我国铁路重载货车转向架技术及发展%Technologies and Development of Railway Heavy Haul Freight Car Bogies in Our Country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵文东; 李立东; 周国东; 徐世锋; 曹玉峰

    2012-01-01

    The key technologies in freight car bogies in our country are summarized. And on the basis of the technical development of freight cars in our country, the technical development target of freight car bogie with the new generation large axle load in our country is discussed.%总结了我国货车转向架的关键技术,并根据我国货车转向架的技术发展情况,论述了我国新一代大轴重货车转向架技术的发展目标.

  16. Simple machines

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Just how simple are simple machines? With our ready-to-use resource, they are simple to teach and easy to learn! Chocked full of information and activities, we begin with a look at force, motion and work, and examples of simple machines in daily life are given. With this background, we move on to different kinds of simple machines including: Levers, Inclined Planes, Wedges, Screws, Pulleys, and Wheels and Axles. An exploration of some compound machines follows, such as the can opener. Our resource is a real time-saver as all the reading passages, student activities are provided. Presented in s

  17. 插电式并联混合动力汽车再生制动控制策略%Control Strategy of Regenerative Braking for Plug-in Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈泽宇; 杨英; 王新超; 吕明

    2016-01-01

    再生制动是混合动力汽车区别于传统汽车的技术特点,是提高车辆燃油经济性的重要措施之一。以一种轴间力矩耦合的插电式并联混合动力汽车为研究对象,从再生制动分配算法的影响因素入手,提出了一种带有模糊控制的混合动力汽车再生制动能量管理策略。所设计的控制策略主要针对两个层面的控制决策,顶层是轴间制动力矩的分配决策,底层是再生制动电机所在的后轴力矩在摩擦制动与再生制动之间的分配决策。采用多种典型车辆行驶工况对所提出的模糊控制策略进行仿真研究。结果表明,所提出的模糊控制策略能够明显改善车辆的能量回收效果,与传统理想制动力分配曲线控制策略相比,能量回收最多可提高23��44%。%Different from traditional internal combustion engine vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles ( HEVs) have regenerative braking capability to improve fuel economy. Taking a plug-in parallel HEV with axles torque coupling as the research object, the influences of regenerative braking were analyzed. A regenerative braking control strategy using fuzzy control was then proposed. The presented strategy was to make two-layers control decision. The braking torque was allocated between the front axle and rear axle in the top layer, while the algorithm in bottom layer split the rear axle braking torque between mechanical braking and electric braking. The strategy was evaluated in a simulation study using several typical driving cycles. The results show that the as-proposed fuzzy control strategy can significantly improve the effect of energy recovery up to 23��44% , compared with that of the traditional ideal braking force distribution curve strategy.

  18. Dissipation Effect in the Hunting Motion Stability of Wheel Set with Elastic Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Baldovin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The axle hunting is a coupled lateral and yaw self oscillatory motion which is largely determined by wheel–rail contact geometry. The stability of this motion is an important dynamic problem that determines the maximum operating speed of railway vehicle. To improve the stability performances, without increasing the rail-wheel interaction forces above safety limits, elastic joints and dissipative devices are used to connect the wheelset to the bogy frame. In this paper is studied the influence of passive linear and non-linear dissipative horizontal forces on the hunting motion stability of a wheelset with elastic joints.

  19. Photovoltaic panel clamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Miros, Robert H. J.; Brown, Malcolm P.; Stancel, Robert

    2012-06-05

    A photovoltaic panel clamp includes an upper and lower section. The interface between the assembled clamp halves and the module edge is filled by a flexible gasket material, such as EPDM rubber. The gasket preferably has small, finger like protrusions that allow for easy insertion onto the module edge while being reversed makes it more difficult to remove them from the module once installed. The clamp includes mounting posts or an integral axle to engage a bracket. The clamp also may include a locking tongue to secure the clamp to a bracket.

  20. Cabozantinib versus everolimus in advanced renal cell carcinoma (METEOR): final results from a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choueiri, Toni K; Escudier, Bernard; Powles, Thomas;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cabozantinib is an oral inhibitor of tyrosine kinases including MET, VEGFR, and AXL. The randomised phase 3 METEOR trial compared the efficacy and safety of cabozantinib versus the mTOR inhibitor everolimus in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma who progressed after previous...... VEGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor treatment. Here, we report the final overall survival results from this study based on an unplanned second interim analysis. METHODS: In this open-label, randomised phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned (1:1) patients aged 18 years and older with advanced or metastatic...

  1. Fatalities associated with improper hitching to farm tractors--New York, 1991-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-19

    Approximately half of all injury-related fatalities in the agricultural industry are associated with farm tractors (1). Since April 1991, the New York State Department of Health's Occupational Health Nurses in Agricultural Communities (OHNAC) program has investigated 27 incidents of sudden rear rollover of farm tractors (i.e., incidents in which the tractor flips backward, rotating around its rear axle); these incidents resulted in 15 fatalities. This report describes four of these incidents, summarizes the characteristics of the 16 incidents that involved improper hitching, and outlines strategies for reducing the risk for their occurrence.

