WorldWideScience

Sample records for axisymmetric rigid body

  1. Controlled Wake of a Moving Axisymmetric Bluff Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E.; Vukasinovic, B.; Glezer, A.

    2017-11-01

    The aerodynamic loads exerted on a wire-mounted axisymmetric bluff body in prescribed rigid motion are controlled by fluidic manipulation of its near wake. The body is supported by a six-degree of freedom eight-wire traverse and its motion is controlled using a dedicated servo actuator and inline load cell for each wire. The instantaneous aerodynamic forces and moments on the moving body are manipulated by controlled interactions of an azimuthal array of integrated synthetic jet actuators with the cross flow to induce localized flow attachment over the body's aft end and thereby alter the symmetry of the wake. The coupled interactions between the wake structure and the effected aerodynamic loads during prescribed time-periodic and transitory (gust like) motions are investigated with emphasis on enhancing or diminishing the loads for maneuver control, and decoupling the body's motion from its far wake.

  2. Numerical description of cavitation on axisymmetric bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickox, C.E.; Hailey, C.E.; Wolfe, W.P.; Watts, H.A.; Gross, R.J.; Ingber, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on ongoing studies which are directed toward the development of predictive techniques for the modeling of steady cavitation on axisymmetric bodies. The primary goal of the modeling effort is the prediction of cavity shape and pressure distribution from which forces and moments can be calculated. Here we present an overview of the modeling techniques developed and compare predictions with experimental data obtained from water tunnel tests for both limited and supercavitation. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Rigid body dynamics of mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Hubert

    2003-01-01

    The second volume of Rigid Body Dynamics of Mechanisms covers applications via a systematic method for deriving model equations of planar and spatial mechanisms. The necessary theoretical foundations have been laid in the first volume that introduces the theoretical mechanical aspects of mechatronic systems. Here the focus is on the application of the modeling methodology to various examples of rigid-body mechanisms, simple planar ones as well as more challenging spatial problems. A rich variety of joint models, active constraints, plus active and passive force elements is treated. The book is intended for self-study by working engineers and students concerned with the control of mechanical systems, i.e. robotics, mechatronics, vehicles, and machine tools. The examples included are a likely source from which to choose models for university lectures.

  4. RAXBOD- INVISCID TRANSONIC FLOW OVER AXISYMMETRIC BODIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of axisymmetric transonic flow is of interest not only because of the practical application to missile and launch vehicle aerodynamics, but also because of its relation to fully three-dimensional flow in terms of the area rule. The RAXBOD computer program was developed for the analysis of steady, inviscid, irrotational, transonic flow over axisymmetric bodies in free air. RAXBOD uses a finite-difference relaxation method to numerically solve the exact formulation of the disturbance velocity potential with exact surface boundary conditions. Agreement with available experimental results has been good in cases where viscous effects and wind-tunnel wall interference are not important. The governing second-order partial differential equation describing the flow potential is replaced by a system of finite difference equations, including Jameson's "rotated" difference scheme at supersonic points. A stretching is applied to both the normal and tangential coordinates such that the infinite physical space is mapped onto a finite computational space. The boundary condition at infinity can be applied directly and there is no need for an asymptotic far-field solution. The system of finite difference equations is solved by a column relaxation method. In order to obtain both rapid convergence and any desired resolution, the relaxation is performed iteratively on successively refined grids. Input to RAXBOD consists of a description of the body geometry, the free stream conditions, and the desired resolution control parameters. Output from RAXBOD includes computed geometric parameters in the normal and tangential directions, iteration history information, drag coefficients, flow field data in the computational plane, and coordinates of the sonic line. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC 6600 computer with an overlayed central memory requirement of approximately 40K (octal) of 60 bit words. Optional plotted output

  5. Rigid multibody system dynamics with uncertain rigid bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batou, A., E-mail: anas.batou@univ-paris-est.fr; Soize, C., E-mail: christian.soize@univ-paris-est.fr [Universite Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modelisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS (France)

    2012-03-15

    This paper is devoted to the construction of a probabilistic model of uncertain rigid bodies for multibody system dynamics. We first construct a stochastic model of an uncertain rigid body by replacing the mass, the center of mass, and the tensor of inertia by random variables. The prior probability distributions of the stochastic model are constructed using the maximum entropy principle under the constraints defined by the available information. The generators of independent realizations corresponding to the prior probability distribution of these random quantities are further developed. Then several uncertain rigid bodies can be linked to each other in order to calculate the random response of a multibody dynamical system. An application is proposed to illustrate the theoretical development.

  6. FLEXURAL STRESS ANALYSIS OF RIGID PAVEMENTS USING AXI-SYMMETRIC AND PLANE STRAIN FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Sawant

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The design of pavement involves a study of soils and paving materials, their response under load for different climatic conditions. In the present study, an attempt has been made to compare stresses predicted using two finite element analyses. First analysis is based on the twodimensional plane strain assumption where as in second approach axi-symmetric condition is assumed to consider three-dimensional behavior of rigid pavement. The results are compared with flexural stresses obtained from conventional Portland Cement Association method. The computed flexural stresses obtained from axi-symmetric condition are found to be in close agreement with PCA method. Results of plane strain analysis show a fair agreement after application of an appropriate multiplication factor

  7. Axisymmetric wave propagation in gas shear flow confined by a rigid-walled pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yong; Huang Yi-Yong; Chen Xiao-Qian; Bai Yu-Zhu; Tan Xiao-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The axisymmetric acoustic wave propagating in a perfect gas with a shear pipeline flow confined by a circular rigid wall is investigated. The governing equations of non-isentropic and isentropic acoustic assumptions are mathematically deduced while the constraint of Zwikker and Kosten is relaxed. An iterative method based on the Fourier–Bessel theory is proposed to semi-analytically solve the proposed models. A comparison of numerical results with literature contributions validates the present contribution. Meanwhile, the features of some high-order transverse modes, which cannot be analyzed based on the Zwikker and Kosten theory, are analyzed (paper)

  8. Elasticity of Relativistic Rigid Bodies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2013-10-01

    In the classical Twin Paradox, according to the Special Theory of Relativity, when the traveling twin blasts off from the Earth to a relative velocity v =√{/3 } 2 c with respect to the Earth, his measuring stick and other physical objects in the direction of relative motion shrink to half their lengths. How is that possible in the real physical world to have let's say a rigid rocket shrinking to half and then later elongated back to normal as an elastic material when it stops? What is the explanation for the traveler's measuring stick and other physical objects, in effect, return to the same length to their original length in the Stay-At-Home, but there is no record of their having shrunk? If it's a rigid (not elastic) object, how can it shrink and then elongate back to normal? It might get broken in such situation.

  9. Experimental and numerical research on cavitating flows around axisymmetric bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haipeng, Wei; Song, Fu; Qin, Wu; Biao, Huang; Guoyu, Wang

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the cavitating flows around different axisymmetric bodies based on experiments and numerical simulation. In the numerical simulation, the multiphase Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes equations (RANS) were solved via the commercial computational fluid dynamics code CFX. The modified k-wSST turbulence model was used along with the transport equation-based cavitation model. In the experiments, a high-speed video technique was used to observe the unsteady cavitating flow patterns, and the dynamic force measurement system was used to measure the hydrodynamics of the axisymmetric bodies under different cavitation conditions. Results are shown for the hemisphere bodies, conical bodies and blunt bodies. Reasonable agreements were obtained between the computational and experimental results. The results show that for the hemispherical body, the cavity consists of quasi-steady transparent region and unsteady foggy water-vapor mixture region, which contains small-scale vortices and is dominated by bubble clusters, causing irregular disturbances at the cavity interfaces. The curvature at the front of the conical body is larger, resulting in that the flow separates at the shoulder of the axisymmetric body. The cavity stretches downstream and reaches to a fixed cavity length and shape. For blunt bodies, the incipient cavitation number is larger than that for the hemispherical body. A large cloud cavity is formed at the shoulder of the blunt body in the cores of vortices in high shear separation regions and the re-entrant jet does not significantly interact with the cavity interface when it moves upstream. As to the dynamic characteristics of unsteady cavitating flows around the axisymmetric bodies, the pulsation frequency for the hemispherical body is larger than that for the blunt body. For the hemispherical body, the pulsation is mainly caused by the high-frequency, small-scale shedding at the rear end of the cavity, while for the blunt body, the main factor for

  10. Quantum mechanics of a generalised rigid body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gripaios, Ben; Sutherland, Dave

    2016-01-01

    We consider the quantum version of Arnold’s generalisation of a rigid body in classical mechanics. Thus, we quantise the motion on an arbitrary Lie group manifold of a particle whose classical trajectories correspond to the geodesics of any one-sided-invariant metric. We show how the derivation of the spectrum of energy eigenstates can be simplified by making use of automorphisms of the Lie algebra and (for groups of type I) by methods of harmonic analysis. We show how the method can be extended to cosets, generalising the linear rigid rotor. As examples, we consider all connected and simply connected Lie groups up to dimension 3. This includes the universal cover of the archetypical rigid body, along with a number of new exactly solvable models. We also discuss a possible application to the topical problem of quantising a perfect fluid. (paper)

  11. Geometric integrators for stochastic rigid body dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Tretyakov, Mikhail

    2016-01-05

    Geometric integrators play an important role in simulating dynamical systems on long time intervals with high accuracy. We will illustrate geometric integration ideas within the stochastic context, mostly on examples of stochastic thermostats for rigid body dynamics. The talk will be mainly based on joint recent work with Rusland Davidchak and Tom Ouldridge.

  12. Geometric integrators for stochastic rigid body dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Tretyakov, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Geometric integrators play an important role in simulating dynamical systems on long time intervals with high accuracy. We will illustrate geometric integration ideas within the stochastic context, mostly on examples of stochastic thermostats for rigid body dynamics. The talk will be mainly based on joint recent work with Rusland Davidchak and Tom Ouldridge.

  13. The two-body problem of a pseudo-rigid body and a rigid sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Kristian Uldall; Vereshchagin, M.; Gózdziewski, K.

    2012-01-01

    n this paper we consider the two-body problem of a spherical pseudo-rigid body and a rigid sphere. Due to the rotational and "re-labelling" symmetries, the system is shown to possess conservation of angular momentum and circulation. We follow a reduction procedure similar to that undertaken...... in the study of the two-body problem of a rigid body and a sphere so that the computed reduced non-canonical Hamiltonian takes a similar form. We then consider relative equilibria and show that the notions of locally central and planar equilibria coincide. Finally, we show that Riemann's theorem on pseudo......-rigid bodies has an extension to this system for planar relative equilibria....

  14. Axisymmetric scattering of an acoustical Bessel beam by a rigid fixed spheroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, Farid G

    2015-10-01

    Based on the partial-wave series expansion (PWSE) method in spherical coordinates, a formal analytical solution for the acoustic scattering of a zeroth-order Bessel acoustic beam centered on a rigid fixed (oblate or prolate) spheroid is provided. The unknown scattering coefficients of the spheroid are determined by solving a system of linear equations derived for the Neumann boundary condition. Numerical results for the modulus of the backscattered pressure (θ = π) in the near field and the backscattering form function in the far field for both prolate and oblate spheroids are presented and discussed, with particular emphasis on the aspect ratio (i.e., the ratio of the major axis over the minor axis of the spheroid), the half-cone angle of the Bessel beam, and the dimensionless frequency. The plots display periodic oscillations (versus the dimensionless frequency) because of the interference of specularly reflected waves in the backscattering direction with circumferential Franz' waves circumnavigating the surface of the spheroid in the surrounding fluid. Moreover, the 3-D directivity patterns illustrate the near- and far-field axisymmetric scattering. Investigations in underwater acoustics, particle levitation, scattering, and the detection of submerged elongated objects and other related applications utilizing Bessel waves would benefit from the results of the present study.

  15. The theory of pseudo-rigid bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Harley

    1988-01-01

    This monograph concerns the development, analysis, and application of the theory of pseudo-rigid bodies. It collects together our work on that subject over the last five years. While some results have appeared else­ where, much of the work is new. Our objective in writing this mono­ graph has been to present a new theory of the deformation of bodies, one that has not only a firm theoretical basis, but also the simplicity to serve as an effective tool in practical problems. Consequently, the main body of the treatise is a multifaceted development of the theory, from foundations to explicit solutions to linearizations to methods of approximation. The fact that this variety of aspects, each examined in considerable detail, can be collected together in a single, unified treat­ ment gives this theory an elegance that we feel sets it apart from many others. While our goal has always been to give a complete treatment of the theory as it now stands, the work here is not meant to be definitive. Theories are not ent...

  16. Large deflection analysis of a pre-stressed annular plate with a rigid boss under axisymmetric loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y. H.; Chen, K. S.; Roberts, D. C.; Spearing, S. M.

    2001-11-01

    The large deflection analysis of a pre-stressed annular plate with a central rigid boss subjected to axisymmetric loading is presented. The factors affecting the transition from plate behaviour to membrane behaviour (e.g. thickness, in-plane tension and material properties) are studied. The effect of boss size and pre-tension on the effective stiffness of the plate are investigated. The extent of the bending boundary layers at the edges of the plate are quantified. All results are presented in non-dimensional form. The design implications for microelectromechanical system components are assessed.

  17. Dual Quaternion Variational Integrator for Rigid Body Dynamic Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jiafeng; Halse, Karl Henning

    2016-01-01

    In rigid body dynamic simulations, often the algorithm is required to deal with general situations where both reference point and inertia matrix are arbitrarily de- fined. We introduce a novel Lie group variational integrator using dual quaternion for simulating rigid body dynamics in all six degrees of freedom. Dual quaternion is used to represent rigid body kinematics and one-step Lie group method is used to derive dynamic equations. The combination of these two becomes the first Lie group ...

  18. Almost Poisson integration of rigid body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, M.A.; Krishnaprasad, P.S.; Li-Sheng Wang

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the numerical integration of Lie-Poisson systems using the mid-point rule. Since such systems result from the reduction of hamiltonian systems with symmetry by lie group actions, we also present examples of reconstruction rules for the full dynamics. A primary motivation is to preserve in the integration process, various conserved quantities of the original dynamics. A main result of this paper is an O(h 3 ) error estimate for the Lie-Poisson structure, where h is the integration step-size. We note that Lie-Poisson systems appear naturally in many areas of physical science and engineering, including theoretical mechanics of fluids and plasmas, satellite dynamics, and polarization dynamics. In the present paper we consider a series of progressively complicated examples related to rigid body systems. We also consider a dissipative example associated to a Lie-Poisson system. The behavior of the mid-point rule and an associated reconstruction rule is numerically explored. 24 refs., 9 figs

  19. Rigid Body Sampling and Individual Time Stepping for Rigid-Fluid Coupling of Fluid Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaokun Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an efficient and simple rigid-fluid coupling scheme with scientific programming algorithms for particle-based fluid simulation and three-dimensional visualization. Our approach samples the surface of rigid bodies with boundary particles that interact with fluids. It contains two procedures, that is, surface sampling and sampling relaxation, which insures uniform distribution of particles with less iterations. Furthermore, we present a rigid-fluid coupling scheme integrating individual time stepping to rigid-fluid coupling, which gains an obvious speedup compared to previous method. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  20. Rigid body motion in stereo 3D simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the difficulties experienced by first-grade students studying rigid body motion at Sofia University. Most quantities describing the rigid body are in relations that the students find hard to visualize and understand. They also lose the notion of cause-result relations between vector quantities, such as the relation between torque and angular momentum. Consequently, the understanding of physical laws and conservation principles in free rigid body motion is hampered. This paper presents the capabilities of a 3D simulation, which aims to clarify these questions to the students, who are taught mechanics in the general physics course. The rigid body motion simulations may be observed at http://ialms.net/sim/, and are intended to complement traditional learning practices, not replace them, as the author shares the opinion that no simulation may fully resemble reality.

  1. Stabilization of Rigid Body Dynamics by Internal and External Torques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bloch, A. M; Krishnaprasad, P. S; Marsden, J. E; Sanchez de Alvarez, G

    1990-01-01

    ...] with quadratic feedback torques for internal rotors. We show that with such torques, the equations for the rigid body with momentum wheels are Hamiltonian with respect to a Lie-Poisson bracket structure. Further...

  2. Anti-synchronization of the rigid body exhibiting chaotic dynamics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on a method derived from nonlinear control theory, we present a ... In this framework, the active control technique is modified and employed to design control ... state space of the two rigid bodies was verified by numerical simulations.

  3. Axisymmetric scattering of an acoustical Bessel beam by a rigid fixed spheroid

    OpenAIRE

    Mitri, F. G.

    2015-01-01

    Based on the partial-wave series expansion (PWSE) method in spherical coordinates, a formal analytical solution for the acoustic scattering of a zeroth-order Bessel acoustic beam centered on a rigid fixed (oblate or prolate) spheroid is provided. The unknown scattering coefficients of the spheroid are determined by solving a system of linear equations derived for the Neumann boundary condition. Numerical results for the modulus of the backscattered pressure (\\theta = \\pi) in the near-field an...

  4. Axisymmetric free convection boundary-layer flow past slender bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiken, H.K.

    1968-01-01

    Radial curvature effects on axisymmetric free convection boundary-layer flow are investigated for vertical cylinders and cones for some special non-uniform temperature differences between the surface and the ambient fluid. The solution is given as a power series expansion, the first term being equal

  5. A concise introduction to mechanics of rigid bodies multidisciplinary engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, L

    2017-01-01

    This updated second edition broadens the explanation of rotational kinematics and dynamics — the most important aspect of rigid body motion in three-dimensional space and a topic of much greater complexity than linear motion. It expands treatment of vector and matrix, and includes quaternion operations to describe and analyze rigid body motion which are found in robot control, trajectory planning, 3D vision system calibration, and hand-eye coordination of robots in assembly work, etc. It features updated treatments of concepts in all chapters and case studies. The textbook retains its comprehensiveness in coverage and compactness in size, which make it easily accessible to the readers from multidisciplinary areas who want to grasp the key concepts of rigid body mechanics which are usually scattered in multiple volumes of traditional textbooks. Theoretical concepts are explained through examples taken from across engineering disciplines and links to applications and more advanced courses (e.g. industrial rob...

  6. On the impact of a concave nosed axisymmetric body on a free surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathai, Varghese; Govardhan, R.N.; Arakeri, V.H.

    2015-01-01

    We report on an experimental study of the vertical impact of a concave nosed axisymmetric body on a free surface. Previous studies have shown that bodies with a convex nose, like a sphere, produce a well defined splash with a relatively large cavity behind the model. In contrast, we find that with a

  7. Knowledge-In-Action: An Example with Rigid Body Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, Sayonara Salvador Cabral; Moreira, Marco Antonio

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the analysis of the resolution of a paper-and-pencil problem, by eight undergraduate students majoring in engineering (six) and physics (two) at the Pontifcia Universidade Catlica do Rio Grande do Sul, in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The problem concerns kinetics of a rigid body, and the analysis was done in the light of Johnson-Lairds…

  8. A method for measuring the inertia properties of rigid bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbi, M.; Mastinu, G.; Previati, G.

    2011-01-01

    A method for the measurement of the inertia properties of rigid bodies is presented. Given a rigid body and its mass, the method allows to measure (identify) the centre of gravity location and the inertia tensor during a single test. The proposed technique is based on the analysis of the free motion of a multi-cable pendulum to which the body under consideration is connected. The motion of the pendulum and the forces acting on the system are recorded and the inertia properties are identified by means of a proper mathematical procedure based on a least square estimation. After the body is positioned on the test rig, the full identification procedure takes less than 10 min. The natural frequencies of the pendulum and the accelerations involved are quite low, making this method suitable for many practical applications. In this paper, the proposed method is described and two test rigs are presented: the first is developed for bodies up to 3500 kg and the second for bodies up to 400 kg. A validation of the measurement method is performed with satisfactory results. The test rig holds a third part quality certificate according to an ISO 9001 standard and could be scaled up to measure the inertia properties of huge bodies, such as trucks, airplanes or even ships.

  9. Nonlinear dynamics mathematical models for rigid bodies with a liquid

    CERN Document Server

    Lukovsky, Ivan A

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to analytically approximate methods in the nonlinear dynamics of a rigid body with cavities partly filled by liquid. It combines several methods and compares the results with experimental data. It is useful for experienced and early-stage readers interested in analytical approaches to fluid-structure interaction problems, the fundamental mathematical background and modeling the dynamics of such complex mechanical systems.

  10. Steady fall of a rigid body in viscous fluid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nečasová, Šárka

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 63, Sp. Is. (2005), s. 2113-2119 ISSN 0362-546X. [Invited Talks from the Fourth World Congress of Nonlinear Analysts (WCNA 2004). Orlando , 30.7.2004-7.8.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/02/0684 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : steady fall * rigid body * viscous fluid Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.519, year: 2005

  11. Rigid Body Energy Minimization on Manifolds for Molecular Docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Hanieh; Beglov, Dmitri; Paschalidis, Ioannis Ch; Vajda, Sandor; Vakili, Pirooz; Kozakov, Dima

    2012-11-13

    Virtually all docking methods include some local continuous minimization of an energy/scoring function in order to remove steric clashes and obtain more reliable energy values. In this paper, we describe an efficient rigid-body optimization algorithm that, compared to the most widely used algorithms, converges approximately an order of magnitude faster to conformations with equal or slightly lower energy. The space of rigid body transformations is a nonlinear manifold, namely, a space which locally resembles a Euclidean space. We use a canonical parametrization of the manifold, called the exponential parametrization, to map the Euclidean tangent space of the manifold onto the manifold itself. Thus, we locally transform the rigid body optimization to an optimization over a Euclidean space where basic optimization algorithms are applicable. Compared to commonly used methods, this formulation substantially reduces the dimension of the search space. As a result, it requires far fewer costly function and gradient evaluations and leads to a more efficient algorithm. We have selected the LBFGS quasi-Newton method for local optimization since it uses only gradient information to obtain second order information about the energy function and avoids the far more costly direct Hessian evaluations. Two applications, one in protein-protein docking, and the other in protein-small molecular interactions, as part of macromolecular docking protocols are presented. The code is available to the community under open source license, and with minimal effort can be incorporated into any molecular modeling package.

  12. Bang-Bang Practical Stabilization of Rigid Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpelloni, Edoardo

    In this thesis, we study the problem of designing a practical stabilizer for a rigid body equipped with a set of actuators generating only constant thrust. Our motivation stems from the fact that modern space missions are required to accurately control the position and orientation of spacecraft actuated by constant-thrust jet-thrusters. To comply with the performance limitations of modern thrusters, we design a feedback controller that does not induce high-frequency switching of the actuators. The proposed controller is hybrid and it asymptotically stabilizes an arbitrarily small compact neighborhood of the target position and orientation of the rigid body. The controller is characterized by a hierarchical structure comprising of two control layers. At the low level of the hierarchy, an attitude controller stabilizes the target orientation of the rigid body. At the high level, after the attitude controller has steered the rigid body sufficiently close to its desired orientation, a position controller stabilizes the desired position. The size of the neighborhood being stabilized by the controller can be adjusted via a proper selection of the controller parameters. This allows us to stabilize the rigid body to virtually any degree of accuracy. It is shown that the controller, even in the presence of measurement noise, does not induce high-frequency switching of the actuators. The key component in the design of the controller is a hybrid stabilizer for the origin of double-integrators affected by bounded external perturbations. Specifically, both the position and the attitude stabilizers consist of multiple copies of such a double-integrator controller. The proposed controller is applied to two realistic spacecraft control problems. First, we apply the position controller to the problem of stabilizing the relative position between two spacecraft flying in formation in the vicinity of the L2 libration point of the Sun-Earth system as a part of a large space telescope

  13. Computational method for an axisymmetric laser beam scattered by a body of revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combis, P.; Robiche, J.

    2005-01-01

    An original hybrid computational method to solve the 2-D problem of the scattering of an axisymmetric laser beam by an arbitrary-shaped inhomogeneous body of revolution is presented. This method relies on a domain decomposition of the scattering zone into concentric spherical radially homogeneous sub-domains and on an expansion of the angular dependence of the fields on the Legendre polynomials. Numerical results for the fields obtained for various scatterers geometries are presented and analyzed. (authors)

  14. Euler-Poincare Reduction of Externall Forced Rigid Body Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Kulczycki, P.

    2004-01-01

    If a mechanical system experiences symmetry, the Lagrangian becomes invariant under a certain group action. This property leads to substantial simplification of the description of movement. The standpoint in this article is a mechanical system affected by an external force of a control action....... Assuming that the system possesses symmetry and the configuration manifold corresponds to a Lie group, the Euler-Poincaré reduction breaks up the motion into separate equations of dynamics and kinematics. This becomes of particular interest for modelling, estimation and control of mechanical systems......-known Euler-Poincaré reduction to a rigid body motion with forcing....

  15. Euler-Poincare Reduction of a Rigid Body Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Kulczycki, P.

    2005-01-01

    |If a mechanical system experiences symmetry, the Lagrangian becomes invariant under a certain group action. This property leads to substantial simplification of the description of movement. The standpoint in this article is a mechanical system afected by an external force of a control action....... Assuming that the system possesses symmetry and the configuration manifold corresponds to a Lie group, the Euler-Poincare reduction breaks up the motion into separate equations of dynamics and kinematics. This becomes of particular interest for modeling, estimation and control of mechanical systems......-known Euler-Poincare reduction to a rigid body motion with forcing....

  16. Euler-Poincaré Reduction of a Rigid Body Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Kulczycki, P.

    2004-01-01

    If a mechanical system experiences symmetry, the Lagrangian becomes invariant under a certain group action. This property leads to substantial simplification of the description of movement. The standpoint in this article is a mechanical system affected by an external force of a control action....... Assuming that the system possesses symmetry and the configuration manifold corresponds to a Lie group, the Euler-Poincaré reduction breaks up the motion into separate equations of dynamics and kinematics. This becomes of particular interest for modelling, estimation and control of mechanical systems......-known Euler-Poincaré reduction to a rigid body motion with forcing....

  17. Collisions of Constrained Rigid Body Systems with Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun Shen

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach is developed for the general collision problem of two rigid body systems with constraints (e.g., articulated systems, such as massy linkages in which the relative tangential velocity at the point of contact and the associated friction force can change direction during the collision. This is beyond the framework of conventional methods, which can give significant and very obvious errors for this problem, and both extends and consolidates recent work. A new parameterization and theory characterize if, when and how the relative tangential velocity changes direction during contact. Elastic and dissipative phenomena and different values for static and kinetic friction coefficients are included. The method is based on the explicitly physical analysis of events at the point of contact. Using this method, Example 1 resolves (and corrects a paradox (in the literature of the collision of a double pendulum with the ground. The method fundamentally subsumes other recent models and the collision of rigid bodies; it yields the same results as conventional methods when they would apply (Example 2. The new method reformulates and extends recent approaches in a completely physical context.

  18. Rigid body formulation in a finite element context with contact interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refachinho de Campos, Paulo R.; Gay Neto, Alfredo

    2018-03-01

    The present work proposes a formulation to employ rigid bodies together with flexible bodies in the context of a nonlinear finite element solver, with contact interactions. Inertial contributions due to distribution of mass of a rigid body are fully developed, considering a general pole position associated with a single node, representing a rigid body element. Additionally, a mechanical constraint is proposed to connect a rigid region composed by several nodes, which is useful for linking rigid/flexible bodies in a finite element environment. Rodrigues rotation parameters are used to describe finite rotations, by an updated Lagrangian description. In addition, the contact formulation entitled master-surface to master-surface is employed in conjunction with the rigid body element and flexible bodies, aiming to consider their interaction in a rigid-flexible multibody environment. New surface parameterizations are presented to establish contact pairs, permitting pointwise interaction in a frictional scenario. Numerical examples are provided to show robustness and applicability of the methods.

  19. Matrix methods applied to engineering rigid body mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, T.

    The purpose of this book is to present the solution of a range of rigorous body mechanics problems using a matrix formulation of vector algebra. Essential theory concerning kinematics and dynamics is formulated in terms of matrix algebra. The solution of kinematics and dynamics problems is discussed, taking into account the velocity and acceleration of a point moving in a circular path, the velocity and acceleration determination for a linkage, the angular velocity and angular acceleration of a roller in a taper-roller thrust race, Euler's theroem on the motion of rigid bodies, an automotive differential, a rotating epicyclic, the motion of a high speed rotor mounted in gimbals, and the vibration of a spinning projectile. Attention is given to the activity of a force, the work done by a conservative force, the work and potential in a conservative system, the equilibrium of a mechanism, bearing forces due to rotor misalignment, and the frequency of vibrations of a constrained rod.

  20. On the impact of a concave nosed axisymmetric body on a free surface

    OpenAIRE

    Mathai, Varghese; Govardhan, Raghuraman N.; Arakeri, Vijay H.

    2017-01-01

    We report on an experimental study of the vertical impact of a concave nosed axisymmetric body on a free surface. Previous studies have shown that bodies with a convex nose, like a sphere, produce a well defined splash with a relatively large cavity behind the model. In contrast, we find that with a concave nose, there is hardly a splash and the cavity extent is greatly reduced. This may be explained by the fact that in the concave nosed case, the initial impact is between a confined air pock...

  1. Dynamics of parallel robots from rigid bodies to flexible elements

    CERN Document Server

    Briot, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    This book starts with a short recapitulation on basic concepts, common to any types of robots (serial, tree structure, parallel, etc.), that are also necessary for computation of the dynamic models of parallel robots. Then, as dynamics requires the use of geometry and kinematics, the general equations of geometric and kinematic models of parallel robots are given. After, it is explained that parallel robot dynamic models can be obtained by decomposing the real robot into two virtual systems: a tree-structure robot (equivalent to the robot legs for which all joints would be actuated) plus a free body corresponding to the platform. Thus, the dynamics of rigid tree-structure robots is analyzed and algorithms to obtain their dynamic models in the most compact form are given. The dynamic model of the real rigid parallel robot is obtained by closing the loops through the use of the Lagrange multipliers. The problem of the dynamic model degeneracy near singularities is treated and optimal trajectory planning for cro...

  2. Unifying Rigid and Soft Bodies Representation: The Sulfur Physics Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Maggiorini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Video games are (also real-time interactive graphic simulations: hence, providing a convincing physics simulation for each specific game environment is of paramount importance in the process of achieving a satisfying player experience. While the existing game engines appropriately address many aspects of physics simulation, some others are still in need of improvements. In particular, several specific physics properties of bodies not usually involved in the main game mechanics (e.g., properties useful to represent systems composed by soft bodies, are often poorly rendered by general-purpose engines. This issue may limit game designers when imagining innovative and compelling video games and game mechanics. For this reason, we dug into the problem of appropriately representing soft bodies. Subsequently, we have extended the approach developed for soft bodies to rigid ones, proposing and developing a unified approach in a game engine: Sulfur. To test the engine, we have also designed and developed “Escape from Quaoar,” a prototypal video game whose main game mechanic exploits an elastic rope, and a level editor for the game.

  3. Leonhard Euler and the mechanics of rigid bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquina, J. E.; Marquina, M. L.; Marquina, V.; Hernández-Gómez, J. J.

    2017-01-01

    In this work we present the original ideas and the construction of the rigid bodies theory realised by Leonhard Euler between 1738 and 1775. The number of treatises written by Euler on this subject is enormous, including the most notorious Scientia Navalis (1749), Decouverte d’un noveau principe de mecanique (1752), Du mouvement de rotation des corps solides autour d’un axe variable (1765), Theoria motus corporum solidorum seu rigidorum (1765) and Nova methodus motu corporum rigidorum determinandi (1776), in which he developed the ideas of the instantaneous rotation axis, the so-called Euler equations and angles, the components of what is now known as the inertia tensor, the principal axes of inertia, and, finally, the generalisation of the translation and rotation movement equations for any system. Euler, the man who ‘put most of mechanics into its modern form’ (Truesdell 1968 Essays in the History of Mechanics (Berlin: Springer) p 106).

  4. Dynamics of Rigid Bodies and Flexible Beam Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Bjerre

    of rigid bodies and flexible beam structures with emphasis on the rotational motion. The first part deals with motion in a rotating frame of reference. A novel approach where the equations of motion are formulated in a hybrid state-space in terms of local displacements and global velocities is presented...... quaternion parameters or nine convected base vector components. In both cases, the equations of motion are obtained via Hamilton’s equations by including the kinematic constraints associated with the redundant rotation description by means of Lagrange multipliers. A special feature of the formulation...... of the global components of the position vectors and associated convected base vectors for the element nodes. The kinematics is expressed in a homogeneous quadratic form and the constitutive stiffness is derived from complementary energy of a set of equilibrium modes, each representing a state of constant...

  5. Damageable contact between an elastic body and a rigid foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, M.; Fernández, J. R.; Silva, A.

    2009-02-01

    In this work, the contact problem between an elastic body and a rigid obstacle is studied, including the development of material damage which results from internal compression or tension. The variational problem is formulated as a first-kind variational inequality for the displacements coupled with a parabolic partial differential equation for the damage field. The existence of a unique local weak solution is stated. Then, a fully discrete scheme is introduced using the finite element method to approximate the spatial variable and an Euler scheme to discretize the time derivatives. Error estimates are derived on the approximate solutions, from which the linear convergence of the algorithm is deduced under suitable regularity conditions. Finally, three two-dimensional numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the accuracy and the behaviour of the scheme.

  6. Studies on scaling of flow noise received at the stagnation point of an axisymmetric body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, V. H.; Satyanarayana, S. G.; Mani, K.; Sharma, S. D.

    1991-05-01

    A description of the studies related to the problem of scaling of flow noise received at the stagnation point of axisymmetric bodies is provided. The source of flow noise under consideration is the transitional/turbulent regions of the boundary layer flow on the axisymmetric body. Lauchle has recently shown that the noise measured in the laminar region (including the stagnation point) corresponds closely to the noise measured in the transition region, provided that the acoustic losses due to diffraction are accounted for. The present study includes experimental measurement of flow noise at the stagnation point of three different shaped axisymmetric headforms. One of the body shapes chosen is that used by Lauchle in similar studies. This was done to establish the effect of body size on flow noise. The results of the experimental investigations clearly show that the flow noise received at the stagnation point is a strong function of free stream velocity, a moderately strong function of body scale but a weak function of boundary layer thickness. In addition, there is evidence that when body scale change is involved, flow noise amplitude scales but no frequency shift is involved. A scaling procedure is proposed based on the present observations along with those of Lauchle. At a given frequency, the amplitude of noise level obtained under model testing conditions is first scaled to account for differences in the velocity and size corresponding to the prototype conditions; then a correction to this is applied to account for losses due to diffraction, which are estimated on the basis of the geometric theory of diffraction (GTD) with the source being located at the predicted position of turbulent transition. Use of the proposed scaling law to extrapolate presently obtained noise levels to two other conditions involving larger-scale bodies show good agreement with actually measured levels, in particular at higher frequencies. Since model scale results have been used

  7. Dynamical analysis of an orbiting three-rigid-body system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagnozzi, Daniele, E-mail: daniele.pagnozzi@strath.ac.uk, E-mail: james.biggs@strath.ac.uk; Biggs, James D., E-mail: daniele.pagnozzi@strath.ac.uk, E-mail: james.biggs@strath.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-10

    The development of multi-joint-spacecraft mission concepts calls for a deeper understanding of their nonlinear dynamics to inform and enhance system design. This paper presents a study of a three-finite-shape rigid-body system under the action of an ideal central gravitational field. The aim of this paper is to gain an insight into the natural dynamics of this system. The Hamiltonian dynamics is derived and used to identify relative attitude equilibria of the system with respect to the orbital reference frame. Then a numerical investigation of the behaviour far from the equilibria is provided using tools from modern dynamical systems theory such as energy methods, phase portraits and Poincarè maps. Results reveal a complex structure of the dynamics as well as the existence of connections between some of the equilibria. Stable equilibrium configurations appear to be surrounded by very narrow regions of regular and quasi-regular motions. Trajectories evolve on chaotic motions in the rest of the domain.

  8. Development and application of an analysis of axisymmetric body effects on helicopter rotor aerodynamics using modified slender body theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, G.; Johnson, W.

    1984-01-01

    A computationally efficient body analysis designed to couple with a comprehensive helicopter analysis is developed in order to calculate the body-induced aerodynamic effects on rotor performance and loads. A modified slender body theory is used as the body model. With the objective of demonstrating the accuracy, efficiency, and application of the method, the analysis at this stage is restricted to axisymmetric bodies at zero angle of attack. By comparing with results from an exact analysis for simple body shapes, it is found that the modified slender body theory provides an accurate potential flow solution for moderately thick bodies, with only a 10%-20% increase in computational effort over that of an isolated rotor analysis. The computational ease of this method provides a means for routine assessment of body-induced effects on a rotor. Results are given for several configurations that typify those being used in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel and in the rotor-body aerodynamic interference tests being conducted at Ames. A rotor-hybrid airship configuration is also analyzed.

  9. Dynamic Multi-Rigid-Body Systems with Concurrent Distributed Contacts: Theory and Examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRINKLE, JEFFREY C.; TZITZOURIS, J.A.; PANG, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    Consider a system of rigid bodies with multiple concurrent contacts. The multi-rigid-body contact problem is to predict the accelerations of the bodies and the normal friction loads acting at the contacts. This paper presents theoretical results for the multi-rigid-body contact problem under the assumptions that one or more contacts occur over locally planar, finite regions and that friction forces are consistent with the maximum work inequality. Existence and uniqueness results are presented for this problem under mild assumptions on the system inputs. In addition, the performance of two different time-stepping methods for integrating the dynamics are compared on two simple multi-body systems

  10. Radiation Transport Around Axisymmetric Blunt Body Vehicles Using a Modified Differential Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Lin C.; Hassan, H. A.

    1992-01-01

    A moment method for computing 3-D radiative transport is applied to axisymmetric flows in thermochemical nonequilibrium. Such flows are representative of proposed aerobrake missions. The method uses the P-1 approximation to reduce the governing system of integro-di erential equations to a coupled set of partial di erential equations. A numerical solution method for these equations given actual variations of the radiation properties in thermochemical nonequilibrium blunt body flows is developed. Initial results from the method are shown and compared to tangent slab calculations. The agreement between the transport methods is found to be about 10 percent in the stagnation region, with the difference increasing along the flank of the vehicle.

  11. Uniqueness of exterior axisymmetric solution for a rotating charged body in the relativistic theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karabut, P.V.; Chugreev, Yu.V.

    1989-01-01

    The relativistic theory of gravitation (RTG), which is constructed on the basis of Minkowski spacetime, the geometrization principle, and the notion of the gravitational field var-phi mn as a physical field in the spirit of Faraday and Maxwell, explains all known gravitational experiments and gives a new prediction for the evolution of the universe, collapse, etc. The RTG determines the structure of the gravitational field as a field possessing spins 2 and 0 and all conservation laws for energy, momentum, and angular momentum. An exact solution of the complete simultaneous system of equations of the relativistic theory of gravitation and Maxwell's equations is found in the axisymmetric case for an electrically charged rotating body. The uniqueness of this solution is proved

  12. Experimental investigation on cavitating flow shedding over an axisymmetric blunt body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Changli; Wang, Guoyu; Huang, Biao

    2015-03-01

    Nowadays, most researchers focus on the cavity shedding mechanisms of unsteady cavitating flows over different objects, such as 2D/3D hydrofoils, venturi-type section, axisymmetric bodies with different headforms, and so on. But few of them pay attention to the differences of cavity shedding modality under different cavitation numbers in unsteady cavitating flows over the same object. In the present study, two kinds of shedding patterns are investigated experimentally. A high speed camera system is used to observe the cavitating flows over an axisymmetric blunt body and the velocity fields are measured by a particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique in a water tunnel for different cavitation conditions. The U-type cavitating vortex shedding is observed in unsteady cavitating flows. When the cavitation number is 0.7, there is a large scale cavity rolling up and shedding, which cause the instability and dramatic fluctuation of the flows, while at cavitation number of 0.6, the detached cavities can be conjunct with the attached part to induce the break-off behavior again at the tail of the attached cavity, as a result, the final shedding is in the form of small scale cavity and keeps a relatively steady flow field. It is also found that the interaction between the re-entrant flow and the attached cavity plays an important role in the unsteady cavity shedding modality. When the attached cavity scale is insufficient to overcome the re-entrant flow, it deserves the large cavity rolling up and shedding just as that at cavitation number of 0.7. Otherwise, the re-entrant flow is defeated by large enough cavity to induce the cavity-combined process and small scale cavity vortexes shedding just as that of the cavitation number of 0.6. This research shows the details of two different cavity shedding modalities which is worthful and meaningful for the further study of unsteady cavitation.

  13. On the impact of a concave nosed axisymmetric body on a free surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, Varghese; Govardhan, Raghuraman N.; Arakeri, Vijay H.

    2015-02-01

    We report on an experimental study of the vertical impact of a concave nosed axisymmetric body on a free surface. Previous studies have shown that bodies with a convex nose, like a sphere, produce a well defined splash with a relatively large cavity behind the model. In contrast, we find that with a concave nose, there is hardly a splash and the cavity extent is greatly reduced. This may be explained by the fact that in the concave nosed case, the initial impact is between a confined air pocket and the free surface unlike in the convex nosed case. From measurements of the unsteady pressure in the concave nose portion, we show that in this case, the maximum pressures are significantly lower than the classically expected "water hammer" pressures and also lower than those generally measured on other geometries. Thus, the presence of an air pocket in the case of a concave nosed body adds an interesting dimension to the classical problem of impact of solid bodies on to a free surface.

  14. Influence of Propulsion Type on the Stratified Near Wake of an Axisymmetric Self-Propelled Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C. Jones

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the influence of swirl on the thermally-stratified near wake of a self-propelled axisymmetric vehicle, three propulsor schemes were considered: a single propeller, contra-rotating propellers (CRP, and a zero-swirl, uniform-velocity jet. The propellers were modeled using an Actuator-Line model in an unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes simulation, where the Reynolds number is R e L = 3.1 × 10 8 using the freestream velocity and body length. The authors previously showed good comparison to experimental data with this approach. Visualization of vortical structures shows the helical paths of blade-tip vortices from the single propeller as well as the complicated vortical interaction between contra-rotating blades. Comparison of instantaneous and time-averaged fields shows that temporally stationary fields emerge by half of a body length downstream. Circumferentially-averaged axial velocity profiles show similarities between the single propeller and CRP in contrast to the jet configuration. Swirl velocity of the CRP, however, was attenuated in comparison to that of the single propeller case. Mixed-patch contour maps illustrate the unique temperature distribution of each configuration as a consequence of their respective swirl profiles. Finally, kinetic and potential energy is integrated along downstream axial planes to reveal key differences between the configurations. The CRP configuration creates less potential energy by reducing swirl that would otherwise persist in the near wake of a single-propeller wake.

  15. Experimental evaluation of pumpjet propulsor for an axisymmetric body in wind tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Suryanarayana

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Design of a Pump Jet Propulsor (PJP was undertaken for an underwater body with axisymmetric configuration using axial flow compressor design techniques supported by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD analysis for performance prediction. Experimental evaluation of the PJP was carried out through experiments in a Wind Tunnel Facility (WTF using momentum defect principle for propulsive performance prior to proceeding with extensive experimental evaluation in towing tank and cavitation tunnel. Experiments were particularly conducted with respect to Self Propulsion Point (SPP, residual torque and thrust characteristics over a range of vehicle advance ratio in order to ascertain whether sufficient thrust is developed at the design condition with least possible imbalance torque left out due to residual swirl in the slip stream. Pumpjet and body models were developed for the propulsion tests using Aluminum alloy forged material. Tests were conducted from 0 m/s to 30 m/s at four rotational speeds of the PJP. SPP was determined confirming the thrust development capability of PJP. Estimation of residual torque was carried out at SPP corresponding to speeds of 15, 20 and 25 m/s to examine the effectiveness of the stator. Estimation of thrust and residual torque was also carried out at wind speeds 0 and 6 m/s for PJP RPMs corresponding to self propulsion tests to study the propulsion characteristics during the launch of the vehicle in water where advance ratios are close to Zero. These results are essential to assess the thrust performance at very low advance ratios to accelerate the body and to control the body during initial stages. This technique has turned out to be very useful and economical method for quick assessment of overall performance of the propulsor and generation of exhaustive fluid dynamic data to validate CFD techniques employed.

  16. Effort Flow Analysis: A Methodology for Directed Product Evolution Using Rigid Body and Compliant Mechanisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greer, James

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation presents a systematic design methodology for directed product evolution that uses both rigid body and compliant mechanisms to facilitate component combination in the domain of mechanical products...

  17. Almost-global tracking for a rigid body with internal rotors

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Aradhana; Banavar, Ravi N.

    2017-01-01

    Almost-global orientation trajectory tracking for a rigid body with external actuation has been well studied in the literature, and in the geometric setting as well. The tracking control law relies on the fact that a rigid body is a simple mechanical system (SMS) on the $3-$dimensional group of special orthogonal matrices. However, the problem of designing feedback control laws for tracking using internal actuation mechanisms, like rotors or control moment gyros, has received lesser attention...

  18. Unsteady CFD modeling of micro-adaptive flow control for an axisymmetric body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, J.; Heavey, K.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a computational study undertaken, as part of a grand challenge project, to consider the aerodynamic effect of micro-adaptive flow control as a means to provide the divert authority needed to maneuver a projectile at a low subsonic speed. A time-accurate Navier-Stokes computational technique has been used to obtain numerical solutions for the unsteady microjet-interaction flow field for the axisymmetric projectile body at subsonic speeds, Mach = 0.11 and 0.24 and angles of attack, 0 o to 4 o . Numerical solutions have been obtained using both Renolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and a hybrid RANS/Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence models. Unsteady numerical results show the effect of the jet on the flow field and the aerodynamic coefficients, in particular the lift force. This research has provided an increased fundamental understanding of the complex, three-dimensional, time-dependent, aerodynamic interactions associated with micro-jet control for yawing spin-stabilized munitions. (author)

  19. Unsteady CFD modeling of micro-adaptive flow control for an axisymmetric body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, J.; Heavey, K.R. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)]. E-mail: sahu@arl.army.mil

    2005-07-01

    This paper describes a computational study undertaken, as part of a grand challenge project, to consider the aerodynamic effect of micro-adaptive flow control as a means to provide the divert authority needed to maneuver a projectile at a low subsonic speed. A time-accurate Navier-Stokes computational technique has been used to obtain numerical solutions for the unsteady microjet-interaction flow field for the axisymmetric projectile body at subsonic speeds, Mach = 0.11 and 0.24 and angles of attack, 0{sup o} to 4{sup o}. Numerical solutions have been obtained using both Renolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and a hybrid RANS/Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence models. Unsteady numerical results show the effect of the jet on the flow field and the aerodynamic coefficients, in particular the lift force. This research has provided an increased fundamental understanding of the complex, three-dimensional, time-dependent, aerodynamic interactions associated with micro-jet control for yawing spin-stabilized munitions. (author)

  20. Rigid body displacement fields of an in-plane-deformable curved beam based on conventional strain definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Won Joo; Min, Oak Key; Kim, Yong Woo

    1998-01-01

    To improve the convergence and the accuracy of a finite element, the finite element has to describe not only displacement and stress distributions in a static analysis but also rigid body displacements. In this paper, we consider the in-plane-deformable curved beam element to understand the descriptive capability of rigid body displacements of a finite element. We derive the rigid body displacement fields of a single finite element under various essential boundary conditions when the nodal displacements are caused by the rigid body displacement. We also examine the rigid body displacement fields of a quadratic curved beam element by employing the reduced minimization theory

  1. Evolution of motions of a rigid body about its center of mass

    CERN Document Server

    Chernousko, Felix L; Leshchenko, Dmytro D

    2017-01-01

    The book presents a unified and well-developed approach to the dynamics of angular motions of rigid bodies subjected to perturbation torques of different physical nature. It contains both the basic foundations of the rigid body dynamics and of the asymptotic method of averaging. The rigorous approach based on the averaging procedure is applicable to bodies with arbitrary ellopsoids of inertia. Action of various perturbation torques, both external (gravitational, aerodynamical, solar pressure) and internal (due to viscous fluid in tanks, elastic and visco-elastic properties of a body) is considered in detail. The book can be used by researchers, engineers and students working in attitude dynamics of spacecraft.

