WorldWideScience

Sample records for axle loads

  1. A model for equivalent axle load factors

    OpenAIRE

    Amorim, Sara I.R.; Pais, Jorge; Vale, Aline C.; Minhoto, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Most design methods for road pavements require the design traffic, based on the transformation of the traffic spectrum, to be calculated into a number of equivalent passages of a standard axle using the equivalent axle load factors. Generally, these factors only consider the type of axle (single, tandem or tridem), but they do not consider the type of wheel on the axles, i.e., single or dual wheel. The type of wheel has an important influence on the calculation of the design traffic. The exis...

  2. Capacitated vehicle routing problem with sequence-based pallet loading and axle weight constraints

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce and study the capacitated vehicle routing problem with sequence-based pallet loading and axle weight constraints. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that axle weight restrictions are incorporated in a vehicle routing model. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that incorporating axle weight restrictions in a vehicle routing model is possible and necessary for a feasible route planning. Axle weight limits impose a great challenge for transportatio...

  3. Dynamic Axle Load of an Automotive Vehicle When Driven on a Mobile Measurement Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagiełowicz-Ryznar C.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the dynamic axle load of an automotive vehicle (AV when it is driven on a mobile measurement platform is presented in this paper. During the ride, the time characteristic of the dynamic force N(t, acting on the axle, was recorded. The effect of the vehicle axle mass on the maximum dynamic force value and the dynamic coefficient were studied. On this basis it was attempted to calculate the total vehicle’s weight. Conclusions concerning the dynamic loads of the vehicle axles in relation to the reduced axle mass, were drawn. The optimal axle mass value, for which the dynamic coefficient reaches a minimum, was calculated

  4. Prerequisites for Increasing the Axle Load on Railway Tracks in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lidmila

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with problems of increasing the axle load on Czech Railways (ED tracks to 250 kN or 300 kN, respectively. The results of a numerical analysis of the effects of increased axle loads on the track bed structure were verified by experimental measurements carried out on track bed construction models in an experimental box on a 1:1 scale. The results of the research are applicable for routine use on ED. 

  5. Determination of design axle loads for bridges from measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.; Morales Napoles, O.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the new Eurocode 1 was introduced dealing with traffic load on bridges. In order to establish the National Annex for the design traffic load, measurements of the traffic load were carried out in several highways in The Netherlands using the Weigh In Motion system. The goal was to assure th

  6. Analysis of axle and vehicle load properties through Bayesian networks based on weigh-in-motion data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Napoles, O.; Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) systems are used, among other applications, in pavement and bridge reliability. The system measures quantities such as individual axle load, vehicular loads, vehicle speed, vehicle length and number ofaxles. Because ofthe nature ofúamc configuration, the quantities measured are

  7. Stress Analysis and Fatigue Analysis of Front Axle of Heavy-Duty Truck using ANSYS Ncode Design Life for Different Loading Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant L. Aghav

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Front axle of heavy duty truck is the important component of vehicle and needs good design under the various loading conditions of the complete vehicle. Aim of the project is to stress analysis and predict the life of front axle for vertical, and vertical and braking loading case. The fatigue life of front axle is generally estimated by stress life approach and strain life approach method. Front axle beam assembly was modeled in the NX cad software. Meshing and Stress analysis is performed by ANSYS workbench and fatigue analysis is performed by NCODE design life ANSYS tool under different loading cases. Fatigue life of axle obtained by FEA method is more than 2 x 105 cycles, which is considered as safe for vertical loading case. Similarly, Fatigue life of axle obtained is more than 4 x 103 cycles, which is considered as safe for vertical and braking loading case. The max stress region is below spring pad of axle for vertical loading and in the goose neck of axle for vertical and braking loading case

  8. 200 km/h 八轴客运电力机车轴重转移分析%Axle - load Transfer Analysis of 200 km/h Eight - axle Passenger Electric Locomotive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕凯凯; 王开云; 张志和

    2015-01-01

    An axle - load transfer model for a new 200 km/ h eight - axle passenger electric locomotive is established in this paper. Comparisons between calculation results obtained from the established model and that from the commercial dynamic software under the quasi - static condition are made. Some factors that affect the locomotive axle - load transfer are analyzed. The result shows that the axle - load of the first axle and second axle are reducing,while for the third axle and fourth axle they are increasing. The maxi-mum load - increasing ratio is happened to the fourth axle,which is 6. 28 percent,and the maximum load- reducing ratio is for the first axle,which is also 6. 28 percent. The calculation result is similar to that by using the commercial dynamic software where the difference is only about 0. 8 percent. Compared with the traction motor suspended on wheel - set,the traction motor suspended on frame could reduce the axle- load transfer by about 5. 77 percent. The optimal traction height for the 200 km/ h eight - axle passen-ger electric locomotive is 260 mm. Reducing the distance between motor front and rear suspension points can improve the adhesion weight usage of a locomotive.%针对一种新型的200 km/ h 八轴客运电力机车,建立了轴重转移计算模型。利用该模型计算其轴重转移,与动力学软件在准静态条件下的仿真结果进行对比,并分析影响机车轴重转移的因素。研究表明,该机车第一、二轴为减载,第三、四轴为增载,且第四轴增载最大,增载6.28%,第一轴减载最大,减载6.28%;模型计算结果与动力学软件仿真结果相差0.8%;机车牵引电机采用架悬方式能有效减小机车轴重转移,相比电机采用轴悬方式,机车轴重转移减小5.77%;该机车最优牵引点高度为260 mm;减小电机前后悬挂点之间的纵向跨距能有效提高机车黏着重量利用率。

  9. Cost-benefit analysis of the construction of different flexible pavement structures considering the axle load and type of binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Dotto Bueno

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The status of Brazilian highways reflects a deficient pavement performance when they are subjected to loadings imposed by heavy traffic. Current legislation, as enacted by Contran (National Traffic Council, has increased the axle weight limit for cargo vehicles by up to 10%. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine a cost-benefit ratio by using different types of structures, asphalt binders and load intensities. Typical pavements were determined and then analyzed by the software AEMC (SisPav to obtain the horizontal tensile strain (εt values at the bottom of the asphalt concrete layer and, later, the NFATIGUE value. It was found that the increase in weight, within values covered by legislation, might result in a reduction of approximately 50% in the NFATIGUE value for the pavement structures analyzed. As for economic impact, the same weight increase caused a mean increase of 120% in the cost of repeated loading on pavement structures (R$ NFATIGUE-1. It was also observed that structures with more robust asphalt concrete layers can provide the best R$ NFATIGUE-1 ratios. The best results for granular materials were found with thinner layers, associated with a thicker coating. The benefits of modified binders were shown by the analyses of the best structural options: both the polymer-modified binder and the rubber asphalt binder offer significant structural and economic improvements to the structure.

  10. Dynamic Response Characteristics of Asphalt Pavement Under Multi-axle Moving Load%多轴移动荷载下沥青路面的动态响应特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴建中; 吴浩; 陈勇; 王秉纲

    2011-01-01

    In order to analyze dynamic response characteristics of asphalt pavement under muhi axle moving load,a three-dimensional finite element model of asphalt pavement was established by field investigation. The influences of axle load with uniform distribution of single rear axle, dual rear axles and three rear axles and the axle load with non-uniform distribution of three rear axles and the three rear axles vehicles with impending front axle on pavement were studied respectively. Results show that the effect of each axle on pavement is independent when the wheelbase of multi axle vehicle is bigger than 3 m. Increase of number of axle makes the vertical displacement of pavement superpose and makes the maximal shear stress and compressive stress of pavement change inconspicuously. The influence of the middle axle of three rear axles vehicle on the vertical displacement of pavement is the greatest which increases by 23. 7% and 18. 2% compared with those of the front axle and rear axle respectively. Besides, the middle axle and rear axle has certain influence on the shear stress of pavement, but each axle has ahnost no influence on the maximal compressive stress of pavement. The research results indicate that the non uniform distribution of axle load of multi axle vehicle has significant influence on pavement faliure.%为分析多轴移动荷载下沥青路面的动态响应特性,通过现场调查建立了不同轴型作用下沥青路面的三维有限元模型,分别研究了单后轴、双后轴及三后轴轴载均匀分布、三后轴车轴载不均匀分布及三后轴车前轴悬空条件下对路面的影响。结果表明:多轴车轴距大于3m时,各轴对路面的作用相互独立,轴数的增加对路面竖向位移产生叠加作用,对路表最大剪应力及压应力影响不明显;三后轴车中轴对路面竖向位移作用最大,较前轴及后轴分别增大23.7%和18.2%,中轴及后轴对路表剪应力有一定影响,

  11. Fatigue of bridges with a horizontal rotation axle under random wind load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The operating mechanisms of movable bridges are subjected to various types of fluctuating loads which may induce fatigue damage. Wind load acting on the bridge deck - when the bridge is open - is one of the important load types. A wind load model is proposed that can be used in the fatigue design ve

  12. REDESIGNING OF TRACTOR TROLLEY AXLE USING ANSYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish V. Katore,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In Central India, various small scale industries are adopting the crude methodologies for designing & manufacturing the machine components. One such industry producing tractor trolleys for agricultural use has been identified for this study. The existing trolley designed by the industry uses heavy axle without consideringstatic and dynamic loading conditions which in turn leads to higher factor of safety increasing the overall cost of the axle. In this study, existing trolley axle is redesigned considering the static and dynamic load conditions. A CAD model is prepared using CATIA V5 as a tool. Minimum cross section for the axle is calculated which resulted in the 24.8 % reduction in the weight of the axle. The axle dimensions are redesigned to 75 X 75 mm which is comparatively smaller than the old axle. The design is optimized based on the manufacturing cost of the axle. The failure analysis is performed on the axle of trolley used in agricultural area. These results provide atechnical basis to prevent future damage to the location axle.

  13. 高速公路路段交通量分析及轴载换算%Analysis of Traffic Volume and Equivalent Axle Load Factors in Freeway Sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱靓雯; 刘黎萍

    2016-01-01

    交通荷载数据对沥青路面设计和管理有重要作用。轴载谱方法可以更为全面、准确地描述交通荷载。文中收集了江西省部分高速公路荷载站点的实测轴载数据和交通量数据。通过对每一辆车进出收费站的名称识别,结合公路网分布统计得到各路段的交通荷载数据集合。对各路段实测轴载数据特征、交通增长率和累计标准轴次等进行分析,建立了轴载谱数据和交通量数据之间的关系,并给出了调查地区的当量轴次换算系数参考值。%Traffic loading data is very important for asphalt pavement design and management.Axle load spectrum is more comprehensive and accurate in describing the traffic load.This study collected the measured axle load data and traffic volume data of asphalt pavement freeways from toll gates in Jiangxi Province.Traffic loading data in freeway sections is obtained through the data from the en-trance and exit toll gate,combined with the highway network.The data was used to analyze the axle load spectrum factors,the number of accumulated equivalent axle loads,and the growth rate of equiv-alent axle loads.It has been found that the growth rate of equivalent axle loads in some highway sec-tions is negative.In addition,the relationship between axle load data and traffic volume data was de-veloped through the equivalent axle load factors,the value of which in investigated area was listed at last.

  14. Nonlinearity-induced time-varying harmonic dynamic axle load and its impact on dynamic stability of car-trailer combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Xiao, Hong; Winner, Hermann

    2016-06-01

    A nonlinearity-induced time-varying harmonic dynamic axle load is found in the road test of a car-trailer combination. To understand its influence on system dynamic stability, a corresponding linear single-track model (STM) is proposed. System dynamic stability is described and sensitivity analysis for the system parameters is achieved. The contribution of the harmonic force is quantified by a derived effective axle load. Because the harmonic effect might be time varying in practice, a time-frequency analysis-based parameter identification method is introduced. Experimental study shows that a time-varying harmonic effect really exists. A yaw-rate-based simulation method is designed to simulate this behaviour. The sensitivity analysis of the influence of the harmonic amplitude or phase on dynamic stability is performed with a simulation study. With appropriate modification of the harmonic amplitude and phase shift applied in selected time windows, the time-varying system characteristics in the road test can be simulated very well.

  15. 联合收割机行走半轴载荷测试系统构建与性能试验%Construction and performance experiment of load test system for half axle of combine harvester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李耀明; 叶晓飞; 徐立章; 庞靖; 马征

    2013-01-01

    Half axle is an important part of a walking system in a combine harvester;the damage from half axle is generally fatigue failure, which has a direct effect on the reliability and stability of the combine harvester. Minority combine harvester manufacturers have half axle fatigue test rigs, and most of the loads on the fatigue test rig are set artificially, thus it cannot accurately predict fatigue life of half axle in absence of comprehensive consideration of various alternating loads. Fatigue life analysis and fast in doors simulation of the load fatigue test on the basis of load spectrum can provide the basis for the improvement of half axle. Improvement of fatigue performance of half axle is conducive to the competitiveness of the products on the market at home and abroad. It is not a suitable solution to use traditional shaft or disc torque sensors to test the torque of half axle, because the half axle is closed in the transmission. Operating environments of combine harvesters are complex, and half axles often bear a complex alternating load which puts forward higher requirements on the stability and reliability of the performance of the load test system. To provide a precise and comprehensive load-time course for the compiling of load spectrum of the half axle of a combine harvester, the complex and alternating load signal in typical working conditions must be acquired accurately. Based on an analysis of working characteristics and the construction features of chassis of combine harvesters, a wireless load test system was put forward in this paper by choosing reasonable torque and rotation speed sensors and data acquisition systems composed of hall sensors, rotation speed signal acquisition modules, resistance strain gauges, power modules, torque signal acquisition modules, wireless routers, computers, and software for signals test and analysis. In order to exclude the influence of measured value of torque signals by bending moment, axial force, and temperature

  16. Influence of Initial Inclined Surface Crack on Estimated Residual Fatigue Lifetime of Railway Axle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Náhlík, Luboš; Pokorný, Pavel; Ševčík, Martin; Hutař, Pavel

    2016-11-01

    Railway axles are subjected to cyclic loading which can lead to fatigue failure. For safe operation of railway axles a damage tolerance approach taking into account a possible defect on railway axle surface is often required. The contribution deals with an estimation of residual fatigue lifetime of railway axle with initial inclined surface crack. 3D numerical model of inclined semi-elliptical surface crack in railway axle was developed and its curved propagation through the axle was simulated by finite element method. Presence of press-fitted wheel in the vicinity of initial crack was taken into account. A typical loading spectrum of railway axle was considered and residual fatigue lifetime was estimated by NASGRO approach. Material properties of typical axle steel EA4T were considered in numerical calculations and lifetime estimation.

  17. 基于轴荷平衡的双联轴货车钢板平衡悬架参数优化%Parameter Optimization of the Leaf-spring Balanced Suspension in a Tandem Axle Truck Based on Axle-load Balance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡延平; 宋东奇; 陈一锴; 张卫华; 柏海舰

    2015-01-01

    [ Abstract] For thoroughly improving the overall driving performance of tandem-axle truck,a parameter optimiza-tion scheme for the leaf-spring balanced suspension of a tandem axle truck is proposed with consideration of dynamic axle load balance. Firstly a six DOF half-vehicle model with leaf-spring balanced suspension and a single-rut random excita-tion time-domain model are created respectively based on numerical analysis, and a corresponding dynamic vehicle-road coupled model is also built with MATLAB/Simulink accordingly. Then an overall driving performance indicator of tandem axle truck is put forward, which comprehensively reflect the dynamic axle load balance and ride comfort of vehicle and the degree of influence of suspension parameters on the overall driving performance of vehicle is explored based on orthog-onal experiment. Finally a thorough optimization of key suspension parameters is achieved by range analysis and variance analysis. The results indicate that compared with original truck, the overall driving performance indicator of truck after parameter optimization is enhanced by some 30% at the speed range of 20 to 90km/h.%为全面改善双联轴货车的综合行驶性能,提出一种考虑动态轴荷平衡的货车双联轴钢板平衡悬架参数优化方法。首先,基于数值分析法分别建立带钢板平衡悬架的6自由度1/2车辆模型和单轮辙随机激励时域模型,并在MATLAB/Simulink中构建相应的车路耦合动力学模型。进而提出综合反映动态轴荷平衡和平顺性的多联轴货车综合行驶性能指标,依据正交试验探索悬架各参数对车辆综合行驶性能的影响程度。最后通过极差和方差分析实现悬架关键参数的全面优化。结果表明,在20~90km/h车速下,相对于原货车,参数优化后货车的综合行驶性能指标约提高了30%。

  18. Giving AXL the axe: targeting AXL in human malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Carl M; Balaji, Kavitha; Byers, Lauren Averett

    2017-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase AXL, activated by a complex interaction between its ligand growth arrest-specific protein 6 and phosphatidylserine, regulates various vital cellular processes, including proliferation, survival, motility, and immunologic response. Although not implicated as an oncogenic driver itself, AXL, a member of the TYRO3, AXL, and MERTK family of receptor tyrosine kinases, is overexpressed in several haematologic and solid malignancies, including acute myeloid leukaemia, non-small cell lung cancer, gastric and colorectal adenocarcinomas, and breast and prostate cancers. In the context of malignancy, evidence suggests that AXL overexpression drives wide-ranging processes, including epithelial to mesenchymal transition, tumour angiogenesis, resistance to chemotherapeutic and targeted agents, and decreased antitumor immune response. As a result, AXL is an attractive candidate not only as a prognostic biomarker in malignancy but also as a target for anticancer therapies. Several AXL inhibitors are currently in preclinical and clinical development. This article reviews the structure, regulation, and function of AXL; the role of AXL in the tumour microenvironment; the development of AXL as a therapeutic target; and areas of ongoing and future investigation. PMID:28072762

  19. Analysis of Tendencies Towards Changes in Temperatures of Railway Vehicle Axle Boxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olegas Lunys

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes variations in the temperature of axle-box heating of railroad rolling stock considering two modes of the train - driving and parking position. Additionally, the article describes the influence of the axle load and season on the heat of the axle-box, forecasts intolerable residual resources and explains a possibility of detecting likely breakage at the very beginning of defects. The paper also deals with scientific literature related to axle-box heating and focuses on the conducted practical and theoretical experiments. The carried out research has established the rates of operating heating and critical heating. The application of numerical values for the algorithm of automatic control devices could help with detecting the breakdowns of the axle-box before they reach a critical state and assist in forecasting residual operating resources.

  20. 49 CFR 215.105 - Defective axle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.105 Defective axle. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if— (a) An axle on the car has a crack or is broken; (b) An axle on the car has a gouge in the surface that is— (1)...

  1. Shape Optimization Of Front Axle Support Of Tractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shree Dewangan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The front axle support of tractor is the part of tractor which holds the engine of tractor and also gives support to it and lies between engine and front axle of tractor. According to the present market demand of off highway vehicle the low cost and light weight vehicle is in demand to fulfill the requirement of cost efficient vehicle. In this paper analysis of front axle support is done for study of stress generated in the component and then after optimization of its shape and according to the shape its weight will also reduced. Considering the effect of forces acted on such a heavy parts in tractor designed by casting having dynamic loads of less frequency with greater amplitude may cause great damage to the component. According to the production techniques of components in tractor front axle requires a properly designed support with high stiffness. The design of component was modeled in Creo parametric 2.0 and the analysis was performed in solid works. Shape optimization technique is used for performing optimization cause miserable reduction in weight of connecting rod. The optimized component is 10.35% lighter compare to initial design.

  2. Vibroacoustic Modeling and Path Control of Air-Borne Axle Whine Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Guo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The axle whine noise will eventually affect the vehicle noise performance. In this study, a systematic modeling approach is developed to analyze the axle whine problem by considering the hypoid gear mesh from the tooth contact process as well as the system dynamics effect with gear design parameters and shaft-bearing-housing system taken into account. Moreover, the tuning of the dominant air-borne path is modeled analytically by using the sound transmission loss idea. First, gear tooth load distribution results are obtained in a 3-dimensional loaded tooth contact analysis program. Then mesh parameters are synthesized and applied to a linear multibody gear dynamic model to obtain dynamic mesh and bearing responses. The bearing responses are used as the excitation force to a housing finite element model. Finally, the vibroacoustic analysis of the axle is performed using the boundary element method; sound pressure responses in the axle surface are then simulated. Transmission losses of different panel partitions are included in the final stage to guide the tuning of air-borne paths to reduce the radiated axle whine noise. The proposed approach gives a more in-depth understanding of the axle whine generation and therefore can further facilitate the system design and trouble-shooting.

  3. DAMAGE TOLERANCE ANALYSIS ON HOLLOW AXLES OF HIGH SPEED MOTOR TRAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Suxia; XIE Jilong; YANG Guangxue; XIAO Nan

    2008-01-01

    According to the rules of UIC515-3, the service loads of the axles are defined, which include some different loads cases as follows: the static loads; the impact loads resulted from running through the rail joints and unevenness rails; the loads through curves and from braking. Through the calculating and analysis, the stress distribution of the hollow axles is obtained for 200 km/h high speed motor trains used in China. At the same time, the fatigue crack growth of hollow axles is studied, and the initial surface cracks of 2 mm depth caused by hard objects strike or the other causes are discussed. On the basis of the linear elastic fracture mechanics theory, the stress intensity factor of the crack of the geometry transition outside the wheel seat is also studied. Associated with fatigue crack propagation equation and the corresponding crack propagation threshold, the crack propagation characteristics under different shapes are calculated. Then the running distances are educed with different shapes propagating to the critical length, and the estimation of the residual lives about hollow axles which are the reference values of examine and repair limit of the hollow axle is given.

  4. IDEAL BRAKE FORCE DISTRIBUTION BETWEEN THE AXLES OF THE TWO-AXLE VEHICLE SERVICE BRAKE APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Podryhalo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The obtained analytical expressions allow us to evaluate the stability of two-axle vehicles at various slowdowns. An analytical expression for calculating the ideal according to condition stability ensuring of a two-axle vehicle at service brake applications of brake force distribution allows to offer automatic control devices for brake force adjucement. With decellerationg growth of the two-axle vehicle at service braking the braking force acting on the front axle should decrease relative to the brake force on the rear axle.

  5. Investigation on features and tendencies of axle-box heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olegas LUNYS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Breakdown of rolling stock axle-boxes if not detected in due time may cause a rail accident or disaster. At present, a lot of advanced technologies, modern equipment and devices, which “recognizes” faulty axle-boxes when the train is in motion, have been implemented. However, the timely identification of breakdown of rolling stock axle-boxes still is an acute problem, the initial stage of damage emergence being especially problematic. Presently, rolling stock axle-box breakdown is determined according to the higher than permissible temperature of the axle-box body. The article provides statistical data of dangerously heated axle-boxes, determined train delay durations, the number of delayed trains by danger level, and dependence of damage on the season. After systematization of data on axle-box damage and heating temperatures of broken axle-boxes, heating tendencies of axle-boxes of freight wagons are described. Finally, basic conclusions are given.

  6. Application of Computational-Experimental Methods for Designing Optimized Semitrailer Axle Supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Valladares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational and experimental methods were applied to the design and optimization of a semitrailer axle support subjected to fatigue loads. Numerical results based on the finite element method (FEM were correlated with extensometric tests to assess the accuracy of the computational method. This paper is focused on the “minimum radius manoeuvre.” This situation represents the highly critical load case occurring in a semitrailer operation where the tractor vehicle pulls the semitrailer's kingpin at approximately 90° with respect to its longitudinal axis, and high stress and strain phenomena take place in the axle supports’ structure. Loads and boundary conditions that correspond to this load case were first adjusted by means of experimental tests and could be later applied to each semitrailer axle support in the numerical model. In this analysis, the stress-strain elastic-plastic curves of the base material, the welding, and the HAZ have been incorporated to the numerical models. Fatigue S-N curves combined with the maximum Von Mises equivalent stresses obtained in the computational analysis provided a maximum number of cycles that the semitrailer axle support could reach in case of the minimum radius manoeuvre being applied to the vehicle in a repeated manner. The initial design could then be optimized to improve its fatigue life.

  7. Comparative Evaluation of Tractor Trolley Axle by Using Finite Element Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Aloni

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Tractor trolley or trailers are very popular and cheaper mode of goods transport in rural as well as urban area. But these trailers are manufactured in small scale to moderate scale industry. Especially in the small- and middle-scale agricultural machinery industry, insufficient use of new technology and new design features can cause problems such as breakdowns and failures during field operations. In Present work finite element analysis approach is used to modify existing rear axle of tractor trolley. Fatigue failure of the rear axle finite element model was predicted after the dynamic load was imposed on it. For analysis, a 6.0 ton 2 wheeler tractor trolley i.e. semitrailer manufactured by Awachat Industries Ltd., Wardha is selected. The finite element analysis of existing rear axle of tractor trolley revealed the stresses distribution on rear axle. So, an effort is made to modify the design of existing rear axle along with change of material so that advantage of weight reduction along with safe stress can be obtained.

  8. Imaging Axl expression in pancreatic and prostate cancer xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimmagadda, Sridhar, E-mail: snimmag1@jhmi.edu [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Pullambhatla, Mrudula; Lisok, Ala [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Hu, Chaoxin [Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Maitra, Anirban [Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Pomper, Martin G, E-mail: mpomper@jhmi.edu [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •Axl is overexpressed in a variety of cancers. •Axl overexpression confers invasive phenotype. •Axl imaging would be useful for therapeutic guidance and monitoring. •Axl expression imaging is demonstrated in pancreatic and prostate cancer xenografts. •Graded levels of Axl expression imaging is feasible. -- Abstract: The receptor tyrosine kinase Axl is overexpressed in and leads to patient morbidity and mortality in a variety of cancers. Axl–Gas6 interactions are critical for tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. The goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of imaging graded levels of Axl expression in tumors using a radiolabeled antibody. We radiolabeled anti-human Axl (Axl mAb) and control IgG1 antibodies with {sup 125}I with high specific radioactivity and radiochemical purity, resulting in an immunoreactive fraction suitable for in vivo studies. Radiolabeled antibodies were investigated in severe combined immunodeficient mice harboring subcutaneous CFPAC (Axl{sup high}) and Panc1 (Axl{sup low}) pancreatic cancer xenografts by ex vivo biodistribution and imaging. Based on these results, the specificity of [{sup 125}I]Axl mAb was also validated in mice harboring orthotopic Panc1 or CFPAC tumors and in mice harboring subcutaneous 22Rv1 (Axl{sup low}) or DU145 (Axl{sup high}) prostate tumors by ex vivo biodistribution and imaging studies at 72 h post-injection of the antibody. Both imaging and biodistribution studies demonstrated specific and persistent accumulation of [{sup 125}I]Axl mAb in Axl{sup high} (CFPAC and DU145) expression tumors compared to the Axl{sup low} (Panc1 and 22Rv1) expression tumors. Axl expression in these tumors was further confirmed by immunohistochemical studies. No difference in the uptake of radioactivity was observed between the control [{sup 125}I]IgG1 antibody in the Axl{sup high} and Axl{sup low} expression tumors. These data demonstrate the feasibility of imaging Axl expression in pancreatic

  9. Influence of axle-wheel interface on ultrasonic testing of fatigue cracks in wheelset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Kazunari; Biwa, Shiro

    2013-01-01

    For the ultrasonic testing at the wheel seat of railway axles, quantitative investigation of the reflection and transmission phenomena at the axle-wheel interface is important. This paper describes the influence of the axle-wheel interface on the ultrasonic testing of a fatigue crack in a wheelset by applying the spring interface model. The normal and tangential stiffnesses were identified experimentally for an as-manufactured wheelset at the normal incidence, and the reflection coefficient for the shear-wave oblique incidence was calculated. A parametric study was performed to clarify the influence of these interfacial stiffnesses on the incident-angle dependence of the reflection coefficient. The calculated reflection coefficient at the incident angle of 45° qualitatively explained the relative echo-height decrease due to the presence of a wheel observed experimentally for a wheelset in fatigue loading by rotating bending. The quantitative difference between the experimental and calculated results was considered to be due to the reduction of the effective interference of shrink fit by the wear at the axle-wheel interface during the fatigue loading as well as by the applied bending moment. For the estimated relative echo-height decrease to agree with the experimental results, the interfacial stiffnesses were found to be smaller than the values identified for the as-manufactured wheelset by a factor of 0.5-0.7.

  10. EVALUATION OF DYNAMIC INDICATORS OF SIX-AXLE LOCOMOTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper is devoted to dynamic characteristics evaluation of the locomotive with prospective design and determination the feasibility of its use on the Ukrainian railways. Methodology. The methods of mathematical and computer modeling of the dynamics of railway vehicles, as well as methods for the numerical integration of systems of ordinary nonlinear differential equations were used to solve the problem. Findings. The calculated diagram of a locomotive on three-axle bogies was built to solve the problem, and it is a system of rigid bodies connected by various elements of rheology. The mathematical model of the locomotive movement, allowing studying its spatial vibrations at driving on straight and curved sections of the track with random irregularities in plan and profile was developed with use of this calculated diagram. At compiling the mathematical model took into account both geometric (nonlinearity profile of the wheel roll surface and physical nonlinearity of the system (the work forces of dry friction, nonlinearity characteristics of interaction forces between wheels and rails. The multivariate calculations, which allowed assessing the dynamic qualities of the locomotive at its movement along straight and curved sections of the track, were realized with the use of computer modeling. The smoothness movement indicators of the locomotive in horizontal and vertical planes, frame strength, coefficients of vertical dynamics in the first and second stages of the suspension, the load factor of resistance against the derailment of the wheel from the rail were determined at the period of research. In addition, a comparison of the obtained results with similar characteristics is widely used on the Ukrainian railways in six-axle locomotive TE 116. The influence of speed and technical state of the track on the locomotive traffic safety was determined.Originality. A mathematical model of the spatial movement of a six-axle locomotive with

  11. Design and Research on Heavy-Haul Railway Turnout for 75 kg/m Rail with 30 t Axle Load Used in Central and Southern Shanxi Railway%山西中南部铁路30 t轴重75 kg/m钢轨重载道岔设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东风

    2014-01-01

    30t轴重重载运输是货物运输的主要发展方向之一。结合山西中南部铁路的建设,前期研究开发了30t轴重60kg/m钢轨12号、18号重载道岔,经在既有线上道试验,总体使用效果良好。但根据目前的相关技术标准,30t轴重重载线路应使用75kg/m钢轨,为此有必要研究开发75kg/m钢轨重载道岔。简要介绍75kg/m钢轨12号、18号重载道岔的研究设计,包括平面线型及结构设计,通过增大导曲线半径、尖轨加宽技术,设置轨撑、采用镶嵌式合金钢组合辙叉和高锰钢组合辙叉(爆炸硬化)等优化道岔结构设计,经动力学仿真分析研究表明:75kg/m钢轨重载道岔的结构部件位移及加速度均低于标准限值,并且能够满足行车安全性要求。%Heavy-haul railway transportation with 30 t axle load is one of the main development directions for goods transportation. In the early days, combining with the construction of Central and Southern Shanxi Railway, we had researched and developed the heavy-haul railway turnout No. 12 and No. 18 for 60 kg/m rail with 30 t axle load;and by means of field test on existing railway lines it could be seen that the overall application effect had been good. But according to the current technical standards, the heavy-haul railway of 30t axle load should be with 75 kg/m steel rail. So it is necessary to research and develop heavy-haul railway turnout for 75 kg/m rail. In this study, the research and design of the heavy-haul railway turnout No. 12 and No. 18 for 75 kg/m rail were introduced, including the horizontal geometric shape and structure design. Meanwhile, some technical measures were employed to optimize the structure design of this turnout, such as increasing the radius of derived curve, widening the switch rail, installing the rail brace, using inlaid alloy steel composite frog, as well as using high manganese steel frog ( explosion hardening) , and so on. The result of analysis and research of

  12. Development of a Test Machine for IVECO Drive Axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Liang-mo; WANG He-fu; CHEN Jin-rong; LING Zhi-liang; CAO Yu-hua

    2007-01-01

    To improve the automation level of the vehicle drive axle test and better simulate a vehicle′s actual operation, an advanced test machine has been developed. The load system of the machine consists of hand brakes and electric cylinders. It is simple-structured and low-cost. The major motor of the machine is controlled by a transducer and its speed can be adjusted easily. In addition, the programmed machine can automatically test such parameters as the grinding condition, the differential speed, the noise level, etc. It can also adjust the test procedures according to different requirements. Detailed discussion of the structure and mechanism of the test machine is given in this paper.

  13. Simulation Research on Stress Intensity Factors of Different Crack Aspect Ratios on Hollow Axles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Suxia; XIE Jilong

    2009-01-01

    Because of the wicked service environment of the high speed train, it is possible that the hollow axle of the train may encounter the foreign object damage and form a sharp notch. Under the fatigue loading a crack can initiate from the notch and propagate to failure. It is noted that the stress intensity factor is the control parameter of the crack propagating, for the purpose of getting the more exact propagation characteristics, the stress intensity factor is studied mainly. The service loads of hollow axles are defined, and the stress distribution of hollow axles is obtained according to the load spectrum. The semi-ellipse crack configuration is defined with three parameters:the aspect ratio, the relative depth and the relative location along the crack front. Quarter point 20-node isoparametric degenerate singular elements are used for the region near the crack tip. The finite element model of crack extension of hollow axle is created, and the crack front is dispersed which can realize orthogonal extension. Based on this the stress intensity factors of crack front were calculated, and the distribution rules of the stress intensity factors of different initial crack shapes are obtained. The conclusions are compared with that of the analytic method and they agree with each other very well, and the calculating results show that there is a close relationship between the stress intensity factor and the initial crack shape. For a round crack the stress intensity factor at the surface point increases faster than the one at the center point with the crack propagation. However, for a narrow crack, the results are in contrast with that of a round one. So, all the cracks with different shapes propagate toward to a similar shape, and they grow at this shape to end. The study may contribute to the crack propagate characteristics research.

  14. Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing: Five-Axle Combination Tractor-Flatbed Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, in coordination with the Federal Highway Administration, sponsored the Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing (HOVBT) program in order to provide information about the effect of gross vehicle weight (GVW) on braking performance. Because the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations limit the number of braking system defects that may exist for a vehicle to be allowed to operate on the roadways, the examination of the effect of brake defects on brake performance for increased loads is also relevant. The HOVBT program seeks to provide relevant information to policy makers responsible for establishing load limits, beginning with providing test data for a combination tractor/trailer. This testing was conducted on a five-axle combination vehicle with tractor brakes meeting the Reduced Stopping Distance requirement rulemaking. This report provides a summary of the testing activities, the results of various analyses of the data, and recommendations for future research. Following a complete brake rebuild, instrumentation, and brake burnish, stopping tests were performed from 20 and 40 mph with various brake application pressures (15 psi, 25 psi, 35 psi, 45 psi, 55 psi, and full system pressure). These tests were conducted for various brake conditions at the following GVWs: 60,000, 80,000, 91,000, 97,000, 106,000, and 116,000 lb. The 80,000-lb GVWs included both balanced and unbalanced loads. The condition of the braking system was also varied. To introduce these defects, brakes (none, forward drive axle, or rear trailer axle) were made inoperative. In addition to the stopping tests, performance-based brake tests were conducted for the various loading and brake conditions. Analysis of the stopping test data showed the stopping distance to increase with load (as expected) and also showed that more braking force was generated by the drive axle brakes than the trailer axle brakes. The constant-pressure stopping test data

  15. AXL is an oncotarget in human colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Erika; Troiani, Teresa; Liguori, Giuseppina; Vitagliano, Donata; Napolitano, Stefania; Morgillo, Floriana; Rinaldi, Barbara; Melillo, Rosa Marina; Liotti, Federica; Nappi, Anna; Bianco, Roberto; Berrino, Liberato; Ciuffreda, Loreta Pia; Ciardiello, Davide; Iaffaioli, Vincenzo; Botti, Gerardo; Ferraiolo, Fiorella; Ciardiello, Fortunato

    2015-01-01

    AXL is a tyrosine kinase receptor activated by GAS6 and regulates cancer cell proliferation migration and angiogenesis. We studied AXL as new therapeutic target in colorectal cancer (CRC). Expression and activation of AXL and GAS6 were evaluated in a panel of human CRC cell lines. AXL gene silencing or pharmacologic inhibition with foretinib suppressed proliferation, migration and survival in CRC cells. In an orthotopic colon model of human HCT116 CRC cells overexpressing AXL, foretinib treatment caused significant inhibition of tumour growth and peritoneal metastatic spreading. AXL and GAS6 overexpression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) were found in 76,7% and 73.5%, respectively, of 223 human CRC specimens, correlating with less differentiated histological grading. GAS6 overexpression was associated with nodes involvement and tumour stage. AXL gene was found amplified by Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in 8/146 cases (5,4%) of CRC samples. Taken together, AXL inhibition could represent a novel therapeutic approach in CRC. PMID:25966280

  16. Dynamic analysis of rail vehicle axle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ferhat Dikmen; Meral Bayraktar; Rahmi Guclu

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, in order to obtain the dynamic forces on the passenger coach axle, a full rail vehicle model with 19-dof (degrees of freedom) has been considered. For a specific example, the variations of these dynamic forces with velocity of the passenger coach, suspension characteristics and way conditions have been examined. Dynamic forces found in the resonance regions at the range of 2–5 m/s (7.2–18 km/h) has been discussed. Theoretical results obtained for the dynamic forces have been successfully compared with the experimental results of German Railways (Deutsche Bahn-DB).

  17. Study on control schemes of flexible steering system of a multi-axle all-wheel-steering robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingxia Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that a multi-axle wheeled robot possesses larger load capability and also higher drive performance. However, its steering flexibility is degraded due to the large number of wheels. In order to solve this problem, in this article, we proposed three control schemes based on the center of rotation or the steering angles of both the first- and last-axle wheels. To release these control schemes, steering mode selection and also the left wheel’s steering angle in a specific axle are added approaching a practical application. Thereafter, the remaining wheels’ steering angles can be calculated with the Ackerman steering theorem. In order to verify the control effects, a five-axle all-wheel-steering wheeled robot has been developed with the Bluetooth wireless monitor system. Based on the newly designed robot, validation experiments are carried out, such as lateral movement, situ rotation, and multi-mode steering within a narrow space. The results indicate that the proposed design in this article can ensure a more flexible and faster movement within a narrow space. It shows large potential in obstacle avoidance compared with the conventional partial-wheel steering mode.

  18. Design Rules Discussion for Improving Multi-axle Vehicle Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xuebin; JIANG Yingquan; GAO Feng

    2006-01-01

    A whole vehicle dynamic model is built, and the modeling method of connected hydragas spring suspension and multi-axle grouping steer system is also explained. Firstly, a kinematical analysis of suspension is implemented to achieve optimized suspension geometry parameters according to the stable requirement. Then, based on the evaluation of whole vehicle handling character with regard to various tire characters, driving configurations and super structures, the design rules are summarized to improve the stability of multi-axle vehicle.

  19. NEW TECHNOLOGY AND MACHINE TOOL FOR THE FORMING OF THE REAR AXLE SHAFT OF LIGHT TRUCK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Yingchun; Yu Duonian; Wang Xueming

    2004-01-01

    A new technology of forward extrusion and cross rolling has been developed to process the rear axle shaft sleeve of light truck with the use of tube billets. This technology is characterized by large reductions of material, energy and cost of production and has significant economical benefits. This technology is stable and reliable. The three rolls transverse rolling mill built based on this technology has novelty construction, higher production efficiency, non-vibration and noise. The research results have been extensively applied to light trucks and farm transport with load of 1 to 3 tones.

  20. A New Approach for Reliability Life Prediction of Rail Vehicle Axle by Considering Vibration Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Bayraktar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of vibration on the axle has been considered. Vibration measurements at different speeds have been performed on the axle of a running rail vehicle to figure out displacement, acceleration, time, and frequency response. Based on the experimental works, equivalent stress has been used to find out life of the axles for 90% and 10% reliability. Calculated life values of the rail vehicle axle have been compared with the real life data and it is found that the life of a vehicle axle taking into account the vibration effects is in good agreement with the real life of the axle.

  1. MULTI-AXLE VEHICLE STABILITY BASED ON WHOLE VEHICLE MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xuebin; GAO Feng

    2007-01-01

    From the analysis of experiment data of the multi-axle vehicle chassis searching process, it is less accurate to predict multi-axle vehicle dynamic characteristic with simplified two-axle vehicle model. So it is important to find out a more effective modeling method in the study of multi-vehicle stability. In the development of heat transfer fluid(HTF) six-axle vehicle, a whole vehicle multi-body dynamic model is built through collaborate flowchart using Teamcenter Engineering, UG NX3 and MSC. Adams. The modeling method of connected hydragas spring suspension is validated by running test results. Based on this whole vehicle model, a kinematical analysis of suspension is implemented to achieve optimized suspension geometry parameters according to the stable requirement. Then, different handling simulations are carried out with regard to various tire characteristics, driving configurations, and equipments. According to the evaluation of whole vehicle handling characteristic, some design rules are summarized to improve the stability of multi-axle vehicle.

  2. The Application of Phased Array Ultrasonic Techniques for Inspection of Railway Axles from Their End Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaptsis, D.; Cooper, I.; Boyle, K.; Nicholson, P. I.

    2011-06-01

    As part of the development of a non destructive testing (NDT) system combining complementary inspection techniques, an inspection system based on phased array ultrasonic testing (PAUT) for detection of transverse cracking in solid railway axles is being developed. This paper presents the initial study, which includes the PAUT experimental setup and the initial results obtained after testing the system on railway axle blocks. The inspection of solid axles from their axle end face is investigated.

  3. Thoughts on Process Design of Ji'nan West Wheel Axle Workshop%济南西轮轴车间工艺设计思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵勇

    2012-01-01

    This paper, according to the relevant design contents of wheel axle workshop of Ji'nan West Rolling Stock Depot, investigates comprehensively the whole maintenance process and the equipment configuration of wheel axle's overhaul, from several aspects such as the function partitioning of inspection and repair depots, wheelset-input inspection , wheelset-export inspection, mechanical processing of wheel axle, HMIS system and so on. Moreover, the paper introduces emphatically the working principle, main features and the related functions about the process line which consists of the loading and unloading robot, axle transmission line, wheel transmission line, and the press-fit units. In addition, this paper summarizes the entire maintenance process in relation to the wheel axle's automation and process line's maintenance, with a view to provide reference for wheel axle repair design of other projects.%根据济南西车辆段轮轴车间设计相关内容,从轮轴检修库房工艺功能划分、轮对收入检查部分、轮对支出检查部分、车轴轮片机械加工部分、HMIS系统等几个方面入手,全面探讨轮轴大修的整个检修工艺流程和设备配置情况,并着重介绍上下料机械手、车轴输送线、车轮输送线和压装单元组成的工艺流水线的工作原理、主要特点和相关功能.总结轮轴自动化、流水线检修的整个检修工艺流程,可为其他工程轮轴检修设计提供参考依据.

  4. Design and Development of Animal Drawn Ground Metered Axle Mechanism Boom Sprayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Amonye

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A spraying technology was developed for use by rural farmers in Northern Nigeria. The farming systems in these areas are put into consideration and in keeping with appropriate technology initiative. The technology was designed to offer the farmers an equitable sprayer that shall be drawn by animal farm power and that is effective and affordable. The equipment was constructed using the parameters obtained from design and tested at a farmland within the University premises of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, in Nigeria. The equipment consists of a boom with multiple Controlled Droplet Applicator (CDA atomizer nozzles, a gear pump, a chemical tank, and chair for an operator; all attached to a framework bolted to a rear axle. It was observed that the Dynamic Wheel Load assuming even distribution of load was found to be 1575N and a net pull of 820N. The net pull offers convenient task and shall easily swallow energy requirement for spraying uphill terrains.

  5. Inhibition of Axl improves the targeted therapy against ALK-mutated neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Fei [Department of Neurology, Sichuan Medical Science Institute and Sichuan Provincial Hospital, Chengdu 610072 (China); Li, Hongling [Department of Radiotherapy, Shanghai First People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Sun, Yong, E-mail: sunfanqi2010@163.com [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Huai’an First People’s Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Huai’an 223300 (China)

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • First reported Axl is co-expressed with ALK in neuroblastoma tissues and cell lines. • Axl activation promotes cell growth and impairs the efficiency of ALK inhibitor. • Further found silence of Axl leads to increased sensitivity to ALK inhibitors. • Axl inhibitor promotes the efficiency of targeted therapy in vitro and in vivo. • Axl activation should be considered in the clinical application of ALK inhibitors. - Abstract: Neuroblastoma (NB) patients harboring mutated ALK can be expected to potentially benefit from targeted therapy based on ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), such as crizotinib and ceritinib. However, the effect of the treatment varies with different individuals, although with the same genic changes. Axl receptor tyrosine kinase is expressed in a variety of human cancers, but little data are reported in NB, particularly in which carrying mutated ALK. In this study, we focus on the roles of Axl in ALK-mutated NB for investigating rational therapeutic strategy. We found that Axl is expressed in ALK-positive NB tissues and cell lines, and could be effectively activated by its ligand GAS6. Ligand-dependent Axl activation obviously rescued crizotinib-mediated suppression of cell proliferation in ALK-mutated NB cells. Genetic inhibition of Axl with specific small interfering RNA markedly increased the sensitivity of cells to ALK-TKIs. Furthermore, a small-molecule inhibitor of Axl significantly enhanced ALK-targeted therapy, as an increased frequency of apoptosis was observed in NB cells co-expressing ALK and Axl. Taken together, our results demonstrated that activation of Axl could lead to insensitivity to ALK inhibitors, and dual inhibition of ALK and Axl might be a potential therapeutic strategy against ALK-mutated NB.

  6. Soluble Axl is generated by ADAM10-dependent cleavage and associates with Gas6 in mouse serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budagian, Vadim; Bulanova, Elena; Orinska, Zane; Duitman, Erwin; Brandt, Katja; Ludwig, Andreas; Hartmann, Dieter; Lemke, Greg; Saftig, Paul; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia

    2005-11-01

    Axl receptor tyrosine kinase exists as a transmembrane protein and as a soluble molecule. We show that constitutive and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced generation of soluble Axl (sAxl) involves the activity of disintegrin-like metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10). Spontaneous and inducible Axl cleavage was inhibited by the broad-spectrum metalloproteinase inhibitor GM6001 and by hydroxamate GW280264X, which is capable of blocking ADAM10 and ADAM17. Furthermore, murine fibroblasts deficient in ADAM10 expression exhibited a significant reduction in constitutive and inducible Axl shedding, whereas reconstitution of ADAM10 restored sAxl production, suggesting that ADAM10-mediated proteolysis constitutes a major mechanism for sAxl generation in mice. Partially overlapping 14-amino-acid stretch deletions in the membrane-proximal region of Axl dramatically affected sAxl generation, indicating that these regions are involved in regulating the access of the protease to the cleavage site. Importantly, relatively high circulating levels of sAxl are present in mouse sera in a heterocomplex with Axl ligand Gas6. Conversely, two other family members, Tyro3 and Mer, were not detected in mouse sera and conditioned medium. sAxl is constitutively released by murine primary cells such as dendritic and transformed cell lines. Upon immobilization, sAxl promoted cell migration and induced the phosphorylation of Axl and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Thus, ADAM10-mediated generation of sAxl might play an important role in diverse biological processes.

  7. Soluble Axl Is Generated by ADAM10-Dependent Cleavage and Associates with Gas6 in Mouse Serum†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budagian, Vadim; Bulanova, Elena; Orinska, Zane; Duitman, Erwin; Brandt, Katja; Ludwig, Andreas; Hartmann, Dieter; Lemke, Greg; Saftig, Paul; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia

    2005-01-01

    Axl receptor tyrosine kinase exists as a transmembrane protein and as a soluble molecule. We show that constitutive and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced generation of soluble Axl (sAxl) involves the activity of disintegrin-like metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10). Spontaneous and inducible Axl cleavage was inhibited by the broad-spectrum metalloproteinase inhibitor GM6001 and by hydroxamate GW280264X, which is capable of blocking ADAM10 and ADAM17. Furthermore, murine fibroblasts deficient in ADAM10 expression exhibited a significant reduction in constitutive and inducible Axl shedding, whereas reconstitution of ADAM10 restored sAxl production, suggesting that ADAM10-mediated proteolysis constitutes a major mechanism for sAxl generation in mice. Partially overlapping 14-amino-acid stretch deletions in the membrane-proximal region of Axl dramatically affected sAxl generation, indicating that these regions are involved in regulating the access of the protease to the cleavage site. Importantly, relatively high circulating levels of sAxl are present in mouse sera in a heterocomplex with Axl ligand Gas6. Conversely, two other family members, Tyro3 and Mer, were not detected in mouse sera and conditioned medium. sAxl is constitutively released by murine primary cells such as dendritic and transformed cell lines. Upon immobilization, sAxl promoted cell migration and induced the phosphorylation of Axl and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Thus, ADAM10-mediated generation of sAxl might play an important role in diverse biological processes. PMID:16227584

  8. Sunitinib activates Axl signaling in renal cell cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mijn, Johannes C; Broxterman, Henk J; Knol, Jaco C; Piersma, Sander R; De Haas, Richard R; Dekker, Henk; Pham, Thang V; Van Beusechem, Victor W; Halmos, Balazs; Mier, James W; Jiménez, Connie R; Verheul, Henk M W

    2016-06-15

    Mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics provides a unique unbiased approach to evaluate signaling network in cancer cells. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib is registered as treatment for patients with renal cell cancer (RCC). We investigated the effect of sunitinib on tyrosine phosphorylation in RCC tumor cells to get more insight in its mechanism of action and thereby to find potential leads for combination treatment strategies. Sunitinib inhibitory concentrations of proliferation (IC50) of 786-O, 769-p and A498 RCC cells were determined by MTT-assays. Global tyrosine phosphorylation was measured by LC-MS/MS after immunoprecipitation with the antiphosphotyrosine antibody p-TYR-100. Phosphoproteomic profiling of 786-O cells yielded 1519 phosphopeptides, corresponding to 675 unique proteins including 57 different phosphorylated protein kinases. Compared to control, incubation with sunitinib at its IC50 of 2 µM resulted in downregulation of 86 phosphopeptides including CDK5, DYRK3, DYRK4, G6PD, PKM and LDH-A, while 94 phosphopeptides including Axl, FAK, EPHA2 and p38α were upregulated. Axl- (y702), FAK- (y576) and p38α (y182) upregulation was confirmed by Western Blot in 786-O and A498 cells. Subsequent proliferation assays revealed that inhibition of Axl with a small molecule inhibitor (R428) sensitized 786-O RCC cells and immortalized endothelial cells to sunitinib up to 3 fold. In conclusion, incubation with sunitinib of RCC cells causes significant upregulation of multiple phosphopeptides including Axl. Simultaneous inhibition of Axl improves the antitumor activity of sunitinib. We envision that evaluation of phosphoproteomic changes by TKI treatment enables identification of new targets for combination treatment strategies.

  9. Passivation and Corrosion Behavior of Modified Ferritic-Pearlitic Railway Axle Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, A. P.; Sangal, S.; Srivastav, Simant; Gajbhiye, N. S.; Mondal, K.

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical polarization behavior of two newly developed ferritic-pearlitic railway axle steels (MS3 and MS6) and the standard Indian conventional axle steel has been studied in sodium borate buffer solution of pH 8.4 with and without the presence of NaCl. The polarization behavior of both the new axle steels shows close resemblance, whereas, different polarization behavior has been observed for the conventional axle steel. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements have clearly reflected significantly improved passivation behavior for the newly developed steels compared to that of the conventional axle steel. NaCl salt fog exposure tests have also shown superior corrosion resistance of the newly developed axle steels as compared to the conventional axle steel. Higher surface roughness on the corroded conventional axle steel has also been observed compared to the smoother surface in case of the new axle steels. Higher corrosion resistance of the new axle steels has been attributed to their finer microstructure and strongly adherent protective rusts.

  10. Expression of Axl in Lung Adenocarcinoma and Correlation with Tumor Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Shing Shinh

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We used the Transwell system to select highly invasive cell lines from minimally invasive parent cells, and we compared gene expression in paired cell lines with high and low invasive potentials. Axl was relatively overexpressed in the highly invasive cell lines when compared with their minimally invasive counterparts. However, there is only limited information about the role of Axl in cancer invasion. The biologic function of Axl in tumor invasion was investigated by overexpression of full-length Axl in minimally invasive cells and by siRNA knockdown of Axl expression in highly invasive cells. Overexpression of Axl in minimally invasive cells increased their invasiveness. siRNA reduced cell invasiveness as Axl was downregulated in highly invasive cells. We further investigated the protein expression of Axl by immunohistochemistry and its correlation with clinicopathologic features. Data from a study of 58 patient specimens showed that Axl immunoreactivity was statistically significant with respect to lymph node status (P < .0001 and the patient's clinical stage (P < .0001. Our results demonstrate that Axl protein kinase seems to play an important role in the invasion and progression of lung cancer.