  2. Hidden Markov Modeling for Weigh-In-Motion Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Ferragut, Erik M [ORNL; Boone, Shane [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a hidden Markov model to assist in the weight measurement error that arises from complex vehicle oscillations of a system of discrete masses. Present reduction of oscillations is by a smooth, flat, level approach and constant, slow speed in a straight line. The model uses this inherent variability to assist in determining the true total weight and individual axle weights of a vehicle. The weight distribution dynamics of a generic moving vehicle were simulated. The model estimation converged to within 1% of the true mass for simulated data. The computational demands of this method, while much greater than simple averages, took only seconds to run on a desktop computer.

  3. ANALYTICAL COMPARISION OF DISC BRAKES WITH LINEAR AND CURVED SHAPED SLOTS BETWEEN PLATES FOR STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS ON DIFFERENT PARAMETER USING THROUGH CATIA V5 R20 AND ANSYS 15.0.7

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek Kumar*, Anshuka Srivastava

    2016-01-01

    The process which converts the kinetic energy of the vehicle into mechanical energy is known as Braking, which must be dissipated in the form of heat. The device using for decelerating or stopping the rotation of a wheel is called as disc brake. A brake disc (or rotor) usually made of linear shaped slots between plates and a disc brake ( or rotor) usually made of curved shaped slots between plates having materials used in both is Structural Steel, is connected to the wheel and/or the axle. Fr...

  4. Universal turbine for drinking-water power stations; Universell einsetzbare Turbine fuer Wasserversorgungen. Nutzung von Druckreduzierenergie im Gegendruckbereich - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindelholz, B.; Fritschi, M.

    2009-03-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a universal turbine for use in drinking-water power stations. The aims of the project are discussed and the importance of the turbine's axle seal is stressed. The use of this Pelton turbine operating in a cushion of compressed air is discussed. Counter-pressure control is discussed, as is the air inflow which is needed to replace the air carried out by the water. Industry-partners involved in the project are noted. The importance of using such small-hydro schemes to help meet energy needs is discussed.

  5. Bearing Capacity of Floating Ice Sheets under Short-Term Loads: Over-Sea-Ice Traverse from McMurdo Station to Marble Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 5- 1 Engineering for Polar Operations, Logistics, and Research (EPOLAR) Bearing Capacity of Floating Ice Sheets...Operations, Logistics, and Research (EPOLAR) ERDC/CRREL TR-15-1 January 2015 Bearing Capacity of Floating Ice Sheets under Short-Term Loads Over-Sea-Ice... capacity for a single axle load of 66,000 lb; and the main beams have a minimum yield stress of 36 ksi.* The rounded ends of each girder reduce

  6. Simple machines made simple a teacher resource manual

    CERN Document Server

    Andre, Ralph E St

    1993-01-01

    This book allows you to present scientific principles and simple mechanics through hands-on cooperative learning activities. Using inexpensive materials (e.g., tape, paper clips), students build simple machines-such as levers, pulleys, spring scales, gears, wheels and axles, windmills, and wedges-that demonstrate how things work. Activities have easy-to-locate materials lists, time requirements, and step-by-step directions (usually illustrated) on presentation. Ideas for bulletin boards, learning centers, and computer-assisted instruction are an added bonus.

  7. Research on Optimization of Bearing Span of Main Reducer Gear System Based on the Transfer Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Feng Yun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research object is the bearing span of the main reducer gear of the crossover vehicle for improving the performance of the Noise-Vibration-Harshness (NVH on the rear axle. It could get the optimal bearing span by modal analysis of the driving gear shaft and the vibration test of the main reducer, based on the transfer matrix. It is verified that the vibration and transmission stability are greatly improved with this optimal bearing span by the dynamic simulations of different bearing spans in ADAMS. And it can provide reference for the structural optimization design of the main reducer and the research on the vibration and noise reduction.

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF LEAD ACETATE AT FAVORIT AND PR64A83 CULTIVARS OF HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Vlad-Rusen

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of some cytogenetic parameters shows that the lead acetate application on Favorit and PR64A83 cultivars of sunflower exercises a light mutagen effect on the cells of the root apex. At same time an intensification of the frequency of the ana-telophases with aberration takes place, especially of those with bridges, with lagging and expelled chromosomes, but also of those with fragments, demonstrating the perturbation action that substance exercises on the division axle. The presence of ana-telophases with fragments proves that this substance induces breaches at the chromosomal level (clastogenic effect

  9. THE CYTOGENETIC EFFECTS OF THE CAFFEINE TREATMENT ON HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L., FAVORIT AND PR64 A83 VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Vlad-Rusen

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of some cytogenetic parameters shows that the caffeine application on Favorit and PR64A83 cultivars of sunflower exercises a light mutagen effect on the cells of the root apex. At same time an intensification of the frequency of the ana-telophases with aberration takes place, especially of those with bridges, with retardatar and expelled chromosomes, but also of those with fragments, demonstrating the perturbation action that caffeine exercises on the division axle. The apparition of a great number of ana-telophases with fragments proves that this alkaloid induces ruptures at the chromosomal level (clastogenic effect.

