WorldWideScience

Sample records for axles

  1. 49 CFR 215.105 - Defective axle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.105 Defective axle. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if— (a) An axle on the car has a crack or is broken; (b) An axle on the car has a gouge in the surface that is— (1)...

  2. REDESIGNING OF TRACTOR TROLLEY AXLE USING ANSYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish V. Katore,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In Central India, various small scale industries are adopting the crude methodologies for designing & manufacturing the machine components. One such industry producing tractor trolleys for agricultural use has been identified for this study. The existing trolley designed by the industry uses heavy axle without consideringstatic and dynamic loading conditions which in turn leads to higher factor of safety increasing the overall cost of the axle. In this study, existing trolley axle is redesigned considering the static and dynamic load conditions. A CAD model is prepared using CATIA V5 as a tool. Minimum cross section for the axle is calculated which resulted in the 24.8 % reduction in the weight of the axle. The axle dimensions are redesigned to 75 X 75 mm which is comparatively smaller than the old axle. The design is optimized based on the manufacturing cost of the axle. The failure analysis is performed on the axle of trolley used in agricultural area. These results provide atechnical basis to prevent future damage to the location axle.

  3. Investigation on features and tendencies of axle-box heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olegas LUNYS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Breakdown of rolling stock axle-boxes if not detected in due time may cause a rail accident or disaster. At present, a lot of advanced technologies, modern equipment and devices, which “recognizes” faulty axle-boxes when the train is in motion, have been implemented. However, the timely identification of breakdown of rolling stock axle-boxes still is an acute problem, the initial stage of damage emergence being especially problematic. Presently, rolling stock axle-box breakdown is determined according to the higher than permissible temperature of the axle-box body. The article provides statistical data of dangerously heated axle-boxes, determined train delay durations, the number of delayed trains by danger level, and dependence of damage on the season. After systematization of data on axle-box damage and heating temperatures of broken axle-boxes, heating tendencies of axle-boxes of freight wagons are described. Finally, basic conclusions are given.

  4. Structural basis for Gas6–Axl signalling

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Takako; Knyazev, Pjotr G; Clout, Naomi J; Cheburkin, Yuri; Göhring, Walter; Ullrich, Axel; TIMPL, RUPERT; Hohenester, Erhard

    2005-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases of the Axl family are activated by the vitamin K-dependent protein Gas6. Axl signalling plays important roles in cancer, spermatogenesis, immunity, and platelet function. The crystal structure at 3.3 Å resolution of a minimal human Gas6/Axl complex reveals an assembly of 2:2 stoichiometry, in which the two immunoglobulin-like domains of the Axl ectodomain are crosslinked by the first laminin G-like domain of Gas6, with no direct Axl/Axl or Gas6/Gas6 contacts. There a...

  5. Imaging Axl expression in pancreatic and prostate cancer xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimmagadda, Sridhar, E-mail: snimmag1@jhmi.edu [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Pullambhatla, Mrudula; Lisok, Ala [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Hu, Chaoxin [Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Maitra, Anirban [Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Pomper, Martin G, E-mail: mpomper@jhmi.edu [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •Axl is overexpressed in a variety of cancers. •Axl overexpression confers invasive phenotype. •Axl imaging would be useful for therapeutic guidance and monitoring. •Axl expression imaging is demonstrated in pancreatic and prostate cancer xenografts. •Graded levels of Axl expression imaging is feasible. -- Abstract: The receptor tyrosine kinase Axl is overexpressed in and leads to patient morbidity and mortality in a variety of cancers. Axl–Gas6 interactions are critical for tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. The goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of imaging graded levels of Axl expression in tumors using a radiolabeled antibody. We radiolabeled anti-human Axl (Axl mAb) and control IgG1 antibodies with {sup 125}I with high specific radioactivity and radiochemical purity, resulting in an immunoreactive fraction suitable for in vivo studies. Radiolabeled antibodies were investigated in severe combined immunodeficient mice harboring subcutaneous CFPAC (Axl{sup high}) and Panc1 (Axl{sup low}) pancreatic cancer xenografts by ex vivo biodistribution and imaging. Based on these results, the specificity of [{sup 125}I]Axl mAb was also validated in mice harboring orthotopic Panc1 or CFPAC tumors and in mice harboring subcutaneous 22Rv1 (Axl{sup low}) or DU145 (Axl{sup high}) prostate tumors by ex vivo biodistribution and imaging studies at 72 h post-injection of the antibody. Both imaging and biodistribution studies demonstrated specific and persistent accumulation of [{sup 125}I]Axl mAb in Axl{sup high} (CFPAC and DU145) expression tumors compared to the Axl{sup low} (Panc1 and 22Rv1) expression tumors. Axl expression in these tumors was further confirmed by immunohistochemical studies. No difference in the uptake of radioactivity was observed between the control [{sup 125}I]IgG1 antibody in the Axl{sup high} and Axl{sup low} expression tumors. These data demonstrate the feasibility of imaging Axl expression in pancreatic

  6. Targeting Axl and Mer kinases in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anupam; Warner, Steven L; Vankayalapati, Hariprasad; Bearss, David J; Sharma, Sunil

    2011-10-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) are cell-surface transmembrane receptors that contain regulated kinase activity within their cytoplasmic domain and play an important role in signal transduction in both normal and malignant cells. The mammalian TAM RTK family includes 3 closely related members: Tyro-3, Axl, and Mer. Overexpression or ectopic expression of the TAM receptors has been detected in a wide array of human cancers. Growth arrest-specific gene 6 has been identified as the major ligand for these TAM RTKs, and its binding to the receptors has been shown to promote proliferation and survival of cancer cells in vitro. Abnormal expression and activation of Axl or Mer can provide a survival advantage for certain cancer cells. Inhibition of Axl and Mer may enhance the sensitivity of cancer cells to cytotoxic agents and would potentially be a therapeutic strategy to target cancer cells. This review elucidates the role of Axl and Mer in normal cellular function and their role in oncogenesis. In addition, we review the potential to inhibit these RTKs for the development of therapeutic targets in treatment of cancer. PMID:21933973

  7. Structural basis for Gas6–Axl signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takako; Knyazev, Pjotr G; Clout, Naomi J; Cheburkin, Yuri; Göhring, Walter; Ullrich, Axel; Timpl, Rupert; Hohenester, Erhard

    2006-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases of the Axl family are activated by the vitamin K-dependent protein Gas6. Axl signalling plays important roles in cancer, spermatogenesis, immunity, and platelet function. The crystal structure at 3.3 Å resolution of a minimal human Gas6/Axl complex reveals an assembly of 2:2 stoichiometry, in which the two immunoglobulin-like domains of the Axl ectodomain are crosslinked by the first laminin G-like domain of Gas6, with no direct Axl/Axl or Gas6/Gas6 contacts. There are two distinct Gas6/Axl contacts of very different size, both featuring interactions between edge β-strands. Structure-based mutagenesis, protein binding assays and receptor activation experiments demonstrate that both the major and minor Gas6 binding sites are required for productive transmembrane signalling. Gas6-mediated Axl dimerisation is likely to occur in two steps, with a high-affinity 1:1 Gas6/Axl complex forming first. Only the minor Gas6 binding site is highly conserved in the other Axl family receptors, Sky/Tyro3 and Mer. Specificity at the major contact is suggested to result from the segregation of charged and apolar residues to opposite faces of the newly formed β-sheet. PMID:16362042

  8. Clinical, Pathological, and Molecular Features of Lung Adenocarcinomas with AXL Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Katsuaki; Suda, Kenichi; Shimizu, Shigeki; Sakai, Kazuko; Mizuuchi, Hiroshi; Tomizawa, Kenji; Takemoto, Toshiki; Nishio, Kazuto; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase AXL is a member of the Tyro3-Axl-Mer receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily. AXL affects several cellular functions, including growth and migration. AXL aberration is reportedly a marker for poor prognosis and treatment resistance in various cancers. In this study, we analyzed clinical, pathological, and molecular features of AXL expression in lung adenocarcinomas (LADs). We examined 161 LAD specimens from patients who underwent pulmonary resections. When AXL protein ...

  9. Dynamic analysis of rail vehicle axle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ferhat Dikmen; Meral Bayraktar; Rahmi Guclu

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, in order to obtain the dynamic forces on the passenger coach axle, a full rail vehicle model with 19-dof (degrees of freedom) has been considered. For a specific example, the variations of these dynamic forces with velocity of the passenger coach, suspension characteristics and way conditions have been examined. Dynamic forces found in the resonance regions at the range of 2–5 m/s (7.2–18 km/h) has been discussed. Theoretical results obtained for the dynamic forces have been successfully compared with the experimental results of German Railways (Deutsche Bahn-DB).

  10. Design Rules Discussion for Improving Multi-axle Vehicle Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xuebin; JIANG Yingquan; GAO Feng

    2006-01-01

    A whole vehicle dynamic model is built, and the modeling method of connected hydragas spring suspension and multi-axle grouping steer system is also explained. Firstly, a kinematical analysis of suspension is implemented to achieve optimized suspension geometry parameters according to the stable requirement. Then, based on the evaluation of whole vehicle handling character with regard to various tire characters, driving configurations and super structures, the design rules are summarized to improve the stability of multi-axle vehicle.

  11. Failure analysis of axle shaft of a fork lift

    OpenAIRE

    Souvik Das; Goutam Mukhopadhyay; Sandip Bhattacharyya

    2015-01-01

    An axle shaft of fork lift failed at operation within 296 h of service. The shaft transmits torque from discrepancy to wheel through planetary gear arrangement. A section of fractured axle shaft made of induction-hardened steel was analyzed to determine the root cause of the failure. Optical microscopies as well as field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) along with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were carried out to characterize the microstructure. Hardness profile thro...

  12. A New Approach for Reliability Life Prediction of Rail Vehicle Axle by Considering Vibration Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Bayraktar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of vibration on the axle has been considered. Vibration measurements at different speeds have been performed on the axle of a running rail vehicle to figure out displacement, acceleration, time, and frequency response. Based on the experimental works, equivalent stress has been used to find out life of the axles for 90% and 10% reliability. Calculated life values of the rail vehicle axle have been compared with the real life data and it is found that the life of a vehicle axle taking into account the vibration effects is in good agreement with the real life of the axle.

  13. MULTI-AXLE VEHICLE STABILITY BASED ON WHOLE VEHICLE MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xuebin; GAO Feng

    2007-01-01

    From the analysis of experiment data of the multi-axle vehicle chassis searching process, it is less accurate to predict multi-axle vehicle dynamic characteristic with simplified two-axle vehicle model. So it is important to find out a more effective modeling method in the study of multi-vehicle stability. In the development of heat transfer fluid(HTF) six-axle vehicle, a whole vehicle multi-body dynamic model is built through collaborate flowchart using Teamcenter Engineering, UG NX3 and MSC. Adams. The modeling method of connected hydragas spring suspension is validated by running test results. Based on this whole vehicle model, a kinematical analysis of suspension is implemented to achieve optimized suspension geometry parameters according to the stable requirement. Then, different handling simulations are carried out with regard to various tire characteristics, driving configurations, and equipments. According to the evaluation of whole vehicle handling characteristic, some design rules are summarized to improve the stability of multi-axle vehicle.

  14. Clinical, Pathological, and Molecular Features of Lung Adenocarcinomas with AXL Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Katsuaki; Suda, Kenichi; Shimizu, Shigeki; Sakai, Kazuko; Mizuuchi, Hiroshi; Tomizawa, Kenji; Takemoto, Toshiki; Nishio, Kazuto; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase AXL is a member of the Tyro3-Axl-Mer receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily. AXL affects several cellular functions, including growth and migration. AXL aberration is reportedly a marker for poor prognosis and treatment resistance in various cancers. In this study, we analyzed clinical, pathological, and molecular features of AXL expression in lung adenocarcinomas (LADs). We examined 161 LAD specimens from patients who underwent pulmonary resections. When AXL protein expression was quantified (0, 1+, 2+, 3+) according to immunohistochemical staining intensity, results were 0: 35%; 1+: 20%; 2+: 37%; and 3+: 7% for the 161 samples. AXL expression status did not correlate with clinical features, including smoking status and pathological stage. However, patients whose specimens showed strong AXL expression (3+) had markedly poorer prognoses than other groups (P = 0.0033). Strong AXL expression was also significantly associated with downregulation of E-cadherin (P = 0.025) and CD44 (P = 0.0010). In addition, 9 of 12 specimens with strong AXL expression had driver gene mutations (6 with EGFR, 2 with KRAS, 1 with ALK). In conclusion, we found that strong AXL expression in surgically resected LADs was a predictor of poor prognosis. LADs with strong AXL expression were characterized by mesenchymal status, higher expression of stem-cell-like markers, and frequent driver gene mutations. PMID:27100677

  15. Shape Optimization Of Front Axle Support Of Tractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shree Dewangan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The front axle support of tractor is the part of tractor which holds the engine of tractor and also gives support to it and lies between engine and front axle of tractor. According to the present market demand of off highway vehicle the low cost and light weight vehicle is in demand to fulfill the requirement of cost efficient vehicle. In this paper analysis of front axle support is done for study of stress generated in the component and then after optimization of its shape and according to the shape its weight will also reduced. Considering the effect of forces acted on such a heavy parts in tractor designed by casting having dynamic loads of less frequency with greater amplitude may cause great damage to the component. According to the production techniques of components in tractor front axle requires a properly designed support with high stiffness. The design of component was modeled in Creo parametric 2.0 and the analysis was performed in solid works. Shape optimization technique is used for performing optimization cause miserable reduction in weight of connecting rod. The optimized component is 10.35% lighter compare to initial design.

  16. Sunitinib activates Axl signaling in renal cell cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mijn, Johannes C; Broxterman, Henk J; Knol, Jaco C; Piersma, Sander R; De Haas, Richard R; Dekker, Henk; Pham, Thang V; Van Beusechem, Victor W; Halmos, Balazs; Mier, James W; Jiménez, Connie R; Verheul, Henk M W

    2016-06-15

    Mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics provides a unique unbiased approach to evaluate signaling network in cancer cells. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib is registered as treatment for patients with renal cell cancer (RCC). We investigated the effect of sunitinib on tyrosine phosphorylation in RCC tumor cells to get more insight in its mechanism of action and thereby to find potential leads for combination treatment strategies. Sunitinib inhibitory concentrations of proliferation (IC50) of 786-O, 769-p and A498 RCC cells were determined by MTT-assays. Global tyrosine phosphorylation was measured by LC-MS/MS after immunoprecipitation with the antiphosphotyrosine antibody p-TYR-100. Phosphoproteomic profiling of 786-O cells yielded 1519 phosphopeptides, corresponding to 675 unique proteins including 57 different phosphorylated protein kinases. Compared to control, incubation with sunitinib at its IC50 of 2 µM resulted in downregulation of 86 phosphopeptides including CDK5, DYRK3, DYRK4, G6PD, PKM and LDH-A, while 94 phosphopeptides including Axl, FAK, EPHA2 and p38α were upregulated. Axl- (y702), FAK- (y576) and p38α (y182) upregulation was confirmed by Western Blot in 786-O and A498 cells. Subsequent proliferation assays revealed that inhibition of Axl with a small molecule inhibitor (R428) sensitized 786-O RCC cells and immortalized endothelial cells to sunitinib up to 3 fold. In conclusion, incubation with sunitinib of RCC cells causes significant upregulation of multiple phosphopeptides including Axl. Simultaneous inhibition of Axl improves the antitumor activity of sunitinib. We envision that evaluation of phosphoproteomic changes by TKI treatment enables identification of new targets for combination treatment strategies. PMID:26815723

  17. Inhibition of Axl improves the targeted therapy against ALK-mutated neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Fei [Department of Neurology, Sichuan Medical Science Institute and Sichuan Provincial Hospital, Chengdu 610072 (China); Li, Hongling [Department of Radiotherapy, Shanghai First People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Sun, Yong, E-mail: sunfanqi2010@163.com [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Huai’an First People’s Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Huai’an 223300 (China)

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • First reported Axl is co-expressed with ALK in neuroblastoma tissues and cell lines. • Axl activation promotes cell growth and impairs the efficiency of ALK inhibitor. • Further found silence of Axl leads to increased sensitivity to ALK inhibitors. • Axl inhibitor promotes the efficiency of targeted therapy in vitro and in vivo. • Axl activation should be considered in the clinical application of ALK inhibitors. - Abstract: Neuroblastoma (NB) patients harboring mutated ALK can be expected to potentially benefit from targeted therapy based on ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), such as crizotinib and ceritinib. However, the effect of the treatment varies with different individuals, although with the same genic changes. Axl receptor tyrosine kinase is expressed in a variety of human cancers, but little data are reported in NB, particularly in which carrying mutated ALK. In this study, we focus on the roles of Axl in ALK-mutated NB for investigating rational therapeutic strategy. We found that Axl is expressed in ALK-positive NB tissues and cell lines, and could be effectively activated by its ligand GAS6. Ligand-dependent Axl activation obviously rescued crizotinib-mediated suppression of cell proliferation in ALK-mutated NB cells. Genetic inhibition of Axl with specific small interfering RNA markedly increased the sensitivity of cells to ALK-TKIs. Furthermore, a small-molecule inhibitor of Axl significantly enhanced ALK-targeted therapy, as an increased frequency of apoptosis was observed in NB cells co-expressing ALK and Axl. Taken together, our results demonstrated that activation of Axl could lead to insensitivity to ALK inhibitors, and dual inhibition of ALK and Axl might be a potential therapeutic strategy against ALK-mutated NB.

  18. Inhibition of Axl improves the targeted therapy against ALK-mutated neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • First reported Axl is co-expressed with ALK in neuroblastoma tissues and cell lines. • Axl activation promotes cell growth and impairs the efficiency of ALK inhibitor. • Further found silence of Axl leads to increased sensitivity to ALK inhibitors. • Axl inhibitor promotes the efficiency of targeted therapy in vitro and in vivo. • Axl activation should be considered in the clinical application of ALK inhibitors. - Abstract: Neuroblastoma (NB) patients harboring mutated ALK can be expected to potentially benefit from targeted therapy based on ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), such as crizotinib and ceritinib. However, the effect of the treatment varies with different individuals, although with the same genic changes. Axl receptor tyrosine kinase is expressed in a variety of human cancers, but little data are reported in NB, particularly in which carrying mutated ALK. In this study, we focus on the roles of Axl in ALK-mutated NB for investigating rational therapeutic strategy. We found that Axl is expressed in ALK-positive NB tissues and cell lines, and could be effectively activated by its ligand GAS6. Ligand-dependent Axl activation obviously rescued crizotinib-mediated suppression of cell proliferation in ALK-mutated NB cells. Genetic inhibition of Axl with specific small interfering RNA markedly increased the sensitivity of cells to ALK-TKIs. Furthermore, a small-molecule inhibitor of Axl significantly enhanced ALK-targeted therapy, as an increased frequency of apoptosis was observed in NB cells co-expressing ALK and Axl. Taken together, our results demonstrated that activation of Axl could lead to insensitivity to ALK inhibitors, and dual inhibition of ALK and Axl might be a potential therapeutic strategy against ALK-mutated NB

  19. Passivation and Corrosion Behavior of Modified Ferritic-Pearlitic Railway Axle Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, A. P.; Sangal, S.; Srivastav, Simant; Gajbhiye, N. S.; Mondal, K.

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical polarization behavior of two newly developed ferritic-pearlitic railway axle steels (MS3 and MS6) and the standard Indian conventional axle steel has been studied in sodium borate buffer solution of pH 8.4 with and without the presence of NaCl. The polarization behavior of both the new axle steels shows close resemblance, whereas, different polarization behavior has been observed for the conventional axle steel. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements have clearly reflected significantly improved passivation behavior for the newly developed steels compared to that of the conventional axle steel. NaCl salt fog exposure tests have also shown superior corrosion resistance of the newly developed axle steels as compared to the conventional axle steel. Higher surface roughness on the corroded conventional axle steel has also been observed compared to the smoother surface in case of the new axle steels. Higher corrosion resistance of the new axle steels has been attributed to their finer microstructure and strongly adherent protective rusts.

  20. Expression of Axl in Lung Adenocarcinoma and Correlation with Tumor Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Shing Shinh

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We used the Transwell system to select highly invasive cell lines from minimally invasive parent cells, and we compared gene expression in paired cell lines with high and low invasive potentials. Axl was relatively overexpressed in the highly invasive cell lines when compared with their minimally invasive counterparts. However, there is only limited information about the role of Axl in cancer invasion. The biologic function of Axl in tumor invasion was investigated by overexpression of full-length Axl in minimally invasive cells and by siRNA knockdown of Axl expression in highly invasive cells. Overexpression of Axl in minimally invasive cells increased their invasiveness. siRNA reduced cell invasiveness as Axl was downregulated in highly invasive cells. We further investigated the protein expression of Axl by immunohistochemistry and its correlation with clinicopathologic features. Data from a study of 58 patient specimens showed that Axl immunoreactivity was statistically significant with respect to lymph node status (P < .0001 and the patient's clinical stage (P < .0001. Our results demonstrate that Axl protein kinase seems to play an important role in the invasion and progression of lung cancer.

  1. Dynamic Modelling of Axle Tramp in a Sport Type Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zargartalebi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant dynamic aspects of coupled vibration of transmission system and dependent type suspension systems is axle tramp. The tramp is defined as undesirable oscillation of rigid live axle around roll axis. In spite of utilizing powerful engines in some type of sport cars, tramp occurrence causes loss of longitudinal performance. The aim of this paper is to derive a mathematical model for predicting and classifying of the tramp. A parameter study reveals that, some parameters such as engine torque, moving parts moment of inertia, car and wheels weight and the material used in suspension system play important role in controlling the tramp. It is shown that large difference between sprung and unsprung mass moment of inertia around the roll-axis, low vehicle mass, short rear track and medium damping values have significant effects on the severity of tramp.

  2. Accelerated Life Test Design for Tractor Powertrain Front Axle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Azianti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated Life Test (ALT has been applied in the manufacturing for many years due to rapid changing technologies, more complex products, speedier product development, and more demanding customer requirements. These reasons have pushed the manufacturers to acquire reliability information faster. ALT allows reducing the time needed to show the reliability of the product. The purpose of this study is to design accelerated life testing which involved determination of normal test time, acceleration factor, acceleration test time, and finally experimental setup. This case study provides the basis for ALT designs for the tractor front axle based on customer usage and field failure analysis, which were conducted to estimate the current reliability, especially on the B10 life during the operational stage of the product. The accelerated life test conducted has guaranteed the B10 life of 4,000 hours with 90% confidence level for lesser time needed for testing to show the reliability of the front axle assembly.

  3. 49 CFR 230.100 - Defects in tender truck axles and journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defects in tender truck axles and journals. 230... Steam Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.100 Defects in tender truck axles and journals. (a... wheel seats that is more than 1/8 of an inch in depth. (b) Tender truck journal condemning...

  4. Multi-axle dynamic steering system of truck-howitzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanliang LI; Xiuhua GAO; Chunqiu ZHANG; Yubo SUN

    2008-01-01

    A two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) steering model of multi-axle vehicle was established. The steering center position, the relationship between the steering angle and the vehicle velocity, and the minimum turn radius were deduced on the basis of the proportional control with a zero sideslip angle. Results indicate that the system stability is decided by the vehicle barycenter position and the lateral stiffness of a tire. Under this control, the steady value of the lateral acceleration is obviously diminished and the yaw angular velocity changes little under any vehicle velocity. The system rapidly responds, the vehicle smoothly steers, and its handling stability is prominently improved.

  5. EVALUATION OF DYNAMIC INDICATORS OF SIX-AXLE LOCOMOTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper is devoted to dynamic characteristics evaluation of the locomotive with prospective design and determination the feasibility of its use on the Ukrainian railways. Methodology. The methods of mathematical and computer modeling of the dynamics of railway vehicles, as well as methods for the numerical integration of systems of ordinary nonlinear differential equations were used to solve the problem. Findings. The calculated diagram of a locomotive on three-axle bogies was built to solve the problem, and it is a system of rigid bodies connected by various elements of rheology. The mathematical model of the locomotive movement, allowing studying its spatial vibrations at driving on straight and curved sections of the track with random irregularities in plan and profile was developed with use of this calculated diagram. At compiling the mathematical model took into account both geometric (nonlinearity profile of the wheel roll surface and physical nonlinearity of the system (the work forces of dry friction, nonlinearity characteristics of interaction forces between wheels and rails. The multivariate calculations, which allowed assessing the dynamic qualities of the locomotive at its movement along straight and curved sections of the track, were realized with the use of computer modeling. The smoothness movement indicators of the locomotive in horizontal and vertical planes, frame strength, coefficients of vertical dynamics in the first and second stages of the suspension, the load factor of resistance against the derailment of the wheel from the rail were determined at the period of research. In addition, a comparison of the obtained results with similar characteristics is widely used on the Ukrainian railways in six-axle locomotive TE 116. The influence of speed and technical state of the track on the locomotive traffic safety was determined.Originality. A mathematical model of the spatial movement of a six-axle locomotive with

  6. AXL-SKILL LANGUAGE BASED ALLEGRO PACKAGE TOOL SECONDARY DEVELOPMENT%基于AXL-SKILL语言的Allegro封装工具的二次开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄琦; 李伟; 葛立峰

    2012-01-01

    着重研究基于AXL-SKILL语言的Cadence Allegro封装设计的二次开发技术.介绍AXL-SKILL语言,分析自建封装工具的方法和步骤,并针对几种不同焊盘和封装类型加以研究.结合实际经验,制定封装规则,实现封装工具的二次开发.%This paper focuses on the secondary development technology for AXL-SKILL language based Cadence Allegro package and design, introduces AXL-SKILL language, analyzes methods and procedures for packaging creation tools, then researches on a few different pad types and package types, combining with practical experiences, establishes package rules and realizes the secondary development of package tools.

  7. Heating Processes Of The Axle-Boxes Of Rolling-Stock On Railway Track Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olegas Lunys

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the heating process of the axle-boxes ofrolling stock when the train is in motion and discusses the forcesacting on the wheel-set when rolling stock moves along the trackcurves. The paper analyses scientific publications relevant tothe forces acting on the wheel-set of rolling stock and focuseson the axle-box heating process. The article also discusses theresults of theoretical studies on wheel-set forces that affect theheat exchange process of axle-boxes for a railway vehicle. Theresearch has determined a change in heating temperatures ofdifferent axle-boxes of rolling stock and reasons for their variationsand tendencies. The paper has estimated an effect of thetrain running along the track curves on the heating intensity ofthe axle-box. Finally, valid conclusions and recommendationshave been provided.

  8. Analysis of Tendencies Towards Changes in Temperatures of Railway Vehicle Axle Boxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olegas Lunys

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes variations in the temperature of axle-box heating of railroad rolling stock considering two modes of the train - driving and parking position. Additionally, the article describes the influence of the axle load and season on the heat of the axle-box, forecasts intolerable residual resources and explains a possibility of detecting likely breakage at the very beginning of defects. The paper also deals with scientific literature related to axle-box heating and focuses on the conducted practical and theoretical experiments. The carried out research has established the rates of operating heating and critical heating. The application of numerical values for the algorithm of automatic control devices could help with detecting the breakdowns of the axle-box before they reach a critical state and assist in forecasting residual operating resources.

  9. Failure analysis of axle shaft of a fork lift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvik Das

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An axle shaft of fork lift failed at operation within 296 h of service. The shaft transmits torque from discrepancy to wheel through planetary gear arrangement. A section of fractured axle shaft made of induction-hardened steel was analyzed to determine the root cause of the failure. Optical microscopies as well as field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM along with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS were carried out to characterize the microstructure. Hardness profile throughout the cross-section was evaluated by micro-hardness measurements. Chemical analysis indicated that the shaft was made of 42CrMo4 steel grade as per specification. Microstructural analysis and micro-hardness profile revealed that the shaft was improperly heat treated resulting in a brittle case, where crack was found to initiate from the case in a brittle mode in contrast to ductile mode within the core. This behaviour was related to differences in microstructure, which was observed to be martensitic within the case with a micro-hardness equivalent to 735 HV, and a mixture of non-homogeneous structure of pearlite and ferrite within the core with a hardness of 210 HV. The analysis suggests that the fracture initiated from the martensitic case as brittle mode due to improper heat treatment process (high hardness. Moreover the inclusions along the hot working direction i.e. in the longitudinal axis made the component more susceptible to failure.

  10. Dominant-negative inhibition of the Axl receptor tyrosine kinase suppresses brain tumor cell growth and invasion and prolongs survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajkoczy, Peter; Knyazev, Pjotr; Kunkel, Andrea; Capelle, Hans-Holger; Behrndt, Sandra; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Kiessling, Fabian; Eichelsbacher, Uta; Essig, Marco; Read, Tracy-Ann; Erber, Ralf; Ullrich, Axel

    2006-01-01

    Malignant gliomas remain incurable brain tumors because of their diffuse-invasive growth. So far, the genetic and molecular events underlying gliomagenesis are poorly understood. In this study, we have identified the receptor tyrosine kinase Axl as a mediator of glioma growth and invasion. We demonstrate that Axl and its ligand Gas6 are overexpressed in human glioma cell lines and that Axl is activated under baseline conditions. Furthermore, Axl is expressed at high levels in human malignant glioma. Inhibition of Axl signaling by overexpression of a dominant-negative receptor mutant (AXL-DN) suppressed experimental gliomagenesis (growth inhibition >85%, P 72 days). A detailed analysis of the distinct hallmarks of glioma pathology, such as cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and tumor angiogenesis, revealed that inhibition of Axl signaling interfered with cell proliferation (inhibition 30% versus AXL-WT), glioma cell migration (inhibition 90% versus mock and AXL-WT, P < 0.05), and invasion (inhibition 62% and 79% versus mock and AXL-WT, respectively; P < 0.05). This study describes the identification, functional manipulation, in vitro and in vivo validation, and preclinical therapeutic inhibition of a target receptor tyrosine kinase mediating glioma growth and invasion. Our findings implicate Axl in gliomagenesis and validate it as a promising target for the development of approaches toward a therapy of these highly aggressive but, as yet, therapy-refractory, tumors. PMID:16585512

  11. Gas6/Axl pathway promotes tumor invasion through the transcriptional activation of Slug in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsin-Jung; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Chen, Yu-Ling; Chung, Ling; Yuan, Ray-Hwang

    2014-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common fatal cancers worldwide. Other than the sorafenib treatment, no effective systemic therapy has been available thus far. Most targets in molecularly targeted therapy for cancer are receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Therefore, identifying activated RTKs in HCC is critical for developing new molecularly targeted therapies. Using a phospho-RTK array, we found that Axl is one of the most frequently activated RTKs in liver cancer cell lines. The knockdown of Axl by RNA interference significantly reduced cell migration and invasion in the HCC cell lines HA22T and Mahlavu. Stimulation of HCC cell lines by Axl ligand growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6) enhanced cell migration and invasion. The Gas6/Axl pathway enhanced the expression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition-inducing transcription factor Slug, which is essential for the invasion-promoting activity of Axl. Treating HCC cells with the Axl inhibitor bosutinib suppressed Slug expression and decreased the invasiveness of HCC cell lines. These findings indicate that Gas6/Axl regulates tumor invasion through the transcriptional activation of Slug.

  12. Development of a Test Machine for IVECO Drive Axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Liang-mo; WANG He-fu; CHEN Jin-rong; LING Zhi-liang; CAO Yu-hua

    2007-01-01

    To improve the automation level of the vehicle drive axle test and better simulate a vehicle′s actual operation, an advanced test machine has been developed. The load system of the machine consists of hand brakes and electric cylinders. It is simple-structured and low-cost. The major motor of the machine is controlled by a transducer and its speed can be adjusted easily. In addition, the programmed machine can automatically test such parameters as the grinding condition, the differential speed, the noise level, etc. It can also adjust the test procedures according to different requirements. Detailed discussion of the structure and mechanism of the test machine is given in this paper.

  13. Axl tyrosine kinase protects against tubulo-interstitial apoptosis and progression of renal failure in a murine model of chronic kidney disease and hyperphosphataemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth D Hyde

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is defined as the progressive loss of renal function often involving glomerular, tubulo-interstitial and vascular pathology. CKD is associated with vascular calcification; the extent of which predicts morbidity and mortality. However, the molecular regulation of these events and the progression of chronic kidney disease are not fully elucidated. To investigate the function of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase in CKD we performed a sub-total nephrectomy and fed high phosphate (1% diet to Axl+/+ and Axl-/- mice. Plasma Gas6 (Axl' ligand, renal Axl expression and downstream Akt signalling were all significantly up-regulated in Axl+/+ mice following renal mass reduction and high phosphate diet, compared to age-matched controls. Axl-/- mice had significantly enhanced uraemia, reduced bodyweight and significantly reduced survival following sub-total nephrectomy and high phosphate diet compared to Axl+/+ mice; only 45% of Axl-/- mice survived to 14 weeks post-surgery compared to 87% of Axl+/+ mice. Histological analysis of kidney remnants revealed no effect of loss of Axl on glomerular hypertrophy, calcification or renal sclerosis but identified significantly increased tubulo-interstitial apoptosis in Axl-/- mice. Vascular calcification was not induced in Axl+/+ or Axl-/- mice in the time frame we were able to examine. In conclusion, we identify the up-regulation of Gas6/Axl signalling as a protective mechanism which reduces tubulo-interstitial apoptosis and slows progression to end-stage renal failure in the murine nephrectomy and high phosphate diet model of CKD.

  14. Axl tyrosine kinase protects against tubulo-interstitial apoptosis and progression of renal failure in a murine model of chronic kidney disease and hyperphosphataemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Gareth D; Taylor, Rebecca F; Ashton, Nick; Borland, Samantha J; Wu, Hon Sing Geoffrey; Gilmore, Andrew P; Canfield, Ann E

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as the progressive loss of renal function often involving glomerular, tubulo-interstitial and vascular pathology. CKD is associated with vascular calcification; the extent of which predicts morbidity and mortality. However, the molecular regulation of these events and the progression of chronic kidney disease are not fully elucidated. To investigate the function of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase in CKD we performed a sub-total nephrectomy and fed high phosphate (1%) diet to Axl+/+ and Axl-/- mice. Plasma Gas6 (Axl' ligand), renal Axl expression and downstream Akt signalling were all significantly up-regulated in Axl+/+ mice following renal mass reduction and high phosphate diet, compared to age-matched controls. Axl-/- mice had significantly enhanced uraemia, reduced bodyweight and significantly reduced survival following sub-total nephrectomy and high phosphate diet compared to Axl+/+ mice; only 45% of Axl-/- mice survived to 14 weeks post-surgery compared to 87% of Axl+/+ mice. Histological analysis of kidney remnants revealed no effect of loss of Axl on glomerular hypertrophy, calcification or renal sclerosis but identified significantly increased tubulo-interstitial apoptosis in Axl-/- mice. Vascular calcification was not induced in Axl+/+ or Axl-/- mice in the time frame we were able to examine. In conclusion, we identify the up-regulation of Gas6/Axl signalling as a protective mechanism which reduces tubulo-interstitial apoptosis and slows progression to end-stage renal failure in the murine nephrectomy and high phosphate diet model of CKD.

  15. CONOCOPHILLIPS FUEL EFFICIENT HIGH-PERFORMANCE(FEHP) SAE 75W90 REAR AXLE GEAR LUBRICANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report is on the Environmental Verification Test of a ConocoPhillips real axle gear lubricant to determine whether it could save vehicle fuel. It determined that a verifyable fuel savings could be measured.

  16. DETERMINATION OF RATIONAL KINEMATIC DISCREPANCY FACTOR AND DIAGRAMS OF WHEEL TRACTOR DRIVE AXLE GEAR

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Gouskov

    2008-01-01

    Accepting a traction efficiency as a criterion of effectiveness an optimum kinematic discrepancy factor  for a 4К4-model tractor with identical or different wheels and also schemes of drive axle gears are determined in the paper.

  17. Prerequisites for Increasing the Axle Load on Railway Tracks in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lidmila

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with problems of increasing the axle load on Czech Railways (ED tracks to 250 kN or 300 kN, respectively. The results of a numerical analysis of the effects of increased axle loads on the track bed structure were verified by experimental measurements carried out on track bed construction models in an experimental box on a 1:1 scale. The results of the research are applicable for routine use on ED. 

  18. Cyclic Fracture Toughness of Railway Axle and Mechanisms of its Fatigue Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorochak Andriy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main regularities in fatigue fracture of the railway axle material - the OSL steel - are found in this paper. Micromechanisms of fatigue crack propagation are described and systematized, and a physical-mechanical interpretation of the relief morphology at different stages of crack propagation is proposed for fatigue cracks in specimens cut out of the surface, internal and central layers of the axle.

  19. Influence of polygonal wear of railway wheels on the wheel set axle stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xingwen; Chi, Maoru; Wu, Pingbo

    2015-11-01

    The coupled vehicle/track dynamic model with the flexible wheel set was developed to investigate the effects of polygonal wear on the dynamic stresses of the wheel set axle. In the model, the railway vehicle was modelled by the rigid multibody dynamics. The wheel set was established by the finite element method to analyse the high-frequency oscillation and dynamic stress of wheel set axle induced by the polygonal wear based on the modal stress recovery method. The slab track model was taken into account in which the rail was described by the Timoshenko beam and the three-dimensional solid finite element was employed to establish the concrete slab. Furthermore, the modal superposition method was adopted to calculate the dynamic response of the track. The wheel/rail normal forces and the tangent forces were, respectively, determined by the Hertz nonlinear contact theory and the Shen-Hedrick-Elkins model. Using the coupled vehicle/track dynamic model, the dynamic stresses of wheel set axle with consideration of the ideal polygonal wear and measured polygonal wear were investigated. The results show that the amplitude of wheel/rail normal forces and the dynamic stress of wheel set axle increase as the vehicle speeds rise. Moreover, the impact loads induced by the polygonal wear could excite the resonance of wheel set axle. In the resonance region, the amplitude of the dynamic stress for the wheel set axle would increase considerably comparing with the normal conditions.

  20. Heightened cleavage of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase by ADAM metalloproteases may contribute to disease pathogenesis in SLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Jacob J; Du, Yong; Vanarsa, Kamala; Mayeux, Jessica; Li, Li; Mutwally, Azza; Arriens, Cristina; Min, Soyoun; Hutcheson, Jack; Davis, Laurie S; Chong, Benjamin F; Satterthwaite, Anne B; Wu, Tianfu; Mohan, Chandra

    2016-08-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by antibody-mediated chronic inflammation in the kidney, lung, skin, and other organs to cause inflammation and damage. Several inflammatory pathways are dysregulated in SLE, and understanding these pathways may improve diagnosis and treatment. In one such pathway, Axl tyrosine kinase receptor responds to Gas6 ligand to block inflammation in leukocytes. A soluble form of the Axl receptor ectodomain (sAxl) is elevated in serum from patients with SLE and lupus-prone mice. We hypothesized that sAxl in SLE serum originates from the surface of leukocytes and that the loss of leukocyte Axl contributes to the disease. We determined that macrophages and B cells are a source of sAxl in SLE and in lupus-prone mice. Shedding of the Axl ectodomain from the leukocytes of lupus-prone mice is mediated by the matrix metalloproteases ADAM10 and TACE (ADAM17). Loss of Axl from lupus-prone macrophages renders them unresponsive to Gas6-induced anti-inflammatory signaling in vitro. This phenotype is rescued by combined ADAM10/TACE inhibition. Mice with Axl-deficient macrophages develop worse disease than controls when challenged with anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) sera in an induced model of nephritis. ADAM10 and TACE also mediate human SLE PBMC Axl cleavage. Collectively, these studies indicate that increased metalloprotease-mediated cleavage of leukocyte Axl may contribute to end organ disease in lupus. They further suggest dual ADAM10/TACE inhibition as a potential therapeutic modality in SLE.

  1. DAMAGE TOLERANCE ANALYSIS ON HOLLOW AXLES OF HIGH SPEED MOTOR TRAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Suxia; XIE Jilong; YANG Guangxue; XIAO Nan

    2008-01-01

    According to the rules of UIC515-3, the service loads of the axles are defined, which include some different loads cases as follows: the static loads; the impact loads resulted from running through the rail joints and unevenness rails; the loads through curves and from braking. Through the calculating and analysis, the stress distribution of the hollow axles is obtained for 200 km/h high speed motor trains used in China. At the same time, the fatigue crack growth of hollow axles is studied, and the initial surface cracks of 2 mm depth caused by hard objects strike or the other causes are discussed. On the basis of the linear elastic fracture mechanics theory, the stress intensity factor of the crack of the geometry transition outside the wheel seat is also studied. Associated with fatigue crack propagation equation and the corresponding crack propagation threshold, the crack propagation characteristics under different shapes are calculated. Then the running distances are educed with different shapes propagating to the critical length, and the estimation of the residual lives about hollow axles which are the reference values of examine and repair limit of the hollow axle is given.

  2. Rational Design for Rotaxane Synthesis through Intramolecular Slippage: Control of Activation Energy by Rigid Axle Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masai, Hiroshi; Terao, Jun; Fujihara, Tetsuaki; Tsuji, Yasushi

    2016-05-01

    We describe a new concept for rotaxane synthesis through intramolecular slippage using π-conjugated molecules as rigid axles linked with organic soluble and flexible permethylated α-cyclodextrins (PM α-CDs) as macrocycles. Through hydrophilic-hydrophobic interactions and flipping of PM α-CDs, successful quantitative conversion into rotaxanes was achieved without covalent bond formation. The rotaxanes had high activation barrier for their de-threading, so that they were kinetically isolated and derivatized even under conditions unfavorable for maintaining the rotaxane structures. (1) H NMR spectroscopy experiments clearly revealed that the restricted motion of the linked macrocycle with the rigid axle made it possible to control the kinetic stability by adjusting the length of the rigid axle in the precursor structure rather than the steric bulkiness of the stopper unit.

  3. The electric axle-hybrid system made by PSA and Bosch; Der elektrische Achs-Hybrid von PSA und Bosch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chehab, C.; Le Neindre, Y.; Deutrich, K. [PSA Peugeot Citroen (Germany); Kuesell, M.; Willke, C.; Barth, V.; Lichtermann, J. [Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Currently, there are a whole variety of hybrid vehicle architectures in development. Specifically, so called Axle-Split hybrid vehicles containing an electric axle drive and a high-voltage generator mounted to the combustion engine provide not only excellent fuel efficiency but also a considerable benefit in vehicle performance. By selecting one out of four different drive modes, the driver can experience specific and unique vehicle characteristics. In this type of Axle-Split hybrid vehicle, a newly developed double-inverter including a DC/DC converter and power electronics control together with two electric motors from Bosch are installed. This electric axle drive will be first used in Peugeot and Citroen vehicles in 2011. The paper introduces the Axle-Split system advantages and its impact on CO2 reduction. (orig.)

  4. Inhibiting receptor tyrosine kinase AXL with small molecule inhibitor BMS-777607 reduces glioblastoma growth, migration, and invasion in vitro and in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Onken, J.; Torka, R.; Korsing, S; J Radke; Krementeskaia, I.; M. Nieminen; Bai, X.; A. Ullrich; Heppner, F.; Vajkoczy, P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Receptor tyrosine kinase AXL (RTK-AXL) is regarded as suitable target in glioma therapy. Here we evaluate the anti-tumoral effect of small molecule inhibitor BMS-777607 targeting RTK-AXL in a preclinical glioma model and provide evidence that RTK-AXL is expressed and phosphorylated in primary and recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Experimental design: We studied the impact of BMS-777607 targeting RTK-AXL in GBM models in vitro and in vivo utilizing glioma cells SF126 and U118MG...

  5. DETERMINATION OF RATIONAL KINEMATIC DISCREPANCY FACTOR AND DIAGRAMS OF WHEEL TRACTOR DRIVE AXLE GEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Gouskov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Accepting a traction efficiency as a criterion of effectiveness an optimum kinematic discrepancy factor  for a 4К4-model tractor with identical or different wheels and also schemes of drive axle gears are determined in the paper.

  6. 4-Oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamide Derivatives as New Axl Kinase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Li; Zhang, Zhang; Gao, Donglin; Luo, Jinfeng; Tu, Zheng-Chao; Li, Zhengqiu; Peng, Lijie; Ren, Xiaomei; Ding, Ke

    2016-07-28

    Axl is a new potential target for anticancer drug discovery. A series of 4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamides were designed and synthesized as highly potent Axl kinase inhibitors. One of the most promising compounds, 9im, tightly bound with Axl protein and potently inhibited its kinase function with a Kd value of 2.7 nM and an IC50 value of 4.0 nM, respectively, while was obviously less potent against most of the 403 wild-type kinases evaluated at a relatively high concentration. The compound dose-dependently inhibited the TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and suppressed the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. In addition, 9im also demonstrated reasonable pharmacokinetics properties in rats and exhibited in vivo therapeutic effect on hepatic metastasis in a xenograft model of highly metastatic 4T1 murine breast cancer cells. Compound 9im may serve as a lead compound for new anticancer drug discovery and a valuable research probe for further biological investigation on Axl. PMID:27379978

  7. Dynamics of two-axle railway freight wagons with UIC standard suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Mark; True, Hans

    2006-01-01

    The dynamics of two different two-axle railway freight wagons is investigated theoretically and compared. Fully nonlinear models are considered. The hysteresis from dry friction and the effect of impacts between elements of the suspension are included. Bifurcation diagrams are shown in order...

  8. Wheeled Vehicle Drive Lines, Axles, and Suspension Systems. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army Ordnance Center and School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

    This course is one of several subcourses that make up the entire Army correspondence course on wheeled vehicle maintenance. The subcourse is designed to provide the student with information about the operation, malfunction diagnosis, maintenance, and repair of wheeled vehicle drive lines, axles, and suspension systems. It provides the basic…

  9. Effect of GAS6 and AXL Gene Polymorphisms on Adiposity, Systemic Inflammation, and Insulin Resistance in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Fone-Ching Hsiao; Yuh-Feng Lin; Po-Shiuan Hsieh; Nain-Feng Chu; Yii-Der Ida Chen; Yi-Shing Shieh; Chang-Hsun Hsieh; Chien-Hsing Lee; Ting-I Lee; Yi-Jen Hung

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to explore the effects of GAS6 and AXL gene polymorphisms on adiposity, systemic inflammation, and insulin resistance in adolescents. After multistage sampling from the data of the Taipei Children Heart Study-III, we collected 358 boys and 369 girls with an average age of 13.3 years. We genotyped the adolescents' GAS6 rs8191973, GAS6 rs8191974, AXL rs4802113, and AXL rs2304232 polymorphisms. Significantly higher body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), a...

  10. Usage of virtual test rigs for axle test design and evaluation; Einsatz virtueller Pruefstaende zur Auslegung und Bewertung von Achserprobungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigel, Nicolas; Weihe, Stefan [Daimler AG, Stuttgart (Germany). Transportersparte - Abt. Rohbau und Festigkeit; Jung, Gerald; Moeller, Riccardo [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Betriebsfestigkeit (LBF), Darmstadt (Germany); Bruder, Thomas [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Betriebsfestigkeit und Systemzuverlaessigkeit (LBF), Darmstadt (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Virtual test rigs can be used for evaluation of hardware testing, derivation of simplified tests as well as for signal generation and thus they are a valuable toll to significantly enhance quality and efficiency of durability testing. The present article describes the development of a simulation model of a 13 DOF test rig for truck axle modules. A multibody simulation model is set up for the mechanical elements of the test rig as well as the axle holding fixture and the axle module. Hydraulics and control are integrated via a co-simulation model. Emphasis is placed on validation of test rig and chassis models as well as the required level of detail of the axle module models. (orig.)

  11. Loss of the receptor tyrosine kinase Axl leads to enhanced inflammation in the CNS and delayed removal of myelin debris during Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto Anne L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Axl, together with Tyro3 and Mer, constitute the TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases. In the nervous system, Axl and its ligand Growth-arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6 are expressed on multiple cell types. Axl functions in dampening the immune response, regulating cytokine secretion, clearing apoptotic cells and debris, and maintaining cell survival. Axl is upregulated in various disease states, such as in the cuprizone toxicity-induced model of demyelination and in multiple sclerosis (MS lesions, suggesting that it plays a role in disease pathogenesis. To test for this, we studied the susceptibility of Axl-/- mice to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model for multiple sclerosis. Methods WT and Axl-/- mice were immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35-55 peptide emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant and injected with pertussis toxin on day 0 and day 2. Mice were monitored daily for clinical signs of disease and analyzed for pathology during the acute phase of disease. Immunological responses were monitored by flow cytometry, cytokine analysis and proliferation assays. Results Axl-/- mice had a significantly more severe acute phase of EAE than WT mice. Axl-/- mice had more spinal cord lesions with larger inflammatory cuffs, more demyelination, and more axonal damage than WT mice during EAE. Strikingly, lesions in Axl-/- mice had more intense Oil-Red-O staining indicative of inefficient clearance of myelin debris. Fewer activated microglia/macrophages (Iba1+ were found in and/or surrounding lesions in Axl-/- mice relative to WT mice. In contrast, no significant differences were noted in immune cell responses between naïve and sensitized animals. Conclusions These data show that Axl alleviates EAE disease progression and suggests that in EAE Axl functions in the recruitment of microglia/macrophages and in the clearance of debris following demyelination. In addition, these data

  12. Resource planning for internal logistics : A tool designed for the material handling department at Scania Axles and Gearboxes

    OpenAIRE

    Axin, Kajsa; Jonzon, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    This master thesis is performed at Scania Axles and Gearboxes, a production plant located in Södertälje. Within the plant axles, gearboxes as well as central gears are assembled from components to finished products. All production is conducted on production lines, with a pre-determined rate, which is supplied with components by the material handling department. Since the production quantity and the mix of product variants produced on the production line is customer order-based, the number and...

  13. Glycoxidised LDL induced the upregulation of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase and its ligand in mouse mesangial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Sook Kim

    Full Text Available AIM/HYPOTHESIS: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL is subjected to glycoxidation in diabetes, and a novel signalling mechanism by which glycoxidised LDL functions in glomerular mesangial cells remains to be ascertained. METHODS: We performed gene expression analysis in mouse glomerular mesangial cells treated with LDL modified by glycation and oxidation (GO-LDL, 100 µg/ml for 48 h by using DNA microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR. We examined the GO-LDL-specific changes in gene and protein expression in mesangial cells and glomeruli of type 2 diabetic Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats. RESULTS: By microarray profiling, we noted that GO-LDL treatment increased Axl receptor tyrosine kinase (Axl mRNA expression (∼2.5-fold, p<0.05 compared with normal LDL (N-LDL treatment in mesangial cells. Treatment with GO-LDL also increased the protein levels of Axl and its ligand Gas6 as measured by Western blotting. These increases were inhibited by neutralising Axl receptor-specific antibody. Silencing Gas6 by siRNA inhibited GO-LDL-induced Axl expression in mesangial cells. Axl and Gas6 protein were also increased in cells cultured in high glucose (30 mM or methylglyoxal (200 µM. Gas6 treatment increased the expression and secretion of TGF-β1 protein, a key regulator of extracellular matrix expression in the glomeruli of diabetic kidneys. Immunohistochemical analyses of glomeruli from 20-week-old ZDF rats exhibited increased Axl protein expression. Rottlerin, a selective PKC-δ inhibitor, completely blocked Gas6-induced TGF-β1 expression. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: These data suggest that LDL modified by glycoxidation may mediate Axl/Gas6 pathway activation, and this mechanism may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy.

  14. Effect of Mn on hardenability of 25CrMo axle steel by an improved end-quench test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yutuo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available With the sixth large-scale railway speed-up, the quality of the axles is essential to the safety of the locomotive. According to the high-speed axle technical standard for the control of alloy elements in axle steel, optimization experiments of 25CrMo steel composition were performed by vacuum inductive melting. In order to study the hardenability of high-speed rail axles, an improved end-quench test was put forward. The advantage is that it enables the heat to transfer along the axial direction, thus avoiding edge effects. The hardenability of 25CrMo axle steels with Mn content of 0.60wt.% and 0.80wt.% was investigated mainly by means of optical microscopy and hardness tests. The experimental results indicate that the Mn has a pronounced effect on the hardenability of the steel. With an increase in Mn content from 0.60wt.% and 0.80wt.%, the hardenability of 25CrMo axle steel increases and the hard microstructure is maintained at an increasing distance from the quenched end. From the surface of the water quenched end to the center of the sample, the microstructure is martensite, martensite with bainite, and bainite.

  15. Optimization of Assembly of Rear Axle Carrier (Transmission System Through Ergonomic Consideration: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Kaustubh N. Kalaspurkar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Increased competition in the market, ever increasing demands of products and delivery of the quality product within committed dates forcing the manufacturers to involve newer and more optimized techniques in their production scheduling. This technique either involves costly Automation and Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS or the techniques forcing on elimination of unnecessary and unproductive operation (i.e. motion during the production. An assembly line is designed by determining the sequences of operations for manufacture of each component as well as the final product. In this paper, a case study at one of leading tractor manufacturing company in India for one of its production operation i.e. assembly of Rear Axle Carrier (Transmission System of tractor is presented using the technique of time and motion study. For this technique such as Predetermined Motion Time Study (PMTS, Method Time Measurement (MTM, various process charts are used for analysis and optimize their present methodology of assembling Rear Axle Carrier (RAC.

  16. FLEXIBLE 2-DOF STEERING MODEL OF MULTI-AXLE HEAVY-DUTY VEHICLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Bo; Wang Xuelin; Hu Yujin; Li Chenggang

    2004-01-01

    A flexible two degrees of freedom (2-DOF) steering model of multi-axle vehicle (MAV) is presented with considering the effect of frame flexibility based on the classic 2-DOF model. A method to calculate the frame flexibility is derived by using three moments equation. The steering stability of MAV is analyzed. The steering performance of MAV is also researched in frequency domain. Simulation results show that the dynamic effects of flexible model are more severe than rigid model and the flexible effect of frame will weaken the steering stability of MAV. Different disposals of steering axles lead to different steering characteristics of MAV. The in-phase steering mode improves the steering characteristics and stability at high speed. The anti-phase steering mode increases the steering mobility at low vehicle speed.

  17. Expression Analysis Highlights AXL as a Candidate Zika Virus Entry Receptor in Neural Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Tomasz J; Pollen, Alex A; Di Lullo, Elizabeth; Sandoval-Espinosa, Carmen; Bershteyn, Marina; Kriegstein, Arnold R

    2016-05-01

    The recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil has been linked to substantial increases in fetal abnormalities and microcephaly. However, information about the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms connecting viral infection to these defects remains limited. In this study we have examined the expression of receptors implicated in cell entry of several enveloped viruses including ZIKV across diverse cell types in the developing brain. Using single-cell RNA-seq and immunohistochemistry, we found that the candidate viral entry receptor AXL is highly expressed by human radial glial cells, astrocytes, endothelial cells, and microglia in developing human cortex and by progenitor cells in developing retina. We also show that AXL expression in radial glia is conserved in developing mouse and ferret cortex and in human stem cell-derived cerebral organoids, highlighting multiple experimental systems that could be applied to study mechanisms of ZIKV infectivity and effects on brain development.

  18. A layered cooling process in whole quenching process for lightweight front axle beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Kai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the uniformity of martensite distribution and obtain consistent mechanical performance during the quenching process of front axle beam, a layered cooling process was presented in this paper. The fluid-solid coupled temperature field were investigated by finite element modeling and the prediction of micro-structure and hardness distributions were also carried out. The experimental result verifies the reliability of this model.