  11. Measurement-Based Vehicle Load Model for Urban Expressway Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant changes in vehicle loads have occurred in China due to the development of the automobile industry and transportation within the past two decades, particularly the rapid increase in traffic flow and the large-scale emergence of heavy trucks. However, research into vehicle loadings on urban bridges is not well developed. In this study, based on traffic flow data collected using a weigh-in-motion system installed on an expressway in an urban logistics zone, we analyzed the traffic flow, vehicle types, and gross vehicle weight (GVW features and developed models for the vehicle load and fatigue load. According to the axle space, axle types, and axle number, the trucks in the traffic flow were classified into 10 representative vehicle types. The probability distribution of the GVW was fitted to a three-class mixed log-normal distribution. Using the improved Gumbel method, we determined the extreme value distribution of the vehicle loadings in the purpose reference period and assessed the vehicle loadings of urban bridges. In addition, using the equivalent damage theory, six equivalent vehicle models were established according to the measurements of the axle weight and axle space, thereby obtaining a simplified model of fatigue vehicle loadings on urban expressway bridges.

  12. Dynamic Modelling of Axle Tramp in a Sport Type Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zargartalebi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant dynamic aspects of coupled vibration of transmission system and dependent type suspension systems is axle tramp. The tramp is defined as undesirable oscillation of rigid live axle around roll axis. In spite of utilizing powerful engines in some type of sport cars, tramp occurrence causes loss of longitudinal performance. The aim of this paper is to derive a mathematical model for predicting and classifying of the tramp. A parameter study reveals that, some parameters such as engine torque, moving parts moment of inertia, car and wheels weight and the material used in suspension system play important role in controlling the tramp. It is shown that large difference between sprung and unsprung mass moment of inertia around the roll-axis, low vehicle mass, short rear track and medium damping values have significant effects on the severity of tramp.

  13. Accelerated Life Test Design for Tractor Powertrain Front Axle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Azianti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated Life Test (ALT has been applied in the manufacturing for many years due to rapid changing technologies, more complex products, speedier product development, and more demanding customer requirements. These reasons have pushed the manufacturers to acquire reliability information faster. ALT allows reducing the time needed to show the reliability of the product. The purpose of this study is to design accelerated life testing which involved determination of normal test time, acceleration factor, acceleration test time, and finally experimental setup. This case study provides the basis for ALT designs for the tractor front axle based on customer usage and field failure analysis, which were conducted to estimate the current reliability, especially on the B10 life during the operational stage of the product. The accelerated life test conducted has guaranteed the B10 life of 4,000 hours with 90% confidence level for lesser time needed for testing to show the reliability of the front axle assembly.

  14. Dynamic Analysis of Light Automotive Front Axle Based on FEM%轻型载货汽车前轴的有限元动态特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王科

    2015-01-01

    汽车前轴是汽车最重要的承重件之一,其设计的可靠性直接影响整车性能的发挥。利用有限元方法研究汽车前轴的动态特性,并通过频率响应提取动刚度,为前轴设计提供了频域的设计方法。%Front axle of the light truck is one of the most important load-bearing parts. Its design reliability has impact on the vehicle performance. In this paper, the dynamic characteristics of the automotive front axle is researched by using the finite el-ement method ( FEM) , and its dynamic stiffness is also extracted with frequency response. We hope that would provide a de-sign method for front axle in the frequency domain.

  15. Design and application of the car front axle road simulation test%轿车前桥道路模拟台架疲劳试验设计及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩峰; 李国峰; 于翠

    2016-01-01

    This paper based on the vertical force, vertical force, lateral force of automobile front axle head and the hydraulic system (MTS), and one vehicle model in the proving ground of front axle load spectrum to design bench test for fatigue. Road simulation was carried out on the front axle. To reduce the design cost, shorten the design time, produce good economic benefit.%文章基于前桥轴头垂直力、纵向力、侧向力和 MTS 液压系统,以及某车型在试验场实测得到的前桥载荷谱,单纯对前桥进行台架道路模拟耐久试验设计。降低设计成本,缩短设计周期,产生较好的经济效益。

  16. Influence of axle-wheel interface on ultrasonic testing of fatigue cracks in wheelset.

    OpenAIRE

    Makino, Kazunari; Biwa, Shiro

    2013-01-01

    For the ultrasonic testing at the wheel seat of railway axles, quantitative investigation of the reflection and transmission phenomena at the axle-wheel interface is important. This paper describes the influence of the axle-wheel interface on the ultrasonic testing of a fatigue crack in a wheelset by applying the spring interface model. The normal and tangential stiffnesses were identified experimentally for an as-manufactured wheelset at the normal incidence, and the reflection coefficient f...

  17. Monitoring of the Structural Integrity of Wheelset Axles Using Guided Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Grzeszkowski, Mateusz; Prager, Jens

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The structural integrity of wheelset axles of high speed trains as well as freight wagons is of major importance for safety of rail transport. Up to now the inspection of wheelset axles is part of a periodic maintenance which is expensive due to long inspection times and highly influenced by the human factor, especially if those inspections are carried out during night time. Permanently installed SHM-systems at each axle would be able to monitor the structural integrit...

  18. Soluble AXL: a possible circulating biomarker for neurofibromatosis type 1 related tumor burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Gunnar; Peng, Po-Chun; Huang, Po-Yuan; Chien, Hsiung-Fei; Hua, Kuo-Tai; Kuo, Min-Liang; Chen, Chin-Tin; Lee, Ming-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is the most common tumor predisposition disorder affecting 1/3500 worldwide. Patients are at risk of developing benign (neurofibromas) and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST). The AXL receptor tyrosine kinase has been implicated in several kinds of cancers, but so far no studies have investigated the role of AXL in NF1 related tumorigenesis. Recently, the soluble fraction from the extracellular domain of AXL (sAXL) has been found in human plasma, and its level was correlated to poor prognosis in patients with renal cancer. Compared to normal human Schwann cells, a significantly high expression level of AXL was found in three of the four MPNST cell lines and two of the three primary MPNST tissues. Similarly, the level of sAXL in conditioned media corresponded to the protein and mRNA levels of AXL in the MPNST cell lines. Furthermore, in two different human MPNST xenograft models, the human sAXL could be detected in the mouse plasma. Its level was proportionate to the size of the xenograft tumors, while no human sAXL was detect prior to the formation of the tumors. Treatment with a newly developed photodynamic therapy, prevented further tumor growth and resulted in drastically reduced the levels of sAXL compared to that of the control group. Finally, the level of sAXL was significantly increased in patients with plexiform tumors compared to patients with only dermal neurofibromas, further supporting the role of sAXL as a marker for NF1 related tumor burden.

  19. Soluble AXL: a possible circulating biomarker for neurofibromatosis type 1 related tumor burden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Johansson

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 is the most common tumor predisposition disorder affecting 1/3500 worldwide. Patients are at risk of developing benign (neurofibromas and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST. The AXL receptor tyrosine kinase has been implicated in several kinds of cancers, but so far no studies have investigated the role of AXL in NF1 related tumorigenesis. Recently, the soluble fraction from the extracellular domain of AXL (sAXL has been found in human plasma, and its level was correlated to poor prognosis in patients with renal cancer. Compared to normal human Schwann cells, a significantly high expression level of AXL was found in three of the four MPNST cell lines and two of the three primary MPNST tissues. Similarly, the level of sAXL in conditioned media corresponded to the protein and mRNA levels of AXL in the MPNST cell lines. Furthermore, in two different human MPNST xenograft models, the human sAXL could be detected in the mouse plasma. Its level was proportionate to the size of the xenograft tumors, while no human sAXL was detect prior to the formation of the tumors. Treatment with a newly developed photodynamic therapy, prevented further tumor growth and resulted in drastically reduced the levels of sAXL compared to that of the control group. Finally, the level of sAXL was significantly increased in patients with plexiform tumors compared to patients with only dermal neurofibromas, further supporting the role of sAXL as a marker for NF1 related tumor burden.

  20. Rotation of artificial rotor axles in rotary molecular motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Mihori; Iwamoto, Kousuke; Iino, Ryota; Ueno, Hiroshi; Hara, Mayu; Nakanishi, Atsuko; Kishikawa, Jun-Ichi; Noji, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Ken

    2016-10-04

    F1- and V1-ATPase are rotary molecular motors that convert chemical energy released upon ATP hydrolysis into torque to rotate a central rotor axle against the surrounding catalytic stator cylinder with high efficiency. How conformational change occurring in the stator is coupled to the rotary motion of the axle is the key unknown in the mechanism of rotary motors. Here, we generated chimeric motor proteins by inserting an exogenous rod protein, FliJ, into the stator ring of F1 or of V1 and tested the rotation properties of these chimeric motors. Both motors showed unidirectional and continuous rotation, despite no obvious homology in amino acid sequence between FliJ and the intrinsic rotor subunit of F1 or V1 These results showed that any residue-specific interactions between the stator and rotor are not a prerequisite for unidirectional rotation of both F1 and V1 The torque of chimeric motors estimated from viscous friction of the rotation probe against medium revealed that whereas the F1-FliJ chimera generates only 10% of WT F1, the V1-FliJ chimera generates torque comparable to that of V1 with the native axle protein that is structurally more similar to FliJ than the native rotor of F1 This suggests that the gross structural mismatch hinders smooth rotation of FliJ accompanied with the stator ring of F1.

  1. A promiscuous liaison between IL-15 receptor and Axl receptor tyrosine kinase in cell death control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budagian, Vadim; Bulanova, Elena; Orinska, Zane; Thon, Lutz; Mamat, Uwe; Bellosta, Paola; Basilico, Claudio; Adam, Dieter; Paus, Ralf; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia

    2005-12-21

    Discrimination between cytokine receptor and receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling pathways is a central paradigm in signal transduction research. Here, we report a 'promiscuous liaison' between both receptors that enables interleukin (IL)-15 to transactivate the signaling pathway of a tyrosine kinase. IL-15 protects murine L929 fibroblasts from tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha)-induced cell death, but fails to rescue them upon targeted depletion of the RTK, Axl; however, Axl-overexpressing fibroblasts are TNFalpha-resistant. IL-15Ralpha and Axl colocalize on the cell membrane and co-immunoprecipitate even in the absence of IL-15, whereby the extracellular part of Axl proved to be essential for Axl/IL-15Ralpha interaction. Most strikingly, IL-15 treatment mimics stimulation by the Axl ligand, Gas6, resulting in a rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of both Axl and IL-15Ralpha, and activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. This is also seen in mouse embryonic fibroblasts from wild-type but not Axl-/- or IL-15Ralpha-/- mice. Thus, IL-15-induced protection from TNFalpha-mediated cell death involves a hitherto unknown IL-15 receptor complex, consisting of IL-15Ralpha and Axl RTK, and requires their reciprocal activation initiated by ligand-induced IL-15Ralpha.

  2. Laboratory Based Axle Lubricant Efficiency Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    cycle. From there the current gear ratio of the transmission was used to calculate the output torque and speed leaving the transmission. The torque ... gear ratio at speed, S TTransOut = Estimated transmission output torque at speed, S STransOut = Transmission output speed and engine speed...were the engine speed, engine load at speed, transmission gear , transmission output shaft speed, vehicle speed, and the torque converter lockup

  3. Axl receptor tyrosine kinase is a novel target of apigenin for the inhibition of cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Chan; Choi, Eun-Ha; Lee, Chuhee

    2014-08-01

    The Axl receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), along with Tyro 3 and Mer, belongs to the TAM subfamily that promotes survival, stimulates proliferation and/or inhibits apoptosis. In various types of human cancer, including breast, lung and prostate cancer, Axl expression is increased and correlates with an advanced clinical stage. In this study, we examined whether apigenin has an effect on Axl expression, which in turn can affect cell proliferation. The treatment of the non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, A549 and H460, with apigenin decreased Axl mRNA and protein expression in a dose‑dependent manner. Axl promoter activity was also inhibited by apigenin, indicating that apigenin suppressed Axl expression at the transcriptional level. Upon treatment with apigenin, the viability of both the A549 and H460 cells was gradually decreased and the anti-proliferative effects were further confirmed by the dose‑dependent decrease in the clonogenic ability of the apigenin‑treated cells. Subsequently, we found that the viability and clonogenic ability of the cells treated with apigenin was less or more affected by transfection of the cells with a Axl-expressing plasmid or Axl targeting siRNA, compared to transfection with the empty vector or control siRNA, respectively. In addition, apigenin increased the expression of p21, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, but reduced the expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). These cell cycle arrest and pro-apoptotic effects of apigenin were also attenuated or augmented by the up- or downregulation of Axl expression, respectively, which suggests that Axl is a novel target of apigenin through which it exerts its inhibitory effects on cell proliferation. Taken together, our data indicate that apigenin downregulates Axl expression, which subsequently results in the inhibition of NSCLC cell proliferation through the increase and decrease of p21 and XIAP expression, respectively.

  4. Axl Mediates ZIKA Virus Entry in Human Glial Cells and Modulates Innate Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Meertens

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ZIKA virus (ZIKV is an emerging pathogen responsible for neurological disorders and congenital microcephaly. However, the molecular basis for ZIKV neurotropism remains poorly understood. Here, we show that Axl is expressed in human microglia and astrocytes in the developing brain and that it mediates ZIKV infection of glial cells. Axl-mediated ZIKV entry requires the Axl ligand Gas6, which bridges ZIKV particles to glial cells. Following binding, ZIKV is internalized through clathrin-mediated endocytosis and traffics to Rab5+ endosomes to establish productive infection. During entry, the ZIKV/Gas6 complex activates Axl kinase activity, which downmodulates interferon signaling and facilitates infection. ZIKV infection of human glial cells is inhibited by MYD1, an engineered Axl decoy receptor, and by the Axl kinase inhibitor R428. Our results highlight the dual role of Axl during ZIKV infection of glial cells: promoting viral entry and modulating innate immune responses. Therefore, inhibiting Axl function may represent a potential target for future antiviral therapies.

  5. Expression of Axl and its prognostic significance in human breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Gaoyuan; Wang, Zhenzhen; Wang, Jianguang; Zhang, Like; Chen, Yanbin; Yuan, Pengfei; Liu, Dechun

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant cancer and second leading cause of cancer-related death among women, and its prevalence continues to increase. Axl overexpression has been identified in the many types of human cancer, and it has been demonstrated to participate in signaling pathways related to carcinogenesis and cancer development. In the present study, Axl expression was examined by performing immunohistochemical staining in 60 breast cancer tumors and 40 benign breast lesions (25 mammary dysplasia and 15 breast fibroadenoma). In total, 34 (56.67%) cancer tissues and 13 (32.5%) benign breast lesions were classified as exhibiting high levels of Axl expression, indicating a significant association between malignancy and high Axl expression. High Axl expression was also associated with estrogen receptor (ER) positivity (P=0.028), progesterone receptor (PR) positivity (P=0.007), and poor tumor differentiation (P=0.033). No significant associations were observed between Axl expression and age, tumor size, lymph node metastasis, tumor node metastasis staging, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and Ki67 antigen. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard model both demonstrated that there was no statistical difference between Axl expression and breast cancer prognosis. However, it remains unclear whether the expression of Axl is correlated with the prognosis of luminal type breast cancer patients. PMID:28356938

  6. 49 CFR 230.100 - Defects in tender truck axles and journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defects in tender truck axles and journals. 230... Steam Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.100 Defects in tender truck axles and journals. (a... wheel seats that is more than 1/8 of an inch in depth. (b) Tender truck journal condemning...

  7. Heating Processes Of The Axle-Boxes Of Rolling-Stock On Railway Track Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olegas Lunys

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the heating process of the axle-boxes ofrolling stock when the train is in motion and discusses the forcesacting on the wheel-set when rolling stock moves along the trackcurves. The paper analyses scientific publications relevant tothe forces acting on the wheel-set of rolling stock and focuseson the axle-box heating process. The article also discusses theresults of theoretical studies on wheel-set forces that affect theheat exchange process of axle-boxes for a railway vehicle. Theresearch has determined a change in heating temperatures ofdifferent axle-boxes of rolling stock and reasons for their variationsand tendencies. The paper has estimated an effect of thetrain running along the track curves on the heating intensity ofthe axle-box. Finally, valid conclusions and recommendationshave been provided.

  8. Multi-axle dynamic steering system of truck-howitzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanliang LI; Xiuhua GAO; Chunqiu ZHANG; Yubo SUN

    2008-01-01

    A two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) steering model of multi-axle vehicle was established. The steering center position, the relationship between the steering angle and the vehicle velocity, and the minimum turn radius were deduced on the basis of the proportional control with a zero sideslip angle. Results indicate that the system stability is decided by the vehicle barycenter position and the lateral stiffness of a tire. Under this control, the steady value of the lateral acceleration is obviously diminished and the yaw angular velocity changes little under any vehicle velocity. The system rapidly responds, the vehicle smoothly steers, and its handling stability is prominently improved.

  9. Role of AXL expression in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaohan; Liu, Jinlu; Zhong, Xinwen; Li, Xi; Zhang, Qigang

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the expression profile of AXL in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its clinical significance. The current study included 257 NSCLC patients, tyrosine-protein kinase receptor UFO (AXL) expression in paired lung cancer and adjacent normal lung tissues of NSCLC patients were compared by immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). These methods were used to detect the expression of the AXL gene and protein in fresh tissues from 35 patients. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was transfected into the H1299 lung cancer cell line to knock down AXL expression; the effects of AXL-siRNA on cell proliferation and migration were examined by MTT and Transwell migration assay, respectively. It was found that AXL staining density in lung cancer tissues was significantly increased compared with adjacent normal lung tissues (55.25 vs. 26.85%; P<0.01); and the expression level of AXL in NSCLC patients was significantly associated with the degree of tumor differentiation (P<0.01) and the clinical stage of disease (P<0.01). Western blotting and qPCR showed that AXL expression was significantly higher in cancer tissues compared with that in adjacent lung tissue (P<0.05). Additionally, the current study also showed that AXL-siRNA inhibited H1299 cell proliferation and migration in vitro. The present study demonstrates the association between increased expression of AXL in NSCLC and the low differentiation phenotype, and its effects on cell proliferation and migration, suggesting its potential clinical values for the prognosis of NSCLC.

  10. Oxidative stress enhances Axl-mediated cell migration through an Akt1/Rac1-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jhy-Shrian; Cho, Chun-Yu; Hong, Chih-Chen; Yan, Ming-De; Hsieh, Mao-Chih; Lay, Jong-Ding; Lai, Gi-Ming; Cheng, Ann-Lii; Chuang, Shuang-En

    2013-12-01

    Persistent oxidative stress is common in cancer cells because of abnormal generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and has been associated with malignant phenotypes, such as chemotherapy resistance and metastasis. Both overexpression of Axl and abnormal ROS elevation have been linked to cell transformation and increased cell migration. However, the relationship between Axl and ROS in malignant cell migration has not been previously evaluated. Using an in vitro human lung cancer model, we examined the redox state of lung adenocarcinoma cell lines of low metastatic (CL1-0) and high metastatic (CL1-5) potentials. Here we report that Axl activation elicits ROS accumulation through the oxidase-coupled small GTPase Rac1. We also observed that oxidative stress could activate Axl phosphorylation to synergistically enhance cell migration. Further, Axl signaling activated by H2O2 treatment results in enhancement of cell migration via a PI3K/Akt-dependent pathway. The kinase activity of Axl is required for the Axl-mediated cell migration and prolongs the half-life of phospho-Akt under oxidative stress. Finally, downregulation of Akt1, but not Akt2, by RNAi in Axl-overexpressing cells inhibits the amount of activated Rac1 and the ability to migrate induced by H2O2 treatment. Together, these results show that a novel Axl-signaling cascade induced by H2O2 treatment triggers cell migration through the PI3K/Akt1/Rac1 pathway. Elucidation of redox regulation in Axl-related malignant migration may provide new molecular insights into the mechanisms underlying tumor progression.

  11. Failure analysis of axle shaft of a fork lift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvik Das

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An axle shaft of fork lift failed at operation within 296 h of service. The shaft transmits torque from discrepancy to wheel through planetary gear arrangement. A section of fractured axle shaft made of induction-hardened steel was analyzed to determine the root cause of the failure. Optical microscopies as well as field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM along with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS were carried out to characterize the microstructure. Hardness profile throughout the cross-section was evaluated by micro-hardness measurements. Chemical analysis indicated that the shaft was made of 42CrMo4 steel grade as per specification. Microstructural analysis and micro-hardness profile revealed that the shaft was improperly heat treated resulting in a brittle case, where crack was found to initiate from the case in a brittle mode in contrast to ductile mode within the core. This behaviour was related to differences in microstructure, which was observed to be martensitic within the case with a micro-hardness equivalent to 735 HV, and a mixture of non-homogeneous structure of pearlite and ferrite within the core with a hardness of 210 HV. The analysis suggests that the fracture initiated from the martensitic case as brittle mode due to improper heat treatment process (high hardness. Moreover the inclusions along the hot working direction i.e. in the longitudinal axis made the component more susceptible to failure.

  12. Vibration levels on rear and front axles of a tractor in agricultural operations - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v36i1.18170

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geice Paula Villibor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive vibrations in agricultural tractors can contribute with mechanical failures and subject the operator to discomfort. This work evaluated the vibration levels on rear and front axles of an agricultural tractor working at different forward speeds and wheel drive conditions in plowing and harrowing operations. Field tests were carried out in a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement 3 x 2 (forward travel speeds x front-wheel-assist enable or disable, with three replications. Tractor vibration was measured using two single axis accelerometers fixed above the rear and front axles. The actual forward speed of the tractor was obtained by means of ultrasonic radar and the angular velocity of the wheels was measured with magnetic transducers. The drawbar force to pull the disc harrow was obtained by a load cell. The results showed that the vibration levels observed for the plowing operation were higher than observed for the harrowing operation. When the front-wheel-assist (FWA was enabled there was a reduction in vertical vibration levels of the tractor axles. The highest vibration levels were observed in the frequency range of 2 to 4Hz for the both soil tillage operations evaluated

  13. Gas6/Axl pathway promotes tumor invasion through the transcriptional activation of Slug in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsin-Jung; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Chen, Yu-Ling; Chung, Ling; Yuan, Ray-Hwang

    2014-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common fatal cancers worldwide. Other than the sorafenib treatment, no effective systemic therapy has been available thus far. Most targets in molecularly targeted therapy for cancer are receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Therefore, identifying activated RTKs in HCC is critical for developing new molecularly targeted therapies. Using a phospho-RTK array, we found that Axl is one of the most frequently activated RTKs in liver cancer cell lines. The knockdown of Axl by RNA interference significantly reduced cell migration and invasion in the HCC cell lines HA22T and Mahlavu. Stimulation of HCC cell lines by Axl ligand growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6) enhanced cell migration and invasion. The Gas6/Axl pathway enhanced the expression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition-inducing transcription factor Slug, which is essential for the invasion-promoting activity of Axl. Treating HCC cells with the Axl inhibitor bosutinib suppressed Slug expression and decreased the invasiveness of HCC cell lines. These findings indicate that Gas6/Axl regulates tumor invasion through the transcriptional activation of Slug.

  14. Axl tyrosine kinase protects against tubulo-interstitial apoptosis and progression of renal failure in a murine model of chronic kidney disease and hyperphosphataemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth D Hyde

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is defined as the progressive loss of renal function often involving glomerular, tubulo-interstitial and vascular pathology. CKD is associated with vascular calcification; the extent of which predicts morbidity and mortality. However, the molecular regulation of these events and the progression of chronic kidney disease are not fully elucidated. To investigate the function of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase in CKD we performed a sub-total nephrectomy and fed high phosphate (1% diet to Axl+/+ and Axl-/- mice. Plasma Gas6 (Axl' ligand, renal Axl expression and downstream Akt signalling were all significantly up-regulated in Axl+/+ mice following renal mass reduction and high phosphate diet, compared to age-matched controls. Axl-/- mice had significantly enhanced uraemia, reduced bodyweight and significantly reduced survival following sub-total nephrectomy and high phosphate diet compared to Axl+/+ mice; only 45% of Axl-/- mice survived to 14 weeks post-surgery compared to 87% of Axl+/+ mice. Histological analysis of kidney remnants revealed no effect of loss of Axl on glomerular hypertrophy, calcification or renal sclerosis but identified significantly increased tubulo-interstitial apoptosis in Axl-/- mice. Vascular calcification was not induced in Axl+/+ or Axl-/- mice in the time frame we were able to examine. In conclusion, we identify the up-regulation of Gas6/Axl signalling as a protective mechanism which reduces tubulo-interstitial apoptosis and slows progression to end-stage renal failure in the murine nephrectomy and high phosphate diet model of CKD.

  15. Axl tyrosine kinase protects against tubulo-interstitial apoptosis and progression of renal failure in a murine model of chronic kidney disease and hyperphosphataemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Gareth D; Taylor, Rebecca F; Ashton, Nick; Borland, Samantha J; Wu, Hon Sing Geoffrey; Gilmore, Andrew P; Canfield, Ann E

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as the progressive loss of renal function often involving glomerular, tubulo-interstitial and vascular pathology. CKD is associated with vascular calcification; the extent of which predicts morbidity and mortality. However, the molecular regulation of these events and the progression of chronic kidney disease are not fully elucidated. To investigate the function of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase in CKD we performed a sub-total nephrectomy and fed high phosphate (1%) diet to Axl+/+ and Axl-/- mice. Plasma Gas6 (Axl' ligand), renal Axl expression and downstream Akt signalling were all significantly up-regulated in Axl+/+ mice following renal mass reduction and high phosphate diet, compared to age-matched controls. Axl-/- mice had significantly enhanced uraemia, reduced bodyweight and significantly reduced survival following sub-total nephrectomy and high phosphate diet compared to Axl+/+ mice; only 45% of Axl-/- mice survived to 14 weeks post-surgery compared to 87% of Axl+/+ mice. Histological analysis of kidney remnants revealed no effect of loss of Axl on glomerular hypertrophy, calcification or renal sclerosis but identified significantly increased tubulo-interstitial apoptosis in Axl-/- mice. Vascular calcification was not induced in Axl+/+ or Axl-/- mice in the time frame we were able to examine. In conclusion, we identify the up-regulation of Gas6/Axl signalling as a protective mechanism which reduces tubulo-interstitial apoptosis and slows progression to end-stage renal failure in the murine nephrectomy and high phosphate diet model of CKD.

  16. 1580热轧R2粗轧机主传动十字轴失效分析%Invalidation analysis for main driving cross axle of R2 roughing mill in 1580 hot rolling mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖永锋

    2011-01-01

    对宝钢1580热轧R2粗轧机主传动十字轴的失效原因进行了分析,指出该十字轴主要是在1.5倍额定负荷以上的工况条件下产生接触疲劳破坏,并提出了对十字轴表面重新加工处理,使其恢复表面硬度和粗糙度,重新单配轴承的修复方案,延长了十字轴的使用寿命.%The invalidation reason of R2 main driving cross axle in Baosteel 1580 hot rolling mill is analyzed.It is pointed out that the contact fatigue failure of the cross axle is due to more than 1.5 times of nominal load under working condition.An approach to treat the damaged working surface of the cross axle, and recover its surface stiffness and roughness, then make up bearing is put forward, and that service life of cross axle is prolonged.

  17. Vibration control of bridge subjected to multi-axle vehicle using multiple tuned mass friction dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisal, Alka Y.; Jangid, R. S.

    2016-06-01

    The effectiveness of tuned mass friction damper (TMFD) in reducing undesirable resonant response of the bridge subjected to multi-axle vehicular load is investigated. A Taiwan high-speed railway (THSR) bridge subjected to Japanese SKS (Salkesa) train load is considered. The bridge is idealized as a simply supported Euler-Bernoulli beam with uniform properties throughout the length of the bridge, and the train's vehicular load is modeled as a series of moving forces. Simplified model of vehicle, bridge and TMFD system has been considered to derive coupled differential equations of motion which is solved numerically using the Newmark's linear acceleration method. The critical train velocities at which the bridge undergoes resonant vibration are investigated. Response of the bridge is studied for three different arrangements of TMFD systems, namely, TMFD attached at mid-span of the bridge, multiple tuned mass friction dampers (MTMFD) system concentrated at mid-span of the bridge and MTMFD system with distributed TMFD units along the length of the bridge. The optimum parameters of each TMFD system are found out. It has been demonstrated that an optimized MTMFD system concentrated at mid-span of the bridge is more effective than an optimized TMFD at the same place with the same total mass and an optimized MTMFD system having TMFD units distributed along the length of the bridge. However, the distributed MTMFD system is more effective than an optimized TMFD system, provided that TMFD units of MTMFD system are distributed within certain limiting interval and the frequency of TMFD units is appropriately distributed.

  18. CONOCOPHILLIPS FUEL EFFICIENT HIGH-PERFORMANCE(FEHP) SAE 75W90 REAR AXLE GEAR LUBRICANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report is on the Environmental Verification Test of a ConocoPhillips real axle gear lubricant to determine whether it could save vehicle fuel. It determined that a verifyable fuel savings could be measured.

  19. AXL as a modulator of sunitinib response in glioblastoma cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Martinho, Olga Catarina Lopes; Zucca, Luís Eduardo; Reis,R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) targeted therapy has been explored for glioblastoma treatment. However, it is unclear which RTK inhibitors are the most effective and there are no predictive biomarkers available. We recently identified the RTK AXL as a putative target for the pan-RTK inhibitors cediranib and sunitinib, which are under clinical trials for glioblastoma patients. Here, we provide evidence that AXL activity can modulate sunitinib response in glioblastoma cell lines. We found that A...

  20. Cyclic Fracture Toughness of Railway Axle and Mechanisms of its Fatigue Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorochak Andriy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main regularities in fatigue fracture of the railway axle material - the OSL steel - are found in this paper. Micromechanisms of fatigue crack propagation are described and systematized, and a physical-mechanical interpretation of the relief morphology at different stages of crack propagation is proposed for fatigue cracks in specimens cut out of the surface, internal and central layers of the axle.

  1. Non-intrusive schemes for speed and axle identification in bridge-weigh-in-motion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhori, Hamed; Makki Alamdari, Mehrisadat; Zhu, Xinqun; Samali, Bijan; Mustapha, Samir

    2017-02-01

    Bridge weigh-in-motion (BWIM) is an approach through which the axle and gross weight of trucks travelling at normal highway speed are identified using the response of an instrumented bridge. The vehicle speed, the number of axles, and the axle spacing are crucial parameters, and are required to be determined in the majority of BWIM algorithms. Nothing-on-the-road (NOR) strategy suggests using the strain signals measured at some particular positions underneath the deck or girders of a bridge to obtain this information. The objective of this research is to present a concise overview of the challenges of the current non-intrusive schemes for speed and axle determination through bending-strain and shear-strain based approaches. The problem associated with the global bending-strain responses measured at quarter points of span is discussed and a new sensor arrangement is proposed as an alternative. As for measurement of local responses rather than the global responses, the advantage of shear strains over bending strains is presented. However, it is illustrated that shear strains at quarter points of span can only provide accurate speed estimation but fail to detect the correct number of axles. As a remedy, it is demonstrated that, even for closely-spaced axles, the shear strain at the beginning of the bridge is capable of reliably identifying the number of axles. In order to provide a fully automated speed and axle identification system, appropriate signal processing including low-pass filtering and wavelet transforms are applied to the raw time signals. As case studies, the results of experimental testing in laboratory and on a real bridge are presented.

  2. 驱动桥桥壳建模及模型网格化处理%Modeling the Drive axle housing and Meshing the model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖焱曦; 赵冰; 史培龙; 张建; 常海雷

    2012-01-01

    Driving axle shell is one of the main parts on cars.It is not only the load bearing part,the transmising force and torque part but also is the main reducer,differential and wheel transmission device shell.So the quality of driving axle shell greatly affect the safe use of vehicles. Along with the economical development and the increasing vehicle possession,vehicles are developing to high-speed,continuous lightweight,low energy consumption and high performance.This requires that axle housing not only has enough intensity and rigidity,also requires mass has been reduced to structure and the vibration characteristic must be analysed.This paper mainly research on how to use the Hypermesh meshing the model which is modeled by pro-E after simplifying the drive axle housing,and check the mesher and modify the mesher the meaning of this paper is to provide a foundation model to finite element analysis of drive axle housing.%驱动桥壳是汽车上的主要零件之一,桥壳不仅是承载件还是传力件,同时又是主减速器、差速器及车轮传动装置的外壳。故驱动桥壳的质量极大影响了车辆的安全使用。随着经济发展,车辆保有量的日益增长,车辆不断向高速、轻量、低能耗和高性能发展。这要求桥壳不仅有足够的强度和刚度,还要求减轻质量以及必须对结构的振动特性分析。本文主要研究在对驱动桥壳简化及通过PROE建模后,如何在Hypermesh把模型网格化及对网格的修改和检查,本文的意义在于对驱动桥壳的有限元分析提供一个基础模型。

  3. Mice lacking Axl and Mer tyrosine kinase receptors are susceptible to experimental autoimmune orchitis induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Liu, Zhenghui; Zhang, Yue; Chen, Qiaoyuan; Liu, Peng; Cheng, C Yan; Lee, Will M; Chen, Yongmei; Han, Daishu

    2015-03-01

    The mammalian testis is an immunoprivileged organ where male germ cell autoantigens are immunologically ignored. Both systemic immune tolerance to autoantigens and local immunosuppressive milieu contribute to the testicular immune privilege. Testicular immunosuppression has been intensively studied, but information on systemic immune tolerance to autoantigens is lacking. In the present study, we aimed to determine the role of Axl and Mer receptor tyrosine kinases in maintaining the systemic tolerance to male germ cell antigens using the experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) model. Axl and Mer double-knockout (Axl(-/-)Mer(-/-)) mice developed evident EAO after a single immunization with germ cell homogenates emulsified with complete Freund's adjuvant. EAO was characterized by the accumulation of macrophages and T lymphocytes in the testis. Damage to the seminiferous epithelium was also observed. EAO induction was associated with pro-inflammatory cytokine upregulation in the testes, impaired permeability of the blood-testis barrier and generation of autoantibodies against germ cell antigens in Axl(-/-)Mer(-/-) mice. Immunization also induced mild EAO in Axl or Mer single-gene-knockout mice. By contrast, a single immunization failed to induce EAO in wild-type mice. The results indicate that Axl and Mer receptors cooperatively regulate the systemic immune tolerance to male germ cell antigens.

  4. Novel wavelet threshold denoising method in axle press-fit zone ultrasonic detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chaoyong; Gao, Xiaorong; Peng, Jianping; Wang, Ai

    2017-02-01

    Axles are important part of railway locomotives and vehicles. Periodic ultrasonic inspection of axles can effectively detect and monitor axle fatigue cracks. However, in the axle press-fit zone, the complex interface contact condition reduces the signal-noise ratio (SNR). Therefore, the probability of false positives and false negatives increases. In this work, a novel wavelet threshold function is created to remove noise and suppress press-fit interface echoes in axle ultrasonic defect detection. The novel wavelet threshold function with two variables is designed to ensure the precision of optimum searching process. Based on the positive correlation between the correlation coefficient and SNR and with the experiment phenomenon that the defect and the press-fit interface echo have different axle-circumferential correlation characteristics, a discrete optimum searching process for two undetermined variables in novel wavelet threshold function is conducted. The performance of the proposed method is assessed by comparing it with traditional threshold methods using real data. The statistic results of the amplitude and the peak SNR of defect echoes show that the proposed wavelet threshold denoising method not only maintains the amplitude of defect echoes but also has a higher peak SNR.

  5. Dynamics of Drive Axle System with Effects of Input Torque%输入转矩对驱动桥系统动力学特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周驰; 王琪; 丁炜琦; 桂良进; 范子杰

    2016-01-01

    Driveline and housings are connected by roller bearings. The bearing stiffness is nonlinear and coupling in all directions and changes with the input torque of drive axle, which leads to variation in the drive axle system dynamics. Based on the nonlinear bearing theory, the finite element method and modal synthesis method, a drive axle final drive gear transmission system dynamic model with final drive gear transmission assembly, differential gear transmission assembly, hub assembly and housings etc. is built. According to the magnitude of the input torque of the pinion shaft, the load cases are set out into light load, medium load and heavy load. Nonlinear bearing stiffness is calculated corresponding to each load case. The axial stiffness and radial stiffness of final drive roller bearing with load change characteristics are analyzed. Dynamic analysis of the whole drive axle system to a unit harmonic transmission error at the hypoid gear mesh is performed in the case of different input torques. The influence of the input torque on the drive axle is researched. The frequency response characteristics of final drive hypoid gear dynamic meshing force is analyzed when the drive axle system works in different load cases. The results show that the drive axle system dynamics change with the size of the input torque with a certain regularity, and can guide the design of the vibration and noise reduction of drive axle system in order to avoid dangerous conditions effectively.%在驱动桥系统中,滚子轴承是连接轴系与壳体的关键部件,其刚度具有各向耦合性和非线性特性,且与输入转矩有关。为准确高效地分析输入转矩对驱动桥系统动力学特性的影响,基于非线性轴承理论、有限元法和模态综合方法,建立包含主减速器总成、差速器总成、轮毂总成和桥壳等部件的完整驱动桥系统动力学分析模型,根据输入转矩大小的不同,定义轻载、中载和重载三种

  6. Response of reinforced concrete and corrugated steel pipes to surface load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Geoff R.

    Full-scale simulated live load tests were conducted in a controlled laboratory setting using a single-axle frame on 600-mm-inner-diameter reinforced concrete pipe (RCP) and corrugated steel pipe (CSP) when buried in dense, well-graded sand and gravel. Measurements of the RCP at nominal and working forces and beyond are reported for 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m of soil cover above the pipe crown. The RCP experienced no cracking when buried at 0.3 m under nominal and working CL-625 and CL-800 single-axle design loads. At these loads, the vertical contraction of the pipe diameter was less than 0.08 and 0.10 mm and the largest tensile strains in the pipe were 75 and 100 muepsilon (50-60% of the cracking strain), respectively. A 0.15 (+/-0.05)-mm-wide axial crack developed at the inner crown in the presence of a 6 kNm/m circumferential bending moment (70% of the theoretical ultimate moment capacity) at the fully factored CL-625 load. This crack did not propagate or widen from 3 series of cyclic load-unload tests. At 1300 kN of applied load the change in pipe diameter was less than 3.5 mm. Increasing soil cover from 0.3 to 0.6 to 0.9 m reduced the circumferential crown bending moment from 6.0 to 3.9 to 2.1 kNm/m, respectively, at 400 kN of axle load. A 1.6- and a 2.8-mm-thick CSP were also subjected to axle loading. No yielding or limit states occurred in the 1.6-mm-thick CSP when buried 0.9-m-deep. However, at 0.6 m of cover a 300 kN axle load caused local yielding at the pipe crown. Increasing soil cover from 0.6 to 0.9 m decreased the vertical diameter change from -3.0 to -1.2 mm and the crown bending moment from 0.7 to 0.2 kNm/m (75% and 20% of the yield moment), respectively, at a 250 kN axle load. Deflections of the thicker CSP were less than the thinner pipe below the CL-625 single-axle load, however further increases in applied load produced a greater response in the thicker pipe, likely due to a haunch support issue. Shallow axle loading produced a greater 3-dimensional

  7. Heightened cleavage of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase by ADAM metalloproteases may contribute to disease pathogenesis in SLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Jacob J; Du, Yong; Vanarsa, Kamala; Mayeux, Jessica; Li, Li; Mutwally, Azza; Arriens, Cristina; Min, Soyoun; Hutcheson, Jack; Davis, Laurie S; Chong, Benjamin F; Satterthwaite, Anne B; Wu, Tianfu; Mohan, Chandra

    2016-08-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by antibody-mediated chronic inflammation in the kidney, lung, skin, and other organs to cause inflammation and damage. Several inflammatory pathways are dysregulated in SLE, and understanding these pathways may improve diagnosis and treatment. In one such pathway, Axl tyrosine kinase receptor responds to Gas6 ligand to block inflammation in leukocytes. A soluble form of the Axl receptor ectodomain (sAxl) is elevated in serum from patients with SLE and lupus-prone mice. We hypothesized that sAxl in SLE serum originates from the surface of leukocytes and that the loss of leukocyte Axl contributes to the disease. We determined that macrophages and B cells are a source of sAxl in SLE and in lupus-prone mice. Shedding of the Axl ectodomain from the leukocytes of lupus-prone mice is mediated by the matrix metalloproteases ADAM10 and TACE (ADAM17). Loss of Axl from lupus-prone macrophages renders them unresponsive to Gas6-induced anti-inflammatory signaling in vitro. This phenotype is rescued by combined ADAM10/TACE inhibition. Mice with Axl-deficient macrophages develop worse disease than controls when challenged with anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) sera in an induced model of nephritis. ADAM10 and TACE also mediate human SLE PBMC Axl cleavage. Collectively, these studies indicate that increased metalloprotease-mediated cleavage of leukocyte Axl may contribute to end organ disease in lupus. They further suggest dual ADAM10/TACE inhibition as a potential therapeutic modality in SLE.

  8. Fault Diagnosis of Train Axle Box Bearing Based on Multifeature Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Failure of the train axle box bearing will cause great loss. Now, condition-based maintenance of train axle box bearing has been a research hotspot around the world. Vibration signals generated by train axle box bearing have nonlinear and nonstationary characteristics. The methods used in traditional bearing fault diagnosis do not work well with the train axle box. To solve this problem, an effective method of axle box bearing fault diagnosis based on multifeature parameters is presented in this paper. This method can be divided into three parts, namely, weak fault signal extraction, feature extraction, and fault recognition. In the first part, a db4 wavelet is employed for denoising the original signals from the vibration sensors. In the second part, five time-domain parameters, five IMF energy-torque features, and two amplitude-ratio features are extracted. The latter seven frequency domain features are calculated based on the empirical mode decomposition and envelope spectrum analysis. In the third part, a fault classifier based on BP neural network is designed for automatic fault pattern recognition. A series of tests are carried out to verify the proposed method, which show that the accuracy is above 90%.

  9. Low MITF/AXL ratio predicts early resistance to multiple targeted drugs in melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Judith; Krijgsman, Oscar; Tsoi, Jennifer; Robert, Lidia; Hugo, Willy; Song, Chunying; Kong, Xiangju; Possik, Patricia A.; Cornelissen-Steijger, Paulien D.M.; Foppen, Marnix H. Geukes; Kemper, Kristel; Goding, Colin R.; McDermott, Ultan; Blank, Christian; Haanen, John; Graeber, Thomas G.; Ribas, Antoni; Lo, Roger S.; Peeper, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Increased expression of the Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) contributes to melanoma progression and resistance to BRAF pathway inhibition. Here we show that the lack of MITF is associated with more severe resistance to a range of inhibitors, while its presence is required for robust drug responses. Both in primary and acquired resistance, MITF levels inversely correlate with the expression of several activated receptor tyrosine kinases, most frequently AXL. The MITF-low/AXL-high/drug-resistance phenotype is common among mutant BRAF and NRAS melanoma cell lines. The dichotomous behaviour of MITF in drug response is corroborated in vemurafenib-resistant biopsies, including MITF-high and -low clones in a relapsed patient. Furthermore, drug cocktails containing AXL inhibitor enhance melanoma cell elimination by BRAF or ERK inhibition. Our results demonstrate that a low MITF/AXL ratio predicts early resistance to multiple targeted drugs, and warrant clinical validation of AXL inhibitors to combat resistance of BRAF and NRAS mutant MITF-low melanomas. PMID:25502142

  10. 拖拉机前桥悬架参数匹配及其对振动特性的影响%Front axle suspension parameters match and its impact on vibration characteristics of tractor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊力达尔·伊力亚斯; 朱思洪; 徐刚; 袁加奇

    2015-01-01

    Compared with cars, buses and trucks, tractor often drives on the dirt road in the field of rural areas, together with the simple vibration damping device, so the vibration of tractor is particularly intense. Severe vibration of tractor would cause serious harm to driver’s health, and cause fatigue and failure of tractor parts and hence seriously affect the life of the tractor. In addition, excessive vibration of the tractor will exacerbate farmland soil compaction and reduce crop yields. How to effectively reduce the vibration of tractors to improve ride comfort and driving safety and reduce farmland damage is an important research topic for researchers and tractor manufacturing enterprises. The study of foreign scholars have found when the tractor is installed with front axle suspension, the ride comfort and driving safety is improved. When farm tools hangs on the front of tractor, tractor damping effect depends on the matching between front axle suspension stiffness and damping coefficient. Installing the front axle suspension of tractor can significantly reduce tractor’s pitching vibration. By the method of theoretical analysis, the theoretical system of front axle suspension of tractor was established, the vibration was analyzed and the theoretical formula was deduced, aiming to provide a theoretical basis for parameter matching of tractor front axle suspension. In this paper, CF700 tractor from Jiang Su Chang-Fa group was taken as the research object, and the theoretical model of front axle suspension tractor was established, including plane vibration model of front axle suspension tractor with 3 degrees of freedom, vibration differential equation and tractor vibration characteristics evaluation. Taking body vertical vibration acceleration, body pitching vibration angular acceleration, seat-mounted vertical vibration acceleration, front and rear wheels’ dynamic load and front axle suspension dynamic deflection as the evaluation means, theoretical

  11. Rational Design for Rotaxane Synthesis through Intramolecular Slippage: Control of Activation Energy by Rigid Axle Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masai, Hiroshi; Terao, Jun; Fujihara, Tetsuaki; Tsuji, Yasushi

    2016-05-01

    We describe a new concept for rotaxane synthesis through intramolecular slippage using π-conjugated molecules as rigid axles linked with organic soluble and flexible permethylated α-cyclodextrins (PM α-CDs) as macrocycles. Through hydrophilic-hydrophobic interactions and flipping of PM α-CDs, successful quantitative conversion into rotaxanes was achieved without covalent bond formation. The rotaxanes had high activation barrier for their de-threading, so that they were kinetically isolated and derivatized even under conditions unfavorable for maintaining the rotaxane structures. (1) H NMR spectroscopy experiments clearly revealed that the restricted motion of the linked macrocycle with the rigid axle made it possible to control the kinetic stability by adjusting the length of the rigid axle in the precursor structure rather than the steric bulkiness of the stopper unit.

  12. Hepatitis C Virus Driven AXL Expression Suppresses the Hepatic Type I Interferon Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Read

    Full Text Available Treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is evolving rapidly with the development of novel direct acting antivirals (DAAs, however viral clearance remains intimately linked to the hepatic innate immune system. Patients demonstrating a high baseline activation of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs, termed interferon refractoriness, are less likely to mount a strong antiviral response and achieve viral clearance when placed on treatment. As a result, suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS 3 and other regulators of the IFN response have been identified as key candidates for the IFN refractory phenotype due to their regulatory role on the IFN response. AXL is a receptor tyrosine kinase that has been identified as a key regulator of interferon (IFN signalling in myeloid cells of the immune system, but has not been examined in the context of chronic HCV infection. Here, we show that AXL is up-regulated following HCV infection, both in vitro and in vivo and is likely induced by type I/III IFNs and inflammatory signalling pathways. AXL inhibited type IFNα mediated ISG expression resulting in a decrease in its antiviral efficacy against HCV in vitro. Furthermore, patients possessing the favourable IFNL3 rs12979860 genotype associated with treatment response, showed lower AXL expression in the liver and a stronger induction of AXL in the blood, following their first dose of IFN. Together, these data suggest that elevated AXL expression in the liver may mediate an IFN-refractory phenotype characteristic of patients possessing the unfavourable rs12979860 genotype, which is associated with lower rates of viral clearance.

  13. FEM analysis of front axle vertical finishing process and mold development%前轴垂直整形工艺模拟与模具开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾琦; 蒋鹏

    2013-01-01

    Front axle is one of the important load parts in automobiles, the possibility of the front axle vertical finishing process was analyzed, the process parameters and mold structure of vertical finishing process were simulated and optimized with the help of computer numerical simulation technology. A kind of vertical finishing mold with hydraulic clamping system was designed on the basis of simulations. After vertical finishing process in the vertical finishing mold, the upper and lower surfaces of the spring seat are flattening, which can be drilled bolt holes and mounted directly. It is benefit for reducing the subsequent processing amount and meeting, which mounting requirements of spring seat.%前轴是汽车重要的承载件之一,本文分析了前轴锻件垂直整形工艺的可行性,通过计算机数值模拟技术模拟并优化垂直整形的工艺参数和模具结构,在模拟分析基础上设计出液压夹紧式垂直整形模.经垂直整形后,锻件弹簧座的上下表面基本压平,可以直接加工螺栓孔并进行安装,减少了后续加工量,并保证了弹簧座的安装要求.

  14. Dynamics of two-axle railway freight wagons with UIC standard suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Mark; True, Hans

    2006-01-01

    The dynamics of two different two-axle railway freight wagons is investigated theoretically and compared. Fully nonlinear models are considered. The hysteresis from dry friction and the effect of impacts between elements of the suspension are included. Bifurcation diagrams are shown in order...

  15. Wheeled Vehicle Drive Lines, Axles, and Suspension Systems. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army Ordnance Center and School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

    This course is one of several subcourses that make up the entire Army correspondence course on wheeled vehicle maintenance. The subcourse is designed to provide the student with information about the operation, malfunction diagnosis, maintenance, and repair of wheeled vehicle drive lines, axles, and suspension systems. It provides the basic…

  16. Dynamic Axle Loads as a Main Source of Railway Track Degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, M.J.M.M.; De Jong, E.; Zoeteman, A.

    2015-01-01

    During train operation, geometrical irregularities develop in soil-supported ballasted railway tracks as a function of born tonnage. This form of degradation is combatted by periodic maintenance in the form of tamping by specially equipped trains in order to guarantee predefined levels of structural

  17. Loss of the receptor tyrosine kinase Axl leads to enhanced inflammation in the CNS and delayed removal of myelin debris during Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto Anne L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Axl, together with Tyro3 and Mer, constitute the TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases. In the nervous system, Axl and its ligand Growth-arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6 are expressed on multiple cell types. Axl functions in dampening the immune response, regulating cytokine secretion, clearing apoptotic cells and debris, and maintaining cell survival. Axl is upregulated in various disease states, such as in the cuprizone toxicity-induced model of demyelination and in multiple sclerosis (MS lesions, suggesting that it plays a role in disease pathogenesis. To test for this, we studied the susceptibility of Axl-/- mice to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model for multiple sclerosis. Methods WT and Axl-/- mice were immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35-55 peptide emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant and injected with pertussis toxin on day 0 and day 2. Mice were monitored daily for clinical signs of disease and analyzed for pathology during the acute phase of disease. Immunological responses were monitored by flow cytometry, cytokine analysis and proliferation assays. Results Axl-/- mice had a significantly more severe acute phase of EAE than WT mice. Axl-/- mice had more spinal cord lesions with larger inflammatory cuffs, more demyelination, and more axonal damage than WT mice during EAE. Strikingly, lesions in Axl-/- mice had more intense Oil-Red-O staining indicative of inefficient clearance of myelin debris. Fewer activated microglia/macrophages (Iba1+ were found in and/or surrounding lesions in Axl-/- mice relative to WT mice. In contrast, no significant differences were noted in immune cell responses between naïve and sensitized animals. Conclusions These data show that Axl alleviates EAE disease progression and suggests that in EAE Axl functions in the recruitment of microglia/macrophages and in the clearance of debris following demyelination. In addition, these data

  18. Effect of Mn on hardenability of 25CrMo axle steel by an improved end-quench test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yutuo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available With the sixth large-scale railway speed-up, the quality of the axles is essential to the safety of the locomotive. According to the high-speed axle technical standard for the control of alloy elements in axle steel, optimization experiments of 25CrMo steel composition were performed by vacuum inductive melting. In order to study the hardenability of high-speed rail axles, an improved end-quench test was put forward. The advantage is that it enables the heat to transfer along the axial direction, thus avoiding edge effects. The hardenability of 25CrMo axle steels with Mn content of 0.60wt.% and 0.80wt.% was investigated mainly by means of optical microscopy and hardness tests. The experimental results indicate that the Mn has a pronounced effect on the hardenability of the steel. With an increase in Mn content from 0.60wt.% and 0.80wt.%, the hardenability of 25CrMo axle steel increases and the hard microstructure is maintained at an increasing distance from the quenched end. From the surface of the water quenched end to the center of the sample, the microstructure is martensite, martensite with bainite, and bainite.

  19. Effect of GAS6 and AXL Gene Polymorphisms on Adiposity, Systemic Inflammation, and Insulin Resistance in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fone-Ching Hsiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to explore the effects of GAS6 and AXL gene polymorphisms on adiposity, systemic inflammation, and insulin resistance in adolescents. After multistage sampling from the data of the Taipei Children Heart Study-III, we collected 358 boys and 369 girls with an average age of 13.3 years. We genotyped the adolescents’ GAS6 rs8191973, GAS6 rs8191974, AXL rs4802113, and AXL rs2304232 polymorphisms. Significantly higher body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and hsCRP levels were found in boys with the GG genotype of GAS6 rs8191974 than A allele carriers; higher IL-6 and insulin levels and increased HOMA-IR were found in boys with the GG genotype of AXL rs2304232 than the A allele carriers. There was a significant difference in hsCRP levels of boys with the TT, TC, and CC genotypes of AXL rs4802113. Boys with both the GG genotype of GAS6 rs8191973 and the GG genotype of GAS6 rs8191974 exhibited higher BMI, WC, IL-6, and hsCRP levels than the boys carrying both the C allele of the GAS6 rs8191973 and the A allele of the GAS6 rs8191974. In conclusion, GAS6 and AXL polymorphisms are associated with adiposity, systemic inflammation, and insulin resistance in adolescents, especially in boys.