  10. Problems of Automobile KD Existed in Seaborne Export Packing%汽车KD件海运出口包装存在的问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 张俏

    2012-01-01

    The common metal corrosion of the automotive KD maritime introduced, the corresponding prevent the engine, axle and the body sheet in rust generation method and cleaning KD parts were introduced. occurred during transport was method of corrosion factors, and%主要介绍了汽车KD件海运运输中常见的金属锈蚀问题,产生锈蚀的因素,并且以KD件中发动机、车桥和车身板材为主介绍相应的避免锈蚀产生的方法和清洗方法。

  11. MOUNTABILITY PARTS OF MACHINE WITH ROTATING SURFACE, FITTED WITH POSITIVE CLEARANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew BUDNIAK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper demonstrates the conditions of automatic assembly the parts of machines with rotating surfaces, fitted with positive clearance. Determination of the general condition of asseblability allowed for designation of the acceptable relative displacement and torsion axle, combined parts on the mounting position. The designation of depending allowed for assess the technological capacity of the installation equipment. On the basis of this mathematical model was developed a computer program that allows to determine the effect of geometric, strength and dynamic parameters of the assembly process. The examples of results of numerical calculations are shown in the graphs

  12. Transportability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    psi). (g) Maximum axle load ( pneumatic tires) - 2,268 kg (5,000 lb). (h) Maximum wheel load ( pneumatic tires) - 1,134 kg (2,500 lb). (i...wheel (distance, brake stopping) ± 0.1 m (± 0.3 ft) Walking wheel (distance, road) ± 0.1 km (± 0.06 mile) Speedometer (speed) ± 0.1 km/hr...to impact or at the point of impact if feasible. c. Position the stationary railcar(s) with its coupler compressed and its air and hand brakes

  13. ABOUT WORKING WITH NARRATIVE TEXTS IN EDUCATIONAL SETTINGS: CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATIONS AND CREATION OF PRACTICAL EXERCISES FOR CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXA TATIANA JIMÉNEZ HEREDIA

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The present psychoeducational method is related with the narrative texts use and it is framed in the joint work amongteacher, school psychologist, and pupils. The importance of working with this sort of texts, its relation to educationalproposals made by the Ministry of National Education of Colombia, the criteria for evaluating the psychologicaldevelopment, and the proposal itself are supported. The writing is closed signaling the place of this type of workwithin a more global educational issues, specially, from the research activity of the teacher as a fundamental axle.

  14. ПЕРСПЕКТИВЫ ПРИМЕНЕНИЯ УГЛЕРОДИСТЫХ СТАЛЕЙ ДЛЯ ПОДШИПНИКОВ И ШЕСТЕРЕН С УПРОЧНЕНИЕМ УПРАВЛЯЕМОЙ ОБЪЕМНО-ПОВЕРХНОСТНОЙ ЗАКАЛКОЙ С ИНДУКЦИОННОГО НАГРЕВА

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gurchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience of the Minsk automobile plant and bearing plant in production, research and test of pilot batches of gear wheels of the drive axle of MAZ trucks and MZSh bearings from U8A steel with hardening by their volume and superficial hardening with application of induction heating and the operated surface hardening cooling is given. Experience of the Minsk automobile plant on introduction in manufacturing application of wheel gears of wheel gearing of MAZ trucks from steel 60PP is considered.

  15. Employment of the 307th Medical Battalion (Airborne) in Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm: A Personal Experience Monograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-08

    limited in duration and scope, we didn’t deploy our heavier equipment; X-Ray, Dental , canvas tentage, cots, autoclaves, and miscellaneous support...Oxygen/Fluids Requirements MAJ Clark 16. Medical Supply Stockage 1LT Branch 17. Dental Configuration MAJ Madison 18. Personnel Decontamination SSG...APPARATUS GAS W/ 02 1 0 A6Z252 ANESTESIA SET FIELD: IN CHEST. .. A72260 ANTENNA RC-29- A0712b AXLE CABLE REEL: RL-27 1 0 A79381 ANTENNA GROUP, OE-254 2 1

  16. Weapons Systems, United States Army 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    in a tactical environment. The M1070 trac - tor has front- and rear-axle steering, a central tire inflation system, and cab space for six personnel to...Cavalry Regiments-Squadrons, Field Artillery Battalions A3-based BFIST planned (XM7A1) France: AMX-10 PAC-90, AMX VTT /LT; Russia: BMP PRP-3, BMP PRP-4...Sensor-Heavy, Armored Transport and Treatment Vehicle (planned) China: Type 85 ACV, WZ-506, Type 90 CV; France: AMX-10PC, AMX VTT /PC; Germany: Tpzl

  17. Combined deformation of filament-wound cylinder and application to torsion vibration control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉兰

    2002-01-01

    The combined deformation and mechanical propetries of filament-wound cylinder of filament reinforced composite materials are investigated.A method of using filament-winding composited to reduce the amplitude of torsion vibration in the case of special stimulated vibration is established.A design formula of anisotropic filament-wound cylinder to reduce the torsion vibration of axle components is obtained.The results indicate that by puting the filament-wound cylinder on an axis,the torsion vibration of the axis can be reduced effectively.