  2. Time-dependent solution for axisymmetric flow over a blunt body with ideal gas, CF4, or equilibrium air chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, H. H., II; Spall, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    A time-asymptotic method has been used to obtain steady-flow solutions for axisymmetric inviscid flow over several blunt bodies including spheres, paraboloids, ellipsoids, and spherically blunted cones. Comparisons with experimental data and results of other computational methods have demonstrated that accurate solutions can be obtained using this approach. The method should prove useful as an analysis tool for comparing with experimental data and for making engineering calculations for blunt reentry vehicles.

  3. Body fixed frame, rigid gauge rotations and large N random fields in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levit, S.

    1995-01-01

    The ''body fixed frame'' with respect to local gauge transformations is introduced. Rigid gauge ''rotations'' in QCD and their Schroedinger equation are studied for static and dynamic quarks. Possible choices of the rigid gauge field configuration corresponding to a non-vanishing static colormagnetic field in the ''body fixed'' frame are discussed. A gauge invariant variational equation is derived in this frame. For large number N of colors the rigid gauge field configuration is regarded as random with maximally random probability distribution under constraints on macroscopic-like quantities. For the uniform magnetic field the joint probability distribution of the field components is determined by maximizing the appropriate entropy under the area law constraint for the Wilson loop. In the quark sector the gauge invariance requires the rigid gauge field configuration to appear not only as a background but also as inducing an instantaneous quark-quark interaction. Both are random in the large N limit. (orig.)

  4. Simulation Methods in the Contact with Impact of Rigid Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Basarabă-Opritescu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of impacts of elastic bodies is topical and it has many applications, practical and theoretical, too. The elastic character of collision is put in evidence, especially by the velocities of some parts of a particular body, named “ring”. In the presented paper, the situation of elastic collisions is put in evidence by the simulation with the help of the program ANSYS and it refers to the particular case of the ring, with the mechanical characteristics, given in the paper

  5. Student understanding of the application of Newton's second law to rotating rigid bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Hunter G.; Gomez, Luanna S.; Heron, Paula R. L.

    2013-06-01

    We report on an investigation of student understanding of rigid body dynamics in which we asked students in introductory calculus-based physics to compare the translational motions of identical rigid bodies subject to forces that differed only in the point of contact at which they were applied. There was a widespread tendency to claim that forces that cause rotational motion have a diminished effect on translational motion. A series of related problems was developed to examine whether similar errors would be made in other contexts, and interviews were conducted to probe student thinking in greater depth. In this paper, we describe the results of our investigation and also describe a series of different interventions that culminated in the development of a tutorial that improves student ability to apply Newton's second law to rotating rigid bodies.

  6. Estimating the orientation of a rigid body moving in space using inertial sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Peng, E-mail: peng.he.1@ulaval.ca; Cardou, Philippe, E-mail: pcardou@gmc.ulaval.ca [Université Laval, Robotics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Canada); Desbiens, André, E-mail: andre.desbiens@gel.ulaval.ca [Université Laval, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (Canada); Gagnon, Eric, E-mail: Eric.Gagnon@drdc-rddc.gc.ca [RDDC Valcartier (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    This paper presents a novel method of estimating the orientation of a rigid body moving in space from inertial sensors, by discerning the gravitational and inertial components of the accelerations. In this method, both a rigid-body kinematics model and a stochastic model of the human-hand motion are formulated and combined in a nonlinear state-space system. The state equation represents the rigid body kinematics and stochastic model, and the output equation represents the inertial sensor measurements. It is necessary to mention that, since the output equation is a nonlinear function of the state, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) is applied. The absolute value of the error from the proposed method is shown to be less than 5 deg in simulation and in experiments. It is apparently stable, unlike the time-integration of gyroscope measurements, which is subjected to drift, and remains accurate under large accelerations, unlike the tilt-sensor method.

  7. Estimating the orientation of a rigid body moving in space using inertial sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Peng; Cardou, Philippe; Desbiens, André; Gagnon, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method of estimating the orientation of a rigid body moving in space from inertial sensors, by discerning the gravitational and inertial components of the accelerations. In this method, both a rigid-body kinematics model and a stochastic model of the human-hand motion are formulated and combined in a nonlinear state-space system. The state equation represents the rigid body kinematics and stochastic model, and the output equation represents the inertial sensor measurements. It is necessary to mention that, since the output equation is a nonlinear function of the state, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) is applied. The absolute value of the error from the proposed method is shown to be less than 5 deg in simulation and in experiments. It is apparently stable, unlike the time-integration of gyroscope measurements, which is subjected to drift, and remains accurate under large accelerations, unlike the tilt-sensor method

  8. Computing the Free Energy along a Reaction Coordinate Using Rigid Body Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Peng; Sodt, Alexander J; Shao, Yihan; König, Gerhard; Brooks, Bernard R

    2014-10-14

    The calculations of potential of mean force along complex chemical reactions or rare events pathways are of great interest because of their importance for many areas in chemistry, molecular biology, and material science. The major difficulty for free energy calculations comes from the great computational cost for adequate sampling of the system in high-energy regions, especially close to the reaction transition state. Here, we present a method, called FEG-RBD, in which the free energy gradients were obtained from rigid body dynamics simulations. Then the free energy gradients were integrated along a reference reaction pathway to calculate free energy profiles. In a given system, the reaction coordinates defining a subset of atoms (e.g., a solute, or the quantum mechanics (QM) region of a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics simulation) are selected to form a rigid body during the simulation. The first-order derivatives (gradients) of the free energy with respect to the reaction coordinates are obtained through the integration of constraint forces within the rigid body. Each structure along the reference reaction path is separately subjected to such a rigid body simulation. The individual free energy gradients are integrated along the reference pathway to obtain the free energy profile. Test cases provided demonstrate both the strengths and weaknesses of the FEG-RBD method. The most significant benefit of this method comes from the fast convergence rate of the free energy gradient using rigid-body constraints instead of restraints. A correction to the free energy due to approximate relaxation of the rigid-body constraint is estimated and discussed. A comparison with umbrella sampling using a simple test case revealed the improved sampling efficiency of FEG-RBD by a factor of 4 on average. The enhanced efficiency makes this method effective for calculating the free energy of complex chemical reactions when the reaction coordinate can be unambiguously defined by a

  9. Topology Optimization of a Vibrating System of Rigid and Flexible Bodies for Maximizing Repeated Eigenfrequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Byungseong; Kim, Suh In; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-01-01

    When a system consisting of rigid and flexible bodies is optimized to improve its dynamic characteristics, its eigenfrequencies are typically maximized. While topology optimization formulations dealing with simultaneous design of a system of rigid and flexible bodies are available, studies on eigenvalue maximization of the system are rare. In particular, no work has solved for the case when the target frequency becomes one of the repeated eigenfrequencies. The problem involving repeated eigenfrequencies is solved in this study, and a topology optimization formulation and sensitivity analysis are presented. Further, several numerical case studies are considered to demonstrate the validity of the proposed formulation

  10. A comparative study of velocity increment generation between the rigid body and flexible models of MMET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, Norilmi Amilia, E-mail: aenorilmi@usm.my [School of Aerospace Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2016-02-01

    The motorized momentum exchange tether (MMET) is capable of generating useful velocity increments through spin–orbit coupling. This study presents a comparative study of the velocity increments between the rigid body and flexible models of MMET. The equations of motions of both models in the time domain are transformed into a function of true anomaly. The equations of motion are integrated, and the responses in terms of the velocity increment of the rigid body and flexible models are compared and analysed. Results show that the initial conditions, eccentricity, and flexibility of the tether have significant effects on the velocity increments of the tether.

  11. Control of fluid-containing rotating rigid bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Gurchenkov, Anatoly A

    2013-01-01

    This book is devoted to the study of the dynamics of rotating bodies with cavities containing liquid. Two basic classes of motions are analyzed: rotation and libration. Cases of complete and partial filling of cavities with ideal liquid and complete filling with viscous liquid are treated. The volume presents a method for obtaining relations between angular velocities perpendicular to main rotation and external force momentums, which are treated as control. The developed models and methods of solving dynamical problems as well as numerical methods for solving problems of optimal control can be

  12. Motion control of rigid bodies in SE(3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roza, Ashton

    This thesis investigates the control of motion for a general class of vehicles that rotate and translate in three-space, and are propelled by a thrust vector which has fixed direction in body frame. The thesis addresses the problems of path following and position control. For path following, a feedback linearization controller is presented that makes the vehicle follow an arbitrary closed curve while simultaneously allowing the designer to specify the velocity profile of the vehicle on the path and its heading. For position control, a two-stage approach is presented that decouples position control from attitude control, allowing for a modular design and yielding almost global asymptotic stability of any desired hovering equilibrium. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified both in simulation and experimentally by means of a hardware-in-the-loop setup emulating a co-axial helicopter.

  13. A conservative quaternion-based time integration algorithm for rigid body rotations with implicit constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Bjerre; Krenk, Steen

    2012-01-01

    A conservative time integration algorithm for rigid body rotations is presented in a purely algebraic form in terms of the four quaternions components and the four conjugate momentum variables via Hamilton’s equations. The introduction of an extended mass matrix leads to a symmetric set of eight...

  14. Rigid Body Time Integration by Convected Base Vectors with Implicit Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Nielsen, Martin Bjerre

    2013-01-01

    of the kinetic energy used in the present formulation is deliberately chosen to correspond to a rigid body rotation, and the orthonormality constraints are introduced via the equivalent Green strain components of the base vectors. The particular form of the extended inertia tensor used here implies a set...

  15. A rigid-body least-squares program with angular and translation scan facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Kutschabsky, L

    1981-01-01

    The described computer program, written in CERN Fortran, is designed to enlarge the convergence radius of the rigid-body least-squares method by allowing a stepwise change of the angular and/or translational parameters within a chosen range. (6 refs).

  16. Diffusion-accomodated rigid-body translations along grain boundaries in nanostructured materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachurin, D.V.; Nazarov, A.A.; Shenderova, O.A.; Brenner, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    A model for the structural relaxation of grain boundaries (GBs) in nanostructured materials (NSMs) by diffusion-accommodated rigid body translations along GBs is proposed. The model is based on the results of recent computer simulations that have demonstrated that the GBs in NSMs retain a high-energy structure with random translational states due to severe geometrical constraints applied from neighboring grains (J. Appl. Phys. 78 (1995) 847; Scripta Metall. Mater. 33 (1995) 1245). The shear stresses within a GB caused by non-optimized rigid-body translations (RBTs) can be accommodated by diffusive flow of atoms along a GB. This mechanism is particularly important for low-angle and vicinal GBs, the energy of which noticeably depends on the rigid body translations. At moderate and high temperatures the model yields relaxation times that are very short and therefore GBs in NSMs can attain an equilibrium structure with optimized rigid body translations. In contrast, at room temperature the model predicts that in some metals non-equilibrium structures can be preserved for a long time, which may result in the observation of grain boundary structures different from those in coarse grained polycrystals

  17. On the linear problem arising from motion of a fluid around a moving rigid body

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nečasová, Šárka; Wolf, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 140, č. 2 (2015), s. 241-259 ISSN 0862-7959 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/11/1304 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : incompressible fluid * rotating rigid body * strong solution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://hdl.handle.net/10338.dmlcz/144329

  18. Reconstructing rotations and rigid body motions from exact point correspondences through reflections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontijne, D.; Dorst, L.; Dorst, L.; Lasenby, J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a new algorithm to reconstruct a rigid body motion from point correspondences. The algorithm works by constructing a series of reflections which align the points with their correspondences one by one. This is naturally and efficiently implemented in the conformal model of geometric

  19. Rigid Body Motion Calculated From Spatial Co-ordinates of Markers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we present a unified method for calculating spatial coordinates of markers for a rigid body motion such as in bones. Kinematical analysis of bone movement in cadaveric specimens or living objects had been developed. Here, we show how spatial co-ordinates of markers in or on bone can be calculated from ...

  20. Flutter Instability of a Fluid-Conveying Fluid-Immersed Pipe Affixed to a Rigid Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    rigid body, denoted by y in Fig. 4, is small. This is in addition to the Euler– Bernoulli beam assumption that the slope of the tail is small everywhere...here. These include the efficiency with which the prime mover can generate fluid momentum , pipe losses, and external drag acting on both the hull and the

  1. Lorentz Contraction, Bell's Spaceships and Rigid Body Motion in Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Jerrold

    2010-01-01

    The meaning of Lorentz contraction in special relativity and its connection with Bell's spaceships parable is discussed. The motion of Bell's spaceships is then compared with the accelerated motion of a rigid body. We have tried to write this in a simple form that could be used to correct students' misconceptions due to conflicting earlier…

  2. Lorentz contraction, Bell's spaceships and rigid body motion in special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, Jerrold

    2010-01-01

    The meaning of Lorentz contraction in special relativity and its connection with Bell's spaceships parable is discussed. The motion of Bell's spaceships is then compared with the accelerated motion of a rigid body. We have tried to write this in a simple form that could be used to correct students' misconceptions due to conflicting earlier treatments.

  3. Numerical algorithm for rigid body position estimation using the quaternion approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigic, Miodrag; Grahovac, Nenad

    2017-11-01

    This paper deals with rigid body attitude estimation on the basis of the data obtained from an inertial measurement unit mounted on the body. The aim of this work is to present the numerical algorithm, which can be easily applied to the wide class of problems concerning rigid body positioning, arising in aerospace and marine engineering, or in increasingly popular robotic systems and unmanned aerial vehicles. Following the considerations of kinematics of rigid bodies, the relations between accelerations of different points of the body are given. A rotation matrix is formed using the quaternion approach to avoid singularities. We present numerical procedures for determination of the absolute accelerations of the center of mass and of an arbitrary point of the body expressed in the inertial reference frame, as well as its attitude. An application of the algorithm to the example of a heavy symmetrical gyroscope is presented, where input data for the numerical procedure are obtained from the solution of differential equations of motion, instead of using sensor measurements.

  4. Modeling of a light elastic beam by a system of rigid bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šalinić Slaviša

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has shown that a light elastic beam, in the case of small elastic deformations, can be modeled by a kinematic chain without branching composed of rigid bodies which are connected by passive revolute or prismatic joints with corresponding springs in them. Elastic properties of the beam are modeled by the springs introduced. The potential energy of the elastic beam is expressed as a function of components of the vector of elastic displacement and the vector of elastic rotation calculated for the elastic centre of the beam, which results in the diagonal stiffness matrix of the beam. As the potential energy of the introduced system of bodies with springs is expressed in the function of relative joint displacements, the diagonal stiffness matrix is obtained. In addition, these two stiffness matrices are equal. The modeling process has been demonstrated on the example of an elastic beam rotating about a fixed vertical axis, with a rigid body whose mass is considerably larger than the beam mass fixed to its free end. Differential equations of motion have been formed for this mechanical system. The modeling technique described here aims at expanding of usage of well developed methods of dynamics of systems of rigid bodies to the analysis of systems with elastic bodies. .

  5. Modelling of transport and collisions between rigid bodies to simulate the jam formation in urban flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Hadji

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the simulation of transport and interaction betweenbodies considered as a rectangular shape particles, in urban flow. We usedan hydrodynamic two-dimensional finite elements model coupled to theparticles model based on Maxey-Riley equations, and taking into accountof contact between bodies. The finite element discretization is based onthe velocity field richer than pressure field, and the particles displacementsare computed by using a rigid body motion method. A collision strategy isalso developed to handle cases in which bodies touch.

  6. On the monoaxial stabilization of a rigid body under vanishing restoring torque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, A. Yu.; Aleksandrova, E. B.; Tikhonov, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    The problem of monoaxial stabilization of a rigid body is studied. It is assumed that a linear time-invariant dissipative torque and a time-varying restoring torque vanishing as time increases act on the body. Both the case of linear restoring torque and that of essentially nonlinear one are considered. With the aid of the decomposition method, conditions are obtained under which we can guarantee the asymptotic stability of an equilibrium position of the body despite the vanishing of the restoring torque. A numerical simulation is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results.

  7. Efficient time-symmetric simulation of torqued rigid bodies using Jacobi elliptic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celledoni, E; Saefstroem, N

    2006-01-01

    If the three moments of inertia are distinct, the solution to the Euler equations for the free rigid body is given in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. Using the arithmetic-geometric mean algorithm (Abramowitz and Stegun 1992 Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables (New York: Dover)), these functions can be calculated efficiently and accurately. Compared to standard numerical ODE and Lie-Poisson solvers, the overall approach yields a faster and more accurate numerical solution to the Euler equations. This approach is designed for mass asymmetric rigid bodies. In the case of symmetric bodies, the exact solution is available in terms of trigonometric functions, see Dullweber et al (1997 J. Chem. Phys. 107 5840-51), Reich (1996 Fields Inst. Commun. 10 181-91) and Benettin et al (2001 SIAM J. Sci. Comp. 23 1189-203) for details. In this paper, we consider the case of asymmetric rigid bodies subject to external forces. We consider a strategy similar to the symplectic splitting method proposed in Reich (1996 Fields Inst. Commun. 10 181-91) and Dullweber et al (1997 J. Chem. Phys. 107 5840-51). The method proposed here is time-symmetric. We decompose the vector field of our problem into a free rigid body (FRB) problem and another completely integrable vector field. The FRB problem consists of the Euler equations and a differential equation for the 3 x 3 orientation matrix. The Euler equations are integrated exactly while the matrix equation is approximated using a truncated Magnus series. In our experiments, we observe that the overall numerical solution benefits greatly from the very accurate solution of the Euler equations. We apply the method to the heavy top and the simulation of artificial satellite attitude dynamics

  8. New integrable problems in a rigid body dynamics with cubic integral in velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmandouh, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    We introduce a new family of the 2D integrable mechanical system possessing an additional integral of the third degree in velocities. This system contains 20 arbitrary parameters. We also clarify that the majority of the previous systems with a cubic integral can be reconstructed from it as a special version for certain values of those parameters. The applications of this system are extended to include the problem of motion of a particle and rigid body about its fixed point. We announce new integrable problems describing the motion of a particle in the plane, pseudosphere, and surfaces of variable curvature. We also present a new integrable problem in a rigid body dynamics and this problem generalizes some of the previous results for Sokolov-Tsiganov, Yehia, Stretensky, and Goriachev.

  9. Contact point generation for convex polytopes in interactive rigid body dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silcowitz-Hansen, Morten; Abel, Sarah Maria Niebe; Erleben, Kenny

    When computing contact forces in rigid body dynamics systems, most state-of-the-art solutions use iterative methods such as the projected Gauss–Seidel (PGS) method. Methods such as the PGS method are preferred for their robustness. However, the time-critical nature of interactive applications...... combined with the linear convergence rates of such methods, will often result in visual artifacts in the final simulation. With this paper, we address an issue which is of major impact on the animation quality, when using methods such as the PGS method. The issue is robust generation of contact points...... for convex polytopes. A novel contact point generation method is presented, which is based on growth distances and Gauss maps. We demonstrate improvements when using our method in the context of interactive rigid body simulation...

  10. High-order conservative discretizations for some cases of the rigid body motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, Roman

    2008-01-01

    Modified vector fields can be used to construct high-order structure-preserving numerical integrators for ordinary differential equations. In the present Letter we consider high-order integrators based on the implicit midpoint rule, which conserve quadratic first integrals. It is shown that these integrators are particularly suitable for the rigid body motion with an additional quadratic first integral. In this case high-order integrators preserve all four first integrals of motion. The approach is illustrated on the Lagrange top (a rotationally symmetric rigid body with a fixed point on the symmetry axis). The equations of motion are considered in the space fixed frame because in this frame Lagrange top admits a neat description. The Lagrange top motion includes the spherical pendulum and the planar pendulum, which swings in a vertical plane, as particular cases

  11. Topological classification of the Goryachev integrable case in rigid body dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaenko, S S

    2016-01-01

    A topological analysis of the Goryachev integrable case in rigid body dynamics is made on the basis of the Fomenko-Zieschang theory. The invariants (marked molecules) which are obtained give a complete description, from the standpoint of Liouville classification, of the systems of Goryachev type on various level sets of the energy. It turns out that on appropriate energy levels the Goryachev case is Liouville equivalent to many classical integrable systems and, in particular, the Joukowski, Clebsch, Sokolov and Kovalevskaya-Yehia cases in rigid body dynamics, as well as to some integrable billiards in plane domains bounded by confocal quadrics -- in other words, the foliations given by the closures of generic solutions of these systems have the same structure. Bibliography: 15 titles

  12. Research on Rigid Body Motion Tracing in Space based on NX MCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjie; Dai, Chunxiang; Shi, Karen; Qin, Rongkang

    2018-03-01

    In the use of MCD (Mechatronics Concept Designer) which is a module belong to SIEMENS Ltd industrial design software UG (Unigraphics NX), user can define rigid body and kinematic joint to make objects move according to the existing plan in simulation. At this stage, user may have the desire to see the path of some points in the moving object intuitively. In response to this requirement, this paper will compute the pose through the transformation matrix which can be available from the solver engine, and then fit these sampling points through B-spline curve. Meanwhile, combined with the actual constraints of rigid bodies, the traditional equal interval sampling strategy was optimized. The result shown that this method could satisfy the demand and make up for the deficiency in traditional sampling method. User can still edit and model on this 3D curve. Expected result has been achieved.

  13. The motion of the rigid body in viscous fluid including collisions. Global solvability result

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chemetov, N.; Nečasová, Šárka

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 34, April (2017), s. 416-445 ISSN 1468-1218 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-03230S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : rigid body * global weak solution * collisions in finite time Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.659, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1468121816301146

  14. Estimation of the ground shaking from the response of rigid bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena de Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper illustrates and compares simplified approaches to interpret the mechanisms of damage observed on rigid bodies in the cemetery of Amatrice, after the main shock (August 24, 2016, MW=6.0 of the Central Italy earthquake. The final goal of the work is to link the observed movements of the fallen objects to specific characteristics of the ground motion occurred at the specific site.

  15. Rigid-body displacement perpendicular to a {211} twin boundary in Mo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gemperlová, Juliana; Vystavěl, Tomáš; Gemperle, Antonín; Pénisson, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 11 (2001), s. 1767-1778 ISSN 0141-8637 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010916; GA ČR GA202/99/1665 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : sigma=3 Mo bicrystal * rigid-body displacement * alfa- fringe method Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.238, year: 2001

  16. A Compliant Bistable Mechanism Design Incorporating Elastica Buckling Beam Theory and Pseudo-Rigid-Body Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sönmez, Ümit; Tutum, Cem Celal

    2008-01-01

    In this work, a new compliant bistable mechanism design is introduced. The combined use of pseudo-rigid-body model (PRBM) and the Elastica buckling theory is presented for the first time to analyze the new design. This mechanism consists of the large deflecting straight beams, buckling beams...... and the buckling Elastica solution for an original compliant mechanism kinematic analysis. New compliant mechanism designs are presented to highlight where such combined kinematic analysis is required....

  17. Motion of a Rigid Body Supported at One Point by a Rotating Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey D. Stoen

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available This article details a scheme for evaluating the stability of motions of a system consisting of a rigid body connected at one point to a rotating arm. The nonlinear equations of motion for the system are formulated, and a method for finding exact solutions representing motions that resemble a state of rest is presented. The equations are then linearized and roots of the eigensystem are classified and used to construct stability diagrams that facilitate the assessment of effects of varying the body's mass properties and system geometry, changing the position of the attachment joint, and adding energy dissipation in the joint.

  18. On Classical Dynamics of Affinely-Rigid Bodies Subject to the Kirchhoff-Love Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl Kovalchuk

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we consider the affinely-rigid body moving in the three-dimensional physical space and subject to the Kirchhoff-Love constraints, i.e., while it deforms homogeneously in the two-dimensional central plane of the body it simultaneously performs one-dimensional oscillations orthogonal to this central plane. For the polar decomposition we obtain the stationary ellipsoids as special solutions of the general, strongly nonlinear equations of motion. It is also shown that these solutions are conceptually different from those obtained earlier for the two-polar (singular value decomposition.

  19. Diagnostic-Photographic Determination of Drag/Lift/Torque Coefficients of High Speed Rigid Body in Water Column

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, Peter C; Fan, Chenwu; Gefken, Paul R

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of rigid body falling through water column with a high speed (such as Mk-84 bomb) needs formulas for drag/lift and torque coefficients, which depend on various physical processes such as supercavitation and bubbles...

  20. Modeling and experimentation with asymmetric rigid bodies: a variation on disks and inclines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raviola, Lisandro A; Zárate, Oscar; Rodríguez, Eduardo E

    2014-01-01

    We study the ascending motion of a disk rolling on an incline when its centre of mass lies outside the disk axis. The problem is suitable as laboratory project for a first course in mechanics at the undergraduate level and goes beyond typical textbook problems about bi-dimensional rigid body motions. We develop a theoretical model for the disk motion based on mechanical energy conservation and compare its predictions with experimental data obtained by digital video recording. Using readily available resources, a very satisfactory agreement is obtained between the model and the experimental observations. These results complement previous ones that have been reported in the literature for similar systems. (paper)

  1. Euler-Poincaré Reduction of Externally Forced Rigid Body Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Kulczycki, P.

    2004-01-01

    If a mechanical system experiences symmetry, the Lagrangian becomes invariant under a certain group action. This property leads to substantial simplification of the description of movement. The standpoint in this article is a mechanical system affected by an external force of a control action....... Assuming that the system possesses symmetry and the configuration manifold corresponds to a Lie group, the Euler-Poincaré reduction breaks up the motion into separate equations of dynamics and kinematics. This becomes of particular interest for modelling, estimation and control of mechanical systems......-known Euler-Poincaré reduction to a rigid body motion with forcing....

  2. Coupling characteristics of rigid body motion and elastic deformation of a 3-PRR parallel manipulator with flexible links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xuping; Mills, James K.; Cleghorn, William L.

    2009-01-01

    Modeling of multibody dynamics with flexible links is a challenging task, which not only involves the effect of rigid body motion on elastic deformations, but also includes the influence of elastic deformations on rigid body motion. This paper presents coupling characteristics of rigid body motions and elastic motions of a 3-PRR parallel manipulator with three flexible intermediate links. The intermediate links are modeled as Euler-Bernoulli beams with pinned-pinned boundary conditions based on the assumed mode method (AMM). Using Lagrange multipliers, the fully coupled equations of motions of the flexible parallel manipulator are developed by incorporating the rigid body motions with elastic motions. The mutual dependence of elastic deformations and rigid body motions are investigated from the analysis of the derived equations of motion. Open-loop simulation without joint motion controls and closed-loop simulation with joint motion controls are performed to illustrate the effect of elastic motion on rigid body motions and the coupling effect amongst flexible links. These analyses and results provide valuable insight to the design and control of the parallel manipulator with flexible intermediate links

  3. Simulating Dynamics of the System of Articulated Rigid Bodies with Joint Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Michaylyuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the work is to simulate dynamics of the system of articulated rigid bodies in the virtual environment complexes. The work aim is to develop algorithms and methods to simulate the multi-body system dynamics with joint friction to ensure all calculations in real time in line with visual realistic behavior of objects in a scene.The paper describes the multibody system based on a maximal set of coordinates, and to simulate the joint friction is used a Coulomb's law of dry friction. Joints are described using the holonomic constraints and their derivatives that specify the constraints on velocities of joined bodies. Based on The Coulomb’s law a correlation for the friction impulse values has been derived as an inequality. If the friction impulse performs a constraint that is a lack of relative motion of two joint-joined bodies, there is a static friction in the joint. Otherwise, there is a dynamic friction in the joint. Using a semi-implicit Euler method allows us to describe dynamics of articulated rigid bodies with joint friction as a system of linear algebraic equations and inequalities for the unknown velocities and impulse values.To solve the obtained system of equations and inequalities is used an iterative method of sequential impulses, which sequentially processes constraints for each joint with impulse calculation and its application to the joined bodies rather than considers the entire system. To improve the method convergence, at each iteration the calculated impulses are accumulated for their further using as an initial approximation at the next step of simulation.The proposed algorithms and methods have been implemented in the training complex dynamics subsystem, developed in SRISA RAS. Evaluation of these methods and algorithms has demonstrated their full adequacy to requirements for virtual environment systems and training complexes.

  4. The general problem of the motion of coupled rigid bodies about a fixed point

    CERN Document Server

    Leimanis, Eugene

    1965-01-01

    In the theory of motion of several coupled rigid bodies about a fixed point one can distinguish three basic ramifications. 1. The first, the so-called classical direction of investigations, is concerned with particular cases of integrability ot the equations of motion of a single rigid body about a fixed point,1 and with their geo­ metrical interpretation. This path of thought was predominant until the beginning of the 20th century and its most illustrious represen­ tatives are L. EULER (1707-1783), J L. LAGRANGE (1736-1813), L. POINSOT (1777-1859), S. V. KOVALEVSKAYA (1850-1891), and others. Chapter I of the present monograph intends to reflect this branch of investigations. For collateral reading on the general questions dealt with in this chapter the reader is referred to the following textbooks and reports: A. DOMOGAROV [1J, F. KLEIN and A. SOMMERFELD [11, 1 , 1 J, A. G. 2 3 GREENHILL [10J, A. GRAY [1J, R. GRAMMEL [4 J, E. J. ROUTH [21' 2 , 1 2 31' 32J, J. B. SCARBOROUGH [1J, and V. V. GOLUBEV [1, 2J.

  5. Dynamic Behavior of Wind Turbine by a Mixed Flexible-Rigid Multi-Body Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhong; Qin, Datong; Ding, Yi

    A mixed flexible-rigid multi-body model is presented to study the dynamic behavior of a horizontal axis wind turbine. The special attention is given to flexible body: flexible rotor is modeled by a newly developed blade finite element, support bearing elasticities, variations in the number of teeth in contact as well as contact tooth's elasticities are mainly flexible components in the power train. The couple conditions between different subsystems are established by constraint equations. The wind turbine model is generated by coupling models of rotor, power train and generator with constraint equations together. Based on this model, an eigenproblem analysis is carried out to show the mode shape of rotor and power train at a few natural frequencies. The dynamic responses and contact forces among gears under constant wind speed and fixed pitch angle are analyzed.

  6. A Comparison of the Characteristics of Planar and Axisymmetric Bluff-Body Combustors Operated under Stratified Inlet Mixture Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paterakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents comparisons of the flame stabilization characteristics of axisymmetric disk and 2D slender bluff-body burner configurations, operating with inlet mixture stratification, under ultralean conditions. A double cavity propane air premixer formed along three concentric disks, supplied with a radial equivalence ratio gradient the afterbody disk recirculation, where the first flame configuration is stabilized. Planar fuel injection along the center plane of the leading face of a slender square cylinder against the approach cross-flow results in a stratified flame configuration stabilized alongside the wake formation region in the second setup. Measurements of velocities, temperatures, OH∗ and CH∗ chemiluminescence, local extinction criteria, and large-eddy simulations are employed to examine a range of ultralean and close to extinction flame conditions. The variations of the reacting front disposition within these diverse reacting wake topologies, the effect of the successive suppression of heat release on the near flame region characteristics, and the reemergence of large-scale vortical activity on approach to lean blowoff (LBO are investigated. The cross-correlation of the performance of these two popular flame holders that are at the opposite ends of current applications might offer helpful insights into more effective control measures for expanding the operational margin of a wider range of stabilization configurations.

  7. Constrained non-rigid registration for whole body image registration: method and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Peterson, Todd E.; Gore, John C.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2007-03-01

    3D intra- and inter-subject registration of image volumes is important for tasks that include measurements and quantification of temporal/longitudinal changes, atlas-based segmentation, deriving population averages, or voxel and tensor-based morphometry. A number of methods have been proposed to tackle this problem but few of them have focused on the problem of registering whole body image volumes acquired either from humans or small animals. These image volumes typically contain a large number of articulated structures, which makes registration more difficult than the registration of head images, to which the vast majority of registration algorithms have been applied. To solve this problem, we have previously proposed an approach, which initializes an intensity-based non-rigid registration algorithm with a point based registration technique [1, 2]. In this paper, we introduce new constraints into our non-rigid registration algorithm to prevent the bones from being deformed inaccurately. Results we have obtained show that the new constrained algorithm leads to better registration results than the previous one.

  8. Higher order coupling between rigid-body and elastic motion in flexible mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esat, I.I.; Ianakiev, A.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents an investigation of the influence of the higher order coupling terms between the rigid-body and elastic motion into flexible mechanism dynamics. The configuration of the mechanical system is obtained by using the so called hybrid coordinates. The kinematic description of the mechanism was obtained using the D-H 4 x 4 transformation matrices. The elastic deformation of each point of the mechanism is described by the finite element modeling (FEM) type interpolation scheme. The dynamic model of the flexible mechanism consists due to the hybrid coordinates of two groups of differential equations. The first group describes the manipulator transport motion and the second group describes the vibration. In this paper the authors evaluated the contribution of the coupling terms between the two groups of differential equations and selected only those with high contribution

  9. On potential energies and constraints in the dynamics of rigid bodies and particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'reilly Oliver M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A new treatment of kinematical constraints and potential energies arising in the dynamics of systems of rigid bodies and particles is presented which is suited to Newtonian and Lagrangian formulations. Its novel feature is the imposing of invariance requirements on the constraint functions and potential energy functions. These requirements are extensively used in continuum mechanics and, in the present context, one finds certain generalizations of Newton's third law of motion and an elucidation of the nature of constraint forces and moments. One motivation for such a treatment can be found by considering approaches where invariance requirements are ignored. In contrast to the treatment presented in this paper, it is shown that this may lead to a difficulty in formulating the equations governing the motion of the system.

  10. In silico single-molecule manipulation of DNA with rigid body dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Carrivain

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We develop a new powerful method to reproduce in silico single-molecule manipulation experiments. We demonstrate that flexible polymers such as DNA can be simulated using rigid body dynamics thanks to an original implementation of Langevin dynamics in an open source library called Open Dynamics Engine. We moreover implement a global thermostat which accelerates the simulation sampling by two orders of magnitude. We reproduce force-extension as well as rotation-extension curves of reference experimental studies. Finally, we extend the model to simulations where the control parameter is no longer the torsional strain but instead the torque, and predict the expected behavior for this case which is particularly challenging theoretically and experimentally.

  11. Conservative rigid body dynamics by convected base vectors with implicit constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Nielsen, Martin Bjerre

    2014-01-01

    of differential equations without additional algebraic constraints on the base vectors. A discretized form of the equations of motion is obtained by starting from a finite time increment of the Hamiltonian, and retracing the steps of the continuous formulation in discrete form in terms of increments and mean...... of the base vectors. Orthogonality and unit length of the base vectors are imposed by constraining the equivalent Green strain components, and the kinetic energy is represented corresponding to rigid body motion. The equations of motion are obtained via Hamilton’s equations including the zero...... values over each integration time increment. In this discrete form the Lagrange multipliers are given in terms of a representative value within the integration time interval, and the equations of motion are recast into a conservative mean-value and finite difference format. The Lagrange multipliers...

  12. Dynamics on strata of trigonal Jacobians and some integrable problems of rigid body motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braden, H W; Enolski, V Z; Fedorov, Yu N

    2013-01-01

    We present an algebraic geometrical and analytical description of the Goryachev case of rigid body motion. It belongs to a family of systems sharing the same properties: although completely integrable, they are not algebraically integrable, their solution is not meromorphic in the complex time and involves dynamics on the strata of the Jacobian varieties of trigonal curves. Although the strata of hyperelliptic Jacobians have already appeared in the literature in the context of some dynamical systems, the Goryachev case is the first example of an integrable system whose solution involves a more general curve. Several new features (and formulae) are encountered in the solution given in terms of sigma-functions of such a curve. (paper)

  13. Conservative integration of rigid body motion by quaternion parameters with implicit constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Bjerre; Krenk, Steen

    2012-01-01

    An angular momentum and energy‐conserving time integration algorithm for rigid body rotation is formulated in terms of the quaternion parameters and the corresponding four‐component conjugate momentum vector via Hamilton's equations. The introduction of an extended mass matrix leads to a symmetric...... these equations via the set of momentum equations. Initially, the normalization of the quaternion array is introduced via a Lagrange multiplier. However, this Lagrange multiplier can be expressed explicitly in terms of the gradient of the external load potential, and elimination of the Lagrange multiplier from...... the final format leaves only an explicit projection applied to the external load potential gradient. An algorithm is developed by forming a finite increment of the Hamiltonian. This procedure identifies the proper selection of increments and mean values, and leads to an algorithm with conservation...

  14. Rigid-body-spring model numerical analysis of joint performance of engineered cementitious composites and concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khmurovska, Y.; Štemberk, P.; Křístek, V.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a numerical investigation of effectiveness of using engineered cementitious composites with polyvinyl alcohol fibers for concrete cover layer repair. A numerical model of a monolithic concaved L-shaped concrete structural detail which is strengthened with an engineered cementitious composite layer with polyvinyl alcohol fibers is created and loaded with bending moment. The numerical analysis employs nonlinear 3-D Rigid-Body-Spring Model. The proposed material model shows reliable results and can be used in further studies. The engineered cementitious composite shows extremely good performance in tension due to the strain-hardening effect. Since durability of the bond can be decreased significantly by its degradation due to the thermal loading, this effect should be also taken into account in the future work, as well as the experimental investigation, which should be performed for validation of the proposed numerical model.

  15. Free Energy Landscapes of Alanine Oligopeptides in Rigid-Body and Hybrid Water Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Divya; Chakravarty, Charusita

    2015-08-27

    Replica exchange molecular dynamics is used to study the effect of different rigid-body (mTIP3P, TIP4P, SPC/E) and hybrid (H1.56, H3.00) water models on the conformational free energy landscape of the alanine oligopeptides (acAnme and acA5nme), in conjunction with the CHARMM22 force field. The free energy landscape is mapped out as a function of the Ramachandran angles. In addition, various secondary structure metrics, solvation shell properties, and the number of peptide-solvent hydrogen bonds are monitored. Alanine dipeptide is found to have similar free energy landscapes in different solvent models, an insensitivity which may be due to the absence of possibilities for forming i-(i + 4) or i-(i + 3) intrapeptide hydrogen bonds. The pentapeptide, acA5nme, where there are three intrapeptide backbone hydrogen bonds, shows a conformational free energy landscape with a much greater degree of sensitivity to the choice of solvent model, though the three rigid-body water models differ only quantitatively. The pentapeptide prefers nonhelical, non-native PPII and β-sheet populations as the solvent is changed from SPC/E to the less tetrahedral liquid (H1.56) to an LJ-like liquid (H3.00). The pentapeptide conformational order metrics indicate a preference for open, solvent-exposed, non-native structures in hybrid solvent models at all temperatures of study. The possible correlations between the properties of solvent models and secondary structure preferences of alanine oligopeptides are discussed, and the competition between intrapeptide, peptide-solvent, and solvent-solvent hydrogen bonding is shown to be crucial in the relative free energies of different conformers.

  16. Computation of hypersonic axisymmetric flows of equilibrium gas over blunt bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejranfar, K.; Esfahanian, V.; Moghadam, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    An appropriate combination of the thin-layer Navier-Stokes (TLNS) and parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) solvers is used to accurately and efficiently compute hypersonic flowfields of equilibrium air around blunt-body configurations. The TLNS equations are solved in the nose region to provide the initial data plane needed for the solution of the PNS equations. Then the PNS equations are employed to efficiently compute the flowfield for the afterbody region by using a space marching procedure. Both the TLNS and the PNS equations are numerically solved by using the implicit non-iterative finite-difference algorithm of Beam and Warming. A shock fitting technique is used in both the TLNS and PNS codes to obtain accurate solution in the vicinity of the shock. To validate the results of the developed TLNS code, hypersonic laminar flow over a sphere at Mach number of 11.26 is computed. To demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of using the present TLNS-PNS methodology, the computations are performed for hypersonic flow over 5 o long slender blunt cone at Mach number of 19.25. The results of these computations are found to be in good agreement with available numerical and experimental data. The effects of real gas on the flowfield characteristics are also studied in both the TLNS and PNS solutions. (author)

  17. Development of Swimming Human Simulation Model Considering Rigid Body Dynamics and Unsteady Fluid Force for Whole Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Motomu; Satou, Ken; Miura, Yasufumi

    The purpose of this study is to develop a swimming human simulation model considering rigid body dynamics and unsteady fluid force for the whole body, which will be utilized to analyze various dynamical problems in human swimming. First, the modeling methods and their formulations for the human body and the fluid force are respectively described. Second, experiments to identify the coefficients of the normal drag and the added mass are conducted by use of an experimental setup, in which a limb model rotates in the water, and its rotating angle and the bending moment at the root are measured. As the result of the identification, the present model for the fluid force was found to have satisfactory performance in order to represent the unsteady fluctuations of the experimental data, although it has 10% error. Third, a simulation for the gliding position is conducted in order to identify the tangential drag coefficient. Finally, a simulation example of standard six beat front crawl swimming is shown. The swimming speed of the simulation became a reasonable value, indicating the validity of the present simulation model, although it is 7.5% lower than the actual swimming.

  18. iCub Whole-body Control through Force Regulation on Rigid Noncoplanar Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco eNori

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper details the implementation on the humanoid robot iCub of state-of-the-art algorithms for whole-body control. We regulate the forces between the robot and its surrounding environment to stabilize a desired robot posture. We assume that the forces and torques are exerted on rigid contacts. The validity of this assumption is guaranteed by constraining the contact forces and torques, e.g. the contact forces must belong to the associated friction cones. The implementation of this control strategy requires to estimate the external forces acting on the robot, and the internal joint torques. We then detail algorithms to obtain these estimations when using a robot with an iCub-like sensor set, i.e. distributed six-axis force-torque sensors and whole-body tactile sensors. A general theory for identifying the robot inertial parameters is also presented. From an actuation standpoint, we show how to implement a joint torque control in the case of DC brushless motors. In addition, the coupling mechanism of the iCub torso is investigated. The soundness of the entire control architecture is validated in a real scenario involving the robot iCub balancing and making contacts at both arms.

  19. Axisymmetric control in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, D.A.

    1991-02-01

    Vertically elongated tokamak plasmas are intrinsically susceptible to vertical axisymmetric instabilities as a result of the quadrupole field which must be applied to produce the elongation. The present work analyzes the axisymmetric control necessary to stabilize elongated equilibria, with special application to the Alcator C-MOD tokamak. A rigid current-conserving filamentary plasma model is applied to Alcator C-MOD stability analysis, and limitations of the model are addressed. A more physically accurate nonrigid plasma model is developed using a perturbed equilibrium approach to estimate linearized plasma response to conductor current variations. This model includes novel flux conservation and vacuum vessel stabilization effects. It is found that the nonrigid model predicts significantly higher growth rates than predicted by the rigid model applied to the same equilibria. The nonrigid model is then applied to active control system design. Multivariable pole placement techniques are used to determine performance optimized control laws. Formalisms are developed for implementing and improving nominal feedback laws using the C-MOD digital-analog hybrid control system architecture. A proportional-derivative output observer which does not require solution of the nonlinear Ricatti equation is developed to help accomplish this implementation. The nonrigid flux conserving perturbed equilibrium plasma model indicates that equilibria with separatrix elongation of at least κ sep = 1.85 can be stabilized robustly with the present control architecture and conductor/sensor configuration

  20. Curvilinear immersed boundary method for simulating fluid structure interaction with complex 3D rigid bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borazjani, Iman; Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2008-08-01

    The sharp-interface CURVIB approach of Ge and Sotiropoulos [L. Ge, F. Sotiropoulos, A numerical method for solving the 3D unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in curvilinear domains with complex immersed boundaries, Journal of Computational Physics 225 (2007) 1782-1809] is extended to simulate fluid structure interaction (FSI) problems involving complex 3D rigid bodies undergoing large structural displacements. The FSI solver adopts the partitioned FSI solution approach and both loose and strong coupling strategies are implemented. The interfaces between immersed bodies and the fluid are discretized with a Lagrangian grid and tracked with an explicit front-tracking approach. An efficient ray-tracing algorithm is developed to quickly identify the relationship between the background grid and the moving bodies. Numerical experiments are carried out for two FSI problems: vortex induced vibration of elastically mounted cylinders and flow through a bileaflet mechanical heart valve at physiologic conditions. For both cases the computed results are in excellent agreement with benchmark simulations and experimental measurements. The numerical experiments suggest that both the properties of the structure (mass, geometry) and the local flow conditions can play an important role in determining the stability of the FSI algorithm. Under certain conditions the FSI algorithm is unconditionally unstable even when strong coupling FSI is employed. For such cases, however, combining the strong coupling iteration with under-relaxation in conjunction with the Aitken's acceleration technique is shown to effectively resolve the stability problems. A theoretical analysis is presented to explain the findings of the numerical experiments. It is shown that the ratio of the added mass to the mass of the structure as well as the sign of the local time rate of change of the force or moment imparted on the structure by the fluid determine the stability and convergence of the FSI

  1. On the motion of rigid bodies in an incompressible or compressible viscous fluid under the action of gravitational forces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ducomet, B.; Nečasová, Šárka

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 5 (2013), s. 1193-1213 ISSN 1937-1632 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/11/1304 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : motion of rigid bodies * incompressible fluid * compressible fluid Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics https://www.aimsciences.org/journals/displayArticlesnew.jsp?paperID=8331

  2. An iterative approach to dynamic simulation of 3D rigid body motions for real-time interactive computer animation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overveld, van C.W.A.M.

    1991-01-01

    A method is presented for approximating the motions of linked 3-dimensional rigid body systems that may be applied in the context of interactive motion specification for computer animation. The method is based on decoupling the ballistic (free) component of the motion of the points that constitute

  3. Case report: Inhaled foreign body mismanaged as TB, finally removed using a rigid bronchoscopy after 6 years of impaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Rubena Lumaya

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body aspiration is an important cause of mortality in children aged less than three years. Foreign body (FB inhalation can pose diagnostic and therapeutic challenges, especially in longstanding cases and complications such as recurrent pneumonia, lung collapse and lung abscess may develop. We report a case of an 11-year old boy with foreign body impacted in his bronchus for six years, which was mistakenly managed as pulmonary tuberculosis. Radiological evidence confirmed the diagnosis and a rigid bronchoscopy was used to remove the metallic foreign body. The standard of care for the management of a FB in a bronchus is a rigid bronchoscopy; however flexible bronchoscopy can be used, especially in adults. A thorough history with radiological evidence are essential and sometimes, followed by a diagnostic bronchoscopy.

  4. A navigator-based rigid body motion correction for magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullisch, Marcus Goerge

    2012-01-01

    A novel three-dimensional navigator k-space trajectory for rigid body motion detection for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - the Lissajous navigator - was developed and quantitatively compared to the existing spherical navigator trajectory [1]. The spherical navigator cannot sample the complete spherical surface due to slew rate limitations of the scanner hardware. By utilizing a two dimensional Lissajous figure which is projected onto the spherical surface, the Lissajous navigator overcomes this limitation. The complete sampling of the sphere consequently leads to rotation estimates with higher and more isotropic accuracy. Simulations and phantom measurements were performed for both navigators. Both simulations and measurements show a significantly higher overall accuracy of the Lissajous navigator and a higher isotropy of the rotation estimates. Measured under identical conditions with identical postprocessing, the measured mean absolute error of the rotation estimates for the Lissajous navigator was 38% lower (0.3 ) than for the spherical navigator (0.5 ). The maximum error of the Lissajous navigator was reduced by 48% relative to the spherical navigator. The Lissajous navigator delivers higher accuracy of rotation estimation and a higher degree of isotropy than the spherical navigator with no evident drawbacks; these are two decisive advantages, especially for high-resolution anatomical imaging.