  20. OPTIMAL KINEMATIC DESIGN OF A CAR AXLE GUIDING MECHANISM IN MBS SOFTWARE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin ALEXANDRU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the optimal kinematic design of the guiding mechanism used for the rear axle of a motor vehicle. A guiding mechanism of type 2S1C (S - sphere, C - circle is taken into consideration, the optimization study being conducted by using the multi-body systems (MBS software environment ADAMS of MSC. The global cartesian coordinates of some design points (the locations of the joints between the guiding arms and car body are used as independent design variables for the optimization study. The main design objectives refer to the longitudinal displacement of the axle and its proper rotation (around the transversal axis, the kinematic optimization goal being to minimize these variations.

  1. FLEXIBLE 2-DOF STEERING MODEL OF MULTI-AXLE HEAVY-DUTY VEHICLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Bo; Wang Xuelin; Hu Yujin; Li Chenggang

    2004-01-01

    A flexible two degrees of freedom (2-DOF) steering model of multi-axle vehicle (MAV) is presented with considering the effect of frame flexibility based on the classic 2-DOF model. A method to calculate the frame flexibility is derived by using three moments equation. The steering stability of MAV is analyzed. The steering performance of MAV is also researched in frequency domain. Simulation results show that the dynamic effects of flexible model are more severe than rigid model and the flexible effect of frame will weaken the steering stability of MAV. Different disposals of steering axles lead to different steering characteristics of MAV. The in-phase steering mode improves the steering characteristics and stability at high speed. The anti-phase steering mode increases the steering mobility at low vehicle speed.

  2. IMPACT OF CARBURIZING AND BOROSILICONIZING ON VIBROACCELERATION OF BEVEL GEAR FRONT DRIVE AXLE SKIDDERS DURING OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Pischov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is now established that the main causes of failure of the transmission parts of the forest machines is wear of their working surfaces. The destruction of the contact surfaces of bevel gears front axle of skidder TTP-401 during its operation is usually connected, with the formation of plastic deformation on the teeth. According to modern concepts of the theory of the destruction of the details revealed that after the formation of plastic deformations leads to microcracks, the development of micro tracks depends on the magnitude and sign of residual stresses. This article presents dependance graphs of vibration acceleration bevel gears front axle skidder subiect to the method of hardening.

  3. Optimization of Assembly of Rear Axle Carrier (Transmission System Through Ergonomic Consideration: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Kaustubh N. Kalaspurkar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Increased competition in the market, ever increasing demands of products and delivery of the quality product within committed dates forcing the manufacturers to involve newer and more optimized techniques in their production scheduling. This technique either involves costly Automation and Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS or the techniques forcing on elimination of unnecessary and unproductive operation (i.e. motion during the production. An assembly line is designed by determining the sequences of operations for manufacture of each component as well as the final product. In this paper, a case study at one of leading tractor manufacturing company in India for one of its production operation i.e. assembly of Rear Axle Carrier (Transmission System of tractor is presented using the technique of time and motion study. For this technique such as Predetermined Motion Time Study (PMTS, Method Time Measurement (MTM, various process charts are used for analysis and optimize their present methodology of assembling Rear Axle Carrier (RAC.

  4. Expression Analysis Highlights AXL as a Candidate Zika Virus Entry Receptor in Neural Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Tomasz J; Pollen, Alex A; Di Lullo, Elizabeth; Sandoval-Espinosa, Carmen; Bershteyn, Marina; Kriegstein, Arnold R

    2016-05-01

    The recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil has been linked to substantial increases in fetal abnormalities and microcephaly. However, information about the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms connecting viral infection to these defects remains limited. In this study we have examined the expression of receptors implicated in cell entry of several enveloped viruses including ZIKV across diverse cell types in the developing brain. Using single-cell RNA-seq and immunohistochemistry, we found that the candidate viral entry receptor AXL is highly expressed by human radial glial cells, astrocytes, endothelial cells, and microglia in developing human cortex and by progenitor cells in developing retina. We also show that AXL expression in radial glia is conserved in developing mouse and ferret cortex and in human stem cell-derived cerebral organoids, highlighting multiple experimental systems that could be applied to study mechanisms of ZIKV infectivity and effects on brain development.

  5. The dynamics of European two-axle railway freight wagons with UIC standard suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Mark; True, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of two-axle railway freight wagons with the UIC standard Suspension is investigated theoretically and the dynamic behaviour is explained. Fully nonlinear models are considered. The hysteresis from dry friction and the effect of impacts between elements of the suspension are included....... Different wheel-rail geometries are investigated and the results commented. Bifurcation diagrams ale used to describe the eigen-dynamics of the wagons....

  6. Study on End Milling Generation Surface Model and Simulation in View of Main Axle s Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In accordance with the relative movement between end-milling cutter and workpiece surface, a theoretical generation model for milled surface was established with the movement error of principal axle considered. Then the milled surfaces under various cutting condition were simulated, the results of which showed that end milled surfaces were of "vaulted profile", heights of surface irregularty at various points to be different with maximum value in the middle and smaller at both sides, the difference were ...

  7. A layered cooling process in whole quenching process for lightweight front axle beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Kai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the uniformity of martensite distribution and obtain consistent mechanical performance during the quenching process of front axle beam, a layered cooling process was presented in this paper. The fluid-solid coupled temperature field were investigated by finite element modeling and the prediction of micro-structure and hardness distributions were also carried out. The experimental result verifies the reliability of this model.

  8. A Flexible Arrayed Eddy Current Sensor for Inspection of Hollow Axle Inner Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenguo Sun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A reliable and accurate inspection of the hollow axle inner surface is important for the safe operation of high-speed trains. In order to improve the reliability of the inspection, a flexible arrayed eddy current sensor for non-destructive testing of the hollow axle inner surface was designed, fabricated and characterized. The sensor, consisting of two excitation traces and 28 sensing traces, was developed by using the flexible printed circuit board (FPCB technique to conform the geometric features of the inner surfaces of the hollow axles. The main innovative aspect of the sensor was the new arrangement of excitation/sensing traces to achieve a differential configuration. Finite element model was established to analyze sensor responses and to determine the optimal excitation frequency. Experimental validations were conducted on a specimen with several artificial defects. Results from experiments and simulations were consistent with each other, with the maximum relative error less than 4%. Both results proved that the sensor was capable of detecting longitudinal and transverse defects with the depth of 0.5 mm under the optimal excitation frequency of 0.9 MHz.

  9. Dethreading of a Photoactive Azobenzene-Containing Molecular Axle from a Crown Ether Ring: A Computational Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Gloria; Silvi, Serena; Venturi, Margherita; Credi, Alberto; Fois, Ettore

    2016-06-17

    Pseudorotaxanes formed by a dibenzo[24]crown-8 ring (R) and a dialkylammonium axle bearing either two E- or two Z-azobenzene units (EE-A or ZZ-A) revealed useful for the construction of light-powered molecular machines and motors, as they provide the opportunity of photocontrolling self-assembly/disassembly processes. The potential energies profiles for the dethreading of these complexes have been investigated by adopting a combination of first-principles molecular dynamics, metadynamics and quantum-chemical geometry optimization approaches. While the dethreading of the EE-A axle is associated with a monotonic energy increase, for that of the ZZ-A axle a transition state and an intermediate structure, in which the components are still threaded together, are found. The rate determining step for the dethreading of the ZZ axle has a higher energy barrier than that of the EE axle, in agreement with the experimental kinetic data. Moreover, the results suggest that the elliptic shape of the ring cavity is important for discriminating between the E and Z terminal azobenzene during dethreading.

  10. 基于DEFORM和正交试验法的前轴辊锻工艺优化%Research on optimization of front-axle roll forging technique based on DEFORM-3D and orthogonal experimental method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏科; 王高潮; 李宁; 王志录

    2012-01-01

    正交试验主要用于解决科研和生产中多因素、多水平的问题,运用正交试验法可以在减少试验次数的情况下获得最佳的参数组合,可有效节约人力、物力和时间.在DEFORM-3D有限元数值模拟过程中应用正交试验优化设计方法,对前轴制坯辊锻模具弹簧座截面的圆角值、辊锻模具角速度、摩擦因子及坯料初始温度四因素、三水平问题,进行前轴制坯辊锻模具结构及工艺优化研究,分析影响前轴辊锻成形过程中最大成形载荷的因素,研究结果有利于前轴辊锻模具结构及工艺的优化,而且可有效提高辊锻模具的使用寿命.%The structure of front axle roll forging die and the roll forging process were optimized based on orthogonal experimental design method, using DEF0RM-3D software in finite element numerical simulation, adopting three levels and four factors, the latter including the fillet values of the spring seat section of the front axle roll forging die, the angular velocity of the roll forging die, the friction factor and the initial temperature of billets. The effecting factors of maximal forming load in the roll forging process of front axle were analyzed. The results can also increase the service life of roll forging die.

  11. Repeated Load Permanent Deformation Behavior of Mixes With and Wihtout Modified Bituments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Hafeez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature rutting in flexible pavement structure is being observed on most of the road network of Pakistan. It initiates primarily due to uncontrolled axle loading and high ambient temperatures. NHA (National Highway Authority, Pakistan has continuously been modifying aggregate gradations and penetration grade of bitumen, without any prior investigation of the mix behaviour under the prevailing axle load and environmental conditions of the country. A comprehensive laboratory investigation was carried out on six mixes ranging from finer to coarser. Specimens were subjected to cyclic loading on UTM-5P (Universal Testing Machine to study the resistance against permanent deformation of the mixes at 25, 40 and 550C. At low temperatures and stress levels, both coarse and fine graded mixes showed less accumulated strain, whereas at higher temperatures and stress levels, coarse graded mix with PMB (Polymer Modified Bitumen showed good resistance to permanent deformation.

  12. Intelligent Energy Management Strategy for a Separated-Axle Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Fallahi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV in addition to provide the benefits of electric vehicles could satisfy consumers for some performances of conventional internal combustion engine (ICE vehicles such as acceleration and long range. On this way, suitable energy optimization strategies should be employed to get desired efficiency, less fuel consumption and pollution. One of the favorite and simple configurations of HEVs is parallel type. A student team at University of Kashan, IRAN have designed and manufactured Shaheb 2 hybrid electric vehicle. It is a separated-axle (or Through-to-Road (TTR parallel HEV type based on Pride platform. Employed energy management in Shaheb 2 is on/off strategy and three modes; motor, engine and hybrid have been implemented. This paper investigates the modeling of separated-axle (or TTR parallel type of HEV in ADVISOR software and then evaluates two control strategies for Shaheb 2; on/off strategy and an intelligent control based on fuzzy logic. On this way, maximizing the engine is considered as objective function. The simulation results indicate that the fuzzy strategy leads to less fuel consumption and lower pollution for given UDDS driving cycle rather than on/off strategy for Shaheb 2.

  13. NEW APPROACH FOR TECHNOLOGY OF VOLUMETRIC – SUPERFICIAL HARDENING OF GEAR DETAILS OF THE BACK AXLE OF MOBILE MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Mihluk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The new approach for technology of volumetric – superficial hardening of gear details of the back axle made of steel lowered harden ability is offered. This approach consisting in formation of intense – hardened condition on all surface of a detail.

  14. Phyllodes tumor of the breast: role of Axl and ST6GalNAcII in the development of mammary phyllodes tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dongliang; Li, Yanyan; Gong, Yanxin; Xu, Jingchao; Miao, Xiaolong; Li, Xiangnan; Liu, Chen; Jia, Li; Zhao, Yongfu

    2014-10-01

    Phyllodes tumor exhibits an aggressive growth. The expression of many biological markers has been explored to discriminate between different grades of phyllodes tumor and to predict their behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implications of Axl and ST6GalNAcII in phyllodes tumors. Real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemical were used to analyze differential expression of ST6GalNAcII and Axl in phyllodes tumor (PT) cell lines and tissue specimens. RNAi assay, ECM invasion assay, and tumorigenicity assay were used to analyze the altered expression of ST6GalNAcII gene effects on the expression of Axl and invasive ability of phyllodes tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Compared to benign tumors, borderline and malignant ones showed a remarkable increase in mRNA levels of Axl and ST6GalNAcII gene, and it was higher in malignant tumor cells than in borderline tumor cells. When ST6GalNAcII was silenced, compared to the control, the expression level of Axl was significantly reduced in malignant tumor cell transfectants and knockdown of ST6GalNAcII gene significantly inhibited invasive activity in malignant tumor cells. The high expression of ST6GalNAcII and Axl was significantly correlated with tumor grade and distance metastasis by immunohistochemical analysis. Axl and ST6GalNAcII expression increases with increasing tumor grade in mammary phyllodes tumors. ST6GalNAc II might be participated in the glycosylation of Axl, and this Axl glycosylation may mediate the tumorigenicity, invasion, and distant metastasis of PT cells.

  15. Optimization Design of Vehicle Front Axle Structure Based on ABAQUS and TOSCA%基于ABAQUS与TOSCA的汽车前桥结构优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马瑞雪; 王欣; 覃祯员; 张科峰

    2012-01-01

    应用ABAQUS软件对汽车前桥进行强度分析,针对车桥强度不足问题,通过TOSCA优化软件对前桥进行拓扑优化设计,在保证承栽能力的前提下有效减轻其重量。%The author analyze the vehicle front axle for the strength by ABAQUS software. In view of the axle strength shortage problem, they use TOSCA optimization software designing the front axle topological optimization structure,in order to effectively reduce its weight under the condition of its bearing capacity.

  16. Testosterone delays vascular smooth muscle cell senescence and inhibits collagen synthesis via the Gas6/Axl signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-qing; Zhao, Jing; Jin, Cheng-wei; Li, Yi-hui; Tang, Meng-xiong; Wang, Zhi-hao; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yun; Li, Li; Zhong, Ming

    2016-06-01

    Testosterone deficiency is associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular diseases in men. However, its effect on cell senescence, which plays a causal role in vascular aging, remains unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that testosterone alleviated vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) senescence and collagen synthesis via growth arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6)/Axl- and Akt/FoxO1a-dependent pathways. Testosterone significantly ameliorated angiotensin II-induced VSMC senescence and collagen overexpression. In addition, testosterone inhibited angiotensin II-induced matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity, which played a pivotal role in facilitating age-related collagen deposition. Testosterone increased the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 but decreased the expression of MMP-2 and membrane type-1 metalloproteinase which contributed to increase MMP-2 activity. The effects on VSMCs senescence and collagen synthesis were mediated by restoration of angiotensin II-induced downregulation of Gas6 and Axl expression and a subsequent reduction of Akt and FoxO1a phosphorylation. The effects of testosterone were reversed by a Gas6 blocker, Axl-Fc, and a specific inhibitor of Axl, R428. Treatment of VSMCs with PI3K inhibitor LY294002 abrogated the downregulating effect of testosterone on MMP-2 activity. Furthermore, when FoxO1a expression was silenced by using a specific siRNA, the inhibitory effect of testosterone on MMP-2 activity was revered as well, that indicated this process was Akt/FoxO1a dependence. Taken together, Gas6/Axl and Akt/FoxO1a were involved in protective effects of testosterone on VSMCs senescence and collagen synthesis. Our results provide a novel mechanism underlying the protective effect of testosterone on vascular aging and may serve as a theoretical basis for testosterone replacement therapy.

  17. Levels of vibration transmitted to the operator of the tractor equipped with front axle suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Pochi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the comfort and the preservation of the health of the operators became central issues in the evolution of agricultural machinery and led to the introduction of devices aimed at improving working conditions. Thereby, for instance, the presence of air conditioner, soundproof cab and driver seat suspension became normal on agricultural tractors. The vibrations are one of the most complex issues to deal with, being determined by the characteristics and interaction of elements such as tyres, axles, mainframe, cab and seat suspension. In this respect, manufacturers are trying to improve their products, even integrating these elements with new devices such as the suspension on the front axle of the tractor, aimed at reducing the level of vibrations during the transfers at high speed. One of these underwent tests at CRA-ING. Since its purpose is to reduce the level of vibration transmitted to the driver, their measurements in different points of the tractor and in different operating conditions, were compared in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the device, expressed as time of exposure. The suspension system of the front axle is designed to absorb the oscillations (especially pitching determined by irregularities in the road surface, allowing an increased control of the vehicle at high speed, as demonstrated by the test results and confirmed by the driving impressions outlined by the operator. The action of the device under these conditions results in an increase of the exposure time, important fact because of the relevance of the road transfer operations of tractors with mounted implements or trailers to tow and of the tendency to increase the speed limit for the road tractors (in Germany were brought to 50 km h–1 for several years. The action just described is less evident with increasing irregularity of the road surface and with the decrease of the travel speed. Nevertheless, in such conditions, the device appears to

  18. Design of Model Following Variable Structure Controller for Three-axle Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管西强; 张建武; 屈求真

    2003-01-01

    An optimal control procedure is developed for the front and rear wheels of a three-axle vehicle moving on a complex typical road based on model following variable structure control strategy. The actual vehicle may be considered as an uncertain system. Cornering stiffness of front and rear wheels and external disturbances are varied in a limited range. The model-following variable structure control method is used to control both front and rear wheels steering operations of the vehicle, so that steering responses of the vehicle follow from those of the reference model. By numerical results obtained from computer simulation, it is demonstrated that the control system model can cope with the effects of parameter perturbations and outside disturbances.

  19. PROBABILISTIC MODELS FOR LONG FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH RATES OF LZ50 AXLE STEEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yong-xiang; HE Chao-ming; YANG Bing; HUANG Yu-zhong; GAO Qing; WU Ping-bo

    2005-01-01

    Experimental study is performed on the probabilistic models for the long fatigue crack growth rates (da/dN) of LZ50 axle steel. An equation for crack growth rate was derived to consider the trend of stress intensity factor range going down to the threshold and the average stress effect. The probabilistic models were presented on the equation. They consist of the probabilistic da/dN-△K relations, the confidence-based da/dN-△K relations, and the probabilistic- and confidence-based da/dN-△K relations.Efforts were made respectively to characterize the effects of probabilistic assessments due to the scattering regularity of test data, the number of sampling, and both of them.These relations can provide wide selections for practice. Analysis on the test data of LZ50 steel indicates that the present models are available and feasible.

  20. Development of a new time domain-based algorithm for train detection and axle counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allotta, B.; D'Adamio, P.; Meli, E.; Pugi, L.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an innovative train detection algorithm, able to perform the train localisation and, at the same time, to estimate its speed, the crossing times on a fixed point of the track and the axle number. The proposed solution uses the same approach to evaluate all these quantities, starting from the knowledge of generic track inputs directly measured on the track (for example, the vertical forces on the sleepers, the rail deformation and the rail stress). More particularly, all the inputs are processed through cross-correlation operations to extract the required information in terms of speed, crossing time instants and axle counter. This approach has the advantage to be simple and less invasive than the standard ones (it requires less equipment) and represents a more reliable and robust solution against numerical noise because it exploits the whole shape of the input signal and not only the peak values. A suitable and accurate multibody model of railway vehicle and flexible track has also been developed by the authors to test the algorithm when experimental data are not available and in general, under any operating conditions (fundamental to verify the algorithm accuracy and robustness). The railway vehicle chosen as benchmark is the Manchester Wagon, modelled in the Adams VI-Rail environment. The physical model of the flexible track has been implemented in the Matlab and Comsol Multiphysics environments. A simulation campaign has been performed to verify the performance and the robustness of the proposed algorithm, and the results are quite promising. The research has been carried out in cooperation with Ansaldo STS and ECM Spa.

  1. Research on Heating Problem of Rotary Kiln Axle Tile Care%回转窑托轮轴瓦发热问题的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    和春梅; 杨晓杰; 罗玉银

    2011-01-01

    The rotary kiln, as the "heart" equipment of cement production, often appears the phenomenon of tile prop shaft heat in the using process,which lead to the low efficiency of rotary kiln.This article analyzes the main causes of heating problem of the rotary kiln tile axle from the two aspects of the lubrication and load distribution condition, and proposes the appropriate preventive measures.%回转窑作为水泥生产时的"心脏"设备,在使用过程中常常出现托轮轴瓦发热的现象,这是导致回转窑工作效率降低的最直接和最普遍的问题.本文主要从润滑状态和载荷分布情况与两个方面,分析了回转窑托轮轴瓦发热的主要原因,并指出了相应的预防措施.

  2. Applicability of hydraulic dynamometer for measuring load mass on forwarders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandur Zdravko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, with the start of wood biomass production from wood residues, the need for determining the quantity of extracted wood residuals on a landing site has appeared. The beginning of intensive usage of wood residues for wood biomass starts in lowland forest where all wood residues are extracted with forwarders. There are several ways to determine load mass on a forwarder, first and probably most accurate is the use of load cells which are installed between forwarder undercarriage and loading space. In Croatia, as far as it is known, there is no forwarder with such equipment, although manufacturers offer the installation of such equipment when buying a new forwarder. The second option is using a portable measuring platform (axle scale which was already used for research of axle loads of trucks and forwarders. The data obtained with the measuring platform are very accurate, while its deficiency is relatively great mass, large dimensions and high price. The third option is determining mass by using hydraulic dynamometer which is installed on crane between the rotator and the telescopic boom. The production and installation of such a system is very simple, and with the price it can easily compete with previously described measuring systems. The main deficiency of this system is its unsatisfying accuracy. The results of assortment mass measuring with hydraulic dynamometer installed on a hydraulic crane and discussion on factors influencing obtained results will be presented in this paper.

  3. Analysis on handing stability of three-axle vehicle based on fuzzy grey correlation%基于模糊灰色关联的三轴汽车操纵稳定性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 赵亮

    2015-01-01

    为研究三轴汽车各轴主要悬架K & C特性对操纵稳定性的影响程度,在考虑三轴汽车轴荷分配和侧倾力矩作用下左、右车轮垂直载荷重新分配的基础上,建立了基于悬架K & C特性参数的三轴汽车三自由度动力学模型。并以该模型为基础,采用模糊隶属度余弦值和欧氏距离公式建立三轴汽车悬架K & C特性模糊灰色关联分析模型,对影响三轴汽车稳态响应特性的主要悬架 K & C特性的重要性程度进行了模糊灰色关联度分析。结果表明:车速为15 km/h时,对于稳态响应阶段的侧倾角、横摆角速度和侧向加速度,各影响因素模糊灰色关联度排序皆为 R4> R2> R3> R1> R6> R5;对于质心侧偏角,R5(β)> R6(β)> R1(β)> R2(β)> R3(β)> R4(β)。同理可得车速为35 km/h和55 km/h时各个影响因素模糊灰色关联度排序。从而可以得出:三轴汽车各轴悬架K & C特性参数中,前桥侧倾转向特性对稳态响应阶段的侧倾角、横摆角速度、侧向加速度影响最大;中、后桥侧倾转向特性对质心侧偏角影响较大,且两者相差不大。%In order to study the influencing degree of main suspension K & C characteristic param‐eters on handling stability ,a 3‐DOF dynamic model of three‐axle vehicle based on its suspension K & C characteristic parameters was established with considering of the axle load distribution of three‐axle vehicle and reallocation of vertical load on both sides of wheels under roll torque .Mo‐reover ,on the basis of the 3‐DOF model ,fuzzy grey correlation analysis model based on main suspension K & C characteristic parameters of three‐axle vehicle was established using the cosine value of fuzzy membership and Euclidean distance formula to make fuzzy grey correlation analysis on the influencing degree of main suspension K & C characteristic parameters on steady‐state re

  4. Strong Expression of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α (HIF-1α Is Associated with Axl Expression and Features of Aggressive Tumors in African Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa Nalwoga

    Full Text Available Inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF and Axl receptor tyrosine kinase is being evaluated for targeted therapy in solid tumors. Both HIF-1α and Axl influence tumor growth and metastatic potential, and they have been linked to treatment failure in many cancers. However, there is a lack of reports on HIF-1α expression in African breast cancer, which has a poor prognosis, and novel treatment targets must therefore be established. Here, we aimed to evaluate HIF-1α in relation to Axl expression, angiogenesis markers, and other tumor characteristics in a series of African breast cancer.Using immunohistochemistry, we examined 261 invasive breast cancers on tissue microarrays for HIF-1α and Axl as well as several other markers, and a subset of 185 cases had information on VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor expression, microvessel density (MVD, proliferating microvessel density (pMVD and vascular proliferation index (VPI for important comparisons.Strong HIF-1α expression was associated with increased Axl (p = 0.007, VEGF (p<0.0005, and p53 (p = 0.032 expression, as well as high tumor cell proliferation by Ki-67 (p = 0.006, and high tumor grade (p = 0.003. Tumors with strong HIF-1α expression had significantly higher MVD (p = 0.019 and higher pMVD (p = 0.027 than tumors with weak expression.High HIF-1α expression is significantly associated with Axl and VEGF expression, and with markers of poor prognosis in this series of breast cancer, suggesting HIF-1α and Axl as potential therapeutic targets in African breast cancer.

  5. Acceleration Slip Regulation Strategy for Distributed Drive Electric Vehicles with Independent Front Axle Drive Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfei Wu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an acceleration slip regulation strategy for distributed drive electric vehicles with two motors on the front axle. The tasks of the strategy include controlling the slip ratio to make full use of the road grip and controlling the yaw rate to eliminate the lateral movement due to the difference between motor torques. The rate of the slip ratio change can be controlled by controlling the motor torque, so that the slip ratio can be controlled by applying a proportional-integral control strategy to control the rate of the slip ratio change. The yaw rate can be controlled to almost zero by applying torque compensation based on yaw rate feedback. A coordination control strategy for the slip ratio control and yaw rate control is proposed based on analysis of the priorities and features of the two control processes. Simulations were carried out using MATLAB/Simulink, and experiments were performed on a hardware-in-loop test bench with actual motors. The results of the simulations and experiments showed that the proposed strategy could improve the longitudinal driving performance and straight line driving stability of the vehicle.

  6. Kinome-wide shRNA Screen Identifies the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase AXL as a Key Regulator for Mesenchymal Glioblastoma Stem-like Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Cheng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is a highly lethal cancer for which novel therapeutics are urgently needed. Two distinct subtypes of glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs were recently identified: mesenchymal (MES and proneural (PN. To identify mechanisms to target the more aggressive MES GSCs, we combined transcriptomic expression analysis and kinome-wide short hairpin RNA screening of MES and PN GSCs. In comparison to PN GSCs, we found significant upregulation and phosphorylation of the receptor tyrosine kinase AXL in MES GSCs. Knockdown of AXL significantly decreased MES GSC self-renewal capacity in vitro and inhibited the growth of glioblastoma patient-derived xenografts. Moreover, inhibition of AXL with shRNA or pharmacologic inhibitors also increased cell death significantly more in MES GSCs. Clinically, AXL expression was elevated in the MES GBM subtype and significantly correlated with poor prognosis in multiple cancers. In conclusion, we identified AXL as a potential molecular target for novel approaches to treat glioblastoma and other solid cancers.

  7. A Study on the Fatigue Life of Hub Bearings in Front Steering Axle of a Heavy Duty Truck%重型载货汽车转向前桥轮毂轴承疲劳寿命的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国权; 张红松; 张良城

    2012-01-01

    为揭示重型载货汽车转向前桥轮毂轴承寿命不长的原因,制定了轮毂轴承寿命分析的汽车行驶工况,确定了相应的载荷谱.以Lundberg-Palmgren和Ioannidis-Harris轴承寿命理论为依据,用Romax软件建立了轮毂轴承疲劳寿命分析模型,计算了7.5t转向前桥额定载荷时轮毂轴承的疲劳寿命和损伤率.结果表明,轮毂内轴承满足设计要求,但轮毂外轴承均不满足设计要求.其中寿命最短的右侧轮毂外轴承,内、外国有明显的错位,滚子承载不均匀,内圈挡肩上轴向载荷的合力方向偏离旋转轴线,产生弯曲力矩,内、外圈存在严重的应力集中.%To reveal the reason for the short life of hub bearings in the front steering axle of a heavy duty truck, the vehicle driving conditions for hub bearing life analysis is worked out with their corresponding load spectra defined. Based on Lundberg-Palmgren and Ioannidis-Harris bearing life theories, a fatigue life analysis model for hub bearings is established with Romax software, and the fatigue life and the damage rate of hub bearings in a 7. 5 t front steering axle under rated loading conditions are calculated. The results show that the inner bearing in inner wheel hub meets the design requirements, but the bearings in outer wheel hub don't. Among them the bearing in right outer wheel hub has the shortest life, and there is apparent misalignment between its inner and outer rings with uneven roller loads. Moreover, the direction of resultant force of axial loads acting on inner ring rib deviates from rotating axis, generating bending moment and causing severe stress concentration in both inner and outer rings.

  8. Ride comfort optimization of a multi-axle heavy motorized wheel dump truck based on virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bian Gong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of hydro-pneumatic suspension parameters of a multi-axle heavy motorized wheel dump truck is carried out based on virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging model in this article. The root mean square of vertical vibration acceleration, in the center of sprung mass, is assigned as the optimization objective. The constraints are the natural frequency, the working stroke, and the dynamic load of wheels. The suspension structure for the truck is the adjustable hydro-pneumatic suspension with ideal vehicle nonlinear characteristics, integrated with elastic and damping elements. Also, the hydraulic systems of two adjacent hydro-pneumatic suspension are interconnected. Considering the high complexity of the engineering model, a novel kind of meta-model called virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging is proposed in this article. The interpolation principle and the construction of virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging model were elucidated. Being different from traditional Kriging, virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging combines the respective advantages of actual test and Computer Aided Engineering simulation. Based on the virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging model, the optimization results, obtained by experimental verification, showed significant improvement in the ride comfort by 12.48% for front suspension and 11.79% for rear suspension. Compared with traditional Kriging, the optimization effect was improved by 3.05% and 3.38% respectively. Virtual and real prototype experiment integrated Kriging provides an effective way to approach the optimal solution for the optimization of high-complexity engineering problems.

  9. 拖拉机前驱动桥的涂装工艺研究%Research of Coating Process of Tractor Front Drive Axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王智红

    2012-01-01

    For appearance quality requirements of front drive axles used in tractors ,the coating process of front drive axles is researched and designed. The production practices prove that the coated front drive axle has a good corrosion resistance, and this can lengthen Service life and improve use value of the product.%针对拖拉机前驱动桥外观品质的要求,研究并设计了前驱动桥涂装工艺。生产实践证明,涂装后的前驱动桥具有良好的耐腐蚀性,不仅延长了使用寿命,而且还提高了产品的使用价值。

  10. Design and engineering structure analysis on paddy-field chassis steering drive axle with standard all-wheel-drive%标准四驱水田自走底盘转向驱动桥设计与工程结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宏新; 郑利双; 徐高伟; 王晨

    2015-01-01

    In the main grain crop production in China, comprehensive mechanization level for paddy field is the lowest. At the same time, there exists the“bottleneck”problem of“bottleneck”problem such as rice planting mechanization. In the case of transplanter, although we have grasped the core technology of key components, overall machinery can not be popularized and applied due to lack of the support of cost-effective chassis. At present, in Chinese market, most of chassis are imported from Japan and South Korea, which widely use hydraulic transmission and variable speed technology. Because paddy planting operation has the characteristics of stable load and constant speed, using hydraulic transmission and continuous variable device causes low efficiency and has no much practical significance, and meanwhile, the demand for the power increases from 9 to 13 and even 15 kw. Northeast Agricultural University has designed a standard all-wheel drive light paddy self-propelled chassis with diesel-power and mechanical transmission for this situation, whose most prominent shape feature is that four wheels have same size and the front axle is different from any existing paddy field chassis structure. The chassis has the advantages of high transmission efficiency, large torque reserve, anti-sink capacity, dynamic stabilization, and good performance of crossing the earth bank between the paddy fields. As a transmission part, steering drive axle not only is a carrier installed, but also needs to bear the weight of chassis and the effect of impulsive load, and have the function of deflection wheel, and hence its structure is more complex than the traditional shell. The operating environment of paddy field chassis is harsher than general vehicle, which has stricter requirement of sludge, subsidence, bank and over load on axle. So, engineering analysis of structural design process is particularly important, however, conventional theoretical analysis and calculation method can not

  11. On Methods of Solving the Axle Grinding Produces Denim and Burns%浅析解决车轴磨削产生斜纹及烧伤的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王长峰; 郭文荣

    2013-01-01

    车轴表面磨削加工中存在斜纹一直是困扰车轴生产的主要问题。通过对车轴磨削过程中砂轮、工装、设备、皂化液等因素的研究,查找车轴磨削表面产生斜纹、烧伤的原因,并提出相应的解决办法,为提高车轴生产质量提供保障。%The present axle twill surface grinding axle production has been plagued major problem. Through the process of grinding wheel axle, tooling, equipment, and other factors saponification research.In this paper, we find the axle grinding sur-face twill, burn causes and propose appropriate solutions to improve production quality axle to provide protection.

  12. Differential expression of the ufo/axl oncogene in human leukemia-lymphoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challier, C; Uphoff, C C; Janssen, J W; Drexler, H G

    1996-05-01

    The ufo protein (also termed axl) is a member of a new family of receptor tyrosine kinases and is encoded by a transforming gene that was initially isolated from primary human myeloid leukemia cells by DNA-mediated transformation of NIH/3T3 cells. The ligand, Gas6, a protein S-related molecule lacking any known function yet, has recently been identified. We report the expression pattern of ufo mRNA in a panel of 76 human continuous leukemia-lymphoma cell lines. The gene was not expressed in cell lines derived from lymphoid malignancies (n=28), but transcription was seen in 3/11 myeloid, 0/6 monocytic, 9/13 erythroid and 11/18 megakaryocytic cell lines. Several cell lines were treated with phorbol ester leading to significant upregulation of the ufo message in constitutively positive cells. An apparent ufo mRNA overexpression was not found in any of the positive leukemia cell lines, but was identified in the drug-resistant subclones of the cervix carcinoma cell line HeLa. Southern blot analysis of restriction enzyme-digested genomic DNA did not provide evidence for gene amplification, but the HeLa subclones showed banding patterns suggestive of gene rearrangement. Two main ufo mRNA bands of 3.2 and 5.0 kb were identified; no differences in the half-lives (t1/2 = 2.5 h) of these two mRNA species could be identified. In summary, ufo, representing a novel type of receptor tyrosine kinase, is expressed solely in myeloid and erythro-megakaryocytic leukemias but not in lymphoid malignancies. These and previous data suggest an involvement of the ufo receptor tyrosine kinase in normal and malignant myelopoiesis; however, its exact role, if any, and mode of operation in leukemogenesis remains to be determined.

  13. Propiedades estructurales de ejes huecos y sólidos con una grieta plana//Structural proprieties of hollow and whole axles, with a flat crack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon‐Ariza De‐Miguel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudiaron las diversas ventajas constructivas que los ejes huecos presentan respecto a los sólidos, como la reducción de masa, mejor control de calidad, menores defectos en producción y facilidad de acoplamiento. De ahí su profusión en aplicaciones industriales, como ejes de ferrocarril, de reductores o en calandrias. Dichas ventajas se ven alteradas cuando el eje trabaja a fatiga en flexión rotativa y aparece una grieta sobre el mismo. Se comprobaron dichas ventajas y sus variaciones sobre un modelo inicial de una grieta plana superficial, y se ha observado que los ejes huecos resultan más perjudicados por estas grietas para ciertos valores del diámetro interior, mientras que para otros son ventajosos. Se concluye del presente estudio que puede establecerse un rango de valores para el diámetro interior de ejes huecos en el cual su aprovechamiento seríaóptimo.Palabras claves: ejes huecos y sólidos, propiedades estructurales, grieta plana.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThis work studies the several advantages hollow axles show when compared to whole ones, such as lightness, better quality control, less manufacturing defects, coupling simplicity. Thence their being profusely employed in industry, in applications like railway axles, gearboxes or calenders. Theseadvantages are altered when the axle works under bending with rotation under fatigue and a crack appears on its surface. An analytical research upon a flat surface crack model has been made of these advantages and their variations and it has been observed that hollow axles suffer more from these cracks than whole ones for certain inner diameter values, whereas for others even less than whole ones. It can be deduced that a gap for the inner diameter can be ascertained, where the axle´s rendering would be optimal.Key words: hollowand whole axles, structural properties, flat crack.

  14. 基于ANSYS Workbench 的前轴分析和优化设计%ANSYS Workbench Based Analysis and Optimization Design of Front Axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凯; 曾亿山; 牛家忠

    2015-01-01

    汽车车桥是汽车上主要承载构件之一,对其进行分析和优化十分必要。以某公司生产的前桥前轴为例,先建立前轴的Pro/E三维模型,后导入 ANSYS Workbench ,在几种不同的路况上对前轴进行静态分析,结果表明前轴在应力大小方面能满足要求。在此基础上结合实际情况,并以质量最小化为最终目的,对前轴进行了形状优化和尺寸优化,为前轴的实际制造和优化改进提供理论依据。%As one of the main carrying components of automobile , the analysis and optimization of automobile axle is necessary . Firstly ,the three‐dimensional model of the front axle was set up in Pro/E ,the model was imported into ANSYS Workbench ,and the static analysis of the front axle in several different conditions was conducted ,the results showed that the front axle in the stress could meet the requirements .Then ,based on the static analysis ,the shape and size of the front axle were optimized ,and the ultimate aim was to minimize the mass ,it would provide a theoretical basis for the practical manufacturing and optimization of front axle .

  15. 转向前轴轮毂轴承游隙探讨分析%Analysis of Hub Bearing Clearance on Front Axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德林

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the classification of hub bearing clearance on front axle, and the affect of clearance to bearing. Meanwhile discuss the adjust and test way of bearing clearance, cliff the bearing clearances between truck and bus front axles.%本文介绍了转向前轴轮毂轴承游隙的分类,游隙大小对轴承的影响,探讨了轴承游隙的调整与检测方法,区分了货车与客车前轴轴承游隙。

  16. Rear axle structure design of DD32/120 series%DD32/120系列后桥结构设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖红利; 杨爱民

    2012-01-01

    详细论了DD32/120系列后桥设计方案,对从动齿轮与桥壳间隙及从动齿轮与主减速器壳前轴承座间隙进行了计算。%Detailed discuss the rear axle design scheme of DD32/120 series,make calculation for driven gear and axle housing clearance and driven gear and front-end bearing pedestal of main reducing housing.

  17. Hopf Bifurcation Characteristics of Dual-Front Axle Self-Excited Shimmy System for Heavy Truck considering Dry Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daogao Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiaxle steering is widely used in commercial vehicles. However, the mechanism of the self-excited shimmy produced by the multiaxle steering system is not clear until now. This study takes a dual-front axle heavy truck as sample vehicle and considers the influences of mid-shift transmission and dry friction to develop a 9 DOF dynamics model based on Lagrange’s equation. Based on the Hopf bifurcation theorem and center manifold theory, the study shows that dual-front axle shimmy is a self-excited vibration produced from Hopf bifurcation. The numerical method is adopted to determine how the size of dry friction torque influences the Hopf bifurcation characteristics of the system and to analyze the speed range of limit cycles and numerical characteristics of the shimmy system. The consistency of results of the qualitative and numerical methods shows that qualitative methods can predict the bifurcation characteristics of shimmy systems. The influences of the main system parameters on the shimmy system are also discussed. Improving the steering transition rod stiffness and dry friction torque and selecting a smaller pneumatic trail and caster angle can reduce the self-excited shimmy, reduce tire wear, and improve the driving stability of vehicles.

  18. Vehicle design influences whole body vibration exposures: effect of the location of the front axle relative to the cab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Ryan P; Rynell, Patrik W; Johnson, Peter W

    2011-06-01

    Using a repeated measure design, this study compared differences in whole body vibration (WBV) exposures among 13 drivers who drove a truck with the cab over the front axle (cab-over design) and a truck with the cab situated behind the front axle (non-cab-over design). The drivers drove both trucks over a standardized route that comprised three distinct segments: a freeway segment, a city street segment with stop-and-go driving (traffic lights), and a city street segment without traffic lights. A portable WBV data acquisition system collected tri-axial time-weighted and raw WBV data per ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5 standards. Simultaneous global positioning system (GPS) data were also collected to compare vehicle speeds. The GPS data indicated that there were no speed differences between the two vehicles. However, average and impulsive z-axis vibration levels were significantly higher for the cab-over design than for the non-cab-over design. In addition, significant WBV exposure differences between road types were found, with the freeway segments having the lowest exposures and the city street segments without traffic lights having the highest exposures. Vehicle type and the associated WBV exposures should be considered when purchasing vehicles to be used by full-time professional vehicle operators.

  19. Accumulative deformation in railway track induced by high-speed traffic loading of the trains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bian Xuecheng; Jiang Hongguang; Chen Yunmin

    2010-01-01

    Prediction and control of the permanent settlement of a track caused by traffic loading from trains is crucial to high-speed railway design and maintenance. In this study, a unified prediction model of accumulative deformation of geomaterials used in railway construction subjected to cyclic loadings is introduced and calibrated using physical model testing. Based on this versatile model, a calculation approach to determine the track structure settlement under repeated loadings caused by the movement of the wheel axle of the train is proposed. Regression analysis on the physical model testing is adopted to determine the parameters involved in the computational approach. Comparison of model test data and computed results shows that the parameters obtained from the back-analysis are consistent throughout the various testing conditions, and the proposed calculation approach is capable of satisfactorily predicting the accumulative settlement of the railway roadbed and subgrade soil for various axle loads and loading cycles. A case study of a high-speed railway is performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach in realistic engineering applications. The computation results from the settlement development of a roadbed and subgrade soil are presented and discussed.

  20. Control allocation for for regenerative braking of electric vehicles with an electric motor at the front axle using the state-dependent Riccati equation control technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanarachos, S.A.; Alirezaei, M.; Jansen, S.T.H.; Maurice, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the systematic development of an integrated braking controller for a vehicle driven by an electric motor on the front axle is presented. The objective is to engage the electric motor only during braking, up to the point at which the vehicle reaches its manoeuvrability and stability lim

  1. 汽车前轴动态特性的可靠性优化设计%Reliability Optimization Design of Dynamic Characteristics of Automotive Front Axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧献国; 于德介; 姚凌云

    2011-01-01

    Combining with the reliability analysis and the optimization technique, a reliability optimization design method was presented for improving the dynamic characteristics of automotive front axle.A reliability optimization model of dynamic characteristics of automotive front axle was established, the first order mode frequency and the velocity admittance of driving point of engine excitation were used as design constraints of reliability—based optimization, the total mass of front axle was used as the design objective.The reliability-based optimization problem of a micro—car front axle was solved, which shows that the dynamic characteristics of front axle are improved and the goals of reliability optimization design are achieved.%将可靠性分析与优化技术相结合,提出一种改善汽车前轴动态特性的可靠性优化设计方法.该方法建立了汽车前轴动态特性的可靠性优化模型,以一阶模态频率和发动机激励点的驱动点速度导纳为动态特性约束,以前轴总质量为优化目标,对前轴进行可靠性优化.对某微车前轴动态特性的可靠性优化设计结果表明,该方法有效酶善了前轴的动态特性,动态特性约束满足了可靠度设计要求,达到了可靠性优化设计的目的.

  2. An integrated control strategy for the composite braking system of an electric vehicle with independently driven axles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fengchun; Liu, Wei; He, Hongwen; Guo, Hongqiang

    2016-08-01

    For an electric vehicle with independently driven axles, an integrated braking control strategy was proposed to coordinate the regenerative braking and the hydraulic braking. The integrated strategy includes three modes, namely the hybrid composite mode, the parallel composite mode and the pure hydraulic mode. For the hybrid composite mode and the parallel composite mode, the coefficients of distributing the braking force between the hydraulic braking and the two motors' regenerative braking were optimised offline, and the response surfaces related to the driving state parameters were established. Meanwhile, the six-sigma method was applied to deal with the uncertainty problems for reliability. Additionally, the pure hydraulic mode is activated to ensure the braking safety and stability when the predictive failure of the response surfaces occurs. Experimental results under given braking conditions showed that the braking requirements could be well met with high braking stability and energy regeneration rate, and the reliability of the braking strategy was guaranteed on general braking conditions.

  3. Influence of process parameters on the microstructural evolution of a rear axle tube during cross wedge rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jia-wei; Yang, Cui-ping; Zheng, Zhen-hua; Zhang, Kang-sheng; Ma, Wen-yu

    2016-11-01

    In the shaping process of cross wedge rolling (CWR), metal undergoes a complex microstructural evolution, which affects the quality and mechanical properties of the product. Through secondary development of the DEFORM-3D software, we developed a rigid plastic finite element model for a CWR-processed rear axle tube, coupled with thermomechanical and microstructural aspects of workpieces. Using the developed model, we investigated the microstructural evolution of the CWR process. Also, the influence of numerous parameters, including the initial temperature of workpieces, the roll speed, the forming angle, and the spreading angle, on the grain size and the grain-size uniformity of the rolled workpieces was analyzed. The numerical simulation was verified through rolling and metallographic experiments. Good agreement was obtained between the calculated and experimental results, which demonstrated the reliability of the model constructed in this work.

  4. Shifting Control Algorithm for a Single-Axle Parallel Plug-In Hybrid Electric Bus Equipped with EMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyun Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining the characteristics of motor with fast response speed, an electric-drive automated mechanical transmission (EMT is proposed as a novel type of transmission in this paper. Replacing the friction synchronization shifting of automated manual transmission (AMT in HEVs, the EMT can achieve active synchronization of speed shifting. The dynamic model of a single-axle parallel PHEV equipped with the EMT is built up, and the dynamic properties of the gearshift process are also described. In addition, the control algorithm is developed to improve the shifting quality of the PHEV equipped with the EMT in all its evaluation indexes. The key techniques of changing the driving force gradient in preshifting and shifting compensation phases as well as of predicting the meshing speed in the gear meshing phase are also proposed. Results of simulation, bench test, and real road test demonstrate that the proposed control algorithm can reduce the gearshift jerk and the power interruption time noticeably.

  5. Load Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes Load measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The aim of the measurement program regarding the loads on the turbine is to verify the basic characteristics of the wind turbine and loads on the blades, the rotor and the tower, using [Ref 1], [Ref2] and [Ref 3]. Regarding...... the fatigue loads, the rotor, blades and tower moments are presented. The fatigue loads are evaluated using rainflow counting described in detail in Ref. [1]. The 1Hz equivalent load ranges are calculated at different wind speeds. All information regarding the instrumentation is collected in [ref 4] and [ref...

  6. Strength properties of the jointed rock mass medium under dynamic cyclic loading *

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The dynamic strength properties of the intermittently jointed mediums are studied using model test to investigate the jointed rock mass behavior under dynamic cyclic load. The model test results demonstrate that (i) the dynamic strength of the jointed samples increases with the loading frequency and decreases with the loading loops; (ii) the dynamic residual strength will not be zero like the static residual strength under one-axle loading condition; (iii) the dynamic strength changes greatly with the joint density and joint angle, and it differs from that of the static strength which reaches the lowest at an angle of 45° + ψ/2, while in the dynamic case, the lowest strength is at the angle of 45°.

  7. 重型车湿式桥非线性传动能量流耗分析%Analyzing on Nonlinear Transmission Energy Flows and Loss for the Wet Axle in the Heavy Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘升; 孙冬野; 秦大同

    2015-01-01

    重型车湿式桥传动系统能量流动与损耗研究是车辆经济性、安全性及动力性的基础。现有研究主要简单分析单工况下齿轮箱的能量损耗,缺乏复杂工况下基于人车路的传动系统能量流耗精细综合研究。针对典型重型车辆循环作业下的湿式桥传动系统能量流耗进行综合分析,建立不同能量损耗类型的数学模型。考虑车辆循环作业能量流耗影响因素,基于键合图理论分析总成及系统能量流耗情况后,建立整个传动系统的能量流耗模型。此动力学模型与实车试验数据结合不但可以研究一般工况下的人车路湿式桥非线性能量流耗,还可以分析驱动滑转、制动滑移、转弯、轮荷及重心转移等复杂工况,这为今后研究和精确实车复杂工况下的能量流耗情况提供了一套可行的方法。%The study on transmission energy flows and loss for the wet axle in the heavy vehicle are the base of economy, security, power performance of vehicle. The existing researches focus on gear box energy loss under simple operating model, and the fine comprehensive study of transmission system energy flows and loss based on diver vehicle road under complicated operating model is scarce. The energy flows and loss of transmission system in wet axle under typical cycle operation of heavy vehicle are analyzed, and the mathematical models of different energy loss style are built. The influencing factors of energy flows and loss under vehicle cycle operating are considered, after the assemblies and system energy flows and loss are analyzed based on bond graph theory, the total transmission system energy flows and loss models are built in the end. The nonlinear energy flows and loss in wet axle on driver vehicle road under general operating model can be analyzed on the combination of this dynamic model with vehicle experimental data, even under complicated operating model as drive slipping, brake

  8. Load Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes Load measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The aim of the measurement program regarding the loads on the turbine is to verify the basic characteristics of the wind turbine and loads on the blades, the rotor and the tower, using [Ref 1], [Ref2] and [Ref 3]. Regardi...

  9. 有限元分析在汽车后桥壳设计中的应用%Finite element analysis in the design of automotive Rear axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄在璐

    2012-01-01

      运用软件Solidworks建立汽车后桥壳的三维模型,并利用有限元分析软件COSMOSWorks对该后桥壳进行静态受力分析,获取该零件的应力分布云图,从而为零件的合理设计提供有价值的参考。%  In this paper, the three-dimensional model of the software Solidworks to automotive rear axle,and use of finite element analysis software COSMOSWorks the rear axle for static stress analysis,Get the part of the stress contours,Provide a valuable reference for the rational design of parts.

  10. Broken Analysis of Shell Axle Before Bevel Gear Differential%差速器前壳杆的断裂分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡士祥; 刘胜勇

    2011-01-01

    针对STR桥差速器前壳杆花键部位及其R1.6处易断裂问题,借鉴实心圆轴扭转变形时的横截面应力模型的分析,推导出差速器前壳杆扭矩传递效率的影响因素,并提出相应的改进建议。%There is a broken problem at the spline part and its R1.6 position of the shell axle before STR bevel gear differential.On the basis of analysis about cross-section stress model when solid round shaft is twisted,three factors are drew,which deduce influencing factors to torque-transfer efficiency of the shell axle before STR bevel gear differential,and appropriate improving suggestions are brought forward.

  11. A receptor tyrosine kinase, UFO/Axl, and other genes isolated by a modified differential display PCR are overexpressed in metastatic prostatic carcinoma cell line DU145.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, A N; Kalapurakal, J; Davidson, W R; Kandpal, G; Dunson, N; Prashar, Y; Kandpal, R P

    1999-01-01

    We have used a modified differential display PCR protocol for isolating 3' restriction fragments of cDNAs specifically expressed or overexpressed in metastatic prostate carcinoma cell line DU145. Several cDNA fragments were identified that matched to milk fat globule protein, UFO/Axl, a receptor tyrosine kinase, human homologue of a Xenopus maternal transcript, laminin and laminin receptor, human carcinoma-associated antigen, and some expressed sequence tags. The transcript for milk fat globule protein, a marker protein shown to be overexpressed in breast tumors, was elevated in DU145 cells. The expression of UFO/Axl, a receptor tyrosine kinase, was considerably higher in DU145 cells as compared to normal prostate cells and prostatic carcinoma cell line PC-3. The overexpression of UFO oncogene in DU145 cells is discussed in the context of prostate cancer metastasis.

  12. Transcriptional activation of the Axl and PDGFR-α by c-Met through a ras- and Src-independent mechanism in human bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tseng Vincent S

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A cross-talk between different receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs plays an important role in the pathogenesis of human cancers. Methods Both NIH-Met5 and T24-Met3 cell lines harboring an inducible human c-Met gene were established. C-Met-related RTKs were screened by RTK microarray analysis. The cross-talk of RTKs was demonstrated by Western blotting and confirmed by small interfering RNA (siRNA silencing, followed by elucidation of the underlying mechanism. The impact of this cross-talk on biological function was demonstrated by Trans-well migration assay. Finally, the potential clinical importance was examined in a cohort of 65 cases of locally advanced and metastatic bladder cancer patients. Results A positive association of Axl or platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFR-α with c-Met expression was demonstrated at translational level, and confirmed by specific siRNA knock-down. The transactivation of c-Met on Axl or PDGFR-α in vitro was through a ras- and Src-independent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/ERK pathway. In human bladder cancer, co-expression of these RTKs was associated with poor patient survival (p p Conclusions In addition to c-Met, the cross-talk with Axl and/or PDGFR-α also contributes to the progression of human bladder cancer. Evaluation of Axl and PDGFR-α expression status may identify a subset of c-Met-positive bladder cancer patients who may require co-targeting therapy.

  13. Design the Rocker Arm Mechanism in Double Front Axle Steering Mechanism%双前桥转向机构中摇臂机构的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兰兰; 王健楠

    2012-01-01

    为了适当调整摇臂机构的设计参数,根据已有的基本型双前桥转向的摇臂机构.用作图法计算出二桥节臂转角肛,再计算出二桥节臂理论转角β2理,根据β2-β2理=δ古是否小于1°来判断该机构是否合理:如不合理,通过改变摇臂长度R的尺寸得到合理的数值后,再用三维模型进行了校核,得到了合适的设计数据。此方法缩短了设计周期,为双摇臂机构的设计提供了参考。%Abstract according the existing rocker mechanism about the double front axle steering mechanism, the comer of the knuckle arm about the second steering axle β2 was calculated from the comer of knuckle arm about the first steering axle r, by graphical method, and the theory comer of knuckle arm of the second steering axle β2L, was counted, then the rocker mechanism's rationality was determined according the formula β2- β2L=δ;if δ≤ 1°,the mechanism is reasonable ;if δ 〉 1°,then the parameter R was changed to obtain the reasonable data about the rocker mechanism ;final, the corresponding 3D model was build to check the design. Design time was saved by this method, and reference was given to the other designers.