  18. The utilization of coal mining wastes as filling materials in reinforced earth structures. III. Construction of a full scale experimental structure; Utilizacion de los esteriles del carbon como material de relleno en estructuras de tierra reforzada. II. Construccion de una estructura experimental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CaNibano Gonzalez, J.; Martinez, C.; Gonzalez, M.R. [HUNOSA. Programa Desarrollo Esteriles. Oviedo (Spain); Pardo, F.; SopeNa, L. [CEDEX. Laboratorio Geotecnia, Madrid (Spain); Torres, M. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas, Oviedo (Spain); Perez, J.J. [MOPTMA. Demarcacion Carreteras del Estado, Oviedo (Spain)

    1997-06-01

    This article describes the construction of a full scale experimental structure in which coal mining wastes (mine stones) were utilized as a filling material. In such structure, which was 20 m long and 2 high coal mining wastes from two different tips were tested together with different types of reinforcing frames such as metal bands, geomeshes and Paraweb (Freyssisol) bands. Also, thermocouples were placed at different heights. On the other hand, the said structure was subjected to 3.085 passes of a truck having a ballast of 10.5 tons on its rear axle. The performance of the coal mining wastes was completely satisfactory. (Author) 3 refs.

  19. A device for forming storage battery electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, K.; Inaba, Y.; Kitamura, E.; Oda, S.; Ota, K.

    1983-07-20

    The compound, which basically contains CdO, is continuously applied to a base strip which has a porous structure. The strip is passed along the surface of a roller, on the surface of which cylindrical electricity conducting rods are installed in a direction transverse to the length of the strip. The rods have axles parallel to the roller axis. The diameter of the rods is one tenth to one twentieth of the diameter of the roller. The length of the rods is greater than the width of the strip. The electrodes are formed at a current with a density of approximately 170 milliamperes per square centimeter.

  20. A STUDY ON THE WHEELSET/SLAB TRACK VERTICAL INTERACTION

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the interaction between a moving wheelset and a slab track due to the short-pitch corrugated rail. The wheelset is modeled using a free-free Timoshenko beam with attached rigid bodies as the axle boxes, wheels and brake discs. The slab track model consists of elastically supported double Euler-Bernoulli beams. In fact, both wheelset and slab track are symmetric structures and the issue of the wheelset/slab track interaction is reduced to the wheel/rail interaction. The n...

  1. Accumulative deformation in railway track induced by high-speed traffic loading of the trains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bian Xuecheng; Jiang Hongguang; Chen Yunmin

    2010-01-01

    Prediction and control of the permanent settlement of a track caused by traffic loading from trains is crucial to high-speed railway design and maintenance. In this study, a unified prediction model of accumulative deformation of geomaterials used in railway construction subjected to cyclic loadings is introduced and calibrated using physical model testing. Based on this versatile model, a calculation approach to determine the track structure settlement under repeated loadings caused by the movement of the wheel axle of the train is proposed. Regression analysis on the physical model testing is adopted to determine the parameters involved in the computational approach. Comparison of model test data and computed results shows that the parameters obtained from the back-analysis are consistent throughout the various testing conditions, and the proposed calculation approach is capable of satisfactorily predicting the accumulative settlement of the railway roadbed and subgrade soil for various axle loads and loading cycles. A case study of a high-speed railway is performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach in realistic engineering applications. The computation results from the settlement development of a roadbed and subgrade soil are presented and discussed.

  2. Driving Control Research for Longitudinal Dynamics of Electric Vehicles with Independently Driven Front and Rear Wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes the electric off-road vehicle with separated driven axles as the research object. To solve the longitudinal dynamics driving control problems, vehicle dynamics model, and control strategies were studied and the corresponding simulation was carried out. An 8-DOF vehicle dynamics model with separated driven axles was built. The driving control strategies on the typical roads were put forward. The recognition algorithm of the typical road surfaces based on the wheels’ slip rates was proposed. And the two control systems were designed including the pedal opening degree adjustment control system based on PI algorithm and the interaxle torque distribution control system based on sliding mode control algorithm. The driving control flow of the proposed vehicle combining the pedal adjustment control system with the interaxle torque distribution control system was developed. And the driven control strategies for the typical roads were simulated. Simulation results show that the proposed drive control strategies can adapt to different typical road surfaces, limit the slip rates of the driving wheels within the stable zone, and ensure the vehicle driving safely and stably in accordance with the driver's intention.

  3. Impact of Vehicle Class and Tire Pressure on Pavement Performance in MEPDG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed I. E. Attia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The new Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG design and analysis procedures defines the exact traffic loading by defining the specific number of each vehicle class and the use of axle load distribution factors instead of the equivalent single axle load (ESAL. The number of traffic inputs (parameters in MEPDG was found to be 17024. This research aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of the predicted flexible pavement distress to vehicle class and tire pressure in MEPDG. To evaluate the impact of vehicle (truck class on pavement sections, different cases of loading were analyzed. For each case, the MEPDG Ver. 1.1 was used to evaluate the effect of tire pressure by solving each case for a tire pressure of 120 and 140 psi. The effect of the traffic parameters on asphalt pavement (AC rutting, base rutting, subgrade rutting, international roughness index (IRI, longitudinal cracking and fatigue (alligator cracking were investigated. It was found that vehicle class distribution (VCD would cause clear impact (comparable to the effect of AADTT level only if the major traffic is of specific class (very light or very heavy. If this is not the case, the vehicle class distribution will not be a significant factor that affects the final design because most of the trucks had similar impact on flexible pavement distresses. The impact of tire pressure is clear on longitudinal cracking, fatigue cracking and AC rutting, and have no significant impact on both base and subgrade rutting.

