WorldWideScience

Sample records for axle loads

  1. Prerequisites for Increasing the Axle Load on Railway Tracks in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lidmila

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with problems of increasing the axle load on Czech Railways (ED tracks to 250 kN or 300 kN, respectively. The results of a numerical analysis of the effects of increased axle loads on the track bed structure were verified by experimental measurements carried out on track bed construction models in an experimental box on a 1:1 scale. The results of the research are applicable for routine use on ED. 

  2. Analysis of axle and vehicle load properties through Bayesian networks based on weigh-in-motion data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Napoles, O.; Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) systems are used, among other applications, in pavement and bridge reliability. The system measures quantities such as individual axle load, vehicular loads, vehicle speed, vehicle length and number ofaxles. Because ofthe nature ofúamc configuration, the quantities measured are

  3. Stress Analysis and Fatigue Analysis of Front Axle of Heavy-Duty Truck using ANSYS Ncode Design Life for Different Loading Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant L. Aghav

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Front axle of heavy duty truck is the important component of vehicle and needs good design under the various loading conditions of the complete vehicle. Aim of the project is to stress analysis and predict the life of front axle for vertical, and vertical and braking loading case. The fatigue life of front axle is generally estimated by stress life approach and strain life approach method. Front axle beam assembly was modeled in the NX cad software. Meshing and Stress analysis is performed by ANSYS workbench and fatigue analysis is performed by NCODE design life ANSYS tool under different loading cases. Fatigue life of axle obtained by FEA method is more than 2 x 105 cycles, which is considered as safe for vertical loading case. Similarly, Fatigue life of axle obtained is more than 4 x 103 cycles, which is considered as safe for vertical and braking loading case. The max stress region is below spring pad of axle for vertical loading and in the goose neck of axle for vertical and braking loading case

  4. 200 km/h 八轴客运电力机车轴重转移分析%Axle - load Transfer Analysis of 200 km/h Eight - axle Passenger Electric Locomotive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕凯凯; 王开云; 张志和

    2015-01-01

    An axle - load transfer model for a new 200 km/ h eight - axle passenger electric locomotive is established in this paper. Comparisons between calculation results obtained from the established model and that from the commercial dynamic software under the quasi - static condition are made. Some factors that affect the locomotive axle - load transfer are analyzed. The result shows that the axle - load of the first axle and second axle are reducing,while for the third axle and fourth axle they are increasing. The maxi-mum load - increasing ratio is happened to the fourth axle,which is 6. 28 percent,and the maximum load- reducing ratio is for the first axle,which is also 6. 28 percent. The calculation result is similar to that by using the commercial dynamic software where the difference is only about 0. 8 percent. Compared with the traction motor suspended on wheel - set,the traction motor suspended on frame could reduce the axle- load transfer by about 5. 77 percent. The optimal traction height for the 200 km/ h eight - axle passen-ger electric locomotive is 260 mm. Reducing the distance between motor front and rear suspension points can improve the adhesion weight usage of a locomotive.%针对一种新型的200 km/ h 八轴客运电力机车,建立了轴重转移计算模型。利用该模型计算其轴重转移,与动力学软件在准静态条件下的仿真结果进行对比,并分析影响机车轴重转移的因素。研究表明,该机车第一、二轴为减载,第三、四轴为增载,且第四轴增载最大,增载6.28%,第一轴减载最大,减载6.28%;模型计算结果与动力学软件仿真结果相差0.8%;机车牵引电机采用架悬方式能有效减小机车轴重转移,相比电机采用轴悬方式,机车轴重转移减小5.77%;该机车最优牵引点高度为260 mm;减小电机前后悬挂点之间的纵向跨距能有效提高机车黏着重量利用率。

  5. Analysis of axle and vehicle load properties through Bayesian Networks based on Weigh-in-Motion data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) systems are used, among other applications, in pavement and bridge reliability. The system measures quantities such as individual axle load, vehicular loads, vehicle speed, vehicle length and number of axles. Because of the nature of traffic configuration, the quantities measured are evidently regarded as random variables. The dependence structure of the data of such complex systems as the traffic systems is also very complex. It is desirable to be able to represent the complex multidimensional-distribution with models where the dependence may be explained in a clear way and different locations where the system operates may be treated simultaneously. Bayesian Networks (BNs) are models that comply with the characteristics listed above. In this paper we discuss BN models and results concerning their ability to adequately represent the data. The paper places attention on the construction and use of the models. We discuss applications of the proposed BNs in reliability analysis. In particular we show how the proposed BNs may be used for computing design values for individual axles, vehicle weight and maximum bending moments of bridges in certain time intervals. These estimates have been used to advise authorities with respect to bridge reliability. Directions as to how the model may be extended to include locations where the WIM system does not operate are given whenever possible. These ideas benefit from structured expert judgment techniques previously used to quantify Hybrid Bayesian Networks (HBNs) with success

  6. Dynamic Response Characteristics of Asphalt Pavement Under Multi-axle Moving Load%多轴移动荷载下沥青路面的动态响应特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴建中; 吴浩; 陈勇; 王秉纲

    2011-01-01

    In order to analyze dynamic response characteristics of asphalt pavement under muhi axle moving load,a three-dimensional finite element model of asphalt pavement was established by field investigation. The influences of axle load with uniform distribution of single rear axle, dual rear axles and three rear axles and the axle load with non-uniform distribution of three rear axles and the three rear axles vehicles with impending front axle on pavement were studied respectively. Results show that the effect of each axle on pavement is independent when the wheelbase of multi axle vehicle is bigger than 3 m. Increase of number of axle makes the vertical displacement of pavement superpose and makes the maximal shear stress and compressive stress of pavement change inconspicuously. The influence of the middle axle of three rear axles vehicle on the vertical displacement of pavement is the greatest which increases by 23. 7% and 18. 2% compared with those of the front axle and rear axle respectively. Besides, the middle axle and rear axle has certain influence on the shear stress of pavement, but each axle has ahnost no influence on the maximal compressive stress of pavement. The research results indicate that the non uniform distribution of axle load of multi axle vehicle has significant influence on pavement faliure.%为分析多轴移动荷载下沥青路面的动态响应特性,通过现场调查建立了不同轴型作用下沥青路面的三维有限元模型,分别研究了单后轴、双后轴及三后轴轴载均匀分布、三后轴车轴载不均匀分布及三后轴车前轴悬空条件下对路面的影响。结果表明:多轴车轴距大于3m时,各轴对路面的作用相互独立,轴数的增加对路面竖向位移产生叠加作用,对路表最大剪应力及压应力影响不明显;三后轴车中轴对路面竖向位移作用最大,较前轴及后轴分别增大23.7%和18.2%,中轴及后轴对路表剪应力有一定影响,

  7. REDESIGNING OF TRACTOR TROLLEY AXLE USING ANSYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish V. Katore,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In Central India, various small scale industries are adopting the crude methodologies for designing & manufacturing the machine components. One such industry producing tractor trolleys for agricultural use has been identified for this study. The existing trolley designed by the industry uses heavy axle without consideringstatic and dynamic loading conditions which in turn leads to higher factor of safety increasing the overall cost of the axle. In this study, existing trolley axle is redesigned considering the static and dynamic load conditions. A CAD model is prepared using CATIA V5 as a tool. Minimum cross section for the axle is calculated which resulted in the 24.8 % reduction in the weight of the axle. The axle dimensions are redesigned to 75 X 75 mm which is comparatively smaller than the old axle. The design is optimized based on the manufacturing cost of the axle. The failure analysis is performed on the axle of trolley used in agricultural area. These results provide atechnical basis to prevent future damage to the location axle.

  8. Nonlinearity-induced time-varying harmonic dynamic axle load and its impact on dynamic stability of car-trailer combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Xiao, Hong; Winner, Hermann

    2016-06-01

    A nonlinearity-induced time-varying harmonic dynamic axle load is found in the road test of a car-trailer combination. To understand its influence on system dynamic stability, a corresponding linear single-track model (STM) is proposed. System dynamic stability is described and sensitivity analysis for the system parameters is achieved. The contribution of the harmonic force is quantified by a derived effective axle load. Because the harmonic effect might be time varying in practice, a time-frequency analysis-based parameter identification method is introduced. Experimental study shows that a time-varying harmonic effect really exists. A yaw-rate-based simulation method is designed to simulate this behaviour. The sensitivity analysis of the influence of the harmonic amplitude or phase on dynamic stability is performed with a simulation study. With appropriate modification of the harmonic amplitude and phase shift applied in selected time windows, the time-varying system characteristics in the road test can be simulated very well.

  9. 联合收割机行走半轴载荷测试系统构建与性能试验%Construction and performance experiment of load test system for half axle of combine harvester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李耀明; 叶晓飞; 徐立章; 庞靖; 马征

    2013-01-01

    Half axle is an important part of a walking system in a combine harvester;the damage from half axle is generally fatigue failure, which has a direct effect on the reliability and stability of the combine harvester. Minority combine harvester manufacturers have half axle fatigue test rigs, and most of the loads on the fatigue test rig are set artificially, thus it cannot accurately predict fatigue life of half axle in absence of comprehensive consideration of various alternating loads. Fatigue life analysis and fast in doors simulation of the load fatigue test on the basis of load spectrum can provide the basis for the improvement of half axle. Improvement of fatigue performance of half axle is conducive to the competitiveness of the products on the market at home and abroad. It is not a suitable solution to use traditional shaft or disc torque sensors to test the torque of half axle, because the half axle is closed in the transmission. Operating environments of combine harvesters are complex, and half axles often bear a complex alternating load which puts forward higher requirements on the stability and reliability of the performance of the load test system. To provide a precise and comprehensive load-time course for the compiling of load spectrum of the half axle of a combine harvester, the complex and alternating load signal in typical working conditions must be acquired accurately. Based on an analysis of working characteristics and the construction features of chassis of combine harvesters, a wireless load test system was put forward in this paper by choosing reasonable torque and rotation speed sensors and data acquisition systems composed of hall sensors, rotation speed signal acquisition modules, resistance strain gauges, power modules, torque signal acquisition modules, wireless routers, computers, and software for signals test and analysis. In order to exclude the influence of measured value of torque signals by bending moment, axial force, and temperature

  10. Study on Axle Load Conversion for Concrete Base of Durable Asphalt Pavement%耐久性沥青路面混凝土基层轴载换算研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑木莲; 陈拴发; 马庆雷

    2012-01-01

    刚性基层耐久性沥青路面作为一种新型的路面结构,现行规范对于上覆沥青层水泥混凝土路面的设计思路对其并不适用,其轴载换算公式由于没有考虑刚性基层沥青路面结构的特点,得出的结果存在较大误差.依据普通混凝土及贫混凝土的疲劳方程,结合耐久性沥青路面混凝土基层在标准轴载和不同轴-轮型荷载作用下回归得出的荷载应力计算公式,按照混凝土基层等效疲劳损伤原则,推求得出单轴-单轮、单轴-双轮组、双轴-双轮组荷载换算为标准轴载的公式.结果表明:得出的轴载换算公式可充分考虑混凝土基层耐久性沥青路面基层厚度、基层模量、地基模量结构设计参数的影响,具有良好的实用性,可为路面结构设计提供依据.%As a new kind pavement structure, the design method of cement concrete pavement with asphalt surface course in the current specification is not suitable to the durable asphalt pavement with rigid base. Since the characteristics of durable pavement with rigid base are not taken into account, there exists large error in the results getting from the axle-load conversion equation. According to the fatigue equations of popular concrete and lean concrete, the load stress calculation equations rigid base in durable asphalt pavement subjecting standard axle load and different axle-wheel load, and the equivalent fatigue damage principle of concrete base, the axle load conversion equations from the load of single-axle and single-wheel, single-axle and two-wheel and two-axle and two-wheel to the standard axle load are derived. The results show that the axle load conversion equations got in the paper can fully consider the influences of the structure design parameters of base depth, base modulus and subgrade modulus etc. Of durable asphalt pavement with concrete pavement, so the equations have good suitability and can provide basis for pavement structure design.

  11. Development of the Pneumatic Side Dump Car with Narrow Gauge (762 mm) and an Axle Load of 20 t%载重20t窄轨(762mm)气动自翻车的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田景志; 栗明柱

    2012-01-01

    Described are the usage, technical parameters, main structure and testing of the pneumatic side dump car with narrow gauge (762 mm) and an axle load of 20 t.%介绍了载重20t窄轨(762 mm)气动自翻车的用途、技术参数、主要结构和试验情况.

  12. Helicopter Landing Gear Axle Load Analysis and Finite Element Simulation%直升机起落架机轮轴载荷分析及有限元仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兵; 宋先富; 张东波; 朱英杰; 魏敏

    2014-01-01

    This article by exploring research landing gear axle load and strength, to achieve the purpose of a new type of landing gear axle strength check, and at the same time using digital analysis of ifnite element simu-lation methods and means to further verify the landing gear axle in actual conditions security, the establishment of a ifnite element model of the new landing gear axle parts, by examining the helicopter landing vertical landing and before lfying two kinds of the machine axle of stress and strain in the typical ways, come to the respective condi-tions relfected the law conclusion, based on this proposed recommendations for the reasonable actual operating conditions, then, given reasonable driving helicopter rec-ommendations as well as maintenance method ground of maintenance personnel. Helicopter landing gear axle is the key parts of the landing system, has an extremely impor-tant significance for ensuring the safety of the helicopter landing as well as to extend the service life of the machine axle.%本文通过探讨研究起落架机轮轴的载荷及强度,达到对某新型起落架机轮轴的强度校核的目的,同时采用有限元仿真数字化分析方法来进一步验证起落架机轮轴在实际工况下的安全性,建立了新型起落架机轮轴零件有限元模型,通过考察直升机在垂直降落和前飞着陆时两种典型方式下机轮轴的应力应变,得出了各自工况下反应出来规律结论,基于此,提出了针对实际工况下的合理化建议,给出了合理驾驶直升机方法的建议以及地勤机务维护人员的维护方法。直升机起落架机轮轴是着陆系统的关键部位,对保证直升机的降落安全以及延长其机轮轴的使用寿命有着极其重要的意义。

  13. Experimental Study on Strengthening Method of Track Structure for 30 t Axle Load in Shenchi-Huanghua Railway%30t轴重下朔黄铁路轨道结构强化技术试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛继连

    2015-01-01

    本文针对朔黄铁路开行30 t轴重货车时既有轨道的适应性与强化措施等问题,进行了系统的理论与试验研究。采用动力仿真分析与30 t轴重货车实车试验相结合的方法,分析30 t轴重下轨道结构的适应性。朔黄铁路既有轨道结构能满足大轴重货车近期少量开行的要求,但大轴重货车作用于轨道的动态荷载会明显增加,既有轨道结构面临轨道部件伤损增加、疲劳寿命缩短、小半径曲线稳定性储备不足等问题。根据30 t轴重下轨道结构荷载特点,有针对性地开展轨道结构强化措施的研究,重点开展SH‐Ⅰ型重载轨枕与SH‐Ⅰ型重载扣件、小半径强化措施、75 kg/m钢轨移动闪光焊技术、直线钢轨打磨廓面、重载道岔的研发等工作,各强化措施均已在朔黄铁路实施。对朔黄铁路既有轨道结构的强化改造,可全面提升轨道结构等级,能满足30 t轴重货车的运营要求。%The feasibility and strengthening measures for the existing track of Shenchi‐Huanghua Railway where the trains with the axle load of 30 t operate were studied using theoretical and testing technologies .By applying dynamic simulation analysis in combination with actual test involving a 30 t axle load freight train , the feasibili‐ty of the track structure under 30 t axle load was evaluated . The analysis results showed that the existing track structure meets the operating requirements of a small number of trains with heavy axle load over a certain peri‐od of time . However , the dynamic loads by heavy axle load freight cars acting on the track increased signifi‐cantly . The existing track structure faces problems such as increased failures and shortened life of track parts , and insufficient stability reserve of sharp curves . Based on the characteristics of dynamic loads of the track structure induced by trains with the axle load of 30 t ,an analysis was performed on the

  14. Applied Research on Load Spectrum Technology in the Development of Off-Road Vehicle Drive Axle%载荷谱技术在越野车驱动桥开发中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李响; 曹正林; 魏文广; 刘再生; 宋双贺

    2014-01-01

    为实现某中型越野车的轻量化和高可靠性,探讨了越野车疲劳载荷谱测试方法,并结合载荷谱的浓缩编辑技术建立了完整的越野车零部件开发载荷谱数据库,为该越野车驱动桥总成开发提供了真实的载荷输入条件,并得到了越野车驱动桥疲劳强度校核与道路耐久性试验考核一致的结果。通过载荷谱技术的应用,新结构越野车驱动桥顺利通过了整车可靠性道路试验。%To improve lightweight performance and reliability of a mid-sized off-road vehicle, we investigate the fatigue load spectrum test method, and combine with the enriched load spectrum editing technique to establish a complete load spectrum database of components development for off-road vehicle. We provide real world load input conditions for the development of drive axle assembly of this off-road vehicle, and get the results of fatigue strength check for drive axle, which are consistent with that of the road durability test. With the application of load spectrum technology, the new drive axle structure for the off-road vehicle passes vehicle reliability test successfully.

  15. 载荷谱技术在越野车驱动桥开发中的应用研究%Applied Research on Load Spectrum Technology in the Development of Off-Road Vehicle Drive Axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李响; 曹正林; 魏文广; 刘再生; 宋双贺

    2014-01-01

    为实现某中型越野车的轻量化和高可靠性,探讨了越野车疲劳载荷谱测试方法,并结合载荷谱的浓缩编辑技术建立了完整的越野车零部件开发载荷谱数据库,为该越野车驱动桥总成开发提供了真实的载荷输入条件,并得到了越野车驱动桥疲劳强度校核与道路耐久性试验考核一致的结果。通过载荷谱技术的应用,新结构越野车驱动桥顺利通过了整车可靠性道路试验。%To improve lightweight performance and reliability of a mid-sized off-road vehicle, we investigate the fatigue load spectrum test method, and combine with the enriched load spectrum editing technique to establish a complete load spectrum database of components development for off-road vehicle. We provide real world load input conditions for the development of drive axle assembly of this off-road vehicle, and get the results of fatigue strength check for drive axle, which are consistent with that of the road durability test. With the application of load spectrum technology, the new drive axle structure for the off-road vehicle passes vehicle reliability test successfully.

  16. Kinematics Analysis and Simulation of Loading and Unloading Robot System for Bent Axle%曲轴上下料机器人系统的运动学分析及仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅雪川; 林粤科

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at requirements of the automatic loading and unloading of bent axle of compressor in refrigerator during the grinding process,the mathematical model of loading and unloading motion system of robot was set up. Based on SolidWorks Motion, motion characteristics of robot during the loading and unloading process was simulated and researched. The simulation result showed that on the condition of 5s of time for operation of each bent axle and in limited workspace,the robot could fulfill all the requirements. The loading and unloading robot of bent axle is under the successful application in practical production,and creates a precedent in grinding process.%针对冰箱压缩机曲轴在磨削加工中自动上下料要求,建立了曲轴上下料机器人系统运动过程中的数学模型,基于SolidWorks Motion仿真研究了上下料过程机器人的运动特性。仿真结果表明:机器人在有限工作空间和限制节拍5 s的条件下实现上下料操作的可行性。该曲轴上下料机器人成功应用于实际生产中,开创了曲轴磨削加工中自动上下料的先例。

  17. Fatigue Life Estimation on Speed Reducer of Drive Axle Under the Operating Condition of Load%驱动桥主减速器工况载荷下寿命预估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李剑敏; 谢海; 潘晓东; 李龙

    2013-01-01

    For the mechanical products,it' s difficult to do their durability test because of the high cost and long lifecycle.The relationship between the bench test load-life and operating load-life is built based on the cumulative fatigue damage principle.Fatigue life estimation on speed reducer of drive axle subject to real working conditions is carried out according to the accelerated life test.%针对机械产品寿命长价格昂贵,对这些机械产品做寿命试验十分困难.根据疲劳损伤累计原理,把实验的载荷、疲劳和实测工况的载荷、疲劳的关系建立起来,按照驱动桥主减速器的加速寿命试验推算出驱动桥主减速器在真实工况下的寿命.

  18. Analysis on inf luence of freight train with 27 t axle load on reinforced concrete small span bridge%开行27 t轴重列车对小跨度钢筋混凝土桥的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘吉元; 苏永华

    2015-01-01

    T ruck with 27 t axle load will be operated on the existing railways to improve freight transport capacity and efficiency in our country. Statistics of the composition of existing bridges were conducted in this paper. Also,the current state of the locomotives and trucks with large axle load were investigated. On this basis,the effect of the action characteristics of bridges under large axle train w ere analyzed,including the stress condition of the bridges under different types of truck with 27 t axle load and locomotive traction. T hrough the analysis of the performance of reinforced concrete bridges with span less than 16. 0 m,the suitability of bridges to locomotive traction was assessed.%为充分挖掘既有铁路的货运能力、提高运输效率,在既有线上开行27 t轴重货车是我国货运发展的趋势之一。本文在统计既有线桥梁组成、调研大轴重机车和货车应用现状的基础上,分析了大轴重列车对桥梁的作用特征,包括27 t轴重各型货车作用下桥梁的受力情况、不同机车牵引条件下大轴重列车对桥梁受力的影响。通过分析明确了27 t轴重货车对跨度16.0 m 以下钢筋混凝土桥梁的影响和对机车牵引条件的适应性。

  19. Analysis of Tendencies Towards Changes in Temperatures of Railway Vehicle Axle Boxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olegas Lunys

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes variations in the temperature of axle-box heating of railroad rolling stock considering two modes of the train - driving and parking position. Additionally, the article describes the influence of the axle load and season on the heat of the axle-box, forecasts intolerable residual resources and explains a possibility of detecting likely breakage at the very beginning of defects. The paper also deals with scientific literature related to axle-box heating and focuses on the conducted practical and theoretical experiments. The carried out research has established the rates of operating heating and critical heating. The application of numerical values for the algorithm of automatic control devices could help with detecting the breakdowns of the axle-box before they reach a critical state and assist in forecasting residual operating resources.

  20. 49 CFR 215.105 - Defective axle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.105 Defective axle. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if— (a) An axle on the car has a crack or is broken; (b) An axle on the car has a gouge in the surface that is— (1)...

  1. Shape Optimization Of Front Axle Support Of Tractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shree Dewangan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The front axle support of tractor is the part of tractor which holds the engine of tractor and also gives support to it and lies between engine and front axle of tractor. According to the present market demand of off highway vehicle the low cost and light weight vehicle is in demand to fulfill the requirement of cost efficient vehicle. In this paper analysis of front axle support is done for study of stress generated in the component and then after optimization of its shape and according to the shape its weight will also reduced. Considering the effect of forces acted on such a heavy parts in tractor designed by casting having dynamic loads of less frequency with greater amplitude may cause great damage to the component. According to the production techniques of components in tractor front axle requires a properly designed support with high stiffness. The design of component was modeled in Creo parametric 2.0 and the analysis was performed in solid works. Shape optimization technique is used for performing optimization cause miserable reduction in weight of connecting rod. The optimized component is 10.35% lighter compare to initial design.

  2. 基于非线性疲劳损伤的沥青路面轴载换算%AXLE LOAD CONVERSION OF ASPHALT PAVEMENT BASED ON NONLINEAR FATIGUE DAMAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕松涛

    2012-01-01

    In order to establish the non-linear fatigue damage evolution equation of asphalt mixture and the axial load conversion method of asphalt pavement,the aggregate gradation and optimum asphalt-aggregate ratios are determined by a proportion design of asphalt mixture.Then,the fatigue damage variable is defined by the modulus decay basing on the basic theory of damage mechanics.The fatigue damage equation was deduced.The direct tensile fatigue test results were fitted from using the fatigue damage equation.The regularities of model parameters and damage with a stress ratio are given out.The new axle load conversion method is established for asphalt pavement.The results indicate that the fatigue damage evolution has the apparent non-linear properties of asphalt mixture.The Miner linear fatigue damage theory is not suitable to describe the process of fatigue damage evolution for asphalt pavement.It is not safe to use the axial load conversion method deriving from the Miner equation.The new axial load conversion method basing on the nonlinear fatigue damage evolution can consider the influence of loading history and damage history.%为了建立沥青混合料的非线性疲劳损伤演化方程,同时为完善沥青路面的轴载换算方法,首先进行沥青混合料的配合比设计,确定矿料级配及最佳油石比,然后从损伤力学基本理论出发,定义模量衰减为其疲劳损伤参量,由此推导得到了疲劳损伤方程,并以此方程对小梁直接拉伸疲劳试验结果进行拟合,得到了模型参数和损伤随应力比的变化规律,建立了沥青路面轴载换算新方法。结果表明:沥青混合料的疲劳损伤演化具有明显的非线性,用Miner线性疲劳损伤理论来描述沥青路面疲劳损伤演化过程不合适,由此推导得到的轴载换算方法偏不安全,建立在非线性疲劳损伤演化基础上的轴载换算方法考虑了加载历史和损伤历史的影响。

  3. 30t轴重下朔黄铁路桥涵结构强化技术试验研究%Experimental Study on Strengthening Method of Bridges and Culverts under 3 0 t Axle Load in Shuo-huang Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛继连

    2015-01-01

    通过调研朔黄铁路桥涵结构的运营现状,分析30 t轴重货物列车运营条件下各种跨度桥梁运营活载效应与设计活载效应比值,提出朔黄铁路大轴重重载运输强化改造设计活载图式,开展朔黄铁路30 t 轴重货车实车综合试验,根据各类桥涵结构特点和试验结果,得出大轴重重载列车对桥涵结构的作用规律。从钢筋混凝土简支梁、普通高度预应力混凝土梁、低高度及超低高度预应力混凝土梁、桥梁支座、钢筋混凝土涵洞及框构桥和墩台基础等方面,分析了大轴重重载运输条件下桥涵结构面临的主要技术问题,研发了预应力碳纤维板强化、辅助梁强化、小跨度桥涵强化等技术,研制了新型重载支座。各强化技术与措施经朔黄铁路工程实施与强化效果验证,可提高桥涵结构承载能力,能满足30 t轴重货车运营要求。%Based on the investigation of the current operational state of bridges and culverts along the Shuo-Huang Railway,an analysis was performed on the ratio of the actual and designed live load effects on the bridg-es under the actual 30 t axle load of the freight train.The precept of the strengthening and the reconstruction of the bridges loaded under the heavy axle load was proposed.Based on a comprehensive test and the characteris-tics of the structures of the bridges and culverts,the effect of the 30 t axle load of the freight on bridges and culverts of various spans was studied.The main technical problems faced by bridge and culvert structures under the heavy haul transportation condition were analyzed in terms of reinforced concrete simply-supported girder, prestressed concrete girder with normal height,prestressed concrete shallow girder,bridge bearing,reinforced concrete culvert,framed bridge,and footing of abutment and pier.The challenge of the heavy axle load to the current bridges and culverts at service required strengthening with the

  4. DAMAGE TOLERANCE ANALYSIS ON HOLLOW AXLES OF HIGH SPEED MOTOR TRAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Suxia; XIE Jilong; YANG Guangxue; XIAO Nan

    2008-01-01

    According to the rules of UIC515-3, the service loads of the axles are defined, which include some different loads cases as follows: the static loads; the impact loads resulted from running through the rail joints and unevenness rails; the loads through curves and from braking. Through the calculating and analysis, the stress distribution of the hollow axles is obtained for 200 km/h high speed motor trains used in China. At the same time, the fatigue crack growth of hollow axles is studied, and the initial surface cracks of 2 mm depth caused by hard objects strike or the other causes are discussed. On the basis of the linear elastic fracture mechanics theory, the stress intensity factor of the crack of the geometry transition outside the wheel seat is also studied. Associated with fatigue crack propagation equation and the corresponding crack propagation threshold, the crack propagation characteristics under different shapes are calculated. Then the running distances are educed with different shapes propagating to the critical length, and the estimation of the residual lives about hollow axles which are the reference values of examine and repair limit of the hollow axle is given.

  5. Influence of polygonal wear of railway wheels on the wheel set axle stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xingwen; Chi, Maoru; Wu, Pingbo

    2015-11-01

    The coupled vehicle/track dynamic model with the flexible wheel set was developed to investigate the effects of polygonal wear on the dynamic stresses of the wheel set axle. In the model, the railway vehicle was modelled by the rigid multibody dynamics. The wheel set was established by the finite element method to analyse the high-frequency oscillation and dynamic stress of wheel set axle induced by the polygonal wear based on the modal stress recovery method. The slab track model was taken into account in which the rail was described by the Timoshenko beam and the three-dimensional solid finite element was employed to establish the concrete slab. Furthermore, the modal superposition method was adopted to calculate the dynamic response of the track. The wheel/rail normal forces and the tangent forces were, respectively, determined by the Hertz nonlinear contact theory and the Shen-Hedrick-Elkins model. Using the coupled vehicle/track dynamic model, the dynamic stresses of wheel set axle with consideration of the ideal polygonal wear and measured polygonal wear were investigated. The results show that the amplitude of wheel/rail normal forces and the dynamic stress of wheel set axle increase as the vehicle speeds rise. Moreover, the impact loads induced by the polygonal wear could excite the resonance of wheel set axle. In the resonance region, the amplitude of the dynamic stress for the wheel set axle would increase considerably comparing with the normal conditions.

  6. 基于轮轨磨耗对30t轴重货车车轮踏面优化研究%Study on Optimization of Wheel Profiles of Freight Car with 30 t Axle Load Based on Wheel-rail Wear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨亮亮; 罗世辉; 傅茂海

    2014-01-01

    通过对30 t轴重铁路货车的仿真,对比分析车轮采用L M磨耗型踏面与75 kg/m、60 kg/m两种钢轨匹配后各磨耗评定指标,得出L M型踏面与75 kg/m重型钢轨匹配时存在一定不适应的结论。为了满足我国大轴重铁路货车技术的发展需求,从减少轮轨磨耗考虑,设计出两种与75 kg/m重型钢轨匹配性能更优的车轮踏面。基于FASTSIM 算法和Archard磨耗模型,对30 t轴重货车车轮磨耗进行仿真计算,并对比分析优化前后车轮踏面磨耗状态及相关指标。研究结果表明:两种优化型踏面与75 kg/m钢轨匹配下的车轮磨耗程度均比L M型踏面车轮磨耗要小,而且随着运行里程的增加,这种趋势更加明显。%Through simulation of freight cars each with the 30 t axle load ,comparative analysis on wear indexes was made by the dynamic model corresponding to respective matching between the LM type worn wheel tread with 75 kg/m rails and with 60 kg/m rails . Certain inadaptability was shown in matching between the LM wheel tread and 75 kg/m heavy rails .In order to meet the needs of developing large axle load railway wagons in China ,two types of wheel treads with better performance of wheel-rail wear in matching with 75 kg/m rails were designed . The wheel wear of the 30 t axle load wagon was simulated and calculated with the FASTSIM algorithm and Archard wear model ,and the wear status and relevant indexes of wheel treads before and after wheel tread optimization were compared . The research results indicate as follows :In matching with 75 kg/m heavy rails , the two types of optimized wheel treads undergo wear of a lesser degree as compared with the LM type wheel tread;this trend becomes more and more significant with increasing of the running mileage .

  7. Investigation on features and tendencies of axle-box heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olegas LUNYS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Breakdown of rolling stock axle-boxes if not detected in due time may cause a rail accident or disaster. At present, a lot of advanced technologies, modern equipment and devices, which “recognizes” faulty axle-boxes when the train is in motion, have been implemented. However, the timely identification of breakdown of rolling stock axle-boxes still is an acute problem, the initial stage of damage emergence being especially problematic. Presently, rolling stock axle-box breakdown is determined according to the higher than permissible temperature of the axle-box body. The article provides statistical data of dangerously heated axle-boxes, determined train delay durations, the number of delayed trains by danger level, and dependence of damage on the season. After systematization of data on axle-box damage and heating temperatures of broken axle-boxes, heating tendencies of axle-boxes of freight wagons are described. Finally, basic conclusions are given.

  8. Structural basis for Gas6–Axl signalling

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Takako; Knyazev, Pjotr G; Clout, Naomi J; Cheburkin, Yuri; Göhring, Walter; Ullrich, Axel; TIMPL, RUPERT; Hohenester, Erhard

    2005-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases of the Axl family are activated by the vitamin K-dependent protein Gas6. Axl signalling plays important roles in cancer, spermatogenesis, immunity, and platelet function. The crystal structure at 3.3 Å resolution of a minimal human Gas6/Axl complex reveals an assembly of 2:2 stoichiometry, in which the two immunoglobulin-like domains of the Axl ectodomain are crosslinked by the first laminin G-like domain of Gas6, with no direct Axl/Axl or Gas6/Gas6 contacts. There a...

  9. Imaging Axl expression in pancreatic and prostate cancer xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimmagadda, Sridhar, E-mail: snimmag1@jhmi.edu [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Pullambhatla, Mrudula; Lisok, Ala [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Hu, Chaoxin [Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Maitra, Anirban [Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Pomper, Martin G, E-mail: mpomper@jhmi.edu [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •Axl is overexpressed in a variety of cancers. •Axl overexpression confers invasive phenotype. •Axl imaging would be useful for therapeutic guidance and monitoring. •Axl expression imaging is demonstrated in pancreatic and prostate cancer xenografts. •Graded levels of Axl expression imaging is feasible. -- Abstract: The receptor tyrosine kinase Axl is overexpressed in and leads to patient morbidity and mortality in a variety of cancers. Axl–Gas6 interactions are critical for tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. The goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of imaging graded levels of Axl expression in tumors using a radiolabeled antibody. We radiolabeled anti-human Axl (Axl mAb) and control IgG1 antibodies with {sup 125}I with high specific radioactivity and radiochemical purity, resulting in an immunoreactive fraction suitable for in vivo studies. Radiolabeled antibodies were investigated in severe combined immunodeficient mice harboring subcutaneous CFPAC (Axl{sup high}) and Panc1 (Axl{sup low}) pancreatic cancer xenografts by ex vivo biodistribution and imaging. Based on these results, the specificity of [{sup 125}I]Axl mAb was also validated in mice harboring orthotopic Panc1 or CFPAC tumors and in mice harboring subcutaneous 22Rv1 (Axl{sup low}) or DU145 (Axl{sup high}) prostate tumors by ex vivo biodistribution and imaging studies at 72 h post-injection of the antibody. Both imaging and biodistribution studies demonstrated specific and persistent accumulation of [{sup 125}I]Axl mAb in Axl{sup high} (CFPAC and DU145) expression tumors compared to the Axl{sup low} (Panc1 and 22Rv1) expression tumors. Axl expression in these tumors was further confirmed by immunohistochemical studies. No difference in the uptake of radioactivity was observed between the control [{sup 125}I]IgG1 antibody in the Axl{sup high} and Axl{sup low} expression tumors. These data demonstrate the feasibility of imaging Axl expression in pancreatic

  10. EVALUATION OF DYNAMIC INDICATORS OF SIX-AXLE LOCOMOTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper is devoted to dynamic characteristics evaluation of the locomotive with prospective design and determination the feasibility of its use on the Ukrainian railways. Methodology. The methods of mathematical and computer modeling of the dynamics of railway vehicles, as well as methods for the numerical integration of systems of ordinary nonlinear differential equations were used to solve the problem. Findings. The calculated diagram of a locomotive on three-axle bogies was built to solve the problem, and it is a system of rigid bodies connected by various elements of rheology. The mathematical model of the locomotive movement, allowing studying its spatial vibrations at driving on straight and curved sections of the track with random irregularities in plan and profile was developed with use of this calculated diagram. At compiling the mathematical model took into account both geometric (nonlinearity profile of the wheel roll surface and physical nonlinearity of the system (the work forces of dry friction, nonlinearity characteristics of interaction forces between wheels and rails. The multivariate calculations, which allowed assessing the dynamic qualities of the locomotive at its movement along straight and curved sections of the track, were realized with the use of computer modeling. The smoothness movement indicators of the locomotive in horizontal and vertical planes, frame strength, coefficients of vertical dynamics in the first and second stages of the suspension, the load factor of resistance against the derailment of the wheel from the rail were determined at the period of research. In addition, a comparison of the obtained results with similar characteristics is widely used on the Ukrainian railways in six-axle locomotive TE 116. The influence of speed and technical state of the track on the locomotive traffic safety was determined.Originality. A mathematical model of the spatial movement of a six-axle locomotive with

  11. Targeting Axl and Mer kinases in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anupam; Warner, Steven L; Vankayalapati, Hariprasad; Bearss, David J; Sharma, Sunil

    2011-10-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) are cell-surface transmembrane receptors that contain regulated kinase activity within their cytoplasmic domain and play an important role in signal transduction in both normal and malignant cells. The mammalian TAM RTK family includes 3 closely related members: Tyro-3, Axl, and Mer. Overexpression or ectopic expression of the TAM receptors has been detected in a wide array of human cancers. Growth arrest-specific gene 6 has been identified as the major ligand for these TAM RTKs, and its binding to the receptors has been shown to promote proliferation and survival of cancer cells in vitro. Abnormal expression and activation of Axl or Mer can provide a survival advantage for certain cancer cells. Inhibition of Axl and Mer may enhance the sensitivity of cancer cells to cytotoxic agents and would potentially be a therapeutic strategy to target cancer cells. This review elucidates the role of Axl and Mer in normal cellular function and their role in oncogenesis. In addition, we review the potential to inhibit these RTKs for the development of therapeutic targets in treatment of cancer. PMID:21933973

  12. Structural basis for Gas6–Axl signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takako; Knyazev, Pjotr G; Clout, Naomi J; Cheburkin, Yuri; Göhring, Walter; Ullrich, Axel; Timpl, Rupert; Hohenester, Erhard

    2006-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases of the Axl family are activated by the vitamin K-dependent protein Gas6. Axl signalling plays important roles in cancer, spermatogenesis, immunity, and platelet function. The crystal structure at 3.3 Å resolution of a minimal human Gas6/Axl complex reveals an assembly of 2:2 stoichiometry, in which the two immunoglobulin-like domains of the Axl ectodomain are crosslinked by the first laminin G-like domain of Gas6, with no direct Axl/Axl or Gas6/Gas6 contacts. There are two distinct Gas6/Axl contacts of very different size, both featuring interactions between edge β-strands. Structure-based mutagenesis, protein binding assays and receptor activation experiments demonstrate that both the major and minor Gas6 binding sites are required for productive transmembrane signalling. Gas6-mediated Axl dimerisation is likely to occur in two steps, with a high-affinity 1:1 Gas6/Axl complex forming first. Only the minor Gas6 binding site is highly conserved in the other Axl family receptors, Sky/Tyro3 and Mer. Specificity at the major contact is suggested to result from the segregation of charged and apolar residues to opposite faces of the newly formed β-sheet. PMID:16362042

  13. Development of a Test Machine for IVECO Drive Axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Liang-mo; WANG He-fu; CHEN Jin-rong; LING Zhi-liang; CAO Yu-hua

    2007-01-01

    To improve the automation level of the vehicle drive axle test and better simulate a vehicle′s actual operation, an advanced test machine has been developed. The load system of the machine consists of hand brakes and electric cylinders. It is simple-structured and low-cost. The major motor of the machine is controlled by a transducer and its speed can be adjusted easily. In addition, the programmed machine can automatically test such parameters as the grinding condition, the differential speed, the noise level, etc. It can also adjust the test procedures according to different requirements. Detailed discussion of the structure and mechanism of the test machine is given in this paper.

  14. 30 t轴重重载列车作用下隧底脱空对基底结构受力的影响%Inf luence of separation from tunnel's bottom on bearing capacity of base structure under train loading of 30 t axle load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐新利

    2015-01-01

    采用无损检测及现场钻孔法对一既有重载隧道基底进行了探测,依据探测结果分析了隧底吊空对基底结构受力的影响。同时,利用ANSYS建立围岩—隧道结构—轨道结构三维动力分析模型,依据现场取样试验并结合实车动态试验结果,分析了30 t轴重重载列车通过隧道时基底吊空对基底结构受力的影响。分析结果表明,在Ⅴ级围岩条件下,当隧底混凝土厚度1.0~1.2 m时,轻重车线同时吊空且纵向吊空超过3.2 m、重车线吊空且纵向吊空超过5.5 m、重车线半幅吊空且纵向吊空超过8.0 m后,隧底最大主应力均超过其容许应力。疲劳分析结果表明,当基底仰拱沿纵向吊空从2.5 m增加到4.8 m时,其疲劳寿命降低最为明显;从4.8 m增加至8.0 m后,其疲劳寿命降低速率逐渐减弱;超过8.0 m后,其疲劳寿命基本趋于稳定且不足1年。因此,对于隧底出现的吊空病害应该及时加固处理,以保证列车安全。%T he existing overloaded tunnel basement was detected by nondestructive testing and field drilling method and the effect of tunnel bottom hanging on basement structure force was analyzed according to the detecting results. Combining with the field sampling test and real vehicle dynamic experiments,the influence of tunnel bottom hanging on basement structure force when heavy haul train passing through the tunnel with 30 t axle load is analyzed by establishing three-dimensional dynamic analysis model of surrounding rock-tunnel structure-track structure with ANSYS. T he analysis results showed that both light and heavy vehicle line hang together and vertical hanging length is over 3. 2 m ,the heavy vehicle line hangs and the vertical hanging length is over 5. 5 m in the V surrounding rock conditions when the concrete thickness of tunnel bottom is in 1. 0 ~1. 2 m,the maximum principal force of tunnel bottom is 0. 5 M Pa more than the allowable stress when

  15. Clinical, Pathological, and Molecular Features of Lung Adenocarcinomas with AXL Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Katsuaki; Suda, Kenichi; Shimizu, Shigeki; Sakai, Kazuko; Mizuuchi, Hiroshi; Tomizawa, Kenji; Takemoto, Toshiki; Nishio, Kazuto; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase AXL is a member of the Tyro3-Axl-Mer receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily. AXL affects several cellular functions, including growth and migration. AXL aberration is reportedly a marker for poor prognosis and treatment resistance in various cancers. In this study, we analyzed clinical, pathological, and molecular features of AXL expression in lung adenocarcinomas (LADs). We examined 161 LAD specimens from patients who underwent pulmonary resections. When AXL protein ...

  16. Simulation Research on Stress Intensity Factors of Different Crack Aspect Ratios on Hollow Axles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Suxia; XIE Jilong

    2009-01-01

    Because of the wicked service environment of the high speed train, it is possible that the hollow axle of the train may encounter the foreign object damage and form a sharp notch. Under the fatigue loading a crack can initiate from the notch and propagate to failure. It is noted that the stress intensity factor is the control parameter of the crack propagating, for the purpose of getting the more exact propagation characteristics, the stress intensity factor is studied mainly. The service loads of hollow axles are defined, and the stress distribution of hollow axles is obtained according to the load spectrum. The semi-ellipse crack configuration is defined with three parameters:the aspect ratio, the relative depth and the relative location along the crack front. Quarter point 20-node isoparametric degenerate singular elements are used for the region near the crack tip. The finite element model of crack extension of hollow axle is created, and the crack front is dispersed which can realize orthogonal extension. Based on this the stress intensity factors of crack front were calculated, and the distribution rules of the stress intensity factors of different initial crack shapes are obtained. The conclusions are compared with that of the analytic method and they agree with each other very well, and the calculating results show that there is a close relationship between the stress intensity factor and the initial crack shape. For a round crack the stress intensity factor at the surface point increases faster than the one at the center point with the crack propagation. However, for a narrow crack, the results are in contrast with that of a round one. So, all the cracks with different shapes propagate toward to a similar shape, and they grow at this shape to end. The study may contribute to the crack propagate characteristics research.

  17. Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing: Five-Axle Combination Tractor-Flatbed Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, in coordination with the Federal Highway Administration, sponsored the Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing (HOVBT) program in order to provide information about the effect of gross vehicle weight (GVW) on braking performance. Because the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations limit the number of braking system defects that may exist for a vehicle to be allowed to operate on the roadways, the examination of the effect of brake defects on brake performance for increased loads is also relevant. The HOVBT program seeks to provide relevant information to policy makers responsible for establishing load limits, beginning with providing test data for a combination tractor/trailer. This testing was conducted on a five-axle combination vehicle with tractor brakes meeting the Reduced Stopping Distance requirement rulemaking. This report provides a summary of the testing activities, the results of various analyses of the data, and recommendations for future research. Following a complete brake rebuild, instrumentation, and brake burnish, stopping tests were performed from 20 and 40 mph with various brake application pressures (15 psi, 25 psi, 35 psi, 45 psi, 55 psi, and full system pressure). These tests were conducted for various brake conditions at the following GVWs: 60,000, 80,000, 91,000, 97,000, 106,000, and 116,000 lb. The 80,000-lb GVWs included both balanced and unbalanced loads. The condition of the braking system was also varied. To introduce these defects, brakes (none, forward drive axle, or rear trailer axle) were made inoperative. In addition to the stopping tests, performance-based brake tests were conducted for the various loading and brake conditions. Analysis of the stopping test data showed the stopping distance to increase with load (as expected) and also showed that more braking force was generated by the drive axle brakes than the trailer axle brakes. The constant-pressure stopping test data

  18. Dynamic analysis of rail vehicle axle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ferhat Dikmen; Meral Bayraktar; Rahmi Guclu

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, in order to obtain the dynamic forces on the passenger coach axle, a full rail vehicle model with 19-dof (degrees of freedom) has been considered. For a specific example, the variations of these dynamic forces with velocity of the passenger coach, suspension characteristics and way conditions have been examined. Dynamic forces found in the resonance regions at the range of 2–5 m/s (7.2–18 km/h) has been discussed. Theoretical results obtained for the dynamic forces have been successfully compared with the experimental results of German Railways (Deutsche Bahn-DB).

  19. Design Rules Discussion for Improving Multi-axle Vehicle Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xuebin; JIANG Yingquan; GAO Feng

    2006-01-01

    A whole vehicle dynamic model is built, and the modeling method of connected hydragas spring suspension and multi-axle grouping steer system is also explained. Firstly, a kinematical analysis of suspension is implemented to achieve optimized suspension geometry parameters according to the stable requirement. Then, based on the evaluation of whole vehicle handling character with regard to various tire characters, driving configurations and super structures, the design rules are summarized to improve the stability of multi-axle vehicle.

  20. Failure analysis of axle shaft of a fork lift

    OpenAIRE

    Souvik Das; Goutam Mukhopadhyay; Sandip Bhattacharyya

    2015-01-01

    An axle shaft of fork lift failed at operation within 296 h of service. The shaft transmits torque from discrepancy to wheel through planetary gear arrangement. A section of fractured axle shaft made of induction-hardened steel was analyzed to determine the root cause of the failure. Optical microscopies as well as field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) along with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were carried out to characterize the microstructure. Hardness profile thro...

  1. NEW TECHNOLOGY AND MACHINE TOOL FOR THE FORMING OF THE REAR AXLE SHAFT OF LIGHT TRUCK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Yingchun; Yu Duonian; Wang Xueming

    2004-01-01

    A new technology of forward extrusion and cross rolling has been developed to process the rear axle shaft sleeve of light truck with the use of tube billets. This technology is characterized by large reductions of material, energy and cost of production and has significant economical benefits. This technology is stable and reliable. The three rolls transverse rolling mill built based on this technology has novelty construction, higher production efficiency, non-vibration and noise. The research results have been extensively applied to light trucks and farm transport with load of 1 to 3 tones.

  2. A New Approach for Reliability Life Prediction of Rail Vehicle Axle by Considering Vibration Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Bayraktar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of vibration on the axle has been considered. Vibration measurements at different speeds have been performed on the axle of a running rail vehicle to figure out displacement, acceleration, time, and frequency response. Based on the experimental works, equivalent stress has been used to find out life of the axles for 90% and 10% reliability. Calculated life values of the rail vehicle axle have been compared with the real life data and it is found that the life of a vehicle axle taking into account the vibration effects is in good agreement with the real life of the axle.

  3. MULTI-AXLE VEHICLE STABILITY BASED ON WHOLE VEHICLE MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xuebin; GAO Feng

    2007-01-01

    From the analysis of experiment data of the multi-axle vehicle chassis searching process, it is less accurate to predict multi-axle vehicle dynamic characteristic with simplified two-axle vehicle model. So it is important to find out a more effective modeling method in the study of multi-vehicle stability. In the development of heat transfer fluid(HTF) six-axle vehicle, a whole vehicle multi-body dynamic model is built through collaborate flowchart using Teamcenter Engineering, UG NX3 and MSC. Adams. The modeling method of connected hydragas spring suspension is validated by running test results. Based on this whole vehicle model, a kinematical analysis of suspension is implemented to achieve optimized suspension geometry parameters according to the stable requirement. Then, different handling simulations are carried out with regard to various tire characteristics, driving configurations, and equipments. According to the evaluation of whole vehicle handling characteristic, some design rules are summarized to improve the stability of multi-axle vehicle.

  4. Clinical, Pathological, and Molecular Features of Lung Adenocarcinomas with AXL Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Katsuaki; Suda, Kenichi; Shimizu, Shigeki; Sakai, Kazuko; Mizuuchi, Hiroshi; Tomizawa, Kenji; Takemoto, Toshiki; Nishio, Kazuto; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase AXL is a member of the Tyro3-Axl-Mer receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily. AXL affects several cellular functions, including growth and migration. AXL aberration is reportedly a marker for poor prognosis and treatment resistance in various cancers. In this study, we analyzed clinical, pathological, and molecular features of AXL expression in lung adenocarcinomas (LADs). We examined 161 LAD specimens from patients who underwent pulmonary resections. When AXL protein expression was quantified (0, 1+, 2+, 3+) according to immunohistochemical staining intensity, results were 0: 35%; 1+: 20%; 2+: 37%; and 3+: 7% for the 161 samples. AXL expression status did not correlate with clinical features, including smoking status and pathological stage. However, patients whose specimens showed strong AXL expression (3+) had markedly poorer prognoses than other groups (P = 0.0033). Strong AXL expression was also significantly associated with downregulation of E-cadherin (P = 0.025) and CD44 (P = 0.0010). In addition, 9 of 12 specimens with strong AXL expression had driver gene mutations (6 with EGFR, 2 with KRAS, 1 with ALK). In conclusion, we found that strong AXL expression in surgically resected LADs was a predictor of poor prognosis. LADs with strong AXL expression were characterized by mesenchymal status, higher expression of stem-cell-like markers, and frequent driver gene mutations. PMID:27100677

  5. Thoughts on Process Design of Ji'nan West Wheel Axle Workshop%济南西轮轴车间工艺设计思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵勇

    2012-01-01

    This paper, according to the relevant design contents of wheel axle workshop of Ji'nan West Rolling Stock Depot, investigates comprehensively the whole maintenance process and the equipment configuration of wheel axle's overhaul, from several aspects such as the function partitioning of inspection and repair depots, wheelset-input inspection , wheelset-export inspection, mechanical processing of wheel axle, HMIS system and so on. Moreover, the paper introduces emphatically the working principle, main features and the related functions about the process line which consists of the loading and unloading robot, axle transmission line, wheel transmission line, and the press-fit units. In addition, this paper summarizes the entire maintenance process in relation to the wheel axle's automation and process line's maintenance, with a view to provide reference for wheel axle repair design of other projects.%根据济南西车辆段轮轴车间设计相关内容,从轮轴检修库房工艺功能划分、轮对收入检查部分、轮对支出检查部分、车轴轮片机械加工部分、HMIS系统等几个方面入手,全面探讨轮轴大修的整个检修工艺流程和设备配置情况,并着重介绍上下料机械手、车轴输送线、车轮输送线和压装单元组成的工艺流水线的工作原理、主要特点和相关功能.总结轮轴自动化、流水线检修的整个检修工艺流程,可为其他工程轮轴检修设计提供参考依据.