  19. Simulation Research on Stress Intensity Factors of Different Crack Aspect Ratios on Hollow Axles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Suxia; XIE Jilong

    2009-01-01

    Because of the wicked service environment of the high speed train, it is possible that the hollow axle of the train may encounter the foreign object damage and form a sharp notch. Under the fatigue loading a crack can initiate from the notch and propagate to failure. It is noted that the stress intensity factor is the control parameter of the crack propagating, for the purpose of getting the more exact propagation characteristics, the stress intensity factor is studied mainly. The service loads of hollow axles are defined, and the stress distribution of hollow axles is obtained according to the load spectrum. The semi-ellipse crack configuration is defined with three parameters:the aspect ratio, the relative depth and the relative location along the crack front. Quarter point 20-node isoparametric degenerate singular elements are used for the region near the crack tip. The finite element model of crack extension of hollow axle is created, and the crack front is dispersed which can realize orthogonal extension. Based on this the stress intensity factors of crack front were calculated, and the distribution rules of the stress intensity factors of different initial crack shapes are obtained. The conclusions are compared with that of the analytic method and they agree with each other very well, and the calculating results show that there is a close relationship between the stress intensity factor and the initial crack shape. For a round crack the stress intensity factor at the surface point increases faster than the one at the center point with the crack propagation. However, for a narrow crack, the results are in contrast with that of a round one. So, all the cracks with different shapes propagate toward to a similar shape, and they grow at this shape to end. The study may contribute to the crack propagate characteristics research.

  20. The dynamics of European two-axle railway freight wagons with UIC standard suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Mark; True, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of two-axle railway freight wagons with the UIC standard Suspension is investigated theoretically and the dynamic behaviour is explained. Fully nonlinear models are considered. The hysteresis from dry friction and the effect of impacts between elements of the suspension are included....... Different wheel-rail geometries are investigated and the results commented. Bifurcation diagrams ale used to describe the eigen-dynamics of the wagons....

  1. Active noise reduction at the rear axle drive; Aktive Geraeuschminderung am Hinterachsgetriebe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eulert, Sebastian; Luehrs, Georg [Volkswagen AG, Kassel (Germany); Braeunig, Jan; Bucht, Andre; Kunze, Holger [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkzeugmaschinen und Umformtechnik, Dresden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In this article we present the results of a research project of Volkswagen AG and Fraunhofer IWU. It shows new approaches in the development of active mass dampers for transmission applications. The proposed active controlled system enables to reduce the interior sound pressure level of the rear axle gear mesh order by more than 5 dB. By detailed pre-examination of the drivetrain vibrations and transfer paths we gained new insights into the phenomenon of rear axle gear whine. In order to develop solutions to realise the damping of the vibrations we designed and constructed a test bench which consists of the main components of the rear axle unit and its bearings. The vibration phenomenon was replicated by synthetic excitation. Thus we could acquire an adequate control concept combined with a corresponding actuator and experimentally established control parameters. Validations on an experimental vehicle under synthetic excitation and finally under real driving conditions adduced the evidence for the functionality of the proposed system. (orig.)

  2. Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing: Five-Axle Combination Tractor-Flatbed Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, in coordination with the Federal Highway Administration, sponsored the Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing (HOVBT) program in order to provide information about the effect of gross vehicle weight (GVW) on braking performance. Because the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations limit the number of braking system defects that may exist for a vehicle to be allowed to operate on the roadways, the examination of the effect of brake defects on brake performance for increased loads is also relevant. The HOVBT program seeks to provide relevant information to policy makers responsible for establishing load limits, beginning with providing test data for a combination tractor/trailer. This testing was conducted on a five-axle combination vehicle with tractor brakes meeting the Reduced Stopping Distance requirement rulemaking. This report provides a summary of the testing activities, the results of various analyses of the data, and recommendations for future research. Following a complete brake rebuild, instrumentation, and brake burnish, stopping tests were performed from 20 and 40 mph with various brake application pressures (15 psi, 25 psi, 35 psi, 45 psi, 55 psi, and full system pressure). These tests were conducted for various brake conditions at the following GVWs: 60,000, 80,000, 91,000, 97,000, 106,000, and 116,000 lb. The 80,000-lb GVWs included both balanced and unbalanced loads. The condition of the braking system was also varied. To introduce these defects, brakes (none, forward drive axle, or rear trailer axle) were made inoperative. In addition to the stopping tests, performance-based brake tests were conducted for the various loading and brake conditions. Analysis of the stopping test data showed the stopping distance to increase with load (as expected) and also showed that more braking force was generated by the drive axle brakes than the trailer axle brakes. The constant-pressure stopping test data

  3. Dethreading of a Photoactive Azobenzene-Containing Molecular Axle from a Crown Ether Ring: A Computational Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Gloria; Silvi, Serena; Venturi, Margherita; Credi, Alberto; Fois, Ettore

    2016-06-17

    Pseudorotaxanes formed by a dibenzo[24]crown-8 ring (R) and a dialkylammonium axle bearing either two E- or two Z-azobenzene units (EE-A or ZZ-A) revealed useful for the construction of light-powered molecular machines and motors, as they provide the opportunity of photocontrolling self-assembly/disassembly processes. The potential energies profiles for the dethreading of these complexes have been investigated by adopting a combination of first-principles molecular dynamics, metadynamics and quantum-chemical geometry optimization approaches. While the dethreading of the EE-A axle is associated with a monotonic energy increase, for that of the ZZ-A axle a transition state and an intermediate structure, in which the components are still threaded together, are found. The rate determining step for the dethreading of the ZZ axle has a higher energy barrier than that of the EE axle, in agreement with the experimental kinetic data. Moreover, the results suggest that the elliptic shape of the ring cavity is important for discriminating between the E and Z terminal azobenzene during dethreading.

  4. 200 km/h 八轴客运电力机车轴重转移分析%Axle - load Transfer Analysis of 200 km/h Eight - axle Passenger Electric Locomotive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕凯凯; 王开云; 张志和

    2015-01-01

    An axle - load transfer model for a new 200 km/ h eight - axle passenger electric locomotive is established in this paper. Comparisons between calculation results obtained from the established model and that from the commercial dynamic software under the quasi - static condition are made. Some factors that affect the locomotive axle - load transfer are analyzed. The result shows that the axle - load of the first axle and second axle are reducing,while for the third axle and fourth axle they are increasing. The maxi-mum load - increasing ratio is happened to the fourth axle,which is 6. 28 percent,and the maximum load- reducing ratio is for the first axle,which is also 6. 28 percent. The calculation result is similar to that by using the commercial dynamic software where the difference is only about 0. 8 percent. Compared with the traction motor suspended on wheel - set,the traction motor suspended on frame could reduce the axle- load transfer by about 5. 77 percent. The optimal traction height for the 200 km/ h eight - axle passen-ger electric locomotive is 260 mm. Reducing the distance between motor front and rear suspension points can improve the adhesion weight usage of a locomotive.%针对一种新型的200 km/ h 八轴客运电力机车,建立了轴重转移计算模型。利用该模型计算其轴重转移,与动力学软件在准静态条件下的仿真结果进行对比,并分析影响机车轴重转移的因素。研究表明,该机车第一、二轴为减载,第三、四轴为增载,且第四轴增载最大,增载6.28%,第一轴减载最大,减载6.28%;模型计算结果与动力学软件仿真结果相差0.8%;机车牵引电机采用架悬方式能有效减小机车轴重转移,相比电机采用轴悬方式,机车轴重转移减小5.77%;该机车最优牵引点高度为260 mm;减小电机前后悬挂点之间的纵向跨距能有效提高机车黏着重量利用率。

  5. Stress Analysis and Fatigue Analysis of Front Axle of Heavy-Duty Truck using ANSYS Ncode Design Life for Different Loading Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant L. Aghav

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Front axle of heavy duty truck is the important component of vehicle and needs good design under the various loading conditions of the complete vehicle. Aim of the project is to stress analysis and predict the life of front axle for vertical, and vertical and braking loading case. The fatigue life of front axle is generally estimated by stress life approach and strain life approach method. Front axle beam assembly was modeled in the NX cad software. Meshing and Stress analysis is performed by ANSYS workbench and fatigue analysis is performed by NCODE design life ANSYS tool under different loading cases. Fatigue life of axle obtained by FEA method is more than 2 x 105 cycles, which is considered as safe for vertical loading case. Similarly, Fatigue life of axle obtained is more than 4 x 103 cycles, which is considered as safe for vertical and braking loading case. The max stress region is below spring pad of axle for vertical loading and in the goose neck of axle for vertical and braking loading case

  6. NEW TECHNOLOGY AND MACHINE TOOL FOR THE FORMING OF THE REAR AXLE SHAFT OF LIGHT TRUCK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Yingchun; Yu Duonian; Wang Xueming

    2004-01-01

    A new technology of forward extrusion and cross rolling has been developed to process the rear axle shaft sleeve of light truck with the use of tube billets. This technology is characterized by large reductions of material, energy and cost of production and has significant economical benefits. This technology is stable and reliable. The three rolls transverse rolling mill built based on this technology has novelty construction, higher production efficiency, non-vibration and noise. The research results have been extensively applied to light trucks and farm transport with load of 1 to 3 tones.

  7. Analysis of the nonlinear dynamics of a 2-axle freight wagon in curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Gialleonardo, Egidio; Bruni, Stefano; True, Hans

    2014-01-01

    and of a three-car assembly is introduced, paying particular attention to the nonlinear and nonsmooth modelling of the suspensions and of the inter-car coupling elements. Using this model, a numerical analysis of the steady-state solution reached after the negotiation of curve transition is presented......This paper deals with the study of the nonlinear dynamic behaviour of 2-axle freight wagons in curves, considering the case of one single wagon (neglecting inter-car coupling forces) and of multiple wagons interacting through the buffers and the couplers. A multi-body model of a single wagon...

  8. Intelligent Energy Management Strategy for a Separated-Axle Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Fallahi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV in addition to provide the benefits of electric vehicles could satisfy consumers for some performances of conventional internal combustion engine (ICE vehicles such as acceleration and long range. On this way, suitable energy optimization strategies should be employed to get desired efficiency, less fuel consumption and pollution. One of the favorite and simple configurations of HEVs is parallel type. A student team at University of Kashan, IRAN have designed and manufactured Shaheb 2 hybrid electric vehicle. It is a separated-axle (or Through-to-Road (TTR parallel HEV type based on Pride platform. Employed energy management in Shaheb 2 is on/off strategy and three modes; motor, engine and hybrid have been implemented. This paper investigates the modeling of separated-axle (or TTR parallel type of HEV in ADVISOR software and then evaluates two control strategies for Shaheb 2; on/off strategy and an intelligent control based on fuzzy logic. On this way, maximizing the engine is considered as objective function. The simulation results indicate that the fuzzy strategy leads to less fuel consumption and lower pollution for given UDDS driving cycle rather than on/off strategy for Shaheb 2.

  9. Analysis of axle and vehicle load properties through Bayesian networks based on weigh-in-motion data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Napoles, O.; Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) systems are used, among other applications, in pavement and bridge reliability. The system measures quantities such as individual axle load, vehicular loads, vehicle speed, vehicle length and number ofaxles. Because ofthe nature ofúamc configuration, the quantities measured are

  10. NEW APPROACH FOR TECHNOLOGY OF VOLUMETRIC – SUPERFICIAL HARDENING OF GEAR DETAILS OF THE BACK AXLE OF MOBILE MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Mihluk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The new approach for technology of volumetric – superficial hardening of gear details of the back axle made of steel lowered harden ability is offered. This approach consisting in formation of intense – hardened condition on all surface of a detail.

  11. Vitamin K2 regression aortic calcification induced by warfarin via Gas6/Axl survival pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoyu; Tao, Huiren; Qiu, Cuiting; Ma, Xiaolei; Li, Shan; Guo, Xian; Lv, Anlin; Li, Huan

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamin K2 on aortic calcification induced by warfarin via Gas6/Axl survival pathway in rats. A calcification model was established by administering 3mg/g warfarin to rats. Rats were divided into 9 groups: control group (0W, 4W, 6W and 12W groups), 4W calcification group, 6W calcification group, 12W calcification group, 6W calcification+6W normal group and 6W calcification+6W vitamin K2 group. Alizarin red S staining measured aortic calcium depositions; alkaline phosphatase activity in serum was measured by a kit; apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL assay; protein expression levels of Gas6, Axl, phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), and Bcl-2 were determined by western blotting. The calcium content, calcium depositions, ALP activity and apoptosis were significantly higher in the calcification groups than control group. Gas6, Axl, p-Akt and Bcl-2 expression was lower in the calcification group than control group. 100μg/g vitamin K2 treatment decreased calcium depositions, ALP activity and apoptosis significantly, but increased Gas6, Axl, p-Akt and Bcl-2 expression. 100μg/g vitamin K2 reversed 44% calcification. Pearson correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between formation calcification and apoptosis (R(2)=0.8853, Pvitamin K2 can inhibit warfarin-induced aortic calcification and apoptosis. The regression of aortic calcification by vitamin K2 involved the Gas6/Axl axis. This data may provide a theoretical basis for future clinical treatments for aortic calcification. PMID:27212383

  12. Testosterone delays vascular smooth muscle cell senescence and inhibits collagen synthesis via the Gas6/Axl signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Qing; Zhao, Jing; Jin, Cheng-Wei; Li, Yi-Hui; Tang, Meng-Xiong; Wang, Zhi-Hao; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yun; Li, Li; Zhong, Ming

    2016-06-01

    Testosterone deficiency is associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular diseases in men. However, its effect on cell senescence, which plays a causal role in vascular aging, remains unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that testosterone alleviated vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) senescence and collagen synthesis via growth arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6)/Axl- and Akt/FoxO1a-dependent pathways. Testosterone significantly ameliorated angiotensin II-induced VSMC senescence and collagen overexpression. In addition, testosterone inhibited angiotensin II-induced matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity, which played a pivotal role in facilitating age-related collagen deposition. Testosterone increased the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 but decreased the expression of MMP-2 and membrane type-1 metalloproteinase which contributed to increase MMP-2 activity. The effects on VSMCs senescence and collagen synthesis were mediated by restoration of angiotensin II-induced downregulation of Gas6 and Axl expression and a subsequent reduction of Akt and FoxO1a phosphorylation. The effects of testosterone were reversed by a Gas6 blocker, Axl-Fc, and a specific inhibitor of Axl, R428. Treatment of VSMCs with PI3K inhibitor LY294002 abrogated the downregulating effect of testosterone on MMP-2 activity. Furthermore, when FoxO1a expression was silenced by using a specific siRNA, the inhibitory effect of testosterone on MMP-2 activity was revered as well, that indicated this process was Akt/FoxO1a dependence. Taken together, Gas6/Axl and Akt/FoxO1a were involved in protective effects of testosterone on VSMCs senescence and collagen synthesis. Our results provide a novel mechanism underlying the protective effect of testosterone on vascular aging and may serve as a theoretical basis for testosterone replacement therapy. PMID:27206970

  13. Design, Synthesis, and Validation of Axl-Targeted Monoclonal Antibody Probe for microPET Imaging in Human Lung Cancer Xenograft

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shuanglong; Li, Dan; Guo, Jiacong; Canale, Nicolette; Li, Xiuqing; Liu, Ren; Krasnoperov, Valery; Gill, Parkash S.; Conti, Peter S.; Shan, Hong; Li, Zibo

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating experimental evidence indicates that overexpression of the oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase, Axl, plays a key role in the tumorigenesis and metastasis of various types of cancer. The objective of this study is to design a novel imaging probe based on the monoclonal antibody, h173, for microPET imaging of Axl expression in human lung cancer. A bifunctional chelator, DOTA, was conjugated to h173, followed by radiolabeling with 64Cu. The binding of DOTA-h173 to the Axl receptor wa...

  14. Optimization Design of Vehicle Front Axle Structure Based on ABAQUS and TOSCA%基于ABAQUS与TOSCA的汽车前桥结构优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马瑞雪; 王欣; 覃祯员; 张科峰

    2012-01-01

    应用ABAQUS软件对汽车前桥进行强度分析,针对车桥强度不足问题,通过TOSCA优化软件对前桥进行拓扑优化设计,在保证承栽能力的前提下有效减轻其重量。%The author analyze the vehicle front axle for the strength by ABAQUS software. In view of the axle strength shortage problem, they use TOSCA optimization software designing the front axle topological optimization structure,in order to effectively reduce its weight under the condition of its bearing capacity.

  15. PROBABILISTIC MODELS FOR LONG FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH RATES OF LZ50 AXLE STEEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yong-xiang; HE Chao-ming; YANG Bing; HUANG Yu-zhong; GAO Qing; WU Ping-bo

    2005-01-01

    Experimental study is performed on the probabilistic models for the long fatigue crack growth rates (da/dN) of LZ50 axle steel. An equation for crack growth rate was derived to consider the trend of stress intensity factor range going down to the threshold and the average stress effect. The probabilistic models were presented on the equation. They consist of the probabilistic da/dN-△K relations, the confidence-based da/dN-△K relations, and the probabilistic- and confidence-based da/dN-△K relations.Efforts were made respectively to characterize the effects of probabilistic assessments due to the scattering regularity of test data, the number of sampling, and both of them.These relations can provide wide selections for practice. Analysis on the test data of LZ50 steel indicates that the present models are available and feasible.

  16. Design and Development of Animal Drawn Ground Metered Axle Mechanism Boom Sprayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Amonye

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A spraying technology was developed for use by rural farmers in Northern Nigeria. The farming systems in these areas are put into consideration and in keeping with appropriate technology initiative. The technology was designed to offer the farmers an equitable sprayer that shall be drawn by animal farm power and that is effective and affordable. The equipment was constructed using the parameters obtained from design and tested at a farmland within the University premises of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, in Nigeria. The equipment consists of a boom with multiple Controlled Droplet Applicator (CDA atomizer nozzles, a gear pump, a chemical tank, and chair for an operator; all attached to a framework bolted to a rear axle. It was observed that the Dynamic Wheel Load assuming even distribution of load was found to be 1575N and a net pull of 820N. The net pull offers convenient task and shall easily swallow energy requirement for spraying uphill terrains.

  17. Design of Model Following Variable Structure Controller for Three-axle Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管西强; 张建武; 屈求真

    2003-01-01

    An optimal control procedure is developed for the front and rear wheels of a three-axle vehicle moving on a complex typical road based on model following variable structure control strategy. The actual vehicle may be considered as an uncertain system. Cornering stiffness of front and rear wheels and external disturbances are varied in a limited range. The model-following variable structure control method is used to control both front and rear wheels steering operations of the vehicle, so that steering responses of the vehicle follow from those of the reference model. By numerical results obtained from computer simulation, it is demonstrated that the control system model can cope with the effects of parameter perturbations and outside disturbances.

  18. Development of a new time domain-based algorithm for train detection and axle counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allotta, B.; D'Adamio, P.; Meli, E.; Pugi, L.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an innovative train detection algorithm, able to perform the train localisation and, at the same time, to estimate its speed, the crossing times on a fixed point of the track and the axle number. The proposed solution uses the same approach to evaluate all these quantities, starting from the knowledge of generic track inputs directly measured on the track (for example, the vertical forces on the sleepers, the rail deformation and the rail stress). More particularly, all the inputs are processed through cross-correlation operations to extract the required information in terms of speed, crossing time instants and axle counter. This approach has the advantage to be simple and less invasive than the standard ones (it requires less equipment) and represents a more reliable and robust solution against numerical noise because it exploits the whole shape of the input signal and not only the peak values. A suitable and accurate multibody model of railway vehicle and flexible track has also been developed by the authors to test the algorithm when experimental data are not available and in general, under any operating conditions (fundamental to verify the algorithm accuracy and robustness). The railway vehicle chosen as benchmark is the Manchester Wagon, modelled in the Adams VI-Rail environment. The physical model of the flexible track has been implemented in the Matlab and Comsol Multiphysics environments. A simulation campaign has been performed to verify the performance and the robustness of the proposed algorithm, and the results are quite promising. The research has been carried out in cooperation with Ansaldo STS and ECM Spa.

  19. Optic-electronic systems for measurement the three-dimension angular deformation of axles at the millimeter wave range radiotelescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konyakhin, Igor A.; Kopylova, Tatyana V.; Konyakhin, Alexsey I.; Smekhov, Andrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Researches in the millimetre wave range require the high accuracy for position of the mirror components of the radiotelescope. A mirror weight is the cause of the three-dimension angular deformation of the elevation axle and azimuth axle relatively bearings. At result the elevation angle and azimuth angle of a parabolic mirror axis orientation is not equal to the set values. For the measuring roll, pitch and yaw angular deformations the autocollimation system with new type of the reflector are used. Reflector for autocollimation measurements as compositions of the anamorphic prism and special tetrahedral reflector is described. New methods for roll, pitch, yaw angles measuring are discussed. Optical scheme for the measurement system, structure the anamorphic prism and tetrahedral reflector are proposed. Equations for the static characteristic of the measuring system are shown.

  20. Shifting Control Algorithm for a Single-Axle Parallel Plug-In Hybrid Electric Bus Equipped with EMT

    OpenAIRE

    Yunyun Yang; Sen Wu; Xiang Fu

    2014-01-01

    Combining the characteristics of motor with fast response speed, an electric-drive automated mechanical transmission (EMT) is proposed as a novel type of transmission in this paper. Replacing the friction synchronization shifting of automated manual transmission (AMT) in HEVs, the EMT can achieve active synchronization of speed shifting. The dynamic model of a single-axle parallel PHEV equipped with the EMT is built up, and the dynamic properties of the gearshift process are also described. I...

  1. Faults Diagnostics of Railway Axle Bearings Based on IMF’s Confidence Index Algorithm for Ensemble EMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Yi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As train loads and travel speeds have increased over time, railway axle bearings have become critical elements which require more efficient non-destructive inspection and fault diagnostics methods. This paper presents a novel and adaptive procedure based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD and Hilbert marginal spectrum for multi-fault diagnostics of axle bearings. EEMD overcomes the limitations that often hypothesize about data and computational efforts that restrict the application of signal processing techniques. The outputs of this adaptive approach are the intrinsic mode functions that are treated with the Hilbert transform in order to obtain the Hilbert instantaneous frequency spectrum and marginal spectrum. Anyhow, not all the IMFs obtained by the decomposition should be considered into Hilbert marginal spectrum. The IMFs’ confidence index arithmetic proposed in this paper is fully autonomous, overcoming the major limit of selection by user with experience, and allows the development of on-line tools. The effectiveness of the improvement is proven by the successful diagnosis of an axle bearing with a single fault or multiple composite faults, e.g., outer ring fault, cage fault and pin roller fault.

  2. Analysis of axle and vehicle load properties through Bayesian Networks based on Weigh-in-Motion data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) systems are used, among other applications, in pavement and bridge reliability. The system measures quantities such as individual axle load, vehicular loads, vehicle speed, vehicle length and number of axles. Because of the nature of traffic configuration, the quantities measured are evidently regarded as random variables. The dependence structure of the data of such complex systems as the traffic systems is also very complex. It is desirable to be able to represent the complex multidimensional-distribution with models where the dependence may be explained in a clear way and different locations where the system operates may be treated simultaneously. Bayesian Networks (BNs) are models that comply with the characteristics listed above. In this paper we discuss BN models and results concerning their ability to adequately represent the data. The paper places attention on the construction and use of the models. We discuss applications of the proposed BNs in reliability analysis. In particular we show how the proposed BNs may be used for computing design values for individual axles, vehicle weight and maximum bending moments of bridges in certain time intervals. These estimates have been used to advise authorities with respect to bridge reliability. Directions as to how the model may be extended to include locations where the WIM system does not operate are given whenever possible. These ideas benefit from structured expert judgment techniques previously used to quantify Hybrid Bayesian Networks (HBNs) with success

  3. Acceleration Slip Regulation Strategy for Distributed Drive Electric Vehicles with Independent Front Axle Drive Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfei Wu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an acceleration slip regulation strategy for distributed drive electric vehicles with two motors on the front axle. The tasks of the strategy include controlling the slip ratio to make full use of the road grip and controlling the yaw rate to eliminate the lateral movement due to the difference between motor torques. The rate of the slip ratio change can be controlled by controlling the motor torque, so that the slip ratio can be controlled by applying a proportional-integral control strategy to control the rate of the slip ratio change. The yaw rate can be controlled to almost zero by applying torque compensation based on yaw rate feedback. A coordination control strategy for the slip ratio control and yaw rate control is proposed based on analysis of the priorities and features of the two control processes. Simulations were carried out using MATLAB/Simulink, and experiments were performed on a hardware-in-loop test bench with actual motors. The results of the simulations and experiments showed that the proposed strategy could improve the longitudinal driving performance and straight line driving stability of the vehicle.

  4. Kinome-wide shRNA Screen Identifies the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase AXL as a Key Regulator for Mesenchymal Glioblastoma Stem-like Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Cheng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is a highly lethal cancer for which novel therapeutics are urgently needed. Two distinct subtypes of glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs were recently identified: mesenchymal (MES and proneural (PN. To identify mechanisms to target the more aggressive MES GSCs, we combined transcriptomic expression analysis and kinome-wide short hairpin RNA screening of MES and PN GSCs. In comparison to PN GSCs, we found significant upregulation and phosphorylation of the receptor tyrosine kinase AXL in MES GSCs. Knockdown of AXL significantly decreased MES GSC self-renewal capacity in vitro and inhibited the growth of glioblastoma patient-derived xenografts. Moreover, inhibition of AXL with shRNA or pharmacologic inhibitors also increased cell death significantly more in MES GSCs. Clinically, AXL expression was elevated in the MES GBM subtype and significantly correlated with poor prognosis in multiple cancers. In conclusion, we identified AXL as a potential molecular target for novel approaches to treat glioblastoma and other solid cancers.

  5. Differential expression of the ufo/axl oncogene in human leukemia-lymphoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challier, C; Uphoff, C C; Janssen, J W; Drexler, H G

    1996-05-01

    The ufo protein (also termed axl) is a member of a new family of receptor tyrosine kinases and is encoded by a transforming gene that was initially isolated from primary human myeloid leukemia cells by DNA-mediated transformation of NIH/3T3 cells. The ligand, Gas6, a protein S-related molecule lacking any known function yet, has recently been identified. We report the expression pattern of ufo mRNA in a panel of 76 human continuous leukemia-lymphoma cell lines. The gene was not expressed in cell lines derived from lymphoid malignancies (n=28), but transcription was seen in 3/11 myeloid, 0/6 monocytic, 9/13 erythroid and 11/18 megakaryocytic cell lines. Several cell lines were treated with phorbol ester leading to significant upregulation of the ufo message in constitutively positive cells. An apparent ufo mRNA overexpression was not found in any of the positive leukemia cell lines, but was identified in the drug-resistant subclones of the cervix carcinoma cell line HeLa. Southern blot analysis of restriction enzyme-digested genomic DNA did not provide evidence for gene amplification, but the HeLa subclones showed banding patterns suggestive of gene rearrangement. Two main ufo mRNA bands of 3.2 and 5.0 kb were identified; no differences in the half-lives (t1/2 = 2.5 h) of these two mRNA species could be identified. In summary, ufo, representing a novel type of receptor tyrosine kinase, is expressed solely in myeloid and erythro-megakaryocytic leukemias but not in lymphoid malignancies. These and previous data suggest an involvement of the ufo receptor tyrosine kinase in normal and malignant myelopoiesis; however, its exact role, if any, and mode of operation in leukemogenesis remains to be determined.

  6. Vibration control of bridge subjected to multi-axle vehicle using multiple tuned mass friction dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisal, Alka Y.; Jangid, R. S.

    2016-06-01

    The effectiveness of tuned mass friction damper (TMFD) in reducing undesirable resonant response of the bridge subjected to multi-axle vehicular load is investigated. A Taiwan high-speed railway (THSR) bridge subjected to Japanese SKS (Salkesa) train load is considered. The bridge is idealized as a simply supported Euler-Bernoulli beam with uniform properties throughout the length of the bridge, and the train's vehicular load is modeled as a series of moving forces. Simplified model of vehicle, bridge and TMFD system has been considered to derive coupled differential equations of motion which is solved numerically using the Newmark's linear acceleration method. The critical train velocities at which the bridge undergoes resonant vibration are investigated. Response of the bridge is studied for three different arrangements of TMFD systems, namely, TMFD attached at mid-span of the bridge, multiple tuned mass friction dampers (MTMFD) system concentrated at mid-span of the bridge and MTMFD system with distributed TMFD units along the length of the bridge. The optimum parameters of each TMFD system are found out. It has been demonstrated that an optimized MTMFD system concentrated at mid-span of the bridge is more effective than an optimized TMFD at the same place with the same total mass and an optimized MTMFD system having TMFD units distributed along the length of the bridge. However, the distributed MTMFD system is more effective than an optimized TMFD system, provided that TMFD units of MTMFD system are distributed within certain limiting interval and the frequency of TMFD units is appropriately distributed.

  7. Dynamic Response Characteristics of Asphalt Pavement Under Multi-axle Moving Load%多轴移动荷载下沥青路面的动态响应特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴建中; 吴浩; 陈勇; 王秉纲

    2011-01-01

    In order to analyze dynamic response characteristics of asphalt pavement under muhi axle moving load,a three-dimensional finite element model of asphalt pavement was established by field investigation. The influences of axle load with uniform distribution of single rear axle, dual rear axles and three rear axles and the axle load with non-uniform distribution of three rear axles and the three rear axles vehicles with impending front axle on pavement were studied respectively. Results show that the effect of each axle on pavement is independent when the wheelbase of multi axle vehicle is bigger than 3 m. Increase of number of axle makes the vertical displacement of pavement superpose and makes the maximal shear stress and compressive stress of pavement change inconspicuously. The influence of the middle axle of three rear axles vehicle on the vertical displacement of pavement is the greatest which increases by 23. 7% and 18. 2% compared with those of the front axle and rear axle respectively. Besides, the middle axle and rear axle has certain influence on the shear stress of pavement, but each axle has ahnost no influence on the maximal compressive stress of pavement. The research results indicate that the non uniform distribution of axle load of multi axle vehicle has significant influence on pavement faliure.%为分析多轴移动荷载下沥青路面的动态响应特性,通过现场调查建立了不同轴型作用下沥青路面的三维有限元模型,分别研究了单后轴、双后轴及三后轴轴载均匀分布、三后轴车轴载不均匀分布及三后轴车前轴悬空条件下对路面的影响。结果表明:多轴车轴距大于3m时,各轴对路面的作用相互独立,轴数的增加对路面竖向位移产生叠加作用,对路表最大剪应力及压应力影响不明显;三后轴车中轴对路面竖向位移作用最大,较前轴及后轴分别增大23.7%和18.2%,中轴及后轴对路表剪应力有一定影响,

  8. 拖拉机前驱动桥的涂装工艺研究%Research of Coating Process of Tractor Front Drive Axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王智红

    2012-01-01

    For appearance quality requirements of front drive axles used in tractors ,the coating process of front drive axles is researched and designed. The production practices prove that the coated front drive axle has a good corrosion resistance, and this can lengthen Service life and improve use value of the product.%针对拖拉机前驱动桥外观品质的要求,研究并设计了前驱动桥涂装工艺。生产实践证明,涂装后的前驱动桥具有良好的耐腐蚀性,不仅延长了使用寿命,而且还提高了产品的使用价值。

  9. Comparative analysis into the tractor-trailer braking dynamics: tractor with single axle brakes, tractor with all wheel brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasoiu, Mircea; Ispas, Nicolae

    2014-06-01

    The paper elaborates a mathematical model in order to conduct a study into the dynamics of tractor-trailer systems during braking. The braking dynamics is analyzed by considering two versions for the braking system: 1) braking applied on the rear axle and 2) braking applied on all four wheels. In both versions the trailer is braked on all wheels. The mathematical model enables us to determine and graphically illustrate the evolution of the following parameters: braking deceleration, braking speed and the distance traveled by the tractor during braking. The mathematical model elaborated is applied on a tractor-trailer system completing transportation works.

  10. Thoughts on Process Design of Ji'nan West Wheel Axle Workshop%济南西轮轴车间工艺设计思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵勇

    2012-01-01

    This paper, according to the relevant design contents of wheel axle workshop of Ji'nan West Rolling Stock Depot, investigates comprehensively the whole maintenance process and the equipment configuration of wheel axle's overhaul, from several aspects such as the function partitioning of inspection and repair depots, wheelset-input inspection , wheelset-export inspection, mechanical processing of wheel axle, HMIS system and so on. Moreover, the paper introduces emphatically the working principle, main features and the related functions about the process line which consists of the loading and unloading robot, axle transmission line, wheel transmission line, and the press-fit units. In addition, this paper summarizes the entire maintenance process in relation to the wheel axle's automation and process line's maintenance, with a view to provide reference for wheel axle repair design of other projects.%根据济南西车辆段轮轴车间设计相关内容,从轮轴检修库房工艺功能划分、轮对收入检查部分、轮对支出检查部分、车轴轮片机械加工部分、HMIS系统等几个方面入手,全面探讨轮轴大修的整个检修工艺流程和设备配置情况,并着重介绍上下料机械手、车轴输送线、车轮输送线和压装单元组成的工艺流水线的工作原理、主要特点和相关功能.总结轮轴自动化、流水线检修的整个检修工艺流程,可为其他工程轮轴检修设计提供参考依据.

  11. Propiedades estructurales de ejes huecos y sólidos con una grieta plana//Structural proprieties of hollow and whole axles, with a flat crack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon‐Ariza De‐Miguel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudiaron las diversas ventajas constructivas que los ejes huecos presentan respecto a los sólidos, como la reducción de masa, mejor control de calidad, menores defectos en producción y facilidad de acoplamiento. De ahí su profusión en aplicaciones industriales, como ejes de ferrocarril, de reductores o en calandrias. Dichas ventajas se ven alteradas cuando el eje trabaja a fatiga en flexión rotativa y aparece una grieta sobre el mismo. Se comprobaron dichas ventajas y sus variaciones sobre un modelo inicial de una grieta plana superficial, y se ha observado que los ejes huecos resultan más perjudicados por estas grietas para ciertos valores del diámetro interior, mientras que para otros son ventajosos. Se concluye del presente estudio que puede establecerse un rango de valores para el diámetro interior de ejes huecos en el cual su aprovechamiento seríaóptimo.Palabras claves: ejes huecos y sólidos, propiedades estructurales, grieta plana.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThis work studies the several advantages hollow axles show when compared to whole ones, such as lightness, better quality control, less manufacturing defects, coupling simplicity. Thence their being profusely employed in industry, in applications like railway axles, gearboxes or calenders. Theseadvantages are altered when the axle works under bending with rotation under fatigue and a crack appears on its surface. An analytical research upon a flat surface crack model has been made of these advantages and their variations and it has been observed that hollow axles suffer more from these cracks than whole ones for certain inner diameter values, whereas for others even less than whole ones. It can be deduced that a gap for the inner diameter can be ascertained, where the axle´s rendering would be optimal.Key words: hollowand whole axles, structural properties, flat crack.

  12. 基于ANSYS Workbench 的前轴分析和优化设计%ANSYS Workbench Based Analysis and Optimization Design of Front Axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凯; 曾亿山; 牛家忠

    2015-01-01

    汽车车桥是汽车上主要承载构件之一,对其进行分析和优化十分必要。以某公司生产的前桥前轴为例,先建立前轴的Pro/E三维模型,后导入 ANSYS Workbench ,在几种不同的路况上对前轴进行静态分析,结果表明前轴在应力大小方面能满足要求。在此基础上结合实际情况,并以质量最小化为最终目的,对前轴进行了形状优化和尺寸优化,为前轴的实际制造和优化改进提供理论依据。%As one of the main carrying components of automobile , the analysis and optimization of automobile axle is necessary . Firstly ,the three‐dimensional model of the front axle was set up in Pro/E ,the model was imported into ANSYS Workbench ,and the static analysis of the front axle in several different conditions was conducted ,the results showed that the front axle in the stress could meet the requirements .Then ,based on the static analysis ,the shape and size of the front axle were optimized ,and the ultimate aim was to minimize the mass ,it would provide a theoretical basis for the practical manufacturing and optimization of front axle .

  13. On Methods of Solving the Axle Grinding Produces Denim and Burns%浅析解决车轴磨削产生斜纹及烧伤的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王长峰; 郭文荣

    2013-01-01

    车轴表面磨削加工中存在斜纹一直是困扰车轴生产的主要问题。通过对车轴磨削过程中砂轮、工装、设备、皂化液等因素的研究,查找车轴磨削表面产生斜纹、烧伤的原因,并提出相应的解决办法,为提高车轴生产质量提供保障。%The present axle twill surface grinding axle production has been plagued major problem. Through the process of grinding wheel axle, tooling, equipment, and other factors saponification research.In this paper, we find the axle grinding sur-face twill, burn causes and propose appropriate solutions to improve production quality axle to provide protection.

  14. Rear axle structure design of DD32/120 series%DD32/120系列后桥结构设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖红利; 杨爱民

    2012-01-01

    详细论了DD32/120系列后桥设计方案,对从动齿轮与桥壳间隙及从动齿轮与主减速器壳前轴承座间隙进行了计算。%Detailed discuss the rear axle design scheme of DD32/120 series,make calculation for driven gear and axle housing clearance and driven gear and front-end bearing pedestal of main reducing housing.

  15. On "impact of surface type, wheelchair weight, and axle position on wheelchair propulsion by novice older adults".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprigle, Stephen

    2009-07-01

    The mechanical efficiency of propelling manual wheelchairs is a very important topic. Wheelchair users, clinicians, manufacturers and payers would all benefit from better understanding of mechanical efficiency. However, the measurement of the mechanical efficiency is a nontrivial challenge. Cowan et al deserve a lot of credit for tackling such a difficult problem in their article "Impact of surface type, wheelchair weight, and axle position on wheelchair propulsion by novice older adults." The study demonstrated good internal validity in detecting a 4% difference in peak propulsion forces in wheelchairs that differed in mass by 9.1 kg. However, the instrumentation used to measure forces altered both the mass and inertia of the wheelchair-occupant system--2 factors that directly affect system energy. This approach, therefore, affects external validity, and the results cannot be extended to infer differences across wheelchair codes. That said, this study adds important information to the body of work into mechanical efficiency of wheelchairs. We now have evidence to suggest that addition of 9 kg and an 8 cm posterior displacement of axle position adversely affects propulsion biomechanics in an elderly cohort. Improved methodology can lead to mechanical efficiency measurement of different wheelchair models and different wheelchair options. PMID:19577018

  16. Hopf Bifurcation Characteristics of Dual-Front Axle Self-Excited Shimmy System for Heavy Truck considering Dry Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daogao Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiaxle steering is widely used in commercial vehicles. However, the mechanism of the self-excited shimmy produced by the multiaxle steering system is not clear until now. This study takes a dual-front axle heavy truck as sample vehicle and considers the influences of mid-shift transmission and dry friction to develop a 9 DOF dynamics model based on Lagrange’s equation. Based on the Hopf bifurcation theorem and center manifold theory, the study shows that dual-front axle shimmy is a self-excited vibration produced from Hopf bifurcation. The numerical method is adopted to determine how the size of dry friction torque influences the Hopf bifurcation characteristics of the system and to analyze the speed range of limit cycles and numerical characteristics of the shimmy system. The consistency of results of the qualitative and numerical methods shows that qualitative methods can predict the bifurcation characteristics of shimmy systems. The influences of the main system parameters on the shimmy system are also discussed. Improving the steering transition rod stiffness and dry friction torque and selecting a smaller pneumatic trail and caster angle can reduce the self-excited shimmy, reduce tire wear, and improve the driving stability of vehicles.

  17. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XIX, I--ENGINE TUNE-UP--CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, II--FRONT END SUSPENSION AND AXLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP PROCEDURES AND THE DESIGN OF FRONT END SUSPENSION AND AXLES USED ON DIESEL ENGINE EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE (1) PRE-TUNE-UP CHECKS, (2) TIMING THE ENGINE, (3) INJECTOR PLUNGER AND VALVE ADJUSTMENTS, (4) FUEL PUMP ADJUSTMENTS ON THE ENGINE (PTR AND PTG),…

  18. Control allocation for for regenerative braking of electric vehicles with an electric motor at the front axle using the state-dependent Riccati equation control technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanarachos, S.A.; Alirezaei, M.; Jansen, S.T.H.; Maurice, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the systematic development of an integrated braking controller for a vehicle driven by an electric motor on the front axle is presented. The objective is to engage the electric motor only during braking, up to the point at which the vehicle reaches its manoeuvrability and stability lim

  19. Portable axle temperature alarming device for railway train%铁路列车便携式轴温报警装置的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐超凡; 姜璐; 刘飞; 康旭韡; 曹源

    2016-01-01

    The high temperature of the train axle could bring dangerous to the train operation, so it is very important to detect train axle temperature. This research was different from the design of other axle temperature detection. Mobile phone with Android platform and ARM11 development board was used to communicate with each other in order to implement real-time monitoring of temperature. Wi-Fi technology was used to receive real-time data from the development board, and the mobile phone was used to receive data in the socket communication process, while the ARM development board worked as the client to send temperature data, so that the mechanical engineer could observe the temperature values of each axle at any position of the train. After testing, the portable axle temperature alarming device for railway train could implement the function of axle temperature detection and transmit the data of axle temperature to the intelligent handheld terminal through wireless communication.%列车轴温过高会给列车运行带来危险,因此列车轴温检测系统的意义重大。本研究不同于其他轴温检测设计,采用Android平台手机与ARM11开发板相互通信以实现对温度的实时监测。设计中采用Wi-Fi技术进行实时接收开发板采集的轴温数据,并将手机作为Socket通信过程中的服务器端接收数据,ARM开发板作为客户端发送轴温数据,使机械师能够在列车的任意位置对每一车轴的温度值进行实时观测。经测试,研制的铁路列车便携式轴温报警装置基本实现了轴温检测和无线发送轴温数据到智能手持终端的功能。

  20. KCH0302 Central Type Harvester Steering Drive Axle%KCH0302中置式收割机转向驱动桥

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张传龙; 武辉; 冯晓宾

    2012-01-01

    KCH0302中置式收割机转向驱动桥是宽幅距收割机的核心部件,根据给定的整机参数,按照传统设计方法并参考同类桥型确定该桥总体参数,再确定主减速器、差速器、半轴和桥壳的结构类型。该桥设计过程中基本保证结构合理,符合实际应用,总成及零部件设计能尽量满足零件的标准化,部件的通用化和产品变型的要求,修理、保养方便.机件工艺性好.制造容易。%KCH0302 mid-set type harvester steering drive axle is a core components of wide harvester. According to the given machine parameters, in accordance with the traditional design method and referencing similar bridge, the overall parameters of the axle is determined. Then structrue types of main reducer, differential, axle and axle housing are also determined. During the design process ,we can basically ensure that the axle has a reasonable structure and better consistency with the fact. In designing assembly and parts,we try to meet the requirements of part standardization,component interchangeability and product variant. The maintenance is simple,and the parts has a good manufacturability and easy manufacturing.

  1. 汽车前轴动态特性的可靠性优化设计%Reliability Optimization Design of Dynamic Characteristics of Automotive Front Axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧献国; 于德介; 姚凌云

    2011-01-01

    Combining with the reliability analysis and the optimization technique, a reliability optimization design method was presented for improving the dynamic characteristics of automotive front axle.A reliability optimization model of dynamic characteristics of automotive front axle was established, the first order mode frequency and the velocity admittance of driving point of engine excitation were used as design constraints of reliability—based optimization, the total mass of front axle was used as the design objective.The reliability-based optimization problem of a micro—car front axle was solved, which shows that the dynamic characteristics of front axle are improved and the goals of reliability optimization design are achieved.%将可靠性分析与优化技术相结合,提出一种改善汽车前轴动态特性的可靠性优化设计方法.该方法建立了汽车前轴动态特性的可靠性优化模型,以一阶模态频率和发动机激励点的驱动点速度导纳为动态特性约束,以前轴总质量为优化目标,对前轴进行可靠性优化.对某微车前轴动态特性的可靠性优化设计结果表明,该方法有效酶善了前轴的动态特性,动态特性约束满足了可靠度设计要求,达到了可靠性优化设计的目的.

  2. An integrated control strategy for the composite braking system of an electric vehicle with independently driven axles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fengchun; Liu, Wei; He, Hongwen; Guo, Hongqiang

    2016-08-01

    For an electric vehicle with independently driven axles, an integrated braking control strategy was proposed to coordinate the regenerative braking and the hydraulic braking. The integrated strategy includes three modes, namely the hybrid composite mode, the parallel composite mode and the pure hydraulic mode. For the hybrid composite mode and the parallel composite mode, the coefficients of distributing the braking force between the hydraulic braking and the two motors' regenerative braking were optimised offline, and the response surfaces related to the driving state parameters were established. Meanwhile, the six-sigma method was applied to deal with the uncertainty problems for reliability. Additionally, the pure hydraulic mode is activated to ensure the braking safety and stability when the predictive failure of the response surfaces occurs. Experimental results under given braking conditions showed that the braking requirements could be well met with high braking stability and energy regeneration rate, and the reliability of the braking strategy was guaranteed on general braking conditions.

  3. Shifting Control Algorithm for a Single-Axle Parallel Plug-In Hybrid Electric Bus Equipped with EMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyun Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining the characteristics of motor with fast response speed, an electric-drive automated mechanical transmission (EMT is proposed as a novel type of transmission in this paper. Replacing the friction synchronization shifting of automated manual transmission (AMT in HEVs, the EMT can achieve active synchronization of speed shifting. The dynamic model of a single-axle parallel PHEV equipped with the EMT is built up, and the dynamic properties of the gearshift process are also described. In addition, the control algorithm is developed to improve the shifting quality of the PHEV equipped with the EMT in all its evaluation indexes. The key techniques of changing the driving force gradient in preshifting and shifting compensation phases as well as of predicting the meshing speed in the gear meshing phase are also proposed. Results of simulation, bench test, and real road test demonstrate that the proposed control algorithm can reduce the gearshift jerk and the power interruption time noticeably.

  4. The radial hardness-profile and the microstructure of railroad car axle materials treated by surface rolling, determined by novel examination methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface rolling is a cold-working technique used for hardening the surface of steel and ductile cast iron components. This process increases the surface hardness and improves the fatigue properties of components, so it is commonly used to treat railroad car wheel axles. The present paper examines the influence of this surface strengthening technique on the microstructure of the railroad car wheel axle material by hardness tests, optical microscopy (OM), and other novel examination methods, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray line profile analysis (XLPA), non-destructive magnetic evaluation (NDE) and automated electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The results show that surface rolling causes an increase in hardness down to a depth of ∼10 mm. It is also shown, that the increase in hardness is not due to grain refinement or change in grain morphology; thus it is likely to be caused by an increase in dislocation density

  5. A receptor tyrosine kinase, UFO/Axl, and other genes isolated by a modified differential display PCR are overexpressed in metastatic prostatic carcinoma cell line DU145.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, A N; Kalapurakal, J; Davidson, W R; Kandpal, G; Dunson, N; Prashar, Y; Kandpal, R P

    1999-01-01

    We have used a modified differential display PCR protocol for isolating 3' restriction fragments of cDNAs specifically expressed or overexpressed in metastatic prostate carcinoma cell line DU145. Several cDNA fragments were identified that matched to milk fat globule protein, UFO/Axl, a receptor tyrosine kinase, human homologue of a Xenopus maternal transcript, laminin and laminin receptor, human carcinoma-associated antigen, and some expressed sequence tags. The transcript for milk fat globule protein, a marker protein shown to be overexpressed in breast tumors, was elevated in DU145 cells. The expression of UFO/Axl, a receptor tyrosine kinase, was considerably higher in DU145 cells as compared to normal prostate cells and prostatic carcinoma cell line PC-3. The overexpression of UFO oncogene in DU145 cells is discussed in the context of prostate cancer metastasis.

  6. The radial hardness-profile and the microstructure of railroad car axle materials treated by surface rolling, determined by novel examination methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berecz, Tibor, E-mail: berecz@eik.bme.hu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1111 Budapest, Bertalan Lajos utca 7 (Hungary); Balogh, Levente, E-mail: levente@metal.elte.hu [Department of Materials Physics, Eötvös Loránd University, 1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/a (Hungary); Mészáros, István, E-mail: meszaros@eik.bme.hu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1111 Budapest, Bertalan Lajos utca 7 (Hungary); Steinbach, Ágoston, E-mail: sa984@hszk.bme.hu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1111 Budapest, Bertalan Lajos utca 7 (Hungary)

    2014-01-13

    Surface rolling is a cold-working technique used for hardening the surface of steel and ductile cast iron components. This process increases the surface hardness and improves the fatigue properties of components, so it is commonly used to treat railroad car wheel axles. The present paper examines the influence of this surface strengthening technique on the microstructure of the railroad car wheel axle material by hardness tests, optical microscopy (OM), and other novel examination methods, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray line profile analysis (XLPA), non-destructive magnetic evaluation (NDE) and automated electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The results show that surface rolling causes an increase in hardness down to a depth of ∼10 mm. It is also shown, that the increase in hardness is not due to grain refinement or change in grain morphology; thus it is likely to be caused by an increase in dislocation density.

  7. 有限元分析在汽车后桥壳设计中的应用%Finite element analysis in the design of automotive Rear axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄在璐

    2012-01-01

      运用软件Solidworks建立汽车后桥壳的三维模型,并利用有限元分析软件COSMOSWorks对该后桥壳进行静态受力分析,获取该零件的应力分布云图,从而为零件的合理设计提供有价值的参考。%  In this paper, the three-dimensional model of the software Solidworks to automotive rear axle,and use of finite element analysis software COSMOSWorks the rear axle for static stress analysis,Get the part of the stress contours,Provide a valuable reference for the rational design of parts.

  8. 铸钢叉车用桥壳的质量控制%Quality Control of Folk Lifter Axle Housing Steel Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张奕麟; 刘伟

    2011-01-01

    针对叉车用铸钢桥壳的质量问题,如裂纹、气孔等缺陷,通过在配料和熔炼工艺,造型、制芯及合箱等方面加以控制,使得铸钢桥壳的质量大为改善。同时制定了铸钢桥壳缺陷允许焊补的条例,规范了铸件缺陷处理。%With the modification on molding, core making and mould assembling process, the quality of folk lifter axle housing steel casting has been improved especially for crack, porosity and other defects. The guideline of repair welding for axle housing also has been defined in to keep consistency of repairing.

  9. Design the Rocker Arm Mechanism in Double Front Axle Steering Mechanism%双前桥转向机构中摇臂机构的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兰兰; 王健楠

    2012-01-01

    为了适当调整摇臂机构的设计参数,根据已有的基本型双前桥转向的摇臂机构.用作图法计算出二桥节臂转角肛,再计算出二桥节臂理论转角β2理,根据β2-β2理=δ古是否小于1°来判断该机构是否合理:如不合理,通过改变摇臂长度R的尺寸得到合理的数值后,再用三维模型进行了校核,得到了合适的设计数据。此方法缩短了设计周期,为双摇臂机构的设计提供了参考。%Abstract according the existing rocker mechanism about the double front axle steering mechanism, the comer of the knuckle arm about the second steering axle β2 was calculated from the comer of knuckle arm about the first steering axle r, by graphical method, and the theory comer of knuckle arm of the second steering axle β2L, was counted, then the rocker mechanism's rationality was determined according the formula β2- β2L=δ;if δ≤ 1°,the mechanism is reasonable ;if δ 〉 1°,then the parameter R was changed to obtain the reasonable data about the rocker mechanism ;final, the corresponding 3D model was build to check the design. Design time was saved by this method, and reference was given to the other designers.

  10. SMED application in the axle housing mold%快速换模在桥壳模具中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷鹏; 贾雄伟; 惠文强

    2014-01-01

    In stamping-welding axle housings products switched, the axle housing mold bulky and heavy-tonnage, resulting in retooling slow and low productivity. Through the SMED application in the axle housings, the distinction between internal and external, transformation operation using a parallel operation. Improving the logistics set up hanging device, increasing the positioning pin. The changeover speed increase more than 50%, reducing the extra inventory, improve production efficiency, resulting in significant economic benefits.%在冲焊桥壳产品切换中,桥壳模具体积大、吨位重、造成换模速度慢,生产效率低。通过快速换模技术在桥壳模具中的应用,区分了内外变换操作,并采用平行作业,改善物流架起吊装置,增加定位销,使换模速度提升了50%以上,减少了不需的额外库存,提高了生产效率,并产生明显的经济效益。

  11. Vibration levels on rear and front axles of a tractor in agricultural operations - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v36i1.18170

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geice Paula Villibor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive vibrations in agricultural tractors can contribute with mechanical failures and subject the operator to discomfort. This work evaluated the vibration levels on rear and front axles of an agricultural tractor working at different forward speeds and wheel drive conditions in plowing and harrowing operations. Field tests were carried out in a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement 3 x 2 (forward travel speeds x front-wheel-assist enable or disable, with three replications. Tractor vibration was measured using two single axis accelerometers fixed above the rear and front axles. The actual forward speed of the tractor was obtained by means of ultrasonic radar and the angular velocity of the wheels was measured with magnetic transducers. The drawbar force to pull the disc harrow was obtained by a load cell. The results showed that the vibration levels observed for the plowing operation were higher than observed for the harrowing operation. When the front-wheel-assist (FWA was enabled there was a reduction in vertical vibration levels of the tractor axles. The highest vibration levels were observed in the frequency range of 2 to 4Hz for the both soil tillage operations evaluated

  12. In-service parametric modelling a rail vehicle's axle-box hydraulic damper for high-speed transit problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. L.; Yu, D. S.; Zhou, Z.

    2015-10-01

    Due to the high-speed operation of modern rail vehicles and severe in-service environment of their hydraulic dampers, it has become important to establish more practical and accurate damper models and apply those models in high-speed transit problem studies. An improved full parametric model with actual in-service parameters, such as variable viscous damping, comprehensive stiffness and small mounting clearance was established for a rail vehicle's axle-box hydraulic damper. A subtle variable oil property model was built and coupled to the modelling process, which included modelling of the dynamic flow losses and the relief-valve system dynamics. The experiments validated the accuracy and robustness of the established full in-service parametric model and simulation which captured the damping characteristics over an extremely wide range of excitation speeds. Further simulations were performed using the model to uncover the effects of key in-service parameter variations on the nominal damping characteristics of the damper. The obtained in-service parametric model coupled all of the main factors that had significant impacts on the damping characteristics, so that the model could be useful in more extensive parameter effects analysis, optimal specification and product design optimisation of hydraulic dampers for track-friendliness, ride comfort and other high-speed transit problems.

  13. 多轴汽车驻车制动性能分析方法%Analysis Method of Parking Braking Performance for Multi-axle Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何仁; 童成前; 何建清

    2011-01-01

    Taking three-axle vehicle as an example, the calculation formula of parking grade limit of multiaxle vehicle is derived with its influencing factors analyzed. On this basis, an analysis method for parking-braking performance of multi-axle vehicle is proposed, in which the maximum parking grade is determined by comparing parking grade limit and the maximum parking grade calculated by torque method. In addition, a concept named utilization rate of grade limit is proposed as a supplement to the analysis indicators of parking braking performance.The results of real sample analysis show that the method proposed is simple, pragmatic and can effectively analyze the parking braking performance of multi-axle vehicles.%以三轴汽车为例,推导出多轴汽车的驻车极限坡度计算公式,并对其影响因素进行分析.在此基础上,提出了多轴汽车的驻车制动性能分析方法,即通过对驻车极限坡度与力矩法求出的最大驻车坡度进行比较而获得汽车的最大驻车坡度:外,提出了极限坡度利用率的概念,作为对驻车制动性能分析指标的补充.实例分析结果表明,该方法简单、实用,能对多轴汽车驻车制动性能进行有效分析.