  4. Prediction of Ground Vibration from Freight Trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. J. C.; Block, J. R.

    1996-05-01

    Heavy freight trains emit ground vibration with predominant frequency components in the range 4-30 Hz. If the amplitude is sufficient, this may be felt by lineside residents, giving rise to disturbance and concern over possible damage to their property. In order to establish the influence of parameters of the track and rolling stock and thereby enable the design of a low vibration railway, a theoretical model of both the generation and propagation of vibration is required. The vibration is generated as a combination of the effects of dynamic forces, due to the unevenness of the track, and the effects of the track deformation under successive axle loads. A prediction scheme, which combines these effects, has been produced. A vehicle model is used to predict the dynamic forces at the wheels. This includes the non-linear effects of friction damped suspensions. The loaded track profile is measured by using a track recording coach. The dynamic loading and the effects of the moving axles are combined in a track response model. The predicted track vibration is compared to measurements. The transfer functions from the track to a point in the ground can be calculated by using a coupled track and a three-dimensional layered ground model. The propagation effects of the ground layers are important but the computation of the transfer function from each sleeper, which would be required for a phase coherent summation of the vibration in the ground, would be prohibitive. A compromise summation is used and results are compared with measurements.

  5. Influence of shock absorber condition on pavement fatigue using relative damage concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Kubo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of the road transportation nowadays, concerns related to pavement deterioration and maintenance have become relevant subjects. Especially for commercial vehicles, the vertical dynamic load (characterized by the tire-road interaction is directly related to wear on the road surface. Given this, the main objective of this paper is to analyse effects of vertical loads applied on the flexible pavement, considering the variation of the condition of shock absorbers from a truck's front suspension. The measurements were performed on a rigid truck, with 2 steering front axles, in a durability test track located in Brazil. With a constant load of 6 tons on the front suspension (the maximum allowed load on front axles according to Brazilian legislation, 3 different shock absorber conditions were evaluated: new, used and failed. By applying the relative damage concept, it is possible to conclude that the variation of the shock absorber conditions will significantly affect the vertical load applied on the pavement. Although the results clearly point to a dependent relationship between the load and the condition of the shock absorbers, it is recommended to repeat the same methodology, in future to analyse the influence of other quarter car model variants (such as spring rate, mass and tire spring stiffness.

  6. Design and optimization of a flexible arrayed eddy current sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhenguo; Cai, Dong; Zou, Cheng; Zhang, Wenzeng; Chen, Qiang

    2017-04-01

    The inspection of the hollow axle inner surfaces is a key process to guarantee the safety of high-speed trains. A novel flexible arrayed eddy current sensor was developed to improve the reliability of the non-destructive testing of the hollow axle inner surfaces, whose main innovative aspect was the new design of excitation/sensing traces to achieve a differential and arrayed configuration. Only two independent excitation traces were used in the sensor to induce eddy currents, which can be detected by 16 differential sensing elements. The lift-off effects and the influence of the excitation frequency and geometrical parameters of the proposed sensor was investigated and presented in this paper. Finite element models were built to analyze the effects of each parameter on the sensor response amplitude. Experimental validations were conducted using a representative set of sensors. Results from experiments and simulations were consistent with each other, which showed that the sensor design can substantially suppress the lift-off effects and modifications of the studied parameters can substantially improve the sensor performance.

  7. 重载铁路桥台设计%Abutment Design of Heavy Haul Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严章荣

    2012-01-01

    针对山西中南部铁路通道采用的30 t轴重荷载,分析目前国内外重栽铁路的发展特点,拟定桥台的设计标准、设计荷载以及荷载检算模式,通过对台身偏心及应力检算,确定了空心桥台的结构尺寸.设计的矩形空心桥台台长随填土高增加而增加,其结构整体刚度好、台身圬工量较省、方便施工,能够满足30t轴重列车的运营要求.%Focusing on the axle load of 30 tons which was applied to the Railway Passage in Central and Southern Shanxi, the development characteristics of heavy haul railway at home and abroad at present were analyzed. The design criteria, design load and the load calculation model were formulated. After the eccentricities and the stresses are checked out, the structure size of hollow abutment was defined. The design results show that the rectangular hollow abutment which the abutment length increases with the increase of earth filling's height, has a good rigidity with less amount of masonry, can be convenient for construction, and can meet the requirements of train's operation under 30t axle load.