  5. Fullrmc, a rigid body Reverse Monte Carlo modeling package enabled with machine learning and artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoun, Bachir

    2016-05-05

    A new Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) package "fullrmc" for atomic or rigid body and molecular, amorphous, or crystalline materials is presented. fullrmc main purpose is to provide a fully modular, fast and flexible software, thoroughly documented, complex molecules enabled, written in a modern programming language (python, cython, C and C++ when performance is needed) and complying to modern programming practices. fullrmc approach in solving an atomic or molecular structure is different from existing RMC algorithms and software. In a nutshell, traditional RMC methods and software randomly adjust atom positions until the whole system has the greatest consistency with a set of experimental data. In contrast, fullrmc applies smart moves endorsed with reinforcement machine learning to groups of atoms. While fullrmc allows running traditional RMC modeling, the uniqueness of this approach resides in its ability to customize grouping atoms in any convenient way with no additional programming efforts and to apply smart and more physically meaningful moves to the defined groups of atoms. In addition, fullrmc provides a unique way with almost no additional computational cost to recur a group's selection, allowing the system to go out of local minimas by refining a group's position or exploring through and beyond not allowed positions and energy barriers the unrestricted three dimensional space around a group. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. EDF fragment relocation model based on the displacement of rigid bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callu, C.; Baron, D.; Ruck, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    In order to release the restricting conditions imposed to the reactor operations with regards to PCMI (Pellet-Cladding Mechanical Interaction), the simulation of a fuel rod thermomechanical behavior has to be improved. The computer programming has to cope with the more and more sophisticated mathematical modellings induced by the complexity and the interdependence of the phenomena. Therefore EDF is developing a new code - CYRANO3 - since 1990 putting emphasis on its evolution capacities. Concerning more precisely the PCMI simulation, the pellet fragmentation and the fragments relocation is one of the major aspect one must account for. Thanks to recent analytical experiments, EDF developed a new modelling based on the displacement of rigid bodies and on the calculation of the interaction efforts between the fragments. This paper presents the basis of the model, its introduction within the CYRANO3 code and its calibration on a specific analytical experiment. The modelling is then tested against PWR fuel rods deformations from the EDF data base. The results are presented and discussed. (author)

  7. A navigator-based rigid body motion correction for magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullisch, Marcus Goerge

    2012-01-24

    A novel three-dimensional navigator k-space trajectory for rigid body motion detection for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - the Lissajous navigator - was developed and quantitatively compared to the existing spherical navigator trajectory [1]. The spherical navigator cannot sample the complete spherical surface due to slew rate limitations of the scanner hardware. By utilizing a two dimensional Lissajous figure which is projected onto the spherical surface, the Lissajous navigator overcomes this limitation. The complete sampling of the sphere consequently leads to rotation estimates with higher and more isotropic accuracy. Simulations and phantom measurements were performed for both navigators. Both simulations and measurements show a significantly higher overall accuracy of the Lissajous navigator and a higher isotropy of the rotation estimates. Measured under identical conditions with identical postprocessing, the measured mean absolute error of the rotation estimates for the Lissajous navigator was 38% lower (0.3 ) than for the spherical navigator (0.5 ). The maximum error of the Lissajous navigator was reduced by 48% relative to the spherical navigator. The Lissajous navigator delivers higher accuracy of rotation estimation and a higher degree of isotropy than the spherical navigator with no evident drawbacks; these are two decisive advantages, especially for high-resolution anatomical imaging.

  8. Generalized Predictive Control of Dynamic Systems with Rigid-Body Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaternik, Raymond G.

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulations to assess the effectiveness of Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) for active control of dynamic systems having rigid-body modes are presented. GPC is a linear, time-invariant, multi-input/multi-output predictive control method that uses an ARX model to characterize the system and to design the controller. Although the method can accommodate both embedded (implicit) and explicit feedforward paths for incorporation of disturbance effects, only the case of embedded feedforward in which the disturbances are assumed to be unknown is considered here. Results from numerical simulations using mathematical models of both a free-free three-degree-of-freedom mass-spring-dashpot system and the XV-15 tiltrotor research aircraft are presented. In regulation mode operation, which calls for zero system response in the presence of disturbances, the simulations showed reductions of nearly 100%. In tracking mode operations, where the system is commanded to follow a specified path, the GPC controllers produced the desired responses, even in the presence of disturbances.

  9. Modeling meniscus rise in capillary tubes using fluid in rigid-body motion approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Mohammad O.; Abu-Nabah, Bassam A.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, a new term representing net flux rate of linear momentum is introduced to Lucas-Washburn equation. Following a fluid in rigid-body motion in modeling the meniscus rise in vertical capillary tubes transforms the nonlinear Lucas-Washburn equation to a linear mass-spring-damper system. The linear nature of mass-spring-damper system with constant coefficients offers a nondimensional analytical solution where meniscus dynamics are dictated by two parameters, namely the system damping ratio and its natural frequency. This connects the numerous fluid-surface interaction physical and geometrical properties to rather two nondimensional parameters, which capture the underlying physics of meniscus dynamics in three distinct cases, namely overdamped, critically damped, and underdamped systems. Based on experimental data available in the literature and the understanding meniscus dynamics, the proposed model brings a new approach of understanding the system initial conditions. Accordingly, a closed form relation is produced for the imbibition velocity, which equals half of the Bosanquet velocity divided by the damping ratio. The proposed general analytical model is ideal for overdamped and critically damped systems. While for underdamped systems, the solution shows fair agreement with experimental measurements once the effective viscosity is determined. Moreover, the presented model shows meniscus oscillations around equilibrium height occur if the damping ratio is less than one.

  10. Diffuse interface immersed boundary method for multi-fluid flows with arbitrarily moving rigid bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jitendra Kumar; Natarajan, Ganesh

    2018-05-01

    We present an interpolation-free diffuse interface immersed boundary method for multiphase flows with moving bodies. A single fluid formalism using the volume-of-fluid approach is adopted to handle multiple immiscible fluids which are distinguished using the volume fractions, while the rigid bodies are tracked using an analogous volume-of-solid approach that solves for the solid fractions. The solution to the fluid flow equations are carried out using a finite volume-immersed boundary method, with the latter based on a diffuse interface philosophy. In the present work, we assume that the solids are filled with a "virtual" fluid with density and viscosity equal to the largest among all fluids in the domain. The solids are assumed to be rigid and their motion is solved using Newton's second law of motion. The immersed boundary methodology constructs a modified momentum equation that reduces to the Navier-Stokes equations in the fully fluid region and recovers the no-slip boundary condition inside the solids. An implicit incremental fractional-step methodology in conjunction with a novel hybrid staggered/non-staggered approach is employed, wherein a single equation for normal momentum at the cell faces is solved everywhere in the domain, independent of the number of spatial dimensions. The scalars are all solved for at the cell centres, with the transport equations for solid and fluid volume fractions solved using a high-resolution scheme. The pressure is determined everywhere in the domain (including inside the solids) using a variable coefficient Poisson equation. The solution to momentum, pressure, solid and fluid volume fraction equations everywhere in the domain circumvents the issue of pressure and velocity interpolation, which is a source of spurious oscillations in sharp interface immersed boundary methods. A well-balanced algorithm with consistent mass/momentum transport ensures robust simulations of high density ratio flows with strong body forces. The

  11. Finite-Difference Solution for Laminar or Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow over Axisymmetric Bodies with Ideal Gas, CF4, or Equilibrium Air Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, H. Harris, II; Millman, Daniel R.; Greendyke, Robert B.

    1992-01-01

    A computer code was developed that uses an implicit finite-difference technique to solve nonsimilar, axisymmetric boundary layer equations for both laminar and turbulent flow. The code can treat ideal gases, air in chemical equilibrium, and carbon tetrafluoride (CF4), which is a useful gas for hypersonic blunt-body simulations. This is the only known boundary layer code that can treat CF4. Comparisons with experimental data have demonstrated that accurate solutions are obtained. The method should prove useful as an analysis tool for comparing calculations with wind tunnel experiments and for making calculations about flight vehicles where equilibrium air chemistry assumptions are valid.

  12. Comparison of rigid and flexible endoscopy for removing esophageal foreign bodies in an emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chia-Chen; Hsiao, Tzu-Yu; Hsu, Wei-Chung

    2016-08-01

    Despite the effectiveness of endoscopies in removing ingested foreign bodies (FBs) impacted in the esophagus, the merits and limitations of flexible endoscopy (FE) and rigid endoscopy (RE) remain unclear. Therefore, this study compares the advantages and disadvantages of both endoscopic procedures from a clinical perspective. A retrospective review was made of 273 patients suspected of esophageal FBs in emergency consultations of a tertiary medical referral center from March 2010 to March 2014. All patients received routine physical examinations, otolaryngological examinations, and X-rays of the neck and chest. The door-to-endoscopy time, procedure time, postendoscopic hospital stay, successful removal rates, and complications were analyzed as well. In this study, the most common esophageal FBs were fish and animal bones (76%) in adults and coins (74%) in children. The patients with existing esophageal FBs had significantly more frequent symptoms of dysphagia and signs of linear opacity as detected with lateral neck radiography than those without FB. Additionally, the door-to-endoscopy time, procedure time, and postendoscopic hospital stay was significantly shorter in FE patients than in RE patients. However, both RE and FE patients had high rates of successful FB removal (95%) and low complication rates (2%). Both FE and RE remove esophageal FBs successfully, as evidenced by their high success rates, low complication rates, and high detection rates. Although FE under local anesthesia is a less time-consuming procedure for adults, RE under general anesthesia may be preferable for children and can serve as an alternative to FE. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Strongly coupled partitioned six degree-of-freedom rigid body motion solver with Aitken's dynamic under-relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng Hei Chow

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An implicit method of solving the six degree-of-freedom rigid body motion equations based on the second order Adams-Bashforth-Moulten method was utilised as an improvement over the leapfrog scheme by making modifications to the rigid body motion solver libraries directly. The implementation will depend on predictor-corrector steps still residing within the hybrid Pressure Implicit with Splitting of Operators - Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure Linked Equations (PIMPLE outer corrector loops to ensure strong coupling between fluid and motion. Aitken's under-relaxation is also introduced in this study to optimise the convergence rate and stability of the coupled solver. The resulting coupled solver ran on a free floating object tutorial test case when converged matches the original solver. It further allows a varying 70%–80% reduction in simulation times compared using a fixed under-relaxation to achieve the required stability.

  14. HOW CAN DYNAMIC RIGID-BODY MODELING BE HELPFUL IN MOTOR LEARNING? - DIAGNOSING PERFORMANCE USING DYNAMIC MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    Shan, Gongbing; Sust, Martin; Simard, Stephane; Bohn, Christina; Nicol, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    There are two main problems for biomechanists in motor learning practice. One is theory vs. experience, the other is the determination of dominative information directly helpful in the practice. This project aimed at addressing these problems from a quantitative aspect by using motion capture and biomechanical rigid body modeling. The purposes were to identify differences in the description of movements amongst motion analysists (external view), athletes (internal sight) and coaches (internal...

  15. Digital anthropomorphic phantoms of non-rigid human respiratory and voluntary body motion for investigating motion correction in emission imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Könik, Arda; Johnson, Karen L; Dasari, Paul; Pretorius, P H; Dey, Joyoni; King, Michael A; Connolly, Caitlin M; Segars, Paul W; Lindsay, Clifford

    2014-01-01

    The development of methods for correcting patient motion in emission tomography has been receiving increased attention. Often the performance of these methods is evaluated through simulations using digital anthropomorphic phantoms, such as the commonly used extended cardiac torso (XCAT) phantom, which models both respiratory and cardiac motion based on human studies. However, non-rigid body motion, which is frequently seen in clinical studies, is not present in the standard XCAT phantom. In addition, respiratory motion in the standard phantom is limited to a single generic trend. In this work, to obtain a more realistic representation of motion, we developed a series of individual-specific XCAT phantoms, modeling non-rigid respiratory and non-rigid body motions derived from the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisitions of volunteers. Acquisitions were performed in the sagittal orientation using the Navigator methodology. Baseline (no motion) acquisitions at end-expiration were obtained at the beginning of each imaging session for each volunteer. For the body motion studies, MRI was again acquired only at end-expiration for five body motion poses (shoulder stretch, shoulder twist, lateral bend, side roll, and axial slide). For the respiratory motion studies, an MRI was acquired during free/regular breathing. The magnetic resonance slices were then retrospectively sorted into 14 amplitude-binned respiratory states, end-expiration, end-inspiration, six intermediary states during inspiration, and six during expiration using the recorded Navigator signal. XCAT phantoms were then generated based on these MRI data by interactive alignment of the organ contours of the XCAT with the MRI slices using a graphical user interface. Thus far we have created five body motion and five respiratory motion XCAT phantoms from the MRI acquisitions of six healthy volunteers (three males and three females). Non-rigid motion exhibited by the volunteers was reflected in both respiratory

  16. Digital anthropomorphic phantoms of non-rigid human respiratory and voluntary body motion for investigating motion correction in emission imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könik, Arda; Connolly, Caitlin M.; Johnson, Karen L.; Dasari, Paul; Segars, Paul W.; Pretorius, P. H.; Lindsay, Clifford; Dey, Joyoni; King, Michael A.

    2014-07-01

    The development of methods for correcting patient motion in emission tomography has been receiving increased attention. Often the performance of these methods is evaluated through simulations using digital anthropomorphic phantoms, such as the commonly used extended cardiac torso (XCAT) phantom, which models both respiratory and cardiac motion based on human studies. However, non-rigid body motion, which is frequently seen in clinical studies, is not present in the standard XCAT phantom. In addition, respiratory motion in the standard phantom is limited to a single generic trend. In this work, to obtain a more realistic representation of motion, we developed a series of individual-specific XCAT phantoms, modeling non-rigid respiratory and non-rigid body motions derived from the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisitions of volunteers. Acquisitions were performed in the sagittal orientation using the Navigator methodology. Baseline (no motion) acquisitions at end-expiration were obtained at the beginning of each imaging session for each volunteer. For the body motion studies, MRI was again acquired only at end-expiration for five body motion poses (shoulder stretch, shoulder twist, lateral bend, side roll, and axial slide). For the respiratory motion studies, an MRI was acquired during free/regular breathing. The magnetic resonance slices were then retrospectively sorted into 14 amplitude-binned respiratory states, end-expiration, end-inspiration, six intermediary states during inspiration, and six during expiration using the recorded Navigator signal. XCAT phantoms were then generated based on these MRI data by interactive alignment of the organ contours of the XCAT with the MRI slices using a graphical user interface. Thus far we have created five body motion and five respiratory motion XCAT phantoms from the MRI acquisitions of six healthy volunteers (three males and three females). Non-rigid motion exhibited by the volunteers was reflected in both respiratory

  17. Self-propulsion of a body with rigid surface and variable coefficient of lift in a perfect fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramodanov, Sergey M.; Tenenev, Valentin A.; Treschev, Dmitry V.

    2012-11-01

    We study the system of a 2D rigid body moving in an unbounded volume of incompressible, vortex-free perfect fluid which is at rest at infinity. The body is equipped with a gyrostat and a so-called Flettner rotor. Due to the latter the body is subject to a lifting force (Magnus effect). The rotational velocities of the gyrostat and the rotor are assumed to be known functions of time (control inputs). The equations of motion are presented in the form of the Kirchhoff equations. The integrals of motion are given in the case of piecewise continuous control. Using these integrals we obtain a (reduced) system of first-order differential equations on the configuration space. Then an optimal control problem for several types of the inputs is solved using genetic algorithms.

  18. Quantum chemical approach for condensed-phase thermochemistry (V): Development of rigid-body type harmonic solvation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarumi, Moto; Nakai, Hiromi

    2018-05-01

    This letter proposes an approximate treatment of the harmonic solvation model (HSM) assuming the solute to be a rigid body (RB-HSM). The HSM method can appropriately estimate the Gibbs free energy for condensed phases even where an ideal gas model used by standard quantum chemical programs fails. The RB-HSM method eliminates calculations for intra-molecular vibrations in order to reduce the computational costs. Numerical assessments indicated that the RB-HSM method can evaluate entropies and internal energies with the same accuracy as the HSM method but with lower calculation costs.

  19. Radiation heat transfer of arbitrary axisymmetric bodies with specular and diffuse surfaces; Kyomen ranhanshamen wo motsu nin`i keijo jikutaishobuttai no hosha dennetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, S.; Aihara, T. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute of Fluid Sceince

    1993-10-25

    A radiation light tracking method was used to derive shape factors of arbitrary axisymmetric bodies consisted of specular and diffuse surfaces or an annular face element as a composite surface of the former surfaces. This paper illustrates the summary of an analytical method to calculate radiation heat transfer amount of these bodies using the shape factors, and describes the following matters: The difference between the shape factor obtained by applying this method to the inner face of a cylindrical body and conventional analytical solution can be reduced by increasing the number of splits in outgoing light. The numerical solution from this method on radiation heat transfer amount in the particular body agrees well with the conventional analytical solution. Radiation heat transfer amount when the specular reflectivity was increased either increases or decreases depending on the face shape, not necessarily changing monotonously. The paper further describes briefly a composite heat transfer analysis applied to a silicon crystal growing equipment using the Czochralski method, the analysis combining a radiation heat transfer analysis that splits the equipment interior into 88 annular elements with a general purpose heat transfer analysis. 13 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Dynamical Behavior of a Rigid Body with One Fixed Point (Gyroscope. Basic Concepts and Results. Open Problems: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Ganchev Nikolov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of the dynamic behavior of a rigid body with one fixed point (gyroscope has a long history. A number of famous mathematicians and mechanical engineers have devoted enormous time and effort to clarify the role of dynamic effects on its movement (behavior – stable, periodic, quasi-periodic or chaotic. The main objectives of this review are: 1 to outline the characteristic features of the theory of dynamical systems and 2 to reveal the specific properties of the motion of a rigid body with one fixed point (gyroscope.This article consists of six sections. The first section addresses the main concepts of the theory of dynamical systems. Section two presents the main theoretical results (obtained so far concerning the dynamic behavior of a solid with one fixed point (gyroscope. Section three examines the problem of gyroscopic stabilization. Section four deals with the non-linear (chaotic dynamics of the gyroscope. Section five is a brief analysis of the gyroscope applications in engineering. The final section provides conclusions and generalizations on why the theory of dynamical systems should be used in the study of the movement of gyroscopic systems.

  1. Rigid-body rotation of an electron cloud in divergent magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchtman, A.; Gueroult, R.; Fisch, N. J.

    2013-01-01

    For a given voltage across a divergent poloidal magnetic field, two electric potential distributions, each supported by a rigid-rotor electron cloud rotating with a different frequency, are found analytically. The two rotation frequencies correspond to the slow and fast rotation frequencies known in uniform plasma. Due to the centrifugal force, the equipotential surfaces, that correspond to the two electric potential distributions, diverge more than the magnetic surfaces do, the equipotential surfaces in the fast mode diverge largely in particular. The departure of the equipotential surfaces from the magnetic field surfaces may have a significant focusing effect on the ions accelerated by the electric field. The focusing effect could be important for laboratory plasma accelerators as well as for collimation of astrophysical jets

  2. Flutter Analysis of RX-420 Balistic Rocket Fin Involving Rigid Body Modes of Rocket Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novi Andria

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Flutter is a phenomenon that has brought a catastrophic failure to the flight vehicle structure. In this experiment, flutter was analyzed for its symmetric and antisymmetric configuration to understand the effect of rocket rigid modes to the fin flutter characteristic. This research was also expected to find out the safety level of RX-420 structure design. The analysis was performed using half rocket model. Fin structure used in this research was a fin which has semispan 600 mm, thickness 12 mm, chord root 700 mm, chord tip 400 mm, made by Al 6061-T651, double spar configuration with skin thickness of 2 mm. Structural dynamics and flutter stability were analyzed using finite element software implemented on MSC. Nastran. The analysis shows that the antisymmetric flutter mode is more critical than symmetric flutter mode. At sea level altitude, antisymmetric flutter occurs at 6.4 Mach, and symmetric flutter occurs at 10.15 Mach. Compared to maximum speed of RX-420 which is 4.5 Mach at altitude 11 km or equivalent to 2.1 Mach at sea level, it can be concluded that the RX-420 structure design is safe, and flutter will not occur during flight.

  3. Governing equations of multi-component rigid body-spring discrete element models of reinforced concrete columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, P B; Tingatinga, E A; Longalong, R E; Saguid, J

    2016-01-01

    During the past decades, the complexity of conventional methods to perform seismic performance assessment of buildings led to the development of more effective approaches. The rigid body spring-discrete element method (RBS-DEM) is one of these approaches and has recently been applied to the study of the behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) buildings subjected to strong earthquakes. In this paper, the governing equations of RBS-DEM planar elements subjected to lateral loads and horizontal ground motion are presented and used to replicate the hysteretic behavior of experimental RC columns. The RBS-DEM models of columns are made up of rigid components connected by systems of springs that simulate axial, shear, and bending behavior of an RC section. The parameters of springs were obtained using Response-2000 software and the hysteretic response of the models of select columns from the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research (PEER) Structural Performance Database were computed numerically. Numerical examples show that one-component models were able to simulate the initial stiffness reasonably, while the displacement capacity of actual columns undergoing large displacements were underestimated. (paper)

  4. Knowledge-in-action: a study on the integration of forces and energy in a rigid body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Escudero

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to go on with the study of problem solving in a compatible way with the theories of conceptual fields (TCC of Vergnaud (1990,1994,1998 and mental models of Johnson-Laird (1983,1990. Together with findings of another study (Escudero & Jaime 2007, some achievements and difficulties of freshmore engineering students when solving problems of the motion of rigid body in terms of the knowledge-in-action are analysed. The research methodology under a qualitative paradigm grouped data into categories which are not provided a priori by the theoretical framework. It can be said that the quality of the conceptual representation has been explicit in the quality of the proposed solution. Some meanings introduced by students in their problem solving activities can be characterized as operational invariants.

  5. Analysis of the Gyroscopic Stabilization of a System of Rigid Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kliem, Wolfhard; Kliem, Wolfhard

    1996-01-01

    We study the gyroscopic of a three-body system. A new method offinding stability regions, based on mechanism and criteria for gyroscopicstabilization, is presented. Of particular interest in this connection isthe theory of interaction of eigenvalues. This leads to a complete 3-dimensionalanalysis......, which shows the regions of stability, divergence, and flutter ofa simple model of a rotating spaceship....

  6. Equilibria of the three-body problem with rigid dumb-bell satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elipe, A.; Palacios, M.; Pretka-Ziomek, H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the orbital-rotational motion of an asymmetric dumb-bell (two masses with fixed distance among them) under the attraction of a central body. For this model, we find some equilibria and give sufficient conditions for their stability

  7. Estimating the angular velocity of a rigid body moving in the plane from tangential and centripetal acceleration measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardou, Philippe; Angeles, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Two methods are available for the estimation of the angular velocity of a rigid body from point-acceleration measurements: (i) the time-integration of the angular acceleration and (ii) the square-rooting of the centripetal acceleration. The inaccuracy of the first method is due mainly to the accumulation of the error on the angular acceleration throughout the time-integration process, which does not prevent that it be used successfully in crash tests with dummies, since these experiments never last more than one second. On the other hand, the error resulting from the second method is stable through time, but becomes inaccurate whenever the rigid body angular velocity approaches zero, which occurs in many applications. In order to take advantage of the complementarity of these two methods, a fusion of their estimates is proposed. To this end, the accelerometer measurements are modeled as exact signals contaminated with bias errors and Gaussian white noise. The relations between the variables at stake are written in the form of a nonlinear state-space system in which the angular velocity and the angular acceleration are state variables. Consequently, a minimum-variance-error estimate of the state vector is obtained by means of extended Kalman filtering. The performance of the proposed estimation method is assessed by means of simulation. Apparently, the resulting estimation method is more robust than the existing accelerometer-only methods and competitive with gyroscope measurements. Moreover, it allows the identification and the compensation of any bias error in the accelerometer measurements, which is a significant advantage over gyroscopes

  8. On the axioms of the forces in the mechanics of rigid bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lámer Géza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Newton summarised knowledge related to forces in three axioms. The first and second ones define the mechanical state and motion of the examined body when there is no force or when force is exerted on the body. The third defines the law of action and reaction. Newton did not define it as separate axiom but assumed that forces are completely independent from each other. The statics applies four axioms. The first applies to the balance of two forces while the second one applies of three forces. The third axiom defines the relationships inside an equilibrium force system. The fourth one is the axiom of action and reaction. The two axiom systems are independent from each other. Further the independent axioms are applied in case of constraint forces: frictionless reaction force orthogonal on the forced surface, friction force acts in the direction of the motion, the deformation can be elastic, plastic and viscous.

  9. Analysis of the gyroscopic stabilization of a system of rigid bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kliem, Wolfhard; Seyranian, Alexander P.

    1997-01-01

    We study the gyroscopic stability of a three-body system. A new method of finding stability regions, based on mechanism and criteria for gyroscopic stabilization, is presented. Of particular interest in this connection is the theory of interaction of eigenvalues. This leads to a complete 3......-dimensional analysis, which shows the regions of stability, divergence, and flutter of a simple model of a rotating spaceship....

  10. Free surface flow with moving rigid bodies. Part 1. Computational flow model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubanov, O.I.; Mironova, L.A.; Kocabiyik, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper was motivated by the study of Hirt and Sicilian, where the 'differential form' of the governing equations for the inviscid fluid flow (FAVOR equations) were obtained. We utilize mainly generalized differentiation to extend the Reynolds transport theorem over a control volume containing fluid interface for deriving the 'integral form' of governing equations for the incompressible viscous flow problems. This is done following the work by Farassat and the use of generalized function theory made this derivation straightforward, systematic and rigorous. The resulting equations are discretized by a finite-volume method using a staggered grid, after making use of the coarse-scale approximation. The resulting governing equations are valid for a class of flows including free surface flows with arbitrarily moving bodies and are consistent with Hirt and Sicilian's formulation in the inviscid fluid flow case. (author)

  11. Rigid dietary control, flexible dietary control, and intuitive eating: Evidence for their differential relationship to disordered eating and body image concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linardon, Jake; Mitchell, Sarah

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to replicate and extend from Tylka, Calogero, and Daníelsdóttir (2015) findings by examining the relationship between rigid control, flexible control, and intuitive eating on various indices of disordered eating (i.e., binge eating, disinhibition) and body image concerns (i.e., shape and weight over-evaluation, body checking, and weight-related exercise motivations). This study also examined whether the relationship between intuitive eating and outcomes was mediated by dichotomous thinking and body appreciation. Analysing data from a sample of 372 men and women recruited through the community, this study found that, in contrast to rigid dietary control, intuitive eating uniquely and consistently predicted lower levels of disordered eating and body image concerns. This intuitive eating-disordered eating relationship was mediated by low levels of dichotomous thinking and the intuitive eating-body image relationship was mediated by high levels of body appreciation. Flexible control predicted higher levels of body image concerns and lower levels of disordered eating only when rigid control was accounted for. Findings suggest that until the adaptive properties of flexible control are further elucidated, it may be beneficial to promote intuitive eating within public health approaches to eating disorder prevention. In addition to this, particular emphasis should also be made toward promoting body acceptance and eradicating a dichotomous thinking style around food and eating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analogies between the Torque-Free Motion of a Rigid Body about a Fixed Point and Light Propagation in Anisotropic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellver-Cebreros, Consuelo; Rodriguez-Danta, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    An apparently unnoticed analogy between the torque-free motion of a rotating rigid body about a fixed point and the propagation of light in anisotropic media is stated. First, a new plane construction for visualizing this torque-free motion is proposed. This method uses an intrinsic representation alternative to angular momentum and independent of…

  13. Simulation of the steady-state energy transfer in rigid bodies, with convective-radiative boundary conditions, employing a minimum principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gama, R.M.S. da.

    1992-08-01

    The energy transfer phenomenon in a rigid and opaque body that exchanges energy, with the environment, by convection and by diffuse thermal radiation is studied. The considered phenomenon is described by a partial differential equation, subjected to (nonlinear) boundary conditions. A minimum principle, suitable for a large class of energy transfer problems is presented. Some particular cases are simulated. (author)

  14. A heterogeneous system based on GPU and multi-core CPU for real-time fluid and rigid body simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Junior, José Ricardo; Gonzalez Clua, Esteban W.; Montenegro, Anselmo; Lage, Marcos; Dreux, Marcelo de Andrade; Joselli, Mark; Pagliosa, Paulo A.; Kuryla, Christine Lucille

    2012-03-01

    Computational fluid dynamics in simulation has become an important field not only for physics and engineering areas but also for simulation, computer graphics, virtual reality and even video game development. Many efficient models have been developed over the years, but when many contact interactions must be processed, most models present difficulties or cannot achieve real-time results when executed. The advent of parallel computing has enabled the development of many strategies for accelerating the simulations. Our work proposes a new system which uses some successful algorithms already proposed, as well as a data structure organisation based on a heterogeneous architecture using CPUs and GPUs, in order to process the simulation of the interaction of fluids and rigid bodies. This successfully results in a two-way interaction between them and their surrounding objects. As far as we know, this is the first work that presents a computational collaborative environment which makes use of two different paradigms of hardware architecture for this specific kind of problem. Since our method achieves real-time results, it is suitable for virtual reality, simulation and video game fluid simulation problems.

  15. Rigid Bodies in Contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebe, Sarah Maria

    . A contact point determination method, based on boolean surface maps, is developed to handle collisions between tetrahedral meshes. The novel nonsmooth nonlinear conjugate gradient (NNCG) method is presented. The NNCG method is comparable in terms of accuracy to the state-of-the-art method, projected Gauss...

  16. Fast axisymmetric stability calculations using variational techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haney, S.W., Pearlstein, L.D.; Bulmer, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    A procedure for treating the axisymmetric (n = 0) stability of diverted plasmas in the presence of arbitrary, but toroidally symmetric, structures and active feedback circuits has been developed and implemented as a module in the TEQ free-boundary equilibrium code. This procedure is based on a variational solution of the ideal MHD normal mode equations. Inertia is ordered small but provides a constraint to allow the calculation of the poloidal and toroidal components of the plasma displacement. Feedback based on flux loop measurements is handled by introducing an adjoint system into the variational principle. Approximately 200 trial functions for the radial component of the plasma displacement and 200 magnetic surfaces are employed to obtain highly accurate estimates of the passive growth rate and the non-rigid eigenfunction. Nevertheless, the method is extremely fast: typically 10-20 sec of Cray 2 CPU time are required to analyze a realistic tokamak configuration. This speed, along with the direct coupling to the MHD equilibrium solver, allows interactive investigations of tokamak axisymmetric stability. Benchmarks with TSC and GATO are presented along with parameter scans for ITER and BPX. The results emphasize the importance of considering non-rigid mode effects which for ITER, yield higher nominal growth rates (non-rigid: 45 Hz, rigid: 25 Hz) and atypical internal inductance dependence (smaller l i more unstable)

  17. A topological classification of the Chaplygin systems in the dynamics of a rigid body in a fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaenko, S S

    2014-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the topological analysis of the Chaplygin integrable case in the dynamics of a rigid body in a fluid. A full list of the topological types of Chaplygin systems in their dependence on the energy level is compiled on the basis of the Fomenko-Zieschang theory. An effective description of the topology of the Liouville foliation in terms of natural coordinate variables is also presented, which opens a direct way to calculating topological invariants. It turns out that on all nonsingular energy levels Chaplygin systems are Liouville equivalent to the well-known Euler case in the dynamics of a rigid body with fixed point. Bibliography: 23 titles

  18. On the existence of global strong solutions to the equations modeling a motion of a rigid body around a viscous fluid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nečasová, Šárka; Wolf, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2016), s. 1539-1562 ISSN 1078-0947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : incompressible fluid * motion of rigid body * strong solutions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.099, year: 2016 http://www.aimsciences.org/journals/displayArticlesnew.jsp?paperID=11589

  19. A review of a method for dynamic load distribution, dynamical modeling, and explicit internal force control when two manipulators mutually lift and transport a rigid body object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unseren, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The paper reviews a method for modeling and controlling two serial link manipulators which mutually lift and transport a rigid body object in a three dimensional workspace. A new vector variable is introduced which parameterizes the internal contact force controlled degrees of freedom. A technique for dynamically distributing the payload between the manipulators is suggested which yields a family of solutions for the contact forces and torques the manipulators impart to the object. A set of rigid body kinematic constraints which restrict the values of the joint velocities of both manipulators is derived. A rigid body dynamical model for the closed chain system is first developed in the joint space. The model is obtained by generalizing the previous methods for deriving the model. The joint velocity and acceleration variables in the model are expressed in terms of independent pseudovariables. The pseudospace model is transformed to obtain reduced order equations of motion and a separate set of equations governing the internal components of the contact forces and torques. A theoretic control architecture is suggested which explicitly decouples the two sets of equations comprising the model. The controller enables the designer to develop independent, non-interacting control laws for the position control and internal force control of the system

  20. A review of a method for dynamic load distribution, dynamical modeling, and explicit internal force control when two manipulators mutually lift and transport a rigid body object

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unseren, M.A.

    1997-04-20

    The paper reviews a method for modeling and controlling two serial link manipulators which mutually lift and transport a rigid body object in a three dimensional workspace. A new vector variable is introduced which parameterizes the internal contact force controlled degrees of freedom. A technique for dynamically distributing the payload between the manipulators is suggested which yields a family of solutions for the contact forces and torques the manipulators impart to the object. A set of rigid body kinematic constraints which restrict the values of the joint velocities of both manipulators is derived. A rigid body dynamical model for the closed chain system is first developed in the joint space. The model is obtained by generalizing the previous methods for deriving the model. The joint velocity and acceleration variables in the model are expressed in terms of independent pseudovariables. The pseudospace model is transformed to obtain reduced order equations of motion and a separate set of equations governing the internal components of the contact forces and torques. A theoretic control architecture is suggested which explicitly decouples the two sets of equations comprising the model. The controller enables the designer to develop independent, non-interacting control laws for the position control and internal force control of the system.

  1. Homogenized rigid body and spring-mass (HRBSM) model for the pushover analysis of out-of-plane loaded unreinforced and FRP reinforced walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolesi, Elisa; Milani, Gabriele

    2017-07-01

    The present paper is devoted to the discussion of a series of unreinforced and FRP retrofitted panels analyzed adopting the Rigid Body and Spring-Mass (HRBSM) model developed by the authors. To this scope, a total of four out of plane loaded masonry walls tested up to failure are considered. At a structural level, the non-linear analyses are conducted replacing the homogenized orthotropic continuum with a rigid element and non-linear spring assemblage by means of which out of plane mechanisms are allowed. FRP retrofitting is modeled adopting two noded truss elements whose mechanical properties are selected in order to describe possible debonding phenomenon or tensile rupture of the strengthening. The outcome provided numerically are compared to the experimental results showing a satisfactory agreement in terms of global pressure-deflection curves and failure mechanisms.

  2. An Explicit Formulation of Singularity-Free Dynamic Equations of Mechanical Systems in Lagrangian Form---Part one: Single Rigid Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Johan From

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the explicit dynamic equations of a mechanical system. The equations are presented so that they can easily be implemented in a simulation software or controller environment and are also well suited for system and controller analysis. The dynamics of a general mechanical system consisting of one or more rigid bodies can be derived from the Lagrangian. We can then use several well known properties of Lie groups to guarantee that these equations are well defined. This will, however, often lead to rather abstract formulation of the dynamic equations that cannot be implemented in a simulation software directly. In this paper we close this gap and show what the explicit dynamic equations look like. These equations can then be implemented directly in a simulation software and no background knowledge on Lie theory and differential geometry on the practitioner's side is required. This is the first of two papers on this topic. In this paper we derive the dynamics for single rigid bodies, while in the second part we study multibody systems. In addition to making the equations more accessible to practitioners, a motivation behind the papers is to correct a few errors commonly found in literature. For the first time, we show the detailed derivations and how to arrive at the correct set of equations. We also show through some simple examples that these correspond with the classical formulations found from Lagrange's equations. The dynamics is derived from the Boltzmann--Hamel equations of motion in terms of local position and velocity variables and the mapping to the corresponding quasi-velocities. Finally we present a new theorem which states that the Boltzmann--Hamel formulation of the dynamics is valid for all transformations with a Lie group topology. This has previously only been indicated through examples, but here we also present the formal proof. The main motivation of these papers is to allow practitioners not familiar with

  3. Poisson equations of rotational motion for a rigid triaxial body with application to a tumbling artificial satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J. J. F.; Fitzpatrick, P. M.

    1975-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed for studying the effects of gravity gradient torque on the attitude stability of a tumbling triaxial rigid satellite. Poisson equations are used to investigate the rotation of the satellite (which is in elliptical orbit about an attracting point mass) about its center of mass. An averaging method is employed to obtain an intermediate set of differential equations for the nonresonant, secular behavior of the osculating elements which describe the rotational motions of the satellite, and the averaged equations are then integrated to obtain long-term secular solutions for the osculating elements.

  4. Sliding contact on the interface of elastic body and rigid surface using a single block Burridge-Knopoff model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amireghbali, A.; Coker, D.

    2018-01-01

    Burridge and Knopoff proposed a mass-spring model to explore interface dynamics along a fault during an earthquake. The Burridge and Knopoff (BK) model is composed of a series of blocks of equal mass connected to each other by springs of same stiffness. The blocks also are attached to a rigid driver via another set of springs that pulls them at a constant velocity against a rigid substrate. They studied dynamics of interface for an especial case with ten blocks and a specific set of fault properties. In our study effects of Coulomb and rate-state dependent friction laws on the dynamics of a single block BK model is investigated. The model dynamics is formulated as a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations in state-space form which lends itself to numerical integration methods, e.g. Runge-Kutta procedure for solution. The results show that the rate and state dependent friction law has the potential of triggering dynamic patterns that are different from those under Coulomb law.

  5. Radiating axisymmetric metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, M.D.

    1978-01-01

    The Einstein's field equations for an enveloping radiating zone surrounding rotating axisymmetric collapsing source are studied. The solution has singularity along the axis of rotation. It is proved that on null hyper surface u = 0, the solution of the field equation for the radiating zone match with solution of axially symmetric vacuum field equations obtained by the author. Landau Lifshitz complex is used to obtain conserved total mass. (author)

  6. A 3D, fully Eulerian, VOF-based solver to study the interaction between two fluids and moving rigid bodies using the fictitious domain method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Ashish; Raessi, Mehdi

    2016-04-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3D) and fully Eulerian approach to capturing the interaction between two fluids and moving rigid structures by using the fictitious domain and volume-of-fluid (VOF) methods. The solid bodies can have arbitrarily complex geometry and can pierce the fluid-fluid interface, forming contact lines. The three-phase interfaces are resolved and reconstructed by using a VOF-based methodology. Then, a consistent scheme is employed for transporting mass and momentum, allowing for simulations of three-phase flows of large density ratios. The Eulerian approach significantly simplifies numerical resolution of the kinematics of rigid bodies of complex geometry and with six degrees of freedom. The fluid-structure interaction (FSI) is computed using the fictitious domain method. The methodology was developed in a message passing interface (MPI) parallel framework accelerated with graphics processing units (GPUs). The computationally intensive solution of the pressure Poisson equation is ported to GPUs, while the remaining calculations are performed on CPUs. The performance and accuracy of the methodology are assessed using an array of test cases, focusing individually on the flow solver and the FSI in surface-piercing configurations. Finally, an application of the proposed methodology in simulations of the ocean wave energy converters is presented.

  7. Axisymmetric flow in a cylindrical tank over a rotating bottom. Part I. Analysis of boundary layers and vertical circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iga, Keita, E-mail: iga@aori.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8564 (Japan)

    2017-12-15

    Axisymmetric flow in a cylindrical tank over a rotating bottom is investigated and its approximate solution with an analytic expression is obtained. The interior region, comprising the majority of the fluid, consists of two sub-regions. It is easily shown that a rigid-body rotational flow with the same rotation rate as that of the bottom is formed in the inner interior and that a potential flow with constant angular momentum occurs in the outer interior sub-region. However, the radius that divides these two sub-regions has not been determined. To determine this radius, the structures of the boundary layers are investigated in detail. These boundary layers surround the interior regions, and include the boundaries between the interior region and the side wall of the tank, between the interior and the bottom, and between the inner and outer interior sub-regions. By connecting the flows in the boundary layers, the vertical circulation as a whole is established, and consequently the radius dividing the two interior sub-regions is successfully determined as a function of the aspect ratio of the water layer region. This axisymmetric flow will be utilized as the basic state for investigating theoretically various non-axisymmetric phenomena observed in laboratory experiments. (paper)

  8. List-mode-based reconstruction for respiratory motion correction in PET using non-rigid body transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamare, F; Carbayo, M J Ledesma; Cresson, T; Kontaxakis, G; Santos, A; Rest, C Cheze Le; Reader, A J; Visvikis, D

    2007-01-01

    Respiratory motion in emission tomography leads to reduced image quality. Developed correction methodology has been concentrating on the use of respiratory synchronized acquisitions leading to gated frames. Such frames, however, are of low signal-to-noise ratio as a result of containing reduced statistics. In this work, we describe the implementation of an elastic transformation within a list-mode-based reconstruction for the correction of respiratory motion over the thorax, allowing the use of all data available throughout a respiratory motion average acquisition. The developed algorithm was evaluated using datasets of the NCAT phantom generated at different points throughout the respiratory cycle. List-mode-data-based PET-simulated frames were subsequently produced by combining the NCAT datasets with Monte Carlo simulation. A non-rigid registration algorithm based on B-spline basis functions was employed to derive transformation parameters accounting for the respiratory motion using the NCAT dynamic CT images. The displacement matrices derived were subsequently applied during the image reconstruction of the original emission list mode data. Two different implementations for the incorporation of the elastic transformations within the one-pass list mode EM (OPL-EM) algorithm were developed and evaluated. The corrected images were compared with those produced using an affine transformation of list mode data prior to reconstruction, as well as with uncorrected respiratory motion average images. Results demonstrate that although both correction techniques considered lead to significant improvements in accounting for respiratory motion artefacts in the lung fields, the elastic-transformation-based correction leads to a more uniform improvement across the lungs for different lesion sizes and locations

  9. Explicit symplectic integrators of molecular dynamics algorithms for rigid-body molecules in the canonical, isobaric-isothermal, and related ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Hisashi; Itoh, Satoru G; Okamoto, Yuko

    2007-02-28

    The authors propose explicit symplectic integrators of molecular dynamics (MD) algorithms for rigid-body molecules in the canonical and isobaric-isothermal ensembles. They also present a symplectic algorithm in the constant normal pressure and lateral surface area ensemble and that combined with the Parrinello-Rahman algorithm. Employing the symplectic integrators for MD algorithms, there is a conserved quantity which is close to Hamiltonian. Therefore, they can perform a MD simulation more stably than by conventional nonsymplectic algorithms. They applied this algorithm to a TIP3P pure water system at 300 K and compared the time evolution of the Hamiltonian with those by the nonsymplectic algorithms. They found that the Hamiltonian was conserved well by the symplectic algorithm even for a time step of 4 fs. This time step is longer than typical values of 0.5-2 fs which are used by the conventional nonsymplectic algorithms.

  10. Diagnostic-Photographic Determination of Drag/Lift/Torque Coefficients of High Speed Rigid Body in Water Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    various physical processes such as supercavitation and bubbles. A diagnostic- photographic method is developed in this study to determine the drag...nonlinear dynamics, body and multi-phase fluid interaction, supercavitation , and instability theory. The technical application of the hydrodynamics of...uV U ω= = − ×V e e e ei i , (29) where Eq.(9) is used. For a supercavitation area, a correction factor may be

  11. SAFE-AXISYM, Stress Analysis of Axisymmetric Composite Structure by Finite Elements Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornell, D.C.

    1967-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: SAFE-AXISYM is a program for the analysis of multi-material axisymmetric composite structures. It is designed for the analysis of heterogeneous structures such as reinforced and/or prestressed concrete vessels. The structure is assumed to be linearly elastic, and only bodies of revolution subjected to axisymmetric loading can be treated. 2 - Method of solution: SAFE-AXISYM uses a finite element method with a modified Gauss-Seidel iteration scheme. A reference grid subdivides the structure into ring-like small, finite elements, the vertices of which are called nodes. The grid may be generated by hand, by the computer or by a combination of the two methods. Each node has two degrees of freedom, translation in the and in the axial direction. Both zero and non-zero fixed displacement constraints may be assumed, and the loading condition may be mechanical and/or thermal. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Multi-material structures with varying rigidities converge very slowly. Not valid for incompressible materials. Maximum number of nodes = 475. Maximum number of elements = 1100

  12. Axisymmetric tokamak scapeoff transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, C.E.; Langer, W.D.

    1982-08-01

    We present the first self-consistent estimate of the magnitude of each term in a fluid treatment of plasma transport for a plasma lying in regions of open field lines in an axisymmetric tokamak. The fluid consists of a pure hydrogen plasma with sources which arise from its interaction with neutral hydrogen atoms. The analysis and results are limited to the high collisionality regime, which is optimal for a gaseous neutralizer divertor, or to a cold plasma mantle in a tokamak reactor. In this regime, both classical and neoclassical transport processes are important, and loss of particles and energy by diamagnetic flow are also significant. The prospect of extending the analysis to the lower collisionality regimes encountered in many existing experiments is discussed

  13. A parametric study of the behavior of the angular momentum vector during spin rate changes of rigid body spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longuski, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    During a spin-up or spin-down maneuver of a spinning spacecraft, it is usual to have not only a constant body-fixed torque about the desired spin axis, but also small undesired constant torques about the transverse axes. This causes the orientation of the angular momentum vector to change in inertial space. Since an analytic solution is available for the angular momentum vector as a function of time, this behavior can be studied for large variations of the dynamic parameters, such as the initial spin rate, the inertial properties and the torques. As an example, the spin-up and spin-down maneuvers of the Galileo spacecraft was studied and as a result, very simple heuristic solutions were discovered which provide very good approximations to the parametric behavior of the angular momentum vector orientation.

  14. Computation of LACBED images from bi-crystals using reciprocity. Part 1 Rigid-body displacements between parallel crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kube, D.; Goodman, P.; Forwood, C.; Rossouw, C.

    1997-01-01

    A new method for the rapid generation of high resolution bicrystal LACBED images is described, which uses reciprocity to generate the second-crystal transmission function for a specific doubly-transmitted beam. As a result, sets of bright-field or specific dark-field LACBED images can readily be generated for sets inter-crystal displacements, to allow comparison with experimental results. In Part I we describe results obtained for pure translations between bi-crystals pairs, while in Part II we describe the method for bi-crystals incorporating relative rotations as well as translations. It is envisaged that this technique will be useful for the body semi-conductor crystal pair interfaces, and metal-alloy grain boundaries, in particular. (authors). 16 refs., 6 figs

  15. A new periodic imperfect quasi axisymmetric shell element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combescure, A.; Garuti, G.

    1983-08-01

    The object of this paper is to give the formulation and the validation of a ''quasi axisymmetric'' shell element: the main idea is to develop the theory of an imperfect quasi axisymmetric shell element. The imperfection is a variation of the circumferential radius of curvature rsub(theta). The equations are obtained by transporting the equilibrium equations from the actual geometry onto the theoretical axisymmetric (rsub(theta)=r 0 geometry. It is shown that the main hypothesis convenient to perform simply this transformation is that the membrane strains associated with that variation of geometry are less than 1% (that is always the case if you suppose that the imperfect structure is obtained from the perfect one by an inextensional displacement field). The formulation of the element is given in the general case. The rigidity matrices, are given in the particular case in which the imperfection has a component on a single Fourier harmonic. The comparison of theoretical and computed, 3D and quasi axisymmetric, solution or a very simple case shows the influence of the number of the Fourier harmonics chosen on the response of the structure. The influence of the initial imperfections on the natural frequency are studied with element and compared with 3D calculations. Comparison of 3D, quasi axisymmetric, and analytical buckling loads are given and explained. This element gives a very efficient tool for the calculation of thin shells of revolution (which are always imperfect) and especially unables easy parametric study of the variation of the buckling load and eigen frequencies with the amplitude and shapes of non axisymmetric imperfections

  16. A biomechanical testing system to determine micromotion between hip implant and femur accounting for deformation of the hip implant: Assessment of the influence of rigid body assumptions on micromotions measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuridan, Steven; Goossens, Quentin; Roosen, Jorg; Pastrav, Leonard; Denis, Kathleen; Mulier, Michiel; Desmet, Wim; Vander Sloten, Jos

    2017-02-01

    Accurate pre-clinical evaluation of the initial stability of new cementless hip stems using in vitro micromotion measurements is an important step in the design process to assess the new stem's potential. Several measuring systems, linear variable displacement transducer-based and other, require assuming bone or implant to be rigid to obtain micromotion values or to calculate derived quantities such as relative implant tilting. An alternative linear variable displacement transducer-based measuring system not requiring a rigid body assumption was developed in this study. The system combined advantages of local unidirectional and frame-and-bracket micromotion measuring concepts. The influence and possible errors that would be made by adopting a rigid body assumption were quantified. Furthermore, as the system allowed emulating local unidirectional and frame-and-bracket systems, the influence of adopting rigid body assumptions were also analyzed for both concepts. Synthetic and embalmed bone models were tested in combination with primary and revision implants. Single-legged stance phase loading was applied to the implant - bone constructs. Adopting a rigid body assumption resulted in an overestimation of mediolateral micromotion of up to 49.7μm at more distal measuring locations. Maximal average relative rotational motion was overestimated by 0.12° around the anteroposterior axis. Frontal and sagittal tilting calculations based on a unidirectional measuring concept underestimated the true tilting by an order of magnitude. Non-rigid behavior is a factor that should not be dismissed in micromotion stability evaluations of primary and revision femoral implants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Enstatite, Mg2Si2O6: A neutron diffraction refinement of the crystal structure and a rigid-body analysis of the thermal vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghose, S.; Schomaker, V.; McMullan, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    Synthetic enstatite, Mg 2 Si 2 O 6 , is orthorhombic, space group Pbca, with eight formula units per cell and lattice parameters a = 18.235(3), b = 8.818(1), c = 5.179(1) A at 23 0 C. A least-squares structure refinement based on 1790 neutron intensity data converged with an agreement factor R(F 2 ) = 0.032, yielding Mg-O and Si-O bond lengths with standard deviations of 0.0007 and 0.0008 A, respectively. The variations observed in the Si-O bond lengths within the silicate tetrahedra A and B are caused by the differences in primary coordination of the oxygen atoms and the proximity of the magnesium ions to the silicon atoms. The latter effect is most pronounced for the bridging bonds of tetrahedron. A. The smallest O-Si-O angle is the result of edge-sharing by the Mg(2) octahedron and the A tetrahedron. An analysis of rigid-body thermal vibrations of the two crystallographically independent [SiO 4 ] tetrahedra indicates considerable librational motion, leading to a thermal correction of apparent Si-O bond lengths as large as +0.002 A at room temperature. (orig.)