  14. 轴距对柔性基层沥青路面轴数系数的影响研究%Influence of wheelbase parameters on Equivalent Axle-number Coefficient of Asphalt Pavement with flexibility Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康荣根

    2014-01-01

    应用弹性层状体系理论计算程序,考虑轴距变化的影响,计算柔性基层沥青路面轴载换算公式中的轴数系数。针对典型柔性基层沥青路面结构组成,以路表最大弯沉为验算指标,计算并总结归纳出适合柔性基层沥青路面典型结构的轴数系数。%By use of program based on layer-elastic theory,with wheelbase parameters,the axle-number coefficient in the axle-load conversion formula for semi-rigid asphalt pavement is calculated .Through analyzing the results, the axle-number coeffi cient in Asphalt Pavement with fl exibility Base is concluded.

  15. Dynamic Analysis of Light Automotive Front Axle Based on FEM%轻型载货汽车前轴的有限元动态特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王科

    2015-01-01

    汽车前轴是汽车最重要的承重件之一,其设计的可靠性直接影响整车性能的发挥。利用有限元方法研究汽车前轴的动态特性,并通过频率响应提取动刚度,为前轴设计提供了频域的设计方法。%Front axle of the light truck is one of the most important load-bearing parts. Its design reliability has impact on the vehicle performance. In this paper, the dynamic characteristics of the automotive front axle is researched by using the finite el-ement method ( FEM) , and its dynamic stiffness is also extracted with frequency response. We hope that would provide a de-sign method for front axle in the frequency domain.

  16. Design and application of the car front axle road simulation test%轿车前桥道路模拟台架疲劳试验设计及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩峰; 李国峰; 于翠

    2016-01-01

    This paper based on the vertical force, vertical force, lateral force of automobile front axle head and the hydraulic system (MTS), and one vehicle model in the proving ground of front axle load spectrum to design bench test for fatigue. Road simulation was carried out on the front axle. To reduce the design cost, shorten the design time, produce good economic benefit.%文章基于前桥轴头垂直力、纵向力、侧向力和 MTS 液压系统,以及某车型在试验场实测得到的前桥载荷谱,单纯对前桥进行台架道路模拟耐久试验设计。降低设计成本,缩短设计周期,产生较好的经济效益。

  17. Non-contacting fluid ring seal systems for railcar axle bearing systems: Quarterly progress report No. 1, June 15 to September 15, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The main objectives of this DOE contract is the technical development of a practical, cost effective Fluid Ring seal system capable of: Drastically reducing locomotive drawbar traction power requirements by lowering seal friction losses prevalent in present railcar axle bearing systems; increasing reliability and safety of railroad cars by minimizing bearing lubricant leakage and minimizing bearing ''hot boxes''; and improving the productivity of the railway transportation systems by reducing rolling stock ''outages'' due to long seal life. 14 refs.

  18. Non-contacting fluid ring seal systems for railcar axle bearing systems: Quarterly progress report No. 4, March 16-June 15, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    The main objectives of this DOE contract is the technical development of a practical, cost effective Fluid Ring seal system capable of: Drastically reducing locomotive drawbar traction power requirements by lowering seal friction losses prevalent in present railcar axle bearing systems; increasing reliability and safety of railroad cars by minimizing bearing lubricant leakage and minimizing bearing ''hot boxes''; and improving the productivity of the railway transportation systems by reducing rolling stock ''outages'' due to long seal life. Listed in this report are the seal test data.

  19. Light Weight Design of Automobile Rear Axle Housing Based on Typical Conditions%基于典型工况的汽车后桥壳结构轻量化优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁晓明; 吕俊成; 王伟

    2016-01-01

    Lightweight design was done for the rear axle housing of multi�link rear suspension, based on typical conditions and the method of inertia release.According to the analyses,the maximal stress of the rear axle housing appeared on unilateral pothole condition.It indicated that the thickness of axle shaft sleeve and rear axle housing had an effect on maximal stress value as thickness changed, the maximum stress position would also shift.Finally,the optimized rear axle housing weight loss is of 1 1 .6% compared to the original one,and no durability problems after fatigue tests and durability tests,the optimized rear axle housing can meet the design requirements.%基于典型工况下的后桥连接点载荷,运用惯性释放的方法对搭配多连杆悬架的后桥壳进行了轻量化设计.分析可知:单侧过深坑工况下的后桥壳应力最大;套管厚度和桥包厚度对最大应力有影响,而且随着两者厚度的变化,最大应力位置也会转移.优化后的桥壳比原桥壳减重11.6%,经过疲劳试验和耐久性路试验证,未出现耐久性问题,满足设计要求.

  20. 工程车辆双桥油气悬架性能对比仿真分析%Simulation Research on the Two Axles Hydro-pneumatic Suspension for Construction Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李魁; 张洪; 蔡言龙

    2015-01-01

    By analyzing the hydraulic system circuit diagram of the all terrain crane ’ s two axles hydro⁃pneumatic suspension ( HPS) , 7 DOF mathematical model of the two axles HPS group was established. The main differences of independent type and parallel type two axles HPS model were also studied, and their simulation models were set up based on AMESim software. The maximum pres⁃sure, tire dynamic load, and vertical acceleration about the independent type and parallel type two axles HPS model were comparatively analyzed. The conclusion is that the performance index of the parallel type two axles HPS is superior to that of the independent two axles HPS.%通过分析全路面起重机双桥油气悬架组的液压系统油路图,建立双桥油气悬架组的7自由度数学模型,分析并联式和独立式双桥油气悬架模型主要区别,并利用AMESim仿真软件建立并联式和独立式双桥油气悬架仿真模型。对比分析了两种悬架系统的压力、轮胎动载荷、垂直加速度等参数的最大值,得出并联式悬架组的性能指标要优于独立双桥悬架的结论。

  1. Finite Element Analysis of A Front Axle in Lateral Sliding to Limit Condition%某载货车前轴侧滑工况有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯美波; 刘新荣; 李秀波

    2015-01-01

    利用有限元分析软件Workbench对某载货车前轴进行有限元分析,得出其在极限侧滑工况下的应力分布,从而为前轴的设计提供一定的理论依据。%Using finite element analysis software Workbench to analyze a front axle when working on lateral sliding to limit condition, and the stress distribution is obtained. So it can provide certain theoretical basis for the design of front axle.

  2. Intracellular signaling of the Ufo/Axl receptor tyrosine kinase is mediated mainly by a multi-substrate docking-site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunger, J; Schleithoff, L; Schulz, A S; Kessler, H; Lammers, R; Ullrich, A; Bartram, C R; Janssen, J W

    1997-06-01

    Ufo/Axl belongs to a new family of receptor tyrosine kinases with an extracellular structure similar to that of neural cell adhesion molecules. In order to elucidate intracellular signaling, the cytoplasmic moiety of Ufo/Axl was used to screen an expression library according to the CORT (cloning of receptor targets) method. Three putative Ufo substrates were identified: phospholipase Cgamma1 (PLCgamma), as well as p85alpha and p85beta subunits of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3-kinase). Subsequently, chimeric EGFR/Ufo receptors consisting of the extracellular domains of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the transmembrane and intracellular moiety of Ufo were engineered. Using different far-Western blot analyses and coimmunoprecipitation assays, receptor binding of PLCgamma and p85 proteins as well as GRB2, c-src and lck was examined in vitro and in vivo. Competitive inhibition of substrate binding and mutagenesis experiments with EGFR/Ufo constructs revealed C-terminal tyrosine 821 (EILpYVNMDEG) as a docking site for multiple effectors, namely PLCgamma, p85 proteins, GRB2, c-src and lck. Tyrosine 779 (DGLpYALMSRC) demonstrated an additional, but lower binding affinity for the p85 proteins in vitro. In addition, binding of PLCgamma occurred through tyrosine 866 (AGRpYVLCPST). Moreover, our in vivo data indicate that further direct or indirect binding sites for PLCgamma, GRB2, c-src and lck on the human Ufo receptor may exist.

  3. Nonlinearity-induced time-varying harmonic dynamic axle load and its impact on dynamic stability of car-trailer combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Xiao, Hong; Winner, Hermann

    2016-06-01

    A nonlinearity-induced time-varying harmonic dynamic axle load is found in the road test of a car-trailer combination. To understand its influence on system dynamic stability, a corresponding linear single-track model (STM) is proposed. System dynamic stability is described and sensitivity analysis for the system parameters is achieved. The contribution of the harmonic force is quantified by a derived effective axle load. Because the harmonic effect might be time varying in practice, a time-frequency analysis-based parameter identification method is introduced. Experimental study shows that a time-varying harmonic effect really exists. A yaw-rate-based simulation method is designed to simulate this behaviour. The sensitivity analysis of the influence of the harmonic amplitude or phase on dynamic stability is performed with a simulation study. With appropriate modification of the harmonic amplitude and phase shift applied in selected time windows, the time-varying system characteristics in the road test can be simulated very well.

  4. 载重汽车双前桥转向机构优化设计%Optimization Design of Double - front - axle Steering Mechanism of Heavy Truck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕾; 董恩国; 梁立学

    2012-01-01

    Based on multi-body dynamitic theory and the software of ADAMS, it builds a simulation model on a double-front-axle steering mechanism, establishes a mathematic model on a steering mechanism and rocker mechanism. The simulation analysis is performance according to the minimum steering error of the double-front-axle steering mechanism. Based on the simulation, it obtains the optimization results and researches the steering performance evaluation conclusions.%以多体系统动力学理论为基础,应用多体动力学软件ADAMS建立了载重汽车双前桥转向机构动力学仿真模型,以及转向梯形机构及中间摇臂机构的数学模型.基于各机构转角误差最小对设计参数进行了仿真优化分析.通过仿真分析,得到了双前桥转向机构的优化结果以及转向性能的评价结论.

  5. FEM analysis of front axle vertical finishing process and mold development%前轴垂直整形工艺模拟与模具开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾琦; 蒋鹏

    2013-01-01

    Front axle is one of the important load parts in automobiles, the possibility of the front axle vertical finishing process was analyzed, the process parameters and mold structure of vertical finishing process were simulated and optimized with the help of computer numerical simulation technology. A kind of vertical finishing mold with hydraulic clamping system was designed on the basis of simulations. After vertical finishing process in the vertical finishing mold, the upper and lower surfaces of the spring seat are flattening, which can be drilled bolt holes and mounted directly. It is benefit for reducing the subsequent processing amount and meeting, which mounting requirements of spring seat.%前轴是汽车重要的承载件之一,本文分析了前轴锻件垂直整形工艺的可行性,通过计算机数值模拟技术模拟并优化垂直整形的工艺参数和模具结构,在模拟分析基础上设计出液压夹紧式垂直整形模.经垂直整形后,锻件弹簧座的上下表面基本压平,可以直接加工螺栓孔并进行安装,减少了后续加工量,并保证了弹簧座的安装要求.

  6. The Strength Analysis of a driving axle housing for a low-floor bus%某低地板客车用驱动桥壳强度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭克刚; 王锋刚; 肖云娜

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the form of installation and main technical parameters of a driving axle for a low-floor bus, and provides an analytical method for driving axle housing, then does the strength analysis for the driving axle housing in the following typical working conditions: vertical bending, braking, comering and maximum traction conditions based on finite element analysis software HyperWorks. The above analysis results of the text provide some reference for finite element analysis of the follow-up to the driving axle housing.%本文介绍了某低地板客车用驱动桥的安装形式及主要技术参数,基于有限元分析软件HyperWorks提供了一种驱动桥壳的分析方法,并对该驱动桥壳进行了以下典型工况的强度分析:垂直弯曲、制动、转弯和最大牵引力工况。本文对后续驱动桥壳的有限元分析具有一定的参考作用。

  7. 1580热轧R2粗轧机主传动十字轴失效分析%Invalidation analysis for main driving cross axle of R2 roughing mill in 1580 hot rolling mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖永锋

    2011-01-01

    对宝钢1580热轧R2粗轧机主传动十字轴的失效原因进行了分析,指出该十字轴主要是在1.5倍额定负荷以上的工况条件下产生接触疲劳破坏,并提出了对十字轴表面重新加工处理,使其恢复表面硬度和粗糙度,重新单配轴承的修复方案,延长了十字轴的使用寿命.%The invalidation reason of R2 main driving cross axle in Baosteel 1580 hot rolling mill is analyzed.It is pointed out that the contact fatigue failure of the cross axle is due to more than 1.5 times of nominal load under working condition.An approach to treat the damaged working surface of the cross axle, and recover its surface stiffness and roughness, then make up bearing is put forward, and that service life of cross axle is prolonged.

  8. THE LIFETIME EXTENSION OF CAR AXLES TYPES OF RU1 AND RUSH WHEELSET FREIGHT CARS, RESTORED BY THE METHOD OF PLASMA-ARC METALLIZATION OF THE NECK AND UNDER PARTS MANUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Zelenin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The restoration method for the journals and wheel seats of the freight wagon wheelsets by means of plasma-arc metallization is presented and the results of the bench fatigue tests with the advisable operation life of the axles restored are given.

  9. Helicopter Landing Gear Axle Load Analysis and Finite Element Simulation%直升机起落架机轮轴载荷分析及有限元仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兵; 宋先富; 张东波; 朱英杰; 魏敏

    2014-01-01

    This article by exploring research landing gear axle load and strength, to achieve the purpose of a new type of landing gear axle strength check, and at the same time using digital analysis of ifnite element simu-lation methods and means to further verify the landing gear axle in actual conditions security, the establishment of a ifnite element model of the new landing gear axle parts, by examining the helicopter landing vertical landing and before lfying two kinds of the machine axle of stress and strain in the typical ways, come to the respective condi-tions relfected the law conclusion, based on this proposed recommendations for the reasonable actual operating conditions, then, given reasonable driving helicopter rec-ommendations as well as maintenance method ground of maintenance personnel. Helicopter landing gear axle is the key parts of the landing system, has an extremely impor-tant significance for ensuring the safety of the helicopter landing as well as to extend the service life of the machine axle.%本文通过探讨研究起落架机轮轴的载荷及强度,达到对某新型起落架机轮轴的强度校核的目的,同时采用有限元仿真数字化分析方法来进一步验证起落架机轮轴在实际工况下的安全性,建立了新型起落架机轮轴零件有限元模型,通过考察直升机在垂直降落和前飞着陆时两种典型方式下机轮轴的应力应变,得出了各自工况下反应出来规律结论,基于此,提出了针对实际工况下的合理化建议,给出了合理驾驶直升机方法的建议以及地勤机务维护人员的维护方法。直升机起落架机轮轴是着陆系统的关键部位,对保证直升机的降落安全以及延长其机轮轴的使用寿命有着极其重要的意义。

  10. Accelerated durability test of rear axle based on failure mode%基于失效模式的后桥耐久性快速试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓俊; 李军; 林阳; 张启涛

    2014-01-01

    以一款紧凑型轿车扭转梁后桥为对象,结合其在试车场试验时失效模式,通过对试车场路况下后桥服役载荷的损伤分析和信号压缩,编制了后桥耐久性快速试验载荷谱。同时结合以往研究成果中失效关联载荷的识别,制定了该后桥耐久性快速试验方案,并通过台架试验进行验证。结果显示,所制定的仅通过垂向加载的后桥耐久性快速试验,可以准确地复现后桥在试车场路况下的失效模式,并且实现了3.9倍的加速。这一方法可以推广至其他汽车零/部件耐久性快速试验规范的编制,对准确地验证整车及零/部件耐久性里程具有一定的参考价值。%Taking the torsion beam rear axle from a compact car was taken as an objective ,the load spectrum for accelerated dura-bility test was developed based on the failure mode on proving ground ,by means of damage analysis and signal condensing .And fatigue tests were conducted under the failure-correlated loads to verify the validity of the proposed testing program of rear axle . Results show that the proposed accelerated durability tests under vertical forces can reproduce the failure mode of rear axle on the road conditions of proving ground ,and a acceleration factor of 3.9 was achieved by comparing the test time of test rig and proving ground.This method could be helpful to the development of accelerated durability test procedures .

  11. Modeling and Simulation Analysis of Multi-Axle Steering Vehicle Based on Virtual Prototype Technology%基于虚拟样机技术的多轴转向车辆建模与仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊友; 贺翠华

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the precision of multi-axle vehicles model, three-axis vehicles was taken as the research object, and the virtual prototype technology of three-axle steering vehicle was established using ADAMS/CAR. Based on zero side-slip angle of mass center and proportional control strategy, the three axles steering were set The handling stability of the three-axle steering vehicle were simulated, compared with traditional front wheel steering vehicle, and the results showed that three-axle steering steering vehicle has better performance.%为提高目前多轴转向车辆模型的精确度,以三轴车辆为研究对象,利用虚拟样机技术,在ADAMS/CAR中建立了三轴全轮转向车辆的动力学模型,依据三轴全轮转向车辆的零质心侧偏角转角控制策略,对全轮转向进行了相应设置.为验证车辆的操纵稳定性能,对其进行了仿真分析,主要考查其在低速大转角和高速小转角行驶情况下的响应特性,并与传统的前轮转向车辆进行了对比,结果表明全轮转向车辆在低速转弯时机动性高,中高速转向时稳定性好.

  12. 四轴车辆全轮转向之自动模式研究%A Research on the Automatic Mode of All-wheel Steering for Four-axle Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈思忠; 郑凯锋

    2015-01-01

    在第2轴转角比例于第1轴转角,第3轴转角比例于第4轴转角的条件下,从理论上分析了全轮转向与双前桥转向之间的差异。接着以质心侧偏角为零,设计了控制器一和控制器二两种控制器,并再次分析了双前桥转向、带控制器一的全轮转向和带控制器二的全轮转向三者之间的区别与联系,为四轴车辆的全轮转向技术的研究提供了理论参考。%Under the condition of that the wheel turning angles in second and third axles are respectively proportional to those of first and fourth axles, the differences between all wheel steering and double-front-axle steer-ing are analyzed theoretically. Then with the sideslip angle of mass center set to zero, controller 1 and controller 2 are designed, and the differences and connections between double-front-axle steering, all wheel steering with con-troller 1 and all wheel steering with controller 2 are analyzed again, providing theoretical references for the research on the all wheel steering technique for four-axle vehicle.

  13. Structural studies on inclusion compounds and solvent sorption behavior of gradually elongated wheel-and-axle-type diol hosts featuring lateral benzo[b]thiophene units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzsch, Felix; Gruber, Tobias; Weber, Edwin

    2016-06-01

    Based on the wheel-and-axle design strategy, a series of six new clathrate hosts featuring two di(benzo[b]thien-2-yl)hydroxymethyl units attached to both ends of a central linear building element of varying length have been synthesized and their capability to form crystalline inclusion compounds with a fixed range of organic solvents are reported. X-ray crystal structures of relevant inclusion compounds have been determined and are comparatively discussed involving structural modification of the host molecules. Organic vapor sorption behavior of the host compounds coated as solid films on the quartz crystal of a QCM device has been studied. Significant differences in the affinities towards solvent vapors dependent both on structural and polarity properties of host and solvent are observed, indicating potential application as mass sensitive materials.

  14. Numerical Analysis for Precision Roll Forging of Front Axle%前轴精密辊锻成形过程的数值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑明玉; 喻建军; 沙奔; 陈池; 陈文琳

    2012-01-01

    The three passes roll forging process was simulated for front axle by using the rigid-plastic finite element model. The transformation law of blank, the roll forging torque and the effective stress distribution were analyzed during the three passes roll forging process. The result of the simulation has important significance for guiding the practical production and improving the level of die design.%采用刚塑性有限元模型对前轴辊锻3道次进行了有限元模拟,分析了辊锻过程中坯料的变化规律、等效应力分布及辊锻力矩的变化规律.模拟结果对于指导实际生产,提高模具设计水平具有重要意义.

  15. 基于虚拟仪器的挂车车轴性能测试系统%Performance testing system of trailer axle based on virtual instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟斌; 赵奔; 洪添胜; 赵文锋; 邓小玲; 朱余清; 阮少孟

    2013-01-01

      车轴是直接关系车辆运营安全的重要部件之一,但国内对车轴的检测自动化水平不高。在挂车车轴测试系统原型的基础上,通过Pro/E画图软件实现了测试系统的三维仿真,并进行了系统的构建,系统硬件包括支架、导轨、传感器、AC伺服电机及伺服驱动器;系统软件程序由LabVIEW编写,控制伺服电机的转动来驱动联动装置,通过两压头对模拟车轴进行加载,并通过数据采集卡采集位移和压力作为反馈。经过对位移传感器标定试验,得到定位最大相对误差为5.207%,平均相对误差的绝对值为1.4%;负载应力与电压线性回归方程中 R>0.994, Sig.<0.05,回归显著。最后进行模拟车轴的疲劳、刚度、强度和应力等性能试验和分析,试验结果基本满足项目要求。%The axle is one of the most important components directly relating the safety operation of vehicles. However, the testing method of axle on site used in China is backward and inefficient, while checking failures occur now and then. But the theory of reliability design of fatigue, which has been well developed, is difficult to be applied to the test of axle on site. In recent years, the computing automotive technology is advocated at abroad to solve the complicated problem of how to put the reliability analysis of fatigue into practice. This paper realized the 3D simulation of testing system through the Pro/E software as well as constructed the system, which was based on the trailer axle testing system prototype. The system hardware was comprised of support, guide, sensors, AC servo motor and servo driver; meanwhile, the system software adapted the modularized idea in order to divide the monolithic construction into five parts, including main operation control module and 4 testing modules. Every testing module was constituted by 5 submodules. The system software program was written by LabVIEW. It drove the linkage

  16. Study on Axle Load Conversion for Concrete Base of Durable Asphalt Pavement%耐久性沥青路面混凝土基层轴载换算研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑木莲; 陈拴发; 马庆雷

    2012-01-01

    刚性基层耐久性沥青路面作为一种新型的路面结构,现行规范对于上覆沥青层水泥混凝土路面的设计思路对其并不适用,其轴载换算公式由于没有考虑刚性基层沥青路面结构的特点,得出的结果存在较大误差.依据普通混凝土及贫混凝土的疲劳方程,结合耐久性沥青路面混凝土基层在标准轴载和不同轴-轮型荷载作用下回归得出的荷载应力计算公式,按照混凝土基层等效疲劳损伤原则,推求得出单轴-单轮、单轴-双轮组、双轴-双轮组荷载换算为标准轴载的公式.结果表明:得出的轴载换算公式可充分考虑混凝土基层耐久性沥青路面基层厚度、基层模量、地基模量结构设计参数的影响,具有良好的实用性,可为路面结构设计提供依据.%As a new kind pavement structure, the design method of cement concrete pavement with asphalt surface course in the current specification is not suitable to the durable asphalt pavement with rigid base. Since the characteristics of durable pavement with rigid base are not taken into account, there exists large error in the results getting from the axle-load conversion equation. According to the fatigue equations of popular concrete and lean concrete, the load stress calculation equations rigid base in durable asphalt pavement subjecting standard axle load and different axle-wheel load, and the equivalent fatigue damage principle of concrete base, the axle load conversion equations from the load of single-axle and single-wheel, single-axle and two-wheel and two-axle and two-wheel to the standard axle load are derived. The results show that the axle load conversion equations got in the paper can fully consider the influences of the structure design parameters of base depth, base modulus and subgrade modulus etc. Of durable asphalt pavement with concrete pavement, so the equations have good suitability and can provide basis for pavement structure design.

  17. 拖拉机前桥悬架参数匹配及其对振动特性的影响%Front axle suspension parameters match and its impact on vibration characteristics of tractor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊力达尔·伊力亚斯; 朱思洪; 徐刚; 袁加奇

    2015-01-01

    Compared with cars, buses and trucks, tractor often drives on the dirt road in the field of rural areas, together with the simple vibration damping device, so the vibration of tractor is particularly intense. Severe vibration of tractor would cause serious harm to driver’s health, and cause fatigue and failure of tractor parts and hence seriously affect the life of the tractor. In addition, excessive vibration of the tractor will exacerbate farmland soil compaction and reduce crop yields. How to effectively reduce the vibration of tractors to improve ride comfort and driving safety and reduce farmland damage is an important research topic for researchers and tractor manufacturing enterprises. The study of foreign scholars have found when the tractor is installed with front axle suspension, the ride comfort and driving safety is improved. When farm tools hangs on the front of tractor, tractor damping effect depends on the matching between front axle suspension stiffness and damping coefficient. Installing the front axle suspension of tractor can significantly reduce tractor’s pitching vibration. By the method of theoretical analysis, the theoretical system of front axle suspension of tractor was established, the vibration was analyzed and the theoretical formula was deduced, aiming to provide a theoretical basis for parameter matching of tractor front axle suspension. In this paper, CF700 tractor from Jiang Su Chang-Fa group was taken as the research object, and the theoretical model of front axle suspension tractor was established, including plane vibration model of front axle suspension tractor with 3 degrees of freedom, vibration differential equation and tractor vibration characteristics evaluation. Taking body vertical vibration acceleration, body pitching vibration angular acceleration, seat-mounted vertical vibration acceleration, front and rear wheels’ dynamic load and front axle suspension dynamic deflection as the evaluation means, theoretical

  18. 联合收割机行走半轴载荷测试系统构建与性能试验%Construction and performance experiment of load test system for half axle of combine harvester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李耀明; 叶晓飞; 徐立章; 庞靖; 马征

    2013-01-01

    Half axle is an important part of a walking system in a combine harvester;the damage from half axle is generally fatigue failure, which has a direct effect on the reliability and stability of the combine harvester. Minority combine harvester manufacturers have half axle fatigue test rigs, and most of the loads on the fatigue test rig are set artificially, thus it cannot accurately predict fatigue life of half axle in absence of comprehensive consideration of various alternating loads. Fatigue life analysis and fast in doors simulation of the load fatigue test on the basis of load spectrum can provide the basis for the improvement of half axle. Improvement of fatigue performance of half axle is conducive to the competitiveness of the products on the market at home and abroad. It is not a suitable solution to use traditional shaft or disc torque sensors to test the torque of half axle, because the half axle is closed in the transmission. Operating environments of combine harvesters are complex, and half axles often bear a complex alternating load which puts forward higher requirements on the stability and reliability of the performance of the load test system. To provide a precise and comprehensive load-time course for the compiling of load spectrum of the half axle of a combine harvester, the complex and alternating load signal in typical working conditions must be acquired accurately. Based on an analysis of working characteristics and the construction features of chassis of combine harvesters, a wireless load test system was put forward in this paper by choosing reasonable torque and rotation speed sensors and data acquisition systems composed of hall sensors, rotation speed signal acquisition modules, resistance strain gauges, power modules, torque signal acquisition modules, wireless routers, computers, and software for signals test and analysis. In order to exclude the influence of measured value of torque signals by bending moment, axial force, and temperature

  19. 重型牵引车驱动桥壳厚度及板簧中心距的优化%Optimum Design on Thickness of Heavy Tractor’ s Driving Axle Housing and Leaf Spring Center Distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐杨坤; 李晚霞; 杨灿

    2015-01-01

    A parameterized finite element model of heavy tractor driving axle housing was established, using APDL program-ming language in the finite element analysis software ANSYS.Through optimum design on the thickness of the main body of the driving axle housing and the axle shaft sleeve, the weight of driving axle housing was reduced while its strength was increased, which provides a basis for lightweight design.Through optimum design about leaf spring center distance under the maximum verti-cal force working condition and the braking working condition, the curves of the maximum stress and deformation versus spring center distance were obtained respectively;and the optimum leaf spring center distances under the maximum vertical force condi-tion was determined.The driving axle housing met the strength and stiffness requirements in that rang of leaf spring center dis-tances.The model provides a basis for the design of the driving axle housing and the arrangement of the leaf spring seat.%采用有限元分析软件ANSYS中的APDL编程语言建立了重型牵引车驱动桥壳的参数化有限元模型,通过对桥壳本体厚度、半轴套管厚度进行优化设计,减轻了驱动桥壳的质量并增大了其强度,为轻量化设计提供了依据;分别在最大垂向力工况和制动工况下对板簧中心距进行优化设计,得到了驱动桥壳最大应力和最大变形随板簧中心距变化的曲线,确定了在最大垂向力工况下的最佳板簧中心距,在该板簧中心距范围内,驱动桥壳在制动工况下满足强度刚度要求,为驱动桥壳的设计和板簧座的布置提供了依据。

  20. 汽车驱动桥壳壳盖优化设计二次开发研究%Secondary Development on the Optimization of Drive Axle Housing Cover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    揭钢; 余显忠; 丁玉辉; 万雄飞; 陈田兵

    2011-01-01

    采用非线性有限元分析软件ABAQUS对驱动桥壳壳盖成型过程进行了仿真分析,并通过ABAQUS自带脚本程序Python建立的参数化有限元模型对壳盖的毛坯进行优化循环计算,得出了合理的毛坯尺寸.通过试验验证了优化设计的正确性.%In this paper, the forming process of driving axle housing cover is simulated based on the no-linear finite element analysis software ABAQUS, and optimized cycle calculation was made to axle housing cover blanks with the parameterized FE model established with ABAQUS script Python, and reasonable dimensions of blanks were obtained. The optimized design is validated with test.

  1. Durability fracture tests for rear axle of a self-made car on enhanced roads%国产轿车后轴强化路耐久性断裂试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    门玉琢; 于海波; 霍娜

    2012-01-01

    In order to study rear axle fracture problems of a self-made car appearing in reliability test stage on enhanced roads of an automotive proving ground, the strain loading spectrum near the rear axle fracture location was collected, Neuber rule and the cyclic stress-strain hysteresis loop curve equation were used to convert the nominal strain history into the local stress-strain response of the fracture location, the impact of mean stress on fatigue damage was corrected according to Manson-Coffin model, and INFIELD software was used to calculate the fatigue damage of the rear axle fracture. The electromagnetic vibrators were used to sweep the vibration modal frequencies of the rear axle and the body, to identify the relationship among the vibration frequencies of the rear axle, the excitation frequencies of enhanced roads and the vibration frequencies of the body. The test results showed that the rear axle fatigue damage mainly concentrates on the washboard road, and when the forced vibration excitation frequency of the washboard road is 24.07 Hz, the vibration modal frequency of the rear axle is close to the excitation frequency of the washboard road, leading to resonance and making the rear axle subjected to large strain and fatigue damage and then the vibration fatigue fracture appears due to high stress concentration.%为研究国产某型轿车试验场强化路可靠性试验阶段出现的后轴断裂问题,采集断裂部位附近的应变载荷谱,应用Neuber法则和循环应力-应变滞回环曲线方程,将名义应变历程转换为断裂位置的局部应力-应变响应,根据Manson-Coffin模型修正平均应力对疲劳损伤的影响,在INFIELD软件中编程计算断裂裂纹处的损伤.利用电磁激振器对后轴与车身进行振动模态扫频,识别后轴振动频率与强化路激励频率及车身振动频率关系.试验结果表明,裂纹处的疲劳损伤主要集中在搓板路面,搓板路强迫振动激励频率为24.07 Hz时,

  2. 轿车后轴疲劳耐久性及振动模态参数扫频%Fatigue Durability and Vibration Modal Parameter Frequency Sweep for Car Rear Axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    门玉琢; 于海波; 霍娜

    2012-01-01

    针对某型号轿车试验场强化路可靠性试验阶段出现的后轴断裂问题,对该车后轴断裂部位及有限元分析的薄弱位置进行了应变载荷谱测量,重点对比计算耐久强化路的后轴断裂裂纹处的疲劳损伤;同时利用MTS六通道耦合系统对该试验样车和对标车辆的后轴和车身进行振动模态扫频,通过振动扫频分析两车后轴振动频率差异原因以及和车身振动频率的关系.强化试验和扫频结果表明,两车后轴的疲劳损伤主要集中在试验场搓板路面,车速对试验样车的疲劳损伤影响波动显著,搓板路强迫振动激励大于20Hz时两车损伤差别较大,后轴的振动模态频率与搓板路激励频率较接近,造成试验样车后轴具有较高的应力分布而产生疲劳断裂,研究结果对断裂后轴的结构改进及提高后轴的疲劳强度提供了重要依据.%In order to research the fatigue fracture problem of the rear axle of a domestic car at the reliability test stage on the durable enhancement roads of proving ground, the strain loading spectrum of the rear axle fracture location and the weak points of the finite element analysis was measured.The fatigue damage of the broken crack at the rear axle of the durable enhancement roads was calculated and contrasted detailedlyAt the same time,a six-channel MTS coupling system was used to conduct the vibration mode frequency sweep to the rear axle and body of test car and the benchmarking car,and through vibration frequency sweep,an analysis of the reason of differences between the two cars and its relationship with the body vibration frequency was made.The enhancement test and frequency sweep results show that the fatigue damage of two vehicles focuses mainly on the washboard road,and the impact of the speed on the fatigue damage of the test car fluctuates significantly, and also the damages of the two cars vary greatly when the forced vibration excitation frequency of the

  3. 59/74kW轮式拖拉机前驱动桥桥壳的柔性加工工艺设计%Flexible Manufacturing Process of 59/74 kW Tractor Front Drive Axle Housing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王智红; 张强; 赵利飞; 周珍珠

    2012-01-01

    针对59/74kw轮式拖拉机前驱动桥壳体,分析了整体式桥壳的结构特点和其主减安装面、转向节孔和半轴轴承座孔的工艺要求,并研究设计了加工工艺。经生产实践证明,该工艺不仅生产效率高,而且产品质量稳定。%For front drive axle housing of 59/74 kW tractors,we analyzed the overall structural features of the integral axle housing and process requirements for main mounting surface, steering knuckle hole and half shaft bearing seat hole. Then the process technics are designed. The productions prove that the process has a high efficiency and stabile product quality.

  4. Development of the Pneumatic Side Dump Car with Narrow Gauge (762 mm) and an Axle Load of 20 t%载重20t窄轨(762mm)气动自翻车的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田景志; 栗明柱

    2012-01-01

    Described are the usage, technical parameters, main structure and testing of the pneumatic side dump car with narrow gauge (762 mm) and an axle load of 20 t.%介绍了载重20t窄轨(762 mm)气动自翻车的用途、技术参数、主要结构和试验情况.

  5. Reliability-based optimization of front-axle with non-normal distribution parameters%非正态分布参数前轴的可靠性优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张义民; 贺向东; 刘巧伶; 闻邦椿

    2003-01-01

    讨论了随机参数服从非正态分布前轴的可靠性优化设计问题.在基本随机参数的前四阶矩已知的情况下,应用随机摄动法和Edgeworth级数方法对前轴进行可靠性优化设计,通过计算机程序可以实现随机参数服从非正态分布的前轴可靠性优化设计,迅速准确地得到了前轴的可靠性优化设计信息.计算结果表明,在对随机参数服从非正态分布的前轴进行可靠性优化设计时,该文所提出的方法有效和实用.%This paper examines the reliability optimization design for front-axle with non-normal distribution parameters. Using techniques from the probabilistic perturbation method and the Edgeworth series technique, a practical and effective method for the reliability optimization design for front-axle with non-normal distribution parameters of vehicle on the condition of known first four moments of basic random variables is presented. The respective program can be used to obtain the reliability optimization design information of front-axle with non-normal distribution parameters accurately and quickly. The numerical results demonstrate that the method proposed is an effective and practical approach to computing reliability and designing front-axle with non-normal distribution parameters.

  6. 考虑侧偏角影响的双前桥转向角匹配研究%Research on steer angle for double front axles steering systems considering with slip angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃刚; 孙营

    2011-01-01

    研究了双前桥转向系统中,整车的侧向加速度所造成的车轮侧偏角对实际车轮转向角的影响,提出了考虑侧偏角影响时双前桥转向的阿克曼条件.首先推导了存在车轮侧偏角时双前桥各车轮转向角之间的变化规律,提出了包含车轮侧偏角在内的阿克曼转角公式;其次以某双前桥转向的重型卡车为应用对象,将所推导的设计公式应用于该重型卡车的设计中,建立相应的多体动力学模型,借助于Adams软件的仿真分析对各车轮转向角进行了设计;最后通过实车试验验证了经修正后的阿克曼转角公式的正确性.%What the slip angle caused by lateral acceleration has influence on the actual steer angle for double front axles steering system was mainly researched,and the Ackerman law of double front axles considering the influence of slip angle was proposed.Firstly,the variation of each wheel steer angle in double front axles truck considering slip angle was derived,and the Ackerman law containing slip angle was proposed.Secondly,using the proposed theory on a double front axles truck,the multibody dynamics model was built,and the wheel steer angle was designed based on the software Adams.Lastly,the real vehicle experiment validated the correctness of the amended Ackerman law.

  7. 正挤横轧式农用车后桥半轴套管的研究开发%Study and Development of the Rear Axle Shaft Sleeves of Farm Transport Vehicle by Forward Extrusion and Cross Rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩英淳; 王学明; 唐志强

    2001-01-01

    在成功地开发轻型车正挤与横轧式后桥半轴套管的基础上,自主开发了1608型、2310型及2815型农用运输车的正挤与横轧式后桥半轴套管,并实现系列化规模生产,获得了显著的社会经济效益。%On the basis of the development of the rear axle shaft sleeve of the light truck CA1040 by forward extrusion and cross rolling, to adapt to the rapid growth of farm transport vehicle, the rear axle shaft sleeve of farm transport vehicle 1608,2310,2815 have been developed successively and manufactured on a big scale. In accordance with the characteristic in geometrical shape of the rear axle shaft sleeve, we change it into a detached structure based on the equal strength theory. Since the detached sleeve bodies have a small difference in diameter, they can be formed with technology of the forward extrusion and cross rolling.

  8. 自走式谷物联合收割机后桥的有限元分析%Finite element analysis of the rear axle of the self-propelled combine harvester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹彩虹; 周雪花; 赵鹏飞; 徐波

    2011-01-01

    利用ABAQUS有限元分析软件对自走式谷物联合收割机的后桥进行了静力分析,获得了后桥的应力分布结果,2个套管底面靠近内侧处应力最大,最大应力为130.5 MPa.通过结构优化,将后桥设计为空心,其强度仍然满足要求.%The stress distribution of the rear axle of the self-propelled combine harvester was obtained through the static analysis using the finite element analysis software ABAQUS. The results show that the maximum stress was lain on the inner side of two pipes bottom and the maximum stress reached 130.5 Mpa. Furthermore, the optimal design indicated that the the rear axle strength was sufficient even if the hollow rear axle was applied.

  9. 重型载重车前轴分层淬火工艺仿真分析%Simulation analysis of layer by layer quenching process of a heavy truck front axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱振华; 秦训鹏; 高恺; 陈绪梁

    2016-01-01

    针对重型载重车前轴在传统整体式淬火强化后各部位马氏体含量、力学性能不均匀的问题,提出一种分层淬火工艺,并利用数值分析方法对某重型载重车前轴在分层淬火工艺条件下的温度场和微观组织进行仿真计算。计算结果证明分层淬火工艺能使截面尺寸变化大的前轴在淬火冷却过程中有效改善马氏体分布不均匀现象,提高其综合力学性能。%For the nonuniformity of martensite content and mechanical properties in each part of a heavy truck front axle after traditional integral hardening, a layer by layer quenching process was presented. Temperature field and microstructure content in a heavy truck front axle under the quenching process were calculated by numerical simulation analysis. The calculated results show that the layer by layer quenching process can improve the nonuniformity of martensite distribution in the front axle with large varying of cross section and enhance the comprehensive mechanical properties.

  10. Optimum design of double-front-axle steering based on ADAMS Secondary Development%基于 ADAMS 二次开发的双前桥转向机构优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德光

    2013-01-01

      With the development of market demand, the user demand for double front axle commercial vehicle is more and more big. This paper introduces the principle of double-front-axle steering theory, and the dynamic simulation analysis software ADAMS two development platform, software system for heavy commercial vehicle design and optimization of double front axle steering system, the optimized design of the steering mechanism.%  随着市场需求的发展,用户对双前桥商用车的需求越来越大。文中介绍了双前轴转向汽丰的转向原理,以及以动力学仿真分析软件 ADAMS 为二次开发平台,建立针对重型双前桥商用车转向系统设计及优化的专用软件系统,对转向机构进行了优化设计。

  11. 45#车轴钢疲劳性能试验研究%Experimental Study on the Fatigue Properties of 45# Axle Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄国; 黄海明; 王超; 李玮洁

    2013-01-01

    In the non-metallic inclusion inspection and tensile test at room temperature,the metallurgy quality and mechanical properties of materials were checked whether they were up to standards.And then the fatigue properties of 45# axle steel were studied by rotary bending fatigue testing method and fracture analysis.The results show that,compared with smooth specimen,the fatigue limit of notched specimens with the notch depth of 0.75 mm is decreased 44%,and the left slope of its S—N curve is greater than that of the smooth.The sensitive coefficient of notched specimen is 0.79.Moreover,the initiation of fatigue cracks in the smooth specimen is due to the stress concentration on the surface of specimen.There are multi-source areas of fatigue on the cross sections of the notched specimens and the cracks initiate at the lip of the notch,which is mainly caused by the stress concentration at the notch.In addition,larger size non-metallic inclusions may also lead to the initiation of fatigue cracks in axle steel.%通过非金属夹杂物检验和室温拉伸试验,在确保材料的冶金质量和力学性能符合标准要求的基础上,进行旋转弯曲疲劳试验和断口分析,对45#车轴钢的疲劳性能进行研究.结果表明:与光滑试件相比,带有深度为0.75 mm缺口的试件,其疲劳极限应力降低44%,其S—N曲线左段部分的斜率更大;其缺口敏感系数为0.79;表面应力集中是导致光滑试件萌生疲劳裂纹的原因;在有缺口的试件断口截面上存在多个疲劳源区,裂纹萌生在缺口的前缘,而且主要是由于缺口处应力集中所致;较大尺寸的非金属夹杂物也是导致车轴钢可能产生疲劳裂纹的启裂源.

  12. rse, a novel receptor-type tyrosine kinase with homology to Axl/Ufo, is expressed at high levels in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, M R; Scadden, D T; Wang, Z; Gu, Q; Goddard, A; Godowski, P J

    1994-04-01

    We have isolated cDNA clones that encode the human and murine forms of a novel receptor-type tyrosine kinase termed Rse. Sequence analysis indicates that human Rse contains 890 amino acids, with an extracellular region composed of two immunoglobulin-like domains followed by two fibronectin type III domains. Murine Rse contains 880 amino acids and shares 90% amino acid identity with its human counterpart. Rse is structurally similar to the receptor-type tyrosine kinase Axl/Ufo, and the two proteins have 35 and 63% sequence identity in their extracellular and intracellular domains, respectively. To study the synthesis and activation of this putative receptor-type tyrosine kinase, we constructed a version of Rse (termed gD-Rse, where gD represents glycoprotein D) that contains an NH2-terminal epitope tag. NIH3T3 cells were engineered to express gD-Rse, which could be detected at the cell surface by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Moreover, gD-Rse was rapidly phosphorylated on tyrosine residues upon incubation of the cells with an antibody directed against the epitope tag, suggesting that rse encodes an active tyrosine kinase. In the human tissues we examined, the highest level of expression of rse mRNA was observed in the brain; rse mRNA was also detected in the premegakaryocytopoietic cell lines CMK11-5 and Dami. The gene for rse was localized to human chromosome 15.

  13. Experimental Study on Strengthening Method of Track Structure for 30 t Axle Load in Shenchi-Huanghua Railway%30t轴重下朔黄铁路轨道结构强化技术试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛继连

    2015-01-01

    本文针对朔黄铁路开行30 t轴重货车时既有轨道的适应性与强化措施等问题,进行了系统的理论与试验研究。采用动力仿真分析与30 t轴重货车实车试验相结合的方法,分析30 t轴重下轨道结构的适应性。朔黄铁路既有轨道结构能满足大轴重货车近期少量开行的要求,但大轴重货车作用于轨道的动态荷载会明显增加,既有轨道结构面临轨道部件伤损增加、疲劳寿命缩短、小半径曲线稳定性储备不足等问题。根据30 t轴重下轨道结构荷载特点,有针对性地开展轨道结构强化措施的研究,重点开展SH‐Ⅰ型重载轨枕与SH‐Ⅰ型重载扣件、小半径强化措施、75 kg/m钢轨移动闪光焊技术、直线钢轨打磨廓面、重载道岔的研发等工作,各强化措施均已在朔黄铁路实施。对朔黄铁路既有轨道结构的强化改造,可全面提升轨道结构等级,能满足30 t轴重货车的运营要求。%The feasibility and strengthening measures for the existing track of Shenchi‐Huanghua Railway where the trains with the axle load of 30 t operate were studied using theoretical and testing technologies .By applying dynamic simulation analysis in combination with actual test involving a 30 t axle load freight train , the feasibili‐ty of the track structure under 30 t axle load was evaluated . The analysis results showed that the existing track structure meets the operating requirements of a small number of trains with heavy axle load over a certain peri‐od of time . However , the dynamic loads by heavy axle load freight cars acting on the track increased signifi‐cantly . The existing track structure faces problems such as increased failures and shortened life of track parts , and insufficient stability reserve of sharp curves . Based on the characteristics of dynamic loads of the track structure induced by trains with the axle load of 30 t ,an analysis was performed on the

  14. Application Research on Virtual Assembly of Tractor's Front Drive Axle%拖拉机前驱动桥虚拟装配应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹文钢; 程五四; 宋军

    2011-01-01

    在分析和总结了虚拟装配技术研究现状的基础上,阐述了其原理,实施步骤以及关键技术的应用,并以拖拉机前驱动桥为虚拟装配对象,在计算机虚拟装配环境(Division Mockup)中装配并进行相应的装配检验,介绍生成装配序列与装配路径,并制作成装配动画的步骤,形象地展现产品的装配全过程.在(Division Mockup)中,以第三方插件为桥梁,借助由数据手套、位置跟踪器(FOB)、偏振眼镜和投影系统组建的虚拟现实环境,可以实现入机交互操作,并介绍了人机交互接口定义的规则和方法.%This paper analyzes and summarizes the current status of the virtual assembly technology research and elaborates its principle and implementing process. By taking the tractor's front drive axle as an object, a virtual assembly and its corresponding inspection is conducted in the computer virtual environment (Division Mockup). The generation assembly orders and routes are introduced. The procedure of assembly animation is set up to vividly exhibit the whole process of product assembly. By virtue of the third-party plug-in units and the virtual reality environment consisting of data gloves, polarization glasses, projection system, and position tracker (FOB), human-computer interaction can be achieved in Division Mockup. The rules and methods of human-computer interaction interface definitions are introduced as well.

  15. Ride comfort optimization of a multi-axle heavy motorized wheel dump truck based on virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bian Gong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of hydro-pneumatic suspension parameters of a multi-axle heavy motorized wheel dump truck is carried out based on virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging model in this article. The root mean square of vertical vibration acceleration, in the center of sprung mass, is assigned as the optimization objective. The constraints are the natural frequency, the working stroke, and the dynamic load of wheels. The suspension structure for the truck is the adjustable hydro-pneumatic suspension with ideal vehicle nonlinear characteristics, integrated with elastic and damping elements. Also, the hydraulic systems of two adjacent hydro-pneumatic suspension are interconnected. Considering the high complexity of the engineering model, a novel kind of meta-model called virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging is proposed in this article. The interpolation principle and the construction of virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging model were elucidated. Being different from traditional Kriging, virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging combines the respective advantages of actual test and Computer Aided Engineering simulation. Based on the virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging model, the optimization results, obtained by experimental verification, showed significant improvement in the ride comfort by 12.48% for front suspension and 11.79% for rear suspension. Compared with traditional Kriging, the optimization effect was improved by 3.05% and 3.38% respectively. Virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging provides an effective way to approach the optimal solution for the optimization of high-complexity engineering problems.

  16. Applied Research on Load Spectrum Technology in the Development of Off-Road Vehicle Drive Axle%载荷谱技术在越野车驱动桥开发中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李响; 曹正林; 魏文广; 刘再生; 宋双贺

    2014-01-01

    为实现某中型越野车的轻量化和高可靠性,探讨了越野车疲劳载荷谱测试方法,并结合载荷谱的浓缩编辑技术建立了完整的越野车零部件开发载荷谱数据库,为该越野车驱动桥总成开发提供了真实的载荷输入条件,并得到了越野车驱动桥疲劳强度校核与道路耐久性试验考核一致的结果。通过载荷谱技术的应用,新结构越野车驱动桥顺利通过了整车可靠性道路试验。%To improve lightweight performance and reliability of a mid-sized off-road vehicle, we investigate the fatigue load spectrum test method, and combine with the enriched load spectrum editing technique to establish a complete load spectrum database of components development for off-road vehicle. We provide real world load input conditions for the development of drive axle assembly of this off-road vehicle, and get the results of fatigue strength check for drive axle, which are consistent with that of the road durability test. With the application of load spectrum technology, the new drive axle structure for the off-road vehicle passes vehicle reliability test successfully.

  17. 热点应力法在汽车驱动桥焊接强度耐久性分析中的应用%Application of Hot Spot Stress Method on Welding Strength & Durability for Automotive Drive Axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娜; 魏德永; 曹征栋; 霍福祥

    2012-01-01

    According to structural characteristic of welded axle housing of automotive drive axle, simulation analysis is made to welded structural strength and durability with hot spot stress method and CAE technology. To verify the effectiveness of simulation of welding structure with hot spot stress method, test and simulation analysis are made to strength and durability of welding location of three types of standard welding components and two types of drive axle housing. The results show that the effectiveness of simulation of this method on stress of critical welding location is up to over 70%, the average of durability simulation life of the welding location is equivalent to test results.%针对汽车驱动桥焊接桥壳结构特点,采用热点应力法及CAE技术对其焊接结构强度耐久性进行了模拟分析.为验证热点应力法模拟焊接结构的有效性,对3种标准焊接件、2种驱动桥桥壳焊接部位的强度和耐久性进行了试验与模拟对比分析,结果表明,该方法对焊接部位关键点应力的模拟有效性达70%以上,焊接部位的耐久性模拟寿命均值与试验结果量级相当.

  18. 载荷谱技术在越野车驱动桥开发中的应用研究%Applied Research on Load Spectrum Technology in the Development of Off-Road Vehicle Drive Axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李响; 曹正林; 魏文广; 刘再生; 宋双贺

    2014-01-01

    为实现某中型越野车的轻量化和高可靠性,探讨了越野车疲劳载荷谱测试方法,并结合载荷谱的浓缩编辑技术建立了完整的越野车零部件开发载荷谱数据库,为该越野车驱动桥总成开发提供了真实的载荷输入条件,并得到了越野车驱动桥疲劳强度校核与道路耐久性试验考核一致的结果。通过载荷谱技术的应用,新结构越野车驱动桥顺利通过了整车可靠性道路试验。%To improve lightweight performance and reliability of a mid-sized off-road vehicle, we investigate the fatigue load spectrum test method, and combine with the enriched load spectrum editing technique to establish a complete load spectrum database of components development for off-road vehicle. We provide real world load input conditions for the development of drive axle assembly of this off-road vehicle, and get the results of fatigue strength check for drive axle, which are consistent with that of the road durability test. With the application of load spectrum technology, the new drive axle structure for the off-road vehicle passes vehicle reliability test successfully.

  19. Kinematics Analysis and Simulation of Loading and Unloading Robot System for Bent Axle%曲轴上下料机器人系统的运动学分析及仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅雪川; 林粤科

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at requirements of the automatic loading and unloading of bent axle of compressor in refrigerator during the grinding process,the mathematical model of loading and unloading motion system of robot was set up. Based on SolidWorks Motion, motion characteristics of robot during the loading and unloading process was simulated and researched. The simulation result showed that on the condition of 5s of time for operation of each bent axle and in limited workspace,the robot could fulfill all the requirements. The loading and unloading robot of bent axle is under the successful application in practical production,and creates a precedent in grinding process.%针对冰箱压缩机曲轴在磨削加工中自动上下料要求,建立了曲轴上下料机器人系统运动过程中的数学模型,基于SolidWorks Motion仿真研究了上下料过程机器人的运动特性。仿真结果表明:机器人在有限工作空间和限制节拍5 s的条件下实现上下料操作的可行性。该曲轴上下料机器人成功应用于实际生产中,开创了曲轴磨削加工中自动上下料的先例。

  20. Design and optimization of I-beam precision roll forging process for heavy truck front axle%某重卡前轴工字梁辊锻成形工艺设计及优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张黎; 文琍; 夏江梅

    2012-01-01

    The under-filling defect of the I-beam, one of the typical defects on a heavy truck front axle in the precision roll forging process and die forging process was studied Firstly, the design of the precision roll forging process for the I-beam of the front axle was described. Then, the finite element numerical simulation analysis model was established with Deform-3D, and the influence of the thickness on the I-beam in the third step and the friction factor in the third and fourth step on filling percent of the die cavity was analyzed. Lastly, optimization for the precision roll forging process of the heavy truck front axle was finished. The optimized simulation results show that the I-beam forms well and can be filled fully to meet the requirements of design drawings.%针对某重卡前轴成形辊锻-模锻复合工艺中的典型缺陷——工字梁部位充不满展开研究.介绍了重卡前轴工字梁在辊锻成形工艺中各道次的孔型设计,通过Defoem-3D建立了有限元数值模拟分析模型,研究了第3道次预辊锻成形中工字梁壁厚和第3、4道次中摩擦因子对模具型腔填充率的影响规律,最后完成了重卡前轴工字梁在辊锻成形中的优化设计.优化后的模拟结果表明,工字梁成形良好、填充饱满,满足图纸设计要求.

  1. 基于DEFORM和正交试验法的前轴辊锻工艺优化%Research on optimization of front-axle roll forging technique based on DEFORM-3D and orthogonal experimental method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏科; 王高潮; 李宁; 王志录

    2012-01-01

    正交试验主要用于解决科研和生产中多因素、多水平的问题,运用正交试验法可以在减少试验次数的情况下获得最佳的参数组合,可有效节约人力、物力和时间.在DEFORM-3D有限元数值模拟过程中应用正交试验优化设计方法,对前轴制坯辊锻模具弹簧座截面的圆角值、辊锻模具角速度、摩擦因子及坯料初始温度四因素、三水平问题,进行前轴制坯辊锻模具结构及工艺优化研究,分析影响前轴辊锻成形过程中最大成形载荷的因素,研究结果有利于前轴辊锻模具结构及工艺的优化,而且可有效提高辊锻模具的使用寿命.%The structure of front axle roll forging die and the roll forging process were optimized based on orthogonal experimental design method, using DEF0RM-3D software in finite element numerical simulation, adopting three levels and four factors, the latter including the fillet values of the spring seat section of the front axle roll forging die, the angular velocity of the roll forging die, the friction factor and the initial temperature of billets. The effecting factors of maximal forming load in the roll forging process of front axle were analyzed. The results can also increase the service life of roll forging die.