  8. Risk of large-scale evacuation based on the effectiveness of rescue strategies under different crowd densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinghong; Lo, Siuming; Wang, Qingsong; Sun, Jinhua; Mu, Honglin

    2013-08-01

    Crowd density is a key factor that influences the moving characteristics of a large group of people during a large-scale evacuation. In this article, the macro features of crowd flow and subsequent rescue strategies were considered, and a series of characteristic crowd densities that affect large-scale people movement, as well as the maximum bearing density when the crowd is extremely congested, were analyzed. On the basis of characteristic crowd densities, the queuing theory was applied to simulate crowd movement. Accordingly, the moving characteristics of the crowd and the effects of typical crowd density-which is viewed as the representation of the crowd's arrival intensity in front of the evacuation passageways-on rescue strategies was studied. Furthermore, a "risk axle of crowd density" is proposed to determine the efficiency of rescue strategies in a large-scale evacuation, i.e., whether the rescue strategies are able to effectively maintain or improve evacuation efficiency. Finally, through some rational hypotheses for the value of evacuation risk, a three-dimensional distribution of the evacuation risk is established to illustrate the risk axle of crowd density. This work aims to make some macro, but original, analysis on the risk of large-scale crowd evacuation from the perspective of the efficiency of rescue strategies.

  9. 3-year follow-up of a long-term registry-based multicentre study on vitamin E diffused polyethylene in total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Nanna H; Greene, Meridith E; Nebergall, Audrey K;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Preclinical studies of vitamin E diffused highly cross-linked polyethylene (E-XLPE) has shown enhanced mechanical properties with less wear. The purpose of our study was to document the early clinical outcome of E-XLPE to ensure, for the safety of patients, that there are no unforeseen...... early adverse events from using this new biomaterial. METHODS: The enrolled patients (n = 977) have received either a porous titanium coated or porous plasma sprayed acetabular shell with either a E-XLPE liner or a medium cross-linked (AXL) liner. At each follow-up 5 patient-reported outcome measures.......005 mm/year for E-XLPE with no significant difference between the 2 (p = 0.24). Improvement was seen in all PROMs from the preoperative interval to 3 years after surgery (p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Early follow-up of the E-XLPE and AXL liners show low penetration. PROMs indicate improvement after total...

  10. Comparative Analysis of Torque and Acceleration of Pre- and Post-Transmission Parallel Hybrid Drivetrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkifli Saiful A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parallel hybrid electric vehicles (HEV can be classified according to the location of the electric motor with respect to the transmission unit for the internal combustion engine (ICE: they can be pre-transmission or posttransmission parallel hybrid. A split-axle parallel HEV – in which the ICE and electric motor provide propulsion power to different axles – is a sub-type of the post-transmission hybrid, since addition of torque and power from the two power sources occurs after the vehicle’s transmission. The term ‘through-the-road’ (TTR hybrid is also used for the split-parallel HEV, since power coupling between the ICE and electric motor is not through some mechanical device but through the vehicle itself, its wheels and the road on which it moves. The present work presents torquespeed relationship of the split-parallel hybrid and analyses simulation results of torque profiles and acceleration performance of pre-transmission and post-transmission hybrid configurations, using three different sizes of electric motor. Different operating regions of the pre-trans and post-trans motors are observed, leading to different speed and torque profiles. Although ICE average efficiency in the post-trans hybrid is slightly lower than in the pre-trans hybrid, the post-trans hybrid vehicle has better fuel economy and acceleration performance than the pre-trans hybrid vehicle.

  11. Mesenchymal Cancer Cell-Stroma Crosstalk Promotes Niche Activation, Epithelial Reversion, and Metastatic Colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaiza del Pozo Martin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During metastatic colonization, tumor cells must establish a favorable microenvironment or niche that will sustain their growth. However, both the temporal and molecular details of this process remain poorly understood. Here, we found that metastatic initiating cells (MICs exhibit a high capacity for lung fibroblast activation as a result of Thrombospondin 2 (THBS2 expression. Importantly, inhibiting the mesenchymal phenotype of MICs by blocking the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT-associated kinase AXL reduces THBS2 secretion, niche-activating ability, and, consequently, metastatic competence. Subsequently, disseminated metastatic cells revert to an AXL-negative, more epithelial phenotype to proliferate and decrease the phosphorylation levels of TGF-β-dependent SMAD2-3 in favor of BMP/SMAD1-5 signaling. Remarkably, newly activated fibroblasts promote this transition. In summary, our data reveal a crosstalk between cancer cells and their microenvironment whereby the EMT status initially triggers and then is regulated by niche activation during metastatic colonization.

  12. Host-guest complexes and pseudorotaxanes of cucurbit[7]uril with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Ian W; Macartney, Donal H

    2009-11-06

    Pseudorotaxanes may be assembled in aqueous solution using dicationic acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, such as succinylcholine, BW284c51, and alpha,omega-bis(trialkylammonium)alkane dications (or their phosphonium analogues), as bolaform axles and cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) as the wheel. With the exceptions of the shorter [(CH(3))(3)N(CH(2))(n)N(CH(3))(3)](2+) (n = 6, 8) dications, the addition of a second CB[7] results in the translocation of the first CB[7], such that the hydrophobic -NR(3)(+) and -PR(3)(+) end groups (R = Me or Et) are located in the cavities of the wheels, while the central portion of the axles extend through the CB[7] portals into the bulk solvent. In the case of the [Quin(CH(2))(10)Quin](2+) (Quin = quinuclidinium) dication, the CB[7] host(s) resides only on the quinuclidinium end group(s). The 1:1 host-guest stability constants range from 8 x 10(6) to 3 x 10(10) M(-1) and are dependent on both the nature of the end group as well as the length and hydrophobicity of the central linker. The magnitude of the stability constants for the 2:1 complexes closely follow the trend observed previously for CB[7] binding with the NR(4)(+) and PR(4)(+) cations.