  6. Design and Development of Animal Drawn Ground Metered Axle Mechanism Boom Sprayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Amonye

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A spraying technology was developed for use by rural farmers in Northern Nigeria. The farming systems in these areas are put into consideration and in keeping with appropriate technology initiative. The technology was designed to offer the farmers an equitable sprayer that shall be drawn by animal farm power and that is effective and affordable. The equipment was constructed using the parameters obtained from design and tested at a farmland within the University premises of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, in Nigeria. The equipment consists of a boom with multiple Controlled Droplet Applicator (CDA atomizer nozzles, a gear pump, a chemical tank, and chair for an operator; all attached to a framework bolted to a rear axle. It was observed that the Dynamic Wheel Load assuming even distribution of load was found to be 1575N and a net pull of 820N. The net pull offers convenient task and shall easily swallow energy requirement for spraying uphill terrains.

  7. Faults Diagnostics of Railway Axle Bearings Based on IMF’s Confidence Index Algorithm for Ensemble EMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Yi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As train loads and travel speeds have increased over time, railway axle bearings have become critical elements which require more efficient non-destructive inspection and fault diagnostics methods. This paper presents a novel and adaptive procedure based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD and Hilbert marginal spectrum for multi-fault diagnostics of axle bearings. EEMD overcomes the limitations that often hypothesize about data and computational efforts that restrict the application of signal processing techniques. The outputs of this adaptive approach are the intrinsic mode functions that are treated with the Hilbert transform in order to obtain the Hilbert instantaneous frequency spectrum and marginal spectrum. Anyhow, not all the IMFs obtained by the decomposition should be considered into Hilbert marginal spectrum. The IMFs’ confidence index arithmetic proposed in this paper is fully autonomous, overcoming the major limit of selection by user with experience, and allows the development of on-line tools. The effectiveness of the improvement is proven by the successful diagnosis of an axle bearing with a single fault or multiple composite faults, e.g., outer ring fault, cage fault and pin roller fault.

  8. Sunitinib activates Axl signaling in renal cell cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mijn, Johannes C; Broxterman, Henk J; Knol, Jaco C; Piersma, Sander R; De Haas, Richard R; Dekker, Henk; Pham, Thang V; Van Beusechem, Victor W; Halmos, Balazs; Mier, James W; Jiménez, Connie R; Verheul, Henk M W

    2016-06-15

    Mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics provides a unique unbiased approach to evaluate signaling network in cancer cells. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib is registered as treatment for patients with renal cell cancer (RCC). We investigated the effect of sunitinib on tyrosine phosphorylation in RCC tumor cells to get more insight in its mechanism of action and thereby to find potential leads for combination treatment strategies. Sunitinib inhibitory concentrations of proliferation (IC50) of 786-O, 769-p and A498 RCC cells were determined by MTT-assays. Global tyrosine phosphorylation was measured by LC-MS/MS after immunoprecipitation with the antiphosphotyrosine antibody p-TYR-100. Phosphoproteomic profiling of 786-O cells yielded 1519 phosphopeptides, corresponding to 675 unique proteins including 57 different phosphorylated protein kinases. Compared to control, incubation with sunitinib at its IC50 of 2 µM resulted in downregulation of 86 phosphopeptides including CDK5, DYRK3, DYRK4, G6PD, PKM and LDH-A, while 94 phosphopeptides including Axl, FAK, EPHA2 and p38α were upregulated. Axl- (y702), FAK- (y576) and p38α (y182) upregulation was confirmed by Western Blot in 786-O and A498 cells. Subsequent proliferation assays revealed that inhibition of Axl with a small molecule inhibitor (R428) sensitized 786-O RCC cells and immortalized endothelial cells to sunitinib up to 3 fold. In conclusion, incubation with sunitinib of RCC cells causes significant upregulation of multiple phosphopeptides including Axl. Simultaneous inhibition of Axl improves the antitumor activity of sunitinib. We envision that evaluation of phosphoproteomic changes by TKI treatment enables identification of new targets for combination treatment strategies. PMID:26815723

  9. Inhibition of Axl improves the targeted therapy against ALK-mutated neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Fei [Department of Neurology, Sichuan Medical Science Institute and Sichuan Provincial Hospital, Chengdu 610072 (China); Li, Hongling [Department of Radiotherapy, Shanghai First People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Sun, Yong, E-mail: sunfanqi2010@163.com [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Huai’an First People’s Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Huai’an 223300 (China)

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • First reported Axl is co-expressed with ALK in neuroblastoma tissues and cell lines. • Axl activation promotes cell growth and impairs the efficiency of ALK inhibitor. • Further found silence of Axl leads to increased sensitivity to ALK inhibitors. • Axl inhibitor promotes the efficiency of targeted therapy in vitro and in vivo. • Axl activation should be considered in the clinical application of ALK inhibitors. - Abstract: Neuroblastoma (NB) patients harboring mutated ALK can be expected to potentially benefit from targeted therapy based on ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), such as crizotinib and ceritinib. However, the effect of the treatment varies with different individuals, although with the same genic changes. Axl receptor tyrosine kinase is expressed in a variety of human cancers, but little data are reported in NB, particularly in which carrying mutated ALK. In this study, we focus on the roles of Axl in ALK-mutated NB for investigating rational therapeutic strategy. We found that Axl is expressed in ALK-positive NB tissues and cell lines, and could be effectively activated by its ligand GAS6. Ligand-dependent Axl activation obviously rescued crizotinib-mediated suppression of cell proliferation in ALK-mutated NB cells. Genetic inhibition of Axl with specific small interfering RNA markedly increased the sensitivity of cells to ALK-TKIs. Furthermore, a small-molecule inhibitor of Axl significantly enhanced ALK-targeted therapy, as an increased frequency of apoptosis was observed in NB cells co-expressing ALK and Axl. Taken together, our results demonstrated that activation of Axl could lead to insensitivity to ALK inhibitors, and dual inhibition of ALK and Axl might be a potential therapeutic strategy against ALK-mutated NB.

  10. Inhibition of Axl improves the targeted therapy against ALK-mutated neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • First reported Axl is co-expressed with ALK in neuroblastoma tissues and cell lines. • Axl activation promotes cell growth and impairs the efficiency of ALK inhibitor. • Further found silence of Axl leads to increased sensitivity to ALK inhibitors. • Axl inhibitor promotes the efficiency of targeted therapy in vitro and in vivo. • Axl activation should be considered in the clinical application of ALK inhibitors. - Abstract: Neuroblastoma (NB) patients harboring mutated ALK can be expected to potentially benefit from targeted therapy based on ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), such as crizotinib and ceritinib. However, the effect of the treatment varies with different individuals, although with the same genic changes. Axl receptor tyrosine kinase is expressed in a variety of human cancers, but little data are reported in NB, particularly in which carrying mutated ALK. In this study, we focus on the roles of Axl in ALK-mutated NB for investigating rational therapeutic strategy. We found that Axl is expressed in ALK-positive NB tissues and cell lines, and could be effectively activated by its ligand GAS6. Ligand-dependent Axl activation obviously rescued crizotinib-mediated suppression of cell proliferation in ALK-mutated NB cells. Genetic inhibition of Axl with specific small interfering RNA markedly increased the sensitivity of cells to ALK-TKIs. Furthermore, a small-molecule inhibitor of Axl significantly enhanced ALK-targeted therapy, as an increased frequency of apoptosis was observed in NB cells co-expressing ALK and Axl. Taken together, our results demonstrated that activation of Axl could lead to insensitivity to ALK inhibitors, and dual inhibition of ALK and Axl might be a potential therapeutic strategy against ALK-mutated NB

  11. Passivation and Corrosion Behavior of Modified Ferritic-Pearlitic Railway Axle Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, A. P.; Sangal, S.; Srivastav, Simant; Gajbhiye, N. S.; Mondal, K.

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical polarization behavior of two newly developed ferritic-pearlitic railway axle steels (MS3 and MS6) and the standard Indian conventional axle steel has been studied in sodium borate buffer solution of pH 8.4 with and without the presence of NaCl. The polarization behavior of both the new axle steels shows close resemblance, whereas, different polarization behavior has been observed for the conventional axle steel. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements have clearly reflected significantly improved passivation behavior for the newly developed steels compared to that of the conventional axle steel. NaCl salt fog exposure tests have also shown superior corrosion resistance of the newly developed axle steels as compared to the conventional axle steel. Higher surface roughness on the corroded conventional axle steel has also been observed compared to the smoother surface in case of the new axle steels. Higher corrosion resistance of the new axle steels has been attributed to their finer microstructure and strongly adherent protective rusts.

  12. Expression of Axl in Lung Adenocarcinoma and Correlation with Tumor Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Shing Shinh

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We used the Transwell system to select highly invasive cell lines from minimally invasive parent cells, and we compared gene expression in paired cell lines with high and low invasive potentials. Axl was relatively overexpressed in the highly invasive cell lines when compared with their minimally invasive counterparts. However, there is only limited information about the role of Axl in cancer invasion. The biologic function of Axl in tumor invasion was investigated by overexpression of full-length Axl in minimally invasive cells and by siRNA knockdown of Axl expression in highly invasive cells. Overexpression of Axl in minimally invasive cells increased their invasiveness. siRNA reduced cell invasiveness as Axl was downregulated in highly invasive cells. We further investigated the protein expression of Axl by immunohistochemistry and its correlation with clinicopathologic features. Data from a study of 58 patient specimens showed that Axl immunoreactivity was statistically significant with respect to lymph node status (P < .0001 and the patient's clinical stage (P < .0001. Our results demonstrate that Axl protein kinase seems to play an important role in the invasion and progression of lung cancer.

  13. Dynamic Modelling of Axle Tramp in a Sport Type Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zargartalebi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant dynamic aspects of coupled vibration of transmission system and dependent type suspension systems is axle tramp. The tramp is defined as undesirable oscillation of rigid live axle around roll axis. In spite of utilizing powerful engines in some type of sport cars, tramp occurrence causes loss of longitudinal performance. The aim of this paper is to derive a mathematical model for predicting and classifying of the tramp. A parameter study reveals that, some parameters such as engine torque, moving parts moment of inertia, car and wheels weight and the material used in suspension system play important role in controlling the tramp. It is shown that large difference between sprung and unsprung mass moment of inertia around the roll-axis, low vehicle mass, short rear track and medium damping values have significant effects on the severity of tramp.

  14. Accelerated Life Test Design for Tractor Powertrain Front Axle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Azianti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated Life Test (ALT has been applied in the manufacturing for many years due to rapid changing technologies, more complex products, speedier product development, and more demanding customer requirements. These reasons have pushed the manufacturers to acquire reliability information faster. ALT allows reducing the time needed to show the reliability of the product. The purpose of this study is to design accelerated life testing which involved determination of normal test time, acceleration factor, acceleration test time, and finally experimental setup. This case study provides the basis for ALT designs for the tractor front axle based on customer usage and field failure analysis, which were conducted to estimate the current reliability, especially on the B10 life during the operational stage of the product. The accelerated life test conducted has guaranteed the B10 life of 4,000 hours with 90% confidence level for lesser time needed for testing to show the reliability of the front axle assembly.

  15. 轴距对柔性基层沥青路面轴数系数的影响研究%Influence of wheelbase parameters on Equivalent Axle-number Coefficient of Asphalt Pavement with flexibility Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康荣根

    2014-01-01

    应用弹性层状体系理论计算程序,考虑轴距变化的影响,计算柔性基层沥青路面轴载换算公式中的轴数系数。针对典型柔性基层沥青路面结构组成,以路表最大弯沉为验算指标,计算并总结归纳出适合柔性基层沥青路面典型结构的轴数系数。%By use of program based on layer-elastic theory,with wheelbase parameters,the axle-number coefficient in the axle-load conversion formula for semi-rigid asphalt pavement is calculated .Through analyzing the results, the axle-number coeffi cient in Asphalt Pavement with fl exibility Base is concluded.

  16. Dynamic Analysis of Light Automotive Front Axle Based on FEM%轻型载货汽车前轴的有限元动态特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王科

    2015-01-01

    汽车前轴是汽车最重要的承重件之一,其设计的可靠性直接影响整车性能的发挥。利用有限元方法研究汽车前轴的动态特性,并通过频率响应提取动刚度,为前轴设计提供了频域的设计方法。%Front axle of the light truck is one of the most important load-bearing parts. Its design reliability has impact on the vehicle performance. In this paper, the dynamic characteristics of the automotive front axle is researched by using the finite el-ement method ( FEM) , and its dynamic stiffness is also extracted with frequency response. We hope that would provide a de-sign method for front axle in the frequency domain.

  17. Design and application of the car front axle road simulation test%轿车前桥道路模拟台架疲劳试验设计及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩峰; 李国峰; 于翠

    2016-01-01

    This paper based on the vertical force, vertical force, lateral force of automobile front axle head and the hydraulic system (MTS), and one vehicle model in the proving ground of front axle load spectrum to design bench test for fatigue. Road simulation was carried out on the front axle. To reduce the design cost, shorten the design time, produce good economic benefit.%文章基于前桥轴头垂直力、纵向力、侧向力和 MTS 液压系统,以及某车型在试验场实测得到的前桥载荷谱,单纯对前桥进行台架道路模拟耐久试验设计。降低设计成本,缩短设计周期,产生较好的经济效益。

  18. 49 CFR 230.100 - Defects in tender truck axles and journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defects in tender truck axles and journals. 230... Steam Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.100 Defects in tender truck axles and journals. (a... wheel seats that is more than 1/8 of an inch in depth. (b) Tender truck journal condemning...

  19. Multi-axle dynamic steering system of truck-howitzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanliang LI; Xiuhua GAO; Chunqiu ZHANG; Yubo SUN

    2008-01-01

    A two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) steering model of multi-axle vehicle was established. The steering center position, the relationship between the steering angle and the vehicle velocity, and the minimum turn radius were deduced on the basis of the proportional control with a zero sideslip angle. Results indicate that the system stability is decided by the vehicle barycenter position and the lateral stiffness of a tire. Under this control, the steady value of the lateral acceleration is obviously diminished and the yaw angular velocity changes little under any vehicle velocity. The system rapidly responds, the vehicle smoothly steers, and its handling stability is prominently improved.

  20. AXL-SKILL LANGUAGE BASED ALLEGRO PACKAGE TOOL SECONDARY DEVELOPMENT%基于AXL-SKILL语言的Allegro封装工具的二次开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄琦; 李伟; 葛立峰

    2012-01-01

    着重研究基于AXL-SKILL语言的Cadence Allegro封装设计的二次开发技术.介绍AXL-SKILL语言,分析自建封装工具的方法和步骤,并针对几种不同焊盘和封装类型加以研究.结合实际经验,制定封装规则,实现封装工具的二次开发.%This paper focuses on the secondary development technology for AXL-SKILL language based Cadence Allegro package and design, introduces AXL-SKILL language, analyzes methods and procedures for packaging creation tools, then researches on a few different pad types and package types, combining with practical experiences, establishes package rules and realizes the secondary development of package tools.

  1. Heating Processes Of The Axle-Boxes Of Rolling-Stock On Railway Track Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olegas Lunys

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the heating process of the axle-boxes ofrolling stock when the train is in motion and discusses the forcesacting on the wheel-set when rolling stock moves along the trackcurves. The paper analyses scientific publications relevant tothe forces acting on the wheel-set of rolling stock and focuseson the axle-box heating process. The article also discusses theresults of theoretical studies on wheel-set forces that affect theheat exchange process of axle-boxes for a railway vehicle. Theresearch has determined a change in heating temperatures ofdifferent axle-boxes of rolling stock and reasons for their variationsand tendencies. The paper has estimated an effect of thetrain running along the track curves on the heating intensity ofthe axle-box. Finally, valid conclusions and recommendationshave been provided.

  2. Failure analysis of axle shaft of a fork lift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvik Das

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An axle shaft of fork lift failed at operation within 296 h of service. The shaft transmits torque from discrepancy to wheel through planetary gear arrangement. A section of fractured axle shaft made of induction-hardened steel was analyzed to determine the root cause of the failure. Optical microscopies as well as field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM along with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS were carried out to characterize the microstructure. Hardness profile throughout the cross-section was evaluated by micro-hardness measurements. Chemical analysis indicated that the shaft was made of 42CrMo4 steel grade as per specification. Microstructural analysis and micro-hardness profile revealed that the shaft was improperly heat treated resulting in a brittle case, where crack was found to initiate from the case in a brittle mode in contrast to ductile mode within the core. This behaviour was related to differences in microstructure, which was observed to be martensitic within the case with a micro-hardness equivalent to 735 HV, and a mixture of non-homogeneous structure of pearlite and ferrite within the core with a hardness of 210 HV. The analysis suggests that the fracture initiated from the martensitic case as brittle mode due to improper heat treatment process (high hardness. Moreover the inclusions along the hot working direction i.e. in the longitudinal axis made the component more susceptible to failure.

  3. 工程车辆双桥油气悬架性能对比仿真分析%Simulation Research on the Two Axles Hydro-pneumatic Suspension for Construction Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李魁; 张洪; 蔡言龙

    2015-01-01

    By analyzing the hydraulic system circuit diagram of the all terrain crane ’ s two axles hydro⁃pneumatic suspension ( HPS) , 7 DOF mathematical model of the two axles HPS group was established. The main differences of independent type and parallel type two axles HPS model were also studied, and their simulation models were set up based on AMESim software. The maximum pres⁃sure, tire dynamic load, and vertical acceleration about the independent type and parallel type two axles HPS model were comparatively analyzed. The conclusion is that the performance index of the parallel type two axles HPS is superior to that of the independent two axles HPS.%通过分析全路面起重机双桥油气悬架组的液压系统油路图,建立双桥油气悬架组的7自由度数学模型,分析并联式和独立式双桥油气悬架模型主要区别,并利用AMESim仿真软件建立并联式和独立式双桥油气悬架仿真模型。对比分析了两种悬架系统的压力、轮胎动载荷、垂直加速度等参数的最大值,得出并联式悬架组的性能指标要优于独立双桥悬架的结论。

  4. Dominant-negative inhibition of the Axl receptor tyrosine kinase suppresses brain tumor cell growth and invasion and prolongs survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajkoczy, Peter; Knyazev, Pjotr; Kunkel, Andrea; Capelle, Hans-Holger; Behrndt, Sandra; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Kiessling, Fabian; Eichelsbacher, Uta; Essig, Marco; Read, Tracy-Ann; Erber, Ralf; Ullrich, Axel

    2006-01-01

    Malignant gliomas remain incurable brain tumors because of their diffuse-invasive growth. So far, the genetic and molecular events underlying gliomagenesis are poorly understood. In this study, we have identified the receptor tyrosine kinase Axl as a mediator of glioma growth and invasion. We demonstrate that Axl and its ligand Gas6 are overexpressed in human glioma cell lines and that Axl is activated under baseline conditions. Furthermore, Axl is expressed at high levels in human malignant glioma. Inhibition of Axl signaling by overexpression of a dominant-negative receptor mutant (AXL-DN) suppressed experimental gliomagenesis (growth inhibition >85%, P 72 days). A detailed analysis of the distinct hallmarks of glioma pathology, such as cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and tumor angiogenesis, revealed that inhibition of Axl signaling interfered with cell proliferation (inhibition 30% versus AXL-WT), glioma cell migration (inhibition 90% versus mock and AXL-WT, P < 0.05), and invasion (inhibition 62% and 79% versus mock and AXL-WT, respectively; P < 0.05). This study describes the identification, functional manipulation, in vitro and in vivo validation, and preclinical therapeutic inhibition of a target receptor tyrosine kinase mediating glioma growth and invasion. Our findings implicate Axl in gliomagenesis and validate it as a promising target for the development of approaches toward a therapy of these highly aggressive but, as yet, therapy-refractory, tumors. PMID:16585512

  5. Vibration levels on rear and front axles of a tractor in agricultural operations - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v36i1.18170

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geice Paula Villibor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive vibrations in agricultural tractors can contribute with mechanical failures and subject the operator to discomfort. This work evaluated the vibration levels on rear and front axles of an agricultural tractor working at different forward speeds and wheel drive conditions in plowing and harrowing operations. Field tests were carried out in a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement 3 x 2 (forward travel speeds x front-wheel-assist enable or disable, with three replications. Tractor vibration was measured using two single axis accelerometers fixed above the rear and front axles. The actual forward speed of the tractor was obtained by means of ultrasonic radar and the angular velocity of the wheels was measured with magnetic transducers. The drawbar force to pull the disc harrow was obtained by a load cell. The results showed that the vibration levels observed for the plowing operation were higher than observed for the harrowing operation. When the front-wheel-assist (FWA was enabled there was a reduction in vertical vibration levels of the tractor axles. The highest vibration levels were observed in the frequency range of 2 to 4Hz for the both soil tillage operations evaluated

  6. Gas6/Axl pathway promotes tumor invasion through the transcriptional activation of Slug in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsin-Jung; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Chen, Yu-Ling; Chung, Ling; Yuan, Ray-Hwang

    2014-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common fatal cancers worldwide. Other than the sorafenib treatment, no effective systemic therapy has been available thus far. Most targets in molecularly targeted therapy for cancer are receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Therefore, identifying activated RTKs in HCC is critical for developing new molecularly targeted therapies. Using a phospho-RTK array, we found that Axl is one of the most frequently activated RTKs in liver cancer cell lines. The knockdown of Axl by RNA interference significantly reduced cell migration and invasion in the HCC cell lines HA22T and Mahlavu. Stimulation of HCC cell lines by Axl ligand growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6) enhanced cell migration and invasion. The Gas6/Axl pathway enhanced the expression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition-inducing transcription factor Slug, which is essential for the invasion-promoting activity of Axl. Treating HCC cells with the Axl inhibitor bosutinib suppressed Slug expression and decreased the invasiveness of HCC cell lines. These findings indicate that Gas6/Axl regulates tumor invasion through the transcriptional activation of Slug.

  7. 49 CFR 575.103 - Truck-camper loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (three thirty-seconds of an inch) high, of a color contrasting with the background, in the order shown... scale and weigh on the front and on the rear wheels separately to determine axle loads. The load on an... weight ratings are exceeded, move or remove items to bring all weights below the ratings.” (E) A...

  8. Axl tyrosine kinase protects against tubulo-interstitial apoptosis and progression of renal failure in a murine model of chronic kidney disease and hyperphosphataemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth D Hyde

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is defined as the progressive loss of renal function often involving glomerular, tubulo-interstitial and vascular pathology. CKD is associated with vascular calcification; the extent of which predicts morbidity and mortality. However, the molecular regulation of these events and the progression of chronic kidney disease are not fully elucidated. To investigate the function of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase in CKD we performed a sub-total nephrectomy and fed high phosphate (1% diet to Axl+/+ and Axl-/- mice. Plasma Gas6 (Axl' ligand, renal Axl expression and downstream Akt signalling were all significantly up-regulated in Axl+/+ mice following renal mass reduction and high phosphate diet, compared to age-matched controls. Axl-/- mice had significantly enhanced uraemia, reduced bodyweight and significantly reduced survival following sub-total nephrectomy and high phosphate diet compared to Axl+/+ mice; only 45% of Axl-/- mice survived to 14 weeks post-surgery compared to 87% of Axl+/+ mice. Histological analysis of kidney remnants revealed no effect of loss of Axl on glomerular hypertrophy, calcification or renal sclerosis but identified significantly increased tubulo-interstitial apoptosis in Axl-/- mice. Vascular calcification was not induced in Axl+/+ or Axl-/- mice in the time frame we were able to examine. In conclusion, we identify the up-regulation of Gas6/Axl signalling as a protective mechanism which reduces tubulo-interstitial apoptosis and slows progression to end-stage renal failure in the murine nephrectomy and high phosphate diet model of CKD.

  9. Axl tyrosine kinase protects against tubulo-interstitial apoptosis and progression of renal failure in a murine model of chronic kidney disease and hyperphosphataemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Gareth D; Taylor, Rebecca F; Ashton, Nick; Borland, Samantha J; Wu, Hon Sing Geoffrey; Gilmore, Andrew P; Canfield, Ann E

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as the progressive loss of renal function often involving glomerular, tubulo-interstitial and vascular pathology. CKD is associated with vascular calcification; the extent of which predicts morbidity and mortality. However, the molecular regulation of these events and the progression of chronic kidney disease are not fully elucidated. To investigate the function of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase in CKD we performed a sub-total nephrectomy and fed high phosphate (1%) diet to Axl+/+ and Axl-/- mice. Plasma Gas6 (Axl' ligand), renal Axl expression and downstream Akt signalling were all significantly up-regulated in Axl+/+ mice following renal mass reduction and high phosphate diet, compared to age-matched controls. Axl-/- mice had significantly enhanced uraemia, reduced bodyweight and significantly reduced survival following sub-total nephrectomy and high phosphate diet compared to Axl+/+ mice; only 45% of Axl-/- mice survived to 14 weeks post-surgery compared to 87% of Axl+/+ mice. Histological analysis of kidney remnants revealed no effect of loss of Axl on glomerular hypertrophy, calcification or renal sclerosis but identified significantly increased tubulo-interstitial apoptosis in Axl-/- mice. Vascular calcification was not induced in Axl+/+ or Axl-/- mice in the time frame we were able to examine. In conclusion, we identify the up-regulation of Gas6/Axl signalling as a protective mechanism which reduces tubulo-interstitial apoptosis and slows progression to end-stage renal failure in the murine nephrectomy and high phosphate diet model of CKD.

  10. Vibration control of bridge subjected to multi-axle vehicle using multiple tuned mass friction dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisal, Alka Y.; Jangid, R. S.

    2016-06-01

    The effectiveness of tuned mass friction damper (TMFD) in reducing undesirable resonant response of the bridge subjected to multi-axle vehicular load is investigated. A Taiwan high-speed railway (THSR) bridge subjected to Japanese SKS (Salkesa) train load is considered. The bridge is idealized as a simply supported Euler-Bernoulli beam with uniform properties throughout the length of the bridge, and the train's vehicular load is modeled as a series of moving forces. Simplified model of vehicle, bridge and TMFD system has been considered to derive coupled differential equations of motion which is solved numerically using the Newmark's linear acceleration method. The critical train velocities at which the bridge undergoes resonant vibration are investigated. Response of the bridge is studied for three different arrangements of TMFD systems, namely, TMFD attached at mid-span of the bridge, multiple tuned mass friction dampers (MTMFD) system concentrated at mid-span of the bridge and MTMFD system with distributed TMFD units along the length of the bridge. The optimum parameters of each TMFD system are found out. It has been demonstrated that an optimized MTMFD system concentrated at mid-span of the bridge is more effective than an optimized TMFD at the same place with the same total mass and an optimized MTMFD system having TMFD units distributed along the length of the bridge. However, the distributed MTMFD system is more effective than an optimized TMFD system, provided that TMFD units of MTMFD system are distributed within certain limiting interval and the frequency of TMFD units is appropriately distributed.

  11. 1580热轧R2粗轧机主传动十字轴失效分析%Invalidation analysis for main driving cross axle of R2 roughing mill in 1580 hot rolling mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖永锋

    2011-01-01

    对宝钢1580热轧R2粗轧机主传动十字轴的失效原因进行了分析,指出该十字轴主要是在1.5倍额定负荷以上的工况条件下产生接触疲劳破坏,并提出了对十字轴表面重新加工处理,使其恢复表面硬度和粗糙度,重新单配轴承的修复方案,延长了十字轴的使用寿命.%The invalidation reason of R2 main driving cross axle in Baosteel 1580 hot rolling mill is analyzed.It is pointed out that the contact fatigue failure of the cross axle is due to more than 1.5 times of nominal load under working condition.An approach to treat the damaged working surface of the cross axle, and recover its surface stiffness and roughness, then make up bearing is put forward, and that service life of cross axle is prolonged.

  12. CONOCOPHILLIPS FUEL EFFICIENT HIGH-PERFORMANCE(FEHP) SAE 75W90 REAR AXLE GEAR LUBRICANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report is on the Environmental Verification Test of a ConocoPhillips real axle gear lubricant to determine whether it could save vehicle fuel. It determined that a verifyable fuel savings could be measured.

  13. DETERMINATION OF RATIONAL KINEMATIC DISCREPANCY FACTOR AND DIAGRAMS OF WHEEL TRACTOR DRIVE AXLE GEAR

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Gouskov

    2008-01-01

    Accepting a traction efficiency as a criterion of effectiveness an optimum kinematic discrepancy factor  for a 4К4-model tractor with identical or different wheels and also schemes of drive axle gears are determined in the paper.

  14. Cyclic Fracture Toughness of Railway Axle and Mechanisms of its Fatigue Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorochak Andriy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main regularities in fatigue fracture of the railway axle material - the OSL steel - are found in this paper. Micromechanisms of fatigue crack propagation are described and systematized, and a physical-mechanical interpretation of the relief morphology at different stages of crack propagation is proposed for fatigue cracks in specimens cut out of the surface, internal and central layers of the axle.

  15. Response of reinforced concrete and corrugated steel pipes to surface load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Geoff R.

    Full-scale simulated live load tests were conducted in a controlled laboratory setting using a single-axle frame on 600-mm-inner-diameter reinforced concrete pipe (RCP) and corrugated steel pipe (CSP) when buried in dense, well-graded sand and gravel. Measurements of the RCP at nominal and working forces and beyond are reported for 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m of soil cover above the pipe crown. The RCP experienced no cracking when buried at 0.3 m under nominal and working CL-625 and CL-800 single-axle design loads. At these loads, the vertical contraction of the pipe diameter was less than 0.08 and 0.10 mm and the largest tensile strains in the pipe were 75 and 100 muepsilon (50-60% of the cracking strain), respectively. A 0.15 (+/-0.05)-mm-wide axial crack developed at the inner crown in the presence of a 6 kNm/m circumferential bending moment (70% of the theoretical ultimate moment capacity) at the fully factored CL-625 load. This crack did not propagate or widen from 3 series of cyclic load-unload tests. At 1300 kN of applied load the change in pipe diameter was less than 3.5 mm. Increasing soil cover from 0.3 to 0.6 to 0.9 m reduced the circumferential crown bending moment from 6.0 to 3.9 to 2.1 kNm/m, respectively, at 400 kN of axle load. A 1.6- and a 2.8-mm-thick CSP were also subjected to axle loading. No yielding or limit states occurred in the 1.6-mm-thick CSP when buried 0.9-m-deep. However, at 0.6 m of cover a 300 kN axle load caused local yielding at the pipe crown. Increasing soil cover from 0.6 to 0.9 m decreased the vertical diameter change from -3.0 to -1.2 mm and the crown bending moment from 0.7 to 0.2 kNm/m (75% and 20% of the yield moment), respectively, at a 250 kN axle load. Deflections of the thicker CSP were less than the thinner pipe below the CL-625 single-axle load, however further increases in applied load produced a greater response in the thicker pipe, likely due to a haunch support issue. Shallow axle loading produced a greater 3-dimensional

  16. Heightened cleavage of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase by ADAM metalloproteases may contribute to disease pathogenesis in SLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Jacob J; Du, Yong; Vanarsa, Kamala; Mayeux, Jessica; Li, Li; Mutwally, Azza; Arriens, Cristina; Min, Soyoun; Hutcheson, Jack; Davis, Laurie S; Chong, Benjamin F; Satterthwaite, Anne B; Wu, Tianfu; Mohan, Chandra

    2016-08-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by antibody-mediated chronic inflammation in the kidney, lung, skin, and other organs to cause inflammation and damage. Several inflammatory pathways are dysregulated in SLE, and understanding these pathways may improve diagnosis and treatment. In one such pathway, Axl tyrosine kinase receptor responds to Gas6 ligand to block inflammation in leukocytes. A soluble form of the Axl receptor ectodomain (sAxl) is elevated in serum from patients with SLE and lupus-prone mice. We hypothesized that sAxl in SLE serum originates from the surface of leukocytes and that the loss of leukocyte Axl contributes to the disease. We determined that macrophages and B cells are a source of sAxl in SLE and in lupus-prone mice. Shedding of the Axl ectodomain from the leukocytes of lupus-prone mice is mediated by the matrix metalloproteases ADAM10 and TACE (ADAM17). Loss of Axl from lupus-prone macrophages renders them unresponsive to Gas6-induced anti-inflammatory signaling in vitro. This phenotype is rescued by combined ADAM10/TACE inhibition. Mice with Axl-deficient macrophages develop worse disease than controls when challenged with anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) sera in an induced model of nephritis. ADAM10 and TACE also mediate human SLE PBMC Axl cleavage. Collectively, these studies indicate that increased metalloprotease-mediated cleavage of leukocyte Axl may contribute to end organ disease in lupus. They further suggest dual ADAM10/TACE inhibition as a potential therapeutic modality in SLE.

  17. Rational Design for Rotaxane Synthesis through Intramolecular Slippage: Control of Activation Energy by Rigid Axle Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masai, Hiroshi; Terao, Jun; Fujihara, Tetsuaki; Tsuji, Yasushi

    2016-05-01

    We describe a new concept for rotaxane synthesis through intramolecular slippage using π-conjugated molecules as rigid axles linked with organic soluble and flexible permethylated α-cyclodextrins (PM α-CDs) as macrocycles. Through hydrophilic-hydrophobic interactions and flipping of PM α-CDs, successful quantitative conversion into rotaxanes was achieved without covalent bond formation. The rotaxanes had high activation barrier for their de-threading, so that they were kinetically isolated and derivatized even under conditions unfavorable for maintaining the rotaxane structures. (1) H NMR spectroscopy experiments clearly revealed that the restricted motion of the linked macrocycle with the rigid axle made it possible to control the kinetic stability by adjusting the length of the rigid axle in the precursor structure rather than the steric bulkiness of the stopper unit.

  18. The electric axle-hybrid system made by PSA and Bosch; Der elektrische Achs-Hybrid von PSA und Bosch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chehab, C.; Le Neindre, Y.; Deutrich, K. [PSA Peugeot Citroen (Germany); Kuesell, M.; Willke, C.; Barth, V.; Lichtermann, J. [Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Currently, there are a whole variety of hybrid vehicle architectures in development. Specifically, so called Axle-Split hybrid vehicles containing an electric axle drive and a high-voltage generator mounted to the combustion engine provide not only excellent fuel efficiency but also a considerable benefit in vehicle performance. By selecting one out of four different drive modes, the driver can experience specific and unique vehicle characteristics. In this type of Axle-Split hybrid vehicle, a newly developed double-inverter including a DC/DC converter and power electronics control together with two electric motors from Bosch are installed. This electric axle drive will be first used in Peugeot and Citroen vehicles in 2011. The paper introduces the Axle-Split system advantages and its impact on CO2 reduction. (orig.)

  19. 拖拉机前桥悬架参数匹配及其对振动特性的影响%Front axle suspension parameters match and its impact on vibration characteristics of tractor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊力达尔·伊力亚斯; 朱思洪; 徐刚; 袁加奇

    2015-01-01

    Compared with cars, buses and trucks, tractor often drives on the dirt road in the field of rural areas, together with the simple vibration damping device, so the vibration of tractor is particularly intense. Severe vibration of tractor would cause serious harm to driver’s health, and cause fatigue and failure of tractor parts and hence seriously affect the life of the tractor. In addition, excessive vibration of the tractor will exacerbate farmland soil compaction and reduce crop yields. How to effectively reduce the vibration of tractors to improve ride comfort and driving safety and reduce farmland damage is an important research topic for researchers and tractor manufacturing enterprises. The study of foreign scholars have found when the tractor is installed with front axle suspension, the ride comfort and driving safety is improved. When farm tools hangs on the front of tractor, tractor damping effect depends on the matching between front axle suspension stiffness and damping coefficient. Installing the front axle suspension of tractor can significantly reduce tractor’s pitching vibration. By the method of theoretical analysis, the theoretical system of front axle suspension of tractor was established, the vibration was analyzed and the theoretical formula was deduced, aiming to provide a theoretical basis for parameter matching of tractor front axle suspension. In this paper, CF700 tractor from Jiang Su Chang-Fa group was taken as the research object, and the theoretical model of front axle suspension tractor was established, including plane vibration model of front axle suspension tractor with 3 degrees of freedom, vibration differential equation and tractor vibration characteristics evaluation. Taking body vertical vibration acceleration, body pitching vibration angular acceleration, seat-mounted vertical vibration acceleration, front and rear wheels’ dynamic load and front axle suspension dynamic deflection as the evaluation means, theoretical

  20. Inhibiting receptor tyrosine kinase AXL with small molecule inhibitor BMS-777607 reduces glioblastoma growth, migration, and invasion in vitro and in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Onken, J.; Torka, R.; Korsing, S; J Radke; Krementeskaia, I.; M. Nieminen; Bai, X.; A. Ullrich; Heppner, F.; Vajkoczy, P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Receptor tyrosine kinase AXL (RTK-AXL) is regarded as suitable target in glioma therapy. Here we evaluate the anti-tumoral effect of small molecule inhibitor BMS-777607 targeting RTK-AXL in a preclinical glioma model and provide evidence that RTK-AXL is expressed and phosphorylated in primary and recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Experimental design: We studied the impact of BMS-777607 targeting RTK-AXL in GBM models in vitro and in vivo utilizing glioma cells SF126 and U118MG...

  1. FEM analysis of front axle vertical finishing process and mold development%前轴垂直整形工艺模拟与模具开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾琦; 蒋鹏

    2013-01-01

    Front axle is one of the important load parts in automobiles, the possibility of the front axle vertical finishing process was analyzed, the process parameters and mold structure of vertical finishing process were simulated and optimized with the help of computer numerical simulation technology. A kind of vertical finishing mold with hydraulic clamping system was designed on the basis of simulations. After vertical finishing process in the vertical finishing mold, the upper and lower surfaces of the spring seat are flattening, which can be drilled bolt holes and mounted directly. It is benefit for reducing the subsequent processing amount and meeting, which mounting requirements of spring seat.%前轴是汽车重要的承载件之一,本文分析了前轴锻件垂直整形工艺的可行性,通过计算机数值模拟技术模拟并优化垂直整形的工艺参数和模具结构,在模拟分析基础上设计出液压夹紧式垂直整形模.经垂直整形后,锻件弹簧座的上下表面基本压平,可以直接加工螺栓孔并进行安装,减少了后续加工量,并保证了弹簧座的安装要求.

  2. DETERMINATION OF RATIONAL KINEMATIC DISCREPANCY FACTOR AND DIAGRAMS OF WHEEL TRACTOR DRIVE AXLE GEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Gouskov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Accepting a traction efficiency as a criterion of effectiveness an optimum kinematic discrepancy factor  for a 4К4-model tractor with identical or different wheels and also schemes of drive axle gears are determined in the paper.

  3. 4-Oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamide Derivatives as New Axl Kinase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Li; Zhang, Zhang; Gao, Donglin; Luo, Jinfeng; Tu, Zheng-Chao; Li, Zhengqiu; Peng, Lijie; Ren, Xiaomei; Ding, Ke

    2016-07-28

    Axl is a new potential target for anticancer drug discovery. A series of 4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamides were designed and synthesized as highly potent Axl kinase inhibitors. One of the most promising compounds, 9im, tightly bound with Axl protein and potently inhibited its kinase function with a Kd value of 2.7 nM and an IC50 value of 4.0 nM, respectively, while was obviously less potent against most of the 403 wild-type kinases evaluated at a relatively high concentration. The compound dose-dependently inhibited the TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and suppressed the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. In addition, 9im also demonstrated reasonable pharmacokinetics properties in rats and exhibited in vivo therapeutic effect on hepatic metastasis in a xenograft model of highly metastatic 4T1 murine breast cancer cells. Compound 9im may serve as a lead compound for new anticancer drug discovery and a valuable research probe for further biological investigation on Axl. PMID:27379978

  4. Dynamics of two-axle railway freight wagons with UIC standard suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Mark; True, Hans

    2006-01-01

    The dynamics of two different two-axle railway freight wagons is investigated theoretically and compared. Fully nonlinear models are considered. The hysteresis from dry friction and the effect of impacts between elements of the suspension are included. Bifurcation diagrams are shown in order...

  5. Wheeled Vehicle Drive Lines, Axles, and Suspension Systems. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army Ordnance Center and School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

    This course is one of several subcourses that make up the entire Army correspondence course on wheeled vehicle maintenance. The subcourse is designed to provide the student with information about the operation, malfunction diagnosis, maintenance, and repair of wheeled vehicle drive lines, axles, and suspension systems. It provides the basic…

  6. Dynamic Axle Loads as a Main Source of Railway Track Degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, M.J.M.M.; De Jong, E.; Zoeteman, A.

    2015-01-01

    During train operation, geometrical irregularities develop in soil-supported ballasted railway tracks as a function of born tonnage. This form of degradation is combatted by periodic maintenance in the form of tamping by specially equipped trains in order to guarantee predefined levels of structural

  7. Effect of GAS6 and AXL Gene Polymorphisms on Adiposity, Systemic Inflammation, and Insulin Resistance in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Fone-Ching Hsiao; Yuh-Feng Lin; Po-Shiuan Hsieh; Nain-Feng Chu; Yii-Der Ida Chen; Yi-Shing Shieh; Chang-Hsun Hsieh; Chien-Hsing Lee; Ting-I Lee; Yi-Jen Hung

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to explore the effects of GAS6 and AXL gene polymorphisms on adiposity, systemic inflammation, and insulin resistance in adolescents. After multistage sampling from the data of the Taipei Children Heart Study-III, we collected 358 boys and 369 girls with an average age of 13.3 years. We genotyped the adolescents' GAS6 rs8191973, GAS6 rs8191974, AXL rs4802113, and AXL rs2304232 polymorphisms. Significantly higher body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), a...

  8. Durability fracture tests for rear axle of a self-made car on enhanced roads%国产轿车后轴强化路耐久性断裂试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    门玉琢; 于海波; 霍娜

    2012-01-01

    In order to study rear axle fracture problems of a self-made car appearing in reliability test stage on enhanced roads of an automotive proving ground, the strain loading spectrum near the rear axle fracture location was collected, Neuber rule and the cyclic stress-strain hysteresis loop curve equation were used to convert the nominal strain history into the local stress-strain response of the fracture location, the impact of mean stress on fatigue damage was corrected according to Manson-Coffin model, and INFIELD software was used to calculate the fatigue damage of the rear axle fracture. The electromagnetic vibrators were used to sweep the vibration modal frequencies of the rear axle and the body, to identify the relationship among the vibration frequencies of the rear axle, the excitation frequencies of enhanced roads and the vibration frequencies of the body. The test results showed that the rear axle fatigue damage mainly concentrates on the washboard road, and when the forced vibration excitation frequency of the washboard road is 24.07 Hz, the vibration modal frequency of the rear axle is close to the excitation frequency of the washboard road, leading to resonance and making the rear axle subjected to large strain and fatigue damage and then the vibration fatigue fracture appears due to high stress concentration.%为研究国产某型轿车试验场强化路可靠性试验阶段出现的后轴断裂问题,采集断裂部位附近的应变载荷谱,应用Neuber法则和循环应力-应变滞回环曲线方程,将名义应变历程转换为断裂位置的局部应力-应变响应,根据Manson-Coffin模型修正平均应力对疲劳损伤的影响,在INFIELD软件中编程计算断裂裂纹处的损伤.利用电磁激振器对后轴与车身进行振动模态扫频,识别后轴振动频率与强化路激励频率及车身振动频率关系.试验结果表明,裂纹处的疲劳损伤主要集中在搓板路面,搓板路强迫振动激励频率为24.07 Hz时,

  9. 轿车后轴疲劳耐久性及振动模态参数扫频%Fatigue Durability and Vibration Modal Parameter Frequency Sweep for Car Rear Axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    门玉琢; 于海波; 霍娜

    2012-01-01

    针对某型号轿车试验场强化路可靠性试验阶段出现的后轴断裂问题,对该车后轴断裂部位及有限元分析的薄弱位置进行了应变载荷谱测量,重点对比计算耐久强化路的后轴断裂裂纹处的疲劳损伤;同时利用MTS六通道耦合系统对该试验样车和对标车辆的后轴和车身进行振动模态扫频,通过振动扫频分析两车后轴振动频率差异原因以及和车身振动频率的关系.强化试验和扫频结果表明,两车后轴的疲劳损伤主要集中在试验场搓板路面,车速对试验样车的疲劳损伤影响波动显著,搓板路强迫振动激励大于20Hz时两车损伤差别较大,后轴的振动模态频率与搓板路激励频率较接近,造成试验样车后轴具有较高的应力分布而产生疲劳断裂,研究结果对断裂后轴的结构改进及提高后轴的疲劳强度提供了重要依据.%In order to research the fatigue fracture problem of the rear axle of a domestic car at the reliability test stage on the durable enhancement roads of proving ground, the strain loading spectrum of the rear axle fracture location and the weak points of the finite element analysis was measured.The fatigue damage of the broken crack at the rear axle of the durable enhancement roads was calculated and contrasted detailedlyAt the same time,a six-channel MTS coupling system was used to conduct the vibration mode frequency sweep to the rear axle and body of test car and the benchmarking car,and through vibration frequency sweep,an analysis of the reason of differences between the two cars and its relationship with the body vibration frequency was made.The enhancement test and frequency sweep results show that the fatigue damage of two vehicles focuses mainly on the washboard road,and the impact of the speed on the fatigue damage of the test car fluctuates significantly, and also the damages of the two cars vary greatly when the forced vibration excitation frequency of the

  10. Usage of virtual test rigs for axle test design and evaluation; Einsatz virtueller Pruefstaende zur Auslegung und Bewertung von Achserprobungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigel, Nicolas; Weihe, Stefan [Daimler AG, Stuttgart (Germany). Transportersparte - Abt. Rohbau und Festigkeit; Jung, Gerald; Moeller, Riccardo [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Betriebsfestigkeit (LBF), Darmstadt (Germany); Bruder, Thomas [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Betriebsfestigkeit und Systemzuverlaessigkeit (LBF), Darmstadt (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Virtual test rigs can be used for evaluation of hardware testing, derivation of simplified tests as well as for signal generation and thus they are a valuable toll to significantly enhance quality and efficiency of durability testing. The present article describes the development of a simulation model of a 13 DOF test rig for truck axle modules. A multibody simulation model is set up for the mechanical elements of the test rig as well as the axle holding fixture and the axle module. Hydraulics and control are integrated via a co-simulation model. Emphasis is placed on validation of test rig and chassis models as well as the required level of detail of the axle module models. (orig.)

  11. Loss of the receptor tyrosine kinase Axl leads to enhanced inflammation in the CNS and delayed removal of myelin debris during Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto Anne L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Axl, together with Tyro3 and Mer, constitute the TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases. In the nervous system, Axl and its ligand Growth-arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6 are expressed on multiple cell types. Axl functions in dampening the immune response, regulating cytokine secretion, clearing apoptotic cells and debris, and maintaining cell survival. Axl is upregulated in various disease states, such as in the cuprizone toxicity-induced model of demyelination and in multiple sclerosis (MS lesions, suggesting that it plays a role in disease pathogenesis. To test for this, we studied the susceptibility of Axl-/- mice to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model for multiple sclerosis. Methods WT and Axl-/- mice were immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35-55 peptide emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant and injected with pertussis toxin on day 0 and day 2. Mice were monitored daily for clinical signs of disease and analyzed for pathology during the acute phase of disease. Immunological responses were monitored by flow cytometry, cytokine analysis and proliferation assays. Results Axl-/- mice had a significantly more severe acute phase of EAE than WT mice. Axl-/- mice had more spinal cord lesions with larger inflammatory cuffs, more demyelination, and more axonal damage than WT mice during EAE. Strikingly, lesions in Axl-/- mice had more intense Oil-Red-O staining indicative of inefficient clearance of myelin debris. Fewer activated microglia/macrophages (Iba1+ were found in and/or surrounding lesions in Axl-/- mice relative to WT mice. In contrast, no significant differences were noted in immune cell responses between naïve and sensitized animals. Conclusions These data show that Axl alleviates EAE disease progression and suggests that in EAE Axl functions in the recruitment of microglia/macrophages and in the clearance of debris following demyelination. In addition, these data

  12. Accelerated durability test of rear axle based on failure mode%基于失效模式的后桥耐久性快速试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓俊; 李军; 林阳; 张启涛

    2014-01-01

    以一款紧凑型轿车扭转梁后桥为对象,结合其在试车场试验时失效模式,通过对试车场路况下后桥服役载荷的损伤分析和信号压缩,编制了后桥耐久性快速试验载荷谱。同时结合以往研究成果中失效关联载荷的识别,制定了该后桥耐久性快速试验方案,并通过台架试验进行验证。结果显示,所制定的仅通过垂向加载的后桥耐久性快速试验,可以准确地复现后桥在试车场路况下的失效模式,并且实现了3.9倍的加速。这一方法可以推广至其他汽车零/部件耐久性快速试验规范的编制,对准确地验证整车及零/部件耐久性里程具有一定的参考价值。%Taking the torsion beam rear axle from a compact car was taken as an objective ,the load spectrum for accelerated dura-bility test was developed based on the failure mode on proving ground ,by means of damage analysis and signal condensing .And fatigue tests were conducted under the failure-correlated loads to verify the validity of the proposed testing program of rear axle . Results show that the proposed accelerated durability tests under vertical forces can reproduce the failure mode of rear axle on the road conditions of proving ground ,and a acceleration factor of 3.9 was achieved by comparing the test time of test rig and proving ground.This method could be helpful to the development of accelerated durability test procedures .

  13. Resource planning for internal logistics : A tool designed for the material handling department at Scania Axles and Gearboxes

    OpenAIRE

    Axin, Kajsa; Jonzon, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    This master thesis is performed at Scania Axles and Gearboxes, a production plant located in Södertälje. Within the plant axles, gearboxes as well as central gears are assembled from components to finished products. All production is conducted on production lines, with a pre-determined rate, which is supplied with components by the material handling department. Since the production quantity and the mix of product variants produced on the production line is customer order-based, the number and...

  14. Glycoxidised LDL induced the upregulation of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase and its ligand in mouse mesangial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Sook Kim

    Full Text Available AIM/HYPOTHESIS: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL is subjected to glycoxidation in diabetes, and a novel signalling mechanism by which glycoxidised LDL functions in glomerular mesangial cells remains to be ascertained. METHODS: We performed gene expression analysis in mouse glomerular mesangial cells treated with LDL modified by glycation and oxidation (GO-LDL, 100 µg/ml for 48 h by using DNA microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR. We examined the GO-LDL-specific changes in gene and protein expression in mesangial cells and glomeruli of type 2 diabetic Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats. RESULTS: By microarray profiling, we noted that GO-LDL treatment increased Axl receptor tyrosine kinase (Axl mRNA expression (∼2.5-fold, p<0.05 compared with normal LDL (N-LDL treatment in mesangial cells. Treatment with GO-LDL also increased the protein levels of Axl and its ligand Gas6 as measured by Western blotting. These increases were inhibited by neutralising Axl receptor-specific antibody. Silencing Gas6 by siRNA inhibited GO-LDL-induced Axl expression in mesangial cells. Axl and Gas6 protein were also increased in cells cultured in high glucose (30 mM or methylglyoxal (200 µM. Gas6 treatment increased the expression and secretion of TGF-β1 protein, a key regulator of extracellular matrix expression in the glomeruli of diabetic kidneys. Immunohistochemical analyses of glomeruli from 20-week-old ZDF rats exhibited increased Axl protein expression. Rottlerin, a selective PKC-δ inhibitor, completely blocked Gas6-induced TGF-β1 expression. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: These data suggest that LDL modified by glycoxidation may mediate Axl/Gas6 pathway activation, and this mechanism may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy.

  15. Effect of Mn on hardenability of 25CrMo axle steel by an improved end-quench test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yutuo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available With the sixth large-scale railway speed-up, the quality of the axles is essential to the safety of the locomotive. According to the high-speed axle technical standard for the control of alloy elements in axle steel, optimization experiments of 25CrMo steel composition were performed by vacuum inductive melting. In order to study the hardenability of high-speed rail axles, an improved end-quench test was put forward. The advantage is that it enables the heat to transfer along the axial direction, thus avoiding edge effects. The hardenability of 25CrMo axle steels with Mn content of 0.60wt.% and 0.80wt.% was investigated mainly by means of optical microscopy and hardness tests. The experimental results indicate that the Mn has a pronounced effect on the hardenability of the steel. With an increase in Mn content from 0.60wt.% and 0.80wt.%, the hardenability of 25CrMo axle steel increases and the hard microstructure is maintained at an increasing distance from the quenched end. From the surface of the water quenched end to the center of the sample, the microstructure is martensite, martensite with bainite, and bainite.