  18. Axisymmetric annular curtain stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Zahir U; Khayat, Roger E; Maissa, Philippe; Mathis, Christian

    2012-01-01

    A temporal stability analysis was carried out to investigate the stability of an axially moving viscous annular liquid jet subject to axisymmetric disturbances in surrounding co-flowing viscous gas media. We investigated in this study the effects of inertia, surface tension, the gas-to-liquid density ratio, the inner-to-outer radius ratio and the gas-to-liquid viscosity ratio on the stability of the jet. With an increase in inertia, the growth rate of the unstable disturbances is found to increase. The dominant (or most unstable) wavenumber decreases with increasing Reynolds number for larger values of the gas-to-liquid viscosity ratio. However, an opposite tendency for the most unstable wavenumber is predicted for small viscosity ratio in the same inertia range. The surrounding gas density, in the presence of viscosity, always reduces the growth rate, hence stabilizing the flow. There exists a critical value of the density ratio above which the flow becomes stable for very small viscosity ratio, whereas for large viscosity ratio, no stable flow appears in the same range of the density ratio. The curvature has a significant destabilizing effect on the thin annular jet, whereas for a relatively thick jet, the maximum growth rate decreases as the inner radius increases, irrespective of the surrounding gas viscosity. The degree of instability increases with Weber number for a relatively large viscosity ratio. In contrast, for small viscosity ratio, the growth rate exhibits a dramatic dependence on the surface tension. There is a small Weber number range, which depends on the viscosity ratio, where the flow is stable. The viscosity ratio always stabilizes the flow. However, the dominant wavenumber increases with increasing viscosity ratio. The range of unstable wavenumbers is affected only by the curvature effect. (paper)

  19. Elastic layer under axisymmetric indentation and surface energy effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intarit, Pong-in; Senjuntichai, Teerapong; Rungamornrat, Jaroon

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a continuum-based approach is adopted to investigate the contact problem of an elastic layer with finite thickness and rigid base subjected to axisymmetric indentation with the consideration of surface energy effects. A complete Gurtin-Murdoch surface elasticity is employed to consider the influence of surface stresses. The indentation problem of a rigid frictionless punch with arbitrary axisymmetric profiles is formulated by employing the displacement Green's functions, derived with the aid of Hankel integral transform technique. The problem is solved by assuming the contact pressure distribution in terms of a linear combination of admissible functions and undetermined coefficients. Those coefficients are then obtained by employing a collocation technique and an efficient numerical quadrature scheme. The accuracy of proposed solution technique is verified by comparing with existing solutions for rigid indentation on an elastic half-space. Selected numerical results for the indenters with flat-ended cylindrical and paraboloidal punch profiles are presented to portray the influence of surface energy effects on elastic fields of the finite layer. It is found that the presence of surface stresses renders the layer stiffer, and the size-dependent behavior of elastic fields is observed in the present solutions. In addition, the surface energy effects become more pronounced with smaller contact area; thus, the influence of surface energy cannot be ignored in the analysis of indentation problem especially when the indenter size is very small such as in the case of nanoindentation.

  20. Structure of the N-terminal Gyrase B fragment in complex with ADP⋅Pi reveals rigid-body motion induced by ATP hydrolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric V Stanger

    Full Text Available Type II DNA topoisomerases are essential enzymes that catalyze topological rearrangement of double-stranded DNA using the free energy generated by ATP hydrolysis. Bacterial DNA gyrase is a prototype of this family and is composed of two subunits (GyrA, GyrB that form a GyrA2GyrB2 heterotetramer. The N-terminal 43-kDa fragment of GyrB (GyrB43 from E. coli comprising the ATPase and the transducer domains has been studied extensively. The dimeric fragment is competent for ATP hydrolysis and its structure in complex with the substrate analog AMPPNP is known. Here, we have determined the remaining conformational states of the enzyme along the ATP hydrolysis reaction path by solving crystal structures of GyrB43 in complex with ADP⋅BeF3, ADP⋅Pi, and ADP. Upon hydrolysis, the enzyme undergoes an obligatory 12° domain rearrangement to accommodate the 1.5 Å increase in distance between the γ- and β-phosphate of the nucleotide within the sealed binding site at the domain interface. Conserved residues from the QTK loop of the transducer domain (also part of the domain interface couple the small structural change within the binding site with the rigid body motion. The domain reorientation is reflected in a significant 7 Å increase in the separation of the two transducer domains of the dimer that would embrace one of the DNA segments in full-length gyrase. The observed conformational change is likely to be relevant for the allosteric coordination of ATP hydrolysis with DNA binding, cleavage/re-ligation and/or strand passage.

  1. CLASSIFICATION OF STELLAR ORBITS IN AXISYMMETRIC GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Baile; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Khan, Fazeel Mahmood, E-mail: baile.li@vanderbilt.edu, E-mail: k.holley@vanderbilt.edu, E-mail: khanfazeel.ist@gmail.com [Department of Space Science, Institute of Space Technology, P.O. Box 2750 Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2015-09-20

    It is known that two supermassive black holes (SMBHs) cannot merge in a spherical galaxy within a Hubble time; an emerging picture is that galaxy geometry, rotation, and large potential perturbations may usher the SMBH binary through the critical three-body scattering phase and ultimately drive the SMBH to coalesce. We explore the orbital content within an N-body model of a mildly flattened, non-rotating, SMBH-embedded elliptical galaxy. When used as the foundation for a study on the SMBH binary coalescence, the black holes bypassed the binary stalling often seen within spherical galaxies and merged on gigayear timescales. Using both frequency-mapping and angular momentum criteria, we identify a wealth of resonant orbits in the axisymmetric model, including saucers, that are absent from an otherwise identical spherical system and that can potentially interact with the binary. We quantified the set of orbits that could be scattered by the SMBH binary, and found that the axisymmetric model contained nearly six times the number of these potential loss cone orbits compared to our equivalent spherical model. In this flattened model, the mass of these orbits is more than three times that of the SMBH, which is consistent with what the SMBH binary needs to scatter to transition into the gravitational wave regime.

  2. A review of a method for dynamic load distribution, dynamic modeling, and explicit internal force control when two serial link manipulators mutually lift and transport a rigid body object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unseren, M.A.

    1997-09-01

    The report reviews a method for modeling and controlling two serial link manipulators which mutually lift and transport a rigid body object in a three dimensional workspace. A new vector variable is introduced which parameterizes the internal contact force controlled degrees of freedom. A technique for dynamically distributing the payload between the manipulators is suggested which yields a family of solutions for the contact forces and torques the manipulators impart to the object. A set of rigid body kinematic constraints which restricts the values of the joint velocities of both manipulators is derived. A rigid body dynamical model for the closed chain system is first developed in the joint space. The model is obtained by generalizing the previous methods for deriving the model. The joint velocity and acceleration variables in the model are expressed in terms of independent pseudovariables. The pseudospace model is transformed to obtain reduced order equations of motion and a separate set of equations governing the internal components of the contact forces and torques. A theoretic control architecture is suggested which explicitly decouples the two sets of equations comprising the model. The controller enables the designer to develop independent, non-interacting control laws for the position control and internal force control of the system

  3. A review of a method for dynamic load distribution, dynamic modeling, and explicit internal force control when two serial link manipulators mutually lift and transport a rigid body object

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unseren, M.A.

    1997-09-01

    The report reviews a method for modeling and controlling two serial link manipulators which mutually lift and transport a rigid body object in a three dimensional workspace. A new vector variable is introduced which parameterizes the internal contact force controlled degrees of freedom. A technique for dynamically distributing the payload between the manipulators is suggested which yields a family of solutions for the contact forces and torques the manipulators impart to the object. A set of rigid body kinematic constraints which restricts the values of the joint velocities of both manipulators is derived. A rigid body dynamical model for the closed chain system is first developed in the joint space. The model is obtained by generalizing the previous methods for deriving the model. The joint velocity and acceleration variables in the model are expressed in terms of independent pseudovariables. The pseudospace model is transformed to obtain reduced order equations of motion and a separate set of equations governing the internal components of the contact forces and torques. A theoretic control architecture is suggested which explicitly decouples the two sets of equations comprising the model. The controller enables the designer to develop independent, non-interacting control laws for the position control and internal force control of the system.

  4. On the axisymmetric Lewis metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gariel, J.; Marcilhacy, G.

    2001-03-01

    We obtain the general solution of the axisymmetric stationary vacuum spacetime of Lewis. After precising the fundamental hypothesis of Lewis, we demonstrate that the solution is related to an arbitrary harmonic function. Formally, these solutions are the same as for the corresponding cylindrically symmetric case, and can be classified in a similar way. Furthermore, the interpretation, in the cylindrically symmetric system, of the field equations as decribing the motion of a classical particle in a central force field is still valid. (author)

  5. Seismic analysis of axisymmetric shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jospin, R.J.; Toledo, E.M.; Feijoo, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Axisymmetric shells subjected to multiple support excitation are studied. The shells are spatialy discretized by the finite element method and in order to obtain estimates for the maximum values of displacements and stresses the response spectrum tecnique is used. Finally, some numerical results are presented and discussed in the case of a shell of revolution with vertical symmetry axis, subjected to seismic ground motions in the horizontal, vertical and rocking directions. (Author) [pt

  6. Stationary axisymmetric Einstein--Maxwell field equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catenacci, R.; Diaz Alonso, J.

    1976-01-01

    We show the existence of a formal identity between Einstein's and Ernst's stationary axisymmetric gravitational field equations and the Einstein--Maxwell and the Ernst equations for the electrostatic and magnetostatic axisymmetric cases. Our equations are invariant under very simple internal symmetry groups, and one of them appears to be new. We also obtain a method for associating two stationary axisymmetric vacuum solutions with every electrostatic known

  7. Blast wave interaction with a rigid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josey, T.; Whitehouse, D.R.; Ripley, R.C.; Dionne, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    A simple model used to investigate blast wave interactions with a rigid surface is presented. The model uses a constant volume energy source analogue to predict pressure histories at gauges located directly above the charge. A series of two-dimensional axi-symmetric CFD calculations were performed, varying the height of the charge relative to the ground. Pressure histories, along with isopycnic plots are presented to evaluate the effects of placing a charge in close proximity to a rigid surface. When a charge is placed near a solid surface the pressure histories experienced at gauges above the charge indicate the presence of two distinct pressure peaks. The first peak is caused by the primary shock and the second peak is a result of the wave reflections from the rigid surface. As the distance from the charge to the wall is increased the magnitude of the second pressure peak is reduced, provided that the distance between the charge and the gauge is maintained constant. The simple model presented is able to capture significant, predictable flow features. (author)

  8. Streamline topology of axisymmetric flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Morten

    Topological fluid mechanics in the sense of the present paper is the study and classification of flow patterns close to a critical point. Here we discuss the topology of steady viscous incompressible axisymmetric flows in the vicinity of the axis. Following previous studies the velocity field $v...... to the authors knowledge has not been used systematically to high orders in topological fluid mechanics. We compare the general results with experimental and computational results on the Vogel-Ronneberg flow. We show that the topology changes observed when recirculating bubbles on the vortex axis are created...... and interact follow the topological classification and that the complete set of patterns found is contained in a codimension-4 unfolding of the most simple singular configuration....

  9. CRUCIB: an axisymmetric convection code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertram, L.A.

    1975-03-01

    The CRUCIB code was written in support of an experimental program aimed at measurement of thermal diffusivities of refractory liquids. Precise values of diffusivity are necessary to realistic analysis of reactor safety problems, nuclear waste disposal procedures, and fundamental metal forming processes. The code calculates the axisymmetric transient convective motions produced in a right circular cylindrical crucible, which is surface heated by an annular heat pulse. Emphasis of this report is placed on the input-output options of the CRUCIB code, which are tailored to assess the importance of the convective heat transfer in determining the surface temperature distribution. Use is limited to Prandtl numbers less than unity; larger values can be accommodated by replacement of a single block of the code, if desired. (U.S.)

  10. An axisymmetric gravitational collapse code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choptuik, Matthew W [CIAR Cosmology and Gravity Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Hirschmann, Eric W [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84604 (United States); Liebling, Steven L [Southampton College, Long Island University, Southampton, NY 11968 (United States); Pretorius, Frans [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2003-05-07

    We present a new numerical code designed to solve the Einstein field equations for axisymmetric spacetimes. The long-term goal of this project is to construct a code that will be capable of studying many problems of interest in axisymmetry, including gravitational collapse, critical phenomena, investigations of cosmic censorship and head-on black-hole collisions. Our objective here is to detail the (2+1)+1 formalism we use to arrive at the corresponding system of equations and the numerical methods we use to solve them. We are able to obtain stable evolution, despite the singular nature of the coordinate system on the axis, by enforcing appropriate regularity conditions on all variables and by adding numerical dissipation to hyperbolic equations.

  11. An axisymmetric gravitational collapse code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choptuik, Matthew W; Hirschmann, Eric W; Liebling, Steven L; Pretorius, Frans

    2003-01-01

    We present a new numerical code designed to solve the Einstein field equations for axisymmetric spacetimes. The long-term goal of this project is to construct a code that will be capable of studying many problems of interest in axisymmetry, including gravitational collapse, critical phenomena, investigations of cosmic censorship and head-on black-hole collisions. Our objective here is to detail the (2+1)+1 formalism we use to arrive at the corresponding system of equations and the numerical methods we use to solve them. We are able to obtain stable evolution, despite the singular nature of the coordinate system on the axis, by enforcing appropriate regularity conditions on all variables and by adding numerical dissipation to hyperbolic equations

  12. Rigid-body motion correction of the liver in image reconstruction for golden-angle stack-of-stars DCE MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Adam; Balter, James; Cao, Yue

    2018-03-01

    Respiratory motion can affect pharmacokinetic perfusion parameters quantified from liver dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Image registration can be used to align dynamic images after reconstruction. However, intra-image motion blur remains after alignment and can alter the shape of contrast-agent uptake curves. We introduce a method to correct for inter- and intra-image motion during image reconstruction. Sixteen liver dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI examinations of nine subjects were performed using a golden-angle stack-of-stars sequence. For each examination, an image time series with high temporal resolution but severe streak artifacts was reconstructed. Images were aligned using region-limited rigid image registration within a region of interest covering the liver. The transformations resulting from alignment were used to correct raw data for motion by modulating and rotating acquired lines in k-space. The corrected data were then reconstructed using view sharing. Portal-venous input functions extracted from motion-corrected images had significantly greater peak signal enhancements (mean increase: 16%, t-test, P <  0.001) than those from images aligned using image registration after reconstruction. In addition, portal-venous perfusion maps estimated from motion-corrected images showed fewer artifacts close to the edge of the liver. Motion-corrected image reconstruction restores uptake curves distorted by motion. Motion correction also reduces motion artifacts in estimated perfusion parameter maps. Magn Reson Med 79:1345-1353, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  13. Axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic equilibria in local polar coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Grad--Shafranov equation for an ideal magnetohydrodynamic axisymmetric toroidal configuration is solved analytically in a local polar coordinate system using a novel method which produces solutions valid up to the second order in the inverse aspect ratio expansion

  14. Adaptative mixed methods to axisymmetric shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malta, S.M.C.; Loula, A.F.D.; Garcia, E.L.M.

    1989-09-01

    The mixed Petrov-Galerkin method is applied to axisymmetric shells with uniform and non uniform meshes. Numerical experiments with a cylindrical shell showed a significant improvement in convergence and accuracy with adaptive meshes. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  15. Rigidity and symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Asia; Whiteley, Walter

    2014-01-01

    This book contains recent contributions to the fields of rigidity and symmetry with two primary focuses: to present the mathematically rigorous treatment of rigidity of structures, and to explore the interaction of geometry, algebra, and combinatorics. Overall, the book shows how researchers from diverse backgrounds explore connections among the various discrete structures with symmetry as the unifying theme.  Contributions present recent trends and advances in discrete geometry, particularly in the theory of polytopes. The rapid development of abstract polytope theory has resulted in a rich theory featuring an attractive interplay of methods and tools from discrete geometry, group theory, classical geometry, hyperbolic geometry and topology.  The volume will also be a valuable source as an introduction to the ideas of both combinatorial and geometric rigidity theory and its applications, incorporating the surprising impact of symmetry. It will appeal to students at both the advanced undergraduate and gradu...

  16. Birationally rigid varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Pukhlikov, Aleksandr

    2013-01-01

    Birational rigidity is a striking and mysterious phenomenon in higher-dimensional algebraic geometry. It turns out that certain natural families of algebraic varieties (for example, three-dimensional quartics) belong to the same classification type as the projective space but have radically different birational geometric properties. In particular, they admit no non-trivial birational self-maps and cannot be fibred into rational varieties by a rational map. The origins of the theory of birational rigidity are in the work of Max Noether and Fano; however, it was only in 1970 that Iskovskikh and Manin proved birational superrigidity of quartic three-folds. This book gives a systematic exposition of, and a comprehensive introduction to, the theory of birational rigidity, presenting in a uniform way, ideas, techniques, and results that so far could only be found in journal papers. The recent rapid progress in birational geometry and the widening interaction with the neighboring areas generate the growing interest ...

  17. Asymptotic properties of axisymmetric Stokes flow of a viscous liquid with intersecting boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voinov, O.V.

    2004-01-01

    The general axisymmetric problem on the liquid flow by the low Reynolds number when the boundary surfaces (both of the solid body and free one) are intersecting at the certain angle on the moving line, is considered. The work is aimed at establishing the asymptotic regularities of the behavior of the current function and voltages in the small vicinity of the intersection (contact) line of the boundary surfaces. The asymptotic analysis makes it possible to consider the arbitrary axisymmetric Stokes flow with the intersecting boundaries [ru

  18. Supersonic quasi-axisymmetric vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, Hamdy A.; Liu, C. H.

    1991-01-01

    An extensive computational study of supersonic quasi-axisymmetric vortex breakdown in a configured circular duct is presented. The unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations are used. The NS equations are solved for the quasi-axisymmetric flows using an implicit, upwind, flux difference splitting, finite volume scheme. The quasi-axisymmetric solutions are time accurate and are obtained by forcing the components of the flowfield vector to be equal on two axial planes, which are in close proximity of each other. The effect of Reynolds number, for laminar flows, on the evolution and persistence of vortex breakdown, is studied. Finally, the effect of swirl ration at the duct inlet is investigated.

  19. Extinction cross-section cancellation of a cylindrical radiating active source near a rigid corner and acoustic invisibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F. G.

    2017-11-01

    Active cloaking in its basic form requires that the extinction cross-section (or energy efficiency) from a radiating body vanishes. In this analysis, this physical effect is demonstrated for an active cylindrically radiating acoustic source in a non-viscous fluid, undergoing periodic axisymmetric harmonic vibrations near a rigid corner (i.e., quarter-space). The rigorous multipole expansion method in cylindrical coordinates, the method of images, and the addition theorem of cylindrical wave functions are used to derive closed-form mathematical expressions for the radiating, amplification, and extinction cross-sections of the active source. Numerical computations are performed assuming monopole and dipole modal oscillations of the circular source. The results reveal some of the situations where the extinction energy efficiency factor of the active source vanishes depending on its size and location with respect to the rigid corner, thus, achieving total invisibility. Moreover, the extinction energy efficiency factor varies between positive or negative values. These effects also occur for higher-order modal oscillations of the active source. The results find potential applications in the development of acoustic cloaking devices and invisibility in underwater acoustics or other areas.

  20. Aerodynamics characteristic of axisymmetric surface protuberance in supersonic regime

    KAUST Repository

    Qamar, Adnan; Sanghi, Sanjeev

    2012-01-01

    The present work deals with the problem of an axi-symmetric surface protuberance mounted on a spherical nosed body of revolution. The numerical computations are carried out for laminar supersonic viscous flow for trapezoidal shape axi-symmetric protuberances. A free stream Mach number ranging from 3 to 8 in steps of 1 at a fixed free stream Reynolds number of 1.8x10(4) has been used in the present study. The steady solutions are obtained using a time marching approach. A newly developed Particle Velocity Upwinding (PVU) scheme has been used for the computation. The spatial flow pattern exhibits a strong bow shock in front of the hemispherical nose, which engulfs the entire base body. Near the protuberance, the fluid particle decelerates due to the adverse pressure created by the protuberance and thus the flow separates in front of the protuberance. This point of separation is found to be a function of Mach number and the protuberance shape. A low-pressure expansion region dominates the base region of the obstacle. The reattachment point for the base separation is also a function of Mach number. As the Mach number is increased the reattachment point shifts toward the protuberances base. A weak recompression shock is also seen in the base, which affects the separated zone behind the protuberance. The important design parameters such as skin friction, heat transfer, drag, and surface pressure coefficients are reported extensively.

  1. Boundary element method for internal axisymmetric flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhman Alexander

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an accurate fast method for the computation of potential internal axisymmetric flow based on the boundary element technique. We prove that the computed velocity field asymptotically satisfies reasonable boundary conditions at infinity for various types of inlet/exit. Computation of internal axisymmetric potential flow is an essential ingredient in the three-dimensional problem of computation of velocity fields in turbomachines. We include the results of a practical application of the method to the computation of flow in turbomachines of Kaplan and Francis types.

  2. Rigid supersymmetry with boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaev, D.V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Van Nieuwenhuizen, P. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). C.N. Yang Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    2008-01-15

    We construct rigidly supersymmetric bulk-plus-boundary actions, both in x-space and in superspace. For each standard supersymmetric bulk action a minimal supersymmetric bulk-plus-boundary action follows from an extended F- or D-term formula. Additional separately supersymmetric boundary actions can be systematically constructed using co-dimension one multiplets (boundary superfields). We also discuss the orbit of boundary conditions which follow from the Euler-Lagrange variational principle. (orig.)

  3. Left ventricular rigid body rotation in a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patient with cardiac involvement: A case from the three-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiographic MAGYAR-Path Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Földeák, Dóra; Kalapos, Anita; Domsik, Péter; Sinkó, Mária; Szeleczki, Nóra; Bagdi, Enikő; Krenács, László; Forster, Tamás; Borbényi, Zita; Nemes, Attila

    2017-02-01

    Secondary myocardial involvement by diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is a rare occurrence. Left ventricular (LV) twist is considered an essential part of LV function. In normal circumstances LV twist results from the movement of two orthogonally oriented muscular bands of a helical myocardial structure with consequent clockwise rotation of the base and counterclockwise rotation of the apex. Three-dimensional (3D) speckle-tracking echocardiography (3DSTE) has been found to be feasible for non-invasive 3D quantification of LV wall motion and rotational mechanics. The present report aimed to assess LV twisting motion in a patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with positron emission tomography/computer tomography-proven cardiac involvement by 3DSTE. During 3DSTE, reduction in some segmental radial, longitudinal, circumferential, area and 3D LV strains were found. Apical and basal LV rotations were found to be in the same counterclockwise direction, confirming near absence of LV twist - so-called rigid body rotation. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Enstatite, Mg/sub 2/Si/sub 2/O/sub 6/: A neutron diffraction refinement of the crystal structure and a rigid-body analysis of the thermal vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghose, S.; Schomaker, V.; McMullan, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    Synthetic enstatite, Mg/sub 2/Si/sub 2/O/sub 6/, is orthorhombic, space group Pbca, with eight formula units per cell and lattice parameters a = 18.235(3), b = 8.818(1), c = 5.179(1) A at 23/sup 0/C. A least-squares structure refinement based on 1790 neutron intensity data converged with an agreement factor R(F/sup 2/) = 0.032, yielding Mg-O and Si-O bond lengths with standard deviations of 0.0007 and 0.0008 A, respectively. The variations observed in the Si-O bond lengths within the silicate tetrahedra A and B are caused by the differences in primary coordination of the oxygen atoms and the proximity of the magnesium ions to the silicon atoms. The latter effect is most pronounced for the bridging bonds of tetrahedron. A. The smallest O-Si-O angle is the result of edge-sharing by the Mg(2) octahedron and the A tetrahedron. An analysis of rigid-body thermal vibrations of the two crystallographically independent (SiO/sub 4/) tetrahedra indicates considerable librational motion, leading to a thermal correction of apparent Si-O bond lengths as large as +0.002 A at room temperature.

  5. Effects of shape and stroke parameters on the propulsion performance of an axisymmetric swimmer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jifeng; Alben, Silas

    2012-03-01

    In nature, there exists a special group of aquatic animals which have an axisymmetric body and whose primary swimming mechanism is to use periodic body contractions to generate vortex rings in the surrounding fluid. Using jellyfish medusae as an example, this study develops a mathematical model of body kinematics of an axisymmetric swimmer and uses a computational approach to investigate the induced vortex wakes. Wake characteristics are identified for swimmers using jet propulsion and rowing, two mechanisms identified in previous studies of medusan propulsion. The parameter space of body kinematics is explored through four quantities: a measure of body shape, stroke amplitude, the ratio between body contraction duration and extension duration, and the pulsing frequency. The effects of these parameters on thrust, input power requirement and circulation production are quantified. Two metrics, cruising speed and energy cost of locomotion, are used to evaluate the propulsion performance. The study finds that a more prolate-shaped swimmer with larger stroke amplitudes is able to swim faster, but its cost of locomotion is also higher. In contrast, a more oblate-shaped swimmer with smaller stroke amplitudes uses less energy for its locomotion, but swims more slowly. Compared with symmetric strokes with equal durations of contraction and extension, faster bell contractions increase the swimming speed whereas faster bell extensions decrease it, but both require a larger energy input. This study shows that besides the well-studied correlations between medusan body shape and locomotion, stroke variables also affect the propulsion performance. It provides a framework for comparing the propulsion performance of axisymmetric swimmers based on their body kinematics when it is difficult to measure and analyze their wakes empirically. The knowledge from this study is also useful for the design of robotic swimmers that use axisymmetric body contractions for propulsion.

  6. Effects of shape and stroke parameters on the propulsion performance of an axisymmetric swimmer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Jifeng; Alben, Silas

    2012-01-01

    In nature, there exists a special group of aquatic animals which have an axisymmetric body and whose primary swimming mechanism is to use periodic body contractions to generate vortex rings in the surrounding fluid. Using jellyfish medusae as an example, this study develops a mathematical model of body kinematics of an axisymmetric swimmer and uses a computational approach to investigate the induced vortex wakes. Wake characteristics are identified for swimmers using jet propulsion and rowing, two mechanisms identified in previous studies of medusan propulsion. The parameter space of body kinematics is explored through four quantities: a measure of body shape, stroke amplitude, the ratio between body contraction duration and extension duration, and the pulsing frequency. The effects of these parameters on thrust, input power requirement and circulation production are quantified. Two metrics, cruising speed and energy cost of locomotion, are used to evaluate the propulsion performance. The study finds that a more prolate-shaped swimmer with larger stroke amplitudes is able to swim faster, but its cost of locomotion is also higher. In contrast, a more oblate-shaped swimmer with smaller stroke amplitudes uses less energy for its locomotion, but swims more slowly. Compared with symmetric strokes with equal durations of contraction and extension, faster bell contractions increase the swimming speed whereas faster bell extensions decrease it, but both require a larger energy input. This study shows that besides the well-studied correlations between medusan body shape and locomotion, stroke variables also affect the propulsion performance. It provides a framework for comparing the propulsion performance of axisymmetric swimmers based on their body kinematics when it is difficult to measure and analyze their wakes empirically. The knowledge from this study is also useful for the design of robotic swimmers that use axisymmetric body contractions for propulsion. (paper)

  7. Feedback stabilization of axisymmetric modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardin, S.C.; Larrabee, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    Noncircular tokamak plasmas can be unstable to ideal MHD axisymmetric instabilities. Passive conductors with finite resistivity will at best slow down these instabilities to the resistive (L/R) time of the conductors. An active feedback system far from the plasma which responds on this resistive time can stabilize the system provided its mutual inductance with the passive coils is small enough

  8. Magneto-hydrodynamically stable axisymmetric mirrorsa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryutov, D. D.; Berk, H. L.; Cohen, B. I.; Molvik, A. W.; Simonen, T. C.

    2011-09-01

    Making axisymmetric mirrors magnetohydrodynamically (MHD) stable opens up exciting opportunities for using mirror devices as neutron sources, fusion-fission hybrids, and pure-fusion reactors. This is also of interest from a general physics standpoint (as it seemingly contradicts well-established criteria of curvature-driven instabilities). The axial symmetry allows for much simpler and more reliable designs of mirror-based fusion facilities than the well-known quadrupole mirror configurations. In this tutorial, after a summary of classical results, several techniques for achieving MHD stabilization of the axisymmetric mirrors are considered, in particular: (1) employing the favorable field-line curvature in the end tanks; (2) using the line-tying effect; (3) controlling the radial potential distribution; (4) imposing a divertor configuration on the solenoidal magnetic field; and (5) affecting the plasma dynamics by the ponderomotive force. Some illuminative theoretical approaches for understanding axisymmetric mirror stability are described. The applicability of the various stabilization techniques to axisymmetric mirrors as neutron sources, hybrids, and pure-fusion reactors are discussed; and the constraints on the plasma parameters are formulated.

  9. Magneto-hydrodynamically stable axisymmetric mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryutov, D. D.; Cohen, B. I.; Molvik, A. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Berk, H. L. [University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Simonen, T. C. [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Making axisymmetric mirrors magnetohydrodynamically (MHD) stable opens up exciting opportunities for using mirror devices as neutron sources, fusion-fission hybrids, and pure-fusion reactors. This is also of interest from a general physics standpoint (as it seemingly contradicts well-established criteria of curvature-driven instabilities). The axial symmetry allows for much simpler and more reliable designs of mirror-based fusion facilities than the well-known quadrupole mirror configurations. In this tutorial, after a summary of classical results, several techniques for achieving MHD stabilization of the axisymmetric mirrors are considered, in particular: (1) employing the favorable field-line curvature in the end tanks; (2) using the line-tying effect; (3) controlling the radial potential distribution; (4) imposing a divertor configuration on the solenoidal magnetic field; and (5) affecting the plasma dynamics by the ponderomotive force. Some illuminative theoretical approaches for understanding axisymmetric mirror stability are described. The applicability of the various stabilization techniques to axisymmetric mirrors as neutron sources, hybrids, and pure-fusion reactors are discussed; and the constraints on the plasma parameters are formulated.

  10. The spectrum of axisymmetric torsional Alfven waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sy, W.N.

    1977-03-01

    The spectrum of axisymmetric torsional Alfven waves propagating in a cylindrical, non-uniform, resistive plasma waveguide has been analysed by a method of singular perturbations. A simple condition has been derived which predicts whether the spectrum is continuous or discrete under given physical conditions. Application of this result to resolve an apparent discrepancy in experimental observations is briefly discussed. (Author)

  11. Axisymmetric solution with charge in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arutyunyan, G.G.; Papoyan, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility of generating solutions to the equations of general relativity from known solutions of the generalized theory of gravitation and vice versa is proved. An electrovac solution to Einstein's equations that describes a static axisymmetric gravitational field is found. 14 refs

  12. Rigid body essential X-ray crystallography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Esben Jannik; Biggin, Philip C

    2008-01-01

    The ligand-binding domain (LBD) from the ionotropic glutamate receptor subtype 2 (GluR2) has been shown to adopt a range of ligand-dependent conformational states. These states have been described in terms of the rotation required to fit subdomain (lobe) 2 following superposition of subdomain (lo...

  13. Application of the Least Squares Method in Axisymmetric Biharmonic Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl Chekurin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach for solving of the axisymmetric biharmonic boundary value problems for semi-infinite cylindrical domain was developed in the paper. On the lateral surface of the domain homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions are prescribed. On the remaining part of the domain’s boundary four different biharmonic boundary pieces of data are considered. To solve the formulated biharmonic problems the method of least squares on the boundary combined with the method of homogeneous solutions was used. That enabled reducing the problems to infinite systems of linear algebraic equations which can be solved with the use of reduction method. Convergence of the solution obtained with developed approach was studied numerically on some characteristic examples. The developed approach can be used particularly to solve axisymmetric elasticity problems for cylindrical bodies, the heights of which are equal to or exceed their diameters, when on their lateral surface normal and tangential tractions are prescribed and on the cylinder’s end faces various types of boundary conditions in stresses in displacements or mixed ones are given.

  14. APPLICATION OF RIGID LINKS IN STRUCTURAL DESIGN MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Yu. Fialko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A special finite element modelling rigid links is proposed for the linear static and buckling analysis. Unlike the classical approach based on the theorems of rigid body kinematics, the proposed approach preserves the similarity between the adjacency graph for a sparse matrix and the adjacency graph for nodes of the finite element model, which allows applying sparse direct solvers more effectively. Besides, the proposed approach allows significantly reducing the number of nonzero entries in the factored stiffness matrix in comparison with the classical one, which greatly reduces the duration of the solution. For buckling problems of structures containing rigid bodies, this approach gives correct results. Several examples demonstrate its efficiency.

  15. Non-axisymmetric line-driven disc winds - I. Disc perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyda, Sergei; Proga, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    We study mass outflows driven from accretion discs by radiation pressure due to spectral lines. To investigate non-axisymmetric effects, we use the ATHENA++ code and develop a new module to account for radiation pressure driving. In 2D, our new simulations are consistent with previous 2D axisymmetric solutions by Proga et al., who used the ZEUS 2D code. Specifically, we find that the disc winds are time dependent, characterized by a dense stream confined to ˜45° relative to the disc mid-plane and bounded on the polar side by a less dense, fast stream. In 3D, we introduce a vertical, ϕ-dependent, subsonic velocity perturbation in the disc mid-plane. The perturbation does not change the overall character of the solution but global outflow properties such as the mass, momentum, and kinetic energy fluxes are altered by up to 100 per cent. Non-axisymmetric density structures develop and persist mainly at the base of the wind. They are relatively small, and their densities can be a few times higher than the azimuthal average. The structure of the non-axisymmetric and axisymmetric solutions differ also in other ways. Perhaps most importantly from the observational point of view are the differences in the so-called clumping factors, that serve as a proxy for emissivity due to two body processes. In particular, the spatially averaged clumping factor over the entire fast stream, while it is of a comparable value in both solutions, it varies about 10 times faster in the non-axisymmetric case.

  16. Axisymmetric instability in a noncircular tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipschultz, B.

    1979-10-01

    The stability of dee, inverse-dee and square cross section plasmas to axisymmetric modes has been investigated experimentally in Tokapole II, a tokamak with a four-null poloidal divertor. Experimental results are closely compared with predictions of two numerical stability codes - the PEST code (ideal MHD, linear stability) adapted to tokapole geometry and a code which follows the nonlinear evolution of shapes similar to tokapole equilibria

  17. Axisymmetric vibrations of thin shells of revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Kikuchi, Norio; Kosawada, Tadashi; Takahashi, Shin

    1983-01-01

    The problem of free vibration of axisymmetric shells of revolution is important in connection with the design of pressure vessels, chemical equipment, aircrafts, structures and so on. In this study, the axisymmetrical vibration of a thin shell of revolution having a constant curvature in meridian direction was analyzed by thin shell theory. First, the Lagrangian during one period of the vibration of a shell of revolution was determined by the primary approximate theory of Love, and the vibration equations and boundary conditions were derived from its stopping condition. The vibration equations were strictly analyzed by using the series solution. The basic equations for the strain and strain energy of a shell were based on those of Novozhilov. As the examples of numerical calculation, the natural frequency and vibration mode of the symmetrical shells of revolution fixed at both ends and supported at both ends were determined, and their characteristics were clarified. The theory and the numerical calculation ore described. Especially in the frequency curves, the waving phenomena were observed frequently, which were not seen in non-axisymmetric vibration, accordingly also the vibration mode changed in complex state on the frequency curves of same order. The numerical calculation was carried out in the large computer center in Tohoku University. (Kako, I.)

  18. Axisymmetric ideal magnetohydrodynamic equilibria with incompressible flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasso, H.; Throumoulopoulos, G.N.

    1997-12-01

    It is shown that the ideal MHD equilibrium states of an axisymmetric plasma with incompressible flows are governed by an elliptic partial differential equation for the poloidal magnetic flux function ψ containing five surface quantities along with a relation for the pressure. Exact equilibria are constructed including those with non vanishing poloidal and toroidal flows and differentially varying radial electric fields. Unlike the case in cylindrical incompressible equilibria with isothermal magnetic surfaces which should have necessarily circular cross sections [G. N. Throumoulopoulos and H. Tasso, Phys. Plasmas 4, 1492 (1997)], no restriction appears on the shapes of the magnetic surfaces in the corresponding axisymmetric equilibria. The latter equilibria satisfy a set of six ordinary differential equations which for flows parallel to the magnetic field B can be solved semianalytically. In addition, it is proved the non existence of incompressible axisymmetric equilibria with (a) purely poloidal flows and (b) non-parallel flows with isothermal magnetic surfaces and vertical stroke B vertical stroke = vertical stroke B vertical stroke (ψ) (omnigenous equilibria). (orig.)

  19. Dynamic analysis of reactor containment building using axisymmetric finite element model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakkar, S.K.; Dubey, R.N.

    1989-01-01

    The structural safety of nuclear reactor building during earthquake is of great importance in view of possibility of radiation hazards. The rational evaluation of forces and displacements in various portions of structure and foundation during strong ground motion is most important for safe performance and economic design of the reactor building. The accuracy of results of dynamic analysis is naturally dependent on the type of mathematical model employed. Three types of mathematical models are employed for dynamic analysis of reactor building beam model axisymmetric finite element model and three dimensional model. In this paper emphasis is laid on axisymmetric model. This model of containment building is considered a reinfinement over conventional beam model of the structure. The nuclear reactor building on a rocky foundation is considered herein. The foundation-structure interaction is relatively less in this condition. The objective of the paper is to highlight the significance of modelling of non-axisymmetric portion of building, such as reactor internals by equivalent axisymmetric body, on the structural response of the building

  20. Torsional Rigidity of Minimal Submanifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, Vicente

    2006-01-01

    We prove explicit upper bounds for the torsional rigidity of extrinsic domains of minimal submanifolds $P^m$ in ambient Riemannian manifolds $N^n$ with a pole $p$. The upper bounds are given in terms of the torsional rigidities of corresponding Schwarz symmetrizations of the domains in warped...

  1. Reversible Rigidity Control Using Low Melting Temperature Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Wanliang; Lu, Tong; Majidi, Carmel

    2013-03-01

    Inspired by nature, materials able to achieve rapid rigidity changes have important applications for human body protection in military and many other areas. This talk presents the fabrication and design of soft-matter technologies that exhibit rapid reversible rigidity control. Fabricated with a masked deposition technique, the soft-matter composite contains liquid-phase and phase-changing metal alloys embedded in a soft and highly stretchable elastomer. The composite material can reversibly change its rigidity by three orders of magnitude and sustain large deformation.

  2. Quantum charged rigid membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero, Ruben [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del I.P.N., Unidad Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Molgado, Alberto [Unidad Academica de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas Zac. (Mexico); Rojas, Efrain, E-mail: cordero@esfm.ipn.mx, E-mail: amolgado@fisica.uaz.edu.mx, E-mail: efrojas@uv.mx [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2011-03-21

    The early Dirac proposal to model the electron as a charged membrane is reviewed. A rigidity term, instead of the natural membrane tension, involving linearly the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the membrane is considered in the action modeling the bubble in the presence of an electromagnetic field. We set up this model as a genuine second-order derivative theory by considering a non-trivial boundary term which plays a relevant part in our formulation. The Lagrangian in question is linear in the bubble acceleration and by means of the Ostrogradski-Hamiltonian approach, we observed that the theory comprises the management of both first- and second-class constraints. We thus show that our second-order approach is robust allowing for a proper quantization. We found an effective quantum potential which permits us to compute bounded states for the system. We comment on the possibility of describing brane world universes by invoking this kind of second-order correction terms.

  3. Quantum charged rigid membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero, Ruben; Molgado, Alberto; Rojas, Efrain

    2011-01-01

    The early Dirac proposal to model the electron as a charged membrane is reviewed. A rigidity term, instead of the natural membrane tension, involving linearly the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the membrane is considered in the action modeling the bubble in the presence of an electromagnetic field. We set up this model as a genuine second-order derivative theory by considering a non-trivial boundary term which plays a relevant part in our formulation. The Lagrangian in question is linear in the bubble acceleration and by means of the Ostrogradski-Hamiltonian approach, we observed that the theory comprises the management of both first- and second-class constraints. We thus show that our second-order approach is robust allowing for a proper quantization. We found an effective quantum potential which permits us to compute bounded states for the system. We comment on the possibility of describing brane world universes by invoking this kind of second-order correction terms.

  4. Low Cost Method of Manufacturing Cooled Axisymmetric Scramjets, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Scramjet engine developers are working on advanced axisymmetric engine concepts that may not be feasible due to limitations of currently available manufacturing...

  5. Microfluidic step-emulsification in axisymmetric geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, I; Ricouvier, J; Yazhgur, P; Tabeling, P; Leshansky, A M

    2017-10-25

    Biphasic step-emulsification (Z. Li et al., Lab Chip, 2015, 15, 1023) is a promising microfluidic technique for high-throughput production of μm and sub-μm highly monodisperse droplets. The step-emulsifier consists of a shallow (Hele-Shaw) microchannel operating with two co-flowing immiscible liquids and an abrupt expansion (i.e., step) to a deep and wide reservoir. Under certain conditions the confined stream of the disperse phase, engulfed by the co-flowing continuous phase, breaks into small highly monodisperse droplets at the step. Theoretical investigation of the corresponding hydrodynamics is complicated due to the complex geometry of the planar device, calling for numerical approaches. However, direct numerical simulations of the three dimensional surface-tension-dominated biphasic flows in confined geometries are computationally expensive. In the present paper we study a model problem of axisymmetric step-emulsification. This setup consists of a stable core-annular biphasic flow in a cylindrical capillary tube connected co-axially to a reservoir tube of a larger diameter through a sudden expansion mimicking the edge of the planar step-emulsifier. We demonstrate that the axisymmetric setup exhibits similar regimes of droplet generation to the planar device. A detailed parametric study of the underlying hydrodynamics is feasible via inexpensive (two dimensional) simulations owing to the axial symmetry. The phase diagram quantifying the different regimes of droplet generation in terms of governing dimensionless parameters is presented. We show that in qualitative agreement with experiments in planar devices, the size of the droplets generated in the step-emulsification regime is independent of the capillary number and almost insensitive to the viscosity ratio. These findings confirm that the step-emulsification regime is solely controlled by surface tension. The numerical predictions are in excellent agreement with in-house experiments with the axisymmetric

  6. Reversed straining in axisymmetric compression test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Wanheim, Tarras; Lindegren, Maria

    2005-01-01

    A large group of the cold forging processes is carried out in a thick – walled container with the deformation force transmitted through a punch moving axially in the container. The work piece, being entrapped between punch and container will expand and exert a radial pressure resulting in an expa...... to simulate these conditions a reversed axisymmetrical material tester is designed and constructed. Three different materials were tested, aluminum alloy AA6082, technically pure copper (99.5%) and cold forging steel Ma8, at different temperatures found during cold forging....

  7. An axisymmetric inertia-gravity wave generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, P.; Ghaemsaidi, S. J.; Joubaud, S.; Peacock, T.; Odier, P.

    2017-10-01

    There has been a rich interplay between laboratory experimental studies of internal waves and advancing understanding of their role in the ocean and atmosphere. In this study, we present and demonstrate the concept for a new form of laboratory internal wave generator that can excite axisymmetric wave fields of arbitrary radial structure. The construction and operation of the generator are detailed, and its capabilities are demonstrated through a pair of experiments using a Bessel function and a bourrelet (i.e., ring-shaped) configuration. The results of the experiments are compared with the predictions of an accompanying analytical model.

  8. Calculation of rf fields in axisymmetric cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwashita, Y.

    1985-01-01

    A new code, PISCES, has been developed for calculating a complete set of rf electromagnetic modes in an axisymmetric cavity. The finite-element method is used with up to third-order shape functions. Although two components are enough to express these modes, three components are used as unknown variables to take advantage of the symmetry of the element matrix. The unknowns are taken to be either the electric field components or the magnetic field components. The zero-divergence condition will be satisfied by the shape function within each element

  9. Numerical determination of axisymmetric toroidal magnetohydrodynamic equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.L.; Dalhed, H.E.; Greene, J.M.

    1978-07-01

    Numerical schemes for the determination of stationary axisymmetric toroidal equilibria appropriate for modeling real experimental devices are given. Iterative schemes are used to solve the elliptic nonlinear partial differential equation for the poloidal flux function psi. The principal emphasis is on solving the free boundary (plasma-vacuum interface) equilibrium problem where external current-carrying toroidal coils support the plasma column, but fixed boundary (e.g., conducting shell) cases are also included. The toroidal current distribution is given by specifying the pressure and either the poloidal current or the safety factor profiles as functions of psi. Examples of the application of the codes to tokamak design at PPPL are given

  10. Ideal magnetohydrodynamic stability of axisymmetric mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ippolito, D.A.; Hafizi, B.; Myra, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The governing partial differential equation for general mode-number pressure-driven ballooning modes in a long-thin, axisymmetric plasma is derived within the context of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. It is shown that the equation reduces in special limits to the Hain--Luest equation, the high-m diffuse p(psi) ballooning equation, and the low-m sharp-boundary equation. A low-β analytic solution of the full partial differential equation is presented for quasiflute modes in an idealized tandem mirror model to elucidate the relationship of the various limiting cases

  11. Topological fluid mechanics of Axisymmetric Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Morten

    1998-01-01

    Topological fluid mechanics in the sense of the present paper is the study and classification of flow patterns close to a critical point. Here we discuss the topology of steady viscous incompressible axisymmetric flows in the vicinity of the axis. Following previous studies the velocity field v...... to the authors knowledge has not been used systematically to high orders in topological fluid mechanics. We compare the general results with experimental and computational results on the Vogel-Ronneberg flow. We show that the topology changes observed when recirculating bubbles on the vortex axis are created...

  12. Static axisymmetric discs and gravitational collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamorro, A.; Gregory, R.; Stewart, J.M.

    1987-09-08

    Regular static axisymmetric vacuum solutions of Einstein's field equations representing the exterior field of a finite thin disc are found. These are used to describe the slow collapse of a disc-like object. If no conditions are placed on the matter, a naked singularity is formed and the cosmic censorship hypothesis would be violated. Imposition of the weak energy condition, however, prevents slow collapse to a singularity and preserves the validity of this hypothesis. The validity of the hoop conjecture is also discussed.