  13. ORNL Automated-In-Motion Evaluation Environment (AIMVEE) User Training and Testing Materials - U.S. Copyright TXu 1-797-273

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The AIMVEE/WIM system electronically retrieves deployment information, identifies vehicle automatically, and determines total weight, individual wheel weight, individual axle weights, axle spacing, and center-of-balance for any wheeled vehicle in motion. The AIMVEE/WIM system can also perform these functions statically for both wheel vehicles and cargo with information. The AIMVEE/WIM system incorporates digital images and applies cubing algorithms to determine length, width, height for cubic dimensions of both vehicle and cargo. Once all this information is stored, it electronically links to data collection and dissemination systems to provide actual weight and measurement information for planning, deployment, and in-transit visibility. The Static Scale Conversion (SSC) system is an unique enhancement to the AIMVEE/WIM system. It enables a SSC to weigh and measure vehicles and cargo dynamically (i.e., as they pass over the large scale and is included in the AIMVEE computer code base. The material copyrighted is the ORNL Automated-In-Motion Vehicle Evaluation Environment (AIMVEE)/Weigh-In-Motion User Training and Testing material. It includes instructional material in the set-up, operation and tear-down of the AIMVEE/WIM system. It also includes a final exam associated with the training.

  14. Reduced Proteolytic Shedding of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases is a Post-Translational Mechanism of Kinase Inhibitor Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Miles A.; Oudin, Madeleine J.; Sullivan, Ryan J.; Wang, Stephanie J.; Meyer, Aaron S.; Im, Hyungsoon; Frederick, Dennie T.; Tadros, Jenny; Griffith, Linda G.; Lee, Hakho; Weissleder, Ralph; Flaherty, Keith T.; Gertler, Frank B.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2016-01-01

    Kinase inhibitor resistance often involves upregulation of poorly understood “bypass” signaling pathways. Here, we show that extracellular proteomic adaptation is one path to bypass signaling and drug resistance. Proteolytic shedding of surface receptors, which can provide negative feedback on signaling activity, is blocked by kinase inhibitor treatment and enhances bypass signaling. In particular, MEK inhibition broadly decreases shedding of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) including HER4, MET, and most prominently AXL, an ADAM10 and ADAM17 substrate, thus increasing surface RTK levels and mitogenic signaling. Progression-free survival of melanoma patients treated with clinical BRAF/MEK inhibitors inversely correlates with RTK shedding reduction following treatment, as measured non-invasively in blood plasma. Disrupting protease inhibition by neutralizing TIMP1 improves MAPK inhibitor efficacy, and combined MAPK/AXL inhibition synergistically reduces tumor growth and metastasis in xenograft models. Altogether, extracellular proteomic rewiring through reduced RTK shedding represents a surprising mechanism for bypass signaling in cancer drug resistance. PMID:26984351

  15. EVALUATION OF RUTTING DEPTH IN FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS BY USING FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS AND LOCAL EMPIRICAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa H. Abed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to predict rut depth in local flexible pavements. Predication model in pavement performance is the process that used to estimate the parameter values which related to pavement structure, environmental condition and traffic loading. The different local empirical models have been used to calculate permanent deformation which include environmental and traffic conditions. Finite element analysis through ANSYS computer software is used to analyze two dimensional linear elastic plane strain problem through (Plane 82 elements. Standard Axle Load (ESAL of 18 kip (80 kN loading on an axle with dual set of tires, the wheel spacing is 13.5 in (343 mm with tire contact pressure of 87 psi (0.6 MPa is used. The pavement system is assumed to be an elastic multi-layers system with each layer being isotropic, homogeneous with specified resilient modulus and Poisson ratio. Each layer is to extend to infinity in the horizontal direction and have a finite thickness except the bottom layer. The analysis of results show that, although, the stress level decrease 14% in the leveling course and 27% in the base course, the rut depth is increased by 12 and 28% in that layers respectively because the material properties is changed.

  16. Secondary Excavation of the Koguryo Mountain Castle at ,Shitaizi,Shenyang City,Liaoning%辽宁沈阳市石台子高句丽山城第二次发掘简报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈阳市文物考古工作队

    2001-01-01

    The secondary excavation of the Shitaizi mountain castle was carried out on the basis of the first digging. It covered an area of 450 sq m. The recorded remains include the excavated sites of the northwestern, eastern, southern and southwestern city-gates, the reservoir and officers-mustering terrace vestiges known through trial diggings, and the drains discovered at the northwestern and eastern city-gates. Among the unearthed objects are pottery (the urn, jar, dish, basin, fu cauldron, bowl, dou stemmed vessel, vessel cover, spindle whorl and disc), bronzes (the buckle, arrowhead and plaque), irons(the arrowhead, armor plate, nail, paring knife, awl, hook, ring, axe, door-nail, door-axle and its base,and cap-like cover), stone tools (the perforated stone, grindstone, spindle whorl and adze) and bone and antler artifacts. The present excavation indicates that this mountain castle was twice damaged by fire.The city-gate structural members found on the gate-sites, such as iron-cast door-leaves, door-axles and their bases, rivets and loops, are all discovered for the first time at Koguryo mountain castle and provide very valuable material for studying the shape and structure of mountain-castle gates in that period.