  16. Optimization of Assembly of Rear Axle Carrier (Transmission System Through Ergonomic Consideration: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Kaustubh N. Kalaspurkar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Increased competition in the market, ever increasing demands of products and delivery of the quality product within committed dates forcing the manufacturers to involve newer and more optimized techniques in their production scheduling. This technique either involves costly Automation and Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS or the techniques forcing on elimination of unnecessary and unproductive operation (i.e. motion during the production. An assembly line is designed by determining the sequences of operations for manufacture of each component as well as the final product. In this paper, a case study at one of leading tractor manufacturing company in India for one of its production operation i.e. assembly of Rear Axle Carrier (Transmission System of tractor is presented using the technique of time and motion study. For this technique such as Predetermined Motion Time Study (PMTS, Method Time Measurement (MTM, various process charts are used for analysis and optimize their present methodology of assembling Rear Axle Carrier (RAC.

  17. FLEXIBLE 2-DOF STEERING MODEL OF MULTI-AXLE HEAVY-DUTY VEHICLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Bo; Wang Xuelin; Hu Yujin; Li Chenggang

    2004-01-01

    A flexible two degrees of freedom (2-DOF) steering model of multi-axle vehicle (MAV) is presented with considering the effect of frame flexibility based on the classic 2-DOF model. A method to calculate the frame flexibility is derived by using three moments equation. The steering stability of MAV is analyzed. The steering performance of MAV is also researched in frequency domain. Simulation results show that the dynamic effects of flexible model are more severe than rigid model and the flexible effect of frame will weaken the steering stability of MAV. Different disposals of steering axles lead to different steering characteristics of MAV. The in-phase steering mode improves the steering characteristics and stability at high speed. The anti-phase steering mode increases the steering mobility at low vehicle speed.

  18. Expression Analysis Highlights AXL as a Candidate Zika Virus Entry Receptor in Neural Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Tomasz J; Pollen, Alex A; Di Lullo, Elizabeth; Sandoval-Espinosa, Carmen; Bershteyn, Marina; Kriegstein, Arnold R

    2016-05-01

    The recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil has been linked to substantial increases in fetal abnormalities and microcephaly. However, information about the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms connecting viral infection to these defects remains limited. In this study we have examined the expression of receptors implicated in cell entry of several enveloped viruses including ZIKV across diverse cell types in the developing brain. Using single-cell RNA-seq and immunohistochemistry, we found that the candidate viral entry receptor AXL is highly expressed by human radial glial cells, astrocytes, endothelial cells, and microglia in developing human cortex and by progenitor cells in developing retina. We also show that AXL expression in radial glia is conserved in developing mouse and ferret cortex and in human stem cell-derived cerebral organoids, highlighting multiple experimental systems that could be applied to study mechanisms of ZIKV infectivity and effects on brain development.

  19. A layered cooling process in whole quenching process for lightweight front axle beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Kai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the uniformity of martensite distribution and obtain consistent mechanical performance during the quenching process of front axle beam, a layered cooling process was presented in this paper. The fluid-solid coupled temperature field were investigated by finite element modeling and the prediction of micro-structure and hardness distributions were also carried out. The experimental result verifies the reliability of this model.

  20. The dynamics of European two-axle railway freight wagons with UIC standard suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Mark; True, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of two-axle railway freight wagons with the UIC standard Suspension is investigated theoretically and the dynamic behaviour is explained. Fully nonlinear models are considered. The hysteresis from dry friction and the effect of impacts between elements of the suspension are included....... Different wheel-rail geometries are investigated and the results commented. Bifurcation diagrams ale used to describe the eigen-dynamics of the wagons....

  1. Active noise reduction at the rear axle drive; Aktive Geraeuschminderung am Hinterachsgetriebe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eulert, Sebastian; Luehrs, Georg [Volkswagen AG, Kassel (Germany); Braeunig, Jan; Bucht, Andre; Kunze, Holger [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkzeugmaschinen und Umformtechnik, Dresden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In this article we present the results of a research project of Volkswagen AG and Fraunhofer IWU. It shows new approaches in the development of active mass dampers for transmission applications. The proposed active controlled system enables to reduce the interior sound pressure level of the rear axle gear mesh order by more than 5 dB. By detailed pre-examination of the drivetrain vibrations and transfer paths we gained new insights into the phenomenon of rear axle gear whine. In order to develop solutions to realise the damping of the vibrations we designed and constructed a test bench which consists of the main components of the rear axle unit and its bearings. The vibration phenomenon was replicated by synthetic excitation. Thus we could acquire an adequate control concept combined with a corresponding actuator and experimentally established control parameters. Validations on an experimental vehicle under synthetic excitation and finally under real driving conditions adduced the evidence for the functionality of the proposed system. (orig.)

  2. Algorithms for Pallet Building and Truck Loading in an Interdepot Transportation Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Teresa Alonso; Ramon Alvarez-Valdes; Francisco Parreño; Jose Manuel Tamarit

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of a logistics company that has to serve its customers by first putting the products on pallets and then loading the pallets into trucks. Besides the standard geometric constraints of products not overlapping each other and not exceeding the dimensions of pallets and trucks, in this real problem, there are many other constraints, related to the total weight of the load, the maximum weight supported by each axle, and the distribution of the load inside the tru...

  3. Optimization of Front Axle Suspension System of Articulated Dump Truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Thomas Heegaard; Christensen, Brian B.; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.;

    2010-01-01

    of the machine and the varying load distribution when turning the steering wheel has revealed a non-trivial task of sizing the new suspension system in an optimal way. Hydraulic accumulators and valves are used as suspension elements. The topology of the suspension frame is given together with a work cycle used...... by the supplier of accumulators. A non-gradient optimization routine has been applied to determine the optimal design, i.e., the design with the best possible ride comfort in terms of whole body vibrations that does not violate any of the constraints. Some variables have been treated as discrete...

  4. 基于虚拟仪器的挂车车轴性能测试系统%Performance testing system of trailer axle based on virtual instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟斌; 赵奔; 洪添胜; 赵文锋; 邓小玲; 朱余清; 阮少孟

    2013-01-01

    device by controlling the rotation of the servo motor and loaded the simulated axle through two pressure heads, then the displacement and pressure were collected as feedback through the data acquisition card. The displacement-voltage linear relationship of A/B pressure head was obtained through experiments on displacement sensors before system test. By calibrating the straight-line equation, the result was that the maximum locating relative error is 5.207%, and the absolute value of average relative error was 1.4%. The voltage-load linear relationship of A/B pressure head was obtained by accurate positioning of load. Analyzed by software SPSS, in the equation of the load stress and voltage linear regression, the result was that R>0.994, Sig. According the constructed testing system, the performance of fatigue, stiffness, strength, and stress of the simulated axle were tested and analyzed. In fatigue test, flaw occurred after 821 times vibration and efficacy was lost after 1067 times vibration;in stiffness test, spot D almost stayed unchanged and the displacements of spot C and E ranged from 60 to 63 mm; in strength test, the maximum displacement of sensor E was 66.622 mm; in stress test, the maximum displacement of spot E was 66.751 mm, and the maximum stress was 259.444 MPa. The system was steady. The simulated test had been lasting for one month and no bug was found. Therefore, the result generally meets the project requirement.

  5. Dethreading of a Photoactive Azobenzene-Containing Molecular Axle from a Crown Ether Ring: A Computational Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Gloria; Silvi, Serena; Venturi, Margherita; Credi, Alberto; Fois, Ettore

    2016-06-17

    Pseudorotaxanes formed by a dibenzo[24]crown-8 ring (R) and a dialkylammonium axle bearing either two E- or two Z-azobenzene units (EE-A or ZZ-A) revealed useful for the construction of light-powered molecular machines and motors, as they provide the opportunity of photocontrolling self-assembly/disassembly processes. The potential energies profiles for the dethreading of these complexes have been investigated by adopting a combination of first-principles molecular dynamics, metadynamics and quantum-chemical geometry optimization approaches. While the dethreading of the EE-A axle is associated with a monotonic energy increase, for that of the ZZ-A axle a transition state and an intermediate structure, in which the components are still threaded together, are found. The rate determining step for the dethreading of the ZZ axle has a higher energy barrier than that of the EE axle, in agreement with the experimental kinetic data. Moreover, the results suggest that the elliptic shape of the ring cavity is important for discriminating between the E and Z terminal azobenzene during dethreading.

  6. Analysis of the nonlinear dynamics of a 2-axle freight wagon in curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Gialleonardo, Egidio; Bruni, Stefano; True, Hans

    2014-01-01

    and of a three-car assembly is introduced, paying particular attention to the nonlinear and nonsmooth modelling of the suspensions and of the inter-car coupling elements. Using this model, a numerical analysis of the steady-state solution reached after the negotiation of curve transition is presented......This paper deals with the study of the nonlinear dynamic behaviour of 2-axle freight wagons in curves, considering the case of one single wagon (neglecting inter-car coupling forces) and of multiple wagons interacting through the buffers and the couplers. A multi-body model of a single wagon...

  7. 基于DEFORM和正交试验法的前轴辊锻工艺优化%Research on optimization of front-axle roll forging technique based on DEFORM-3D and orthogonal experimental method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏科; 王高潮; 李宁; 王志录

    2012-01-01

    正交试验主要用于解决科研和生产中多因素、多水平的问题,运用正交试验法可以在减少试验次数的情况下获得最佳的参数组合,可有效节约人力、物力和时间.在DEFORM-3D有限元数值模拟过程中应用正交试验优化设计方法,对前轴制坯辊锻模具弹簧座截面的圆角值、辊锻模具角速度、摩擦因子及坯料初始温度四因素、三水平问题,进行前轴制坯辊锻模具结构及工艺优化研究,分析影响前轴辊锻成形过程中最大成形载荷的因素,研究结果有利于前轴辊锻模具结构及工艺的优化,而且可有效提高辊锻模具的使用寿命.%The structure of front axle roll forging die and the roll forging process were optimized based on orthogonal experimental design method, using DEF0RM-3D software in finite element numerical simulation, adopting three levels and four factors, the latter including the fillet values of the spring seat section of the front axle roll forging die, the angular velocity of the roll forging die, the friction factor and the initial temperature of billets. The effecting factors of maximal forming load in the roll forging process of front axle were analyzed. The results can also increase the service life of roll forging die.

  8. 49 CFR 571.110 - Tire selection and rims and motor home/recreation vehicle trailer load carrying capacity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... equipped, air conditioning and additional weight optional engine. Maximum loaded vehicle weight means the... GAWR of the axle system as specified on the vehicle's certification label required by 49 CFR part 567... limitations of S4.3.4. For full size spare tires, the statement “see above” may, at the manufacturer's...

  9. Intelligent Energy Management Strategy for a Separated-Axle Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Fallahi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV in addition to provide the benefits of electric vehicles could satisfy consumers for some performances of conventional internal combustion engine (ICE vehicles such as acceleration and long range. On this way, suitable energy optimization strategies should be employed to get desired efficiency, less fuel consumption and pollution. One of the favorite and simple configurations of HEVs is parallel type. A student team at University of Kashan, IRAN have designed and manufactured Shaheb 2 hybrid electric vehicle. It is a separated-axle (or Through-to-Road (TTR parallel HEV type based on Pride platform. Employed energy management in Shaheb 2 is on/off strategy and three modes; motor, engine and hybrid have been implemented. This paper investigates the modeling of separated-axle (or TTR parallel type of HEV in ADVISOR software and then evaluates two control strategies for Shaheb 2; on/off strategy and an intelligent control based on fuzzy logic. On this way, maximizing the engine is considered as objective function. The simulation results indicate that the fuzzy strategy leads to less fuel consumption and lower pollution for given UDDS driving cycle rather than on/off strategy for Shaheb 2.

  10. NEW APPROACH FOR TECHNOLOGY OF VOLUMETRIC – SUPERFICIAL HARDENING OF GEAR DETAILS OF THE BACK AXLE OF MOBILE MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Mihluk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The new approach for technology of volumetric – superficial hardening of gear details of the back axle made of steel lowered harden ability is offered. This approach consisting in formation of intense – hardened condition on all surface of a detail.

  11. Repeated Load Permanent Deformation Behavior of Mixes With and Wihtout Modified Bituments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Hafeez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature rutting in flexible pavement structure is being observed on most of the road network of Pakistan. It initiates primarily due to uncontrolled axle loading and high ambient temperatures. NHA (National Highway Authority, Pakistan has continuously been modifying aggregate gradations and penetration grade of bitumen, without any prior investigation of the mix behaviour under the prevailing axle load and environmental conditions of the country. A comprehensive laboratory investigation was carried out on six mixes ranging from finer to coarser. Specimens were subjected to cyclic loading on UTM-5P (Universal Testing Machine to study the resistance against permanent deformation of the mixes at 25, 40 and 550C. At low temperatures and stress levels, both coarse and fine graded mixes showed less accumulated strain, whereas at higher temperatures and stress levels, coarse graded mix with PMB (Polymer Modified Bitumen showed good resistance to permanent deformation.

  12. Vitamin K2 regression aortic calcification induced by warfarin via Gas6/Axl survival pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoyu; Tao, Huiren; Qiu, Cuiting; Ma, Xiaolei; Li, Shan; Guo, Xian; Lv, Anlin; Li, Huan

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamin K2 on aortic calcification induced by warfarin via Gas6/Axl survival pathway in rats. A calcification model was established by administering 3mg/g warfarin to rats. Rats were divided into 9 groups: control group (0W, 4W, 6W and 12W groups), 4W calcification group, 6W calcification group, 12W calcification group, 6W calcification+6W normal group and 6W calcification+6W vitamin K2 group. Alizarin red S staining measured aortic calcium depositions; alkaline phosphatase activity in serum was measured by a kit; apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL assay; protein expression levels of Gas6, Axl, phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), and Bcl-2 were determined by western blotting. The calcium content, calcium depositions, ALP activity and apoptosis were significantly higher in the calcification groups than control group. Gas6, Axl, p-Akt and Bcl-2 expression was lower in the calcification group than control group. 100μg/g vitamin K2 treatment decreased calcium depositions, ALP activity and apoptosis significantly, but increased Gas6, Axl, p-Akt and Bcl-2 expression. 100μg/g vitamin K2 reversed 44% calcification. Pearson correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between formation calcification and apoptosis (R(2)=0.8853, Pvitamin K2 can inhibit warfarin-induced aortic calcification and apoptosis. The regression of aortic calcification by vitamin K2 involved the Gas6/Axl axis. This data may provide a theoretical basis for future clinical treatments for aortic calcification. PMID:27212383

  13. Testosterone delays vascular smooth muscle cell senescence and inhibits collagen synthesis via the Gas6/Axl signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Qing; Zhao, Jing; Jin, Cheng-Wei; Li, Yi-Hui; Tang, Meng-Xiong; Wang, Zhi-Hao; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yun; Li, Li; Zhong, Ming

    2016-06-01

    Testosterone deficiency is associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular diseases in men. However, its effect on cell senescence, which plays a causal role in vascular aging, remains unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that testosterone alleviated vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) senescence and collagen synthesis via growth arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6)/Axl- and Akt/FoxO1a-dependent pathways. Testosterone significantly ameliorated angiotensin II-induced VSMC senescence and collagen overexpression. In addition, testosterone inhibited angiotensin II-induced matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity, which played a pivotal role in facilitating age-related collagen deposition. Testosterone increased the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 but decreased the expression of MMP-2 and membrane type-1 metalloproteinase which contributed to increase MMP-2 activity. The effects on VSMCs senescence and collagen synthesis were mediated by restoration of angiotensin II-induced downregulation of Gas6 and Axl expression and a subsequent reduction of Akt and FoxO1a phosphorylation. The effects of testosterone were reversed by a Gas6 blocker, Axl-Fc, and a specific inhibitor of Axl, R428. Treatment of VSMCs with PI3K inhibitor LY294002 abrogated the downregulating effect of testosterone on MMP-2 activity. Furthermore, when FoxO1a expression was silenced by using a specific siRNA, the inhibitory effect of testosterone on MMP-2 activity was revered as well, that indicated this process was Akt/FoxO1a dependence. Taken together, Gas6/Axl and Akt/FoxO1a were involved in protective effects of testosterone on VSMCs senescence and collagen synthesis. Our results provide a novel mechanism underlying the protective effect of testosterone on vascular aging and may serve as a theoretical basis for testosterone replacement therapy. PMID:27206970

  14. Design, Synthesis, and Validation of Axl-Targeted Monoclonal Antibody Probe for microPET Imaging in Human Lung Cancer Xenograft

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shuanglong; Li, Dan; Guo, Jiacong; Canale, Nicolette; Li, Xiuqing; Liu, Ren; Krasnoperov, Valery; Gill, Parkash S.; Conti, Peter S.; Shan, Hong; Li, Zibo

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating experimental evidence indicates that overexpression of the oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase, Axl, plays a key role in the tumorigenesis and metastasis of various types of cancer. The objective of this study is to design a novel imaging probe based on the monoclonal antibody, h173, for microPET imaging of Axl expression in human lung cancer. A bifunctional chelator, DOTA, was conjugated to h173, followed by radiolabeling with 64Cu. The binding of DOTA-h173 to the Axl receptor wa...

  15. Optimization Design of Vehicle Front Axle Structure Based on ABAQUS and TOSCA%基于ABAQUS与TOSCA的汽车前桥结构优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马瑞雪; 王欣; 覃祯员; 张科峰

    2012-01-01

    应用ABAQUS软件对汽车前桥进行强度分析,针对车桥强度不足问题,通过TOSCA优化软件对前桥进行拓扑优化设计,在保证承栽能力的前提下有效减轻其重量。%The author analyze the vehicle front axle for the strength by ABAQUS software. In view of the axle strength shortage problem, they use TOSCA optimization software designing the front axle topological optimization structure,in order to effectively reduce its weight under the condition of its bearing capacity.

  16. PROBABILISTIC MODELS FOR LONG FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH RATES OF LZ50 AXLE STEEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yong-xiang; HE Chao-ming; YANG Bing; HUANG Yu-zhong; GAO Qing; WU Ping-bo

    2005-01-01

    Experimental study is performed on the probabilistic models for the long fatigue crack growth rates (da/dN) of LZ50 axle steel. An equation for crack growth rate was derived to consider the trend of stress intensity factor range going down to the threshold and the average stress effect. The probabilistic models were presented on the equation. They consist of the probabilistic da/dN-△K relations, the confidence-based da/dN-△K relations, and the probabilistic- and confidence-based da/dN-△K relations.Efforts were made respectively to characterize the effects of probabilistic assessments due to the scattering regularity of test data, the number of sampling, and both of them.These relations can provide wide selections for practice. Analysis on the test data of LZ50 steel indicates that the present models are available and feasible.

  17. Design of Model Following Variable Structure Controller for Three-axle Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管西强; 张建武; 屈求真

    2003-01-01

    An optimal control procedure is developed for the front and rear wheels of a three-axle vehicle moving on a complex typical road based on model following variable structure control strategy. The actual vehicle may be considered as an uncertain system. Cornering stiffness of front and rear wheels and external disturbances are varied in a limited range. The model-following variable structure control method is used to control both front and rear wheels steering operations of the vehicle, so that steering responses of the vehicle follow from those of the reference model. By numerical results obtained from computer simulation, it is demonstrated that the control system model can cope with the effects of parameter perturbations and outside disturbances.

  18. Dynamic response of elastic layered medium to moving loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafir, Zia; Siddharthan, Raj

    A new method of analysis to study the response of horizontally layered elastic medium to moving surface pressure loads under plane strain conditions has been developed. Important factors such as the two dimensional nature of wave propagation, inertia, and damping effects of the medium are accounted for. The proposed method can handle single loads or multiple loads. In the case of fast moving loads, it has been found that the inertia and damping considerations are important. An increase of about 35 percent in the vertical displacement of the surface was noted when the speed of the load was increased from 20 m/s to 100 m/s. For truck loads with tandem axle configuration on flexible pavements, it has been found that the two important strains, E(t) (major principal) at the bottom of the asphalt concrete (AC) layer and E(p) (minor principal) at the top of the subgrade layer are cyclic and not unidirectional as often assumed.

  19. Development of a new time domain-based algorithm for train detection and axle counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allotta, B.; D'Adamio, P.; Meli, E.; Pugi, L.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an innovative train detection algorithm, able to perform the train localisation and, at the same time, to estimate its speed, the crossing times on a fixed point of the track and the axle number. The proposed solution uses the same approach to evaluate all these quantities, starting from the knowledge of generic track inputs directly measured on the track (for example, the vertical forces on the sleepers, the rail deformation and the rail stress). More particularly, all the inputs are processed through cross-correlation operations to extract the required information in terms of speed, crossing time instants and axle counter. This approach has the advantage to be simple and less invasive than the standard ones (it requires less equipment) and represents a more reliable and robust solution against numerical noise because it exploits the whole shape of the input signal and not only the peak values. A suitable and accurate multibody model of railway vehicle and flexible track has also been developed by the authors to test the algorithm when experimental data are not available and in general, under any operating conditions (fundamental to verify the algorithm accuracy and robustness). The railway vehicle chosen as benchmark is the Manchester Wagon, modelled in the Adams VI-Rail environment. The physical model of the flexible track has been implemented in the Matlab and Comsol Multiphysics environments. A simulation campaign has been performed to verify the performance and the robustness of the proposed algorithm, and the results are quite promising. The research has been carried out in cooperation with Ansaldo STS and ECM Spa.

  20. Optic-electronic systems for measurement the three-dimension angular deformation of axles at the millimeter wave range radiotelescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konyakhin, Igor A.; Kopylova, Tatyana V.; Konyakhin, Alexsey I.; Smekhov, Andrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Researches in the millimetre wave range require the high accuracy for position of the mirror components of the radiotelescope. A mirror weight is the cause of the three-dimension angular deformation of the elevation axle and azimuth axle relatively bearings. At result the elevation angle and azimuth angle of a parabolic mirror axis orientation is not equal to the set values. For the measuring roll, pitch and yaw angular deformations the autocollimation system with new type of the reflector are used. Reflector for autocollimation measurements as compositions of the anamorphic prism and special tetrahedral reflector is described. New methods for roll, pitch, yaw angles measuring are discussed. Optical scheme for the measurement system, structure the anamorphic prism and tetrahedral reflector are proposed. Equations for the static characteristic of the measuring system are shown.

  1. Shifting Control Algorithm for a Single-Axle Parallel Plug-In Hybrid Electric Bus Equipped with EMT

    OpenAIRE

    Yunyun Yang; Sen Wu; Xiang Fu

    2014-01-01

    Combining the characteristics of motor with fast response speed, an electric-drive automated mechanical transmission (EMT) is proposed as a novel type of transmission in this paper. Replacing the friction synchronization shifting of automated manual transmission (AMT) in HEVs, the EMT can achieve active synchronization of speed shifting. The dynamic model of a single-axle parallel PHEV equipped with the EMT is built up, and the dynamic properties of the gearshift process are also described. I...

  2. Influence of wheel and rail profile shape on the initiation of rolling contact fatigue cracks at high axle loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Ulrich; Desmond Fröhling, Robert; Schalk Els, Pieter

    2016-05-01

    The influence of wheel and rail profile shape features on the initiation of rolling contact fatigue (RCF) cracks is evaluated based on the results of multi-body vehicle dynamics simulations. The damage index and surface fatigue index are used as two damage parameters to assess the influence of the different features. The damage parameters showed good agreement to one another and to in-field observations. The wheel and rail profile shape features showed a correlation to the predicted RCF damage. The RCF damage proved to be most sensitive to the position of hollow wear and thus bogie tracking. RCF initiation and crack growth can be reduced by eliminating unwanted shape features through maintenance and design and by improving bogie tracking.

  3. Economic Effects of Lifting the Spring Load Restriction Policy in Minnesota

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Smalkoski; Ning Li; David Levinson

    2006-01-01

    Spring load restrictions (SLR) regulate the weight per axle carried by heavy trucks during the spring thaw period. This policy aims to reduce pavement damage caused by heavy vehicles and extend the useful life of roads, but it also imposes costs on the trucking industry due to detouring or increased number of truckloads. Although the policies have been implemented for many years, their resulting economic effect has been unclear. The Minnesota Local Road Research Board (LRRB) and the Minnesota...

  4. Applicability of hydraulic dynamometer for measuring load mass on forwarders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandur Zdravko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, with the start of wood biomass production from wood residues, the need for determining the quantity of extracted wood residuals on a landing site has appeared. The beginning of intensive usage of wood residues for wood biomass starts in lowland forest where all wood residues are extracted with forwarders. There are several ways to determine load mass on a forwarder, first and probably most accurate is the use of load cells which are installed between forwarder undercarriage and loading space. In Croatia, as far as it is known, there is no forwarder with such equipment, although manufacturers offer the installation of such equipment when buying a new forwarder. The second option is using a portable measuring platform (axle scale which was already used for research of axle loads of trucks and forwarders. The data obtained with the measuring platform are very accurate, while its deficiency is relatively great mass, large dimensions and high price. The third option is determining mass by using hydraulic dynamometer which is installed on crane between the rotator and the telescopic boom. The production and installation of such a system is very simple, and with the price it can easily compete with previously described measuring systems. The main deficiency of this system is its unsatisfying accuracy. The results of assortment mass measuring with hydraulic dynamometer installed on a hydraulic crane and discussion on factors influencing obtained results will be presented in this paper.

  5. Analysis on handing stability of three-axle vehicle based on fuzzy grey correlation%基于模糊灰色关联的三轴汽车操纵稳定性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 赵亮

    2015-01-01

    为研究三轴汽车各轴主要悬架K & C特性对操纵稳定性的影响程度,在考虑三轴汽车轴荷分配和侧倾力矩作用下左、右车轮垂直载荷重新分配的基础上,建立了基于悬架K & C特性参数的三轴汽车三自由度动力学模型。并以该模型为基础,采用模糊隶属度余弦值和欧氏距离公式建立三轴汽车悬架K & C特性模糊灰色关联分析模型,对影响三轴汽车稳态响应特性的主要悬架 K & C特性的重要性程度进行了模糊灰色关联度分析。结果表明:车速为15 km/h时,对于稳态响应阶段的侧倾角、横摆角速度和侧向加速度,各影响因素模糊灰色关联度排序皆为 R4> R2> R3> R1> R6> R5;对于质心侧偏角,R5(β)> R6(β)> R1(β)> R2(β)> R3(β)> R4(β)。同理可得车速为35 km/h和55 km/h时各个影响因素模糊灰色关联度排序。从而可以得出:三轴汽车各轴悬架K & C特性参数中,前桥侧倾转向特性对稳态响应阶段的侧倾角、横摆角速度、侧向加速度影响最大;中、后桥侧倾转向特性对质心侧偏角影响较大,且两者相差不大。%In order to study the influencing degree of main suspension K & C characteristic param‐eters on handling stability ,a 3‐DOF dynamic model of three‐axle vehicle based on its suspension K & C characteristic parameters was established with considering of the axle load distribution of three‐axle vehicle and reallocation of vertical load on both sides of wheels under roll torque .Mo‐reover ,on the basis of the 3‐DOF model ,fuzzy grey correlation analysis model based on main suspension K & C characteristic parameters of three‐axle vehicle was established using the cosine value of fuzzy membership and Euclidean distance formula to make fuzzy grey correlation analysis on the influencing degree of main suspension K & C characteristic parameters on steady‐state re

  6. Acceleration Slip Regulation Strategy for Distributed Drive Electric Vehicles with Independent Front Axle Drive Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfei Wu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an acceleration slip regulation strategy for distributed drive electric vehicles with two motors on the front axle. The tasks of the strategy include controlling the slip ratio to make full use of the road grip and controlling the yaw rate to eliminate the lateral movement due to the difference between motor torques. The rate of the slip ratio change can be controlled by controlling the motor torque, so that the slip ratio can be controlled by applying a proportional-integral control strategy to control the rate of the slip ratio change. The yaw rate can be controlled to almost zero by applying torque compensation based on yaw rate feedback. A coordination control strategy for the slip ratio control and yaw rate control is proposed based on analysis of the priorities and features of the two control processes. Simulations were carried out using MATLAB/Simulink, and experiments were performed on a hardware-in-loop test bench with actual motors. The results of the simulations and experiments showed that the proposed strategy could improve the longitudinal driving performance and straight line driving stability of the vehicle.

  7. 基于车轴位移响应的重型载货汽车耐久性虚拟试验方法%A Virtual Durability Test Method for Heavy Truck Based on Axle Displacement Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋政; 韩旭; 李源; 姜潮; 雷飞; 刘威

    2012-01-01

    以某重型载货汽车为研究对象,提出一种基于车轴位移响应的耐久性虚拟试验方法.该方法首先采集车轴位置的加速度响应;建立基于车轴位移响应驱动的整车多体动力学刚柔耦合模型;接着基于上述试验和刚柔耦合模型复现整车实际道路的载荷历程,预测整车及其关键零部件的疲劳寿命.最后,对其前悬架左减振器支架进行的分析,验证了所提出的试验方法的有效性.%Taking a heavy-duty truck as the object of study, a virtual durability test method is proposed based on axle displacement response. Firstly, the acceleration response at the end of axle is collected, and based on which a rigid-flexible coupling multi-body model is established. Then, on the basis of the test result and the multi-body model, the real road loading history of the heavy truck is reconstructed and the fatigue life of vehicle and its key components is predicted. Finally, the analysis on the left shock absorber bracket of its front suspension verifies the validity of the virtual durability test method proposed.

  8. Kinome-wide shRNA Screen Identifies the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase AXL as a Key Regulator for Mesenchymal Glioblastoma Stem-like Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Cheng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is a highly lethal cancer for which novel therapeutics are urgently needed. Two distinct subtypes of glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs were recently identified: mesenchymal (MES and proneural (PN. To identify mechanisms to target the more aggressive MES GSCs, we combined transcriptomic expression analysis and kinome-wide short hairpin RNA screening of MES and PN GSCs. In comparison to PN GSCs, we found significant upregulation and phosphorylation of the receptor tyrosine kinase AXL in MES GSCs. Knockdown of AXL significantly decreased MES GSC self-renewal capacity in vitro and inhibited the growth of glioblastoma patient-derived xenografts. Moreover, inhibition of AXL with shRNA or pharmacologic inhibitors also increased cell death significantly more in MES GSCs. Clinically, AXL expression was elevated in the MES GBM subtype and significantly correlated with poor prognosis in multiple cancers. In conclusion, we identified AXL as a potential molecular target for novel approaches to treat glioblastoma and other solid cancers.

  9. A Study on the Fatigue Life of Hub Bearings in Front Steering Axle of a Heavy Duty Truck%重型载货汽车转向前桥轮毂轴承疲劳寿命的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国权; 张红松; 张良城

    2012-01-01

    为揭示重型载货汽车转向前桥轮毂轴承寿命不长的原因,制定了轮毂轴承寿命分析的汽车行驶工况,确定了相应的载荷谱.以Lundberg-Palmgren和Ioannidis-Harris轴承寿命理论为依据,用Romax软件建立了轮毂轴承疲劳寿命分析模型,计算了7.5t转向前桥额定载荷时轮毂轴承的疲劳寿命和损伤率.结果表明,轮毂内轴承满足设计要求,但轮毂外轴承均不满足设计要求.其中寿命最短的右侧轮毂外轴承,内、外国有明显的错位,滚子承载不均匀,内圈挡肩上轴向载荷的合力方向偏离旋转轴线,产生弯曲力矩,内、外圈存在严重的应力集中.%To reveal the reason for the short life of hub bearings in the front steering axle of a heavy duty truck, the vehicle driving conditions for hub bearing life analysis is worked out with their corresponding load spectra defined. Based on Lundberg-Palmgren and Ioannidis-Harris bearing life theories, a fatigue life analysis model for hub bearings is established with Romax software, and the fatigue life and the damage rate of hub bearings in a 7. 5 t front steering axle under rated loading conditions are calculated. The results show that the inner bearing in inner wheel hub meets the design requirements, but the bearings in outer wheel hub don't. Among them the bearing in right outer wheel hub has the shortest life, and there is apparent misalignment between its inner and outer rings with uneven roller loads. Moreover, the direction of resultant force of axial loads acting on inner ring rib deviates from rotating axis, generating bending moment and causing severe stress concentration in both inner and outer rings.

  10. Differential expression of the ufo/axl oncogene in human leukemia-lymphoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challier, C; Uphoff, C C; Janssen, J W; Drexler, H G

    1996-05-01

    The ufo protein (also termed axl) is a member of a new family of receptor tyrosine kinases and is encoded by a transforming gene that was initially isolated from primary human myeloid leukemia cells by DNA-mediated transformation of NIH/3T3 cells. The ligand, Gas6, a protein S-related molecule lacking any known function yet, has recently been identified. We report the expression pattern of ufo mRNA in a panel of 76 human continuous leukemia-lymphoma cell lines. The gene was not expressed in cell lines derived from lymphoid malignancies (n=28), but transcription was seen in 3/11 myeloid, 0/6 monocytic, 9/13 erythroid and 11/18 megakaryocytic cell lines. Several cell lines were treated with phorbol ester leading to significant upregulation of the ufo message in constitutively positive cells. An apparent ufo mRNA overexpression was not found in any of the positive leukemia cell lines, but was identified in the drug-resistant subclones of the cervix carcinoma cell line HeLa. Southern blot analysis of restriction enzyme-digested genomic DNA did not provide evidence for gene amplification, but the HeLa subclones showed banding patterns suggestive of gene rearrangement. Two main ufo mRNA bands of 3.2 and 5.0 kb were identified; no differences in the half-lives (t1/2 = 2.5 h) of these two mRNA species could be identified. In summary, ufo, representing a novel type of receptor tyrosine kinase, is expressed solely in myeloid and erythro-megakaryocytic leukemias but not in lymphoid malignancies. These and previous data suggest an involvement of the ufo receptor tyrosine kinase in normal and malignant myelopoiesis; however, its exact role, if any, and mode of operation in leukemogenesis remains to be determined.

  11. Ride comfort optimization of a multi-axle heavy motorized wheel dump truck based on virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bian Gong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of hydro-pneumatic suspension parameters of a multi-axle heavy motorized wheel dump truck is carried out based on virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging model in this article. The root mean square of vertical vibration acceleration, in the center of sprung mass, is assigned as the optimization objective. The constraints are the natural frequency, the working stroke, and the dynamic load of wheels. The suspension structure for the truck is the adjustable hydro-pneumatic suspension with ideal vehicle nonlinear characteristics, integrated with elastic and damping elements. Also, the hydraulic systems of two adjacent hydro-pneumatic suspension are interconnected. Considering the high complexity of the engineering model, a novel kind of meta-model called virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging is proposed in this article. The interpolation principle and the construction of virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging model were elucidated. Being different from traditional Kriging, virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging combines the respective advantages of actual test and Computer Aided Engineering simulation. Based on the virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging model, the optimization results, obtained by experimental verification, showed significant improvement in the ride comfort by 12.48% for front suspension and 11.79% for rear suspension. Compared with traditional Kriging, the optimization effect was improved by 3.05% and 3.38% respectively. Virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging provides an effective way to approach the optimal solution for the optimization of high-complexity engineering problems.

  12. 拖拉机前驱动桥的涂装工艺研究%Research of Coating Process of Tractor Front Drive Axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王智红

    2012-01-01

    For appearance quality requirements of front drive axles used in tractors ,the coating process of front drive axles is researched and designed. The production practices prove that the coated front drive axle has a good corrosion resistance, and this can lengthen Service life and improve use value of the product.%针对拖拉机前驱动桥外观品质的要求,研究并设计了前驱动桥涂装工艺。生产实践证明,涂装后的前驱动桥具有良好的耐腐蚀性,不仅延长了使用寿命,而且还提高了产品的使用价值。

  13. Comparative analysis into the tractor-trailer braking dynamics: tractor with single axle brakes, tractor with all wheel brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasoiu, Mircea; Ispas, Nicolae

    2014-06-01

    The paper elaborates a mathematical model in order to conduct a study into the dynamics of tractor-trailer systems during braking. The braking dynamics is analyzed by considering two versions for the braking system: 1) braking applied on the rear axle and 2) braking applied on all four wheels. In both versions the trailer is braked on all wheels. The mathematical model enables us to determine and graphically illustrate the evolution of the following parameters: braking deceleration, braking speed and the distance traveled by the tractor during braking. The mathematical model elaborated is applied on a tractor-trailer system completing transportation works.

  14. Propiedades estructurales de ejes huecos y sólidos con una grieta plana//Structural proprieties of hollow and whole axles, with a flat crack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon‐Ariza De‐Miguel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudiaron las diversas ventajas constructivas que los ejes huecos presentan respecto a los sólidos, como la reducción de masa, mejor control de calidad, menores defectos en producción y facilidad de acoplamiento. De ahí su profusión en aplicaciones industriales, como ejes de ferrocarril, de reductores o en calandrias. Dichas ventajas se ven alteradas cuando el eje trabaja a fatiga en flexión rotativa y aparece una grieta sobre el mismo. Se comprobaron dichas ventajas y sus variaciones sobre un modelo inicial de una grieta plana superficial, y se ha observado que los ejes huecos resultan más perjudicados por estas grietas para ciertos valores del diámetro interior, mientras que para otros son ventajosos. Se concluye del presente estudio que puede establecerse un rango de valores para el diámetro interior de ejes huecos en el cual su aprovechamiento seríaóptimo.Palabras claves: ejes huecos y sólidos, propiedades estructurales, grieta plana.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThis work studies the several advantages hollow axles show when compared to whole ones, such as lightness, better quality control, less manufacturing defects, coupling simplicity. Thence their being profusely employed in industry, in applications like railway axles, gearboxes or calenders. Theseadvantages are altered when the axle works under bending with rotation under fatigue and a crack appears on its surface. An analytical research upon a flat surface crack model has been made of these advantages and their variations and it has been observed that hollow axles suffer more from these cracks than whole ones for certain inner diameter values, whereas for others even less than whole ones. It can be deduced that a gap for the inner diameter can be ascertained, where the axle´s rendering would be optimal.Key words: hollowand whole axles, structural properties, flat crack.

  15. 基于ANSYS Workbench 的前轴分析和优化设计%ANSYS Workbench Based Analysis and Optimization Design of Front Axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凯; 曾亿山; 牛家忠

    2015-01-01

    汽车车桥是汽车上主要承载构件之一,对其进行分析和优化十分必要。以某公司生产的前桥前轴为例,先建立前轴的Pro/E三维模型,后导入 ANSYS Workbench ,在几种不同的路况上对前轴进行静态分析,结果表明前轴在应力大小方面能满足要求。在此基础上结合实际情况,并以质量最小化为最终目的,对前轴进行了形状优化和尺寸优化,为前轴的实际制造和优化改进提供理论依据。%As one of the main carrying components of automobile , the analysis and optimization of automobile axle is necessary . Firstly ,the three‐dimensional model of the front axle was set up in Pro/E ,the model was imported into ANSYS Workbench ,and the static analysis of the front axle in several different conditions was conducted ,the results showed that the front axle in the stress could meet the requirements .Then ,based on the static analysis ,the shape and size of the front axle were optimized ,and the ultimate aim was to minimize the mass ,it would provide a theoretical basis for the practical manufacturing and optimization of front axle .

  16. Fatigue Life Prediction under Service Load Considering Strengthening Effect of Loads below Fatigue Limit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Lihui; ZHENG Songlin; FENG Jinzhi

    2014-01-01

    Lightweight design requires an accurate life prediction for structures and components under service loading histories. However, predicted life with the existing methods seems too conservative in some cases, leading to a heavy structure. Because these methods are established on the basis that load cycles would only cause fatigue damage, ignore the strengthening effect of loads. Based on Palmgren-Miner Rule (PMR), this paper introduces a new method for fatigue life prediction under service loadings by taking into account the strengthening effect of loads below the fatigue limit. In this method, the service loadings are classified into three categories: damaging load, strengthening load and none-effect load, and the process for fatigue life prediction is divided into two stages: stage I and stage II, according to the best strengthening number of cycles. During stage I, fatigue damage is calculated considering both the strengthening and damaging effect of load cycles. While during stage II, only the damaging effect is considered. To validate this method, fatigue lives of automobile half shaft and torsion beam rear axle are calculated based on the new method and traditional methods, such as PMR and Modified Miner Rule (MMR), and fatigue tests of the two components are conducted under service loading histories. The tests results show that the percentage errors of the predicted life with the new method to mean life of tests for the two components are –3.78% and –1.76% separately, much lesser than that with PMR and MMR. By considering the strengthening effect of loads below the fatigue limit, the new method can significantly improve the accuracy for fatigue life prediction. Thus lightweight design can be fully realized in the design stage.

  17. On Methods of Solving the Axle Grinding Produces Denim and Burns%浅析解决车轴磨削产生斜纹及烧伤的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王长峰; 郭文荣

    2013-01-01

    车轴表面磨削加工中存在斜纹一直是困扰车轴生产的主要问题。通过对车轴磨削过程中砂轮、工装、设备、皂化液等因素的研究,查找车轴磨削表面产生斜纹、烧伤的原因,并提出相应的解决办法,为提高车轴生产质量提供保障。%The present axle twill surface grinding axle production has been plagued major problem. Through the process of grinding wheel axle, tooling, equipment, and other factors saponification research.In this paper, we find the axle grinding sur-face twill, burn causes and propose appropriate solutions to improve production quality axle to provide protection.

  18. Design and engineering structure analysis on paddy-field chassis steering drive axle with standard all-wheel-drive%标准四驱水田自走底盘转向驱动桥设计与工程结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宏新; 郑利双; 徐高伟; 王晨

    2015-01-01

    In the main grain crop production in China, comprehensive mechanization level for paddy field is the lowest. At the same time, there exists the“bottleneck”problem of“bottleneck”problem such as rice planting mechanization. In the case of transplanter, although we have grasped the core technology of key components, overall machinery can not be popularized and applied due to lack of the support of cost-effective chassis. At present, in Chinese market, most of chassis are imported from Japan and South Korea, which widely use hydraulic transmission and variable speed technology. Because paddy planting operation has the characteristics of stable load and constant speed, using hydraulic transmission and continuous variable device causes low efficiency and has no much practical significance, and meanwhile, the demand for the power increases from 9 to 13 and even 15 kw. Northeast Agricultural University has designed a standard all-wheel drive light paddy self-propelled chassis with diesel-power and mechanical transmission for this situation, whose most prominent shape feature is that four wheels have same size and the front axle is different from any existing paddy field chassis structure. The chassis has the advantages of high transmission efficiency, large torque reserve, anti-sink capacity, dynamic stabilization, and good performance of crossing the earth bank between the paddy fields. As a transmission part, steering drive axle not only is a carrier installed, but also needs to bear the weight of chassis and the effect of impulsive load, and have the function of deflection wheel, and hence its structure is more complex than the traditional shell. The operating environment of paddy field chassis is harsher than general vehicle, which has stricter requirement of sludge, subsidence, bank and over load on axle. So, engineering analysis of structural design process is particularly important, however, conventional theoretical analysis and calculation method can not

  19. Rear axle structure design of DD32/120 series%DD32/120系列后桥结构设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖红利; 杨爱民

    2012-01-01

    详细论了DD32/120系列后桥设计方案,对从动齿轮与桥壳间隙及从动齿轮与主减速器壳前轴承座间隙进行了计算。%Detailed discuss the rear axle design scheme of DD32/120 series,make calculation for driven gear and axle housing clearance and driven gear and front-end bearing pedestal of main reducing housing.

  20. On "impact of surface type, wheelchair weight, and axle position on wheelchair propulsion by novice older adults".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprigle, Stephen

    2009-07-01

    The mechanical efficiency of propelling manual wheelchairs is a very important topic. Wheelchair users, clinicians, manufacturers and payers would all benefit from better understanding of mechanical efficiency. However, the measurement of the mechanical efficiency is a nontrivial challenge. Cowan et al deserve a lot of credit for tackling such a difficult problem in their article "Impact of surface type, wheelchair weight, and axle position on wheelchair propulsion by novice older adults." The study demonstrated good internal validity in detecting a 4% difference in peak propulsion forces in wheelchairs that differed in mass by 9.1 kg. However, the instrumentation used to measure forces altered both the mass and inertia of the wheelchair-occupant system--2 factors that directly affect system energy. This approach, therefore, affects external validity, and the results cannot be extended to infer differences across wheelchair codes. That said, this study adds important information to the body of work into mechanical efficiency of wheelchairs. We now have evidence to suggest that addition of 9 kg and an 8 cm posterior displacement of axle position adversely affects propulsion biomechanics in an elderly cohort. Improved methodology can lead to mechanical efficiency measurement of different wheelchair models and different wheelchair options. PMID:19577018

  1. Hopf Bifurcation Characteristics of Dual-Front Axle Self-Excited Shimmy System for Heavy Truck considering Dry Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daogao Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiaxle steering is widely used in commercial vehicles. However, the mechanism of the self-excited shimmy produced by the multiaxle steering system is not clear until now. This study takes a dual-front axle heavy truck as sample vehicle and considers the influences of mid-shift transmission and dry friction to develop a 9 DOF dynamics model based on Lagrange’s equation. Based on the Hopf bifurcation theorem and center manifold theory, the study shows that dual-front axle shimmy is a self-excited vibration produced from Hopf bifurcation. The numerical method is adopted to determine how the size of dry friction torque influences the Hopf bifurcation characteristics of the system and to analyze the speed range of limit cycles and numerical characteristics of the shimmy system. The consistency of results of the qualitative and numerical methods shows that qualitative methods can predict the bifurcation characteristics of shimmy systems. The influences of the main system parameters on the shimmy system are also discussed. Improving the steering transition rod stiffness and dry friction torque and selecting a smaller pneumatic trail and caster angle can reduce the self-excited shimmy, reduce tire wear, and improve the driving stability of vehicles.

  2. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XIX, I--ENGINE TUNE-UP--CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, II--FRONT END SUSPENSION AND AXLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP PROCEDURES AND THE DESIGN OF FRONT END SUSPENSION AND AXLES USED ON DIESEL ENGINE EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE (1) PRE-TUNE-UP CHECKS, (2) TIMING THE ENGINE, (3) INJECTOR PLUNGER AND VALVE ADJUSTMENTS, (4) FUEL PUMP ADJUSTMENTS ON THE ENGINE (PTR AND PTG),…

  3. Control allocation for for regenerative braking of electric vehicles with an electric motor at the front axle using the state-dependent Riccati equation control technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanarachos, S.A.; Alirezaei, M.; Jansen, S.T.H.; Maurice, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the systematic development of an integrated braking controller for a vehicle driven by an electric motor on the front axle is presented. The objective is to engage the electric motor only during braking, up to the point at which the vehicle reaches its manoeuvrability and stability lim

  4. Portable axle temperature alarming device for railway train%铁路列车便携式轴温报警装置的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐超凡; 姜璐; 刘飞; 康旭韡; 曹源

    2016-01-01

    The high temperature of the train axle could bring dangerous to the train operation, so it is very important to detect train axle temperature. This research was different from the design of other axle temperature detection. Mobile phone with Android platform and ARM11 development board was used to communicate with each other in order to implement real-time monitoring of temperature. Wi-Fi technology was used to receive real-time data from the development board, and the mobile phone was used to receive data in the socket communication process, while the ARM development board worked as the client to send temperature data, so that the mechanical engineer could observe the temperature values of each axle at any position of the train. After testing, the portable axle temperature alarming device for railway train could implement the function of axle temperature detection and transmit the data of axle temperature to the intelligent handheld terminal through wireless communication.%列车轴温过高会给列车运行带来危险,因此列车轴温检测系统的意义重大。本研究不同于其他轴温检测设计,采用Android平台手机与ARM11开发板相互通信以实现对温度的实时监测。设计中采用Wi-Fi技术进行实时接收开发板采集的轴温数据,并将手机作为Socket通信过程中的服务器端接收数据,ARM开发板作为客户端发送轴温数据,使机械师能够在列车的任意位置对每一车轴的温度值进行实时观测。经测试,研制的铁路列车便携式轴温报警装置基本实现了轴温检测和无线发送轴温数据到智能手持终端的功能。

  5. Accumulative deformation in railway track induced by high-speed traffic loading of the trains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bian Xuecheng; Jiang Hongguang; Chen Yunmin

    2010-01-01

    Prediction and control of the permanent settlement of a track caused by traffic loading from trains is crucial to high-speed railway design and maintenance. In this study, a unified prediction model of accumulative deformation of geomaterials used in railway construction subjected to cyclic loadings is introduced and calibrated using physical model testing. Based on this versatile model, a calculation approach to determine the track structure settlement under repeated loadings caused by the movement of the wheel axle of the train is proposed. Regression analysis on the physical model testing is adopted to determine the parameters involved in the computational approach. Comparison of model test data and computed results shows that the parameters obtained from the back-analysis are consistent throughout the various testing conditions, and the proposed calculation approach is capable of satisfactorily predicting the accumulative settlement of the railway roadbed and subgrade soil for various axle loads and loading cycles. A case study of a high-speed railway is performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach in realistic engineering applications. The computation results from the settlement development of a roadbed and subgrade soil are presented and discussed.

  6. KCH0302 Central Type Harvester Steering Drive Axle%KCH0302中置式收割机转向驱动桥

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张传龙; 武辉; 冯晓宾

    2012-01-01

    KCH0302中置式收割机转向驱动桥是宽幅距收割机的核心部件,根据给定的整机参数,按照传统设计方法并参考同类桥型确定该桥总体参数,再确定主减速器、差速器、半轴和桥壳的结构类型。该桥设计过程中基本保证结构合理,符合实际应用,总成及零部件设计能尽量满足零件的标准化,部件的通用化和产品变型的要求,修理、保养方便.机件工艺性好.制造容易。%KCH0302 mid-set type harvester steering drive axle is a core components of wide harvester. According to the given machine parameters, in accordance with the traditional design method and referencing similar bridge, the overall parameters of the axle is determined. Then structrue types of main reducer, differential, axle and axle housing are also determined. During the design process ,we can basically ensure that the axle has a reasonable structure and better consistency with the fact. In designing assembly and parts,we try to meet the requirements of part standardization,component interchangeability and product variant. The maintenance is simple,and the parts has a good manufacturability and easy manufacturing.

  7. 汽车前轴动态特性的可靠性优化设计%Reliability Optimization Design of Dynamic Characteristics of Automotive Front Axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧献国; 于德介; 姚凌云

    2011-01-01

    Combining with the reliability analysis and the optimization technique, a reliability optimization design method was presented for improving the dynamic characteristics of automotive front axle.A reliability optimization model of dynamic characteristics of automotive front axle was established, the first order mode frequency and the velocity admittance of driving point of engine excitation were used as design constraints of reliability—based optimization, the total mass of front axle was used as the design objective.The reliability-based optimization problem of a micro—car front axle was solved, which shows that the dynamic characteristics of front axle are improved and the goals of reliability optimization design are achieved.%将可靠性分析与优化技术相结合,提出一种改善汽车前轴动态特性的可靠性优化设计方法.该方法建立了汽车前轴动态特性的可靠性优化模型,以一阶模态频率和发动机激励点的驱动点速度导纳为动态特性约束,以前轴总质量为优化目标,对前轴进行可靠性优化.对某微车前轴动态特性的可靠性优化设计结果表明,该方法有效酶善了前轴的动态特性,动态特性约束满足了可靠度设计要求,达到了可靠性优化设计的目的.

  8. Load Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes Load measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The aim of the measurement program regarding the loads on the turbine is to verify the basic characteristics of the wind turbine and loads on the blades, the rotor and the tower, using [Ref 1], [Ref2] and [Ref 3]. Regarding...... the fatigue loads, the rotor, blades and tower moments are presented. The fatigue loads are evaluated using rainflow counting described in detail in Ref. [1]. The 1Hz equivalent load ranges are calculated at different wind speeds. All information regarding the instrumentation is collected in [ref 4] and [ref...