  14. 快速换模在桥壳模具中的应用%SMED application in the axle housing mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷鹏; 贾雄伟; 惠文强

    2014-01-01

    In stamping-welding axle housings products switched, the axle housing mold bulky and heavy-tonnage, resulting in retooling slow and low productivity. Through the SMED application in the axle housings, the distinction between internal and external, transformation operation using a parallel operation. Improving the logistics set up hanging device, increasing the positioning pin. The changeover speed increase more than 50%, reducing the extra inventory, improve production efficiency, resulting in significant economic benefits.%在冲焊桥壳产品切换中,桥壳模具体积大、吨位重、造成换模速度慢,生产效率低。通过快速换模技术在桥壳模具中的应用,区分了内外变换操作,并采用平行作业,改善物流架起吊装置,增加定位销,使换模速度提升了50%以上,减少了不需的额外库存,提高了生产效率,并产生明显的经济效益。

  15. Bearing Capacity of Floating Ice Sheets under Short-Term Loads: Over-Sea-Ice Traverse from McMurdo Station to Marble Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 5- 1 Engineering for Polar Operations, Logistics, and Research (EPOLAR) Bearing Capacity of Floating Ice Sheets...Operations, Logistics, and Research (EPOLAR) ERDC/CRREL TR-15-1 January 2015 Bearing Capacity of Floating Ice Sheets under Short-Term Loads Over-Sea-Ice... capacity for a single axle load of 66,000 lb; and the main beams have a minimum yield stress of 36 ksi.* The rounded ends of each girder reduce

  16. Iron load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Cassarà

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent research addressed the main role of hepcidin in the regulation of iron metabolism. However, while this mechanism could be relevant in causing iron load in Thalassemia Intermedia and Sickle-Cell Anemia, its role in Thalassemia Major (TM is marginal. This is mainly due to the high impact of transfusional requirement into the severe increase of body iron. Moreover, the damage of iron load may be worsened by infections, as HCV hepatitis, or liver and endocrinological damage. One of the most relevant associations was found between splenectomy and increase of risk for mortality due,probably, to more severe iron load. These issues suggest as morbidity and mortality of this group of patients they do not depend only by our ability in controlling heart damage but even in preventing or treating particular infections and complications. This finding is supported by the impairment of survival curves in patients with complications different from heart damage. However, because, during recent years different direct and indirect methods to detect iron overload in patients affected by secondary hemochromatosis have been implemented, our ability to maintain under control iron load is significantly improved. Anyway, the future in iron load management remains to be able to have an iron load map of our body for targeting chelation and other medical treatment according to the single organ damage.

  17. The tight fit analyses of drive axle housing of self-dumping truck%运用接触分析的自卸车驱动桥壳过盈公差分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 雷刚; 孙永刚

    2011-01-01

    The nonlinear software Marc is adapted to study in detail for the tight fit of heavy truck driving axle housing. Firstly the analysis is applied on the tight fit under different outer load and the interference closure, these two factors are acted on the housing singularly or together, the effect of every factor to the housing is studied; on the base of this, the reliable range of the interference closure is assured; according to priority tolerance choosing principle, the dimension tolerance is redesigned in the reliable interference closure of FEA result to make the interference closure safety.%针对重型车驱动桥壳的过盈接触问题,采用非线性有限元软件MSC.Marc对其进行较为详细的研究.首先分别就外部载荷和过盈量变化对过盈接触的影响做出分析,用这两种影响非线性的因素单独或组合作用于整个桥壳模型,研究每个因素对过盈配合处接触应力的影响;在此基础上,确定了桥壳安全配合过盈量的合理区间;在有限元结果的合理过盈量区间内,依据优先配合原则,重新设计配合公差,使过盈昔在安全的区间内.

  18. 多轴汽车驻车制动性能分析方法%Analysis Method of Parking Braking Performance for Multi-axle Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何仁; 童成前; 何建清

    2011-01-01

    Taking three-axle vehicle as an example, the calculation formula of parking grade limit of multiaxle vehicle is derived with its influencing factors analyzed. On this basis, an analysis method for parking-braking performance of multi-axle vehicle is proposed, in which the maximum parking grade is determined by comparing parking grade limit and the maximum parking grade calculated by torque method. In addition, a concept named utilization rate of grade limit is proposed as a supplement to the analysis indicators of parking braking performance.The results of real sample analysis show that the method proposed is simple, pragmatic and can effectively analyze the parking braking performance of multi-axle vehicles.%以三轴汽车为例,推导出多轴汽车的驻车极限坡度计算公式,并对其影响因素进行分析.在此基础上,提出了多轴汽车的驻车制动性能分析方法,即通过对驻车极限坡度与力矩法求出的最大驻车坡度进行比较而获得汽车的最大驻车坡度:外,提出了极限坡度利用率的概念,作为对驻车制动性能分析指标的补充.实例分析结果表明,该方法简单、实用,能对多轴汽车驻车制动性能进行有效分析.

  19. Non-contacting fluid ring seal systems for railcar axle bearing systems: Quarterly progress report No. 1, June 15 to September 15, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The main objectives of this DOE contract is the technical development of a practical, cost effective Fluid Ring seal system capable of: Drastically reducing locomotive drawbar traction power requirements by lowering seal friction losses prevalent in present railcar axle bearing systems; increasing reliability and safety of railroad cars by minimizing bearing lubricant leakage and minimizing bearing ''hot boxes''; and improving the productivity of the railway transportation systems by reducing rolling stock ''outages'' due to long seal life. 14 refs.

  20. Non-contacting fluid ring seal systems for railcar axle bearing systems: Quarterly progress report No. 4, March 16-June 15, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    The main objectives of this DOE contract is the technical development of a practical, cost effective Fluid Ring seal system capable of: Drastically reducing locomotive drawbar traction power requirements by lowering seal friction losses prevalent in present railcar axle bearing systems; increasing reliability and safety of railroad cars by minimizing bearing lubricant leakage and minimizing bearing ''hot boxes''; and improving the productivity of the railway transportation systems by reducing rolling stock ''outages'' due to long seal life. Listed in this report are the seal test data.

  1. Beam loading

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  2. Finite Element Analysis of A Front Axle in Lateral Sliding to Limit Condition%某载货车前轴侧滑工况有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯美波; 刘新荣; 李秀波

    2015-01-01

    利用有限元分析软件Workbench对某载货车前轴进行有限元分析,得出其在极限侧滑工况下的应力分布,从而为前轴的设计提供一定的理论依据。%Using finite element analysis software Workbench to analyze a front axle when working on lateral sliding to limit condition, and the stress distribution is obtained. So it can provide certain theoretical basis for the design of front axle.

  3. Load sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder for

  4. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  5. Intracellular signaling of the Ufo/Axl receptor tyrosine kinase is mediated mainly by a multi-substrate docking-site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunger, J; Schleithoff, L; Schulz, A S; Kessler, H; Lammers, R; Ullrich, A; Bartram, C R; Janssen, J W

    1997-06-05

    Ufo/Axl belongs to a new family of receptor tyrosine kinases with an extracellular structure similar to that of neural cell adhesion molecules. In order to elucidate intracellular signaling, the cytoplasmic moiety of Ufo/Axl was used to screen an expression library according to the CORT (cloning of receptor targets) method. Three putative Ufo substrates were identified: phospholipase Cgamma1 (PLCgamma), as well as p85alpha and p85beta subunits of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3-kinase). Subsequently, chimeric EGFR/Ufo receptors consisting of the extracellular domains of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the transmembrane and intracellular moiety of Ufo were engineered. Using different far-Western blot analyses and coimmunoprecipitation assays, receptor binding of PLCgamma and p85 proteins as well as GRB2, c-src and lck was examined in vitro and in vivo. Competitive inhibition of substrate binding and mutagenesis experiments with EGFR/Ufo constructs revealed C-terminal tyrosine 821 (EILpYVNMDEG) as a docking site for multiple effectors, namely PLCgamma, p85 proteins, GRB2, c-src and lck. Tyrosine 779 (DGLpYALMSRC) demonstrated an additional, but lower binding affinity for the p85 proteins in vitro. In addition, binding of PLCgamma occurred through tyrosine 866 (AGRpYVLCPST). Moreover, our in vivo data indicate that further direct or indirect binding sites for PLCgamma, GRB2, c-src and lck on the human Ufo receptor may exist.

  6. 载重汽车双前桥转向机构优化设计%Optimization Design of Double - front - axle Steering Mechanism of Heavy Truck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕾; 董恩国; 梁立学

    2012-01-01

    Based on multi-body dynamitic theory and the software of ADAMS, it builds a simulation model on a double-front-axle steering mechanism, establishes a mathematic model on a steering mechanism and rocker mechanism. The simulation analysis is performance according to the minimum steering error of the double-front-axle steering mechanism. Based on the simulation, it obtains the optimization results and researches the steering performance evaluation conclusions.%以多体系统动力学理论为基础,应用多体动力学软件ADAMS建立了载重汽车双前桥转向机构动力学仿真模型,以及转向梯形机构及中间摇臂机构的数学模型.基于各机构转角误差最小对设计参数进行了仿真优化分析.通过仿真分析,得到了双前桥转向机构的优化结果以及转向性能的评价结论.

  7. THE LIFETIME EXTENSION OF CAR AXLES TYPES OF RU1 AND RUSH WHEELSET FREIGHT CARS, RESTORED BY THE METHOD OF PLASMA-ARC METALLIZATION OF THE NECK AND UNDER PARTS MANUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Zelenin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The restoration method for the journals and wheel seats of the freight wagon wheelsets by means of plasma-arc metallization is presented and the results of the bench fatigue tests with the advisable operation life of the axles restored are given.

  8. ORNL-GM: Development of Ionic Liquid-Additized, GF-5/6 Compatible Low-Viscosity Oils for Automotive Engine and Rear Axle Lubrication for 4% Improved Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhou, Yan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Luo, Huimin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Toops, Todd J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brookshear, Daniel W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stump, Benjamin C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Viola, Michael B. [General Motors (GM) Technical Center, Pontiac, MI (United States); Zreik, Khaled [General Motors (GM) Technical Center, Pontiac, MI (United States); Ahmed, Tasfia [General Motors (GM) Technical Center, Pontiac, MI (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The overall objective of this project are as follows: Further develop ionic liquid (IL)-additized lowviscosity engine oils meeting the GF-5/6 specifications and possessing superior lubricating characteristics; Expand the IL additive technology to rear axle lubricants; and Seek a combined improvement in the vehicle fuel economy

  9. The Strength Analysis of a driving axle housing for a low-floor bus%某低地板客车用驱动桥壳强度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭克刚; 王锋刚; 肖云娜

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the form of installation and main technical parameters of a driving axle for a low-floor bus, and provides an analytical method for driving axle housing, then does the strength analysis for the driving axle housing in the following typical working conditions: vertical bending, braking, comering and maximum traction conditions based on finite element analysis software HyperWorks. The above analysis results of the text provide some reference for finite element analysis of the follow-up to the driving axle housing.%本文介绍了某低地板客车用驱动桥的安装形式及主要技术参数,基于有限元分析软件HyperWorks提供了一种驱动桥壳的分析方法,并对该驱动桥壳进行了以下典型工况的强度分析:垂直弯曲、制动、转弯和最大牵引力工况。本文对后续驱动桥壳的有限元分析具有一定的参考作用。

  10. 轴重30t重载列车作用下新黄土区隧道适应性及强化措施研究%Adaptability and strengthening research of 30 t axle heavy haul railway tunnel in new loess area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘聪; 彭立敏; 雷明锋; 施成华

    2016-01-01

    Based on the typical tunnel structure of Menghua railway which is still under construction,a numerical study was performed,mainly focusing on the dynamic response,fatigue life and strengthening measures of loess heavy haul rail-way tunnel.The results show that:with an increase of axle load and railway freight transport volume,the existing railway tunnel cannot meet the long-term safety requirement without strengthening measures.The adaptability of loess heavy haul railway tunnel cannot be improved effectively by using sole systematic bolt,system anchoring bolt combined with ground treatment should be adopted (the length should reach to 4 m or more).Then the safety operation requirement of the heavy haul train can be satisfied.The research indicates that the centre of secondary lining of inverted arch,and sidewall and inverted arch joint of initial support are the most unfavorable load positions of the tunnel's bottom structures under the ac-tion of 30 t axle heavy haul train.In order to satisfy the 100 a safety design service life of tunnel structures under the op-eration of 30 t axle heavy haul train,the upper-limit fatigue strength of initial and secondary lining of new loess tunnel were deduced,which are 1.30 MPa and 1.62 MPa,respectively.The results can provide reference for present design of heavy haul tunnel structures.%以在建的蒙华铁路典型隧道结构型式为基础,针对新黄土区重载铁路隧道结构动力响应、疲劳寿命以及合理强化措施等问题,采用数值模拟的方法进行研究.结果表明:随着轴重和运量的增加,既有铁路隧道无法满足30 t轴重列车长期安全运营的要求,应采取强化措施.而单一的系统锚杆注浆加固强化能力有限,须采用系统锚杆与隧底地基加固(加固深度4 m及其以上)的联合强化措施方能满足其疲劳寿命要求.通过研究,指出30 t轴重列车荷载作用下隧底结构疲劳易损位置,即二次衬砌仰拱中心、初期支护仰

  11. Modeling and Simulation Analysis of Multi-Axle Steering Vehicle Based on Virtual Prototype Technology%基于虚拟样机技术的多轴转向车辆建模与仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊友; 贺翠华

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the precision of multi-axle vehicles model, three-axis vehicles was taken as the research object, and the virtual prototype technology of three-axle steering vehicle was established using ADAMS/CAR. Based on zero side-slip angle of mass center and proportional control strategy, the three axles steering were set The handling stability of the three-axle steering vehicle were simulated, compared with traditional front wheel steering vehicle, and the results showed that three-axle steering steering vehicle has better performance.%为提高目前多轴转向车辆模型的精确度,以三轴车辆为研究对象,利用虚拟样机技术,在ADAMS/CAR中建立了三轴全轮转向车辆的动力学模型,依据三轴全轮转向车辆的零质心侧偏角转角控制策略,对全轮转向进行了相应设置.为验证车辆的操纵稳定性能,对其进行了仿真分析,主要考查其在低速大转角和高速小转角行驶情况下的响应特性,并与传统的前轮转向车辆进行了对比,结果表明全轮转向车辆在低速转弯时机动性高,中高速转向时稳定性好.

  12. 四轴车辆全轮转向之自动模式研究%A Research on the Automatic Mode of All-wheel Steering for Four-axle Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈思忠; 郑凯锋

    2015-01-01

    在第2轴转角比例于第1轴转角,第3轴转角比例于第4轴转角的条件下,从理论上分析了全轮转向与双前桥转向之间的差异。接着以质心侧偏角为零,设计了控制器一和控制器二两种控制器,并再次分析了双前桥转向、带控制器一的全轮转向和带控制器二的全轮转向三者之间的区别与联系,为四轴车辆的全轮转向技术的研究提供了理论参考。%Under the condition of that the wheel turning angles in second and third axles are respectively proportional to those of first and fourth axles, the differences between all wheel steering and double-front-axle steer-ing are analyzed theoretically. Then with the sideslip angle of mass center set to zero, controller 1 and controller 2 are designed, and the differences and connections between double-front-axle steering, all wheel steering with con-troller 1 and all wheel steering with controller 2 are analyzed again, providing theoretical references for the research on the all wheel steering technique for four-axle vehicle.

  13. Axle Lubricant Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-09

    increased to 7.8%. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Fuel Consumption, Fuel Economy , FMTV, SCPL, Gear Oil, Engine Oil, Transmission Oil, Fuel, SAE J1321 16...program that had shown beneficial effects in previous laboratory testing for fuel economy and engine durability [6]. For all oil changes a double...mile circular track where the current program was performed. Table 3 provides the operating speeds and distances for the highway cycle and a comparison

  14. Extended-Kalman-filter-based regenerative and friction blended braking control for electric vehicle equipped with axle motor considering damping and elastic properties of electric powertrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chen; Zhang, Junzhi; Li, Yutong

    2014-11-01

    Because of the damping and elastic properties of an electrified powertrain, the regenerative brake of an electric vehicle (EV) is very different from a conventional friction brake with respect to the system dynamics. The flexibility of an electric drivetrain would have a negative effect on the blended brake control performance. In this study, models of the powertrain system of an electric car equipped with an axle motor are developed. Based on these models, the transfer characteristics of the motor torque in the driveline and its effect on blended braking control performance are analysed. To further enhance a vehicle's brake performance and energy efficiency, blended braking control algorithms with compensation for the powertrain flexibility are proposed using an extended Kalman filter. These algorithms are simulated under normal deceleration braking. The results show that the brake performance and blended braking control accuracy of the vehicle are significantly enhanced by the newly proposed algorithms.

  15. Numerical Analysis for Precision Roll Forging of Front Axle%前轴精密辊锻成形过程的数值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑明玉; 喻建军; 沙奔; 陈池; 陈文琳

    2012-01-01

    The three passes roll forging process was simulated for front axle by using the rigid-plastic finite element model. The transformation law of blank, the roll forging torque and the effective stress distribution were analyzed during the three passes roll forging process. The result of the simulation has important significance for guiding the practical production and improving the level of die design.%采用刚塑性有限元模型对前轴辊锻3道次进行了有限元模拟,分析了辊锻过程中坯料的变化规律、等效应力分布及辊锻力矩的变化规律.模拟结果对于指导实际生产,提高模具设计水平具有重要意义.

  16. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...

  17. 重型牵引车驱动桥壳厚度及板簧中心距的优化%Optimum Design on Thickness of Heavy Tractor’ s Driving Axle Housing and Leaf Spring Center Distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐杨坤; 李晚霞; 杨灿

    2015-01-01

    A parameterized finite element model of heavy tractor driving axle housing was established, using APDL program-ming language in the finite element analysis software ANSYS.Through optimum design on the thickness of the main body of the driving axle housing and the axle shaft sleeve, the weight of driving axle housing was reduced while its strength was increased, which provides a basis for lightweight design.Through optimum design about leaf spring center distance under the maximum verti-cal force working condition and the braking working condition, the curves of the maximum stress and deformation versus spring center distance were obtained respectively;and the optimum leaf spring center distances under the maximum vertical force condi-tion was determined.The driving axle housing met the strength and stiffness requirements in that rang of leaf spring center dis-tances.The model provides a basis for the design of the driving axle housing and the arrangement of the leaf spring seat.%采用有限元分析软件ANSYS中的APDL编程语言建立了重型牵引车驱动桥壳的参数化有限元模型,通过对桥壳本体厚度、半轴套管厚度进行优化设计,减轻了驱动桥壳的质量并增大了其强度,为轻量化设计提供了依据;分别在最大垂向力工况和制动工况下对板簧中心距进行优化设计,得到了驱动桥壳最大应力和最大变形随板簧中心距变化的曲线,确定了在最大垂向力工况下的最佳板簧中心距,在该板簧中心距范围内,驱动桥壳在制动工况下满足强度刚度要求,为驱动桥壳的设计和板簧座的布置提供了依据。

  18. Loads and loads and loads: The influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat eMeier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load. In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of prospective load on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2, but not for specific targets (Experiment 1. Retrospective load and ongoing task load both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that prospective load can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. Retrospective load and ongoing task load seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially.

  19. 汽车驱动桥壳壳盖优化设计二次开发研究%Secondary Development on the Optimization of Drive Axle Housing Cover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    揭钢; 余显忠; 丁玉辉; 万雄飞; 陈田兵

    2011-01-01

    采用非线性有限元分析软件ABAQUS对驱动桥壳壳盖成型过程进行了仿真分析,并通过ABAQUS自带脚本程序Python建立的参数化有限元模型对壳盖的毛坯进行优化循环计算,得出了合理的毛坯尺寸.通过试验验证了优化设计的正确性.%In this paper, the forming process of driving axle housing cover is simulated based on the no-linear finite element analysis software ABAQUS, and optimized cycle calculation was made to axle housing cover blanks with the parameterized FE model established with ABAQUS script Python, and reasonable dimensions of blanks were obtained. The optimized design is validated with test.

  20. 59/74kW轮式拖拉机前驱动桥桥壳的柔性加工工艺设计%Flexible Manufacturing Process of 59/74 kW Tractor Front Drive Axle Housing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王智红; 张强; 赵利飞; 周珍珠

    2012-01-01

    针对59/74kw轮式拖拉机前驱动桥壳体,分析了整体式桥壳的结构特点和其主减安装面、转向节孔和半轴轴承座孔的工艺要求,并研究设计了加工工艺。经生产实践证明,该工艺不仅生产效率高,而且产品质量稳定。%For front drive axle housing of 59/74 kW tractors,we analyzed the overall structural features of the integral axle housing and process requirements for main mounting surface, steering knuckle hole and half shaft bearing seat hole. Then the process technics are designed. The productions prove that the process has a high efficiency and stabile product quality.

  1. Electrical load detection aparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A load detection technique for a load comprising multiple frequency-dependant sub-loads comprises measuring a representation of the impedance characteristic of the load; providing stored representations of a multiplicity of impedance characteristics of the load; each one of the stored representat...

  2. 大马力拖拉机驱动桥有限元分析及试验研究%Finite element analysis and experiment of big horsepower tractor drive axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董玉德; 姚亮亮; 刘振; 曹文钢; 邓磊; 王凯亮; 刘月在

    2012-01-01

    驱动桥作为拖拉机的传动和承载部件,受力较大且使用频繁,通过对桥壳模型的有限元分析,可以验证设计的安全性并可以通过分析结果来改进设计.首先采用Pro/E对拖拉机驱动桥壳、转向节、半轴进行三维建模并导入Hypermesh中进行有限元分析的前处理工作,然后将导出的文件输入ANSYS中进行有限元分析.最后通过桥壳的刚度试验和疲劳试验验证了此驱动桥的安全性,并给出了改进意见.%Drive axle sustains heavy force and is frequently used to transmit power and bear weight of the tractor. Security of design can be verified and improved by the result of the finite element analysis. First, hypermesh is used to proceed the preprocessing of the finite element analysis to axle housing, steering joint, half-axle model which is designed by Pro/E, ANSYS is used to proceed finite element analysis. By the result of the analysis and rigidity experiment, fatigue experiment to housing, the correctness of design can be verified, and some advices are given to increase the rigidity and fatigue lifetime for big horsepower tractor drive axle.

  3. 考虑侧偏角影响的双前桥转向角匹配研究%Research on steer angle for double front axles steering systems considering with slip angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃刚; 孙营

    2011-01-01

    研究了双前桥转向系统中,整车的侧向加速度所造成的车轮侧偏角对实际车轮转向角的影响,提出了考虑侧偏角影响时双前桥转向的阿克曼条件.首先推导了存在车轮侧偏角时双前桥各车轮转向角之间的变化规律,提出了包含车轮侧偏角在内的阿克曼转角公式;其次以某双前桥转向的重型卡车为应用对象,将所推导的设计公式应用于该重型卡车的设计中,建立相应的多体动力学模型,借助于Adams软件的仿真分析对各车轮转向角进行了设计;最后通过实车试验验证了经修正后的阿克曼转角公式的正确性.%What the slip angle caused by lateral acceleration has influence on the actual steer angle for double front axles steering system was mainly researched,and the Ackerman law of double front axles considering the influence of slip angle was proposed.Firstly,the variation of each wheel steer angle in double front axles truck considering slip angle was derived,and the Ackerman law containing slip angle was proposed.Secondly,using the proposed theory on a double front axles truck,the multibody dynamics model was built,and the wheel steer angle was designed based on the software Adams.Lastly,the real vehicle experiment validated the correctness of the amended Ackerman law.

  4. Reliability-based optimization of front-axle with non-normal distribution parameters%非正态分布参数前轴的可靠性优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张义民; 贺向东; 刘巧伶; 闻邦椿

    2003-01-01

    讨论了随机参数服从非正态分布前轴的可靠性优化设计问题.在基本随机参数的前四阶矩已知的情况下,应用随机摄动法和Edgeworth级数方法对前轴进行可靠性优化设计,通过计算机程序可以实现随机参数服从非正态分布的前轴可靠性优化设计,迅速准确地得到了前轴的可靠性优化设计信息.计算结果表明,在对随机参数服从非正态分布的前轴进行可靠性优化设计时,该文所提出的方法有效和实用.%This paper examines the reliability optimization design for front-axle with non-normal distribution parameters. Using techniques from the probabilistic perturbation method and the Edgeworth series technique, a practical and effective method for the reliability optimization design for front-axle with non-normal distribution parameters of vehicle on the condition of known first four moments of basic random variables is presented. The respective program can be used to obtain the reliability optimization design information of front-axle with non-normal distribution parameters accurately and quickly. The numerical results demonstrate that the method proposed is an effective and practical approach to computing reliability and designing front-axle with non-normal distribution parameters.

  5. 正挤横轧式农用车后桥半轴套管的研究开发%Study and Development of the Rear Axle Shaft Sleeves of Farm Transport Vehicle by Forward Extrusion and Cross Rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩英淳; 王学明; 唐志强

    2001-01-01

    在成功地开发轻型车正挤与横轧式后桥半轴套管的基础上,自主开发了1608型、2310型及2815型农用运输车的正挤与横轧式后桥半轴套管,并实现系列化规模生产,获得了显著的社会经济效益。%On the basis of the development of the rear axle shaft sleeve of the light truck CA1040 by forward extrusion and cross rolling, to adapt to the rapid growth of farm transport vehicle, the rear axle shaft sleeve of farm transport vehicle 1608,2310,2815 have been developed successively and manufactured on a big scale. In accordance with the characteristic in geometrical shape of the rear axle shaft sleeve, we change it into a detached structure based on the equal strength theory. Since the detached sleeve bodies have a small difference in diameter, they can be formed with technology of the forward extrusion and cross rolling.

  6. Study on Rear Axle Gear Residual Life Predication based on RBF Network%基于RBF网络的后桥齿轮残余寿命预测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾宇露; 祝志芳

    2012-01-01

    为有效预测汽车后桥齿轮的残余寿命,针对后桥的非线性特性,提出了一种递归预处理与RBF网络相结合的齿轮残余寿命预测方法,并验证了该方法的可行性.利用该方法进行了汽车后桥齿轮残余寿命预测,结果表明,该方法对齿轮残余寿命的预测结果与齿轮疲劳试验结果吻合,预测精度高.%For the non-linearity property of rear axle, a new method, which consists of a recursive pretreatment and RBF neural networks, is presented in this paper to accurately predict residual life of rear axle gear. Simulation and experiment results have proved feasibility of this method. This method can be used to predict the residual life of rear axle gear, the results show that predication of gear residual life with this method is very accurate, and consistent with gear fatigue test results.

  7. 重型载重车前轴分层淬火工艺仿真分析%Simulation analysis of layer by layer quenching process of a heavy truck front axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱振华; 秦训鹏; 高恺; 陈绪梁

    2016-01-01

    针对重型载重车前轴在传统整体式淬火强化后各部位马氏体含量、力学性能不均匀的问题,提出一种分层淬火工艺,并利用数值分析方法对某重型载重车前轴在分层淬火工艺条件下的温度场和微观组织进行仿真计算。计算结果证明分层淬火工艺能使截面尺寸变化大的前轴在淬火冷却过程中有效改善马氏体分布不均匀现象,提高其综合力学性能。%For the nonuniformity of martensite content and mechanical properties in each part of a heavy truck front axle after traditional integral hardening, a layer by layer quenching process was presented. Temperature field and microstructure content in a heavy truck front axle under the quenching process were calculated by numerical simulation analysis. The calculated results show that the layer by layer quenching process can improve the nonuniformity of martensite distribution in the front axle with large varying of cross section and enhance the comprehensive mechanical properties.

  8. Optimum design of double-front-axle steering based on ADAMS Secondary Development%基于 ADAMS 二次开发的双前桥转向机构优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德光

    2013-01-01

      With the development of market demand, the user demand for double front axle commercial vehicle is more and more big. This paper introduces the principle of double-front-axle steering theory, and the dynamic simulation analysis software ADAMS two development platform, software system for heavy commercial vehicle design and optimization of double front axle steering system, the optimized design of the steering mechanism.%  随着市场需求的发展,用户对双前桥商用车的需求越来越大。文中介绍了双前轴转向汽丰的转向原理,以及以动力学仿真分析软件 ADAMS 为二次开发平台,建立针对重型双前桥商用车转向系统设计及优化的专用软件系统,对转向机构进行了优化设计。

  9. Distribution load estimation (DLE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A.; Lehtonen, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The load research has produced customer class load models to convert the customers` annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models applied from a nation-wide sample is limited in any specific network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to find improvements to the load models or, in general, improvements to the load estimates. In Distribution Load Estimation (DLE) the measurements from the network are utilized to improve the customer class load models. The results of DLE will be new load models that better correspond to the loading of the distribution network but are still close to the original load models obtained by load research. The principal data flow of DLE is presented

  10. Reliability design of mono-leaf spring for front-axle suspension of large-sized trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savaidis, G. [Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering (Greece); Schwaiger, F. [MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Munich (Germany); Momiyama, F.; Yamazumi, T.; Muramatsu, K. [Horikiri Inc., Chiba-Pref. (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    This paper deals with the development of a fatigue-accurate suspension system for large-sized trucks based on mono-leaf steel springs, It shows the fulfillment of the demands for lightweight construction, sufficient fatigue life and fail-safe behaviour. The paper contains the fatigue load assumptions used for the non-linear finite-element stress-strain analysis, the experimental verification by means of measured load, stress and strain data determined by driving quasi-static manoeuvres and over various rough road segments with a prototype vehicle, as well as the experimental uniaxial and multiaxial fatigue tests required for the durability approval. The fatigue lives achieved, confirm the adequate service life of the developed spring. In addition, appropriate vehicle tests on a test track with a custom-made mono-leaf spring system confirmed the fail-safe design of the suspension system. (orig.)

  11. Wind Loads on Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes; Hansen, Svend Ole

    pressure to structural response) and design criteria. Starting with an introduction of the wind load chain, the book moves on to meteorological considerations, atmospheric boundary layer, static wind load, dynamic wind load and scaling laws used in wind-tunnel tests. The dynamic wind load covers vibrations......Wind loads have to be taken into account when designing civil engineering structures. The wind load on structures can be systematised by means of the wind load chain: wind climate (global), terrain (wind at low height), aerodynamic response (wind load to pressure), mechanical response (wind...

  12. Distribution load estimation - DLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The load research project has produced statistical information in the form of load models to convert the figures of annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models is limited to a certain network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to make improvements in the load models. Distribution load estimation (DLE) is the method developed here to improve load estimates from the load models. The method is also quite cheap to apply as it utilises information that is already available in SCADA systems

  13. 45#车轴钢疲劳性能试验研究%Experimental Study on the Fatigue Properties of 45# Axle Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄国; 黄海明; 王超; 李玮洁

    2013-01-01

    In the non-metallic inclusion inspection and tensile test at room temperature,the metallurgy quality and mechanical properties of materials were checked whether they were up to standards.And then the fatigue properties of 45# axle steel were studied by rotary bending fatigue testing method and fracture analysis.The results show that,compared with smooth specimen,the fatigue limit of notched specimens with the notch depth of 0.75 mm is decreased 44%,and the left slope of its S—N curve is greater than that of the smooth.The sensitive coefficient of notched specimen is 0.79.Moreover,the initiation of fatigue cracks in the smooth specimen is due to the stress concentration on the surface of specimen.There are multi-source areas of fatigue on the cross sections of the notched specimens and the cracks initiate at the lip of the notch,which is mainly caused by the stress concentration at the notch.In addition,larger size non-metallic inclusions may also lead to the initiation of fatigue cracks in axle steel.%通过非金属夹杂物检验和室温拉伸试验,在确保材料的冶金质量和力学性能符合标准要求的基础上,进行旋转弯曲疲劳试验和断口分析,对45#车轴钢的疲劳性能进行研究.结果表明:与光滑试件相比,带有深度为0.75 mm缺口的试件,其疲劳极限应力降低44%,其S—N曲线左段部分的斜率更大;其缺口敏感系数为0.79;表面应力集中是导致光滑试件萌生疲劳裂纹的原因;在有缺口的试件断口截面上存在多个疲劳源区,裂纹萌生在缺口的前缘,而且主要是由于缺口处应力集中所致;较大尺寸的非金属夹杂物也是导致车轴钢可能产生疲劳裂纹的启裂源.

  14. Axl基因在口腔鳞状细胞癌中的表达及意义%Expression and clinical significance of the Axl gene in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊杰; 赵腾达; 刘兴光; 朱王勇; 梁培盛; 陶谦

    2016-01-01

    目的:检测Axl( Anexelekto)在口腔鳞状细胞癌中的表达,探索Axl与口腔鳞状细胞癌发生、发展的关系。方法免疫组织化学法( IHC)检测42例口腔鳞状细胞癌患者的癌组织(口腔癌组)及其相应的癌旁组织(癌旁组) Axl的表达状况。原代培养正常人口腔上皮细胞( HOEC ),并培养1株永生化正常口腔角化上皮细胞系( NOK )及2株人舌鳞状细胞癌细胞系(UM1、UM2)。实时荧光定量聚合酶链反应(qRT-PCR)和蛋白免疫印迹分析(Western blot)检测上述4种细胞中的Axl的mR-NA和蛋白的表达情况。结果 Axl在口腔鳞状细胞癌组织中的阳性表达率(61.9%)高于其相应的癌旁正常组织(26.2%),差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05),qRT-PCR和Western blot结果示在HOEC、NOK、UM2、UM1中Axl基因的mRNA表达和蛋白表达逐步增高,且在UM2、UM1中明显高于HOEC、NOK。结论 Axl在口腔癌组织及口腔癌细胞株中的表达较口腔正常组织和正常口腔上皮细胞者中高表达,提示Axl基因可能与口腔鳞状细胞癌的发生、发展相关。%Objective To investigate the relationship between the expression of Axl gene and oncogenesis of oral squamous cell carci-noma ( OSCC) . Methods The immunohistochemical expressions of Axl genes in tumor tissues from 42 patients with OSCC ( OSCC group) and in correspondingly adjacent tissues ( adjacent group) were examined. In vitro, expression of mRNA and protein of Axl in normal human oral epithelium cell ( HOEC) , immortalized normal oral keratinocyte cell ( NOK) , tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell lines UM1 and UM2 were detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction ( qRT-PCR ) and Western blot (WB), respectively. Results There was significant difference between OSCC group and adjacent group (61. 9% vs. 26. 2%, P<0. 05) in immunohistochemical expression of Axl. Expression of mRNA and proteins of Axl in UM2 and UM1 were significantly higher than those in HOEC

  15. rse, a novel receptor-type tyrosine kinase with homology to Axl/Ufo, is expressed at high levels in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, M R; Scadden, D T; Wang, Z; Gu, Q; Goddard, A; Godowski, P J

    1994-04-08

    We have isolated cDNA clones that encode the human and murine forms of a novel receptor-type tyrosine kinase termed Rse. Sequence analysis indicates that human Rse contains 890 amino acids, with an extracellular region composed of two immunoglobulin-like domains followed by two fibronectin type III domains. Murine Rse contains 880 amino acids and shares 90% amino acid identity with its human counterpart. Rse is structurally similar to the receptor-type tyrosine kinase Axl/Ufo, and the two proteins have 35 and 63% sequence identity in their extracellular and intracellular domains, respectively. To study the synthesis and activation of this putative receptor-type tyrosine kinase, we constructed a version of Rse (termed gD-Rse, where gD represents glycoprotein D) that contains an NH2-terminal epitope tag. NIH3T3 cells were engineered to express gD-Rse, which could be detected at the cell surface by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Moreover, gD-Rse was rapidly phosphorylated on tyrosine residues upon incubation of the cells with an antibody directed against the epitope tag, suggesting that rse encodes an active tyrosine kinase. In the human tissues we examined, the highest level of expression of rse mRNA was observed in the brain; rse mRNA was also detected in the premegakaryocytopoietic cell lines CMK11-5 and Dami. The gene for rse was localized to human chromosome 15.

  16. Characterization of Gas6, a member of the superfamily of G domain-containing proteins, as a ligand for Rse and Axl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, M R; Chen, J; Hammonds, R G; Sadick, M; Godowsk, P J

    1996-04-19

    Rse, Ax1, and c-Mer comprise a family of cell adhesion molecule-related tyrosine kinase receptors. Human Gas6 was recently shown to act as a ligand for both human Rse (Godowski et al., 1995) and human Ax1 (Varnum et al., 1995). Gas6 contains an NH2-terminal Gla domain followed by four epidermal growth factor-like repeats and tandem globular (G) domains. The G domains are related to those found in sex hormone-binding globulin and to those utilized by laminin and agrin for binding to the dystroglycan complex. A series of Gas6 variants were tested for their ability to bind to Rse and Ax1. The Gla domain and epidermal growth factor-like repeats were not required for receptor binding, as deletion variants of Gas6 which lacked these domains bound to the extracellular domains of both Rse and Axl. A deletion variant of Gas6 containing just the G domain region was shown to activate Rse phosphorylation. These results provide evidence that G domains can act as signaling molecules by activating transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinases. Furthermore, they provide a structural link between the activation of cell adhesion related receptors and the control of cell growth and differentiation by the G domain-containing superfamily of proteins.

  17. A study of the energy enhancement of electron in radio frequency (RF) linear accelerator of iris loaded waveguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Huy-Bich [Nong Lam Univ., Hochiminh City (Viet Nam). Faculty of Engineering and Technology; National Univ., Hochiminh City (Viet Nam). National Key Lab. of Digital Control and System Engineering (DCSELAB); Trinh, Hoa-Lang [Natural Science Univ., Hochiminh City (Viet Nam). Faculty of Physics - Physical Engineering; Nong Lam Univ., Hochiminh City (Viet Nam). Faculty of Engineering and Technology; Chau, Van-Tao; Nguyen, Van-Tuong [Natural Science Univ., Hochiminh City (Viet Nam). Faculty of Physics - Physical Engineering

    2014-06-15

    In this paper, the Hamiltonian theory of particle motion has been applied for developing the motion equations of electrons in linear accelerator of Iris-loaded waveguides. Using J. C. Slater assumption for determining electric field in Oz direction, the energy increase of electron in the guide wave pipe following the linacs resonance cavity with circulated electromagnetic distribution and repeat-cycle of given number of resonance cavities has been developed. The energy gain of electron following the electron way in Oz axle direction of the accelerator with the different injection phase and phase shift of RF has been obtained. The results indicate that the energy increase of electron depends on the injection phase of RF and cell-to-cell phase shift.

  18. Three-Dimensional Dynamic Analyses of Track-Embankment-Ground System Subjected to High Speed Train Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional finite element model was developed to investigate dynamic response of track-embankment-ground system subjected to moving loads caused by high speed trains. The track-embankment-ground systems such as the sleepers, the ballast, the embankment, and the ground are represented by 8-noded solid elements. The infinite elements are used to represent the infinite boundary condition to absorb vibration waves induced by the passing of train load at the boundary. The loads were applied on the rails directly to simulate the real moving loads of trains. The effects of train speed on dynamic response of the system are considered. The effect of material parameters, especially the modulus changes of ballast and embankment, is taken into account to demonstrate the effectiveness of strengthening the ballast, embankment, and ground for mitigating system vibration in detail. The numerical results show that the model is reliable for predicting the amplitude of vibrations produced in the track-embankment-ground system by high-speed trains. Stiffening of fill under the embankment can reduce the vibration level, on the other hand, it can be realized by installing a concrete slab under the embankment. The influence of axle load on the vibration of the system is obviously lower than that of train speed.

  19. Adaptive sliding control of non-autonomous active suspension systems with time-varying loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Chang; Huang, An-Chyau

    2005-04-01

    An adaptive sliding controller is proposed in this paper for controlling a non-autonomous quarter-car suspension system with time-varying loadings. The bound of the car-body loading is assumed to be available. Then, the reference coordinate is placed at the static position under the nominal loading so that the system dynamic equation is derived. Due to spring nonlinearities, the system property becomes asymmetric after coordinate transformation. Besides, in practical cases, system parameters are not easy to be obtained precisely for controller design. Therefore, in this paper, system uncertainties are lumped into two unknown time-varying functions. Since the variation bound of one of the unknown functions is not available, conventional adaptive schemes and robust designs are not applicable. To deal with this problem, the function approximation technique is employed to represent the unknown function as a finite combination of basis functions. The Lyapunov direct method can thus be used to find adaptive laws for updating coefficients in the approximating series and to prove stability of the closed-loop system. Since the position and velocity measurements of the unsprung mass are lumped into the unknown function, there is no need to install sensors on the axle and wheel assembly in the actual implementation. Simulation results are presented to show the performance of the proposed strategy.

  20. High Power Disk Loaded Guide Load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, Z.D.; /SLAC

    2006-02-22

    A method to design a matching section from a smooth guide to a disk-loaded guide, using a variation of broadband matching, [1, 2] is described. Using this method, we show how to design high power loads. The load consists of a disk-loaded coaxial guide operating in the TE{sub 01}-mode. We use this mode because it has no electric field terminating on a conductor, has no axial currents, and has no current at the cylinder-disk interface. A high power load design that has -35 dB reflection and a 200 MHz, -20 dB bandwidth, is presented. It is expected that it will carry the 600 MW output peak power of the pulse compression network. We use coaxial geometry and stainless steel material to increase the attenuation per cell.

  1. Lightening the Load

    OpenAIRE

    Remington, Anna M.; Swettenham, John G.; Lavie, Nilli

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research portrays a mixed picture of attentional abilities with demonstrations of enhancements (e.g., superior visual search) and deficits (e.g., higher distractibility). Here we test a potential resolution derived from the Load Theory of Attention (e.g., Lavie, 2005). In Load Theory, distractor processing depends on the perceptual load of the task and as such can only be eliminated under high load that engages full capacity. We hypothesize that ASD involves enh...

  2. Design and optimization of I-beam precision roll forging process for heavy truck front axle%某重卡前轴工字梁辊锻成形工艺设计及优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张黎; 文琍; 夏江梅

    2012-01-01

    The under-filling defect of the I-beam, one of the typical defects on a heavy truck front axle in the precision roll forging process and die forging process was studied Firstly, the design of the precision roll forging process for the I-beam of the front axle was described. Then, the finite element numerical simulation analysis model was established with Deform-3D, and the influence of the thickness on the I-beam in the third step and the friction factor in the third and fourth step on filling percent of the die cavity was analyzed. Lastly, optimization for the precision roll forging process of the heavy truck front axle was finished. The optimized simulation results show that the I-beam forms well and can be filled fully to meet the requirements of design drawings.%针对某重卡前轴成形辊锻-模锻复合工艺中的典型缺陷——工字梁部位充不满展开研究.介绍了重卡前轴工字梁在辊锻成形工艺中各道次的孔型设计,通过Defoem-3D建立了有限元数值模拟分析模型,研究了第3道次预辊锻成形中工字梁壁厚和第3、4道次中摩擦因子对模具型腔填充率的影响规律,最后完成了重卡前轴工字梁在辊锻成形中的优化设计.优化后的模拟结果表明,工字梁成形良好、填充饱满,满足图纸设计要求.

  3. Subjective evaluation experiments for minicar's rear axle driving gear%某微型汽车后桥驱动齿轮噪声的主观评价实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田锐

    2011-01-01

    The rear axle driving gear is the main component of the vehicle driving axle, and noise is one of the main specifications for it. In this paper, the minicar's rear axle bevel gear produced by a factory in Guangdong is taken as a noise source, and the noise generated under the steady-state operation is the object of the experimental study, the paired comparison method is used for noise evaluation training and the scoring method for noise subjective evaluation expe-riments. Combining the objective noise parameters to conduct the subjective and objective sample correlation analysis shows that for the equal SPL gear noise, the greater the loudness value, the lower the people's preference extent. So, in addition to actively taking measures to reduce gear sound pressure level, reducing the loudness value is also an important approach to improving gear noise.%汽车后桥驱动齿轮是汽车驱动桥的主要部件,噪声是其主要指标之一.以广东某汽车后桥齿轮厂的微型汽车后桥锥齿轮为噪声源,采集其稳态运行情况下的噪声作为研究对象,以成对比较法进行噪声评价训练,采用等级评分法进行噪声的主观评价实验,结合噪声样本的客观参数进行主客观相关分析,说明在等声压级的齿轮噪声中,响度值越大的,人们对其偏好性越低,因此除积极采取措施降低齿轮声压级以外,降低响度值亦是改善价齿轮噪声的重要途径.

  4. Application Research on Virtual Assembly of Tractor's Front Drive Axle%拖拉机前驱动桥虚拟装配应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹文钢; 程五四; 宋军

    2011-01-01

    在分析和总结了虚拟装配技术研究现状的基础上,阐述了其原理,实施步骤以及关键技术的应用,并以拖拉机前驱动桥为虚拟装配对象,在计算机虚拟装配环境(Division Mockup)中装配并进行相应的装配检验,介绍生成装配序列与装配路径,并制作成装配动画的步骤,形象地展现产品的装配全过程.在(Division Mockup)中,以第三方插件为桥梁,借助由数据手套、位置跟踪器(FOB)、偏振眼镜和投影系统组建的虚拟现实环境,可以实现入机交互操作,并介绍了人机交互接口定义的规则和方法.%This paper analyzes and summarizes the current status of the virtual assembly technology research and elaborates its principle and implementing process. By taking the tractor's front drive axle as an object, a virtual assembly and its corresponding inspection is conducted in the computer virtual environment (Division Mockup). The generation assembly orders and routes are introduced. The procedure of assembly animation is set up to vividly exhibit the whole process of product assembly. By virtue of the third-party plug-in units and the virtual reality environment consisting of data gloves, polarization glasses, projection system, and position tracker (FOB), human-computer interaction can be achieved in Division Mockup. The rules and methods of human-computer interaction interface definitions are introduced as well.

  5. Design on the Reversible Horizontal Axle Plate Ditching Machine%可换向水平轴圆盘开沟机的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭辉; 苏刚; 韩长杰

    2013-01-01

    Based on the development status of ditching machine , especially for the rotating disc ditching machine , we de-sign this type of reversible horizontal axle plate ditching machine .The machine can overcome the weakness of the tradi-tional rotating disc offset ditching machine .Through prototype trial and test , the result is favorable and meets the require-ments of the design .The ditching machine has added a new type of equipment for the orchard .The ditching machine has the characteristic of flexible working in the orchard .The problem on the traditional machine has been resolved .%  针对开沟机特别是旋转圆盘式开沟机的发展现状,设计了一种可换向式水平轴圆盘开沟机。该机能够克服传统旋转圆盘式开沟机只能单侧开沟的不足,并对其关键工作部件进行了全面的设计。通过样机的试制和试验,效果良好,达到了设计的各项要求,为果园作业又增添了新型机具。可换向式开沟机具有灵活的特点,能够在果园环境工作,弥补了传统机具这方面的不足。

  6. 采用移轴技术在SAP5程序实现刚体模态计算%Using the technology of moving the axle to compute the pattern of rigid body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施群德

    2001-01-01

    Elaborates how to use the technology of moving the axle to compute the pattern of rigid body,introduces this technology into the program SAP5 and realizes the calculation of the pattern of rigid body.%论述了如何采用移轴技术实现对刚体模态的计算,并将移轴求刚体模态的技术引入著名的SAP5程序中,实现了对刚体模态的计算。

  7. 前桥摆转式四轮底盘转向系统的转向机理研究%Research on the Steering Theory of Front Axle Swing Sowing Four-wheel Chassis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕莹; 张静; 李志伟

    2016-01-01

    四轮底盘在小地块水田作业时,减少地头空行转弯时间是提高作业时间利用率的重要环节。为实现四轮底盘小半径转弯,以提高水田播插底盘作业率为主要研究目标,对四轮底盘在90°、180°等不同转弯形式下进行分析,得出适合小地块水稻播插作业时以较小转弯半径的转弯方式;前桥摆转四轮底盘在转向时,通过控制前桥驱动轮的转动,使前驱动桥主动围绕着转向装置转动,可以带动底盘以任意角度转向。采用ADAMS软件对四轮底盘后轮轨迹进行模拟,在确保后轮完全不吃入已完成作业区的倒U转弯方式的情况下,提出设计前桥摆转式四轮底盘转向系统的可行性。%Four-wheel chassis when working in a small piece of paddy field, reduce blank line turning time is an important link in work utilization rate operation time. In this paper, in order to realize four-wheel chassis small turning radius, increase the paddy field on chassis operation efficiency as the main research target, 90°, 180° in the four-wheel chassis under different forms of turning modeling analysis, and concluded that suitable turning way of smaller turning radius for small plot rice sowing operations ; When the front axle Swing four-wheel chassis steering, By controlling the rotation of the front drive axle, to the front drive axle can rotate active around the steering device, and drive the chassis steering in an arbitrary Angle; Through ADAMS soft-ware for simulating four-wheel chassis rear wheel track, and ensuring the rear wheels do not enter that the as-signments section has been completed, put forward to design front axle pendulum type four-wheel chassis steer-ing system operability.

  8. Light Weight Design and Analysis on Monocoque Coach with Whole Front Axle%整体前桥全承载车型轻量化设计与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈乐强; 房继刚; 王淑丽; 许夏

    2014-01-01

    The authors simulate a monocoque coach with whole front axle by the CAE method in order to effectively reduce its weight under the condition of its bearing capacity. At the same time, the authors analyse the reliability and security of the steering gear fixture especially to the light weitht structure.%利用CAE仿真技术对公司某整体前桥全承载车型进行轻量化设计,为保证转向的安全性、可靠性,对减重后的转向安装结构进行单独分析。

  9. Spatial electric load forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, H Lee

    2002-01-01

    Spatial Electric Load Forecasting Consumer Demand for Power and ReliabilityCoincidence and Load BehaviorLoad Curve and End-Use ModelingWeather and Electric LoadWeather Design Criteria and Forecast NormalizationSpatial Load Growth BehaviorSpatial Forecast Accuracy and Error MeasuresTrending MethodsSimulation Method: Basic ConceptsA Detailed Look at the Simulation MethodBasics of Computerized SimulationAnalytical Building Blocks for Spatial SimulationAdvanced Elements of Computerized SimulationHybrid Trending-Simulation MethodsAdvanced

  10. Duration of load revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2007-01-01

    were formed. Four groups were subjected to short-term strength tests, and four groups were subjected to long-term tests. Creep and time to failure were moni-tored. Time to failure as a function of stress level was established and the reliability of stress level assessment was discussed. A significant...... mechanosorptive effect was demonstrated both in terms of increased creep and shortening of time to failure. The test results were employed for the calibration of four existing duration of load models. The effect of long-term loading was expressed as the stress level SL50 to cause failure after 50 years of loading...... and of the short-term and long-term strengths. For permanent and imposed library loads, reliability-based estimation of the load duration factor gave almost the same results as direct, deterministic calibration. Keywords: Creep, damage models, duration of load, equal rank assumption, load duration factor, matched...