  13. Surface Induction Hardening of Axi-Symmetric Bodies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barglik, J.; Doležel, Ivo; Škopek, M.; Ulrych, B.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2001), s. 11-16 ISSN 1335-8243 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/01/0184 Grant - others:-(PL) 7T08603716 Keywords : induction heating * induction hardening * numerical solution Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  14. The effects of plasma deformability on the feedback stabilization of axisymmetric modes in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.J.; Jardin, S.C.

    1991-09-01

    The effects of plasma deformability on the feedback stabilization of axisymmetric modes of tokamak plasmas are studied. It is seen that plasmas with strongly shaped cross sections have unstable motion different from a rigid shift. Furthermore, the placement of passive conductors is shown to modify the non-rigid components of the eigenfunction in a way that reduces the stabilizing eddy currents in these conductors. Passive feedback results using several equilibria of varying shape are presented. The eigenfunction is also modified under the effects of active feedback. This deformation is seen to depend strongly on the position of the flux loops which are used to determine plasma vertical position for the active feedback system. The variations of these non-rigid components of the eigenfunction always serve to reduce the stabilizing effect of the active feedback system by reducing the measurable poloidal flux at the flux-loop locations. Active feedback results are presented for the PBX-M tokamak configuration. (author) 19 figs., 2 tabs., 30 refs

  15. Axisymmetric vibrations of thick shells of revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Kosawada, Tadashi; Takahashi, Shin

    1983-01-01

    Axisymmetric shells of revolution are used for chemical plants, nuclear power plants, aircrafts, structures and so on, and the elucidation of their free vibration is important for the design. In this study, the axisymmetric vibration of a barrel-shaped shell was analyzed by the modified thick shell theory. The Lagrangian during one period of the vibration of a shell of revolution was determined, and from its stopping condition, the vibration equations and the boundary conditions were derived. The vibration equations were analyzed strictly by using the series solution. Moreover, the basic equations for the strain of a shell and others were based on those of Love. As the examples of numerical calculation, the natural frequency and vibration mode of the symmetrical shells of revolution fixed at both ends and supported at both ends were determined, and their characteristics were clarified. By comparing the results of this study with the results by thin shell theory, the effects of shearing deformation and rotary inertia on the natural frequency and vibration mode were clarified. The theoretical analysis and the numerical calculation are described. The effects of shearing deformation and rotary inertia on the natural frequency became larger in the higher order vibration. The vibration mode did not much change in both theories. (Kako, I.)

  16. Multitude scaling laws in axisymmetric turbulent wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layek, G. C.; Sunita

    2018-03-01

    We establish theoretically multitude scaling laws of a self-similar (statistical) axisymmetric turbulent wake. At infinite Reynolds number limit, the flow evolves as general power law and a new exponential law of streamwise distance, consistent with the criterion of equilibrium similarity hypothesis. We found power law scalings for components of the homogeneous dissipation rate (ɛ) obeying the non-Richardson-Kolmogorov cascade as ɛu˜ku3 /2/(l R elm ) , ɛv˜kv3 /2/l , kv˜ku/R el2 m, 0 stress, l is the local length scale, and Rel is the Reynolds number. The Richardson-Kolmogorov cascade corresponds to m = 0. For m ≈ 1, the power law agrees with non-equilibrium scaling laws observed in recent experiments of the axisymmetric wake. On the contrary, the exponential scaling law follows the above dissipation law with different regions of existence for power index m = 3. At finite Reynolds number with kinematic viscosity ν, scalings obey the dissipation laws ɛu ˜ νku/l2 and ɛv ˜ νkv/l2 with kv˜ku/R eln. The value of n is preferably 0 and 2. Different possibilities of scaling laws and symmetry breaking process are discussed at length.

  17. Axisymmetric modeling of prestressing tendons in nuclear containment dome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Se-Jin [DAEWOO E and C, Institute of Construction Technology, 60 Songjook-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Kyonggi 440-210 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jsj@dwconst.co.kr; Chung, Chul-Hun [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Dankook University, San 8, Hannam-dong, Youngsan-gu, Seoul 140-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-12-15

    Simple axisymmetric modeling of a nuclear containment building has been often employed in practice to estimate structural behavior for the axisymmetric loadings such as internal pressure. In this case, the prestressing tendons placed in the containment dome should be axisymmetrically approximated, since most dome tendons are not arranged in an axisymmetric manner. Some procedures are proposed that can realistically implement the actual three-dimensional tendon stiffness and prestressing effect into the axisymmetric model. Prestressing tendons, which are arranged in two or three ways depending on a containment type, are converted into the equivalent layer to consider the stiffness contribution in meridional and hoop directions. In order to reflect the prestressing effect, the equivalent load method and the initial stress method are devised, respectively, and the corresponding loads or stresses are derived in terms of the axisymmetric model. The proposed schemes are verified through some numerical examples comparing the results of the axisymmetric models to those of the actual three-dimensional model. The examples show that the proper level of the prestressing in the hoop direction of the axisymmetric dome plays an important role in tracing the actual behavior induced by the prestressing. Finally, some correction factors are discussed that can further improve the analysis results.

  18. Axisymmetric multiphase lattice Boltzmann method for generic equations of state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijers, S.A.; Gelderblom, H.; Toschi, F.

    2016-01-01

    We present an axisymmetric lattice Boltzmann model based on the Kupershtokh et al. multiphase model that is capable of solving liquid–gas density ratios up to 103. Appropriate source terms are added to the lattice Boltzmann evolution equation to fully recover the axisymmetric multiphase conservation

  19. Relativistic equations for axisymmetric gravitational collapse with escaping neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, M.D.

    1979-01-01

    Einstein's field equations for the dynamics of a self-gravitating axially symmetric source of a perfect fluid, presented by Chandrasekhar and Friedman (1964), are modified to allow emission of neutrinos. The boundary conditions at the outer surface of the radiating axisymmetric source are obtained by matching to an exterior solution of an axisymmetric rotating, radiating core. (auth.)

  20. Axisymmetric modeling of prestressing tendons in nuclear containment dome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Se-Jin; Chung, Chul-Hun

    2005-01-01

    Simple axisymmetric modeling of a nuclear containment building has been often employed in practice to estimate structural behavior for the axisymmetric loadings such as internal pressure. In this case, the prestressing tendons placed in the containment dome should be axisymmetrically approximated, since most dome tendons are not arranged in an axisymmetric manner. Some procedures are proposed that can realistically implement the actual three-dimensional tendon stiffness and prestressing effect into the axisymmetric model. Prestressing tendons, which are arranged in two or three ways depending on a containment type, are converted into the equivalent layer to consider the stiffness contribution in meridional and hoop directions. In order to reflect the prestressing effect, the equivalent load method and the initial stress method are devised, respectively, and the corresponding loads or stresses are derived in terms of the axisymmetric model. The proposed schemes are verified through some numerical examples comparing the results of the axisymmetric models to those of the actual three-dimensional model. The examples show that the proper level of the prestressing in the hoop direction of the axisymmetric dome plays an important role in tracing the actual behavior induced by the prestressing. Finally, some correction factors are discussed that can further improve the analysis results

  1. On flexible and rigid nouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2010-01-01

    classes. Finally this article wants to claim that the distinction between rigid and flexible noun categories (a) adds a new dimension to current classifications of parts of speech systems, (b) correlates with certain grammatical phenomena (e.g. so-called number discord), and (c) helps to explain the parts......This article argues that in addition to the major flexible lexical categories in Hengeveld’s classification of parts of speech systems (Contentive, Non-Verb, Modifier), there are also flexible word classes within the rigid lexical category Noun (Set Noun, Sort Noun, General Noun). Members...... by the flexible item in the external world. I will then argue that flexible word classes constitute a proper category (i.e. they are not the result of a merger of some rigid word classes) in that members of flexible word categories display the same properties regarding category membership as members of rigid word...

  2. Conformal symmetries of the Einstein-Hilbert action on horizons of stationary and axisymmetric black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Jianwei

    2012-01-01

    We suggest a way to study possible conformal symmetries on black hole horizons. We do this by carrying out a Kaluza-Klein-like reduction of the Einstein-Hilbert action along the ignorable coordinates of stationary and axisymmetric black holes. Rigid diffeomorphism invariance of the m-ignorable coordinates then becomes a global SL(m, R) gauge symmetry of the reduced action. Related to each non-vanishing angular velocity, there is a particular SL(2, R) subgroup, which can be extended to the Witt algebra on the black hole horizons. The classical Einstein-Hilbert action thus has k-copies of infinite-dimensional conformal symmetries on a given black hole horizon, with k being the number of non-vanishing angular velocities of the black hole. (paper)

  3. Multispecies transport theory for axisymmetric rotating plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tessarotto, M.; White, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    A reduced gyrokinetic equation is derived for a multi-species toroidal axisymmetric plasma with arbitrary toroidal differential rotation speeds and in the presence of a finite induced electric field. The kinetic equation obtained, extending previous results obtained by Hinton and Wong and by Catto, Bernstein and Tessarotto, has a form suited for transport applications, via variational techniques; in particular it exhibits the feature that all source terms, including the Spitzer source term, carrying the contribution due to the inductive electric field, appear to be acted upon by the collision operator. Moreover, the equation displays a new contribution due to ''explicit'' velocity perturbations, here proven to be consistent with transport ordering, whose evaluation appears relevant for transport calculations. In addition, general expressions are obtained for the neoclassical fluxes in terms of a variational principle, as well as for the classical ones, retaining, in both cases, the contributions due to the Spitzer's inductive terms

  4. A Compact Quasi-axisymmetric Stellarator Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, L.P.

    2003-01-01

    We report the progress made in assessing the potential of compact, quasi-axisymmetric stellarators as power-producing reactors. Using an aspect ratio A=4.5 configuration derived from NCSX and optimized with respect to the quasi-axisymmetry and MHD stability in the linear regime as an example, we show that a reactor of 1 GW(e) maybe realizable with a major radius *8 m. This is significantly smaller than the designs of stellarator reactors attempted before. We further show the design of modular coils and discuss the optimization of coil aspect ratios in order to accommodate the blanket for tritium breeding and radiation shielding for coil protection. In addition, we discuss the effects of coil aspect ratio on the peak magnetic field in the coils

  5. Electrostatic axisymmetric mirror with removable spherical aberration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birmuzaev, S.B.; Serikbaeva, G.S.; Hizirova, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The electrostatic axisymmetric mirror, assembled from three coaxial cylinders with an equal diameter d and under the potential v1, v2 and v3, was computed. The proportions of geometrical and electric parameters of the mirror, with which the spherical 3-order aberration may be eliminated, were determined. The computation outcomes of the case, when the focal power of the mirror is enough large and the object plane in the focus is out of its field, are presented (Fig. 1 - potentials proportion that makes elimination of the spherical aberration possible; Fig. 2 - the focus coordinates when the spherical aberration is eliminated). The geometrical values are presented by d, and the electric ones are presented by v1. The figures on the curves present a length of the second (middle) electrode. The zero point is located in the middle of the gap between the first and second electrodes The investigated mirror may be used as a lens for the transmission electron microscope

  6. Axisymmetric Eigenmodes of Spheroidal Pure Electron Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Yosuke; Saitoh, Haruhiko; Yoshida, Zensho; Kiwamoto, Yasuhito

    2010-11-01

    The axisymmetric electrostatic eigenmodes of spheroidal pure electron plasmas have been studied experimentally. It is confirmed that the observed spheroidal plasma attains a theoretically expected equilibrium density distribution, with the exception of a low-density halo distribution surrounding the plasma. When the eigenmode frequency observed for the plasma is compared with the frequency predicted by the dispersion relation derived under ideal conditions wherein the temperature is zero and the boundary is located at an infinite distance from the plasma, it is observed that the absolute value of the observed frequency is systematically higher than the theoretical prediction. Experimental examinations and numerical calculations indicate that the upward shift of the eigenmode frequency cannot be accounted for solely by the finite temperature effect, but is significantly affected by image charges induced on the conducting boundary and the resulting distortion of the density profile from the theoretical expectation.

  7. Rigidity of Glasses and Macromolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, M. F.

    1998-03-01

    The simple yet powerful ideas of percolation theory have found their way into many different areas of research. In this talk we show how RIGIDITY PERCOLATION can be studied at a similar level of sophistication, using a powerful new program THE PEBBLE GAME (D. J. Jacobs and M. F. Thorpe, Phys. Rev. E) 53, 3682 (1996). that uses an integer algorithm. This program can analyse the rigidity of two and three dimensional networks containing more than one million bars and joints. We find the total number of floppy modes, and find the critical behavior as the network goes from floppy to rigid as more bars are added. We discuss the relevance of this work to network glasses, and how it relates to experiments that involve the mechanical properties like hardness and elasticity of covalent glassy networks like Ge_xAs_ySe_1-x-y and dicuss recent experiments that suggest that the rigidity transition may be first order (Xingwei Feng, W. J.Bresser and P. Boolchand, Phys. Rev. Lett 78), 4422 (1997).. This approach is also useful in macromolecules and proteins, where detailed information about the rigid domain structure can be obtained.

  8. Studies of feedback stabilization of axisymmetric modes in deformable tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    A new linear MHD stability code, NOVA-W, is described and applied to the study of the feedback stabilization of the axisymmetric mode in deformable tokamak plasma. The NOVA-W code is a modification of the non-variational MHD stability code NOVA that includes the effects of resistive passive conductors and active feedback circuits. The vacuum calculation has been reformulated in terms of the perturbed poloidal flux to allow the inclusion of perturbed toroidal currents outside the plasma. The boundary condition at the plasma-vacuum interface relates the instability displacement to the perturbed poloidal flux. This allows a solution of the linear MHD stability equations with the feedback effects included. The code has been tested for the case of passive stabilization against a simplified analytic model and against a different numerical calculation for a realistic tokamak configuration. The comparisons demonstrate the accuracy of the NOVA-W results. The NOVA-W code is used to examine the effects of plasma deformability on feedback stabilization. It is seen that plasmas with shaped cross sections have unstable motion different from a rigid shift. Plasma equilibria with large triangularity show particularly significant deviations from a uniform rigid shift. Furthermore, the placement of passive conductors is shown to modify the non-rigid components of the motion in a way that reduces the stabilizing effects of these conductors. The eigenfunction is also modified under the effects of active feedback. This deformation is seen to depend strongly on the position of the flux loops. These non-rigid components of the eigenfunction always serve to reduce the stabilizing effect of the active feedback system by reducing the measurable poloidal flux at the flux-loop locations

  9. Axisymmetric MHD stability of sharp-boundary Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebhan, E.; Salat, A.

    1976-09-01

    For a sharp-boundary, constant pressure plasma model of axisymmetric equilibria the MHD stability problem of axisymmetric perturbations is solved by analytic reduction to a one-dimensional problem on the boundary and subsequent numerical treatment, using the energy principle. The stability boundaries are determined for arbitrary aspect ratio, arbitrary βsub(p) and elliptical, triangular and rectangular plasma cross-sections, wall stabilization not being taken into account. It is found that the axisymmetric stability strongly depends on the plasma shape and is almost independent of the safety factor q. (orig.) [de

  10. Axisymmetrical separator for separating particulate matter from a fluid carrying medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhardt, Hans D.

    1984-09-04

    A separator for separating particles carried in a fluid carrying medium is disclosed. The separator includes an elongated duct and associated openings incorporated in a solid body. The duct is axisymmetrical relative to its longitudinal axis, and includes a curved wall portion having a curved cross-section taken along the longitudinal axis. An axisymmetrical opening located downstream of the curved wall portion leads from the duct into an axisymmetrical channel which is substantially radially disposed relative to the longitudinal axis. Continuation of the duct downstream of the opening is a discharge portion which is substantially colinear with the longitudinal axis. In operation, a substantial majority of the fluid carrying medium leaves the duct radially through the opening and channel in a state substantially free of particles. A remaining small portion of the fluid carrying medium and a substantial majority of the particles are channelled into the discharge portion by centrifugal forces arising due to travel of the particles along the curved walls. For industrial scale separation of particles from a fluid carrying medium, such as for the clean-up of stack gases, an array of several hundred to several thousand of the separators is provided.

  11. Emergency Entry with One Control Torque: Non-Axisymmetric Diagonal Inertia Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llama, Eduardo Garcia

    2011-01-01

    In another work, a method was presented, primarily conceived as an emergency backup system, that addressed the problem of a space capsule that needed to execute a safe atmospheric entry from an arbitrary initial attitude and angular rate in the absence of nominal control capability. The proposed concept permits the arrest of a tumbling motion, orientation to the heat shield forward position and the attainment of a ballistic roll rate of a rigid spacecraft with the use of control in one axis only. To show the feasibility of such concept, the technique of single input single output (SISO) feedback linearization using the Lie derivative method was employed and the problem was solved for different number of jets and for different configurations of the inertia matrix: the axisymmetric inertia matrix (I(sub xx) > I(sub yy) = I(sub zz)), a partially complete inertia matrix with I(sub xx) > I(sub yy) > I(sub zz), I(sub xz) not = 0 and a realistic complete inertia matrix with I(sub xx) > I(sub yy) > I)sub zz), I(sub ij) not= 0. The closed loop stability of the proposed non-linear control on the total angle of attack, Theta, was analyzed through the zero dynamics of the internal dynamics for the case where the inertia matrix is axisymmetric (I(sub xx) > I(sub yy) = I(sub zz)). This note focuses on the problem of the diagonal non-axisymmetric inertia matrix (I(sub xx) > I(sub yy) > I(sub zz)), which is half way between the axisymmetric and the partially complete inertia matrices. In this note, the control law for this type of inertia matrix will be determined and its closed-loop stability will be analyzed using the same methods that were used in the other work. In particular, it will be proven that the control system is stable in closed-loop when the actuators only provide a roll torque.

  12. Rigidly foldable origami gadgets and tessellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Thomas A.; Lang, Robert J.; Magleby, Spencer P.; Howell, Larry L.

    2015-01-01

    Rigidly foldable origami allows for motion where all deflection occurs at the crease lines and facilitates the application of origami in materials other than paper. In this paper, we use a recently discovered method for determining rigid foldability to identify existing flat-foldable rigidly foldable tessellations, which are also categorized. We introduce rigidly foldable origami gadgets which may be used to modify existing tessellations or to create new tessellations. Several modified and new rigidly foldable tessellations are presented. PMID:26473037

  13. Axisymmetric Magnetic Mirror Fusion-Fission Hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martovetsky, N. N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Molvik, A. W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ryutov, D. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Simonen, T. C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-05-13

    The achieved performance of the gas dynamic trap version of magnetic mirrors and today’s technology we believe are sufficient with modest further efforts for a neutron source for material testing (Q=Pfusion/Pinput~0.1). The performance needed for commercial power production requires considerable further advances to achieve the necessary high Q>>10. An early application of the mirror, requiring intermediate performance and intermediate values of Q~1 are the hybrid applications. The Axisymmetric Mirror has a number of attractive features as a driver for a fusion-fission hybrid system: geometrical simplicity, inherently steady-state operation, and the presence of the natural divertors in the form of end tanks. This level of physics performance has the virtue of low risk and only modest R&D needed and its simplicity promises economy advantages. Operation at Q~1 allows for relatively low electron temperatures, in the range of 4 keV, for the DT injection energy ~ 80 keV. A simple mirror with the plasma diameter of 1 m and mirror-to-mirror length of 35 m is discussed. Simple circular superconducting coils are based on today’s technology. The positive ion neutral beams are similar to existing units but designed for steady state. A brief qualitative discussion of three groups of physics issues is presented: axial heat loss, MHD stability in the axisymmetric geometry, microstability of sloshing ions. Burning fission reactor wastes by fissioning actinides (transuranics: Pu, Np, Am, Cm, .. or just minor actinides: Np, Am, Cm, …) in the hybrid will multiply fusion’s energy by a factor of ~10 or more and diminish the Q needed to less than 1 to overcome the cost of recirculating power for good economics. The economic value of destroying actinides by fissioning is rather low based on either the cost of long-term storage or even deep geologic disposal so most of the revenues of hybrids will come from electrical power. Hybrids that obtain revenues from

  14. Computational study of axisymmetric modes in noncircular cross section tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.L.; Chance, M.S.; Greene, J.M.; Grimm, R.C.; Jardin, S.C.; Kerner, W.; Manickam, J.; Weimer, K.E.

    1976-09-01

    A major computational program to investigate the MHD equilibrium, stability, and nonlinear evolution properties of realistic tokamak configurations is proceeding. Preliminary application is made to the Princeton PDX device. Both axisymmetric (n = 0) modes and kink (n = 1) modes are found; the growth rates depend sensitively on the configuration. A study of the nonlinear evolution of axisymmetric modes in such a device shows that flux conservation in the vacuum region can limit their growth

  15. Rigidity-tuning conductive elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Wanliang; Diller, Stuart; Tutcuoglu, Abbas; Majidi, Carmel

    2015-06-01

    We introduce a conductive propylene-based elastomer (cPBE) that rapidly and reversibly changes its mechanical rigidity when powered with electrical current. The elastomer is rigid in its natural state, with an elastic (Young’s) modulus of 175.5 MPa, and softens when electrically activated. By embedding the cPBE in an electrically insulating sheet of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), we create a cPBE-PDMS composite that can reversibly change its tensile modulus between 37 and 1.5 MPa. The rigidity change takes ˜6 s and is initiated when a 100 V voltage drop is applied across the two ends of the cPBE film. This magnitude of change in elastic rigidity is similar to that observed in natural skeletal muscle and catch connective tissue. We characterize the tunable load-bearing capability of the cPBE-PDMS composite with a motorized tensile test and deadweight experiment. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability to control the routing of internal forces by embedding several cPBE-PDMS ‘active tendons’ into a soft robotic pneumatic bending actuator. Selectively activating the artificial tendons controls the neutral axis and direction of bending during inflation.

  16. Rigidity-tuning conductive elastomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Wanliang; Diller, Stuart; Tutcuoglu, Abbas; Majidi, Carmel

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a conductive propylene-based elastomer (cPBE) that rapidly and reversibly changes its mechanical rigidity when powered with electrical current. The elastomer is rigid in its natural state, with an elastic (Young’s) modulus of 175.5 MPa, and softens when electrically activated. By embedding the cPBE in an electrically insulating sheet of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), we create a cPBE–PDMS composite that can reversibly change its tensile modulus between 37 and 1.5 MPa. The rigidity change takes ∼6 s and is initiated when a 100 V voltage drop is applied across the two ends of the cPBE film. This magnitude of change in elastic rigidity is similar to that observed in natural skeletal muscle and catch connective tissue. We characterize the tunable load-bearing capability of the cPBE–PDMS composite with a motorized tensile test and deadweight experiment. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability to control the routing of internal forces by embedding several cPBE–PDMS ‘active tendons’ into a soft robotic pneumatic bending actuator. Selectively activating the artificial tendons controls the neutral axis and direction of bending during inflation. (paper)

  17. Axisymmetric, Ventilated Supercavitation in Unsteady, Horizontal Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Ellison; Lee, Seung-Jae; Arndt, Roger

    2012-11-01

    Drag reduction and/or speed augmentation of marine vehicles by means of supercavitation is a topic of great interest. During the initial launch of a supercavitating vehicle, an artificial supercavity is required until the vehicle can reach conditions at which a natural supercavity can be sustained. Previous studies at Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL) focused on the behavior of ventilated supercavities in steady horizontal flows. In open waters, vehicles can encounter unsteady flows, especially when traveling under waves. A study has been carried out at SAFL to investigate the effects of unsteady flow on axisymmetric supercavities. An attempt is made to duplicate sea states seen in open waters. In an effort to track cavity dimensions throughout a wave cycle, an automated cavity tracking script has been developed. Using a high speed camera and the proper software, it is possible to synchronize cavity dimensions with pressure measurements taken inside the cavity. Results regarding supercavity shape, ventilation demand, cavitation parameters and closure methods are presented. It was found that flow unsteadiness caused a decrease in the overall length of the supercavity while having only a minimal effect on the maximum diameter. The supercavity volume varied with cavitation number and a possible relationship between the two is being explored. (Supported by ONR)

  18. Pressure anisotropy stabilization of axisymmetric mirror machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1978-01-01

    The stability of a two species, anisotropic pressure, axisymmetric plasma is studied using the guiding center plasma model. Successively, asymptotic expansions are applied appropriate to a long, thin plasma, and to a plasma with flux surfaces close to cylinders. The resultant stability problem may be cast as an ordinary differential equation eigenvalue problem or as a problem in the calculus of variations. It is shown that low beta plasmas cannot be confined and be stable although plasmas may be stable in which the pressure gradients are nonzero where the pressure tends to zero. Stable profiles are given; these profiles include the possibility of field reversed regions. These stable profiles require the anisotropic species to be cold near the axis. Rather than absolute stability, a weaker condition is also considered which for fixed azimuthal mode number vertical-barmvertical-bar puts the point of accumulation of the spectrum of modes on the stable side. It is hoped that such a condition may yield systems stable to vertical-barmvertical-bar small modes although not all values of vertical-barmvertical-bar. This condition is more readily satisfied and allows more reasonable profiles near the axis

  19. A steady-state axisymmetric toroidal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, K.

    1984-01-01

    Conditions for achieving a steady state in an axisymmetric toroidal system are studied with emphasis on a very-high-beta field-reversed configuration. The analysis is carried out for the electromotive force produced by the Ohkawa current that is induced by neutral-beam injection. It turns out that, since the perpendicular component of the current j-vectorsub(perpendicular) to the magnetic field can be generated automatically by the diamagnetic effect, only the parallel component j-vectorsub(parallel) must be driven by the electromotive force. The drive of j-vectorsub(parallel) generates shear in the field line so that the pure toroidal field on the magnetic axis is rotated towards the plasma boundary and matched to the external field lines. This matching condition determines the necessary amount of injection beam current and power. It is demonstrated that a very-high-beta field-reversed configuration requires only a small amount of current-driving beam power because almost all the toroidal current except that close to the magnetic axis is carried by the diamagnetic current due to high beta. A low-beta tokamak, on the other hand, needs very high current-driving power since most of the toroidal current is composed of j-vectorsub(parallel) which must be driven by the beam. (author)

  20. Discontinuities in an axisymmetric generalized thermoelastic problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncef Aouadi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with discontinuities analysis in the temperature, displacement, and stress fields of a thick plate whose lower and upper surfaces are traction-free and subjected to a given axisymmetric temperature distribution. The analysis is carried out under three thermoelastic theories. Potential functions together with Laplace and Hankel transform techniques are used to derive the solution in the transformed domain. Exact expressions for the magnitude of discontinuities are computed by using an exact method developed by Boley (1962. It is found that there exist two coupled waves, one of which is elastic and the other is thermal, both propagating with finite speeds with exponential attenuation, and a third which is called shear wave, propagating with constant speed but with no exponential attenuation. The Hankel transforms are inverted analytically. The inversion of the Laplace transforms is carried out using the inversion formula of the transform together with Fourier expansion techniques. Numerical results are presented graphically along with a comparison of the three theories of thermoelasticity.

  1. Axisymmetric plasma equilibria in a Kerr metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsässer, Klaus

    2001-10-01

    Plasma equilibria near a rotating black hole are considered within the multifluid description. An isothermal two-component plasma with electrons and positrons or ions is determined by four structure functions and the boundary conditions. These structure functions are the Bernoulli function and the toroidal canonical momentum per mass for each species. The quasi-neutrality assumption (no charge density, no toroidal current) allows to solve Maxwell's equations analytically for any axisymmetric stationary metric, and to reduce the fluid equations to one single scalar equation for the stream function \\chi of the positrons or ions, respectively. The basic smallness parameter is the ratio of the skin depth of electrons to the scale length of the metric and fluid quantities, and, in the case of an electron-ion plasma, the mass ratio m_e/m_i. The \\chi-equation can be solved by standard methods, and simple solutions for a Kerr geometry are available; they show characteristic flow patterns, depending on the structure functions and the boundary conditions.

  2. Axisymmetric Plasma Equilibria in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsässer, Klaus

    Axisymmetric plasma equilibria near a rotating black hole are considered within the multifluid description. An isothermal two-component plasma with electrons and positrons or ions is determined by four structure functions and the boundary conditions. These structure functions are the Bernoulli function and the toroidal canonical momentum per mass for each species; they remain arbitrary if no gain and loss processes are considered, in close analogy to the free flux functions in ideal magnetohydrodynamics. Several simplifying assumptions allow the reduction of the basic equations to one single scalar equation for the stream function χ of positrons or ions, respectively, playing the rôle of the Grad/Shafranov equation in magnetohydrodynamics; in particular, Maxwell's equations can be solved analytically for a quasineutral plasma when both the charge density and the toroidal electric current density are negligible (in contrast to the Tokamak situation). The basic smallness parameter is the ratio of the skin depth of electrons to the scale length of the metric and fluid quantities, and, in the case of an electron-ion plasma, the mass ratio me/mi. The χ-equation can be solved by standard methods, and simple solutions for a Kerr geometry are available; they show characteristic flow patterns, depending on the structure functions and the boundary conditions.

  3. Solar tri-diurnal variation of cosmic rays in a wide range of rigidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, S.; Ueno, H.; Fujii, Z.; Morishita, I.; Nagashima, K.

    1985-01-01

    Solar tri-diurnal variations of cosmic rays have been analyzed in a wide range of rigidity, using data from neutron monitors, and the surface and underground muon telescopes for the period 1978-1983. The rigidity spectrum of the anisotropy in space is assumed to be of power-exponential type as (P/gamma P sub o) to the gamma exp (gamma-P/P sub o). By means of the best-fit method between the observed and the expected variations, it is obtained that the spectrum has a peak at P (=gamma P sub o) approx = 90 GV, where gamma=approx 3.0 and P sub o approx. 30 GV. The phase in space of the tri-diurnal variation is also obtained as 7.0 hr (15 hr and 23 hr LT), which is quite different from that of approx. 1 hr. arising from the axisymmetric distribution of cosmic rays with respect to the IMF.

  4. On flexible and rigid nouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Studies in Language 32-3 (2008), 727-752. Special issue: Parts of Speech: Descriptive tools, theoretical constructs Jan Rijkhoff - On flexible and rigid nouns This article argues that in addition to the flexible lexical categories in Hengeveld’s classification of parts-of-speech systems (Contentive......, Non-Verb, Modifier), there are also flexible word classes within the rigid lexical category Noun (Set Noun, Sort Noun, General Noun). Members of flexible word classes are characterized by their vague semantics, which in the case of nouns means that values for the semantic features Shape...... and Homogeneity are either left undetermined or they are specified in such a way that they do not quite match the properties of the kind of entity denoted by the flexible item in the external world. I will then argue that flexible word classes constitute a proper category (i.e. they are not the result of a merger...

  5. Functionally rigid bistable [2]rotaxanes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Sune; Leung, Ken C-F; Aprahamian, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    defines an unambiguous distance of 1.5 nm over which the ring moves between the MPTTF and NP units. The degenerate NP/NP [2]rotaxane was used to investigate the shuttling barrier by dynamic 1H NMR spectroscopy for the movement of the CBPQT4+ ring across the new rigid spacer. It is evident from...... better control over the position of the ring component in the ground state but also for control over the location of the CBPQT4+ ring during solution-state switching experiments, triggered either chemically (1H NMR) or electrochemically (cyclic voltammetry). In this instance, the use of the rigid spacer......Two-station [2]rotaxanes in the shape of a degenerate naphthalene (NP) shuttle and a nondegenerate monopyrrolotetrathiafulvalene (MPTTF)/NP redox-controllable switch have been synthesized and characterized in solution. Their dumbbell-shaped components are composed of polyether chains interrupted...

  6. Associative memory through rigid origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Arvind; Brenner, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Mechanisms such as Miura Ori have proven useful in diverse contexts since they have only one degree of freedom that is easily controlled. We combine the theory of rigid origami and associative memory in frustrated neural networks to create structures that can ``learn'' multiple generic folding mechanisms and yet can be robustly controlled. We show that such rigid origami structures can ``recall'' a specific learned mechanism when induced by a physical impulse that only need resemble the desired mechanism (i.e. robust recall through association). Such associative memory in matter, seen before in self-assembly, arises due to a balance between local promiscuity (i.e., many local degrees of freedom) and global frustration which minimizes interference between different learned behaviors. Origami with associative memory can lead to a new class of deployable structures and kinetic architectures with multiple context-dependent behaviors.

  7. Rigidity spectrum of Forbush decrease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakibara, S.; Munakata, K.; Nagashima, K.

    1985-01-01

    Using data from neutron monitors and muon telescopes at surface and underground stations, the average rigidity spectrum of Forbush decreases (Fds) during the period of 1978-1982 were obtained. Thirty eight Ed-events are classified into two groups, Hard Fd and Soft FD according to size of Fd at the Sakashita station. It is found that a spectral form of a fractional-power type (P to the-gamma sub 1 (P+P sub c) to the -gamma sub2) is more suitable than that of a power-exponential type or of a power type with an upper limiting rigidity. The best fitted spectrum of the fractional-power type is expressed by gamma sub1 = 0.37, gamma sub2 = 0.89 and P subc = 10 GV for Hard Fd and gamma sub1 = 0.77, gamma sub2 = 1.02 and P sub c - 14GV for Soft Fd

  8. Signature of Thermal Rigidity Percolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerta, Adrián

    2013-01-01

    To explore the role that temperature and percolation of rigidity play in determining the macroscopic properties, we propose a model that adds translational degrees of freedom to the spins of the well known Ising hamiltonian. In particular, the Ising model illustrate the longstanding idea that the growth of correlations on approach to a critical point could be describable in terms of the percolation of some sort of p hysical cluster . For certain parameters of this model we observe two well defined peaks of C V , that suggest the existence of two kinds of p hysical percolation , namely connectivity and rigidity percolation. Thermal fluctuations give rise to two different kinds of elementary excitations, i.e. droplets and configuron, as suggested by Angell in the framework of a bond lattice model approach. The later is reflected in the fluctuations of redundant constraints that gives stability to the structure and correlate with the order parameter

  9. Analytic modeling of axisymmetric disruption halo currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, D.A.; Kellman, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Currents which can flow in plasma facing components during disruptions pose a challenge to the design of next generation tokamaks. Induced toroidal eddy currents and both induced and conducted poloidal ''halo'' currents can produce design-limiting electromagnetic loads. While induction of toroidal and poloidal currents in passive structures is a well-understood phenomenon, the driving terms and scalings for poloidal currents flowing on open field lines during disruptions are less well established. A model of halo current evolution is presented in which the current is induced in the halo by decay of the plasma current and change in enclosed toroidal flux while being convected into the halo from the core by plasma motion. Fundamental physical processes and scalings are described in a simplified analytic version of the model. The peak axisymmetric halo current is found to depend on halo and core plasma characteristics during the current quench, including machine and plasma dimensions, resistivities, safety factor, and vertical stability growth rate. Two extreme regimes in poloidal halo current amplitude are identified depending on the minimum halo safety factor reached during the disruption. A 'type I' disruption is characterized by a minimum safety factor that remains relatively high (typically 2 - 3, comparable to the predisruption safety factor), and a relatively low poloidal halo current. A 'type II' disruption is characterized by a minimum safety factor comparable to unity and a relatively high poloidal halo current. Model predictions for these two regimes are found to agree well with halo current measurements from vertical displacement event disruptions in DIII-D [T. S. Taylor, K. H. Burrell, D. R. Baker, G. L. Jackson, R. J. La Haye, M. A. Mahdavi, R. Prater, T. C. Simonen, and A. D. Turnbull, open-quotes Results from the DIII-D Scientific Research Program,close quotes in Proceedings of the 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, Yokohama, 1998, to be published in

  10. Torsional rigidity, isospectrality and quantum graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colladay, Don; McDonald, Patrick; Kaganovskiy, Leon

    2017-01-01

    We study torsional rigidity for graph and quantum graph analogs of well-known pairs of isospectral non-isometric planar domains. We prove that such isospectral pairs are distinguished by torsional rigidity. (paper)

  11. Management of rigid post-traumatic kyphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S S; Hwa, S Y; Lin, L C; Pai, W M; Chen, P Q; Au, M K

    1996-10-01

    Rigid post-traumatic kyphosis after fracture of the thoracolumbar and lumbar spine represents a failure of initial management of the injury. Kyphosis moves the center of gravity anterior. The kyphosis and instability may result in pain, deformity, and increased neurologic deficits. Management for symptomatic post-traumatic kyphosis always has presented a challenge to orthopedic surgeons. To evaluate the surgical results of one stage posterior correction for rigid symptomatic post-traumatic kyphosis of the thoracolumbar and lumbar spine. The management for post-traumatic kyphosis remains controversial. Anterior, posterior, or combined anterior and posterior procedures have been advocated by different authors and show various degrees of success. One vertebra immediately above and below the level of the deformity was instrumented posteriorly by a transpedicular system (internal fixator AO). Posterior decompression was performed by excision of the spinal process and bilateral laminectomy. With the deformed vertebra through the pedicle, the vertebral body carefully is removed around the pedicle level, approximating a wedge shape. The extent to which the deformed vertebral body should be removed is determined by the attempted correction. Correction of the deformity is achieved by manipulation of the operating table and compression of the adjacent Schanz screws above and below the lesion. Thirteen patients with post-traumatic kyphosis with symptoms of fatigue and pain caused by slow progression of kyphotic deformities received posterior decompression, correction, and stabilization as a definitive treatment. The precorrection kyphosis ranged from 30-60 degrees, with a mean of 40 degrees +/- 10.8 degrees. After correction, kyphosis was reduced to an average of 1.5 degrees +/- 3.8 degrees, with a range from -5 degrees to 5 degrees. The average angle of correction was 38.8 degrees +/- 10.4 degrees, with a range from 25 degrees to 60 degrees. Significant difference was found

  12. Rigidity of monodromies for Appell's hypergeometric functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshishige Haraoka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For monodromy representations of holonomic systems, the rigidity can be defined. We examine the rigidity of the monodromy representations for Appell's hypergeometric functions, and get the representations explicitly. The results show how the topology of the singular locus and the spectral types of the local monodromies work for the study of the rigidity.

  13. Calculating ensemble averaged descriptions of protein rigidity without sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C González

    Full Text Available Previous works have demonstrated that protein rigidity is related to thermodynamic stability, especially under conditions that favor formation of native structure. Mechanical network rigidity properties of a single conformation are efficiently calculated using the integer body-bar Pebble Game (PG algorithm. However, thermodynamic properties require averaging over many samples from the ensemble of accessible conformations to accurately account for fluctuations in network topology. We have developed a mean field Virtual Pebble Game (VPG that represents the ensemble of networks by a single effective network. That is, all possible number of distance constraints (or bars that can form between a pair of rigid bodies is replaced by the average number. The resulting effective network is viewed as having weighted edges, where the weight of an edge quantifies its capacity to absorb degrees of freedom. The VPG is interpreted as a flow problem on this effective network, which eliminates the need to sample. Across a nonredundant dataset of 272 protein structures, we apply the VPG to proteins for the first time. Our results show numerically and visually that the rigidity characterizations of the VPG accurately reflect the ensemble averaged [Formula: see text] properties. This result positions the VPG as an efficient alternative to understand the mechanical role that chemical interactions play in maintaining protein stability.

  14. Calculating ensemble averaged descriptions of protein rigidity without sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Luis C; Wang, Hui; Livesay, Dennis R; Jacobs, Donald J

    2012-01-01

    Previous works have demonstrated that protein rigidity is related to thermodynamic stability, especially under conditions that favor formation of native structure. Mechanical network rigidity properties of a single conformation are efficiently calculated using the integer body-bar Pebble Game (PG) algorithm. However, thermodynamic properties require averaging over many samples from the ensemble of accessible conformations to accurately account for fluctuations in network topology. We have developed a mean field Virtual Pebble Game (VPG) that represents the ensemble of networks by a single effective network. That is, all possible number of distance constraints (or bars) that can form between a pair of rigid bodies is replaced by the average number. The resulting effective network is viewed as having weighted edges, where the weight of an edge quantifies its capacity to absorb degrees of freedom. The VPG is interpreted as a flow problem on this effective network, which eliminates the need to sample. Across a nonredundant dataset of 272 protein structures, we apply the VPG to proteins for the first time. Our results show numerically and visually that the rigidity characterizations of the VPG accurately reflect the ensemble averaged [Formula: see text] properties. This result positions the VPG as an efficient alternative to understand the mechanical role that chemical interactions play in maintaining protein stability.

  15. Inertial modes of rigidly rotating neutron stars in Cowling approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastaun, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we investigate inertial modes of rigidly rotating neutron stars, i.e. modes for which the Coriolis force is dominant. This is done using the assumption of a fixed spacetime (Cowling approximation). We present frequencies and eigenfunctions for a sequence of stars with a polytropic equation of state, covering a broad range of rotation rates. The modes were obtained with a nonlinear general relativistic hydrodynamic evolution code. We further show that the eigenequations for the oscillation modes can be written in a particularly simple form for the case of arbitrary fast but rigid rotation. Using these equations, we investigate some general characteristics of inertial modes, which are then compared to the numerically obtained eigenfunctions. In particular, we derive a rough analytical estimate for the frequency as a function of the number of nodes of the eigenfunction, and find that a similar empirical relation matches the numerical results with unexpected accuracy. We investigate the slow rotation limit of the eigenequations, obtaining two different sets of equations describing pressure and inertial modes. For the numerical computations we only considered axisymmetric modes, while the analytic part also covers nonaxisymmetric modes. The eigenfunctions suggest that the classification of inertial modes by the quantum numbers of the leading term of a spherical harmonic decomposition is artificial in the sense that the largest term is not strongly dominant, even in the slow rotation limit. The reason for the different structure of pressure and inertial modes is that the Coriolis force remains important in the slow rotation limit only for inertial modes. Accordingly, the scalar eigenequation we obtain in that limit is spherically symmetric for pressure modes, but not for inertial modes

  16. Geometry, rigidity, and group actions

    CERN Document Server

    Farb, Benson; Zimmer, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    The study of group actions is more than a hundred years old but remains to this day a vibrant and widely studied topic in a variety of mathematic fields. A central development in the last fifty years is the phenomenon of rigidity, whereby one can classify actions of certain groups, such as lattices in semi-simple Lie groups. This provides a way to classify all possible symmetries of important spaces and all spaces admitting given symmetries. Paradigmatic results can be found in the seminal work of George Mostow, Gergory Margulis, and Robert J. Zimmer, among others.The p

  17. Integrable motion of a vortex dipole in an axisymmetric flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutyrin, G.G.; Perrot, X.; Carton, X.

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of a self-propelling vortex dipole, embedded in an external nondivergent flow with constant potential vorticity, is studied in an equivalent-barotropic model commonly used in geophysical, astrophysical and plasma studies. In addition to the conservation of the Hamiltonian for an arbitrary point vortex dipole, it is found that the angular momentum is also conserved when the external flow is axisymmetric. This reduces the original four degrees of freedom to only two, so that the solution is expressed in quadratures. In particular, the scattering of antisymmetric dipoles approaching from the infinity is analyzed in the presence of an axisymmetric oceanic flow typical for the vicinity of isolated seamounts

  18. Gas-induced friction and diffusion of rigid rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinetz, Lukas; Hornberger, Klaus; Stickler, Benjamin A.

    2018-05-01

    We derive the Boltzmann equation for the rotranslational dynamics of an arbitrary convex rigid body in a rarefied gas. It yields as a limiting case the Fokker-Planck equation accounting for friction, diffusion, and nonconservative drift forces and torques. We provide the rotranslational friction and diffusion tensors for specular and diffuse reflection off particles with spherical, cylindrical, and cuboidal shape, and show that the theory describes thermalization, photophoresis, and the inverse Magnus effect in the free molecular regime.

  19. Influence of Initial Vorticity Distribution on Axisymmetric Vortex Breakdown and Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Larry A.

    2007-01-01

    An analytical treatment has been developed to study some of the axisymmetric vortex breakdown and reconnection fluid dynamic processes underlying body-vortex interactions that are frequently manifested in rotorcraft and propeller-driven fixed-wing aircraft wakes. In particular, the presence of negative vorticity in the inner core of a vortex filament (one example of which is examined in this paper) subsequent to "cutting" by a solid body has a profound influence on the vortex reconnection, leading to analog flow behavior similar to vortex breakdown phenomena described in the literature. Initial vorticity distributions (three specific examples which are examined) without an inner core of negative vorticity do not exhibit vortex breakdown and instead manifest diffusion-like properties while undergoing vortex reconnection. Though this work focuses on laminar vortical flow, this work is anticipated to provide valuable insight into rotary-wing aerodynamics as well as other types of vortical flow phenomena.

  20. Axisymmetric Lattice Boltzmann Model of Droplet Impact on Solid Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgamoni, Hussein; Yong, Xin

    2017-11-01

    Droplet impact is a ubiquitous fluid phenomena encountered in scientific and engineering applications such as ink-jet printing, coating, electronics manufacturing, and many others. It is of great technological importance to understand the detailed dynamics of drop impact on various surfaces. The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) emerges as an efficient method for modeling complex fluid systems involving rapidly evolving fluid-fluid and fluid-solid interfaces with complex geometries. In this work, we model droplet impact on flat solid substrates with well-defined wetting behavior using a two-phase axisymmetric LBM with high density and viscosity contrasts. We extend the two-dimensional Lee and Liu model to capture axisymmetric effect in the normal impact. First we compare the 2D axisymmetric results with the 2D and 3D results reported by Lee and Liu to probe the effect of axisymmetric terms. Then, we explore the effects of Weber number, Ohnesorge number, and droplet-surface equilibrium contact angle on the impact. The dynamic contact angle and spreading factor of the droplet during impact are investigated to qualitatively characterize the impact dynamics.

  1. Vortical motion in the head of an axisymmetric gravity current

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patterson, M.D.; Simpson, J.E.; Dalziel, S.B.; Heijst, van G.J.F.

    2006-01-01

    A series of experiments that examine the initial development of an axisymmetric gravity current have been carried out. The experiments highlight the growth of a ring vortex that dominates the dynamics of the gravity current's early time propagation. In particular, the experiments show three distinct

  2. The shape of an axisymmetric bubble in uniform motion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Axisymmetric bubble shapes; non-linear free boundary problems; surface singularity methods in potential flows. PACS Nos 47.55.Dz; 47.11.+j; 47.15.Hg. 1. .... should be fast and reasonably accurate, (c) the iterative procedure for determining .... curve while K2 is the other associated principal curvature; K2 can be deduced.

  3. Potential formation in axisymmetrized tandem mirror GAMMA 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, T.; Ichimura, M.; Inutake, M.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reports experimental results on potential formation and end plugging in the axisymmetrized tandem mirror GAMMA 10. The plugging at both ends has been achieved by a combination of neutral beams and gyrotrons. The presence of a plug potential with a thermal barrier in an axisymmetric mirror has been confirmed by direct measurement of the axial potential profile. Enhancement of axial particle confinement has been observed during the end plugging. Non-ambipolar radial transport has been greatly reduced in the axisymmetrized magnetic configuration. The potentials measured by beam probes and end loss analysers are 0.7, 0.4 and 1.1 kV in the central, barrier and plug regions, respectively. Strong end plugging is observed when the central-cell density is higher than the densities in the plug and the barrier, and the plug density remains higher than the barrier density. The plug electron temperature is higher than the central temperature. Hot electrons forming a football-shaped profile have been stably produced in the axisymmetric mirror. The beta value and the fraction of the hot electrons reach up to 5% and 0.8, respectively. Central-cell ion-cyclotron resonance heating can sustain a stable plasma with higher density and ion temperature when resonance surfaces exist in both the anchor and the central cells. (author)

  4. Edge Plasma Response to Non-Axisymmetric Fields in Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraro, N. M.; Lao, L. L.; Buttery, R. J.; Evans, T. E.; Snyder, P. B.; Wade, M.R., E-mail: ferraro@fusion.gat.com [General Atomics, San Diego (United States); Moyer, R. A.; Orlov, D. M. [University of California San Diego, La Jolla (United States); Lanctot, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: The application of non-axisymmetric fields is found to have significant effects on the transport and stability of H-mode tokamak plasmas. These effects include dramatic changes in rotation and particle transport, and may lead to the partial or complete suppression of edge-localized modes (ELMs) under some circumstances. The physical mechanism underlying these effects is presently not well understood, in large part because the response of the plasma to non- axisymmetric fields is significant and complex. Here, recent advances in modeling the plasma response to non-axisymmetric fields are discussed. Calculations using a resistive two-fluid model in diverted toroidal geometry confirm the special role of the perpendicular electron velocity in suppressing the formation of islands in the plasma. The possibility that islands form near the top of the pedestal, where the zero-crossing of the perpendicular electron velocity may coincide with a mode-rational surface, is explored, and the implications for ELM suppression are discussed. Modeling results are compared with empirical data. It is shown that numerical modeling is successful in reproducing some experimentally observed effects of applied non-axisymmetric fields on the edge temperature and density profiles. The numerical model self-consistently includes the plasma, separatrix, and scrape-off layer. Rotation and diamagnetic effects are also included self-consistently. Solutions are calculated using the M3D-C1 extended-MHD code. (and others)

  5. Modelling axisymmetric cod-ends made of different mesh types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priour, D.; Herrmann, Bent; O'Neill, F.G.