  2. 采用移轴技术在SAP5程序实现刚体模态计算%Using the technology of moving the axle to compute the pattern of rigid body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施群德

    2001-01-01

    Elaborates how to use the technology of moving the axle to compute the pattern of rigid body,introduces this technology into the program SAP5 and realizes the calculation of the pattern of rigid body.%论述了如何采用移轴技术实现对刚体模态的计算,并将移轴求刚体模态的技术引入著名的SAP5程序中,实现了对刚体模态的计算。

  3. 前桥摆转式四轮底盘转向系统的转向机理研究%Research on the Steering Theory of Front Axle Swing Sowing Four-wheel Chassis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕莹; 张静; 李志伟

    2016-01-01

    四轮底盘在小地块水田作业时,减少地头空行转弯时间是提高作业时间利用率的重要环节。为实现四轮底盘小半径转弯,以提高水田播插底盘作业率为主要研究目标,对四轮底盘在90°、180°等不同转弯形式下进行分析,得出适合小地块水稻播插作业时以较小转弯半径的转弯方式;前桥摆转四轮底盘在转向时,通过控制前桥驱动轮的转动,使前驱动桥主动围绕着转向装置转动,可以带动底盘以任意角度转向。采用ADAMS软件对四轮底盘后轮轨迹进行模拟,在确保后轮完全不吃入已完成作业区的倒U转弯方式的情况下,提出设计前桥摆转式四轮底盘转向系统的可行性。%Four-wheel chassis when working in a small piece of paddy field, reduce blank line turning time is an important link in work utilization rate operation time. In this paper, in order to realize four-wheel chassis small turning radius, increase the paddy field on chassis operation efficiency as the main research target, 90°, 180° in the four-wheel chassis under different forms of turning modeling analysis, and concluded that suitable turning way of smaller turning radius for small plot rice sowing operations ; When the front axle Swing four-wheel chassis steering, By controlling the rotation of the front drive axle, to the front drive axle can rotate active around the steering device, and drive the chassis steering in an arbitrary Angle; Through ADAMS soft-ware for simulating four-wheel chassis rear wheel track, and ensuring the rear wheels do not enter that the as-signments section has been completed, put forward to design front axle pendulum type four-wheel chassis steer-ing system operability.

  4. Light Weight Design and Analysis on Monocoque Coach with Whole Front Axle%整体前桥全承载车型轻量化设计与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈乐强; 房继刚; 王淑丽; 许夏

    2014-01-01

    The authors simulate a monocoque coach with whole front axle by the CAE method in order to effectively reduce its weight under the condition of its bearing capacity. At the same time, the authors analyse the reliability and security of the steering gear fixture especially to the light weitht structure.%利用CAE仿真技术对公司某整体前桥全承载车型进行轻量化设计,为保证转向的安全性、可靠性,对减重后的转向安装结构进行单独分析。

  5. 艺术铸造领域CNC机器人七轴加工设备用于石膏模型雕塑%Application of CNC Robot Seven-axle Working Equipment to Carving Gypsum Mold in Art Casting Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡春良

    2016-01-01

    CNC robot seven-axle working equipment consists of a power-driven main shaft controlled by the robot, an automatic programming software and a software used for controlling manipulator operation, and makes it possible to realize automatic carving of a complex stereometric moulding. The special equipment used in carving gypsum mould by the CNC robot seven-axle working equipment allow large-scale sculpture templating technology to obtain signiifcant progress.%CNC机器人七轴加工设备由一个工业机器人控制电动主轴、多轴自动编程软件和用于控制机械手运行的软件组合而成,可实现复杂立体造型的自动化雕刻加工。CNC机器人七轴加工雕塑石膏模型专用设备,实现了艺术铸造大型雕塑放样的一大跨越。

  6. The Optimization Design of Steering Trapezium Frame for A double front axles truck%某双前桥载货车转向梯形机构优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊伟; 王定华; 李海波

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the turning angles relationship of the internal and exernal wheels in the first axle was gotten in analytic method. And the optimization equations were established by the length of steering trapezium armm and steering trapezium cornerθ. Then the program about the optimization of steering trapezium structure was written with MATLAB and emulated for the steering trapezium of double front axle truck. The result was improved obviously after optimization.%文章采用解析法推导了前桥内外轮之间的转角关系,并以梯形臂长 m,梯形底角θ为优化变量建立优化方程,最后并应用MATLAB软件编制了“转向梯形机构优化设计”程序,对某双前桥载货车转向梯形进行了优化,优化结果显示优化效果明显,达到了设计目的。

  7. Failure Forms and Restoration Methods of the Automotive Front Axle Roll Forging Die%汽车前轴辊锻模的失效形式与修复方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪强; 姬程程; 夏华

    2012-01-01

    The automotive front axle roll forging die works in severe conditions and its stress state is more complex. Based on the consideration of materials selection, structural design, manufacturing process, heat treatment procedure as well as the installation and maintenance of the mould, the analysis of the causes of the automotive front axle roll forging die's main failure forms (fracture, wear, deformation, and so on) is introduced, and the improvement measures and restoration methods are proposed correspondingly.%从材料的选择、结构设计、制造工艺、热处理工艺以及模具的安装维护等方面分析汽车前轴辊锻模的主要失效形式(断裂、磨损、变形等)产生的原因,并提出相应的改进措施和修复方法。

  8. 压痕对车轴钢疲劳极限的影响%Indentation effect on the fatigue limit of axle steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高杰维; 戴光泽; 赵君文; 李恒奎; 徐磊

    2016-01-01

    A hardness tester was used to make indentations on the hourglass fatigue specimens of axle steel, and notches were machined by electronic discharge machining ( EDM) . The fatigue limits of both indentation specimens and notched ones were exam-ined and compared with the theoretical values according to the Murakami formula based on material hardness and defect projected area. The fracture surface was observed by scanning electron microscopy. It is found that local work hardening and residual stress caused by plastic deformation of indentations have no significant effect on the fatigue limits in comparison with the predicted values by the Murakami equation. Fatigue cracks originate from the bottom of indentations due to stress concentration effect. The fatigue limits of notched specimens are lower than the calculated values because of secondary notches caused by the high roughness of notch surfaces and the existence of microcracks and micropores within the re-cast layers. Cracks initiate from multiple sites on the bottom of electronic discharge machining notches.%利用硬度计在光滑沙漏状车轴钢疲劳试样上制造压痕,同时利用电火花在试样上加工缺陷,通过疲劳试验研究两种缺陷尺寸与试样疲劳极限之间的关系。将两类试样的测试结果和基于材料硬度、缺陷投影面积的Murakami模型计算结果进行对比。利用扫描电镜观察试样疲劳断口。结果表明,与计算结果相比较,压痕局部塑性变形导致的加工硬化和残余应力对试样的疲劳强度没有影响,裂纹依然从应力集中最大的压痕底部起裂。电火花缺陷表面粗糙度较大引起二次缺口效应,表面硬脆的重铸白层上还有微孔和微裂纹存在,导致此类试样疲劳强度低于模型计算结果,裂纹从电火花缺口底部多处萌生。

  9. Estimation of Automobile Front/rear Axle Cornering Stiffness Based on the Adaptive FFRLS%基于自适应FFRLS的汽车前后轴侧偏刚度估计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王其东; 黄鹤; 陈无畏; 张荣芸

    2012-01-01

    汽车前、后轴侧偏刚度与汽车的操纵特性紧密联系,是汽车动力学控制中的重要参数.受轮胎特性变化的影响,在汽车使用中线性侧偏刚度发生变化.针对传统估计方法不利于在量产汽车上应用的问题,在车载传感器配置的基础上,提出应用自适应遗忘因子递推最小二乘方法(Forgetting-factor recursive least square method,FFRLS)的前、后轴线性侧偏刚度估计方法.设计出在制动工况下对轮胎特性变化具有鲁棒特性的侧向速度观测方法,由此计算估计模型中的前、后轴侧偏角.提出并应用最大侧向力计算估计模型中的前、后轴侧向力.通过设定合适的估计触发条件实现基于工况的在线参数估计.基于veDYNA的仿真结果表明在轮胎侧偏刚度突变时自适应FFRLS方法相比普通FFRLS方法参数能够更快地收敛.最后在驾驶员在环混合仿真平台环境下,针对触发条件受限的工况通过实时仿真验证了估计算法的有效性.%Front/rear axle cornering stiffness coefficient is an important parameter in automobile dynamic control system, which is linked closely with automobile maneuverability. In the real world front/rear axle linear cornering stiffness often changes with the tire properties. To overcome the deficiencies of the traditional method in the estimation of linear cornering stiffness for wide-spread application, a method based on adaptive forgetting-factor recursive Least square(FFRLS) is proposed to estimate this parameter in which only common sensors in modern automobiles are used. A lateral velocity estimation method with the robustness of tire properties is given, which is further used to calculate axle sideslip angle. Maximum lateral force is proposed and applied in the computation of axle lateral force. Some adequate toggle conditions are set to identify front/rear axle linear cornering stiffness. Simulation results based on veDYNA show that adaptive FFRLS has better

  10. Analysis on handing stability of three-axle vehicle based on fuzzy grey correlation%基于模糊灰色关联的三轴汽车操纵稳定性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 赵亮

    2015-01-01

    为研究三轴汽车各轴主要悬架K & C特性对操纵稳定性的影响程度,在考虑三轴汽车轴荷分配和侧倾力矩作用下左、右车轮垂直载荷重新分配的基础上,建立了基于悬架K & C特性参数的三轴汽车三自由度动力学模型。并以该模型为基础,采用模糊隶属度余弦值和欧氏距离公式建立三轴汽车悬架K & C特性模糊灰色关联分析模型,对影响三轴汽车稳态响应特性的主要悬架 K & C特性的重要性程度进行了模糊灰色关联度分析。结果表明:车速为15 km/h时,对于稳态响应阶段的侧倾角、横摆角速度和侧向加速度,各影响因素模糊灰色关联度排序皆为 R4> R2> R3> R1> R6> R5;对于质心侧偏角,R5(β)> R6(β)> R1(β)> R2(β)> R3(β)> R4(β)。同理可得车速为35 km/h和55 km/h时各个影响因素模糊灰色关联度排序。从而可以得出:三轴汽车各轴悬架K & C特性参数中,前桥侧倾转向特性对稳态响应阶段的侧倾角、横摆角速度、侧向加速度影响最大;中、后桥侧倾转向特性对质心侧偏角影响较大,且两者相差不大。%In order to study the influencing degree of main suspension K & C characteristic param‐eters on handling stability ,a 3‐DOF dynamic model of three‐axle vehicle based on its suspension K & C characteristic parameters was established with considering of the axle load distribution of three‐axle vehicle and reallocation of vertical load on both sides of wheels under roll torque .Mo‐reover ,on the basis of the 3‐DOF model ,fuzzy grey correlation analysis model based on main suspension K & C characteristic parameters of three‐axle vehicle was established using the cosine value of fuzzy membership and Euclidean distance formula to make fuzzy grey correlation analysis on the influencing degree of main suspension K & C characteristic parameters on steady‐state re

  11. Industrial Robot and External Axle Calibration Based on Particle Swarm Optimization%基于粒子群优化算法的工业机器人与外部轴标定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄进; 胡英; 马孜; 汪洋

    2009-01-01

    提出一种新的标定方法标定外部轴工作台与机器人工具间的坐标转换关系.该方法分为三步:首先,建立系统的数学模型,并根据模型标定机器人手腕与接触式距离传感器间的坐标转换关系,从而机器人和距离传感器组成机器人测量系统.然后,按预定程序移动检测目标,利用标定好的机器人测量系统测量并采集数据,初步标定出外部轴的转轴和俯仰两轴与机器人基础坐标系间的转换关系.最后,确定优化的目标函数,利用粒子群优化算法优化关键参数以提高系统的整体精度.试验结果验证了该标定方法的有效性.%A novel calibrating approach is proposed to determine the transformation relationship between the robot tool coordinate and the external axle worktable coordinate. The whole approach is divided into three steps. Firstly, the geometric model of the system is established. After calibrating the transformation relationship between the robot wrist and the contact position sensor according to the geometric model, a robot measurement system is composed of the robot and the range sensor. Secondly, the detection target is moved according to the preset program, the data is obtained and sampled with the calibrated robot measurement system, the transformation relationship between the robot base coordinate and the external rotating axle and pitching axle coordinates is preliminarily calibrated. Finally, the fitness function is chosen and the key parameters are optimized by particle swarm optimization algorithm to improve the system precision. The effectiveness of the presented approach is demonstrated via some experiments.

  12. 基于车轴位移响应的重型载货汽车耐久性虚拟试验方法%A Virtual Durability Test Method for Heavy Truck Based on Axle Displacement Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋政; 韩旭; 李源; 姜潮; 雷飞; 刘威

    2012-01-01

    以某重型载货汽车为研究对象,提出一种基于车轴位移响应的耐久性虚拟试验方法.该方法首先采集车轴位置的加速度响应;建立基于车轴位移响应驱动的整车多体动力学刚柔耦合模型;接着基于上述试验和刚柔耦合模型复现整车实际道路的载荷历程,预测整车及其关键零部件的疲劳寿命.最后,对其前悬架左减振器支架进行的分析,验证了所提出的试验方法的有效性.%Taking a heavy-duty truck as the object of study, a virtual durability test method is proposed based on axle displacement response. Firstly, the acceleration response at the end of axle is collected, and based on which a rigid-flexible coupling multi-body model is established. Then, on the basis of the test result and the multi-body model, the real road loading history of the heavy truck is reconstructed and the fatigue life of vehicle and its key components is predicted. Finally, the analysis on the left shock absorber bracket of its front suspension verifies the validity of the virtual durability test method proposed.

  13. Analysis on inf luence of freight train with 27 t axle load on reinforced concrete small span bridge%开行27 t轴重列车对小跨度钢筋混凝土桥的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘吉元; 苏永华

    2015-01-01

    T ruck with 27 t axle load will be operated on the existing railways to improve freight transport capacity and efficiency in our country. Statistics of the composition of existing bridges were conducted in this paper. Also,the current state of the locomotives and trucks with large axle load were investigated. On this basis,the effect of the action characteristics of bridges under large axle train w ere analyzed,including the stress condition of the bridges under different types of truck with 27 t axle load and locomotive traction. T hrough the analysis of the performance of reinforced concrete bridges with span less than 16. 0 m,the suitability of bridges to locomotive traction was assessed.%为充分挖掘既有铁路的货运能力、提高运输效率,在既有线上开行27 t轴重货车是我国货运发展的趋势之一。本文在统计既有线桥梁组成、调研大轴重机车和货车应用现状的基础上,分析了大轴重列车对桥梁的作用特征,包括27 t轴重各型货车作用下桥梁的受力情况、不同机车牵引条件下大轴重列车对桥梁受力的影响。通过分析明确了27 t轴重货车对跨度16.0 m 以下钢筋混凝土桥梁的影响和对机车牵引条件的适应性。

  14. 基于HyperWorks的某轻型汽车前桥有限元分析及疲劳寿命预测%Finite Element Analysis and Prediction on Fatigue Life of Front Axle of a light Vehicle Based on HyperWorks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔振海; 王良模; 荣如松; 王国林; 宋怀兰

    2013-01-01

    Front axle is one of the important components which is connected with body and wheels. Its intensity reliablity decides the vehicle safety. Finite element analysis on the front axle of a light vehicle by CAE method was carried out here. The FEA model of front axle was established by taking CHEXA and CTETRA as basic units after model was simplified and imported to Hypermesh. The knuckle pin was simulated by bar element which had beam property. A nalysis of four typical working conditions were carried out by using RADIOSS as solver. The results show that the maximum stress of the front axle are no more than material yield strength in four conditions, and its minimum fatigue life is 994,000 times which satisfies the fatigue requirements, and also verifies the design is correct.%前桥是连接车身与车轮的重要部件,其强度是否可靠直接决定整车的安全性.应用CAE分析方法对某轻型汽车前桥进行有限元分析和疲劳寿命分析.将前桥的三维实体模型进行简化,导入Hypermesh中建立以CHEXA和CTETRA为基本单元的有限元模型,利用具有梁属性的bar单元模拟主销连接,并以RADIOSS为求解器进行前桥的强度和疲劳分析.结果表明,前桥在四种典型工况下最大应力均未超过材料屈服强度,其最低疲劳寿命为99.4万次,满足疲劳寿命的要求,验证了设计的合理性.

  15. A Study on the Fatigue Life of Hub Bearings in Front Steering Axle of a Heavy Duty Truck%重型载货汽车转向前桥轮毂轴承疲劳寿命的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国权; 张红松; 张良城

    2012-01-01

    为揭示重型载货汽车转向前桥轮毂轴承寿命不长的原因,制定了轮毂轴承寿命分析的汽车行驶工况,确定了相应的载荷谱.以Lundberg-Palmgren和Ioannidis-Harris轴承寿命理论为依据,用Romax软件建立了轮毂轴承疲劳寿命分析模型,计算了7.5t转向前桥额定载荷时轮毂轴承的疲劳寿命和损伤率.结果表明,轮毂内轴承满足设计要求,但轮毂外轴承均不满足设计要求.其中寿命最短的右侧轮毂外轴承,内、外国有明显的错位,滚子承载不均匀,内圈挡肩上轴向载荷的合力方向偏离旋转轴线,产生弯曲力矩,内、外圈存在严重的应力集中.%To reveal the reason for the short life of hub bearings in the front steering axle of a heavy duty truck, the vehicle driving conditions for hub bearing life analysis is worked out with their corresponding load spectra defined. Based on Lundberg-Palmgren and Ioannidis-Harris bearing life theories, a fatigue life analysis model for hub bearings is established with Romax software, and the fatigue life and the damage rate of hub bearings in a 7. 5 t front steering axle under rated loading conditions are calculated. The results show that the inner bearing in inner wheel hub meets the design requirements, but the bearings in outer wheel hub don't. Among them the bearing in right outer wheel hub has the shortest life, and there is apparent misalignment between its inner and outer rings with uneven roller loads. Moreover, the direction of resultant force of axial loads acting on inner ring rib deviates from rotating axis, generating bending moment and causing severe stress concentration in both inner and outer rings.

  16. 基于模块化建模的多轴车辆转向杆系优化%Optimization of steering linkage for multi-axle vehicle based on modular modeling method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云超; 高秀华; 凌锡亮

    2011-01-01

    针对多轴转向车辆轮胎磨损严重的问题,对其主要影响因素之一的转向杆系进行优化分析,提出了基于ADAMS软件的多轴转向杆系的模块化建模和优化方法.以五轴车辆为例,进行了建模和优化分析,首先通过对14个优化变量的灵敏度分析,确定7个优化变量.通过对比优化前后的结果可知,各轴的转角误差降低了(24.5~37.5)%.最后通过对整车虚拟样机模型的仿真和实车的试验测试,分析验证了转向杆系的受力合理性,进一步表明优化后的转向杆系具有较强的实践指导作用.%Tyre wear was a serious problem for multi-steering vehicle.Steering linkage of multi-alxe vehicle was one of the main influential footers for tyre wear.The modular modeling and optimization method of multi-axle steering linkage was brought forward based on ADAMS.Took: a five-alxe vehicle for example, the model was built and optimized. Firstly, a sensitivity analysis was done for fourteen design variables and seven design variables were choose.Compare to the optimized and original results,the steering angular errors of every axle were reduced by (24.5~37.5)%. Finally, the full vehicle model was constructed and simu-lated.The real vehicle was tested and the rationality of steering linkage stress was verified.So it further indicated the optimized results of steering linkage had more practical guide.

  17. Fatigue Life Estimation on Speed Reducer of Drive Axle Under the Operating Condition of Load%驱动桥主减速器工况载荷下寿命预估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李剑敏; 谢海; 潘晓东; 李龙

    2013-01-01

    For the mechanical products,it' s difficult to do their durability test because of the high cost and long lifecycle.The relationship between the bench test load-life and operating load-life is built based on the cumulative fatigue damage principle.Fatigue life estimation on speed reducer of drive axle subject to real working conditions is carried out according to the accelerated life test.%针对机械产品寿命长价格昂贵,对这些机械产品做寿命试验十分困难.根据疲劳损伤累计原理,把实验的载荷、疲劳和实测工况的载荷、疲劳的关系建立起来,按照驱动桥主减速器的加速寿命试验推算出驱动桥主减速器在真实工况下的寿命.

  18. Study and Application of Repair Technology in Rear Axle Housing in Mining Truck%矿用汽车后桥壳体修复工艺的探索及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖丽安; 刘圣林

    2012-01-01

    针对矿用汽车后桥壳体修复工艺中存在的焊接材料和焊机不易选择、焊件表面较难清理干净、坡口形式与裂缝尺寸不匹配、焊接工艺处理不当等疑难问题,提出了选用低氢钠型碱性焊条及直流逆变焊机等解决方案。经用户使用检验,修复后的车辆连续运行30000km以上均未出现异常,节约了维修成本。%Regarding the problem of choose equipment, surface clearing, groove type and mismatch of the size and technique treatment in the repairing of rear axle housing in mining truck, the solution of low hydrogen sodium alkaline electrode and dc arc welding inverter was put forward. After test by customer, there no problem accuring in the running of 30 000 km, and the maintenance cost was saved.

  19. 某型载货汽车前桥横拉杆断裂失效模式分析%A type of truck front axle tie rod fracture failure mode analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张传业

    2012-01-01

    因某型轻型载货汽车前桥转向横拉杆连续出现断裂现象,需要分析其断裂模式和原因,提出改进措施和方法。通过建立零件三维模型,导入ansys中进行仿真,并与计算结果进行比较。结果计算与仿真结果与文中假设的失效模式一致。最终得出应力集中是导致该故障发生的主要原因,根据文中的提出的改进方法进行实施后,问题得到解决。%for a certain type of light truck front axle steering tie rod continuous cracking, needs the analysis of its fracture mode and reason, put forward the improvement measures and methods. Through the establishment of three-dimensional part model, through ANSYS simulation, and the results were compared with. The results of calculation and simulation results and the failure mode consistent hypothesis. Finally obtains the stress concentration is the main cause of the fault, according to the proposed method implemented, problems to be resolved.

  20. 基于蒙特卡罗方法的汽车双前桥转向机构稳健分析%Robust Analysis on Double-front-axle Steering Mechanism based on Monte Carlo Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董恩国; 张蕾; 关志伟

    2012-01-01

    Robustness on double-front-axle steering mechanism of a heavy truck is analyzed with Monte Carlo method. The optimum objectives are the minimum steering angle error of each steering trapezoid mechanism and middle connection mechanism. The design variables are the structure parameters of 13 on steering trapezoid mechanism and middle connection mechanism. The constraint condition is steering angle error and dimension limit constrain. Secondly, the result robustness attained by certainty optimum method is analyzed with Monte Carlo method.%应用蒙特卡罗方法对某重型汽车双前桥六杆转向机构进行了稳健性能分析.以前、后桥转向梯形机构转角以及中间摇臂转角误差最小为优化目标,以转向梯形机构、中间摇臂的13个结构参数为设计变量,以各机构的转角误差、尺寸限制等为约束条件建立双前桥转向机构数学模型;应用蒙特卡罗方法分析了采用确定性优化方法所得结果的稳健性能.

  1. Design of Steering System of Three-axle Trailer based on Proportional Control%基于比例控制的某三轴挂车转向系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊啟要; 徐伟

    2013-01-01

    A four-wheel turning of three-axle trailer was researched,model car of linear two degrees of freedom four-wheel turning and gains of steady state yaw velocity of that were derived.The results of steady state computing and optimi zation showed that good turning characters can be reached on the condition of reasonable control of all distance between axes arrangement and steering angle proportion of front and back wheel.%对某三轴挂车四轮转向系统的特性进行了研究,推导出其线性二自由度四轮转向汽车模型和稳态横摆角速度增益.稳态计算和优化结果表明,只要各轴间距布置合理及前后轮转向角比例控制合理,就能使该四轮转向系统达到较优的转向性能.

  2. Study on Numerical Simulation of Hot Extrusion Process of Automobile's Hollow Front Axle%汽车前桥空心短轴的热挤压成形工艺数值模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦国强; 管延锦; 朱立华; 解振东; 孙德朋

    2016-01-01

    A hot extrusion process was proposed to improve the productivity and the material utilization in the manufacture of automobile's hollow front axle . Numerical simulations under various conditions designed by the orthogonal method were done to optimize parameters of the final step of hot extrusion process . Finally the production efficiency , material utilization and product quality were improved and the optimal shaping quality was achieved .%针对某汽车前桥短轴类零件成形制造中存在的生产效率和材料利用率低的问题,提出并设计了热挤压成形制造工艺。通过正交法设计多组参数条件进行数值模拟,实现了热挤压终成形工步的工艺参数优化,获得了最优的成形效果,达到了提高生产效率、材料利用率以及零件质量的目标。

  3. Values of Dual Front Axle Card Before Binding Instrument Based on Dynamic Adjustment Sensor%基于力传感动态调整仪的双前轴重卡前束值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏渊; 史智理; 张瑞斌; 王双峰

    2015-01-01

    文章通过应用力传感动态调整仪采集双前桥重型卡车前轮在转动状态下的受力情况,从而用来验证车辆在实际行驶中前束设计值的合理性。通过对某车型大量数据采集并分析验证,得出车辆的合理前束值,为车辆的前束值设计提供依据。%By dynamically adjusting the application force sensing instrument collects double-front-axle steering heavy truck wheel rotational state in the forces, which is used to verify the reasonableness of the vehicle in real driving toe design values. Based on a large amount of data collection and analysis model verification, the reasonable value of the vehicle before the beam, provide the basis for the design of the vehicle front toe.

  4. 主动悬架与多桥转向混合控制器的设计与仿真分析%Design and simulation of hybrid controller of active suspension and multi-axle steering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欢; 高秀华; 杨铭; 杨圣印; 陈建凯

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the handling stability and the ride performance of multi-axle vehicle, through building a 5+2n degree of freedom multi-axle vehicle dynamic model, a LQG controller was designed. According to the simulation test, the responses of active suspension vehicle and passive suspension vehicle to the performance index of the step signal at low and high speed were analyzed and compared. Results of the analysis indicated that the peak side angle decreased by 0.03 rad, the peak vehicle yaw rate, by 0.1 rad/s, the peak rolling angle, by 0.015 rad, the peak pitching angle, by 0.015 rad, the peak vehicle vertical acceleration, by 0.3 m/s2 and the peak tire dynamic displacement, by 0.009 m, comparing active suspension vehicle with passive suspension vehicle at low-speed. At high-speed, the peak of performance indexes above respectively decreased by 0.095 rad, 0.4 rad/s, 0.075 rad, 0.09 rad, 2.1 m/s2 and 0.018 m. The handling stability and the ride performance of active suspension vehicle are improved significantly comparing with passive suspension vehicle.%为了改善多桥车辆操纵稳定性和行驶平顺性,通过建立多桥车辆的5+2n自由度动力学模型,设计了主动悬架与多桥转向线性系统二次型最优控制(LQG)综合控制器.通过仿真试验,对比分析了采用与不采用综合控制器2种情况下,多桥车辆不同车速下对阶跃信号的各项性能指标的响应.结果表明:低速情况下,采用综合控制器较不采用控制器的多桥车辆侧偏角峰值减小0.03 rad、横摆角速度峰值减小0.1 rad/s、车身侧倾角峰值减小0.015 rad、俯仰角峰值减小0.015 rad、车身垂直加速度峰值减小0.3 m/s2、轮胎动位移峰值减小0.009 m:高速情况下,以上各性能指标峰值分别减小0.095 rad、0.4 rad/s、0.075 rad、0.09 rad、2.1 m/s2、0.018 m.多桥车辆采用综合控制器相对于不采用控制器时的操纵稳定性和行驶平顺性都有显著改善.

  5. 带平衡悬架三轴商用车多目标联合优化%Multi-objective optimization for tri-axle vehicle with tandem suspension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凌阳; 张云清; 付文奎; 覃刚

    2012-01-01

    推导了带平衡悬架三轴商用车的平顺性和操纵稳定性运动方程,采用半车模型分析平顺性,采用三自由度模型分析操纵稳定性.选取10个优化变量,并运用社区培养遗传算法(NCGA)对各模型进行了多目标优化,用蛛网图法将10个Pareto有效解直观地表示出来.根据目标极值法、目标均衡法、理想值法、单目标最优法这4种不同的设计需求标准,从10个Pareto有效解中筛选出4种不同的优化方案,有效地提高了整车的平顺性和操纵稳定性.%Both motion equations describing ride and handling characteristics of tri-axle commercial ve- hicle with tandem suspension were derived respectively. Half-vehicle model was used to analyze ride. 3-DOF model was used to analyze handling. 10 parameters were chosen and NCGA (neighborhood cultivation genetic algorithm) was selected to optimize the commercial vehicle. 10 pareto solutions were shown straightforwardly by spider graph and according to different design requirements, 4 dif- ferent design schemes were proposed, which greatly improve the ride and handling characteristic of the full vehicle.

  6. 用试验方法分析轿车后桥在运输过程中的损伤%Analysis of the Damage of Rear Axle of a Car during Its Land Transportation by Using Test Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鋐; 冯展辉; 周炜

    2001-01-01

    In accordance with the phenomena that the bolts connecting the rear axle and the break back plate of a car become loose or broken during its transportation by a land vehicle, a static test of a car-transport vehicle system is made to study the influence of the tied conditions between the car and the transport vehicle and the up and down motion of the car on the forces exerted on the bolts. Combined with the results of the static test, a dynamic test of the car is also made on an indoor road simulate rig to analyze the possible factors effecting the damage of the bolts. Some workable suggestions as to avoid the damage of the bolts during transportation are offered.%针对轿车在运输过程中出现后桥与制动器底板联接螺栓松动与断裂的损伤现象,通过静态试验了解捆绑安装情况以及车身运动对联接螺栓受力的影响,并采用室内道路模拟设备,通过动态试验在室内台架上模拟该轿车的运输工况,同时结合静态试验来分析产生这种损伤现象的可能因素,为避免这种情况的发生提出合理的建议。

  7. 基于数值模拟的前轴辊锻件精确成形的研究与应用%Research and application of front-axle forging precision forming based on numerical simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏科; 王高潮; 王志录; 陈小杰; 徐学春

    2012-01-01

    根据辊锻设计要求,论述了汽车前轴辊锻件的弹簧座截面、工字型截面、两端拳头截面各道次变化规律;在各道次变化过程中,依据各截面的尺寸参数变化对辊锻模具进行精确设计并选择合理的坯料,以保证坯料能够充满模具型槽.应用Deform-3D软件对辊锻模具模型进行模拟分析,模拟结果与实际生产结果相吻合,进一步验证了辊锻模具设计的准确性和可靠性.该文的论述对前轴辊锻模具的精确设计及辊锻件的生产提供了理论参考依据.%According to the roll-forging design requirements, the changing rule of roll-foging's spring section, H-shaped cross section and fist section ends was discussed. In each step change process, according to the cross-section's parameters, the roll forging die could be precisely designed, meanwhile, the reasonable billet was selected to ensure that the die cavity could be fully filled. Then, Deform-3D finite element simulation software was used to analyze the roll forging process. The simulation results coincided with the actual production results, which further validate the accuracy and reliability of the roll forging die design. The results provide theoretical guidance on the front axle roll forging die and roll forging precision design.

  8. Design and engineering structure analysis on paddy-field chassis steering drive axle with standard all-wheel-drive%标准四驱水田自走底盘转向驱动桥设计与工程结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宏新; 郑利双; 徐高伟; 王晨

    2015-01-01

    In the main grain crop production in China, comprehensive mechanization level for paddy field is the lowest. At the same time, there exists the“bottleneck”problem of“bottleneck”problem such as rice planting mechanization. In the case of transplanter, although we have grasped the core technology of key components, overall machinery can not be popularized and applied due to lack of the support of cost-effective chassis. At present, in Chinese market, most of chassis are imported from Japan and South Korea, which widely use hydraulic transmission and variable speed technology. Because paddy planting operation has the characteristics of stable load and constant speed, using hydraulic transmission and continuous variable device causes low efficiency and has no much practical significance, and meanwhile, the demand for the power increases from 9 to 13 and even 15 kw. Northeast Agricultural University has designed a standard all-wheel drive light paddy self-propelled chassis with diesel-power and mechanical transmission for this situation, whose most prominent shape feature is that four wheels have same size and the front axle is different from any existing paddy field chassis structure. The chassis has the advantages of high transmission efficiency, large torque reserve, anti-sink capacity, dynamic stabilization, and good performance of crossing the earth bank between the paddy fields. As a transmission part, steering drive axle not only is a carrier installed, but also needs to bear the weight of chassis and the effect of impulsive load, and have the function of deflection wheel, and hence its structure is more complex than the traditional shell. The operating environment of paddy field chassis is harsher than general vehicle, which has stricter requirement of sludge, subsidence, bank and over load on axle. So, engineering analysis of structural design process is particularly important, however, conventional theoretical analysis and calculation method can not

  9. 货车三轴转向架焊接构架抗疲劳设计%The Anti-Fatigue Design of Welded Frames of 3-Axled Bogies for Freight Cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢素明; 王亮; 周晓坤; 李向伟

    2013-01-01

    对比分析了国内外焊接构架设计标准,指出ASME标准中的主S-N曲线法是复杂焊接结构焊接接头应力集中分析与疲劳寿命预测的科学方法.采用该方法和TSI中的疲劳载荷对某货车三轴转向架焊接构架焊接接头应力集中进行了分析,结果表明,构架侧梁、心盘梁和横梁内的加强筋板与焊缝的相交处是焊接接头应力集中的主要发生部位.以降低焊缝应力集中为结构设计改进思路,对构架重新进行了设计,改进方案构架焊缝的应力集中得到相当大的缓解,应力幅值最大降低了75 MPa,疲劳加载3个阶段焊缝的累积损伤均小于0.25.%The design standards for the welded frames in China and abroad are compared and analyzed. It is pointed out that the main S-N curve method in the ASME standard is a scientific method for stress concentration analysis and fatigue life prediction of welded joints in complex welded structures. The method and the fatigue load in TSI are used to analyze the stress concentration in welded joints in the welded frames of the 3-axled freight car bogies, and the result shows that the intersections of reinforcement plates and welds in the side sills of frames, center plate sills and transversal beams are the main positions where stress concentration happens. Reduction of stress concentration in welds being as the thought of improving the structure design, the frame is redesigned. In the improved scheme, the stress concencration in welds in frames is considerably relieved, the maximum reduction of the stress amplitude is 75 Mpa, and the accumulated damages to the welds in the three stages of fatigue loading are all less than 0. 25.

  10. 玉米穗轴紫色素的吸附和解析特性研究%Study on the purification of Purple Pigment from Maize Ear Axle by resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴端; 霍仕平; 向振凡; 张芳魁; 晏庆九; 张健; 余志江

    2009-01-01

    The adsorption and desorption behaviors of maize purple pigment on 3 types of macroporous resins were studied.It was found that the adsorption capacity of maize purple pigment on the macroporous resins decreased depending on the type of the resin in the order ofAB-8>NKA-Ⅱ>NKA-9;The maximum adsorption rate can reach80%under the condition of pH<3,30℃50℃and adsorbing time of3husingAB-8macroporous resin.The maximum desorption rate can reach at 75% using alcohol under the condition of pH<3,30℃50℃ and desorption time of 3h.These conditions can be used to purify maize purple ear axle pigment.%比较了3种类型的大孔吸附树脂AB-8、NKA-Ⅱ和NKA-9对玉米穗轴紫色素在pH为3的条件下,吸附时间024h的吸附能力,研究了pH为17、温度为1070℃的吸附性能,分析了不同pH和不同浓度的解析液为对大孔吸附树脂AB-8吸附紫色素的解析性能差异.结果表明,3种树脂吸附玉米穗轴紫色素的吸附率始终表现为AB-8>NKA-Ⅱ>NKA-9;AB-8树脂在pH<3的酸性条件和30℃50℃的温度条件下吸附3h,对玉米紫色素的吸附率可达80%左右;在pH<3的酸性条件下用75%以上浓度的乙醇溶液为解析洗脱液,可获得较好的解析效果.因此,玉米穗轴紫色素应用AB-8大孔树脂在pH<3的酸性条件和30℃50℃的温度条件下吸附3h后,采用在pH<3的酸性条件下用75%以上浓度的乙醇溶液进行解析,可获得较好的色素纯化效果.

  11. 某重型卡车前轴成形辊锻工艺设计与优化%Design and optimization of the precision roll forging on a heavy truck front axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周杰; 柳豪; 刘旭光; 万煦义; 佘科能

    2012-01-01

    针对某牌号重型卡车前轴锻件成形辊锻、模锻工艺调试中遇到的典型缺陷——工字梁充填不满开展研究,基于前期某锻造公司大量的生产调试数据和有限元分析软件,建立了前轴成形辊锻、模锻有限元分析模型;在此基础上,研究了工字梁充填不饱满缺陷的产生机理,重点分析了第3道次模具工字梁型腔部位的3个关键参数宽度B3、圆角R3、斜度A3对成形质量的影响规律,重新设计了前3道次辊锻模具工字梁部位孔型和尺寸,并完成了辊锻模具制造。生产结果表明,工字梁部位充填饱满,产品尺寸合格。基于数值模拟的设计方法有效增加了模具设计的准确程度,减少了模具修改次数,缩短了调试周期,保证了最终产品的质量。%The under-filling defect of I-beam in a heavy truck front axle which occurs in the process debugging of the precision roll-forging and die-forging is studied.Finite element models of precision roll-forging and die-forging are established based on FEM software and the previous productive results.Then,the mechanism of the under-filing defect in I-beam is studied.And the effects of the three variables including width B,radius R and slope A of I-beam in the third step on the forging quality are investigated.In addition,the roll-forging die constructions for I-beam in previous three steps are redesigned and manufactured.The productive results show that I-beam can be fully filled,the debugging cycle is reduced significantly and the products quality is guaranteed.

  12. 30t轴重下朔黄铁路桥涵结构强化技术试验研究%Experimental Study on Strengthening Method of Bridges and Culverts under 3 0 t Axle Load in Shuo-huang Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛继连

    2015-01-01

    通过调研朔黄铁路桥涵结构的运营现状,分析30 t轴重货物列车运营条件下各种跨度桥梁运营活载效应与设计活载效应比值,提出朔黄铁路大轴重重载运输强化改造设计活载图式,开展朔黄铁路30 t 轴重货车实车综合试验,根据各类桥涵结构特点和试验结果,得出大轴重重载列车对桥涵结构的作用规律。从钢筋混凝土简支梁、普通高度预应力混凝土梁、低高度及超低高度预应力混凝土梁、桥梁支座、钢筋混凝土涵洞及框构桥和墩台基础等方面,分析了大轴重重载运输条件下桥涵结构面临的主要技术问题,研发了预应力碳纤维板强化、辅助梁强化、小跨度桥涵强化等技术,研制了新型重载支座。各强化技术与措施经朔黄铁路工程实施与强化效果验证,可提高桥涵结构承载能力,能满足30 t轴重货车运营要求。%Based on the investigation of the current operational state of bridges and culverts along the Shuo-Huang Railway,an analysis was performed on the ratio of the actual and designed live load effects on the bridg-es under the actual 30 t axle load of the freight train.The precept of the strengthening and the reconstruction of the bridges loaded under the heavy axle load was proposed.Based on a comprehensive test and the characteris-tics of the structures of the bridges and culverts,the effect of the 30 t axle load of the freight on bridges and culverts of various spans was studied.The main technical problems faced by bridge and culvert structures under the heavy haul transportation condition were analyzed in terms of reinforced concrete simply-supported girder, prestressed concrete girder with normal height,prestressed concrete shallow girder,bridge bearing,reinforced concrete culvert,framed bridge,and footing of abutment and pier.The challenge of the heavy axle load to the current bridges and culverts at service required strengthening with the

  13. 基于轮轨磨耗对30t轴重货车车轮踏面优化研究%Study on Optimization of Wheel Profiles of Freight Car with 30 t Axle Load Based on Wheel-rail Wear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨亮亮; 罗世辉; 傅茂海

    2014-01-01

    通过对30 t轴重铁路货车的仿真,对比分析车轮采用L M磨耗型踏面与75 kg/m、60 kg/m两种钢轨匹配后各磨耗评定指标,得出L M型踏面与75 kg/m重型钢轨匹配时存在一定不适应的结论。为了满足我国大轴重铁路货车技术的发展需求,从减少轮轨磨耗考虑,设计出两种与75 kg/m重型钢轨匹配性能更优的车轮踏面。基于FASTSIM 算法和Archard磨耗模型,对30 t轴重货车车轮磨耗进行仿真计算,并对比分析优化前后车轮踏面磨耗状态及相关指标。研究结果表明:两种优化型踏面与75 kg/m钢轨匹配下的车轮磨耗程度均比L M型踏面车轮磨耗要小,而且随着运行里程的增加,这种趋势更加明显。%Through simulation of freight cars each with the 30 t axle load ,comparative analysis on wear indexes was made by the dynamic model corresponding to respective matching between the LM type worn wheel tread with 75 kg/m rails and with 60 kg/m rails . Certain inadaptability was shown in matching between the LM wheel tread and 75 kg/m heavy rails .In order to meet the needs of developing large axle load railway wagons in China ,two types of wheel treads with better performance of wheel-rail wear in matching with 75 kg/m rails were designed . The wheel wear of the 30 t axle load wagon was simulated and calculated with the FASTSIM algorithm and Archard wear model ,and the wear status and relevant indexes of wheel treads before and after wheel tread optimization were compared . The research results indicate as follows :In matching with 75 kg/m heavy rails , the two types of optimized wheel treads undergo wear of a lesser degree as compared with the LM type wheel tread;this trend becomes more and more significant with increasing of the running mileage .

  14. 基于模糊自适应PID控制器的多轴车辆转向控制系统设计及仿真%Design of Multi-axle Vehicle Steering Control System and Simulation Based on Fuzzy Adaptive PID Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文桂林; 韩汪利; 周兵

    2011-01-01

    A 2-DOF model of the five-axle all terrain crane with some simplifications is proposed, and based on the assumption of zero side-slip angle of mass center and the proportional control strategy, the function relating the angles of the rear and the front axles. and the velocity are derived. With some simplifications with respect to the proportional valve and the cylinder, a mathematical model of the steering system in Matlab/Simulink is established. In order to overcome the weakness of the traditional PID controller, a fuzzy adaptive PID controller of the rear axle steering angle is built in Matlab by using its fuzzy logic control toolbox. Through the real-time determination of the PID parameters, a high control precision is achieved. A steady state correring simulation is carried out under 25km/h, and the comparison of the simulation and theoretical values shows that fhe fuzzy adaptive PID controller works well, with quick system response and good following peformance.%通过对多轴转向车辆数学模型进行简化,获得某型号五轴全路面起重机的二自由度操纵动力学模型,并基于零质心侧偏角控制策略推导出各后轮转角与前轮转角及车速的函数关系.在对比例阀和转向执行机构(液压缸)进行简化的基础上,在Matlab/Simulink中建立了转向系统完整的数学模型.为克服传统PID控制器的缺点,基于Matlab模糊逻辑控制模块建立了转向系统模糊自适应PID控制器,对PID控制器各个控制参数进行在线整定,以此获得较高的控制精度.以25km/h速度下稳态回转试验对该控制器进行仿真验证.经过仿真分析后发现,该模糊控制器取得很好的效果,系统响应迅速,跟随性好,完全能满足控制需要.

  15. 基于非线性疲劳损伤的沥青路面轴载换算%AXLE LOAD CONVERSION OF ASPHALT PAVEMENT BASED ON NONLINEAR FATIGUE DAMAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕松涛

    2012-01-01

    In order to establish the non-linear fatigue damage evolution equation of asphalt mixture and the axial load conversion method of asphalt pavement,the aggregate gradation and optimum asphalt-aggregate ratios are determined by a proportion design of asphalt mixture.Then,the fatigue damage variable is defined by the modulus decay basing on the basic theory of damage mechanics.The fatigue damage equation was deduced.The direct tensile fatigue test results were fitted from using the fatigue damage equation.The regularities of model parameters and damage with a stress ratio are given out.The new axle load conversion method is established for asphalt pavement.The results indicate that the fatigue damage evolution has the apparent non-linear properties of asphalt mixture.The Miner linear fatigue damage theory is not suitable to describe the process of fatigue damage evolution for asphalt pavement.It is not safe to use the axial load conversion method deriving from the Miner equation.The new axial load conversion method basing on the nonlinear fatigue damage evolution can consider the influence of loading history and damage history.%为了建立沥青混合料的非线性疲劳损伤演化方程,同时为完善沥青路面的轴载换算方法,首先进行沥青混合料的配合比设计,确定矿料级配及最佳油石比,然后从损伤力学基本理论出发,定义模量衰减为其疲劳损伤参量,由此推导得到了疲劳损伤方程,并以此方程对小梁直接拉伸疲劳试验结果进行拟合,得到了模型参数和损伤随应力比的变化规律,建立了沥青路面轴载换算新方法。结果表明:沥青混合料的疲劳损伤演化具有明显的非线性,用Miner线性疲劳损伤理论来描述沥青路面疲劳损伤演化过程不合适,由此推导得到的轴载换算方法偏不安全,建立在非线性疲劳损伤演化基础上的轴载换算方法考虑了加载历史和损伤历史的影响。

  16. 转向驱动桥变径全空心半轴的设计及力学特性%Design of steering drive axles variable diameter hollow half shaft and its mechanical characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪朝晖; 朱发渊; 吕密; 王法平

    2015-01-01

    基于材料低载强化特性,研发设计了一种新型转向驱动桥变径全空心半轴结构,建立了包含英制渐开线花键齿和合理的圆角过渡等精细特征的新型半轴三维模型,运用有限元法对新型半轴的模态振型、等效应力及疲劳寿命等力学特性进行了分析,结果表明:半轴的前10阶非零振型主要为弯曲变形,新型半轴的固有频率与实心半轴的固有频率相近,在使用过程中可有效避免共振;新型半轴等效应力最大值发生在花键末端圆角过渡部位,低于半轴材料的抗扭强度,满足强度设计要求;在扭矩为1500N·m的交变载荷下,新型半轴疲劳寿命最小值发生在花键末端圆角过渡处,与半轴应力集中节点位置一致,实际加工制造时应采用半轴冷精锻和花键轴向冷挤成型技术,以提高新型半轴的强度和使用寿命。%Based on the characteristics of low‐loading strengthening for material design ,a new type of steering drive axle variable diameter hollow half shaft structure was designed ,and its three‐dimen‐sional mode including imperial involute spline teeth ,reasonable transition fillet and other fine features was established .The modal vibration mode ,equivalent stress and fatigue life of the mechanical char‐acteristics of the new type half shaft were analyzed by finite element methods .The results show that the first ten order non‐zero mode of half shaft is mainly bending deformation ,and the natural frequen‐cy of the new half shaft and the solid half shaft is similar ,which can avoid resonance effectively during the half shaft using process .Maximum equivalent stress of new half shaft occurs to the end of transi‐tion fillet ,and less than torsional strength of the half shaft material ,which satisfies the requirements for strength design of the shaft .When the torque of the new half shaft is 1 500 N · m under cyclic loading ,the minimum fatigue life

  17. 轴重30t重载列车作用下新黄土区隧道适应性及强化措施研究%Adaptability and strengthening research of 30 t axle heavy haul railway tunnel in new loess area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘聪; 彭立敏; 雷明锋; 施成华

    2016-01-01

    Based on the typical tunnel structure of Menghua railway which is still under construction,a numerical study was performed,mainly focusing on the dynamic response,fatigue life and strengthening measures of loess heavy haul rail-way tunnel.The results show that:with an increase of axle load and railway freight transport volume,the existing railway tunnel cannot meet the long-term safety requirement without strengthening measures.The adaptability of loess heavy haul railway tunnel cannot be improved effectively by using sole systematic bolt,system anchoring bolt combined with ground treatment should be adopted (the length should reach to 4 m or more).Then the safety operation requirement of the heavy haul train can be satisfied.The research indicates that the centre of secondary lining of inverted arch,and sidewall and inverted arch joint of initial support are the most unfavorable load positions of the tunnel's bottom structures under the ac-tion of 30 t axle heavy haul train.In order to satisfy the 100 a safety design service life of tunnel structures under the op-eration of 30 t axle heavy haul train,the upper-limit fatigue strength of initial and secondary lining of new loess tunnel were deduced,which are 1.30 MPa and 1.62 MPa,respectively.The results can provide reference for present design of heavy haul tunnel structures.%以在建的蒙华铁路典型隧道结构型式为基础,针对新黄土区重载铁路隧道结构动力响应、疲劳寿命以及合理强化措施等问题,采用数值模拟的方法进行研究.结果表明:随着轴重和运量的增加,既有铁路隧道无法满足30 t轴重列车长期安全运营的要求,应采取强化措施.而单一的系统锚杆注浆加固强化能力有限,须采用系统锚杆与隧底地基加固(加固深度4 m及其以上)的联合强化措施方能满足其疲劳寿命要求.通过研究,指出30 t轴重列车荷载作用下隧底结构疲劳易损位置,即二次衬砌仰拱中心、初期支护仰

  18. Utilización del factor de densidad de energía de deformación en el modelo de crecimiento de la grieta en árboles de molinos de caña de azúcar. // Use of the density deformation energy factor in the crack growth pattern of sugar cane mills axles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Arzola de la Peña

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se aplica el criterio de densidad de energía de deformación en el modelo de crecimiento de la grieta para losárboles de los molinos de caña de azúcar. La utilización de este criterio permite predecir no solamente la razón decrecimiento de las grietas sino también la inclinación que las mismas van experimentando durante su propagación, conrespecto al plano inicial donde surgen. Son modelados los dos tipos de grietas que usualmente ocurren en estos elementos,la grieta semielíptica superficial y la circunferencial. Se demuestra que la grieta circunferencial siempre crece en un planonormal al eje del árbol, mientras que las semielípticas lo harán en un plano algo inclinado en dependencia del predominiode las tensiones tangenciales. La grieta circunferencial resultó ser más crítica que la semielíptica superficial.Palabras claves: Energía de deformación, molinos de caña, propagación de grietas._______________________________________________________________________________Abstract.In this paper the approach of the density deformation energy factor in the crack growth pattern of sugar cane mills axles isapplied. The use of this approach allows predicting not only the rate of cracks growth but also the inclination that the sameones experienced during its propagation, with regard to the initial plane where they arise. The two types of cracks thatusually happens in these elements are modelled, the semielliptical superficial crack and the circumferential. It isdemonstrated that the circumferential crack always grows in a normal plane to the axis of the axle, while the semiellipticalwill make it in a plane something bowed in dependence of the prevalence of the tangential tensions. The circumferentialcrack turned out to be more critical than the semielliptical superficial.Keywords: Energy of deformation, cane mills, crack propagation.

  19. Desenvolvimento de metodologia para previsão do fenômeno de vibrações decorrentes da interferência entre eixos de um trator com tração dianteira auxiliar (TDA Development of methodology to predict power hop of the axle interference of a front wheel assist tractor (FWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Schlosser

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi desenvolvido um ensaio de campo com o objetivo de avaliar as condições da ocorrência do fenômeno do "galope" do trator, que consiste em vibrações de baixa freqüência e grande amplitude. Este fenômeno físico é muito comum nos tratores de tração integral, principalmente nos que possuem pneus de diferentes diâmetros no eixo dianteiro e traseiro. Para provocar o "galope", determinaram-se diferentes condições de distribuição de peso, pressão interna dos pneus e da magnitude da carga na barra de tração. Ao final dos ensaios, determinaram-se as condições de ocorrência do fenômeno por meio de uma metodologia bastante simples em função dos raios dos pneus. O método utilizado para a determinação das condições de ocorrência do galope foi plenamente satisfatório, pois pôde prever com bastante precisão as condições em que iria ocorrer o fenômeno.A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the conditions for the appeareance of the power hope phenomenon. It consists in low frequency vibrations and great amplitude. This physical phenomenon is very common in FWA tractors, mainly with unequal tires diameter in front and rear axle. To promote power hope, different weight distribution conditions, different tire pressure and different drawbar force were used. Power hope occurence conditions were determined using simple methodology, which uses tire radio in the calculations.

  20. 轴不对称支撑的手性N-O酰胺化合物催化亚胺硅氢化反应的过渡态研究%Transition State Investigation on Hydrosilylation of Ketoimines with Trichlorosilane Using Asymmetric-axle-supported Chiral N-O Amides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘威; 朱华结; 马文广; 杨晓东; 郑昀晔; 宋碧清; 牛永志; 古吉; 胡栋宝; 杨芹

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism was investigated for enantioselective hydrosilylation of CN with HSiCl3 catalyzed by a novel asymmetric-axle-supported chiral ligand with Hartree-Fock ( HF ) and density functional theory (DFT) at the 6-31G(d) basis sets, respectively. Molecules of catalyst, ketoimine and HSiCl3 were included in activation energy computations. The energy barriers can well explain the enantioselective reaction e. e. values recorded in experiments. Also, a simplified transition state( TS) model was adopted in TS calculations, the barrier sequence recorded by the model had a good agreement with the results via using whole substances [catalyst 3 or epi-3, SiHCl3 and (-)-N-(1-phenylethylidene)aniline] in TS calculations, including the e. e. values.%利用Hartree-Fock ( HF )算法和密度泛函理论( DFT )探讨了新型轴手性氮氧酰胺类配体催化亚胺C N双键不对称硅氢化反应的过渡态.研究发现, H在Si原子上,反应经过渡态TS-2,能垒较低,由此得到产物(-)-N-(1-phenylethyl)aniline的e. e.值与实验结果相吻合.同时,本文还尝试采用合理的简化模型计算反应过渡态,其结果与使用全部分子用于过渡态能量计算的结论一致.

  1. Effect of induction hardening on high-cycle fatigue property of medium-carbon microalloyed steel for semi-axle%感应淬火对半轴用非调质钢高周疲劳性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡芳忠; 惠卫军; 雍歧龙; 张英建; 鹿云

    2012-01-01

    利用旋转弯曲疲劳试验方法对比研究了一种半轴用铁素体+珠光体型非调质钢感应淬火前后高周疲劳性能的变化。结果表明,试验钢试样感应淬火后表层形成了厚度约1.2 mm、平均显微硬度约650 HV0.3的马氏体组织淬硬层。该淬硬层具有较高的残余压应力和十分细小的原奥氏体晶粒。感应淬火处理后,试验钢的疲劳耐久极限从420 MPa提高到716 MPa。疲劳断口的SEM观察表明,未经感应淬火试样的疲劳裂纹均起源于试样的表面基体,而经表面感应淬火后的疲劳裂纹则起裂于淬硬层边界附近的内部基体。%High-cycle fatigue property for semi-axle made of a medium-carbon microalloyed steel before and after induction hardening was investigated by using rotating bending fatigue test. The results show that a martensitic hardened layer with a thickness of about 1.2 mm and an average microhardness of about 650 HV0. 3 is formed after induction hardening. This harden layer has relatively higher compressive residual stress and much finer prior austenite grain. The fatigue endurance limit stress of the tested steel increases from 420 MPa to 716 MPa after induction hardening. Further SEM observations of fatigue fracture surface reveals that all the fatigue cracks of the specimen without induction hardening initiate from specimen shallow subsurface, whereas all the fatigue cracks of the specimen with induction hardening initiate under the depth of about 1.2 mm.

  2. SAFETY MARGIN CRITERION OF NONLINEAR UNBALANCE ELASTIC AXLE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈予恕; 李银山; 薛禹胜

    2003-01-01

    The safety margin criterion of nonlinear dynamic question of an elastic rotor system are given. A series of observing spaces were separated from integral space by resolving and polymerizing method. The stable-state trajectory of high dimensional nonlinear dynamic systems was got within integral space. According to international standard of rotor system vibration, energy limits of safety criterion were determined. The safety margin was calculated within a series of observing spaces by comparative positive-area criterion (CPAC) method. A quantitative example calculating safety margin for unbalance elastic rotor system was given by CPAC. The safety margin criterion proposed includes the calculation of current stability margin in engineering. This criterion is an effective method to solve quantitative calculation question of safety margin and stability margin for nonlinear dynamic systems.