  9. An integrated control strategy for the composite braking system of an electric vehicle with independently driven axles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fengchun; Liu, Wei; He, Hongwen; Guo, Hongqiang

    2016-08-01

    For an electric vehicle with independently driven axles, an integrated braking control strategy was proposed to coordinate the regenerative braking and the hydraulic braking. The integrated strategy includes three modes, namely the hybrid composite mode, the parallel composite mode and the pure hydraulic mode. For the hybrid composite mode and the parallel composite mode, the coefficients of distributing the braking force between the hydraulic braking and the two motors' regenerative braking were optimised offline, and the response surfaces related to the driving state parameters were established. Meanwhile, the six-sigma method was applied to deal with the uncertainty problems for reliability. Additionally, the pure hydraulic mode is activated to ensure the braking safety and stability when the predictive failure of the response surfaces occurs. Experimental results under given braking conditions showed that the braking requirements could be well met with high braking stability and energy regeneration rate, and the reliability of the braking strategy was guaranteed on general braking conditions.

  10. Shifting Control Algorithm for a Single-Axle Parallel Plug-In Hybrid Electric Bus Equipped with EMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyun Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining the characteristics of motor with fast response speed, an electric-drive automated mechanical transmission (EMT is proposed as a novel type of transmission in this paper. Replacing the friction synchronization shifting of automated manual transmission (AMT in HEVs, the EMT can achieve active synchronization of speed shifting. The dynamic model of a single-axle parallel PHEV equipped with the EMT is built up, and the dynamic properties of the gearshift process are also described. In addition, the control algorithm is developed to improve the shifting quality of the PHEV equipped with the EMT in all its evaluation indexes. The key techniques of changing the driving force gradient in preshifting and shifting compensation phases as well as of predicting the meshing speed in the gear meshing phase are also proposed. Results of simulation, bench test, and real road test demonstrate that the proposed control algorithm can reduce the gearshift jerk and the power interruption time noticeably.

  11. Load Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes Load measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The aim of the measurement program regarding the loads on the turbine is to verify the basic characteristics of the wind turbine and loads on the blades, the rotor and the tower, using [Ref 1], [Ref2] and [Ref 3]. Regardi...

  12. Load Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes Load measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The aim of the measurement program regarding the loads on the turbine is to verify the basic characteristics of the wind turbine and loads on the blades, the rotor and the tower, using [Ref 1], [Ref2] and [Ref 3]. Regarding...

  13. Strength properties of the jointed rock mass medium under dynamic cyclic loading *

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The dynamic strength properties of the intermittently jointed mediums are studied using model test to investigate the jointed rock mass behavior under dynamic cyclic load. The model test results demonstrate that (i) the dynamic strength of the jointed samples increases with the loading frequency and decreases with the loading loops; (ii) the dynamic residual strength will not be zero like the static residual strength under one-axle loading condition; (iii) the dynamic strength changes greatly with the joint density and joint angle, and it differs from that of the static strength which reaches the lowest at an angle of 45° + ψ/2, while in the dynamic case, the lowest strength is at the angle of 45°.

  14. The radial hardness-profile and the microstructure of railroad car axle materials treated by surface rolling, determined by novel examination methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface rolling is a cold-working technique used for hardening the surface of steel and ductile cast iron components. This process increases the surface hardness and improves the fatigue properties of components, so it is commonly used to treat railroad car wheel axles. The present paper examines the influence of this surface strengthening technique on the microstructure of the railroad car wheel axle material by hardness tests, optical microscopy (OM), and other novel examination methods, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray line profile analysis (XLPA), non-destructive magnetic evaluation (NDE) and automated electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The results show that surface rolling causes an increase in hardness down to a depth of ∼10 mm. It is also shown, that the increase in hardness is not due to grain refinement or change in grain morphology; thus it is likely to be caused by an increase in dislocation density

  15. A receptor tyrosine kinase, UFO/Axl, and other genes isolated by a modified differential display PCR are overexpressed in metastatic prostatic carcinoma cell line DU145.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, A N; Kalapurakal, J; Davidson, W R; Kandpal, G; Dunson, N; Prashar, Y; Kandpal, R P

    1999-01-01

    We have used a modified differential display PCR protocol for isolating 3' restriction fragments of cDNAs specifically expressed or overexpressed in metastatic prostate carcinoma cell line DU145. Several cDNA fragments were identified that matched to milk fat globule protein, UFO/Axl, a receptor tyrosine kinase, human homologue of a Xenopus maternal transcript, laminin and laminin receptor, human carcinoma-associated antigen, and some expressed sequence tags. The transcript for milk fat globule protein, a marker protein shown to be overexpressed in breast tumors, was elevated in DU145 cells. The expression of UFO/Axl, a receptor tyrosine kinase, was considerably higher in DU145 cells as compared to normal prostate cells and prostatic carcinoma cell line PC-3. The overexpression of UFO oncogene in DU145 cells is discussed in the context of prostate cancer metastasis.

  16. The radial hardness-profile and the microstructure of railroad car axle materials treated by surface rolling, determined by novel examination methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berecz, Tibor, E-mail: berecz@eik.bme.hu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1111 Budapest, Bertalan Lajos utca 7 (Hungary); Balogh, Levente, E-mail: levente@metal.elte.hu [Department of Materials Physics, Eötvös Loránd University, 1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/a (Hungary); Mészáros, István, E-mail: meszaros@eik.bme.hu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1111 Budapest, Bertalan Lajos utca 7 (Hungary); Steinbach, Ágoston, E-mail: sa984@hszk.bme.hu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1111 Budapest, Bertalan Lajos utca 7 (Hungary)

    2014-01-13

    Surface rolling is a cold-working technique used for hardening the surface of steel and ductile cast iron components. This process increases the surface hardness and improves the fatigue properties of components, so it is commonly used to treat railroad car wheel axles. The present paper examines the influence of this surface strengthening technique on the microstructure of the railroad car wheel axle material by hardness tests, optical microscopy (OM), and other novel examination methods, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray line profile analysis (XLPA), non-destructive magnetic evaluation (NDE) and automated electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The results show that surface rolling causes an increase in hardness down to a depth of ∼10 mm. It is also shown, that the increase in hardness is not due to grain refinement or change in grain morphology; thus it is likely to be caused by an increase in dislocation density.

  17. 有限元分析在汽车后桥壳设计中的应用%Finite element analysis in the design of automotive Rear axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄在璐

    2012-01-01

      运用软件Solidworks建立汽车后桥壳的三维模型,并利用有限元分析软件COSMOSWorks对该后桥壳进行静态受力分析,获取该零件的应力分布云图,从而为零件的合理设计提供有价值的参考。%  In this paper, the three-dimensional model of the software Solidworks to automotive rear axle,and use of finite element analysis software COSMOSWorks the rear axle for static stress analysis,Get the part of the stress contours,Provide a valuable reference for the rational design of parts.

  18. 铸钢叉车用桥壳的质量控制%Quality Control of Folk Lifter Axle Housing Steel Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张奕麟; 刘伟

    2011-01-01

    针对叉车用铸钢桥壳的质量问题,如裂纹、气孔等缺陷,通过在配料和熔炼工艺,造型、制芯及合箱等方面加以控制,使得铸钢桥壳的质量大为改善。同时制定了铸钢桥壳缺陷允许焊补的条例,规范了铸件缺陷处理。%With the modification on molding, core making and mould assembling process, the quality of folk lifter axle housing steel casting has been improved especially for crack, porosity and other defects. The guideline of repair welding for axle housing also has been defined in to keep consistency of repairing.

  19. Design the Rocker Arm Mechanism in Double Front Axle Steering Mechanism%双前桥转向机构中摇臂机构的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兰兰; 王健楠

    2012-01-01

    为了适当调整摇臂机构的设计参数,根据已有的基本型双前桥转向的摇臂机构.用作图法计算出二桥节臂转角肛,再计算出二桥节臂理论转角β2理,根据β2-β2理=δ古是否小于1°来判断该机构是否合理:如不合理,通过改变摇臂长度R的尺寸得到合理的数值后,再用三维模型进行了校核,得到了合适的设计数据。此方法缩短了设计周期,为双摇臂机构的设计提供了参考。%Abstract according the existing rocker mechanism about the double front axle steering mechanism, the comer of the knuckle arm about the second steering axle β2 was calculated from the comer of knuckle arm about the first steering axle r, by graphical method, and the theory comer of knuckle arm of the second steering axle β2L, was counted, then the rocker mechanism's rationality was determined according the formula β2- β2L=δ;if δ≤ 1°,the mechanism is reasonable ;if δ 〉 1°,then the parameter R was changed to obtain the reasonable data about the rocker mechanism ;final, the corresponding 3D model was build to check the design. Design time was saved by this method, and reference was given to the other designers.

  20. SMED application in the axle housing mold%快速换模在桥壳模具中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷鹏; 贾雄伟; 惠文强

    2014-01-01

    In stamping-welding axle housings products switched, the axle housing mold bulky and heavy-tonnage, resulting in retooling slow and low productivity. Through the SMED application in the axle housings, the distinction between internal and external, transformation operation using a parallel operation. Improving the logistics set up hanging device, increasing the positioning pin. The changeover speed increase more than 50%, reducing the extra inventory, improve production efficiency, resulting in significant economic benefits.%在冲焊桥壳产品切换中,桥壳模具体积大、吨位重、造成换模速度慢,生产效率低。通过快速换模技术在桥壳模具中的应用,区分了内外变换操作,并采用平行作业,改善物流架起吊装置,增加定位销,使换模速度提升了50%以上,减少了不需的额外库存,提高了生产效率,并产生明显的经济效益。

  1. In-service parametric modelling a rail vehicle's axle-box hydraulic damper for high-speed transit problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. L.; Yu, D. S.; Zhou, Z.

    2015-10-01

    Due to the high-speed operation of modern rail vehicles and severe in-service environment of their hydraulic dampers, it has become important to establish more practical and accurate damper models and apply those models in high-speed transit problem studies. An improved full parametric model with actual in-service parameters, such as variable viscous damping, comprehensive stiffness and small mounting clearance was established for a rail vehicle's axle-box hydraulic damper. A subtle variable oil property model was built and coupled to the modelling process, which included modelling of the dynamic flow losses and the relief-valve system dynamics. The experiments validated the accuracy and robustness of the established full in-service parametric model and simulation which captured the damping characteristics over an extremely wide range of excitation speeds. Further simulations were performed using the model to uncover the effects of key in-service parameter variations on the nominal damping characteristics of the damper. The obtained in-service parametric model coupled all of the main factors that had significant impacts on the damping characteristics, so that the model could be useful in more extensive parameter effects analysis, optimal specification and product design optimisation of hydraulic dampers for track-friendliness, ride comfort and other high-speed transit problems.

  2. Iron load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Cassarà

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent research addressed the main role of hepcidin in the regulation of iron metabolism. However, while this mechanism could be relevant in causing iron load in Thalassemia Intermedia and Sickle-Cell Anemia, its role in Thalassemia Major (TM is marginal. This is mainly due to the high impact of transfusional requirement into the severe increase of body iron. Moreover, the damage of iron load may be worsened by infections, as HCV hepatitis, or liver and endocrinological damage. One of the most relevant associations was found between splenectomy and increase of risk for mortality due,probably, to more severe iron load. These issues suggest as morbidity and mortality of this group of patients they do not depend only by our ability in controlling heart damage but even in preventing or treating particular infections and complications. This finding is supported by the impairment of survival curves in patients with complications different from heart damage. However, because, during recent years different direct and indirect methods to detect iron overload in patients affected by secondary hemochromatosis have been implemented, our ability to maintain under control iron load is significantly improved. Anyway, the future in iron load management remains to be able to have an iron load map of our body for targeting chelation and other medical treatment according to the single organ damage.

  3. Beam loading

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  4. 多轴汽车驻车制动性能分析方法%Analysis Method of Parking Braking Performance for Multi-axle Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何仁; 童成前; 何建清

    2011-01-01

    Taking three-axle vehicle as an example, the calculation formula of parking grade limit of multiaxle vehicle is derived with its influencing factors analyzed. On this basis, an analysis method for parking-braking performance of multi-axle vehicle is proposed, in which the maximum parking grade is determined by comparing parking grade limit and the maximum parking grade calculated by torque method. In addition, a concept named utilization rate of grade limit is proposed as a supplement to the analysis indicators of parking braking performance.The results of real sample analysis show that the method proposed is simple, pragmatic and can effectively analyze the parking braking performance of multi-axle vehicles.%以三轴汽车为例,推导出多轴汽车的驻车极限坡度计算公式,并对其影响因素进行分析.在此基础上,提出了多轴汽车的驻车制动性能分析方法,即通过对驻车极限坡度与力矩法求出的最大驻车坡度进行比较而获得汽车的最大驻车坡度:外,提出了极限坡度利用率的概念,作为对驻车制动性能分析指标的补充.实例分析结果表明,该方法简单、实用,能对多轴汽车驻车制动性能进行有效分析.

  5. Load sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder for

  6. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  7. Metamaterial Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Paredes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that printed antennas loaded with metamaterial resonators can be designed to exhibit multiband functionality. Two different antenna types and metamaterial loading are considered: (i printed dipoles or monopoles loaded with open complementary split ring resonators (OCSRRs and (ii meander line or folded dipole antennas loaded with split ring resonators (SRRs or spiral resonators (SRs. In the first case, multiband operation is achieved by series connecting one or more OCSRRs within the dipole/monopole. Such resonators force opens at their positions, and by locating them at a quarter wavelength (at the required operating frequencies from the feeding point, it is possible to achieve multiple radiation bands. In the second case, dual-band functionality is achieved through the perturbation of the antenna characteristics caused by the presence of the metamaterial resonators. This latter strategy is specially suited to achieve conjugate matching between the antenna and the chip in radiofrequency identification (RFID tags at two of the regulated UHF-RFID bands.

  8. Non-contacting fluid ring seal systems for railcar axle bearing systems: Quarterly progress report No. 1, June 15 to September 15, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The main objectives of this DOE contract is the technical development of a practical, cost effective Fluid Ring seal system capable of: Drastically reducing locomotive drawbar traction power requirements by lowering seal friction losses prevalent in present railcar axle bearing systems; increasing reliability and safety of railroad cars by minimizing bearing lubricant leakage and minimizing bearing ''hot boxes''; and improving the productivity of the railway transportation systems by reducing rolling stock ''outages'' due to long seal life. 14 refs.

  9. Non-contacting fluid ring seal systems for railcar axle bearing systems: Quarterly progress report No. 4, March 16-June 15, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    The main objectives of this DOE contract is the technical development of a practical, cost effective Fluid Ring seal system capable of: Drastically reducing locomotive drawbar traction power requirements by lowering seal friction losses prevalent in present railcar axle bearing systems; increasing reliability and safety of railroad cars by minimizing bearing lubricant leakage and minimizing bearing ''hot boxes''; and improving the productivity of the railway transportation systems by reducing rolling stock ''outages'' due to long seal life. Listed in this report are the seal test data.

  10. Light Weight Design of Automobile Rear Axle Housing Based on Typical Conditions%基于典型工况的汽车后桥壳结构轻量化优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁晓明; 吕俊成; 王伟

    2016-01-01

    Lightweight design was done for the rear axle housing of multi�link rear suspension, based on typical conditions and the method of inertia release.According to the analyses,the maximal stress of the rear axle housing appeared on unilateral pothole condition.It indicated that the thickness of axle shaft sleeve and rear axle housing had an effect on maximal stress value as thickness changed, the maximum stress position would also shift.Finally,the optimized rear axle housing weight loss is of 1 1 .6% compared to the original one,and no durability problems after fatigue tests and durability tests,the optimized rear axle housing can meet the design requirements.%基于典型工况下的后桥连接点载荷,运用惯性释放的方法对搭配多连杆悬架的后桥壳进行了轻量化设计.分析可知:单侧过深坑工况下的后桥壳应力最大;套管厚度和桥包厚度对最大应力有影响,而且随着两者厚度的变化,最大应力位置也会转移.优化后的桥壳比原桥壳减重11.6%,经过疲劳试验和耐久性路试验证,未出现耐久性问题,满足设计要求.

  11. Finite Element Analysis of A Front Axle in Lateral Sliding to Limit Condition%某载货车前轴侧滑工况有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯美波; 刘新荣; 李秀波

    2015-01-01

    利用有限元分析软件Workbench对某载货车前轴进行有限元分析,得出其在极限侧滑工况下的应力分布,从而为前轴的设计提供一定的理论依据。%Using finite element analysis software Workbench to analyze a front axle when working on lateral sliding to limit condition, and the stress distribution is obtained. So it can provide certain theoretical basis for the design of front axle.

  12. Load sensor

    OpenAIRE

    van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder forming 30-60% by volume of the composite, and wherein the PZT powder forms 40-50% by volume of the composite.

  13. Intracellular signaling of the Ufo/Axl receptor tyrosine kinase is mediated mainly by a multi-substrate docking-site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunger, J; Schleithoff, L; Schulz, A S; Kessler, H; Lammers, R; Ullrich, A; Bartram, C R; Janssen, J W

    1997-06-01

    Ufo/Axl belongs to a new family of receptor tyrosine kinases with an extracellular structure similar to that of neural cell adhesion molecules. In order to elucidate intracellular signaling, the cytoplasmic moiety of Ufo/Axl was used to screen an expression library according to the CORT (cloning of receptor targets) method. Three putative Ufo substrates were identified: phospholipase Cgamma1 (PLCgamma), as well as p85alpha and p85beta subunits of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3-kinase). Subsequently, chimeric EGFR/Ufo receptors consisting of the extracellular domains of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the transmembrane and intracellular moiety of Ufo were engineered. Using different far-Western blot analyses and coimmunoprecipitation assays, receptor binding of PLCgamma and p85 proteins as well as GRB2, c-src and lck was examined in vitro and in vivo. Competitive inhibition of substrate binding and mutagenesis experiments with EGFR/Ufo constructs revealed C-terminal tyrosine 821 (EILpYVNMDEG) as a docking site for multiple effectors, namely PLCgamma, p85 proteins, GRB2, c-src and lck. Tyrosine 779 (DGLpYALMSRC) demonstrated an additional, but lower binding affinity for the p85 proteins in vitro. In addition, binding of PLCgamma occurred through tyrosine 866 (AGRpYVLCPST). Moreover, our in vivo data indicate that further direct or indirect binding sites for PLCgamma, GRB2, c-src and lck on the human Ufo receptor may exist.

  14. 载重汽车双前桥转向机构优化设计%Optimization Design of Double - front - axle Steering Mechanism of Heavy Truck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕾; 董恩国; 梁立学

    2012-01-01

    Based on multi-body dynamitic theory and the software of ADAMS, it builds a simulation model on a double-front-axle steering mechanism, establishes a mathematic model on a steering mechanism and rocker mechanism. The simulation analysis is performance according to the minimum steering error of the double-front-axle steering mechanism. Based on the simulation, it obtains the optimization results and researches the steering performance evaluation conclusions.%以多体系统动力学理论为基础,应用多体动力学软件ADAMS建立了载重汽车双前桥转向机构动力学仿真模型,以及转向梯形机构及中间摇臂机构的数学模型.基于各机构转角误差最小对设计参数进行了仿真优化分析.通过仿真分析,得到了双前桥转向机构的优化结果以及转向性能的评价结论.

  15. Damage identification of a target substructure with moving load excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Law, S. S.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a substructural damage identification approach under moving vehicular loads based on a dynamic response reconstruction technique. The relationship between two sets of time response vectors from the substructure subject to moving loads is formulated with the transmissibility matrix based on impulse response function in the wavelet domain. Only the finite element model of the intact target substructure and the measured dynamic acceleration responses from the target substructure in the damaged state are required. The time-histories of moving loads and interface forces on the substructure are not required in the proposed algorithm. The dynamic response sensitivity-based method is adopted for the substructural damage identification with the local damage modeled as a reduction in the elemental stiffness factor. The adaptive Tikhonov regularization technique is employed to have an improved identification result when noise effect is included in the measurements. Numerical studies on a three-dimensional box-section girder bridge deck subject to a single moving force or a two-axle three-dimensional moving vehicle are conducted to investigate the performance of the proposed substructural damage identification approach. The simulated local damage can be identified with 5% noise in the measured data.

  16. Loads and loads and loads: the influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory

    OpenAIRE

    Beat eMeier; Zimmermann, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load. In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results s...

  17. 货车三轴转向架焊接构架抗疲劳设计%The Anti-Fatigue Design of Welded Frames of 3-Axled Bogies for Freight Cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢素明; 王亮; 周晓坤; 李向伟

    2013-01-01

    对比分析了国内外焊接构架设计标准,指出ASME标准中的主S-N曲线法是复杂焊接结构焊接接头应力集中分析与疲劳寿命预测的科学方法.采用该方法和TSI中的疲劳载荷对某货车三轴转向架焊接构架焊接接头应力集中进行了分析,结果表明,构架侧梁、心盘梁和横梁内的加强筋板与焊缝的相交处是焊接接头应力集中的主要发生部位.以降低焊缝应力集中为结构设计改进思路,对构架重新进行了设计,改进方案构架焊缝的应力集中得到相当大的缓解,应力幅值最大降低了75 MPa,疲劳加载3个阶段焊缝的累积损伤均小于0.25.%The design standards for the welded frames in China and abroad are compared and analyzed. It is pointed out that the main S-N curve method in the ASME standard is a scientific method for stress concentration analysis and fatigue life prediction of welded joints in complex welded structures. The method and the fatigue load in TSI are used to analyze the stress concentration in welded joints in the welded frames of the 3-axled freight car bogies, and the result shows that the intersections of reinforcement plates and welds in the side sills of frames, center plate sills and transversal beams are the main positions where stress concentration happens. Reduction of stress concentration in welds being as the thought of improving the structure design, the frame is redesigned. In the improved scheme, the stress concencration in welds in frames is considerably relieved, the maximum reduction of the stress amplitude is 75 Mpa, and the accumulated damages to the welds in the three stages of fatigue loading are all less than 0. 25.

  18. The Strength Analysis of a driving axle housing for a low-floor bus%某低地板客车用驱动桥壳强度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭克刚; 王锋刚; 肖云娜

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the form of installation and main technical parameters of a driving axle for a low-floor bus, and provides an analytical method for driving axle housing, then does the strength analysis for the driving axle housing in the following typical working conditions: vertical bending, braking, comering and maximum traction conditions based on finite element analysis software HyperWorks. The above analysis results of the text provide some reference for finite element analysis of the follow-up to the driving axle housing.%本文介绍了某低地板客车用驱动桥的安装形式及主要技术参数,基于有限元分析软件HyperWorks提供了一种驱动桥壳的分析方法,并对该驱动桥壳进行了以下典型工况的强度分析:垂直弯曲、制动、转弯和最大牵引力工况。本文对后续驱动桥壳的有限元分析具有一定的参考作用。

  19. THE LIFETIME EXTENSION OF CAR AXLES TYPES OF RU1 AND RUSH WHEELSET FREIGHT CARS, RESTORED BY THE METHOD OF PLASMA-ARC METALLIZATION OF THE NECK AND UNDER PARTS MANUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Zelenin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The restoration method for the journals and wheel seats of the freight wagon wheelsets by means of plasma-arc metallization is presented and the results of the bench fatigue tests with the advisable operation life of the axles restored are given.

  20. Modeling and Simulation Analysis of Multi-Axle Steering Vehicle Based on Virtual Prototype Technology%基于虚拟样机技术的多轴转向车辆建模与仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊友; 贺翠华

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the precision of multi-axle vehicles model, three-axis vehicles was taken as the research object, and the virtual prototype technology of three-axle steering vehicle was established using ADAMS/CAR. Based on zero side-slip angle of mass center and proportional control strategy, the three axles steering were set The handling stability of the three-axle steering vehicle were simulated, compared with traditional front wheel steering vehicle, and the results showed that three-axle steering steering vehicle has better performance.%为提高目前多轴转向车辆模型的精确度,以三轴车辆为研究对象,利用虚拟样机技术,在ADAMS/CAR中建立了三轴全轮转向车辆的动力学模型,依据三轴全轮转向车辆的零质心侧偏角转角控制策略,对全轮转向进行了相应设置.为验证车辆的操纵稳定性能,对其进行了仿真分析,主要考查其在低速大转角和高速小转角行驶情况下的响应特性,并与传统的前轮转向车辆进行了对比,结果表明全轮转向车辆在低速转弯时机动性高,中高速转向时稳定性好.

  1. 四轴车辆全轮转向之自动模式研究%A Research on the Automatic Mode of All-wheel Steering for Four-axle Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈思忠; 郑凯锋

    2015-01-01

    在第2轴转角比例于第1轴转角,第3轴转角比例于第4轴转角的条件下,从理论上分析了全轮转向与双前桥转向之间的差异。接着以质心侧偏角为零,设计了控制器一和控制器二两种控制器,并再次分析了双前桥转向、带控制器一的全轮转向和带控制器二的全轮转向三者之间的区别与联系,为四轴车辆的全轮转向技术的研究提供了理论参考。%Under the condition of that the wheel turning angles in second and third axles are respectively proportional to those of first and fourth axles, the differences between all wheel steering and double-front-axle steer-ing are analyzed theoretically. Then with the sideslip angle of mass center set to zero, controller 1 and controller 2 are designed, and the differences and connections between double-front-axle steering, all wheel steering with con-troller 1 and all wheel steering with controller 2 are analyzed again, providing theoretical references for the research on the all wheel steering technique for four-axle vehicle.

  2. 轴重30t重载列车作用下新黄土区隧道适应性及强化措施研究%Adaptability and strengthening research of 30 t axle heavy haul railway tunnel in new loess area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘聪; 彭立敏; 雷明锋; 施成华

    2016-01-01

    Based on the typical tunnel structure of Menghua railway which is still under construction,a numerical study was performed,mainly focusing on the dynamic response,fatigue life and strengthening measures of loess heavy haul rail-way tunnel.The results show that:with an increase of axle load and railway freight transport volume,the existing railway tunnel cannot meet the long-term safety requirement without strengthening measures.The adaptability of loess heavy haul railway tunnel cannot be improved effectively by using sole systematic bolt,system anchoring bolt combined with ground treatment should be adopted (the length should reach to 4 m or more).Then the safety operation requirement of the heavy haul train can be satisfied.The research indicates that the centre of secondary lining of inverted arch,and sidewall and inverted arch joint of initial support are the most unfavorable load positions of the tunnel's bottom structures under the ac-tion of 30 t axle heavy haul train.In order to satisfy the 100 a safety design service life of tunnel structures under the op-eration of 30 t axle heavy haul train,the upper-limit fatigue strength of initial and secondary lining of new loess tunnel were deduced,which are 1.30 MPa and 1.62 MPa,respectively.The results can provide reference for present design of heavy haul tunnel structures.%以在建的蒙华铁路典型隧道结构型式为基础,针对新黄土区重载铁路隧道结构动力响应、疲劳寿命以及合理强化措施等问题,采用数值模拟的方法进行研究.结果表明:随着轴重和运量的增加,既有铁路隧道无法满足30 t轴重列车长期安全运营的要求,应采取强化措施.而单一的系统锚杆注浆加固强化能力有限,须采用系统锚杆与隧底地基加固(加固深度4 m及其以上)的联合强化措施方能满足其疲劳寿命要求.通过研究,指出30 t轴重列车荷载作用下隧底结构疲劳易损位置,即二次衬砌仰拱中心、初期支护仰

  3. Structural studies on inclusion compounds and solvent sorption behavior of gradually elongated wheel-and-axle-type diol hosts featuring lateral benzo[b]thiophene units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzsch, Felix; Gruber, Tobias; Weber, Edwin

    2016-06-01

    Based on the wheel-and-axle design strategy, a series of six new clathrate hosts featuring two di(benzo[b]thien-2-yl)hydroxymethyl units attached to both ends of a central linear building element of varying length have been synthesized and their capability to form crystalline inclusion compounds with a fixed range of organic solvents are reported. X-ray crystal structures of relevant inclusion compounds have been determined and are comparatively discussed involving structural modification of the host molecules. Organic vapor sorption behavior of the host compounds coated as solid films on the quartz crystal of a QCM device has been studied. Significant differences in the affinities towards solvent vapors dependent both on structural and polarity properties of host and solvent are observed, indicating potential application as mass sensitive materials.

  4. Numerical Analysis for Precision Roll Forging of Front Axle%前轴精密辊锻成形过程的数值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑明玉; 喻建军; 沙奔; 陈池; 陈文琳

    2012-01-01

    The three passes roll forging process was simulated for front axle by using the rigid-plastic finite element model. The transformation law of blank, the roll forging torque and the effective stress distribution were analyzed during the three passes roll forging process. The result of the simulation has important significance for guiding the practical production and improving the level of die design.%采用刚塑性有限元模型对前轴辊锻3道次进行了有限元模拟,分析了辊锻过程中坯料的变化规律、等效应力分布及辊锻力矩的变化规律.模拟结果对于指导实际生产,提高模具设计水平具有重要意义.

  5. Loads and loads and loads: The influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat eMeier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load. In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of prospective load on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2, but not for specific targets (Experiment 1. Retrospective load and ongoing task load both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that prospective load can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. Retrospective load and ongoing task load seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially.

  6. 重型牵引车驱动桥壳厚度及板簧中心距的优化%Optimum Design on Thickness of Heavy Tractor’ s Driving Axle Housing and Leaf Spring Center Distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐杨坤; 李晚霞; 杨灿

    2015-01-01

    A parameterized finite element model of heavy tractor driving axle housing was established, using APDL program-ming language in the finite element analysis software ANSYS.Through optimum design on the thickness of the main body of the driving axle housing and the axle shaft sleeve, the weight of driving axle housing was reduced while its strength was increased, which provides a basis for lightweight design.Through optimum design about leaf spring center distance under the maximum verti-cal force working condition and the braking working condition, the curves of the maximum stress and deformation versus spring center distance were obtained respectively;and the optimum leaf spring center distances under the maximum vertical force condi-tion was determined.The driving axle housing met the strength and stiffness requirements in that rang of leaf spring center dis-tances.The model provides a basis for the design of the driving axle housing and the arrangement of the leaf spring seat.%采用有限元分析软件ANSYS中的APDL编程语言建立了重型牵引车驱动桥壳的参数化有限元模型,通过对桥壳本体厚度、半轴套管厚度进行优化设计,减轻了驱动桥壳的质量并增大了其强度,为轻量化设计提供了依据;分别在最大垂向力工况和制动工况下对板簧中心距进行优化设计,得到了驱动桥壳最大应力和最大变形随板簧中心距变化的曲线,确定了在最大垂向力工况下的最佳板簧中心距,在该板簧中心距范围内,驱动桥壳在制动工况下满足强度刚度要求,为驱动桥壳的设计和板簧座的布置提供了依据。

  7. Algorithms for Pallet Building and Truck Loading in an Interdepot Transportation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Alonso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of a logistics company that has to serve its customers by first putting the products on pallets and then loading the pallets into trucks. Besides the standard geometric constraints of products not overlapping each other and not exceeding the dimensions of pallets and trucks, in this real problem, there are many other constraints, related to the total weight of the load, the maximum weight supported by each axle, and the distribution of the load inside the truck. Although the problem can be decomposed into two phases, pallet loading and truck loading, we have taken a combined approach, building and placing pallets at the same time. For each position in the truck, a pallet is built and tailored for that position according to the constraints of height and weight. We have developed a GRASP algorithm, in which the constructive algorithm is randomized and an improvement phase is added to obtain high-quality solutions. The algorithm has been tested on two sets of real instances with different characteristics, involving up to 44 trucks. The results show that solutions with an optimal or near optimal number of trucks are obtained in very short computing times.

  8. Electrical load detection aparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A load detection technique for a load comprising multiple frequency-dependant sub-loads comprises measuring a representation of the impedance characteristic of the load; providing stored representations of a multiplicity of impedance characteristics of the load; each one of the stored representat...

  9. Reliability design of mono-leaf spring for front-axle suspension of large-sized trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savaidis, G. [Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering (Greece); Schwaiger, F. [MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Munich (Germany); Momiyama, F.; Yamazumi, T.; Muramatsu, K. [Horikiri Inc., Chiba-Pref. (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    This paper deals with the development of a fatigue-accurate suspension system for large-sized trucks based on mono-leaf steel springs, It shows the fulfillment of the demands for lightweight construction, sufficient fatigue life and fail-safe behaviour. The paper contains the fatigue load assumptions used for the non-linear finite-element stress-strain analysis, the experimental verification by means of measured load, stress and strain data determined by driving quasi-static manoeuvres and over various rough road segments with a prototype vehicle, as well as the experimental uniaxial and multiaxial fatigue tests required for the durability approval. The fatigue lives achieved, confirm the adequate service life of the developed spring. In addition, appropriate vehicle tests on a test track with a custom-made mono-leaf spring system confirmed the fail-safe design of the suspension system. (orig.)

  10. Distribution load estimation (DLE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A.; Lehtonen, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The load research has produced customer class load models to convert the customers` annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models applied from a nation-wide sample is limited in any specific network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to find improvements to the load models or, in general, improvements to the load estimates. In Distribution Load Estimation (DLE) the measurements from the network are utilized to improve the customer class load models. The results of DLE will be new load models that better correspond to the loading of the distribution network but are still close to the original load models obtained by load research. The principal data flow of DLE is presented

  11. 汽车驱动桥壳壳盖优化设计二次开发研究%Secondary Development on the Optimization of Drive Axle Housing Cover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    揭钢; 余显忠; 丁玉辉; 万雄飞; 陈田兵

    2011-01-01

    采用非线性有限元分析软件ABAQUS对驱动桥壳壳盖成型过程进行了仿真分析,并通过ABAQUS自带脚本程序Python建立的参数化有限元模型对壳盖的毛坯进行优化循环计算,得出了合理的毛坯尺寸.通过试验验证了优化设计的正确性.%In this paper, the forming process of driving axle housing cover is simulated based on the no-linear finite element analysis software ABAQUS, and optimized cycle calculation was made to axle housing cover blanks with the parameterized FE model established with ABAQUS script Python, and reasonable dimensions of blanks were obtained. The optimized design is validated with test.

  12. 59/74kW轮式拖拉机前驱动桥桥壳的柔性加工工艺设计%Flexible Manufacturing Process of 59/74 kW Tractor Front Drive Axle Housing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王智红; 张强; 赵利飞; 周珍珠

    2012-01-01

    针对59/74kw轮式拖拉机前驱动桥壳体,分析了整体式桥壳的结构特点和其主减安装面、转向节孔和半轴轴承座孔的工艺要求,并研究设计了加工工艺。经生产实践证明,该工艺不仅生产效率高,而且产品质量稳定。%For front drive axle housing of 59/74 kW tractors,we analyzed the overall structural features of the integral axle housing and process requirements for main mounting surface, steering knuckle hole and half shaft bearing seat hole. Then the process technics are designed. The productions prove that the process has a high efficiency and stabile product quality.

  13. Reliability-based optimization of front-axle with non-normal distribution parameters%非正态分布参数前轴的可靠性优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张义民; 贺向东; 刘巧伶; 闻邦椿

    2003-01-01

    讨论了随机参数服从非正态分布前轴的可靠性优化设计问题.在基本随机参数的前四阶矩已知的情况下,应用随机摄动法和Edgeworth级数方法对前轴进行可靠性优化设计,通过计算机程序可以实现随机参数服从非正态分布的前轴可靠性优化设计,迅速准确地得到了前轴的可靠性优化设计信息.计算结果表明,在对随机参数服从非正态分布的前轴进行可靠性优化设计时,该文所提出的方法有效和实用.%This paper examines the reliability optimization design for front-axle with non-normal distribution parameters. Using techniques from the probabilistic perturbation method and the Edgeworth series technique, a practical and effective method for the reliability optimization design for front-axle with non-normal distribution parameters of vehicle on the condition of known first four moments of basic random variables is presented. The respective program can be used to obtain the reliability optimization design information of front-axle with non-normal distribution parameters accurately and quickly. The numerical results demonstrate that the method proposed is an effective and practical approach to computing reliability and designing front-axle with non-normal distribution parameters.

  14. 考虑侧偏角影响的双前桥转向角匹配研究%Research on steer angle for double front axles steering systems considering with slip angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃刚; 孙营

    2011-01-01

    研究了双前桥转向系统中,整车的侧向加速度所造成的车轮侧偏角对实际车轮转向角的影响,提出了考虑侧偏角影响时双前桥转向的阿克曼条件.首先推导了存在车轮侧偏角时双前桥各车轮转向角之间的变化规律,提出了包含车轮侧偏角在内的阿克曼转角公式;其次以某双前桥转向的重型卡车为应用对象,将所推导的设计公式应用于该重型卡车的设计中,建立相应的多体动力学模型,借助于Adams软件的仿真分析对各车轮转向角进行了设计;最后通过实车试验验证了经修正后的阿克曼转角公式的正确性.%What the slip angle caused by lateral acceleration has influence on the actual steer angle for double front axles steering system was mainly researched,and the Ackerman law of double front axles considering the influence of slip angle was proposed.Firstly,the variation of each wheel steer angle in double front axles truck considering slip angle was derived,and the Ackerman law containing slip angle was proposed.Secondly,using the proposed theory on a double front axles truck,the multibody dynamics model was built,and the wheel steer angle was designed based on the software Adams.Lastly,the real vehicle experiment validated the correctness of the amended Ackerman law.

  15. Distribution load estimation - DLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The load research project has produced statistical information in the form of load models to convert the figures of annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models is limited to a certain network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to make improvements in the load models. Distribution load estimation (DLE) is the method developed here to improve load estimates from the load models. The method is also quite cheap to apply as it utilises information that is already available in SCADA systems

  16. Wind Loads on Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes; Hansen, Svend Ole

    pressure to structural response) and design criteria. Starting with an introduction of the wind load chain, the book moves on to meteorological considerations, atmospheric boundary layer, static wind load, dynamic wind load and scaling laws used in wind-tunnel tests. The dynamic wind load covers vibrations......Wind loads have to be taken into account when designing civil engineering structures. The wind load on structures can be systematised by means of the wind load chain: wind climate (global), terrain (wind at low height), aerodynamic response (wind load to pressure), mechanical response (wind...

  17. 正挤横轧式农用车后桥半轴套管的研究开发%Study and Development of the Rear Axle Shaft Sleeves of Farm Transport Vehicle by Forward Extrusion and Cross Rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩英淳; 王学明; 唐志强

    2001-01-01

    在成功地开发轻型车正挤与横轧式后桥半轴套管的基础上,自主开发了1608型、2310型及2815型农用运输车的正挤与横轧式后桥半轴套管,并实现系列化规模生产,获得了显著的社会经济效益。%On the basis of the development of the rear axle shaft sleeve of the light truck CA1040 by forward extrusion and cross rolling, to adapt to the rapid growth of farm transport vehicle, the rear axle shaft sleeve of farm transport vehicle 1608,2310,2815 have been developed successively and manufactured on a big scale. In accordance with the characteristic in geometrical shape of the rear axle shaft sleeve, we change it into a detached structure based on the equal strength theory. Since the detached sleeve bodies have a small difference in diameter, they can be formed with technology of the forward extrusion and cross rolling.

  18. 自走式谷物联合收割机后桥的有限元分析%Finite element analysis of the rear axle of the self-propelled combine harvester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹彩虹; 周雪花; 赵鹏飞; 徐波

    2011-01-01

    利用ABAQUS有限元分析软件对自走式谷物联合收割机的后桥进行了静力分析,获得了后桥的应力分布结果,2个套管底面靠近内侧处应力最大,最大应力为130.5 MPa.通过结构优化,将后桥设计为空心,其强度仍然满足要求.%The stress distribution of the rear axle of the self-propelled combine harvester was obtained through the static analysis using the finite element analysis software ABAQUS. The results show that the maximum stress was lain on the inner side of two pipes bottom and the maximum stress reached 130.5 Mpa. Furthermore, the optimal design indicated that the the rear axle strength was sufficient even if the hollow rear axle was applied.

  19. 重型载重车前轴分层淬火工艺仿真分析%Simulation analysis of layer by layer quenching process of a heavy truck front axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱振华; 秦训鹏; 高恺; 陈绪梁

    2016-01-01

    针对重型载重车前轴在传统整体式淬火强化后各部位马氏体含量、力学性能不均匀的问题,提出一种分层淬火工艺,并利用数值分析方法对某重型载重车前轴在分层淬火工艺条件下的温度场和微观组织进行仿真计算。计算结果证明分层淬火工艺能使截面尺寸变化大的前轴在淬火冷却过程中有效改善马氏体分布不均匀现象,提高其综合力学性能。%For the nonuniformity of martensite content and mechanical properties in each part of a heavy truck front axle after traditional integral hardening, a layer by layer quenching process was presented. Temperature field and microstructure content in a heavy truck front axle under the quenching process were calculated by numerical simulation analysis. The calculated results show that the layer by layer quenching process can improve the nonuniformity of martensite distribution in the front axle with large varying of cross section and enhance the comprehensive mechanical properties.

  20. Optimum design of double-front-axle steering based on ADAMS Secondary Development%基于 ADAMS 二次开发的双前桥转向机构优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德光

    2013-01-01

      With the development of market demand, the user demand for double front axle commercial vehicle is more and more big. This paper introduces the principle of double-front-axle steering theory, and the dynamic simulation analysis software ADAMS two development platform, software system for heavy commercial vehicle design and optimization of double front axle steering system, the optimized design of the steering mechanism.%  随着市场需求的发展,用户对双前桥商用车的需求越来越大。文中介绍了双前轴转向汽丰的转向原理,以及以动力学仿真分析软件 ADAMS 为二次开发平台,建立针对重型双前桥商用车转向系统设计及优化的专用软件系统,对转向机构进行了优化设计。

  1. 45#车轴钢疲劳性能试验研究%Experimental Study on the Fatigue Properties of 45# Axle Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄国; 黄海明; 王超; 李玮洁

    2013-01-01

    In the non-metallic inclusion inspection and tensile test at room temperature,the metallurgy quality and mechanical properties of materials were checked whether they were up to standards.And then the fatigue properties of 45# axle steel were studied by rotary bending fatigue testing method and fracture analysis.The results show that,compared with smooth specimen,the fatigue limit of notched specimens with the notch depth of 0.75 mm is decreased 44%,and the left slope of its S—N curve is greater than that of the smooth.The sensitive coefficient of notched specimen is 0.79.Moreover,the initiation of fatigue cracks in the smooth specimen is due to the stress concentration on the surface of specimen.There are multi-source areas of fatigue on the cross sections of the notched specimens and the cracks initiate at the lip of the notch,which is mainly caused by the stress concentration at the notch.In addition,larger size non-metallic inclusions may also lead to the initiation of fatigue cracks in axle steel.%通过非金属夹杂物检验和室温拉伸试验,在确保材料的冶金质量和力学性能符合标准要求的基础上,进行旋转弯曲疲劳试验和断口分析,对45#车轴钢的疲劳性能进行研究.结果表明:与光滑试件相比,带有深度为0.75 mm缺口的试件,其疲劳极限应力降低44%,其S—N曲线左段部分的斜率更大;其缺口敏感系数为0.79;表面应力集中是导致光滑试件萌生疲劳裂纹的原因;在有缺口的试件断口截面上存在多个疲劳源区,裂纹萌生在缺口的前缘,而且主要是由于缺口处应力集中所致;较大尺寸的非金属夹杂物也是导致车轴钢可能产生疲劳裂纹的启裂源.

  2. 转向驱动桥变径全空心半轴的设计及力学特性%Design of steering drive axles variable diameter hollow half shaft and its mechanical characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪朝晖; 朱发渊; 吕密; 王法平

    2015-01-01

    基于材料低载强化特性,研发设计了一种新型转向驱动桥变径全空心半轴结构,建立了包含英制渐开线花键齿和合理的圆角过渡等精细特征的新型半轴三维模型,运用有限元法对新型半轴的模态振型、等效应力及疲劳寿命等力学特性进行了分析,结果表明:半轴的前10阶非零振型主要为弯曲变形,新型半轴的固有频率与实心半轴的固有频率相近,在使用过程中可有效避免共振;新型半轴等效应力最大值发生在花键末端圆角过渡部位,低于半轴材料的抗扭强度,满足强度设计要求;在扭矩为1500N·m的交变载荷下,新型半轴疲劳寿命最小值发生在花键末端圆角过渡处,与半轴应力集中节点位置一致,实际加工制造时应采用半轴冷精锻和花键轴向冷挤成型技术,以提高新型半轴的强度和使用寿命。%Based on the characteristics of low‐loading strengthening for material design ,a new type of steering drive axle variable diameter hollow half shaft structure was designed ,and its three‐dimen‐sional mode including imperial involute spline teeth ,reasonable transition fillet and other fine features was established .The modal vibration mode ,equivalent stress and fatigue life of the mechanical char‐acteristics of the new type half shaft were analyzed by finite element methods .The results show that the first ten order non‐zero mode of half shaft is mainly bending deformation ,and the natural frequen‐cy of the new half shaft and the solid half shaft is similar ,which can avoid resonance effectively during the half shaft using process .Maximum equivalent stress of new half shaft occurs to the end of transi‐tion fillet ,and less than torsional strength of the half shaft material ,which satisfies the requirements for strength design of the shaft .When the torque of the new half shaft is 1 500 N · m under cyclic loading ,the minimum fatigue life

  3. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...... impedance, an energy-storing element being connected to the second terminal of the load impedance and providing an output signal, and a measuring unit that measures the output signal or compares the output signal with a reference....

  4. rse, a novel receptor-type tyrosine kinase with homology to Axl/Ufo, is expressed at high levels in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, M R; Scadden, D T; Wang, Z; Gu, Q; Goddard, A; Godowski, P J

    1994-04-01

    We have isolated cDNA clones that encode the human and murine forms of a novel receptor-type tyrosine kinase termed Rse. Sequence analysis indicates that human Rse contains 890 amino acids, with an extracellular region composed of two immunoglobulin-like domains followed by two fibronectin type III domains. Murine Rse contains 880 amino acids and shares 90% amino acid identity with its human counterpart. Rse is structurally similar to the receptor-type tyrosine kinase Axl/Ufo, and the two proteins have 35 and 63% sequence identity in their extracellular and intracellular domains, respectively. To study the synthesis and activation of this putative receptor-type tyrosine kinase, we constructed a version of Rse (termed gD-Rse, where gD represents glycoprotein D) that contains an NH2-terminal epitope tag. NIH3T3 cells were engineered to express gD-Rse, which could be detected at the cell surface by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Moreover, gD-Rse was rapidly phosphorylated on tyrosine residues upon incubation of the cells with an antibody directed against the epitope tag, suggesting that rse encodes an active tyrosine kinase. In the human tissues we examined, the highest level of expression of rse mRNA was observed in the brain; rse mRNA was also detected in the premegakaryocytopoietic cell lines CMK11-5 and Dami. The gene for rse was localized to human chromosome 15.

  5. High Power Disk Loaded Guide Load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, Z.D.; /SLAC

    2006-02-22

    A method to design a matching section from a smooth guide to a disk-loaded guide, using a variation of broadband matching, [1, 2] is described. Using this method, we show how to design high power loads. The load consists of a disk-loaded coaxial guide operating in the TE{sub 01}-mode. We use this mode because it has no electric field terminating on a conductor, has no axial currents, and has no current at the cylinder-disk interface. A high power load design that has -35 dB reflection and a 200 MHz, -20 dB bandwidth, is presented. It is expected that it will carry the 600 MW output peak power of the pulse compression network. We use coaxial geometry and stainless steel material to increase the attenuation per cell.

  6. A novel finite element method for designing floor slabs on grade and pavements with loads at edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Ernesto Camero Sanabria

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper a methodology to design slabs on grade for industrial floors and pavements using bi-dimensional finite elements and integrating the subgrade in the design is presented. The suggested method to design slabs on grade for industrial floors and pavements has been called the Camero Finite Element Method.  An example of an industrial floor designed to be capable of sustaining an infinite number of load applications (or a 50 years lifespan period is here presented in order to be compared with the results of the Camero Finite Element Method, the PCA (Portland Cement Association, and the WRI’s (Wire Reinforcement Institute simplified methods. In this example, an industrial floor is designed to be capable of sustaining an infinite number of load applications comparing the results of the Camero Finite Element Method and the simplified methods of the PCA and WRI. The industrial floor or pavement will be able to resist an infinite number of load applications if it is designed with the Camero Finite Element Method. On the other hand, if it is designed using the PCA and the WRI methods, it will last a few years (in this example, in one year period, the number of axle load applications is equal to the number of allowable repetitions. To conclude, if an industrial floor o pavement is designed with the Camero Finite Element Method, it will be able to sustain an infinite number of load applications (up to 50 years lifespan period.

  7. Limit loads in nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The static method for the evaluation of the limit loads of a perfectly elasto-plastic structure is presented. Using the static theorem of Limit Analysis and the Finite Element Method, a lower bound for the colapso load can be obtained through a linear programming problem. This formulation if then applied to symmetrically loaded shells of revolution and some numerical results of limit loads in nozzles are also presented. (Author)

  8. Adaptive sliding control of non-autonomous active suspension systems with time-varying loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Chang; Huang, An-Chyau

    2005-04-01

    An adaptive sliding controller is proposed in this paper for controlling a non-autonomous quarter-car suspension system with time-varying loadings. The bound of the car-body loading is assumed to be available. Then, the reference coordinate is placed at the static position under the nominal loading so that the system dynamic equation is derived. Due to spring nonlinearities, the system property becomes asymmetric after coordinate transformation. Besides, in practical cases, system parameters are not easy to be obtained precisely for controller design. Therefore, in this paper, system uncertainties are lumped into two unknown time-varying functions. Since the variation bound of one of the unknown functions is not available, conventional adaptive schemes and robust designs are not applicable. To deal with this problem, the function approximation technique is employed to represent the unknown function as a finite combination of basis functions. The Lyapunov direct method can thus be used to find adaptive laws for updating coefficients in the approximating series and to prove stability of the closed-loop system. Since the position and velocity measurements of the unsprung mass are lumped into the unknown function, there is no need to install sensors on the axle and wheel assembly in the actual implementation. Simulation results are presented to show the performance of the proposed strategy.

  9. Application Research on Virtual Assembly of Tractor's Front Drive Axle%拖拉机前驱动桥虚拟装配应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹文钢; 程五四; 宋军

    2011-01-01

    在分析和总结了虚拟装配技术研究现状的基础上,阐述了其原理,实施步骤以及关键技术的应用,并以拖拉机前驱动桥为虚拟装配对象,在计算机虚拟装配环境(Division Mockup)中装配并进行相应的装配检验,介绍生成装配序列与装配路径,并制作成装配动画的步骤,形象地展现产品的装配全过程.在(Division Mockup)中,以第三方插件为桥梁,借助由数据手套、位置跟踪器(FOB)、偏振眼镜和投影系统组建的虚拟现实环境,可以实现入机交互操作,并介绍了人机交互接口定义的规则和方法.%This paper analyzes and summarizes the current status of the virtual assembly technology research and elaborates its principle and implementing process. By taking the tractor's front drive axle as an object, a virtual assembly and its corresponding inspection is conducted in the computer virtual environment (Division Mockup). The generation assembly orders and routes are introduced. The procedure of assembly animation is set up to vividly exhibit the whole process of product assembly. By virtue of the third-party plug-in units and the virtual reality environment consisting of data gloves, polarization glasses, projection system, and position tracker (FOB), human-computer interaction can be achieved in Division Mockup. The rules and methods of human-computer interaction interface definitions are introduced as well.