    2009-01-01

    the selectivity process has become more important. This paper presents a model of the deformation of an axisymmetric cod-end. The twine tension and the catch pressure acting on the knots of each mesh along the cod-end profile are calculated, and a Newton-Raphson scheme is used to estimate the equilibrium position...

  6. Decay of passive scalar fluctuations in axisymmetric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimatsu, Katsunori; Davidson, Peter A.; Kaneda, Yukio

    2016-11-01

    Passive scalar fluctuations in axisymmetric Saffman turbulence are examined theoretically and numerically. Theoretical predictions are verified by direct numerical simulation (DNS). According to the DNS, self-similar decay of the turbulence and the persistency of the large-scale anisotropy are found for its fully developed turbulence. The DNS confirms the time-independence of the Corrsin integral.

  7. Numerical computation of gravitational field for general axisymmetric objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Toshio

    2016-10-01

    We developed a numerical method to compute the gravitational field of a general axisymmetric object. The method (I) numerically evaluates a double integral of the ring potential by the split quadrature method using the double exponential rules, and (II) derives the acceleration vector by numerically differentiating the numerically integrated potential by Ridder's algorithm. Numerical comparison with the analytical solutions for a finite uniform spheroid and an infinitely extended object of the Miyamoto-Nagai density distribution confirmed the 13- and 11-digit accuracy of the potential and the acceleration vector computed by the method, respectively. By using the method, we present the gravitational potential contour map and/or the rotation curve of various axisymmetric objects: (I) finite uniform objects covering rhombic spindles and circular toroids, (II) infinitely extended spheroids including Sérsic and Navarro-Frenk-White spheroids, and (III) other axisymmetric objects such as an X/peanut-shaped object like NGC 128, a power-law disc with a central hole like the protoplanetary disc of TW Hya, and a tear-drop-shaped toroid like an axisymmetric equilibrium solution of plasma charge distribution in an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor-like tokamak. The method is directly applicable to the electrostatic field and will be easily extended for the magnetostatic field. The FORTRAN 90 programs of the new method and some test results are electronically available.

  8. Non-Axisymmetric Shaping of Tokamaks Preserving Quasi-Axisymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long-Poe Ku and Allen H. Boozer

    2009-06-05

    If quasi-axisymmetry is preserved, non-axisymmetric shaping can be used to design tokamaks that do not require current drive, are resilient to disruptions, and have robust plasma stability without feedback. Suggestions for addressing the critical issues of tokamaks can only be validated when presented with sufficient specificity that validating experiments can be designed. The purpose of this paper is provide that specificity for non-axisymmetric shaping. To our knowledge, no other suggestions for the solution of a number of tokamak issues, such as disruptions, have reached this level of specificity. Sequences of three-field-period quasi-axisymmetric plasmas are studied. These sequences address the questions: (1) What can be achieved at various levels of non-axisymmetric shaping? (2) What simplifications to the coils can be achieved by going to a larger aspect ratio? (3) What range of shaping can be achieved in a single experimental facility? The sequences of plasmas found in this study provide a set of interesting and potentially important configurations.

  9. ON THE COMMONALITY OF 10–30 AU SIZED AXISYMMETRIC DUST STRUCTURES IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ke; Bergin, Edwin A.; Schwarz, Kamber R.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Cleeves, L. Ilsedore; Hogerheijde, Michiel; Salinas, Vachail

    2016-01-01

    An unsolved problem in step-wise core-accretion planet formation is that rapid radial drift in gas-rich protoplanetary disks should drive millimeter-/meter-sized particles inward to the central star before large bodies can form. One promising solution is to confine solids within small-scale structures. Here, we investigate dust structures in the (sub)millimeter continuum emission of four disks (TW Hya, HL Tau, HD 163296, and DM Tau), a sample of disks with the highest spatial resolution Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations to date. We retrieve the surface brightness distributions using synthesized images and fitting visibilities with analytical functions. We find that the continuum emission of the four disks is ∼axisymmetric but rich in 10–30 AU-sized radial structures, possibly due to physical gaps, surface density enhancements, or localized dust opacity variations within the disks. These results suggest that small-scale axisymmetric dust structures are likely to be common, as a result of ubiquitous processes in disk evolution and planet formation. Compared with recent spatially resolved observations of CO snow lines in these same disks, all four systems show enhanced continuum emission from regions just beyond the CO condensation fronts, potentially suggesting a causal relationship between dust growth/trapping and snow lines

  10. ON THE COMMONALITY OF 10–30 AU SIZED AXISYMMETRIC DUST STRUCTURES IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ke; Bergin, Edwin A.; Schwarz, Kamber R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Blake, Geoffrey A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, MC 150-21, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cleeves, L. Ilsedore [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hogerheijde, Michiel; Salinas, Vachail, E-mail: kezhang@umich.edu [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2016-02-10

    An unsolved problem in step-wise core-accretion planet formation is that rapid radial drift in gas-rich protoplanetary disks should drive millimeter-/meter-sized particles inward to the central star before large bodies can form. One promising solution is to confine solids within small-scale structures. Here, we investigate dust structures in the (sub)millimeter continuum emission of four disks (TW Hya, HL Tau, HD 163296, and DM Tau), a sample of disks with the highest spatial resolution Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations to date. We retrieve the surface brightness distributions using synthesized images and fitting visibilities with analytical functions. We find that the continuum emission of the four disks is ∼axisymmetric but rich in 10–30 AU-sized radial structures, possibly due to physical gaps, surface density enhancements, or localized dust opacity variations within the disks. These results suggest that small-scale axisymmetric dust structures are likely to be common, as a result of ubiquitous processes in disk evolution and planet formation. Compared with recent spatially resolved observations of CO snow lines in these same disks, all four systems show enhanced continuum emission from regions just beyond the CO condensation fronts, potentially suggesting a causal relationship between dust growth/trapping and snow lines.

  11. Numerical simulation of water exit of an initially fully submerged buoyant spheroid in an axisymmetric flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, B Y; Wu, G X, E-mail: g.wu@ucl.ac.uk [College of Shipbuilding Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2017-08-15

    The free water exit of an initially fully submerged buoyant spheroid in an axisymmetric flow, which is driven by the difference between the vertical fluid force and gravity, is investigated. The fluid is assumed to be incompressible and inviscid, and the flow to be irrotational. The velocity potential theory is adopted together with fully nonlinear boundary conditions on the free surface. The surface tension is neglected and the pressure is taken as constant on the free surface. The acceleration of the body at each time step is obtained as part of the solution. Its nonlinear mutual dependence on the fluid force is decoupled through the auxiliary function method. The free-surface breakup by body penetration and water detachment from the body are treated through numerical conditions. The slender body theory based on the zero potential assumption on the undisturbed flat free surface is adopted, through which a condition for full water exit of a spheroid is obtained. Comparison is made between the results from the slender body theory and from the fully nonlinear theory through the boundary-element method, and good agreement is found when the spheroid is slender. Extensive case studies are undertaken to investigate the effects of body density, dimensions and the initial submergence. (paper)

  12. Remote pipeline assessment and condition monitoring using low-frequency axisymmetric waves: a theoretical study of torsional wave motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggleton, J. M.; Rustighi, E.; Gao, Y.

    2016-09-01

    Waves that propagate at low frequencies in buried pipes are of considerable interest in a variety of practical scenarios, for example leak detection, remote pipe detection, and pipeline condition assessment and monitoring. Particularly useful are the n = 0, or axisymmetric, modes in which there is no displacement (or pressure) variation over the pipe cross section. Previous work has focused on two of the three axisymmetric wavetypes that can propagate: the s = 1, fluid- dominated wave; and the s = 2, shell-dominated wave. In this paper, the third axisymmetric wavetype, the s = 0 torsional wave, is studied. Whilst there is a large body of research devoted to the study of torsional waves and their use for defect detection in pipes at ultrasonic frequencies, little is known about their behaviour and possible exploitation at lower frequencies. Here, a low- frequency analytical dispersion relationship is derived for the torsional wavenumber for a buried pipe from which both the wavespeed and wave attenuation can be obtained. How the torsional waves subsequently radiate to the ground surface is then investigated, with analytical expressions being presented for the ground surface displacement above the pipe resulting from torsional wave motion within the pipe wall. Example results are presented and, finally, how such waves might be exploited in practice is discussed.

  13. Topological orders in rigid states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, X.G.

    1990-01-01

    The authors study a new kind of ordering topological order in rigid states (the states with no local gapless excitations). This paper concentrates on characterization of the different topological orders. As an example the authors discuss in detail chiral spin states of 2+1 dimensional spin systems. Chiral spin states are described by the topological Chern-Simons theories in the continuum limit. The authors show that the topological orders can be characterized by a non-Abelian gauge structure over the moduli space which parametrizes a family of the model Hamiltonians supporting topologically ordered ground states. In 2 + 1 dimensions, the non-Abelian gauge structure determines possible fractional statistics of the quasi-particle excitations over the topologically ordered ground states. The dynamics of the low lying global excitations is shown to be independent of random spatial dependent perturbations. The ground state degeneracy and the non-Abelian gauge structures discussed in this paper are very robust, even against those perturbations that break translation symmetry. The authors also discuss the symmetry properties of the degenerate ground states of chiral spin states. The authors find that some degenerate ground states of chiral spin states on torus carry non-trivial quantum numbers of the 90 degrees rotation

  14. ANALYTIC EVALUATION OF RECTILINEARITY OF LOW RIGIDITY SHAFT DURING HARDENING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Świć

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential influence of the unevenness of temperature distribution while heating in the technological process on dimensions stability of low rigidity elements was shown. The new approach was applied to formulate mathematical models, which describe the elastic and inelastic behaviour of piece using transfer functions and block diagrams, allowing to use frequency method for evaluation of the behaviour of dynamic semi-finished element as the rigid body.

  15. Axisymmetric instability in a noncircular tokamak: experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipschultz, B.; Prager, S.C.; Todd, A.M.M.; Delucia, J.

    1979-09-01

    The stability of dee, inverse-dee and square cross section plasmas to axisymmetric modes has been investigated experimentally in Tokapole II, a tokamak with a four-null poloidal divertor. Experimental results are closely compared with predictions of two numerical stability codes -- the PEST code (ideal MHD, linear stability) adapted to tokapole geometry and a code which follows the nonlinear evolution of shapes similar to tokapole equilibria. Experimentally, the square is vertically stable and both dee's unstable to a vertical nonrigid axisymmetric shift. The central magnetic axis displacement grows exponentially with a growth time approximately 10 3 poloidal Alfven times plasma time. Proper initial positioning of the plasma on the midplane allows passive feedback to nonlinearly restore vertical motion to a small stable oscillation. Experimental poloidal flux plots are produced directly from internal magnetic probe measurements

  16. Nonconforming axisymmetric elements for the analysis of containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, C.K.; Kim, S.Y.

    1989-01-01

    In this study, the behaviors of the conforming isoparametric quadrilateral 4-node and triangular 3-nod axisymmetric solid elements are improved by adding nonconforming displacement modes. The convergence tests and the irregular mesh tests have been established through the analyses of a primary shield wall typed structure. For example study, a containment wall with internal pressure of 60 ksi has been analyzed. It shows that the nonconforming elements behave better than the conforming elements, especially, in the structurally discontinuous regions

  17. Axisymmetric MHD equilibrium solver with bicubic Hermite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luetjens, H.; Bondeson, A.; Roy, A.

    1990-05-01

    A numerical code solving axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic equilibria with rectangular bicubic Hermite elements has been developed. Two test cases are used for checking the convergence rate of the solution. The mapping of the equilibrium quantities into flux coordinates for magnetohydrodynamic stability calculation is performed by a method which preserves the convergence properties of the cubic Hermite elements. Convergence studies show the behaviour of the stability results when the equilibrium mesh is varied. (author) 13 refs., 3 tabs

  18. RESONANT ABSORPTION OF AXISYMMETRIC MODES IN TWISTED MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giagkiozis, I.; Verth, G. [Solar Plasma Physics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hounsfield Road, Hicks Building, Sheffield, S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Goossens, M.; Doorsselaere, T. Van [Centre for mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Mathematics Department, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B bus 2400, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Fedun, V. [Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Amy Johnson Building, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-01

    It has been shown recently that magnetic twist and axisymmetric MHD modes are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere, and therefore the study of resonant absorption for these modes has become a pressing issue because it can have important consequences for heating magnetic flux tubes in the solar atmosphere and the observed damping. In this investigation, for the first time, we calculate the damping rate for axisymmetric MHD waves in weakly twisted magnetic flux tubes. Our aim is to investigate the impact of resonant damping of these modes for solar atmospheric conditions. This analytical study is based on an idealized configuration of a straight magnetic flux tube with a weak magnetic twist inside as well as outside the tube. By implementing the conservation laws derived by Sakurai et al. and the analytic solutions for weakly twisted flux tubes obtained recently by Giagkiozis et al. we derive a dispersion relation for resonantly damped axisymmetric modes in the spectrum of the Alfvén continuum. We also obtain an insightful analytical expression for the damping rate in the long wavelength limit. Furthermore, it is shown that both the longitudinal magnetic field and the density, which are allowed to vary continuously in the inhomogeneous layer, have a significant impact on the damping time. Given the conditions in the solar atmosphere, resonantly damped axisymmetric modes are highly likely to be ubiquitous and play an important role in energy dissipation. We also suggest that, given the character of these waves, it is likely that they have already been observed in the guise of Alfvén waves.

  19. Elastoplastic buckling of quasi axisymmetric shells of revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combescure, A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper gives the formulation of a finite element which allows the computation of quasi axisymmetric shells of revolution. This element has two nodes and the displacement field is developped in Fourier series. In this paper, an emphasis is put on the elastic and plastic buckling formulation. Two examples are developped in details showing the applicability and the interest of such a finite element. (orig.)

  20. Numerical methods for axisymmetric and 3D nonlinear beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinton, Gianmarco F.; Trahey, Gregg E.

    2005-04-01

    Time domain algorithms that solve the Khokhlov--Zabolotzskaya--Kuznetsov (KZK) equation are described and implemented. This equation represents the propagation of finite amplitude sound beams in a homogenous thermoviscous fluid for axisymmetric and fully three dimensional geometries. In the numerical solution each of the terms is considered separately and the numerical methods are compared with known solutions. First and second order operator splitting are used to combine the separate terms in the KZK equation and their convergence is examined.

  1. A Family of Vortices to Study Axisymmetric Vortex Breakdown and Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Larry A.

    2007-01-01

    A new analytic model describing a family of vortices has been developed to study some of the axisymmetric vortex breakdown and reconnection fluid dynamic processes underlying body-vortex interactions that are frequently manifested in rotorcraft and propeller-driven fixed-wing aircraft wakes. The family of vortices incorporates a wide range of prescribed initial vorticity distributions -- including single or dual-core vorticity distributions. The result is analytical solutions for the vorticity and velocities for each member of the family of vortices. This model is of sufficient generality to further illustrate the dependence of vortex reconnection and breakdown on initial vorticity distribution as was suggested by earlier analytical work. This family of vortices, though laminar in nature, is anticipated to provide valuable insight into the vortical evolution of large-scale rotor and propeller wakes.

  2. Modified k-l model and its ability to simulate supersonic axisymmetric turbulent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadikia, H.; Shirani, E.

    2001-05-01

    The k-l turbulence model is a promising two-equation model. In this paper, the k and l model equations were derived from k-kl incompressible and one-equation turbulent models. Then the model was modified for compressible and transitional flows, and was applied to simulate supersonic axisymmetric flows over Hollow cylinder flare an hyperboloid flare bodies. The results were compared with the results obtained for the same flows experimentally as well as k-ε, k-ω and Baldwin-Lomax models. It was shown that the k-l model produces good results compared with experimental data and numerical data obtained when other turbulence models were used. It gives better results than k-ω and k-ε models in some cases. (author)

  3. Experimental and numerical studies on super-cavitating flow of axisymmetric cavitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Kwon Ahn

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently underwater systems moving at high speed such as a super-cavitating torpedo have been studied for their practical advantage of the dramatic drag reduction. In this study we are focusing our attention on super-cavitating flows around axisymmetric cavitators. A numerical method based on inviscid flow is developed and the results for several shapes of the cavitator are presented. First using a potential based boundary element method, we find the shape of the cavitator yielding a sufficiently large enough cavity to surround the body. Second, numerical predictions of supercavity are validated by comparing with experimental observations carried out in a high speed cavitation tunnel at Chungnam National University (CNU CT.

  4. Modeling axisymmetric flows dynamics of films, jets, and drops

    CERN Document Server

    Middleman, Stanley

    1995-01-01

    This concise book is intended to fulfill two purposes: to provide an important supplement to classic texts by carrying fluid dynamics students on into the realm of free boundary flows; and to demonstrate the art of mathematical modeling based on knowledge, intuition, and observation. In the authors words, the overall goal is make the complex simple, without losing the essence--the virtue--of the complexity.Modeling Axisymmetric Flows: Dynamics of Films, Jets, and Drops is the first book to cover the topics of axisymmetric laminar flows; free-boundary flows; and dynamics of drops, jets, and films. The text also features comparisons of models to experiments, and it includes a large selection of problems at the end of each chapter.Key Features* Contains problems at the end of each chapter* Compares real-world experimental data to theory* Provides one of the first comprehensive examinations of axisymmetric laminar flows, free-boundary flows, and dynamics of drops, jets, and films* Includes development of basic eq...

  5. Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic High Frequency Axisymmetric Cavity Scars.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt

    2014-10-01

    This report examines the localization of high frequency electromagnetic fi elds in three-dimensional axisymmetric cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This report treats both the case where the opposing sides, or mirrors, are convex, where there are no interior foci, and the case where they are concave, leading to interior foci. The scalar problem is treated fi rst but the approximations required to treat the vector fi eld components are also examined. Particular att ention is focused on the normalization through the electromagnetic energy theorem. Both projections of the fi eld along the scarred orbit as well as point statistics are examined. Statistical comparisons are m ade with a numerical calculation of the scars run with an axisymmetric simulation. This axisymmetric cas eformstheoppositeextreme(wherethetwomirror radii at each end of the ray orbit are equal) from the two -dimensional solution examined previously (where one mirror radius is vastly di ff erent from the other). The enhancement of the fi eldontheorbitaxiscanbe larger here than in the two-dimensional case. Intentionally Left Blank

  6. Options for axisymmetric operation of MFTF-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenstermacher, M.E.; Devoto, R.S.; Thomassen, K.I.

    1986-01-01

    The flexibility of MFTF-B for axisymmetric experiments has been investigated. Interhcanging the axicell coils and increasing their separation results in an axisymmetric plug cell with 12:1 and 6:1 inner and outer mirror ratios, respectively. For axisymmetric operation, the sloshing-ion neutral beams, ECRH gyrotrons, and the pumping system would be moved to the axicell. Stabilization by E-rings could be explored in this configuration. With the addition of octopole magnets, off-axis multipole stabilization could also be tested. Operating points for octopole and E-ring-stabilized configurations with properties similar to those of the quadrupole MFTF-B, namely T/sub ic/ = 10 - 15 keV and n/sub c/ approx. = 3 x 10 13 cm -3 , have been obtained. Because of the negligible radial transport of central-cell ions, the required neutral-beam power in the central cell has been dramatically reduced. In addition, because MHD stabilization is achieved by off-axis hot electrons in both cases, much lower barrier beta is possible, which aids in reducing the barrier ECRH power. Total ECRH power in the end cell is projected to be approx. =1 MW. Possible operating points for both octopole and E-ring configurations are described along with the stability considerations involved

  7. Stability analysis of non-axisymmetric three-dimensional finite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present work explores the use of mass-lumping in stability ... further considers orthotropic flexible support which makes the stiffness matrix a ... symmetric rotor on rigid, isotropic and orthotropic bearing is stable in absence of a destabilizing.

  8. GPU-based discrete element rigid body transport

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, Nicolin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available . For applications in coastal engineering and also in pavement engineering, the capture of particle shapes as polyhedra rather than clumped spheres is particularly important. The development of a Discrete Element Model applicable to both fields, and to industrial...

  9. Unsteady Transonic Flow Past Airfoils in Rigid Body Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    number of lower surface coordinates. For ISYM = 1, NL = NU even thouqh no lower surface coordinates are given. NX The number of mesh cells in the...direction of the chord used at the start of the calculation. NX = 0 causes termination of the program. Ny The number of mesh cells in the direction normal...3) 4 LL SY’ieLL L.,C., .C7, li.,-l) CALL SYM L L (-.2 ,C., .14, £PILp., 2) CALL PLCT( C.,...,?) .ALL PLUT C , (I), 1CPCAL"IC (1, ),2) C L j NT1 NUE

  10. Reorientation of Asymmetric Rigid Body Using Two Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghoon Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most spacecrafts are designed to be maneuvered to achieve pointing goals. This is accomplished usually by designing a three-axis control system, which can achieve arbitrary maneuvers, where the goal is to repoint the spacecraft and match a desired angular velocity at the end of the maneuver. New control laws are required, however, if one of the three-axis control actuators fails. This paper explores suboptimal maneuver strategies when only two control torque inputs are available. To handle this underactuated system control problem, the three-axis maneuver strategy is transformed to two successive independent submaneuver strategies. The first maneuver is conducted on one of the available torque axes. Next, the second maneuver is conducted on the torque available plane using two available control torques. However, the resulting control law is more complicated than the general three-axis control law. This is because an optimal switch time needs to be found for determining the end time for the single-axis maneuver or the start time for the second maneuver. Numerical simulation results are presented that compare optimal maneuver strategies for both nominal and failed actuator cases.

  11. Efficiency of wave-driven rigid body rotation toroidal confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rax, J. M.; Gueroult, R.; Fisch, N. J.

    2017-03-01

    The compensation of vertical drifts in toroidal magnetic fields through a wave-driven poloidal rotation is compared with compensation through the wave driven toroidal current generation to support the classical magnetic rotational transform. The advantages and drawbacks associated with the sustainment of a radial electric field are compared with those associated with the sustainment of a poloidal magnetic field both in terms of energy content and power dissipation. The energy content of a radial electric field is found to be smaller than the energy content of a poloidal magnetic field for a similar set of orbits. The wave driven radial electric field generation efficiency is similarly shown, at least in the limit of large aspect ratio, to be larger than the efficiency of wave-driven toroidal current generation.

  12. Hamiltonian Dynamics of Spider-Type Multirotor Rigid Bodies Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doroshin, Anton V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper sets out to develop a spider-type multiple-rotor system which can be used for attitude control of spacecraft. The multirotor system contains a large number of rotor-equipped rays, so it was called a 'Spider-type System', also it can be called 'Rotary Hedgehog'. These systems allow using spinups and captures of conjugate rotors to perform compound attitude motion of spacecraft. The paper describes a new method of spacecraft attitude reorientation and new mathematical model of motion in Hamilton form. Hamiltonian dynamics of the system is investigated with the help of Andoyer-Deprit canonical variables. These variables allow obtaining exact solution for hetero- and homoclinic orbits in phase space of the system motion, which are very important for qualitative analysis.

  13. Quaternion Feedback Control for Rigid-body Spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans-Christian Becker; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses three-axis attitude control for a Danish spacecraft, Roemer. The algorithm proposed is based on an approximation of the exact feedback linearisation for quaternionic attitude representation. The proposed attitude controller is tested in a simulation study. The environmental...

  14. Analysis of Switched-Rigid Floating Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar R. Marur

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In explicit finite element simulations, a technique called deformable-to-rigid (D2R switching is used routinely to reduce the computation time. Using the D2R option, the deformable parts in the model can be switched to rigid and reverted back to deformable when needed during the analysis. The time of activation of D2R however influences the overall dynamics of the system being analyzed. In this paper, a theoretical basis for the selection of time of rigid switching based on system energy is established. A floating oscillator problem is investigated for this purpose and closed-form analytical expressions are derived for different phases in rigid switching. The analytical expressions are validated by comparing the theoretical results with numerical computations.

  15. Rigid pricing and rationally inattentive consumer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip

    158 B, July (2015), s. 656-678 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : rational inattention * imperfect information * nominal rigidity Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  16. Rigid pricing and rationally inattentive consumer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip

    158 B, July (2015), s. 656-678 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : rational inattention * imperfect information * nominal rigidity Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  17. Soft soils reinforced by rigid vertical inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia-Victoria NEAGOE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement of soft soils by rigid vertical inclusions is an increasingly used technique over the last few years. The system consists of rigid or semi-rigid vertical inclusions and a granular platform for the loads transfer from the structure to the inclusions. This technique aims to reduce the differential settlements both at ground level as below the structure. Reinforcement by rigid inclusions is mainly used for foundation works for large commercial and industrial platforms, storage tanks, wastewater treatment plants, wind farms, bridges, roads, railway embankments. The subject is one of interest as it proves the recently concerns at international level in research and design; however, most studies deal more with the static behavior and less with the dynamic one.

  18. Analysis of axisymmetric shells subjected to asymmetric loads using field consistent shear flexible curved element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakrishna, C; Sarma, B S [Defence Research and Development Laboratory, Hyderabad (India)

    1989-02-01

    A formulation for axisymmetric shell analysis under asymmetric load based on Fourier series representation and using field consistent 3 noded curved axisymmetric shell element is presented. Different field inconsistent/consistent interpolations for an element based on shear flexible theory have been studied for thick and thin shells under asymmetric loads. Various examples covering axisymmetric as well as asymmetric loading cases have been analyzed and numerical results show a good agreement with the available results in the case of thin shells. 12 refs.

  19. Crack identification for rigid pavements using unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaddin Ersoz, Ahmet; Pekcan, Onur; Teke, Turker

    2017-09-01

    Pavement condition assessment is an essential piece of modern pavement management systems as rehabilitation strategies are planned based upon its outcomes. For proper evaluation of existing pavements, they must be continuously and effectively monitored using practical means. Conventionally, truck-based pavement monitoring systems have been in-use in assessing the remaining life of in-service pavements. Although such systems produce accurate results, their use can be expensive and data processing can be time consuming, which make them infeasible considering the demand for quick pavement evaluation. To overcome such problems, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can be used as an alternative as they are relatively cheaper and easier-to-use. In this study, we propose a UAV based pavement crack identification system for monitoring rigid pavements’ existing conditions. The system consists of recently introduced image processing algorithms used together with conventional machine learning techniques, both of which are used to perform detection of cracks on rigid pavements’ surface and their classification. Through image processing, the distinct features of labelled crack bodies are first obtained from the UAV based images and then used for training of a Support Vector Machine (SVM) model. The performance of the developed SVM model was assessed with a field study performed along a rigid pavement exposed to low traffic and serious temperature changes. Available cracks were classified using the UAV based system and obtained results indicate it ensures a good alternative solution for pavement monitoring applications.

  20. Flexible and rigid cystoscopy in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Jason R; Waterman, Bradley J; Jarrard, David F; Hedican, Sean P; Bruskewitz, Reginald C; Nakada, Stephen Y

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have evaluated the tolerability of rigid versus flexible cystoscopy in men. Similar studies, however, have not been performed in women. We sought to determine whether office-based flexible cystoscopy was better tolerated than rigid cystoscopy in women. Following full IRB approval, women were prospectively randomized in a single-blind manner. Patients were randomized to flexible or rigid cystoscopy and draped in the lithotomy position to maintain blinding of the study. Questionnaires evaluated discomfort before, during, and after cystoscopy. Thirty-six women were randomized to flexible (18) or rigid (18) cystoscopy. Indications were surveillance (16), hematuria (15), recurrent UTIs (2), voiding dysfunction (1), and other (2). All questionnaires were returned by 31/36 women. Using a 10-point visual analog scale (VAS), median discomfort during the procedure for flexible and rigid cystoscopy were 1.4 and 1.8, respectively, in patients perceiving pain. Median recalled pain 1 week later was similar at 0.8 and 1.15, respectively. None of these differences were statistically significant. Flexible and rigid cystoscopy are well tolerated in women. Discomfort during and after the procedure is minimal in both groups. Urologists should perform either procedure in women based on their preference and skill level.

  1. Axisymmetric Vibration of Piezo-Lemv Composite Hollow Multilayer Cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Nehru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Axisymmetric vibration of an infinite piezolaminated multilayer hollow cylinder made of piezoelectric layers of 6 mm class and an isotropic LEMV (Linear Elastic Materials with Voids layers is studied. The frequency equations are obtained for the traction free outer surface with continuity conditions at the interfaces. Numerical results are carried out for the inner, middle, and outer hollow piezoelectric layers bonded by LEMV (It is hypothetical material layers and the dispersion curves are compared with that of a similar 3-layer model and of 3 and 5 layer models with inner, middle, and outer hollow piezoelectric layers bonded by CFRP (Carbon fiber reinforced plastics.

  2. Whether diffusion in axisymmetric confinement systems is intrinsically ambipolar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovrizhnykh, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    The problem of diffusion ambipolarity in axisymmetric magnetic systems is analyzed. The question is discussed of whether diffusion is intrinsically ambipolar (and if so, then in which particular cases) or the ambipolarity constraint is an additional independent condition, which does not follow from the equations of motion and, hence, contains new information. It is shown that the second assertion is correct: strictly speaking, diffusion can never be intrinsically ambipolar, and, in the presence of several different mechanisms causing electron and ion losses across the magnetic field, only the total fluxes, but not the partial ones, should satisfy the ambipolarity constraint. (UK)

  3. Fusion-product transport in axisymmetric tokamaks: losses and thermalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hively, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    High-energy fusion-product losses from an axisymmetric tokamak plasma are studied. Prompt-escape loss fluxes (i.e. prior to slowing down) are calculated including the non-separable dependence of flux as a function of poloidal angle and local angle-of-incidence at the first wall. Fusion-product (fp) thermalization and heating are calculated assuming classical slowing down. The present analytical model describes fast ion orbits and their distribution function in realistic, high-β, non-circular tokamak equilibria. First-orbit losses, trapping effects, and slowing-down drifts are also treated

  4. A high-precision algorithm for axisymmetric flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gokhman

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new algorithm for highly accurate computation of axisymmetric potential flow. The principal feature of the algorithm is the use of orthogonal curvilinear coordinates. These coordinates are used to write down the equations and to specify quadrilateral elements following the boundary. In particular, boundary conditions for the Stokes' stream-function are satisfied exactly. The velocity field is determined by differentiating the stream-function. We avoid the use of quadratures in the evaluation of Galerkin integrals, and instead use splining of the boundaries of elements to take the double integrals of the shape functions in closed form. This is very accurate and not time consuming.

  5. Preserving spherical symmetry in axisymmetric coordinates for diffusion problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, T. A.; Kolev, T. V.; Bailey, T. S.; Till, A. T.

    2013-01-01

    Persevering symmetric solutions, even in the under-converged limit, is important to the robustness of production simulation codes. We explore the symmetry preservation in both a continuous nodal and a mixed finite element method. In their standard formulation, neither method preserves spherical solution symmetry in axisymmetric (RZ) coordinates. We propose two methods, one for each family of finite elements, that recover spherical symmetry for low-order finite elements on linear or curvilinear meshes. This is a first step toward understanding achieving symmetry for higher-order elements. (authors)

  6. SIGMARZ, Stress Analysis of Axisymmetric or Plane Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    1 - Nature of the physical problem solved: Classic stress analysis program for axisymmetric or plane geometric structures. 2 - Method of solution: The finite element method is used. Input are the finite element nodes, the imposed displacements, the applied forces at the nodes and the volumetric distributed forces. The linear equation system is solved by the Cholesky method. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maximum number of nodes: 800; Maximum number of elements: 1300; Maximum number of displacements: 300; Maximum band width: 72

  7. Modelling Acoustic Wave Propagation in Axisymmetric Varying-Radius Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bæk, David; Willatzen, Morten

    2008-01-01

    A computationally fast and accurate model (a set of coupled ordinary differential equations) for fluid sound-wave propagation in infinite axisymmetric waveguides of varying radius is proposed. The model accounts for fluid heat conduction and fluid irrotational viscosity. The model problem is solved...... by expanding solutions in terms of cross-sectional eigenfunctions following Stevenson’s method. A transfer matrix can be easily constructed from simple model responses of a given waveguide and later used in computing the response to any complex wave input. Energy losses due to heat conduction and viscous...

  8. An axisymmetric PFEM formulation for bottle forming simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhakov, Pavel B.

    2017-01-01

    A numerical model for bottle forming simulation is proposed. It is based upon the Particle Finite Element Method (PFEM) and is developed for the simulation of bottles characterized by rotational symmetry. The PFEM strategy is adapted to suit the problem of interest. Axisymmetric version of the formulation is developed and a modified contact algorithm is applied. This results in a method characterized by excellent computational efficiency and volume conservation characteristics. The model is validated. An example modelling the final blow process is solved. Bottle wall thickness is estimated and the mass conservation of the method is analysed.

  9. Axisymmetric tandem mirror stabilized by a magnetic limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesner, J.; Post, R.S.; Lane, B.

    1985-06-01

    In order to stabilize MHD-like, fast growing m = 1 fluctuations in the central cell of a tandem mirror we propose the introduction of a magnetic limiter. The magnetic limiter would create a ring null in the magnetic field. Electrons which enter the null can stream azimuthally and thereby ''short-circuit'' m = 1 fluctuations. Some pressure could be maintained on the separatrix flux surface by locating the null on a local magnetic maxima or by axial plugging. This scheme introduces the possibility of a fully axisymmetric tandem mirror

  10. Flow in axisymmetric expansion in a catalytic converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, Erik; Meyer, Knud Erik

    The flow in an axisymmetric expansion (circular diffusor) is used in many different engineering applications, such as heat exchangers, catalytic converters and filters. These applications require a relatively uniform flow at the inlet. To minimise the pressure loss, an ideal solution would...... Velocimetry (PIV) is a unique method that resolve the entire cross flow. This type of flow is expected to have a fluctuating ‘jet’-like structure from the smaller inlet pipe into the larger converter. The fluctuations of the jet are difficult, if not impossible, to capture with standard time averaged models...

  11. Therapeutic rigid bronchoscopy at a tertiary care center in North India: Initial experience and systematic review of Indian literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan Madan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Rigid bronchoscopy is often an indispensable procedure in the therapeutic management of a wide variety of tracheobronchial disorders. However, it is performed at only a few centers in adult patients in India. Herein, we report our initial 1-year experience with this procedure. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study on the indications, outcomes, and safety of various rigid bronchoscopy procedures performed between November 2009 and October 2010. Improvement in dyspnea, cough, and the overall quality of life was recorded on a visual analog scale from 0 to 100 mm. A systematic review of PubMed was performed to identify studies reporting the use of rigid bronchoscopy from India. Results: Thirty-eight rigid bronchoscopies (50 procedures were performed in 19 patients during the study period. The commonest indication was benign tracheal stenosis followed by central airway tumor, and the procedures performed were rigid bronchoplasty, tumor debulking, and stent placement. The median procedure duration was 45 (range, 30-65 min. There was significant improvement in quality of life associated with therapeutic rigid bronchoscopy. Minor procedural complications were encountered in 18 bronchoscopies, and there was no procedural mortality. The systematic review identified 15 studies, all on the role of rigid bronchoscopy in foreign body removal. Conclusions: Rigid bronchoscopy is a safe and effective modality for treatment of a variety of tracheobronchial disorders. There is a dire need of rigid bronchoscopy training at teaching hospitals in India.

  12. Low beta rigid mode stability criterion for an arbitrary Larmor radius plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Wong, H.V.

    1987-05-01

    The low beta flute interchange dispersion relation for rigid displacement perturbation of axisymmetric plasma equilibria with arbitrary Larmor radius particles and field line curvature, large compared to the plasma radius, is derived. The equilibrium particle orbits are characterized by two constants of motion, energy and angular momentum, and a third adiabatic invariant derived from the rapid radial motion. The Vlasov equation is integrated, assuming that the mode frequency, axial ''bounce'' frequency, and particle drift frequency are small compared to the cyclotron frequency, and it is demonstrated that the plasma response to a rigid perturbation has a universal character independent of Larmor radius. As a result the interchange instability is the same as that predicted from conventional MHD theory. However, a new prediction, more optimistic than earlier work, is found for the low density threshold of systems like Migma, which are disc-shaped, that is, the axial extent Δz is less than the radial extent r 0 . For Δz/sub r 0 / much less than 1, the stability criterion is determined by the total particle number. Whereas the older theory (Δz/sub r 0 / much greater than 1) predicted instability at about the densities achieved in actual Migma experiments, the present theory (Δz/sub r 0 / much less than 1) indicates that the experimental results were for plasmas with particle number below the interchange threshold

  13. Identifying Floppy and Rigid Regions in Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, D. J.; Thorpe, M. F.; Kuhn, L. A.

    1998-03-01

    In proteins it is possible to separate hard covalent forces involving bond lengths and bond angles from other weak forces. We model the microstructure of the protein as a generic bar-joint truss framework, where the hard covalent forces and strong hydrogen bonds are regarded as rigid bar constraints. We study the mechanical stability of proteins using FIRST (Floppy Inclusions and Rigid Substructure Topography) based on a recently developed combinatorial constraint counting algorithm (the 3D Pebble Game), which is a generalization of the 2D pebble game (D. J. Jacobs and M. F. Thorpe, ``Generic Rigidity: The Pebble Game'', Phys. Rev. Lett.) 75, 4051-4054 (1995) for the special class of bond-bending networks (D. J. Jacobs, "Generic Rigidity in Three Dimensional Bond-bending Networks", Preprint Aug (1997)). This approach is useful in identifying rigid motifs and flexible linkages in proteins, and thereby determines the essential degrees of freedom. We will show some preliminary results from the FIRST analysis on the myohemerythrin and lyozyme proteins.

  14. Analysis of axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric wave propagation in a homogeneous piezoelectric solid circular cylinder of transversely isotropic material

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shatalov, MY

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available artefacts. An elaborate discussion of these artefacts is given by Yenwong-Fai, (Yenwong-Fai, 2008). These artefacts could be simply detected and eliminated from the dispersion plots by program tools.Our algorithm, as it has been implemented, does.... Arthur G. Every and our student Alfred S. Yenwong-Fai participating in the investigation of the non-axisymmetric case of the piezoelectric cylinder vibrations (Shatalov, et al. 2009). I also want to thank Mr. Yuri M. Shatalov who investigated...

  15. Identification of multiple modes of axisymmetric or circularly repetitive structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopff, P.

    1983-01-01

    The axisymmetric structures, or those composed with circularly repetitive elements, often display multiple modes, which are not easy to separate by modal identification of experimental responses. To be able to solve in situ some problems related to the vibrational behaviour of reactor vessels or other such huge structures, ELECTRICITY DE FRANCE developed a few years ago, experimental capabilities providing heavy harmonic driving forces, and elaborate data acquisition, signal processing and modal identification software, self-contained in an integrated mobile test facility. The modal analysis techniques we have developed with the LABORATOIRE DE MECANIQUE Appliquee of University of BESANCON (FRANCE) were especially suited for identification of multiple or separation of quasi-multiple modes, i.e. very close and strongly coupled resonances. Besides, the curve fitting methods involved, compute the same complex eigen-frequencies for all the vibration pick-ups, for better accuracy of the related eigen-vector components. Moreover, the latest extensions of these algorithms give us the means to deal with non-linear behaviour. The performances of these programs are drawn from some experimental results on axisymmetric or circularly repetitive structure, we tested in our laboratory to validate the computational hypothesis used in models for seismic responses of breeder reactor vessels. (orig.)

  16. Stress analysis in a non axisymmetric loaded reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Levi Barcelos; Assis, Gracia Menezes V. de; Miranda, Carlos Alexandre J.; Cruz, Julio Ricardo B.; Mattar Neto, Miguel

    1995-01-01

    In this work we intend to present the stress analysis of a PWR vessel under postulated concentrated loads. The vessel was modeled with Axisymmetric solid 4 nodes harmonic finite elements with the use of the ANSYS program, version 5.0. The bolts connecting the vessel flanges were modeled with beam elements. Some considerations were made to model the contact between the flanges. The perforated part of the vessel tori spherical head was modeled (with reduced properties due to its holes) to introduce its stiffness and loads but was not within the scope of this work. The loading consists of some usual ones, as pressure, dead weight, bolts preload, seismic load and some postulated ones as concentrated loads, over the vessel, modeled by Fourier Series. The results in the axisymmetric model are taken in terms of linearized stresses, obtained in some circumferential positions and for each position, in some sections along the vessel. Using the ASME Code (Section III, Division 1, Sub-section NB) the stresses are within the allowable limits. In order to draw some conclusions about stress linearization, the membrane plus bending stresses (Pl + Pb) are obtained and compared in some sections, using three different methods. (author)

  17. Hot Wire Measurements in a Axisymmetric Shear Layer with Swirl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, D.; Pollard, A.

    1996-11-01

    It is well known that the introduction of swirl in an axisymmetric jet can influence the development of and mixing in the near field of the jet. Recent efforts to compute this flow have demonstrated that the development of the near field is dependent on parameters at the jet outlet other than distribution of the swirl component, such as the distribution the mean radial velocity (Xai, J.L., Smith, B.L., Benim, A. C., Schmidli, J., and Yadigaroglu, G. (1996) Influence of Boundary Conditions on Swirling Flow in Combustors, Proc. ASME Fluid. Eng. Div. Summer Meeting), San Diego, Ca., July 7-11.. An experimental rig has been designed to produce co-axial round and annular swirling jets with uniform outlet conditions in each flow. The flow rate and swirl component from each of these jets can be controlled independently and the rig can be configured to produce both co- and counter-swirling flows. Thus, the rig can be used to carry out an extensive investigation of the effect of swirl on the development of axisymmetric flows. The key design features of the rig and the first sets of hot-wire measurements in the shear layer will be reported here.

  18. SEAWAT-based simulation of axisymmetric heat transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbohede, Alexander; Louwyck, Andy; Vlamynck, Nele

    2014-01-01

    Simulation of heat transport has its applications in geothermal exploitation of aquifers and the analysis of temperature dependent chemical reactions. Under homogeneous conditions and in the absence of a regional hydraulic gradient, groundwater flow and heat transport from or to a well exhibit radial symmetry, and governing equations are reduced by one dimension (1D) which increases computational efficiency importantly. Solute transport codes can simulate heat transport and input parameters may be modified such that the Cartesian geometry can handle radial flow. In this article, SEAWAT is evaluated as simulator for heat transport under radial flow conditions. The 1971, 1D analytical solution of Gelhar and Collins is used to compare axisymmetric transport with retardation (i.e., as a result of thermal equilibrium between fluid and solid) and a large diffusion (conduction). It is shown that an axisymmetric simulation compares well with a fully three dimensional (3D) simulation of an aquifer thermal energy storage systems. The influence of grid discretization, solver parameters, and advection solution is illustrated. Because of the high diffusion to simulate conduction, convergence criterion for heat transport must be set much smaller (10(-10) ) than for solute transport (10(-6) ). Grid discretization should be considered carefully, in particular the subdivision of the screen interval. On the other hand, different methods to calculate the pumping or injection rate distribution over different nodes of a multilayer well lead to small differences only. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  19. Axisymmetric magnetic mirrors for plasma confinement. Recent development and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruglyakov, E.P.; Dimov, G.I.; Ivanov, A.A.; Koidan, V.S.

    2003-01-01

    Mirrors are the only one class of fusion systems which completely differs topologically from the systems with closed magnetic configurations. At present, three modern types of different mirror machines for plasma confinement and heating exist in Novosibirsk (Gas Dynamic Trap,- GDT, Multi-mirror,- GOL-3, and Tandem Mirror,- AMBAL-M). All these systems are attractive from the engineering point of view because of very simple axisymmetric geometry of magnetic configurations. In the present paper, the status of different confinement systems is presented. The experiments most crucial for the mirror concept are described such as a demonstration of different principles of suppression of electron heat conductivity (GDT, GOL-3), finding of MHD stable regimes of plasma confinement in axisymmetric geometry of magnetic field (GDT, AMBAL-M), an effective heating of a dense plasma by relativistic electron beam (GOL-3), observation of radial diffusion of quiescent plasma with practically classical diffusion coefficient (AMBAL-M), etc. It should be mentioned that on the basis of the GDT it is possible to make a very important intermediate step. Using 'warm' plasma and oblique injection of fast atoms of D and T one can create a powerful 14 MeV neutron source with a moderate irradiation area (about 1 square meter) and, accordingly, with low tritium consumption. The main plasma parameters achieved are presented and the future perspectives of different mirror machines are outlined. (author)

  20. Topological Fluid Mechanics with Applications to Free Surfaces and Axisymmetric Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Morten

    1996-01-01

    Topological fluid mechanics is the study of qualitative features of fluid patterns. We discuss applications to the flow beneath a stagnant surface film, and to patterns in axisymmetric flow.......Topological fluid mechanics is the study of qualitative features of fluid patterns. We discuss applications to the flow beneath a stagnant surface film, and to patterns in axisymmetric flow....

  1. Durable bistable auxetics made of rigid solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xiao; Liu, Lu; Rafsanjani, Ahmad; Pasini, Damiano

    2018-02-01

    Bistable Auxetic Metamaterials (BAMs) are a class of monolithic perforated periodic structures with negative Poisson's ratio. Under tension, a BAM can expand and reach a second state of equilibrium through a globally large shape transformation that is ensured by the flexibility of its elastomeric base material. However, if made from a rigid polymer, or metal, BAM ceases to function due to the inevitable rupture of its ligaments. The goal of this work is to extend the unique functionality of the original kirigami architecture of BAM to a rigid solid base material. We use experiments and numerical simulations to assess performance, bistability and durability of rigid BAMs at 10,000 cycles. Geometric maps are presented to elucidate the role of the main descriptors of BAM architecture. The proposed design enables the realization of BAM from a large palette of materials, including elastic-perfectly plastic materials and potentially brittle materials.

  2. Effect of rigid inclusions on sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahaman, M.N.; De Jonghe, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    The predictions of recent theoretical studies on the effect of inert, rigid inclusions on the sintering of ceramic powder matrices are examined and compared with experimental data. The densification of glass matrix composites with inclusion volume fractions of ≤0.15 can be adequately explained by Scherer's theory for viscous sintering with rigid inclusions. Inclusions cause a vast reduction in the densification rates of polycrystalline matrix composites even at low inclusion volume fractions. Models put forward to explain the sintering of polycrystalline matrix composites are discussed

  3. Type number and rigidity of fibred surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov, P E

    2001-01-01

    Infinitesimal l-th order bendings, 1≤l≤∞, of higher-dimensional surfaces are considered in higher-dimensional flat spaces (for l=∞ an infinitesimal bending is assumed to be an analytic bending). In terms of the Allendoerfer type number, criteria are established for the (r,l)-rigidity (in the terminology of Sabitov) of such surfaces. In particular, an (r,l)-infinitesimal analogue is proved of the classical theorem of Allendoerfer on the unbendability of surfaces with type number ≥3 and the class of (r,l)-rigid fibred surfaces is distinguished

  4. Rigid origami vertices: conditions and forcing sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Abel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We develop an intrinsic necessary and sufficient condition for single-vertex origami crease patterns to be able to fold rigidly.  We classify such patterns in the case where the creases are pre-assigned to be mountains and valleys as well as in the unassigned case.  We also illustrate the utility of this result by applying it to the new concept of minimal forcing sets for rigid origami models, which are the smallest collection of creases that, when folded, will force all the other creases to fold in a prescribed way.