  11. Optimisation of load control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  12. 桥壳中段同轴度测量装置的结构设计%The Structure Design of Concentricity Measurement Device for the Middle Casting Shell of Axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡士祥

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracy and effectiveness of measurement for the middle cast axle we use special measuring equipment for onsite measurement , and control important characteristics of the product . Through deep analysis of the structure and measurement requirements for the product , we find solutions to multi-point probe structure , probe point protection and fast switching devices among different products , which guarantees the middle cast axle to be measured onsite based on the device ,and also makes a creative exploration for the dynamic control of the product's quality .%为提高铸造桥壳中段测量精度和测量效率,文中提出采用专用测量设备实现在线测量,动态控制产品重要特性指标。通过对产品结构和测量要求的深入分析,找出了测量装置设计中多点测头、测头防护、多品种快速切换装置等技术难点的解决方案,实现了铸造桥壳中段基于该装置实时在线测量,为桥壳中段的动态质量控制做出了创造性的探索。

  13. 艺术铸造领域CNC机器人七轴加工设备用于石膏模型雕塑%Application of CNC Robot Seven-axle Working Equipment to Carving Gypsum Mold in Art Casting Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡春良

    2016-01-01

    CNC robot seven-axle working equipment consists of a power-driven main shaft controlled by the robot, an automatic programming software and a software used for controlling manipulator operation, and makes it possible to realize automatic carving of a complex stereometric moulding. The special equipment used in carving gypsum mould by the CNC robot seven-axle working equipment allow large-scale sculpture templating technology to obtain signiifcant progress.%CNC机器人七轴加工设备由一个工业机器人控制电动主轴、多轴自动编程软件和用于控制机械手运行的软件组合而成,可实现复杂立体造型的自动化雕刻加工。CNC机器人七轴加工雕塑石膏模型专用设备,实现了艺术铸造大型雕塑放样的一大跨越。

  14. The Optimization Design of Steering Trapezium Frame for A double front axles truck%某双前桥载货车转向梯形机构优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊伟; 王定华; 李海波

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the turning angles relationship of the internal and exernal wheels in the first axle was gotten in analytic method. And the optimization equations were established by the length of steering trapezium armm and steering trapezium cornerθ. Then the program about the optimization of steering trapezium structure was written with MATLAB and emulated for the steering trapezium of double front axle truck. The result was improved obviously after optimization.%文章采用解析法推导了前桥内外轮之间的转角关系,并以梯形臂长 m,梯形底角θ为优化变量建立优化方程,最后并应用MATLAB软件编制了“转向梯形机构优化设计”程序,对某双前桥载货车转向梯形进行了优化,优化结果显示优化效果明显,达到了设计目的。

  15. Failure Forms and Restoration Methods of the Automotive Front Axle Roll Forging Die%汽车前轴辊锻模的失效形式与修复方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪强; 姬程程; 夏华

    2012-01-01

    The automotive front axle roll forging die works in severe conditions and its stress state is more complex. Based on the consideration of materials selection, structural design, manufacturing process, heat treatment procedure as well as the installation and maintenance of the mould, the analysis of the causes of the automotive front axle roll forging die's main failure forms (fracture, wear, deformation, and so on) is introduced, and the improvement measures and restoration methods are proposed correspondingly.%从材料的选择、结构设计、制造工艺、热处理工艺以及模具的安装维护等方面分析汽车前轴辊锻模的主要失效形式(断裂、磨损、变形等)产生的原因,并提出相应的改进措施和修复方法。

  16. Analysis on the Residual Braking Performance of Multi-axle Vehicles Based on ECE Regulation%基于ECE法规的多轴汽车剩余制动性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童成前; 何仁; 周燕; 高树新

    2011-01-01

    根据ECE制动法规对行车制动失效条件下的多轴汽车剩余制动性能的要求,提出基于ECE制动法规的多轴汽车剩余制动性能分析方法,包括理论分析和试验验证.在理论分析中,最大减速度采用作图分析方法求得.最后,通过实例来说明本方法的分析过程.结果表明:该方法简单、实用.%According to the requirements of residual braking performance of multi-axle vehicles in the event of service braking failure specified in ECE regulation, an analysis method of residual braking performance of multi-axle vehicles based on ECE regulation is proposed, including theoretical analysis and test verification. In theoretical analysis,the maximum deceleration is evaluated by mapping. Finally,the method is illustrated by an analysis on a real case. The results indicate that the method is simple and practical.

  17. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYROTAXANES MADE FROM α-CDs THREADED ONTO TRIBLOCK COPOLYMERS WITH PEG AS A CENTRAL AXLE AND FLANKED BY TWO LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT POLYSTYRENES AS OUTER STOPPERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-ming Tong; Dan-dan Hou; Xiao-wen Zhang; Lin Ye; Ai-ying Zhang; Zeng-guo Feng

    2008-01-01

    A study has been conducted on the synthesis and characterization of a kind of novel polyrotaxanes comprising α cyclodextrins (α-CDs) threaded on triblock copolymers with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as a central axle and flanked by two low molecular weight polystyrenes as outer stoppers.Styrene was allowed to telomerize with polypseudorotaxanes as chain transfer agents made from the self-assembly of a distal thiol-capped PEG with a varying amount of α-CDs in the presence of a redox initiation system at 40℃ in aqueous solutions.The resulting polyrotaxanes were characterized in detail by 1H-NMR,FTIR,XRD,TG and DSC analyses.The findings from the study demonstrated that the low molecular weight polystyrenes were successfully attached to two axle terminals of polypseudorotaxanes,and the number of α-CDs threaded onto the PEG backbone was tunable by varying its molar feeding ratio to some extent,while the polymerization degree of PS nearly remained constant in this radical telomerization process.

  18. Anchor Loads on Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Anchor hooking on a subsea pipeline has been investigated in this thesis. Anchor loads on pipelines is in general a rarely occurring event, however, the severity when it occurs could easily jeopardize the integrity of any pipeline. It is considered as an accidental load in the design of pipelines. Pipeline Loads, limit state criteria and anchor categories are defined by the DNV standards. For pipeline, DNV-OS-F101 (08.2012), Submarine Pipeline Systems is adopted. Offshore standard DNV-RP...

  19. Load induced blindness

    OpenAIRE

    Macdonald, J. S. P.; Lavie, N.

    2008-01-01

    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied oil indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie, 2005. for a review). Here we varied the level of perceptual load in a letter-search task and assessed its effect oil the conscious perception of a search-irrelevant shape stimulus appearing in the pe...

  20. Estimation of Automobile Front/rear Axle Cornering Stiffness Based on the Adaptive FFRLS%基于自适应FFRLS的汽车前后轴侧偏刚度估计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王其东; 黄鹤; 陈无畏; 张荣芸

    2012-01-01

    汽车前、后轴侧偏刚度与汽车的操纵特性紧密联系,是汽车动力学控制中的重要参数.受轮胎特性变化的影响,在汽车使用中线性侧偏刚度发生变化.针对传统估计方法不利于在量产汽车上应用的问题,在车载传感器配置的基础上,提出应用自适应遗忘因子递推最小二乘方法(Forgetting-factor recursive least square method,FFRLS)的前、后轴线性侧偏刚度估计方法.设计出在制动工况下对轮胎特性变化具有鲁棒特性的侧向速度观测方法,由此计算估计模型中的前、后轴侧偏角.提出并应用最大侧向力计算估计模型中的前、后轴侧向力.通过设定合适的估计触发条件实现基于工况的在线参数估计.基于veDYNA的仿真结果表明在轮胎侧偏刚度突变时自适应FFRLS方法相比普通FFRLS方法参数能够更快地收敛.最后在驾驶员在环混合仿真平台环境下,针对触发条件受限的工况通过实时仿真验证了估计算法的有效性.%Front/rear axle cornering stiffness coefficient is an important parameter in automobile dynamic control system, which is linked closely with automobile maneuverability. In the real world front/rear axle linear cornering stiffness often changes with the tire properties. To overcome the deficiencies of the traditional method in the estimation of linear cornering stiffness for wide-spread application, a method based on adaptive forgetting-factor recursive Least square(FFRLS) is proposed to estimate this parameter in which only common sensors in modern automobiles are used. A lateral velocity estimation method with the robustness of tire properties is given, which is further used to calculate axle sideslip angle. Maximum lateral force is proposed and applied in the computation of axle lateral force. Some adequate toggle conditions are set to identify front/rear axle linear cornering stiffness. Simulation results based on veDYNA show that adaptive FFRLS has better

  1. Electrical load modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valgas, Helio Moreira; Pinto, Roberto del Giudice R.; Franca, Carlos [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lambert-Torres, Germano; Silva, Alexandre P. Alves da; Pires, Robson Celso; Costa Junior, Roberto Affonso [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    Accurate dynamic load models allow more precise calculations of power system controls and stability limits, which are critical mainly in the operation planning of power systems. This paper describes the development of a computer program (software) for static and dynamic load model studies using the measurement approach for the CEMIG system. Two dynamic load model structures are developed and tested. A procedure for applying a set of measured data from an on-line transient recording system to develop load models is described. (author) 6 refs., 17 figs.

  2. Critical Axial Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walt Wells

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective in this paper is to solve a second order differential equation for a long, simply supported column member subjected to a lateral axial load using Heun's numerical method. We will use the solution to find the critical load at which the column member will fail due to buckling. We will calculate this load using Euler's derived analytical approach for an exact solution, as well as Euler's Numerical Method. We will then compare the three calculated values to see how much they deviate from one another. During the critical load calculation, it will be necessary to calculate the moment of inertia for the column member.

  3. Concentrated loads on concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Karen Grøndahl; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1997-01-01

    This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas are devel......This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas...

  4. 高速动态称重系统在公路车辆荷载调查中的应用%The application of highway dynamic weighing system in highway vehicle load survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈少幸; 王强

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduced the principle using highway dynamic weighing system to detect the traffic flow and axial load situation,through the data collection,analyzed the section traffic flow,traffic flow circadian distribution and axle load distribution,pointed out the highway dynam-ic weighing system played an important role in accurately design of pavement structure and pavement management.%对采用高速动态称重系统检测道路交通流量及轴载情况的原理作了介绍,通过数据采集,分析了断面交通量、交通量昼夜分布情况及轴载情况,指出高速动态称重系统对准确设计路面结构与路面管理具有重要作用。

  5. 压痕对车轴钢疲劳极限的影响%Indentation effect on the fatigue limit of axle steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高杰维; 戴光泽; 赵君文; 李恒奎; 徐磊

    2016-01-01

    A hardness tester was used to make indentations on the hourglass fatigue specimens of axle steel, and notches were machined by electronic discharge machining ( EDM) . The fatigue limits of both indentation specimens and notched ones were exam-ined and compared with the theoretical values according to the Murakami formula based on material hardness and defect projected area. The fracture surface was observed by scanning electron microscopy. It is found that local work hardening and residual stress caused by plastic deformation of indentations have no significant effect on the fatigue limits in comparison with the predicted values by the Murakami equation. Fatigue cracks originate from the bottom of indentations due to stress concentration effect. The fatigue limits of notched specimens are lower than the calculated values because of secondary notches caused by the high roughness of notch surfaces and the existence of microcracks and micropores within the re-cast layers. Cracks initiate from multiple sites on the bottom of electronic discharge machining notches.%利用硬度计在光滑沙漏状车轴钢疲劳试样上制造压痕,同时利用电火花在试样上加工缺陷,通过疲劳试验研究两种缺陷尺寸与试样疲劳极限之间的关系。将两类试样的测试结果和基于材料硬度、缺陷投影面积的Murakami模型计算结果进行对比。利用扫描电镜观察试样疲劳断口。结果表明,与计算结果相比较,压痕局部塑性变形导致的加工硬化和残余应力对试样的疲劳强度没有影响,裂纹依然从应力集中最大的压痕底部起裂。电火花缺陷表面粗糙度较大引起二次缺口效应,表面硬脆的重铸白层上还有微孔和微裂纹存在,导致此类试样疲劳强度低于模型计算结果,裂纹从电火花缺口底部多处萌生。

  6. Combination of external loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, S.; Tarp Johansen, N.J.; Joergensen, H. [Forskningscenter Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark); Gravesen, H.; Soerensen, S.L. [Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark); Pedersen, J. [Elsam Engineering, Fredericia (Denmark); Zorn, R.; Hvidberg Knudsen, M. [DHI Water and Environment, Hoersholm (Denmark); Voelund, P. [Energi E2, Koebenhavn (Denmark)

    2003-09-01

    The project onbectives have been: To improve and consequently opimise the basis for design of offshore wind turbines. This is done through 1) mapping the wind, wave ice and current as well as correlations of these, and 2) by clarifyring how these external conditions transform into loads. A comprehensive effort has been made to get a thorough understanding of the uncertainties that govern the reliability of wind turbines with respect to wind and wave loading. One of the conclusions is that the reliability of wind turbines is generally lower, than the average reliability of building structures that are subject not only to environmental loads, which are very uncertain, but also imposed loads and self weight, which are less uncertain than the environmental loads. The implication is that, at the moment lower load partial safety factors for onshore wind turbines cannot be recommended. For the combination of wind and wave design loads the problem is twofold: 1). A very conservative design will be generated by simply adding the individual wind and wave design loads disregarding the independence of the short-term fluctuations of wind and wave loads. 2). Characteristic values and partial safety factors for wind and wave loads are not defined similarly. This implies that the reliability levels of turbine support structures subject to purely aerodynamic loads and subject to purely hydrodynamic loads are not identical. For the problem of combining aerodynamic design loads and hydrodynamic design loads two results have been obtained in the project: 1). By simple means a site specific wave load safety factor rendering the same safety level for hydrodynamic loads as for aerodynamic loads is derived, and next, by direct square summation of extreme fluctuations, the wind and wave load safety factors are weighted. 2). Under the assumptions that a deep water site is considered and that the wave loading is a fifty-fifty mix of drag and inertia the same wind and wave load safety factor

  7. Load Induced Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, James S. P.; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-01-01

    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied on indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie, 2005, for a review). Here we varied the level of…

  8. Indentation load relaxation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannula, S.P.; Stone, D.; Li, C.Y. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

    Most of the models that are used to describe the nonelastic behavior of materials utilize stress-strain rate relations which can be obtained by a load relaxation test. The conventional load relaxation test, however, cannot be performed if the volume of the material to be tested is very small. For such applications the indentation type of test offers an attractive means of obtaining data necessary for materials characterization. In this work the feasibility of the indentation load relaxation test is studied. Experimental techniques are described together with results on Al, Cu and 316 SS. These results are compared to those of conventional uniaxial load relaxation tests, and the conversion of the load-indentation rate data into the stress-strain rate data is discussed.

  9. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  10. Parametric Aided Design System of Axle Based on AutoCAD VBA%基于AutoCAD VBA的参数化辅助轴设计系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏

    2014-01-01

    Based on the AutoCAD ActiveX and VBA technology, a kind of parametric aided design system of axle is developed through carrying out the secondary development on AutoCAD. It could complete the axle’s design checking to the theory of axle’s strength. And it would generate the drawing of the axle automatically according to the users’ inputted parameters. In order to realize the automation of the process of axle’ s aided design, structural design, data processing and inquiring, mechanical calculation, strength checking and parametric drawing modules are integrated to axle aided design system, which based on the theory of solid modeling of feature and the technology of dimension-driving. The system can reduce the workload of designers effectively, improve design quality and efficiency, and have certain applicable value.%基于AutoCAD ActiveX和VBA技术,通过对AutoCAD进行二次开发,构建了一种轴的参数化辅助设计系统。系统能按照用户输入的相关参数,根据轴的强度校核理论完成轴的设计工作,最终自动生成零件图。为了实现轴的辅助设计流程的自动化,系统集成了结构设计、数据处理与查询、力学计算、强度校核和参数化绘图等模块,同时,利用基于特征实体造型理论和参数化尺寸驱动技术进行系统的开发。该系统可有效减少设计人员的工作量、提高设计质量和设计效率,具有一定的应用价值。

  11. The Wheel and the Axle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall McLuhan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Touch is the resonant interval or frontier of change and process, and is indispensable for the study of technological effects. Interface is the basis of the relationship between the visual and acoustic space. Much of present-day confusion and ferment stems from the divergent experience of the Western literate man on the one hand, and his new surroundings of simultaneous and acoustic knowledge on the other. Part of this problem stems from an inadequate understanding of the nature of the archetype. An archetype has both an overt and hidden side (figure and ground. The tetrad reveals both. The hidden effects of any archetypal situation are the aspects that truly shape our behavior. Many academic fields of inquiry have been stymied by a misunderstanding of how visual and acoustic space relate to the notions of the diachronic and synchronic. This confusion mirrors the whole disjointedness of Western education, which emphasizes left-brain over right-brain cognition, and which may be traced back to the works of both Plato and Aristotle. The tetradic analysis corrects this imbalance.

  12. LOADING SIMULATION PROGRAM C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — LSPC is the Loading Simulation Program in C++, a watershed modeling system that includes streamlined Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) algorithms for...

  13. Lumbriculus variegatus loading study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Results from sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus with evaluating the effects of organism loading density. This dataset is associated with the...

  14. Static Loads Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides the capability to perform large-scale structural loads testing on spacecraft and other structures. Results from these tests can be used to verify...

  15. Plug Load Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We provide MATLAB binary files (.mat) and comma separated values files of data collected from a pilot study of a plug load management system that allows for the...

  16. D3.5-2型两驱玉米收获机驱动桥设计%Design of Drive Axle of Type D3.5-2 Two Drives Corn Harvesting Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许颖

    2014-01-01

    Harvest operation is the important process in corn production, it urgently needs to reach mechanization. This article analyzes the problems of domestic existing corn harvesting machine, provides optimal design of dive axle of two drivs corn harvesting machine, of-fers theoretical basis for the development of 3 lines joint corn harvesting machinery.%收获作业是玉米生产过程中的重要环节,亟需实现机械化作业。针对国内现有玉米收获机械存在的问题,提出两驱玉米收获机驱动桥的优化设计方案,为3行联合玉米收获机械的研制提供理论基础。

  17. TE(01) High Power Disk Loaded Guide Load

    CERN Document Server

    Farkas, Zoltan D

    2005-01-01

    A method to design a matching section from a smooth guide to a disk loaded guide, using a variation of broadband matching* is described. Using this method, we show how to design high power loads, filters and attenuators. The load consists of a disk loaded coaxial guide, operating in the T01

  18. E-2C Loads Calibration in DFRC Flight Loads Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Lawrence S.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: a) Safely and efficiently perform structural load tests on NAVAIR E-2C aircraft to calibrate strain gage instrumentation installed by NAVAIR; b) Collect load test data and derive loads equations for use in NAVAIR flight tests; and c) Assist flight test team with use of loads equations measurements at PAX River.

  19. 新一代货车用25 t轴重转向架%The Bogie with the Axle Load of 25 t for Freight Cars of the New Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    В.С.КОССОВ; 邢澍; 陈明资

    2009-01-01

    介绍了全俄机车车辆设计和工艺科学研究院研制的26.B.503型 25 t轴重货车转向架的结构特点,摇枕和侧架的静强度和疲劳试验,以及该转向架装用于敞车的走行运用试验结果.

  20. Bogies with an axle load of 25t for the new generation of freight cars%轴重为25t的新一代货车用转向架

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    В.С.Косов; 谢小海

    2009-01-01

    文章介绍了俄罗斯科研所所研制的新型货车转向架,重点介绍了摇枕、侧架各种情况下的计算、设计和试验过程.同时也介绍了轴箱承载鞍及其弹性元件和弹性旁承,简要介绍了所用材料及其理由.

  1. 轻型车后桥二维载荷谱及其疲劳寿命预测%Two-dimension Load Spectrum and Fatigue Life Prediction for the Rear Axle of Light-truck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖生发; 左惟炜; 沈德平

    2002-01-01

    以雨流法得到的载荷谱为基础,建立了后桥的二维载荷谱,并编制了二维载荷谱的计算机程序.分别利用一维和二维载荷谱对EQ1030T型轻型车后桥进行了疲劳寿命预测.

  2. Sobrecompactación del suelo agricola parte I: influencia diferencial del peso y del número de pasadas Overcompaction of agricultural soil part I: differential influence of axle load and number of passes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jorajuria

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Han sido objetivos principales de este trabajo, tanto el discriminar la responsabilidad de las variables independientes, peso y número de pasadas, en la distribución vertical de la compactación inducida, como obtener evidencia que permita decidir la conveniencia entre conjuntos ligeros que rueden muchas veces sobre la superficie trabajada, o conjuntos más grandes y pesados que resuelvan la tarea con menos pasajes. Se trabajó sobre un suelo de textura fina, con alta humedad presente. Las variables experimentales independientes configuraron dos tratamientos, tractor pesado y ligero, y tres diferentes número de pasadas, 1, 5 y 10, resultaron en seis subtratamientos de diferente intensidad de tráfico, más una parcela testigo sin tráfico. Los resultados no mostraron diferencias entre los tratamientos pesado y ligero, en el rango más superficial evaluado, sin embargo siempre fueron muy significativas las diferencias si se considera el rango de mayor profundidad. Disminuciones del rendimiento del pastizal del orden de 7 a 25% fueron medidas en las zonas adyacentes a las huellas, mientras que esas pérdidas ascendieron al rango de 52 a 76% dentro de la impronta dejada por las huellas del tráfico. Se pudo concluir que, el número de pasadas reiteradas sobre la misma senda, puede emular, e incluso reemplazar, al factor peso sobre el eje, en la responsabilidad principal de inducir compactaciones en el subsuelo. Diez pasadas, es el número crítico de rodadas, a partir del cual se pierden las ventajas de traficar con un tractor ligero, como alternativa a uno pesado con menos pasadas.The main objectives of this research were: to determine the responsability of weight, number of passes and independent variables, on the vertical distribution of subsoil compaction and to obtain evidence to decide upon the convenience of matching equipments with light or heavy tractors, according to their differences in passes on the field. Field tests were carried out on grassland, on a typic Argiudol with a soil moisture below, but near to field capacity. The dependent experimental variable was the induced soil compaction and was related to bulk density (assessed with gamma probe, penetration resistance (measured with an electronic cone penetrometer, and remaining grassland yield, six and eight months after traffic treatments were applied. Data from two tests, with two phases of data logging were analysed, totalizing a three year period of assessment pursuit. Results did not show differences between heavy and light treatments in the shallower depth range. Nevertheless, highly significant differences were shown if the deepest range is considered. Decrease in grassland yields ranging from 7 to 25% were measured in out-of-track areas, and 52 to 76% in intrack areas. It was concluded that the number of repeated passes on the same tramlines of a light tractor, can do as much or even greater damage than the heavier tractor with fewer passes. Ten is the critical number of passes, beyond it, advantages taken from the use of a light tractor are lost.

  3. 30 t轴重浴盆式敞车车体非线性分析%The Nonlinear Analysis of the Bathtub Type Gondola Car with the Axle Load of 30 t

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤礼鹏; 刘国伟

    2010-01-01

    利用ANSYS软件建立了30 t轴重浴盆式敞车车体的有限元模型,并基于材料非线性和几何非线性特性对车体进行了分析,得到了车体结构的Von Mises应力云图和结构响应曲线.分析结果表明,车体结构的应力-应变响应曲线满足材料的本构关系, 在规定的纵向压缩载荷下不会发生屈曲失稳现象,满足AAR M-1001的要求.

  4. Dielectrically Loaded Biconical Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusseibeh, Fouad Ahmed

    1995-01-01

    Biconical antennas are of great interest to those who deal with broadband applications including the transmission/reception of pulses. In particular, wide-angle conical antennas are an attractive choice in many applications including Electronic Support Measures (ESM) and the measurements of transient surface currents and charge densities on aircraft. Dielectric loading in the interior region of a conical antenna can be used to reduce the size of the antenna especially at low frequencies and/or for structural strength. Therefore, having an analytical solution for the input impedance and the frequency response is very helpful in optimizing the design and understanding the behavior of the antenna. From the quasi-analytical solution for the input impedance and the electric field of a wide-angle conical antenna, it can be seen that the dielectric loading in the antenna region improves the input impedance at low frequencies, but increases the number of resonance points and the magnitude of these peaks. When an inhomogeneous dielectric load is used, the magnitude of the resonance peaks is decreased (depending on the way the load is distributed), improving the input impedance of the antenna significantly. Introducing a dielectric load in the interior region of an electrically short receiving cone makes the antenna behave as an electrically longer antenna. However, this is not true for the case for electrical1y long antennas. For the case of pulse transmission, the dielectric load affects only the amplitude. Of course, if the dielectric fills the whole space, both transmitting and receiving antennas behave as electrically longer antennas.

  5. Laterally loaded masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun Gottfredsen, F.

    In this thesis results from experiments on mortar joints and masonry as well as methods of calculation of strength and deformation of laterally loaded masonry are presented. The strength and deformation capacity of mortar joints have been determined from experiments involving a constant compressive...... stress and increasing shear. The results show a transition to pure friction as the cohesion is gradually destroyed. An interface model of a mortar joint that can take into account this aspect has been developed. Laterally loaded masonry panels have also been tested and it is found to be characteristic...

  6. Wave Loads on Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Frigaard, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Wave loads may be defined as time varying forces on a body resulting from the wave induced flow fields which surrounds the body in whole or in part. Such unsteady fluid forces are the net result of pressure and shear forces integrated over the instantaneous wetted area.......Wave loads may be defined as time varying forces on a body resulting from the wave induced flow fields which surrounds the body in whole or in part. Such unsteady fluid forces are the net result of pressure and shear forces integrated over the instantaneous wetted area....

  7. Load research and load estimation in electricity distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1996-12-31

    The topics introduced in this thesis are: the Finnish load research project, a simple form customer class load model, analysis of the origins of customers load distribution, a method for the estimation of the confidence interval of customer loads and Distribution Load Estimation (DLE) which utilises both the load models and measurements from distribution networks. The Finnish load research project started in 1983. The project was initially coordinated by the Association of Finnish Electric Utilities and 40 utilities joined the project. Now there are over 1000 customer hourly load recordings in a database. A simple form customer class load model is introduced. The model is designed to be practical for most utility applications and has been used by the Finnish utilities for several years. The only variable of the model is the customers annual energy consumption. The model gives the customers average hourly load and standard deviation for a selected month, day and hour. The statistical distribution of customer loads is studied and a model for customer electric load variation is developed. The model results in a lognormal distribution as an extreme case. Using the `simple form load model`, a method for estimating confidence intervals (confidence limits) of customer hourly load is developed. The two methods selected for final analysis are based on normal and lognormal distribution estimated in a simplified manner. The estimation of several cumulated customer class loads is also analysed. Customer class load estimation which combines the information from load models and distribution network load measurements is developed. This method, called Distribution Load Estimation (DLE), utilises information already available in the utilities databases and is thus easy to apply

  8. Impact of the variation in dynamic vehicle load on flexible pavement responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsanuzzaman, Md

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the dynamic variation in asphalt pavement critical responses due to dynamic tire load variations. An attempt was also made to develop generalized regression equations to predict the dynamic response variation in flexible pavement under various dynamic load conditions. The study used an extensive database of computed pavement response histories for five different types of sites (smooth, rough, medium rough, very rough and severely rough), two different asphalt pavement structures (thin and thick) at two temperatures (70 °F and 104 °F), subjected to a tandem axle dual tire at three speeds 25, 37 and 50 mph (40, 60 and 80 km/h). All pavement responses were determined using the 3D-Move Analysis program (Version 1.2) developed by University of Nevada, Reno. A new term called Dynamic Response Coefficient (DRC) was introduced in this study to address the variation in critical pavement responses due to dynamic loads as traditionally measured by the Dynamic Load Coefficient (DLC). While DLC represents the additional varying component of the tire load, DRC represents the additional varying component of the response value (standard deviation divided by mean response). In this study, DRC was compared with DLC for five different sites based on the roughness condition of the sites. Previous studies showed that DLC varies with vehicle speed and suspension types, and assumes a constant value for the whole pavement structure (lateral and vertical directions). On the other hand, in this study, DRC was found to be significantly varied with the asphalt pavement and function of pavement structure, road roughness conditions, temperatures, vehicle speeds, suspension types, and locations of the point of interest in the pavement. A major contribution of the study is that the variation of pavement responses due to dynamic load in a flexible pavement system can be predicted with generalized regression equations. Fitting parameters (R2) in the

  9. Probabilistic Load Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of the probabilistic load flow (PLF) techniques. Applications of the PLF techniques in different areas of power system steady-state analysis are also discussed. The purpose of the review is to identify different available PLF techniques and their corresponding...

  10. 基于HyperWorks的某轻型汽车前桥有限元分析及疲劳寿命预测%Finite Element Analysis and Prediction on Fatigue Life of Front Axle of a light Vehicle Based on HyperWorks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔振海; 王良模; 荣如松; 王国林; 宋怀兰

    2013-01-01

    Front axle is one of the important components which is connected with body and wheels. Its intensity reliablity decides the vehicle safety. Finite element analysis on the front axle of a light vehicle by CAE method was carried out here. The FEA model of front axle was established by taking CHEXA and CTETRA as basic units after model was simplified and imported to Hypermesh. The knuckle pin was simulated by bar element which had beam property. A nalysis of four typical working conditions were carried out by using RADIOSS as solver. The results show that the maximum stress of the front axle are no more than material yield strength in four conditions, and its minimum fatigue life is 994,000 times which satisfies the fatigue requirements, and also verifies the design is correct.%前桥是连接车身与车轮的重要部件,其强度是否可靠直接决定整车的安全性.应用CAE分析方法对某轻型汽车前桥进行有限元分析和疲劳寿命分析.将前桥的三维实体模型进行简化,导入Hypermesh中建立以CHEXA和CTETRA为基本单元的有限元模型,利用具有梁属性的bar单元模拟主销连接,并以RADIOSS为求解器进行前桥的强度和疲劳分析.结果表明,前桥在四种典型工况下最大应力均未超过材料屈服强度,其最低疲劳寿命为99.4万次,满足疲劳寿命的要求,验证了设计的合理性.

  11. Analysis of Lateral Stability Control Strategy of Three-axle Steering Vehicles%三轴转向车辆侧向稳定性控制策略分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李耀旭; 王云超; 冯培锋

    2013-01-01

    According to the established linear 2 - DOF dynamics model of three - axle steering vehicle, the relationships between dynamic parameters and longitudinal displacement of vehicle turning center were deduced based on zero vehicle sideslip angle control. By considering the conditions of lateral stability of whole vehicles and analyzing the influences of longitudinal displacement of turning center on the lateral stability and turning mobility of whole vehicles , the formulas of the critical value of longitudinal displacement of vehicle turning center and transition angle of first axle were obtained. On the basis of the conditions of lateral stability and the conditions of applicable vehicle sideslip angle, zero vehicle sideslip angle dispatching control strategy was proposed. The main characteristic parameters of the two control methods were compared by quantitative analysis using MATLAB, and the results demonstrate the consistency with that of the theoretical analysis.%关于汽车转向稳定性能优化问题,根据三轴转向车辆线性二自由度动力学模型,推导了基于质心零侧偏角控制策略的三轴转向车辆各动力学参数与转向中心纵向位移的关系;结合整车侧向稳定性条件,通过分析转向中心纵向位移对整车侧向稳定性和转向灵活性的影响,得出了转向中心纵向位移临界值和前轮过渡角的表示公式;根据整车侧向稳定性条件和适度质心侧偏角条件,提出了质心零侧偏角调度控制策略;利用MATLAB对质心零侧偏角控制策略和质心零侧偏角调度控制策略进行了定量对比分析,结果证明理论分析的一致性.

  12. The International Mass Loading Service

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    The International Mass Loading Service computes four loadings: a) atmospheric pressure loading; b) land water storage loading; c) oceanic tidal loading; and d) non-tidal oceanic loading. The service provides to users the mass loading time series in three forms: 1) pre-computed time series for a list of 849 space geodesy stations; 2) pre-computed time series on the global 1deg x 1deg grid; and 3) on-demand Internet service for a list of stations and a time range specified by the user. The loading displacements are provided for the time period from 1979.01.01 through present, updated on an hourly basis, and have latencies 8-20 hours.

  13. Nutrient and Coliform Loading (NCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of available fecal coliform bacteria, fecal streptococci bacteria, and nutrient loading data. Loading for contaminants other than fecal coliform...

  14. Android Fully Loaded

    CERN Document Server

    Huddleston, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Fully loaded with the latest tricks and tips on your new Android! Android smartphones are so hot, they're soaring past iPhones on the sales charts. And the second edition of this muscular little book is equally impressive--it's packed with tips and tricks for getting the very most out of your latest-generation Android device. Start Facebooking and tweeting with your Android mobile, scan barcodes to get pricing and product reviews, download your favorite TV shows--the book is positively bursting with practical and fun how-tos. Topics run the gamut from using speech recognition, location-based m

  15. Load Control System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudnowski, Daniel [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States)

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  16. Study and Application of Repair Technology in Rear Axle Housing in Mining Truck%矿用汽车后桥壳体修复工艺的探索及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖丽安; 刘圣林

    2012-01-01

    针对矿用汽车后桥壳体修复工艺中存在的焊接材料和焊机不易选择、焊件表面较难清理干净、坡口形式与裂缝尺寸不匹配、焊接工艺处理不当等疑难问题,提出了选用低氢钠型碱性焊条及直流逆变焊机等解决方案。经用户使用检验,修复后的车辆连续运行30000km以上均未出现异常,节约了维修成本。%Regarding the problem of choose equipment, surface clearing, groove type and mismatch of the size and technique treatment in the repairing of rear axle housing in mining truck, the solution of low hydrogen sodium alkaline electrode and dc arc welding inverter was put forward. After test by customer, there no problem accuring in the running of 30 000 km, and the maintenance cost was saved.

  17. 某型载货汽车前桥横拉杆断裂失效模式分析%A type of truck front axle tie rod fracture failure mode analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张传业

    2012-01-01

    因某型轻型载货汽车前桥转向横拉杆连续出现断裂现象,需要分析其断裂模式和原因,提出改进措施和方法。通过建立零件三维模型,导入ansys中进行仿真,并与计算结果进行比较。结果计算与仿真结果与文中假设的失效模式一致。最终得出应力集中是导致该故障发生的主要原因,根据文中的提出的改进方法进行实施后,问题得到解决。%for a certain type of light truck front axle steering tie rod continuous cracking, needs the analysis of its fracture mode and reason, put forward the improvement measures and methods. Through the establishment of three-dimensional part model, through ANSYS simulation, and the results were compared with. The results of calculation and simulation results and the failure mode consistent hypothesis. Finally obtains the stress concentration is the main cause of the fault, according to the proposed method implemented, problems to be resolved.

  18. 基于蒙特卡罗方法的汽车双前桥转向机构稳健分析%Robust Analysis on Double-front-axle Steering Mechanism based on Monte Carlo Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董恩国; 张蕾; 关志伟

    2012-01-01

    Robustness on double-front-axle steering mechanism of a heavy truck is analyzed with Monte Carlo method. The optimum objectives are the minimum steering angle error of each steering trapezoid mechanism and middle connection mechanism. The design variables are the structure parameters of 13 on steering trapezoid mechanism and middle connection mechanism. The constraint condition is steering angle error and dimension limit constrain. Secondly, the result robustness attained by certainty optimum method is analyzed with Monte Carlo method.%应用蒙特卡罗方法对某重型汽车双前桥六杆转向机构进行了稳健性能分析.以前、后桥转向梯形机构转角以及中间摇臂转角误差最小为优化目标,以转向梯形机构、中间摇臂的13个结构参数为设计变量,以各机构的转角误差、尺寸限制等为约束条件建立双前桥转向机构数学模型;应用蒙特卡罗方法分析了采用确定性优化方法所得结果的稳健性能.

  19. Design of Steering System of Three-axle Trailer based on Proportional Control%基于比例控制的某三轴挂车转向系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊啟要; 徐伟

    2013-01-01

    A four-wheel turning of three-axle trailer was researched,model car of linear two degrees of freedom four-wheel turning and gains of steady state yaw velocity of that were derived.The results of steady state computing and optimi zation showed that good turning characters can be reached on the condition of reasonable control of all distance between axes arrangement and steering angle proportion of front and back wheel.%对某三轴挂车四轮转向系统的特性进行了研究,推导出其线性二自由度四轮转向汽车模型和稳态横摆角速度增益.稳态计算和优化结果表明,只要各轴间距布置合理及前后轮转向角比例控制合理,就能使该四轮转向系统达到较优的转向性能.

  20. Study on Numerical Simulation of Hot Extrusion Process of Automobile's Hollow Front Axle%汽车前桥空心短轴的热挤压成形工艺数值模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦国强; 管延锦; 朱立华; 解振东; 孙德朋

    2016-01-01

    A hot extrusion process was proposed to improve the productivity and the material utilization in the manufacture of automobile's hollow front axle . Numerical simulations under various conditions designed by the orthogonal method were done to optimize parameters of the final step of hot extrusion process . Finally the production efficiency , material utilization and product quality were improved and the optimal shaping quality was achieved .%针对某汽车前桥短轴类零件成形制造中存在的生产效率和材料利用率低的问题,提出并设计了热挤压成形制造工艺。通过正交法设计多组参数条件进行数值模拟,实现了热挤压终成形工步的工艺参数优化,获得了最优的成形效果,达到了提高生产效率、材料利用率以及零件质量的目标。

  1. Values of Dual Front Axle Card Before Binding Instrument Based on Dynamic Adjustment Sensor%基于力传感动态调整仪的双前轴重卡前束值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏渊; 史智理; 张瑞斌; 王双峰

    2015-01-01

    文章通过应用力传感动态调整仪采集双前桥重型卡车前轮在转动状态下的受力情况,从而用来验证车辆在实际行驶中前束设计值的合理性。通过对某车型大量数据采集并分析验证,得出车辆的合理前束值,为车辆的前束值设计提供依据。%By dynamically adjusting the application force sensing instrument collects double-front-axle steering heavy truck wheel rotational state in the forces, which is used to verify the reasonableness of the vehicle in real driving toe design values. Based on a large amount of data collection and analysis model verification, the reasonable value of the vehicle before the beam, provide the basis for the design of the vehicle front toe.

  2. 汽车后桥从动齿轮断齿和齿面损伤失效分析%Fatigue Analysis of Tooth Surface Damage and Fracture for Rear Axle Passive Gear of Truck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红霞; 杨明; 位立刚

    2011-01-01

    采用宏观微观形貌观察、化学成分分析、金相检验、硬度测试和有效硬化层深测量等方法对失效的齿轮进行了分析.结果表明:齿轮失效因为在于齿轮齿根部有较深的切削沟槽,导致齿根部应力加大,形成裂纹源,并产生高周疲劳引起齿根部断裂,进而波及其他齿产生断裂和剥落;用户在使用时也存在齿轮润滑油选用不当等问题.%In order to find out the reason for the rear axle passive gear being failure, the macro characteristics,micro-morphology, microstructure of the damaged teeth were observed and analyzed The composition, hardness and carburized layer depth were measured The results show that the failure reason of passive gear is because the gear bottom has cutting groove in cool work, which leads to the high stress and high cycle fatigue crack, causing the start tooth broken, and thus getting other teeth broken The less important problem is that the lubricating oil of gear is unwise.

  3. Lightweight Design of A Heavy Axle Itousing Based on Topology Optimization%基于拓扑优化的某重型车桥桥壳轻量化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁炜琦; 孙超

    2011-01-01

    对某重型车桥桥壳在设计工况下的静强度性能进行了有限元分析,并对该桥壳结构进行了轻量化设计。采用拓扑优化方法,以初始设计作为优化的基结构,以重量最轻为目标函数,以结构的静强度性能为约束条件,进行了优化迭代计算。轻量化设计后,减轻了桥壳的重量,且轻量化结构满足强度要求。%Finite element analysis was performed on the static strength properties under design conditions of a heavy axle housing, and lightweight design was performed. Using topology optimization method, iterative calculations for optimization were performed, the original design was taken as the base structure of optimization, the lightest weight was taken as the objective function, the structural static strength properties was taken as the constraints. After the lightweight design, the housing weight was reduced, and the lightweight structure met strength requirements

  4. Load forecasting for supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Aalborg Nielsen, Henrik

    the hourly load for refrigeration for the following 42 hours is forecasted. The forecast models are adaptive linear time-series models which are fitted with a computationally efficient recursive least squares scheme. The dynamic relations between the inputs and the load is modeled by simple transfer......This report presents a study of models for forecasting the load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the forecasting models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...... in Denmark. The load for refrigeration is the sum of all cabinets in the supermarket, both low and medium temperature cabinets, and spans a period of one year. As input to the forecasting models the ambient temperature observed near the supermarket together with weather forecasts are used. Every hour...

  5. Shear loading of costal cartilage

    CERN Document Server

    Subit, Damien

    2014-01-01

    A series of tests were performed on a single post-mortem human subject at various length scales. First, tabletop tests were performed. Next, the ribs and intercostal muscles were tested with the view to characterize the load transfer between the ribs. Finally, the costal cartilage was tested under shear loading, as it plays an important in the transfer of the load between the ribs and the sternum. This paper reports the results of dynamic shear loading tests performed on three samples of costal cartilage harvested from a single post-mortem human subject, as well as the quantification of the effective Young's modulus estimated from the amount of cartilage calcification.

  6. Load forecasting of supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Buth; Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    in Denmark. Every hour the hourly electrical load for refrigeration is forecasted for the following 42 h. The forecast models are adaptive linear time series models. The model has two regimes; one for opening hours and one for closing hours, this is modeled by a regime switching model and two different......This paper presents a novel study of models for forecasting the electrical load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...

  7. Load carriage by infantry soldiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Majumdar

    1958-07-01

    Full Text Available At constant speed of marching, oxygen consumption has been found to increase linearly with the amount of load carried, indicating that there is no optimum load. However, an optimum speed of marching has been found, depending on the terrain condition. A different line of approach, involving a study of the relationship between stride-length, frequency of stepping and speed in normal walking and the effect of muscular fatigue on this relationship has also yielded similar results. Desirability of further studies on the effect of load on optimum speed of marching, effective reduction of weight of equipment and optimum distribution of load on the body has been stressed.

  8. Demand Response Load Following of Source and Load Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Jianqiang; Cao, Jinde; Yong, Taiyou

    2017-01-01

    capacities and regulation rates of aggregators. Based on the evaluation results, the dispatch center optimizes the real time load following trajectories for the generating units and the flexible load agents via look-ahead optimization by considering the injection of renewable power. Furthermore, we mainly...

  9. TE_01 High Power Disk Loaded Guide Load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, Z.D.; /SLAC

    2005-06-01

    A method to design a matching section from a smooth guide to a disk-loaded guide, using a variation of broadband matching, [1, 2] is described. Using this method, we show how to design high power loads, attenuators and filters. The load consists of a disk-loaded coaxial guide operating in the TE{sub 01}-mode. We use this mode because it has no electric field terminating on a conductor, has no axial currents, and has no current at the cylinder-disk interface. A high power load design that has -35 dB reflection and a 200 MHz, -20 dB bandwidth, is presented. It is expected that it will carry the 600 MW output peak power of the pulse compression network. We use coaxial geometry and stainless steel material to increase the attenuation per cell.

  10. Immediate Versus Early Loading and Conventional Loading in Implant Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Maghaireh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To minimize the risk of implant failures after their placement, dental implants are traditionally kept load-free for 3 to 8 months to establish osseointegration before connecting the prosthetic super-structure (conventional loading. However, implant dentists are under continuous pressure from the media and patients to speed up the treatment and reduce number of visits during the implant therapy. Immediate implant loading can also reduce the cost and might also improve aesthetics as claimed by some surgeons. This pressure from the media, patients and dentists was behind introducing changes into the loading protocols and nowadays implants are loaded early and even immediately and it would be useful to know whether there is a difference in success rates between immediately and early loaded implants compared with conventionally loaded implants. It is well known that whenever a clinician is faced with a clinical question, the answer(s should be evidence based to avoid the risk of bias as opinion based answers can be misleading and can cause more failures in the dental practice. This mini-review aims to evaluate the effects of (1 immediate (within 1 week, (2 early (between 1 week and 2 months, and (3 conventional (after 2 months loading of osseointegrated dental implants. The review found no evidence that attaching artificial teeth either immediately, after 6 weeks (early or after at least 3 months (conventional led to any important differences in the failure of the implant or the artificial tooth, or to the amount of bone which surrounded the implant (any bone loss would be an undesirable consequence. However, we found a trend of more failures and complications with early loading when compared to immediate or conventional loading. More research is needed in this area. - See more at: http://smiledentaljournal.com/article.php?id=59#sthash.mniQLIcf.dpuf

  11. Optimal load shedding and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ding

    Load shedding is an emergency control action in power systems that can save systems from a wide-area blackout. Underfrequency load shedding, steady state load shedding, and voltage load shedding are widely used in power systems. These methods utilize either the steady state model or a simplified dynamic model to represent a power systems. In this dissertation, a general optimal load shedding method that considers both the dynamic process and load distribution is proposed. The unfavorable load shedding is then formulated as an optimization problem with the objective function of cost minimization. This objective function is subjected to system, security, and operation constraints. The entire problem becomes a question of optimization with differential and nonlinear equations as constraints. To solve this problem, discretization is used to change the differential equations into algebraic equations. The original problem is thus reformulated as an optimization problem and can be solved by a standard mathematical program. The general idea is then applied to traditional power systems, deregulated power systems, power systems with distributed generation, and load restoration. In the traditional power system, the method shows that governor action, generation dynamic, disturbance location, and economic factors can be taken into consideration. In the deregulated power system, two power market models are developed and incorporated into the load shedding scheme. In power systems with multiple distributed generations, the different cases of disturbances are analyzed and models of different distributed generation developed. The general idea is then applied. Finally, the load restoration problem is studied, and it is proposed that an optimization method be applied to it. This dissertation provides a comprehensive solution for load shedding problem in power systems. The models developed in this research can also be used to study other power system problems.

  12. 主动悬架与多桥转向混合控制器的设计与仿真分析%Design and simulation of hybrid controller of active suspension and multi-axle steering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欢; 高秀华; 杨铭; 杨圣印; 陈建凯

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the handling stability and the ride performance of multi-axle vehicle, through building a 5+2n degree of freedom multi-axle vehicle dynamic model, a LQG controller was designed. According to the simulation test, the responses of active suspension vehicle and passive suspension vehicle to the performance index of the step signal at low and high speed were analyzed and compared. Results of the analysis indicated that the peak side angle decreased by 0.03 rad, the peak vehicle yaw rate, by 0.1 rad/s, the peak rolling angle, by 0.015 rad, the peak pitching angle, by 0.015 rad, the peak vehicle vertical acceleration, by 0.3 m/s2 and the peak tire dynamic displacement, by 0.009 m, comparing active suspension vehicle with passive suspension vehicle at low-speed. At high-speed, the peak of performance indexes above respectively decreased by 0.095 rad, 0.4 rad/s, 0.075 rad, 0.09 rad, 2.1 m/s2 and 0.018 m. The handling stability and the ride performance of active suspension vehicle are improved significantly comparing with passive suspension vehicle.%为了改善多桥车辆操纵稳定性和行驶平顺性,通过建立多桥车辆的5+2n自由度动力学模型,设计了主动悬架与多桥转向线性系统二次型最优控制(LQG)综合控制器.通过仿真试验,对比分析了采用与不采用综合控制器2种情况下,多桥车辆不同车速下对阶跃信号的各项性能指标的响应.结果表明:低速情况下,采用综合控制器较不采用控制器的多桥车辆侧偏角峰值减小0.03 rad、横摆角速度峰值减小0.1 rad/s、车身侧倾角峰值减小0.015 rad、俯仰角峰值减小0.015 rad、车身垂直加速度峰值减小0.3 m/s2、轮胎动位移峰值减小0.009 m:高速情况下,以上各性能指标峰值分别减小0.095 rad、0.4 rad/s、0.075 rad、0.09 rad、2.1 m/s2、0.018 m.多桥车辆采用综合控制器相对于不采用控制器时的操纵稳定性和行驶平顺性都有显著改善.

  13. Experimental Study on Tribological Property of Nano-Grease for High-Speed Railway Axle Box Bearings%高速铁路轴箱轴承纳米润滑脂摩擦学性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹延经; 何强; 杨立芳; 王世峰; 牛青波

    2015-01-01

    以WS2和Si3 N4纳米颗粒作为高速客车轴箱轴承润滑脂添加剂,依据完全析因试验方案,合成了高速客车轴箱轴承纳米润滑脂。采用四球摩擦磨损试验机对其抗磨减摩和抗极压性能进行了研究,使用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)分析了钢球磨斑表面形貌,运用双因素方差分析法探究了WS2-Si3 N4复合纳米颗粒对纳米润滑脂润滑性能影响。研究表明:当WS2添加量为1.5%,Si3 N4添加量为0.1%时,合成的纳米润滑脂PB 值最大,摩擦因数最低,钢球磨斑形貌平整光滑;WS2和Si3 N4纳米颗粒均可提高纳米润滑脂的润滑性能,对复合纳米润滑脂润滑性能的提高交互作用显著。%The WS2 and Si3 N4 nanoparticles are used as additives in lubricating grease of axle box bearings for high-speed passenger cars,the nano-grease of axle box bearings for high-speed passenger cars is synthesized based on full factorial experiment scheme.Its anti-wear,friction-reduction and anti-extreme pressure properties are investigated by using four ball friction and wear tester.The surface morphology of wear scar on steel balls is analyzed by using SEM, the effects of complex nano-particles of WS2 and Si3 N4 on lubricating properties of nano-grease are investigated by u-sing double factors variance analysis method.The results show that the PB value for synthetic nano -grease is maxi-mum,the friction coefficient is minimum,and the surface morphology of wear scar on steel balls is flat and smooth when adding 1.5%WS2 and 0.1%Si3 N4.The WS2 and Si3 N4 nano-particles improve lubricating properties of nano-grease,which have significantly interaction for improving lubricating properties of complex nano-grease.

  14. 带平衡悬架三轴商用车多目标联合优化%Multi-objective optimization for tri-axle vehicle with tandem suspension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凌阳; 张云清; 付文奎; 覃刚

    2012-01-01

    推导了带平衡悬架三轴商用车的平顺性和操纵稳定性运动方程,采用半车模型分析平顺性,采用三自由度模型分析操纵稳定性.选取10个优化变量,并运用社区培养遗传算法(NCGA)对各模型进行了多目标优化,用蛛网图法将10个Pareto有效解直观地表示出来.根据目标极值法、目标均衡法、理想值法、单目标最优法这4种不同的设计需求标准,从10个Pareto有效解中筛选出4种不同的优化方案,有效地提高了整车的平顺性和操纵稳定性.%Both motion equations describing ride and handling characteristics of tri-axle commercial ve- hicle with tandem suspension were derived respectively. Half-vehicle model was used to analyze ride. 3-DOF model was used to analyze handling. 10 parameters were chosen and NCGA (neighborhood cultivation genetic algorithm) was selected to optimize the commercial vehicle. 10 pareto solutions were shown straightforwardly by spider graph and according to different design requirements, 4 dif- ferent design schemes were proposed, which greatly improve the ride and handling characteristic of the full vehicle.

  15. 用试验方法分析轿车后桥在运输过程中的损伤%Analysis of the Damage of Rear Axle of a Car during Its Land Transportation by Using Test Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鋐; 冯展辉; 周炜

    2001-01-01

    In accordance with the phenomena that the bolts connecting the rear axle and the break back plate of a car become loose or broken during its transportation by a land vehicle, a static test of a car-transport vehicle system is made to study the influence of the tied conditions between the car and the transport vehicle and the up and down motion of the car on the forces exerted on the bolts. Combined with the results of the static test, a dynamic test of the car is also made on an indoor road simulate rig to analyze the possible factors effecting the damage of the bolts. Some workable suggestions as to avoid the damage of the bolts during transportation are offered.%针对轿车在运输过程中出现后桥与制动器底板联接螺栓松动与断裂的损伤现象,通过静态试验了解捆绑安装情况以及车身运动对联接螺栓受力的影响,并采用室内道路模拟设备,通过动态试验在室内台架上模拟该轿车的运输工况,同时结合静态试验来分析产生这种损伤现象的可能因素,为避免这种情况的发生提出合理的建议。

  16. 基于数值模拟的前轴辊锻件精确成形的研究与应用%Research and application of front-axle forging precision forming based on numerical simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏科; 王高潮; 王志录; 陈小杰; 徐学春

    2012-01-01

    根据辊锻设计要求,论述了汽车前轴辊锻件的弹簧座截面、工字型截面、两端拳头截面各道次变化规律;在各道次变化过程中,依据各截面的尺寸参数变化对辊锻模具进行精确设计并选择合理的坯料,以保证坯料能够充满模具型槽.应用Deform-3D软件对辊锻模具模型进行模拟分析,模拟结果与实际生产结果相吻合,进一步验证了辊锻模具设计的准确性和可靠性.该文的论述对前轴辊锻模具的精确设计及辊锻件的生产提供了理论参考依据.%According to the roll-forging design requirements, the changing rule of roll-foging's spring section, H-shaped cross section and fist section ends was discussed. In each step change process, according to the cross-section's parameters, the roll forging die could be precisely designed, meanwhile, the reasonable billet was selected to ensure that the die cavity could be fully filled. Then, Deform-3D finite element simulation software was used to analyze the roll forging process. The simulation results coincided with the actual production results, which further validate the accuracy and reliability of the roll forging die design. The results provide theoretical guidance on the front axle roll forging die and roll forging precision design.

  17. Loading Conditions and Longitudinal Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1995-01-01

    Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength.......Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength....