  3. Optimization of Front Axle Suspension System of Articulated Dump Truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Thomas Heegaard; Christensen, Brian B.; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.;

    2010-01-01

    of the machine and the varying load distribution when turning the steering wheel has revealed a non-trivial task of sizing the new suspension system in an optimal way. Hydraulic accumulators and valves are used as suspension elements. The topology of the suspension frame is given together with a work cycle used...... by the supplier of accumulators. A non-gradient optimization routine has been applied to determine the optimal design, i.e., the design with the best possible ride comfort in terms of whole body vibrations that does not violate any of the constraints. Some variables have been treated as discrete...

  4. 30 t轴重重载列车作用下隧底脱空对基底结构受力的影响%Inf luence of separation from tunnel's bottom on bearing capacity of base structure under train loading of 30 t axle load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐新利

    2015-01-01

    采用无损检测及现场钻孔法对一既有重载隧道基底进行了探测,依据探测结果分析了隧底吊空对基底结构受力的影响。同时,利用ANSYS建立围岩—隧道结构—轨道结构三维动力分析模型,依据现场取样试验并结合实车动态试验结果,分析了30 t轴重重载列车通过隧道时基底吊空对基底结构受力的影响。分析结果表明,在Ⅴ级围岩条件下,当隧底混凝土厚度1.0~1.2 m时,轻重车线同时吊空且纵向吊空超过3.2 m、重车线吊空且纵向吊空超过5.5 m、重车线半幅吊空且纵向吊空超过8.0 m后,隧底最大主应力均超过其容许应力。疲劳分析结果表明,当基底仰拱沿纵向吊空从2.5 m增加到4.8 m时,其疲劳寿命降低最为明显;从4.8 m增加至8.0 m后,其疲劳寿命降低速率逐渐减弱;超过8.0 m后,其疲劳寿命基本趋于稳定且不足1年。因此,对于隧底出现的吊空病害应该及时加固处理,以保证列车安全。%T he existing overloaded tunnel basement was detected by nondestructive testing and field drilling method and the effect of tunnel bottom hanging on basement structure force was analyzed according to the detecting results. Combining with the field sampling test and real vehicle dynamic experiments,the influence of tunnel bottom hanging on basement structure force when heavy haul train passing through the tunnel with 30 t axle load is analyzed by establishing three-dimensional dynamic analysis model of surrounding rock-tunnel structure-track structure with ANSYS. T he analysis results showed that both light and heavy vehicle line hang together and vertical hanging length is over 3. 2 m ,the heavy vehicle line hangs and the vertical hanging length is over 5. 5 m in the V surrounding rock conditions when the concrete thickness of tunnel bottom is in 1. 0 ~1. 2 m,the maximum principal force of tunnel bottom is 0. 5 M Pa more than the allowable stress when

  5. Dynamic Axle Loads as a Main Source of Railway Track Degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, M.J.M.M.; De Jong, E.; Zoeteman, A.

    2015-01-01

    During train operation, geometrical irregularities develop in soil-supported ballasted railway tracks as a function of born tonnage. This form of degradation is combatted by periodic maintenance in the form of tamping by specially equipped trains in order to guarantee predefined levels of structural

  6. Algorithm of orthogonal bi-axle for auto-separating of watermelon seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Guan, Miao; Yu, Daoqin; Wang, Jing

    2007-11-01

    During the process of watermelon seeds characteristic extraction as well as separation, watermelon seeds' major and minor axes, the length and width ratio have played a very important role in appearance regulating degree evaluation. It is quite difficult to find the answer of orthogonal bi-axes because the watermelon seeds are flat and irregular in shape and what's more there is no rule to follow. After a lot of experiments and research, the author proposed the algorithm of orthogonal bi-axes algorithm for granulated object. It has been put into practice and proved in the application of auto-separation system for watermelon seeds. This algorithm has the advantage of lower time complexity and higher precision compared with other algorithms. The algorithm can be used in the solution of other similar granulated objects, and has the widespread application value.

  7. Mulige interaksjoner mellom tyrosin kinase reseptoren Axl, metabolisme og proliferasjon i brystkreftceller (MDA-MB-231)

    OpenAIRE

    Bergslien, Ingunn

    2009-01-01

    Metabolismen i kreftceller er assosiert med økt aerob glykolyse, et fenomen omtalt som Warburg effekten. Den forhøyede glykolytiske raten utgjør en av de større forskjellene, som skiller normale celler fra kreftceller, og forståelse av de underliggende mekanismene er viktig for å kunne utvikle målrettet kreftterapi. Brystkreft cellelinjen MDA-MB-231 er karakterisert som aggressiv og invasiv, og viser høye rater av aerob glykolyse, sammenlignet med brystkreft cellelinjer med lavere invasivi...

  8. AXL and AXR1 have redundant functions in RUB conjugation and growth and development in Arabidopsis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dharmasiri, N.; Dharmasiri, S.; Weijers, D.; Karunaratha, N.; Juergens, G.; Estelle, M.

    2007-01-01

    Cullin-RING ubiquitin-protein ligases such as the Skp1, cullin, F-box protein (SCF) have been implicated in many growth and developmental processes in plants. Normal SCF function requires that the CUL1 subunit be post-translationally modified by related to ubiquitin (RUB), a protein related to ubiqu

  9. Design of integrative wheels and axles sideslip tester for double-front-axle steering automobile%双前轴转向汽车轮间与轴间侧滑量一体化检测合设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧云; 苏建

    2008-01-01

    为解决现有侧滑台无法检测双前轴转向汽车轴间侧滑量的现状,应用Solidworks平台设计了能同时检测轮间与轴间侧滑量的一体化检验台.试验表明:该侧滑台能够完成对双前轴转向汽车轴间侧滑量的检测.受检车辆的轴间侧滑量为4.2m/km,为汽车性能的评价提供了依据.

  10. Reliability design of mono-leaf spring for front-axle suspension of large-sized trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savaidis, G. [Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering (Greece); Schwaiger, F. [MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Munich (Germany); Momiyama, F.; Yamazumi, T.; Muramatsu, K. [Horikiri Inc., Chiba-Pref. (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    This paper deals with the development of a fatigue-accurate suspension system for large-sized trucks based on mono-leaf steel springs, It shows the fulfillment of the demands for lightweight construction, sufficient fatigue life and fail-safe behaviour. The paper contains the fatigue load assumptions used for the non-linear finite-element stress-strain analysis, the experimental verification by means of measured load, stress and strain data determined by driving quasi-static manoeuvres and over various rough road segments with a prototype vehicle, as well as the experimental uniaxial and multiaxial fatigue tests required for the durability approval. The fatigue lives achieved, confirm the adequate service life of the developed spring. In addition, appropriate vehicle tests on a test track with a custom-made mono-leaf spring system confirmed the fail-safe design of the suspension system. (orig.)

  11. Force analysis and design of bus front axle%客车前桥受力分析及设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温述波

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 前言 随着公路交通的发展和人民生活水平的提高,人们对乘用车的安全性、承载能力等方面提出了更高的要求.前桥做为汽车底盘的关键部件,其在实现汽车转向、制动以及支撑等诸方面起着至关重要的作用.因此,做好汽车前桥产品的设计开发,才能不断满足汽车底盘的要求.这里对前桥的主要功能、受力分析和设计计算等方面进行初步的探讨.

  12. Design of Die Forging of Heavy Truck Front Axle%重型卡车前轴模锻设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许淑珍; 田晨

    2006-01-01

    整体模锻汽车前轴已在各厂家普遍使用,但对于100kg以上的重型卡车前轴,其生产中还存在诸多问题,如弯曲、扭曲、充不满等.本文分析了其模锻工艺,设计了锤锻模和切边模.

  13. Influence of wheel and rail profile shape on the initiation of rolling contact fatigue cracks at high axle loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Ulrich; Desmond Fröhling, Robert; Schalk Els, Pieter

    2016-05-01

    The influence of wheel and rail profile shape features on the initiation of rolling contact fatigue (RCF) cracks is evaluated based on the results of multi-body vehicle dynamics simulations. The damage index and surface fatigue index are used as two damage parameters to assess the influence of the different features. The damage parameters showed good agreement to one another and to in-field observations. The wheel and rail profile shape features showed a correlation to the predicted RCF damage. The RCF damage proved to be most sensitive to the position of hollow wear and thus bogie tracking. RCF initiation and crack growth can be reduced by eliminating unwanted shape features through maintenance and design and by improving bogie tracking.

  14. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XVIII, I--UNDERSTAND ENGINE GEARS AND GEARING PRINCIPLES, II--MACK INTER-AXLE POWER DIVIDER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIESEL ENGINE GEARS AND GEARING PRINCIPLES AND THE OPERATING PRINCIPLES AND MAINTENANCE OF POWER DIVIDERS (GEAR BOXES) USED IN DIESEL ENGINE POWER TRANSMISSION. TOPICS ARE (1) THE PURPOSE OF THE ENGINE GEARS, (2) INSPECTING FOR GEAR FAILURES, (3) INSPECTING FOR SHAFT…

  15. 驱动桥信息化设计系统框架研究%Driving axle information design system sketch research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周群辉; 王丰元; 马浩; 杨朝会

    2007-01-01

    为改善驱动桥传统的设计方式,采用CAD/CAE集成技术和新型数据信息交换方法,以CAD/CAE软件为开发平台,数据库为数据管理工具,完成驱动桥的三维设计、有限元分析、动力学仿真和二维工程图样智能化的生成,最终实现驱动桥设计分析制造的虚拟化和一体化.

  16. The improvements of tongs for boring lute hole of rear-axle housing%后桥壳镗琵琶孔夹具的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲力戈

    2005-01-01

    原汽车后桥壳镗琵琶孔夹具的两端顶尖只能对单一尺寸的后桥壳进行定位,现对原夹具顶尖进行改进设计,改为组合式顶尖,加工不同型号的后桥壳时,可随时更换与之对应的顶尖,简单、灵活、方便、适用范围广.

  17. Refining the parameters of Archard's wear model for calculating wear of wheels applied for 25 t per axle freight wagons on Russian railways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidova, Alina; Orlova, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the research is for a reasonable choice of wear coefficients for severe and mild phases in Archard's abrasive wear theory and friction coefficients for wheel flange and tread that correspond to conditions of Russian track for wheel profile wear modelling using dynamic models of wagons. This paper considers the gondola wagon on bogies model 18-9855 that are of the three-piece Barber S-2-R design. The wagon running test results on Experimental Loop Track in Scherbinka, the results of hardness measurements of wheel flange/tread and of wheel profile wear modelling are presented in this paper. In conclusion, a comparison of wheels wear of two freight wagons' bogies (with friction and elastic-friction links of wheel sets with side frames) on the basis of specified wear model was carried out.

  18. 三轴拖车平顺性仿真分析%Simulation and Analysis on the Ride Comfort of a Three-axle Tractor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勇; 任卫群; 陈立平

    2007-01-01

    以某三轴拖车为动力学模型,在ADAMS软件的基础上进行二次开发,得到参数化的建模分析软件.建模中考虑钢板弹簧、减振器和橡胶衬套的非线性特性,并以不同的路面输入条件为激励,通过仿真可以得到整车模型上任意位置的动力学参数的分析结果.通过与该车的试验报告比较,验证了该平顺性分析方法的有效性和高效性.

  19. 后桥钢板激光-MIG复合焊接优化研究%Optimization Research on Laser-MIG Composite Welding for Rear Axle Steel Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚远; M.Wouters; J.Powell; K.Nilsson; A.Kaplan

    2008-01-01

    研究了两种后桥桥壳用低合金钢板在激光-MIG复合焊接中,接头形状、接头间隙及MIG参数变化(大、中、小MIG参数)对焊缝形状及焊缝喉厚的影响.研究结果表明,MIG参数应设置成大、中MIG参数水平,以保证在一定的接头间隙下有充足的焊接材料填入间隙而形成部分焊透的焊缝,使焊缝喉厚满足焊接强度要求;过高的MIG输入能量和过多的焊料(丝)填入将导致焊缝横截面积增大,但对焊缝喉厚的影响不是很明显;当MIG参数设置成小MIG参数水平时,0.5 mm的接头间隙或切角面为3 mm×2 mm时,对获得较大的焊缝喉厚有利.

  20. 重型货车驱动桥壳的静力学分析%Static Analysis on Heavy Truck Drive Axle Housing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丰元; 刘长磊; 刘超

    2013-01-01

    对重型货车驱动桥壳进行了强度计算、有限元仿真分析和试验验证,得出驱动桥壳的应力和变形分布.该驱动桥壳具有足够的静强度和刚度,满足设计要求.有限元仿真分析具有高的经济性和实用性,并为汽车驱动桥的强度评价及疲劳寿命估算提供了相关数据.

  1. Non-contacting fluid ring seal systems for railcar axle bearing systems: Fifth quarterly report, June 16, 1988--September 15, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-10-01

    During this fifth quarter the evaluation of D-size fluid ring sealed roller bearing assemblies was completed with the evaluation of seal configuration MT 3008 and 3016, 3016a and 3016b (different static contact seal concepts), when exposed to intensive dust and rain storms generated within an enclosure surrounding the nondriven side of test rig /number sign/3 over the entire speed range from 0 to 1220 RPM bearing test speed. During the test rig /number sign/3 shake down test runs it became apparent that the intensity of the dust and rain storms surrounding the fluid ring sealed bearing end within the ''mini'' climate chamber could be appropriately observed through small windows at 12:00 and 6:00 o'clock provided in the endwall of the ''mini-climate'' chamber, rig /number sign/3 was accordingly modified and the dust and rain exposure tests were conducted at numerous levels of severity. 6 figs.

  2. Non-contacting fluid ring seal systems for railcar axle bearing systems: Quarterly progress report No. 3, December 16, 1987-March 15, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    One test rig was completed, and a FR seal prototype test was initiated. No leaks of grease were detected. A used ''D'' sized lip seal was evaluated. New FR seals are being designed. 6 figs. (DLC)

  3. 气动转轴结构成形模设计%Design of the Pneumatic Forming Die of Rotational Axle Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许小东

    2004-01-01

    介绍了1副适用于表面要求较高的钣金件的成形模结构及工作过程,解决了钣金件成形过程中的擦伤问题.模具利用压缩气体为动力,不需压力机就能工作,减少了设备的投资.

  4. Discussion on Non-Driving Axle Structure Durability Test%浅谈汽车非驱动桥的结构耐久性试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周伟

    2013-01-01

    阐述了汽车非驱动桥结构耐久性试验的主要内容和试验设置要点.对业内标杆企业在非驱动桥方面的研发试验方法进行了整理,研究对相关工程技术人员开拓思路及企业构建相应的研发试验能力起到一定的参考作用.

  5. Rig Test and Digital Simulation of Durability of Car Rear Axle%轿车后桥耐久性数值仿真和试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林阳; 朱平; 王成龙

    2007-01-01

    为了解决引进车型零部件试制开发中出现的国外引进台架试验规范的不适应性问题,以某轿车后桥为研究对象,采用数值仿真与试验相结合的方法,通过计算机仿真,对后桥进行了应力应变分析及疲劳分析,同时,进行道路应变采集及分析,结合计算机仿真与道路试验隋况,对原有的台架试验标准进行修改,采用改进后台架试验标准的试验结果与道路试验破坏情况取得了基本一敛的效果.通过计算机仿真技术与试验技术的结合,帮助企业快速地解决了实际问题,大大缩短了开发周期,提高台架试验规范的适应性,促进了企业自主试验开发.

  6. α-Lipoic acid attenuates vascular calcification via reversal of mitochondrial function and restoration of Gas6/Axl/Akt survival pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Han-Jong; Lee, Kyunghee; Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Hee Sun; KIM, JAE-RYONG; Ha, Chae-Myeong; Choi, Young-Keun; Lee, Sun Joo; Kim, Joon-young; Harris, Robert A.; Jeong, Daewon; Lee, In-Kyu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Vascular calcification is prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease and leads to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although several reports have implicated mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease, little is known about the potential role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the process of vascular calcification. This study investigated the effect of α-lipoic acid (ALA), a naturally occurring antioxidant that improves mitochond...

  7. 基于μCOS-II技术的考勤机设计%Design based on ethernet in axle tracing management terminal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文虎; 杨峰

    2014-01-01

    Designed a attendance system terminal which used a STM32 microprocessor as the core. On the hardware side, the terminal includes the STM32F207 minimum system, Ethernet communication unit, SD card storage unit, ID card recognition unit, video unit, TFT LCD touch unit, detection and control unit and power supply circuit. On the software side, the terminal is embedded a real-time operating system (μC/OS-Ⅱ), the the the lightweight IP protocol stack(LWIP) and a graphical user interface (μC/GUI). On the one hand, the terminal corresponding to the ID card information stored in document form to the local SD card for the query; The other hand, the information is transmitted via Ethernet, and the host computer handles the attendance statistics, which garanteed the efficiency, fairness and truthfulness. Used the Keil MDK and the dragon STM32F207 development board to do the simulation experiment, these futrues make the terminal working reliable, transmissing stable and facing friendly, and basicly realized the attendence function.%基于STM32系列微处理器的考勤系统终端,硬件包括STM32F207最小系统、以太网通信单元、SD卡存储单元、ID卡识别单元、摄像单元、TFT液晶触摸单元、检测及控制单元及电源供电电路;软件嵌入了实时操作系统μC/OS-Ⅱ、LWIP轻型IP协议栈及用户图形界面μC/GUI.终端采取无源ID卡识别与头像数据采集同步进行的方式记录员工的出勤情况,一方面将与 ID 卡对应的头像信息以文件形式保存至本地 SD 卡,以供查询;另一方面将信息通过以太网传送至上位机,并由上位机完成考勤统计.利用Keil MDK软件及金龙STM32F207开发板实验仿真表明:终端运行可靠,传输稳定,操作界面友好,实现了设计功能.

  8. 基于ABAQUS的汽车驱动桥壳改进设计%Improved design of automobile drive axle housing base on ABAQUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑楠

    2010-01-01

    运用Pro/E软件建立驱动桥壳的三维模型,然后导入ABAQUS软件进行有限元分析(FEA),利用ABAQUS软件分析结果改进设计驱动桥壳.实际使用表明,改进设计的驱动桥壳未出现桥壳开裂现象,达到了优化设计的目的.

  9. Kinematics Simulation of Rigid-Flexible Coupled Rigid Axle Suspension%刚柔耦合非独立悬架系统的建模和仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜兢; 王小芳

    2009-01-01

    利用ADAMS/CAR软件建立非独立悬架系统刚柔耦合仿真模型,分析并评价了该悬架在运动过程中主要性能参数的变化规律及对操纵稳定性的影响,为悬架设计奠定基础.与传统建模方法相比,刚柔耦合建模技术能有效提高非独立悬架的仿真分析精度.

  10. Study on cracks of axle-hang box for SS7 locomotive%SS7机车抱轴箱体裂纹研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张运伟; 封全保; 杨俊杰

    2005-01-01

    介绍抱轴箱体的结构特征和运行情况.利用有限元法对SS7型电力机车抱轴箱体3种结构的静强度做对比分析,证实了局部几何性应力集中对过早裂损的影响;利用电镜扫描技术对裂纹进行分析,结果表明抱轴箱体的裂纹断口特征相近,裂纹性质属于多源性低周疲劳裂纹,铸件中的夹杂、气孔等内部缺陷是导致过早裂损的主要原因.

  11. Front axle structure design and analysis of wheel-mounted paver%轮胎式摊铺机前桥设计浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振权; 李林; 陆国栋; 管辉

    2013-01-01

    @@%轮胎式摊铺机前桥结构设计一直是整机的难点和重点,结构的好坏直接影响整机的性能.本文主要从轮胎的选用,前后轮转向角计算,转向油缸安装位置和三点悬浮地盘结构四方面进行分析探讨,力求找出最优化设计方案,提高整机的性能和稳定性,延长零部件的使用寿命.

  12. Research on the Special Drill Jig Design of Automobile Front Axle%汽车前轴专用钻床夹具的设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段小锋; 刘耀松; 王宪; 郑贺

    2016-01-01

    针对某汽车前轴两端钻孔大小不一且无法保证对称性而造成次品率较高的问题,设计了一种专用钻床夹具.其采用一面两销的定位和绞链夹紧机构,并对加工精度进行了理论研究计算.结果表明,该设计满足使用要求且在大批量生产中能够获得较高的精度和生产效率.

  13. Optimization design of reliability of automobile front-axle%汽车前轴的可靠性优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张义民; 贺向东; 刘巧伶

    2002-01-01

    在基本随机变量的概率特性已知的情况下,应用随机摄动法和约束随机方向法对汽车前轴进行可靠性优化设计,通过计算机程序可以直接实现汽车前轴可靠性优化设计,迅速准确地得到汽车前轴的可靠性优化设计信息.

  14. 9.5吨转向前轴分析设计%Analysis and Design of 9.5T Front Axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙超

    2010-01-01

    通过设计计算和分析,将市场需求转化为公司产品,建立了前轴工字梁、转向节、主销等关键零部件设计计算公式.为今后同类产品的研发积累了一定的经验,提供了一定的思路和方法.

  15. Reliability sensitivity design for front-axle of vehicle%车辆前轴的可靠性灵敏度设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张义民

    2004-01-01

    将可靠性设计理论与灵敏度分析方法相结合,讨论了前轴的可靠性灵敏度设计问题,提出了可靠性灵敏度设计的计算方法,给出了可靠性灵敏度的变化规律,研究了设计参数的改变对前轴可靠性的影响,为前轴的可靠性设计提供了理论依据.

  16. 农用运输车前桥主销后倾角的设计%Front axle kingpin caster angle design of farm transporter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王常清; 王立祥; 锁利君

    2004-01-01

    主要论述了车辆主销后倾角的影响因素,以及在设计阶段中,怎样去保证主销后倾角的值在一定范围内,并提出主销后销角是与车型相关,而不是前桥的一个参数.并由此提出一个简易的主销后倾角测量方法.

  17. Design for a truck's double front axles steering-transmission system%一种载货车双前桥转向机构的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王定华; 李龙银

    2007-01-01

    以总布置为基础选定载货车双前桥转向机构的布置型式,建立转向梯形及摆臂机构的数学模型以及基于转向误差最小的优化模型进行接近真实工作条件的仿真,力求保证载货车双前桥汽车转向轮的运动协调性,以满足双前桥转向的严格要求.

  18. 汽车前轴锻造模具快速设计方法%Fast design method of automobile front axle forging die

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁聪明

    2011-01-01

    为满足产业市场的快速发展,缩短产品开发周期,提高品质,提升设计效率.结合生产实际和锻造模具CAD设计理念,提出锻造模具快速设计方法,增强企业的竞争力.

  19. Automotive Front Axle Roll Forging Precision Performing Step And Groove Design%汽车前轴辊锻精制坯工步及孔型设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金吕; 王高潮

    2005-01-01

    根据汽车前轴锻件的特点、技术条件与要求,分析了前轴辊锻工艺的难点,包括确定辊锻件图,选择毛坯尺寸,确定辊锻道次,典型截面特征孔型设计和延伸分配等.本文以NHR前轴为例,进行了精密辊锻制坯工步及孔型设计的研究,设计出前轴制坯、预成型、终成型辊锻件图.

  20. Sensitivity analysis on reliability of automobile front axle based on NESSUS%基于NESSUS的汽车前桥可靠性灵敏度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周新建; 万正平; 周长国

    2009-01-01

    介绍了结构的设计验算点与可靠性灵敏度分析的基本概念.针对前桥结构参数的随机性,首先在Pro/E中建立了前桥的三维精确模型,利用ANSYS对导入模型进行有限元分析,然后采用了机械零部件和系统的概率分析软件NESSUS对前桥做可靠性分析.在计算过程中可靠度计算软件作为主程序,有限元软件作为子程序被调用.最后得出了前桥结构可靠指标值和各个参数的灵敏度和结构的设计验算点,为前桥的可靠性设计提供了依据.

  1. Model and dynamic simulation analysis of double front axles steering system%双前桥转向系统建模与动态仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨斌久; 郝文权; 甄鹏

    2009-01-01

    简述了多轴转向汽车的转向原理,利用多体动力学软件ADAMS建立了某重型汽车双前桥转向系统动力学模型,并根据设计参数对其进行了仿真分析,得出转向性能评价结论.

  2. A Research on Optimization Design of Double Front Axle Steering Mechanism%双前桥转向机构优化设计方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王阳阳; 靳晓雄; 张代胜

    2006-01-01

    双前桥转向机构包含两个独立的转向梯形机构和双前桥间的转向联动机构-双摇臂系统.文中分析了双前桥转向机构应实现的功能、运动规律和与其它系统可能造成的运动干涉,提出了同时保证双前桥汽车车轮转向时做纯滚动和杆系干涉造成的车轮异常磨损最小的多目标优化设计方法.

  3. DC704前驱动桥的设计要点%Main Points on Designing DC 704 Front Drive Axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝喜斌

    2004-01-01

    大齿集团是我国定点生产拖拉机前驱动桥的厂家.DC 704前驱动桥是专门为匹配中马力(60马力~70马力)拖拉机而设计的.阐述了这种驱动桥的设计思想及要点,概括介绍了主要部件的设计方法与计算.

  4. Research on fatigue life of front axle beam from heavy-duty truck%重型载货汽车前梁疲劳寿命研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 李丽君; 柴山

    2015-01-01

    前梁是汽车转向桥的重要部件之一,近年来其疲劳破坏问题越来越突出.文中应用ANSYS Workbench软件的Fatigue Tool工具,对前梁进行有限元分析,选取第1主应力查看其强度情况;考虑平均应力的影响,进行疲劳寿命分析,并与试验结果进行了对比.确定前梁的危险区域,为其结构改进提供一定的依据.

  5. Design of Steering Mechanism of the Double-front Axle%新型双前桥转向机构的设计开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕召全; 华从波; 杨士钦

    2008-01-01

    利用新的设计方法.对开发的某型双前桥载货汽车的转向机构进行了全新的设计.分别就转向梯形机构和转向摇臂机构进行了理论计算和ADAMS仿真,并对转向特性进行了优化.随后的道路试验证明,新设计的转向机构性能符合要求,新的设计方法值得推广应用.

  6. 双前桥转向系统瞬时转动中心理论分析及二轴转角的确定%Instantaneous Turning Center Theory Analysis and the Second Axle Steering Angle Calculation of Dual-front Axle Steering System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛务本; 耿坤龙; 刁锦桥; 谭玉萍

    2006-01-01

    建立了双前桥转向系统瞬时转动中心的数学模型,进行了理论分析和数学公式推导,得出了转动中心位置的一般公式以及一轴、二轴转角关系式.以某车型为例讨论了二轴转角、偏移和转动半径分别在不同双后轴距离处以及一轴不同转角条件下的变化规律.结果表明,瞬时转动中心不在后二轴中心线上,而是相对后二轴中心向后偏移,且偏移量随后二轴轴距增大而增大;前一轴转角对于瞬时转动中心的影响不大.转向半径随着后二轴轴距增大而增大;当一轴转角较小时,转向半径变化很大,当一轴转角最大时转向半径达到最小.

  7. A Piston-Rotaxane with Two Potential Stripes: Force Transitions and Yield Stresses

    OpenAIRE

    Edith M. Sevick; David R.M. Williams

    2013-01-01

    We examine a rod piston-rotaxane system, where the positions of several mobile rings on the axle are controlled by an external force acting on one of the rings. This allows us to access the translational entropy of the rings. For a simple rotaxane molecule with an axle that has uniform ring-axle interactions along its length, the molecule behaves like a miniature piston filled with a one-dimensional ideal gas. We then examine the effect of two stripes on the axle, having different ring-axle i...

  8. Research and Application of Electric-spark Overlaying Process in Restoring Electric Axle Parts%电火花堆焊技术的研究及在电力轴类修复中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓春; 孙增伟; 刘晓明; 高云鹏

    2010-01-01

    电力轴类常因在运输、装配及运转过程中的磕碰、拉毛、磨损造成局部损伤而导致其过早失效.为了为之提供电火花堆焊修复应用技术和理论支持,研究了电火花堆焊的最佳工艺及堆焊层至母材间的硬度分布,探讨了堆焊层的组织及合金元素的过渡情况.结果表明,在最佳工艺参数下,可成功实现电力轴类部件的电火花堆焊修复,堆焊层至母材间硬度的变化区域较窄,表明其焊接热影响区范围较小,堆焊层与母材合金元素过渡均匀,结合良好.

  9. Analysis on Relationship between TA DS Alarmed Axle Failure and TPDS Inspection Results%TADS报警轴承故障与TPDS检测结果关联性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡炜

    2011-01-01

    针对成都铁路局青龙场TADS报警轴承的数据进行统计分析,从TADS报警轴承经退卸检查存在故障的轴承入手,分析故障车型,查阅TADS报警车辆和与之相关的TPDS历史监控数据,阐述TADS报警轴承故障与TPDS检测结果有着十分密切的关联性这一规律.列检人员鉴定发现该类TADS,TPDS关联性预报的车辆,应对车辆进行扣修,并将TADS报警轴承进行退卸处理.

  10. The Development of On-site Measurement of Diameter of Bullet Train Axle%高速动车车轴轴颈直径现场测量方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏浩; 岩君芳; 杨伟敏; 朱广明

    2014-01-01

    分析了在周期性非稳态温度场中采用比较法测量时,温度对车轴直径示值不确定度的影响,该温场中质量很大的被测物的温度变化滞后参考标准一个恒定值并进行了试验验证.使用该值对车轴轴颈直径进行温度补偿能有效降低车间现场测量不确定度.

  11. A Study on Multi-objective Optimization Design of Spiral Cone Gear in Loader Axles%装载机驱动桥螺旋锥齿轮多目标优化设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞明宝

    2004-01-01

    建立装载机驱动桥螺旋锥齿轮多目标设计的优化模型,按照广义Benders分解法、采用置换率的计算方法进行优化计算,利用V-F语言建立优化程序软件,实例的应用证明了其可行性.

  12. A Simulation Study on Ride Comfort of Multi-Axle Vehicle Based on Flexible Model%基于柔性模型的多轴汽车平顺性的仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 王学林; 胡于进; 李成刚

    2003-01-01

    基于弹性梁弯曲振动理论和模态分析法建立了多轴汽车平顺性分析的柔性模型.按照汽车行驶平顺性评价方法,运用建立的柔性模型,分析了车速、路面等级、悬挂质量的分布、车架刚度以及悬架系统的刚度和阻尼对多轴汽车平顺性的影响.分析结果表明:悬挂质量的弯曲振动是影响多轴汽车行驶平顺性的一个不可忽略的重要因素;常用的刚体模型不能准确地描述多轴汽车的平顺性,不适合用于多轴汽车平顺性的分析.

  13. The pulse electronics brush plates the repair rolling mill tooth wheel axle to brush plates the craft practice%脉冲电刷镀修复轧机齿轮轴刷镀工艺实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高兴勇

    2009-01-01

    根据某厂齿轮轴颈的技术要求及工况条件,制定了脉冲电刷镀修复方案,并详细介绍了此方案的工艺方法.结果表明,脉冲电镀工艺能增加镀层厚度,增强镀层硬度,效果明显优于直流电刷镀工艺.

  14. 轻型车后桥二维载荷谱及其疲劳寿命预测%Two-dimension Load Spectrum and Fatigue Life Prediction for the Rear Axle of Light-truck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖生发; 左惟炜; 沈德平

    2002-01-01

    以雨流法得到的载荷谱为基础,建立了后桥的二维载荷谱,并编制了二维载荷谱的计算机程序.分别利用一维和二维载荷谱对EQ1030T型轻型车后桥进行了疲劳寿命预测.

  15. Static Tensional Strength Analysis and Structure Optimization of Motor Tricycle Axle Shaft%三轮摩托车半轴静扭强度分析及结构优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘焕领; 景亚兵; 马娜; 白伟

    2015-01-01

    针对三轮摩托车全浮式半轴法兰和轴结合处的断裂问题,进行了静扭强度分析,分析发现该结合处的应力较其他位置的应力大.为解决这个问题,对该结合处的结构利用结构优化方法提出优化方案.

  16. Analysis on Broken Gear of 1204 Tractor's Left and Right Short Axle Shaft%1204型拖拉机左右短半轴齿轮断齿分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周忠旺

    2013-01-01

    The broken gear was analyzed by morphology analysis, chemical composition analysis, hardness test and metal lographic analysis. The results show that the broken gear is caused by the inclusion's permeation and the heat is caused by the friction makes the gear broken.%通过对断齿齿轮的宏观检测、化学成分检测、硬度测试及金相分析,得出齿轮断齿的原因.结果表明,夹杂的揉入及摩擦引起的热分别使齿轮发生断齿及心部硬度不足的现象.

  17. A Molecular Rotor Possessing an H-M-H "Spoke" on a P-M-P "Axle": A Platinum(II) trans-Dihydride Spins Rapidly Even at 75 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prack, Ernest; O'Keefe, Christopher A; Moore, Jeremy K; Lai, Angel; Lough, Alan J; Macdonald, Peter M; Conradi, Mark S; Schurko, Robert W; Fekl, Ulrich

    2015-10-28

    A new class of low-barrier molecular rotors, metal trans-dihydrides, is suggested here. To test whether rapid rotation can be achieved, the known complex trans-H2Pt(P(t)Bu3)2 was experimentally studied by (2)H and (195)Pt solid-state NMR spectroscopy (powder pattern changes with temperature) and computationally modeled as a (t)Bu3P-Pt-P(t)Bu3 stator with a spinning H-Pt-H rotator. Whereas the related chloro-hydride complex, trans-H(Cl)Pt(P(t)Bu3)2, does not show rotational behavior at room temperature, the dihydride trans-H2Pt(P(t)Bu3)2 rotates fast on the NMR time scale, even at low temperatures down to at least 75 K. The highest barrier to rotation is estimated to be ∼3 kcal mol(-1), for the roughly 3 Å long rotator in trans-H2Pt(P(t)Bu3)2. PMID:26448538

  18. Research on Workshop Layout Based on Product Structure Trees of Auto Rear Axle%基于产品结构树的汽车后桥车间布置方式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱华炳; 余锋; 唐自玉; 王龙

    2011-01-01

    通过对传统的生产车间布置方法进行研究,提出了一种基于产品结构树的多色集合车间布置方法,建立了车间布局模型并给出了优化目标.最后以某企业厂房布置为例进行了验证,证明了该方法能较大幅度地减小车间物流费用,提高厂房面积利用率,具有很强的实用性,为解决多目标优化的车间布置问题提供了一个新途径.%By studying on traditional method of production workshop layout, this paper puts forward a polychromatic method of production workshop layout which is based on product structure tree and builds up models of production workshop layout.And it has given the optimized objectives. Finally,an example of workshop layout of some enterprise was demonstrated to show that the method could largely reduce logistics costs and increase utilization of production area. In addition, it has also proved that the method is practicable and provided a new way to solve multi-objective optimization of workshop layout problem.

  19. Comparison of Structure Style and Usage Effect of Three Kinds of Axle Sleeves in Port Machinery%港口机械三种轴套结构形式及使用效果对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成治鹏; 赵开春

    2013-01-01

    轴套的磨损是工程机械中最常见的故障之一.为消除此故障,保证工作装置的轴套间有良好的润滑是最有效的方法.介绍这种轴套结构形式和保持良好润滑的做法.可供参考.

  20. The petroleum and its products pipeline network as articulate axle of the social-environmental transformation; A malha dutoviaria de transporte de petroleo e derivados como eixo articulador de transformacao socio-ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Filho, Aluisio Teles [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude; Dias, Janice; Vieira, Roberto Gomes [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The article describes the experience of the area of Social Responsibility in TRANSPETRO, a wholly Brazilian Subsidiary of PETROBRAS, which operates in the field of transport of petroleum, its by-products and gas, by way of oil and gas pipeline networks. Pipeline is the safety option for the transport of these products, but requires monitoring and the permanent management of the use and occupation of the soil and surrounding area. This care does not only depend on the Company as responsibility is much wider. Active participation by the communities affected by the operations is essential, principally in incorporating the rules of occupation and the use of the soil in the land surrounding the strips and the terminals. This participation is justified given that the action of third parties represents a significant proportion (70%) of the irregular situations registered by the Company. Community Relationship Management is one of the principal strategies to increase the safety of the pipelines integrated into the Company's programs of maintenance and operational control. Therefore, a plan of Community Relations has been implanted, focusing on the transformation of values to construct a community culture of co-habitation and co-responsibility for the pipeline land. (author)

  1. Probabilistic Models for the Long Fatigue Crack Growth Rates of LZ50 Axle Steel%LZ50车轴钢疲劳长裂纹扩展的概率模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永翔; 何朝明; 杨冰; 黄郁仲; 高庆; 邬平波

    2005-01-01

    试验研究了随机疲劳长裂纹扩展率概率模型.首先发展了考虑平均应力影响和低应力强度因子范围趋于门槛值现象的扩展率方程.进而提出了同时考虑试验数据分散性规律与样本数量对概率评价影响的概率模型,模型参量由线性回归法结合极大似然统计分析原理测定.IZ50钢的试验数据分析,验证了方法的有效性与实用性.

  2. 新一代货车用25 t轴重转向架%The Bogie with the Axle Load of 25 t for Freight Cars of the New Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    В.С.КОССОВ; 邢澍; 陈明资

    2009-01-01

    介绍了全俄机车车辆设计和工艺科学研究院研制的26.B.503型 25 t轴重货车转向架的结构特点,摇枕和侧架的静强度和疲劳试验,以及该转向架装用于敞车的走行运用试验结果.

  3. Bogies with an axle load of 25t for the new generation of freight cars%轴重为25t的新一代货车用转向架

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    В.С.Косов; 谢小海

    2009-01-01

    文章介绍了俄罗斯科研所所研制的新型货车转向架,重点介绍了摇枕、侧架各种情况下的计算、设计和试验过程.同时也介绍了轴箱承载鞍及其弹性元件和弹性旁承,简要介绍了所用材料及其理由.

  4. Analysis on electromagnetic and thermal characteristics for axle-end generator of express freight train%快捷货运列车轴端发电机电磁和热特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张劲; 陆正刚; 孙效杰

    2014-01-01

    对快捷货运列车车载监控系统运行需求进行分析,提出车载轴端发电机的基本参数要求,并通过对样机的试验为后续分析提供参数支持.根据试验所得数据,利用经典理论以及Ansoft和ANSYS等软件计算发电机在不同状态和工况下的磁感应强度、铁损和温升等试验难以精确测定的物理量.电气电磁特性分析的计算结果与之前对样机进行试验所获得的数据吻合得很好,对温升的模拟则精确计算出该电机的热平衡温度.结果表明该轴端发电机可安全应用于快捷货运列车上.

  5. Influence of Roll Characteristics of Multi-axle Steering Vehicle in Hydro-pneumatic Suspension Type%油气悬挂类型对多轴转向车辆侧倾特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑东强; 周梅

    2011-01-01

    Based on the modeling and simulation study of the system of twin-accumulator hydro-pneumatic suspension(HPS),the virtual prototype of the dependent and linked hydro-pneumatic suspension and the virtual test platform of vehicle roll over characteristic were built,the effects of the dependent and linked hydro-pneumatic suspension on the vehicle roll over characteristic were analyzed.It discovered from emulation analysis that the stiffness characteristics of the dependent HPS would be higher than the linked HPS.The results of this research provided references for the design of HPS and for the improving of the maneuvering stability.%对单个双气室油气悬挂系统进行建模与仿真分析,构建了连通式和非独立式油气悬挂系统的虚拟样机模型及车辆侧倾特性的虚拟试验平台,研究了连通式及非独立式这2类油气悬挂类型对多轴转向车辆侧倾特性影响的规律。仿真分析结果表明,非独立式油气悬挂系统的侧倾刚度比连通式油气悬挂系统大。该研究成果可为改进油气悬挂系统的设计及提高车辆操纵稳定性提供参考依据。

  6. Modeling and Simulation of the Two Axles Hydro-pneumatic Suspension for Construction Vehicles%工程车辆双气室油气悬架建模与仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李魁; 张洪; 蔡言龙

    2014-01-01

    分析某工程车辆的双气室悬架液压缸的结构和工作原理,建立了其非线性数学模型;然后利用AMESim建立悬架仿真模型,并运用AMESim软件对比分析了正弦信号激励下悬架液压缸输出力的位移、速度特性曲线。%The structure and working principle of the double chamber suspension cylinder are analyzed, and nonlin-ear mathematical models of the double chamber suspension cylinder is also established. Then its simulation model is set up based on AMESim software. Comparative analysis of the displacement and velocity characteristic curve of suspension cylinder's output force under the sine excitation signal is carried out based on AMESim software. This study establishes the foundation for further studies of the double chamber suspension system.

  7. Discussion and Analysis of Trouble on the Axle Hung traction Motor for DF48 Type Locomotive%DF4B型机车牵引电机抱轴承故障分析与探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段国清; 杨学清; 史宝玉

    2004-01-01

    DF4B型电传动内燃机车的牵引电机采用轴悬式的悬挂结构,牵引电机的一侧通过抱轴承刚性地支撑在轮轴上,另一侧通过弹性元件和吊杆悬挂在转向架构架上。抱轴承是悬挂装置的重要组成部分,其实质是剖分式滑动轴承,这种悬挂方式结构简单,容易检修,拆装方便。但是抱轴承间隙会在车轴和电枢轴传动齿

  8. 机车牵引电机转轴探伤磁痕的分析与处理%Analysis and Treatment of the Magnetic Mark of the Defect in the Traction Motor Axle of the Locomotive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚汤伟; 蒋洪奎; 朱建昌

    2006-01-01

    针对机车牵引电机转轴磁粉探伤中的磁痕显示现象,综合磁痕分析、补充检测、实际印证的结果,得到有该磁痕显示现象的电机转轴不必采用更先进的探伤技术重新检测仍可继续使用的结论.

  9. Analysis of the traction motor' s rolling axle suspension bearing box for DF5 locomotive%浅析东风5型机车牵引电机滚动抱轴箱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓小军

    2002-01-01

    对东风5型机车牵引电机滚动抱轴箱进行了静强度和疲劳强度的有限元分析,指出在抱轴箱与电机垂直配合面上加工凹槽有利于减小抱轴箱的应力,而采用电机滚动抱轴悬挂结构的机车能否适应较高速度的要求,主要取决于机车簧下垂向加速度值和牵引电机的自重.

  10. The pickup truck rear axle tire bolts fracture problem analysis and optimization%某皮卡车后桥轮胎螺栓断裂问题分析及优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾德钦

    2015-01-01

    文章主要通过对某皮卡车后桥轮胎螺栓断裂问题进行分析,找出了螺栓断裂产生的原因和机理,并相应进行了改进设计,最后对改进设计的样件进行了实物验证,证明了改进是有效的.通过本次故障分析和优化设计,也为同类结构的轮胎螺栓设计提供了几个关键控制因素,为解决同类问题提供可供参考的思路.

  11. Improvement of front axle tie rod based on modal calculation and vibration test%基于模态计算和振动试验的前桥横拉杆改进设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程志伟; 刘志峰; 曾壮; 郑方明

    2014-01-01

    针对某试制阶段客车在沥青路、卵石路、石块路、搓板路等路面上进行约1万公里可靠性试验之后,前桥转向横拉杆从中部断裂问题;对横拉杆及与其连接的摆臂进行了问题排查,给出了相应的改善方案,并对方案进行了模态计算和装车试验,结果表明:客车的前桥横拉杆加强之后,消除了因路面激励和自激频率引起的横拉杆共振问题.

  12. 汽车起重机双前桥转向系统的匹配计算及验证%Matching Calculation and Verification on the Double Front Axle Steering System of the Truck Crane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍时超; 莫思剑

    2016-01-01

    在汽车转向系统的设计中,各机构运动关系和力学关系的协调是保证转向安全和操纵轻便的前提.本文通过对汽车起重机双前桥转向系统进行分析计算,并利用ADAMS仿真软件对转向机构进行了仿真分析,同时对转向系统进行了试验验证,为多轴汽车起重机专用底盘转向系统的设计提供了一种有效的方法和参考依据.

  13. 重型载货汽车前轴疲劳性能计算及试验验证%Calculation and experiment validation for fatigue property of front axle of heavy truck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈涛; 李海忠; 范文峰; 杨建磊; 徐铁娇

    2013-01-01

    对比某重型载货汽车前轴台架刚度试验计算值与试验值,发现简化边界导致位移计算值偏大.对前轴台架试验的夹具进行测量并在Abaqus中建立其实体有限元模型,使得位移计算值和试验值误差在2.5%以内,从而保证疲劳计算输入的应力谱的准确性.根据前轴疲劳试验标准QC/T513-1999规定的工况,利用FEMFAT计算某重型载货汽车前轴的疲劳寿命,并与试验得到的破坏位置和寿命进行对比,验证疲劳计算的可靠性.在对前轴应力和疲劳计算结果进行分析的基础上,提出提高前轴疲劳寿命的改进建议.

  14. 重型车双前轴转向梯形及杆系的设计与计算%Design and Calculation of steering trapezium and steering linkage of dual front axle steering for heavy-duty vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李焕

    2014-01-01

    转向梯形机构的几何参数决定汽车转向时内、外转向轮转角的几何关系,在汽车转向时,各车轮的转向必须保证纯滚动而无滑动,使各车轮的转角必须保证有统一的瞬时转向中心.本文主要概述了重型车双前轴转向梯形及杆系的设计与计算.

  15. 铝挤压机前梁出口导正辊的优化设计%Optimization Design of Guide Roller of Front-axle Beam Exit of Aluminium Extruder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖敏; 孙成妮

    2014-01-01

    通过介绍导正辊的结构,对传统的导正辊机械结构进行了优化设计,并计算验证了优化后结构的合理性。%Through introducing structure of guide roller, the authors was did optimization design to mechanical structure, and calculated rationality of optimization structure.

  16. Structural Mechanics Analysis and Optimum Design of Front Axle Steering Knuckle in Semitrailer Tank Truck%半挂运油车前轴转向节结构力学分析与优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴成武; 韩景伟; 周晶

    2012-01-01

    以某半挂运油车前轴转向节为研究对象,分析了该载重车前轴转向节在不同工况下的强度和疲劳寿命,发现转向节不同部位的交汇处存在应力集中,疲劳寿命低于安全使用值.通过结构尺寸的优化,并重新进行有限元分析,结果表明,改进后的转向节零件结构强度和使用寿命均满足该半挂运油车在不同路况的行驶要求.

  17. 汽车前轴制坯辊锻工艺分析与三维数值模拟%Blank-making roll forging process and numerical simulation of 3-D deformation for automotive front axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李如雄; 王金铝

    2010-01-01

    采用基于热力耦合的刚粘塑性有限元法对汽车前轴制坯辊锻成形工艺进行了模拟,分析了三道次辊锻过程中坯料的金属流动、温度场、模具受载情况,为进一步掌握前轴精密制坯辊锻成形机理、制订合理的工艺参数提供了可靠的理论依据.

  18. 双前桥重型汽车转向液压助力缸的设计%Design of dual power cylinder in the steering system of double-front-axle heavy trucks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仲奎; 张代胜; 沈国清; 周福庚

    2006-01-01

    在对国外某型号的双前桥重型汽车转向系统分析研究的基础上,对转向液压助力缸的工作特点、结构参数和动力缸计算进行了讨论,提出了转向系统液压助力缸的设计方案,并建立了双前桥重型汽车动力缸的数学模型;通过此方案可以准确快速确定主副动力缸的主要结构参数,其结果得到实车验证,能达到良好的转向效果,可推广应用于其他型号的双前桥转向系动力缸的设计.

  19. MSC Adams在双前桥转向机构设计中的应用%Application of MSC Adams in Design of Steering Mechanism of Double-Front Axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕召全; 华从波; 周福庚

    2006-01-01

    本论文对双前桥载货汽车的转向机构进行了全新的设计,在理论计算的基础上利用MSC Adams软件分别对转向梯形和转向摇臂机构进行了运动学仿真,并对其转向特性进行了优化. 随后的道路试验结果表明新设计的转向机构性能符合设计要求.

  20. 前轴主销孔及端面的数控加工工艺和工装设计%The NC machining process and tooling design of front axle main pin hole and end face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任国强; 罗啸峰

    2012-01-01

    汽车前轴是汽车上承受载荷较大的重要部件之一,其质量的好坏直接关系着汽车的安全性,以及行驶、转向的稳定性.本文通过分析前轴的结构,拟定除了前轴主销孔及上下端面的数控加工工艺,设计出了加工前轴的专用工装,通过对前轴的工件试切发现了工装设计中存在的问题并对工装作出了改进.

  1. Multi-objective Reliability Based on Robust Optimization Design for Vehicle Front-axles%车辆前轴的多目标可靠性稳健优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张义民; 刘仁云; 于繁华

    2006-01-01

    应用车辆零部件可靠性稳健优化设计的理论方法,对车辆前轴进行了可靠性稳健优化设计.通过模糊多目标粒子群算法求出所有满足约束性条件的pareto解集,结合实际情况,依据pareto解集确定零部件的设计规格.实验证明该方法能迅速有效地获得可靠性稳健设计的信息.

  2. The design of a aimulation test bench of auto front axle rocker%汽车前桥摇臂强化模拟试验台架的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志强; 徐兆坤; 吴伟蔚

    2013-01-01

    @@%为了对前桥摇臂进行有效而又快速的动态强度耐久试验,运用相似理论,设计了刚度可变的三角构件用于摇臂约束装置,使试验台上的摇臂实时处于与实车上同样的刚度特性,即轴向是线性,径向是非线性,使得偏离实际工况下的高强度、大负荷试验时得到的结果更加准确,以达到高效而又准确地揭示零部件失效的内在规律的目的.

  3. IMPROVED DESIGN OF FRONT AXLE OF HEAVY TRUCK WITH THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD%用有限元法对重卡前轴结构改进设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周福庚; 华从波; 吕召全

    2006-01-01

    使用ANSYS有限元分析软件和PRO/E三维制图软件,模拟台架试验条件,对重型卡车前轴进行静力和模态分析.有限元分析的结果与前轴台架疲劳试验结果相吻合,并根据此结果对前轴结构进行改进设计,提高了前轴的强度和疲劳寿命.

  4. 9.5T、13T客车前桥刮蹄机的设计%Design of 9.5T, 13T Bus Front Axle Scraping Shoes Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张汝贵

    2012-01-01

    大型货车和客车一般都采用鼓式刹车,但由于零部件制造及装配误差等原因,常使车桥两端刹车鼓与刹车蹄之间受力不均,造成刹车跑偏.文章所设计的刮蹄机,较好地解决了上述刹车弊病.其刮蹄精度高,是一项实用、可靠的设计.

  5. Modal analysis and design improvement of front axle carrier structure for small wheeled tractor%小型轮拖前桥托架的结构模态分析及改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋科军; 刘成晔; 张炎

    2013-01-01

    为了提高小型轮拖前桥托架的结构可靠性,利用ABAQUS软件对某小型轮拖前桥托架进行了模态分析,分析结果表明该前桥托架具有疲劳损坏的可能性,针对这一结果,对该前桥托架进行了两种可行的改进,改进结果表明该前桥托架结构低阶弹性模态频率及振型有较大的改善,能有效避免疲劳损坏.

  6. Optimization Design of Double Front Axle Steering Swing Arm Mechanism in Heavy-duty Trucks%重卡双前桥转向摇臂机构的优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古玉锋; 方宗德; 沈云波

    2009-01-01

    针对重卡双前桥转向摇臂机构传统单目标优化方法考虑因素的不足,提出了以二轴左轮转角误差最小、转向杆系与悬架运动的最大干涉量最小、左右转向力不均匀性最小为综合优化目标的多目标优化模型.车轮转角误差模型通过将摇臂机构拆分的方法得到,悬架与转向杆系的干涉模型通过建立转向直拉杆与悬架的空间运动模型得到,左右转向力不均匀性通过计算转向传动机构传动比得到.优化结果证明,多目标优化方法优于传统优化方法,有利于减小转向轮的磨损、改善车辆的操纵稳定性及转向轻便性.

  7. 双前桥载货汽车侧滑检测系统设计研究%Sideslip Detecting System's Design of Double-front-axle Steering Automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨承明

    2013-01-01

    双前桥载货汽车随着行驶里程的不断增加,转向系统会发生故障,影响行驶安全.而现有的检测设备不能完成对其侧滑的检测,因此,在对双前桥载货汽车轮间侧滑及轴间侧滑的产生机理进行分析的基础上,根据汽车综合性能检测站的要求设计了双前桥载货汽车的侧滑检测系统.实验结果表明,该系统工作安全可靠、快速、准确,并且数据重复性好,可以直接应用于现在的检测线.

  8. YQ153A前轴精密辊锻孔型系统的选择和辊锻工步设计%Selection of groove system for precision forging and steps designing for YQ153A front axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋鹏; 曹飞; 罗守靖

    2004-01-01

    介绍了YQ153A前轴精密辊锻工艺,包括热收缩率的选择,辊锻件图的确定,毛坯直径尺寸的选定,各典型截面特征孔型设计与延伸率的分配,第3、2、1道辊锻件图设计等.

  9. 汽车前轴制坯辊锻工艺分析与模具设计%Blank-making roll-forging process and die design for automotive front axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李如雄; 王金铝

    2010-01-01

    根据汽车前轴锻件的特点、技术条件与要求,对精密辊锻制坯工艺及模具设计进行研究,设计出前轴制坯辊锻、预成形辊锻和终成形辊锻模具,并分析了具有礼帽形型槽的异性截面和上压力札制方式对制坯辊锻工艺的影响和作用.

  10. Design of NC machine tool based on front axle brake drum drilling,tapping, chamfering%前桥制动鼓钻孔、攻丝、倒角数控专用机床设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯广超

    2016-01-01

    在分析研究汽车零部件市场行情的基础上,利用公司自身加工制造能力,研发了前桥制动鼓钻孔、攻丝、倒角、反倒角数控专用机床,整机采用立式、多工位结构,满足了客户提效、扩量、降成本和高互换性的要求,促进了汽车行业的发展.

  11. 纠正前轴总成跑偏的合车工艺装置设计%Design of Assembly Processing Equipment for Rectifying a Deviation of Front Axle Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾少胜; 王大鹏; 张丽华

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1 前言 丹东五一八内燃机配件集团公司主要产品1160前轴总成是为陕汽斯太尔汽车的配套产品.由于1160前轴总成自身的结构特点,装车后发生跑偏现象在15%左右.跑偏的主要原因是总成某侧制动鼓与摩擦片接触不良.纠正跑偏的主要方……

  12. Roll-Forging Technology of Automotive Front Axle Precision Performing and Die Design%汽车前轴精制坯辊锻工艺及模具设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金吕; 王高潮

    2005-01-01

    根据汽车前轴锻件的特点、技术条件与要求,分析了前轴辊锻工艺的难点,包括确定辊锻件图,选择毛坯尺寸,确定辊锻,典型截面特征孔型设计,计算前滑量并分析其对锻件长度的影响.本文以NHR前轴为例,进行了精密辊锻制坯工艺及模具设计的研究,设计出前轴制坯辊锻、预成型辊锻和终成型辊锻模具.

  13. The Oil Seal Cover Mould Design of Automobile Front Axle Based on Pro/E%基于Pro/E的汽车前轴油封盖冲压模具设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董延春; 宋微; 刘毅

    2010-01-01

    冲压成型在制造业中占有十分重要的地位.为了促进模具的发展,计算机技术在模具制造方面的应用已越来越广泛.文中介绍了传统模具设计方法和在Pro/E辅助下设计的优点.