  5. Evaluating a method for automated rigid registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Vester-Christensen, Martin; Larsen, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    to point distance. T-test for common mean are used to determine the performance of the two methods (supported by a Wilcoxon signed rank test). The performance influence of sampling density, sampling quantity, and norms is analyzed using a similar method.......We evaluate a novel method for fully automated rigid registration of 2D manifolds in 3D space based on distance maps, the Gibbs sampler and Iterated Conditional Modes (ICM). The method is tested against the ICP considered as the gold standard for automated rigid registration. Furthermore...

  6. Development of axisymmetric lattice Boltzmann flux solver for complex multiphase flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Shu, Chang; Yang, Li-Ming; Yuan, Hai-Zhuan

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents an axisymmetric lattice Boltzmann flux solver (LBFS) for simulating axisymmetric multiphase flows. In the solver, the two-dimensional (2D) multiphase LBFS is applied to reconstruct macroscopic fluxes excluding axisymmetric effects. Source terms accounting for axisymmetric effects are introduced directly into the governing equations. As compared to conventional axisymmetric multiphase lattice Boltzmann (LB) method, the present solver has the kinetic feature for flux evaluation and avoids complex derivations of external forcing terms. In addition, the present solver also saves considerable computational efforts in comparison with three-dimensional (3D) computations. The capability of the proposed solver in simulating complex multiphase flows is demonstrated by studying single bubble rising in a circular tube. The obtained results compare well with the published data.

  7. HEATMESH, Geometry Data Generator for Heat Transfer Calculation in Axisymmetric System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielson, V.K.

    1972-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: HEATMESH is used to generate geometrical data required for studies of heat transfer in axisymmetric structures represented as surfaces of revolution. The program consists of two distinct phases. The first subdivides the given parts into a nodal network and evaluates the geometrical properties of the nodes. The second determines adjacent nodes and edits geometrical data for the thermal model. 2 - Method of solution: The structure to be studied, represented as a body of revolution, is divided into parts having common material properties and represented as bodies of revolution. Each part is then described as four surfaces of revolution subdivided into nodes which form a mesh. Data for each part are collected, i. e. volume, area, and part number of each node, and node surfaces on the part boundary and inside the part boundary. The distance between the center and the midpoint of each surface of the node is tabulated also. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Number of subdivisions between 1 and 50 for sides 1 and 3, Number of subdivisions between 1 and 12 for sides 2 and 4

  8. Combinatorial and Algorithmic Rigidity: Beyond Two Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    44]. Theorems of Maxwell- Laman type were ob- tained in [9, 15, 43]. 2 3. Counting and Enumeration. As anticipated in the project, we relied on methods...decompositions. Graphs and Combinatorics, 25:219–238, 2009. [43] I. Streinu and L. Theran. Slider-pinning rigidity: a Maxwell- Laman -type theorem. Discrete and

  9. Birationally rigid varieties. I. Fano varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pukhlikov, A V

    2007-01-01

    The theory of birational rigidity of rationally connected varieties generalises the classical rationality problem. This paper gives a survey of the current state of this theory and traces its history from Noether's theorem and the Lueroth problem to the latest results on the birational superrigidity of higher-dimensional Fano varieties. The main components of the method of maximal singularities are considered.

  10. Rigid polyurethane and kenaf core composite foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigid polyurethane foams are valuable in many construction applications. Kenaf is a bast fiber plant where the surface stem skin provides bast fibers whose strength-to-weight ratio competes with glass fiber. The higher volume product of the kenaf core is an under-investigated area in composite appli...

  11. Rigidity Sensing Explained by Active Matter Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Marcq, Philippe; Yoshinaga, Natsuhiko; Prost, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    The magnitude of traction forces exerted by living animal cells on their environment is a monotonically increasing and approximately sigmoidal function of the stiffness of the external medium. We rationalize this observation using active matter theory, and propose that adaptation to substrate rigidity results from an interplay between passive elasticity and active contractility.

  12. About deformation and rigidity in relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coll, Bartolome

    2007-01-01

    The notion of deformation involves that of rigidity. In relativity, starting from Born's early definition of rigidity, some other ones have been proposed, offering more or less interesting aspects but also accompanied of undesired or even pathological properties. In order to clarify the origin of these difficulties presented by the notion of rigidity in relativity, we analyze with some detail significant aspects of the unambiguous classical, Newtonian, notion. In particular, the relative character of its kinetic definition is pointed out, allowing to predict and to understand the limitations imposed by Herglotz-Noether theorem. Also, its equivalent dynamic definition is obtained and, in contrast, its absolute character is shown. But in spite of this absolute character, the dynamic definition is shown to be not extensible to relativity. The metric deformation of Minkowski space by the presence of a gravitational field is interpreted as a universal deformation, and it is shown that, under natural conditions, only a simple deformation law is possible, relating locally, but in an one-to-one way, gravitational fields and gauge classes of two-forms. We argue that fields of unit vectors associated to the internal gauge class of two-forms of every space-time (and, in particular, of Minkowski space-time) are the relativistic analogues of the classical accelerated observers, i.e. of the classical rigid motions. Some other consequences of the universal law of gravitational deformation are commented

  13. Rigid pricing and rationally inattentive consumer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2010), s. 1-40 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : rational inattention * nominal rigidity Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp409.pdf

  14. Cracking of open traffic rigid pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niken Chatarina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is done by observing the growth of real structure cracking in Natar, Lampung, Indonesia compared to C. Niken’s et al research and literature study. The rigid pavement was done with open traffic system. There are two main crack types on Natar rigid pavement: cracks cross the road, and cracks spreads on rigid pavement surface. The observation of cracks was analyzed by analyzing material, casting, curing, loading and shrinkage mechanism. The relationship between these analysis and shrinkage mechanism was studied in concrete micro structure. Open traffic make hydration process occur under vibration; therefore, fresh concrete was compressed and tensioned alternately since beginning. High temperature together with compression, cement dissociation, the growth of Ca2+ at very early age leads abnormal swelling. No prevention from outside water movement leads hydration process occur with limited water which caused spreads fine cracks. Limited water improves shrinkage and plastic phase becomes shorter; therefore, rigid pavement can’t accommodate the abnormal swelling and shrinking alternately and creates the spread of cracks. Discontinuing casting the concrete makes both mix under different condition, the first is shrink and the second is swell and creates weak line on the border; so, the cracks appear as cracks across the road.

  15. The effect of the physical properties of the substrate on the kinetics of cell adhesion and crawling studied by an axisymmetric diffusion-energy balance coupled model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi-Dooki, Aref; Shodja, Hossein M; Malekmotiei, Leila

    2015-05-14

    In this paper an analytical approach to study the effect of the substrate physical properties on the kinetics of adhesion and motility behavior of cells is presented. Cell adhesion is mediated by the binding of cell wall receptors and substrate's complementary ligands, and tight adhesion is accomplished by the recruitment of the cell wall binders to the adhesion zone. The binders' movement is modeled as their axisymmetric diffusion in the fluid-like cell membrane. In order to preserve the thermodynamic consistency, the energy balance for the cell-substrate interaction is imposed on the diffusion equation. Solving the axisymmetric diffusion-energy balance coupled equations, it turns out that the physical properties of the substrate (substrate's ligand spacing and stiffness) have considerable effects on the cell adhesion and motility kinetics. For a rigid substrate with uniform distribution of immobile ligands, the maximum ligand spacing which does not interrupt adhesion growth is found to be about 57 nm. It is also found that as a consequence of the reduction in the energy dissipation in the isolated adhesion system, cell adhesion is facilitated by increasing substrate's stiffness. Moreover, the directional movement of cells on a substrate with gradients in mechanical compliance is explored with an extension of the adhesion formulation. It is shown that cells tend to move from soft to stiff regions of the substrate, but their movement is decelerated as the stiffness of the substrate increases. These findings based on the proposed theoretical model are in excellent agreement with the previous experimental observations.

  16. Rigid Spine Syndrome among Children in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Koul

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Rigidity of the spine is common in adults but is rarely observed in children. The aim of this study was to report on rigid spine syndrome (RSS among children in Oman. Methods: Data on children diagnosed with RSS were collected consecutively at presentation between 1996 and 2014 at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH in Muscat, Oman. A diagnosis of RSS was based on the patient’s history, clinical examination, biochemical investigations, electrophysiological findings, neuro-imaging and muscle biopsy. Atrophy of the paraspinal muscles, particularly the erector spinae, was the diagnostic feature; this was noted using magnetic resonance imaging of the spine. Children with disease onset in the paraspinal muscles were labelled as having primary RSS or rigid spinal muscular dystrophy. Secondary RSS was classified as RSS due to the late involvement of other muscle diseases. Results: Over the 18-year period, 12 children were included in the study, with a maleto- female ratio of 9:3. A total of 10 children were found to have primary RSS or rigid spinal muscular dystrophy syndrome while two had secondary RSS. Onset of the disease ranged from birth to 18 months of age. A family history was noted, with two siblings from one family and three siblings from another (n = 5. On examination, children with primary RSS had typical features of severe spine rigidity at onset, with the rest of the neurological examination being normal. Conclusion: RSS is a rare disease with only 12 reported cases found at SQUH during the study period. Cases of primary RSS should be differentiated from the secondary type.

  17. Particle collector scoops for improved exhaust in ''axisymmetric'' devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; Wolf, G.H.

    1987-11-01

    Application of particle collector scoops in front of the pumping ducts of axisymmetric divertor/magnetic limiter configurations is proposed. These scoops should enclose a significant fraction of the recycling particles. The resulting increase in natural particle pressure in front of the pumping ducts leads to an improved exhaust efficiency. This can permit an extension of the operational margin for density control. Alternatively, aiming at a prescribed exhaust flow in reactor-type devices such as INTOR, the pumping ducts could be reduced in aperture, leaving valuable space for other components. The lay-out of the proposed scheme depends on the heat load on the leading edge in front of the scoop and on the deflector in front of the pumping ducts. 14 refs., 5 figs

  18. Calculation of transport coefficients in an axisymmetric plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumaker, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    A method of calculating the transport coefficient in an axisymmetric toroidal plasma is presented. This method is useful in calculating the transport coefficients in a Tokamak plasma confinement device. The particle density and temperature are shown to be a constant on a magnetic flux surface. Transport equations are given for the total particle flux and total energy flux crossing a closed toroidal surface. Also transport equations are given for the toroidal magnetic flux. A computer code was written to calculate the transport coefficients for a three species plasma, electrons and two species of ions. This is useful for calculating the transport coefficients of a plasma which contains impurities. It was found that the particle and energy transport coefficients are increased by a large amount, and the transport coefficients for the toroidal magnetic field are reduced by a small amount

  19. Pressure drop coefficient of laminar Newtonian flow in axisymmetric diffusers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, S.; Pinho, F.T.

    2006-01-01

    The laminar flow of Newtonian fluids in axisymmetric diffusers has been numerically investigated to evaluate the pressure-loss coefficient as a function of Reynolds number, diffusion angle and expansion ratio. The numerical simulations were carried out with a finite-volume based code using non-orthogonal collocated grids and second order accurate differencing schemes to discretize all terms of the transport equations. The calculations were carried out for Reynolds numbers between 2 and 200, diffusion angles from 0 deg. to 90 deg. and expansion ratios of 1.5 and 2 and the data are presented in tabular form and as correlations. A simplified 1D theoretical analysis helped explain the various contributions to the loss coefficient and its difference relative to the reversible pressure variation due to differences between the actual and fully developed friction losses, distortions of the velocity profiles and pressure non-uniformity upstream and downstream of the expansion section

  20. Pressure drop coefficient of laminar Newtonian flow in axisymmetric diffusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, S. [Escola Superior de Tecnologia e Gestao, Instituto Politecnico, Campus de Santa Apolonia, 5301-857 Braganca (Portugal)]. E-mail: srosa@ipb.pt; Pinho, F.T. [Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, DEM, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Azurem, 4800-058 Guimaraes (Portugal)]. E-mail: fpinho@fe.up.pt

    2006-04-15

    The laminar flow of Newtonian fluids in axisymmetric diffusers has been numerically investigated to evaluate the pressure-loss coefficient as a function of Reynolds number, diffusion angle and expansion ratio. The numerical simulations were carried out with a finite-volume based code using non-orthogonal collocated grids and second order accurate differencing schemes to discretize all terms of the transport equations. The calculations were carried out for Reynolds numbers between 2 and 200, diffusion angles from 0 deg. to 90 deg. and expansion ratios of 1.5 and 2 and the data are presented in tabular form and as correlations. A simplified 1D theoretical analysis helped explain the various contributions to the loss coefficient and its difference relative to the reversible pressure variation due to differences between the actual and fully developed friction losses, distortions of the velocity profiles and pressure non-uniformity upstream and downstream of the expansion section.

  1. Development of Compact Quasi-Axisymmetric Stellarator Reactor Configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, L.P.; Zarnstorff, M.; White, R.B.; Cooper, W.A.; Sanchez, R.; Neilson, H.; Schmidt, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    We have started to examine the reactor potential of quasi-axisymmetric (QA) stellarators with an integrated approach that includes systems evaluation, engineering considerations, and plasma and coil optimizations. In this paper, we summarize the progress made so far in developing QA configurations with reduced alpha losses while retaining good MHD stability properties. The minimization of alpha losses is achieved by directly targeting the collisionless orbits to prolong the average resident times. Configurations with an overall energy loss rate of ∼10% or less, including collisional contributions, have been found. To allow remotely maintaining coils and machine components in a reactor environment, there is a desire to simplify to the extent possible the coil design. To this end, finding a configuration that is optimized not only for the alpha confinement and MHD stability but also for the good coil and reactor performance, remains to be a challenging task

  2. Cellular blebs: pressure-driven, axisymmetric, membrane protrusions

    KAUST Repository

    Woolley, Thomas E.

    2013-07-16

    Blebs are cellular protrusions that are used by cells for multiple purposes including locomotion. A mechanical model for the problem of pressure-driven blebs based on force and moment balances of an axisymmetric shell model is proposed. The formation of a bleb is initiated by weakening the shell over a small region, and the deformation of the cellular membrane from the cortex is obtained during inflation. However, simply weakening the shell leads to an area increase of more than 4 %, which is physically unrealistic. Thus, the model is extended to include a reconfiguration process that allows large blebs to form with small increases in area. It is observed that both geometric and biomechanical constraints are important in this process. In particular, it is shown that although blebs are driven by a pressure difference across the cellular membrane, it is not the limiting factor in determining bleb size. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  3. Electron cyclotron current drive efficiency in an axisymmetric tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez-Tapia, C.; Beltran-Plata, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Dept. de Fisica, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The neoclassical transport theory is applied to calculate electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) efficiency in an axisymmetric tokamak in the low-collisionality regime. The tokamak ordering is used to obtain a system of equations that describe the dynamics of the plasma where the nonlinear ponderomotive (PM) force due to high-power radio-frequency (RF) waves is included. The PM force is produced around an electron cyclotron resonant surface at a specific poloidal location. The ECCD efficiency is analyzed in the cases of first and second harmonics (for different impinging angles of the RF waves) and it is validated using experimental parameter values from TCV and T-10 tokamaks. The results are in agreement with those obtained by means of Green's function techniques. (authors)

  4. Stability of axisymmetric plasmas in closed line magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simakov, A.N.; Vernon Wong, H.; Berk, H.L.

    2003-01-01

    The stability of axisymmetric plasmas confined by closed poloidal magnetic field lines is considered. The results are relevant to plasmas in the dipolar fields of stars and planets, as well as the Levitated Dipole Experiment, multipoles, Z pinches and field reversed configurations. The ideal MHD energy principle is employed to study the stability of pressure driven shear Alfven modes. A point dipole is considered in detail to demonstrate that equilibria exist which are MHD stable for arbitrary beta. Effects of sound waves and plasma resistivity are investigated for Z pinch and point dipole equilibria by means of resistive MHD theory. Kinetic theory is used to study drift frequency modes and their interaction with MHD modes near the ideal stability boundary for different collisionality regimes. Effects of collisional dissipation on drift mode stability are explicitly evaluated and applied to a Z pinch. The role of finite Larmor radius effects and drift reversed particles in modifying ideal stability thresholds is examined. (author)

  5. Theory of plasma confinement in non-axisymmetric magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helander, Per

    2014-08-01

    The theory of plasma confinement by non-axisymmetric magnetic fields is reviewed. Such fields are used to confine fusion plasmas in stellarators, where in contrast to tokamaks and reversed-field pinches the magnetic field generally does not possess any continuous symmetry. The discussion is focussed on magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium conditions, collisionless particle orbits, and the kinetic theory of equilbrium and transport. Each of these topics is fundamentally affected by the absence of symmetry in the magnetic field: the field lines need not trace out nested flux surfaces, the particle orbits may not be confined, and the cross-field transport can be very large. Nevertheless, by tailoring the magnetic field appropriately, well-behaved equilibria with good confinement can be constructed, potentially offering an attractive route to magnetic fusion. In this article, the mathematical apparatus to describe stellarator plasmas is developed from first principles and basic elements underlying confinement optimization are introduced.

  6. Nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic equations for rotating axisymmetric plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artun, M.; Tang, W.M.

    1994-03-01

    The influence of sheared equilibrium flows on the confinement properties of tokamak plasmas is a topic of much current interest. A proper theoretical foundation for the systematic kinetic analysis of this important problem has been provided here by presented the derivation of a set of nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic equations applicable to low frequency microinstabilities in a rotating axisymmetric plasma. The subsonic rotation velocity considered is in the direction of symmetry with the angular rotation frequency being a function of the equilibrium magnetic flux surface. In accordance with experimental observations, the rotation profile is chosen to scale with the ion temperature. The results obtained represent the shear flow generalization of the earlier analysis by Frieman and Chen where such flows were not taken into account. In order to make it readily applicable to gyrokinetic particle simulations, this set of equations is cast in a phase-space-conserving continuity equation form

  7. Modeling and simulation of axisymmetric coating growth on nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, K.; Clemons, C. B.; Kreider, K. L.; Young, G. W.

    2007-01-01

    This work is a modeling and simulation extension of an integrated experimental/modeling investigation of a procedure to coat nanofibers and core-clad nanostructures with thin film materials using plasma enhanced physical vapor deposition. In the experimental effort, electrospun polymer nanofibers are coated with metallic materials under different operating conditions to observe changes in the coating morphology. The modeling effort focuses on linking simple models at the reactor level, nanofiber level, and atomic level to form a comprehensive model. The comprehensive model leads to the definition of an evolution equation for the coating free surface. This equation was previously derived and solved under a single-valued assumption in a polar geometry to determine the coating morphology as a function of operating conditions. The present work considers the axisymmetric geometry and solves the evolution equation without the single-valued assumption and under less restrictive assumptions on the concentration field than the previous work

  8. Axisymmetric Tornado Simulations with a Semi-Slip Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian H. Fiedler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure of natural tornadoes and simulated analogs are sensitive to the lower boundary condition for friction. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of storms require a choice for turbulence parameterizations and resolution of wind near the lower boundary. This article explores some of the consequences of choices of a surface drag coefficient on the structure of a mature simulated tornado, using a conventional axisymmetric model. The surface drag parameterization is explored over the range of the semi-slip condition, including the extremes of no-slip and free-slip. A moderate semi-slip condition allows for an extreme pressure deficit, but without the unrealistic vortex breakdown of the no-slip condition.

  9. Ideal, steady-state, axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic equations with flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baransky, Y.A.

    1987-01-01

    The motivation of this study is to gain additional understanding of the effect of rotation on the equilibrium of a plasma. The axisymmetric equilibria of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) with flow have been studied numerically and analytically. A general discussion is provided of previous work on plasmas with flow and comparisons are made to the static model. A variational principle has been derived for the two dimensional problem with comments as to appropriate boundary conditions. An inverse aspect ratio expansion has been used for a study of the toroidal flow equation for both low- and high-β. The inverse aspect ratio expansion has also been used for a study of equations with both poloidal and toroidal flow. An overview is provided of the adaptive finite-difference code which was developed to solve the full equations. (FI)

  10. Numerical study of the axisymmetric ideal MHD stability of Extrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benda, M.

    1993-04-01

    A numerical study of the free-boundary axisymmetric (n=0) ideal magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) motions of the Extrap device is presented. The dependence of stability on current profiles in the plasma and currents in the external conductors is investigated. Results are shown for linear growth-rates and nonlinear saturation amplitudes and their dependence on plasma radius as well as on the conducting shell radius. A method combined of two different algorithms has been developed and tested. The interior region of the plasma is simulated by means of a Lagrangian Finite Element Method (FEM) for ideal magnetohydrodynamics, The method is based on a nonlinear radiation principle for the Lagrangian description of ideal MHD. The Boundary Element Method (BEM) is used together with the Lagrangian FEM to simulate nonlinear motion of an ideal MHD plasma behaviour in a vacuum region under the influence of external magnetic fields. 31 refs

  11. Numerical calculation of axisymmetric non-neutral plasma equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, R.L.; Rasband, S.N.; Vanfleet, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    Efficient techniques for computing axisymmetric non-neutral plasma equilibria are described. These equilibria may be obtained either by requiring global thermal equilibrium, by specifying the midplane radial density profile, or by specifying the radial profile of ∫n dz. Both splines and finite-differences are used, and the accuracy of the two is compared by using a new characterization of the thermal equilibrium density profile which gives a simple formula for estimating the radial and axial gradient scale lengths of thermal equilibria. It is found that for global thermal equilibrium 1% accuracy is achieved with splines if the distance between neighboring splines is about two Debye lengths while finite differences require a grid spacing of about one-half Debye length to achieve the same accuracy

  12. Numerical solutions of ICRF fields in axisymmetric mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    The results of a new numerical code called GARFIELD (Grumman Aerospace Rf Field code) that calculates ICRF Fields in axisymmetric mirror geometry (such as the central cell of a tandem mirror or an RF test stand) are presented. The code solves the electromagnetic wave equation using a cold plasma dispersion relation with a small collision frequency to simulate absorption. The purpose of the calculation is to examine how ICRF wave structure and propagation is effected by the axial variation of the magnetic field in a mirror for various antenna designs. In the code the wave equation is solved in flux coordinates using a finite element method. This should allow more complex dielectric tensors to be modeled in the future. The resulting matrix is solved iteratively, to maximize the allowable size of the spatial grid. Results for a typical antenna array in a simple mirror will be shown

  13. The numerical solution of ICRF fields in axisymmetric mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, M.W.; Todd, A.M.M.

    1986-01-01

    The numerics of a numerical code called GARFIELD (Grumman Aerospace RF fIELD code) designed to calculate the three-dimensional structure of ICRF fields in axisymmetric mirrors is presented. The code solves the electromagnetic wave equation for the electric field using a cold plasma dispersion relation with a small collision term to simulate absorption. The full wave solution including E.B is computed. The fields are Fourier analyzed in the poloidal direction and solved on a grid in the axial and radial directions. A two-dimensional equilibrium can be used as the source of equilibrium data. This allows us to extend previous studies of ICRF wave propagation and absorption in mirrors to include the effect of axial variation of the magnetic field and density. (orig.)

  14. Axial turbomachine modelling with a 1D axisymmetric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauveron, Nicolas; Saez, Manuel; Ferrand, Pascal; Leboeuf, Francis

    2007-01-01

    This work concerns the design and safety analysis of direct cycle gas cooled reactor. The estimation of compressor and turbine performances in transient operations is of high importance for the designer. The first goal of this study is to provide a description of compressor behaviour in unstable conditions with a better understanding than the models based on performance maps ('traditional' 0D approach). A supplementary objective is to provide a coherent description of the turbine behaviour. The turbomachine modelling approach consists in the solution of 1D axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations on an axial grid inside the turbomachine: mass, axial momentum, circumferential momentum and total-enthalpy balances are written. Blade forces are taken into account by using compressor or turbine blade cascade steady correlations. A particular effort has been developed to generate or test correlations in low mass flow and negative mass flow regimes, based on experimental data. The model is tested on open literature cases of the gas turbine aircraft community. For compressor and turbine, steady situations are fairly described, especially for medium and high mass flow rate. The dynamic behaviour of compressor is also quite well described, even in unstable operation (surge): qualitative tendencies (role of plenum volume and role of throttle) and some quantitative characteristics (frequency) are in a good agreement with experimental data. The application to transient simulations of gas cooled nuclear reactors is concentrated on the hypothetical 10 in. break accident. The results point out the importance of the location of the pipe rupture in a hypothetical break event. In some detailed cases, compressor surge and back flow through the circuit can occur. In order to be used in a design phase, a simplified model of surge has also been developed. This simplified model is applied to the gas fast reactor (GFR) and compared quite favourably with 1D axisymmetric simulation results

  15. Thin circular cylinder under axisymmetrical thermal and mechanical loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaudeau, F.; Zarka, J.; Gerij, J.

    1977-01-01

    To assess structural integrity of components subjected to cyclic thermal loadings one must look at thermal ratchetting as a possible failure mode. Considering a thin circular cylinder subjected to constant internal pressure and cyclically varying thermal gradient through the thickness Bree, J. Strain Analysis 2 (1967) No.3, obtained a diagram that serves as a foundation for many design rules (e.g.: ASME code). The upper part of the french LMFBR main vessel is subjected to an axisymmetrical axial thermal loading and an axial load (own weight). Operation of the reactor leads to cyclic variations of the axial thermal loading. The question that arises is whether or not the Bree diagram is realistic for such loading conditions. A special purpose computer code (Ratch) was developed to analyse a thin circular cylinder subjected to axisymmetrical mechanical and thermal loadings. The Mendelson's approach of this problem is followed. Classical Kirchoff-Love hypothesis of thin shells is used and a state of plane stress is assumed. Space integrations are performed by Gaussian quadrature in the axial direction and by Simpson's one third rule throughout the thickness. Thermoelastic-plastic constitutive equations are solved with an implicit scheme (Nguyen). Thermovisco-plastic constitutive equations are solved with an explicit time integration scheme (Treanor's algorithm especially fitted). A Bree type diagram is obtained for an axial step of temperature which varies cyclically and a sustained constant axial load. The material behavior is assumed perfectly plastic and creep effect is not considered. Results show that the domain where no ratchetting occurs is reduced when compared with the domain predicted by the Bree diagram

  16. Secular instability of axisymmetric rotating stars to gravitational radiation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Managan, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    A generalization of the Eulerian variational principle derived by Ipser and Managan, for nonaxisymmetric neutral modes of axisymmetric fluid configurations, is developed. The principle provides a variational basis for calculating the frequencies of nonaxisymmetric normal modes proportional to e/sup i/(sigmat + mphi). A modified form of this principle, valid for sigma near 0, is also developed. The latter principle is used to locate the points where the frequency of a nonaxisymmetric normal mode of an axisymmetric rotating fluid configuration passes through zero. lt is at these points that the configuration becomes secularly unstable to gravitational radiation reaction (GRR). This is demonstrated directly by including the GRR potential and showing that the imaginary part of sigma passes through zero and becomes negative at these points. The imaginary part of the frequency is used to estimate the e-folding time of the mode. This variational principle is applied to sequences of rotating polytropes. The sequences are constructed using four rotation laws at each value of the polytropic index n = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 3.0. The values of (T/W)/sub m/, the ratio of the rotational kinetic energy to the magnitude of the gravitational potential energy at the onset of instability, and timescales for the modes with m = 2, 3, and 4 are estimated for each sequence. The value of (T/W) 2 is largely independent of the equation of state and rotation law. For m > 2, (T/W)/sub m/ decreases as the equation of state becomes softer, i.e., as the polytropic index n increases, and increases as the amount of differential rotation increases. The most striking result of this behavior occurs for uniform rotation

  17. A Systematic study of modular coil characteristics for 2-field periods quasi-axisymmetric stellarator QAS-LA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Jinxing; Song, Yuntao; Breslau, Joshua; Neilson, George Hutch

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Systematic studies of modular coils characteristics for quasi-axisymmetric stellarator were carried out for the key design parameters. • We systematically analyzed the relationships between design parameters of modular coils and electromagnetic properties such as the maximum field. • The approximate formulae relating modular coil parameters to the maximum magnetic field were derived by the use of simple two coil systems. - Abstract: Modular coil characteristics of a 2-field periods quasi-axisymmetric stellarator QAS-LA configuration with an aspect ratio A p = 3, magnetic pressure ∼4% and rotational transform ι ∼ 0.15 per field period supplied by its own shaping have been detailed studied. In addition, the characteristics of modular coils for QAS-LA were compared with those of an intermediate QA configuration QAS-LAx and a tokamak based on the same center magnet field B 0 , aspect ratio and number of coils. As expected, the B max /B 0 , force F and overturning moment M, increase with the increased complexity of the coil shape. The relationships between the modular coils’ parameters (such as radius curvature ρ, distance from coil to coil Δ c–c and the cross-section of coils) and the electromagnetic characteristics have been systematically summarized. The approximate formula for the maximum magnetic field in the coil body as functions of modular coil parameters (Δ c–c , ρ) was derived for a simple two wire system which will be useful when optimizations of coil properties are called for

  18. From Wage Rigidities to Labour Market Rigidities: A Turning-Point in Explaining Equilibrium Unemployment?

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Guerrazzi; Nicola Meccheri

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a critical discussion of the concept of labour market rigidity relevant to explaining unemployment. Starting from Keynes’s own view, we discuss how the concept of labour market flexibility has changed over time, involving nominal or real wage flexibility, contract flexibility or labour market institution flexibility. We also provide a critical assessment of the factors that lead the search framework highlighting labour market rigidities (frictions) to challenge the more wide...

  19. Non-rigid registration of tomographic images with Fourier transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, Ar; Isoardi, Ra; Mato, G

    2007-01-01

    Spatial image registration of deformable body parts such as thorax and abdomen has important medical applications, but at the same time, it represents an important computational challenge. In this work we propose an automatic algorithm to perform non-rigid registration of tomographic images using a non-rigid model based on Fourier transforms. As a measure of similarity, we use the correlation coefficient, finding that the optimal order of the transformation is n = 3 (36 parameters). We apply this method to a digital phantom and to 7 pairs of patient images corresponding to clinical CT scans. The preliminary results indicate a fairly good agreement according to medical experts, with an average registration error of 2 mm for the case of clinical images. For 2D images (dimensions 512x512), the average running time for the algorithm is 15 seconds using a standard personal computer. Summarizing, we find that intra-modality registration of the abdomen can be achieved with acceptable accuracy for slight deformations and can be extended to 3D with a reasonable execution time

  20. Finite-difference analysis of shells impacting rigid barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirotin, S.D.; Witmer, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear power plants must be protected from the adverse effects of missile impacts. A significant category of missile impact involves deformable structures (pressure vessel components, whipping pipes) striking relatively rigid targets (concrete walls, bumpers) which act as protective devices. The response and interaction of these structures is needed to assess the adequacy of these barriers for protecting vital safety related equipment. The present investigation represents an initial attempt to develop an efficient numerical procedure for predicting the deformations and impact force time-histories of shells which impact upon a rigid target. The general large-deflection equations of motion of the shell are expressed in finite-difference form in space and integrated in time through application of the central-difference temporal operator. The effect of material nonlinearities is treated by a mechanical sublayer material model which handles the strain-hardening, Bauschinger, and strain-rate effects. The general adequacy of this shell treatment has been validated by comparing predictions with the results of various experiments in which structures have been subjected to well-defined transient forcing functions (typically high-explosive impulse loading). The 'new' ingredient addressed in the present study involves an accounting for impact interaction and response of both the target structure and the attacking body. (Auth.)

  1. Experimental investigation about the effect of non-axisymmetric wake impact on a low speed axial compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianyong; Lu, Yajun; Li, Zhiping

    2010-05-01

    Non-axisymmetric wake impact experiments were carried out after the best exciting frequency for a low speed axial compressor had been found by axisymmetric wake impact experiments. When the number and circumferential distribution of inlet guide vanes (IGV) are logical the wakes of non-axisymmetric IGVs can exert beneficial unsteady exciting effect on their downstream rotor flow fields and improve the compressor’s performance. In the present paper, four non-axisymmetric wake impact plans were found working better than the axisymmetric wake impact plan. Compared with the base plan, the best non-axisymmetric plan increased the compressor’s peak efficiency, and the total pressure rise by 1.1 and 2%, and enhanced the stall margin by 4.4%. The main reason why non-axisymmetric plans worked better than the axisymmetric plan was explained as the change of the unsteady exciting signal arising from IGV wakes. Besides the high-frequency components, the non-axisymmetric plan generated a beneficial low-frequency square-wave exciting signal and other secondary frequency components. Compared with the axisymmetric plan, multi-frequency exciting wakes arising from the non-axisymmetric plans are easier to get coupling relation with complex vortices such as clearance vortices, passage vortices and shedding vortices.

  2. A time-dependent dusty gas dynamic model of axisymmetric cometary jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korosmezey, A.; Gombosi, T.I.

    1990-01-01

    The present time-dependent, axisymmetric dusty gas dynamical model of inner cometary atmospheres solves the coupled and time-dependent equations of continuity, momentum, and energy for a gas-dust mixture between the surface of the nucleus and 100 km, using an axisymmetric 40 x 40 grid structure. A novel numerical method employing a second-order accurate Godunov-type scheme with dimensional splitting is used to solve the time-dependent pde system. It is established that a subsolar dust spike not predicted by previous calculations is generated by narrow axisymmetric jets, together with a jet cone whose opening angle depends on the jet length. 28 refs

  3. Partial Fourier analysis of time-harmonic Maxwell's equations in axisymmetric domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkemzi, Boniface

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the Fourier method for treating time-harmonic Maxwell's equations in three-dimensional axisymmetric domains with non-axisymmetric data. The Fourier method reduces the three-dimensional boundary value problem to a system of decoupled two-dimensional boundary value problems on the plane meridian domain of the axisymmetric domain. The reduction process is fully described and suitable weighted spaces are introduced on the meridian domain to characterize the two-dimensional solutions. In particular, existence and uniqueness of solutions of the two-dimensional problems is proved and a priori estimates for the solutions are given. (author)

  4. Determination of two dimensional axisymmetric finite element model for reactor coolant piping nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, S. N.; Kim, H. N.; Jang, K. S.; Kim, H. J.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine a two dimensional axisymmetric model through a comparative study between a three dimensional and an axisymmetric finite element analysis of the reactor coolant piping nozzle subject to internal pressure. The finite element analysis results show that the stress adopting the axisymmetric model with the radius of equivalent spherical vessel are well agree with that adopting the three dimensional model. The radii of equivalent spherical vessel are 3.5 times and 7.3 times of the radius of the reactor coolant piping for the safety injection nozzle and for the residual heat removal nozzle, respectively

  5. Axisymmetric thermoviscoelastoplastic state of branched laminar shells, taking account of transverse-shear and torsional deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galishin, A.Z.

    1995-01-01

    The nonaxisymmetric thermoelastic stress-strain state (SSS) of branched laminar orthotropic shells was considered; the axisymmetric thermoviscoelastic SSS of branched laminar orthotropic shells was considered; and the axisymmetric thermoviscoelastoplastic SSS of branched laminar isotropic shells was considered, taking into account of the transverse-shear deformation. In the present work, in contrast, the axisymmetric thermoviscoelastoplastic SSS of branched laminar isotropic shells is considered, taking account of transverse-shear and torsional deformation. Layers that are made from orthotropic materials and deform in the elastic region may be present

  6. Lower bounds of collapse loads in axisymmetrical vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Neto, J. de D.; Ebecken, N.F.F.

    1981-01-01

    The rigid-plastic limit analysis of shells of revolution subject to rotationally symmetric loadings, is presented. After assembling the finite elements, the limit analysis program is reduced to a simple application of the non-linear programming technique, where the sequential unconstrained minimization technique (SUMT) is utilized for the statically admissible approach. Lower bounds of the collapse loads are presented and compared with the results described in the literature. (Author) [pt

  7. Financial Constraints and Nominal Price Rigidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menno, Dominik Francesco; Balleer, Almut; Hristov, Nikolay

    This paper investigates how financial market imperfections and the frequency of price adjustment interact. Based on new firm-level evidence for Germany, we document that financially constrained firms adjust prices more often than their unconstrained counterparts, both upwards and downwards. We show...... that these empirical patterns are consistent with a partial equilibrium menu-cost model with a working capital constraint. We then use the model to show how the presence of financial frictions changes profits and the price distribution of firms compared to a model without financial frictions. Our results suggest...... that tighter financial constraints are associated with higher nominal rigidities, higher prices and lower output. Moreover, in response to aggregate shocks, aggregate price rigidity moves substantially, the response of inflation is dampened, while output reacts more in the presence of financial frictions...

  8. Rigidity of the magic pentagram game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalev, Amir; Miller, Carl A.

    2018-01-01

    A game is rigid if a near-optimal score guarantees, under the sole assumption of the validity of quantum mechanics, that the players are using an approximately unique quantum strategy. Rigidity has a vital role in quantum cryptography as it permits a strictly classical user to trust behavior in the quantum realm. This property can be traced back as far as 1998 (Mayers and Yao) and has been proved for multiple classes of games. In this paper we prove ridigity for the magic pentagram game, a simple binary constraint satisfaction game involving two players, five clauses and ten variables. We show that all near-optimal strategies for the pentagram game are approximately equivalent to a unique strategy involving real Pauli measurements on three maximally-entangled qubit pairs.

  9. Rigidity of the magic pentagram game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalev, Amir; Miller, Carl A

    2018-01-01

    A game is rigid if a near-optimal score guarantees, under the sole assumption of the validity of quantum mechanics, that the players are using an approximately unique quantum strategy. Rigidity has a vital role in quantum cryptography as it permits a strictly classical user to trust behavior in the quantum realm. This property can be traced back as far as 1998 (Mayers and Yao) and has been proved for multiple classes of games. In this paper we prove ridigity for the magic pentagram game, a simple binary constraint satisfaction game involving two players, five clauses and ten variables. We show that all near-optimal strategies for the pentagram game are approximately equivalent to a unique strategy involving real Pauli measurements on three maximally-entangled qubit pairs.

  10. Rigid cohomology over Laurent series fields

    CERN Document Server

    Lazda, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In this monograph, the authors develop a new theory of p-adic cohomology for varieties over Laurent series fields in positive characteristic, based on Berthelot's theory of rigid cohomology. Many major fundamental properties of these cohomology groups are proven, such as finite dimensionality and cohomological descent, as well as interpretations in terms of Monsky-Washnitzer cohomology and Le Stum's overconvergent site. Applications of this new theory to arithmetic questions, such as l-independence and the weight monodromy conjecture, are also discussed. The construction of these cohomology groups, analogous to the Galois representations associated to varieties over local fields in mixed characteristic, fills a major gap in the study of arithmetic cohomology theories over function fields. By extending the scope of existing methods, the results presented here also serve as a first step towards a more general theory of p-adic cohomology over non-perfect ground fields. Rigid Cohomology over Laurent Series Fields...

  11. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding removal procedures. In some cases, it is potentially more harmful to remove the ... provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding foreign body removal ... rare cases, the general anesthesia used during rigid esophagoscopy can ...

  12. Modeling the Flexural Rigidity of Rod Photoreceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeri, Mohammad; Knox, Barry E.; Ahmadi, Aphrodite

    2013-01-01

    In vertebrate eyes, the rod photoreceptor has a modified cilium with an extended cylindrical structure specialized for phototransduction called the outer segment (OS). The OS has numerous stacked membrane disks and can bend or break when subjected to mechanical forces. The OS exhibits axial structural variation, with extended bands composed of a few hundred membrane disks whose thickness is diurnally modulated. Using high-resolution confocal microscopy, we have observed OS flexing and disruption in live transgenic Xenopus rods. Based on the experimental observations, we introduce a coarse-grained model of OS mechanical rigidity using elasticity theory, representing the axial OS banding explicitly via a spring-bead model. We calculate a bending stiffness of ∼105 nN⋅μm2, which is seven orders-of-magnitude larger than that of typical cilia and flagella. This bending stiffness has a quadratic relation to OS radius, so that thinner OS have lower fragility. Furthermore, we find that increasing the spatial frequency of axial OS banding decreases OS rigidity, reducing its fragility. Moreover, the model predicts a tendency for OS to break in bands with higher spring number density, analogous to the experimental observation that transgenic rods tended to break preferentially in bands of high fluorescence. We discuss how pathological alterations of disk membrane properties by mutant proteins may lead to increased OS rigidity and thus increased breakage, ultimately contributing to retinal degeneration. PMID:23442852

  13. Lateral rigidity of cracked concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellani, A.; Chesi, C.

    1979-01-01

    Numerical results are discussed on the lateral rigidity of reinforced concrete structures with a given crack distribution. They have been favourably checked with experimental results for cylindrical shells under the effect of a thermal gradient producing vertical cracking or vertical plus horizontal cracking. The main effects characterizing the concrete behaviour are: (1) The shear transfer across a crack; (2) The shear transfer degradation after cyclic loading; (3) The tension stiffening provided by the concrete between crack and crack, in the normal stress transfer; (4) The temperature effect on the elastic moduli of concrete, when cracks are of thermal origin. Only the 1st effect is discussed on an experimental basis. Two broad cathegories of reinforced concrete structures have been investigated in this respect: shear walls of buildings and cylindrical containment structures. The main conclusions so far reached are: (1) Vertical cracks are unlikely to decrease the lateral rigidity to less than 80% of the original one, and to less than 90% when they do not involve the entire thickness of the wall; (2) The appearence of horizontal cracks can reduce the lateral rigidity by some 30% or more; (3) A noticeable but not yet evaluated influence is shown by cyclic loading. (orig.)

  14. Stresses in Circular Plates with Rigid Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikanov, N. L.; Koryagin, S. I.; Sharkov, O. V.

    2018-05-01

    Calculations of residual stress fields are carried out by numerical and static methods, using the flat cross-section hypothesis. The failure of metal when exposed to residual stresses is, in most cases, brittle. The presence in the engineering structures of rigid elements often leads to the crack initiation and structure failure. This is due to the fact that rigid elements under the influence of external stresses are stress concentrators. In addition, if these elements are fixed by welding, the residual welding stresses can lead to an increase in stress concentration and, ultimately, to failure. The development of design schemes for such structures is a very urgent task for complex technical systems. To determine the stresses in a circular plate with a welded circular rigid insert under the influence of an external load, one can use the solution of the plane stress problem for annular plates in polar coordinates. The polar coordinates of the points are the polar radius and the polar angle, and the stress state is determined by normal radial stresses, tangential and shearing stresses. The use of the above mentioned design schemes, formulas, will allow more accurate determination of residual stresses in annular welded structures. This will help to establish the most likely directions of failure and take measures at the stages of designing, manufacturing and repairing engineering structures to prevent these failures. However, it must be taken into account that the external load, the presence of insulation can lead to a change in the residual stress field.

  15. An axisymmetric non-hydrostatic model for double-diffusive water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgersom, Koen; Zijlema, Marcel; van de Giesen, Nick

    2018-02-01

    The three-dimensional (3-D) modelling of water systems involving double-diffusive processes is challenging due to the large computation times required to solve the flow and transport of constituents. In 3-D systems that approach axisymmetry around a central location, computation times can be reduced by applying a 2-D axisymmetric model set-up. This article applies the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations described in cylindrical coordinates and integrates them to guarantee mass and momentum conservation. The discretized equations are presented in a way that a Cartesian finite-volume model can be easily extended to the developed framework, which is demonstrated by the implementation into a non-hydrostatic free-surface flow model. This model employs temperature- and salinity-dependent densities, molecular diffusivities, and kinematic viscosity. One quantitative case study, based on an analytical solution derived for the radial expansion of a dense water layer, and two qualitative case studies demonstrate a good behaviour of the model for seepage inflows with contrasting salinities and temperatures. Four case studies with respect to double-diffusive processes in a stratified water body demonstrate that turbulent flows are not yet correctly modelled near the interfaces and that an advanced turbulence model is required.

  16. New chemical-DSMC method in numerical simulation of axisymmetric rarefied reactive flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Ramin; Kamali Moghadam, Ramin; Mani, Mahmoud

    2017-04-01

    The modified quantum kinetic (MQK) chemical reaction model introduced by Zakeri et al. is developed for applicable cases in axisymmetric reactive rarefied gas flows using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Although, the MQK chemical model uses some modifications in the quantum kinetic (QK) method, it also employs the general soft sphere collision model and Stockmayer potential function to properly select the collision pairs in the DSMC algorithm and capture both the attraction and repulsion intermolecular forces in rarefied gas flows. For assessment of the presented model in the simulation of more complex and applicable reacting flows, first, the air dissociation is studied in a single cell for equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions. The MQK results agree well with the analytical and experimental data and they accurately predict the characteristics of the rarefied flowfield with chemical reaction. To investigate accuracy of the MQK chemical model in the simulation of the axisymmetric flow, air dissociation is also assessed in an axial hypersonic flow around two geometries, the sphere as a benchmark case and the blunt body (STS-2) as an applicable test case. The computed results including the transient, rotational and vibrational temperatures, species concentration in the stagnation line, and also the heat flux and pressure coefficient on the surface are compared with those of the other chemical methods like the QK and total collision energy (TCE) models and available analytical and experimental data. Generally, the MQK chemical model properly simulates the chemical reactions and predicts flowfield characteristics more accurate rather than the typical QK model. Although in some cases, results of the MQK approaches match with those of the TCE method, the main point is that the MQK does not need any experimental data or unrealistic assumption of specular boundary condition as used in the TCE method. Another advantage of the MQK model is the

  17. A virtual pebble game to ensemble average graph rigidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Luis C; Wang, Hui; Livesay, Dennis R; Jacobs, Donald J

    2015-01-01

    The body-bar Pebble Game (PG) algorithm is commonly used to calculate network rigidity properties in proteins and polymeric materials. To account for fluctuating interactions such as hydrogen bonds, an ensemble of constraint topologies are sampled, and average network properties are obtained by averaging PG characterizations. At a simpler level of sophistication, Maxwell constraint counting (MCC) provides a rigorous lower bound for the number of internal degrees of freedom (DOF) within a body-bar network, and it is commonly employed to test if a molecular structure is globally under-constrained or over-constrained. MCC is a mean field approximation (MFA) that ignores spatial fluctuations of distance constraints by replacing the actual molecular structure by an effective medium that has distance constraints globally distributed with perfect uniform density. The Virtual Pebble Game (VPG) algorithm is a MFA that retains spatial inhomogeneity in the density of constraints on all length scales. Network fluctuations due to distance constraints that may be present or absent based on binary random dynamic variables are suppressed by replacing all possible constraint topology realizations with the probabilities that distance constraints are present. The VPG algorithm is isomorphic to the PG algorithm, where integers for counting "pebbles" placed on vertices or edges in the PG map to real numbers representing the probability to find a pebble. In the VPG, edges are assigned pebble capacities, and pebble movements become a continuous flow of probability within the network. Comparisons between the VPG and average PG results over a test set of proteins and disordered lattices demonstrate the VPG quantitatively estimates the ensemble average PG results well. The VPG performs about 20% faster than one PG, and it provides a pragmatic alternative to averaging PG rigidity characteristics over an ensemble of constraint topologies. The utility of the VPG falls in between the most

  18. Characteristics of premixed flames stabilized in an axisymmetric curved-wall jet burner with tip modification

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daejoong; Gil, Y. S.; Chung, TaeWon; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2009-01-01

    The stabilization characteristics of premixed flames in an axisymmetric curved-wall jet burner have been experimentally investigated. This burner utilized the Coanda effect on top of a burner tip. The initially spherical burner tip was modified to a

  19. Integration of Transients in Axisymmetrical Cavities for Accelerators: Formulation and applications to BNL Photocathode Gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.; Serafini, L.

    1992-04-01

    This note provides a sketch of the formalism used for the Integration of Transients in Axisymmetrical Cavities for Accelerators, (ITACA). Application to study the BNL Photocathode Gun via the code ITACA is also included

  20. Computation of steady and unsteady compressible quasi-axisymmetric vortex flow and breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, Hamdy A.; Liu, C. H.