  10. Research on Rail Cant of Heavy Load Turnout%重载道岔轨底坡设置研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何雪峰; 高亮; 许有全; 辛涛

    2015-01-01

    轨底坡作为道岔的主要参数,直接影响钢轨使用寿命,结合30 t轴重重载道岔研究需要,对轨底坡进行系统研究。针对重载线路道岔鱼鳞纹、掉块、肥边等病害,运用车辆轨道耦合动力学理论,对25 t轴重货车通过不同轨底坡道岔时的动力响应进行分析。结果表明:轨底坡增加,横向轮轨力、接触应力和安全指标,导曲线上股钢轨磨耗功都有不同程度的降低,长期观测结果显示,采用1:20轨道坡的试验道岔,导曲线钢轨光带居中,未见伤损。%Rail cant affects rail life directly as an important design parameter of turnout and rail cant is studied systematically to meet research need of heavy turnout of 30 t axle load. Dynamic responses of 25t axle load freight car passing turnouts with different rail cants are analyzed with vehicle-track coupling dynamics theory in perspective of fine corner crack, fall-block, fat edge and other defects. The research results show that lateral wheel-rail force, contact stress, safety indicators and wear power for outside guiding curve rail decrease with the increase of rail cant. The long-term observation indicates that the test turnout with 1 : 20 rail cant has its light band in the middle of upper surface of the guiding curve rail without damage.

  11. Spatial electric load forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, H Lee

    2002-01-01

    Spatial Electric Load Forecasting Consumer Demand for Power and ReliabilityCoincidence and Load BehaviorLoad Curve and End-Use ModelingWeather and Electric LoadWeather Design Criteria and Forecast NormalizationSpatial Load Growth BehaviorSpatial Forecast Accuracy and Error MeasuresTrending MethodsSimulation Method: Basic ConceptsA Detailed Look at the Simulation MethodBasics of Computerized SimulationAnalytical Building Blocks for Spatial SimulationAdvanced Elements of Computerized SimulationHybrid Trending-Simulation MethodsAdvanced

  12. 热点应力法在汽车驱动桥焊接强度耐久性分析中的应用%Application of Hot Spot Stress Method on Welding Strength & Durability for Automotive Drive Axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娜; 魏德永; 曹征栋; 霍福祥

    2012-01-01

    According to structural characteristic of welded axle housing of automotive drive axle, simulation analysis is made to welded structural strength and durability with hot spot stress method and CAE technology. To verify the effectiveness of simulation of welding structure with hot spot stress method, test and simulation analysis are made to strength and durability of welding location of three types of standard welding components and two types of drive axle housing. The results show that the effectiveness of simulation of this method on stress of critical welding location is up to over 70%, the average of durability simulation life of the welding location is equivalent to test results.%针对汽车驱动桥焊接桥壳结构特点,采用热点应力法及CAE技术对其焊接结构强度耐久性进行了模拟分析.为验证热点应力法模拟焊接结构的有效性,对3种标准焊接件、2种驱动桥桥壳焊接部位的强度和耐久性进行了试验与模拟对比分析,结果表明,该方法对焊接部位关键点应力的模拟有效性达70%以上,焊接部位的耐久性模拟寿命均值与试验结果量级相当.

  13. Design and optimization of I-beam precision roll forging process for heavy truck front axle%某重卡前轴工字梁辊锻成形工艺设计及优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张黎; 文琍; 夏江梅

    2012-01-01

    The under-filling defect of the I-beam, one of the typical defects on a heavy truck front axle in the precision roll forging process and die forging process was studied Firstly, the design of the precision roll forging process for the I-beam of the front axle was described. Then, the finite element numerical simulation analysis model was established with Deform-3D, and the influence of the thickness on the I-beam in the third step and the friction factor in the third and fourth step on filling percent of the die cavity was analyzed. Lastly, optimization for the precision roll forging process of the heavy truck front axle was finished. The optimized simulation results show that the I-beam forms well and can be filled fully to meet the requirements of design drawings.%针对某重卡前轴成形辊锻-模锻复合工艺中的典型缺陷——工字梁部位充不满展开研究.介绍了重卡前轴工字梁在辊锻成形工艺中各道次的孔型设计,通过Defoem-3D建立了有限元数值模拟分析模型,研究了第3道次预辊锻成形中工字梁壁厚和第3、4道次中摩擦因子对模具型腔填充率的影响规律,最后完成了重卡前轴工字梁在辊锻成形中的优化设计.优化后的模拟结果表明,工字梁成形良好、填充饱满,满足图纸设计要求.

  14. 采用移轴技术在SAP5程序实现刚体模态计算%Using the technology of moving the axle to compute the pattern of rigid body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施群德

    2001-01-01

    Elaborates how to use the technology of moving the axle to compute the pattern of rigid body,introduces this technology into the program SAP5 and realizes the calculation of the pattern of rigid body.%论述了如何采用移轴技术实现对刚体模态的计算,并将移轴求刚体模态的技术引入著名的SAP5程序中,实现了对刚体模态的计算。

  15. 前桥摆转式四轮底盘转向系统的转向机理研究%Research on the Steering Theory of Front Axle Swing Sowing Four-wheel Chassis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕莹; 张静; 李志伟

    2016-01-01

    四轮底盘在小地块水田作业时,减少地头空行转弯时间是提高作业时间利用率的重要环节。为实现四轮底盘小半径转弯,以提高水田播插底盘作业率为主要研究目标,对四轮底盘在90°、180°等不同转弯形式下进行分析,得出适合小地块水稻播插作业时以较小转弯半径的转弯方式;前桥摆转四轮底盘在转向时,通过控制前桥驱动轮的转动,使前驱动桥主动围绕着转向装置转动,可以带动底盘以任意角度转向。采用ADAMS软件对四轮底盘后轮轨迹进行模拟,在确保后轮完全不吃入已完成作业区的倒U转弯方式的情况下,提出设计前桥摆转式四轮底盘转向系统的可行性。%Four-wheel chassis when working in a small piece of paddy field, reduce blank line turning time is an important link in work utilization rate operation time. In this paper, in order to realize four-wheel chassis small turning radius, increase the paddy field on chassis operation efficiency as the main research target, 90°, 180° in the four-wheel chassis under different forms of turning modeling analysis, and concluded that suitable turning way of smaller turning radius for small plot rice sowing operations ; When the front axle Swing four-wheel chassis steering, By controlling the rotation of the front drive axle, to the front drive axle can rotate active around the steering device, and drive the chassis steering in an arbitrary Angle; Through ADAMS soft-ware for simulating four-wheel chassis rear wheel track, and ensuring the rear wheels do not enter that the as-signments section has been completed, put forward to design front axle pendulum type four-wheel chassis steer-ing system operability.

  16. Light Weight Design and Analysis on Monocoque Coach with Whole Front Axle%整体前桥全承载车型轻量化设计与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈乐强; 房继刚; 王淑丽; 许夏

    2014-01-01

    The authors simulate a monocoque coach with whole front axle by the CAE method in order to effectively reduce its weight under the condition of its bearing capacity. At the same time, the authors analyse the reliability and security of the steering gear fixture especially to the light weitht structure.%利用CAE仿真技术对公司某整体前桥全承载车型进行轻量化设计,为保证转向的安全性、可靠性,对减重后的转向安装结构进行单独分析。

  17. Optimisation of load control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  18. Electrical load modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valgas, Helio Moreira; Pinto, Roberto del Giudice R.; Franca, Carlos [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lambert-Torres, Germano; Silva, Alexandre P. Alves da; Pires, Robson Celso; Costa Junior, Roberto Affonso [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    Accurate dynamic load models allow more precise calculations of power system controls and stability limits, which are critical mainly in the operation planning of power systems. This paper describes the development of a computer program (software) for static and dynamic load model studies using the measurement approach for the CEMIG system. Two dynamic load model structures are developed and tested. A procedure for applying a set of measured data from an on-line transient recording system to develop load models is described. (author) 6 refs., 17 figs.

  19. Critical Axial Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walt Wells

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective in this paper is to solve a second order differential equation for a long, simply supported column member subjected to a lateral axial load using Heun's numerical method. We will use the solution to find the critical load at which the column member will fail due to buckling. We will calculate this load using Euler's derived analytical approach for an exact solution, as well as Euler's Numerical Method. We will then compare the three calculated values to see how much they deviate from one another. During the critical load calculation, it will be necessary to calculate the moment of inertia for the column member.

  20. Concentrated loads on concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Karen Grøndahl; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1997-01-01

    This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas are devel......This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas...

  1. 艺术铸造领域CNC机器人七轴加工设备用于石膏模型雕塑%Application of CNC Robot Seven-axle Working Equipment to Carving Gypsum Mold in Art Casting Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡春良

    2016-01-01

    CNC robot seven-axle working equipment consists of a power-driven main shaft controlled by the robot, an automatic programming software and a software used for controlling manipulator operation, and makes it possible to realize automatic carving of a complex stereometric moulding. The special equipment used in carving gypsum mould by the CNC robot seven-axle working equipment allow large-scale sculpture templating technology to obtain signiifcant progress.%CNC机器人七轴加工设备由一个工业机器人控制电动主轴、多轴自动编程软件和用于控制机械手运行的软件组合而成,可实现复杂立体造型的自动化雕刻加工。CNC机器人七轴加工雕塑石膏模型专用设备,实现了艺术铸造大型雕塑放样的一大跨越。

  2. The Optimization Design of Steering Trapezium Frame for A double front axles truck%某双前桥载货车转向梯形机构优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊伟; 王定华; 李海波

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the turning angles relationship of the internal and exernal wheels in the first axle was gotten in analytic method. And the optimization equations were established by the length of steering trapezium armm and steering trapezium cornerθ. Then the program about the optimization of steering trapezium structure was written with MATLAB and emulated for the steering trapezium of double front axle truck. The result was improved obviously after optimization.%文章采用解析法推导了前桥内外轮之间的转角关系,并以梯形臂长 m,梯形底角θ为优化变量建立优化方程,最后并应用MATLAB软件编制了“转向梯形机构优化设计”程序,对某双前桥载货车转向梯形进行了优化,优化结果显示优化效果明显,达到了设计目的。

  3. Failure Forms and Restoration Methods of the Automotive Front Axle Roll Forging Die%汽车前轴辊锻模的失效形式与修复方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪强; 姬程程; 夏华

    2012-01-01

    The automotive front axle roll forging die works in severe conditions and its stress state is more complex. Based on the consideration of materials selection, structural design, manufacturing process, heat treatment procedure as well as the installation and maintenance of the mould, the analysis of the causes of the automotive front axle roll forging die's main failure forms (fracture, wear, deformation, and so on) is introduced, and the improvement measures and restoration methods are proposed correspondingly.%从材料的选择、结构设计、制造工艺、热处理工艺以及模具的安装维护等方面分析汽车前轴辊锻模的主要失效形式(断裂、磨损、变形等)产生的原因,并提出相应的改进措施和修复方法。

  4. 压痕对车轴钢疲劳极限的影响%Indentation effect on the fatigue limit of axle steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高杰维; 戴光泽; 赵君文; 李恒奎; 徐磊

    2016-01-01

    A hardness tester was used to make indentations on the hourglass fatigue specimens of axle steel, and notches were machined by electronic discharge machining ( EDM) . The fatigue limits of both indentation specimens and notched ones were exam-ined and compared with the theoretical values according to the Murakami formula based on material hardness and defect projected area. The fracture surface was observed by scanning electron microscopy. It is found that local work hardening and residual stress caused by plastic deformation of indentations have no significant effect on the fatigue limits in comparison with the predicted values by the Murakami equation. Fatigue cracks originate from the bottom of indentations due to stress concentration effect. The fatigue limits of notched specimens are lower than the calculated values because of secondary notches caused by the high roughness of notch surfaces and the existence of microcracks and micropores within the re-cast layers. Cracks initiate from multiple sites on the bottom of electronic discharge machining notches.%利用硬度计在光滑沙漏状车轴钢疲劳试样上制造压痕,同时利用电火花在试样上加工缺陷,通过疲劳试验研究两种缺陷尺寸与试样疲劳极限之间的关系。将两类试样的测试结果和基于材料硬度、缺陷投影面积的Murakami模型计算结果进行对比。利用扫描电镜观察试样疲劳断口。结果表明,与计算结果相比较,压痕局部塑性变形导致的加工硬化和残余应力对试样的疲劳强度没有影响,裂纹依然从应力集中最大的压痕底部起裂。电火花缺陷表面粗糙度较大引起二次缺口效应,表面硬脆的重铸白层上还有微孔和微裂纹存在,导致此类试样疲劳强度低于模型计算结果,裂纹从电火花缺口底部多处萌生。

  5. Estimation of Automobile Front/rear Axle Cornering Stiffness Based on the Adaptive FFRLS%基于自适应FFRLS的汽车前后轴侧偏刚度估计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王其东; 黄鹤; 陈无畏; 张荣芸

    2012-01-01

    汽车前、后轴侧偏刚度与汽车的操纵特性紧密联系,是汽车动力学控制中的重要参数.受轮胎特性变化的影响,在汽车使用中线性侧偏刚度发生变化.针对传统估计方法不利于在量产汽车上应用的问题,在车载传感器配置的基础上,提出应用自适应遗忘因子递推最小二乘方法(Forgetting-factor recursive least square method,FFRLS)的前、后轴线性侧偏刚度估计方法.设计出在制动工况下对轮胎特性变化具有鲁棒特性的侧向速度观测方法,由此计算估计模型中的前、后轴侧偏角.提出并应用最大侧向力计算估计模型中的前、后轴侧向力.通过设定合适的估计触发条件实现基于工况的在线参数估计.基于veDYNA的仿真结果表明在轮胎侧偏刚度突变时自适应FFRLS方法相比普通FFRLS方法参数能够更快地收敛.最后在驾驶员在环混合仿真平台环境下,针对触发条件受限的工况通过实时仿真验证了估计算法的有效性.%Front/rear axle cornering stiffness coefficient is an important parameter in automobile dynamic control system, which is linked closely with automobile maneuverability. In the real world front/rear axle linear cornering stiffness often changes with the tire properties. To overcome the deficiencies of the traditional method in the estimation of linear cornering stiffness for wide-spread application, a method based on adaptive forgetting-factor recursive Least square(FFRLS) is proposed to estimate this parameter in which only common sensors in modern automobiles are used. A lateral velocity estimation method with the robustness of tire properties is given, which is further used to calculate axle sideslip angle. Maximum lateral force is proposed and applied in the computation of axle lateral force. Some adequate toggle conditions are set to identify front/rear axle linear cornering stiffness. Simulation results based on veDYNA show that adaptive FFRLS has better

  6. Combination of external loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, S.; Tarp Johansen, N.J.; Joergensen, H. [Forskningscenter Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark); Gravesen, H.; Soerensen, S.L. [Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark); Pedersen, J. [Elsam Engineering, Fredericia (Denmark); Zorn, R.; Hvidberg Knudsen, M. [DHI Water and Environment, Hoersholm (Denmark); Voelund, P. [Energi E2, Koebenhavn (Denmark)

    2003-09-01

    The project onbectives have been: To improve and consequently opimise the basis for design of offshore wind turbines. This is done through 1) mapping the wind, wave ice and current as well as correlations of these, and 2) by clarifyring how these external conditions transform into loads. A comprehensive effort has been made to get a thorough understanding of the uncertainties that govern the reliability of wind turbines with respect to wind and wave loading. One of the conclusions is that the reliability of wind turbines is generally lower, than the average reliability of building structures that are subject not only to environmental loads, which are very uncertain, but also imposed loads and self weight, which are less uncertain than the environmental loads. The implication is that, at the moment lower load partial safety factors for onshore wind turbines cannot be recommended. For the combination of wind and wave design loads the problem is twofold: 1). A very conservative design will be generated by simply adding the individual wind and wave design loads disregarding the independence of the short-term fluctuations of wind and wave loads. 2). Characteristic values and partial safety factors for wind and wave loads are not defined similarly. This implies that the reliability levels of turbine support structures subject to purely aerodynamic loads and subject to purely hydrodynamic loads are not identical. For the problem of combining aerodynamic design loads and hydrodynamic design loads two results have been obtained in the project: 1). By simple means a site specific wave load safety factor rendering the same safety level for hydrodynamic loads as for aerodynamic loads is derived, and next, by direct square summation of extreme fluctuations, the wind and wave load safety factors are weighted. 2). Under the assumptions that a deep water site is considered and that the wave loading is a fifty-fifty mix of drag and inertia the same wind and wave load safety factor

  7. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  8. Plug Load Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We provide MATLAB binary files (.mat) and comma separated values files of data collected from a pilot study of a plug load management system that allows for the...

  9. Lumbriculus variegatus loading study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Results from sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus with evaluating the effects of organism loading density This dataset is associated with the...

  10. Cognitive load theory

    OpenAIRE

    Kirschner, Paul A.; Kirschner, Femke; Paas, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Kirschner, P. A., Kirschner, F. C., & Paas, F. (2009). Cognitive load theory. In E. M. Anderman & L. H. Anderman (Eds.). Psychology of classroom learning: An encyclopedia, Volume 1, a-j (pp. 205-209). Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference.

  11. LOADING SIMULATION PROGRAM C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — LSPC is the Loading Simulation Program in C++, a watershed modeling system that includes streamlined Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) algorithms for...

  12. Static Loads Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides the capability to perform large-scale structural loads testing on spacecraft and other structures. Results from these tests can be used to verify...

  13. Industrial Robot and External Axle Calibration Based on Particle Swarm Optimization%基于粒子群优化算法的工业机器人与外部轴标定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄进; 胡英; 马孜; 汪洋

    2009-01-01

    提出一种新的标定方法标定外部轴工作台与机器人工具间的坐标转换关系.该方法分为三步:首先,建立系统的数学模型,并根据模型标定机器人手腕与接触式距离传感器间的坐标转换关系,从而机器人和距离传感器组成机器人测量系统.然后,按预定程序移动检测目标,利用标定好的机器人测量系统测量并采集数据,初步标定出外部轴的转轴和俯仰两轴与机器人基础坐标系间的转换关系.最后,确定优化的目标函数,利用粒子群优化算法优化关键参数以提高系统的整体精度.试验结果验证了该标定方法的有效性.%A novel calibrating approach is proposed to determine the transformation relationship between the robot tool coordinate and the external axle worktable coordinate. The whole approach is divided into three steps. Firstly, the geometric model of the system is established. After calibrating the transformation relationship between the robot wrist and the contact position sensor according to the geometric model, a robot measurement system is composed of the robot and the range sensor. Secondly, the detection target is moved according to the preset program, the data is obtained and sampled with the calibrated robot measurement system, the transformation relationship between the robot base coordinate and the external rotating axle and pitching axle coordinates is preliminarily calibrated. Finally, the fitness function is chosen and the key parameters are optimized by particle swarm optimization algorithm to improve the system precision. The effectiveness of the presented approach is demonstrated via some experiments.

  14. Load of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woof, M.

    1998-06-01

    An electric skid steer loader has been developed in the UK by Hay Royds, offering an innovative approach to underground loading. Its compact design makes it ideal for loading thin coal piled at the face to conveyors in restricted headroom conditions. The loader is in operation at Hay Royd`s colliery near Huddersfield in Yorkshire and at Rashiehill mine near Edinburgh. The article describes the design and operation of the skid steer loader. 1 photo.

  15. 轻型车后桥二维载荷谱及其疲劳寿命预测%Two-dimension Load Spectrum and Fatigue Life Prediction for the Rear Axle of Light-truck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖生发; 左惟炜; 沈德平

    2002-01-01

    以雨流法得到的载荷谱为基础,建立了后桥的二维载荷谱,并编制了二维载荷谱的计算机程序.分别利用一维和二维载荷谱对EQ1030T型轻型车后桥进行了疲劳寿命预测.

  16. 新一代货车用25 t轴重转向架%The Bogie with the Axle Load of 25 t for Freight Cars of the New Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    В.С.КОССОВ; 邢澍; 陈明资

    2009-01-01

    介绍了全俄机车车辆设计和工艺科学研究院研制的26.B.503型 25 t轴重货车转向架的结构特点,摇枕和侧架的静强度和疲劳试验,以及该转向架装用于敞车的走行运用试验结果.

  17. Bogies with an axle load of 25t for the new generation of freight cars%轴重为25t的新一代货车用转向架

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    В.С.Косов; 谢小海

    2009-01-01

    文章介绍了俄罗斯科研所所研制的新型货车转向架,重点介绍了摇枕、侧架各种情况下的计算、设计和试验过程.同时也介绍了轴箱承载鞍及其弹性元件和弹性旁承,简要介绍了所用材料及其理由.

  18. Duration of load revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2007-01-01

    mechanosorptive effect was demonstrated both in terms of increased creep and shortening of time to failure. The test results were employed for the calibration of four existing duration of load models. The effect of long-term loading was expressed as the stress level SL50 to cause failure after 50 years of loading...... were formed. Four groups were subjected to short-term strength tests, and four groups were subjected to long-term tests. Creep and time to failure were moni-tored. Time to failure as a function of stress level was established and the reliability of stress level assessment was discussed. A significant....... SL50 was found to be of the order 0.60 for MC = 11 %, 0.50 for MC = 20 % and 0.44 MC varying be-tween 11 % and 20 %. The test results revealed no evidence of a threshold stress level. A reliability based cali-bration of load-duration factors was performed using probabilistic models of loads...

  19. TE(01) High Power Disk Loaded Guide Load

    CERN Document Server

    Farkas, Zoltan D

    2005-01-01

    A method to design a matching section from a smooth guide to a disk loaded guide, using a variation of broadband matching* is described. Using this method, we show how to design high power loads, filters and attenuators. The load consists of a disk loaded coaxial guide, operating in the T01

  20. Laterally loaded masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun Gottfredsen, F.

    In this thesis results from experiments on mortar joints and masonry as well as methods of calculation of strength and deformation of laterally loaded masonry are presented. The strength and deformation capacity of mortar joints have been determined from experiments involving a constant compressive...... stress and increasing shear. The results show a transition to pure friction as the cohesion is gradually destroyed. An interface model of a mortar joint that can take into account this aspect has been developed. Laterally loaded masonry panels have also been tested and it is found to be characteristic...

  1. Wave Loads on Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Frigaard, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Wave loads may be defined as time varying forces on a body resulting from the wave induced flow fields which surrounds the body in whole or in part. Such unsteady fluid forces are the net result of pressure and shear forces integrated over the instantaneous wetted area.......Wave loads may be defined as time varying forces on a body resulting from the wave induced flow fields which surrounds the body in whole or in part. Such unsteady fluid forces are the net result of pressure and shear forces integrated over the instantaneous wetted area....

  2. Applicability of the finite element method to analyze the stresses produced in concrete slabs over ground by tire loads of agricultural tractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malon, H.; Garcia-Ramos, F. J.; Hernandez, P.; Vidal, M.; Bone, A.

    2013-05-01

    There are several methods to dimension concrete slabs due to vehicle loads, most of them based on Westergaard theory. These methods have been developed for industrial vehicles (cars, trucks and forklifts). Considering agricultural buildings one of the most used vehicles is the agricultural tractor whose characteristics (tires of great dimensions but with a reduced contact surface) are different to those of the industrial vehicles. The goal of this research was to analyze the applicability of the finite element method (FEM) to estimate the stresses generated on the concrete slabs considering the loads transmitted by agricultural tractors. To achieve this objective, the effect of the loads transmitted by the rear axle tires of three agricultural tractors has been considered. In parallel, the same study has been carried out using the Westergaard theory. As a preliminary step, to validate the FEM, a numerical analysis has been made to obtain the stresses generated on a concrete slab considering three forklifts. The numerical analysis results have been compared with those obtained by mean of validated methods (Portland Cement Association) and the classical theory of Westergaard. For each agricultural tractor, the actual geometry of the contact surface of tires has been measured on a concrete slab and discretized by the FEM. As a result of the research process developed, it is possible to conclude that the FEM is a valid tool to analyze the tensions generated by the loads transmitted by the tires of agricultural tractors on concrete floors supported on the ground. (Author) 24 refs.

  3. Applicability of the finite element method to analyze the stresses produced in concrete slabs over ground by tire loads of agricultural tractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Malón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several methods to dimension concrete slabs due to vehicle loads, most of them based on Westergaard theory. These methods have been developed for industrial vehicles (cars, trucks and forklifts. Considering agricultural buildings one of the most used vehicles is the agricultural tractor whose characteristics (tires of great dimensions but with a reduced contact surface are different to those of the industrial vehicles. The goal of this research was to analyze the applicability of the finite element method (FEM to estimate the stresses generated on the concrete slabs considering the loads transmitted by agricultural tractors. To achieve this objective, the effect of the loads transmitted by the rear axle tires of three agricultural tractors has been considered. In parallel, the same study has been carried out using the Westergaard theory. As a preliminary step, to validate the FEM, a numerical analysis has been made to obtain the stresses generated on a concrete slab considering three forklifts. The numerical analysis results have been compared with those obtained by mean of validated methods (Portland Cement Association and the classical theory of Westergaard. For each agricultural tractor, the actual geometry of the contact surface of tires has been measured on a concrete slab and discretized by the FEM. As a result of the research process developed, it is possible to conclude that the FEM is a valid tool to analyze the tensions generated by the loads transmitted by the tires of agricultural tractors on concrete floors supported on the ground.

  4. Load research and load estimation in electricity distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1996-12-31

    The topics introduced in this thesis are: the Finnish load research project, a simple form customer class load model, analysis of the origins of customers load distribution, a method for the estimation of the confidence interval of customer loads and Distribution Load Estimation (DLE) which utilises both the load models and measurements from distribution networks. The Finnish load research project started in 1983. The project was initially coordinated by the Association of Finnish Electric Utilities and 40 utilities joined the project. Now there are over 1000 customer hourly load recordings in a database. A simple form customer class load model is introduced. The model is designed to be practical for most utility applications and has been used by the Finnish utilities for several years. The only variable of the model is the customers annual energy consumption. The model gives the customers average hourly load and standard deviation for a selected month, day and hour. The statistical distribution of customer loads is studied and a model for customer electric load variation is developed. The model results in a lognormal distribution as an extreme case. Using the `simple form load model`, a method for estimating confidence intervals (confidence limits) of customer hourly load is developed. The two methods selected for final analysis are based on normal and lognormal distribution estimated in a simplified manner. The estimation of several cumulated customer class loads is also analysed. Customer class load estimation which combines the information from load models and distribution network load measurements is developed. This method, called Distribution Load Estimation (DLE), utilises information already available in the utilities databases and is thus easy to apply

  5. Probabilistic Load Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of the probabilistic load flow (PLF) techniques. Applications of the PLF techniques in different areas of power system steady-state analysis are also discussed. The purpose of the review is to identify different available PLF techniques and their corresponding...

  6. Ferrite loaded rf cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of a ferrite-loaded rf cavity is explained from the point of view of its operation. Then, an analysis of the automatic cavity-tuning system is presented using the transfer function; and a systematic analysis of a beam-feedback system using transfer functions is also presented. (author)

  7. The load ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woof, M.

    2001-02-01

    By analysing several trucks and LHDs, this paper gives the trend for upgrading. For trucks, most firms have looked closely at fire prevention and suppression, by such methods as separation of electrical and hydraulic systems, better shielding and firewalls around hot areas and fire damping equipment for emergencies. LHDs have to meet the same criteria when it comes to tunnel dimensions, carriers and ramp gradients. In addition, the design requirements of a load and carry machine can be very different from those of an LHD used safely for truck loading. It also points out that computer control of LHDs provides one solution to both safety and productivity issues, as productivity can be optimised, while miners do not have to enter dangerous working areas. 6 photos.

  8. Buffet Load Alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryall, T. G.; Moses, R. W.; Hopkins, M. A.; Henderson, D.; Zimcik, D. G.; Nitzsche, F.

    2004-01-01

    High performance aircraft are, by their very nature, often required to undergo maneuvers involving high angles of attack. Under these conditions unsteady vortices emanating from the wing and the fuselage will impinge on the twin fins (required for directional stability) causing excessive buffet loads, in some circumstances, to be applied to the aircraft. These loads result in oscillatory stresses, which may cause significant amounts of fatigue damage. Active control is a possible solution to this important problem. A full-scale test was carried out on an F/A-18 fuselage and fins using piezoceramic actuators to control the vibrations. Buffet loads were simulated using very powerful electromagnetic shakers. The first phase of this test was concerned with the open loop system identification whereas the second stage involved implementing linear time invariant control laws. This paper looks at some of the problems encountered as well as the corresponding solutions and some results. It is expected that flight trials of a similar control system to alleviate buffet will occur as early as 2001.

  9. 基于HyperWorks的某轻型汽车前桥有限元分析及疲劳寿命预测%Finite Element Analysis and Prediction on Fatigue Life of Front Axle of a light Vehicle Based on HyperWorks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔振海; 王良模; 荣如松; 王国林; 宋怀兰

    2013-01-01

    Front axle is one of the important components which is connected with body and wheels. Its intensity reliablity decides the vehicle safety. Finite element analysis on the front axle of a light vehicle by CAE method was carried out here. The FEA model of front axle was established by taking CHEXA and CTETRA as basic units after model was simplified and imported to Hypermesh. The knuckle pin was simulated by bar element which had beam property. A nalysis of four typical working conditions were carried out by using RADIOSS as solver. The results show that the maximum stress of the front axle are no more than material yield strength in four conditions, and its minimum fatigue life is 994,000 times which satisfies the fatigue requirements, and also verifies the design is correct.%前桥是连接车身与车轮的重要部件,其强度是否可靠直接决定整车的安全性.应用CAE分析方法对某轻型汽车前桥进行有限元分析和疲劳寿命分析.将前桥的三维实体模型进行简化,导入Hypermesh中建立以CHEXA和CTETRA为基本单元的有限元模型,利用具有梁属性的bar单元模拟主销连接,并以RADIOSS为求解器进行前桥的强度和疲劳分析.结果表明,前桥在四种典型工况下最大应力均未超过材料屈服强度,其最低疲劳寿命为99.4万次,满足疲劳寿命的要求,验证了设计的合理性.

  10. The International Mass Loading Service

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    The International Mass Loading Service computes four loadings: a) atmospheric pressure loading; b) land water storage loading; c) oceanic tidal loading; and d) non-tidal oceanic loading. The service provides to users the mass loading time series in three forms: 1) pre-computed time series for a list of 849 space geodesy stations; 2) pre-computed time series on the global 1deg x 1deg grid; and 3) on-demand Internet service for a list of stations and a time range specified by the user. The loading displacements are provided for the time period from 1979.01.01 through present, updated on an hourly basis, and have latencies 8-20 hours.

  11. Nutrient and Coliform Loading (NCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of available fecal coliform bacteria, fecal streptococci bacteria, and nutrient loading data. Loading for contaminants other than fecal coliform...

  12. PROBABILISTIC MODELING OF EXPLOSIVE LOADING

    OpenAIRE

    Mkrtychev Oleg Vartanovich; Dorozhinskiy Vladimir Bogdanovich

    2012-01-01

    According to existing design standards, explosive loading represents a special type of loading. Explosive loading is, in most cases, local in nature, although it can exceed the loads for which buildings are designed by a dozen of times. The analysis of terrorist attacks with explosives employed demonstrates that charges have a great power and, consequently, a substantial shock wave pressure. Blast effects are predictable with a certain probability. Therefore, we cannot discuss ...

  13. 基于模块化建模的多轴车辆转向杆系优化%Optimization of steering linkage for multi-axle vehicle based on modular modeling method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云超; 高秀华; 凌锡亮

    2011-01-01

    针对多轴转向车辆轮胎磨损严重的问题,对其主要影响因素之一的转向杆系进行优化分析,提出了基于ADAMS软件的多轴转向杆系的模块化建模和优化方法.以五轴车辆为例,进行了建模和优化分析,首先通过对14个优化变量的灵敏度分析,确定7个优化变量.通过对比优化前后的结果可知,各轴的转角误差降低了(24.5~37.5)%.最后通过对整车虚拟样机模型的仿真和实车的试验测试,分析验证了转向杆系的受力合理性,进一步表明优化后的转向杆系具有较强的实践指导作用.%Tyre wear was a serious problem for multi-steering vehicle.Steering linkage of multi-alxe vehicle was one of the main influential footers for tyre wear.The modular modeling and optimization method of multi-axle steering linkage was brought forward based on ADAMS.Took: a five-alxe vehicle for example, the model was built and optimized. Firstly, a sensitivity analysis was done for fourteen design variables and seven design variables were choose.Compare to the optimized and original results,the steering angular errors of every axle were reduced by (24.5~37.5)%. Finally, the full vehicle model was constructed and simu-lated.The real vehicle was tested and the rationality of steering linkage stress was verified.So it further indicated the optimized results of steering linkage had more practical guide.

  14. Demand Response Load Following of Source and Load Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Jianqiang; Cao, Jinde; Yong, Taiyou;

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a demand response load following strategy for an interconnected source and load system, in which we utilize traditional units and population of cooling thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) to follow the mismatched power caused by the load activities and the renewable power...... injection in real time. In the demand side of power systems, these TCLs are often affiliated to a bus load agent and can be aggregated to multiple TCL aggregators. Firstly, aggregate evaluation of the TCL aggregator is carried out based on a bilinear aggregate model so as to derive the available regulation...

  15. Load forecasting of supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Buth; Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik;

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel study of models for forecasting the electrical load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...

  16. Android Fully Loaded

    CERN Document Server

    Huddleston, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Fully loaded with the latest tricks and tips on your new Android! Android smartphones are so hot, they're soaring past iPhones on the sales charts. And the second edition of this muscular little book is equally impressive--it's packed with tips and tricks for getting the very most out of your latest-generation Android device. Start Facebooking and tweeting with your Android mobile, scan barcodes to get pricing and product reviews, download your favorite TV shows--the book is positively bursting with practical and fun how-tos. Topics run the gamut from using speech recognition, location-based m

  17. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

    1993-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for the static load balancing of scientific computations that generalizes and improves upon spectral bisection. Through a novel use of multiple eigenvectors, our new spectral algorithm can divide a computation into 4 or 8 pieces at once. These multidimensional spectral partitioning algorithms generate balanced partitions that have lower communication overhead and are less expensive to compute than those produced by spectral bisection. In addition, they automatically work to minimize message contention on a hypercube or mesh architecture. These spectral partitions are further improved by a multidimensional generalization of the Kernighan-Lin graph partitioning algorithm. Results on several computational grids are given and compared with other popular methods.

  18. Temoporfin-loaded liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Freisleben, Ines; Steiniger, Frank;

    2010-01-01

    some problems associated with the commercial formulation Foscan where the drug is dissolved in a mixture of water-free ethanol and propylene glycol. The present study focuses on the physicochemical characterization of different liposome formulations with special emphasis on the influence of drug....... In contrast, if phospholipids with longer fatty acid chains (distearoylphosphatidylcholine/-glycerol) were used, phase transitions were well above body temperature even at high drug load. Size and thermal behavior were not distinctly influenced by the addition of pegylated lipids but cryo-electron microscopic...

  19. Load Control System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudnowski, Daniel [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States)

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  20. Study and Application of Repair Technology in Rear Axle Housing in Mining Truck%矿用汽车后桥壳体修复工艺的探索及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖丽安; 刘圣林

    2012-01-01

    针对矿用汽车后桥壳体修复工艺中存在的焊接材料和焊机不易选择、焊件表面较难清理干净、坡口形式与裂缝尺寸不匹配、焊接工艺处理不当等疑难问题,提出了选用低氢钠型碱性焊条及直流逆变焊机等解决方案。经用户使用检验,修复后的车辆连续运行30000km以上均未出现异常,节约了维修成本。%Regarding the problem of choose equipment, surface clearing, groove type and mismatch of the size and technique treatment in the repairing of rear axle housing in mining truck, the solution of low hydrogen sodium alkaline electrode and dc arc welding inverter was put forward. After test by customer, there no problem accuring in the running of 30 000 km, and the maintenance cost was saved.

  1. 某型载货汽车前桥横拉杆断裂失效模式分析%A type of truck front axle tie rod fracture failure mode analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张传业

    2012-01-01

    因某型轻型载货汽车前桥转向横拉杆连续出现断裂现象,需要分析其断裂模式和原因,提出改进措施和方法。通过建立零件三维模型,导入ansys中进行仿真,并与计算结果进行比较。结果计算与仿真结果与文中假设的失效模式一致。最终得出应力集中是导致该故障发生的主要原因,根据文中的提出的改进方法进行实施后,问题得到解决。%for a certain type of light truck front axle steering tie rod continuous cracking, needs the analysis of its fracture mode and reason, put forward the improvement measures and methods. Through the establishment of three-dimensional part model, through ANSYS simulation, and the results were compared with. The results of calculation and simulation results and the failure mode consistent hypothesis. Finally obtains the stress concentration is the main cause of the fault, according to the proposed method implemented, problems to be resolved.

  2. 基于蒙特卡罗方法的汽车双前桥转向机构稳健分析%Robust Analysis on Double-front-axle Steering Mechanism based on Monte Carlo Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董恩国; 张蕾; 关志伟

    2012-01-01

    Robustness on double-front-axle steering mechanism of a heavy truck is analyzed with Monte Carlo method. The optimum objectives are the minimum steering angle error of each steering trapezoid mechanism and middle connection mechanism. The design variables are the structure parameters of 13 on steering trapezoid mechanism and middle connection mechanism. The constraint condition is steering angle error and dimension limit constrain. Secondly, the result robustness attained by certainty optimum method is analyzed with Monte Carlo method.%应用蒙特卡罗方法对某重型汽车双前桥六杆转向机构进行了稳健性能分析.以前、后桥转向梯形机构转角以及中间摇臂转角误差最小为优化目标,以转向梯形机构、中间摇臂的13个结构参数为设计变量,以各机构的转角误差、尺寸限制等为约束条件建立双前桥转向机构数学模型;应用蒙特卡罗方法分析了采用确定性优化方法所得结果的稳健性能.

  3. Design of Steering System of Three-axle Trailer based on Proportional Control%基于比例控制的某三轴挂车转向系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊啟要; 徐伟

    2013-01-01

    A four-wheel turning of three-axle trailer was researched,model car of linear two degrees of freedom four-wheel turning and gains of steady state yaw velocity of that were derived.The results of steady state computing and optimi zation showed that good turning characters can be reached on the condition of reasonable control of all distance between axes arrangement and steering angle proportion of front and back wheel.%对某三轴挂车四轮转向系统的特性进行了研究,推导出其线性二自由度四轮转向汽车模型和稳态横摆角速度增益.稳态计算和优化结果表明,只要各轴间距布置合理及前后轮转向角比例控制合理,就能使该四轮转向系统达到较优的转向性能.

  4. Study on Numerical Simulation of Hot Extrusion Process of Automobile's Hollow Front Axle%汽车前桥空心短轴的热挤压成形工艺数值模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦国强; 管延锦; 朱立华; 解振东; 孙德朋

    2016-01-01

    A hot extrusion process was proposed to improve the productivity and the material utilization in the manufacture of automobile's hollow front axle . Numerical simulations under various conditions designed by the orthogonal method were done to optimize parameters of the final step of hot extrusion process . Finally the production efficiency , material utilization and product quality were improved and the optimal shaping quality was achieved .%针对某汽车前桥短轴类零件成形制造中存在的生产效率和材料利用率低的问题,提出并设计了热挤压成形制造工艺。通过正交法设计多组参数条件进行数值模拟,实现了热挤压终成形工步的工艺参数优化,获得了最优的成形效果,达到了提高生产效率、材料利用率以及零件质量的目标。

  5. Values of Dual Front Axle Card Before Binding Instrument Based on Dynamic Adjustment Sensor%基于力传感动态调整仪的双前轴重卡前束值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏渊; 史智理; 张瑞斌; 王双峰

    2015-01-01

    文章通过应用力传感动态调整仪采集双前桥重型卡车前轮在转动状态下的受力情况,从而用来验证车辆在实际行驶中前束设计值的合理性。通过对某车型大量数据采集并分析验证,得出车辆的合理前束值,为车辆的前束值设计提供依据。%By dynamically adjusting the application force sensing instrument collects double-front-axle steering heavy truck wheel rotational state in the forces, which is used to verify the reasonableness of the vehicle in real driving toe design values. Based on a large amount of data collection and analysis model verification, the reasonable value of the vehicle before the beam, provide the basis for the design of the vehicle front toe.

  6. An approach for modeling the influence of wheel tractor loads and vibration frequencies on soil compaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verotti, M.; Servadio, P.; Belfiore, N. P.; Bergonzoli, S.

    2012-04-01

    Both soil compaction and ground vibration are forms of environmental degradation that may be understood in the context of the vehicle-soil interaction process considered (Hildebrand et al., 2008). The transit of tractors on agricultural soil is often the main cause of soil compaction increasing. As known, this can be a serious problems for tillage and sowing and therefore the influence of all the affecting factors have been extensively studied in the last decades in order to understand their impact on the biosystem. There are factors related to the climate, namely to the rainfalls and temperature, and many others. Hence, it is not simple to figure out a complete model for predicting an index of compaction, for a given situation. Soil compaction models are important tools for controlling soil compaction due to agricultural field traffic and they are potentially useful technique to provide information concerning correct soil management. By means of such models, strategies and recommendations for prevention of soil compaction may be developed and specific advice may be given to farmers and advisers. In order to predict field wheeled and tracked vehicle performance, some empirical methods, used for off-road vehicle, were applied by Servadio (2010) on agricultural soil. The empirical indexes included, besides the soil strength, the load carried by the tire or track, some technical characteristics of the tire or track of the vehicle (tire or track width, tire or track wheel diameter, unloaded tire section height, number of wheel station in one track, tire deflection, total length of the belt track, the track pitch) as well as the vehicle passes. They have been validated with the tests results of agricultural vehicles over a range of soil in central Italy. Among the parameters which affect soil compaction, the water content of the soil, the axle load and number of vehicle passes proved to be the most important ones. The present paper concerns mainly vehicle

  7. Pay for load demand - electricity pricing with load demand component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is part of a project called Direct and Indirect Load Control in Buildings. Peak load problems have attracted considerable attention in Sweden during last three winters, caused by a significant decrease in available reserve power, which is a consequence of political decisions and liberalisation of the electricity market. A possible way to lower peak loads, avoiding electricity shortages and reducing electricity costs both for users and utilities, is to make customers experience the price difference during peak load periods and, in this way, become more aware of their energy consumption pattern and load demand. As of January 1st 2001, one of the Swedish energy utilities - Sollentuna Energi - operating in the Stockholm area, introduced a new electricity tariff with differentiated grid fees based on a mean value of the peak load every month. This tariff was introduced for all residential customers in the service area. The objective of this study is to investigate the extent to which a Load Demand Component, included in electricity pricing, can influence energy use and load demand in residential buildings. What are the benefits and disadvantages for customers and utilities? This paper investigates the impact of the new tariff on the utility and different types of typical residential customers, making comparisons with previous tariff. Keywords Load demand, electricity pricing, tariff, residential customers, energy behaviour

  8. Load forecasting for supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Aalborg Nielsen, Henrik

    This report presents a study of models for forecasting the load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the forecasting models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...... in Denmark. The load for refrigeration is the sum of all cabinets in the supermarket, both low and medium temperature cabinets, and spans a period of one year. As input to the forecasting models the ambient temperature observed near the supermarket together with weather forecasts are used. Every hour...

  9. Shear loading of costal cartilage

    CERN Document Server

    Subit, Damien

    2014-01-01

    A series of tests were performed on a single post-mortem human subject at various length scales. First, tabletop tests were performed. Next, the ribs and intercostal muscles were tested with the view to characterize the load transfer between the ribs. Finally, the costal cartilage was tested under shear loading, as it plays an important in the transfer of the load between the ribs and the sternum. This paper reports the results of dynamic shear loading tests performed on three samples of costal cartilage harvested from a single post-mortem human subject, as well as the quantification of the effective Young's modulus estimated from the amount of cartilage calcification.

  10. TE_01 High Power Disk Loaded Guide Load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, Z.D.; /SLAC

    2005-06-01

    A method to design a matching section from a smooth guide to a disk-loaded guide, using a variation of broadband matching, [1, 2] is described. Using this method, we show how to design high power loads, attenuators and filters. The load consists of a disk-loaded coaxial guide operating in the TE{sub 01}-mode. We use this mode because it has no electric field terminating on a conductor, has no axial currents, and has no current at the cylinder-disk interface. A high power load design that has -35 dB reflection and a 200 MHz, -20 dB bandwidth, is presented. It is expected that it will carry the 600 MW output peak power of the pulse compression network. We use coaxial geometry and stainless steel material to increase the attenuation per cell.

  11. Immediate Versus Early Loading and Conventional Loading in Implant Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Maghaireh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To minimize the risk of implant failures after their placement, dental implants are traditionally kept load-free for 3 to 8 months to establish osseointegration before connecting the prosthetic super-structure (conventional loading. However, implant dentists are under continuous pressure from the media and patients to speed up the treatment and reduce number of visits during the implant therapy. Immediate implant loading can also reduce the cost and might also improve aesthetics as claimed by some surgeons. This pressure from the media, patients and dentists was behind introducing changes into the loading protocols and nowadays implants are loaded early and even immediately and it would be useful to know whether there is a difference in success rates between immediately and early loaded implants compared with conventionally loaded implants. It is well known that whenever a clinician is faced with a clinical question, the answer(s should be evidence based to avoid the risk of bias as opinion based answers can be misleading and can cause more failures in the dental practice. This mini-review aims to evaluate the effects of (1 immediate (within 1 week, (2 early (between 1 week and 2 months, and (3 conventional (after 2 months loading of osseointegrated dental implants. The review found no evidence that attaching artificial teeth either immediately, after 6 weeks (early or after at least 3 months (conventional led to any important differences in the failure of the implant or the artificial tooth, or to the amount of bone which surrounded the implant (any bone loss would be an undesirable consequence. However, we found a trend of more failures and complications with early loading when compared to immediate or conventional loading. More research is needed in this area. - See more at: http://smiledentaljournal.com/article.php?id=59#sthash.mniQLIcf.dpuf

  12. LOAD MANAGEMENT IN CLOUD ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esha Sarkar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is an on demand service in which shared resources, information, software and other devices are provided to the end user as per their requirement at a specific time. A cloud consists of several elements such as clients, datacenters and distributed servers. There are n number of clients and end users involved in cloud environment. These clients may make requests to the cloud system simultaneously, making it difficult for the cloud to manage the entire load at a time. The load can be CPU load, memory load, delay or network load. This might cause inconvenience to the clients as there may be delay in the response time or it might affect the performance and efficiency of the cloud environment. So, the concept of load balancing is very important in cloud computing to improve the efficiency of the cloud. Good load balancing makes cloud computing more efficient and improves user satisfaction. This paper gives an approach to balance the incoming load in cloud environment by making partitions of the public cloud

  13. Loading Conditions and Longitudinal Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1995-01-01

    Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength.......Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength....

  14. 主动悬架与多桥转向混合控制器的设计与仿真分析%Design and simulation of hybrid controller of active suspension and multi-axle steering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欢; 高秀华; 杨铭; 杨圣印; 陈建凯

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the handling stability and the ride performance of multi-axle vehicle, through building a 5+2n degree of freedom multi-axle vehicle dynamic model, a LQG controller was designed. According to the simulation test, the responses of active suspension vehicle and passive suspension vehicle to the performance index of the step signal at low and high speed were analyzed and compared. Results of the analysis indicated that the peak side angle decreased by 0.03 rad, the peak vehicle yaw rate, by 0.1 rad/s, the peak rolling angle, by 0.015 rad, the peak pitching angle, by 0.015 rad, the peak vehicle vertical acceleration, by 0.3 m/s2 and the peak tire dynamic displacement, by 0.009 m, comparing active suspension vehicle with passive suspension vehicle at low-speed. At high-speed, the peak of performance indexes above respectively decreased by 0.095 rad, 0.4 rad/s, 0.075 rad, 0.09 rad, 2.1 m/s2 and 0.018 m. The handling stability and the ride performance of active suspension vehicle are improved significantly comparing with passive suspension vehicle.%为了改善多桥车辆操纵稳定性和行驶平顺性,通过建立多桥车辆的5+2n自由度动力学模型,设计了主动悬架与多桥转向线性系统二次型最优控制(LQG)综合控制器.通过仿真试验,对比分析了采用与不采用综合控制器2种情况下,多桥车辆不同车速下对阶跃信号的各项性能指标的响应.结果表明:低速情况下,采用综合控制器较不采用控制器的多桥车辆侧偏角峰值减小0.03 rad、横摆角速度峰值减小0.1 rad/s、车身侧倾角峰值减小0.015 rad、俯仰角峰值减小0.015 rad、车身垂直加速度峰值减小0.3 m/s2、轮胎动位移峰值减小0.009 m:高速情况下,以上各性能指标峰值分别减小0.095 rad、0.4 rad/s、0.075 rad、0.09 rad、2.1 m/s2、0.018 m.多桥车辆采用综合控制器相对于不采用控制器时的操纵稳定性和行驶平顺性都有显著改善.

  15. Umbilical Cable Recovery Load Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shu-wang; JIA Zhao-lin; FENG Xiao-wei; LI Shi-tao

    2013-01-01

    Umbilical cable is a kind of integrated subsea cable widely used in the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas field.The severe ocean environment makes great challenges to umbilical maintenance and repair work.Damaged umbilical is usually recovered for the regular operation of the offshore production system.Analysis on cables in essence is a two-point boundary problem.The tension load at the mudline must be known first,and then the recovery load and recovery angle on the vessel can be solved by use of catenary equation.The recovery analysis also involves umbilicalsoil interaction and becomes more complicated.Calculation methods for recovery load of the exposed and buried umbilical are established and the relationship between the position of touch down point and the recovery load as well as the recovery angle and recovery load are analyzed.The analysis results provide a theoretical reference for offshore on-deck operation.

  16. Scaling structure loads for SMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Won; Song, Jeong Guk; Jeon, Sang Ho; Lim, Hak Kyu; Lee, Kwang Nam [KEPCO ENC, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    When the Seismic Margin Analysis(SMA) is conducted, the new structural load generation with Seismic Margin Earthquake(SME) is the time consuming work. For the convenience, EPRI NP 6041 suggests the scaling of the structure load. The report recommend that the fixed base(rock foundation) structure designed using either constant modal damping or modal damping ratios developed for a single material damping. For these cases, the SME loads can easily and accurately be calculated by scaling the spectral accelerations of the individual modes for the new SME response spectra. EPRI NP 6041 provides two simple methodologies for the scaling structure seismic loads which are the dominant frequency scaling methodology and the mode by mode scaling methodology. Scaling of the existing analysis to develop SME loads is much easier and more efficient than performing a new analysis. This paper is intended to compare the calculating results of two different methodologies.

  17. 带平衡悬架三轴商用车多目标联合优化%Multi-objective optimization for tri-axle vehicle with tandem suspension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凌阳; 张云清; 付文奎; 覃刚

    2012-01-01

    推导了带平衡悬架三轴商用车的平顺性和操纵稳定性运动方程,采用半车模型分析平顺性,采用三自由度模型分析操纵稳定性.选取10个优化变量,并运用社区培养遗传算法(NCGA)对各模型进行了多目标优化,用蛛网图法将10个Pareto有效解直观地表示出来.根据目标极值法、目标均衡法、理想值法、单目标最优法这4种不同的设计需求标准,从10个Pareto有效解中筛选出4种不同的优化方案,有效地提高了整车的平顺性和操纵稳定性.%Both motion equations describing ride and handling characteristics of tri-axle commercial ve- hicle with tandem suspension were derived respectively. Half-vehicle model was used to analyze ride. 3-DOF model was used to analyze handling. 10 parameters were chosen and NCGA (neighborhood cultivation genetic algorithm) was selected to optimize the commercial vehicle. 10 pareto solutions were shown straightforwardly by spider graph and according to different design requirements, 4 dif- ferent design schemes were proposed, which greatly improve the ride and handling characteristic of the full vehicle.