  18. Load identification during object handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortier, H.G.; Veltink, P.H.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a new concept to identify environ- mental loads during the interaction with the human body by sensing interface forces and movement is proposed. Mass and spring loads were moved by hand over a fixed height difference. Kinematic and kinetic quantities were measured between the hand and

  19. LOAD MANAGEMENT IN CLOUD ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esha Sarkar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is an on demand service in which shared resources, information, software and other devices are provided to the end user as per their requirement at a specific time. A cloud consists of several elements such as clients, datacenters and distributed servers. There are n number of clients and end users involved in cloud environment. These clients may make requests to the cloud system simultaneously, making it difficult for the cloud to manage the entire load at a time. The load can be CPU load, memory load, delay or network load. This might cause inconvenience to the clients as there may be delay in the response time or it might affect the performance and efficiency of the cloud environment. So, the concept of load balancing is very important in cloud computing to improve the efficiency of the cloud. Good load balancing makes cloud computing more efficient and improves user satisfaction. This paper gives an approach to balance the incoming load in cloud environment by making partitions of the public cloud

  20. 三峡升船机横梁贝雷架支撑系统荷载试验%Support system load test of beam Bailey truss of Three Gorges Project ship lift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪文亮; 肖传勇; 张俊霞

    2013-01-01

    During the continued construction of Three Gorges Project ship lift,the loading test experi-ment has been carried out before the pouring work of the beam concrete,which is aimed at the complex charac-teristics of the bracing system of tower column beam construction. The experiment chose axle 1 beam,axle 2 beam and corresponding foundation beams’Bailey trusses as models,and the loading prototype test is conduct-ed according to 1∶1 ratio scale. Through arranging proper monitoring points and adopting reasonable testing fre-quency,the experiment completed the collection and analyzing of test data. The test results are as follows:The test obtaines the maximum stress of different member bars during the loading procedure. With the increasing of loading capacity,the bending variation of beams and Bailey trusses build up slowly,while altitudes of form-work and framed bent drop. With the increasing of loading capacity,the beams and foundation Bailey trusses ex-perienced subtle side movements. The variation of both the axle 2 beam formwork and the framed bent’s vertical-ity from left to right is very tiny. The monitoring data indicates that,the parameters of strengthened Bailey truss-es meet the safety requirements,and the proposal applies to the tower column beam construction while ensuring its safety.%在三峡升船机续建工程中,针对塔柱横梁施工支撑体系复杂的特点,在横梁混凝土浇筑前进行荷载试验。试验选取轴1、轴2横梁及其相应的基础梁贝雷架作为模型,按照1∶1进行荷载原型试验,通过布置监测点以及采用合理的检测频率,完成试验数据的采集与分析。本次试验取得以下成果:得出了各类型杆件在加载过程中的最大应力值;随着加载量的增加,横梁、基础梁贝雷架的挠度变化量慢慢增大,模板及排架立杆高程在下降;随着加载量的增加,横梁、基础梁贝雷架都发生了较小的侧向位移,轴2横梁模板

  1. Umbilical cable recovery load analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shu-wang; Jia, Zhao-lin; Feng, Xiao-wei; Li, Shi-tao

    2013-06-01

    Umbilical cable is a kind of integrated subsea cable widely used in the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas field. The severe ocean environment makes great challenges to umbilical maintenance and repair work. Damaged umbilical is usually recovered for the regular operation of the offshore production system. Analysis on cables in essence is a two-point boundary problem. The tension load at the mudline must be known first, and then the recovery load and recovery angle on the vessel can be solved by use of catenary equation. The recovery analysis also involves umbilical-soil interaction and becomes more complicated. Calculation methods for recovery load of the exposed and buried umbilical are established and the relationship between the position of touch down point and the recovery load as well as the recovery angle and recovery load are analyzed. The analysis results provide a theoretical reference for offshore on-deck operation.

  2. Wind load reduction for heliostats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterka, J.A.; Hosoya, N.; Bienkiewicz, B.; Cermak, J.E.

    1986-05-01

    This report presents the results of wind-tunnel tests supported through the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) by the Office of Solar Thermal Technology of the US Department of Energy as part of the SERI research effort on innovative concentrators. As gravity loads on drive mechanisms are reduced through stretched-membrane technology, the wind-load contribution of the required drive capacity increases in percentage. Reduction of wind loads can provide economy in support structure and heliostat drive. Wind-tunnel tests have been directed at finding methods to reduce wind loads on heliostats. The tests investigated primarily the mean forces, moments, and the possibility of measuring fluctuating forces in anticipation of reducing those forces. A significant increase in ability to predict heliostat wind loads and their reduction within a heliostat field was achieved.

  3. Umbilical Cable Recovery Load Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shu-wang; JIA Zhao-lin; FENG Xiao-wei; LI Shi-tao

    2013-01-01

    Umbilical cable is a kind of integrated subsea cable widely used in the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas field.The severe ocean environment makes great challenges to umbilical maintenance and repair work.Damaged umbilical is usually recovered for the regular operation of the offshore production system.Analysis on cables in essence is a two-point boundary problem.The tension load at the mudline must be known first,and then the recovery load and recovery angle on the vessel can be solved by use of catenary equation.The recovery analysis also involves umbilicalsoil interaction and becomes more complicated.Calculation methods for recovery load of the exposed and buried umbilical are established and the relationship between the position of touch down point and the recovery load as well as the recovery angle and recovery load are analyzed.The analysis results provide a theoretical reference for offshore on-deck operation.

  4. Aplicación de Prácticas de Manufactura Esbelta y Tecnología de Simulación Dentro del Proceso de Administración del Ciclo de Vida del Producto Caso de Estudio: Dana Heavy Axle México

    OpenAIRE

    de la Cerda Ramos, Sara C.

    2004-01-01

    El propósito de este proyecto de Tesis es poner en práctica conceptos y principios de la Manufactura Esbelta aplicados a un proyecto de Administración del Ciclo de Vida de Producto, utilizando una mejor práctica que es la simulación, todo esto aterrizado a un caso de estudio en la empresa Dana Heavy Axle México, específicamente en la planta Monterrey. Como objetivo es analizar una línea de producción y definir los cambios apropiados para aumentar la capacidad de producción usando DELMIA (Módu...

  5. Quasi monolithic silicon load cell for loads up to 1000 kg with insensitivity to non-homogeneous load distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerink, Remco; Zwijze, Robert; Krijnen, Gijs; Lammerink, Theo; Elwenspoek, Miko

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a micromachined silicon load cell (force sensor) is presented for measuring loads up to 1000 kg. The sensitive surface of 1 cm2 contains a matrix of capacitive sensing elements to make the load cell insensitive to non-homogeneous load distributions. The load cell has been realized and

  6. The Atlas load protection switch

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, H A; Dorr, G; Martínez, M; Gribble, R F; Nielsen, K E; Pierce, D; Parsons, W M

    1999-01-01

    Atlas is a high-energy pulsed-power facility under development to study materials properties and hydrodynamics experiments under extreme conditions. Atlas will implode heavy liner loads (m~45 gm) with a peak current of 27-32 MA delivered in 4 mu s, and is energized by 96, 240 kV Marx generators storing a total of 23 MJ. A key design requirement for Atlas is obtaining useful data for 95601130f all loads installed on the machine. Materials response calculations show current from a prefire can damage the load requiring expensive and time consuming replacement. Therefore, we have incorporated a set of fast-acting mechanical switches in the Atlas design to reduce the probability of a prefire damaging the load. These switches, referred to as the load protection switches, short the load through a very low inductance path during system charge. Once the capacitors have reached full charge, the switches open on a time scale short compared to the bank charge time, allowing current to flow to the load when the trigger pu...

  7. Immediate loading of dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, P J; Liddelow, G J

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to explore the concept of immediate loading as it pertains to dental implants and the indications for clinical practice. The definition of immediate loading will be considered together with a review of the relevant literature in an attempt to provide evidence-based guidelines for successful implementation into practice. A search of electronic databases including Medline, PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was undertaken using the terms "immediate loading'', "dental implants'', "immediate function'', "early loading'', "oral implants'', "immediate restoration'' and "systematic review''. This was supplemented by handsearching in peer-reviewed journals and cross-referenced with the articles accessed. Emphasis was given to systematic reviews and controlled clinical trials. A definition of immediate loading was suggested pertinent to the realities of logistics in clinical practice with respect to application and time frame. The literature was evaluated and shown to be limited with significant shortcomings. Guidelines and recommendations for clinical protocols were suggested and illustrated by examples of case types with a minimum of 1-3 years follow-up. A list of additional references for further reading was provided. Within the limitations of this review, there is evidence to suggest that immediate loading protocols have demonstrated high implant survival rates and may be cautiously recommended for certain clinical situations. However, more high level evidence studies, preferably randomized controlled trials (RCTs), over a long time frame are required to show a clear benefit over more conventional loading protocols.

  8. Load Estimation from Modal Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Brincker, Rune; Fernández, Pelayo Fernández;

    2007-01-01

    In Natural Input Modal Analysis the modal parameters are estimated just from the responses while the loading is not recorded. However, engineers are sometimes interested in knowing some features of the loading acting on a structure. In this paper, a procedure to determine the loading from a FRF...... matrix assembled from modal parameters and the experimental responses recorded using standard sensors, is presented. The method implies the inversion of the FRF which, in general, is not full rank matrix due to the truncation of the modal space. Furthermore, some ecommendations are included to improve...

  9. Probabilistic Meteorological Characterization for Turbine Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Mark C.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov;

    2014-01-01

    Beyond the existing, limited IEC prescription to describe fatigue loads on wind turbines, we look towards probabilistic characterization of the loads via analogous characterization of the atmospheric flow, particularly for today's "taller" turbines with rotors well above the atmospheric surface....... These are used as input to loads calculation, and with a statistical loads output description, they allow for improved design and loads calculations....

  10. Power Load Management as a Computational Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ygge, F.; Akkermans, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Power load management enables energy utilities to reduce peak loads and thereby save money. Due to the large number of different loads, power load management is a complicated optimization problem. We present a new decentralized approach to this problem by modeling direct load management as a computa

  11. Power Load Management as a Computational Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ygge, Fredrik; Akkermans, Hans

    1997-01-01

    Power load management enables energy utilities to reduce peak loads and thereby save money. Due to the large number of different loads, power load management is a complicated optimization problem. We present a new decentralized approach to this problem by modeling direct load management as a computa

  12. Essentials of filoviral load quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cnops, Lieselotte; van Griensven, Johan; Honko, Anna N; Bausch, Daniel G; Sprecher, Armand; Hill, Charles E; Colebunders, Robert; Johnson, Joshua C; Griffiths, Anthony; Palacios, Gustavo F; Kraft, Colleen S; Kobinger, Gary; Hewlett, Angela; Norwood, David A; Sabeti, Pardis; Jahrling, Peter B; Formenty, Pierre; Kuhn, Jens H; Ariën, Kevin K

    2016-07-01

    Quantitative measurement of viral load is an important parameter in the management of filovirus disease outbreaks because viral load correlates with severity of disease, survival, and infectivity. During the ongoing Ebola virus disease outbreak in parts of Western Africa, most assays used in the detection of Ebola virus disease by more than 44 diagnostic laboratories yielded qualitative results. Regulatory hurdles involved in validating quantitative assays and the urgent need for a rapid Ebola virus disease diagnosis precluded development of validated quantitative assays during the outbreak. Because of sparse quantitative data obtained from these outbreaks, opportunities for study of correlations between patient outcome, changes in viral load during the course of an outbreak, disease course in asymptomatic individuals, and the potential for virus transmission between infected patients and contacts have been limited. We strongly urge the continued development of quantitative viral load assays to carefully evaluate these parameters in future outbreaks of filovirus disease.

  13. Wind Structure and Wind Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    The purpose of this note is to provide a short description of wind, i.e. of the flow in the atmosphere of the Earth and the loading caused by wind on structures. The description comprises: causes to the generation of windhe interaction between wind and the surface of the Earthhe stochastic nature...... of windhe interaction between wind and structures, where it is shown that wind loading depends strongly on this interaction...

  14. Internet Load and Traffic Balancing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文正; 郭巧; 郭为民

    2005-01-01

    Load and traffic balancing for the Internet are analyzed. An intelligent domain name system(DNS) policy for the control and management of content distribution networks (CDN) is presented. An CDNs network based Urtitech IntelliDNS is built, and performance of the network in realizing traffic and load balancing is measured. It is proved that CDNs provide a valuable service and the methods are feasible.

  15. Analysis of Highway Bridge Trafifc Load by a Weigh-in-Motion Approach%基于动态称重的高速桥梁车辆荷载分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢颖

    2016-01-01

    基于安装在高速某三跨连续梁桥上的动态称重系统(WIM)所记录的车辆荷载数据,对车流量、车重、车速、总轴距和车间距进行了分析,得到其统计特性和分布的一般规律。然后,通过广义极值模型(GEV)计算出最大弯矩极值分布,得出实际车辆荷载,并与规范中所规定的荷载进行比较。结果表明:一天中各时段的总交通流量具有很强的潮汐规律性;从车流构成上看,二轴车辆占绝大多数,其次为六轴及以上车辆;实际运行车辆荷载低于设计车辆荷载,实际荷载对桥梁健康状况危害不大。%Basing on data recorded by the Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) system installed in a three span continuous girder bridge at highway, perform analysis of the vehicle flow, weight, speed, wheelbase and interval, as to discover general discipline of their statistical characteristics and distribution. Then, the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) model is used to calculate the extreme value distribution of maximum bending moment. The actual vehicle load is compared with the load determined by the regulations. The results show that, traffic flow has a strong tidal regularity; from the aspect of flow composition, dual-axle dominates the largest part, and the six-axle or more dominate the secondary. The actual running vehicle load is lower than the designed, thus brings out little harm to bridge healthy status.

  16. 46 CFR 169.689 - Demand loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Electrical Electrical Installations on Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.689 Demand loads. Demand loads must meet § 111.60-7 of this chapter except that smaller demand loads for motor feeders...

  17. [Structure of allostatic load in railway workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorokhova, S G; Pfaf, V F; Muraseyeva, E V; Akhsanova, E R; Prigorovskaya, T S; At'kov, O Yu

    2016-01-01

    The authors studied allostatic load in railway workers, as an indicator of stress effect. Analysis covered biomarkers that form allostatic load index, and their ratio for variable allostatic load index levels. Moderate allostatic load appeared to prevail in the examinees group. Findings are that systolic and diastolic blood pressure, general cholesterol and hemoglobin make major contribution into allostatic load index. Comparison covered models of allostatic load index calculation for variable biomarkers sets.

  18. 某重型卡车前轴成形辊锻工艺设计与优化%Design and optimization of the precision roll forging on a heavy truck front axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周杰; 柳豪; 刘旭光; 万煦义; 佘科能

    2012-01-01

    针对某牌号重型卡车前轴锻件成形辊锻、模锻工艺调试中遇到的典型缺陷——工字梁充填不满开展研究,基于前期某锻造公司大量的生产调试数据和有限元分析软件,建立了前轴成形辊锻、模锻有限元分析模型;在此基础上,研究了工字梁充填不饱满缺陷的产生机理,重点分析了第3道次模具工字梁型腔部位的3个关键参数宽度B3、圆角R3、斜度A3对成形质量的影响规律,重新设计了前3道次辊锻模具工字梁部位孔型和尺寸,并完成了辊锻模具制造。生产结果表明,工字梁部位充填饱满,产品尺寸合格。基于数值模拟的设计方法有效增加了模具设计的准确程度,减少了模具修改次数,缩短了调试周期,保证了最终产品的质量。%The under-filling defect of I-beam in a heavy truck front axle which occurs in the process debugging of the precision roll-forging and die-forging is studied.Finite element models of precision roll-forging and die-forging are established based on FEM software and the previous productive results.Then,the mechanism of the under-filing defect in I-beam is studied.And the effects of the three variables including width B,radius R and slope A of I-beam in the third step on the forging quality are investigated.In addition,the roll-forging die constructions for I-beam in previous three steps are redesigned and manufactured.The productive results show that I-beam can be fully filled,the debugging cycle is reduced significantly and the products quality is guaranteed.

  19. Ultimate loading of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Ronold, K.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    1999-01-01

    An extreme loading study has been conducted comprising a general wind climate analysis as well as a wind turbine reliability study. In the wind climate analysis, the distribution of the (horizontal) turbulence standard deviation, conditioned on the meanwind speed, has been approximated by fitting......, a design turbulence intensity for off-shore application is proposed which, in the IEC code framework, is applicable for extreme as well as for fatigue loaddetermination. In order to establish a rational method to analyse wind turbine components with respect to failure in ultimate loading, and in addition...... to the event of failure in ultimate loading in flapwise bending in the normal operating condition of a site-specific turbine....

  20. Efficiency of Capacitively Loaded Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Huang, Lina; Andersen, Michael A. E.;

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the characteristic of capacitance versus voltage for dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) actuator, 2kV polypropylene film capacitor as well as 3kV X7R multi layer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) at the beginning. An energy efficiency for capacitively loaded converters...... is introduced as a definition of efficiency. The calculated and measured efficiency curves for charging DEAP actuator, polypropylene film capacitor and X7R MLCC are provided and compared. The attention has to be paid for the voltage dependent capacitive load, like X7R MLCC, when evaluating the charging...... polypropylene film capacitor can be the equivalent capacitive load. Because of the voltage dependent characteristic, X7R MLCC cannot be used to replace the DEAP actuator. However, this type of capacitor can be used to substitute the capacitive actuator with voltage dependent property at the development phase....

  1. RF Loads for Energy Recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Federmann, S; Caspers, F

    2012-01-01

    Different conceptional designs for RF high power loads are presented. One concept implies the use of solid state rectifier modules for direct RF to DC conversion with efficiencies beyond 80%. In addition, robust metallic low-Q resonant structures, capable of operating at high temperatures (>150 ◦C) are discussed. Another design deals with a very high temperature (up to 800 ◦C) air cooled load using a ceramic foam block inside a metal enclosure. This porous ceramic block is the microwave absorber and is not brazed to the metallic enclosure.

  2. Fatigue Reliability under Random Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talreja, R.

    1979-01-01

    , with the application of random loads, the initial homogeneous distribution of strength changes to a two-component distribution, reflecting the two-stage fatigue damage. In the crack initiation stage, the strength increases initially and then decreases, while an abrupt decrease of strength is seen in the crack...... propagation stage. The consequences of this behaviour on the fatigue reliability are discussed....

  3. 基于模糊自适应PID控制器的多轴车辆转向控制系统设计及仿真%Design of Multi-axle Vehicle Steering Control System and Simulation Based on Fuzzy Adaptive PID Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文桂林; 韩汪利; 周兵

    2011-01-01

    A 2-DOF model of the five-axle all terrain crane with some simplifications is proposed, and based on the assumption of zero side-slip angle of mass center and the proportional control strategy, the function relating the angles of the rear and the front axles. and the velocity are derived. With some simplifications with respect to the proportional valve and the cylinder, a mathematical model of the steering system in Matlab/Simulink is established. In order to overcome the weakness of the traditional PID controller, a fuzzy adaptive PID controller of the rear axle steering angle is built in Matlab by using its fuzzy logic control toolbox. Through the real-time determination of the PID parameters, a high control precision is achieved. A steady state correring simulation is carried out under 25km/h, and the comparison of the simulation and theoretical values shows that fhe fuzzy adaptive PID controller works well, with quick system response and good following peformance.%通过对多轴转向车辆数学模型进行简化,获得某型号五轴全路面起重机的二自由度操纵动力学模型,并基于零质心侧偏角控制策略推导出各后轮转角与前轮转角及车速的函数关系.在对比例阀和转向执行机构(液压缸)进行简化的基础上,在Matlab/Simulink中建立了转向系统完整的数学模型.为克服传统PID控制器的缺点,基于Matlab模糊逻辑控制模块建立了转向系统模糊自适应PID控制器,对PID控制器各个控制参数进行在线整定,以此获得较高的控制精度.以25km/h速度下稳态回转试验对该控制器进行仿真验证.经过仿真分析后发现,该模糊控制器取得很好的效果,系统响应迅速,跟随性好,完全能满足控制需要.

  4. Experimental investigation of ultimate loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, S.M.; Larsen, G.C.; Antoniou, I.; Lind, S.O.; Courtney, M. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Verification of the structural integrity of a wind turbine involves analysis of fatigue loading as well as ultimate loading. With the trend of persistently growing turbines, the ultimate loading seems to become relatively more important. For wind turbines designed according to the wind conditions prescribed in the IEC-61400 code, the ultimate load is often identified as the leading load parameter. Exemplified by the use of an extensive measurement campaign a procedure for evaluation of the extreme flap-wise bending moments, occurring during normal operating of a wind turbine, is presented. The structural measurements are made on a NEG Micon 650 kW wind turbine erected at a complex high wind site in Oak Creek, California. The turbine is located on the top of a ridge. The prevailing wind direction is perpendicular to the ridge, and the annual mean wind speed is 9.5 m/s. The associated wind field measurement, are taken from two instrumented masts erected less than one rotor diameter in front of the turbine in direction of the prevailing wind direction. Both masts are instrumented at different heights in order to gain insight of the 3D-wind speed structure over the entire rotor plane. Extreme distributions, associated with a recurrence period of 10 minutes, conditioned on the mean wind speed and the turbulence intensity are derived. Combined with the wind climate model proposed in the IEC standard, these distributions are used to predict extreme distributions with recurrence periods equal to one and fifty years, respectively. The synthesis of the conditioned PDF`s and the wind climate model is performed by means of Monte Carlo simulation. (au)

  5. Use of Flexible Body Coupled Loads in Assessment of Day of Launch Flight Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Brett R.; Yunis, Isam; Olds, Aaron D.

    2011-01-01

    A Day of Launch flight loads assessment technique that determines running loads calculated from flexible body coupled loads was developed for the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle. The technique was developed to quantify DOL flight loads in terms of structural load components rather than the typically used q-alpha metric to provide more insight into the DOL loads. In this technique, running loads in the primary structure are determined from the combination of quasi-static aerodynamic loads and dynamic loads. The aerodynamic loads are calculated as a function of time using trajectory parameters passed from the DOL trajectory simulation and are combined with precalculated dynamic loads using a load combination equation. The potential change in aerodynamic load due to wind variability during the countdown is included in the load combination. In the event of a load limit exceedance, the technique allows the identification of what load component is exceeded, a quantification of how much the load limit is exceeded, and where on the vehicle the exceedance occurs. This technique was used to clear the Ares I-X FTV for launch on October 28, 2009. This paper describes the use of coupled loads in the Ares I-X flight loads assessment and summarizes the Ares I-X load assessment results.

  6. 某轿车悬架系统的载荷仿真分析%Load Simulation Analysis on a Car Suspension System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯金芝; 刘乐; 郑松林

    2012-01-01

    基于多体动力学理论建立了某型轿车后悬架的刚柔耦合动力学模型,将采集的某试车场比利时路面不平度信号作为路面激励输入,对悬架系统进行了动态仿真,并用已有道路试验数据,包括后桥垂向加速度和悬架动行程验证了模型的正确性.最后,基于经验证的悬架动力学模型,对关键部件的受力状况进行了全面仿真,确定了悬架系统各部件承受的主要载荷形式,可为悬架系统载荷谱采集测点的选取提供参考.%A rigid-flexible coupling dynamic model for the rear suspension of a car is established based on multi-body dynamics theory. With the roughness signals of ' Belgian road' collected in a proving ground as road excitation input, a dynamic simulation on suspension system is carried out. Then the model is verified to be correct by the road test data available including the vertical acceleration of rear axle and the dynamic deflection of suspension. Finally based on the model verified, a comprehensive simulation on the force bearing states of key components is conducted to determine the main patterns of loads borne by various components of suspension system, providing references for selecting measuring points for the load spectrum acquisition of suspension system.

  7. Numerical prediction of slamming loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seng, Sopheak; Jensen, Jørgen J; Pedersen, Preben T

    2012-01-01

    . The pressure distribution as well as the total force is then determined by integration over a pseudo-three-dimensional presentation of the hull geometry.In this paper the evaluation of the slamming load is taken one step further by performing direct three-dimensional, fully non-linear numerical calculations...... in a realistic wave environment.Both the global and the local slamming loads are assessed numerically using a finite-volume formulation with the free surface captured by a volume-of-fluid technique. This numerical procedure is justified by comprehensive validation studies where numerically evaluated slamming...... pressures are compared with experimentally measured results.To obtain an insight into the three-dimensional flow effects the next step is to apply the validated numerical procedure to evaluate and compare the accuracy and performance of the traditionally used two-dimensional formulations by a comparison...

  8. Thermal loading of natural streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Alan P.; Yotsukura, Nobuhiro

    1977-01-01

    The impact of thermal loading on the temperature regime of natural streams is investigated by mathematical models, which describe both transport (convection-diffusion) and decay (surface dissipation) of waste heat over 1-hour or shorter time intervals. The models are derived from the principle of conservation of thermal energy for application to one- and two-dimensional spaces. The basic concept in these models is to separate water temperature into two parts, (1) excess temperature due to thermal loading and (2) natural (ambient) temperature. This separation allows excess temperature to be calculated from the models without incoming radiation data. Natural temperature may either be measured in prototypes or calculated from the model. If use is made of the model, however, incoming radiation is required as input data. Comparison of observed and calculated temperatures in seven natural streams shows that the models are capable of predicting transient temperature regimes satisfactorily in most cases. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. Auditory perceptual load: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sandra; Spence, Charles; Dalton, Polly

    2017-02-08

    Selective attention is a crucial mechanism in everyday life, allowing us to focus on a portion of incoming sensory information at the expense of other less relevant stimuli. The circumstances under which irrelevant stimuli are successfully ignored have been a topic of scientific interest for several decades now. Over the last 20 years, the perceptual load theory (e.g. Lavie, 1995) has provided one robust framework for understanding these effects within the visual modality. The suggestion is that successful selection depends on the perceptual demands imposed by the task-relevant information. However, less research has addressed the question of whether the same principles hold in audition and, to date, the existing literature provides a mixed picture. Here, we review the evidence for and against the applicability of perceptual load theory in hearing, concluding that this question still awaits resolution.

  10. Trailer-loading of horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Payana; Elmgreen, Katrine; Ladewig, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The traditional way to train horses is by the application of negative reinforcement (NR). In the past few years, however, the use of positive reinforcement (PR) has become more common. To evaluate the effectiveness and the possible stressor effect of the 2 training methods, 12 horses showing severe...... trailer-loading problems were selected and exposed to trailer-loading. They were randomly assigned to one of the 2 methods. NR consisted of various degrees of pressure (lead rope pulling, whip tapping). Pressure was removed as soon as the horse complied. PR horses were exposed to clicker training...... and taught to follow a target into the trailer. Heart rate (HR) was recorded every 5 seconds and behavior denoting discomfort was observed using one-zero sampling with 10 seconds sampling intervals. Training was completed when the horse could enter the trailer upon a signal, or was terminated after a maximum...

  11. Robust Multimodal Cognitive Load Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-26

    13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The objective of this project includes research of the fundamental issues related to the use of multiple...dimension, Hurst exponent) of electroencephalogram ( EEG ) signals to evaluate changes in working memory load during the performance of a cognitive task...study of multiple unobtrusive modalities, namely EEG , eye activity, linguistic and grammatical features, GSR, face, and writing behavior for CLM as

  12. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  13. High Temperature Radio Frequency Loads

    CERN Document Server

    Federmann, S; Grudiev, A; Montesinos, E; Syratchev, I

    2011-01-01

    In the context of energy saving and recovery requirements the design of reliable and robust RF power loads which permit a high outlet temperature and high pressure of the cooling water is desirable. Cooling water arriving at the outlet withmore than 150 ◦C and high pressure has a higher value than water with 50 ◦C under low pressure. Conventional RF power loads containing dielectric and magnetic materials as well as sensitive ceramic windows usually do not permit going much higher than 90 ◦C. Here we present and discuss several design concepts for "metal only" RF high power loads. One concept is the application of magnetic steel corrugated waveguides near cutoff – this concept could find practical use above several GHz. Another solution are resonant structures made of steel to be installed in large waveguides for frequencies of 500 MHz or lower. Similar resonant structures above 100 MHz taking advantage of the rather high losses of normal steel may also be used in coaxial line geometries with large di...

  14. Structural Design of Asphalt Pavement for Low Cost Rural Roads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Goulin; Chen Rongshen

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the equivalent axle load action frequency, the traffic classifications of rural roads as well as their corresponding types are classified. The asphalt pavement structure, road surface types and thickness of the rural roads are suggested for the various action frequency of the equivalent axle load. Furthermore, the roadbase thickness graphs are provided according to different equivalent axle load action frequency with different roadbed modulus and road surface modulus taken into account.

  15. Simulation of Stochastic Loads for Fatigue Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Brincker, Rune

    A simple direct simulation method for stochastic fatigue load generation is described in this paper. The simulation method is based on the assumption that only the peaks of the load process significantly affect the fatigue life. The method requires the conditional distribution functions of load...... second using an IBM PC. Finally the proposed simulation method for fatigue load generation is tested by comparing some fatigue damage measures obtained by the simulation methods....

  16. Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

  17. Load Characteristics Analysis of State Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wei; Zhou Feng; Han Xinyang; Shan Baoguo; Zhu Li

    2009-01-01

    @@ Introduction Analysis and forecast of load characteristics are important aspects in power market analysis and prediction.Correctly mastering grid load characteristics and its development trend is not only the vital basis for power planning,generation and operation,but also the important references for formulating the relevant policies.It is usually very hard to grasp the load characteristics of power grid.

  18. Load Bearing Equipment for Bone and Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Linda; Griffith, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Resistance exercise on ISS has proven effective in maintaining bone mineral density and muscle mass. Exploration missions require exercise with similar high loads using equipment with less mass and volume and greater safety and reliability than resistance exercise equipment used on ISS (iRED, ARED, FWED). Load Bearing Equipment (LBE) uses each exercising person to create and control the load to the partner.

  19. Response of Rubble Foundation to Dynamic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1993-01-01

    The soil beneath vertical monolithic structures is subjected to a combination of static load due to the submerged weight of the structure and stochastic non-stationary loads as a result of the wave loads on the vertical wall. The stress conditions in the soil below a foundation exposed to both st...

  20. Response of Rubble Foundation to Dynamic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1994-01-01

    The soil beneath vertical monolithic structures is subjected to a combination of static load due to the submerged weight of the structure and stochastic non-stationary loads as a result of the wave loads on the vertical wall. The stress conditions in the soil below a foundation exposed to both st...

  1. Wind loads on solar energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, B.J.M. van; Geurts, C.P.W.; Borsboom, W.A.; Blackmore, P.

    2005-01-01

    Wind loads on solar energy systems are not covered by current wind loading standards. This paper describes results of a parametric study into the wind loads 0on solar energy systems,. which are placed on flat roofs. Wind tunnel measurements have been carried out on a number of configurations. The re

  2. Introduction to Single Piles under Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    The purpose of this chapter is to give a short introduction to single piles subjected to lateral loading. First, the observed behaviour of laterally loaded piles is described, i.e. the effects of loading conditions, installation procedure, pile type etc. on pile behaviour are presented (section 1...

  3. Critical loads - assessment of uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkman, A.

    1998-10-01

    The effects of data uncertainty in applications of the critical loads concept were investigated on different spatial resolutions in Sweden and northern Czech Republic. Critical loads of acidity (CL) were calculated for Sweden using the biogeochemical model PROFILE. Three methods with different structural complexity were used to estimate the adverse effects of S0{sub 2} concentrations in northern Czech Republic. Data uncertainties in the calculated critical loads/levels and exceedances (EX) were assessed using Monte Carlo simulations. Uncertainties within cumulative distribution functions (CDF) were aggregated by accounting for the overlap between site specific confidence intervals. Aggregation of data uncertainties within CDFs resulted in lower CL and higher EX best estimates in comparison with percentiles represented by individual sites. Data uncertainties were consequently found to advocate larger deposition reductions to achieve non-exceedance based on low critical loads estimates on 150 x 150 km resolution. Input data were found to impair the level of differentiation between geographical units at all investigated resolutions. Aggregation of data uncertainty within CDFs involved more constrained confidence intervals for a given percentile. Differentiation as well as identification of grid cells on 150 x 150 km resolution subjected to EX was generally improved. Calculation of the probability of EX was shown to preserve the possibility to differentiate between geographical units. Re-aggregation of the 95%-ile EX on 50 x 50 km resolution generally increased the confidence interval for each percentile. Significant relationships were found between forest decline and the three methods addressing risks induced by S0{sub 2} concentrations. Modifying S0{sub 2} concentrations by accounting for the length of the vegetation period was found to constitute the most useful trade-off between structural complexity, data availability and effects of data uncertainty. Data

  4. Neighborhood perceptions and allostatic load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Deurzen, Ioana; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Christensen, Ulla;

    2016-01-01

    this line of argumentation, in the present study we test whether subjective perceptions of neighborhood characteristics relate to an objective measure of stress-related physiological functioning, namely allostatic load (AL). We use a large dataset of 5280 respondents living in different regions of Denmark...... and we account for two alternative mechanisms, i.e., the objective characteristics of the living environment and the socio-economic status of individuals. Our results support the chronic stress mechanisms linking neighborhood quality to health. Heightened perceptions of disorder and pollution were found...

  5. Equilibria in Load Balancing Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Chen

    2009-01-01

    A Nash equilibrium (NE) in a multi-agent game is a strategy profile that is resilient to unilateral deviations.A strong Nash equilibrium (SE) is one that is stable against coordinated deviations of any coalition.We show that,in the load balancing games,NEs approximate SEs in the sense that the benefit of each member of any coalition from coordinated deviations is well limited.Furthermore,we show that an easily recognizable special subset of NEs exhibit even better approximation of SEs.

  6. Automated Loads Analysis System (ATLAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Stephen; Frere, Scot; O’Reilly, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    ATLAS is a generalized solution that can be used for launch vehicles. ATLAS is used to produce modal transient analysis and quasi-static analysis results (i.e., accelerations, displacements, and forces) for the payload math models on a specific Shuttle Transport System (STS) flight using the shuttle math model and associated forcing functions. This innovation solves the problem of coupling of payload math models into a shuttle math model. It performs a transient loads analysis simulating liftoff, landing, and all flight events between liftoff and landing. ATLAS utilizes efficient and numerically stable algorithms available in MSC/NASTRAN.

  7. Online load forecasting for supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    2013-01-01

    in Denmark. Every hour the hourly load for refrigeration for the following 42 hours is forecasted. The forecast models are time adaptive linear time-series models. The dynamic relations between the inputs and the load is modeled by simple transfer functions. The system operates in two regimes: one......This paper presents a study of models for forecasting the load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the forecasting models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...

  8. Novel Musculoskeletal Loading and Assessment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Meghan E.

    2017-01-01

    Ground based and ISS (International Space Station) exercise research have shown that axial loading via two-point loading at the shoulders and load quality (i.e. consistent load and at least 1:1 concentric to eccentric ratio) are extremely important to optimize musculoskeletal adaptations to resistance exercise. The Advanced Resistance Exercise Device (ARED) is on ISS now and is the "state of the art" for resistance exercise capabilities in microgravity; however, the ARED is far too large and power consuming for exploration vehicles. The single cable exercise device design selected for MPCV (Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle), does not readily allow for the two-point loading at the shoulders.

  9. Electric load management and energy conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheir, N. A.

    1976-01-01

    Electric load management and energy conservation relate heavily to the major problems facing power industry at present. The three basic modes of energy conservation are identified as demand reduction, increased efficiency and substitution for scarce fuels. Direct and indirect load management objectives are to reduce peak loads and have future growth in electricity requirements in such a manner to cause more of it to fall off the system's peak. In this paper, an overview of proposed and implemented load management options is presented. Research opportunities exist for the evaluation of socio-economic impacts of energy conservation and load management schemes specially on the electric power industry itself.

  10. Concurrent Working Memory Load Can Facilitate Selective Attention: Evidence for Specialized Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soojin; Kim, Min-Shik; Chun, Marvin M.

    2007-01-01

    Load theory predicts that concurrent working memory load impairs selective attention and increases distractor interference (N. Lavie, A. Hirst, J. W. de Fockert, & E. Viding, see record 2004-17825-003). Here, the authors present new evidence that the type of concurrent working memory load determines whether load impairs selective attention or not.…

  11. Allostatic Load and Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Olson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is a universal health problem that is one of the largest unmet medical needs contributing to the global burden of disease. Adding to its complexity is that there are no means to predict who is at risk when pregnancy begins or when women will actually deliver. Until these problems are addressed, there will be no interventions to reduce the risk because those who should be treated will not be known. Considerable evidence now exists that chronic life, generational or accumulated stress is a risk factor for preterm delivery in animal models and in women. This wear and tear on the body and mind is called allostatic load. This review explores the evidence that chronic stress contributes to preterm birth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in animal and human studies. It explores how allostatic load can be used to, firstly, model stress and preterm birth in animal models and, secondly, how it can be used to develop a predictive model to assess relative risk among women in early pregnancy. Once care providers know who is in the highest risk group, interventions can be developed and applied to mitigate their risk.

  12. Liposome-Loaded Cell Backpacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Roberta; Lim, Rosanna M; Beppu, Marisa M; Pitombo, Ronaldo N M; Cohen, Robert E; Rubner, Michael F

    2015-12-30

    Cell backpacks, or micron-scale patches of a few hundred nanometers in thickness fabricated by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly, are potentially useful vehicles for targeted drug delivery on the cellular level. In this work, echogenic liposomes (ELIPs) containing the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) are embedded into backpacks through electrostatic interactions and LbL assembly. Poly(allylamine hydrochloride)/poly(acrylic acid) (PAH/PAA)n , and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)/poly(styrene sulfonate) (PDAC/SPS)n film systems show the greatest ELIP incorporation of the films studied while maintaining the structural integrity of the vesicles. The use of ELIPs for drug encapsulation into backpacks facilitates up to three times greater DOX loading compared to backpacks without ELIPs. Cytotoxicity studies reveal that monocyte backpack conjugates remain viable even after 72 h, demonstrating promise as drug delivery vehicles. Because artificial vesicles can load many different types of drugs, ELIP containing backpacks offer a unique versatility for broadening the range of possible applications for cell backpacks.

  13. Tetrahydrobiopterin loading test in hyperphenylalaninemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzone, A; Guardamagna, O; Ferraris, S; Ferrero, G B; Dianzani, I; Cotton, R G

    1991-11-01

    Some cases of primary hyperphenylalaninemia are not caused by the lack of phenylalanine hydroxylase, but by the lack of its cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin. These patients are not clinically responsive to a phenylalanine-restricted diet, but need specific substitution therapy. Thus, it became necessary to examine all newborns screened as positive with the Guthrie test for tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency. Methods based on urinary pterin or on specific enzyme activity measurements are limited in their availability, and the simplest method, based on the lowering of serum phenylalanine after loading with cofactor, was discouraged by the finding that some dihydropteridine reductase-deficient patients were unresponsive. The preliminary observation that this limitation could be overcome by increasing the dose of the administered cofactor prompted us to reevaluate the potential of the tetrahydrobiopterin loading test in hyperphenylalaninemia. Fifteen patients, eight with ultimate diagnosis of phenylketonuria, three with 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin synthase-, and four with dihydropteridine reductase-deficiency, have been examined by administering synthetic tetrahydrobiopterin both orally, at doses of 7.5 and 20 mg/kg, and i.v., at a dose of 2 mg/kg. All the tetrahydrobiopterin-deficient patients, unlike those with phenylketonuria, responded to the oral dose of 20 mg/kg cofactor by lowering their serum phenylalanine concentration markedly below baseline to an extent easily detectable by Guthrie cards. This method allows for a simple screening method when enzyme or pterin studies are not available.

  14. Intelligent System for Radial Distribution Load Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali Holkar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows an application of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs to determine the bus voltages and phase angles of a radial distribution system, without executing the complicated load flow algorithm, for any given load. The performance of the conventional load flow methods such as Newtoh-Raphson load flow, Fast decoupled load flow is found to be very poor under critical conditions such as high R/X ratio, heavily loading condition etc.To overcome the limitations of these regularly used methods a simple and reliable ladder iterative technique is used for solving the power balance equations of radial distribution system (RDS. The proposed method make use of a multi-layer feed forward ANN with error back propagation learning algorithm for calculation of bus voltages and its angles. A sample IEEE 33-bus is extensively tested with the proposed ANN based approach indicating its viability for RDS load flow assessment and results are presented.

  15. Loads in the design of flight vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simion TĂTARU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of flight loads is a critical part of air vehicle design. On the other hand, the prediction of accurate loads is a sophisticated and complex process that requires skilled and experienced engineers. They must integrate results from wind tunnel tests, computer simulations, historical data and empirical formulations into a number of loads cases that provide a realistic assessment of the flight vehicle’s environment. Under these conditions, the vehicle must satisfy requirements imposed by regulatory agencies as part of the vehicle certification process.Loads and boundary conditions can be associated to either the finite element model or the underlying geometry. By associating loads and boundary conditions to the geometry the finite element model mesh and elements can be modified without redefining and applying the loads to the model. Loads and boundary conditions are associated to the model geometry by default.

  16. Load Balancing Algorithm for Cache Cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘美华; 古志民; 曹元大

    2003-01-01

    By the load definition of cluster, the request is regarded as granularity to compute load and implement the load balancing in cache cluster. First, the processing power of cache-node is studied from four aspects: network bandwidth, memory capacity, disk access rate and CPU usage. Then, the weighted load of cache-node is customized. Based on this, a load-balancing algorithm that can be applied to the cache cluster is proposed. Finally, Polygraph is used as a benchmarking tool to test the cache cluster possessing the load-balancing algorithm and the cache cluster with cache array routing protocol respectively. The results show the load-balancing algorithm can improve the performance of the cache cluster.

  17. Load balancing in integrated optical wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars; Wong, S-W.;

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we tackle the load balancing problem in Integrated Optical Wireless Networks, where cell breathing technique is used to solve congestion by changing the coverage area of a fully loaded cell tower. Our objective is to design a load balancing mechanism which works closely with the in......In this paper, we tackle the load balancing problem in Integrated Optical Wireless Networks, where cell breathing technique is used to solve congestion by changing the coverage area of a fully loaded cell tower. Our objective is to design a load balancing mechanism which works closely...... issues are outlined and a cost function based optimization model is developed for power management. In particularly, two alternative feedback schemes are proposed to report wireless network status. Simulation results show that our proposed load balancing mechanism improves network performances....

  18. Common source-multiple load vs. separate source-individual load photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    A comparison of system performance is made for two possible system setups: (1) individual loads powered by separate solar cell sources; and (2) multiple loads powered by a common solar cell source. A proof for resistive loads is given that shows the advantage of a common source over a separate source photovoltaic system for a large range of loads. For identical loads, both systems perform the same.

  19. Greywater pollution variability and loadings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Madsen, Toke S.

    2009-01-01

    Small on-site greywater treatment and reuse plants are susceptible to high short-term variation in flow and pollutant concentrations. As demonstrated in this study of a bathroom greywater plant in Copenhagen, Denmark, the flow ranges from no-flow periods to high-flow periods reaching 34 l min−1....... Concentrations of both macro- and micro-pollutants (organic matter and parabens) were found to range by several orders of magnitude in the influent, based on sampling every 20 min. Paraben degradation was proven to occur in the rotating biological contactor (RBC), while the remnant organic matter in the effluent...... was proved not to be readily degradable. Ammonium content, presumably from urine contamination, was found to undergo nitrification in the RBC. Mass flow (daily loads) for individual substances was calculated for several pollutants. Macropollutants were found to be generated in low numbers of grams per person...

  20. Impaired sleep and allostatic load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Dich, Nadya; Lange, Theis

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Understanding the mechanisms linking sleep impairment to morbidity and mortality is important for future prevention, but these mechanisms are far from elucidated. We aimed to determine the relation between impaired sleep, both in terms of duration and disturbed sleep, and allostatic load...... Biobank with comprehensive information on sleep duration, disturbed sleep, objective measures of an extensive range of biological risk markers, and physical conditions. Results: Long sleep (mean difference 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13, 0.32) and disturbed sleep (0.14; 0.06, 0.22) were associated...... with higher AL as well as with high-risk levels of risk markers from the anthropometric, metabolic, and immune system. Sub-analyses suggested that the association between disturbed sleep and AL might be explained by underlying disorders. Whereas there was no association between short sleep and AL...

  1. Beryllium strain under dynamic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushkov Victor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are some data (not much on dynamic characteristics of beryllium that are important, for example, when estimating construction performance at NPP emergencies. A number of data on stress-strain curves, spall strength, shear strength, fracture and structure responses of shock loaded beryllium have obtained in US and Russian laboratories. For today the model description of this complex metal behavior does not have a reasonable agreement with the experimental data, thus a wider spectrum of experimental data is required. This work presents data on dynamic compression-test diagrams of Russian beryllium. Experiments are performed using Hopkinson bar method (SHPB. Strain rates were ε ∼ 103 s−1.

  2. Impedance matching between ventricle and load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piene, H

    1984-01-01

    Impedance matching in the cardiovascular system is discussed in light of two models of ventricle and load: a Thevenin equivalent consisting of a hydromotive pressure source and an internal, source resistance and compliance in parallel; and a time-varying compliance filled from a constant pressure source and ejecting into a load of three components, a central resistor, a compliance, and a peripheral resistance. According to the Thevenin analog, the energy source and the load are matched when the load resistance is T/t times the internal source resistance (T is total cycle length, t is systolic time interval). Both from this model and from the variable compliance model it appears that optimum matching between source and load depends on the compliance of the Windkessel, as low compliance shifts the matching load resistance to a low value. Animal experiments (isolated cat hearts) indicated that both left and right ventricles at normal loads work close to their maxima of output hydraulic power, and, according to experiments in the right ventricle, maximum power output is related to load resistance and compliance as predicted by the above models. From an experimentally determined relationship among instantaneous ventricular pressure and volume (right ventricle of isolated cat hearts), an optimum load impedance was calculated on the basis of the assumption that the ratio between stroke work and static, potential energy developed in the ventricular cavity is maximum. The optimum load impedance found by this procedure closely resembles the normal input impedance of the cat lung vessel bed.

  3. Load carriage, human performance, and employment standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Peoples, Gregory E; Petersen, Stewart R

    2016-06-01

    The focus of this review is on the physiological considerations necessary for developing employment standards within occupations that have a heavy reliance on load carriage. Employees within military, fire fighting, law enforcement, and search and rescue occupations regularly work with heavy loads. For example, soldiers often carry loads >50 kg, whilst structural firefighters wear 20-25 kg of protective clothing and equipment, in addition to carrying external loads. It has long been known that heavy loads modify gait, mobility, metabolic rate, and efficiency, while concurrently elevating the risk of muscle fatigue and injury. In addition, load carriage often occurs within environmentally stressful conditions, with protective ensembles adding to the thermal burden of the workplace. Indeed, physiological strain relates not just to the mass and dimensions of carried objects, but to how those loads are positioned on and around the body. Yet heavy loads must be borne by men and women of varying body size, and with the expectation that operational capability will not be impinged. This presents a recruitment conundrum. How do employers identify capable and injury-resistant individuals while simultaneously avoiding discriminatory selection practices? In this communication, the relevant metabolic, cardiopulmonary, and thermoregulatory consequences of loaded work are reviewed, along with concomitant impediments to physical endurance and mobility. Also emphasised is the importance of including occupation-specific clothing, protective equipment, and loads during work-performance testing. Finally, recommendations are presented for how to address these issues when evaluating readiness for duty.

  4. An Efficient Energy Management Strategy, Unique Power Split & Energy Distribution, Based on Calculated Vehicle Road Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    gearbox with pneumatic shift actuator. The differential connects to the final drives at the front axle. There are wheel end reduction units (WERU) at...regenerative braking or simulated engine braking . AVL Hybrid Control System (HCU) coordinates and controls all system components as laid out in Figure...HMMWV for the current given inputs based on the current vehicle speed, acceleration pedal, and brake pedal. From this driver requested power at the

  5. Allostatic load and biological anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edes, Ashley N; Crews, Douglas E

    2017-01-01

    Multiple stressors affect developing and adult organisms, thereby partly structuring their phenotypes. Determining how stressors influence health, well-being, and longevity in human and nonhuman primate populations are major foci within biological anthropology. Although much effort has been devoted to examining responses to multiple environmental and sociocultural stressors, no holistic metric to measure stress-related physiological dysfunction has been widely applied within biological anthropology. Researchers from disciplines outside anthropology are using allostatic load indices (ALIs) to estimate such dysregulation and examine life-long outcomes of stressor exposures, including morbidity and mortality. Following allostasis theory, allostatic load represents accumulated physiological and somatic damage secondary to stressors and senescent processes experienced over the lifespan. ALIs estimate this wear-and-tear using a composite of biomarkers representing neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, metabolic, and immune systems. Across samples, ALIs are associated significantly with multiple individual characteristics (e.g., age, sex, education, DNA variation) of interest within biological anthropology. They also predict future outcomes, including aspects of life history variation (e.g., survival, lifespan), mental and physical health, morbidity and mortality, and likely health disparities between groups, by stressor exposures, ethnicity, occupations, and degree of departure from local indigenous life ways and integration into external and commodified ones. ALIs also may be applied to similar stress-related research areas among nonhuman primates. Given the reports from multiple research endeavors, here we propose ALIs may be useful for assessing stressors, stress responses, and stress-related dysfunction, current and long-term cognitive function, health and well-being, and risk of early mortality across many research programs within biological anthropology.

  6. 厂修货车转 K6 型承载鞍组装常见故障及处理%On the Common Faults and Disposal of Assembling the Load-bearing Saddle Typed K6 Bogie of the Truck Repaired in the Factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何步斌

    2015-01-01

    通过对厂修货车转K6型承载鞍组装过程中常见的承载鞍推力挡肩内径面与前盖外径面间隙超限、 承载鞍与侧架导框纵向单侧间隙超限、 轴箱橡胶垫无法落位3种故障进行分析, 查找原因, 提出控制措施.%The paper analyzes the common faults of assembling the bogie load-bearing saddle typed K6 of the truck repaired in the factory from three aspects , i.e.the gap beyond the limit between the aperture surface of the thrust block shoulder and the outside diameter of the front cover , the longitudinal unilateral gap beyond the limit between the load-bearing saddle and the side guide frame and the rubber blanket of the axle box failure to reach the designated position .It aims at finding out the reason of problems and puts forward some controlling measures .

  7. 时域和空间域路面激励下重型辆动载荷仿真分析%Simulation Analysis of Heavy-duty Vehicle Dynamic Load under Road Excitation in Time Domain and Spatial Domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋荣超; 刘大维; 王松; 康忠亮

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the dynamic load characteristics of heavy-duty vehicle under road excitation in time domain and spatial domain, a rigid flexible coupling virtual vehicle prototype was established using SIMPACK software. The tires and leaf springs were treated as deformable body, and the rubber pads and limit block were simplified to force elements with non-linear stiffness and damping characteristics. And time domain and spatial domain mathematical models of road excitation were established using the harmony superposition method based on power spectral density of rational function. Then a dynamic model of vehicle under road excitation in time domain and spatial domain was established, and the vehicle tire normal force and tire normal dynamic load coefficient were computed. The simulation results indicate that (1) at different driving speeds, the values and change regularities of tire normal forces obtained under the road excitation in time domain and spatial domain were not the same, and the maximum values of tire normal force appeared at different location; (2) the change regularities of the middle and the rear axles' tire normal dynamic load coefficients were basically similar, while those of the front axle's tire normal dynamic load coefficient were different. The research results could provide a basis for calculation, verification and prediction of vehicle tire dynamic load.%为研究时间和空间频率路面激励下重型车辆动载特性,将车辆的轮胎、钢板弹簧视为柔体,橡胶垫块、限位块简化为具有非线性刚度和阻尼特性的力元,采用多体动力学仿真软件SIMPACK建立刚柔耦合的车辆整车虚拟样机,并采用有理函数功率谱密度的谐波叠加法建立空间域和时域路面激励数学模型,创建一个时域和空间域路面激励下车辆行驶动力学模型,仿真计算了车辆各轴轮胎的法向作用力和车轮法向动栽系数.结果表明:不同车速下,时域和空间域路面激

  8. Load research manual. Volume 2. Fundamentals of implementing load research procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  9. Static Load Distribution in Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Mario

    2010-01-01

    A numerical procedure for computing the internal loading distribution in statically loaded, single-row, angular-contact ball bearings when subjected to a known combined radial and thrust load is presented. The combined radial and thrust load must be applied in order to avoid tilting between inner and outer rings. The numerical procedure requires the iterative solution of Z + 2 simultaneous nonlinear equations - where Z is the number of the balls - to yield an exact solution for axial and radial deflections, and contact angles. Numerical results for a 218 angular-contact ball bearing have been compared with those from the literature and show significant differences in the magnitudes of the ball loads, contact angles, and the extent of the loading zone.

  10. [Environment load from China's cement production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tian-le; He, Wei; Zeng, Xiao-lan; Huang, Xin; Ma, Bao-guo

    2006-10-01

    Based on the life-cycle theory, a quantitative evaluation of the environment load caused by cement manufacturing in China was carried out with the application of the CML. environmental impact assessment method. The results show that global warming potential, energy depletion potential and abiotic depletion potential make the main contribution to the environment impact, their environmental loads corresponding to identical environmental impact sorts being 2.76%, 2.34% and 1.39% of the overall load of the whole world, respectively. In 2004, the environment load from cement manufacturing in China is roughly 1.28% of the overall load of the whole world, in which the environmental loads from the shaft kiln processing, wet rotary processing and new-type dry processing being 0.84%, 0.12% and 0.32%, respectively. And it can be reduced to about 1% by replacing backward production processes with the dry method production process.

  11. Modeling and control of thermostatically controlled loads

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    As the penetration of intermittent energy sources grows substantially, loads will be required to play an increasingly important role in compensating the fast time-scale fluctuations in generated power. Recent numerical modeling of thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) has demonstrated that such load following is feasible, but analytical models that satisfactorily quantify the aggregate power consumption of a group of TCLs are desired to enable controller design. We develop such a model for...

  12. Stabilization of Externally Slung Helicopter Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-01

    maximum slir^ Loao weighting and " vertical bounce ." The last question provides information on multi-point suspension of external 1oads. PHASE...an allowable cargo load, and vertical bounce . 110 Maximum Sling Load Weight The maximum sling load lifted by a CH-47B helicopter under...changes were made in their flying technique except for very smooth flight control inputs when lifting an ACL. Vertical Bounce Fifteen of the forty Army

  13. Assessment of wind turbine load measurement instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morfiadakis, E.; Papadopoulos, K. [CRES (Greece); Borg, N. van der [ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Petersen, S.M. [Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark); Seifert, H. [DEWI, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    In the framework of Sub-Task3 `Wind turbine load measurement instrumentation` of EU-project `European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Development`, the load measurement techniques have been assessed by laboratory, full scale and numerical tests. The existing methods have been reviewed with emphasis on the strain gage application techniques on composite materials and recommendations are provided for the optimisation of load measurement techniques. (au) EU. 14 refs.