  14. 基于GPS与AHRS的四轴飞行器悬停算法研究%Study on Hover Algorithm for Four Axle Vehicle Based on GPS and AHRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙骅

    2013-01-01

    通过对国外四轴飞行器控制系统设计思路的研究及其存在问题的分析,就飞行器控制系统悬停部分的算法进行了研究与探索,并对该系统的设计做了总结与展望.其中电子航向系统(AHRS)与全球卫星定位系统(GPS)为关键参数获取的传感器,该系统实现了飞行器悬停的全自动外环控制.

  15. Structural Design of Asphalt Pavement for Low Cost Rural Roads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Goulin; Chen Rongshen

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the equivalent axle load action frequency, the traffic classifications of rural roads as well as their corresponding types are classified. The asphalt pavement structure, road surface types and thickness of the rural roads are suggested for the various action frequency of the equivalent axle load. Furthermore, the roadbase thickness graphs are provided according to different equivalent axle load action frequency with different roadbed modulus and road surface modulus taken into account.

  16. The G6 - a heavy-duty six-wheeled shunting locomotive; Dreiachsige Hochleistungsrangierlokomotive G6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, Tim [Vossloh Locomotives GmbH, Kiel (Germany). Entwicklung und Standardisierung

    2009-03-15

    With the three-axle shunter G6, exhibited at Innotrans 2008, the renowned producer of rail vehicles Vossloh Locomotives GmbH marks the beginning of a generational change - not only for three-axle but also for four-axle locomotives. In order to replace the type G765C the G6 has been developed in close cooperation with potential customers. Their request concerning robustness and reliability as well as the equipment options set standards for central driver's cab locomotives in general and lead the way for future four-axle replacements within the Vossloh product family. (orig.)

  17. The new hybrid diesel powertrain by PSA; Der neue Dieselhybridantrieb von PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agliany, Yvan; Mulot, Vincent; Maille, William; Balit, Zahir [PSA Peugeot Citroen, La Garenne Colombes (France)

    2012-09-15

    Currently, there is a whole variety of hybrid vehicle architectures in development. Specifically, so called axle-split hybrid vehicles containing an electric drive at one axle and a combustion engine drivetrain at the other, provide not only excellent fuel efficiency but also a considerable benefit in vehicle performance. The new hybrid powertrain from Peugeot and Citroen combines an electric axle drive with a diesel engine. In the following, the axle-split system advantages, design components and its impact on CO{sub 2} reduction will be presented. (orig.)

  18. 英文摘要

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Faulty Axles On Fast Trains Problems with China's high-speed rail network run deeper than suggested by a deadly collision and subsequent recall of 54 fast trains. In mid-July, technicians conducting a safety check found a crack in a train car's power axle system. The manufacturer secretly made repairs but ordered no further tests. he axles were made by a company controlled by Ding Shumiao, whom authorities say bribed a for- mer rail minister accused of graft. Ihe recall by train builder China CNR Corp. didn't cite axle problems,

  19. 49 CFR 393.207 - Suspension systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension systems. 393.207 Section 393.207... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393.207 Suspension systems. (a) Axles. No axle positioning part shall be cracked, broken, loose or...

  20. 49 CFR 393.48 - Brakes to be operative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) The steering axle of a three-axle dolly which is steered by a co-driver; (5) Loaded house moving... times be capable of operating. (b) Devices to reduce or remove front-wheel braking effort. A commercial motor vehicle may be equipped with a device to reduce the front wheel braking effort (or in the case...

  1. A piston-rotaxane with two potential stripes: force transitions and yield stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevick, Edith M; Williams, David R M

    2013-01-01

    We examine a rod piston-rotaxane system, where the positions of several mobile rings on the axle are controlled by an external force acting on one of the rings. This allows us to access the translational entropy of the rings. For a simple rotaxane molecule with an axle that has uniform ring-axle interactions along its length, the molecule behaves like a miniature piston filled with a one-dimensional ideal gas. We then examine the effect of two stripes on the axle, having different ring-axle interactions with the mobile rings, so that one section is of high energy (repulsive) for the rings and another section is of lower energy (or attractive). This kind of rotaxane can exhibit rapid changes in displacement or force, and in particular, this molecule can exhibit a yield stress in which the piston suddenly compresses under a small increase in the applied force. PMID:24177696

  2. A Piston-Rotaxane with Two Potential Stripes: Force Transitions and Yield Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith M. Sevick

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine a rod piston-rotaxane system, where the positions of several mobile rings on the axle are controlled by an external force acting on one of the rings. This allows us to access the translational entropy of the rings. For a simple rotaxane molecule with an axle that has uniform ring-axle interactions along its length, the molecule behaves like a miniature piston filled with a one-dimensional ideal gas. We then examine the effect of two stripes on the axle, having different ring-axle interactions with the mobile rings, so that one section is of high energy (repulsive for the rings and another section is of lower energy (or attractive. This kind of rotaxane can exhibit rapid changes in displacement or force, and in particular, this molecule can exhibit a yield stress in which the piston suddenly compresses under a small increase in the applied force.

  3. Análise de falha por fadiga em eixo de transmissão utilizando o método dos elementos finitos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Azevedo Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to present the application of the finite element method to perform stress and fatigue analysis on a mechanical drive axle. Drive axles are widely used in rotating machinery and are subject to fatigue problems. The rotary transmission axle in this study is supported in bearings loaded by an alternating force of 6.8 kN, wherein the axle has rounding radii all 0.003 m in size and a ground surface of AISI 1050 steel with Young’s elasticity modulus of 206.8 GPa and Poisson modulus of 0.28. We present the rupture conditions ensuing from tension as well as fatigue, for a lifetime of the transmission axle of 350,000 cycles. The quantitative results compared satisfactorily to the empirical fatigue data.

  4. Analysis of Causes to Failure of Resilient Nodal Points on Axle Box Rotary Arm on CW-2B Type Bogie and Counter Measures%CW-2B型转向架轴箱转臂弹性节点失效的原因分析及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭琳; 何益文; 辛平

    2003-01-01

    @@ 广深铁路股份公司广深机辆事业部自2001年10月开始采用装有 CW-2B型转向架的客车担当岳阳-深圳间的运营任务,1年来,该批车辆共发生了14起轴箱弹簧折断故障,经分析是由于其轴箱转臂弹性节点严重失效引起,这对行车安全造成了不良隐患,严重影响了旅客列车的运行品质.

  5. Application of Pro/E Motion Simulation Module in Dual-front Axle Steering Linkage match Design%Pro/E机构运动仿真模块在双前轴转向传动机构匹配设计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹华清; 杨庆丽

    2010-01-01

    介绍了应用Pro/E机构运动仿真模块进行运动仿真的工作流程.通过应用Pro/E机构运动仿真模块对双前轴转向传动机构进行匹配设计的实例,论述了商用车双前轴转向传动机构的设计理论要求、初步的传动机构实体建模方法以及转角特性分析方法、理论模型与实体模型的转角特性数据处理与分析,以及实体模型的优化设计方法,并简要介绍了转向传动机构与悬架系统的运动十涉分析方法.

  6. The Action and Influence of Front Axle Design Parameters of Mobile Crane on the Steady of Mobile%汽车起重机前桥设计参数对汽车稳定性的作用与影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇春艳

    2009-01-01

    转向从动前桥不仅用以在车架与车轮之间传递载荷。承受和传递制动力矩,而且是车辆安全、稳定行驶的重要保障,汽车起重机转向从动前桥从结构上主要由前梁、转向节及转向主销组成。工程机械的公路车辆汽车起重机在机械转向的情况下。通常在车桥的转向节上端安装转向主动节臂.后者与转向直拉杆相连:而在转向节的下端装着与转向横拉杆相连接的转向梯形臂。

  7. NEW DESIGN OF TRANSPORT ROBOT USED IN AUTO ROLLER FORGING UNIT FOR THE FINE FORMATION OF CAR'S FRONT AXLE%汽车前轴精辊成形自动辊锻机组搬运机器人的新设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金魏; 辛洪兵

    2004-01-01

    介绍了用于汽车前轴精辊成形自动辊锻机组对配置的辊锻搬运机器人的工艺要求,比较了德国EUMUCO公司和北京机电研究所产品的特点,根据设计要求,提出了新的总体结构设计及各自由度、夹爪和补偿机构的实现方案,以及提高定位及运动精度的措施.

  8. Developing of a software for determining advanced brake failures in brakes test bench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Köylü

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available At present time, the brake test bench conducts the braking and suspension tests of front or rear axles and the test results are evaluated through one axle. The purpose of the brake testing system is to determine braking force and damping coefficient dissymmetry of one axle. Thus, this test system evaluates the performance of service brake, hand brake and suspension systems by considering separately front and rear axle dissymmetry. For this reason, the effects of different braking and damping forces applied by right and left wheels of both axles on braking performance of all vehicle are not determined due to available algorithm of the test bench. Also, the other brake failures are not occurred due to the algorithm of brake test system. In this study, the interface has been developed to determine the other effects of dissymmetry and the other brake failures by using the one axle results of brake test bench. The interface has algorithm computing the parameters according to the interaction between front and rear axles by only using measured test results. Also, it gives the warnings by comparing changes in the parameters with braking performance rules. Braking and suspension tests of three different vehicles have been conducted by using brake test bench to determine the performance of the algorithm. Parameters based on the axle interaction have been calculated by transferring brake test results to the interface and the test results have been evaluated. As a result, the effects of brake and suspension failures on braking performance of both axle and vehicle have been determined thanks to the developed interface.

  9. Cart Wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Edson R.

    1978-01-01

    This paper draws attention to cart wheels, two wheels rotating freely about a common axle and rolling on an inclined plane, both as a demonstration and as a satisfying application of dynamical analysis. (BB)

  10. Educational Materials Development in Primary Science: Simple Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Frank L.; Butterfield, Lawrence H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Evaluated was the ability of 27 legally blind elementary students to identify and manipulate the parts of the following adapted simple machines: lever, inclined plane, wheel and axle, and pulley. (SBH)

  11. Instability of Vibration of a Moving-Train Coupling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, D. Y.; Fan, S. C.

    2002-08-01

    This paper presents the derivation of the governing equations for the stability of vibration of an integrated system comprising a moving train and the railway track. The train consists of a convoy of articulated two-axle wagons. The equations are applicable to any arbitrary number of axles at arbitrary spacing. Each axle is modelled as a mass-spring-damper vibration unit. The railway track is an infinitely long Euler beam subjected to an axial compressive force and rests on a visco-elastic foundation. The governing equations for the integrated system are coupled differential equations, which can be transformed to algebraic equations by Fourier and Laplace transforms. Subsequent inverse Fourier transform and contour integration yield the instability equation. Critical parameter is identified. It follows by parametric studies on the instability of vibration due to different train configurations. Illustrative examples for trains having up to 20 wagons or 40 axles are given.

  12. Guide for rotating sucker rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrel, R.D.

    1986-11-04

    This patent describes an improved guide for use in a string of sucker rods rotated in a tubing string in a borehole, the sucker rods having threaded male ends, the guide comprising: an elongated upright solid cylindrical coupling body of external diameter less than the internal diameter of tubing in which it is to be used; a pair of spaced apart axle holders positioned in three recess; an axle received in each recess in the coupling body, the axis of each axle being parallel and spaced from the body longitudinal axis; a roller rotatably received on each axle, the periphery of each roller extending exteriorly of the external cylindrical surface of the coupling body; and means to retain each of the holders in the coupling body recess.

  13. An Acceleration Slip Regulation Strategy for Four-Wheel Drive Electric Vehicles Based on Sliding Mode Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen He

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an acceleration slip regulation (ASR system for four-wheel drive (4WD electric vehicles, which are driven by the front and rear axles simultaneously. The ASR control strategy includes three control modes: average distribution of inter-axle torque, optimal distribution of inter-axle torque and independent control of optimal slip rate, respectively, which are designed based on the torque adaptive principle of inter-axle differential and sliding mode control theory. Furthermore, in order to accurately describe the longitudinal tyre force characteristic, a slip rate calculation formula in the form of a state equation was used for solving the numerical problem posed by the traditional way. A simulation was carried out with the MATLAB/Simulink software. The simulation results show that the proposed ASR system can fully use the road friction condition, inhibit the drive-wheels from slipping, and improve the vehicle longitudinal driving stability.

  14. Wind turbines with vertical main axes and with vertically standing turbine blades rotating round their own vertical axe and which are placed in the best position for the direction of wind over toothed gears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickel, H.

    1976-09-16

    The discovery concerns a wind turbine rotating round a vertical axle with vertically standing turbine blades rotating round their own vertical axle. The turbine rotates round the bearing mast and several such turbines can be arranged so as to save space. The turbine blades are adjusted over the toothing gears, which are, e.g., powered by an electronic control system, to suit the wind direction at the time.

  15. Automotive stamped part fatigue design

    OpenAIRE

    Caudoux Mélanie; Facchinetti Matteo Luca; Raynal Renaud

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue design of automotive axle parts is of prior concern because of these are high safety parts and they are expected to drive the overall vehicle mass reduction. In this framework, the stamping process is widely used to form axle parts, before assembling them by welding. Consequently, the mechanical and physical characteristics of the blank sheet are modified, having a strong influence on the fatigue behavior. In this paper, we address the consequences of the stamped process on the fatigu...

  16. Pavement Response to Variable Tyre Pressure of Heavy Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Arshad Ahmad Kamil; Haron Hairol Anuar; Abd Rahman Zanariah; Abdul Halim A.G.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the effect of overinflated tyre pressure and increased heavy vehicles’ axle load on flexible pavements has become a subject of great concern because of the higher stress levels induced and damage caused to road pavements. This paper aims to evaluate the effect of variable tyre inflation pressures (using actual tyre contact/footprint area) to determine the responses of flexible pavement. A full scale experiment was conducted on a heavy vehicle with 1:1:2 axle configuration, 10...

  17. The Influence of Wagon Structure Part Shape Optimization on Ultimate Fatigue Strength

    OpenAIRE

    Milovanović, Vladimir; Živković, Miroslav; Jovičić, Gordana; Živković, Jelena; Kozak, Dražan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how shape optimisation affects the ultimate fatigue strength of a mechanical part. The mechanical part chosen for this investigation is an axle guard of running gear elements of the Hccrrs 2x2 axle car-carrying wagon. The static and fatigue strength analysis procedure according to the UIC 517 standard and numerical methods have been applied. Material properties were determined experimentally and the necessary numerical calculations were performed by using the finite el...

  18. ABSTRACTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Type-selection design of axle box bearing for high-speed passenger car bogie LIANG Yun, XIA Chun-jing (Changchun Railway Vehicle Co., Ltd., Chang- chun 130062, China) Abstract: This paper elaborates type-selection analysis of axle box bearings for high-speed passenger ear bogie and introduces the main influence factors of type- selection and life calculation of bearings.

  19. 49 CFR 393.47 - Brake actuators, slack adjusters, linings/pads and drums/rotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... steering axle of a truck, truck-tractor or bus shall not be less than 4.8 mm (3/16 inch) at the shoe center....6 mm (1/16 inch) or less for hydraulic disc, drum and electric brakes. (2) Non-steering axle brakes... for drum brakes); or less than 3.2 mm (1/8 inch) for disc brakes. Hydraulic or electric...

  20. Investigation of Axial Length-Disc Area Ratio in Hyperopic Anisometropic Amblyopia.%远视性屈光参差性弱视眼轴/视盘面积比的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵萍; 徐梅; 张萌

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨远视性屈光参差性弱视患者眼轴长度(AXL)、视盘面积(DA)及眼轴(AXL)/视盘面积(DA)比.方法 选择2006年1月至2007年1月来我院门诊就诊的单眼远视性屈光参差性弱视惠儿28例及同期正常儿童20名为研究对象,分为正常儿童组(组1),40眼,远视性屈光参差性弱视眼的对侧眼组(组2),28眼,远视性屈光参差性弱视眼组(组3),28眼,行AXL测量和眼底照相及DA测量.计算AXL/DA比并进行比较.结果 组1 AXL为(22.4±1.0)mm,DA为(2.8±0.6)mm2,AXL/DA为(9.2±2.3)mm-1:组2 AXL为(21.6±1.1)mm,DA为(2.1±0.4)mm2,AXL/DA为(10.2±3.6)mm-1;组3 AXL为(21.0±1.1)mm,DA 为(1.4±0.4)mm2,AXL/DA为(15.7±4.0)mm-1.组2与组1相比AXL缩短、DA缩小、AXL/DA比增大(P<0.05).组3与组2相比AXL缩短、DA缩小、AXL/DA比增大(P<0.05).组3与组1相比AXL缩短、DA缩小、AXL/DA比增大,(P<0.01).结论 远视屈光参差性弱视患者中AXL/DA比增大,AXL缩短,DA缩小可能是解释视功能受损的一个重要因素.2.1±0.4)mm2,AXL/DA为(10.2±3.6)mm-1;组3 AXL为(21.0±1.1)mm,DA 为(1.4±0.4)mm2,AXL/DA为(15.7±4.0)mm-1.组2与组1相比AXL缩短、DA缩小、AXL/DA比增大(P<0.05).组3与组2相比AXL缩短、DA缩小、AXL/DA比增大(P<0.05).组3与组1相比AXL缩短、DA缩小、AXL/DA比增大,(P<0.01).结论 远视屈光参差性弱视患者中AX/DA比增大,AXL缩短,DA缩小可能是解释视

  1. Effects of Variation in Truck Factor on Pavement Performance in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Chaudry

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variation coupled with heavy axle loading is the key factor in rapid road deterioration in Pakistan. The serviceability loss is further accelerated by the fact that truck drivers and owners consider overloading as a profitable practice unaware of the adverse effects of this practice. Weigh-in-motion data from two stations located between two major cities of Pakistan (Peshawar and Rawalpindi on Grand Trunk Road (N-5 were collected and analyzed. Analysis of variance and comparison of actual and designed truck factor were performed to identify the most damaging axle truck type. It was found that axle truck type 3 (single/tandem axle is most damaging among all truck types. The actual truck factor for axle truck type 3 is 6.4 times greater than design truck factor. Regression expressions of different forms were also investigated to determine the relationship between truck factor and gross vehicular weight for the specified truck types. An optimum generalization strategy was used to prevent over-generalization and ensure accuracy. For data analysis, 75% of data was used to develop regression models and remaining 25% was to validate those models. The results show that the polynomial expressions performed best and provide a robust relationship that can be employed by the highway authorities to estimate truck factor from gross vehicular weight with a high degree of confidence. It was also observed that damaging effect of various types of trucks was very severe and quite high.

  2. Zika Virus Infection in Mice Causes Panuveitis with Shedding of Virus in Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Jonathan J; Sene, Abdoulaye; Richner, Justin M; Smith, Amber M; Santeford, Andrea; Ban, Norimitsu; Weger-Lucarelli, James; Manzella, Francesca; Rückert, Claudia; Govero, Jennifer; Noguchi, Kevin K; Ebel, Gregory D; Diamond, Michael S; Apte, Rajendra S

    2016-09-20

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging flavivirus that causes congenital abnormalities and Guillain-Barré syndrome. ZIKV infection also results in severe eye disease characterized by optic neuritis, chorioretinal atrophy, and blindness in newborns and conjunctivitis and uveitis in adults. We evaluated ZIKV infection of the eye by using recently developed mouse models of pathogenesis. ZIKV-inoculated mice developed conjunctivitis, panuveitis, and infection of the cornea, iris, optic nerve, and ganglion and bipolar cells in the retina. This phenotype was independent of the entry receptors Axl or Mertk, given that Axl(-/-), Mertk(-/-), and Axl(-/-)Mertk(-/-) double knockout mice sustained levels of infection similar to those of control animals. We also detected abundant viral RNA in tears, suggesting that virus might be secreted from lacrimal glands or shed from the cornea. This model provides a foundation for studying ZIKV-induced ocular disease, defining mechanisms of viral persistence, and developing therapeutic approaches for viral infections of the eye. PMID:27612415

  3. 汽车零件强度、寿命与可靠性分析与模型%Analysis and modeling of the strength,life and reliability of an automobile component

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵广耀; 陈立杰; 谢里阳

    2007-01-01

    The elasto-plastic stress/strain behavior of an automobile rear axle was analyzed by three-dimension finite element method.Based on the stress in critical area where fatigue crack appears,the fatigue life of the welded structure was predicted using the critical shear stress plane criterion.To improve the fatigue property of the rear-axle,the welding-seam was strengthened by both pellet spraying and plasma melting,and evident improvement was experimentally illustrated.Based on the viewpoint that a complex component is also a system in the respect of reliability assessment and statistical dependence among component failures(i.e.the so call"common cause failure")is inherent for system under stochastic load environment,a system-level load-strength interference model was presented and the reliability of the rear axle was estimated as a system,instead of a component.

  4. Wishbone Structure for Front Independent Suspension of a Military Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Jagirdar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Wishbone structure for double wishbone front-independent Suspension for a military truck application is presented. At present, the vehicle is equipped with rigid axle with leaf springs. There are two aspects that dictate the design of wishbone structure, viz. the path of relative motion between the constituents of the suspension system and the forces transmitted between them. Also, enhancement of mobility was made possible by maintaining the live axle in the system. A double wishbone, double coil spring with twin damper configuration was employed for this application. MBD Analysis was carried out using MSC ADAMS. A double wishboneindependent suspension has been designed for the front axle and has been successfully integrated with the vehicle.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(2, pp.178-183, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.337

  5. 浅述气压盘式制动器在城市客车上应用的可能性与可行性%Possibility and feasibility of air pressure disc brake applicated in city bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙吉宝; 温述波

    2012-01-01

    Analyse the possiblity and feasibility of air pressure disc brake applicated in city bus,focus on discussing the development of 5.5t disc brake front axle,and calculate the brake moment of disc brake front axle and drum brake front axle.%分析了气压盘式制动器在城市客车上应用的可能性与可行性,重点论述了5.5T盘式制动器前桥的开发,并对盘式制动器前桥与鼓式制动器前桥的制动力矩进行对比计算。

  6. Adhesion-related kinase induction of migration requires phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and ras stimulation of rac activity in immortalized gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen-Preiss, Sheila M; Allen, Melissa P; Xu, Mei; Linseman, Daniel A; Pawlowski, John E; Bouchard, R J; Varnum, Brian C; Heidenreich, Kim A; Wierman, Margaret E

    2007-06-01

    GnRH neurons migrate into the hypothalamus during development. Although migratory defects may result in disordered activation of the reproductive axis and lead to delayed or absent sexual maturation, specific factors regulating GnRH neuronal migration remain largely unknown. The receptor tyrosine kinase, adhesion-related kinase (Ark) (also known as Axl, UFO, and Tyro7), has been implicated in the migration of GnRH neuronal cells. Binding of its ligand, growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6), promotes cytoskeletal remodeling and migration of NLT GnRH neuronal cells via Rac and p38 MAPK. Here, we examined the Axl effectors proximal to Rac in the signaling pathway. Gas6/Axl-induced lamellipodia formation and migration were blocked after phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibition in GnRH neuronal cells. The p85 subunit of PI3K coimmunoprecipitated with Axl and was phosphorylated in a Gas6-sensitive manner. In addition, PI3K inhibition in GnRH neuronal cells diminished Gas6-induced Rac activation. Exogenous expression of a dominant-negative form of Ras also decreased GnRH neuronal lamellipodia formation, migration, and Rac activation. PI3K inhibition blocked Ras in addition to Rac activation and migration. In contrast, pharmacological blockade of the phospholipase C gamma effectors, protein kinase C or calcium/calmodulin protein kinase II, had no effect on Gas6/Axl signaling to promote Rac activation or stimulate cytoskeletal reorganization and migration. Together, these data show that the PI3K-Ras pathway is a major mediator of Axl actions upstream of Rac to induce GnRH neuronal cell migration. PMID:17332061

  7. HESS lighTram3 {sup registered}; HESS lighTram3 {sup registered}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gisler, H.J. [Carrosserie HESS AG, Bellach (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    The Double Articulated Trolleybus concept lighTram3 is consequently designed to the actual needs of modern public passenger transport. Based on the experience of the first two Swisstrolley generations the concept was consequently developed with clear targets. Reliable technology is combined with attractive and custom friendly design, as well as 100% full low floor compartments. Guidance behaviour with the guided 4th-axle is outstanding. The modern 2-axle-drive technology with three-phase alternating current asynchronous engines and intelligent control systems is responsible for safety in driving during winter or difficult topographic conditions. (orig.)

  8. Response of reinforced concrete and corrugated steel pipes to surface load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Geoff R.

    Full-scale simulated live load tests were conducted in a controlled laboratory setting using a single-axle frame on 600-mm-inner-diameter reinforced concrete pipe (RCP) and corrugated steel pipe (CSP) when buried in dense, well-graded sand and gravel. Measurements of the RCP at nominal and working forces and beyond are reported for 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m of soil cover above the pipe crown. The RCP experienced no cracking when buried at 0.3 m under nominal and working CL-625 and CL-800 single-axle design loads. At these loads, the vertical contraction of the pipe diameter was less than 0.08 and 0.10 mm and the largest tensile strains in the pipe were 75 and 100 muepsilon (50-60% of the cracking strain), respectively. A 0.15 (+/-0.05)-mm-wide axial crack developed at the inner crown in the presence of a 6 kNm/m circumferential bending moment (70% of the theoretical ultimate moment capacity) at the fully factored CL-625 load. This crack did not propagate or widen from 3 series of cyclic load-unload tests. At 1300 kN of applied load the change in pipe diameter was less than 3.5 mm. Increasing soil cover from 0.3 to 0.6 to 0.9 m reduced the circumferential crown bending moment from 6.0 to 3.9 to 2.1 kNm/m, respectively, at 400 kN of axle load. A 1.6- and a 2.8-mm-thick CSP were also subjected to axle loading. No yielding or limit states occurred in the 1.6-mm-thick CSP when buried 0.9-m-deep. However, at 0.6 m of cover a 300 kN axle load caused local yielding at the pipe crown. Increasing soil cover from 0.6 to 0.9 m decreased the vertical diameter change from -3.0 to -1.2 mm and the crown bending moment from 0.7 to 0.2 kNm/m (75% and 20% of the yield moment), respectively, at a 250 kN axle load. Deflections of the thicker CSP were less than the thinner pipe below the CL-625 single-axle load, however further increases in applied load produced a greater response in the thicker pipe, likely due to a haunch support issue. Shallow axle loading produced a greater 3-dimensional

  9. REDUCING THE NEGATIVE INFLUENCE OF KINEMATIC DISCREPANCY IN THE TRANSMISSION OF FOUR-WHEEL DRIVE WHEELED VEHICLES

    OpenAIRE

    Ismailov V. A.; Melikov I. M.

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses different types of drive axles of all-wheel drive machine. It is shown that if blocked drive of driving axle easy, it is able to provide the best traction drive qualities of the all-wheel car, if compensation of kinematic mismatch in movement of front and rear wheels. The article provides analysis of the causes of kinematic mismatch and its consequences. The analysis was given for the existing methods to reduce negative influence of kinematic discrepancy on the work of t...

  10. THE CYTOGENETIC EFFECTS WITH LEAD NITROGENOUS TREATMENT AT HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L. FAVORIT AND PR64A83 CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Vlad-Rusen

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of some cytogenetic parameters shows that the nitrogenous lead application on Favorit and PR64A83 cultivars of sunflower exercises a light mutagenic effect on the cells of the root apex. At same time an intensification of the frequency of the ana-telophases with aberration takes place, especially of those with bridges, with lagging chromosomes, but also of those with fragments, demonstrating the perturbatory action that this substance exercises on the division axle. The apparition of a great number of metaphases with displayed chromosomes proves the perturbation of well function to division axle, effect signalized especially at the Favorit cultivar.

  11. Weigh in Motion Based on Parameters Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhi-feng; CAI Ping; CHEN Ri-xing

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic tire forces are the main factor affecting the measurement accuracy of the axle weight of moving vehicle. This paper presents a novel method to reduce the influence of the dynamic tire forces on the weighing accuracy. On the basis of analyzing the characteristic of the dynamic tire forces, the objective optimization equation is constructed. The optimization algorithm is presented to get the optimal estimations of the objective parameters. According to the estimations of the parameters, the dynamic tire forces are separated from the axle weigh signal. The results of simulation and field experiments prove the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Анализ структуры осей железнодорожного подвижного состава, выкованных на гидравлической машине радиальной ковки типа SMX

    OpenAIRE

    Кнауф, Ф.; Фест, Р.; Холь, А.; Нишвитц, П.-И.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the high level of investment needed in countries such as e.g. Europe and Asia, there is an increasing demand for machines for the manufacture of rails, railway wheels and railway axles. At the moment railway axles are in most cases forged in a series of different forming processes. In an initial rolling process for example possible defects in the starting material are closed in order to get a homogenous microstructure. In a subsequent forging process, due to the low depth penetration c...

  13. Comparison of Classical and Modern Uncertainty Qualification Methods for the Calculation of Critical Speeds in Railway Vehicle Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigoni, Daniele; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; True, Hans

    2012-01-01

    . In this paper the methods are applied to a lowdimensional vehicle dynamical model composed by a two-axle bogie, which is connected to a car body by a lateral linear spring, a lateral damper and a torsional spring. Their characteristics are not deterministically defined, but they are defined by probability...

  14. Analysis of Rail Vehicle Suspension Spring with Special Emphasis on Curving, Tracking and Tractive Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhalkar, M. A.; Bhope, D. V.; Vanalkar, A. V.

    2016-09-01

    The dynamics of the rail vehicle represents a balance between the forces acting between wheel and rail, the inertia forces and the forces exerted by suspension and articulation. Axial loading on helical spring causes vertical deflection at straight track but failures calls to investigate for lateral and longitudinal loading at horizontal and vertical curves respectively. Goods carrying vehicle has the frequent failures of middle axle inner suspension spring calls for investigation. The springs are analyzed for effect of stress concentration due to centripetal force and due to tractive and breaking effort. This paper also discusses shear failure analysis of spring at curvature and at uphill at various speeds for different loading condition analytically and by finite element analysis. Two mass rail vehicle suspension systems have been analyzed for vibration responses analytically using mathematical tool Matlab Simulink and the same will be evaluated using FFT vibration analyzer to find peak resonance in vertical, lateral and longitudinal direction. The results prove that the suspension acquires high repeated load in vertical and lateral direction due to tracking and curving causes maximum stress concentration on middle axle suspension spring as height of this spring is larger than end axle spring in primary suspension system and responsible for failure of middle axle suspension spring due to high stress acquisition.

  15. Tappet Chill Depth Measuring by Magnetic Permeability and Inductance Displacement Meter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is possible to measure different position along the axle direction of tappet. According to the maximum output of signal, the boundary of white iron structure and mottled iron structure can be deduced, and at the same time, it is possible to use inductance displacement meter to show the chill depth which is the distance from the boundary to the end.

  16. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXI, I--MAINTAINING THE AIR SYSTEM--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNDERSTANDING REAR END SUSPENSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE AIR SYSTEM AND REAR AXLE SUSPENSION USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) AIR INDUCTION AND EXHAUST SYSTEM, (2) VALVE MECHANISM, (3) TROUBLESHOOTING THE AIR SYSTEM, (4) PURPOSE OF VEHICLE SUSPENSION, (5) TANDEM…

  17. 49 CFR 571.138 - Standard No. 138; Tire pressure monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... period corresponding to S7.1 filed pursuant to 49 CFR 585.66. The vehicles are counted in fulfillment of... those vehicles with dual wheels on an axle, according to the phase-in schedule specified in S7 of this....1General. To the extent provided in S7, each vehicle must be equipped with a tire pressure...

  18. Vibration reduction on automotive shafts using piezoceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Holger; Riedel, Mathias; Schmidt, Knut; Bianchini, Emanuele

    2003-08-01

    This paper reports an experimental study on active vibration reduction for automotive shafts with the use of piezoelectric material. The work focuses on an axle of an Audi A2. The demand in the automobile sector for higher comfort in the vehicle is of a great importance alongside the requirements of lighter weight and low fuel consumption. These requirements are typically in conflict with each other. One solution is the use of intelligent materials instead of viscoelastic materials and proof mass absorbers. These solutions are quite heavy especially at low frequencies. Active vibration control and piezoelectric devices are advantageous in this application due to their low mass to performance ratio. Our research study explores the use of such piezoelectric devices for an axle. In conjunction with electronics it will reduce vibrations in the first natural bending mode of the axle. Laboratory tests simulated the condition present in the road. At first a stationary set up was used, then a simulated disturbance was input at the attachment points of the shaft. Finally, a test with rotating shaft was performed. Piezoelectric devices (custom QuickPacks from ACX, a Division of Cymer) were used as sensors and as actuators to properly control the axle during the different operating conditions. The power consumption of each actuator pair was less than 20W. The work described here details the test setup, the control strategy, the hardware implementation as well as the test results obtained.

  19. Operation mechanism of a molecular machine revealed using time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R. Panman; P. Bodis; D.J. Shaw; B.H. Bakker; A.C. Newton; E.R. Kay; A.M. Brouwer; W.J. Buma; D.A. Leigh; S. Woutersen

    2010-01-01

    Rotaxanes comprise macrocycles that can shuttle between docking stations along an axle. We explored the nanosecond shuttling mechanism by reversing the relative binding affinities of two stations through ultraviolet-induced transient reduction. We monitored the ensuing changes in the CO-stretching b

  20. Time-frequency analysis of wheel-rail shock in the presence of wheel flat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming Ding

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Against the deficiencies of traditional time domain and frequency domain analysis in detecting wheel-rail (W-R system hidden risks which wheel flats generate, the time-frequency characteristics of W-R shock caused by wheel flat are analyzed and the vehicle-rail dynamic model with wheel flat is investigated. The 10 degrees of freedom (DOF vehicle model is built up. 90-DOF rail model is constructed. The wheel flat excitation model is built up. The vehicle-track coupling dynamic model including wheel flat excitation is set up through nonlinear Hertzian contact theory. The vertical accelerations of axle box are calculated at different speeds and flat sizes based on the vehicle-track coupling dynamic model with wheel flat. Frequency slice wavelet transform (FSWT is employed to analyze time-frequency characteristics of axle box accelerations to detect the W-R noncontact risks s which the traditional time domain or frequency domain method does not analyze. The results show that the small flat size and high running speed lead to high frequency W-R impact. Large flat size and high running speed result in momentary loss of W-R contact, and there exist security risks between wheel and rail. The conclusion that the phase of axle box accelerations is same to W-R forces lays a theoretical foundation of monitoring W-R contact safety from axle box acceleration instead of traditional W-R force detection.

  1. 齿轮啮合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Minimize driveline gear noise by optimization technique;Modeling and control of dual-motor driving system with backlash;NVH robustness design of axle systems;Predicting unequal planetary load sharing due to manufacturing errors and system deflections, with validation against test data; Rolling element bearings make possible flexible planetary gears……

  2. Thermodynamic Analysis of Allosteric and Chelate Cooperativity in Di- and Trivalent Ammonium/Crown-Ether Pseudorotaxanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowosinski, Karol; von Krbek, Larissa K S; Traulsen, Nora L; Schalley, Christoph A

    2015-10-16

    A detailed thermodynamic analysis of the axle-wheel binding in di- and trivalent secondary ammonium/[24]crown-8 pseudorotaxanes is presented. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) data and double mutant cycle analyses reveal an interesting interplay of positive as well as negative allosteric and positive chelate cooperativity thus providing profound insight into the effects governing multivalent binding in these pseudorotaxanes.

  3. 49 CFR 571.110 - Tire selection and rims and motor home/recreation vehicle trailer load carrying capacity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... equipped, air conditioning and additional weight optional engine. Maximum loaded vehicle weight means the... GAWR of the axle system as specified on the vehicle's certification label required by 49 CFR part 567... limitations of S4.3.4. For full size spare tires, the statement “see above” may, at the manufacturer's...

  4. Subsoil compaction caused by heavy sugarbeet harvesters in southern Sweden; II. soil displacement during wheeling and model computations of compaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arvidsson, J.; Trautner, A.; Akker, van den J.J.H.; Schjonning, P.

    2001-01-01

    Traffic with high wheel loads in combination with high inflation pressure implies a risk for subsoil compaction, but effects will depend on the soil strength. Soil displacement during traffic with a heavy sugarbeet harvester (total load approximately 35 Mg on two axles) was determined at 0.3, 0.5 an

  5. 龆轮

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new approach to control a semi-active suspension using different optimal strategies;Analysis of an electric power-assisted steering system using bond graphs;Angular contact ball bearings for a rear axle differelltial;Application of bond graph technique and computer simulation to the design of passenger car steering system……

  6. Energy recuperation in fully electric vehicles subject to stability and drivability requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ólafsdóttir, J.M.; Lidberg, M.; Falcone, P.; Iersel, S. van; Jansen, S.T.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a combined control and estimation framework for energy recuperation in fully electric vehicles. We consider a fully electric powertrain, with a driven front axle operating on low friction road surfaces. Our objective is to find the blending of regenerative and friction braking th

  7. Electromagnetic piston engine

    OpenAIRE

    Божко, А. Е.; Иванов, Е. М.; ИВАНОВА З.А.

    2012-01-01

    In-process the presented features of functioning of electromagnetic reciprocator, that contains the pistons with flows, united by means of general knee axle with a fly-wheel, are accommodated in the cylinders equipped by the solenoids set in dead centers.

  8. 76 FR 78 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard; Engine Control Module Speed Limiter Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... rulemaking activity. \\1\\ 72 FR 3904; January 26, 2007. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... adjustments to the ECM for maximum speed, tire size, and drive axle and transmission gear ratio information... tractor pulling multiple trailers).\\8\\ The European Union and Australia cited economic and safety...

  9. PARAMETERS OPTIMIZATION OF OF SETS OF LEAF-SPRING TRUCKS OF PASSENGER CAR

    OpenAIRE

    S. V. Myamlin; O. M. Pshinko

    2005-01-01

    In article the problem about a finding of optimum values of parameters of spring complete sets axle box and the central suspension of the carriage is put and solved. It allows increasing constructional speed of the carriage till the speeds above 160…200 km/h.

  10. Simple Machine Junk Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herald, Christine

    2010-01-01

    During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,…

  11. Fun with Physics in the Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    Primary grade pupils can become fascinated with simple machines. This paper suggests that teachers have simple machines in the classroom for a unit of study. It proposes some guidelines to create a unit of study for six simple machines that include the fulcrum, inclined plane, pulley, wheel and axle, wedge, and screw. Friction, gravity, force, and…

  12. The Fluid Foil: The Seventh Simple Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    A simple machine does one of two things: create a mechanical advantage (lever) or change the direction of an applied force (pulley). Fluid foils are unique among simple machines because they not only change the direction of an applied force (wheel and axle); they convert fluid energy into mechanical energy (wind and Kaplan turbines) or vice versa,…

  13. Simple Machines Made Simple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Andre, Ralph E.

    Simple machines have become a lost point of study in elementary schools as teachers continue to have more material to cover. This manual provides hands-on, cooperative learning activities for grades three through eight concerning the six simple machines: wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw, pulley, wedge, and lever. Most activities can be…

  14. Self-supporting refrigerated truck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukers, A.; De Winter, S.E.E.; Brouwer, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    Self-supporting refrigerated truck comprising a floor, two side walls, a front bulkhead and a roof. The components are all constructed as sandwich panels. The connection between the rear axle construction of the refrigerated truck and the front is not provided with longitudinal beams. The function o

  15. Rolling Friction on a Wheeled Laboratory Cart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    A simple model is developed that predicts the coefficient of rolling friction for an undriven laboratory cart on a track that is approximately independent of the mass loaded onto the cart and of the angle of inclination of the track. The model includes both deformation of the wheels/track and frictional torque at the axles/bearings. The concept of…

  16. Förster resonance energy transfer by formation of a mechanically interlocked [2]rotaxane

    OpenAIRE

    Ogoshi, T.; Yamafuji, D.; Yamagishi, T.; Brouwer, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    A[2]rotaxane has been constructed from a di-pyrene appended pillar[5]arene wheel, a pyridinium axle, and a perylene stopper. It shows efficient Forster resonance energy transfer from pyrene to perylene by formation of a mechanically interlocked [2]rotaxane.

  17. 3-year follow-up of a long-term registry-based multicentre study on vitamin E diffused polyethylene in total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Nanna H; Greene, Meridith E; Nebergall, Audrey K;

    2016-01-01

    early adverse events from using this new biomaterial. METHODS: The enrolled patients (n = 977) have received either a porous titanium coated or porous plasma sprayed acetabular shell with either a E-XLPE liner or a medium cross-linked (AXL) liner. At each follow-up 5 patient-reported outcome measures...

  18. 49 CFR 575.103 - Truck-camper loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (three thirty-seconds of an inch) high, of a color contrasting with the background, in the order shown... scale and weigh on the front and on the rear wheels separately to determine axle loads. The load on an... weight ratings are exceeded, move or remove items to bring all weights below the ratings.” (E) A...

  19. Self Healing of Asphalt Mixtures: Towards a Better Understanding of the Mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, J.

    2012-01-01

    Traffic is increasing rapidly in terms of number of vehicles and also in axle loads. In order to maximize the availability of the pavement and to minimize hindrances to traffic because of maintenance works, long life pavements are needed. An asphalt pavement with self repairing capabilities is belie

  20. Sucker rod centralizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezewski, J.

    1988-01-26

    This patent describes an oil well sucker rod guide consisting of an elongated body having a number of radial slots. Each slot is disposed at equiangular spaced positions, and contains a roller rotatably supported upon an axle transverse to the slot, such that the roller projects outside the periphery of the body from only one end of the slot

  1. Sequence Classification: 891153 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available calized to COPII-coated vesicles, involved in vesicle formation and incorporation of specific secretory cargo; required for the deliv...ery of bud-site selection protein Axl2p to cell surface; related to Drosophila cornichon; Erv14p || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/6321384 ...

  2. 挂车

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of dynamic lateral response for a multi-axle-steering tractor and trailer, Application of the Vortex Methods for Automotive Flows, Assessment of highway pavements for tire/road noise generation, Assessment of open-loop rollover control of articulated vehicles under different manoeuvres, Assistance systems for loading agricultural products。

  3. Sucker rod guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R.C.

    1988-10-25

    This patent describes an improved guide for use in a string of sucker rods for reciprocation in a tubing string in a borehole, the sucker rods having threaded male ends, the guide comprising: an elongated upright cylindrical member of external diameter less than the internal diameter of tubing in which it is to be used, the member having sucker rod receiving female threaded openings at the upper and lower ends, the threaded openings being coaxial of the member cylindrical axis whereby the member may be positioned in a string of sucker rods, and including a plurality of spaced-apart parallel sided slots within the member, each slot being of semi-circular configuration and of depth greater than the radius and less than the diameter of the cylindrical member, the sidewalls of each slot being parallel to and equally spaced from a plane of the member cylindrical axis; the member having an axle bore therein for each of the slots, the axle bores being parallel and spaced apart from each other, a plane of the axis of each bore being perpendicular the member cylindrical axis and the axis of each bore being displaced away from the member cylindrical axis; an axle received in each axle bore; and a wheel received on each axle the diameter of each wheel being approximately the diameter of the cylindrical member, the periphery of each wheel extending beyond the member cylindrical wall whereby the wheels are positioned to engage and roll on the internal cylindrical surface of tubing, the planes of adjacent slots in the member being rotationally displaced from each other, a portion of each wheel extending beyond the cylindrical surface of the member, the opposed portion of each wheel being within the confines of the member cylindrical surface whereby each wheel can contact a tubing wall at only one point on its cylindrical surface.

  4. 8×4重型自卸车制动性能分析%The analysisof braking performance for 8 × 4 heavy-duty dump truck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪伟; 赵刚; 章健国

    2014-01-01

    以某8×4重型自卸车为分析对象,建立了四轴汽车的制动力学模型,对该车在满载、超载情况下进行各轴载荷的计算,前、中、后桥制动力矩和制动力分配分析,在此基础上,提出了多轴汽车的行车制动性能分析方法,并与该车制动性能0型试验结果数据进行对比。实例分析结果表明,该方法简单、实用,能对四轴汽车行车制动性能进行有效分析。%Taking a 8 × 4 heavy-duty dump truck for the analysis of the object, the establishment of a four-axle system dynamics model car, the car at full load and overload conditions for the calculation of each axle load, front, middle and rear axle brake torque and manufacturing power distribution analysis. On this basis, an analysis method for braking performance of four-axle vehicle is proposed, and with the braking performance of the vehicle type-0 test result data are compared. The results of real sample analysis show that the method proposed is simple,pragmatic and can effectively analyze the braking performance of four-axle vehicles.

  5. Roll forging die design based on UG secondary development%UG二次开发在辊锻模具设计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏科; 王高潮; 李宁; 夏春林

    2011-01-01

    综合运用UG表达式法及UG二次开发工具UG/Open API、UG/0pen MenuScript、UG/Open UIStyler和Visual C++6.0,根据汽车前轴锻件的加工原理,开发了汽车前轴精制坯辊锻系统.在该系统中,前轴辊锻件和辊锻模参数化造型易于设计及修改,任何汽车前轴设计人员都能够方便的操作.该系统对提高汽车前轴辊锻模具设计的效率、缩短模具开发周期具有较强的实用价值,同时也为后期的辊锻模具制造和有限元模拟做好了强大的铺垫.%Combined with the method of UG expression and the tools of the UG secondary development including UG/Open MenuScript, UG/Open UIStyler, UG/Open API and Visual C+ +6.0,the roll-forging system of precision and billet on automotive front axle was developed based on the front axle forging process theory. In this system, the front axle forging and die was easily modified, and any front axle forging designer could handle it with much convenience.This method brings practical values for improving efficiency of front axle forging die design and shortening the die development period, meanwhile, making a strong fundament for the following roll-forging die production and finite element method.

  6. Assessment of Open-Angle Glaucoma Peripapillary and Macular Choroidal Thickness Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography (SS-OCT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ju Song

    Full Text Available To compare peripapillary and macular choroidal thickness (PCT and MCT between open-angle glaucoma (OAG and normal controls using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT, and to evaluate global and localized relationships between choroidal thickness and various factors in OAG, also using SS-OCT.In this cross-sectional comparative study, 134 OAG patients and 73 normal controls were examined. PCT (global, 12 clock-hour sectors, MCT (global, six sectors were measured by SS-OCT. The difference in choroidal thickness between the OAG patients and the normal controls was analyzed. The relationships between choroidal thickness and various factors including age, sex, spherical equivalent (SE, axial length (AXL, central corneal thickness (CCT, intraocular pressure (IOP, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (pRNFLT, visual field mean deviation (MD, ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness (GCIPLT, and disc area were analyzed by univariate and multivariate linear regression. Global and regional analyses were performed in 12 segments of the peripapillary circle and in six sectors of the macula.There were significant differences in global PCT and MCT between the OAG patients and the normal controls (115.22±41.17 vs. 138.89±44.70, P<0.001, (184.36±57.15 vs. 209.25±61.11, P = 0.004. The difference in global PCT remained, both after adjusting for age, AXL (117.08±3.45 vs. 135.47±4.70, P = 0.002 and also after adjusting for age, AXL, disc area (117.46±3.46 vs. 135.67±4.67, P = 0.002. But the difference in global MCT did not remain after adjusting for age, AXL, SE (188.18±4.46 vs. 202.25±6.08, P = 0.066. PCT showed significant differences between the groups in all of the 12 clock-hour sectors. These differences remained after adjusting for age, AXL and for age, AXL, disc area, with the exception of the 10 o'clock (o/c sector. MCT in six sectors showed differences between the two groups, but they did not remain after adjusting

  7. Adaptation of AASHTO Pavement Design Guide for Local Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajek, J.J. [Applied Research Associates Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The methodology used to adapt the 1993 AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures to Ontario conditions was described. The guide expresses the effect of traffic loads on pavement performance using the concept of axle Load Equivalency Factors (LEF). LEF is regarded as a pavement damage factor assigned to each specific load and axle configuration. The size of LEF is related to the damage that is expected to occur from a standard load of 80 kN carried by a single axle with dual tires. The factors are summarized to yield the number of Equivalent Single Axle Loads (ESALs) a pavement is expected to sustain during its life. A summary was also provided of the additional work done to prepare for the transition to the proposed mechanistically-based 2002 AASHTO Guide. The paper focused only on the design of flexible pavements in terms of load characterization using equivalent single axle loads along with axle load spectra, below grade and material characterization, plus initial and terminal serviceability and reliability. The AASHTO Guide uses two parameters to deal with design reliability: design reliability level and overall standard deviation. Data collected on Ontario highway pavements and materials was used for assessing the design inputs. Other data was also collected from research and development studies, laboratory experiments, and from a survey of experienced pavement design engineers. The end result was a new grouping of Ontario soils for pavement design, recommended values for the resilient modulus of below grade soils, recommendations for structural layer coefficients for Ontario pavement materials and recommendations for the initial pavement serviceability based on Ontario smoothness specifications. Results of calibration and verification processes indicate that for new flexible pavements, the AASHTO-Ontario model is in good agreement with the observed results. It was recommended that the calibration and verification of the AASHTO-Ontario model should be a

  8. 液下屏蔽电泵在氟化氢领域的应用%The application of canned pump under liquid in hydrofluoric acid field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘松林; 龚孝祥

    2012-01-01

    输送无水氟化氢的液下屏蔽泵常发生泵被卡死、电流偏高、打不起流量等故障,分析了输送无水氟化氢的液下屏蔽泵产生故障的原因,并进行了轴承、轴套、推力盘等相应的改造,保证了屏蔽泵的长周期稳定运行。%As the canned pump under liquid delivering anhydrous hydrofluoric acid broken down often such as the pump seized, electric current increased, flow lowered, so the fault cause of the canned pump was analyzed, then a long - periodic and stable running of the pump has been ensured by improving such axle bearing, axle sleeve, thrust collar etc.

  9. Long-range movement of large mechanically interlocked DNA nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Jonathan; Falgenhauer, Elisabeth; Kopperger, Enzo; Pardatscher, Günther; Simmel, Friedrich C.

    2016-08-01

    Interlocked molecules such as catenanes and rotaxanes, connected only via mechanical bonds have the ability to perform large-scale sliding and rotational movements, making them attractive components for the construction of artificial molecular machines and motors. We here demonstrate the realization of large, rigid rotaxane structures composed of DNA origami subunits. The structures can be easily modified to carry a molecular cargo or nanoparticles. By using multiple axle modules, rotaxane constructs are realized with axle lengths of up to 355 nm and a fuel/anti-fuel mechanism is employed to switch the rotaxanes between a mobile and a fixed state. We also create extended pseudo-rotaxanes, in which origami rings can slide along supramolecular DNA filaments over several hundreds of nanometres. The rings can be actively moved and tracked using atomic force microscopy.

  10. 车身

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    [ 篇名 ] A hybrid method for vehicle axle noise simulation with experimental validation,[ 篇名 ] A linearized turbulent production in the k- ε model for engineering applications,[ 篇名 ] A Method for Estimating Axle Weights of In-motion Vehicles and Its Evaluation,[ 篇名 ] A new concept for occupant deceleration control in a crash - part 2,[ 篇名 ] A new experimental methodology to estimate chassis force transmissibility and applications to road NVH improvement,[ 篇名 ] A SMART ECOBIKE WITH RIM-MOTOR,[ 篇名 ] A study on optimum design for thin-walled beam structures of vehicles,[ 篇名 ] A study on the distortion characteristic due to spot welding of body structure assembly for passenger car,[ 篇名 ] A VIBRO-ACOUSTICAL INVESTIGATION FOR CAR ROLLING NOISE CHARACTERIZATION AND OPTIMIZATION,[ 篇名 ] 780 N/mm{sup }2 grade hot-rolled high-strength steel sheet for automotive suspension system。

  11. 基于累积损伤因子的水泥混凝土路面设计%Cement concrete pavement design based on cumulative damage factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡良才; 朱占卿; 吴爱红; 潘正华; 王维国

    2012-01-01

    Based on the compositive fatigue equation of load fatigue stress and temperature fatigue stress, the coverage-to-pass ratios of single-axle-single-wheel load and single-axle-double-wheel load were calculated by adopting cumulative damage factor. A direct calculating method of total cumulative fatigue damage of pavement structure produced by multi-axle load and a new design method of cement concrete pavement were put forward by replacing design axle load with cumulative damage factor. The accuracy and application feasibility of calculating fatigue damage produced by multi-axle load were done through a design example with two types of traffic volumes. Analysis result indicates that the acting times of multi-axle load at all points on the cross section of highway are different, and the peak value of cumulative damage of each axle load may be not at the same location. The thicknesses of worst pavement places under the traffic volumes calculated by the design method based on cumulative damage factor are all 22 cm, which meets the design requirement, and the thicknesses of other places can reduce according to the cumulative damage curve. Thereby, it can avoid the differences and localizations of present specification design method of concrete pavement based on standard axle load and equivalent fatigue consumption principle. 1 tab, 8 figs, 12 refs.%考虑荷载疲劳应力和温度疲劳应力的综合疲劳方程,计算了单轴单轮及单轴双轮轴载的覆盖通行率,利用累积损伤因子替代标准轴载在交通量换算中的作用,提出了直接计算各级轴载对路面结构总的累积疲劳损伤方法和新的水泥混凝土路面设计方法,并采用两组交通量对轴载累积损伤量的计算方法的准确性与可行性进行了验证。分析结果表明:公路横断面上各点处轴载的作用次数是不同的,各级轴载的累积疲劳损伤峰值不一定在同一位置,利用基于累积损伤因子的水泥混凝土路面设计

  12. Sustainable Bridges – A European Integrated Research Project – Background Overview and Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Täljsten, Björn; Elfgren, Lennart

    2008-01-01

    of energy and release of greenhouse gases. To help our society to be more sustainable, it is important to retain and use what we already have where possible, rather than investing in new structures. Instead of tearing down old, often beautiful, railway bridges and replacing them with new ones, we need...... to preserve and upgrade them by using better assessment, monitoring and strengthening methods. This was also the aim of the European Integrated Research Project “Sustainable Bridges – Assessment for Future Traffic Demands and Longer Lives” when it was accepted for funding by the European Commission in 2003....... The project established the following three specific goals: 1. increase the transport capacity of existing railway bridges by allowing higher axle loads (up to 33 tons) for freight traffic at moderate speeds or by allowing higher speeds (up to 350 km/hour) for passenger traffic with low axle loads 2. extend...

  13. Geometric Filtering Effect of Vertical Vibrations in Railway Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Dumitriu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper herein examines the geometric filtering effect coming from the axle base of a railway vehicle upon the vertical vibrations behavior, due to the random irregularities of the track. For this purpose, the complete model of a two-level suspension and flexible carbody vehicle has been taken into account. Following the modal analysis, the movement equations have been treated in an original manner and brought to a structure that points out at the symmetrical and anti-symmetrical decoupled movements of vehicle and their excitation modes. There has been shown that the geometric filtering has a selective behavior in decreasing the level of vibrations, and its contribution is affected by the axle base magnitude, rolling speed and frequency range.

  14. Dynamic Bridge Response for a Bridge-friendly Truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Šmilauer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A truck with controlled semi-active suspensions traversing a bridge is examined for benefits to the bridge structure. The original concept of a road-friendly truck was extended to a bridge-friendly vehicle, using the same optimization tools. A half-car model with two independently driven axles is coupled with simply supported bridges (beam, slab model with the span range from 5 m to 50 m. Surface profile of the bridge deck is either stochastic or in the shape of a bump or a pot in the mid-span. Numerical integration in the MATLAB/SIMULINK environment solves coupled dynamic equations of motion with optimized truck suspensions. The rear axle generates the prevailing load and to a great extent determines the bridge response. A significant decrease in contact road-tire forces is observed and the mid-span bridge deflections are on average smaller, when compared to commercial passive suspensions. 