  18. 用试验方法分析轿车后桥在运输过程中的损伤%Analysis of the Damage of Rear Axle of a Car during Its Land Transportation by Using Test Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鋐; 冯展辉; 周炜

    2001-01-01

    In accordance with the phenomena that the bolts connecting the rear axle and the break back plate of a car become loose or broken during its transportation by a land vehicle, a static test of a car-transport vehicle system is made to study the influence of the tied conditions between the car and the transport vehicle and the up and down motion of the car on the forces exerted on the bolts. Combined with the results of the static test, a dynamic test of the car is also made on an indoor road simulate rig to analyze the possible factors effecting the damage of the bolts. Some workable suggestions as to avoid the damage of the bolts during transportation are offered.%针对轿车在运输过程中出现后桥与制动器底板联接螺栓松动与断裂的损伤现象,通过静态试验了解捆绑安装情况以及车身运动对联接螺栓受力的影响,并采用室内道路模拟设备,通过动态试验在室内台架上模拟该轿车的运输工况,同时结合静态试验来分析产生这种损伤现象的可能因素,为避免这种情况的发生提出合理的建议。

  19. 基于数值模拟的前轴辊锻件精确成形的研究与应用%Research and application of front-axle forging precision forming based on numerical simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏科; 王高潮; 王志录; 陈小杰; 徐学春

    2012-01-01

    根据辊锻设计要求,论述了汽车前轴辊锻件的弹簧座截面、工字型截面、两端拳头截面各道次变化规律;在各道次变化过程中,依据各截面的尺寸参数变化对辊锻模具进行精确设计并选择合理的坯料,以保证坯料能够充满模具型槽.应用Deform-3D软件对辊锻模具模型进行模拟分析,模拟结果与实际生产结果相吻合,进一步验证了辊锻模具设计的准确性和可靠性.该文的论述对前轴辊锻模具的精确设计及辊锻件的生产提供了理论参考依据.%According to the roll-forging design requirements, the changing rule of roll-foging's spring section, H-shaped cross section and fist section ends was discussed. In each step change process, according to the cross-section's parameters, the roll forging die could be precisely designed, meanwhile, the reasonable billet was selected to ensure that the die cavity could be fully filled. Then, Deform-3D finite element simulation software was used to analyze the roll forging process. The simulation results coincided with the actual production results, which further validate the accuracy and reliability of the roll forging die design. The results provide theoretical guidance on the front axle roll forging die and roll forging precision design.

  20. Dynamic load on a Francis turbine runner from simulations based on measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storli, P.-T.; Nielsen, T. K.

    2014-03-01

    The frequency of the Nordic power grid has become more volatile during recent years. This gives rise to two effects in synchronous machines. Firstly, as grid frequency changes the rotational speed of synchronous machines must change likewise. Secondly, the Nordic grid uses speed droop operation extensively as the primary governing; hence the power produced is a function of the grid frequency. These two coupled effects will lead to the runner and axle on synchronous machines having to cope with a varying level of torque. Even if the unit is supposedly operating at steady state via a fixed set point for the production, the influence of the varying grid frequency is that the torque in not steady at all. Recent years' new high head Francis runners in Norway have shown a tendency towards experiencing fatigue to a greater extent than what seem to be the case for new runners decades ago. Leading to this paper, measurements have been made of the rotational speed; generator power; main servo motor position and grid frequency at a Francis turbine unit. Based on these measurements simulations that include the hydraulic domain have then been performed. From these simulation results a property is constructed which is intended as a qualitative measure of the material stresses induced in the rotating masses of the unit, and is representative of the dynamical loads on the material of the rotating masses. The work is a part of a longer term goal, namely identifying the stress oscillations in a Francis turbine runner operating at speed of rotation oscillating because of grid frequency variations.

  1. The Atlas load protection switch

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, H A; Dorr, G; Martínez, M; Gribble, R F; Nielsen, K E; Pierce, D; Parsons, W M

    1999-01-01

    Atlas is a high-energy pulsed-power facility under development to study materials properties and hydrodynamics experiments under extreme conditions. Atlas will implode heavy liner loads (m~45 gm) with a peak current of 27-32 MA delivered in 4 mu s, and is energized by 96, 240 kV Marx generators storing a total of 23 MJ. A key design requirement for Atlas is obtaining useful data for 95601130f all loads installed on the machine. Materials response calculations show current from a prefire can damage the load requiring expensive and time consuming replacement. Therefore, we have incorporated a set of fast-acting mechanical switches in the Atlas design to reduce the probability of a prefire damaging the load. These switches, referred to as the load protection switches, short the load through a very low inductance path during system charge. Once the capacitors have reached full charge, the switches open on a time scale short compared to the bank charge time, allowing current to flow to the load when the trigger pu...

  2. Immediate loading of dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, P J; Liddelow, G J

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to explore the concept of immediate loading as it pertains to dental implants and the indications for clinical practice. The definition of immediate loading will be considered together with a review of the relevant literature in an attempt to provide evidence-based guidelines for successful implementation into practice. A search of electronic databases including Medline, PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was undertaken using the terms "immediate loading'', "dental implants'', "immediate function'', "early loading'', "oral implants'', "immediate restoration'' and "systematic review''. This was supplemented by handsearching in peer-reviewed journals and cross-referenced with the articles accessed. Emphasis was given to systematic reviews and controlled clinical trials. A definition of immediate loading was suggested pertinent to the realities of logistics in clinical practice with respect to application and time frame. The literature was evaluated and shown to be limited with significant shortcomings. Guidelines and recommendations for clinical protocols were suggested and illustrated by examples of case types with a minimum of 1-3 years follow-up. A list of additional references for further reading was provided. Within the limitations of this review, there is evidence to suggest that immediate loading protocols have demonstrated high implant survival rates and may be cautiously recommended for certain clinical situations. However, more high level evidence studies, preferably randomized controlled trials (RCTs), over a long time frame are required to show a clear benefit over more conventional loading protocols.

  3. Quasi monolithic silicon load cell for loads up to 1000 kg with insensitivity to non-homogeneous load distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerink, Remco; Zwijze, Robert; Krijnen, Gijs; Lammerink, Theo; Elwenspoek, Miko

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a micromachined silicon load cell (force sensor) is presented for measuring loads up to 1000 kg. The sensitive surface of 1 cm2 contains a matrix of capacitive sensing elements to make the load cell insensitive to non-homogeneous load distributions. The load cell has been realized and

  4. Quasi monolithic silicon load cell for loads up to 1000 kg with insensitivity to non-homogenous load distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerink, Remco; Zwijze, Robert; Krijnen, Gijs; Lammerink, Theo; Elwenspoek, Miko

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, a micromachined silicon load cell (force sensor) is presented for measuring loads up to 1000 kg. The sensitive surface of 1 cm2 contains an array of sensing elements to make the load cell insensitive to non-homogeneous load distributions resulting in higher accuracy. The load cell has

  5. Hydrodynamic loading of tensegrity structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroldsen, Anders S.; Johansen, Vegar; Skelton, Robert E.; Sørensen, Asgeir J.

    2006-03-01

    This paper introduces hydrodynamic loads for tensegrity structures, to examine their behavior in marine environments. Wave compliant structures are of general interest when considering large marine structures, and we are motivated by the aquaculture industry where new concepts are investigated in order to make offshore installations for seafood production. This paper adds to the existing models and software simulations of tensegrity structures exposed to environmental loading from waves and current. A number of simulations are run to show behavior of the structure as a function of pretension level and string stiffness for a given loading condition.

  6. Beam - cavity interaction beam loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of a beam with a cavity and a generator in cyclic accelerators or storage rings is investigated. Application of Maxwell's equations together with the nonuniform boundary condition allows one to get an equivalent circuit for a beam-loaded cavity. The general equation for beam loading is obtained on the basis of the equivalent circuit, and the beam admittance is calculated. Formulas for power consumption by a beam-loaded cavity are derived, and the optimal tuning and coupling factor are analyzed. (author)

  7. Study on Asphalt Pavement Fatigue-Damage with Forecasting Axial Load Spectrum%按预测轴载谱分析沥青路面的疲劳损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马林; 葛折圣; 胡晓倩; 黄明波

    2011-01-01

    现行《公路沥青路面设计规范》(JTGG D50-2006)轴载等效换算方法难以反映超载、重载交通对路面结构的影响.结构层参数取值未考虑结构层在疲劳过程中的材料损伤,是重载交通沥青路面出现早期破坏的原因之一.采用预测轴载谱和Miner法则,计算分析了路面结构的疲劳损伤累积过程,并考虑不同使用阶段路面基层模量衰减对路面结构损伤进程的影响.结果表明,半刚性基层厚沥青面层路面结构的疲劳损伤累积进程明显优于目前国内较典型的半刚性基层沥青路面结构.研究结果为重载交通沥青路面结构设计指明了方向.%In Specifications for Design of Highway Asphalt Pavement (JTG D50-2006), the method of Equivalent Axle Loads could not reflect the influence on pavement structure by overload and heavy-load transportation. And the parameter of structural layers was no considering the material damage in the process of fatigue. It is one of the reasons why asphalt pavement is damaged early. The fatigue-damage accumulation in pavement structure was analyzed by using the forecasting axle load spectrum and Miner law. And the parameter of structural layers attenuated while the material damage in the process of fatigue. The results show that the fatigue damage accumulation process of semi-rigid base total thickness asphalt pavement structure is significantly better than the current domestic typical semi-rigid bituminous pavement structure. So this research results can help the development of structure design of heave-load asphalt pavement.

  8. Internet Load and Traffic Balancing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文正; 郭巧; 郭为民

    2005-01-01

    Load and traffic balancing for the Internet are analyzed. An intelligent domain name system(DNS) policy for the control and management of content distribution networks (CDN) is presented. An CDNs network based Urtitech IntelliDNS is built, and performance of the network in realizing traffic and load balancing is measured. It is proved that CDNs provide a valuable service and the methods are feasible.

  9. Controller for thermostatically controlled loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Ning; Zhang, Yu; Du, Pengwei; Makarov, Yuri V.

    2016-06-07

    A system and method of controlling aggregated thermostatically controlled appliances (TCAs) for demand response is disclosed. A targeted load profile is formulated and a forecasted load profile is generated. The TCAs within an "on" or "off" control group are prioritized based on their operating temperatures. The "on" or "off" status of the TCAs is determined. Command signals are sent to turn on or turn off the TCAs.

  10. Loaded-frequency selective surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang GAO; Dunbao YAN; Yunqi FU; Naichang YUAN

    2008-01-01

    A new frequency-selective surface (FSS) with loadings is introduced in this paper and analyzed by way of period moment methods (PMMs). The simulated results show that FSS may operate in different bands and especially generate a large reduction in the resonant frequency for a fixed unit cell size through different loadings. This provides a new orientation in the develop-ment for FSS. Practical circuits are fabricated, and the measured results agree well with the simulated results.

  11. Environmental Aspects of Load Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study approaches load management from an environmental perspective. It identifies and discusses the possible environmental benefits of load management and evaluates their significance, primary focusing on CO2 emissions reduction. The analysis is carried out on two levels: national - the Swedish electricity market, and local - one electric utility in southern Sweden. Our results show the importance of considering the influence of site-specific or level-specific conditions on the environmental effects of load management. On the national level, load management measures can hardly provide significant environmental benefits, due to the high hydropower production in Sweden, which is the demand following production source. Emission reductions will rather be the result of energy efficiency measures, which will cut the load demand as well as the energy demand. However, when it comes to a local (utility) level, where load management is considered as an alternative to an installation of peak diesel power plant, the benefits are clear. It is demonstrated that significant CO2 emissions savings can be achieved due to avoided peak diesel power production

  12. Environmental Aspects of Load Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abaravicius, Juozas

    2004-02-01

    This study approaches load management from an environmental perspective. It identifies and discusses the possible environmental benefits of load management and evaluates their significance, primary focusing on CO{sub 2} emissions reduction. The analysis is carried out on two levels: national - the Swedish electricity market, and local - one electric utility in southern Sweden. Our results show the importance of considering the influence of site-specific or level-specific conditions on the environmental effects of load management. On the national level, load management measures can hardly provide significant environmental benefits, due to the high hydropower production in Sweden, which is the demand following production source. Emission reductions will rather be the result of energy efficiency measures, which will cut the load demand as well as the energy demand. However, when it comes to a local (utility) level, where load management is considered as an alternative to an installation of peak diesel power plant, the benefits are clear. It is demonstrated that significant CO{sub 2} emissions savings can be achieved due to avoided peak diesel power production.

  13. [Structure of allostatic load in railway workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorokhova, S G; Pfaf, V F; Muraseyeva, E V; Akhsanova, E R; Prigorovskaya, T S; At'kov, O Yu

    2016-01-01

    The authors studied allostatic load in railway workers, as an indicator of stress effect. Analysis covered biomarkers that form allostatic load index, and their ratio for variable allostatic load index levels. Moderate allostatic load appeared to prevail in the examinees group. Findings are that systolic and diastolic blood pressure, general cholesterol and hemoglobin make major contribution into allostatic load index. Comparison covered models of allostatic load index calculation for variable biomarkers sets.

  14. 玉米穗轴紫色素的吸附和解析特性研究%Study on the purification of Purple Pigment from Maize Ear Axle by resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴端; 霍仕平; 向振凡; 张芳魁; 晏庆九; 张健; 余志江

    2009-01-01

    The adsorption and desorption behaviors of maize purple pigment on 3 types of macroporous resins were studied.It was found that the adsorption capacity of maize purple pigment on the macroporous resins decreased depending on the type of the resin in the order ofAB-8>NKA-Ⅱ>NKA-9;The maximum adsorption rate can reach80%under the condition of pH<3,30℃50℃and adsorbing time of3husingAB-8macroporous resin.The maximum desorption rate can reach at 75% using alcohol under the condition of pH<3,30℃50℃ and desorption time of 3h.These conditions can be used to purify maize purple ear axle pigment.%比较了3种类型的大孔吸附树脂AB-8、NKA-Ⅱ和NKA-9对玉米穗轴紫色素在pH为3的条件下,吸附时间024h的吸附能力,研究了pH为17、温度为1070℃的吸附性能,分析了不同pH和不同浓度的解析液为对大孔吸附树脂AB-8吸附紫色素的解析性能差异.结果表明,3种树脂吸附玉米穗轴紫色素的吸附率始终表现为AB-8>NKA-Ⅱ>NKA-9;AB-8树脂在pH<3的酸性条件和30℃50℃的温度条件下吸附3h,对玉米紫色素的吸附率可达80%左右;在pH<3的酸性条件下用75%以上浓度的乙醇溶液为解析洗脱液,可获得较好的解析效果.因此,玉米穗轴紫色素应用AB-8大孔树脂在pH<3的酸性条件和30℃50℃的温度条件下吸附3h后,采用在pH<3的酸性条件下用75%以上浓度的乙醇溶液进行解析,可获得较好的色素纯化效果.

  15. 某重型卡车前轴成形辊锻工艺设计与优化%Design and optimization of the precision roll forging on a heavy truck front axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周杰; 柳豪; 刘旭光; 万煦义; 佘科能

    2012-01-01

    针对某牌号重型卡车前轴锻件成形辊锻、模锻工艺调试中遇到的典型缺陷——工字梁充填不满开展研究,基于前期某锻造公司大量的生产调试数据和有限元分析软件,建立了前轴成形辊锻、模锻有限元分析模型;在此基础上,研究了工字梁充填不饱满缺陷的产生机理,重点分析了第3道次模具工字梁型腔部位的3个关键参数宽度B3、圆角R3、斜度A3对成形质量的影响规律,重新设计了前3道次辊锻模具工字梁部位孔型和尺寸,并完成了辊锻模具制造。生产结果表明,工字梁部位充填饱满,产品尺寸合格。基于数值模拟的设计方法有效增加了模具设计的准确程度,减少了模具修改次数,缩短了调试周期,保证了最终产品的质量。%The under-filling defect of I-beam in a heavy truck front axle which occurs in the process debugging of the precision roll-forging and die-forging is studied.Finite element models of precision roll-forging and die-forging are established based on FEM software and the previous productive results.Then,the mechanism of the under-filing defect in I-beam is studied.And the effects of the three variables including width B,radius R and slope A of I-beam in the third step on the forging quality are investigated.In addition,the roll-forging die constructions for I-beam in previous three steps are redesigned and manufactured.The productive results show that I-beam can be fully filled,the debugging cycle is reduced significantly and the products quality is guaranteed.

  16. A gravity loading countermeasure skinsuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldie, James M.; Newman, Dava J.

    2011-04-01

    Despite the use of several countermeasures, significant physiological deconditioning still occurs during long duration spaceflight. Bone loss - primarily due to the absence of loading in microgravity - is perhaps the greatest challenge to resolve. This paper describes a conceptual Gravity Loading Countermeasure Skinsuit (GLCS) that induces loading on the body to mimic standing and - when integrated with other countermeasures - exercising on Earth. Comfort, mobility and other operational issues were explored during a pilot study carried out in parabolic flight for prototype suits worn by three subjects. Compared to the 1- or 2-stage Russian Pingvin Suits, the elastic mesh of the GLCS can create a loading regime that gradually increases in hundreds of stages from the shoulders to the feet, thereby reproducing the weight-bearing regime normally imparted by gravity with much higher resolution. Modelling shows that the skinsuit requires less than 10 mmHg (1.3 kPa) of compression for three subjects of varied gender, height and mass. Negligible mobility restriction and excellent comfort properties were found during the parabolic flights, which suggests that crewmembers should be able to work normally, exercise or sleep while wearing the suit. The suit may also serve as a practical 1 g harness for exercise countermeasures and vibration applications to improve dynamic loading.

  17. Symplastic phloem loading in poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cankui; Han, Lu; Slewinski, Thomas L; Sun, Jianlei; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Zeng-Yu; Turgeon, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Sap is driven through phloem sieve tubes by an osmotically generated pressure gradient between source and sink tissues. In many plants, source pressure results from thermodynamically active loading in which energy is used to transfer sucrose (Suc) from mesophyll cells to the phloem of leaf minor veins against a concentration gradient. However, in some species, almost all trees, correlative evidence suggests that sugar migrates passively through plasmodesmata from mesophyll cells into the sieve elements. The possibility of alternate loading mechanisms has important ramifications for the regulation of phloem transport and source-sink interactions. Here, we provide experimental evidence that, in gray poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba), Suc enters the phloem through plasmodesmata. Transgenic plants were generated with yeast invertase in the cell walls to prevent Suc loading by this route. The constructs were driven either by the constitutive 35S promoter or the minor vein-specific galactinol synthase promoter. Transgenic plants grew at the same rate as the wild type without symptoms of loading inhibition, such as accumulation of carbohydrates or leaf chlorosis. Rates of photosynthesis were normal. In contrast, alfalfa (Medicago sativa) plants, which have limited numbers of plasmodesmata between mesophyll and phloem, displayed typical symptoms of loading inhibition when transformed with the same DNA constructs. The results are consistent with passive loading of Suc through plasmodesmata in poplar. We also noted defense-related symptoms in leaves of transgenic poplar when the plants were abruptly exposed to excessively high temperatures, adding to evidence that hexose is involved in triggering the hypersensitive response. PMID:25056922

  18. Analysis of high load dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, S. T.; Buono, D. F.; Hibner, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    High load damping requirements for modern jet engines are discussed. The design of damping systems which could satisfy these requirements is also discusseed. In order to evaluate high load damping requirements, engines in three major classes were studied; large transport engines, small general aviation engines, and military engines. Four damper concepts applicable to these engines were evaluated; multi-ring, cartridge, curved beam, and viscous/friction. The most promising damper concept was selected for each engine and performance was assessed relative to conventional dampers and in light of projected damping requirements for advanced jet engines.

  19. A Survey on the Ship Loading Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iris, Cagatay; Pacino, Dario

    2015-01-01

    on externalities. One of those is the ship loading process. Based on the stowage plan received by liner shippers, terminal operators plan the execution of load and discharge operations. In this paper we present a literature review for the Ship Loading Problem, where stowage and loading sequencing and scheduling...

  20. Loading Rate for Modulus of Rupture Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUMing; ZHANGYong-fang

    1996-01-01

    Relationship among load rate,strain rate and stress rate for modulus of ruptue test,the way of applying load with stress rate using both hydraulic compression testing machine and nechanical compression testing machine have been described.The test results are identical with selected strain rate loading and stress rate loading.

  1. 14 CFR 23.509 - Towing loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Towing loads. The towing loads of this section must be applied to the design of tow fittings and their... on the landing gear but near the plane of symmetry of the airplane, the drag and side tow load... drag and side tow load components specified for the main gear apply. Where the specified angle...

  2. Car body loads from various sources, especially engine bearing forces, in passenger car powertrains; Karosseriebelastungen aufgrund verschiedener Erregungsquellen, insbesondere aus Motorlagerkraeften, bei Antriebsstraengen in Personenkraftwagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Chung-Jun

    2000-07-01

    The author invested body loads in a rear-wheel driven passenger car from different sources, e.g. engine bearing forces in consideration of the powertrain including the engine/gearbox bearing and back axle suspension. Theoretical calculations were carried out using a specially developed computer program; they were supplemented by experiments using modal analyses and analyses of the vibration patterns during operation. [German] Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit werden die Karosseriebelastungen aufgrund verschiedener Erregungsquellen, insbesondere aus Motorlagerkraeften bei Beruecksichtigung des Antriebsstrangs einschliesslich der Motor-/Getriebelagerung und der Hinterachsaufhaengung, bei einem hinterradangetriebenen Pkw untersucht. Die Untersuchungen der Zielgroessen zur Feststellung der durch die Gelenkwelle gegebenen Kopplungseinfluesse erfolgen durch Vergleich eines mit der Gelenkwelle nicht gekoppelten reduzierten Ersatzsystems mit einem vollstaendigen Ersatzsystem fuer den Antriebsstrang einschliesslich Motor-/Getriebebelagerungen, Gelenkwelle, Differentialgetriebe, Hinterachstraeger und Raeder. Dabei wird besonders die Abhaengigkeit der in die Karosserie eingeleiteten Erregerkraefte von der Groesse der Motorlagerfedersteifigkeiten und von den Ablenkwinkeln der Gelenkwelle betrachtet. Die Untersuchungen werden rechnerisch mit einem erstellten Berechnungsprogramm und experimentell mit Hilfe der Modalanalyse und der Betriebsschwingformanalyse durchgefuehrt. (orig.)

  3. Wind Structure and Wind Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    The purpose of this note is to provide a short description of wind, i.e. of the flow in the atmosphere of the Earth and the loading caused by wind on structures. The description comprises: causes to the generation of windhe interaction between wind and the surface of the Earthhe stochastic nature...

  4. Soil Profiles and Seismic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janotka, V.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution estimates different geotechnical profiles of site condition change and their influences on the computed seismic response spectra and time histories final values and forms applying on the seismic structures loading. The mentioned problems methodics attitude solution is based on the computed seismic motion parameters.

  5. Diffusion Indexes with Sparse Loadings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Johannes Tang

    to the problem by using the LASSO as a variable selection method to choose between the possible variables and thus obtain sparse loadings from which factors or diffusion indexes can be formed. This allows us to build a more parsimonious factor model which is better suited for forecasting compared...

  6. Fatigue Reliability under Random Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talreja, R.

    1979-01-01

    , with the application of random loads, the initial homogeneous distribution of strength changes to a two-component distribution, reflecting the two-stage fatigue damage. In the crack initiation stage, the strength increases initially and then decreases, while an abrupt decrease of strength is seen in the crack...... propagation stage. The consequences of this behaviour on the fatigue reliability are discussed....

  7. Experimental investigation of ultimate loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, S.M.; Larsen, G.C.; Antoniou, I.; Lind, S.O.; Courtney, M. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Verification of the structural integrity of a wind turbine involves analysis of fatigue loading as well as ultimate loading. With the trend of persistently growing turbines, the ultimate loading seems to become relatively more important. For wind turbines designed according to the wind conditions prescribed in the IEC-61400 code, the ultimate load is often identified as the leading load parameter. Exemplified by the use of an extensive measurement campaign a procedure for evaluation of the extreme flap-wise bending moments, occurring during normal operating of a wind turbine, is presented. The structural measurements are made on a NEG Micon 650 kW wind turbine erected at a complex high wind site in Oak Creek, California. The turbine is located on the top of a ridge. The prevailing wind direction is perpendicular to the ridge, and the annual mean wind speed is 9.5 m/s. The associated wind field measurement, are taken from two instrumented masts erected less than one rotor diameter in front of the turbine in direction of the prevailing wind direction. Both masts are instrumented at different heights in order to gain insight of the 3D-wind speed structure over the entire rotor plane. Extreme distributions, associated with a recurrence period of 10 minutes, conditioned on the mean wind speed and the turbulence intensity are derived. Combined with the wind climate model proposed in the IEC standard, these distributions are used to predict extreme distributions with recurrence periods equal to one and fifty years, respectively. The synthesis of the conditioned PDF`s and the wind climate model is performed by means of Monte Carlo simulation. (au)

  8. 基于模糊自适应PID控制器的多轴车辆转向控制系统设计及仿真%Design of Multi-axle Vehicle Steering Control System and Simulation Based on Fuzzy Adaptive PID Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文桂林; 韩汪利; 周兵

    2011-01-01

    A 2-DOF model of the five-axle all terrain crane with some simplifications is proposed, and based on the assumption of zero side-slip angle of mass center and the proportional control strategy, the function relating the angles of the rear and the front axles. and the velocity are derived. With some simplifications with respect to the proportional valve and the cylinder, a mathematical model of the steering system in Matlab/Simulink is established. In order to overcome the weakness of the traditional PID controller, a fuzzy adaptive PID controller of the rear axle steering angle is built in Matlab by using its fuzzy logic control toolbox. Through the real-time determination of the PID parameters, a high control precision is achieved. A steady state correring simulation is carried out under 25km/h, and the comparison of the simulation and theoretical values shows that fhe fuzzy adaptive PID controller works well, with quick system response and good following peformance.%通过对多轴转向车辆数学模型进行简化,获得某型号五轴全路面起重机的二自由度操纵动力学模型,并基于零质心侧偏角控制策略推导出各后轮转角与前轮转角及车速的函数关系.在对比例阀和转向执行机构(液压缸)进行简化的基础上,在Matlab/Simulink中建立了转向系统完整的数学模型.为克服传统PID控制器的缺点,基于Matlab模糊逻辑控制模块建立了转向系统模糊自适应PID控制器,对PID控制器各个控制参数进行在线整定,以此获得较高的控制精度.以25km/h速度下稳态回转试验对该控制器进行仿真验证.经过仿真分析后发现,该模糊控制器取得很好的效果,系统响应迅速,跟随性好,完全能满足控制需要.

  9. Thermal loading of natural streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Alan P.; Yotsukura, Nobuhiro

    1977-01-01

    The impact of thermal loading on the temperature regime of natural streams is investigated by mathematical models, which describe both transport (convection-diffusion) and decay (surface dissipation) of waste heat over 1-hour or shorter time intervals. The models are derived from the principle of conservation of thermal energy for application to one- and two-dimensional spaces. The basic concept in these models is to separate water temperature into two parts, (1) excess temperature due to thermal loading and (2) natural (ambient) temperature. This separation allows excess temperature to be calculated from the models without incoming radiation data. Natural temperature may either be measured in prototypes or calculated from the model. If use is made of the model, however, incoming radiation is required as input data. Comparison of observed and calculated temperatures in seven natural streams shows that the models are capable of predicting transient temperature regimes satisfactorily in most cases. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Ultimate loading of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Ronold, K.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans;

    1999-01-01

    An extreme loading study has been conducted comprising a general wind climate analysis as well as a wind turbine reliability study. In the wind climate analysis, the distribution of the (horizontal) turbulence standard deviation, conditioned on the meanwind speed, has been approximated by fitting......, a design turbulence intensity for off-shore application is proposed which, in the IEC code framework, is applicable for extreme as well as for fatigue loaddetermination. In order to establish a rational method to analyse wind turbine components with respect to failure in ultimate loading, and in addition...... a three parameter Weibull distribution to the measured on-shore and off-shore data for wind speed variations. Specific recommendations on off-shore design turbulence intensities are lacking in the presentIEC-code. Based on the present analysis of the off-shore wind climate on two shallow water sites...

  11. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial

  12. Efficiency of Capacitively Loaded Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Huang, Lina; Andersen, Michael A. E.;

    2012-01-01

    is introduced as a definition of efficiency. The calculated and measured efficiency curves for charging DEAP actuator, polypropylene film capacitor and X7R MLCC are provided and compared. The attention has to be paid for the voltage dependent capacitive load, like X7R MLCC, when evaluating the charging......This paper explores the characteristic of capacitance versus voltage for dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) actuator, 2kV polypropylene film capacitor as well as 3kV X7R multi layer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) at the beginning. An energy efficiency for capacitively loaded converters...... efficiency of converter. Based on the capacitancevoltage curve, the correct capacitance should be chosen when calculating the stored energy; otherwise misleading optimistic efficiency can always be obtained. Actually, when DEAP actuator is not available at the early developing stage, the voltage independent...

  13. Numerical prediction of slamming loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seng, Sopheak; Jensen, Jørgen J; Pedersen, Preben T

    2012-01-01

    . The pressure distribution as well as the total force is then determined by integration over a pseudo-three-dimensional presentation of the hull geometry.In this paper the evaluation of the slamming load is taken one step further by performing direct three-dimensional, fully non-linear numerical calculations...... in a realistic wave environment.Both the global and the local slamming loads are assessed numerically using a finite-volume formulation with the free surface captured by a volume-of-fluid technique. This numerical procedure is justified by comprehensive validation studies where numerically evaluated slamming...... pressures are compared with experimentally measured results.To obtain an insight into the three-dimensional flow effects the next step is to apply the validated numerical procedure to evaluate and compare the accuracy and performance of the traditionally used two-dimensional formulations by a comparison...

  14. BEHAVIOR OF LATERALLY LOADED PILE

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Mehta; P.D.Pachpor

    2010-01-01

    A finite element analysis is done to predict the responses for single pile subjected to lateral load in layered soils, with consideration of pile soil interaction. Pile and soil are simulated by Solid-3D element. In the computational model, contact surfaces between pile and soil are created. The displacements are determined for pile soil system with linearly constants and linearly varying with depth cases is considered. The engineering properties for soil and pile are considered as variable f...

  15. BEHAVIOR OF LATERALLY LOADED PILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Mehta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A finite element analysis is done to predict the responses for single pile subjected to lateral load in layered soils, with consideration of pile soil interaction. Pile and soil are simulated by Solid-3D element. In the computational model, contact surfaces between pile and soil are created. The displacements are determined for pile soil system with linearly constants and linearly varying with depth cases is considered. The engineering properties for soil and pile are considered as variable for analysis.

  16. Passive detection of vehicle loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Troy R.; Salvaggio, Carl; Faulring, Jason W.; Salvaggio, Philip S.; McKeown, Donald M.; Garrett, Alfred J.; Coleman, David H.; Koffman, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  17. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  18. Web Load Testing Based on LoadRunner%基于LoadRunner的Web负载测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊文斌; 郑剑

    2008-01-01

    为保证Web系统在需求范围内能正常运行,必须对Web系统进行负载测试.文中首先提出了一个负载测试的一般过程,然后采用了LoadRurmer测试工具对一Web系统进行测试,并对其测试结果进行了分析.

  19. Probabilistic Meteorological Characterization for Turbine Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Mark C.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov;

    2014-01-01

    Beyond the existing, limited IEC prescription to describe fatigue loads on wind turbines, we look towards probabilistic characterization of the loads via analogous characterization of the atmospheric flow, particularly for today's "taller" turbines with rotors well above the atmospheric surface...

  20. Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

  1. 某轿车悬架系统的载荷仿真分析%Load Simulation Analysis on a Car Suspension System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯金芝; 刘乐; 郑松林

    2012-01-01

    基于多体动力学理论建立了某型轿车后悬架的刚柔耦合动力学模型,将采集的某试车场比利时路面不平度信号作为路面激励输入,对悬架系统进行了动态仿真,并用已有道路试验数据,包括后桥垂向加速度和悬架动行程验证了模型的正确性.最后,基于经验证的悬架动力学模型,对关键部件的受力状况进行了全面仿真,确定了悬架系统各部件承受的主要载荷形式,可为悬架系统载荷谱采集测点的选取提供参考.%A rigid-flexible coupling dynamic model for the rear suspension of a car is established based on multi-body dynamics theory. With the roughness signals of ' Belgian road' collected in a proving ground as road excitation input, a dynamic simulation on suspension system is carried out. Then the model is verified to be correct by the road test data available including the vertical acceleration of rear axle and the dynamic deflection of suspension. Finally based on the model verified, a comprehensive simulation on the force bearing states of key components is conducted to determine the main patterns of loads borne by various components of suspension system, providing references for selecting measuring points for the load spectrum acquisition of suspension system.

  2. Load Characteristics Analysis of State Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wei; Zhou Feng; Han Xinyang; Shan Baoguo; Zhu Li

    2009-01-01

    @@ Introduction Analysis and forecast of load characteristics are important aspects in power market analysis and prediction.Correctly mastering grid load characteristics and its development trend is not only the vital basis for power planning,generation and operation,but also the important references for formulating the relevant policies.It is usually very hard to grasp the load characteristics of power grid.

  3. Response of Rubble Foundation to Dynamic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1994-01-01

    The soil beneath vertical monolithic structures is subjected to a combination of static load due to the submerged weight of the structure and stochastic non-stationary loads as a result of the wave loads on the vertical wall. The stress conditions in the soil below a foundation exposed to both...

  4. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  5. Wind loads on solar energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, B.J.M. van; Geurts, C.P.W.; Borsboom, W.A.; Blackmore, P.

    2005-01-01

    Wind loads on solar energy systems are not covered by current wind loading standards. This paper describes results of a parametric study into the wind loads 0on solar energy systems,. which are placed on flat roofs. Wind tunnel measurements have been carried out on a number of configurations. The re

  6. Response of Rubble Foundation to Dynamic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1993-01-01

    The soil beneath vertical monolithic structures is subjected to a combination of static load due to the submerged weight of the structure and stochastic non-stationary loads as a result of the wave loads on the vertical wall. The stress conditions in the soil below a foundation exposed to both st...

  7. 14 CFR 25.509 - Towing loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... static positions; and (3) With W T as the design ramp weight, the towing load, F TOW, is— (i) 0.3 W T for... plane of symmetry of the airplane, the drag and side tow load components specified for the auxiliary gear apply. For towing points located outboard of the main gear, the drag and side tow load...

  8. Equilibria in Load Balancing Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Chen

    2009-01-01

    A Nash equilibrium (NE) in a multi-agent game is a strategy profile that is resilient to unilateral deviations.A strong Nash equilibrium (SE) is one that is stable against coordinated deviations of any coalition.We show that,in the load balancing games,NEs approximate SEs in the sense that the benefit of each member of any coalition from coordinated deviations is well limited.Furthermore,we show that an easily recognizable special subset of NEs exhibit even better approximation of SEs.

  9. Automated Loads Analysis System (ATLAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Stephen; Frere, Scot; O’Reilly, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    ATLAS is a generalized solution that can be used for launch vehicles. ATLAS is used to produce modal transient analysis and quasi-static analysis results (i.e., accelerations, displacements, and forces) for the payload math models on a specific Shuttle Transport System (STS) flight using the shuttle math model and associated forcing functions. This innovation solves the problem of coupling of payload math models into a shuttle math model. It performs a transient loads analysis simulating liftoff, landing, and all flight events between liftoff and landing. ATLAS utilizes efficient and numerically stable algorithms available in MSC/NASTRAN.

  10. Knee loading for abnormal gait

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchison, J.; Madsen, D.; Norman, T. L.; -Blaha, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a mathematical model for determining knee loads for abnormal gait. Abnormal gait was defined as a person with varus, i.e. “bowleggedness”, or a person who had an external rotation of the femur (or the inability to internally rotate the femur) which caused an indirect varus in the forward positions of gait. Conditions such as these have been observed clinically to result in increased wear on the medial condyle of total knee replacements. This problem was...

  11. Critical loads - assessment of uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkman, A.

    1998-10-01

    The effects of data uncertainty in applications of the critical loads concept were investigated on different spatial resolutions in Sweden and northern Czech Republic. Critical loads of acidity (CL) were calculated for Sweden using the biogeochemical model PROFILE. Three methods with different structural complexity were used to estimate the adverse effects of S0{sub 2} concentrations in northern Czech Republic. Data uncertainties in the calculated critical loads/levels and exceedances (EX) were assessed using Monte Carlo simulations. Uncertainties within cumulative distribution functions (CDF) were aggregated by accounting for the overlap between site specific confidence intervals. Aggregation of data uncertainties within CDFs resulted in lower CL and higher EX best estimates in comparison with percentiles represented by individual sites. Data uncertainties were consequently found to advocate larger deposition reductions to achieve non-exceedance based on low critical loads estimates on 150 x 150 km resolution. Input data were found to impair the level of differentiation between geographical units at all investigated resolutions. Aggregation of data uncertainty within CDFs involved more constrained confidence intervals for a given percentile. Differentiation as well as identification of grid cells on 150 x 150 km resolution subjected to EX was generally improved. Calculation of the probability of EX was shown to preserve the possibility to differentiate between geographical units. Re-aggregation of the 95%-ile EX on 50 x 50 km resolution generally increased the confidence interval for each percentile. Significant relationships were found between forest decline and the three methods addressing risks induced by S0{sub 2} concentrations. Modifying S0{sub 2} concentrations by accounting for the length of the vegetation period was found to constitute the most useful trade-off between structural complexity, data availability and effects of data uncertainty. Data

  12. Neighborhood perceptions and allostatic load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Deurzen, Ioana; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Christensen, Ulla;

    2016-01-01

    this line of argumentation, in the present study we test whether subjective perceptions of neighborhood characteristics relate to an objective measure of stress-related physiological functioning, namely allostatic load (AL). We use a large dataset of 5280 respondents living in different regions of Denmark...... and we account for two alternative mechanisms, i.e., the objective characteristics of the living environment and the socio-economic status of individuals. Our results support the chronic stress mechanisms linking neighborhood quality to health. Heightened perceptions of disorder and pollution were found...

  13. Spatial peak-load pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arellano, M. Soledad; Serra, Pablo [Universidad de Chile, Dept. of Industrial Engineering, Santiago (Chile)

    2007-03-15

    This article extends the traditional electricity peak-load pricing model to include transmission costs. In the context of a two-node, two-technology electric power system, where suppliers face inelastic demand, we show that when the marginal plant is located at the energy-importing center, generators located away from that center should pay the marginal capacity transmission cost; otherwise, consumers should bear this cost through capacity payments. Since electric power transmission is a natural monopoly, marginal-cost pricing does not fully cover costs. We propose distributing the revenue deficit among users in proportion to the surplus they derive from the service priced at marginal cost. (Author)

  14. Liposome-Loaded Cell Backpacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Roberta; Lim, Rosanna M; Beppu, Marisa M; Pitombo, Ronaldo N M; Cohen, Robert E; Rubner, Michael F

    2015-12-30

    Cell backpacks, or micron-scale patches of a few hundred nanometers in thickness fabricated by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly, are potentially useful vehicles for targeted drug delivery on the cellular level. In this work, echogenic liposomes (ELIPs) containing the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) are embedded into backpacks through electrostatic interactions and LbL assembly. Poly(allylamine hydrochloride)/poly(acrylic acid) (PAH/PAA)n , and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)/poly(styrene sulfonate) (PDAC/SPS)n film systems show the greatest ELIP incorporation of the films studied while maintaining the structural integrity of the vesicles. The use of ELIPs for drug encapsulation into backpacks facilitates up to three times greater DOX loading compared to backpacks without ELIPs. Cytotoxicity studies reveal that monocyte backpack conjugates remain viable even after 72 h, demonstrating promise as drug delivery vehicles. Because artificial vesicles can load many different types of drugs, ELIP containing backpacks offer a unique versatility for broadening the range of possible applications for cell backpacks. PMID:26616471

  15. Allostatic Load and Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Olson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is a universal health problem that is one of the largest unmet medical needs contributing to the global burden of disease. Adding to its complexity is that there are no means to predict who is at risk when pregnancy begins or when women will actually deliver. Until these problems are addressed, there will be no interventions to reduce the risk because those who should be treated will not be known. Considerable evidence now exists that chronic life, generational or accumulated stress is a risk factor for preterm delivery in animal models and in women. This wear and tear on the body and mind is called allostatic load. This review explores the evidence that chronic stress contributes to preterm birth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in animal and human studies. It explores how allostatic load can be used to, firstly, model stress and preterm birth in animal models and, secondly, how it can be used to develop a predictive model to assess relative risk among women in early pregnancy. Once care providers know who is in the highest risk group, interventions can be developed and applied to mitigate their risk.

  16. APS high heat load monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains the design specifications of the APS high heat load (HHL) monochromator and associated accessories as of February 1993. It should be noted that work is continuing on many parts of the monochromator including the mechanical design, crystal cooling designs, etc. Where appropriate, we have tried to add supporting documentation, references to published papers, and calculations from which we based our decisions. The underlying philosophy behind performance specifications of this monochromator was to fabricate a device that would be useful to as many APS users as possible, that is, the design should be as generic as possible. In other words, we believe that this design will be capable of operating on both bending magnet and ID beamlines (with the appropriate changes to the cooling and crystals) with both flat and inclined crystal geometries and with a variety of coolants. It was strongly felt that this monochromator should have good energy scanning capabilities over the classical energy range of about 4 to 20 keywith Si (111) crystals. For this reason, a design incorporating one rotation stage to drive both the first and second crystals was considered most promising. Separate rotary stages for the first and second crystals can sometimes provide more flexibility in their capacities to carry heavy loads (for heavily cooled first crystals or sagittal benders of second crystals), but their tuning capabilities were considered inferior to the single axis approach

  17. Load distributions of some classic DHTs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nie Xiaowen; Lu Xianliang; Zhou Xu; Tang Hui; Li Lin

    2009-01-01

    The load balance is a critical issue of distributed Hash table (DHT), and the previous work shows that there exists O(logn) imbalance of load in Chord. The load distribution of Chord, Pastry, and the virtual servers (VS) balancing scheme and deduces the closed form expressions of the probability density function (PDF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the load in these DHTs is analyzes. The analysis and simulation show that the load of all these DHTs obeys the gamma distribution with similar formed parameters.

  18. Prediction of local snow loads on roofs

    OpenAIRE

    Meløysund, Vivian

    2010-01-01

    Large snow loads on roofs during the winter season of 2005 - 2006 led to the collapse of several buildings in Norway. In Central Europe, during the same winter season, there were several serious accidents related to heavy snow loads where many people were killed or injured. Hence, there is a need for evaluating the background for snow loads used in the design of buildings and an assessment of the reliability of buildings which are subjected to roof snow loads.The snow load represents one of t...

  19. Online load forecasting for supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study of models for forecasting the load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the forecasting models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...... in Denmark. Every hour the hourly load for refrigeration for the following 42 hours is forecasted. The forecast models are time adaptive linear time-series models. The dynamic relations between the inputs and the load is modeled by simple transfer functions. The system operates in two regimes: one...

  20. Detection of Unexpected High Correlations between Balance Calibration Loads and Load Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, N.; Volden, T.

    2014-01-01

    An algorithm was developed for the assessment of strain-gage balance calibration data that makes it possible to systematically investigate potential sources of unexpected high correlations between calibration load residuals and applied calibration loads. The algorithm investigates correlations on a load series by load series basis. The linear correlation coefficient is used to quantify the correlations. It is computed for all possible pairs of calibration load residuals and applied calibration loads that can be constructed for the given balance calibration data set. An unexpected high correlation between a load residual and a load is detected if three conditions are met: (i) the absolute value of the correlation coefficient of a residual/load pair exceeds 0.95; (ii) the maximum of the absolute values of the residuals of a load series exceeds 0.25 % of the load capacity; (iii) the load component of the load series is intentionally applied. Data from a baseline calibration of a six-component force balance is used to illustrate the application of the detection algorithm to a real-world data set. This analysis also showed that the detection algorithm can identify load alignment errors as long as repeat load series are contained in the balance calibration data set that do not suffer from load alignment problems.

  1. First micromachined silicon load cell for loads up to 1000 kg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensink, H.; Boer, de M.J.; Wiegerink, R.J.; Zwijze, R.A.F.; Elwenspoek, M.C.; French, Patrick J.; Chau, Kevin H.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, a bulk micromachined silicon load cell is presented, designed for loads up to 1000 kg. ANSYS simulations were used to determine the load cell dimensions and strain gauge positions. The load cell consists of two parts, which are bonded to each other using Low Temperature Silicon Direct

  2. Load Estimation from Natural input Modal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Brincker, Rune; Canteli, Alfonso Fernández

    2005-01-01

    One application of Natural Input Modal Analysis consists in estimating the unknown load acting on structures such as wind loads, wave loads, traffic loads, etc. In this paper, a procedure to determine loading from a truncated modal model, as well as the results of an experimental testing programme......, are presented. The method involves the inversion of the FRF matrix partly solving the numerical problems that appear because of the truncation of the modal space. However, the error in the load estimation depends on the degree of truncation of the modal space and on the accuracy of the modal parameter...... estimation. In the experimental program a small structure subjected to vibration was used to estimate the loading from the measurements and the experimental modal space. The modal parameters were estimated by Natural Input Modal Analysis and the scaling factors of the mode shapes obtained by the mass change...

  3. Load Balancing Algorithm for Cache Cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘美华; 古志民; 曹元大

    2003-01-01

    By the load definition of cluster, the request is regarded as granularity to compute load and implement the load balancing in cache cluster. First, the processing power of cache-node is studied from four aspects: network bandwidth, memory capacity, disk access rate and CPU usage. Then, the weighted load of cache-node is customized. Based on this, a load-balancing algorithm that can be applied to the cache cluster is proposed. Finally, Polygraph is used as a benchmarking tool to test the cache cluster possessing the load-balancing algorithm and the cache cluster with cache array routing protocol respectively. The results show the load-balancing algorithm can improve the performance of the cache cluster.

  4. Intelligent System for Radial Distribution Load Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali Holkar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows an application of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs to determine the bus voltages and phase angles of a radial distribution system, without executing the complicated load flow algorithm, for any given load. The performance of the conventional load flow methods such as Newtoh-Raphson load flow, Fast decoupled load flow is found to be very poor under critical conditions such as high R/X ratio, heavily loading condition etc.To overcome the limitations of these regularly used methods a simple and reliable ladder iterative technique is used for solving the power balance equations of radial distribution system (RDS. The proposed method make use of a multi-layer feed forward ANN with error back propagation learning algorithm for calculation of bus voltages and its angles. A sample IEEE 33-bus is extensively tested with the proposed ANN based approach indicating its viability for RDS load flow assessment and results are presented.

  5. Common source-multiple load vs. separate source-individual load photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    A comparison of system performance is made for two possible system setups: (1) individual loads powered by separate solar cell sources; and (2) multiple loads powered by a common solar cell source. A proof for resistive loads is given that shows the advantage of a common source over a separate source photovoltaic system for a large range of loads. For identical loads, both systems perform the same.

  6. “Economic Load Dispatch by Generating Units under Varying Load Demands Using Artificial Neural Network”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Mathur

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of economic load dispatch has been tested on a generating plant having Ten units of generators operating in parallel. What shall be the load allocations to individual units for given loaddemand on the plant? has been found. The allocation of load to each of the ten generators in a generating plant is such that the economic load dispatch is maintained for any value of the load demand on the. It is the basic requirement of economic load dispatch. Further this is true for varying load demands. The estimation of load allocations to generators for every specific load has been carried out usingmathematical approach as well as with the help of artificial neural network (ANN. After proper training of the artificial neural network when it is tested, it gave the load allocations for specific load which resulted in economic load dispatch. The results as obtained by mathematical modeling & artificial neural network show a good agreement. Thus it could be established that corresponding to certain load demand the ANN provides the loads to be taken up by the individual generators in the plant for ensuring economic load dispatch.

  7. Impaired sleep and allostatic load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Dich, Nadya; Lange, Theis;

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Understanding the mechanisms linking sleep impairment to morbidity and mortality is important for future prevention, but these mechanisms are far from elucidated. We aimed to determine the relation between impaired sleep, both in terms of duration and disturbed sleep, and allostatic load...... Biobank with comprehensive information on sleep duration, disturbed sleep, objective measures of an extensive range of biological risk markers, and physical conditions. Results: Long sleep (mean difference 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13, 0.32) and disturbed sleep (0.14; 0.06, 0.22) were associated...... with higher AL as well as with high-risk levels of risk markers from the anthropometric, metabolic, and immune system. Sub-analyses suggested that the association between disturbed sleep and AL might be explained by underlying disorders. Whereas there was no association between short sleep and AL...

  8. Kinesin's backsteps under mechanical load

    CERN Document Server

    Hyeon, Changbong; Onuchic, Jose' N

    2009-01-01

    Kinesins move processively toward the plus end of microtubules by hydrolyzing ATP for each step. From an enzymatic perspective, the mechanism of mechanical motion coupled to the nucleotide chemistry is often well explained using a single-loop cyclic reaction. However, several difficulties arise in interpreting kinesin's backstepping within this framework, especially when external forces oppose the motion of kinesin. We review evidence, such as an ATP-independent stall force and a slower cycle time for backsteps, that has emerged to challenge the idea that kinesin backstepping is due to ATP synthesis, i.e., the reverse cycle of kinesin's forward-stepping chemomechanics. Supplementing the conventional single-loop chemomechanics with routes for ATP-hydrolyzing backward steps and nucleotide-free steps, especially under load, gives a better physical interpretation of the experimental data on backsteps.

  9. Greywater pollution variability and loadings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Madsen, Toke S.;

    2009-01-01

    Small on-site greywater treatment and reuse plants are susceptible to high short-term variation in flow and pollutant concentrations. As demonstrated in this study of a bathroom greywater plant in Copenhagen, Denmark, the flow ranges from no-flow periods to high-flow periods reaching 34 l min−1....... Concentrations of both macro- and micro-pollutants (organic matter and parabens) were found to range by several orders of magnitude in the influent, based on sampling every 20 min. Paraben degradation was proven to occur in the rotating biological contactor (RBC), while the remnant organic matter in the effluent...... was proved not to be readily degradable. Ammonium content, presumably from urine contamination, was found to undergo nitrification in the RBC. Mass flow (daily loads) for individual substances was calculated for several pollutants. Macropollutants were found to be generated in low numbers of grams per person...

  10. Structural Design of Asphalt Pavement for Low Cost Rural Roads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Goulin; Chen Rongshen

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the equivalent axle load action frequency, the traffic classifications of rural roads as well as their corresponding types are classified. The asphalt pavement structure, road surface types and thickness of the rural roads are suggested for the various action frequency of the equivalent axle load. Furthermore, the roadbase thickness graphs are provided according to different equivalent axle load action frequency with different roadbed modulus and road surface modulus taken into account.

  11. Active load control using microtabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Dora Te-Lun

    2001-11-01

    Micro-electro-mechanical (MEM) translational tabs are introduced for enhancing and controlling the aerodynamic loading on lifting surfaces. These microtabs are mounted near the trailing edge of lifting surfaces, retract and extend approximately normal to the surface and have a maximum deployment height on the order of the boundary-layer thickness. Deployment of the device effectively modifies the camber distribution of the lifting surface and hence, the lift generated. The effect of the microtabs on lift is shown to be as powerful as conventional control surfaces with lift changes of 30%--50% in the linear range of the lift curve using a tab with a height of 1% of airfoil chord placed at 5% of chord upstream of the trailing edge on the lower surface. A multi-disciplinary approach incorporating aspects of experimental and computational aerodynamics, mechanical design and microfabrication techniques has been taken to develop and test a "proof of concept" model. Flow simulations, using a Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes solver, have been conducted to optimize the size and placement of the devices based on trailing edge volume constraints. Numerical and experimental wind tunnel results are in good agreement, and both confirm that these micro-scale devices create macro-scale changes in aerodynamic loading. Application of this rather simple but innovative lift control system based on microfabrication techniques introduces a robust, dynamic control device and will allow for the miniaturization of conventional high lift and control systems. The result is a significant reduction in typical control system weight, complexity and cost. Also due to the minute size of these tabs, their activation and response times are much faster than that of conventional trailing edge devices. The "proof of concept" tab design, fabrication techniques, computational and experimental setup, and test results using a representative airfoil are presented in this research. (For more information, see

  12. Load carriage, human performance, and employment standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Peoples, Gregory E; Petersen, Stewart R

    2016-06-01

    The focus of this review is on the physiological considerations necessary for developing employment standards within occupations that have a heavy reliance on load carriage. Employees within military, fire fighting, law enforcement, and search and rescue occupations regularly work with heavy loads. For example, soldiers often carry loads >50 kg, whilst structural firefighters wear 20-25 kg of protective clothing and equipment, in addition to carrying external loads. It has long been known that heavy loads modify gait, mobility, metabolic rate, and efficiency, while concurrently elevating the risk of muscle fatigue and injury. In addition, load carriage often occurs within environmentally stressful conditions, with protective ensembles adding to the thermal burden of the workplace. Indeed, physiological strain relates not just to the mass and dimensions of carried objects, but to how those loads are positioned on and around the body. Yet heavy loads must be borne by men and women of varying body size, and with the expectation that operational capability will not be impinged. This presents a recruitment conundrum. How do employers identify capable and injury-resistant individuals while simultaneously avoiding discriminatory selection practices? In this communication, the relevant metabolic, cardiopulmonary, and thermoregulatory consequences of loaded work are reviewed, along with concomitant impediments to physical endurance and mobility. Also emphasised is the importance of including occupation-specific clothing, protective equipment, and loads during work-performance testing. Finally, recommendations are presented for how to address these issues when evaluating readiness for duty.