  17. Study of the asynchronous traction drive's operating modes by computer simulation. Part 1: Problem formulation and computer model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel KOLPAHCHYAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problems arising from the design of electric locomotives with asynchronous traction drive (with three-phase AC induction motors are considered as including the debugging of control algorithms. The electrical circuit provides the individual (by axle control of traction motors. This allows realizing the operational disconnection/connection of one or more axles in the automatic mode, with account of actual load. In perspective, the evaluation of locomotive's energy efficiency at the realization of various control algorithms must be obtained. Another objective is to research the dynamic processes in various modes of the electric locomotive operation (start and acceleration, traction regime, coasting movement, wheel-slide protection, etc. To solve these problems, a complex computer model based on the representation of AC traction drive as controlled electromechanical system, is developed in Part 1. The description of methods applied in modeling of traction drive elements (traction motors, power converters, control systems, as well as of mechanical part and of "wheel-rail" contact, is given. The control system provides the individual control of the traction motors. Part 2 of the paper focuses on the results of dynamic processes modeling in various modes of electric locomotive operation.

  18. Patterning of Fibroblast and Matrix Anisotropy within 3D Confinement is Driven by the Cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbo, Janna V; Kuo, Scot; Lewis, Shawna; Lehmann, Matthew; Li, Jiuru; Gracias, David H; Romer, Lewis H

    2016-01-07

    Effects of 3D confinement on cellular growth and matrix assembly are important in tissue engineering, developmental biology, and regenerative medicine. Polydimethylsiloxane wells with varying anisotropy are microfabicated using soft-lithography. Microcontact printing of bovine serum albumin is used to block cell adhesion to surfaces between wells. The orientations of fibroblast stress fibers, microtubules, and fibronectin fibrils are examined 1 day after cell seeding using laser scanning confocal microscopy, and anisotropy is quantified using a custom autocorrelation analysis. Actin, microtubules, and fibronectin exhibit higher anisotropy coefficients for cells grown in rectangular wells with aspect ratios of 1:4 and 1:8, as compared to those in wells with lower aspect ratios or in square wells. The effects of disabling individual cytoskeletal components on fibroblast responses to anisotropy are then tested by applying actin or microtubule polymerization inhibitors, Rho kinase inhibitor, or by siRNA-mediated knockdown of AXL or cofilin-1. Latrunculin A decreases cytoskeletal and matrix anisotropy, nocodazole ablates both, and Y27632 mutes cellular polarity while decreasing matrix anisotropy. AXL siRNA knockdown has little effect, as does siRNA knockdown of cofilin-1. These data identify several specific cytoskeletal strategies as targets for the manipulation of anisotropy in 3D tissue constructs.

  19. A Noise-Insensitive Semi-Active Air Suspension for Heavy-Duty Vehicles with an Integrated Fuzzy-Wheelbase Preview Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengchao Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Semi-active air suspension is increasingly used on heavy-duty vehicles due to its capabilities of consuming less power and low cost and providing better ride quality. In this study, a new low cost but effective approach, fuzzy-wheelbase preview controller with wavelet denoising filter (FPW, is developed for semi-active air suspension system. A semi-active suspension system with a rolling lobe air spring is firstly modeled and a novel front axle vertical acceleration-based road prediction model is constructed. By adopting a sensor on the front axle, the road prediction model can predict more reliable road information for the rear wheel. After filtering useless signal noise, the proposed FPW can generate a noise-insensitive control damping force. Simulation results show that the ride quality, the road holding, the handling capability, the road friendliness, and the comprehensive performance of the semi-active air suspension with FPW outperform those with the traditional active suspension with PID-wheelbase preview controller (APP. It can also be seen that, with the addition of the wavelet filter, the impact of sensor noise on the suspension performance can be minimized.

  20. A Generalized Mathematical Model for the Fracture Problem of the Suspended Highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ying

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to answer dangling fracture problems of highway, the suspended pavement equivalent for non - suspended pavement, through the special boundary conditions has been suspended highway stress field of expression, in accordance with the 3D fracture model of crack formation, and establish a vacant, a general mathematics model for fracture problems of highway and analysis in highway suspended segment weight and vehicle load limit of highway capacity of Pu For overturning road inPu is less than the force of carrying more than compared to the work and fruit Bridge Hydropower Station Road engineering examples to verify suspended highway should force field expressions for the correctness and applicability. The results show that: when the hanging ratio R 0. 243177 limits of Pu design axle load 100kN. When the vertical crack in the vacant in the direction of length greater than 0. 1, the ultimate bearing capacity is less than the design axle load 100kN; when the hanging ratio R is less than 0. 5, the road to local fracture, the ultimate bearing capacity of suspended stress field expressions in solution; when the hanging ratio is greater than or equal to 0. 5, the road does not reach the limit bearing capacity of the whole body; torque shear surface of the effect is far less than the bending moments on shear planes.