  15. Stress Analysis and Determination of Effective k-value for Rigid Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundan Meshram

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available EverFE is a user-friendly 3D finite-element analysis tool for simulating the response of jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP systems to axle loads and environmental effects. EverFE is useful for both concrete pavement researchers and designers who must perform either complex nonlinear or simple linear stress analyses of JPCP.With help of this develop any type of model of rigid pavement considering practical condition thus getting more accurate and advance analysis for rigid pavement. It can also determine effective k-values for different combination of granular sub-base and dry lean concrete. A comparative study is done for two types of loading i.e. single and tandem axle. Edge and Corner stresses are also calculated for Class-AA of loading. Also calculate moment and shear force transfer by dowel bar by EverFE.

  16. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    Vibration of a bridge structure due to the passage of vehicles is an important consideration in the design of bridges. Further, a common problem in bridge engineering practice in these years is the upgrading of minor highway bridges (=5-20 m) to carry heavier loads partly due to a tendency...... of heavier trucks moving at larger speeds, and partly because the authorities want to permit transportation of special heavy goods at a larger part of the road net. These needs will in many cases cause the strengthening of the bridges becomes necessary. In order to keep the expenses of such strengthening...... the results obtained using the numerical models given in details in "Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges : dynamic modelling of vehicles and bridges". The models are established using a ordinary vehicle which consists of a 48 t Scania with a 3 axle tractor and a 3 axle trailer, joined in a flexible hinge...

  17. Dynamic Measurement for the Diameter of A Train Wheel Based on Structured-Light Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zheng; Sun, Junhua; Zhang, Guangjun

    2016-01-01

    Wheels are very important for the safety of a train. The diameter of the wheel is a significant parameter that needs regular inspection. Traditional methods only use the contact points of the wheel tread to fit the rolling round. However, the wheel tread is easily influenced by peeling or scraping. Meanwhile, the circle fitting algorithm is sensitive to noise when only three points are used. This paper proposes a dynamic measurement method based on structured-light vision. The axle of the wheelset and the tread are both employed. The center of the rolling round is determined by the axle rather than the tread only. Then, the diameter is calculated using the center and the contact points together. Simulations are performed to help design the layout of the sensors, and the influences of different noise sources are also analyzed. Static and field experiments are both performed, and the results show it to be quite stable and accurate. PMID:27104543

  18. Odpružení přední hnané nápravy traktoru lehké řady

    OpenAIRE

    Vodrada, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Tématem diplomové práce je navrhnout odpružení přední hnané nápravy pro traktory Zetor řady Proxima, včetně pevnostně deformační analýzy metodou konečných prvků. Součástí práce je také rozbor současně používaných předních odpružených náprav u světových výrobců traktorů. The topic of this thesis is springing of front driving axle design in Zetor tractor of series Proxima including FEM analysis. The thesis also deals with study of currently used suspended front axles produced by word known m...

  19. Fast tracking using edge histograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokita, Przemyslaw

    1997-04-01

    This paper proposes a new algorithm for tracking objects and objects boundaries. This algorithm was developed and applied in a system used for compositing computer generated images and real world video sequences, but can be applied in general in all tracking systems where accuracy and high processing speed are required. The algorithm is based on analysis of histograms obtained by summing along chosen axles pixels of edge segmented images. Edge segmentation is done by spatial convolution using gradient operator. The advantage of such an approach is that it can be performed in real-time using available on the market hardware convolution filters. After edge extraction and histograms computation, respective positions of maximums in edge intensity histograms, in current and previous frame, are compared and matched. Obtained this way information about displacement of histograms maximums, can be directly converted into information about changes of target boundaries positions along chosen axles.

  20. Identification of dynamic stiffness matrix of bearing joint region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng HU; Bo WU; Youmin HU; Tielin SHI

    2009-01-01

    The paper proposes an identification method of the dynamic stiffness matrix of a bearing joint region on the basis of theoretical analysis and experiments. The author deduces an identification model of the dynamic stiffness matrix from the synthetic substructure method. The dynamic stiffness matrix of the bearing joint region can be identified by measuring the matrix of frequency response function (FRFs) of the substructure (axle) and whole structure (assembly of the axle, bearing, and bearing housing) in different positions. Considering difficulty in measuring angular displacement, applying moment, and directly measuring relevant FRFs of rotational degree of freedom, the author employs an accurately calibrated finite element model of the unconstrained structure for indirect estimation. With experiments and simulation analysis, FRFs related with translational degree of freedom, which is estimated through the finite element model, agrees with experimental results, and there is very high reliability in the identified dynamic stiffness matrix of the bearing joint region.

  1. Marginal overweight operating scenario for DOE's initiative I highway casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assesses the potential transport of high-capacity Initiative I highway casks under development by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) as permitted marginal overweight shipments that: exceed a gross vehicle weight (gvw) limit of 80,000, but weight less than 96,000 pounds; follow axle and axle group weight limits adopted by the Surface Transportation Assistance Act (STAA) of 1982; conform to dimensional restrictions to operate on most major highways; and comply with the Federal Bridge Formula. The marginal overweight tractor-trailer would operate in normal open-quotes over-the-roadclose quotes mode and comply with all laws and regulations. The vehicle would have a sleeper berth and two drivers - one to drive while the other provides escort and communications services and accumulates required off-duty time

  2. Soliton gyroscopes in media with spatially growing repulsive nonlinearity

    CERN Document Server

    Driben, Rodislav; Malomed, Boris A; Meier, Torsten; Torner, Lluis

    2013-01-01

    We find that the recently introduced model of self-trapping supported by a spatially growing strength of a repulsive nonlinearity gives rise to robust vortex-soliton tori, i.e., three-dimensional vortex solitons, with topological charges S. The family with S=1 is completely stable, while the one with S=2 has alternating regions of stability and instability. The families are nearly exactly reproduced in an analytical form by the Thomas-Fermi approximation (TFA). Unstable states with S=2 and 3 split into persistently rotating pairs or triangles of unitary vortices. Application of a moderate torque to the vortex torus initiates a persistent precession mode, with the torus' axle moving along a conical surface. A strong torque heavily deforms the vortex solitons, but, nonetheless, they restore themselves with the axle oriented according to the vectorial addition of angular momenta.

  3. Repeated Load Permanent Deformation Behavior of Mixes With and Wihtout Modified Bituments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Hafeez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature rutting in flexible pavement structure is being observed on most of the road network of Pakistan. It initiates primarily due to uncontrolled axle loading and high ambient temperatures. NHA (National Highway Authority, Pakistan has continuously been modifying aggregate gradations and penetration grade of bitumen, without any prior investigation of the mix behaviour under the prevailing axle load and environmental conditions of the country. A comprehensive laboratory investigation was carried out on six mixes ranging from finer to coarser. Specimens were subjected to cyclic loading on UTM-5P (Universal Testing Machine to study the resistance against permanent deformation of the mixes at 25, 40 and 550C. At low temperatures and stress levels, both coarse and fine graded mixes showed less accumulated strain, whereas at higher temperatures and stress levels, coarse graded mix with PMB (Polymer Modified Bitumen showed good resistance to permanent deformation.

  4. Comparison of Final Drive Gear Lubricant Field Results to Laboratory Tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To meet the increasing needs to move goods and materials, transportation vehicles are logging an increasing number of kilometers each year. With increasing use of these vehicles comes the need to conserve fuel to save money and to conserve resources. New engines, transmissions and axles are being developed to further conserve fuel and to provide more efficient power sources. Southwest Research Institute, a leader in global automotive research, regularly performs tests to evaluate the power and fuel economy improvement of drive train hardware and lubricants. The Institute has recently provided services to design, develop, and perform test verification of a dynamometer stand that is capable of evaluating the efficiency of axle lubricants in heavy- duty use.

  5. On the interaction between wheels and rails in railway dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slivsgaard, Eva Charlotte

    The present thesis is concerned with the mathematical modelling of a railway vehicle. The modelling does not only deal with the vehicle but also the track it runs on. Different models are described and investigated as to how they affect the dynamics of the vehicle. The bulk of the investigations...... is such that no oscillating solutions occur below this vehicle speed. The difference between a linear and a nonlinear analysis is hereby pointed out. The oscillating solutions found are analysed by applying methods from the nonlinear dynamics. By this periodic and chaotic solutions are described, for instance a scenario...... by a mechanical steering system. Interest is focussed on the single-axle bogie. For simplification a model of the single-axle bogie alone is analysed under different modelling conditions. The dynamics of a model of the whole vehicle are investigated on: A) a straight track, B) a curved track, C) a track flexible...

  6. Selective Nitrate Recognition by a Halogen-Bonding Four-Station [3]Rotaxane Molecular Shuttle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barendt, Timothy A; Docker, Andrew; Marques, Igor; Félix, Vítor; Beer, Paul D

    2016-09-01

    The synthesis of the first halogen bonding [3]rotaxane host system containing a bis-iodo triazolium-bis-naphthalene diimide four station axle component is reported. Proton NMR anion binding titration experiments revealed the halogen bonding rotaxane is selective for nitrate over the more basic acetate, hydrogen carbonate and dihydrogen phosphate oxoanions and chloride, and exhibits enhanced recognition of anions relative to a hydrogen bonding analogue. This elaborate interlocked anion receptor functions via a novel dynamic pincer mechanism where upon nitrate anion binding, both macrocycles shuttle from the naphthalene diimide stations at the periphery of the axle to the central halogen bonding iodo-triazolium station anion recognition sites to form a unique 1:1 stoichiometric nitrate anion-rotaxane sandwich complex. Molecular dynamics simulations carried out on the nitrate and chloride halogen bonding [3]rotaxane complexes corroborate the (1) H NMR anion binding results. PMID:27436297

  7. Structural Changes of a Doubly Spin-Labeled Chemically Driven Molecular Shuttle Probed by PELDOR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Paola; Bleve, Valentina; Mezzina, Elisabetta; Schäfer, Christian; Ragazzon, Giulio; Albertini, Marco; Carbonera, Donatella; Credi, Alberto; Di Valentin, Marilena; Lucarini, Marco

    2016-06-20

    Gaining detailed information on the structural rearrangements associated with stimuli-induced molecular movements is of utmost importance for understanding the operation of molecular machines. Pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR) was employed to monitor the geometrical changes arising upon chemical switching of a [2]rotaxane that behaves as an acid-base-controlled molecular shuttle. To this aim, the rotaxane was endowed with stable nitroxide radical units in both the ring and axle components. The combination of PELDOR data and molecular dynamic calculations indicates that in the investigated rotaxane, the ring displacement along the axle, caused by the addition of a base, does not alter significantly the distance between the nitroxide labels, but it is accompanied by a profound change in the geometry adopted by the macrocycle. PMID:27123774

  8. Influence of velocity change on handling and stability of vehicle%车速变化对车辆操纵稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈士安; 顾彬彬; 邱峰; 何仁; 李春

    2009-01-01

    To improve the handling and stability of vehicle while velocity changing, a dynamic steering model was established, and all of the coefficients of differential equations describing the model changed with velocity change. The influence of velocity change on the handling and stability was quantitatively researched by varying parameter dynamic simulations. Study result shows that when vehicle decelerates, part load is transferred from rear axle to front axle caused by the positive longitudinal inertial force of vehicle, the corner stiffness of front axle increases, the corner stiffness of rear axle decreases, and vehicle steering gain increases, so the handling and stability of vehicle deteriorate. Vehicle steering gain increases more rapidly and obviously with higher early velocity and/or bigger deceleration. When vehicle accelerates, part load is transferred from front axle to rear axle caused by the negative longitudinal inertial force of vehicle, the corner stiffness of front axle decreases, the corner stiffness of rear axle increases, and vehicle steering gain decreases. Obviously, avoiding big deceleration, lowing vehicle mass center and enlarging wheelbase as far as possible during vehicle design and manufacture are effective methods to lessen the degree that the handling and stability become worse rapidly in slowing vehicle down. 3 tabs, 5 figs, 14 refs.%为了降低车速变化对车辆操纵稳定性的影响,建立了考虑车速变化的动态车辆转向运动模型,分析了描述模型的微分方程组所有系数都是随车速变化而时变的特性,通过变参数动态仿真,定量研究了车速变化对车辆操纵稳定性的影响.研究结果表明:减速时正的纵向车辆惯性力使后轴负荷向前轴转移,导致前轴侧偏刚度变大,后轴侧偏刚度变小,进而使车辆的横摆角速度增益增大,即车辆操纵稳定性变差;初始车速越高,减速度越大,车辆横摆角速度增益增大越快;加速时负的纵向

  9. Plug-in Hybrid Power Platform for Technology Development%插电式混合动力轿车动力平台技术开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩友国; 王若飞

    2015-01-01

    本文以某款PHEV轿车为研究对象,对混合动力平台进行开发研究,研究前桥混合动力驱动系统的集成及优化,对后桥电子驱动系统的设计及布置合理性进行分析讨论,并对整车安全性能进行研究分析,最终得出确定此混合动力平台技术可行。%Based on chery G3 PHEV cars as the research object, research on hybrid platform for development, research front axle hybrid drive system integration and optimization, the rear axle of electronic drive system design and arrangement of rationality analysis discussion, and through analyzing the performance of the vehicle safety, ultimately determine the hybrid platform technology is feasible.

  10. The Influence of Tractor-Seat Height above the Ground on Lateral Vibrations

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Gomez-Gil; Francisco Javier Gomez-Gil; Rebeca Martin-de-Leon

    2014-01-01

    Farmers experience whole-body vibrations when they drive tractors. Among the various factors that influence the vibrations to which the driver is exposed are terrain roughness, tractor speed, tire type and pressure, rear axle width, and tractor seat height above the ground. In this paper the influence of tractor seat height above the ground on the lateral vibrations to which the tractor driver is exposed is studied by means of a geometrical and an experimental analysis. Both analyses show tha...

  11. Konstrukce závodního speciálu Ford Focus T16

    OpenAIRE

    Chott, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor work describes realization and all other issues concerning building of Ford Focus MK1 T16 racing car and it is focused on axles and engine with transmission within the three-year full-time Bachelor Degree study programme at Faculty of Engineering, accredited course: Road Transport and City Traffic (RTCT). They are some special manufacturing processes and interesting points of the vehicle construction mentioned in this work. The work directs on body construction, its framing and ...

  12. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF DYNAMIC QUALITIES OF FREIGHT CARS WITH BOGIES OF DIFFERENT DESIGNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. With the advent of new designs of freright cars the task of designing the more modern bogies, assessment of their dynamic properties depending on the type and structure of pecularities, accounting the axle loadings, providing the dynamic and running characteristics, meeting the conditions of impact on the track, stability, and frame forces intensity etc. becomes especially important. In order to launch the new production into manufacture and to assess the dynamic properties using different designs of bogies the running testes were conducted. They allowed one to compare the dynamic performance of the new bogie with the existing models. Methodology. The study was conducted using the method of numerical integration and mathematical modeling of dynamic loading of freight cars using the software package «Dynamics of Rail Vehicles» («DYNRAIL». Findings. The results of studies of dynamic characteristics of open cars with new and worn wheels of bogie models 18-9771, 18-9770 and 18-578 in graphical and tabular form are presented. All figures are within the normative values and do not exceed the maximum admissible ones. Originality. When designing the bogie for loading 23.5 t/axle almost all available technical solutions to improve the characteristics of the freight car bogies (elastic bearers, cassette bearing in axle boxes, axle boxe adapter of original design, bilinear central spring suspension, etc. were used. Practical value. As a result of the engineering works on projecting and manufacturing of the improved designs of freight car bogies a new design was received. It is highly competitive with the dynamic qualities of the best ones. Made choice of rational values of elastic-dissipative parameters of the bogie allows one to create standard series of running gears for freight cars for promising operating conditions.The results are of practical importance. They have found reflection in the number of author’spublications in special and

  13. 流体润滑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Self-organization in friction and lubrication processes at cutting;An experimental model for mixed friction during running-in;Spring-supported thrust bearings used in hydroelectric generators: finite element analysis of pad deflection;Spring-supported thrust bearings used in hydroelectric generators: limit of hydrodynamic lubrication;Basic study on transmitted characteristic of crossed axle type traction drive;Characterization of pit geometry in cold-rolled stainless steel strip。

  14. Economic Effects of Lifting the Spring Load Restriction Policy in Minnesota

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Smalkoski; Ning Li; David Levinson

    2006-01-01

    Spring load restrictions (SLR) regulate the weight per axle carried by heavy trucks during the spring thaw period. This policy aims to reduce pavement damage caused by heavy vehicles and extend the useful life of roads, but it also imposes costs on the trucking industry due to detouring or increased number of truckloads. Although the policies have been implemented for many years, their resulting economic effect has been unclear. The Minnesota Local Road Research Board (LRRB) and the Minnesota...

  15. Very high cycle fatigue of duplex stainless steels and stress intensity calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Tofique, Muhammad Waqas

    2014-01-01

    Very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) is generally considered as the domain of fatigue lifetime beyond 10 million (107) load cycles. Few examples of structural components which are subjected to 107-109 load cycles during their service life are engine parts, turbine disks, railway axles and load-carrying parts of automobiles. Therefore, the safe and reliable operation of these components depends on the knowledge of their fatigue strength and the prevalent damage/failure mechanisms. Moreover, the fati...

  16. Catalog of components for electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissler, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    This catalog of commercially available electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion system components is intended for designers and builders of these vehicles and contains 50 categories of components. These categories include those components used between the battery terminals and the output axle hub, as well as some auxiliary equipment. An index of the components and a listing of the suppliers and their addresses and phone numbers are included.

  17. 大功率机车静态称重系统的设计与实现%The design and implementation of high power locomotive static weighing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉东; 伏滨; 高绍和; 杨纪富

    2015-01-01

    Articleabstract:To solve the problem after the new manufacture, use, repair of high power locomotive wheel load, axle load partial load problem, high-power locomotive static weighing system is designed and developed, the system through the detection of locomotive wheel load, axle load, heavy truck and vehicle weight, through computer processing to calculate the vehicle wheel load, axle load difference and unilateral lateral wheel weight difference, determine the plane of center of gravity of the locomotive, and can be calculated based on test result form guide adjustment scheme of locomotive wheel weight deviation, adjusting spring cushioned by the adjustment plan, so as to realize the locomotive wheel load, axle load balance.%为解决新制造、使用中、修理后的大功率机车轮重、轴重偏载问题,设计开发了大功率机车静态称重系统,该系统通过检测机车的轮重、轴重、转向架重及整车重量,经过计算机处理计算出车辆轮重差、轴重差以及单边侧轮重差,确定出机车的平面重心,并能依据检测结果计算形成指导机车轮重偏差的调整方案,依据调整方案进行调簧加垫,从而实现机车轮重、轴重均载平衡。

  18. An Analysis of Overweighed Higher Education Cost in Impoverished Countryside Families

    OpenAIRE

    Guoqiang Tang; Xian Zhan

    2010-01-01

    In 1997, China’s general universities carried on the "the axle" policy on tuition charging, and then the tuition of general higher education increases rapidly. Students’ education charges keep increasing and occupy a large proportion of people’s household income. The excessive burden undertook by private families, especially impoverished countryside families has beyond their capacity. The soaring tuition of higher education will directly lead to the poverty of rights and opportunities of educ...

  19. Stress Analysis on Behaviour of Rails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Kameswara Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is axiomatic to say that the rails used nowadays have been subjected to heavier axle loads and high operating speeds. This may lead to derailment and eventually loss of life. In this paper Transient analysis (Dynamic analysis for rail by using ANSYS 12.1 Software is discussed. In this analysis deflection and stress are compared with wheel diameter, load, speed and range of distribution of contact load. Result is analyzed by the effect of variation of these parameters.

  20. The Influence of Subgrade Subsidence on Train Track Dynamic Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Eugene J.; Taheri, A.; Gavin, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports results from a numerical model to calculate subgrade settlement in railway tracks due to repeated dynamic loading. The trains are modelled as rigid body 2-axle carriages on two layers of springs. The track is modelled as a beam supported on three layers of springs. Permanent deformation of the subgrade layer is calculated on the basis of a power law assumption. Patterns of dynamic forces are calculated on a smooth track and on a track subject to an initial su...

  1. ELASTO-KINEMATIC COMPUTATIONAL MODEL OF SUSPENSION WITH FLEXIBLE SUPPORTING ELEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Tomáš Vrána; Josef Bradáč; Jan Kovanda

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of flexibility of individual supporting elements of independent suspension on its elasto-kinematic characteristics. The toe and camber angle are the geometric parameters of the suspension, which waveforms and their changes under the action of vertical, longitudinal and transverse forces affect the stability of the vehicle. To study these dependencies, the computational multibody system (MBS) model of axle suspension in the system HyperWorks is created. There are...

  2. Steered wheel for the support and/or steering of a vehicle, particularly hovercraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duell, H.J.; Kirchner, G.

    1977-04-07

    The invention concerns a steered wheel for the support or steering of a hovercraft, whose wheel suspension is provided with an eccentric journal for automatic setting in the direction of travel. So that the vehicle will not leave its track during changes of direction when the wheel is turned around the eccentric axis, according to the invention the wheel is supported on movable bearings at the journal in the direction of the driving axle.

  3. Dual involvement of growth arrest-specific gene 6 in the early phase of human IgA nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojiro Nagai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gas6 is a growth factor that causes proliferation of mesangial cells in the development of glomerulonephritis. Gas6 can bind to three kinds of receptors; Axl, Dtk, and Mer. However, their expression and functions are not entirely clear in the different glomerular cell types. Meanwhile, representative cell cycle regulatory protein p27 has been reported to be expressed in podocytes in normal glomeruli with decreased expression in proliferating glomeruli, which inversely correlated with mesangial proliferation in human IgA nephropathy (IgAN. METHODS: The aim of this study is to clarify Gas6 involvement in the progression of IgAN. Expression of Gas6/Axl/Dtk was examined in 31 biopsy proven IgAN cases. We compared the expression levels with histological severity or clinical data. Moreover, we investigated the expression of Gas6 and its receptors in cultured podocytes. RESULTS: In 28 of 31 cases, Gas6 was upregulated mainly in podocytes. In the other 3 cases, Gas6 expression was induced in endothelial and mesangial cells, which was similar to animal nephritis models. Among 28 podocyte type cases, the expression level of Gas6 correlated with the mesangial hypercellularity score of IgAN Oxford classification and urine protein excretion. It also inversely correlated with p27 expression in glomeruli. As for the receptors, Axl was mainly expressed in endothelial and mesangial cells, while Dtk was expressed in podocytes. In vitro, Dtk was expressed in cultured murine podocytes, and the expression of p27 was decreased by Gas6 stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: Gas6 was uniquely upregulated in either endothelial/mesangial cells or podocytes in IgAN. The expression pattern can be used as a marker to classify IgAN. Gas6 has a possibility to be involved in not only mesangial proliferation via Axl, but also podocyte injury via Dtk in IgAN.

  4. Fuel efficiency and CO2 emissions of biomass based haulage in Ireland - A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Devlin, Ger; Klvac, Radomir; McDonnell, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse how biomass based haulage in Ireland performed as a measure of efficiency under 4 main criteria; distance travelled, fuel consumption, fuel consumption per unit of biomass hauled and diesel CO2 emissions. The applicability of truck engine diagnostic equipment was tested to analyse the schedule of engine data that could be recorded in real-time from a 5 axle articulated biomass truck. This identified how new on board truck technology in Ireland could be...

  5. Hardening XL. Induction technology with rotating crankshaft; Haerten XL. Induktionstechnik mit rotierender Kurbelwelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dappen, Stefan; Schibisch, Dirk M. [SMS Elotherm GmbH, Remscheid (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    Crankshafts are used in combustion engines, transforming the con rod's stroke into a rotary motion for driving the axle shaft. Along with this, torsional and flexural fatigue appears and demands a special heat treatment process. The induction hardening with a rotating crankshaft has mostly replaced competitive methods and provides the engine builders with a flexible production process for varying geometries, different hardening zones as well as increasing production rates. (orig.)

  6. Handling Stability of Tractor Semitrailer Based on Handling Diagram

    OpenAIRE

    Ren Yuan-yuan; Zheng Xue-lian; Li Xian-sheng

    2012-01-01

    Handling instability is a serious threat to driving safety. In order to analyze the handling stability of a tractor semitrailer, a handling diagram can be used. In our research, considering the impact of multiple nonsteering rear axles and nonlinear characteristics of tires on vehicle handling stability, the handling equations are developed for description of stability of tractor semi-trailer. Then we obtain handling diagrams so as to study the influence of driving speed, loaded mass, and fif...

  7. Effect of ocular magnification on macular measurements made using spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohana Kuppuswamy Parthasarathy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to study the effect of ocular magnification on macular measurements made using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty-one subjects were included from the normative study of foveal morphology carried out at our hospital. Subjects underwent comprehensive eye examination and macular scanning using Cirrus high-definition OCT and axial length (AXL measurement. Macular cube 512 × 128 scan protocol was used for scanning the macula. Automated measurements of the fovea namely foveal diameter, foveal slope (lateral measurements and foveal depth (axial measurement were taken. A correction factor for ocular magnification was done using the formula t = p × q × s, where "t0" is the corrected measurement, "p" is the magnification of OCT, "q0" is the ocular magnification, and "s" is the measurement on OCT without correction. The difference between corrected and uncorrected measurements was evaluated for statistical significance. Results: Mean AXL was 22.95 ± 0.78 mm. Refractive error ranged from −3D to +4D. Mean difference between measured and corrected foveal diameter, slope and depth was 166.05 ± 95.37 ΅m (P < 0.001, 0.81° ± 0.53° (P < 0.001 and 0.05 ± 0.49 ΅m (P = 0.178 respectively. AXL lesser than the OCT calibrated value of 24.46 mm showed an increased foveal diameter (r = 0.961, P < 0.001 and a reduced foveal slope (r = −0.863, P < 0.001 than the corrected value. Conclusion: Lateral measurements made on OCT varied with AXL s other than the OCT calibrated value of 24.46 mm. Therefore, to estimate the actual dimensions of a retinal lesion using OCT, especially lateral dimensions, we recommend correction for the ocular magnification factor.

  8. The new Mercedes-Benz AROCS; Der neue AROCS von Mercedes-Benz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuern, Joerg; Mierisch, Uwe; Mueller-Finkeldei, Rainer; Koellermeyer, Albrecht [Daimler AG, Stuttgart (Germany). Mercedes-Benz Trucks

    2013-03-15

    The requirements placed on modern construction vehicles are very diverse. In quarries and mines, extreme load-carrying capacity and durability are required, whereas transporting concrete demands lightweight construction. From two to four axles, all-wheel configurations must be covered. Vehicle applications include semitrailers and customized chassis frames for dump truck, concrete moving, and special-purpose body designs. The new Mercedes-Benz Arocs satisfies these properties. (orig.)

  9. Self Healing of Asphalt Mixtures: Towards a Better Understanding of the Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, J.

    2012-01-01

    Traffic is increasing rapidly in terms of number of vehicles and also in axle loads. In order to maximize the availability of the pavement and to minimize hindrances to traffic because of maintenance works, long life pavements are needed. An asphalt pavement with self repairing capabilities is believed to be very useful to this respect. The self healing phenomenon of asphalt mixtures is known for many years by road engineers. Bituminous materials are expected to repair themselves during hot s...

  10. Effects of Different Tire Configurations on Tractor Performance

    OpenAIRE

    SÜMER, Sarp Korkut

    2005-01-01

    The effects of tire ply constructions (radial and bias) and tire arrangements (singles and duals on rear the axle) on tractor performance were evaluated for 2 gear levels on 2 different fields covered with wheat stubble and having different soil types, clay and sandy-loam. For this purpose, the tractor's overall efficiency, specific fuel consumption, and slip values were determined using parameters measured in the study. The results showed that the use of radial tires provided some advan...

  11. DIFERENÇAS DE FINALIDADE E MODIFICAÇ’ES ESTRUTURAIS NA FILIÈRE DO ARROZ BIODINÂMICO: O CASO DE SENTINELA DO SUL, RS

    OpenAIRE

    Hoff, Debora Nayar; Bruch, Kelly Lissandra

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to study the implications that result from the purpose differences between the biodynamic rice producer systems and the industry of this product in the filière structure. The theoretical approach includes system comprehension and the company vision in the systemic approach, while focusing on the purpose of productive systems according to three possible axles: economic, financial and social. An approach on filière helps in the visualization of the impacts the purpose that sys...

  12. Etude numérique de l’influence du comportement non linéaire et de l’hétérogénéité des matériaux dans la réponse de la voie ferrée

    OpenAIRE

    Alves Fernandes, Vinicius

    2014-01-01

    An increasing demand for railway transportation is observed in many countries around the world. Achieving higher network capacity requires the evaluation of the existing structure regarding the required traffic, speed and axle load, as well as the reduction of maintenance interventions. A higher track performance in terms of these metrics can be achieved by enhanced design standards and predictive tools accounting for the whole structure’s life span.Within this context, this thesis aims to pr...

  13. Predictive Control Strategies Used to Solve Challenges Related to Modern Railway Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Ngigi, R. W.; Pislaru, Crinela; Ball, Andrew; Fengshou, Gu; Anyakwo, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to collate and critically appraise the recent advances in control strategies used to solve challenges related to railway vehicles which present nonlinearities and uncertainties. These strategies concentrate on stability of solid axle-wheelsets, guidance for wheelsets to provide the function of track following and curving to reduce all unnecessary creep forces and associated wear/noise. The focus is on active primary and secondary suspensions, braking and trac...

  14. The Otto-engine-equivalent vehicle concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, M. W.; Couch, M. D.

    1978-01-01

    A vehicle comparison methodology based on the Otto-Engine Equivalent (OEE) vehicle concept is described. As an illustration of this methodology, the concept is used to make projections of the fuel economy potential of passenger cars using various alternative power systems. Sensitivities of OEE vehicle results to assumptions made in the calculational procedure are discussed. Factors considered include engine torque boundary, rear axle ratio, performance criteria, engine transient response, and transmission shift logic.

  15. Optimization of Fuel Consumption in a Hybrid Powertrain

    OpenAIRE

    Sivertsson, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Increased environmental awareness together with new legislative demands on lowered emissions and a rising fuel cost have put focus on increasing the fuel efficiency in new vehicles. Hybridization is a way to increase the efficiency of the powertrain.The Haldex electric Torque Vectoring Device is a rear axle with a built in electric motor, designed to combine all-wheel drive with hybrid functionality. A method is developed for creating a real time control algorithm that minimizes the fuel cons...

  16. 细长轴车削加工工艺%The slender shaft turning processing technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铭勳

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, factors influencing the machining parts precision slender shaft is not high, analyzes how to raise processing precision of slender axle parts, gives the specific methods to solve the problem.%文章针对影响加工细长轴零件精度不高等因素,分析了如何提细长轴零件的加工精度,给出解决问题的具体方法。

  17. Algorithms for Pallet Building and Truck Loading in an Interdepot Transportation Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Teresa Alonso; Ramon Alvarez-Valdes; Francisco Parreño; Jose Manuel Tamarit

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of a logistics company that has to serve its customers by first putting the products on pallets and then loading the pallets into trucks. Besides the standard geometric constraints of products not overlapping each other and not exceeding the dimensions of pallets and trucks, in this real problem, there are many other constraints, related to the total weight of the load, the maximum weight supported by each axle, and the distribution of the load inside the tru...

  18. FATIGUE LIFE PREDICTION OF COMPOSITE SEMI - ELLIPTICA L LEAF SPRING FOR HEAVY VEHICLE

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep B. Tapkir; Prof. Balaji Nelge

    2015-01-01

    A leaf spring is a simple form of spring, commonly used for the suspension in wheeled vehicles. Leaf Springs are long and narrow plates attached to the frame of a trailer that rest above or below the trailer's axle. There are mono leaf springs, or single - l eaf springs, that consist of simply one plate of spring steel. These are usually thick in the middle and taper out toward the end, and they don't typically offer too much strength and su...

  19. Research present situation and analysis on classification of rock drillability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhi-hong; MA Qin-yong

    2001-01-01

    Rock drillability reflects the drill bit fragments rock hardly or easily. At present, rock drillability classification indexes have rock single-axle compressive strength, point load intensity,fracture stress during chiseling, drill speed, chiseling specific work, acoustic parameter, cutting magnitude, and so on. Every index reflects rock drillability but isn't overall. It is feasible that using many indexes of fuzzy mathematics method etc. to evaluate rock drillability.

  20. Immunobiology of the TAM receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Lemke, Greg; Rothlin, Carla V.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that the TAM receptor protein tyrosine kinases — TYRO3, AXL and MER — have pivotal roles in innate immunity. They inhibit inflammation in dendritic cells and macrophages, promote the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and membranous organelles, and stimulate the maturation of natural killer cells. Each of these phenomena may depend on a cooperative interaction between TAM receptor and cytokine receptor signalling systems. Although its importance was previously unreco...

  1. GAS6 in systemic inflammatory diseases: with and without infection

    OpenAIRE

    Hurtado, Begoña; García de Frutos, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin K-dependent proteins are not only essential regulators of blood coagulation. A recent paper in Critical Care describes the levels of the vitamin K-dependent GAS6 and the soluble form of its receptor Axl in plasma from patients with sepsis of systemic inflammation. The results confirm that GAS6 is elevated during septicemia, but the fact that inflammatory conditions without infection produce a similar effect suggests it is inflammation that induces the synthesis of GAS6, rather than th...

  2. Evaluation of Anterior Chamber Volume in Cataract Patients with Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwen He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the anterior chamber volume in cataract patients with Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography (SS-OCT and its influencing factors. Methods. Anterior chamber volume of 92 cataract patients was evaluated with SS-OCT in this cross-sectional study. Univariate analyses and multiple linear regression were used to investigate gender, age, operated eye, posterior vitreous detachment, lens opacity grading, and axial length (AXL related variables capable of influencing the ACV. Results. The average ACV was 139.80 ± 38.21 mm3 (range 59.41 to 254.09 mm3. The average ACV was significantly larger in male patients than in female patients (P=0.001. ACV was negatively correlated with age and LOCS III cortical (C grading of the lens (Pearson’s correlation analysis, r=-0.443, P<0.001, and Spearman’s correlation analysis, ρ=-0.450, P<0.001. ACV was also increased with AXL (Pearson’s correlation analysis, r=0.552, P<0.001. Multiple linear regression showed that, with all of the covariates entered into the model, gender (P=0.002, age (P=0.015, LOCS III C grade (P=0.043, and AXL (P=0.001 were still associated with ACV (F=10.252  P<0.001  R2=0.498. Conclusion. With SS-OCT, we found that, in healthy cataract patients, ACV varied significantly among different subjects. Influencing factors that contribute to reduced ACV were female gender, increased age, LOCS III C grade, and shorter AXL.

  3. Train–Bridge Interaction : Literature Review and Parameter Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Arvidsson, Therese

    2014-01-01

    New railway lines are continuously being constructed and existing lines are upgraded. Hence, there is a need for research directed towards efficient design of the supporting structures. Increasingly advanced calculation methods can be motivated, especially in projects where huge savings can be obtained from verifying that existing structures can safely support increased axle loads and higher speeds. This thesis treats the dynamic response of bridges under freight and passenger train loads. Th...

  4. REDUCING THE NEGATIVE INFLUENCE OF KINEMATIC DISCREPANCY IN THE TRANSMISSION OF FOUR-WHEEL DRIVE WHEELED VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismailov V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses different types of drive axles of all-wheel drive machine. It is shown that if blocked drive of driving axle easy, it is able to provide the best traction drive qualities of the all-wheel car, if compensation of kinematic mismatch in movement of front and rear wheels. The article provides analysis of the causes of kinematic mismatch and its consequences. The analysis was given for the existing methods to reduce negative influence of kinematic discrepancy on the work of the four-wheel drive wheeled machine in locked mode. The method of reduction of kinematic mismatch by regulations of the air pressure in the tires of the wheels with one-time control of the leading moments on the axes was suggested. We show the relationship between the difference of kinematic radii of the wheels of different axles and the difference of the moments leading to them. The algorithm and description for the system of automatic control of air pressure in the tire, which realizes the proposed method, were presented. We have described experimental methods of determining the energy losses evaluation from kinematic mismatch when moving all-wheel drive machine. The article presents the results of the this assessment in relation to the agricultural wheel tractor of class 5 moving at different substructures

  5. Quantitative phosphoproteomics revealed interplay between Syk and Lyn in the resistance to nilotinib in chronic myeloid leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Romain; Leroy, Cédric; Drullion, Claire; Lagarde, Valérie; Etienne, Gabriel; Dulucq, Stéphanie; Lippert, Eric; Roche, Serge; Mahon, François-Xavier; Pasquet, Jean-Max

    2011-08-25

    In this study, we have addressed how Lyn kinase signaling mediates nilotinib-resistance by quantitative phospho-proteomics using Stable Isotope Labeling with Amino acid in Cell culture. We have found an increased tyrosine phosphorylation of 2 additional tyrosine kinases in nilotinib-resistant cells: the spleen tyrosine kinase Syk and the UFO family receptor tyrosine kinase Axl. This increased tyrosine phosphorylation involved an interaction of these tyrosine kinases with Lyn. Inhibition of Syk by the inhibitors R406 or BAY 61-3606 or by RNA interference restored the capacity of nilotinib to inhibit cell proliferation. Conversely, coexpression of Lyn and Syk were required to fully induce resistance to nilotinib in drug-sensitive cells. Surprisingly, the knockdown of Syk also strongly decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of Lyn and Axl, thus uncovering interplay between Syk and Lyn. We have shown the involvement of the adaptor protein CDCP-1 in resistance to nilotinib. Interestingly, the expression of Axl and CDCP1 were found increased both in a nilotinib-resistant cell line and in nilotinib-resistant CML patients. We conclude that an oncogenic signaling mediated by Lyn and Syk can bypass the need of Bcr-Abl in CML cells. Thus, targeting these kinases may be of therapeutic value to override imatinib or nilotinib resistance in CML. PMID:21730355

  6. Graftpolyrotaxane: Graft polymer possessing movable graft chains on cyclodextrins as the polyrotaxane wheels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashima, T; Hinoue, K; Kihara, N; Hayashi, M; Koyama, Y; Takata, T, E-mail: ttakata@polymer.titech.ac.j [Department of Organic and Polymeric Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2009-08-01

    Graftpolyrotaxanes having graft chains on the wheel components were prepared from main chain-type polyrotaxane having monofunctional cyclodextrin wheels and terminal end-reactive poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). The well-defined polyrotaxane having mono(6-hydroxyl) permethyl-{alpha}-CD (monoOH-{alpha}-CD) as the wheel components and a polytetrahydrofuran (PTHF) axle with bulky end-capping groups was synthesized by the two pathways; (i) synthesis by solid-state end-capping of pseudopolyrotaxane consisting of monoOAc-{alpha}-CD and hydroxy-terminated PTHF and (ii) one-pot synthesis using monoOH-{alpha}-CD and amine-terminated PTHF in water. The grafting reaction on the wheel moieties of the resulting polyrotaxane was carried out by acylation reaction with PEG-mono-carboxylic acid derivatives in high conversion yields. To estimate the relative rotary movement of CDs and the axle polymer in the polyrotaxane and graftpolyrotaxane, the rotational correlation time ({tau}{sub c}) of polyrotaxanes was estimated from the longitudinal relaxation time (T{sub 1}) of {sup 13}C NMR. The results clearly indicate that the graftpolyrotaxane described here is a new type of graft polymer in terms of the special circumrotation behavior such as the independent rotary movement of CDs with the graft chain and the axle polymer.

  7. Pavement Response to Variable Tyre Pressure of Heavy Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Ahmad Kamil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the effect of overinflated tyre pressure and increased heavy vehicles’ axle load on flexible pavements has become a subject of great concern because of the higher stress levels induced and damage caused to road pavements. This paper aims to evaluate the effect of variable tyre inflation pressures (using actual tyre contact/footprint area to determine the responses of flexible pavement. A full scale experiment was conducted on a heavy vehicle with 1:1:2 axle configuration, 10 R 20 tyre size and attached trailer with constant axle load. Measurements were made for actual tyre-pavement contact area. KENPAVE linear elastic program was then used to analyse the effects of the measured actual tyre-pavement contact area and the results was compared using conventional circular tyre contact area. A comparative analysis was then made between the actual contact area and the conventional circular tyre contact area. It was found that high tyre inflation pressure produce smaller contact area, giving more detrimental effect on the flexible pavement. It was also found that the temperature of tyres when the heavy vehicles are operational give less significant impact on tyre inflation pressure for the Malaysian climate.

  8. Intelligent control for braking-induced longitudinal vibration responses of floating-type railway bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an intelligent control method and its engineering application in the control of braking-induced longitudinal vibration of floating-type railway bridges. Equations of motion for the controlled floating-type railway bridges have been established based on the analysis of the longitudinal vibration responses of floating-type railway bridges to train braking and axle-loads of moving trains. For engineering applications of the developed theory, a full-scale 500 kN smart magnetorheologic (MR) damper has been designed, fabricated and used to carry out experiments on the intelligent control of braking-induced longitudinal vibration. The procedure for using the developed intelligent method in conjunction with the full-scale 500 kN MR dampers has been proposed and used to control the longitudinal vibration responses of the deck of floating-type railway bridges induced by train braking and axle-loads of moving trains. This procedure has been applied to the longitudinal vibration control of the Tian Xingzhou highway and railway cable-stayed bridge over the Yangtze River in China. The simulated results have shown that the intelligent control system using the smart MR dampers can effectively control the longitudinal response of the floating-type railway bridge under excitations of braking and axle-loads of moving trains

  9. Changes in inertia and effect on turning effort across different wheelchair configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayme J. Caspall, MS

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available When executing turning maneuvers, manual wheelchair users must overcome the rotational inertia of the wheelchair system. Differences in wheelchair rotational inertia can result in increases in torque required to maneuver, resulting in greater propulsion effort and stress on the shoulder joints. The inertias of various configurations of an ultralightweight wheelchair were measured using a rotational inertia-measuring device. Adjustments in axle position, changes in wheel and tire type, and the addition of several accessories had various effects on rotational inertias. The configuration with the highest rotational inertia (solid tires, mag wheels with rearward axle exceeded the configuration with the lowest (pneumatic tires, spoke wheels with forward axle by 28%. The greater inertia requires increased torque to accelerate the wheelchair during turning. At a representative maximum acceleration, the reactive torque spanned the range of 11.7 to 15.0 N-m across the wheelchair configurations. At higher accelerations, these torques exceeded that required to overcome caster scrub during turning. These results indicate that a wheelchair's rotational inertia can significantly influence the torque required during turning and that this influence will affect active users who turn at higher speeds. Categorizing wheelchairs using both mass and rotational inertia would better represent differences in effort during wheelchair maneuvers.

  10. High Resolution Order Tracking at Extreme Slew Rates Using Kalman Tracking Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håvard Vold

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the periodic components in noise and vibration signals measured on rotating equipment such as car power trains, must be done more and more under rapid changes of an axle, or reference RPM. Normal tracking filters (analog or digital implementations have limited resolution in such situations; wavelet methods, even when applied after resampling the data to be proportional to an axle RPM, must compromise between time and frequency resolution. The authors propose the application of nonstationary Kalman filters for the tracking of periodic components in such noise and vibration signals. These filters are designed to accurately track signals with a known structure among noise and signal components of different, “unknown,” structure. The tracking characteristics of these filters, i.e., the predicted signal amplitude versus time values versus exact signal amplitude versus time values, can be tailored to accurate tracking of harmonics buried in other signal components and noise, even at high rates of change of the reference RPM. A key to the successful construction is the precise knowledge of the structure of the signal to be tracked. For signals that vary with an axle RPM, an accurate estimate of the instantaneous RPM is essential, and procedures to this end will also be presented.

  11. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankun Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking safety in emergency braking condition; the bottom layer is used to maximize the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency with a reallocated braking torque strategy; the reallocated braking torque strategy can recovery braking energy as much as possible in the premise of meeting battery charging power. The simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical control strategy is reasonable and can adapt to different typical road surfaces and load cases; the vehicle braking stability and safety can be guaranteed; furthermore, the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency can be improved.

  12. Changes in inertia and effect on turning effort across different wheelchair configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspall, Jayme J; Seligsohn, Erin; Dao, Phuc V; Sprigle, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    When executing turning maneuvers, manual wheelchair users must overcome the rotational inertia of the wheelchair system. Differences in wheelchair rotational inertia can result in increases in torque required to maneuver, resulting in greater propulsion effort and stress on the shoulder joints. The inertias of various configurations of an ultralightweight wheelchair were measured using a rotational inertia-measuring device. Adjustments in axle position, changes in wheel and tire type, and the addition of several accessories had various effects on rotational inertias. The configuration with the highest rotational inertia (solid tires, mag wheels with rearward axle) exceeded the configuration with the lowest (pneumatic tires, spoke wheels with forward axle) by 28%. The greater inertia requires increased torque to accelerate the wheelchair during turning. At a representative maximum acceleration, the reactive torque spanned the range of 11.7 to 15.0 N-m across the wheelchair configurations. At higher accelerations, these torques exceeded that required to overcome caster scrub during turning. These results indicate that a wheelchair's rotational inertia can significantly influence the torque required during turning and that this influence will affect active users who turn at higher speeds. Categorizing wheelchairs using both mass and rotational inertia would better represent differences in effort during wheelchair maneuvers.

  13. Evaluation of Anterior Chamber Volume in Cataract Patients with Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenwen; Zhu, Xiangjia; Wolff, Don; Zhao, Zhennan; Sun, Xinghuai; Lu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the anterior chamber volume in cataract patients with Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography (SS-OCT) and its influencing factors. Methods. Anterior chamber volume of 92 cataract patients was evaluated with SS-OCT in this cross-sectional study. Univariate analyses and multiple linear regression were used to investigate gender, age, operated eye, posterior vitreous detachment, lens opacity grading, and axial length (AXL) related variables capable of influencing the ACV. Results. The average ACV was 139.80 ± 38.21 mm(3) (range 59.41 to 254.09 mm(3)). The average ACV was significantly larger in male patients than in female patients (P = 0.001). ACV was negatively correlated with age and LOCS III cortical (C) grading of the lens (Pearson's correlation analysis, r = -0.443, P ACV was also increased with AXL (Pearson's correlation analysis, r = 0.552, P ACV (F = 10.252  P ACV varied significantly among different subjects. Influencing factors that contribute to reduced ACV were female gender, increased age, LOCS III C grade, and shorter AXL.

  14. Automotive stamped part fatigue design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caudoux Mélanie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue design of automotive axle parts is of prior concern because of these are high safety parts and they are expected to drive the overall vehicle mass reduction. In this framework, the stamping process is widely used to form axle parts, before assembling them by welding. Consequently, the mechanical and physical characteristics of the blank sheet are modified, having a strong influence on the fatigue behavior. In this paper, we address the consequences of the stamped process on the fatigue design and how they may be effectively taken into account in the automotive industry. Actually, the coupling between the stamping process and the fatigue design is under development at PSA Peugeot Citroën Company since several years. Such an analysis deals with some major topics: thickness variation, plastic hardening and deformation, and residual stress. All of these ingredients result in fatigue criteria evolutions: it is important to stress that the stamping process can have advantageous or disadvantageous consequences on the fatigue design. This is here highlighted on some examples, dealing with front and rear axles.

  15. SPECIFICITY AND TRENDS IN IMPROVEMENT OF TRACTOR TRAIN BRAKING DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Tayanovsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an important problem in improvement of  braking dynamics potential as part of the overall tractor train dynamics consisting of  an all-wheel drive tractor and heavy-duty trailers which are either locally manufactured or developed with the participation of the paper’s authors. The trailers have a mechanical drive for their wheels from the tractor engine. The trains are intended for transportation peat, organic fertilizers and various loads in  forest exploitation and under other complicated soil and climatic and road conditions where there is justified necessity to activate the trailer wheels.Methodological tools have been developed with the purpose to analyze an influence of the blocked inter-double-reduction axle drive of an active tractor train on distribution of braking forces in double-reduction axles with due account of the heavy-duty peat trailer specificity. Theoretical provisions for wheeled vehicles have been developed with regard to the braking application specificity of active tractor trains with mechanical multi-path drive for wheels of a multi-double-reduction axle propulsion device. The paper presents calculation and theoretical data in order to estimate  distribution of specific braking forces in the double-reduction axle links of the active tractor train when the blocked inter-double-reduction axle drive of the tractor and trailer wheels is switched on and also in the case when the tractor engine is involved in braking process and a clutch coupling is switched-on.Sequence of the calculation formula has been completely carried out in the paper. They represent clear design and operational parameters of the active tractor train. Such approach has made it possible to realize them in the form of a software application which is convenient for analysis of the braking process pertaining to the investigated objects in order to select means for improvement of braking dynamics, rational parameters of multi

  16. Contact-less magneto-elastic torsional sensor based on phase-shift measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the development of a contact-less measurement technique for torsional shear stress τ in ferromagnetic axles or hollow shafts, based on the magneto-elastic effect. In general, two different measuring principles for ferromagnetic materials can be realized, based on: the evaluation of the change of magnetic polarization influenced by shear stress ΔJ(τ) or the change of the magnetic susceptibility ΔχA(τ). The comprehension of the magnetic polarization or the magnetic susceptibility in a sensor concept requires an external magnetic field. Alternating magnetic fields were used as shear stress can disturb not only the amplitude but also the phase distribution of the applied magnetic field. As a result of a torsional moment acting on an axle or hollow shaft, an angle of twist η appears, which is constant over the length of the twisted object. This angle of twist can be understood as a shift of infinitesimal thin cross-sections in which the whole length of the axle is separated. Besides the macroscopic deformation effect, shear forces also affect the Weiss-domains in the micro-scale of the ferromagnetic material. The effects in the micro-scale are the base of the magneto-elastic effect. The combination of the deformation effect in the macro-scale and the deformation of the Weiss-domains in the micro-scale leads to a sophisticated measurement principle for torsional stress in axles or hollow shafts. Magneto-sensitive detectors along or around the measurement object open up the possibility for a contact-less detection of torsional stress in ferromagnetic materials. Besides a strong measuring signal, free from electromagnetic interference, the introduced contact-less measurement principle offers different advantages, like independence from compression strength, nominal tensile stress, impact load, ferromagnetic hysteresis effects and independence of the temperature-dependent electrical conductivity of the axle or hollow shaft. The characteristics of such a

  17. A Research on the ABS Test Method for Four-Wheel-Drive Vehicle Equipped with Viscous Coupler%装备黏性联轴器四驱车辆的ABS试验方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢东明; 苑林; 郭勇; 梁荣亮; 高吉强; 李卫军; 齐辉平

    2012-01-01

    In the antilock braking system ( ABS) test for four-wheel-drive vehicle equipped with viscous coupler, when traditional disposal ( making failure of one axle's braking) is adopted, the adhesion coefficient obtained of low-adhesion lane far exceeds the real value. The reason is revealed through the in-depth analyses in this paper that when one axle's braking fails, there is a significant difference between the rotation speeds of front and rear axles caused by the variation of tires slip ratio, leading to the occurrence of hump phenomena in viscous coupler, then the front and rear axles become quasi-rigid connected and all the wheels involve in braking. Therefore it is suggested that in the ABS test for four-wheel-drive vehicle equipped with viscous coupler, the input shaft of viscous coupler should be dismounted for making only one axle involved in braking, so that a right adhesion coefficient can be obtained.%装备黏性联轴器的四驱车辆在进行防抱死制动系统的试验中,按照传统的使单轴制动失效的办法获得的低附路面附着系数远高于试验路面实际的附着系数.文中通过分析揭示了其原因是:单轴制动失效时前、后轴轮胎滑移率变化造成转速差过大而产生驼峰现象,前、后轴形成准刚性连接而共同参与制动.因此,装备黏性联轴器的四驱车辆在进行ABS路面附着系数试验时应将黏性联轴器输入轴拆除,使之仅有单轴参与制动,才能获得正确的路面附着系数.

  18. Prototype Weigh-In-Motion Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Beshears, David L [ORNL; Hively, Lee M [ORNL; Scudiere, Matthew B [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL

    2006-10-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed and patented methods to weigh slowly moving vehicles. We have used this technology to produce a portable weigh-in-motion system that is robust and accurate. This report documents the performance of the second-generation portable weigh-in-motion prototype (WIM Gen II). The results of three modes of weight determination are compared in this report: WIM Gen II dynamic mode, WIM Gen II stop-and-go mode, and static (parked) mode on in-ground, static scales. The WIM dynamic mode measures axle weights as the vehicle passes over the system at speeds of 3 to 7 miles per hour (1.3 to 3.1 meters/second). The WIM stop-and-go mode measures the weight of each axle of the vehicle as the axles are successively positioned on a side-by-side pair of WIM measurement pads. In both measurement modes the center of balance (CB) and the total weight are obtained by a straight-forward calculation from axle weights and axle spacings. The performance metric is measurement error (in percent), which is defined as 100 x (sample standard deviation)/(average); see Appendix A for details. We have insufficient data to show that this metric is predictive. This report details the results of weight measurements performed in May 2005 at two sites using different types of vehicles at each site. In addition to the weight measurements, the testing enabled refinements to the test methodology and facilitated an assessment of the influence of vehicle speed on the dynamic-mode measurements. The initial test at the National Transportation Research Center in Knoxville, TN, involved measurements of passenger and light-duty commercial vehicles. A subsequent test at the Arrival/Departure Airfield Control Group (A/DACG) facility in Ft. Bragg, NC, involved military vehicles with gross weights between 3,000 and 75,000 pounds (1,356 to 33,900 kilograms) with a 20,000-pound (9,040 kilograms) limit per axle. For each vehicle, four or more separate measurements were done

  19. Case depth verification of hardened samples with Barkhausen noise sweeps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santa-aho, Suvi; Vippola, Minnamari; Lepistö, Toivo [Tampere University of Technology, Department of Materials Science, P.O. Box 589, 33101 Tampere (Finland); Hakanen, Merja [Stresstech Oy, Tikkutehtaantie 1, 40800 Vaajakoski (Finland); Sorsa, Aki; Leiviskä, Kauko [University of Oulu, Control Engineering Laboratory, P.O. Box 4300, FIN-90014 University of Oulu (Finland)

    2014-02-18

    An interesting topic of recent Barkhausen noise (BN) method studies is the application of the method to case depth evaluation of hardened components. The utilization of BN method for this purpose is based on the difference in the magnetic properties between the hardened case and the soft core. Thus, the detection of case depth with BN can be achieved. The measurements typically have been carried out by using low magnetizing frequencies which have deeper penetration to the ferromagnetic samples than the conventional BN measurement. However, the penetration depth is limited due to eddy current damping of the signal. We introduce here a newly found sweep measurement concept for the case depth evaluation. In this study sweep measurements were carried out with various magnetizing frequencies and magnetizing voltages to detect the effect of different frequency and voltage and their correspondence to the actual case depth values verified from destructive characterization. Also a BN measurement device that has an implemented sweep analysis option was utilised. The samples were either induction or case-hardened samples and sample geometry contained both rod samples and gear axle samples with different case depth values. Samples were also further characterized with Xray diffraction to study the residual stress state of the surface. The detailed data processing revealed that also other calculated features than the maximum slope division of the 1st derivative of the BN signal could hold the information about the case depth value of the samples. The sweep method was able to arrange the axles into correct order according to the case depth value even though the axles were used.