  13. Load carriage, human performance, and employment standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Peoples, Gregory E; Petersen, Stewart R

    2016-06-01

    The focus of this review is on the physiological considerations necessary for developing employment standards within occupations that have a heavy reliance on load carriage. Employees within military, fire fighting, law enforcement, and search and rescue occupations regularly work with heavy loads. For example, soldiers often carry loads >50 kg, whilst structural firefighters wear 20-25 kg of protective clothing and equipment, in addition to carrying external loads. It has long been known that heavy loads modify gait, mobility, metabolic rate, and efficiency, while concurrently elevating the risk of muscle fatigue and injury. In addition, load carriage often occurs within environmentally stressful conditions, with protective ensembles adding to the thermal burden of the workplace. Indeed, physiological strain relates not just to the mass and dimensions of carried objects, but to how those loads are positioned on and around the body. Yet heavy loads must be borne by men and women of varying body size, and with the expectation that operational capability will not be impinged. This presents a recruitment conundrum. How do employers identify capable and injury-resistant individuals while simultaneously avoiding discriminatory selection practices? In this communication, the relevant metabolic, cardiopulmonary, and thermoregulatory consequences of loaded work are reviewed, along with concomitant impediments to physical endurance and mobility. Also emphasised is the importance of including occupation-specific clothing, protective equipment, and loads during work-performance testing. Finally, recommendations are presented for how to address these issues when evaluating readiness for duty. PMID:27277563

  14. Load research manual. Volume 2. Fundamentals of implementing load research procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  15. Static Load Distribution in Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Mario

    2010-01-01

    A numerical procedure for computing the internal loading distribution in statically loaded, single-row, angular-contact ball bearings when subjected to a known combined radial and thrust load is presented. The combined radial and thrust load must be applied in order to avoid tilting between inner and outer rings. The numerical procedure requires the iterative solution of Z + 2 simultaneous nonlinear equations - where Z is the number of the balls - to yield an exact solution for axial and radial deflections, and contact angles. Numerical results for a 218 angular-contact ball bearing have been compared with those from the literature and show significant differences in the magnitudes of the ball loads, contact angles, and the extent of the loading zone.

  16. Assessment of wind turbine load measurement instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morfiadakis, E.; Papadopoulos, K. [CRES (Greece); Borg, N. van der [ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Petersen, S.M. [Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark); Seifert, H. [DEWI, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    In the framework of Sub-Task3 `Wind turbine load measurement instrumentation` of EU-project `European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Development`, the load measurement techniques have been assessed by laboratory, full scale and numerical tests. The existing methods have been reviewed with emphasis on the strain gage application techniques on composite materials and recommendations are provided for the optimisation of load measurement techniques. (au) EU. 14 refs.

  17. Behaviour of Soil Subjected to Dynamic Loads

    OpenAIRE

    Bødker, L.

    1998-01-01

    Many geotechnical problems involve design of dynamically loaded foundations. The design criterion fr dynamically loaded foundations is often described in terms of limiting values for the displacements. The displacements in the soil are normally very small when dealing with dynamically loaded foundations, and hence it is necessary to know the deformation properties for the soil at very low strain level. The main topic of the project is to increase the knowledge of the behaviour of Danish soils...

  18. Modeling and control of thermostatically controlled loads

    OpenAIRE

    Kundu, Soumya; Sinitsyn, Nikolai; Backhaus, Scott; Hiskens, Ian

    2011-01-01

    As the penetration of intermittent energy sources grows substantially, loads will be required to play an increasingly important role in compensating the fast time-scale fluctuations in generated power. Recent numerical modeling of thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) has demonstrated that such load following is feasible, but analytical models that satisfactorily quantify the aggregate power consumption of a group of TCLs are desired to enable controller design. We develop such a model for...

  19. Timber joints under long-term loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldborg, T.; Johansen, M.

    This report describes tests and results from stiffness and strength testing of splice joints under long-term loading. During two years of loading the spicimens were exposed to cyclically changing relative humidity. After the loading period the specimens were short-term tested. The connectors were...... integral nail-plates and nailed steel and plywood gussets. The report is intended for designers and researchers in timber engineering....

  20. Measure of effectiveness for amphibious ship loading

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Joseph M.

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited A critical factor in the success of an amphibious operation is how well the load plan supports the landing plan. The current manual system for ship load planning is time consuming and subject to error. A computer system currently under development by a contractor will decrease planning time and reduce mistakes by automating many details of the planning process. A method to assess the quality of load plans and make comparisons among the...

  1. Load and Season Adapted Solar Collectors

    OpenAIRE

    Nordlander, Svante; Rönnelid, Mats; Karlsson, Björn

    2000-01-01

    In Sweden solar irradiation and space heating loads are unevenly distributed over the year. Domestic hot water loads may be nearly constant. Test results on solar collector performance are often reported as yearly output of a certain collector at fixed temperatures, e g 25, 50 and 75 C. These data are not suitable for dimensioning of solar systems, because the actual performance of the collector depends heavily on solar fraction and load distribution over the year.At higher latitudes it is di...

  2. Modelling of Generic Slung Load System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Morten; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; La Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the result of modelling and verification of a generic slung load system using a small-scale helicopter. The model is intended for use in simulation, pilot training, estimation, and control. The model is derived using a redundant coordinate formulation based on Gauss Principle...... and tightening, and aerodynamical coupling between the helicopter and the load. Furthermore, it is shown how the model can be easily used for multi-lift systems either with multiple helicopers or multiple loads. A numerical stabilisation algorithm as well as a trim algorithm is presented for the complete...... helicopter/load system and finally the use of the model is illustrated through simulations....

  3. Study on Loading Ability of Straw Bale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Kun; JIANG Enchen; DUAN Jieli

    2006-01-01

    The loading ability of straw bale was tested by Electronical Testing Machine. The linear regression equations were proposed between failure density and loading ability, and failure density and compressing energy.Based on an exponent model, the testing coefficients of straw bale were estimated using Levenberg-Marquardt Method. The results of test showed that the relation between failure density and loading ability and compressing energy was linear in the phase of high density. The loading ability of straw bale could meet the building bill.

  4. Loading operations for spacecraft propulsion subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, G. P.; Nordeng, H. O.; Ellison, J. R.

    1992-07-01

    This paper provides a broad overview of loading operations for pressurized blowdown monopropellant and pressure regulated integral bipropellant propulsion subsystems used in geosynchronous communication satellites. Propellant chemical composition, cleanliness, processing, and handling requirements are addressed. Ground servicing equipment (GSE) and propellant transfer procedures for the various loading configurations are discussed. Effects of helium solubility and helium saturation levels in both GSE carts and propellant tanks are examined. Predicted equilibrium pressures for actual postload tank pressures are compared against extensive loading data on Hughes bipropellant spacecraft. Helium tank pressurization and manifold pressurization practices are described. Propellant loading facility requirements and safety requirements are discussed.

  5. Behaviour of Cohesionless Soils During Cyclic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shajarati, Amir; Sørensen, Kris Wessel; Nielsen, Søren Kjær;

    wind turbine foundations. Therefore a literature study is performed in order to investigate existing research treating the behaviour of cohesionless soils, when subjected to cyclic loading. The behaviour of a soil subjected to cyclic loading is found to be dependent on; the relative density, mean......Offshore wind turbine foundations are typically subjected to cyclic loading from both wind and waves, which can lead to unacceptable deformations in the soil. However, no generally accepted standardised method is currently available, when accounting for cyclic loading during the design of offshore...

  6. Target Loading from a Submerged Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Wardlaw

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The pressure on a flat plate suspended over a submerged detonation is measured and simulated. Calculation and experiment are in relatively good agreement, although there is variation in experimental results and simulations are sensitive, near the centerline, to the computational details. This sensitivity is linked to the instability of the accelerating plume, typical of a Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. The plate loading features an initial force at plate center, followed by an expanding circular loading pattern. The initial load is due to plume impact, while the circular load arises from the impact of water transported up the edges of the explosion cavity.

  7. Load prediction of stall regulated wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerck, A.; Dahlberg, J.Aa. [Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden); Carlen, I. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Div. of Marine Structural Engineering; Ganander, H. [Teknikgruppen AB, Sollentua (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    Measurements of blade loads on a turbine situated in a small wind farm shows that the highest blade loads occur during operation close to the peak power i.e. when the turbine operates in the stall region. In this study the extensive experimental data base has been utilised to compare loads in selected campaigns with corresponding load predictions. The predictions are based on time domain simulations of the wind turbine structure, performed by the aeroelastic code VIDYN. In the calculations a model were adopted in order to include the effects of dynamic stall. This paper describes the work carried out so far within the project and key results. 5 refs, 10 figs

  8. Comparison of Temperature Loadings of Bridge Girders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Římal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the effect of temperature changes on the superstructure of bridges, above all the effect of non-uniform temperature. Loadings according to standards ESN 73 6203, ENV 1991-1-5 and DIN 1072 are compared here. The paper shows a short summary of temperature loading according to each standard and shows the comparison of bending moments arisen from these temperature loadings on superstructure made from continuous girder from a steel-concrete box girder with a composite concrete slab. With respect to a variety of design processes, the comparison is made without any coefficient of loading, combination or material. 

  9. Measuring training load in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Michael Ian; Borresen, Jill

    2010-09-01

    The principle of training can be reduced to a simple "dose-response" relationship. The "response" in this relationship can be measured as a change in performance or the adaptation of a physiological system. The "dose" of training, or physiological stress associated with the training load, is more difficult to measure as there is no absolute "gold standard" which can be used in the field, making it difficult to validate procedures. Attempts have been made to use heart rate as a marker of intensity during training, but the theoretical attractiveness of this method is not supported by the accuracy and the practicality of using this method during training or competition. The session RPE, based on the product of training duration and perceived intensity is more practical and can be used in a variety of sports. However, the score depends on a subjective assessment, and the intersubject comparisons may be inaccurate. The demands of different sports vary and therefore the methods of assessing training need to vary accordingly. The time has come to reach consensus on assessing training accurately in different sports. There is a precedent for this consensus approach with scientists having already done so for the assessment of physical activity, and for defining injuries in rugby, football and cricket. Standardizing these methods has resulted in the quality of research in these areas increasing exponentially.

  10. Wind loading on solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaduri, S.; Murphy, L.M.

    1985-06-01

    The present design methodology for the determination of wind loading on the various solar collectors has been reviewed and assessed. The total force coefficients of flat plates of aspect ratios 1.0 and 3.0, respectively, at various angles of attack obtained by using the guidelines of the ANSI A58.1-1982, have been compared with those obtained by using the methodology of the ASCE Task Committee, 1961, and the experimental results of the full-scale test of heliostats by Peglow. The turbulent energy spectra, currently employed in the building code, are compared with those of Kaimal et al., Lumley, and Ponofsky for wind velocities of 20.0 m/s and 40.24 m/s at an elevation of 9.15 m. The longitudinal spectra of the building code overestimates the Kaimal spectra in the frequency range of 0.007 Hz to 0.08 Hz and underestimates beyond the frequency of 0.08 Hz. The peak angles of attack, on the heliostat, stowed in horizontal position, due to turbulent vertical and lateral components of wind velocity, have been estimated by using Daniel's methodology for three wind velocities and compared with the value suggested by the code. The experimental results of a simple test in the laboratory indicate the feasibility of decreasing the drag forces of the flat plate by reducing the solidity ratio.

  11. System and method employing a self-organizing map load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Harley, Ronald G.; Du, Liang; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K.; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A.

    2014-06-17

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a self-organizing map load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types and a plurality of neurons, each of the load types corresponding to a number of the neurons; employing a weight vector for each of the neurons; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the loads; determining a load feature vector including at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the loads; and identifying by a processor one of the load types by relating the load feature vector to the neurons of the database by identifying the weight vector of one of the neurons corresponding to the one of the load types that is a minimal distance to the load feature vector.

  12. Procedures for Calculating Residential Dehumidification Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Jon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Residential building codes and voluntary labeling programs are continually increasing the energy efficiency requirements of residential buildings. Improving a building's thermal enclosure and installing energy-efficient appliances and lighting can result in significant reductions in sensible cooling loads leading to smaller air conditioners and shorter cooling seasons. However due to fresh air ventilation requirements and internal gains, latent cooling loads are not reduced by the same proportion. Thus, it's becoming more challenging for conventional cooling equipment to control indoor humidity at part-load cooling conditions and using conventional cooling equipment in a non-conventional building poses the potential risk of high indoor humidity. The objective of this project was to investigate the impact the chosen design condition has on the calculated part-load cooling moisture load, and compare calculated moisture loads and the required dehumidification capacity to whole-building simulations. Procedures for sizing whole-house supplemental dehumidification equipment have yet to be formalized; however minor modifications to current Air-Conditioner Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual J load calculation procedures are appropriate for calculating residential part-load cooling moisture loads. Though ASHRAE 1% DP design conditions are commonly used to determine the dehumidification requirements for commercial buildings, an appropriate DP design condition for residential buildings has not been investigated. Two methods for sizing supplemental dehumidification equipment were developed and tested. The first method closely followed Manual J cooling load calculations; whereas the second method made more conservative assumptions impacting both sensible and latent loads.

  13. 时域和空间域路面激励下重型辆动载荷仿真分析%Simulation Analysis of Heavy-duty Vehicle Dynamic Load under Road Excitation in Time Domain and Spatial Domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋荣超; 刘大维; 王松; 康忠亮

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the dynamic load characteristics of heavy-duty vehicle under road excitation in time domain and spatial domain, a rigid flexible coupling virtual vehicle prototype was established using SIMPACK software. The tires and leaf springs were treated as deformable body, and the rubber pads and limit block were simplified to force elements with non-linear stiffness and damping characteristics. And time domain and spatial domain mathematical models of road excitation were established using the harmony superposition method based on power spectral density of rational function. Then a dynamic model of vehicle under road excitation in time domain and spatial domain was established, and the vehicle tire normal force and tire normal dynamic load coefficient were computed. The simulation results indicate that (1) at different driving speeds, the values and change regularities of tire normal forces obtained under the road excitation in time domain and spatial domain were not the same, and the maximum values of tire normal force appeared at different location; (2) the change regularities of the middle and the rear axles' tire normal dynamic load coefficients were basically similar, while those of the front axle's tire normal dynamic load coefficient were different. The research results could provide a basis for calculation, verification and prediction of vehicle tire dynamic load.%为研究时间和空间频率路面激励下重型车辆动载特性,将车辆的轮胎、钢板弹簧视为柔体,橡胶垫块、限位块简化为具有非线性刚度和阻尼特性的力元,采用多体动力学仿真软件SIMPACK建立刚柔耦合的车辆整车虚拟样机,并采用有理函数功率谱密度的谐波叠加法建立空间域和时域路面激励数学模型,创建一个时域和空间域路面激励下车辆行驶动力学模型,仿真计算了车辆各轴轮胎的法向作用力和车轮法向动栽系数.结果表明:不同车速下,时域和空间域路面激

  14. Load-shortening behavior of an initially curved eccentrically loaded column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichter, W. B.; Pinson, Mark W.

    1989-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of using buckled columns to provide a soft support system for simulating a free-free boundary condition in dynamic testing, the nonlinear load-shortening behavior of initially imperfect, eccentrically loaded slender columns is analyzed. Load-shortening curves are obtained for various combinations of load eccentricity and uniform initial curvature and are compared, for reference purposes, with the limiting case of the classical elastica. Results for numerous combinations of initial curvature and load eccentricity show that, over a wide range of shortening, an axially loaded slender column exhibits load-deflection compliance which is of the same order as that of a straight but otherwise identical cantilever beam under lateral tip loading.

  15. 厂修货车转 K6 型承载鞍组装常见故障及处理%On the Common Faults and Disposal of Assembling the Load-bearing Saddle Typed K6 Bogie of the Truck Repaired in the Factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何步斌

    2015-01-01

    通过对厂修货车转K6型承载鞍组装过程中常见的承载鞍推力挡肩内径面与前盖外径面间隙超限、 承载鞍与侧架导框纵向单侧间隙超限、 轴箱橡胶垫无法落位3种故障进行分析, 查找原因, 提出控制措施.%The paper analyzes the common faults of assembling the bogie load-bearing saddle typed K6 of the truck repaired in the factory from three aspects , i.e.the gap beyond the limit between the aperture surface of the thrust block shoulder and the outside diameter of the front cover , the longitudinal unilateral gap beyond the limit between the load-bearing saddle and the side guide frame and the rubber blanket of the axle box failure to reach the designated position .It aims at finding out the reason of problems and puts forward some controlling measures .

  16. Utilización del factor de densidad de energía de deformación en el modelo de crecimiento de la grieta en árboles de molinos de caña de azúcar. // Use of the density deformation energy factor in the crack growth pattern of sugar cane mills axles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Arzola de la Peña

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se aplica el criterio de densidad de energía de deformación en el modelo de crecimiento de la grieta para losárboles de los molinos de caña de azúcar. La utilización de este criterio permite predecir no solamente la razón decrecimiento de las grietas sino también la inclinación que las mismas van experimentando durante su propagación, conrespecto al plano inicial donde surgen. Son modelados los dos tipos de grietas que usualmente ocurren en estos elementos,la grieta semielíptica superficial y la circunferencial. Se demuestra que la grieta circunferencial siempre crece en un planonormal al eje del árbol, mientras que las semielípticas lo harán en un plano algo inclinado en dependencia del predominiode las tensiones tangenciales. La grieta circunferencial resultó ser más crítica que la semielíptica superficial.Palabras claves: Energía de deformación, molinos de caña, propagación de grietas._______________________________________________________________________________Abstract.In this paper the approach of the density deformation energy factor in the crack growth pattern of sugar cane mills axles isapplied. The use of this approach allows predicting not only the rate of cracks growth but also the inclination that the sameones experienced during its propagation, with regard to the initial plane where they arise. The two types of cracks thatusually happens in these elements are modelled, the semielliptical superficial crack and the circumferential. It isdemonstrated that the circumferential crack always grows in a normal plane to the axis of the axle, while the semiellipticalwill make it in a plane something bowed in dependence of the prevalence of the tangential tensions. The circumferentialcrack turned out to be more critical than the semielliptical superficial.Keywords: Energy of deformation, cane mills, crack propagation.

  17. Strategies for Controlling Plug Loads. A Tool for Reducing Plug Loads in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bonnema, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheppy, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Shanti [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Plug loads are often not considered as part of the energy savings measures in Commercial Buildings; however, they can account for up to 50% of the energy used in the building. These loads are numerous and often scattered throughout a building. Some of these loads are purchased by the owner and some designed into the building or the tenant finishes for a space. This document provides a strategy and a tool for minimizing these loads.

  18. Direct Load Control by AC Frequency Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglass, Philip James; You, Shi

    2012-01-01

    Fine-grained under frequency load shedding called “demand as a frequency controlled reserve“ (DFCR) has been shown to be a promising method of providingfrequency regulation service from distributed loads [1]. Micro-grids with a large portion of intermittent renewable generation will benefit great...

  19. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from tree

  20. 46 CFR 153.806 - Loading information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loading information. 153.806 Section 153.806 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING... Inspection § 153.806 Loading information. Each tankship must have a manual containing information...

  1. 10 CFR 434.512 - Internal loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal loads. 434.512 Section 434.512 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.512 Internal loads. 512.1The...

  2. Cardboard Activity Is "Loaded" with Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an activity that uses simple paperboard from the back of a pad of paper to illustrate some basic construction principles as students experiment with conducting load tests. The author describes the steps in conducting a load test as well as adding a strut support system. The important lesson here is that…

  3. Static load testing of a heliostat drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, J.W.

    1991-10-01

    The drive designed and built by the Solar Power Engineering Company (SPECO) for its large area heliostat failed under high wind loads during a winter storm. This report details the testing and analysis done to verify the load capabilities of the rebuilt heliostat drive. Changes in design and improvements in fabrication resulted in a usable drive. 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Investigation of rotor control system loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Tao; Tan Jianfeng; Wang Haowen

    2013-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the aeroelasticity analysis of rotor blade and rotor control systems. A new multi-body dynamics model is established to predict both rotor pitch link loads and swashplate servo loads. Two helicopter rotors of UH-60A and SA349/2, both operating in two critical flight conditions, high-speed flight and high-thrust flight, are studied. The analysis shows good agreements with the flight test data and the calculation results using CAMRAD II. The mechanisms of rotor control loads are then analyzed in details based on the present predictions and the flight test data. In high-speed conditions, the pitch link loads are dominated by the integral of blade pitching moments, which are generated by cyclic pitch control. In high-thrust conditions, the positive pitching loads in the advancing side are caused by high collective pitch angle, and dynamic stall in the retreating side excites high-frequency responses. The swashplate servo loads are predominated by the rotor pitch link loads, and the inertia of the swashplate has significant effects on high-frequency harmonics of the servo loads.

  5. Synchronizing Rotation Of A Heavy Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Roger

    1991-01-01

    Drive system rotates large-inertia load at constant low speed. Simple setup of motors, pulleys, and belts provides both torque and synchronism. Induction motor drives two loads: rotating instrument and slightly lagging synchronous motor. Provides ample torque to start and maintain rotation, and synchronous motor ensures rotation synchronized with ac power supply.

  6. Duration of load effects of solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Staffan

    Test methods for studying the effect of long-term loading on the load carrying capacity of structural wood are discussed. The impact of sampling procedures on test results is investigated and is exemplified. It is concluded from this investigation that the sampling method has a significant impact...

  7. Concrete structures under impact loading rate effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielinski, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Various structures may be subjected to accidental, impact loading. The behaviour of structures under that kind of extreme loading conditions is of vital importance for people's safety and environmental damage prevention. There is a need for reliable assessment methods for the local and the overal

  8. Critical loads of heavy metals for soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Groenenberg, J.E.; Lofts, S.; Tipping, E.; Posch, M.

    2012-01-01

    To enable a precautionary risk assessment for future inputs of metals, steady-state methods have been developed to assess critical loads of metals avoiding long-term risks to food quality and eco-toxicological effects on organisms in soils and surface waters. A critical load for metals equals the lo

  9. Retrofitting of RC Slabs Against Explosive Loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Chengqing; OEHLERS Deric John; XIA Shaohua

    2006-01-01

    With the increase of terrorist bomb attacks on buildings,there is a need to develop advanced retrofitting techniques to strengthen structures against blast loads.Currently,several guidelines including an Australian version for retrofitting reinforced concrete (RC) structures are available for the design of retrofitting systems against seismic and monotonic loads using steel or fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) plates that can be either adhesively bonded to the surface or near surface mounted to the concrete cover.However,none of these guidelines provide advice suitable for retrofitting structures subjected to blast loads.In this paper,numerical models are used to simulate the performance of retrofitted RC slabs subjected to blast loads.Airblast pressure distributions on the surface of the slabs estimated in a previous study are used as input in the analysis.A material damage model developedpreviously for concrete and an elastoplastic model for steel bars are employed in this research for modelling reinforced concrete behaviour due to explosive loads.The material models and blast loading are coded into a finite element computer program LS-DYNA3D to do the analysis.With the numerical model,parametric studies are conducted to investigate RC slabs retrofitted by either externally bonded or near-surface mounted plates or GFRP sheets subjected to blast loads.Discussion is made on the effectiveness of the retrofitting system for RC slabs against blast loads.

  10. Controllable Load Management Approaches in Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshuang Shen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With rapid smart grid technology development, the customer can actively participate in demand-side management (DSM with the mutual information communication between the distributor operation company and the smart devices in real-time. Controllable load management not only has the advantage of peak shaving, load balance, frequency regulation, and voltage stability, but is also effective at providing fast balancing services to the renewable energy grid in the distributed power system. The load management faces an enormous challenge as the customer has a large number of both small residential loads and dispersed renewable sources. In this paper, various controllable load management approaches are discussed. The traditional controllable load approaches such as the end users’ controllable appliances, storage battery, Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G, and heat storage are reviewed. The “broad controllable loads” management, such as the microgrid, Virtual Power Plant (VPP, and the load aggregator are also presented. Furthermore, the load characteristics, control strategies, and control effectiveness are analyzed.

  11. Synthetic jet actuation for load control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de H.; Weide, van der E.T.A.; Hoeijmakers, H.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    The reduction of wind turbine blade loads is an important issue in the reduction of the costs of energy production. Reduction of the loads of a non-cyclic nature requires so-called smart rotor control, which involves the application of distributed actuators and sensors to provide fast and local chan

  12. Load-Bearing Capacity of Roof Trusses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Damkilde, Lars; Munch-Andersen, J.

    2004-01-01

    systems such as roof trusses are established and statistical characteristics of the load bearing capacity are determined. The results show that there is a significant increase in the characteristic (nominal) value and a reduction in the coefficient of variation (COV) for typical loads such as permanent...

  13. Compact Spiral Loaded Printed Monopole Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Xiulong; Ammann, Max

    2010-01-01

    A novel miniaturized printed monopole structure is proposed. The antenna comprises a printed monopole strip which is loaded by a spiral located on the rearside connected by a via. The inductive loading provided by the spiral enables considerable miniaturization of antenna. A parametric study of key dimensional parameters and groundplane are discussed.

  14. Equilibrium Configurations of Cantilever under Terminal Loads

    CERN Document Server

    Batista, Milan

    2013-01-01

    The paper provides an exact analytical solution for equilibrium configurations of cantilever rod subject to inclined force and torque acting on its free end. The solution is given in terms of Jacobi elliptical functions and illustrated by several numerical examples and several graphical presentations of shapes of deformed cantilever. Possible forms of cantilever underlying elastica are discussed in details and various simple formulas are given for calculation of characteristic dimensions of elastica. For the case when cantilever is subject only to applied force four load conditions are discussed: follower load problem, load determination problem, conservative load problem and rotational load problem. For all the cases the formulas or effective procedure for solution is given.

  15. NUTRIENT LOAD ESTIMATION METHODS FOR RIVERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huai-en LI; Joseph Hun-Wei LEE; Ming CAI

    2003-01-01

    Pollutant load estimation is essential for watershed management and water pollution control. For most watersheds, only sparse water quality measurements (e.g. monthly data) are available. The influence of input data on the accuracy of non-point source pollution load estimation is studied using the water quality and stream flow data from a small watershed in Hong Kong. Comparison and analysis of the results using 8 different methods show that the accuracy of stream-flow runoff is the single most important factor for the calculation of pollutant load. Based on the results, the stream flow correction coefficient is advanced to provide a more reliable load estimation. The improved method of pollutant load estimation can be easily applied in practice since the stream-flow runoff can be measured by hydrological station or estimated with various hydrological methods.

  16. Probabilistic Meteorological Characterization for Turbine Loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyond the existing, limited IEC prescription to describe fatigue loads on wind turbines, we look towards probabilistic characterization of the loads via analogous characterization of the atmospheric flow, particularly for today's ''taller'' turbines with rotors well above the atmospheric surface layer. Based on both data from multiple sites as well as theoretical bases from boundary-layer meteorology and atmospheric turbulence, we offer probabilistic descriptions of shear and turbulence intensity, elucidating the connection of each to the other as well as to atmospheric stability and terrain. These are used as input to loads calculation, and with a statistical loads output description, they allow for improved design and loads calculations

  17. Adaptive load shedding and regional protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, J.J.; Ledwich, G. [School of Engineering Systems, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Qld 4001 (Australia); Bevrani, H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Kurdistan Sanandaj, Kurdistan (Iran)

    2009-11-15

    The requirement for improved efficiency whilst maintaining system security necessitates the development of improved system analysis approaches and the development of advanced emergency control technologies. Load shedding is a type of emergency control that is designed to ensure system stability by curtailing system load to match generation supply. This paper presents a new adaptive load shedding scheme that provides emergency protection against excess frequency decline, whilst minimizing the risk of line overloading. The proposed load shedding scheme uses the local frequency rate information to adapt the load shedding behaviour to suit the size and location of the experienced disturbance. The proposed scheme is tested in simulation on a 3-region, 10-generator sample system and shows good performance. (author)

  18. Response of structures under random loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the memory model concept is applied to study the response of structural beam components under randomly applied loads. Appropriate moment-curvature relationships are first developed from cyclic deformation tests on flexural sections deterministic loading conditions. These relationships are then applied by using memory model concept to predict the response of mild steel cantilever beams under random loading and the results are compared with experiments. Good agreement was obtained, the maximum difference between predicted and measured load being about 12 per cent. The lives of cantilever beams under random loading conditions are also predicted and the results agree well with experiment; the maximum and minimum ratios of predicted life over the experimental values were 95 per cent and 72 per cent respectively. (Auth.)

  19. Using Utility Load Data to Estimate Demand for Space Cooling and Potential for Shiftable Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Ong, S.; Booten, C.

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes a simple method to estimate hourly cooling demand from historical utility load data. It compares total hourly demand to demand on cool days and compares these estimates of total cooling demand to previous regional and national estimates. Load profiles generated from this method may be used to estimate the potential for aggregated demand response or load shifting via cold storage.

  20. Peak load arrangements : Assessment of Nordel guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Two Nordic countries, Sweden and Finland, have legislation that empowers the TSO to acquire designated peak load resources to mitigate the risk for shortage situations during the winter. In Denmark, the system operator procures resources to maintain a satisfactory level of security of supply. In Norway the TSO has set up a Regulation Power Option Market (RKOM) to secure a satisfactory level of operational reserves at all times, also in winter with high load demand. Only the arrangements in Finland and Sweden fall under the heading of Peak Load Arrangements defined in Nordel Guidelines. NordREG has been invited by the Electricity Market Group (EMG) to evaluate Nordel's proposal for 'Guidelines for transitional Peak Load Arrangements'. The EMG has also financed a study made by EC Group to support NordREG in the evaluation of the proposal. The study has been taken into account in NordREG's evaluation. In parallel to the EMG task, the Swedish regulator, the Energy Markets Inspectorate, has been given the task by the Swedish government to investigate a long term solution of the peak load issue. The Swedish and Finnish TSOs have together with Nord Pool Spot worked on finding a harmonized solution for activation of the peak load reserves in the market. An agreement accepted by the relevant authorities was reached in early January 2009, and the arrangement has been implemented since 19th January 2009. NordREG views that the proposed Nordel guidelines have served as a starting point for the presently agreed procedure. However, NordREG does not see any need to further develop the Nordel guidelines for peak load arrangements. NordREG agrees with Nordel that the market should be designed to solve peak load problems through proper incentives to market players. NordREG presumes that the relevant authorities in each country will take decisions on the need for any peak load arrangement to ensure security of supply. NordREG proposes that such decisions should be

  1. Citraturic response to oral citric acid load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhaee, K.; Alpern, R.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    It is possible that some orally administered citrate may appear in urine by escaping oxidation in vivo. To determine whether this mechanism contributes to the citraturic response to potassium citrate, we measured serum and urinary citrate for 4 hours after a single oral load of citric acid (40 mEq.) in 6 normal subjects. Since citric acid does not alter acid-base balance, the effect of absorbed citrate could be isolated from that of alkali load. Serum citrate concentration increased significantly (p less than 0.05) 30 minutes after a single oral dose of citric acid and remained significantly elevated for 3 hours after citric acid load. Commensurate with this change, urinary citrate excretion peaked at 2 hours and gradually decreased during the next 2 hours after citric acid load. In contrast, serum and urinary citrate remained unaltered following the control load (no drug). Differences of the citratemic and citraturic effects between phases were significant (p less than 0.05) at 2 and 3 hours. Urinary pH, carbon dioxide pressure, bicarbonate, total carbon dioxide and ammonium did not change at any time after citric acid load, and did not differ between the 2 phases. No significant difference was noted in serum electrolytes, arterialized venous pH and carbon dioxide pressure at any time after citric acid load and between the 2 phases. Thus, the citraturic and citratemic effects of oral citric acid are largely accountable by provision of absorbed citrate, which has escaped in vivo degradation.

  2. Introduction To Application Server Load Balancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Pamukumar Swamy

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Now a day’s, everything is going online. And most of the work is done on internet. So, web applications plays vital role on internet to provide 24*7 services to customers. When application becomes popular, traffic to that is also in a state of growing. For availability, scalability, performances boosting more and more servers are required. Load balancing is a key issue in these types of large scale situation. Load balancing is to achieve optimal resource utilization, maximize throughput, minimize response time, and avoid overload. In many scenarios, however, it’s not simply a matter of distributing traffic equally across many servers once deploys; other factors can come into play. Here we studied different load balancing strategies, algorithms, methods and investigate the comparative behavior of load balancing with different parameters. The growing autonomy of servers’ significantly deteriorates the performance of traditional load-balancing so; idea is to implement application load balancer by using Dynamic load balancing method.

  3. Electricity Crisis and Load Management in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Kanti Das

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a densely populated country. Only a small part of her area is electrified which cover around 18% of total population. The people who are in the electrified area are suffering from severe load shedding. A systematic load management procedure related to demand side may improve the situation is the research problem. The major objectives serve by the research are to analyze contemporary electricity status with a view to drawing inference about demand supply gap and extracting benefits from load management. Data supplied by the Bangladesh Power Development Board, World Bank and outcome of survey are analyzed with some simple statistical tools to test the hypothesis. Analysis discloses that with properly managed uses of electricity with load switch and rotation week-end can improve the concurrent condition of electricity. Moreover, introducing smart distribution system, reducing system loss, shifting load to off-peak, large scale use of prepaid mete, observing energy week and using energy efficient home and office appliance are recommended to improve load through demand side management. Some other recommendations such as introducing alternative energy, public private partnership and using renewable energy development and producing energy locally are made for load management from the supply side.

  4. Variable Current Transient Beam Loading Compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, Zoltan D

    2000-10-25

    The energy spread caused by transients during beam turn-on can be reduced by suitable timing of the beam turn-on[1]. If the beam is injected when the no-load voltage reaches the desired loaded voltage, then the energy spread is about 10%. To eliminate this energy spread, one can amplitude or phase modulate the section input power for one fill time, so that when the beam is turned on, the no-load voltage equals the desired loaded voltage and from then on, the change in no-load voltage tracks the beam induced voltage. It is known that for a constant gradient (CG) structure, and amplitude variation of the form E(t) = a{sub 0} + (1 - a{sub 0}) t{sub p} will reduce the energy spread to zero for a current that is determined by a{sub 0}. When one uses rf modulation for transient beam loading compensation, the beam is injected a fill time after the rf has been turned on, and one is forced to throw away a section's worth of rf energy. In addition, it requires extra components which use up additional rf energy. This note describes transient beam loading compensation with variable current. It will show that it increases the rf energy to beam energy transfer efficiency.

  5. Effect of Internal Clearance on Load Distribution and Life of Radially Loaded Ball and Roller Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Poplawski, Joseph V.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of internal clearance on radially loaded deepgroove ball and cylindrical roller bearing load distribution and fatigue life was determined for four clearance groups defined in the bearing standards. The analysis was extended to negative clearance (interference) conditions to produce a curve of life factor versus internal clearance. Rolling-element loads can be optimized and bearing life maximized for a small negative operating clearance. Life declines gradually with positive clearance and rapidly with increasing negative clearance. Relationships were found between bearing life and internal clearance as a function of ball or roller diameter, adjusted for load. Results are presented as life factors for radially loaded bearings independent of bearing size or applied load. In addition, a modified Stribeck Equation is presented that relates the maximum rolling-element load to internal bearing clearance.

  6. Standardized loads acting in knee implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Georg; Bender, Alwina; Graichen, Friedmar; Dymke, Jörn; Rohlmann, Antonius; Trepczynski, Adam; Heller, Markus O; Kutzner, Ines

    2014-01-01

    The loads acting in knee joints must be known for improving joint replacement, surgical procedures, physiotherapy, biomechanical computer simulations, and to advise patients with osteoarthritis or fractures about what activities to avoid. Such data would also allow verification of test standards for knee implants. This work analyzes data from 8 subjects with instrumented knee implants, which allowed measuring the contact forces and moments acting in the joint. The implants were powered inductively and the loads transmitted at radio frequency. The time courses of forces and moments during walking, stair climbing, and 6 more activities were averaged for subjects with I) average body weight and average load levels and II) high body weight and high load levels. During all investigated activities except jogging, the high force levels reached 3,372-4,218N. During slow jogging, they were up to 5,165N. The peak torque around the implant stem during walking was 10.5 Nm, which was higher than during all other activities including jogging. The transverse forces and the moments varied greatly between the subjects, especially during non-cyclic activities. The high load levels measured were mostly above those defined in the wear test ISO 14243. The loads defined in the ISO test standard should be adapted to the levels reported here. The new data will allow realistic investigations and improvements of joint replacement, surgical procedures for tendon repair, treatment of fractures, and others. Computer models of the load conditions in the lower extremities will become more realistic if the new data is used as a gold standard. However, due to the extreme individual variations of some load components, even the reported average load profiles can most likely not explain every failure of an implant or a surgical procedure.

  7. Standardized loads acting in knee implants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Bergmann

    Full Text Available The loads acting in knee joints must be known for improving joint replacement, surgical procedures, physiotherapy, biomechanical computer simulations, and to advise patients with osteoarthritis or fractures about what activities to avoid. Such data would also allow verification of test standards for knee implants. This work analyzes data from 8 subjects with instrumented knee implants, which allowed measuring the contact forces and moments acting in the joint. The implants were powered inductively and the loads transmitted at radio frequency. The time courses of forces and moments during walking, stair climbing, and 6 more activities were averaged for subjects with I average body weight and average load levels and II high body weight and high load levels. During all investigated activities except jogging, the high force levels reached 3,372-4,218N. During slow jogging, they were up to 5,165N. The peak torque around the implant stem during walking was 10.5 Nm, which was higher than during all other activities including jogging. The transverse forces and the moments varied greatly between the subjects, especially during non-cyclic activities. The high load levels measured were mostly above those defined in the wear test ISO 14243. The loads defined in the ISO test standard should be adapted to the levels reported here. The new data will allow realistic investigations and improvements of joint replacement, surgical procedures for tendon repair, treatment of fractures, and others. Computer models of the load conditions in the lower extremities will become more realistic if the new data is used as a gold standard. However, due to the extreme individual variations of some load components, even the reported average load profiles can most likely not explain every failure of an implant or a surgical procedure.

  8. 交通荷载作用下公路路基动力响应研究%Study on Dynamic Response of Highway Subgrade under Traffic Loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳; 张家生; 孟飞; 宋良良

    2013-01-01

    针对双向四车道高速公路路基路面结构形式,建立有限元模型,施加三维一致粘弹性人工边界,并基于车辆动力分析理论,对模型施加交通荷载,从而获得了路基的动力响应参数.计算结果表明:标准轴载作用下,路基内3 m深度处,竖向动应力衰减率达80%以上,路基内竖向动应力的影响深度为3 m左右;路基顶面的竖向动应力随着距车轮外缘距离的增大迅速降低,2 m范围内衰减约90%,竖向动位移衰减约60%,交通荷载对路基的影响宽度为6 m左右.%In connection with pavement structure of bidirectional four-lane highway subgrade, a finite element model is established with 3D consistent viscous-spring artificial boundary applied and then, based on vehicle dynamic analysis theory, traffic loads are applied to the model so that the dynamic response parameters could be obtained. The result calculated shows that, under standard axle load, going through 3m in depth, the attenuating rate of vertical dynamic stress is more than 80% , the depth inside the subgrade being affected by vertical dynamic stress is about 3m; the vertical dynamic stress on the subgrade surface decreases rapidly with the increase of distance to the felloe, within the range of 2m, the decrement is about 90% , and the decrement of vertical displacement is about 60% . The width on the subgrade being affected by traffic loads is about 6m.

  9. A combined loading system integrated with portable winch and polyethylene chutes for loading of timber products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hulusi Acar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Truck loading operation is an important task during timber production operations in forestry. In Turkey, approximately 50 million timbers/logs are being produced per year, and then they are loaded into the logging trucks. The timber/logs are transported over the forest roads with an average of one million roundtrips. However, the traditional loading methods using manpower are mostly performed while some part is done by using loading machines which can be very costly and risky. This study aims developing a combined loading system in which heavy logs are loaded into logging trucks by pulling them by a log-line powered by a portable crane within the chute system. The slope of the log-line from ground to logging truck varied between 1% and 25%. Within the each work cycle of loading operation, only one log was loaded by pulling with portable crane. The average loading time was found as 161.8 seconds per cycle, in which 67% of the time was spent on pulling the log into the logging truck. The results indicated that the average pulling speed with crane power was 840.4 m/hr and productivity was calculated as 4.94 m3/hr. The result on system speed and productivity indicated close relations with results from previous studies. The hydraulic grapple loader or cranes are widely used and common loading machines, but they cannot be efficiently used in forestry operations, especially ones having a low timber productivity rate or having low economic value timber. In these conditions, loading methods that are cost efficient and do not require higher production rate should be employed. Therefore, a combined loading system introduced in this study can be a feasible solution for loading operations in those cases. Furthermore, it is believed that this loading system integrated with a portable crane can be cost efficient and time saving solution, as well as ergonomic and safe method in the field.

  10. Childhood Cumulative Risk and Later Allostatic Load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doan, Stacey N; Dich, Nadya; Evans, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    cardiovascular, hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, sympathetic adrenal medullary system, and metabolic activity. Smoking and alcohol/drug use were tested as mediators of the hypothesized childhood risk-adolescent allostatic load relationship. Results: Cumulative risk exposure at age 9 predicted increases...... in allostatic load 8 years later. Smoking, but not alcohol and drug use, was a significant mediator of the prospective, longitudinal relationship between childhood cumulative risk and adolescent allostatic load. Conclusions: The present paper contributes to the understanding of the role of early life stress...

  11. Monopod Bucket Foundations Under Cyclic Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    The monopod bucket foundation has the potential to become a cost-reducing substructure for offshore wind turbines. To avoid problems during the energy converter operation, the long-term effect of cyclic loading must be considered in the design of the foundation. In this paper, a 1-g testing rig...... is adopted to extend the knowledge of bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading. The test setup is described, and a comprehensive experimental campaign is presented. The effect of some important system parameters on the long-term plastic rotation is analysed. Key aspects of the cyclic load behavior...... of bucket foundations are discussed....

  12. Modeling of Generic Slung Load System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Morten; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; la Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the result of the modelling and verification of a generic slung load system using a small-scale helicopter. The model is intended for use in simulation, pilot training, estimation, and control. The model is derived using a redundant coordinate formulation based on Gauss...... slackening and tightening as well as aerodynamic coupling between the helicopter and the load. Furthermore, it is shown how the model can be easily used for multi-lift systems either with multiple helicopters or multiple loads. A numerical stabilisation algorithm is introduced and finally the use...

  13. Numerical Analyses of Plate Loading Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ-Ovidiu Toma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical simulation of plate loading test, in order to underlines the size effect on settlements and derived values of geotechnical parameters, is shown. The study is based on the comparison between the results obtained by Finite Element Method (FEM using the Mohr-Coulomb soil model and by some observations from literature. The obtained numerical results revealed that the subgrade reaction coefficient is strictly dependent on parameters like size of the loaded area and loading magnitude, and thus completely general and generic, and not a fundamental material property of soil that can somehow be determined rationally, as often one claims to be.

  14. Environmental load due to private consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The title project aimed at generating Environmental Load Intensities (ELIs) for a number of household expenditures on the basis of so-called economic input/output analysis. Household expenditures form the financial base for most economic activities. The global environmental loads resulting from these economic activities are allocated to household expenditures by following the financial flows in production chains. This production-related environmental load is referred to as indirect load. The environmental load that occurs after purchasing a product is referred to as the direct load, e.g. the emission of VOC from paints or the exhaust gases of private motor vehicles etc. This direct load was also quantified in the project, albeit in a different way to the indirect load. Specific references from the literature were used for quantifying the direct load, which originates in a limited number of products. This has resulted in a basic data set of ELIs, which can be used for many purposes. The total environmental pressure from private consumption is calculated by multiplying the ELIs by household expenditures monitored by Statistics Netherlands in its annual budget survey. The total environmental load per capita per year (also referred to as 'footprint profile') are: - land use 0.9 ha; greenhouse effect 11 ton CO2-eq.;- acidification 73 kg SO2-eq.; - nutrification 29 kg PO4-eq.; smog 16 kg VOC-eq.; wood extraction 0.52 m3 wood; - fish extraction 13 kg fish; water extraction 989 m3 water; - road traffic noise 106 thousand motor car km-eq.; - pesticides 437 g (active ingredient). This footprint profile is based on environmental data for the year 1995 and household expenditures for the year 2000. The land surface required for Dutch private consumption equals 3.9 times the surface area of the Netherlands. Most environmental data hold for the reference year 1995, while expenditure data are available for the years 1995 to 2000. Several cross-sections of the environmental load, i

  15. Load Estimation by Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ivar Chr. Bjerg; Hansen, Søren Mosegaard; Brincker, Rune;

    2007-01-01

    When performing operational modal analysis the dynamic loading is unknown, however, once the modal properties of the structure have been estimated, the transfer matrix can be obtained, and the loading can be estimated by inverse filtering. In this paper loads in frequency domain are estimated...... of the mass change method. The problem of inverting the often singular or nearly singular transfer function matrix is solved by the singular value decomposition technique using a limited number of singular values. The dependence of the eigenfrequencies on the accuracy of the scaling factors is investigated...

  16. Cooling solutions for high heat load optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat loads on optical components at third-generation synchrotron sources, such as the APS, present beamline designers with difficult and complex engineering problems. A number of solutions have been proposed, such as pin-post water cooling, cryogenic cooling, and liquid gallium cooling. This paper describes both a cryogenic cooling system and a liquid gallium pumping system that have been developed specifically for the APS high heat load beamlines. Also presented is a potential solution for the first mirrors on high heat load beamlines, based on liquid gallium internal cooling of a silicon carbide mirror. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  17. Wind turbine blade testing under combined loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roczek-Sieradzan, Agnieszka; Nielsen, Magda; Branner, Kim;

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents full-scale blade tests under a combined flap- and edgewise loading. The main aim of this paper is to present the results from testing a wind turbine blade under such conditions and to study the structural behavior of the blade subjected to combined loading. A loading method using...... anchor plates was applied, allowing transverse shear distortion. The global and local deformation of the blade as well as the reproducibility of the test was studied and the results from the investigations are presented....

  18. The global atmospheric loading of dust aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, J. F.; Ridley, D. A.; Haustein, K.; Miller, R. L.; Zhao, C.

    2015-12-01

    Mineral dust is one of the most ubiquitous aerosols in the atmosphere, with important effects on human health and the climate system. But despite its importance, the global atmospheric loading of dust has remained uncertain, with model results spanning about a factor of five. Here we constrain the particle size-resolved atmospheric dust loading and global emission rate, using a novel theoretical framework that uses experimental constraints on the optical properties and size distribution of dust to eliminate climate model errors due to assumed dust properties. We find that most climate models underestimate the global atmospheric loading and emission rate of dust aerosols.

  19. Modelling and Simulation of Wave Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    velocity can be approximated by a Gaussian Markov process. Known approximate results for the first-passage density or equivalently, the distribution of the extremes of wave loads are presented and compared with rather precise simulation results. It is demonstrated that the approximate results......A simple model of the wave load on slender members of offshore structures is described. The wave elevation of the sea state is modelled by a stationary Gaussian process. A new procedure to simulate realizations of the wave loads is developed. The simulation method assumes that the wave particle...... are unconservative at least for the spectra used in this investigation....

  20. Modelling and Simulation of Wave Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1985-01-01

    velocity can be approximated by a Gaussian Markov process. Known approximate results for the first passage density or equivalently, the distribution of the extremes of wave loads are presented and compared with rather precise simulation results. It is demonstrated that the approximate results......A simple model of the wave load on stender members of offshore structures is described . The wave elevation of the sea stateis modelled by a stationary Gaussian process. A new procedure to simulate realizations of the wave loads is developed. The simulation method assumes that the wave particle...... are unconservative at least for the spectra used in this investigation....

  1. Synthesis of polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin J

    2014-10-07

    The synthesis of a polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy uses a one-step cure by applying an external stimulus to release the acid from the polyoxometalate and thereby catalyze the cure reaction of the epoxy resin. Such polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites afford the cured epoxy unique properties imparted by the intrinsic properties of the polyoxometalate. For example, polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites can be used as corrosion resistant epoxy coatings, for encapsulation of electronics with improved dielectric properties, and for structural applications with improved mechanical properties.

  2. Cyclic Triaxial Loading of Cohesionless Silty Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2015-01-01

    To engineer efficient structures offshore, we need to extend our knowledge of soil response. Cyclic loading and high water pressure encountered offshore greatly influence cohesionless soil performance. Silty sand from Frederikshavn wind turbine farm was tested using single diameter height samples...... with lubricated, smooth boundary piston heads in a Danish triaxial apparatus. Samples were successfully subjected to loading histories of high complexity. Loading include high strains and stresses, post liquefaction response, transitioning through multiple densities and restoring initial soil...... properties after long test procedures. Results suggest the testing method is highly suitable for observing complicated soil response and worth exploring further....

  3. Economic Load Dispatch Using Grey Wolf Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sudhir Sharma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents grey wolf optimization (GWO to solve convex economic load dispatch (ELD problem. Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO is a new meta-heuristic inspired by grey wolves. The leadership hierarchy and hunting mechanism of the grey wolves is mimicked in GWO. The objective of ELD problem is to minimize the total generation cost while fulfilling the different constraints, when the required load of power system is being supplied. The proposed technique is implemented on two different test systems for solving the ELD with various load demands. To show the effectiveness of GWO to solve ELD problem results were compared with other existing techniques.

  4. Strength of concrete structures under dynamic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpyak, O. G., E-mail: ogkumpyak@yandex.ru; Galyautdinov, Z. R., E-mail: gazr@yandex.ru; Kokorin, D. N., E-mail: kokorindenn@yandex.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The use of elastic supports is one the efficient methods of decreasing the dynamic loading. The paper describes the influence of elastic supports on the stress-strain state of steel concrete structures exposed to one-time dynamic loading resulting in failure. Oblique bending beams on elastic supports and their elastic, elastoplastic, and elastoplastic consolidation behavior are considered in this paper. For numerical calculations the developed computer program is used based on the finite element method. Research findings prove high efficiency of elastic supports under dynamic loading conditions. The most effective behavior of elastic supports is demonstrated at the elastoplastic stage. A good agreement is observed between the theoretical and experimental results.

  5. Ibuprofen induced drug loaded polymeric micelles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Wei Tan; Hong Jun Wang; Ke Hua Tu; Hong Liang Jiang; Li Qun Wang

    2011-01-01

    Three model drugs with different function groups were chosen to dialyze with dextran-graft-poly (N-isopropylacrylamide). Only ibuprofen could induce the formation of drug loaded micelles, which was confirmed with dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscope. Hydrogen-bonding between the amide groups of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) and the carboxyl groups of ibuprofen was driving force for the drug-loaded micelle. It was also found that the diameter of the ibuprofen-loaded micelles changed reversibly against temperature.