  14. Effects of Cognitive Load on Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    dynamically by the fluctuation in cognitive load. AOARD-12-4076 Effects of Cognitive Load on Trust 10 Figure 1: Proposed conceptual model of trust...that multiple methods of cognitive load measurement are available, in particular, recordings of participants’ speech and language and logged keystrokes ...J. B., & Stokes, C. K. (2010). Exploring a dynamic model of trust management. A white paper by Air Force Research Laboratory. Marcus, N., Cooper, M

  15. Timber joints under long-term loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldborg, T.; Johansen, M.

    This report describes tests and results from stiffness and strength testing of splice joints under long-term loading. During two years of loading the spicimens were exposed to cyclically changing relative humidity. After the loading period the specimens were short-term tested. The connectors were...... integral nail-plates and nailed steel and plywood gussets. The report is intended for designers and researchers in timber engineering....

  16. Effect of practice on perceptual load

    OpenAIRE

    Mejia-Ramirez, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Within attention studies, Lavie's load theory (Lavie & Tsal, 1994; Lavie, Hirst, de Fockert, & Viding, 2004) presented an account that could settle the question whether attention selects stimuli to be processed at an early or late stage of cognitive processing. This theory relied on the concepts of "perceptual load" and "attentional capacity", proposing that attentional resources are automatically allocated to stimuli, but when the perceptual load of the stimuli exceeds person's capacity, tas...

  17. Load prediction of stall regulated wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerck, A.; Dahlberg, J.Aa. [Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden); Carlen, I. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Div. of Marine Structural Engineering; Ganander, H. [Teknikgruppen AB, Sollentua (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    Measurements of blade loads on a turbine situated in a small wind farm shows that the highest blade loads occur during operation close to the peak power i.e. when the turbine operates in the stall region. In this study the extensive experimental data base has been utilised to compare loads in selected campaigns with corresponding load predictions. The predictions are based on time domain simulations of the wind turbine structure, performed by the aeroelastic code VIDYN. In the calculations a model were adopted in order to include the effects of dynamic stall. This paper describes the work carried out so far within the project and key results. 5 refs, 10 figs

  18. Study on Loading Ability of Straw Bale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Kun; JIANG Enchen; DUAN Jieli

    2006-01-01

    The loading ability of straw bale was tested by Electronical Testing Machine. The linear regression equations were proposed between failure density and loading ability, and failure density and compressing energy.Based on an exponent model, the testing coefficients of straw bale were estimated using Levenberg-Marquardt Method. The results of test showed that the relation between failure density and loading ability and compressing energy was linear in the phase of high density. The loading ability of straw bale could meet the building bill.

  19. Target Loading from a Submerged Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Wardlaw

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The pressure on a flat plate suspended over a submerged detonation is measured and simulated. Calculation and experiment are in relatively good agreement, although there is variation in experimental results and simulations are sensitive, near the centerline, to the computational details. This sensitivity is linked to the instability of the accelerating plume, typical of a Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. The plate loading features an initial force at plate center, followed by an expanding circular loading pattern. The initial load is due to plume impact, while the circular load arises from the impact of water transported up the edges of the explosion cavity.

  20. Comparison of Temperature Loadings of Bridge Girders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Římal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the effect of temperature changes on the superstructure of bridges, above all the effect of non-uniform temperature. Loadings according to standards ESN 73 6203, ENV 1991-1-5 and DIN 1072 are compared here. The paper shows a short summary of temperature loading according to each standard and shows the comparison of bending moments arisen from these temperature loadings on superstructure made from continuous girder from a steel-concrete box girder with a composite concrete slab. With respect to a variety of design processes, the comparison is made without any coefficient of loading, combination or material. 

  1. System and method employing a self-organizing map load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Harley, Ronald G.; Du, Liang; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K.; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A.

    2014-06-17

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a self-organizing map load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types and a plurality of neurons, each of the load types corresponding to a number of the neurons; employing a weight vector for each of the neurons; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the loads; determining a load feature vector including at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the loads; and identifying by a processor one of the load types by relating the load feature vector to the neurons of the database by identifying the weight vector of one of the neurons corresponding to the one of the load types that is a minimal distance to the load feature vector.

  2. 重载交通条件下榆佳高速公路汽车荷载研究%Research on Vehicle Load of Highway Bridges on Yu-Jia Highway under Heavy Traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成立涛; 刘宁

    2013-01-01

    榆林至佳县高速公路是陕西省重要的能源运输大通道,重型汽车比例高,交通量大,应用现行规范公路—Ⅰ级汽车荷载进行设计难以满足目标可靠度要求.在对该区域进行交通量调查、研究的基础上,提出适应于该高速公路重载交通特点的桥梁荷载模型.该模型采用车列荷载模式,能直观反映作用于桥梁汽车轴重、总重、轴距等参数,方便桥梁的运营管理,且使桥梁在实际重载交通条件下的安全性和耐久性得到保证.该汽车荷载模型与公路—Ⅰ级的对比分析表明:若采用公路—Ⅰ级汽车荷载乘以放大系数的方法进行设计,会造成不必要的浪费,却未必起到控制设计的目的.采用该汽车荷载进行桥梁设计对总造价影响较小,却能提高公路通行能力.%The highway of Yulin to Jiaxian,with a high proportion of heavy vehicles and large traffic volume,is an important energy transport passage in Shaanxi province.It is hard to meet the reliability requirements using Highway-Ⅰ Class traffic load to design the bridges.A special live load model of highway bridges suitable for the heavy traffic is established after site investigation.The model consists of standard vehicles,which can intuitively reflect the axle loads,gross weight,and wheelbase,etc.,and makes the management of bridge easy and the safty and durability of bridge on heavy traffic to be guaranteed.The comparison between the model and Highway-Ⅰ Class traffic load shows that it will cause in unnecessary waste if using the design method of Highway-Ⅰ Class load multiplied by amplification fator,which will not surely reach the control target.However,this load model has slight effect on overall project cost and can improve the traffic capacity greatly.

  3. Measuring training load in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Michael Ian; Borresen, Jill

    2010-09-01

    The principle of training can be reduced to a simple "dose-response" relationship. The "response" in this relationship can be measured as a change in performance or the adaptation of a physiological system. The "dose" of training, or physiological stress associated with the training load, is more difficult to measure as there is no absolute "gold standard" which can be used in the field, making it difficult to validate procedures. Attempts have been made to use heart rate as a marker of intensity during training, but the theoretical attractiveness of this method is not supported by the accuracy and the practicality of using this method during training or competition. The session RPE, based on the product of training duration and perceived intensity is more practical and can be used in a variety of sports. However, the score depends on a subjective assessment, and the intersubject comparisons may be inaccurate. The demands of different sports vary and therefore the methods of assessing training need to vary accordingly. The time has come to reach consensus on assessing training accurately in different sports. There is a precedent for this consensus approach with scientists having already done so for the assessment of physical activity, and for defining injuries in rugby, football and cricket. Standardizing these methods has resulted in the quality of research in these areas increasing exponentially.

  4. Procedures for Calculating Residential Dehumidification Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Jon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Residential building codes and voluntary labeling programs are continually increasing the energy efficiency requirements of residential buildings. Improving a building's thermal enclosure and installing energy-efficient appliances and lighting can result in significant reductions in sensible cooling loads leading to smaller air conditioners and shorter cooling seasons. However due to fresh air ventilation requirements and internal gains, latent cooling loads are not reduced by the same proportion. Thus, it's becoming more challenging for conventional cooling equipment to control indoor humidity at part-load cooling conditions and using conventional cooling equipment in a non-conventional building poses the potential risk of high indoor humidity. The objective of this project was to investigate the impact the chosen design condition has on the calculated part-load cooling moisture load, and compare calculated moisture loads and the required dehumidification capacity to whole-building simulations. Procedures for sizing whole-house supplemental dehumidification equipment have yet to be formalized; however minor modifications to current Air-Conditioner Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual J load calculation procedures are appropriate for calculating residential part-load cooling moisture loads. Though ASHRAE 1% DP design conditions are commonly used to determine the dehumidification requirements for commercial buildings, an appropriate DP design condition for residential buildings has not been investigated. Two methods for sizing supplemental dehumidification equipment were developed and tested. The first method closely followed Manual J cooling load calculations; whereas the second method made more conservative assumptions impacting both sensible and latent loads.

  5. Load-Speed Interaction Effects on the Biomechanics of Backpack Load Carriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    Backpack Load Carriage DISTRIBUTION: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This paper is part of the following report: TITLE: Soldier...1 Load-Speed Interaction Effects on the Biomechanics of Backpack Load Carriage Everett Harman, Ki-Hoon Han, and Peter Frykman U.S. Army Research...Institute of Environmental Medicine Natick, MA, 01760-5007, U.S.A. Summary We biomechanically examined how backpack load and walking speed interact in

  6. Strategies for Controlling Plug Loads. A Tool for Reducing Plug Loads in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bonnema, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheppy, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Shanti [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Plug loads are often not considered as part of the energy savings measures in Commercial Buildings; however, they can account for up to 50% of the energy used in the building. These loads are numerous and often scattered throughout a building. Some of these loads are purchased by the owner and some designed into the building or the tenant finishes for a space. This document provides a strategy and a tool for minimizing these loads.

  7. Cardboard Activity Is "Loaded" with Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an activity that uses simple paperboard from the back of a pad of paper to illustrate some basic construction principles as students experiment with conducting load tests. The author describes the steps in conducting a load test as well as adding a strut support system. The important lesson here is that…

  8. Critical loads of heavy metals for soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Groenenberg, J.E.; Lofts, S.; Tipping, E.; Posch, M.

    2012-01-01

    To enable a precautionary risk assessment for future inputs of metals, steady-state methods have been developed to assess critical loads of metals avoiding long-term risks to food quality and eco-toxicological effects on organisms in soils and surface waters. A critical load for metals equals the lo

  9. Direct Load Control by AC Frequency Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglass, Philip James; You, Shi

    2012-01-01

    Fine-grained under frequency load shedding called “demand as a frequency controlled reserve“ (DFCR) has been shown to be a promising method of providingfrequency regulation service from distributed loads [1]. Micro-grids with a large portion of intermittent renewable generation will benefit great...

  10. Load balancing by redundant decomposition and maping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ronde, J.F.; Schoneveld, A.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper a new methodology for load balancing parallel processes on parallel systems is proposed. The problem of load balancing is considered to be an NP-hard optimization task. Taking static parallel finite element applications as a case study, the benefits and losses that follow from applying

  11. Retrofitting of RC Slabs Against Explosive Loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Chengqing; OEHLERS Deric John; XIA Shaohua

    2006-01-01

    With the increase of terrorist bomb attacks on buildings,there is a need to develop advanced retrofitting techniques to strengthen structures against blast loads.Currently,several guidelines including an Australian version for retrofitting reinforced concrete (RC) structures are available for the design of retrofitting systems against seismic and monotonic loads using steel or fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) plates that can be either adhesively bonded to the surface or near surface mounted to the concrete cover.However,none of these guidelines provide advice suitable for retrofitting structures subjected to blast loads.In this paper,numerical models are used to simulate the performance of retrofitted RC slabs subjected to blast loads.Airblast pressure distributions on the surface of the slabs estimated in a previous study are used as input in the analysis.A material damage model developedpreviously for concrete and an elastoplastic model for steel bars are employed in this research for modelling reinforced concrete behaviour due to explosive loads.The material models and blast loading are coded into a finite element computer program LS-DYNA3D to do the analysis.With the numerical model,parametric studies are conducted to investigate RC slabs retrofitted by either externally bonded or near-surface mounted plates or GFRP sheets subjected to blast loads.Discussion is made on the effectiveness of the retrofitting system for RC slabs against blast loads.

  12. Perceptual Load Modulates Object-Based Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ming-Chou; Atchley, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Two experimental series are reported using both reaction time (RT) and a data-limited perceptual report to examine the effects of perceptual load on object-based attention. Perceptual load was manipulated across 3 levels by increasing the complexity of perceptual judgments. Data from the RT-based experiments showed object-based effects when the…

  13. Static load testing of a heliostat drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, J.W.

    1991-10-01

    The drive designed and built by the Solar Power Engineering Company (SPECO) for its large area heliostat failed under high wind loads during a winter storm. This report details the testing and analysis done to verify the load capabilities of the rebuilt heliostat drive. Changes in design and improvements in fabrication resulted in a usable drive. 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Duration of load effects of solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Staffan

    Test methods for studying the effect of long-term loading on the load carrying capacity of structural wood are discussed. The impact of sampling procedures on test results is investigated and is exemplified. It is concluded from this investigation that the sampling method has a significant impact...

  15. Controlling the loading of protein nanocages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurup, W.F.

    2013-01-01

    The work described in this thesis focuses on the use of natural protein building blocks to assemble nanocages. Most common strategies for the loading of different protein nanocages suffer from a lack of numerical control over cargo loading. The aim of this thesis was to create a controllable method

  16. 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1997-12-01

    The 1997 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. Data detailing Pacific Northwest non-utility generating (NUG) resources is also available upon request. This analysis updates the 1996 pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1996. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. This document analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system which includes loads and resources in addition to the Federal system. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for the medium load forecast. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1998--99 through 2007--08.

  17. Investigation of rotor control system loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Tao; Tan Jianfeng; Wang Haowen

    2013-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the aeroelasticity analysis of rotor blade and rotor control systems. A new multi-body dynamics model is established to predict both rotor pitch link loads and swashplate servo loads. Two helicopter rotors of UH-60A and SA349/2, both operating in two critical flight conditions, high-speed flight and high-thrust flight, are studied. The analysis shows good agreements with the flight test data and the calculation results using CAMRAD II. The mechanisms of rotor control loads are then analyzed in details based on the present predictions and the flight test data. In high-speed conditions, the pitch link loads are dominated by the integral of blade pitching moments, which are generated by cyclic pitch control. In high-thrust conditions, the positive pitching loads in the advancing side are caused by high collective pitch angle, and dynamic stall in the retreating side excites high-frequency responses. The swashplate servo loads are predominated by the rotor pitch link loads, and the inertia of the swashplate has significant effects on high-frequency harmonics of the servo loads.

  18. Controllable Load Management Approaches in Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshuang Shen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With rapid smart grid technology development, the customer can actively participate in demand-side management (DSM with the mutual information communication between the distributor operation company and the smart devices in real-time. Controllable load management not only has the advantage of peak shaving, load balance, frequency regulation, and voltage stability, but is also effective at providing fast balancing services to the renewable energy grid in the distributed power system. The load management faces an enormous challenge as the customer has a large number of both small residential loads and dispersed renewable sources. In this paper, various controllable load management approaches are discussed. The traditional controllable load approaches such as the end users’ controllable appliances, storage battery, Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G, and heat storage are reviewed. The “broad controllable loads” management, such as the microgrid, Virtual Power Plant (VPP, and the load aggregator are also presented. Furthermore, the load characteristics, control strategies, and control effectiveness are analyzed.

  19. Simulating liquid loading in gas wells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiferli, W.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Savenko, S.; Veeken, C.A.M.; Hu, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes work performed by the authors over the last several years to better understand the factors affecting the onset of liquid loading. To further improve the prediction of onset of liquid loading, efforts were undertaken to better model the process. Dedicated codes as well as a comme

  20. Synthetic jet actuation for load control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de H.; Weide, van der E.T.A.; Hoeijmakers, H.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    The reduction of wind turbine blade loads is an important issue in the reduction of the costs of energy production. Reduction of the loads of a non-cyclic nature requires so-called smart rotor control, which involves the application of distributed actuators and sensors to provide fast and local chan

  1. Load-Bearing Capacity of Roof Trusses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Damkilde, Lars; Munch-Andersen, J.

    2004-01-01

    systems such as roof trusses are established and statistical characteristics of the load bearing capacity are determined. The results show that there is a significant increase in the characteristic (nominal) value and a reduction in the coefficient of variation (COV) for typical loads such as permanent...

  2. Using Utility Load Data to Estimate Demand for Space Cooling and Potential for Shiftable Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Ong, S.; Booten, C.

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes a simple method to estimate hourly cooling demand from historical utility load data. It compares total hourly demand to demand on cool days and compares these estimates of total cooling demand to previous regional and national estimates. Load profiles generated from this method may be used to estimate the potential for aggregated demand response or load shifting via cold storage.

  3. Diluting the Burden of Load: Perceptual Load Effects Are Simply Dilution Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsal, Yehoshua; Benoni, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    The substantial distractor interference obtained for small displays when the target appears alone is reduced in large displays when the target is embedded among neutral letters. This finding has been interpreted as reflecting low-load and high-load processing, respectively, thereby supporting the theory of perceptual load (Lavie & Tsal, 1994).…

  4. Modeling of Generic Slung Load System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Morten; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; la Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the result of the modelling and verification of a generic slung load system using a small-scale helicopter. The model is intended for use in simulation, pilot training, estimation, and control. The model is derived using a redundant coordinate formulation based on Gauss......' Principle of Least Constraint using the Udwadia-Kalaba equation and can be used to model all body to body slung load suspension types. The model provides intuitive and easy-to-use means of modelling and simulating different slung load suspension types. It includes detection of, and response to, wire...... slackening and tightening as well as aerodynamic coupling between the helicopter and the load. Furthermore, it is shown how the model can be easily used for multi-lift systems either with multiple helicopters or multiple loads. A numerical stabilisation algorithm is introduced and finally the use...

  5. Load-balancing algorithms for climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, I.T.; Toonen, B.R.

    1994-06-01

    Implementations of climate models on scalable parallel computer systems can suffer from load imbalances due to temporal and spatial variations in the amount of computation required for physical parameterizations such as solar radiation and convective adjustment. We have developed specialized techniques for correcting such imbalances. These techniques are incorporated in a general-purpose, programmable load-balancing library that allows the mapping of computation to processors to be specified as a series of maps generated by a programmer-supplied load-balancing module. The communication required to move from one map to another is performed automatically by the library, without programmer intervention. In this paper, we de scribe the load-balancing problem and the techniques that we have developed to solve it. We also describe specific load-balancing algorithms that we have developed for PCCM2, a scalable parallel implementation of the community Climate Model, and present experimental results that demonstrate the effectiveness of these algorithms on parallel computers.

  6. Load-balancing algorithms for climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, I. T.; Toonen, B. R.

    Implementations of climate models on scalable parallel computer systems can suffer from load imbalances due to temporal and spatial variations in the amount of computation required for physical parameterizations such as solar radiation and convective adjustment. We have developed specialized techniques for correcting such imbalances. These techniques are incorporated in a general-purpose, programmable load-balancing library that allows the mapping of computation to processors to be specified as a series of maps generated by a programmer-supplied load-balancing module. The communication required to move from one map to another is performed automatically by the library, without programmer intervention. In this paper, we describe the load-balancing problem and the techniques that we have developed to solve it. We also describe specific load-balancing algorithms that we have developed for PCCM2, a scalable parallel implementation of the community climate model, and present experimental results that demonstrate the effectiveness of these algorithms on parallel computers.

  7. Adaptive load shedding and regional protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, J.J.; Ledwich, G. [School of Engineering Systems, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Qld 4001 (Australia); Bevrani, H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Kurdistan Sanandaj, Kurdistan (Iran)

    2009-11-15

    The requirement for improved efficiency whilst maintaining system security necessitates the development of improved system analysis approaches and the development of advanced emergency control technologies. Load shedding is a type of emergency control that is designed to ensure system stability by curtailing system load to match generation supply. This paper presents a new adaptive load shedding scheme that provides emergency protection against excess frequency decline, whilst minimizing the risk of line overloading. The proposed load shedding scheme uses the local frequency rate information to adapt the load shedding behaviour to suit the size and location of the experienced disturbance. The proposed scheme is tested in simulation on a 3-region, 10-generator sample system and shows good performance. (author)

  8. Diagonal loading least squares time delay estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xuan; YAN Shefeng; MA Xiaochuan

    2012-01-01

    Least squares (LS) time delay estimation is a classical and effective method. However, the performance is degraded severely in the scenario of low ratio of signal-noise (SNR) due to the instability of matrix inversing. In order to solve the problem, diagonal loading least squares (DL-LS) is proposed by adding a positive definite matrix to the inverse matrix. Furthermore, the shortcoming of fixed diagonal loading is analyzed from the point of regularization that when the tolerance of low SNR is increased, veracity is decreased. This problem is resolved by reloading. The primary estimation's reciprocal is introduced as diagonal loading and it leads to small diagonal loading at the time of arrival and larger loading at other time. Simulation and pool experiment prove the algorithm has better performance.

  9. Achilles and Patellar Tendinopathy Loading Programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malliaras, Peter; Barton, Christian J; Reeves, Neil D;

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Achilles and patellar tendinopathy are overuse injuries that are common among athletes. Isolated eccentric muscle training has become the dominant conservative management strategy for Achilles and patellar tendinopathy but, in some cases, up to 45 % of patients may not respond....... Eccentric-concentric progressing to eccentric (Silbernagel combined) and eccentric-concentric isotonic (heavy-slow resistance; HSR) loading have also been investigated. In order for clinicians to make informed decisions, they need to be aware of the loading options and comparative evidence. The mechanisms...... of loading also need to be elucidated in order to focus treatment to patient deficits and refine loading programmes in future studies. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review are to evaluate the evidence in studies that compare two or more loading programmes in Achilles and patellar tendinopathy...

  10. High power s-band vacuum load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Michael [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Dudas, Alan [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Krasnykh, Anatoly [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-12-29

    Through a combination of experimentation and calculation the components of a novel room temperature dry load were successfully fabricated. These components included lossy ceramic cylinders of various lengths, thicknesses, and percent of silicon carbide (SiC). The cylinders were then assembled into stainless steel compression rings by differential heating of the parts and a special fixture. Post machining of this assembly provided a means for a final weld. The ring assemblies were then measured for S-parameters, individually and in pairs using a low-cost TE10 rectangular to TE01 circular waveguide adapter specially designed to be part of the final load assembly. Matched pairs of rings were measured for assembly into the final load and a sliding short designed and fabricated to assist in determining the desired short location in the final assembly. The plan for the project was for Muons, Inc. to produce prototype loads for long-term testing at SLAC. The STTR funds for SLAC were to upgrade and operate their test station to ensure that the loads would satisfy their requirements. Phase III was to be the sale to SLAC of loads that Muons, Inc. would manufacture. However, an alternate solution that involved a rebuild of the old loads, reduced SLAC budget projections, and a relaxed time for the replacement of all loads meant that in-house labor will be used to do the upgrade without the need for the loads developed in this project. Consequently, the project was terminated before the long term testing was initiated. However, SLAC can use the upgraded test stand to compare the long-term performance of the ones produced in this project with their rebuilt loads when they are available.

  11. USING BENCH PRESS LOAD TO PREDICT UPPER BODY EXERCISE LOADS IN PHYSICALLY ACTIVE INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del P. Wong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether loads for assistance exercises of the upper body can be predicted from the loads of the bench press exercise. Twenty-nine physically active collegiate students (age: 22.6 ± 2.5; weight training experience: 2.9 ± 2.1 years; estimated 1RM bench press: 54.31 ± 14.60 kg; 1RM: body weight ratio: 0.80 ± 0.22; BMI: 22.7 ± 2.1 kg·m-2 were recruited. The 6RM loads for bench press, barbell bicep curl, overhead dumbbell triceps extension, hammer curl and dumbbell shoulder press were measured. Test-retest reliability for the 5 exercises as determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was very high to nearly perfect (0.82-0.98, p < 0.01. The bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises (r ranged from 0.80 to 0.93, p < 0.01. Linear regression revealed that the bench press load was a significant (R2 range from 0.64 to 0.86, p < 0.01 predictor for the loads of the 4 assistance exercises. The following 6RM prediction equations were determined: (a Hammer curl = Bench press load (0.28 + 6.30 kg, (b Barbell biceps curl = Bench press load (0.33 + 6.20 kg, (c Overhead triceps extension = Bench press load (0.33 - 0.60 kg, and (d Dumbbell shoulder press = Bench press load (0.42 + 5.84 kg. The difference between the actual load and the predicted load using the four equations ranged between 6.52% and 8.54%, such difference was not significant. Fitness professionals can use the 6RM bench press load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises.

  12. Contact analysis and load distribution of double-envelop hourglassworm gearing affected by errors and load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wujiao; QIN Datong; SHI Wankai

    2003-01-01

    An approach for the contact analysis and load distribution of double-envelop hourglass worm gearing is presented,which is based on a 3-D elastic contact finite element method (FEM) model that 3ccommodates the influence of errors and load.As compared with existing tooth contact analysis model that assumes rigidity for the contacting surfaces, the proposed model provides a more realistic analysis on the contact patterns, the distribution of contact load and transmission errors. It is also capable of exploring the influence of different errors on meshing performances, the contact deformation, the shift of the contact zone and load share among the meshing tooth-pairs under different load.

  13. Using bench press load to predict upper body exercise loads in physically active individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Del P; Ngo, Kwan-Lung; Tse, Michael A; Smith, Andrew W

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether loads for assistance exercises of the upper body can be predicted from the loads of the bench press exercise. Twenty-nine physically active collegiate students (age: 22.6 ± 2.5; weight training experience: 2.9 ± 2.1 years; estimated 1RM bench press: 54.31 ± 14.60 kg; 1RM: body weight ratio: 0.80 ± 0.22; BMI: 22.7 ± 2.1 kg·m(-2)) were recruited. The 6RM loads for bench press, barbell bicep curl, overhead dumbbell triceps extension, hammer curl and dumbbell shoulder press were measured. Test-retest reliability for the 5 exercises as determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was very high to nearly perfect (0.82-0.98, p press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises (r ranged from 0.80 to 0.93, p press load was a significant (R(2) range from 0.64 to 0.86, p press load (0.28) + 6.30 kg, (b) Barbell biceps curl = Bench press load (0.33) + 6.20 kg, (c) Overhead triceps extension = Bench press load (0.33) - 0.60 kg, and (d) Dumbbell shoulder press = Bench press load (0.42) + 5.84 kg. The difference between the actual load and the predicted load using the four equations ranged between 6.52% and 8.54%, such difference was not significant. Fitness professionals can use the 6RM bench press load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises. Key pointsThe bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises.No significant differences were found between the actual load and the predicted load in the four equations.6RM bench press load can be a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises.

  14. Heat Load Estimator for Smoothing Pulsed Heat Loads on Supercritical Helium Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, C.; Lagier, B.; Rousset, B.; Bonnay, P.; Michel, F.

    Superconducting magnets for fusion are subjected to large variations of heat loads due to cycling operation of tokamaks. The cryogenic system shall operate smoothly to extract the pulsed heat loads by circulating supercritical helium into the coils and structures. However the value of the total heat loads and its temporal variation are not known before the plasma scenario starts. A real-time heat load estimator is of interest for the process control of the cryogenic system in order to anticipate the arrival of pulsed heat loads to the refrigerator and finally to optimize the operation of the cryogenic system. The large variation of the thermal loads affects the physical parameters of the supercritical helium loop (pressure, temperature, mass flow) so those signals can be used for calculating instantaneously the loads deposited into the loop. The methodology and algorithm are addressed in the article for estimating the heat load deposition before it reaches the refrigerator. The CEA patented process control has been implemented in a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and has been successfully validated on the HELIOS test facility at CEA Grenoble. This heat load estimator is complementary to pulsed load smoothing strategies providing an estimation of the optimized refrigeration power. It can also effectively improve the process control during the transient between different operating modes by adjusting the refrigeration power to the need. This way, the heat load estimator participates to the safe operation of the cryogenic system.

  15. Peak load arrangements : Assessment of Nordel guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Two Nordic countries, Sweden and Finland, have legislation that empowers the TSO to acquire designated peak load resources to mitigate the risk for shortage situations during the winter. In Denmark, the system operator procures resources to maintain a satisfactory level of security of supply. In Norway the TSO has set up a Regulation Power Option Market (RKOM) to secure a satisfactory level of operational reserves at all times, also in winter with high load demand. Only the arrangements in Finland and Sweden fall under the heading of Peak Load Arrangements defined in Nordel Guidelines. NordREG has been invited by the Electricity Market Group (EMG) to evaluate Nordel's proposal for 'Guidelines for transitional Peak Load Arrangements'. The EMG has also financed a study made by EC Group to support NordREG in the evaluation of the proposal. The study has been taken into account in NordREG's evaluation. In parallel to the EMG task, the Swedish regulator, the Energy Markets Inspectorate, has been given the task by the Swedish government to investigate a long term solution of the peak load issue. The Swedish and Finnish TSOs have together with Nord Pool Spot worked on finding a harmonized solution for activation of the peak load reserves in the market. An agreement accepted by the relevant authorities was reached in early January 2009, and the arrangement has been implemented since 19th January 2009. NordREG views that the proposed Nordel guidelines have served as a starting point for the presently agreed procedure. However, NordREG does not see any need to further develop the Nordel guidelines for peak load arrangements. NordREG agrees with Nordel that the market should be designed to solve peak load problems through proper incentives to market players. NordREG presumes that the relevant authorities in each country will take decisions on the need for any peak load arrangement to ensure security of supply. NordREG proposes that such decisions should be

  16. Electricity Crisis and Load Management in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Kanti Das

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a densely populated country. Only a small part of her area is electrified which cover around 18% of total population. The people who are in the electrified area are suffering from severe load shedding. A systematic load management procedure related to demand side may improve the situation is the research problem. The major objectives serve by the research are to analyze contemporary electricity status with a view to drawing inference about demand supply gap and extracting benefits from load management. Data supplied by the Bangladesh Power Development Board, World Bank and outcome of survey are analyzed with some simple statistical tools to test the hypothesis. Analysis discloses that with properly managed uses of electricity with load switch and rotation week-end can improve the concurrent condition of electricity. Moreover, introducing smart distribution system, reducing system loss, shifting load to off-peak, large scale use of prepaid mete, observing energy week and using energy efficient home and office appliance are recommended to improve load through demand side management. Some other recommendations such as introducing alternative energy, public private partnership and using renewable energy development and producing energy locally are made for load management from the supply side.

  17. Variable Current Transient Beam Loading Compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, Zoltan D

    2000-10-25

    The energy spread caused by transients during beam turn-on can be reduced by suitable timing of the beam turn-on[1]. If the beam is injected when the no-load voltage reaches the desired loaded voltage, then the energy spread is about 10%. To eliminate this energy spread, one can amplitude or phase modulate the section input power for one fill time, so that when the beam is turned on, the no-load voltage equals the desired loaded voltage and from then on, the change in no-load voltage tracks the beam induced voltage. It is known that for a constant gradient (CG) structure, and amplitude variation of the form E(t) = a{sub 0} + (1 - a{sub 0}) t{sub p} will reduce the energy spread to zero for a current that is determined by a{sub 0}. When one uses rf modulation for transient beam loading compensation, the beam is injected a fill time after the rf has been turned on, and one is forced to throw away a section's worth of rf energy. In addition, it requires extra components which use up additional rf energy. This note describes transient beam loading compensation with variable current. It will show that it increases the rf energy to beam energy transfer efficiency.

  18. Citraturic response to oral citric acid load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhaee, K.; Alpern, R.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    It is possible that some orally administered citrate may appear in urine by escaping oxidation in vivo. To determine whether this mechanism contributes to the citraturic response to potassium citrate, we measured serum and urinary citrate for 4 hours after a single oral load of citric acid (40 mEq.) in 6 normal subjects. Since citric acid does not alter acid-base balance, the effect of absorbed citrate could be isolated from that of alkali load. Serum citrate concentration increased significantly (p less than 0.05) 30 minutes after a single oral dose of citric acid and remained significantly elevated for 3 hours after citric acid load. Commensurate with this change, urinary citrate excretion peaked at 2 hours and gradually decreased during the next 2 hours after citric acid load. In contrast, serum and urinary citrate remained unaltered following the control load (no drug). Differences of the citratemic and citraturic effects between phases were significant (p less than 0.05) at 2 and 3 hours. Urinary pH, carbon dioxide pressure, bicarbonate, total carbon dioxide and ammonium did not change at any time after citric acid load, and did not differ between the 2 phases. No significant difference was noted in serum electrolytes, arterialized venous pH and carbon dioxide pressure at any time after citric acid load and between the 2 phases. Thus, the citraturic and citratemic effects of oral citric acid are largely accountable by provision of absorbed citrate, which has escaped in vivo degradation.

  19. Visual perceptual load induces inattentional deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, James S P; Lavie, Nilli

    2011-08-01

    In this article, we establish a new phenomenon of "inattentional deafness" and highlight the level of load on visual attention as a critical determinant of this phenomenon. In three experiments, we modified an inattentional blindness paradigm to assess inattentional deafness. Participants made either a low- or high-load visual discrimination concerning a cross shape (respectively, a discrimination of line color or of line length with a subtle length difference). A brief pure tone was presented simultaneously with the visual task display on a final trial. Failures to notice the presence of this tone (i.e., inattentional deafness) reached a rate of 79% in the high-visual-load condition, significantly more than in the low-load condition. These findings establish the phenomenon of inattentional deafness under visual load, thereby extending the load theory of attention (e.g., Lavie, Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance, 25, 596-616, 1995) to address the cross-modal effects of visual perceptual load.

  20. Standardized loads acting in knee implants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Bergmann

    Full Text Available The loads acting in knee joints must be known for improving joint replacement, surgical procedures, physiotherapy, biomechanical computer simulations, and to advise patients with osteoarthritis or fractures about what activities to avoid. Such data would also allow verification of test standards for knee implants. This work analyzes data from 8 subjects with instrumented knee implants, which allowed measuring the contact forces and moments acting in the joint. The implants were powered inductively and the loads transmitted at radio frequency. The time courses of forces and moments during walking, stair climbing, and 6 more activities were averaged for subjects with I average body weight and average load levels and II high body weight and high load levels. During all investigated activities except jogging, the high force levels reached 3,372-4,218N. During slow jogging, they were up to 5,165N. The peak torque around the implant stem during walking was 10.5 Nm, which was higher than during all other activities including jogging. The transverse forces and the moments varied greatly between the subjects, especially during non-cyclic activities. The high load levels measured were mostly above those defined in the wear test ISO 14243. The loads defined in the ISO test standard should be adapted to the levels reported here. The new data will allow realistic investigations and improvements of joint replacement, surgical procedures for tendon repair, treatment of fractures, and others. Computer models of the load conditions in the lower extremities will become more realistic if the new data is used as a gold standard. However, due to the extreme individual variations of some load components, even the reported average load profiles can most likely not explain every failure of an implant or a surgical procedure.

  1. Standardized loads acting in knee implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Georg; Bender, Alwina; Graichen, Friedmar; Dymke, Jörn; Rohlmann, Antonius; Trepczynski, Adam; Heller, Markus O; Kutzner, Ines

    2014-01-01

    The loads acting in knee joints must be known for improving joint replacement, surgical procedures, physiotherapy, biomechanical computer simulations, and to advise patients with osteoarthritis or fractures about what activities to avoid. Such data would also allow verification of test standards for knee implants. This work analyzes data from 8 subjects with instrumented knee implants, which allowed measuring the contact forces and moments acting in the joint. The implants were powered inductively and the loads transmitted at radio frequency. The time courses of forces and moments during walking, stair climbing, and 6 more activities were averaged for subjects with I) average body weight and average load levels and II) high body weight and high load levels. During all investigated activities except jogging, the high force levels reached 3,372-4,218N. During slow jogging, they were up to 5,165N. The peak torque around the implant stem during walking was 10.5 Nm, which was higher than during all other activities including jogging. The transverse forces and the moments varied greatly between the subjects, especially during non-cyclic activities. The high load levels measured were mostly above those defined in the wear test ISO 14243. The loads defined in the ISO test standard should be adapted to the levels reported here. The new data will allow realistic investigations and improvements of joint replacement, surgical procedures for tendon repair, treatment of fractures, and others. Computer models of the load conditions in the lower extremities will become more realistic if the new data is used as a gold standard. However, due to the extreme individual variations of some load components, even the reported average load profiles can most likely not explain every failure of an implant or a surgical procedure.

  2. Factor structure underlying components of allostatic load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne M McCaffery

    Full Text Available Allostatic load is a commonly used metric of health risk based on the hypothesis that recurrent exposure to environmental demands (e.g., stress engenders a progressive dysregulation of multiple physiological systems. Prominent indicators of response to environmental challenges, such as stress-related hormones, sympatho-vagal balance, or inflammatory cytokines, comprise primary allostatic mediators. Secondary mediators reflect ensuing biological alterations that accumulate over time and confer risk for clinical disease but overlap substantially with a second metric of health risk, the metabolic syndrome. Whether allostatic load mediators covary and thus warrant treatment as a unitary construct remains to be established and, in particular, the relation of allostatic load parameters to the metabolic syndrome requires elucidation. Here, we employ confirmatory factor analysis to test: 1 whether a single common factor underlies variation in physiological systems associated with allostatic load; and 2 whether allostatic load parameters continue to load on a single common factor if a second factor representing the metabolic syndrome is also modeled. Participants were 645 adults from Allegheny County, PA (30-54 years old, 82% non-Hispanic white, 52% female who were free of confounding medications. Model fitting supported a single, second-order factor underlying variance in the allostatic load components available in this study (metabolic, inflammatory and vagal measures. Further, this common factor reflecting covariation among allostatic load components persisted when a latent factor representing metabolic syndrome facets was conjointly modeled. Overall, this study provides novel evidence that the modeled allostatic load components do share common variance as hypothesized. Moreover, the common variance suggests the existence of statistical coherence above and beyond that attributable to the metabolic syndrome.

  3. A combined loading system integrated with portable winch and polyethylene chutes for loading of timber products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hulusi Acar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Truck loading operation is an important task during timber production operations in forestry. In Turkey, approximately 50 million timbers/logs are being produced per year, and then they are loaded into the logging trucks. The timber/logs are transported over the forest roads with an average of one million roundtrips. However, the traditional loading methods using manpower are mostly performed while some part is done by using loading machines which can be very costly and risky. This study aims developing a combined loading system in which heavy logs are loaded into logging trucks by pulling them by a log-line powered by a portable crane within the chute system. The slope of the log-line from ground to logging truck varied between 1% and 25%. Within the each work cycle of loading operation, only one log was loaded by pulling with portable crane. The average loading time was found as 161.8 seconds per cycle, in which 67% of the time was spent on pulling the log into the logging truck. The results indicated that the average pulling speed with crane power was 840.4 m/hr and productivity was calculated as 4.94 m3/hr. The result on system speed and productivity indicated close relations with results from previous studies. The hydraulic grapple loader or cranes are widely used and common loading machines, but they cannot be efficiently used in forestry operations, especially ones having a low timber productivity rate or having low economic value timber. In these conditions, loading methods that are cost efficient and do not require higher production rate should be employed. Therefore, a combined loading system introduced in this study can be a feasible solution for loading operations in those cases. Furthermore, it is believed that this loading system integrated with a portable crane can be cost efficient and time saving solution, as well as ergonomic and safe method in the field.

  4. Acoustic loading effects on oscillating rod bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    An analytical study of the interaction between an infinite acoustic medium and a cluster of circular rods is described. The acoustic field due to oscillating rods and the acoustic loading on the rods are first solved in a closed form. The acoustic loading is then used as a forcing function for rod responses, and the acousto-elastic couplings are solved simultaneously. Numerical examples are presented for several cases to illustrate the effects of various system parameters on the acoustic reaction force coefficients. The effect of the acoustic loading on the coupled eigenfrequencies are discussed.

  5. Wind turbine blade testing under combined loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roczek-Sieradzan, Agnieszka; Nielsen, Magda; Branner, Kim;

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents full-scale blade tests under a combined flap- and edgewise loading. The main aim of this paper is to present the results from testing a wind turbine blade under such conditions and to study the structural behavior of the blade subjected to combined loading. A loading method using...... anchor plates was applied, allowing transverse shear distortion. The global and local deformation of the blade as well as the reproducibility of the test was studied and the results from the investigations are presented....

  6. The global atmospheric loading of dust aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, J. F.; Ridley, D. A.; Haustein, K.; Miller, R. L.; Zhao, C.

    2015-12-01

    Mineral dust is one of the most ubiquitous aerosols in the atmosphere, with important effects on human health and the climate system. But despite its importance, the global atmospheric loading of dust has remained uncertain, with model results spanning about a factor of five. Here we constrain the particle size-resolved atmospheric dust loading and global emission rate, using a novel theoretical framework that uses experimental constraints on the optical properties and size distribution of dust to eliminate climate model errors due to assumed dust properties. We find that most climate models underestimate the global atmospheric loading and emission rate of dust aerosols.

  7. Synthesis of polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin J

    2014-10-07

    The synthesis of a polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy uses a one-step cure by applying an external stimulus to release the acid from the polyoxometalate and thereby catalyze the cure reaction of the epoxy resin. Such polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites afford the cured epoxy unique properties imparted by the intrinsic properties of the polyoxometalate. For example, polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites can be used as corrosion resistant epoxy coatings, for encapsulation of electronics with improved dielectric properties, and for structural applications with improved mechanical properties.

  8. Load Estimation by Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ivar Chr. Bjerg; Hansen, Søren Mosegaard; Brincker, Rune;

    2007-01-01

    When performing operational modal analysis the dynamic loading is unknown, however, once the modal properties of the structure have been estimated, the transfer matrix can be obtained, and the loading can be estimated by inverse filtering. In this paper loads in frequency domain are estimated...... by analysis of simulated responses of a 4 DOF system, for which the exact modal parameters are known. This estimation approach entails modal identification of the natural eigenfrequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios by the frequency domain decomposition technique. Scaled mode shapes are determined by use...

  9. Strength of concrete structures under dynamic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpyak, O. G., E-mail: ogkumpyak@yandex.ru; Galyautdinov, Z. R., E-mail: gazr@yandex.ru; Kokorin, D. N., E-mail: kokorindenn@yandex.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The use of elastic supports is one the efficient methods of decreasing the dynamic loading. The paper describes the influence of elastic supports on the stress-strain state of steel concrete structures exposed to one-time dynamic loading resulting in failure. Oblique bending beams on elastic supports and their elastic, elastoplastic, and elastoplastic consolidation behavior are considered in this paper. For numerical calculations the developed computer program is used based on the finite element method. Research findings prove high efficiency of elastic supports under dynamic loading conditions. The most effective behavior of elastic supports is demonstrated at the elastoplastic stage. A good agreement is observed between the theoretical and experimental results.

  10. 14 CFR 25.343 - Design fuel and oil loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Design fuel and oil loads. (a) The disposable load combinations must include each fuel and oil load in the range from zero fuel and oil to the selected maximum fuel and oil load. A structural reserve fuel... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design fuel and oil loads. 25.343...

  11. Load Theory of Selective Attention and Cognitive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie, Nilli; Hirst, Aleksandra; de Fockert, Jan W.; Viding, Essi

    2004-01-01

    A load theory of attention in which distractor rejection depends on the level and type of load involved in current processing was tested. A series of experiments demonstrates that whereas high perceptual load reduces distractor interference, working memory load or dual-task coordination load increases distractor interference. These findings…

  12. Effect of lifting height and load mass on low back loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoozemans, Marco J M; Kingma, Idsart; de Vries, Wiebe H K; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of lifting height and mass lifted on the peak low back load in terms of net moments, compression forces and anterior-posterior shear forces. Ten participants had to lift a box using four handle heights. Low back loading was quantified using a dynamic 3-D linked segment model and a detailed electromyographic driven model of the trunk musculature. The effects of lifting height and lifting mass were quantified using a regression technique (GEE) for correlated data. Results indicate that an increase in lifting height and a decrease in lifting mass were related to a decrease in low back load. It is argued that trunk flexion is a major contributor to low back load. For ergonomic interventions it can be advised to prioritise optimisation of the vertical location of the load to be lifted rather than decreasing the mass of the load for handle heights between 32 cm and 155 cm, and for load masses between 7.5 and 15 kg. Lifting height and load mass are important determinants of low back load during manual materials handling. This paper provides the quantitative effect of lifting height and mass lifted, the results of which can be used by ergonomists at the workplace to evaluate interventions regarding lifting height and load mass.

  13. Success of immediate loading implants compared to conventionally-loaded implants: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sawai, Abdul-Aziz; Labib, Hussein

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this systematic literature review was to compare the clinical performance between conventionally- (delayed) and immediately-loaded implants. A literature search of studies published between 1995 and 2012 was performed using several electronic databases and the following key words: "immediate loading", "dental implants", "immediate function", "early loading", "oral implants", "immediate restoration", and "systematic review" was performed. The electronic search was supplemented with hand-searching in dental journals and cross-referencing within the selected articles. Studies were considered for inclusion if they analyzed the success of the immediate loading protocol for implants, with emphasis given to randomized, controlled clinical trials. Among the clinical studies extracted from the literature, 120 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this systematic review. These studies included trials that involved yielded consistent results of success rates of immediately-loaded implants comparable to those known from conventionally-loaded implants, which were subjected to the immediate loading protocol or other loading protocols. According to the findings, there is evidence to suggest that immediate loading protocols demonstrate high implant survival rates and could be cautiously recommended for certain clinical situations. However, studies with a high level of evidence, especially randomized, controlled trials, performed over a longer timeframe are required to show a clear benefit over conventional and other loading types.

  14. Catastrophe model and its experimental verification of static loading rock system under impact load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    According to the catastrophe model for impact buckling of static loading structures, a new catastrophe model for impact loading failure of a static loading rock system was established, and one dimension (1D) catastrophe model was analyzed. The analysis results indicate that the furcation collection where catastrophe may take place is not only decided by mechanical system itself but also relates to exterior loading, which is different from the results obtained under mono-static loading where the bifurcation collection is only determined by mechanics of the system itself and has nothing to do with exterior loading. In addition, the corresponding 1D coupled static-dynamic loading experiment is designed to verify the analysis results of catastrophe model The test is done with Instron 1342 electroservo controlled testing system, in which medium strain rate is caused by monotony rising dynamic load. The parameters are obtained combining theoretical model with experiment. The experimental and theoretical curves of critical dynamic load vs static load are rather coincided, thus the new model is proved to be correct.

  15. A Survey on the Ship Loading Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iris, Cagatay; Pacino, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Recent statistics show that large container terminals can process more than 30 million containers a year, and are constantly in search for the better ways to optimize processing time, deliver high quality and profitable services. Some of the terminal decisions are, however, dependent on externali......Recent statistics show that large container terminals can process more than 30 million containers a year, and are constantly in search for the better ways to optimize processing time, deliver high quality and profitable services. Some of the terminal decisions are, however, dependent...... on externalities. One of those is the ship loading process. Based on the stowage plan received by liner shippers, terminal operators plan the execution of load and discharge operations. In this paper we present a literature review for the Ship Loading Problem, where stowage and loading sequencing and scheduling...

  16. Development of Engine Loads Methodology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR seeks to improve the definition of design loads for rocket engine components such that higher performing, lighter weight engines can be developed more...

  17. Handball load and shoulder injury rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, M; Nielsen, R O; Attermann, J

    2017-01-01

    Background Knowledge of injury patterns, an essential step towards injury prevention, is lacking in youth handball. Aim To investigate if an increase in handball load is associated with increased shoulder injury rates compared with a minor increase or decrease, and if an association is influenced...... by scapular control, isometric shoulder strength or glenohumeral range of motion (ROM). Methods 679 players (14-18 years) provided weekly reports on shoulder injury and handball load (training and competition hours) over 31 weeks using the SMS, phone and medical examination system. Handball load in a given...... week was categorised into (1) 60% relative to the weekly average amount of handball load the preceding 4 weeks. Assessment of shoulder isometric rotational and abduction strength, ROM and scapular control...

  18. Designing divertor targets for uniform power load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekeyser, W.; Reiter, D.; Baelmans, M.

    2015-08-01

    Divertor design for next step fusion reactors heavily relies on 2D edge plasma modeling with codes as e.g. B2-EIRENE. While these codes are typically used in a design-by-analysis approach, in previous work we have shown that divertor design can alternatively be posed as a mathematical optimization problem, and solved very efficiently using adjoint methods adapted from computational aerodynamics. This approach has been applied successfully to divertor target shape design for more uniform power load. In this paper, the concept is further extended to include all contributions to the target power load, with particular focus on radiation. In a simplified test problem, we show the potential benefits of fully including the radiation load in the design cycle as compared to only assessing this load in a post-processing step.

  19. Home Appliance Load Scheduling with SEMIAH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg; Ghasem Azar, Armin; Zhang, Qi;

    2015-01-01

    The European research project SEMIAH aims at designing a scalable infrastructure for residential demand response. This paper presents the progress towards a centralized load scheduling algorithm for controlling home appliances taking power grid constraints and satisfaction of consumers into account....

  20. Cooling Load Distribution of Large Space Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hong-bing(陈红兵); TU Guang-bei(涂光备); YANG Jie(杨洁); Chan K T

    2003-01-01

    The cooling and heating load distribution of large area air-conditioned room such as "open" offices, shopping malls and waiting rooms is usually assumed to be even in air conditioning system design. However, it is not the case in reality, and a low efficient air conditioning system results from this assumption. A simulation and analysis of the cooling load distribution of an office building in Hong Kong with TRANSYS software is provided in this paper. A typical office is divided into 13 zones for simulation, including external zone, medial zone and internal zone in the north, the south, the east and the west respectively and a central zone, instead of 4 directional zone. The result shows there is much cooling load difference between each zone, and more attention should be paid to uneven indoor cooling and heating load distribution to further guide the design.

  1. Loaded Gelled Bipropellants for Optimized Performance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The focus of this program is the development and validation of formulations, and development methodologies, for optimizing high-performance particulate-loaded...

  2. Multifrequency Printed Antennas Loaded with Metamaterial Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Segovia-Vargas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of printed antennas loaded with metamaterial particles. This novel technique allows developing printed antennas with interesting features such as multifrequency (simultaneous operation over two or more frequency bands and multifunctionality (e. g. radiation pattern diversity. Moreover, compactness is also achieved and the main advantages of conventional printed antennas (light weight, low profile, low cost ... are maintained. Different types of metamaterial-loaded printed antennas are reviewed: printed dipoles and patch antennas. Several prototypes are designed, manufactured and measured showing good results. Furthermore, simple but accurate equivalent models are proposed. These models allow an easy and quick design of metamaterial-loaded printed antennas. Finally, two interesting applications based on the proposed antennas are reviewed: the patch antennas are used as radiating elements of emerging active RFID systems in the microwave band and the metamaterial-loaded printed dipoles are employed to increase the performance of log-periodic arrays.

  3. S-Band Loads for SLAC Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasnykh, A.; Decker, F.-J.; /SLAC; LeClair, R.; /INTA Technologies, Santa Clara

    2012-08-28

    The S-Band loads on the current SLAC linac RF system were designed, in some cases, 40+ years ago to terminate 2-3 MW peak power into a thin layer of coated Kanthal material as the high power absorber [1]. The technology of the load design was based on a flame-sprayed Kanthal wire method onto a base material. During SLAC linac upgrades, the 24 MW peak klystrons were replaced by 5045 klystrons with 65+ MW peak output power. Additionally, SLED cavities were introduced and as a result, the peak power in the current RF setup has increased up to 240 MW peak. The problem of reliable RF peak power termination and RF load lifetime required a careful study and adequate solution. Results of our studies and three designs of S-Band RF load for the present SLAC RF linac system is discussed. These designs are based on the use of low conductivity materials.

  4. Integrating Autonomous Load Controllers in Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglass, Philip James

    violations of voltage constraints. This voltage-sensitive controller can also operate alone, without the frequency-sensitive controller, to provide voltage regulation service and increase load diversity in any distribution network where lower voltage level corresponds to higher load.The frequency......-sensitive and voltage-sensitive autonomous load are viable alternatives to conventional frequency and voltage control devices. When used in combination, they complement each other. In systems where the operator has centrally dispatchable resources to regulate frequency, these resources can be used to dispatch otherwise...... autonomous frequency-sensitive loads. Moreover, where centrally dispatchable frequency regulation resources can rapidly change operating points, such as in a micro-grid, the energy sources can be used as transmitters for a ultra-low-bandwidth uni-directional power line communication system....

  5. LEACH Algorithm Based on Load Balancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangang Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses advantages of LEACH Algorithm and the existing improved model which takes the famous hierarchy clustering routing protocol LEACH Algorithm as researching object. Then the paper indicates the problem that in the algorithm capacity factor of cluster head node is not taken into account leading the structure of clusters to be not so reasonable. This research discusses an energy-uniform cluster and cluster head selecting mechanism in which “Pseudo cluster head” concept is introduced in order to coordinate with “Load Monitor” Mechanism and “Load Leisure” Mechanism to maintain load balancing of cluster head character and stability of network topology. On the basis of LEACH Protocol improving algorithm of LEACH-C, CEFL and DCHS. NS2 simulation instrument is applied to do simulation analysis on the improved algorithm. Simulation result shows that LEACH-P Protocol effectively increase energy utilization efficiency, lengthens network lifetime and balances network load.  