  20. Effect of the first two wheelset bending modes on wheel-rail contact behavior%轮对前2阶弯曲模态对动力学行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuo-qiao ZHONG; Jia-yang XIONG; Xin-biao XIAO; Ze-feng WEN; Xue-song JIN‡

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a new wheel-rail contact model, which is suitable for considering the effect of wheelset bending deformation on wheel-rail contact behavior at high speeds. Dummies of the two half rigid wheelset are intro-duced to describe the spacial positions of the wheels of the deformed wheelset. In modeling the flexible wheelset, the first two wheelset bending modes are considered. Based on the modal synthesis method, these mode values of the wheelset axle are used to solve the motion equations of the flexible wheelset axle modeled as an Euler-Bernoulli beam. The wheel is assumed to be rigid and always perpendicular to the deformed axle at the wheel centre. In the vehicle model, two bogies and one car body are modeled as lumped masses. Spring-damper elements are adopted to model the primary and secondary suspension systems. The ballasted track is modeled as a triple layer discrete elastic supported model. Two high-speed vehicle-track models, one considering rigid wheelset models and the other considering flexible wheelset models, are used to analyze the differences of the numerical results of the two models in both frequency and time domains.In the simulation, a random high-speed railway track irregularity is used as wheel-rail excitations. Wheel-rail forces are calculated and analyzed in the time and frequency domains. The results clarify that this new contact model can characterize very well the influence of the first two bending modes of the wheelset on contact behavior.

  1. Antibody-Array-Based Proteomic Screening of Serum Markers in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Discovery Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tianfu; Ding, Huihua; Han, Jie; Arriens, Cristina; Wei, Chungwen; Han, Weilu; Pedroza, Claudia; Jiang, Shan; Anolik, Jennifer; Petri, Michelle; Sanz, Ignacio; Saxena, Ramesh; Mohan, Chandra

    2016-07-01

    A discovery study was carried out where serum samples from 22 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and matched healthy controls were hybridized to antibody-coated glass slide arrays that interrogated the level of 274 human proteins. On the basis of these screens, 48 proteins were selected for ELISA-based validation in an independent cohort of 28 SLE patients. Whereas AXL, ferritin, and sTNFRII were significantly elevated in patients with active lupus nephritis (LN) relative to SLE patients who were quiescent, other molecules such as OPN, sTNFRI, sTNFRII, IGFBP2, SIGLEC5, FAS, and MMP10 exhibited the capacity to distinguish SLE from healthy controls with ROC AUC exceeding 90%, all with p serum markers were next tested in a cohort of 45 LN patients, where serum was obtained at the time of renal biopsy. In these patients, sTNFRII exhibited the strongest correlation with eGFR (r = -0.50, p = 0.0014) and serum creatinine (r = 0.57, p = 0.0001), although AXL, FAS, and IGFBP2 also correlated with these clinical measures of renal function. When concurrent renal biopsies from these patients were examined, serum FAS, IGFBP2, and TNFRII showed significant positive correlations with renal pathology activity index, while sTNFRII displayed the highest correlation with concurrently scored renal pathology chronicity index (r = 0.57, p = 0.001). Finally, in a longitudinal cohort of seven SLE patients examined at ∼3 month intervals, AXL, ICAM-1, IGFBP2, SIGLEC5, sTNFRII, and VCAM-1 demonstrated the ability to track with concurrent disease flare, with significant subject to subject variation. In summary, serum proteins have the capacity to identify patients with active nephritis, flares, and renal pathology activity or chronicity changes, although larger longitudinal cohort studies are warranted. PMID:27211902

  2. Development of the electromagnetic technology for broken rail detection from a mobil platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, Yuri; Raghunathan, Arun; Kumar, Ajith; Noffsinger, Joseph; Fries, Jeffrey; Ehret, Steven; Frangieh, Tannous; Palanganda, Samhitha

    2016-02-01

    Timely detection of breaks in running rails remains a topic of significant importance for the railroad industry. GE has been investigating new ideas of the Rail Integrity Monitoring or RIM technology that can be implemented on a wide range of the rolling stock platforms including locomotives, passenger and freight cars. The focus of the project is to establish a simple, non-contact, and inexpensive means of nondestructive inspection by fusion of known solutions with new technology development that can result in detection with high reliability. A scaled down model of a typical locomotive-track system has been developed at GE Global research for detailed study of the detection process. In addition, a finite element model has been established and used to understand distribution of the magnetic field and currents in such a system. Both models have been using the rails and wheel-axles geometry to establish a realistic model that would provide the electric current and magnetic field distribution close to the real world phenomenon. Initial magnetic field maps were obtained by scanning a 1:15 model constructed of steel bars using a 3D scanner and an inductive coil. Sensitivity to a broken rail located between two locomotive axles simulated by an opening in this metallic frame was demonstrated. Further investigation and optimization was conducted on a larger, 1:3 scale, physical model and by running mathematical simulations. Special attention was paid to consistency between the finite element and physical model results. The obtained results allowed establishment of a working frequency range, inductive current injection into the rail-wheel-axle loop and measuring the electromagnetic response to a broken rail. The verification and full scale system prototype tests are following the laboratory experiments and mathematical simulations.

  3. Dynamic performance of freight cars on bogies model 18-1711

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Mankevych

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the results of study of dynamic parameters of the tank-car model 15-1900 and gondola car model 12-1905, equipped with the bogies model 18-1711 with axle loading of 25 ton and unified according to major parts and joints with the cars of previous generation. According to results of the study to conclude about the possibility of using bogies model 18-1711 as the running parts of the freight rolling stock of the new generation of 1520 mm track with increased axle loading. Methodology. The dynamic performance of the rolling stock running parts directly affects the safety of railway traffic. Experimental studies of the car dynamic qualities are an important step in the modernization of existing bogie constructions and in the creation of the new ones. These tests allow one to confirm the results of theoretical studies and to check the correctness of the constructive solutions. Findings. Basic results of dynamic studies are presented as the graphs of dynamic performance dependencies on the motion speed of the experimental train. Results show that the freight cars on the bogies model 18-1711 have satisfactory dynamic properties meeting current regulatory requirements. Originality. The dynamic characteristics of freight cars on bogies model 18-1711, which give a complete view of the car loading allow us to estimate the dependency of the car dynamic performance on the bogie design parameters. Practical value. The bogie model 18-1711 with axle loading 25 ton can be used as a freight car undercarriages of the new generation of 1520 mm track.

  4. 基于传递路径分析的乘用车车内噪声数值模拟%Numerical simulation analysis on vehicle interior noise with Transfer Path Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华良; 熊卉; 万攀; 韦钰芳; 郭钊

    2015-01-01

    本文利用传递路径分析(TPA)方法对某一新型轿车进行轮胎引起的车内噪声分析,首先运用 TPA 方法拟合测试数据以求出路面对轮胎的轮心激励值,再将该值加载到CAE模型内进行数值模拟,计算车内噪声。数值模拟计算中发现乘用车后轴对整车噪声的贡献大于前轴,说明需要对乘用车的后轴进行改进;比较数值模拟结果与路面噪声的实际测试数据,发现分析误差可接受,完全可以反映出车辆车内噪声特性,验证了传递路径分析方法在车内噪声分析中的适用性和准确性。%In this paper, the transfer analysis (TPA) was used to investigate the interior noise of a passenger car. First, the TPA method was used to fitting the test data to obtain the force value caused by the road on wheel center, and then the value was loaded into the CAE model to calculate interior noise. Numerical simulation shows that the rear axle of car contributions more noise than the front axle, rear axle needed to improvement. The CAE simulation result was compared with the actual test data of the car interior noise, the result shows that analytical error can be accepted which fully reflects the vehicle road noise characteristics and verifies the applicability and accuracy of the hybrid model in the analysis of interior noise.

  5. Contact pressures and the impact of farm equipment on Latosol with the presence and absence of sugarcane straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Barboza da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT High contact pressures applied to soil result in a greater degree of compaction, in addition to promoting other negative effects. The objective of this study was to quantify contact areas by using different methodologies, and pressures of farm equipment employed in production activity and evaluate structural changes caused in a Red Latosol with the presence and absence of straw cover. The design was completely randomized in a factorial scheme of type 4 (tire on front axle, tire on rear axle, tire on a sugarcane wagon and metallic track of sugar cane Harvester x 2 (presence and absence of straw. The contact area (CA of the run was obtained by three procedures: analytical measure of the area of an ellipse (CA1; digital measurement of area of an ellipse (CA2; and measurement of real contact area (RCA, with digital resources. The contact pressure was calculated from the ratio of mass of each machine's axle and the contact area of the run. The contact area obtained according to the procedure of the ellipse (CA1 and CA2 is overrated when compared to actual area obtained digitally (RCA. The straw reduces the contact pressure in the soil, due to the deep tire treads and consequently, increased contact area. Areas where the traffic of the machines occurred with soil covered with the presence of straw showed reduced soil resistance to penetration, cone index and pre-consolidation pressure, confirming that the increased contact area produced by straw reduced the pressure applied and the compression power dissipated in the soil.

  6. Case depth verification of hardened samples with Barkhausen noise sweeps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An interesting topic of recent Barkhausen noise (BN) method studies is the application of the method to case depth evaluation of hardened components. The utilization of BN method for this purpose is based on the difference in the magnetic properties between the hardened case and the soft core. Thus, the detection of case depth with BN can be achieved. The measurements typically have been carried out by using low magnetizing frequencies which have deeper penetration to the ferromagnetic samples than the conventional BN measurement. However, the penetration depth is limited due to eddy current damping of the signal. We introduce here a newly found sweep measurement concept for the case depth evaluation. In this study sweep measurements were carried out with various magnetizing frequencies and magnetizing voltages to detect the effect of different frequency and voltage and their correspondence to the actual case depth values verified from destructive characterization. Also a BN measurement device that has an implemented sweep analysis option was utilised. The samples were either induction or case-hardened samples and sample geometry contained both rod samples and gear axle samples with different case depth values. Samples were also further characterized with Xray diffraction to study the residual stress state of the surface. The detailed data processing revealed that also other calculated features than the maximum slope division of the 1st derivative of the BN signal could hold the information about the case depth value of the samples. The sweep method was able to arrange the axles into correct order according to the case depth value even though the axles were used

  7. Vliv pracovních podmínek na huštění pneumatik zemědělských strojů

    OpenAIRE

    Krupička, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Tires are an important part of the tractor and they provide transmission of the tractor motor´s power on pad. The pressure in the tire must be chosen with regard for a tyre´s load and speed of the machine, because the load capacity of tires, working life and safety of its using depend on pressure of inflation, which is prescribed. In working operations, which in agriculture are, attend to the cyclical changes of tyre´s load of rear axle of the tractor. It´s going on due to action of the ext...

  8. Assessment of a Bridge WIM System on Integral Concrete Bridges and on Steel Orthotropic Decks

    OpenAIRE

    Ieng, Sio Song; SCHMIDT, Franziska; ROMBONI, Frédéric; Jacob, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Bridge-Weigh-In-Motion uses bridges as a scale to weigh vehicles. Practically, this is done by measuring the strains in that bridge, and relating them to the weight and dimensions of a truck called “calibration trucks” whose shape and axle weights are well known. This article summarizes different B-WIM experiments the institute IFSTTAR (formerly called LCPC) realized and the lessons drawn from this experience. First, the system has been tested on frame-type bridges with integral s...

  9. Highway Bridge Assessment for Dynamic Interaction with Critical Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Cantero, Daniel; O'Brien, Eugene J.; González, Arturo; et al

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic vehicle-bridge interaction is often considered for the most common classes of vehicle such as the 5-axle articulated truck. However, the dynamic response of bridges to this type of trucks is quite different to the response to the vehicles more likely to feature in maximum-in-lifetime traffic loading events. This paper focuses on large (>100 tonne) cranes and crane-type vehicles that have been recorded at Weigh-in-Motion sites in Europe. This paper analyses the total bending moment due...

  10. Experimental and Dynamic Study of the Piston Rod Lateral Friction for the Twin-Tube Hydraulic Shock Absorber

    OpenAIRE

    Yanqing Liu; Jianwu Zhang; Xiaoming Cheng

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, dynamic loads acting on a twin-tube hydraulic shock absorber are derived out both in wheel and axle planes by modeling mechanically car rear suspensions, and internal and external forces that yield lateral surface damage and wear-out of the piston rod for the absorber are analyzed according to bench and real road test measures. From viewpoint of vehicle system dynamics and experiment, such key factors as road unevenness, very high car speed and severe shock induced vibrations a...

  11. Photovoltaic panel clamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Miros, Robert H. J.; Brown, Malcolm P.; Stancel, Robert

    2012-06-05

    A photovoltaic panel clamp includes an upper and lower section. The interface between the assembled clamp halves and the module edge is filled by a flexible gasket material, such as EPDM rubber. The gasket preferably has small, finger like protrusions that allow for easy insertion onto the module edge while being reversed makes it more difficult to remove them from the module once installed. The clamp includes mounting posts or an integral axle to engage a bracket. The clamp also may include a locking tongue to secure the clamp to a bracket.

  12. Simple machines made simple a teacher resource manual

    CERN Document Server

    Andre, Ralph E St

    1993-01-01

    This book allows you to present scientific principles and simple mechanics through hands-on cooperative learning activities. Using inexpensive materials (e.g., tape, paper clips), students build simple machines-such as levers, pulleys, spring scales, gears, wheels and axles, windmills, and wedges-that demonstrate how things work. Activities have easy-to-locate materials lists, time requirements, and step-by-step directions (usually illustrated) on presentation. Ideas for bulletin boards, learning centers, and computer-assisted instruction are an added bonus.

  13. GAS6 Enhances Repair Following Cuprizone-Induced Demyelination

    OpenAIRE

    Vladislav Tsiperson; Xiaosong Li; Schwartz, Gary J; Raine, Cedric S.; Bridget Shafit-Zagardo

    2010-01-01

    Growth arrest-specific protein 6 (gas6) activities are mediated through the Tyro3, Axl, and Mer family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Gas6 is expressed and secreted by a wide variety of cell types, including cells of the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that administration of recombinant human Gas6 (rhGas6) protein into the CNS improves recovery following cuprizone withdrawal. After a 4-week cuprizone diet, cuprizone was removed and PBS or rhGas6 (400 ng/ml...

  14. Optimal Design of an Axial-Flux Permanent-Magnet Middle Motor Integrated in a Cycloidal Reducer for a Pedal Electric Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Yee-Pien Yang; Jia-Ming Jiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimal design of a middle motor integrated into a mid-drive unit for pedal electric cycles. This middle motor is an axial-flux permanent magnet brushless DC motor with a stator plate. Facing this plate is a rotor plate that acts as an eccentric component of a cycloidal reducer next to the stator. Both the middle motor and cycloidal reducer are easily installed on the same axle of the bike crankset. In the preliminary design, driving requirements are used to make the mi...

  15. Verification of the Stabilizer Bar of an Articulated Trolleybus

    OpenAIRE

    Polach, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    At the modernization of the ŠKODA 22 Tr low-floor articulated trolleybus a different type of an articulated joint and a different type of driving axles were used in its construction besides other changes. During test drives with the modernized trolleybus, which were focused on the driving stability of the vehicle, a large roll of the rear section appeared. A suitable structural solution for reducing the rear section roll angle of the modernized trolleybus was the using of a rear section stabi...

  16. 陕西汽车集团有限责任公司%Shaanxi Automobile Group Co.,Ltd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ (hereinafter called "SAG") was established in 1968 with headquarters located in Xi'an,Shaanxi Province.Now,it has developed to a big automobile enterprise group with factories area of 4.5 million square meters,RMB 14.9 billion of asset and over 23000 employees.Its products ranges from heavy military off-road trucks,heavy duty trucks,big and medium-size bus (chassis),medium and light trucks,heavy axles,Cummins engines to vehicle components fields.

  17. 重载铁路车轮磨耗和滚动接触疲劳研究%Investigation into Wheel Wear and Fatigue of Heavy-haul Railways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霞; 温泽峰; 金学松

    2011-01-01

    基于车辆动力学、非Hertz轮轨滚动接触理论和Archard磨损模型建立车轮磨耗预测模型.利用该模型和安定图对重载铁路车轮磨耗和滚动接触疲劳性能进行定性分析.在数值计算中,主要考察轴重为25 t和30 t货车的车轮硬度对车轮磨耗和滚动接触疲劳性能的影响.研究表明,轮轨间高应力水平的出现频次、车轮磨耗和疲劳破坏的几率随着轴重的增加而增大;随着硬度的增加,车轮磨耗和疲劳破坏现象得到改善.结合国外重载铁路轮轨匹配经验,建议轴重为30 t车轮的硬度大于340 HB.%The wheel wear prediction model was built, in which the vehicle dynamics model, the non-Hertzian rolling contact theory of wheel and rail systems and the Archard wheel material wear model were combined.The wear and rolling contact fatigue of the heavy-haul railway wheel were analyzed qualitatively by using the wheel wear prediction model and shakedown diagram.The influence of hardness on wheel wear and fatigue were investigated under 25 t and 30 t axle loads.The results indicate as follows: The occurrence frequency of the high contact stress level and the failure probability of wheel wear and fatigue are higher under the 30 t axle load than under the 25 t axle loads; the damage due to wheel wear and fatigue can be alleviated by increase of the material hardness.It is recommended that under the 30 t axle load the surface material hardness of the wheels should be above 340 HB.

  18. Simple machines

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Just how simple are simple machines? With our ready-to-use resource, they are simple to teach and easy to learn! Chocked full of information and activities, we begin with a look at force, motion and work, and examples of simple machines in daily life are given. With this background, we move on to different kinds of simple machines including: Levers, Inclined Planes, Wedges, Screws, Pulleys, and Wheels and Axles. An exploration of some compound machines follows, such as the can opener. Our resource is a real time-saver as all the reading passages, student activities are provided. Presented in s

  19. Sensitivity Analysis of the Critical Speed in Railway Vehicle Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigoni, Daniele; True, Hans; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2013-01-01

    applicability in many engineering fields and does not require the knowledge of the particular solver of the dynamical system. This analysis can be used as part of the virtual homologation procedure and to help engineers during the design phase of complex systems. The method is applied to a half car with a two......-axle Cooperrider bogie, in order to study the sensitivity of the critical speed with respect to suspension parameters. The importance of a certain suspension component is expressed by the variance in critical speed that is ascribable to it. This proves to be useful in the identification of parameters for which...

  20. Hodnocení tahových vlastností traktoru Zetor s pohonem 4K4 a 4K2

    OpenAIRE

    Novotný, Michal

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of currently produced tractors have a 4K4 drive. Despite this fact, when purchasing a new tractor utilized mainly for transport on paved surfaces or on the road, the question arises whether to invest less money and prefer a tractor with a 4K2 drive. Differences in price of a new tractor with front drive or only with driven axle can reach tens to hundreds of thousands of crowns, according to the selected type and model. This thesis may contribute to the correct decision when ...

  1. Review of some results of the author's fatigue investigations with applications in engineering and material science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, A.

    1994-04-01

    This document deals with research results mainly connected with the problem of fatigue calculations and various aspects of fatigue. It contains the following topics: Correlation between fatigue limits and ultimate tensile strength, Fatigue properties of pure metals, Analytical approach to notch-size effects in fatigue of aircraft sheet materials, Torsional fatigue life of axle shafts under program loading, Fatigue properties of aircraft lugs with interference fit, Comparison of various aircraft loading test results with the aid of Relative-Miner-Rule, The Relative Method in the case of Local-Strain-Approach, and Prediction of fatigue life.

  2. Review of some results of the author`s fatigue investigations with applications in engineering and material science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buch, A.

    1994-04-01

    This document deals with research results mainly connected with the problem of fatigue calculations and various aspects of fatigue. It contains the following topics: Correlation between fatigue limits and ultimate tensile strength, Fatigue properties of pure metals, Analytical approach to notch-size effects in fatigue of aircraft sheet materials, Torsional fatigue life of axle shafts under program loading, Fatigue properties of aircraft lugs with interference fit, Comparison of various aircraft loading test results with the aid of Relative-Miner-Rule, The Relative Method in the case of Local-Strain-Approach, and Prediction of fatigue life.

  3. ПЕРСПЕКТИВЫ ПРИМЕНЕНИЯ УГЛЕРОДИСТЫХ СТАЛЕЙ ДЛЯ ПОДШИПНИКОВ И ШЕСТЕРЕН С УПРОЧНЕНИЕМ УПРАВЛЯЕМОЙ ОБЪЕМНО-ПОВЕРХНОСТНОЙ ЗАКАЛКОЙ С ИНДУКЦИОННОГО НАГРЕВА

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gurchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience of the Minsk automobile plant and bearing plant in production, research and test of pilot batches of gear wheels of the drive axle of MAZ trucks and MZSh bearings from U8A steel with hardening by their volume and superficial hardening with application of induction heating and the operated surface hardening cooling is given. Experience of the Minsk automobile plant on introduction in manufacturing application of wheel gears of wheel gearing of MAZ trucks from steel 60PP is considered.

  4. Problems of Automobile KD Existed in Seaborne Export Packing%汽车KD件海运出口包装存在的问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 张俏

    2012-01-01

    The common metal corrosion of the automotive KD maritime introduced, the corresponding prevent the engine, axle and the body sheet in rust generation method and cleaning KD parts were introduced. occurred during transport was method of corrosion factors, and%主要介绍了汽车KD件海运运输中常见的金属锈蚀问题,产生锈蚀的因素,并且以KD件中发动机、车桥和车身板材为主介绍相应的避免锈蚀产生的方法和清洗方法。

  5. Stress Analysis and Determination of Effective k-value for Rigid Pavement

    OpenAIRE

    Kundan Meshram; H.S. Goliya; Akhilesh Poddar

    2013-01-01

    EverFE is a user-friendly 3D finite-element analysis tool for simulating the response of jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP) systems to axle loads and environmental effects. EverFE is useful for both concrete pavement researchers and designers who must perform either complex nonlinear or simple linear stress analyses of JPCP.With help of this develop any type of model of rigid pavement considering practical condition thus getting more accurate and advance analysis for rigid pavement. It ca...

  6. Hidden Markov Modeling for Weigh-In-Motion Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Ferragut, Erik M [ORNL; Boone, Shane [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a hidden Markov model to assist in the weight measurement error that arises from complex vehicle oscillations of a system of discrete masses. Present reduction of oscillations is by a smooth, flat, level approach and constant, slow speed in a straight line. The model uses this inherent variability to assist in determining the true total weight and individual axle weights of a vehicle. The weight distribution dynamics of a generic moving vehicle were simulated. The model estimation converged to within 1% of the true mass for simulated data. The computational demands of this method, while much greater than simple averages, took only seconds to run on a desktop computer.

  7. Ultrasonic examination for shrunk-on disk of turbine rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the development by Toshiba of nondestructive inspection technology for assuming the reliability of steam turbines in which a shrunk-on rotor wheel system has been applied, are reported. Particular emphasis is placed on a method of precise inspection which can be applied to a shrunk-on rotor wheel while it is still in position on its axle. The ultrasonic examination system developed is described. It consists of a mechanical scanner, data collection system, data analysis system and rotor turning equipment. It has already been applied to in-service inspection of nuclear power turbines and found to be reliable. (U.K.)

  8. Universal turbine for drinking-water power stations; Universell einsetzbare Turbine fuer Wasserversorgungen. Nutzung von Druckreduzierenergie im Gegendruckbereich - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindelholz, B.; Fritschi, M.

    2009-03-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a universal turbine for use in drinking-water power stations. The aims of the project are discussed and the importance of the turbine's axle seal is stressed. The use of this Pelton turbine operating in a cushion of compressed air is discussed. Counter-pressure control is discussed, as is the air inflow which is needed to replace the air carried out by the water. Industry-partners involved in the project are noted. The importance of using such small-hydro schemes to help meet energy needs is discussed.

  9. Synthesis of perylene-bridged bis(dibenzo-24-crown-8) and its assembly behavior with a fullerene-based secondary dibenzylammonium salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of a perylene-bridged bis(crown ether) through the condensation reaction between primary amine-armed dibenzo-24-crown-8 and 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride.Pseudorotaxane with a perylene moiety at the wheel and a fullerene unit in the middle of the axle was prepared,which was evidenced by 1H NMR and fluorescence experiments.Subsequent investigations show that the formation and disassociation of the pseudorotaxane can be controlled by the alternating addition of KPF6 and 18-crown-6,following the change of the florescence intensity of perylene.

  10. 我国铁路重载货车转向架技术及发展%Technologies and Development of Railway Heavy Haul Freight Car Bogies in Our Country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵文东; 李立东; 周国东; 徐世锋; 曹玉峰

    2012-01-01

    The key technologies in freight car bogies in our country are summarized. And on the basis of the technical development of freight cars in our country, the technical development target of freight car bogie with the new generation large axle load in our country is discussed.%总结了我国货车转向架的关键技术,并根据我国货车转向架的技术发展情况,论述了我国新一代大轴重货车转向架技术的发展目标.

  11. RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF CRANE BRAKE PARAMETERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The high failure rate of crane brake results from improper choice of braking torque. The mathematical model of reliability for the crane brake parameters is introduced. Based on large amount of actual data the parameter reliabilities of 5~50 t general overhead travelling cranes are calculated,the probabilities that the braking torque is less than the static torque acting on the axle when the load moves down are obtained. Moreover,the ways to improve the reliability of brake parameters are discussed,the most reasonable values of braking safety coefficient are given.

  12. Combined deformation of filament-wound cylinder and application to torsion vibration control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉兰

    2002-01-01

    The combined deformation and mechanical propetries of filament-wound cylinder of filament reinforced composite materials are investigated.A method of using filament-winding composited to reduce the amplitude of torsion vibration in the case of special stimulated vibration is established.A design formula of anisotropic filament-wound cylinder to reduce the torsion vibration of axle components is obtained.The results indicate that by puting the filament-wound cylinder on an axis,the torsion vibration of the axis can be reduced effectively.

  13. Device to relieve sucker rod torque below ground level in a petroleum well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dysarz, E.D.

    1987-12-22

    An apparatus is described for use in a sucker rod string having a polished rod for relieving torque below the polished rod and inside of a well while the sucker rod string is moving up and down inside of the well, comprising: a body, the body that is suitably fastened to the lower end of the polished rod; at least one set of rollers that are suitably mounted within the body by axles, the rollers with a diameter greater than the width of the body; a lower swivel, and a guide. The guide is a tube that is square in section and is set vertically within the well.

  14. 汽车等速传动轴挠性万向节的优化设计%Optimization design of automotive constant speed propeller shaft flexible universal joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥伟; 李光明; 谢磊

    2012-01-01

    针对某车型存在的后桥共振现象,通过试验找出了共振的原因,在此基础上提出三种优化方案,并分别进行了对比分析,最终确定了最佳方案。%Aim at rear axle resonance phenomenon of some vehicle model,find out the reason of resonance phenomenon through experiment,on that basis put forward three kinds of optimization scheme.and contrastive analyse respectively,finally determine the optimal inplementation scheme.

  15. A device for forming storage battery electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, K.; Inaba, Y.; Kitamura, E.; Oda, S.; Ota, K.

    1983-07-20

    The compound, which basically contains CdO, is continuously applied to a base strip which has a porous structure. The strip is passed along the surface of a roller, on the surface of which cylindrical electricity conducting rods are installed in a direction transverse to the length of the strip. The rods have axles parallel to the roller axis. The diameter of the rods is one tenth to one twentieth of the diameter of the roller. The length of the rods is greater than the width of the strip. The electrodes are formed at a current with a density of approximately 170 milliamperes per square centimeter.

  16. EVALUATION OF RUTTING DEPTH IN FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS BY USING FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS AND LOCAL EMPIRICAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa H. Abed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to predict rut depth in local flexible pavements. Predication model in pavement performance is the process that used to estimate the parameter values which related to pavement structure, environmental condition and traffic loading. The different local empirical models have been used to calculate permanent deformation which include environmental and traffic conditions. Finite element analysis through ANSYS computer software is used to analyze two dimensional linear elastic plane strain problem through (Plane 82 elements. Standard Axle Load (ESAL of 18 kip (80 kN loading on an axle with dual set of tires, the wheel spacing is 13.5 in (343 mm with tire contact pressure of 87 psi (0.6 MPa is used. The pavement system is assumed to be an elastic multi-layers system with each layer being isotropic, homogeneous with specified resilient modulus and Poisson ratio. Each layer is to extend to infinity in the horizontal direction and have a finite thickness except the bottom layer. The analysis of results show that, although, the stress level decrease 14% in the leveling course and 27% in the base course, the rut depth is increased by 12 and 28% in that layers respectively because the material properties is changed.

  17. Re-Evaluation of the AASHTO-Flexible Pavement Design Equation with Neural Network Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiğdemir, Mesut

    2014-01-01

    Here we establish that equivalent single-axle loads values can be estimated using artificial neural networks without the complex design equality of American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). More importantly, we find that the neural network model gives the coefficients to be able to obtain the actual load values using the AASHTO design values. Thus, those design traffic values that might result in deterioration can be better calculated using the neural networks model than with the AASHTO design equation. The artificial neural network method is used for this purpose. The existing AASHTO flexible pavement design equation does not currently predict the pavement performance of the strategic highway research program (Long Term Pavement Performance studies) test sections very accurately, and typically over-estimates the number of equivalent single axle loads needed to cause a measured loss of the present serviceability index. Here we aimed to demonstrate that the proposed neural network model can more accurately represent the loads values data, compared against the performance of the AASHTO formula. It is concluded that the neural network may be an appropriate tool for the development of databased-nonparametric models of pavement performance. PMID:25397962

  18. Flow Visualization around a Simplified Two-Wheel Landing Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekci, Alis; Feltham, Graham

    2013-11-01

    The flow topology around a simplified two-wheel landing gear model is investigated experimentally by employing the hydrogen bubble flow visualization technique in a recirculating water channel. The landing gear test model consists of two identical wheels, an axle, a main strut and a support strut. The flow Reynolds number based on wheel diameter is 31,500 and wheels with varying geometric details are considered. Flow structures have been identified through analysis of long-time video recordings and linked to the model geometry. In the flow region above the wheels (wing side), the flow in the inter-wheel region either separates prematurely from the inner surfaces of the wheels and forms slant vortices in the near-wake, or remains attached till the aft wheel perimeter. Inclusion of interior wheel wells are found to result in a jet-like ejection as a result of the interaction with the axle and main strut. In the flow region below the wheels (ground side) the near wake contains periodically forming, complex, large-scale structures.

  19. Vorticity amplification near the stagnation point of landing gear wheels: effect of the orientation of the impinging vorticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mingyao; Feltham, Graham; Ekmekci, Alis

    2014-11-01

    When oncoming streams of weak vorticity aligned with the axle axis of a two-wheel landing gear impinge near the forward stagnation point of the wheels, a mechanism for vorticity collection, growth, amplification into discrete large-scale vortices, and shedding was formerly shown to exist. In the current study, the impinging vorticity streams are perpendicular to the axle axis, i.e. in a vertical orientation as opposed to the horizontal orientation before. Experiments are conducted in a recirculating water channel using hydrogen bubble visualization and particle image velocimetry at a Reynolds number of 32,500 (based on the wheel diameter). As with the horizontal orientation, vorticity collection and amplification are observed, but the large-scale vortices thus formed are stretched around the wheel circumference in contrast to being stretched around the wheel sides, as observed for the horizontal orientation. This flow behavior varies with the impingement location of the vorticity streams across the wheel width. Maximum vorticity amplification occurs at a critical impingement location and drastically alters the flow separation along the wheel circumference. In addition, the instantaneous vortical structures are identified and tracked using a Galilean-invariant criterion.

  20. Landing-gear noise prediction using high-order finite difference schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Wook Kim, Jae; Zhang, Xin; Angland, David; Caruelle, Bastien

    2013-07-01

    Aerodynamic noise from a generic two-wheel landing-gear model is predicted by a CFD/FW-H hybrid approach. The unsteady flow-field is computed using a compressible Navier-Stokes solver based on high-order finite difference schemes and a fully structured grid. The calculated time history of the surface pressure data is used in an FW-H solver to predict the far-field noise levels. Both aerodynamic and aeroacoustic results are compared to wind tunnel measurements and are found to be in good agreement. The far-field noise was found to vary with the 6th power of the free-stream velocity. Individual contributions from three components, i.e. wheels, axle and strut of the landing-gear model are also investigated to identify the relative contribution to the total noise by each component. It is found that the wheels are the dominant noise source in general. Strong vortex shedding from the axle is the second major contributor to landing-gear noise. This work is part of Airbus LAnding Gear nOise database for CAA validatiON (LAGOON) program with the general purpose of evaluating current CFD/CAA and experimental techniques for airframe noise prediction.

  1. Top-of-Rail lubricant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alzoubi, M. F.; Fenske, G. R.; Erck, R. A.; Boparai, A. S.

    2000-07-14

    Analysis of the volatile and semivolatile fractions collected after use of the TOR lubricant indicated that other than contaminants in the collection laboratory, no compounds on the EPA's Target Compound Lists (Tables 2 and 5) were detected in these fractions. The data of these qualitative analyses, given in the various tables in the text, indicate only the relative amounts of the tentatively identified compounds. The authors recommend that quantitative analysis be performed on the volatile and semivolatile fractions to allow confirmation of the tentatively identified compounds and to obtain absolute amounts of the detected compounds. Additionally, the semivolatile fraction should be analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify compounds that are not chromatographable under the temperature program used for determination of semivolatile compounds. Introducing the top-of-rail (TOR) lubricant into the wheel/rail interface results in a reduction of almost 60% of lateral friction force over the forces encountered under dry conditions. This reveals good potential for energy savings, as well as wear reduction, for railroad companies. In TOR lubrication, an increase in the angle of attack and axle load results in increased lateral friction and rate of lubricant consumption. The most efficient TOR lubricant quantity to be used in the wheel/rail interface must be calculated precisely according to the number of cars, axle loads, train speed, and angle of attack.

  2. Analysis of Ebola Virus Entry Into Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlmann, Franziska; Biedenkopf, Nadine; Babler, Anne; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Karsten, Christina B.; Gnirß, Kerstin; Schneider, Heike; Wrensch, Florian; O'Callaghan, Christopher A.; Bertram, Stephanie; Herrler, Georg; Becker, Stephan; Pöhlmann, Stefan; Hofmann-Winkler, Heike

    2015-01-01

    Ebolaviruses constitute a public health threat, particularly in Central and Western Africa. Host cell factors required for spread of ebolaviruses may serve as targets for antiviral intervention. Lectins, TAM receptor tyrosine kinases (Tyro3, Axl, Mer), T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM) proteins, integrins, and Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) have been reported to promote entry of ebolaviruses into certain cellular systems. However, the factors used by ebolaviruses to invade macrophages, major viral targets, are poorly defined. Here, we show that mannose-specific lectins, TIM-1 and Axl augment entry into certain cell lines but do not contribute to Ebola virus (EBOV)-glycoprotein (GP)–driven transduction of macrophages. In contrast, expression of Mer, integrin αV, and NPC1 was required for efficient GP-mediated transduction and EBOV infection of macrophages. These results define cellular factors hijacked by EBOV for entry into macrophages and, considering that Mer and integrin αV promote phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, support the concept that EBOV relies on apoptotic mimicry to invade target cells. PMID:25877552

  3. TAM receptors affect adult brain neurogenesis by negative regulation of microglial cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Rui; Tian, Shifu; Lu, Helen J; Lu, Qingjun; Zheng, Yan; Wang, Xiaomin; Ding, Jixiang; Li, Qiutang; Lu, Qingxian

    2013-12-15

    TAM tyrosine kinases play multiple functional roles, including regulation of the target genes important in homeostatic regulation of cytokine receptors or TLR-mediated signal transduction pathways. In this study, we show that TAM receptors affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and loss of TAM receptors impairs hippocampal neurogenesis, largely attributed to exaggerated inflammatory responses by microglia characterized by increased MAPK and NF-κB activation and elevated production of proinflammatory cytokines that are detrimental to neuron stem cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Injection of LPS causes even more severe inhibition of BrdU incorporation in the Tyro3(-/-)Axl(-/-)Mertk(-/-) triple-knockout (TKO) brains, consistent with the LPS-elicited enhanced expression of proinflammatory mediators, for example, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and inducible NO synthase, and this effect is antagonized by coinjection of the anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin in wild-type but not TKO brains. Conditioned medium from TKO microglia cultures inhibits neuron stem cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. IL-6 knockout in Axl(-/-)Mertk(-/-) double-knockout mice overcomes the inflammatory inhibition of neurogenesis, suggesting that IL-6 is a major downstream neurotoxic mediator under homeostatic regulation by TAM receptors in microglia. Additionally, autonomous trophic function of the TAM receptors on the proliferating neuronal progenitors may also promote progenitor differentiation into immature neurons.

  4. Modeling on energy harvesting from a railway system using piezoelectric transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianjun; Shi, Zhifei; Xiang, Hongjun; Song, Gangbing

    2015-10-01

    Theoretical models of piezoelectric energy harvesting from railway systems using patch-type and stack-type piezoelectric transducers are studied. An infinite Euler-Bernoulli beam on a Winkler foundation subjected to moving multi-loads is adopted to describe the dynamic behavior of railway track. The voltage and electric power of piezoelectric transducers installed at the bottom of a steel rail are derived analytically. Comparisons with earlier works and experimental results are given, indicating that the present solutions are reliable. Additionally, a parametric study is conducted to discuss the effects of axle loads, running velocity and load resistors on the solutions. The numerical results show that patch-type and stack-type piezoelectric transducers can harvest the available energy from track vibration to supply power for a wireless sensor network node and can also serve as sensors to monitor basic train information, such as the running velocity, the location and the axle load. The present investigations provide a theoretical guide in the design of piezoelectric patch and stack energy harvesters used in railway systems, which can serve as power sources for distributed wireless sensor networks in remote areas. The research results also demonstrate the potential of piezoelectric patches and stack harvesters in designing self-powered wireless sensor networks used in railway systems to ensure train operation safety.

  5. ELASTIC-PLASTIC FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL CONTACT-IMPACT AT RAIL JOINT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Zefeng; Jin Xuesong; Zhang Weihua

    2003-01-01

    Using the finite element code ANSYS/LS-DYNA, a dynamic finite element model with an elastic-linear-kinematic-hardening plastic material is established to analyze elastic-plastic stresses in the railhead in the impact process of wheel and rail occurring at the gap of rail joint. The model is based on the discrete elastic support condition of the rails, which is suitable for the actual situation of wheeL/track rolling contact. In the analysis the influences of axle load, yield stress and tangent modulus of rail material on the stresses and strains are investigated in detail. The distribution of stresses and strains in the jointed railhead are given. It is found that the axle load, yield stress and tangent modulus of rail material greatly affect the stresses and strains in the railhead during impacting. The study provides a reliable method and useful datum for the further research on fatigue and wear of railhead and improving the rail joint mode.

  6. Quantification of uncertainty in the prediction of railway induced ground vibration due to the use of statistical track unevenness data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombaert, G.; Galvín, P.; François, S.; Degrande, G.

    2014-09-01

    Environmental vibrations due to railway traffic are predominantly due to dynamic axle loads caused by wheel and track unevenness and impact excitation by rail joints and wheel flats. Because of its irregular character, track unevenness is commonly processed statistically and represented by its power spectral density function or its root mean square (RMS) value in one-third octave bands. This statistical description does not uniquely define the track unevenness at a given site, however, and different track unevenness profiles matching the statistical description will lead to different predictions of dynamic axle loads and resulting ground vibration. This paper presents a methodology that allows quantifying the corresponding variability in ground vibration predictions. The procedure is derived assuming the geometry of the track and soil to be homogeneous along the track. The procedure is verified by means of Monte Carlo simulations and its usefulness for assessing the mismatch between predicted and measured ground vibrations is demonstrated in a case study. The results show that the response in time domain and its narrow band spectrum exhibit significant variability which is reduced when the running RMS value or the one-third octave band spectrum of the response is considered.

  7. Design and development of split-parallel through-the road retrofit hybrid electric vehicle with in-wheel motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, S. A.; Syaifuddin Mohd, M.; Maharun, M.; Bakar, N. S. A.; Idris, S.; Samsudin, S. H.; Firmansyah; Adz, J. J.; Misbahulmunir, M.; Abidin, E. Z. Z.; Syafiq Mohd, M.; Saad, N.; Aziz, A. R. A.

    2015-12-01

    One configuration of the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is the split-axle parallel hybrid, in which an internal combustion engine (ICE) and an electric motor provide propulsion power to different axles. A particular sub-type of the split-parallel hybrid does not have the electric motor installed on board the vehicle; instead, two electric motors are placed in the hubs of the non-driven wheels, called ‘hub motor’ or ‘in-wheel motor’ (IWM). Since propulsion power from the ICE and IWM is coupled through the vehicle itself, its wheels and the road on which it moves, this particular configuration is termed ‘through-the-road’ (TTR) hybrid. TTR configuration enables existing ICE-powered vehicles to be retrofitted into an HEV with minimal physical modification. This work describes design of a retrofit- conversion TTR-IWM hybrid vehicle - its sub-systems and development work. Operating modes and power flow of the TTR hybrid, its torque coupling and resultant traction profiles are initially discussed.

  8. Development of dynamic models of wagons on models 18-9810 and 18-9855 bogies taking into account wheel wear research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Saidova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Wear parameters clarification in wear simulation is an actual goal because of absence of corresponding data for freight cars in condition of using them on Russian railways. Research is devoted to development of dynamic models of wagons on three-peace two-axle models 18-9810 and 18-9855 bogies with maximum axle-loads 23,5 ts and 25 ts, and to choice of factors, with varying which parameters in the model of wheel wear can be identified. Methodology. The problem is solved by method of mathematic simulation in «MEDYNA» software. Wear calculation is based on abrasive wear theory (Archard’s theory. Findings. Clarification of wheels’ wear model may be done with varying of friction coefficient between wheel and rail for different wheel profile areas (flange and tread, wear coefficient in Archard’s model for mild and heavy wear and transition between them. Originality. Dynamic models of universal gondola on models 18-9810 and 18-9855 bogies are developed. It is established, that rail treads irregularities size effect wheel wear insignificantly, when car is running on circle track of constant radius. Practical value. Developed dynamic models of wagons on models 18-9810 and 18-9855 bogies may be used in wear simulation, determination of car running characteristics, interaction of car and rail of different type, construction, condition and etc. Research results of some factors influence on freight car wheel wear may be interesting for people, who study this problem.

  9. Analysis of Ebola Virus Entry Into Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlmann, Franziska; Biedenkopf, Nadine; Babler, Anne; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Karsten, Christina B; Gnirß, Kerstin; Schneider, Heike; Wrensch, Florian; O'Callaghan, Christopher A; Bertram, Stephanie; Herrler, Georg; Becker, Stephan; Pöhlmann, Stefan; Hofmann-Winkler, Heike

    2015-10-01

    Ebolaviruses constitute a public health threat, particularly in Central and Western Africa. Host cell factors required for spread of ebolaviruses may serve as targets for antiviral intervention. Lectins, TAM receptor tyrosine kinases (Tyro3, Axl, Mer), T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM) proteins, integrins, and Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) have been reported to promote entry of ebolaviruses into certain cellular systems. However, the factors used by ebolaviruses to invade macrophages, major viral targets, are poorly defined. Here, we show that mannose-specific lectins, TIM-1 and Axl augment entry into certain cell lines but do not contribute to Ebola virus (EBOV)-glycoprotein (GP)-driven transduction of macrophages. In contrast, expression of Mer, integrin αV, and NPC1 was required for efficient GP-mediated transduction and EBOV infection of macrophages. These results define cellular factors hijacked by EBOV for entry into macrophages and, considering that Mer and integrin αV promote phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, support the concept that EBOV relies on apoptotic mimicry to invade target cells. PMID:25877552

  10. Brake Rating Selection and Running-speed Limit Investigation of Freight Train%货物列车制车率的选取与运行限速的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹兴贵

    2011-01-01

    通过计算分析,阐述了车轮保持制动过程中不产生滑行的条件,货物列车制动率的选取以及列车最高运行速度、紧急制动距离限值、制动率和轴重间的关系.阐明了轴重提高到25~30t后,制动距离限值不延长,必须降低列车最高运行速度;要保证货物列车最高运行速度,必须延长制动距离限值.%Based on calculation and analysis, the conditions of wheel keeping from sliding in brake, selection of freight train brake rating, and relations between train axle, the highest running speed, distance limit of emergency brake, and brake rating were expounded. It was pointed that the train highest running speed must be reduced when the axle load was increased to 25-301 without extending brake distance limit, on the other hand, the train brake distance limit must be extending to keep the highest running speed.

  11. Active flow control on a 1:4 car model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Till; Springer, Matthias; Lienhart, Hermann; Kniesburges, Stefan; Othmer, Carsten; Becker, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Lift and drag of a passenger car are strongly influenced by the flow field around its rear end. The bluff body geometry produces a detached, transient flow which induces fluctuating forces on the body, affecting the rear axle, which may distress dynamic stability and comfort significantly. The investigations presented here deal with a 1:4 scale model of a simplified test car geometry that produces fluctuating lift and drag due to its strongly rounded rear geometry. To examine the influence of active flow control on this behavior, steady air jets were realized to exhaust from thin slots across the rear in three different configurations. Investigations were performed at and included the capturing of effective integral lift and drag, velocity measurements in the surrounding flow field with Laser Doppler Anemometry, surface pressure measurements and surface oil flow visualization on the rear. The flow field was found to be dominated by two longitudinal vortices, developing from the detachment of the flow at the upper C-pillar positions, and a recirculating, transverse vortex above the rear window. With an air jet emerging from a slot across the surface right below the rear window section, tangentially directed upstream toward the roof section, total lift could be reduced by more than 7 %, with rear axle lift reduction of about 5 % and negligible drag affection (1 %).

  12. Potential advantages of CUDC-101, a multitargeted HDAC, EGFR, and HER2 inhibitor, in treating drug resistance and preventing cancer cell migration and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Pursell, Natalie W; Samson, Maria Elena S; Atoyan, Ruzanna; Ma, Anna W; Selmi, Abdelkader; Xu, Wanlu; Cai, Xiong; Voi, Maurizio; Savagner, Pierre; Lai, Cheng-Jung

    2013-06-01

    CUDC-101 is a novel, small-molecule, anticancer agent targeting histone deacetylase (HDAC), EGF receptor (EGFR), and HER2. It is currently in phase I clinical development in patients with solid tumors. Previously, we reported that CUDC-101 has potent antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity in cultured tumor cells and in vivo xenograft models. We now show that cancer cells that have acquired resistance to single-target EGFR inhibitors through upregulation of AXL or loss of E-cadherin remain sensitive to CUDC-101, which inhibits MET- and AXL-mediated signaling, restores E-cadherin expression, and reduces cell migration. CUDC-101 also efficiently inhibited the proliferation of MET-overexpressing non-small cell lung cancer and gastric cancer cell lines and inhibited the migration and invasion of invasive tumor cells. Taken together, these results suggest that coupling HDAC and HER2 inhibitory activities to an EGFR inhibitor may potentially be effective in overcoming drug resistance and preventing cancer cell migration.

  13. Influence of shock absorber condition on pavement fatigue using relative damage concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Kubo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of the road transportation nowadays, concerns related to pavement deterioration and maintenance have become relevant subjects. Especially for commercial vehicles, the vertical dynamic load (characterized by the tire-road interaction is directly related to wear on the road surface. Given this, the main objective of this paper is to analyse effects of vertical loads applied on the flexible pavement, considering the variation of the condition of shock absorbers from a truck's front suspension. The measurements were performed on a rigid truck, with 2 steering front axles, in a durability test track located in Brazil. With a constant load of 6 tons on the front suspension (the maximum allowed load on front axles according to Brazilian legislation, 3 different shock absorber conditions were evaluated: new, used and failed. By applying the relative damage concept, it is possible to conclude that the variation of the shock absorber conditions will significantly affect the vertical load applied on the pavement. Although the results clearly point to a dependent relationship between the load and the condition of the shock absorbers, it is recommended to repeat the same methodology, in future to analyse the influence of other quarter car model variants (such as spring rate, mass and tire spring stiffness.

  14. 重载铁路桥台设计%Abutment Design of Heavy Haul Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严章荣

    2012-01-01

    针对山西中南部铁路通道采用的30 t轴重荷载,分析目前国内外重栽铁路的发展特点,拟定桥台的设计标准、设计荷载以及荷载检算模式,通过对台身偏心及应力检算,确定了空心桥台的结构尺寸.设计的矩形空心桥台台长随填土高增加而增加,其结构整体刚度好、台身圬工量较省、方便施工,能够满足30t轴重列车的运营要求.%Focusing on the axle load of 30 tons which was applied to the Railway Passage in Central and Southern Shanxi, the development characteristics of heavy haul railway at home and abroad at present were analyzed. The design criteria, design load and the load calculation model were formulated. After the eccentricities and the stresses are checked out, the structure size of hollow abutment was defined. The design results show that the rectangular hollow abutment which the abutment length increases with the increase of earth filling's height, has a good rigidity with less amount of masonry, can be convenient for construction, and can meet the requirements of train's operation under 30t axle load.

  15. Study on Design Parameters of Overload Pavement%超载路面设计参数的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚家鑫; 陶波

    2011-01-01

    Overload transportation is serious in Tianjin-Weichang Highway in urban area of Tianjin.Standard axle load 100 kN specified in design specification for pavement verification cannot satisfy the current situation of overload transportation and heavy traffic.Through analysis of early failure of Tianjin-Weichang Highway,based on the observation result with axle load testing equipment, the influence of vehicle overload on pavement design is analyzed and the design parameters applicable for heavy traffic are educed.These design parameters are applied in Tianjin-Weichang pavement design, which has achieved better effect.%天津市区津围公路超载运输现象较严重,按规范中的标准轴载100 kN进行路面结构检算,不能满足超载运输和大交通量的现状.通过对津围公路早期破坏现象的分析,利用轴载检测仪器的观测结果,分析车辆超载对路面设计的影响,导出适用于重载交通的设计参数,并应用于津围路面设计,取得了较好效果.

  16. Impact of Vehicle Class and Tire Pressure on Pavement Performance in MEPDG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed I. E. Attia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The new Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG design and analysis procedures defines the exact traffic loading by defining the specific number of each vehicle class and the use of axle load distribution factors instead of the equivalent single axle load (ESAL. The number of traffic inputs (parameters in MEPDG was found to be 17024. This research aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of the predicted flexible pavement distress to vehicle class and tire pressure in MEPDG. To evaluate the impact of vehicle (truck class on pavement sections, different cases of loading were analyzed. For each case, the MEPDG Ver. 1.1 was used to evaluate the effect of tire pressure by solving each case for a tire pressure of 120 and 140 psi. The effect of the traffic parameters on asphalt pavement (AC rutting, base rutting, subgrade rutting, international roughness index (IRI, longitudinal cracking and fatigue (alligator cracking were investigated. It was found that vehicle class distribution (VCD would cause clear impact (comparable to the effect of AADTT level only if the major traffic is of specific class (very light or very heavy. If this is not the case, the vehicle class distribution will not be a significant factor that affects the final design because most of the trucks had similar impact on flexible pavement distresses. The impact of tire pressure is clear on longitudinal cracking, fatigue cracking and AC rutting, and have no significant impact on both base and subgrade rutting.

  17. Re-evaluation of the AASHTO-flexible pavement design equation with neural network modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Tiğdemir

    Full Text Available Here we establish that equivalent single-axle loads values can be estimated using artificial neural networks without the complex design equality of American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO. More importantly, we find that the neural network model gives the coefficients to be able to obtain the actual load values using the AASHTO design values. Thus, those design traffic values that might result in deterioration can be better calculated using the neural networks model than with the AASHTO design equation. The artificial neural network method is used for this purpose. The existing AASHTO flexible pavement design equation does not currently predict the pavement performance of the strategic highway research program (Long Term Pavement Performance studies test sections very accurately, and typically over-estimates the number of equivalent single axle loads needed to cause a measured loss of the present serviceability index. Here we aimed to demonstrate that the proposed neural network model can more accurately represent the loads values data, compared against the performance of the AASHTO formula. It is concluded that the neural network may be an appropriate tool for the development of databased-nonparametric models of pavement performance.

  18. Re-evaluation of the AASHTO-flexible pavement design equation with neural network modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiğdemir, Mesut

    2014-01-01

    Here we establish that equivalent single-axle loads values can be estimated using artificial neural networks without the complex design equality of American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). More importantly, we find that the neural network model gives the coefficients to be able to obtain the actual load values using the AASHTO design values. Thus, those design traffic values that might result in deterioration can be better calculated using the neural networks model than with the AASHTO design equation. The artificial neural network method is used for this purpose. The existing AASHTO flexible pavement design equation does not currently predict the pavement performance of the strategic highway research program (Long Term Pavement Performance studies) test sections very accurately, and typically over-estimates the number of equivalent single axle loads needed to cause a measured loss of the present serviceability index. Here we aimed to demonstrate that the proposed neural network model can more accurately represent the loads values data, compared against the performance of the AASHTO formula. It is concluded that the neural network may be an appropriate tool for the development of databased-nonparametric models of pavement performance. PMID:25397962

  19. Study on the Steel Rail Rolling Contact Stress with Consideration of Initial Residual Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Hua

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on ANSYS/LS-DYNA explicit analysis software, this paper established the three-dimensional finite element model of wheel/rail rolling contact in curve negotiation with consideration of the residual stress impact after rail straightening process. It used the dynain file method to apply the initial residual stress to the rails, and conducted numerical simulation to the process of dynamic wheel/rail rolling contact under the operation condition which is corresponding to the setting of taking velocity and axle load as the variables. The simulation results can show that with the increase of velocity, the equivalent stress on the outer rail railhead and at the rail web will increase accordingly; the equivalent stress on the inner rail railhead and at the rail web will decrease accordingly; and the equivalent stress on the rail flange will be basically the same. With the increase of axle load, all the equivalent stress on the railheads and rail web of the inner rail and the outer rail will increase accordingly while the equivalent stress on the rail flange will be basically the same.

  20. Molecular recognition of 4′-Nitrobenzo-15-crown-5 by bis(benzimidazolium)propane borontetrafluoride in acetonitrile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, Tandrima, E-mail: tanchem_bu@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, Dr. Bhupendranath Dutta Smriti Mahavidyalaya, Burdwan 713407 (India); Karmakar, Animesh [Department of Chemistry, Dr. Bhupendranath Dutta Smriti Mahavidyalaya, Burdwan 713407 (India); Ghosh, Sabari; Mukhopadhyay, Chhanda [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 APC Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Pal, Sunanda [Department of Chemistry, Dr. Bhupendranath Dutta Smriti Mahavidyalaya, Burdwan 713407 (India); Banerjee, Manas [Department of Chemistry, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan 713104, West Bengal (India)

    2015-05-15

    ICT based ratiometric sensing due to H-bonding interaction among three different crown ethers (C): Dibenzo-24-crown-8 (DB24C8 or C1), Benzo-15-crown-5 (B15C5 or C2) and 4′-Nitrobenzo-15-crown-5 (4′–NB15C5 or C3) along with the axle bis(benzimidazolium)propane borontetrafluoride (BBIM-propane) (3a–3d) have been studied. The association were initially ascertained from isosbestic formation and later corroborated by iso-emissive formation where C3 fails to establish iso-emissive. Stoichiometry of adducts were 1:1 both in the ground as well as in excited state. The threading or external association was finally distinguished by Monte Carlo simulation and frontier molecular orbital interaction. - Highlights: • The first report of ICT–based wavelength ratiometric interaction of crown–axle system. • Photophysical recognition of 4′-Nitrobenzo-15-crown-5 (4′-NB15C5 or C3) in acetonitrile. • Evidence of charge transfer interaction along with H-bond formation even in excited state is reported. • Monte Carlo simulation and FMO interaction justified the experimental findings.