  6. A Study on Load Testing Based on LoadRunner%基于LoadRunner的负载测试研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金跃权

    2014-01-01

    LoadRunner is one piece of the preferred tool software for load testing and analysis of an in⁃ formation system. This paper describes LoadRunner components, load testing principle and testing environment configuration. The load testing technologies of recording and editing testing script, testing scenario design,setting virtual IP address,operating and monitoring scenario,and analyzing of testing result are thoroughly discussed.%LoadRunner是信息系统负载测试分析的首选工具软件之一。文章介绍了Load⁃Runner的组件构成、负载测试工作原理和测试环境配置,并对测试脚本录制编辑、测试场景设计、虚拟IP 地址设置、场景运行监控、测试结果分析等负载测试关键技术进行了深入探讨。

  7. 14 CFR 25.343 - Design fuel and oil loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design fuel and oil loads. 25.343 Section... Design fuel and oil loads. (a) The disposable load combinations must include each fuel and oil load in the range from zero fuel and oil to the selected maximum fuel and oil load. A structural reserve...

  8. 14 CFR 29.337 - Limit maneuvering load factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limit maneuvering load factor. 29.337... Limit maneuvering load factor. The rotorcraft must be designed for— (a) A limit maneuvering load factor... load factor not less than 2.0 and any negative limit maneuvering load factor of not less than −0.5...

  9. 14 CFR 27.337 - Limit maneuvering load factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limit maneuvering load factor. 27.337... Limit maneuvering load factor. The rotorcraft must be designed for— (a) A limit maneuvering load factor... load factor not less than 2.0 and any negative limit maneuvering load factor of not less than −0.5...

  10. 14 CFR 23.337 - Limit maneuvering load factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limit maneuvering load factors. 23.337... Flight Loads § 23.337 Limit maneuvering load factors. (a) The positive limit maneuvering load factor n... airplanes; or (3) 6.0 for acrobatic category airplanes. (b) The negative limit maneuvering load factor...

  11. Mechanically loaded myotubes affect osteoclast formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Juffer; R.T. Jaspers; J. Klein-Nulend; A.D. Bakker

    2014-01-01

    In response to mechanical loading skeletal muscle produces numerous growth factors and cytokines that enter the circulation. We hypothesized that myotubes produce soluble factors that affect osteoclast formation and aimed to identify which osteoclastogenesis-modulating factors are differentially pro

  12. Oscillations of end loaded cantilever beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho-Stadler, E.; Elejalde-García, M. J.; Llanos-Vázquez, R.

    2015-09-01

    This article presents several simple experiments based on changing transverse vibration frequencies in a cantilever beam, when acted on by an external attached mass load at the free end. By using a mechanical wave driver, available in introductory undergraduate laboratories, we provide various experimental results for end loaded cantilever beams that fit reasonably well into a linear equation. The behaviour of the cantilever beam’s weak-damping resonance response is studied for the case of metal resonance strips. As the mass load increases, a more pronounced decrease occurs in the fundamental frequency of beam vibration. It is important to note that cantilever construction is often used in architectural design and engineering construction projects but current analysis also predicts the influence of mass load on the sound generated by musical free reeds with boundary conditions similar to a cantilever beam.

  13. Monopod bucket foundations under cyclic lateral loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    The monopod bucket foundation can be a cost-reducing sub-structure for offshore wind turbines. To avoid problems during the turbine operation, the long-term effect of cyclic loading must be considered in the design of the foundation. In this paper a 1g testing rig is adopted to extend the knowledge...... on bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading. The test setup is described in detail and a comprehensive experimental campaign is presented. The foundation is subjected to cyclic overturning moment, cyclic horizontal loading and constant vertical loading, acting on the same plane for thousands...... of cycles. Three buckets with different embedment ratios are tested. The data interpretation is focused on the long-term permanent rotation of the foundation and, particularly, on understanding how the controlling variables influence the potential for rotation accumulation. New and more general parameters...

  14. S-Band Loads for SLAC Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasnykh, A.; Decker, F.-J.; /SLAC; LeClair, R.; /INTA Technologies, Santa Clara

    2012-08-28

    The S-Band loads on the current SLAC linac RF system were designed, in some cases, 40+ years ago to terminate 2-3 MW peak power into a thin layer of coated Kanthal material as the high power absorber [1]. The technology of the load design was based on a flame-sprayed Kanthal wire method onto a base material. During SLAC linac upgrades, the 24 MW peak klystrons were replaced by 5045 klystrons with 65+ MW peak output power. Additionally, SLED cavities were introduced and as a result, the peak power in the current RF setup has increased up to 240 MW peak. The problem of reliable RF peak power termination and RF load lifetime required a careful study and adequate solution. Results of our studies and three designs of S-Band RF load for the present SLAC RF linac system is discussed. These designs are based on the use of low conductivity materials.

  15. Exercise Load Measurement Insole (ELMI) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Exercise Load Measurement Insole (ELMI) is a system that is designed to measure normal and shear foot forces during exercise. The ELMI system is lightweight,...

  16. Home Appliance Load Scheduling with SEMIAH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg; Ghasem Azar, Armin; Zhang, Qi;

    2015-01-01

    The European research project SEMIAH aims at designing a scalable infrastructure for residential demand response. This paper presents the progress towards a centralized load scheduling algorithm for controlling home appliances taking power grid constraints and satisfaction of consumers into account....

  17. Designing divertor targets for uniform power load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekeyser, W.; Reiter, D.; Baelmans, M.

    2015-08-01

    Divertor design for next step fusion reactors heavily relies on 2D edge plasma modeling with codes as e.g. B2-EIRENE. While these codes are typically used in a design-by-analysis approach, in previous work we have shown that divertor design can alternatively be posed as a mathematical optimization problem, and solved very efficiently using adjoint methods adapted from computational aerodynamics. This approach has been applied successfully to divertor target shape design for more uniform power load. In this paper, the concept is further extended to include all contributions to the target power load, with particular focus on radiation. In a simplified test problem, we show the potential benefits of fully including the radiation load in the design cycle as compared to only assessing this load in a post-processing step.

  18. Loaded Gelled Bipropellants for Optimized Performance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The focus of this program is the development and validation of formulations, and development methodologies, for optimizing high-performance particulate-loaded...

  19. Cooling Load Distribution of Large Space Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hong-bing(陈红兵); TU Guang-bei(涂光备); YANG Jie(杨洁); Chan K T

    2003-01-01

    The cooling and heating load distribution of large area air-conditioned room such as "open" offices, shopping malls and waiting rooms is usually assumed to be even in air conditioning system design. However, it is not the case in reality, and a low efficient air conditioning system results from this assumption. A simulation and analysis of the cooling load distribution of an office building in Hong Kong with TRANSYS software is provided in this paper. A typical office is divided into 13 zones for simulation, including external zone, medial zone and internal zone in the north, the south, the east and the west respectively and a central zone, instead of 4 directional zone. The result shows there is much cooling load difference between each zone, and more attention should be paid to uneven indoor cooling and heating load distribution to further guide the design.

  20. Modeling and control of thermostatically controlled loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, Scott N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kundu, S. [UNIV OF MICHIGAN; Hiskens, I. [UNIV OF MICHIGAN

    2011-01-04

    As the penetration of intermittent energy sources grows substantially, loads will be required to play an increasingly important role in compensating the fast time-scale fluctuations in generated power. Recent numerical modeling of thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) has demonstrated that such load following is feasible, but analytical models that satisfactorily quantify the aggregate power consumption of a group of TCLs are desired to enable controller design. We develop such a model for the aggregate power response of a homogeneous population of TCLs to uniform variation of all TCL setpoints. A linearized model of the response is derived, and a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) has been designed. Using the TCL setpoint as the control input, the LQR enables aggregate power to track reference signals that exhibit step, ramp and sinusoidal variations. Although much of the work assumes a homogeneous population of TCLs with deterministic dynamics, we also propose a method for probing the dynamics of systems where load characteristics are not well known.

  1. LIGHT-WEIGHT LOAD-BEARING STRUCTURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a light-weight load-bearing structure (1) with optimized compression zone (2), where along one or more compression zones (2) in the structure (1) to be cast a core (3) of strong concrete is provided, which core (3) is surrounded by concrete of less strength (4) compared...... to the core (3) of strong concrete. The invention also relates to a method of casting of light-weight load-bearing structures (1) with optimized compression zone (2) where one or more channels, grooves, ducts, pipes and/or hoses (5) formed in the load-bearing structure (1) serves as moulds for moulding one...... or more cores (3) of strong concrete in the light-weight load-bearing structure (1)....

  2. Development of Engine Loads Methodology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR seeks to improve the definition of design loads for rocket engine components such that higher performing, lighter weight engines can be developed more...

  3. Multifrequency Printed Antennas Loaded with Metamaterial Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Segovia-Vargas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of printed antennas loaded with metamaterial particles. This novel technique allows developing printed antennas with interesting features such as multifrequency (simultaneous operation over two or more frequency bands and multifunctionality (e. g. radiation pattern diversity. Moreover, compactness is also achieved and the main advantages of conventional printed antennas (light weight, low profile, low cost ... are maintained. Different types of metamaterial-loaded printed antennas are reviewed: printed dipoles and patch antennas. Several prototypes are designed, manufactured and measured showing good results. Furthermore, simple but accurate equivalent models are proposed. These models allow an easy and quick design of metamaterial-loaded printed antennas. Finally, two interesting applications based on the proposed antennas are reviewed: the patch antennas are used as radiating elements of emerging active RFID systems in the microwave band and the metamaterial-loaded printed dipoles are employed to increase the performance of log-periodic arrays.

  4. Radiopure Metal-Loaded Liquid Scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosero, Richard [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Yeh, Minfang [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.

    2015-03-18

    Metal-loaded liquid scintillator plays a key role in particle and nuclear physics experiments. The applications of metal ions in various neutrino experiments and the purification methods for different scintillator components are discussed in this paper.

  5. Final Project Report Load Modeling Transmission Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesieutre, Bernard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bravo, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yinger, Robert [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chassin, Dave [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Huang, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Ning [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hiskens, Ian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Venkataramanan, Giri [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-03-31

    The research presented in this report primarily focuses on improving power system load models to better represent their impact on system behavior. The previous standard load model fails to capture the delayed voltage recovery events that are observed in the Southwest and elsewhere. These events are attributed to stalled air conditioner units after a fault. To gain a better understanding of their role in these events and to guide modeling efforts, typical air conditioner units were testing in laboratories. Using data obtained from these extensive tests, new load models were developed to match air conditioner behavior. An air conditioner model is incorporated in the new WECC composite load model. These models are used in dynamic studies of the West and can impact power transfer limits for California. Unit-level and systemlevel solutions are proposed as potential solutions to the delayed voltage recovery problem.

  6. Variable load automatically tests dc power supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, H. C., Jr.; Sullivan, R. M.

    1965-01-01

    Continuously variable load automatically tests dc power supplies over an extended current range. External meters monitor current and voltage, and multipliers at the outputs facilitate plotting the power curve of the unit.

  7. Research on the reduction of environmental load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects from the viewpoint of the reduction of environmental load have been evaluated in studies of the validity of the FBR fuel Cycle. As an index of environmental load, the dose rate, whish's caused by radionuclide migration from an underground repository to biosphere, is one of the most important items. For the evaluations of this dose rate, a simplified safety estimation method for the radioactive waste repository was developed. Furthermore, information related to index of environmental load was collected. And collected information was categorized and analyzed. Through this research, the following results was obtained: (1) A simplified safety estimation method for the radioactive waste repository that based on specified evaluation model and target nuclides was developed. Calculated results were compared to results of an existing safety estimation code, and were verified. (2) Though the most suitable item is varied with the goal and object of assessment, the most summarized item that characterizes environmental load is 'the volume of the waste'. (author)

  8. LEACH Algorithm Based on Load Balancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangang Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses advantages of LEACH Algorithm and the existing improved model which takes the famous hierarchy clustering routing protocol LEACH Algorithm as researching object. Then the paper indicates the problem that in the algorithm capacity factor of cluster head node is not taken into account leading the structure of clusters to be not so reasonable. This research discusses an energy-uniform cluster and cluster head selecting mechanism in which “Pseudo cluster head” concept is introduced in order to coordinate with “Load Monitor” Mechanism and “Load Leisure” Mechanism to maintain load balancing of cluster head character and stability of network topology. On the basis of LEACH Protocol improving algorithm of LEACH-C, CEFL and DCHS. NS2 simulation instrument is applied to do simulation analysis on the improved algorithm. Simulation result shows that LEACH-P Protocol effectively increase energy utilization efficiency, lengthens network lifetime and balances network load.  

  9. Introduction to Single Piles under Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    The purpose of this chapter is to give a short introduction to single piles subjected to lateral loading. First, the observed behaviour of laterally loaded piles is described, i.e. the effects of loading conditions, installation procedure, pile type etc. on pile behaviour are presented (section 1.......2). The description is based on results of laboratory tests, full-scale field tests as well as numerical investigations presented in literature. Second, general methods that attempt to model lateral pile response are discussed in section 1.4. Third, focus is paid to a widely used method for prediction of the response...... of a lateral loaded pile, namely the Winkler approach in which the pile is modelled as an elastic beam on an elastic foundation (section 1.5). The soil response and thereby the elastic foundation is represented by springs with nonlinear behaviour (p-y curves). In section 1.6 different types and formulations...

  10. Catastrophe model and its experimental verification of static loading rock system under impact load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    According to the catastrophe model for impact buckling of static loading structures, a new catastrophe model for impact loading failure of a static loading rock system was established, and one dimension (1D) catastrophe model was analyzed. The analysis results indicate that the furcation collection where catastrophe may take place is not only decided by mechanical system itself but also relates to exterior loading, which is different from the results obtained under mono-static loading where the bifurcation collection is only determined by mechanics of the system itself and has nothing to do with exterior loading. In addition, the corresponding 1D coupled static-dynamic loading experiment is designed to verify the analysis results of catastrophe model The test is done with Instron 1342 electroservo controlled testing system, in which medium strain rate is caused by monotony rising dynamic load. The parameters are obtained combining theoretical model with experiment. The experimental and theoretical curves of critical dynamic load vs static load are rather coincided, thus the new model is proved to be correct.

  11. Wakefield excitation via metasurface-loaded waveguide

    OpenAIRE

    Sharples, Emmy; Letizia, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    A metallic waveguide loaded with layers of complementary split ring resonator (CSRR) based metasurface is presented for accelerator and coherent source applications. This structure presents left handed behaviour arising from the strong electrical response of CSRRs which form the metasurface and the transverse field confined between the closely positioned metasurface layers. The loaded waveguide structure is known to have a TM-like mode at 5.47GHz suitable for acceleration. In this paper, the ...

  12. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) Description and Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyague, F.

    2011-11-01

    This document describes simulated turbine load cases in accordance to the IEC 61400-1 Ed.3 standard, which is representative of the typical wind turbine design process. The information presented herein is intended to provide a broad understanding of the gearbox reliability collaborative 750kW drivetrain and turbine configuration. In addition, fatigue and ultimate strength drivetrain loads resulting from simulations are presented. This information provides the bases for the analytical work of the gearbox reliability collaborative effort.

  13. Pressure Hull Analysis under Shock Loading

    OpenAIRE

    Ya-Jung Lee; Chia-Hao Hsu; Chien-Hua Huang

    2008-01-01

    The hull of high performance submarines must resist underwater shock loading due to exploding torpedoes or depth bombs. An underwater shock involving an initial shock wave and successive bubble pulsating waves is so complex that a theoretical technique for deriving shock pressure distribution is required for improving simulation efficiency. Complete shock loading is obtained theoretically in this work, and responses of a submarine pressure hull are calculated using ABAQUS USA (Underwater Shoc...

  14. Load distribution in small world networks

    OpenAIRE

    Di Bernardo, M.; Garofalo, F.; Manfredi, S; Sorrentino, F.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new model of data packet transport, based on a stochastic approach with the aim of characterizing the load distribution on complex networks. Moreover we analyze the load standard deviation as an index of uniformity of the distribution of packets within the network, to characterize the effects of the network topology. We measure such index on the model proposed by Watts and Strogatz as the redirection probability is increased. We find that the uniformity of the loa...

  15. STABILITY OF MANIPULATOR CONFIGURATION UNDER EXTERNAL LOADING

    OpenAIRE

    Klimchik, Alexandr; Pashkevich, Anatol; Chablat, Damien

    2012-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the analysis of robotic manipulator behavior under internal and external loadings. The main contributions are in the area of stability analysis of manipulator configurations corresponding to the loaded static equilibrium. In contrast to other works, in addition to usually studied the end-platform behavior with respect to the disturbance forces, the problem of configuration stability for each kinematic chain is considered. The proposed approach extends the classical not...

  16. MCO loading and cask loadout technical manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PRAGA, A.N.

    1998-10-01

    A compilation of the technical basis for loading a multi-canister overpack (MCO) with spent nuclear fuel and then placing the MCO into a cask for shipment to the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The technical basis includes a description of the process, process technology that forms the basis for loading alternatives, process control considerations, safety considerations, equipment description, and a brief facility structure description.

  17. Dynamic Multi-class Network Loading Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The dynamic network loading problem (DNLP) consists in determining on a congested network, timedependent arc volumes, together with arc and path travel times, given the time varying path flow departure rates over a finite time horizon. The objective of this paper is to present the formulation of an analytical dynamic multiclass network loading model. The model does not require the assumption of the FIFO condition. The existence of a solution to the model is shown.

  18. Visual perceptual load induces inattentional deafness

    OpenAIRE

    Macdonald, James S P; Lavie, Nilli

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we establish a new phenomenon of “inattentional deafness” and highlight the level of load on visual attention as a critical determinant of this phenomenon. In three experiments, we modified an inattentional blindness paradigm to assess inattentional deafness. Participants made either a low- or high-load visual discrimination concerning a cross shape (respectively, a discrimination of line color or of line length with a subtle length difference). A brief pure tone was presente...

  19. Load-following operation of PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The load-following operation of nuclear power plants will become inevitable due to the increased nuclear share in the total electricity generation. As a groundwork for the load-following capability of the Korean next generation PWRs, the state-of-the-art has been reviewed. The core control principles and methods are the main subject in this review as well as the impact of load-following operations on the fuel performance and on the mechanical integrity of components. To begin with, it was described what the load-following operation is and in what view point the technology should be reviewed. Afterwards the load-following method, performance and problems in domestic 900 MWe class PWRs were discussed, and domestic R and D works were summarized. Foreign technologies were also reviewed. They include Mode G and Mode X of Foratom, D and L bank method of KWU, the method using PSCEA of ABB-CE, and MSHIM of Westinghouse. The load-following related special features of Foratom's N4 plant, KWU's plants, ABB-CE's Systems 80+, and Westinghouse's AP600 were described in each technology review. The review concluded that the capability of N4 plant with Mode X is the best and the methods in System, 80+ and AP600 would require verifications for the continued and usual load-following operation. It was recommended that the load-following operation experiences in domestic PWRs under operation be required to settle down the capability for the future. In addition, a more enhanced technology is required for the Korean next generation PWR regardless what the reference plant concept is. 30 figs., 19 tabs., 75 refs. (Author)

  20. REVIEW ON FORM FINDING FOR DYNAMIC LOADS

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul Vyas; Mohd. Nasim,; Chintan Pathak

    2015-01-01

    Form Finding is followed by choosing the best suitable solution in terms of various design parameters having a high level of performance in terms of spaces, people, cultures and knowledge. It is process of finding the geometry in terms of load carrying capacity of a particular structure and choosing the best design in terms of its behavior against various loading conditions. It is therefore necessary to have a command over the flow of forces governing a design. The design could be...

  1. Mechanical Predictors of Discomfort during Load Carriage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D Wettenschwiler

    Full Text Available Discomfort during load carriage is a major issue for activities using backpacks (e.g. infantry maneuvers, children carrying school supplies, or outdoor sports. It is currently unclear which mechanical parameters are responsible for subjectively perceived discomfort. The aim of this study was to identify objectively measured mechanical predictors of discomfort during load carriage. We compared twelve different configurations of a typical load carriage system, a commercially available backpack with a hip belt. The pressure distribution under the hip belt and the shoulder strap, as well as the tensile force in the strap and the relative motion of the backpack were measured. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate possible predictors of discomfort. The results demonstrate that static peak pressure, or alternatively, static strap force is a significant (p<0.001 predictor of discomfort during load carriage in the shoulder and hip region, accounting for 85% or more of the variation in discomfort. As an additional finding, we discovered that the regression coefficients of these predictors are significantly smaller for the hip than for the shoulder region. As static peak pressure is measured directly on the body, it is less dependent on the type of load carriage system than static strap force. Therefore, static peak pressure is well suited as a generally applicable, objective mechanical parameter for the optimization of load carriage system design. Alternatively, when limited to load carriage systems of the type backpack with hip belt, static strap force is the most valuable predictor of discomfort. The regionally differing regression coefficients of both predictors imply that the hip region is significantly more tolerant than the shoulder region. In order to minimize discomfort, users should be encouraged to shift load from the shoulders to the hip region wherever possible, at the same time likely decreasing the risk of low

  2. Numerical Modeling of Laterally Loaded Piles

    OpenAIRE

    S. T. Kok; B. B.k. Huat

    2008-01-01

    Design of laterally loaded piles due to soil movement relies on a number of theoretical and numerical approaches. However, the magnitude of soil movement is difficult to estimate with reasonable confidence and accuracy. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) offers an excellent alternative to study pile-soil interaction and piles response under lateral loading due to soil movement. This research presents published analytical results and case history modeled in a 2D finite element environment in the ca...

  3. Fuel cladding behavior under rapid loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, K.; Karlsson, J.; Stjärnsäter, J.; Schrire, D.; Ledergerber, G.; Munoz-Reja, C.; Hallstadius, L.

    2016-02-01

    A modified burst test (MBT) was used in an extensive test program to characterize fuel cladding failure behavior under rapid loading conditions. The MBT differs from a normal burst test with the use of a driver tube to simulate the expansion of a fuel pellet, thereby producing a partial strain driven deformation condition similar to that of a fuel pellet expansion in a reactivity insertion accident (RIA). A piston/cylinder assembly was used to pressurize the driver tube. By controlling the speed and distance the piston travels the loading rate and degree of sample deformation could be controlled. The use of a driver tube with a machined gauge section localizes deformation and allows for continuous monitoring of the test sample diameter change at the location of maximum hoop strain, during each test. Cladding samples from five irradiated fuel rods were tested between 296 and 553 K and loading rates from 1.5 to 3.5/s. The test rods included variations of Zircaloy-2 with different liners and ZIRLO, ranging in burn-up from 41 to 74 GWd/MTU. The test results show cladding ductility is strongly temperature and loading rate dependent. Zircaloy-2 cladding ductility degradation due to operational hydrogen pickup started to recover at approximately 358 K for test condition used in the study. This recovery temperature is strongly loading rate dependent. At 373 K, ductility recovery was small for loading rates less than 8 ms equivalent RIA pulse width, but longer than 8 ms the ductility recovery increased exponentially with increasing pulse width, consistent with literature observations of loading rate dependent brittle-to-ductile (BTD) transition temperature. The cladding ductility was also observed to be strongly loading rate/pulse width dependent for BWR cladding below the BTD temperature and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) cladding at both 296 and 553 K.

  4. Modelling of Pedestrian Loading on Slender Footbridges

    OpenAIRE

    Seides, Daniel; Pontseele, Kasper Achiel Alfons Van De

    2015-01-01

    This thesis concerns itself with the dynamic response of a slender network arch bridge by means of a numerical model. The numerical model is generated using a Python code written by Ph.D. Candidate Anna Ostrycharczyk. The code was modified by the authors to include pedestrian loading. Based on a modal analysis of the bridge, the first ten natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes were extracted, and attempts at exciting each mode by simulating pedestrian loading were carried out. ...

  5. Load-Dependent Friction Hysteresis on Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhijiang; Egberts, Philip; Han, Gang Hee; Johnson, A T Charlie; Carpick, Robert W; Martini, Ashlie

    2016-05-24

    Nanoscale friction often exhibits hysteresis when load is increased (loading) and then decreased (unloading) and is manifested as larger friction measured during unloading compared to loading for a given load. In this work, the origins of load-dependent friction hysteresis were explored through atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments of a silicon tip sliding on chemical vapor deposited graphene in air, and molecular dynamics simulations of a model AFM tip on graphene, mimicking both vacuum and humid air environmental conditions. It was found that only simulations with water at the tip-graphene contact reproduced the experimentally observed hysteresis. The mechanisms underlying this friction hysteresis were then investigated in the simulations by varying the graphene-water interaction strength. The size of the water-graphene interface exhibited hysteresis trends consistent with the friction, while measures of other previously proposed mechanisms, such as out-of-plane deformation of the graphene film and irreversible reorganization of the water molecules at the shearing interface, were less correlated to the friction hysteresis. The relationship between the size of the sliding interface and friction observed in the simulations was explained in terms of the varying contact angles in front of and behind the sliding tip, which were larger during loading than unloading.

  6. Load-Dependent Friction Hysteresis on Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhijiang; Egberts, Philip; Han, Gang Hee; Johnson, A T Charlie; Carpick, Robert W; Martini, Ashlie

    2016-05-24

    Nanoscale friction often exhibits hysteresis when load is increased (loading) and then decreased (unloading) and is manifested as larger friction measured during unloading compared to loading for a given load. In this work, the origins of load-dependent friction hysteresis were explored through atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments of a silicon tip sliding on chemical vapor deposited graphene in air, and molecular dynamics simulations of a model AFM tip on graphene, mimicking both vacuum and humid air environmental conditions. It was found that only simulations with water at the tip-graphene contact reproduced the experimentally observed hysteresis. The mechanisms underlying this friction hysteresis were then investigated in the simulations by varying the graphene-water interaction strength. The size of the water-graphene interface exhibited hysteresis trends consistent with the friction, while measures of other previously proposed mechanisms, such as out-of-plane deformation of the graphene film and irreversible reorganization of the water molecules at the shearing interface, were less correlated to the friction hysteresis. The relationship between the size of the sliding interface and friction observed in the simulations was explained in terms of the varying contact angles in front of and behind the sliding tip, which were larger during loading than unloading. PMID:27110836

  7. 7 CFR 1710.206 - Approval requirements for load forecasts prepared pursuant to approved load forecast work plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... pursuant to approved load forecast work plans. 1710.206 Section 1710.206 Agriculture Regulations of the... requirements for load forecasts prepared pursuant to approved load forecast work plans. (a) Contents of load forecasts prepared under an approved load forecast work plan. In addition to the minimum requirements...

  8. 1999 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to its regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book will not be used in calculations for the 2002 regional power sales contract subscription process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands--firm loads--are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and ''contracted for'' resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If Federal system resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is

  9. Calculation method of load distribution on pipe threaded connections under tension load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shoujun; Gao, Lianxin; An, Qi

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a new calculation method that can calculate the load distribution on pipe threaded connections under tension load. On the basis of elastic mechanics, the new method was developed by analyzing each thread tooth, and a new deformation and covariant equation by making a mechanics analysis on each thread tooth was obtained. Compared with the traditional method proposed by the previous references, the new deformation and covariant equation could be used to describe the relation between the previous and the next thread tooth. By applying the new method on the sample of P-110S pipe threaded connection, the obtained results show that the load on thread tooth mainly concentrates on the four or five threads engaged and the middle teeth were not utilized well to bear the loads. The model offers a new way to calculate the loads carried on the thread teeth under tension load.

  10. Evaluation of load rejection to house load test at 50% power for UCN 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Gyun; Sohn, Suk Whun; Sohn, Jong Joo; Seo, Jong Tae; Lee, Sang Keun [KOPEC, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Sung; Nam, Kyu Won; Jung, Yang Mook; Chae, Kyeong Sik; Koh, Bum Jae; Oh, Chul Sung; Park, Hee Chool [KEPCO, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The Load Rejection to House Load test at 50% power was successfully performed during the UCN 3 PAT period. In this test, all plant control systems automatically controlled the plant from 50% power to house load operation mode. The KISPAC code, which was used in the performance analysis during the design process of UCN 3 and 4, predictions of the test agreed with the measured data demonstrating the validity of the code as well as completeness of the plant design.

  11. Design and analysis of a novel mechanical loading machine for dynamic in vivo axial loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macione, James; Nesbitt, Sterling; Pandit, Vaibhav; Kotha, Shiva

    2012-02-01

    This paper describes the construction of a loading machine for performing in vivo, dynamic mechanical loading of the rodent forearm. The loading machine utilizes a unique type of electromagnetic actuator with no mechanically resistive components (servotube), allowing highly accurate loads to be created. A regression analysis of the force created by the actuator with respect to the input voltage demonstrates high linear correlation (R2 = 1). When the linear correlation is used to create dynamic loading waveforms in the frequency (0.5-10 Hz) and load (1-50 N) range used for in vivo loading, less than 1% normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) is computed. Larger NRMSE is found at increased frequencies, with 5%-8% occurring at 40 Hz, and reasons are discussed. Amplifiers (strain gauge, linear voltage displacement transducer (LVDT), and load cell) are constructed, calibrated, and integrated, to allow well-resolved dynamic measurements to be recorded at each program cycle. Each of the amplifiers uses an active filter with cutoff frequency at the maximum in vivo loading frequencies (50 Hz) so that electronic noise generated by the servo drive and actuator are reduced. The LVDT and load cell amplifiers allow evaluation of stress-strain relationships to determine if in vivo bone damage is occurring. The strain gauge amplifier allows dynamic force to strain calibrations to occur for animals of different sex, age, and strain. Unique features are integrated into the loading system, including a weightless mode, which allows the limbs of anesthetized animals to be quickly positioned and removed. Although the device is constructed for in vivo axial bone loading, it can be used within constraints, as a general measurement instrument in a laboratory setting.

  12. Local limit load solutions for semi-elliptical surface cracks in plates subjected to combined membrane load and bending load.

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Local limit load solutions for plates containing semi-elliptical surface cracks subjected to pure membrane loading cases, pure bending loading cases and combinations of the two are determined using non-linear finite element analysis. Both loading cases that open the crack and loading cases that close the crack are considered. The study covers both shallow and deep cracks with different aspect ratios. Results from the finite element simulations are fitted to an analytical expression. The local...

  13. 2006 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of both the Federal system and the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This surplus energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These energy deficits will be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation

  14. Global dynamic load-balancing for decentralised distributed simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bragard, Quentin; Ventresque, Anthony; Murphy, Liam

    2014-01-01

    Distributed simulations require partitioning mechanisms to operate, and the best partitioning algorithms try to load-balance the partitions. Dynamic load-balancing, i.e. re-partitioning simulation environments at run-time, becomes essential when the load in the partitions change. In decentralised distributed simulation the information needed to dynamically load-balance seems difficult to collect and to our knowledge, all solutions apply a local dynamic load balancing: partitions exchange load...

  15. The Optimal Choice of Promotional Vehicles: Front-Loaded or Rear-Loaded Incentives?

    OpenAIRE

    Z. John Zhang; Aradhna Krishna; Sanjay K. Dhar

    2000-01-01

    We examine the key factors that influence a firm's decision whether to use front-loaded or rear-loaded incentives. When using price packs, direct mail coupons, FSI coupons or peel-off coupons, consumers obtain an immediate benefit upon purchase or a front-loaded incentive. However, when buying products with in-pack coupons or products affiliated with loyalty programs, promotion incentives are obtained on the next purchase occasion or later, i.e., a rear-loaded incentive. Our analysis shows th...

  16. Mississippi River nitrate loads from high frequency sensor measurements and regression-based load estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, Brian A.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Crawford, Charles G.; Saraceno, John F.; Frederick, C. Paul; Downing, Bryan D.; Murphy, Jennifer C.

    2014-01-01

    Accurately quantifying nitrate (NO3–) loading from the Mississippi River is important for predicting summer hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico and targeting nutrient reduction within the basin. Loads have historically been modeled with regression-based techniques, but recent advances with high frequency NO3– sensors allowed us to evaluate model performance relative to measured loads in the lower Mississippi River. Patterns in NO3– concentrations and loads were observed at daily to annual time steps, with considerable variability in concentration-discharge relationships over the two year study. Differences were particularly accentuated during the 2012 drought and 2013 flood, which resulted in anomalously high NO3– concentrations consistent with a large flush of stored NO3– from soil. The comparison between measured loads and modeled loads (LOADEST, Composite Method, WRTDS) showed underestimates of only 3.5% across the entire study period, but much larger differences at shorter time steps. Absolute differences in loads were typically greatest in the spring and early summer critical to Gulf hypoxia formation, with the largest differences (underestimates) for all models during the flood period of 2013. In additional to improving the accuracy and precision of monthly loads, high frequency NO3– measurements offer additional benefits not available with regression-based or other load estimation techniques.

  17. Static and dynamic load tests comparison considering load-energy level and soil non-linearity

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, J. J. Gouveia; Santos, Jaime Alberto dos; Correia, A. Gomes; Simões, T. N.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from dynamic and static load tests performed in cast-inplace piles. The test piles have 22m of length and 0.60m of diameter, constructed in a sandy soil using a recoverable steel casing. Three piles were tested: i) two by dynamic load test ii) and the other companion pile by static load test. The dynamic load tests followed a procedure with two stages. Initially, a set of impacts with increasing falling height was applied. Afterwards the energy w...

  18. Replacement divider plate performance under LOCA loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynk, H.M. [Quebec Hydro, Montreal, PQ (Canada); MClellan, G.H.; Schneider, W.G. [Babcock and Wilcox, Cambridge, ON (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    A primary divider plate in a nuclear steam generator is required to perform its partitioning function with a minimum of cross leakage, without degradation in operating performance and without loss of structural integrity resulting from normal and accident loading. The design of the replacement divider plate for normal operating conditions is discussed in some detail in reference 1 and 2. This paper describes the structural response of the replacement divider plate to the severe loading resulting from a burst primary pipe. The loads for which the divider plate structural performance must be evaluated are mild to severe differential pressure transients resulting from several postulated sizes and types of pipe break scenarios. In the unlikely event of a severe Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) the divider plate or parts thereof must not exit the steam generator nor completely block the outlet nozzle. For the milder LOCA loads, the integrity of the divider plate and seat bars must be maintained. Analysis for the milder LOCA loads was carried out employing a conservative approach which ignores the actual interaction between the structure and the primary fluid. For these load cases it was shown that the divider plate does not become disengaged from the seat bars. For the more severe pipe breaks, the thermal-hydraulic analysis was coupled iteratively with the structural analysis, thereby taking into account divider plate deformation, in order to obtain a better prediction of the behaviour of the divider plate. In this manner substantial reduction in divider plate response to the more severe LOCA loading was achieved. It has been shown that, for the case of a postulated large LOCA (100% reactor inlet header), the disengagement of the divider plate from the seat bars resulted in an opening smaller than 1% of the divider plate area. (author)

  19. Crack tip stress fields under complex loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author and his assocates have worked towards the development of an experimental method for estimating SIF distributions in 3D cracked body problems where neither SIF distribution nor flaw shape were known a-priori. The method consists of a marriage between the 'frozen stress' photoelastic method and the near field equations of linear elastic fracture mechanics. Originally proposed for Mode I measurements only, the method has since been refined and extended to mixed mode problems. Comparisons of the method with results from fatigue crack growth studies on reactor steels suggest that flaw shapes generated in the photoelastic models under Mode I loading closely reproduce those in the steel models under certain conditions. The method has since been applied to a variety of complex 3D cracked body problems. The paper describes the results obtained from applying the method to two basic problem classes: i) Part circular 'artificial' (machined) surface flaws in uniaxially loaded flat plates inclined at an angle to the plate surface from the applied load direction. This produced all three local modes of deformation near the flaw border. ii) Natural nozzle corner cracks inclined at an angle to the axis of the reactor vessel. Initially these cracks were planar and exhibited Mode I loading near the nozzle wall and mixed mode loading near the vessel wall. Upon initiation of stable flaw growth under internal pressure above critical temperature, the portion of the crack near the nozzle wall remained in its plane and retained its Mode I character. However, that portion of the crack under mixed mode loading immediately reoriented itself to eliminate the shear modes, producing a non-planar flaw under pure Mode I loading. Results suggest that stable growing cracks in isotropic materials do not exhibit shear modes. (orig./HP)

  20. Optimum blade loading for a powered rotor in descent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramin Modarres; David A. Peters

    2016-01-01

    The optimum loading for rotors has previously been found for hover, climb and wind turbine conditions;but, up to now, no one has determined the optimum rotor loading in descent. This could be an important design consideration for rotary-wing parachutes and low-speed des-cents. In this paper, the optimal loading for a powered rotor in descent is found from momentum theory based on a variational principle. This loading is compared with the optimal loading for a rotor in hover or climb and with the Betz rotor loading (which is optimum for a lightly-loaded rotor). Wake contraction for each of the various loadings is also presented.

  1. Short term load forecasting: two stage modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOARES, L. J.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the hourly electricity load demand in the area covered by a utility situated in the Seattle, USA, called Puget Sound Power and Light Company. Our proposal is put into proof with the famous dataset from this company. We propose a stochastic model which employs ANN (Artificial Neural Networks to model short-run dynamics and the dependence among adjacent hours. The model proposed treats each hour's load separately as individual single series. This approach avoids modeling the intricate intra-day pattern (load profile displayed by the load, which varies throughout days of the week and seasons. The forecasting performance of the model is evaluated in similiar mode a TLSAR (Two-Level Seasonal Autoregressive model proposed by Soares (2003 using the years of 1995 and 1996 as the holdout sample. Moreover, we conclude that non linearity is present in some series of these data. The model results are analyzed. The experiment shows that our tool can be used to produce load forecasting in tropical climate places.

  2. Concrete structures under impact loading: general aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Baeră

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic loading conditions distress the structural integrity of a structure differently than the static ones. Such actions transfer high rate strains and instant energy waves to the structure, inducing the possibility of imminent collapse and casualties as a direct consequence. In the latest years, considering the dramatic increase of terrorist threats and global warming, the structural safety criteria imply more than ever the need to withstand this kind of loading (e.g., missiles and blast, projectiles, strong winds, tornados and earthquakes in addition to the static ones. The aim of this paper is to provide a general overview with regard to impact loading in terms of defining the phenomenon from physical and mechanical perspective, its complex local or global effect on the targeted structure, relevant material characteristics, main research approaches, namely theoretical studies and experimental procedures developed for improving the predictability of the dynamic loads and their effects. New directions in developing superior cementitious composites, with better characteristics in terms of dynamic loading performance are also emphasized.

  3. Low-Load Space Conditioning Needs Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-05-01

    With limited low-load options in the HVAC market, many new-construction housing units are being fitted with oversized equipment - thus facing penalties in system efficiency, comfort, and cost. To bridge the gap between currently available HVAC equipment and the rising demand for low-load HVAC equipment in the marketplace, HVAC equipment manufacturers need to be fully aware of multifamily buildings and single-family homes market needs. Over the past decade, Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) has provided certification and consulting services on hundreds of housing projects and has accrued a large pool of data. CARB compiled and analyzed these data to see what the thermal load ranges are in various multifamily apartments and attached single-family home types (duplex and townhouse). In total, design loads from 941 dwellings from SWA's recent multifamily and attached single-family work across the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic were analyzed. Information on the dwelling characteristics, design loads, and the specifications of installed mechanical equipment were analyzed to determine any trends that exist within the dataset.

  4. Lateral load pattern in pushover analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The seismic capacity curves of three types of buildings including frame, frame-shear wall and shear wall obtained by pushover analysis under different lateral load patterns are compared with those from nonlinear time history analysis. Based on the numerical results obtained a two-phase load pattern: an inverted triangle(first mode)load pattern until the base shear force reaches β times its maximum value,Vmax, followed by a(x/H)α form, here β and α being some coefficients depending on the type of the structures considered, is proposed in the paper, which can provide excellent approximation of the seismic capacity curve for low-to-mid-rise shear type buildings. Furthermore, it is shown both the two-phase load pattern proposed and the invariant uniform pattern can be used for low-to-mid-rise shear-bending type and low-rise bending type of buildings. No suitable load patterns have been found for high-rise buildings.

  5. Lubricant effect of rate-of-loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of tests were conducted to establish the performance of a motor operated valve (MOV) stem lubricant. Battelle has assembled a MOV test stand to provide a means to test valve actuators and stems with representative valve load profiles and to accurately measure the actuator performance. The facility duplicates an actual MOV except that the stem thrust loads are generated hydraulically and seating loads are generated by mechanical stops. These tests were conducted at a high torque switch setting on a Limitorque SMB-0. Stem-stemnut pairs with known rate-of-loading (ROL) effects ranging from approximately zero to 30% were tested. The stems were lubricated with Mobil 28; a nuclear-grade synthetic grease. A test with a slow, linearly increasing load profile with torque switch trip occurring prior to seating (ramp test), was used to establish the magnitude of the ROL effect for a particular stem-stemnut. Data from these experiments were compared with results of similar EPRI tests which used different stem lubricants. Results with Mobil 28 yielded unexpected, consistent reduced ROL effects. In addition, the thread pressure threshold for limiting ROL effects was significantly reduced. A model of the squeeze film phenomena was developed to explain the experimental results. The model shows that the basic rheological properties of the lubricant, the thread composite surface roughness, and the thread type all have a significant influence on the magnitude of ROL effects

  6. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs.

  7. Nonlinear dynamical characteristics of bed load motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Yuchuan; XU Haijue; XU Dong; Chiu-On Ng

    2006-01-01

    Bed forms of various kinds that evolve naturally on the bottom of sandy coasts and rivers are a result of the kinematics of bed load transport. Based on the group motion of particles in the bed load within the bottom layer, a study on the nonlinear dynamics of bed load transport is presented in this paper. It is found that some development stages, such as the initiation, the equilibrium sediment transport, and the transition from a smooth bed to sand dunes, can be accounted for by different states in the nonlinear system of the bed load transport. It is verified by comparison with experimental data reported by Laboratoire Nationae D'Hydraulique, Chatou, France, that the evolution from a smooth bed to sand dunes is determined by mutation in the bed load transport. This paper presents results that may offer theoretical explanations to the experimental observations. It is also an attempt to apply the state-of-the-art nonlinear science to the classical sediment transport mechanics.

  8. Modular load flow for restructured power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hariharan, M V; Gupta, Pragati P

    2016-01-01

    In the subject of power systems, authors felt that a re-look is necessary at some conventional methods of analysis. In this book, the authors have subjected the time-honoured load flow to a close scrutiny. Authors have discovered and discussed a new load flow procedure – Modular Load Flow. Modular Load Flow explores use of power – a scalar – as source for electrical circuits which are conventionally analysed by means of phasors – the ac voltages or currents. The method embeds Kirchhoff’s circuit laws as topological property into its scalar equations and results in a unique wonderland where phase angles do not exist! Generators are shown to have their own worlds which can be superimposed to obtain the state of the composite power system. The treatment is useful in restructured power systems where stakeholders and the system operators may desire to know individual generator contributions in line flows and line losses for commercial reasons. Solution in Modular Load Flow consists of explicit expression...

  9. Distribution of Cognitive Load in Web Search

    CERN Document Server

    Gwizdka, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    The search task and the system both affect the demand on cognitive resources during information search. In some situations, the demands may become too high for a person. This article has a three-fold goal. First, it presents and critiques methods to measure cognitive load. Second, it explores the distribution of load across search task stages. Finally, it seeks to improve our understanding of factors affecting cognitive load levels in information search. To this end, a controlled Web search experiment with forty-eight participants was conducted. Interaction logs were used to segment search tasks semi-automatically into task stages. Cognitive load was assessed using a new variant of the dual-task method. Average cognitive load was found to vary by search task stages. It was significantly higher during query formulation and user description of a relevant document as compared to examining search results and viewing individual documents. Semantic information shown next to the search results lists in one of the st...

  10. Load forecasting method considering temperature effect for distribution network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xiao Fang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the accuracy of load forecasting, the temperature factor was introduced into the load forecasting in this paper. This paper analyzed the characteristics of power load variation, and researched the rule of the load with the temperature change. Based on the linear regression analysis, the mathematical model of load forecasting was presented with considering the temperature effect, and the steps of load forecasting were given. Used MATLAB, the temperature regression coefficient was calculated. Using the load forecasting model, the full-day load forecasting and time-sharing load forecasting were carried out. By comparing and analyzing the forecast error, the results showed that the error of time-sharing load forecasting method was small in this paper. The forecasting method is an effective method to improve the accuracy of load forecasting.

  11. Accurate Load Modeling Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenshu Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Establishing an accurate load model is a critical problem in power system modeling. That has significant meaning in power system digital simulation and dynamic security analysis. The synthesis load model (SLM considers the impact of power distribution network and compensation capacitor, while randomness of power load is more precisely described by traction power system load model (TPSLM. On the basis of these two load models, a load modeling method that combines synthesis load with traction power load is proposed in this paper. This method uses analytic hierarchy process (AHP to interact with two load models. Weight coefficients of two models can be calculated after formulating criteria and judgment matrixes and then establishing a synthesis model by weight coefficients. The effectiveness of the proposed method was examined through simulation. The results show that accurate load modeling based on AHP can effectively improve the accuracy of load model and prove the validity of this method.

  12. An Improved Hadoop Data Load Balancing Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Data load balancing is one of the key problems of big data technology. As a big data application, Hadoop has had many successful applications. HDFS is Hadoop Distributed File System and has the load balancing procedure which can balance the storage load on each machine. However, this method cannot balance the overload rack preferentially, and so it is likely to cause the breakdown of overload machines. In this paper, we focus on the overload machines and propose an improved algorithm for balancing the overload racks preferentially. The improved method constructs Prior Balance List list which includes overload machines, For Balance List list and NextForBalanceList list by many factors and balances among the racks selected from these lists firstly. Experiments show that the improved method can balance the overload racks in time and reduce the possibility of breakdown of these racks

  13. Load Carriage and the Female Soldier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venerina Johnson

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the physiological, biomechanical and health impacts of load carriage on the female soldier and extends to include issues acknowledged as impacting on the female athlete and hence the female soldier. Physiological factors such as fat mass, strength, aerobic endurance and biomechanical factors such as stride length and forward lean have the potential to increase the energy cost of load carriage and cause injury. The female athlete triad, iron deficiency, pelvic floor muscle dysfunction and military equipment issues can likewise reduce female soldier performance and increase injury risk. Research evidence is presented to inform the development and implementation of performance optimisation and injury prevention strategies. Discussed strategies include structured physical conditioning, improving nutrition and hydration practices and modification of load carriage equipment to meet female soldier requirements.

  14. Integrating Autonomous Load Controllers in Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglass, Philip James

    and reliability constraints in power systems are motivating research into new control architectures suitable for such a large and complex system. The focus of this thesis is on an intermediate stage of evolution between today's largely passive loads and a future "Internet of Things". Specifically...... to the fluctuating production. The large number and geographic dispersion of loads make coordinating their behavior challenging. New telecommunication technology has reduced the cost of linking devices, promising a future "Internet of Things" where loads are fully networked. Strict real-time constraints......, this intermediate stage is autonomous devices with sensors, actuators, and software to control local processes but without digital communications interfaces. The architectures explored in this thesis are newly emergent, so the focus is on feasibility and system modeling. Earlier research has proposed using...

  15. Phloem loading through plasmodesmata: a biophysical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Comtet, Jean; Stroock, Abraham D

    2016-01-01

    In many species, sucrose en route out of the leaf migrates from photosynthetically active mesophyll cells into the phloem down its concentration gradient via plasmodesmata, i.e., symplastically. In some of these plants the process is entirely passive, but in others phloem sucrose is actively converted into larger sugars, raffinose and stachyose, and segregated (trapped), thus raising total phloem sugar concentration to a level higher than in the mesophyll. Questions remain regarding the mechanisms and selective advantages conferred by both of these symplastic loading processes. Here we present an integrated model - including local and global transport and the kinetics of oligomerization - for passive and active symplastic loading. We also propose a physical model of transport through the plasmodesmata. With these models, we predict that: 1) relative to passive loading, oligomerization of sucrose in the phloem, even in the absence of segregation, lowers the sugar content in the leaf required to achieve a given...

  16. Energy efficiency and load curve impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of SINTEF Energy Research's European RTD projects is the two-year EFFLOCOM (Energy EFFiciency and LOad curve impacts of COMmercial development in competitive markets). This project will determine the end-user response of different market-related services offered in deregulated power markets. The project will investigate the possibility of influencing load curves by using different price signals and two-way communications via Internet. The partners are from Denmark. Finland, England, France and Norway. SINTEF Energy Research is in charge of the project management. During the project, the changes in load curves will he studied in the in the participating countries before and after deregulation. Specific issues are the use of ICT, time- and situation-dependent tariffs and smart-house technology. The project will consist of 5 work packages that will give recommendations about new methods, guidelines and tools to promote effective use of energy in the partner countries. The total budget is EUR 692 000. (author)

  17. Stochastic Load Models and Footbridge Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars; Frier, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Pedestrians may cause vibrations in footbridges and these vibrations may potentially be annoying. This calls for predictions of footbridge vibration levels and the paper considers a stochastic approach to modeling the action of pedestrians assuming walking parameters such as step frequency......, pedestrian mass, dynamic load factor, etc. to be random variables. By this approach a probability distribution function of bridge response is calculated. The paper explores how sensitive estimates of probability distribution functions of bridge response are to some of the decisions to be made when modelling...... the footbridge and when describing the action of the pedestrians (such as for instance the number of load harmonics). Focus is on estimating vertical structural response to single person loading....

  18. Shaft Center Orbit in Dynamically Loaded Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate how to utilize the bearings damping coefficients to estimate the orbit for a dynamically loaded journal bearing. The classical method for this analysis was developed by Booker in 1965 and described further in 1972. Several authors have refined this method over...... the years. In 1966 Jorgen W. Lund published an approach to find the dynamic coefficients of a journal bearing by a first order perturbation of the Reynold's equation. These coefficients made it possible to perform a rotor-bearing stability analysis for a statically loaded bearing. In the mid seventies...... Jorgen W. Lund pointed out in lecture notes that the dynamic damping coefficients of the bearing could be used to find the shaft orbit for dynamically loaded bearings. For simplicity the "Short-Width-Journal-Bearing Theory" is used as a basis for finding the damping coefficients in this work...

  19. MEASUREMENT OF WASTE LOADING IN SALTSTONE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone grout mixtures. One of those properties of importance is the Waste Loading (WL) of the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) in the Saltstone waste form. Waste loading is a measure of the amount of waste that can be incorporated within a waste form. The value of the Saltstone waste loading ultimately determines the number of vaults that will be required to disposition all of the DSS. In this report, the waste loading is defined as the volume in milliliters of DSS per liter of Saltstone waste form. The two most important parameters that determine waste loading for Saltstone are water to cementitious material (w/cm) ratio and the cured grout density. Data are provided that show the dependence of waste loading on the w/cm ratio for a fixed DSS composition using the current premix material (45% Blast Furnace Slag (BFS), 45% Fly Ash (FA) and 10% Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)). The impact of cured grout density on waste loading was also demonstrated. Mixes (at 0.60 w/cm) made with a Modular Caustic side extraction Unit (MCU) simulant and either OPC or BFS have higher cured grout densities than mixes made with premix and increase the WL to 709 mL/L for the OPC mix and 689 mL/L for the BFS mix versus the value of 653 mL/L for MCU in premix at 0.60 w/cm ratio. Bleed liquid reduces the waste loading and lowers the effective w/cm ratio of Saltstone. A method is presented (and will be used in future tasks) for correcting the waste loading and the w/cm ratio of the as-batched mixes in those cases where bleed liquid is present. For example, the Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment (DDA) mix at an as-batched 0.60 w/cm ratio, when corrected for % bleed, gives a mix with a 0.55 w/cm ratio and a WL that has been reduced from 662 to 625 mL/L. An example is provided that

  20. Impact load for tornado-generated missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plant structures are designed to resist impact loads from tornado-generated missiles. The paper gives a method to determine the contact pressure at the interface of the missile and the target, and the velocity and deceleration time-histories of the missile. It also gives a method to obtain the design load due to impact by tornado-generated missiles. The calculated design load compares very well with the total support reaction from a full-scale dynamics test. The comparison between the predicted deceleration and the deceleration recorded in a test is excellent. The method of determining the deceleration has also been used with very good results for earth-penetrating missiles. (Auth.)