  6. PLASTIC LIMIT LOAD ANALYSIS OF DEFECTIVE PIPELINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenGang; LiuYinghua; XuBingye

    2003-01-01

    The integrity assessment of defective pipelines represents a practically important task of structural analysis and design in various technological areas, such as oil and gas industry, power plant engineering and chemical factories. An iterative algorithm is presented for the kinematic limit analysis of 3-D rigid-perfectly plastic bodies. A numerical path scheme for radial loading is adopted to deal with complex multi-loading systems. The numerical procedure has been applied to carry out the plastic collapse analysis of pipelines with part-through slot under internal pressure, bending moment and axial force. The effects of various shapes and sizes of part-through slots on the collapse loads of pipelines are systematically investigated and evaluated. Some typical failure modes corresponding to different configurations of slots and loading forms are studied.

  7. Radiopure Metal-Loaded Liquid Scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosero, Richard [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Yeh, Minfang [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.

    2015-03-18

    Metal-loaded liquid scintillator plays a key role in particle and nuclear physics experiments. The applications of metal ions in various neutrino experiments and the purification methods for different scintillator components are discussed in this paper.

  8. Exercise Load Measurement Insole (ELMI) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Exercise Load Measurement Insole (ELMI) is a system that is designed to measure normal and shear foot forces during exercise. The ELMI system is lightweight,...

  9. LIGHT-WEIGHT LOAD-BEARING STRUCTURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a light-weight load-bearing structure (1) with optimized compression zone (2), where along one or more compression zones (2) in the structure (1) to be cast a core (3) of strong concrete is provided, which core (3) is surrounded by concrete of less strength (4) compared...... to the core (3) of strong concrete. The invention also relates to a method of casting of light-weight load-bearing structures (1) with optimized compression zone (2) where one or more channels, grooves, ducts, pipes and/or hoses (5) formed in the load-bearing structure (1) serves as moulds for moulding one...... or more cores (3) of strong concrete in the light-weight load-bearing structure (1)....

  10. Distracted and confused?: selective attention under load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie, Nilli

    2005-02-01

    The ability to remain focused on goal-relevant stimuli in the presence of potentially interfering distractors is crucial for any coherent cognitive function. However, simply instructing people to ignore goal-irrelevant stimuli is not sufficient for preventing their processing. Recent research reveals that distractor processing depends critically on the level and type of load involved in the processing of goal-relevant information. Whereas high perceptual load can eliminate distractor processing, high load on "frontal" cognitive control processes increases distractor processing. These findings provide a resolution to the long-standing early and late selection debate within a load theory of attention that accommodates behavioural and neuroimaging data within a framework that integrates attention research with executive function.

  11. Modeling and control of thermostatically controlled loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, Scott N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kundu, S. [UNIV OF MICHIGAN; Hiskens, I. [UNIV OF MICHIGAN

    2011-01-04

    As the penetration of intermittent energy sources grows substantially, loads will be required to play an increasingly important role in compensating the fast time-scale fluctuations in generated power. Recent numerical modeling of thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) has demonstrated that such load following is feasible, but analytical models that satisfactorily quantify the aggregate power consumption of a group of TCLs are desired to enable controller design. We develop such a model for the aggregate power response of a homogeneous population of TCLs to uniform variation of all TCL setpoints. A linearized model of the response is derived, and a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) has been designed. Using the TCL setpoint as the control input, the LQR enables aggregate power to track reference signals that exhibit step, ramp and sinusoidal variations. Although much of the work assumes a homogeneous population of TCLs with deterministic dynamics, we also propose a method for probing the dynamics of systems where load characteristics are not well known.

  12. Final Project Report Load Modeling Transmission Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesieutre, Bernard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bravo, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yinger, Robert [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chassin, Dave [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Huang, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Ning [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hiskens, Ian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Venkataramanan, Giri [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-03-31

    The research presented in this report primarily focuses on improving power system load models to better represent their impact on system behavior. The previous standard load model fails to capture the delayed voltage recovery events that are observed in the Southwest and elsewhere. These events are attributed to stalled air conditioner units after a fault. To gain a better understanding of their role in these events and to guide modeling efforts, typical air conditioner units were testing in laboratories. Using data obtained from these extensive tests, new load models were developed to match air conditioner behavior. An air conditioner model is incorporated in the new WECC composite load model. These models are used in dynamic studies of the West and can impact power transfer limits for California. Unit-level and systemlevel solutions are proposed as potential solutions to the delayed voltage recovery problem.

  13. Stochastic Load Models and Footbridge Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars; Frier, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Pedestrians may cause vibrations in footbridges and these vibrations may potentially be annoying. This calls for predictions of footbridge vibration levels and the paper considers a stochastic approach to modeling the action of pedestrians assuming walking parameters such as step frequency...... the footbridge and when describing the action of the pedestrians (such as for instance the number of load harmonics). Focus is on estimating vertical structural response to single person loading....

  14. Mechanical Predictors of Discomfort during Load Carriage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D Wettenschwiler

    Full Text Available Discomfort during load carriage is a major issue for activities using backpacks (e.g. infantry maneuvers, children carrying school supplies, or outdoor sports. It is currently unclear which mechanical parameters are responsible for subjectively perceived discomfort. The aim of this study was to identify objectively measured mechanical predictors of discomfort during load carriage. We compared twelve different configurations of a typical load carriage system, a commercially available backpack with a hip belt. The pressure distribution under the hip belt and the shoulder strap, as well as the tensile force in the strap and the relative motion of the backpack were measured. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate possible predictors of discomfort. The results demonstrate that static peak pressure, or alternatively, static strap force is a significant (p<0.001 predictor of discomfort during load carriage in the shoulder and hip region, accounting for 85% or more of the variation in discomfort. As an additional finding, we discovered that the regression coefficients of these predictors are significantly smaller for the hip than for the shoulder region. As static peak pressure is measured directly on the body, it is less dependent on the type of load carriage system than static strap force. Therefore, static peak pressure is well suited as a generally applicable, objective mechanical parameter for the optimization of load carriage system design. Alternatively, when limited to load carriage systems of the type backpack with hip belt, static strap force is the most valuable predictor of discomfort. The regionally differing regression coefficients of both predictors imply that the hip region is significantly more tolerant than the shoulder region. In order to minimize discomfort, users should be encouraged to shift load from the shoulders to the hip region wherever possible, at the same time likely decreasing the risk of low

  15. Pressure Hull Analysis under Shock Loading

    OpenAIRE

    Ya-Jung Lee; Chia-Hao Hsu; Chien-Hua Huang

    2008-01-01

    The hull of high performance submarines must resist underwater shock loading due to exploding torpedoes or depth bombs. An underwater shock involving an initial shock wave and successive bubble pulsating waves is so complex that a theoretical technique for deriving shock pressure distribution is required for improving simulation efficiency. Complete shock loading is obtained theoretically in this work, and responses of a submarine pressure hull are calculated using ABAQUS USA (Underwater Shoc...

  16. MCO loading and cask loadout technical manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PRAGA, A.N.

    1998-10-01

    A compilation of the technical basis for loading a multi-canister overpack (MCO) with spent nuclear fuel and then placing the MCO into a cask for shipment to the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The technical basis includes a description of the process, process technology that forms the basis for loading alternatives, process control considerations, safety considerations, equipment description, and a brief facility structure description.

  17. Dynamic Multi-class Network Loading Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The dynamic network loading problem (DNLP) consists in determining on a congested network, timedependent arc volumes, together with arc and path travel times, given the time varying path flow departure rates over a finite time horizon. The objective of this paper is to present the formulation of an analytical dynamic multiclass network loading model. The model does not require the assumption of the FIFO condition. The existence of a solution to the model is shown.

  18. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) Description and Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyague, F.

    2011-11-01

    This document describes simulated turbine load cases in accordance to the IEC 61400-1 Ed.3 standard, which is representative of the typical wind turbine design process. The information presented herein is intended to provide a broad understanding of the gearbox reliability collaborative 750kW drivetrain and turbine configuration. In addition, fatigue and ultimate strength drivetrain loads resulting from simulations are presented. This information provides the bases for the analytical work of the gearbox reliability collaborative effort.

  19. On Load Shedding in Complex Event Processing

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Complex Event Processing (CEP) is a stream processing model that focuses on detecting event patterns in continuous event streams. While the CEP model has gained popularity in the research communities and commercial technologies, the problem of gracefully degrading performance under heavy load in the presence of resource constraints, or load shedding, has been largely overlooked. CEP is similar to "classical" stream data management, but addresses a substantially different class of queries. Thi...

  20. Ice load on offshore wind turbine foundations; Ice load on offshore wind turbine foundations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelund, P.; Joergensen, L.B. [Energi E2, Koebenhavn (Denmark); Gravesen, H.; Soerensen, S.L. [Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark); Pedersen, B.; Lorenz, R.S.; Miller, R.; Oestergaard, S.; Riber, H.J. [LIC Engineering, Hellerup (Denmark); Pedersen, J.; Gjerding, J.B. [Tripod, Soeborg (DK)

    2003-12-01

    Ice loading on wind turbine foundations in the inner Danish seas and straits is a design load. Relative conservative design requirement/guidelines have so far been used for prediction of ice loads. The aim of the present project is to improve knowledge of ice loads on wind turbine foundations and to identify improved prediction methods and possible ways of optimising the foundation design With respect to ice loads. Conference presentations and papers of ice theory have been collected and studied. International state of the art ice models and theories are described in the project documents and tested. Models have been made to investigate and compare predicted results with scaled model tests. Scaled model tests of conical and cylindrical foundations have been made at NRC at Canada. The test stand and tests are presented along with analysis of the data. To reduce ice loading on structures in the inner Danish seas and straits conical foundations are used. The conical foundation will reduce the ice loads, but slightly increase the wave load - the consequences have been investigated. Main activities of the project cover: (1) Review of publicly available literature on ice ridges. (2) Ice growth modelling in the open sea as well as in sheltered sea. (3) Modelling of ice floe interaction with an offshore wind turbine farm. (4) Modelling of structural response of a wind turbine to ice loads. (5) Implementation and test of two semi-empincal dynamic ice load models. (6) Modelling of ice load generated fatigue damage. (7) Review of the ice load design requirements in the inner Danish seas and straits. (8) Test bed measurements at NRC, Canada, of ice loads on sale-models of cylindrical, 55 deg. C and 65 deg. C conical and double conical foundations. (9) Analysis of these scaled model tests. (10) Generation of 10 min time series from short term scaled model tests. (11) Detailed design requirements for upwards and downwards bending cones. (12) Design requirements for a double

  1. Load-Dependent Friction Hysteresis on Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhijiang; Egberts, Philip; Han, Gang Hee; Johnson, A T Charlie; Carpick, Robert W; Martini, Ashlie

    2016-05-24

    Nanoscale friction often exhibits hysteresis when load is increased (loading) and then decreased (unloading) and is manifested as larger friction measured during unloading compared to loading for a given load. In this work, the origins of load-dependent friction hysteresis were explored through atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments of a silicon tip sliding on chemical vapor deposited graphene in air, and molecular dynamics simulations of a model AFM tip on graphene, mimicking both vacuum and humid air environmental conditions. It was found that only simulations with water at the tip-graphene contact reproduced the experimentally observed hysteresis. The mechanisms underlying this friction hysteresis were then investigated in the simulations by varying the graphene-water interaction strength. The size of the water-graphene interface exhibited hysteresis trends consistent with the friction, while measures of other previously proposed mechanisms, such as out-of-plane deformation of the graphene film and irreversible reorganization of the water molecules at the shearing interface, were less correlated to the friction hysteresis. The relationship between the size of the sliding interface and friction observed in the simulations was explained in terms of the varying contact angles in front of and behind the sliding tip, which were larger during loading than unloading.

  2. Reduced design load basis for ultimate blade loads estimation in multidisciplinary design optimization frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavese, Christian; Tibaldi, Carlo; Larsen, Torben J.;

    2016-01-01

    The aim is to provide a fast and reliable approach to estimate ultimate blade loads for a multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) framework. For blade design purposes, the standards require a large amount of computationally expensive simulations, which cannot be efficiently run each cost...... function evaluation of an MDO process. This work describes a method that allows integrating the calculation of the blade load envelopes inside an MDO loop. Ultimate blade load envelopes are calculated for a baseline design and a design obtained after an iteration of an MDO. These envelopes are computed...... for a full standard design load basis (DLB) and a deterministic reduced DLB. Ultimate loads extracted from the two DLBs with the two blade designs each are compared and analyzed. Although the reduced DLB supplies ultimate loads of different magnitude, the shape of the estimated envelopes are similar...

  3. 道路交通荷载横向分布特性分析%Analysis of the Transverse Distribution of Traffic Loading on Highways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵延庆; 王国忠; 谭忆秋

    2012-01-01

    在中国不同省份收集了20个道路断面的计重收费数据,并在25条道路上进行现场交通摄像与数据读取,分析道路的方向分布系数、车道分布系数及其影响因素.结果表明,方向分布系数一般为50%~60%,而重交通方向当量轴载作用次数在总作用次数中所占的比例为50%~85%.当两个方向交通荷载特性存在明显区别时,应对两个方向的路面结构分别进行设计.交通行驶方式对车道分布系数有明显的影响.对于双向两车道道路,高速公路的车道分布系数较大;而对于双向三车道道路,非高速公路的车道分布系数较大.分别对高速公路和其他公路提出了车道分布系数的推荐值,供路面结构分析和设计之用.%Traffic loading data were collected from 20 toll stations.and 25 highways were videotaped to obtain relevant traffic information in various provinces in China. Directional distribution factor (DDF), lane distribution factor (LDF) and their influential causes were analyzed. The results have shown that DDF is typically within 50%~60% , while the number of equivalent single axle load (ESAL) in heavy traffic direction is within 50%~85% of the total ESAL. Therefore, pavements should be designed for two traffic directions separately if the traffic characteristics in the two directions exhibit significant difference. Traffic configuration has great impact on LDF. LDF of expressway is larger than that of other highways for two-lane traffic, while LDF of other highways is larger for three-lane traffic. Typical values of LDF are recommended for expressways and other highways, which can be used in pavement analysis and design.

  4. Static and dynamic load tests comparison considering load-energy level and soil non-linearity

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, J. J. Gouveia; Santos, Jaime Alberto dos; Correia, A. Gomes; Simões, T. N.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from dynamic and static load tests performed in cast-inplace piles. The test piles have 22m of length and 0.60m of diameter, constructed in a sandy soil using a recoverable steel casing. Three piles were tested: i) two by dynamic load test ii) and the other companion pile by static load test. The dynamic load tests followed a procedure with two stages. Initially, a set of impacts with increasing falling height was applied. Afterwards the energy w...

  5. 2006 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of both the Federal system and the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This surplus energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These energy deficits will be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation

  6. Optimum blade loading for a powered rotor in descent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramin Modarres; David A. Peters

    2016-01-01

    The optimum loading for rotors has previously been found for hover, climb and wind turbine conditions;but, up to now, no one has determined the optimum rotor loading in descent. This could be an important design consideration for rotary-wing parachutes and low-speed des-cents. In this paper, the optimal loading for a powered rotor in descent is found from momentum theory based on a variational principle. This loading is compared with the optimal loading for a rotor in hover or climb and with the Betz rotor loading (which is optimum for a lightly-loaded rotor). Wake contraction for each of the various loadings is also presented.

  7. Nonlinear dynamical characteristics of bed load motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI; Yuchuan; XU; Haijue; XU; Dong

    2006-01-01

    Bed forms of various kinds that evolve naturally on the bottom of sandy coasts and rivers are a result of the kinematics of bed load transport. Based on the group motion of particles in the bed load within the bottom layer, a study on the nonlinear dynamics of bed load transport is presented in this paper. It is found that some development stages, such as the initiation, the equilibrium sediment transport, and the transition from a smooth bed to sand dunes, can be accounted for by different states in the nonlinear system of the bed load transport. It is verified by comparison with experimental data reported by Laboratoire Nationae D'Hydraulique, Chatou, France, that the evolution from a smooth bed to sand dunes is determined by mutation in the bed load transport. This paper presents results that may offer theoretical explanations to the experimental observations. It is also an attempt to apply the state-of-the-art nonlinear science to the classical sediment transport mechanics.

  8. Lateral load pattern in pushover analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The seismic capacity curves of three types of buildings including frame, frame-shear wall and shear wall obtained by pushover analysis under different lateral load patterns are compared with those from nonlinear time history analysis. Based on the numerical results obtained a two-phase load pattern: an inverted triangle(first mode)load pattern until the base shear force reaches β times its maximum value,Vmax, followed by a(x/H)α form, here β and α being some coefficients depending on the type of the structures considered, is proposed in the paper, which can provide excellent approximation of the seismic capacity curve for low-to-mid-rise shear type buildings. Furthermore, it is shown both the two-phase load pattern proposed and the invariant uniform pattern can be used for low-to-mid-rise shear-bending type and low-rise bending type of buildings. No suitable load patterns have been found for high-rise buildings.

  9. Modular load flow for restructured power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hariharan, M V; Gupta, Pragati P

    2016-01-01

    In the subject of power systems, authors felt that a re-look is necessary at some conventional methods of analysis. In this book, the authors have subjected the time-honoured load flow to a close scrutiny. Authors have discovered and discussed a new load flow procedure – Modular Load Flow. Modular Load Flow explores use of power – a scalar – as source for electrical circuits which are conventionally analysed by means of phasors – the ac voltages or currents. The method embeds Kirchhoff’s circuit laws as topological property into its scalar equations and results in a unique wonderland where phase angles do not exist! Generators are shown to have their own worlds which can be superimposed to obtain the state of the composite power system. The treatment is useful in restructured power systems where stakeholders and the system operators may desire to know individual generator contributions in line flows and line losses for commercial reasons. Solution in Modular Load Flow consists of explicit expression...

  10. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs.

  11. Low-Load Space Conditioning Needs Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-05-01

    With limited low-load options in the HVAC market, many new-construction housing units are being fitted with oversized equipment - thus facing penalties in system efficiency, comfort, and cost. To bridge the gap between currently available HVAC equipment and the rising demand for low-load HVAC equipment in the marketplace, HVAC equipment manufacturers need to be fully aware of multifamily buildings and single-family homes market needs. Over the past decade, Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) has provided certification and consulting services on hundreds of housing projects and has accrued a large pool of data. CARB compiled and analyzed these data to see what the thermal load ranges are in various multifamily apartments and attached single-family home types (duplex and townhouse). In total, design loads from 941 dwellings from SWA's recent multifamily and attached single-family work across the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic were analyzed. Information on the dwelling characteristics, design loads, and the specifications of installed mechanical equipment were analyzed to determine any trends that exist within the dataset.

  12. Distribution of Cognitive Load in Web Search

    CERN Document Server

    Gwizdka, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    The search task and the system both affect the demand on cognitive resources during information search. In some situations, the demands may become too high for a person. This article has a three-fold goal. First, it presents and critiques methods to measure cognitive load. Second, it explores the distribution of load across search task stages. Finally, it seeks to improve our understanding of factors affecting cognitive load levels in information search. To this end, a controlled Web search experiment with forty-eight participants was conducted. Interaction logs were used to segment search tasks semi-automatically into task stages. Cognitive load was assessed using a new variant of the dual-task method. Average cognitive load was found to vary by search task stages. It was significantly higher during query formulation and user description of a relevant document as compared to examining search results and viewing individual documents. Semantic information shown next to the search results lists in one of the st...

  13. Load forecasting method considering temperature effect for distribution network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xiao Fang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the accuracy of load forecasting, the temperature factor was introduced into the load forecasting in this paper. This paper analyzed the characteristics of power load variation, and researched the rule of the load with the temperature change. Based on the linear regression analysis, the mathematical model of load forecasting was presented with considering the temperature effect, and the steps of load forecasting were given. Used MATLAB, the temperature regression coefficient was calculated. Using the load forecasting model, the full-day load forecasting and time-sharing load forecasting were carried out. By comparing and analyzing the forecast error, the results showed that the error of time-sharing load forecasting method was small in this paper. The forecasting method is an effective method to improve the accuracy of load forecasting.

  14. Desenvolvimento de metodologia para previsão do fenômeno de vibrações decorrentes da interferência entre eixos de um trator com tração dianteira auxiliar (TDA Development of methodology to predict power hop of the axle interference of a front wheel assist tractor (FWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Schlosser

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi desenvolvido um ensaio de campo com o objetivo de avaliar as condições da ocorrência do fenômeno do "galope" do trator, que consiste em vibrações de baixa freqüência e grande amplitude. Este fenômeno físico é muito comum nos tratores de tração integral, principalmente nos que possuem pneus de diferentes diâmetros no eixo dianteiro e traseiro. Para provocar o "galope", determinaram-se diferentes condições de distribuição de peso, pressão interna dos pneus e da magnitude da carga na barra de tração. Ao final dos ensaios, determinaram-se as condições de ocorrência do fenômeno por meio de uma metodologia bastante simples em função dos raios dos pneus. O método utilizado para a determinação das condições de ocorrência do galope foi plenamente satisfatório, pois pôde prever com bastante precisão as condições em que iria ocorrer o fenômeno.A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the conditions for the appeareance of the power hope phenomenon. It consists in low frequency vibrations and great amplitude. This physical phenomenon is very common in FWA tractors, mainly with unequal tires diameter in front and rear axle. To promote power hope, different weight distribution conditions, different tire pressure and different drawbar force were used. Power hope occurence conditions were determined using simple methodology, which uses tire radio in the calculations.

  15. Cognitive Load Theory: Advances in Research on Worked Examples, Animations, and Cognitive Load Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A.J.M. van Gog (Tamara); G.W.C. Paas (Fred); J. Sweller (John)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe contributions to this special issue document some recent advances of cognitive load theory, and are based on contributions to the Third International Cognitive Load Theory Conference (2009), Heerlen, The Netherlands. The contributions focus on developments in example-based learning,

  16. Load alleviation potential of active flaps and individual pitch control in a full design load basis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlas, Athanasios; Bergami, Leonardo; Hansen, Morten Hartvig;

    2015-01-01

    The load alleviation potential of the Controllable Rubber Trailing Edge Flap (CRTEF) is verified on a full Design Load Basis (DLB) setup using the aeroelastic code HAWC2, and by investigating a flap configuration for the NREL 5MW Reference Wind Turbine (RWT) model. The performance of the CRTEF co...

  17. Damage Accumulation in Vertical Breakwaters due to Combined Impact Loading and Pulsating Wave Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    1999-01-01

    elasto-plastic oscillator. The pulsating part of the wave loading is modelled as a filtered white noise process, and the impact load is modelled by a filtered Poisson process. It is shown how a distribution function for the accumulated permanent deformations can be obtained. Finally, an illustrative...

  18. A Microstructural Study of Load Distribution in Cartilage: A Comparison of Stress Relaxation versus Creep Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvin Thambyah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The compressive response of articular cartilage has been extensively investigated and most studies have focussed largely on the directly loaded matrix. However, especially in relation to the tissue microstructure, less is known about load distribution mechanisms operating outside the directly loaded region. We have addressed this issue by using channel indentation and DIC microscopy techniques that provide visualisation of the matrix microstructural response across the regions of both direct and nondirect loading. We hypothesise that, by comparing the microstructural response following stress relaxation and creep compression, new insights can be revealed concerning the complex mechanisms of load bearing. Our results indicate that, with stress relaxation, the initial mode of stress decay appears to primarily involve relaxation of the surface layer. In the creep loading protocol, the main mode of stress release is a lateral distribution of load via the mid matrix. While these two modes of stress redistribution have a complex relationship with the zonally differentiated tissue microstructure and the depth of strain, four mechanostructural mechanisms are proposed to describe succinctly the load responses observed.

  19. System ID Modern Control Algorithms for Active Aerodynamic Load Control and Impact on Gearbox Loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, D.; Wilson, D.; Resor, B.; Berg, J.; Barlas, J.; Crowther, A.; Halse, C.

    2010-01-01

    Prior work on active aerodynamic load control (AALC) of wind turbine blades has demonstrated that appropriate use of this technology has the potential to yield significant reductions in blade loads, leading to a decrease in wind cost of energy. While the general concept of AALC is usually discussed

  20. A novel control strategy for load converter of DC isolated distribution system under unbalanced loading conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. NOROOZIAN; M. ABEDI; G.B. GHAREHPETIAN; S. H. HOSSEINI

    2009-01-01

    A novel control strategy for the load converter supplying the unbalanced AC load in a DC isolated distribution system is presented. The control algorithm results in balanced and sinusoidal load voltages under unbalanced AC loading. The unbalanced load is characterized in the d-q-0 rotating coordinate based on symmetrical sequence components. Also, the mathematical model of the load converter in both a-b-c and d-q-0 coordinates is derived by using the average large signal model. Then, two control strategies for the load converter are presented. The first one uses the conventional d-q-0 controller to ensure the voltage and current regulation. The second one is a newly proposed control strategy based on the decomposition of the voltage and current into instantaneous positive, negative, and zero sequences. These three sequences are controlled independently in their own reference frames as DC signals. The performance of the load converter using these two control strategies is compared. Simulation results show the validity and capability of the newly proposed control strategy.

  1. Optimal Control Allocation with Load Sensor Feedback for Active Load Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    These slide sets describe the OCLA formulation and associated algorithms as a set of new technologies in the first practical application of load limiting flight control utilizing load feedback as a primary control measurement. Slide set one describes Experiment Development and slide set two describes Flight-Test Performance.

  2. Processing Capacity under Perceptual and Cognitive Load: A Closer Look at Load Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitousi, Daniel; Wenger, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Variations in perceptual and cognitive demands (load) play a major role in determining the efficiency of selective attention. According to load theory (Lavie, Hirst, Fockert, & Viding, 2004) these factors (a) improve or hamper selectivity by altering the way resources (e.g., processing capacity) are allocated, and (b) tap resources rather than…

  3. Plastic collapse load of corroded steel plates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rahbar Ranji Ahmad

    2012-06-01

    Corrosion is one of the detrimental phenomena which reduces strength of structures. It is common practice to assume a uniform thickness reduction for general corrosion. Since the actual corroded plate has rough surfaces, to estimate the remaining strength of corroded structures, typically a much higher level of accuracy is required. The main aim of present work is to study plastic collapse load of corroded steel plates with irregular surfaces under tension. Non-linear finite element method by using computer code ANSYS was employed to determine plastic collapse load. By comparing the results with uniform thickness assumption, a reduction factor was proposed. It is found that by uniform thickness assumption, plastic collapse load of corroded plates are overestimated.

  4. Enhanced Magnetic Trap Loading for Atomic Strontium

    CERN Document Server

    Barker, D S; Pisenti, N C; Campbell, G K

    2015-01-01

    We report on a technique to improve the continuous loading of atomic strontium into a magnetic trap from a Magneto-Optical Trap (MOT). This is achieved by adding a depumping laser tuned to the 3P1 to 3S1 (688-nm) transition. The depumping laser increases atom number in the magnetic trap and subsequent cooling stages by up to 65 % for the bosonic isotopes and up to 30 % for the fermionic isotope of strontium. We optimize this trap loading strategy with respect to the 688-nm laser detuning, intensity, and beam size. To understand the results, we develop a one-dimensional rate equation model of the system, which is in good agreement with the data. We discuss the use of other transitions in strontium for accelerated trap loading and the application of the technique to other alkaline-earth-like atoms.

  5. Enhanced magnetic trap loading for atomic strontium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, D. S.; Reschovsky, B. J.; Pisenti, N. C.; Campbell, G. K.

    2015-10-01

    We report on a technique to improve the continuous loading of atomic strontium into a magnetic trap from a magneto-optical trap. This is achieved by adding a depumping laser tuned to the P31→S31 (688-nm) transition. The depumping laser increases atom number in the magnetic trap and subsequent cooling stages by up to 65% for the bosonic isotopes and up to 30% for the fermionic isotope of strontium. We optimize this trap loading strategy with respect to the 688-nm laser detuning, intensity, and beam size. To understand the results, we develop a one-dimensional rate equation model of the system, which is in good agreement with the data. We discuss the use of other transitions in strontium for accelerated trap loading and the application of the technique to other alkaline-earth-like atoms.

  6. Bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi

    -competitive in the energy market. This thesis addresses issues concerning monopod bucket foundations in the hope of providing tools and ideas that could be used to optimize the design of this sub-structure. The work is focussed on the behaviour of bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading. Other related......To enable a prosperous development of offshore wind energy, economically feasible technologies must be developed. The monopod bucket foundation is likely to become a cost-effective sub-structure for offshore wind turbines and has the potential to make offshore wind more cost...... and propaedeutic topics, such as bucket foundations under transient lateral loading and under monotonic lateral loading, are also investigated. All the scientific work is fundamentally based on small-scale experimental tests of bucket foundations in dense water-saturated sand. The most important scientific...

  7. Design Load Basis for Offshore Wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Anand; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Wang, Shaofeng

    2016-01-01

    DTU Wind Energy is not designing and manufacturing wind turbines and does therefore not need a Design Load Basis (DLB) that is accepted by a certification body. However, to assess the load consequences of innovative features and devices added to existing offshore turbine concepts or new offshore...... turbine concept developed in our research, it is useful to have a full DLB that follows the current design standard and is representative of a general DLB used by the industry. It will set a standard for the offshore wind turbine design load evaluations performed at DTU Wind Energy, which is aligned...... with the challenges faced by the industry and therefore ensures that our research continues to have a strong foundation in this interaction. Furthermore, the use of a full DLB that follows the current standard can improve and increase the feedback from the research at DTU Wind Energy to the international...

  8. Behaviour of Soil Subjected to Dynamic Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, L.

    1998-01-01

    Many geotechnical problems involve design of dynamically loaded foundations. The design criterion fr dynamically loaded foundations is often described in terms of limiting values for the displacements. The displacements in the soil are normally very small when dealing with dynamically loaded...... foundations, and hence it is necessary to know the deformation properties for the soil at very low strain level. The main topic of the project is to increase the knowledge of the behaviour of Danish soils at small strain levels and to extend the laboratory facilities to deal with testing at small strains....... The soil behaviour at very small strain levels is non-linear, and the most common testing technique for this situation is the resonant column technique. One of the aims of this project is to install, check, get familiar with and perform tests on different kinds of Danish soils in a new Drnevich...

  9. MEASUREMENT OF WASTE LOADING IN SALTSTONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V

    2008-07-18

    One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone grout mixtures. One of those properties of importance is the Waste Loading (WL) of the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) in the Saltstone waste form. Waste loading is a measure of the amount of waste that can be incorporated within a waste form. The value of the Saltstone waste loading ultimately determines the number of vaults that will be required to disposition all of the DSS. In this report, the waste loading is defined as the volume in milliliters of DSS per liter of Saltstone waste form. The two most important parameters that determine waste loading for Saltstone are water to cementitious material (w/cm) ratio and the cured grout density. Data are provided that show the dependence of waste loading on the w/cm ratio for a fixed DSS composition using the current premix material (45% Blast Furnace Slag (BFS), 45% Fly Ash (FA) and 10% Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)). The impact of cured grout density on waste loading was also demonstrated. Mixes (at 0.60 w/cm) made with a Modular Caustic side extraction Unit (MCU) simulant and either OPC or BFS have higher cured grout densities than mixes made with premix and increase the WL to 709 mL/L for the OPC mix and 689 mL/L for the BFS mix versus the value of 653 mL/L for MCU in premix at 0.60 w/cm ratio. Bleed liquid reduces the waste loading and lowers the effective w/cm ratio of Saltstone. A method is presented (and will be used in future tasks) for correcting the waste loading and the w/cm ratio of the as-batched mixes in those cases where bleed liquid is present. For example, the Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment (DDA) mix at an as-batched 0.60 w/cm ratio, when corrected for % bleed, gives a mix with a 0.55 w/cm ratio and a WL that has been reduced from 662 to 625 mL/L. An example is provided that

  10. Lower head integrity under steam explosion loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theofanous, T.G.; Yuen, W.W.; Angelini, S.; Freeman, K.; Chen, X.; Salmassi, T. [Center for Risk Studies and Safety, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Sienicki, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Lower head integrity under steam explosion loads in an AP600-like reactor design is considered. The assessment is the second part of an evaluation of the in-vessel retention idea as a severe accident management concept, the first part (DOE/ID-10460) dealing with thermal loads. The assessment is conducted in terms of the Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM), and includes the comprehensive evaluation of all relevant severe accident scenarios, melt conditions and timing of release from the core region, fully 3D mixing and explosion wave dynamics, and lower head fragility under local, dynamic loading. All of these factors and brought together in a ROAAM Probabilistic Framework to evaluate failure likelihood. The conclusion is that failure is `physically unreasonable`. (author)

  11. Phloem loading through plasmodesmata: a biophysical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Comtet, Jean; Stroock, Abraham D

    2016-01-01

    In many species, sucrose en route out of the leaf migrates from photosynthetically active mesophyll cells into the phloem down its concentration gradient via plasmodesmata, i.e., symplastically. In some of these plants the process is entirely passive, but in others phloem sucrose is actively converted into larger sugars, raffinose and stachyose, and segregated (trapped), thus raising total phloem sugar concentration to a level higher than in the mesophyll. Questions remain regarding the mechanisms and selective advantages conferred by both of these symplastic loading processes. Here we present an integrated model - including local and global transport and the kinetics of oligomerization - for passive and active symplastic loading. We also propose a physical model of transport through the plasmodesmata. With these models, we predict that: 1) relative to passive loading, oligomerization of sucrose in the phloem, even in the absence of segregation, lowers the sugar content in the leaf required to achieve a given...

  12. Radio Frequency Power Load and Associated Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V. Karthik (Inventor); Freestone, Todd M. (Inventor); Sims, William Herbert, III (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A radio frequency power load and associated method. A radio frequency power load apparatus may include a container with an ionized fluid therein. The apparatus may include one conductor immersed in a fluid and another conductor electrically connected to the container. A radio frequency transmission system may include a radio frequency transmitter, a radio frequency amplifier connected to the transmitter and a radio frequency power load apparatus connected to the amplifier. The apparatus may include a fluid having an ion source therein, one conductor immersed in a fluid, and another conductor electrically connected to the container. A method of dissipating power generated by a radio frequency transmission system may include constructing a waveguide with ionized fluid in a container and connecting the waveguide to an amplifier of the transmission system.

  13. Cooling load across glazed building surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydinli, S.; Krochmann, J. (Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Lichttechnik)

    1980-05-01

    It is only possible to build favourably with regard to costs and energy requirements, if the windows which are required for the direct visual contact between the inner and outer space are favourably selected with regard to the thermal loading of the internal space during the summer months and the heat losses during the cold season of the year. To achieve this an exact calculation of the partial cooling load is required, which is caused by the solar radiation entering into the inner space through the glazed building surfaces. Described are the items for the calculation of the magnitude of the radiation which defines this part of the cooling load on to any inclined surface and the influence of the properties of the glazing.

  14. An Improved Hadoop Data Load Balancing Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Data load balancing is one of the key problems of big data technology. As a big data application, Hadoop has had many successful applications. HDFS is Hadoop Distributed File System and has the load balancing procedure which can balance the storage load on each machine. However, this method cannot balance the overload rack preferentially, and so it is likely to cause the breakdown of overload machines. In this paper, we focus on the overload machines and propose an improved algorithm for balancing the overload racks preferentially. The improved method constructs Prior Balance List list which includes overload machines, For Balance List list and NextForBalanceList list by many factors and balances among the racks selected from these lists firstly. Experiments show that the improved method can balance the overload racks in time and reduce the possibility of breakdown of these racks

  15. Bit Loading Algorithms for Cooperative OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Bo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigate the resource allocation problem for an OFDM cooperative network with a single source-destination pair and multiple relays. Assuming knowledge of the instantaneous channel gains for all links in the entire network, we propose several bit and power allocation schemes aiming at minimizing the total transmission power under a target rate constraint. First, an optimal and efficient bit loading algorithm is proposed when the relay node uses the same subchannel to relay the information transmitted by the source node. To further improve the performance gain, subchannel permutation, in which the subchannels are reallocated at relay nodes, is considered. An optimal subchannel permutation algorithm is first proposed and then an efficient suboptimal algorithm is considered to achieve a better complexity-performance tradeoff. A distributed bit loading algorithm is also proposed for ad hoc networks. Simulation results show that significant performance gains can be achieved by the proposed bit loading algorithms, especially when subchannel permutation is employed.

  16. Load Carriage and the Female Soldier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venerina Johnson

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the physiological, biomechanical and health impacts of load carriage on the female soldier and extends to include issues acknowledged as impacting on the female athlete and hence the female soldier. Physiological factors such as fat mass, strength, aerobic endurance and biomechanical factors such as stride length and forward lean have the potential to increase the energy cost of load carriage and cause injury. The female athlete triad, iron deficiency, pelvic floor muscle dysfunction and military equipment issues can likewise reduce female soldier performance and increase injury risk. Research evidence is presented to inform the development and implementation of performance optimisation and injury prevention strategies. Discussed strategies include structured physical conditioning, improving nutrition and hydration practices and modification of load carriage equipment to meet female soldier requirements.

  17. Optimal Load Dispatch Using Ant Lion Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menakshi Mahendru Nischal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Ant lion optimization (ALO technique to solve optimal load dispatch problem. Ant lion optimization (ALO is a novel nature inspired algorithm. The ALO algorithm mimics the hunting mechanism of ant lions in nature. Five main steps of hunting prey such as the random walk of ants, building traps, entrapment of ants in traps, catching preys, and re-building traps are implemented. Optimal load dispatch (OLD is a method of determining the most efficient, low-cost and reliable operation of a power system by dispatching available electricity generation resources to supply load on the system. The primary objective of OLD is to minimize total cost of generation while honoring operational constraints of available generation resources. The proposed technique is implemented on 3, 6 & 20 unit test system for solving the OLD. Numerical results shows that the proposed method has good convergence property and better in quality of solution than other algorithms reported in recent literature.

  18. Compensator configurations for load currents' symmetrization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusinaru, D.; Manescu, L. G.; Dinu, R. C.

    2016-02-01

    This paper approaches aspects regarding the mitigation effects of asymmetries in 3-phase 3-wire networks. The measure consisting in connecting of load current symmetrization devices at the load coupling point is presented. A time-variation of compensators parameters is determined as a function of the time-recorded electrical values. The general sizing principle of the load current symmetrization reactive components is based on a simple equivalent model of the unbalanced 3-phase loads. By using these compensators a certain control of the power components transits is ensured in the network. The control is based on the variations laws of the compensators parameters as functions of the recorded electrical values: [B] = [T]·[M]. The link between compensator parameters and measured values is ensured by a transformation matrix [T] for each operation conditions of the supply network. Additional conditions for improving of energy and efficiency performance of the compensator are considered: i.e. reactive power compensation. The compensator sizing algorithm was implemented into a MATLAB environment software, which generate the time-evolution of the parameters of load current symmetrization device. The input data of application takes into account time-recording of the electrical values. By using the compensator sizing software, some results were achieved for the case of a consumer connected at 20 kV busbar of a distribution substation, during 24 hours measurement session. Even the sizing of the compensators aimed some additional network operation aspects (power factor correction) correlated with the total or major load symmetrizations, the harmonics aspects of the network values were neglected.

  19. Standardized Loads Acting in Hip Implants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Bergmann

    Full Text Available With the increasing success of hip joint replacements, the average age of patients has decreased, patients have become more active and their expectations of the implant durability have risen. Thus, pre-clinical endurance tests on hip implants require defining realistic in vivo loads from younger and more active patients. These loads require simplifications to be applicable for simulator tests and numerical analyses. Here, the contact forces in the joint were measured with instrumented hip implants in ten subjects during nine of the most physically demanding and frequent activities of daily living. Typical levels and directions of average and high joint loads were extracted from the intra- and inter-individually widely varying individual data. These data can also be used to analyse bone remodelling at the implant-bone interface, evaluate tissue straining in finite element studies or validate analytical loading predictions, among other uses. The current ISO standards for endurance tests of implant stems and necks are based on historic analytical data from the 1970s. Comparisons of these test forces with in vivo loads unveiled that their unidirectional orientations deviate from the time-dependent in vivo directions during walking and most other activities. The ISO force for testing the stem is substantially too low while the ISO force for the neck better matches typical in vivo magnitudes. Because the magnitudes and orientations of peak forces substantially vary among the activities, load scenarios that reflect a collection of time-dependent high forces should be applied rather than using unidirectional forces. Based on data from ten patients, proposals for the most demanding activities, the time courses of the contact forces and the required cycle numbers for testing are given here. Friction moments in the joint were measured in addition to the contact forces. The moment data were also standardized and can be applied to wear tests of the implant

  20. Standardized Loads Acting in Hip Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Georg; Bender, Alwina; Dymke, Jörn; Duda, Georg; Damm, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing success of hip joint replacements, the average age of patients has decreased, patients have become more active and their expectations of the implant durability have risen. Thus, pre-clinical endurance tests on hip implants require defining realistic in vivo loads from younger and more active patients. These loads require simplifications to be applicable for simulator tests and numerical analyses. Here, the contact forces in the joint were measured with instrumented hip implants in ten subjects during nine of the most physically demanding and frequent activities of daily living. Typical levels and directions of average and high joint loads were extracted from the intra- and inter-individually widely varying individual data. These data can also be used to analyse bone remodelling at the implant-bone interface, evaluate tissue straining in finite element studies or validate analytical loading predictions, among other uses. The current ISO standards for endurance tests of implant stems and necks are based on historic analytical data from the 1970s. Comparisons of these test forces with in vivo loads unveiled that their unidirectional orientations deviate from the time-dependent in vivo directions during walking and most other activities. The ISO force for testing the stem is substantially too low while the ISO force for the neck better matches typical in vivo magnitudes. Because the magnitudes and orientations of peak forces substantially vary among the activities, load scenarios that reflect a collection of time-dependent high forces should be applied rather than using unidirectional forces. Based on data from ten patients, proposals for the most demanding activities, the time courses of the contact forces and the required cycle numbers for testing are given here. Friction moments in the joint were measured in addition to the contact forces. The moment data were also standardized and can be applied to wear tests of the implant. It was shown that

  1. Lightening the load: perceptual load impairs visual detection in typical adults but not in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Anna M; Swettenham, John G; Lavie, Nilli

    2012-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research portrays a mixed picture of attentional abilities with demonstrations of enhancements (e.g., superior visual search) and deficits (e.g., higher distractibility). Here we test a potential resolution derived from the Load Theory of Attention (e.g., Lavie, 2005). In Load Theory, distractor processing depends on the perceptual load of the task and as such can only be eliminated under high load that engages full capacity. We hypothesize that ASD involves enhanced perceptual capacity, leading to the superior performance and increased distractor processing previously reported. Using a signal-detection paradigm, we test this directly and demonstrate that, under higher levels of load, perceptual sensitivity was reduced in typical adults but not in adults with ASD. These findings confirm our hypothesis and offer a promising solution to the previous discrepancies by suggesting that increased distractor processing in ASD results not from a filtering deficit but from enhanced perceptual capacity.

  2. Voltage-Sensitive Load Controllers for Voltage Regulation and Increased Load Factor in Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglass, Philip James; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; Østergaard, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    consumption which can be mapped to temperature setpoint offsets of thermostat controlled loads. In networks where a lower voltage level corresponds to high system load (and vice versa), this controller acts to regulate voltage and increase the load factor. Simulations are conducted on low- and medium-voltage......This paper presents a novel controller design for controlling appliances based on local measurements of voltage. The controller finds the normalized voltage deviation accounting for the sensitivity of voltage measurements to appliance state. The controller produces a signal indicating desired power...... distribution systems with residential loads including voltage-sensitive water heaters. In low-voltage systems, the results of the simulations show the controller to be effective at reducing the extremes of voltage and increasing the load factor while respecting end-use temperature constraints. In medium-voltage...

  3. Axial loaded MRI of the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com; Blease, S.; MacSweeney, E

    2003-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is established as the technique of choice for assessment of degenerative disorders of the lumbar spine. However, it is routinely performed with the patient supine and the hips and knees flexed. The absence of axial loading and lumbar extension results in a maximization of spinal canal dimensions, which may in some cases, result in failure to demonstrate nerve root compression. Attempts have been made to image the lumbar spine in a more physiological state, either by imaging with flexion-extension, in the erect position or by using axial loading. This article reviews the literature relating to the above techniques.

  4. Sensitivity of Footbridge Response to Load Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars; Frier, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The paper considers a stochastic approach to modeling the actions of walking and has focus on the vibration serviceability limit state of footbridges. The use of a stochastic approach is novel but useful as it is more advanced than the quite simplistic deterministic load models seen in many design...... matter to foresee their impact. The paper contributes by examining how some of these decisions influence the outcome of serviceability evaluations. The sensitivity study is made focusing on vertical footbridge response to single person loading....

  5. Sensitivity of Footbridge Response to Load Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars; Frier, Christian

    The paper considers a stochastic approach to modeling the actions of walking and has focus on the vibration serviceability limit state of footbridges. The use of a stochastic approach is novel but useful as it is more advanced than the quite simplistic deterministic load models seen in many design...... matter to foresee their impact. The paper contributes by examining how some of these decisions influence the outcome of serviceability evaluations. The sensitivity study is made focusing on vertical footbridge response to single person loading....

  6. Predicting Footbridge Response using Stochastic Load Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars; Frier, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Walking parameters such as step frequency, pedestrian mass, dynamic load factor, etc. are basically stochastic, although it is quite common to adapt deterministic models for these parameters. The present paper considers a stochastic approach to modeling the action of pedestrians, but when doing s...... as it pinpoints which decisions to be concerned about when the goal is to predict footbridge response. The studies involve estimating footbridge responses using Monte-Carlo simulations and focus is on estimating vertical structural response to single person loading....

  7. Stochastic Extreme Load Predictions for Marine Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1999-01-01

    Development of rational design criteria for marine structures requires reliable estimates for the maximum wave-induced loads the structure may encounter during its operational lifetime. The paper discusses various methods for extreme value predictions taking into account the non-linearity of the ......Development of rational design criteria for marine structures requires reliable estimates for the maximum wave-induced loads the structure may encounter during its operational lifetime. The paper discusses various methods for extreme value predictions taking into account the non...

  8. Software agents for distributed load balancing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernstedt, F.; Davidsson, P. [Department of Systems and Software Engineering, School of Engineering, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Ronneby (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    We present results from experiments where the effects of flow control at a single substation are compared to distributed flow control at multiple substations. The latter approach is made possible by equipping individual substations with some computing power and integrating them into a communications network. Software agents, who cooperate with other software agents (substations) and invoke time limited reductions to consumption, are embedded in each substation. The experiments show that it is possible to automatically load balance a small district heating network using agent technology, e.g., to perform automatic peak clipping and load shifting. (orig.)

  9. Pressure Hull Analysis under Shock Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Jung Lee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The hull of high performance submarines must resist underwater shock loading due to exploding torpedoes or depth bombs. An underwater shock involving an initial shock wave and successive bubble pulsating waves is so complex that a theoretical technique for deriving shock pressure distribution is required for improving simulation efficiency. Complete shock loading is obtained theoretically in this work, and responses of a submarine pressure hull are calculated using ABAQUS USA (Underwater Shock Analysis codes. In the long run, this deflection and stress data will assist in examining the structural arrangement of the submarine pressure hull.

  10. Monopod bucket foundations under cyclic lateral loading

    OpenAIRE

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    The monopod bucket foundation can be a cost-reducing sub-structure for offshore wind turbines. To avoid problems during the turbine operation, the long-term effect of cyclic loading must be considered in the design of the foundation. In this paper a 1g testing rig is adopted to extend the knowledge on bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading. The test setup is described in detail and a comprehensive experimental campaign is presented. The foundation is subjected to cyclic overturning m...

  11. Fatigue Reliability under Multiple-Amplitude Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talreja, R.

    1979-01-01

    A method to determine the fatigue of structures subjected to multiple-amplitude loads is presented. Unlike the more common cumulative damage methods, which are usually based on fatigue life data, the proposed method is based on tensile strength data. Assuming the Weibull distribution...... for the initial tensile strength and the fatigue life, the probability distributions for the residual tensile strength in both the crack initiation and the crack propagation stages of fatigue are determined. The method is illustrated for two-amplitude loads by means of experimental results obtained by testing...

  12. Chaotic Load Series Forecasting Based on MPMR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zunxiong; Cheng Quanhua; Zhang Deyun

    2006-01-01

    Minimax probability machine regression (MPMR) was proposed for chaotic load time series global prediction. In MPMR, regression function maximizes the minimum probability that future predication will be within an ε to the true regression function. After exploring the principle of MPMR, and verifying the chaotic property of the load series from a certain power system, one-day-ahead predictions for 24 time points next day were done with MPMR. The results demonstrate that MPMP has satisfactory prediction efficiency. Kernel function shape parameter and regression tube value may influence the MPMR-based system performance. In the experiments, cross validation was used to choose the two parameters.

  13. Enhanced Magnetic Trap Loading for Atomic Strontium

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, D.S.; Reschovsky, B. J.; Pisenti, N. C.; Campbell, G. K.

    2015-01-01

    We report on a technique to improve the continuous loading of atomic strontium into a magnetic trap from a Magneto-Optical Trap (MOT). This is achieved by adding a depumping laser tuned to the 3P1 to 3S1 (688-nm) transition. The depumping laser increases atom number in the magnetic trap and subsequent cooling stages by up to 65 % for the bosonic isotopes and up to 30 % for the fermionic isotope of strontium. We optimize this trap loading strategy with respect to the 688-nm laser detuning, int...

  14. Functionally graded piezoelectric cantilever beam under load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Z.F.; Chen, Y. [Beijing Jiaotong University, School of Civil Engineering, Beijing (China)

    2004-12-01

    In the present paper, the problem of a functionally graded piezoelectric cantilever beam subjected to different loadings is studied. The piezoelectric beam is characterized by continuously graded properties for one elastic parameter and the material density. A pair of stress and induction functions in the form of polynomials is proposed and determined. Based on these functions, a set of analytical solutions for the beam subjected to different loadings is obtained. As particular cases, series of solutions for some canonical problems can be directly obtained from the solutions of the present paper, such as for the problems of a piezoelectric cantilever beam with constant body force or without body forces, etc. (orig.)

  15. Suction caissons subjected to monotonic combined loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penzes, P.; Jensen, M.R.; Zania, Varvara

    2016-01-01

    Suction caissons are being increasingly used as offshore foundation solutions in shallow and intermediate water depths. The convenient installation method through the application of suction has rendered this type of foundation as an attractive alternative to the more traditional monopile foundation...... for offshore wind turbines. The combined loading imposed typically to a suction caisson has led to the estimation of their bearing capacity by means of 3D failure envelopes. This study aims to analyse the behaviour of suction caissons for offshore wind turbines subjected to combined loading. Finite element...

  16. Practical Hydrogen Loading of Air Silica Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Jensen, Jesper Bo Damm;

    2005-01-01

    A method for hydrogen-loading air-silica optical fibres has been developed allowing out-diffusion times comparable to standard step-index fibres. Examples of the first grating written in Ge-doped air-silica fibres using a 266nm UV-laser are shown.......A method for hydrogen-loading air-silica optical fibres has been developed allowing out-diffusion times comparable to standard step-index fibres. Examples of the first grating written in Ge-doped air-silica fibres using a 266nm UV-laser are shown....

  17. Sensitivity of Footbridge Response to Load Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars; Frier, Christian

    The paper considers a stochastic approach to modeling the actions of walking and has focus on the vibration serviceability limit state of footbridges. The use of a stochastic approach is novel but useful as it is more advanced than the quite simplistic deterministic load models seen in many desig...... matter to foresee their impact. The paper contributes by examining how some of these decisions influence the outcome of serviceability evaluations. The sensitivity study is made focusing on vertical footbridge response to single person loading....

  18. Feasability Study of Electronic Load Sensing Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Rygaard; Andersen, Torben O.; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2006-01-01

    to traditional LS-systems, in terms of better control and system utilization possibilities, combined with the increased acceptance and use of electronic sensors in mobile hydraulic machinery. The current work is to evaluate the suitability of an ELS concepts applied to a Sauer Danfoss Series 45 H-frame open......Electronic load sensing (ELS) systems have long been expected to start replacing traditional (hydro-mechanical) load sensing (LS) systems, which today are the standard on most medium and high-end mobile hydraulic applications. The reason for this being the potentials that ELS brings relative...

  19. Gust loading on streamlined bridge decks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larose, Guy; Mann, Jakob

    1998-01-01

    The current analytical description of the buffeting action of wind on long-span bridges is based on the strip assumption. However, recent experiments on closed-box girder bridge decks have shown that this assumption is not valid and is the source of an important part of the error margin...... of the analytical prediction methods. In this paper, an analytical model that departs from the strip assumption is used to describe the gust loading on a thin airfoil. A parallel is drawn between the analytical model and direct measurements of gust loading on motionless closed-box girder bridge decks. Empirical...

  20. Shaft Center Orbit in Dynamically Loaded Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate how to utilize the bearings damping coefficients to estimate the orbit for a dynamically loaded journal bearing. The classical method for this analysis was developed by Booker in 1965 and described further in 1972. Several authors have refined this method over...... Jorgen W. Lund pointed out in lecture notes that the dynamic damping coefficients of the bearing could be used to find the shaft orbit for dynamically loaded bearings. For simplicity the "Short-Width-Journal-Bearing Theory" is used as a basis for finding the damping coefficients in this work...