    1991-01-01

    The unsteady, compressible Navier-Stokes equations are used to compute and analyze compressible quasi-axisymmetric isolated vortices. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved using an implicit, upwind, flux-difference splitting finite-volume scheme. The developed three-dimensional solver has been verified by comparing its solution profiles with those of a slender, quasi-axisymmetric vortex solver for a subsonic, isolated quasi-axisymmetric vortex in an unbounded domain. The Navier-Stokes solver is then used to solve for a supersonic quasi-axisymmetric vortex flow in a configured circular duct. Steady and unsteady vortex-shock interactions and breakdown have been captured. The problem has also been calculated using the Euler solver of the same code and the results are compared with those of the Navier-Stokes solver. The effect of the initial swirl has been tentatively studied.

  1. Computation of compressible quasi-axisymmetric slender vortex flow and breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, Hamdy A.

    1991-01-01

    The unsteady, compressible Navier-Stokes equations are used to compute and analyze compressible quasi-axisymmetric isolated vortices. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved using an implicit, upwind, flux difference splitting finite volume scheme. The developed three dimensional solver was verified by comparing its solution profiles with those of a slender, quasi-axisymmetric vortex solver for a subsonic, quasi-axisymmetric vortex in an unbounded domain. The Navier-Stokes solver is then used to solve for a supersonic, quasi-axisymmetric vortex flow in a configured circular duct. Steady and unsteady vortex-shock interactions and breakdown were captured. The problem was also calculated using the Euler solver of the same code; the results were compared with those of the Navier-Stokes solver. The effect of the initial swirl was investigated.

  2. Elastic-plastic analysis of an axi-symmetric problem by a finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isozaki, Toshikuni

    1984-06-01

    Generally speaking, many structures are designed and fabricated on the basis of an axi-symmetric structure. Finite Element Method is the capable method to solve these axi-symmetric problems beyond the elastic limit. As the first step to solve these problems, the computer program for the elastic-plastic analysis of the axi-symmetric problem is composed. The basic program is based upon that described in Zienkiewicz's text book to solve the elastic plane stress problem, taking the plastic stress matrix by Yamada's method into consideration and it is converted to solve the axi-symmetric problem. For the verification of the program, the plane strain problem of a cylindrical tube under internal pressure was solved. The computed results were compared with those shown in ADINA's user's manual. They showed close agreement. (author)

  3. Lyapunov stability analysis of magnetohydrodynamic plasma equilibria with axisymmetric toroidal flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almaguer, J.A.; Hameiri, E.; Herrera, J.; Holm, D.D.

    1988-01-01

    Lyapunov stability conditions for ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasmas with mass flow in axisymmetric toroidal geometry are determined in the Eulerian representation. Axisymmetric equilibrium solutions of ideal MHD are associated to critical points of a nonlinearly conserved Lyapunov functional consisting of the sum of the total energy and the following flux-weighted quantities: the circulation along field lines, the angular momentum, the toroidal flux, and the mass content within each flux tube. Conditions sufficient for Lyapunov stability of these equilibria against axisymmetric perturbations are found by taking advantage of the Hamiltonian formalism for ideal MHD. In particular [see Eq. (60)], it is sufficient for Lyapunov stability under linearized dynamics that an axisymmetric equilibrium be subsonic in the appropriate rotating frame, lie in the first elliptic regime of the Bernoulli--Grad--Shafranov (BGS) system of equations, and satisfy one additional, more complicated, condition. Effects of boundary conditions, nonlinearity, and three-dimensionality on MHD stability are also discussed

  4. 49 CFR 587.18 - Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) DEFORMABLE BARRIERS Offset Deformable Barrier § 587.18 Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier. (a) The fixed rigid barrier has a mass of not... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier. 587.18 Section...

  5. Effect of compressibility on the global stability of axisymmetric wake flows

    OpenAIRE

    Meliga , Philippe; Sipp , D.; Chomaz , Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    International audience; We study the linear dynamics of global eigenmodes in compressible axisymmetric wake flows, up to the high subsonic regime. We consider both an afterbody flow at zero angle of attack and a sphere, and find that the sequence of bifurcations destabilizing the axisymmetric steady flow is independent of the Mach number and reminiscent of that documented in the incompressible wake past a sphere and a disk (Natarajan & Acrivos, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 254, 1993, p. 323), hence s...

  6. Gaps, Rings, and Non-Axisymmetric Structures in Protoplanetary Disks - From Simulations to ALMA Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Flock, M.; Ruge, J. P.; Dzyurkevich, N.; Henning, Th.; Klahr, H.; Wolf, S.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Aims. Recent observations by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) of disks around young stars revealed distinct asymmetries in the dust continuum emission. In this work we wish to study axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric structures that are generated by the magneto-rotational instability in the outer regions of protoplanetary disks. We combine the results of state-of-the-art numerical simulations with post-processing radiative transfer (RT) to generat...

  7. CT-3DRA registration for radiosurgery treatments: a comparison among rigid, affine and non rigid approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancanello, J.; Loeckx, D.; Francescon, P.; Calvedon, C.; Avanzo, M.; Cora, S.; Scalchi, P.; Cerveri, P.; Ferrigno, G.

    2004-01-01

    This work aims at comparing rigid, affine and Local Non Rigid (LNR) CT-3D Rotational Angiography (CT-3DRA) registrations based on mutual information. 10 cranial and 1 spinal cases have been registered by rigid and affine transformations; while LNR has been applied to the cases where residual deformation must be corrected. An example of CT-3DRA registration without regularization term and an example of LNR using the similarity criterion and the regularization term as well as 3D superposition of the 3DRA before and after the registration without the regularization term are presented. All the registrations performed by rigid transformation converged to an acceptable solution. The results about the robustness test in axial direction are reported. Conclusions: For cranial cases, affine transformation endowed with threshold-segmentation pre-processing can be considered the most favourable solution for almost all registrations; for some cases, LNR provides more accurate results. For the spinal case rigid transformation is the most suitable when immobilizing patient during examinations; in this case the increase of accuracy by using LNR registrations seems to be not significant

  8. First integrals of the axisymmetric shape equation of lipid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Heng; McDargh, Zachary; Tu, Zhan-Chun

    2018-03-01

    The shape equation of lipid membranes is a fourth-order partial differential equation. Under the axisymmetric condition, this equation was transformed into a second-order ordinary differential equation (ODE) by Zheng and Liu (Phys. Rev. E 48 2856 (1993)). Here we try to further reduce this second-order ODE to a first-order ODE. First, we invert the usual process of variational calculus, that is, we construct a Lagrangian for which the ODE is the corresponding Euler–Lagrange equation. Then, we seek symmetries of this Lagrangian according to the Noether theorem. Under a certain restriction on Lie groups of the shape equation, we find that the first integral only exists when the shape equation is identical to the Willmore equation, in which case the symmetry leading to the first integral is scale invariance. We also obtain the mechanical interpretation of the first integral by using the membrane stress tensor. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11274046) and the National Science Foundation of the United States (Grant No. 1515007).

  9. Thin circular cylinder under axisymmetrical thermal and mechanical loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaudeau, F.; Zarka, J.; Gerij, J.

    1977-01-01

    A special purpose computer code (Ratch) was developed to analyse a thin circular cylinder subjected to axisymmetrical mechanical and thermal loadings. The Mendelson's approach of this problem is followed. Classical Kirchoff-Love hypothesis of thin shells is used and a state of plane stress is assumed. Space integrations are performed by Gaussian quadrature in the axial direction and by Simpson's one third rule throughout the thickness. Thermoelastic-plastic constitutive equations are solved with an implicit scheme (Nguyen). Thermovisco-plastic constitutive equations are solved with an explicit time integration scheme (Treanor's algorithm especially fitted). A Bree type diagram is obtained for an axial step of temperature which varies cyclically and a sustained constant axial load. The material behavior is assumed perfectly plastic and creep effect is not considered. Results show that the domain where ratchetting occurs is reduced when compared with the domain predicted by the Bree diagram. To investigate the effect of material hardening the authors verify Halphen's Theorem which states that a structure made of material with kinematic hardening behavior and constant properties with temperature will always shake down to a periodic behavior. (Auth.)

  10. Plasma equilibria and stationary flows in axisymmetric systems. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelazny, R.; Stankiewicz, R.; Galkowski, A.; Potempski, S.; Pietak, R.

    1990-08-01

    The problem of the importance of poloidal flows for the behaviour of plasmas in axisymmetric systems has caused a lot of discussion and controversy during the last 15 years. There is no doubt that the mere existence of poloidal flow transforms the elliptic Grad-Shafranov-Schlueter equation into a system of mixed type partial differential equation and an algebraic multivalued Bernoulli equation. This fact leads to the appearance of Bernoulli branches in the solutions. Then, one can come across three branches of elliptic solutions as well as two branches of hyperbolic solutions with the possible appearance of phenomena connected with ''transsonic'' effects. Problems connected with such a mathematical situation have been extensively discussed in the report with the same title, dated May 1988, which we shall call later Part I of our studies on this subject. The present report, considered as Part III, is devoted to the presentation of results of efforts aimed at constructing programmes which allow us to solve the extended Grad-Shafranov-Schlueter equation (EGSS) (with stationary flows) in a more realistic situation relevant to the JET operating conditions. The main problem is to specify for a wider class of profiles the boundary conditions at the magnetic axis for a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations ODE, resulting from EGSS equation after application of Fourier transformation techniques and of inverse method approach. The present report elaborates a much more general case and describes the computational framework enabling us to derive those boundary conditions. (author)

  11. Linear theory of the tearing instability in axisymmetric toroidal devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogister, A.; Singh, R.

    1988-08-01

    We derive a very general kinetic equation describing the linear evolution of low m/l modes in axisymmetric toroidal plasmas with arbitrary cross sections. Included are: Ion sound, inertia, diamagnetic drifts, finite poloidal beta, and finite ion Larmor radius effects. Assuming the magnetic surfaces to form a set of nested tori with circular cross sections of shifted centers, and introducing adequate simplifications justified by our knowledge of experimental tokamak plasmas, we then obtain explicitely the sets of equations describing the coupling of the quasimodes 0/1, 1/1, 2/1, and, for m≥2, m/1, (m+1)/1. By keeping finite aspect ratio effects into account when calculating the jump of the derivative of the eigenfunction, it is shown that the theory can explain the rapid evolution, within one sawtooth period, of the growth rate of the sawteeth precursors from resistive values to magnetohydrodynamic ones. The characteristics thus theoretically required from current profiles in sawtoothing discharges have clearly been observed. Other aspects of the full theory could be relevant to the phenomenon of major disruptions. (orig.)

  12. The Poisson equation in axisymmetric domains with conical points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkemzi, B.

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the application of the Fourier-finite-element method (FFEM) for the resolution of the Derichlet problem for the Poisson equation -Δu-circumflex = f-circumflex in axisymmetric domains Ω-circumflex subset of R 3 with conical points on the rotation axis. The FFEM combines the approximate Fourier method with respect to one space direction with the finite element method for the approximate calculation of the Fourier coefficients of the solution. Here, the influence of the conical points on the regularity of the Fourier coefficients of the solution is analyzed and the asymptotic behaviour of the coefficients near the conical points is described by some singularity functions and treated numerically by mesh grading in the two-dimensional meridian of Ω-circumflex. It is proved that for f-circumflex in L 2 (Ω-circumflex), the rate of convergence of the combined approximations in the Sobolev space W 2 1 (Ω-circumflex) is of the order O(h + N -1 ), where h and N represent, respectively, the parameters of the finite-element- and the Fourier-approximation, with h → 0 and n → ∞. (author)

  13. Axisymmetric core collapse simulations using characteristic numerical relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebel, Florian; Mueller, Ewald; Font, Jose A.; Papadopoulos, Philippos

    2003-01-01

    We present results from nonrotating axisymmetric stellar core collapse simulations in general relativity. Our hydrodynamics code has proved robust and accurate enough to allow for a detailed analysis of the global dynamics of the collapse. Contrary to traditional approaches based on the 3+1 formulation of the gravitational field equations, our framework uses a foliation based on a family of outgoing light cones, emanating from a regular center, and terminating at future null infinity. Such a coordinate system is well adapted to the study of interesting dynamical spacetimes in relativistic astrophysics such as stellar core collapse and neutron star formation. Perhaps most importantly this procedure allows for the extraction of gravitational waves at future null infinity, along with the commonly used quadrupole formalism for the gravitational wave extraction. Our results concerning the gravitational wave signals show noticeable disagreement when those are extracted by computing the Bondi news at future null infinity on the one hand and by using the quadrupole formula on the other hand. We have a strong indication that for our setup the quadrupole formula on the null cone does not lead to physical gravitational wave signals. The Bondi gravitational wave signals extracted at infinity show typical oscillation frequencies of about 0.5 kHz

  14. Propagation of a hybrid inferior wave in axisymmetrical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fivaz, M.; Appert, K.; Krlin, L.

    1990-05-01

    The linear propagation of hybrid inferior waves in an axisymmetrical plasma (magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium of the Soloviev type) has been numerically simulated. The evolution of k // (component of the wave vector k parallel to the magnetic field B), important for current drive modelling, has been studied as a function of the geometric parameters of the equilibrium: aspect ratio, ellipticity and triangularity. The results show that k // depends abruptly on the parameters; the engendered structures are very rich. Two mechanisms by which k // increases have been shown: the 'resonance' occurring in small bands of the space of the parameters and which is associated with trajectories in (R,Z) near stabilization; a stochastic evolution resembling diffusion in equlibriums of very high triangularity. However, a strong increase of k // of a part of the waves, susceptible of engendering a current in the plasma, has only been observed in a minority of cases. In literature current drive experiments have been reported which work and whose parameters are a priori such that our model cannot be expected to show the desired growth of k // . Consequently, our model, which is similar to normally used models, does not explain the current drive. 5 refs., 16 figs

  15. Magnetohydrodynamic equilibria and local stability of axisymmetric tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Dory, R.A.; Nelson, D.B.; Sayer, R.O.

    1976-07-01

    Axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic equilibria are evaluated in terms of the Mercier Stability Criterion. The parameters of interest include poloidal beta (β/sub p/), current and pressure profile widths, D-shaped and doublet plasmas with elongation (sigma) and triangularity (delta), and the aspect ratio (A). For marginal local stability, the critical values of β, plasma current, and the safety factor q with fixed toroidal field at the geometric center of the plasma are obtained. It is shown that for a wide range of profiles in a D-shaped plasma with A = 3, the highest critical β occurs at β/sub p/ = 2.4, sigma = 1.65, and delta = 0.5. If the toroidal field at the coil surface is fixed, the highest critical pressure occurs near A approximately 3 to 4, given reasonable distance between the coils and the plasma edge. Calculations for a Doublet II-A plasma with sigma = 3 show that with similar pressure profile the highest critical β occurs at β/sub p/ = 1 and is 84 percent of the highest critical β for the D-shaped plasmas. Critical values of ohmic heating power density are also found to be comparable for the two plasma shapes. A D-shaped plasma with the above parameters is suggested for use in future high-β tokamak devices

  16. Characterization of axisymmetric disruption dynamics toward VDE avoidance in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Disruption experiments on Alcator C-Mod and ASDEX-Upgrade tokamaks and axisymmetric MHD simulations using the TSC have explicated the underlying mechanisms of Vertical Displacement Events (VDEs) and a diversity of disruption dynamics. First, the neutral point, which is known as an initial vertical plasma position advantageous to VDE avoidance, is shown to be fairly insensitive to plasma shape and current profile parameters, while the VDE rate significantly depends on those parameters. Secondly, it is clarified that a rapid flattening of the plasma current profile frequently seen at the thermal quench drags a single null-diverted, up-down asymmetric plasma vertically toward divertor, whereas the dragging effect is absent in up-down symmetric limiter discharges. As a consequence, the occurrence of downward-going VDEs predominates over the upward-going ones in bottom-diverted discharges, being consistent with experiments in ASDEX-Upgrade. Together with the attractive force that arises from passive shell currents induced by the current quench and vanishes at the neutral point, the dragging effect explains many details of the VDE dynamics over the whole period of disruptive termination. (author)

  17. Characterization of axisymmetric disruption dynamics toward VDE avoidance in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Yoshino, R.; Granetz, R.S.; Pautasso, G.; Gruber, O.; Jardin, S.C.

    2003-01-01

    Experiments and axisymmetric MHD simulations on tokamak disruptions have explicated the underlying mechanisms of Vertical Displacement Events (VDEs) and a diversity of disruption dynamics. First, the neutral point, which is known as an advantageous vertical plasma position to avoiding VDEs during the plasma current quench, is shown to be fairly insensitive to plasma shape and current profile parameters. Secondly, a rapid flattening of the plasma current profile frequently seen at thermal quench is newly clarified to play a substantial role in dragging a single null-diverted plasma vertically towards the divertor. As a consequence, the occurrence of downward-going VDEs predominates over the upward-going ones in bottom diverted discharges. This dragging effect is absent in up-down symmetric limiter discharges. These simulation results are consistent with experiments. Together with the attractive force that arises from passive shell currents and essentially vanishes at the neutral point, the dragging effect explains many details of the VDE dynamics over the whole period of the disruptive termination. (author)

  18. Axisymmetric bifurcations of thick spherical shells under inflation and compression

    KAUST Repository

    deBotton, G.; Bustamante, R.; Dorfmann, A.

    2013-01-01

    Incremental equilibrium equations and corresponding boundary conditions for an isotropic, hyperelastic and incompressible material are summarized and then specialized to a form suitable for the analysis of a spherical shell subject to an internal or an external pressure. A thick-walled spherical shell during inflation is analyzed using four different material models. Specifically, one and two terms in the Ogden energy formulation, the Gent model and an I1 formulation recently proposed by Lopez-Pamies. We investigate the existence of local pressure maxima and minima and the dependence of the corresponding stretches on the material model and on shell thickness. These results are then used to investigate axisymmetric bifurcations of the inflated shell. The analysis is extended to determine the behavior of a thick-walled spherical shell subject to an external pressure. We find that the results of the two terms Ogden formulation, the Gent and the Lopez-Pamies models are very similar, for the one term Ogden material we identify additional critical stretches, which have not been reported in the literature before.© 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Direct numerical simulation of axisymmetric laminar low-density jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Lendinez, Daniel; Coenen, Wilfried; Sevilla, Alejandro

    2017-11-01

    The stability of submerged laminar axisymmetric low-density jets has been investigated experimentally (Kyle & Sreenivasan 1993, Hallberg & Strykowski 2006) and with linear analysis (Jendoubi & Strykowski 1994, Coenen & Sevilla 2012, Coenen et al. 2017). These jets become globally unstable when the Reynolds number is larger than a certain critical value which depends on the density ratio and on the velocity profile at the injector outlet. In this work, Direct Numerical Simulations using FreeFEM + + (Hecht 2012) with P1 elements for pressure and P2 for velocity and density are performed to complement the above mentioned studies. Density and velocity fields are analyzed at long time showing the unforced space-time evolution of nonlinear disturbances propagating along the jet. Using the Stuart-Landau model to fit the numerical results for the self-excited oscillations we have computed a neutral stability curve that shows good agreement with experiments and stability theory. Thanks to Spanish MINECO under projects DPI2014-59292-C3-1-P and DPI2015-71901-REDT for financial support.

  20. Calculation of transport coefficients in an axisymmetric plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumaker, D.E.

    1976-01-01

    A method of calculating the transport coefficient in an axisymmetric toroidal plasma is presented. This method is useful in calculating the transport coefficients in a Tokamak plasma confinement device. The particle density and temperature are shown to be a constant on a magnetic flux surface. Transport equations are given for the total particle flux and total energy flux crossing a closed toroidal surface. Also transport equations are given for the toroidal magnetic flux. A computer code was written to calculate the transport coefficients for a three species plasma, electrons and two species of ions. This is useful for calculating the transport coefficients of a plasma which contains impurities. It was found that the particle and energy transport coefficients are increased by a large amount, and the transport coefficients for the toroidal magnetic field are reduced by a small amount. For example, a deuterium plasma with 1.3 percent oxygen, one of the particle transport coefficients is increased by a factor of about four. The transport coefficients for the toroidal magnetic flux are reduced by about 20 percent. The increase in the particle transport coefficient is due to the collisional scattering of the deuterons by the heavy oxygen ions which is larger than the deuteron electron scattering, the normal process for particle transport in a two species plasma. The reduction in the toroidal magnetic flux transport coefficients are left unexplained

  1. Axisymmetric toroidal equilibrium with flow and anisotropic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacono, R.; Bondeson, A.; Troyon, F.; Gruber, R.

    1989-10-01

    Axisymmetric toroidal plasma equilibria with mass flows and anisotropic pressure are investigated. The equilibrium system is derived for a general functional form of the pressures, which includes both fluid models, such as the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and the double-adiabatic models, and Grad's guiding centre model. This allows for detailed comparisons between the models and clarifies how the 'first hyperbolic region', occurring in the fluid theory when the poloidal flow is of the order of the poloidal sound speed, can be eliminated in guiding centre theory. In the case of a pure toroidal rotation, macroscopic equations of state are derived from the guiding centre model, characterized by a parallel temperature that is constant on each magnetic surface and a perpendicular temperature that varies with the magnetic field. The outward centrifugal shifts of the magnetic axis and of the mass density profile, due to toroidal rotation, are increased by anisotropy. The guiding centre model shows that poloidal flow produces an inward shift of the density profile, in contrast with the MHD result. (author) 1 fig., 1 tab., 17 refs

  2. Plasma equilibria and stationary flows in axisymmetric systems. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelazny, R.; Stankiewicz, R.; Potempski, S.

    1988-05-01

    During discharges within a tokamak device such as JET fluctuations are observed in the plasma, of plasma density, temperature, electric potential and of the magnetic field. These fluctuations have complicated structure and are linked with different kinds of instabilities. However, it is not clear which instabilities are most important in determining the behaviour of the plasma. A comprehensive numerical theory which can predict the effect of the instabilities on the transport of plasma in axisymmetric systems has been sought using the static Grad-Shafranov-Schlueter (SGSS) equation as a basis. However, the static equation was over simplified for the situation in JET with additional heating giving rise to large toroidal flows, and an extended equation (EGSS) was developed. The results of the study include the discovery of algebraic branches of solutions to the EGSS equation even for very small poloidal flows, solutions to the inverse problem for the SGSS and EGSS equations using Fourier decomposition, classification of the boundary condition at the magnetic axis, demonstration of a visible effect of the poloidal flow on the separation of the density surface and the magnetic surface an indication of the existence of multiple branches of solutions to the EGSS and SGSS equations and their relation to stability properties. (U.K.)

  3. Wave scattering by an axisymmetric ice floe of varying thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetts, Luke G.; Biggs, Nicholas R. T.; Porter, David

    2009-04-01

    The problem of water wave scattering by a circular ice floe, floating in fluid of finite depth, is formulated and solved numerically. Unlike previous investigations of such situations, here we allow the thickness of the floe (and the fluid depth) to vary axisymmetrically and also incorporate a realistic non-zero draught. A numerical approximation to the solution of this problem is obtained to an arbitrary degree of accuracy by combining a Rayleigh-Ritz approximation of the vertical motion with an appropriate variational principle. This numerical solution procedure builds upon the work of Bennets et al. (2007, J. Fluid Mech., 579, 413-443). As part of the numerical formulation, we utilize a Fourier cosine expansion of the azimuthal motion, resulting in a system of ordinary differential equations to solve in the radial coordinate for each azimuthal mode. The displayed results concentrate on the response of the floe rather than the scattered wave field and show that the effects of introducing the new features of varying floe thickness and a realistic draught are significant.

  4. Uncommon, undeclared oesophageal foreign bodies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-05-11

    May 11, 2011 ... presented with a sudden onset of total dysphagia and history of ingestion of foreign bodies was not volunteered by any despite direct questioning. Plain radiograph of the neck and chest in either case did not reveal presence of foreign body. Both were successfully removed through rigid oesophagoscopy.

  5. Axisymmetric stability of vertically asymmetric tokamaks at large beta poloidal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Fishman, H.; Okabayashi, M.; Todd, A.M.M.

    1981-09-01

    The stability of high-β vertically asymmetric tokamak equilibria to rigid displacements is investigated analytically. It is found that vertical stability at large beta poloidal is mainly determined by a coupling between the shape of the plasma surface and the Shafranov shift of the magnetic axis. To the lowest order, symmetric components of the plasma surface shape are found to be the critical destabilizing elements. Asymmetric components have little effect. The inclusion of higher order terms in the high β tokamak expansion leads to further destabilization. Qualitative agreement between these analytic results and numerical stability calculations using the PEST code is demonstrated

  6. Influence of flock coating on bending rigidity of woven fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, O.; Kesimci, M. O.

    2017-10-01

    This work presents the preliminary results of our efforts that focused on the effect of the flock coating on the bending rigidity of woven fabrics. For this objective, a laboratory scale flocking unit is designed and flocked samples of controlled flock density are produced. Bending rigidity of the samples with different flock densities are measured on both flocked and unflocked sides. It is shown that the bending rigidity depends on both flock density and whether the side to be measured is flocked or not. Adhesive layer thickness on the bending rigidity is shown to be dramatic. And at higher basis weights, flock density gets less effective on bending rigidity.

  7. Understanding geological processes: Visualization of rigid and non-rigid transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, T. F.; Atit, K.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.; Resnick, I.; Tikoff, B.

    2012-12-01

    Visualizations are used in the geological sciences to support reasoning about structures and events. Research in cognitive sciences offers insights into the range of skills of different users, and ultimately how visualizations might support different users. To understand the range of skills needed to reason about earth processes we have developed a program of research that is grounded in the geosciences' careful description of the spatial and spatiotemporal patterns associated with earth processes. In particular, we are pursuing a research program that identifies specific spatial skills and investigates whether and how they are related to each other. For this study, we focus on a specific question: Is there an important distinction in the geosciences between rigid and non-rigid deformation? To study a general spatial thinking skill we employed displays with non-geological objects that had been altered by rigid change (rotation), and two types of non-rigid change ("brittle" (or discontinuous) and "ductile" (or continuous) deformation). Disciplinary scientists (geosciences and chemistry faculty), and novices (non-science faculty and undergraduate psychology students) answered questions that required them to visualize the appearance of the object before the change. In one study, geologists and chemists were found to be superior to non-science faculty in reasoning about rigid rotations (e.g., what an object would look like from a different perspective). Geologists were superior to chemists in reasoning about brittle deformations (e.g., what an object looked like before it was broken - here the object was a word cut into many fragments displaced in different directions). This finding is consistent with two hypotheses: 1) Experts are good at visualizing the types of changes required for their domain; and 2) Visualization of rigid and non-rigid changes are not the same skill. An additional important finding is that there was a broad range of skill in both rigid and non-rigid

  8. A rigid porous filter and filtration method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Ta-Kuan; Straub, Douglas, Straub L.; Dennis, Richard A.

    1998-12-01

    The present invention involves a porous rigid filter comprising a plurality of concentric filtration elements having internal flow passages and forming external flow passages there between. The present invention also involves a pressure vessel containing the filter for the removal of particulate from high pressure particulate containing gases, and further involves a method for using the filter to remove such particulate. The present filter has the advantage of requiring fewer filter elements due to the high surface area- to-volume ratio provided by the filter, requires a reduced pressure vessel size, and exhibits enhanced mechanical design properties, improved cleaning properties, configuration options, modularity and ease of fabrication.

  9. Mechanical Characterization of Rigid Polyurethane Foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei-Yang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Mechanics of Materials

    2014-12-01

    Foam materials are used to protect sensitive components from impact loading. In order to predict and simulate the foam performance under various loading conditions, a validated foam model is needed and the mechanical properties of foams need to be characterized. Uniaxial compression and tension tests were conducted for different densities of foams under various temperatures and loading rates. Crush stress, tensile strength, and elastic modulus were obtained. A newly developed confined compression experiment provided data for investigating the foam flow direction. A biaxial tension experiment was also developed to explore the damage surface of a rigid polyurethane foam.

  10. Rigidity of complete generic shrinking Ricci solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yawei; Zhou, Jundong; Wang, Xue

    2018-01-01

    Let (Mn , g , X) be a complete generic shrinking Ricci soliton of dimension n ≥ 3. In this paper, by employing curvature inequalities, the formula of X-Laplacian for the norm square of the trace-free curvature tensor, the weak maximum principle and the estimate of the scalar curvature of (Mn , g) , we prove some rigidity results for (Mn , g , X) . In particular, it is showed that (Mn , g , X) is isometric to Rn or a finite quotient of Sn under a pointwise pinching condition. Moreover, we establish several optimal inequalities and classify those shrinking solitons for equalities.

  11. Control of supersonic axisymmetric base flows using passive splitter plates and pulsed plasma actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, Todd Mitchell

    An experimental investigation evaluating the effects of flow control on the near-wake downstream of a blunt-based axisymmetric body in supersonic flow has been conducted. To better understand and control the physical phenomena that govern these massively separated high-speed flows, this research examined both passive and active flow-control methodologies designed to alter the stability characteristics and structure of the near-wake. The passive control investigation consisted of inserting splitter plates into the recirculation region. The active control technique utilized energy deposition from multiple electric-arc plasma discharges placed around the base. The flow-control authority of both methodologies was evaluated with experimental diagnostics including particle image velocimetry, schlieren photography, surface flow visualization, pressure-sensitive paint, and discrete surface pressure measurements. Using a blowdown-type wind tunnel reconstructed specifically for these studies, baseline axisymmetric experiments without control were conducted for a nominal approach Mach number of 2.5. In addition to traditional base pressure measurements, mean velocity and turbulence quantities were acquired using two-component, planar particle image velocimetry. As a result, substantial insight was gained regarding the time-averaged and instantaneous near-wake flow fields. This dataset will supplement the previous benchmark point-wise laser Doppler velocimetry data of Herrin and Dutton (1994) for comparison with new computational predictive techniques. Next, experiments were conducted to study the effects of passive triangular splitter plates placed in the recirculation region behind a blunt-based axisymmetric body. By dividing the near-wake into 1/2, 1/3, and 1/4 cylindrical regions, the time-averaged base pressure distribution, time-series pressure fluctuations, and presumably the stability characteristics were altered. While the spatial base pressure distribution was

  12. Puncture mechanics of soft elastomeric membrane with large deformation by rigid cylindrical indenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junjie; Chen, Zhe; Liang, Xueya; Huang, Xiaoqiang; Mao, Guoyong; Hong, Wei; Yu, Honghui; Qu, Shaoxing

    2018-03-01

    Soft elastomeric membrane structures are widely used and commonly found in engineering and biological applications. Puncture is one of the primary failure modes of soft elastomeric membrane at large deformation when indented by rigid objects. In order to investigate the puncture failure mechanism of soft elastomeric membrane with large deformation, we study the deformation and puncture failure of silicone rubber membrane that results from the continuous axisymmetric indentation by cylindrical steel indenters experimentally and analytically. In the experiment, effects of indenter size and the friction between the indenter and the membrane on the deformation and puncture failure of the membrane are investigated. In the analytical study, a model within the framework of nonlinear field theory is developed to describe the large local deformation around the punctured area, as well as to predict the puncture failure of the membrane. The deformed membrane is divided into three parts and the friction contact between the membrane and indenter is modeled by Coulomb friction law. The first invariant of the right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor I1 is adopted to predict the puncture failure of the membrane. The experimental and analytical results agree well. This work provides a guideline in designing reliable soft devices featured with membrane structures, which are present in a wide variety of applications.

  13. Inertia effects on the rigid displacement approximation of tokamak plasma vertical motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrera, R.; Khayrutdinov, R.R.; Azizov, E.A.; Montalvo, E.; Dong, J.Q.

    1991-01-01

    Elongated plasmas in tokamaks are unstable to axisymmetric vertical displacements. The vacuum vessel and passive conductors can stabilize the plasma motion in the short time scale. For stabilization of the plasma movement in the long time scale an active feedback control system is required. A widely used method of plasma stability analysis uses the Rigid Displacement Model (RDM) of plasma behavior. In the RDM it is assumed that the plasma displacement is small and usually plasma inertia effects are neglected. In addition, it is considered that no changes in plasma shape, plasma current, and plasma current profile take place throughout the plasma motion. It has been demonstrated that the massless-filament approximation (instantaneous force-balance) accurately reproduces the unstable root of the passive stabilization problem. Then, on the basis that the instantaneous force-balance approximation is correct in the passive stabilization analysis, the massless approximation is utilized also in the study of the plasma vertical stabilization by active feedback. The authors show here that the RDM (without mass effects included) does not provide correct stability results for a tokamak configuration (plasma column, passive conductors, and feedback control coils). Therefore, it is concluded that inertia effects have to be retained in the RDM system of equations. It is shown analytically and numerically that stability diagrams with and without plasma-mass corrections differ significantly. When inertia effects are included, the stability region is more restricted than obtained in the massless approximation

  14. Public policies targeting labour market rigidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Claudia ŞERBAN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Labour market rigidity becomes an issue of increasing importance under conditions of shocks associated with the economic crisis due to the need to increase the adaptability and responsiveness to them. Thus, labour market policies must be directed towards mitigating rigidities caused by institutional or demographic factors or certain mismatch between demand and supply of education qualifications. This paper highlights the major role of the active labour market policies targeting the increase of labour flexibility, stressing the importance and impact on the ability to adapt quickly and effectively to macroeconomic shocks. Located on a declining trend in the years preceding the crisis, spending on labour market policies increased in 2009 in all the Member States of the European Union. Spending differences are significant between countries, Romania being at the lowest end of the European Union. This requires special attention because the increased adaptability of workers through training, as active measure, is of major importance considering the increased speed of changes in the labour market.

  15. Vertebral Column Resection for Rigid Spinal Deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifi, Comron; Laratta, Joseph L; Petridis, Petros; Shillingford, Jamal N; Lehman, Ronald A; Lenke, Lawrence G

    2017-05-01

    Broad narrative review. To review the evolution, operative technique, outcomes, and complications associated with posterior vertebral column resection. A literature review of posterior vertebral column resection was performed. The authors' surgical technique is outlined in detail. The authors' experience and the literature regarding vertebral column resection are discussed at length. Treatment of severe, rigid coronal and/or sagittal malalignment with posterior vertebral column resection results in approximately 50-70% correction depending on the type of deformity. Surgical site infection rates range from 2.9% to 9.7%. Transient and permanent neurologic injury rates range from 0% to 13.8% and 0% to 6.3%, respectively. Although there are significant variations in EBL throughout the literature, it can be minimized by utilizing tranexamic acid intraoperatively. The ability to correct a rigid deformity in the spine relies on osteotomies. Each osteotomy is associated with a particular magnitude of correction at a single level. Posterior vertebral column resection is the most powerful posterior osteotomy method providing a successful correction of fixed complex deformities. Despite meticulous surgical technique and precision, this robust osteotomy technique can be associated with significant morbidity even in the most experienced hands.

  16. Optimized imaging using non-rigid registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkels, Benjamin; Binev, Peter; Blom, Douglas A.; Dahmen, Wolfgang; Sharpley, Robert C.; Vogt, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The extraordinary improvements of modern imaging devices offer access to data with unprecedented information content. However, widely used image processing methodologies fall far short of exploiting the full breadth of information offered by numerous types of scanning probe, optical, and electron microscopies. In many applications, it is necessary to keep measurement intensities below a desired threshold. We propose a methodology for extracting an increased level of information by processing a series of data sets suffering, in particular, from high degree of spatial uncertainty caused by complex multiscale motion during the acquisition process. An important role is played by a non-rigid pixel-wise registration method that can cope with low signal-to-noise ratios. This is accompanied by formulating objective quality measures which replace human intervention and visual inspection in the processing chain. Scanning transmission electron microscopy of siliceous zeolite material exhibits the above-mentioned obstructions and therefore serves as orientation and a test of our procedures. - Highlights: • Developed a new process for extracting more information from a series of STEM images. • An objective non-rigid registration process copes with distortions. • Images of zeolite Y show retrieval of all information available from the data set. • Quantitative measures of registration quality were implemented. • Applicable to any serially acquired data, e.g. STM, AFM, STXM, etc

  17. Rigid Residue Scan Simulations Systematically Reveal Residue Entropic Roles in Protein Allostery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kalescky

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intra-protein information is transmitted over distances via allosteric processes. This ubiquitous protein process allows for protein function changes due to ligand binding events. Understanding protein allostery is essential to understanding protein functions. In this study, allostery in the second PDZ domain (PDZ2 in the human PTP1E protein is examined as model system to advance a recently developed rigid residue scan method combining with configurational entropy calculation and principal component analysis. The contributions from individual residues to whole-protein dynamics and allostery were systematically assessed via rigid body simulations of both unbound and ligand-bound states of the protein. The entropic contributions of individual residues to whole-protein dynamics were evaluated based on covariance-based correlation analysis of all simulations. The changes of overall protein entropy when individual residues being held rigid support that the rigidity/flexibility equilibrium in protein structure is governed by the La Châtelier's principle of chemical equilibrium. Key residues of PDZ2 allostery were identified with good agreement with NMR studies of the same protein bound to the same peptide. On the other hand, the change of entropic contribution from each residue upon perturbation revealed intrinsic differences among all the residues. The quasi-harmonic and principal component analyses of simulations without rigid residue perturbation showed a coherent allosteric mode from unbound and bound states, respectively. The projection of simulations with rigid residue perturbation onto coherent allosteric modes demonstrated the intrinsic shifting of ensemble distributions supporting the population-shift theory of protein allostery. Overall, the study presented here provides a robust and systematic approach to estimate the contribution of individual residue internal motion to overall protein dynamics and allostery.

  18. Forcing scheme analysis for the axisymmetric lattice Boltzmann method under incompressible limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangqi; Yang, Shiliang; Zeng, Zhong; Chen, Jie; Yin, Linmao; Chew, Jia Wei

    2017-04-01

    Because the standard lattice Boltzmann (LB) method is proposed for Cartesian Navier-Stokes (NS) equations, additional source terms are necessary in the axisymmetric LB method for representing the axisymmetric effects. Therefore, the accuracy and applicability of the axisymmetric LB models depend on the forcing schemes adopted for discretization of the source terms. In this study, three forcing schemes, namely, the trapezium rule based scheme, the direct forcing scheme, and the semi-implicit centered scheme, are analyzed theoretically by investigating their derived macroscopic equations in the diffusive scale. Particularly, the finite difference interpretation of the standard LB method is extended to the LB equations with source terms, and then the accuracy of different forcing schemes is evaluated for the axisymmetric LB method. Theoretical analysis indicates that the discrete lattice effects arising from the direct forcing scheme are part of the truncation error terms and thus would not affect the overall accuracy of the standard LB method with general force term (i.e., only the source terms in the momentum equation are considered), but lead to incorrect macroscopic equations for the axisymmetric LB models. On the other hand, the trapezium rule based scheme and the semi-implicit centered scheme both have the advantage of avoiding the discrete lattice effects and recovering the correct macroscopic equations. Numerical tests applied for validating the theoretical analysis show that both the numerical stability and the accuracy of the axisymmetric LB simulations are affected by the direct forcing scheme, which indicate that forcing schemes free of the discrete lattice effects are necessary for the axisymmetric LB method.

  19. Computer Aided Process Planning for Non-Axisymmetric Deep Drawing Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Hwan; Yarlagadda, Prasad K. D. V.

    2004-06-01

    In general, deep drawing products have various cross-section shapes such as cylindrical, rectangular and non-axisymmetric shapes. The application of the surface area calculation to non-axisymmetric deep drawing process has not been published yet. In this research, a surface area calculation for non-axisymmetric deep drawing products with elliptical shape was constructed for a design of blank shape of deep drawing products by using an AutoLISP function of AutoCAD software. A computer-aided process planning (CAPP) system for rotationally symmetric deep drawing products has been developed. However, the application of the system to non-axisymmetric components has not been reported yet. Thus, the CAPP system for non-axisymmetric deep drawing products with elliptical shape was constructed by using process sequence design. The system developed in this work consists of four modules. The first is recognition of shape module to recognize non-axisymmetric products. The second is a three-dimensional (3-D) modeling module to calculate the surface area for non-axisymmetric products. The third is a blank design module to create an oval-shaped blank with the identical surface area. The forth is a process planning module based on the production rules that play the best important role in an expert system for manufacturing. The production rules are generated and upgraded by interviewing field engineers. Especially, the drawing coefficient, the punch and die radii for elliptical shape products are considered as main design parameters. The suitability of this system was verified by applying to a real deep drawing product. This CAPP system constructed would be very useful to reduce lead-time for manufacturing and improve an accuracy of products.

  20. Kinetic extensions of magnetohydrodynamic models for axisymmetric toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.Z.

    1989-04-01

    A nonvariational kinetic-MHD stability code (NOVA-K) has been developed to integrate a set of non-Hermitian integro-differential eigenmode equations due to energetic particles for axisymmetric toroidal plasmas in a general flux coordinate system with an arbitrary Jacobian. The NOVA-K code employs the Galerkin method involving Fourier expansions in the generalized poloidal angle θ and generalized toroidal angle /zeta/ directions, and cubic-B spline finite elements in the radial /Psi/ direction. Extensive comparisons with the existing variational ideal MHD codes show that the ideal MHD version of the NOVA-K code converges faster and gives more accurate results. The NOVA-K code is employed to study the effects of energetic particles on MHD-type modes: the stabilization of ideal MHD internal kink modes and the excitation of ''fishbone'' internal kink modes; and the alpha particle destabilization of toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) via transit resonances. Analytical theories are also presented to help explain the NOVA-K results. For energetic trapped particles generated by neutral beam injection (NBI) or ion cyclotron resonant heating (ICRH), a stability window for the n = 1 internal kink mode in the hot particle beta space exists even in the absence of the core ion finite Larmor radius effect. On the other hand, the trapped alpha particles are found to have negligible effects on the stability of the n = 1 internal kink mode, but the circulating alpha particles can strongly destabilize TAE modes via inverse Landau damping associated with the spatial gradient of the alpha particle pressure. 60 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab

  1. Reynolds number and geometry effects in laminar axisymmetric isothermal counterflows

    KAUST Repository

    Scribano, Gianfranco

    2016-12-29

    The counterflow configuration is a canonical stagnation flow, featuring two opposed impinging round jets and a mixing layer across the stagnation plane. Although counterflows are used extensively in the study of reactive mixtures and other applications where mixing of two streams is required, quantitative data on the scaling properties of the flow field are lacking. The aim of this work is to characterize the velocity and mixing fields in isothermal counterflows over a wide range of conditions. The study features both experimental data from particle image velocimetry and results from detailed axisymmetric simulations. The scaling laws for the nondimensional velocity and mixture fraction are obtained as a function of an appropriate Reynolds number and the ratio of the separation distance of the nozzles to their diameter. In the range of flow configurations investigated, the nondimensional fields are found to depend primarily on the separation ratio and, to a lesser extent, the Reynolds number. The marked dependence of the velocity field with respect to the separation ratio is linked to a high pressure region at the stagnation point. On the other hand, Reynolds number effects highlight the role played by the wall boundary layer on the interior of the nozzles, which becomes less important as the separation ratio decreases. The normalized strain rate and scalar dissipation rate at the stagnation plane are found to attain limiting values only for high values of the Reynolds number. These asymptotic values depend markedly on the separation ratio and differ significantly from the values produced by analytical models. The scaling of the mixing field does not show a limiting behavior as the separation ratio decreases to the smallest practical value considered.

  2. Axisymmetric Numerical Modeling of Pulse Detonation Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher I.

    2005-01-01

    Pulse detonation rocket engines (PDREs) have generated research interest in recent years as a chemical propulsion system potentially offering improved performance and reduced complexity compared to conventional rocket engines. The detonative mode of combustion employed by these devices offers a thermodynamic advantage over the constant-pressure deflagrative combustion mode used in conventional rocket engines and gas turbines. However, while this theoretical advantage has spurred considerable interest in building PDRE devices, the unsteady blowdown process intrinsic to the PDRE has made realistic estimates of the actual propulsive performance problematic. The recent review article by Kailasanath highlights some of the progress that has been made in comparing the available experimental measurements with analytical and numerical models. In recent work by the author, a quasi-one-dimensional, finite rate chemistry CFD model was utilized to study the gasdynamics and performance characteristics of PDREs over a range of blowdown pressure ratios from 1-1000. Models of this type are computationally inexpensive, and enable first-order parametric studies of the effect of several nozzle and extension geometries on PDRE performance over a wide range of conditions. However, the quasi-one-dimensional approach is limited in that it cannot properly capture the multidimensional blast wave and flow expansion downstream of the PDRE, nor can it resolve nozzle flow separation if present. Moreover, the previous work was limited to single-pulse calculations. In this paper, an axisymmetric finite rate chemistry model is described and utilized to study these issues in greater detail. Example Mach number contour plots showing the multidimensional blast wave and nozzle exhaust plume are shown. The performance results are compared with the quasi-one-dimensional results from the previous paper. Both Euler and Navier-Stokes solutions are calculated in order to determine the effect of viscous

  3. Time-Accurate Simulations of Synthetic Jet-Based Flow Control for An Axisymmetric Spinning Body

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sahu, Jubaraj

    2004-01-01

    .... A time-accurate Navier-Stokes computational technique has been used to obtain numerical solutions for the unsteady jet-interaction flow field for a spinning projectile at a subsonic speed, Mach...

  4. The Inviscid Stability of Supersonic Flow Past Heated or Cooled Axisymmetric Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-01

    error of greater than 50%. The other four models: PRICE S, SYSTEM-3, SPQR ,.In, and SOFTCOST-R were accurate within 20% of the actual schedule. There was...Range I(Within 30%) SYSTEM-3 4 of 8 -27% to - 7% PRICE S 3 of 8 3% to 18% SASET 3 of 8 -24% to 6% SPQR /20 3 of 8 -16% to 26% COSTMODL 2 of 6 -28% to...to 28% II PRICE S .69 5 of 8 -29% to 28% SPQR /20 .85 5 of 8 -29% to 29% SASET 1.63 4 of 8 -30% to 23% SoftCost-Ada .90 3 of 7 -13% to 24% II COSTMODL

  5. Biomimetic model systems of rigid hair beds: Part I - Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Kaitlyn; Jammalamadaka, Mani S. S.; Hosoi, Anette

    2017-11-01

    Crustaceans - such as lobsters, crabs, and stomapods - have hairy appendages that they use to recognize and track odorants in the surrounding fluid. An array of rigid hairs impedes flow at different rates depending on the spacing between hairs and the Reynolds number, Re. At larger Reynolds numbers (Re >1), fluid travels through the hairs rather than around them, a phenomenon called leakiness. Crustaceans flick their appendages at different speeds in order to manipulate the leakiness between the hairs, allowing the hairs to either detect odors in a sample of fluid or collect a new sample. A single hair can be represented as a slender body attached at one end to a wall. Using both slender body theory and numerical methods, we observe that there is a region of flow around the hair that speeds up relative to the unobstructed flow. As the Reynolds number increases, this fast flow region moves closer to the hair. Using this model, we predict that an array of hairs can be engineered to have a desired leakiness profile.

  6. Method of adhering bone to a rigid substrate using a graphite fiber reinforced bone cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoell, A. C.; Maxwell, H. G. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for adhering bone to the surface of a rigid substrate such as a metal or resin prosthesis using an improved surgical bone cement. The bone cement has mechanical properties more nearly matched to those of animal bone and thermal curing characteristics which result in less traumatization of body tissues and comprises a dispersion of short high modulus graphite fibers within a bonder composition including polymer dissolved in reactive monomer such as polymethylmethacrylate dissolved in methylmethacrylate monomer.

  7. Axisymmetric stability of vertically asymmetric Tokamaks at large beta poloidal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, K.; Fishman, H.; Okabayashi, M. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.); Todd, A.M.M. (Grumman Aerospace Corp., Princeton, NJ (USA))

    1983-11-01

    The rigid-mode stability of high-..beta.. vertically asymmetric Tokamak equilibria with quasi-uniform current profile is investigated analytically using toroidicity-shaping double expansion method. It is found that vertical stability at large beta poloidal is mainly determined by a coupling between the shape of the plasma surface and the Shafranov shift of the magnetic axis. To the lowest order, symmetric components of the plasma surface shape are found to be the critical destabilizing elements. Asymmetric components have little effect. The inclusion of higher order terms in the high-..beta.. Tokamak expansion leads to further destabilization. These analytic insights are qualitatively confirmed by numerical stability calculations using the PEST code with parabolic safety-factor profile.

  8. A variational principle for the axisymmetric stability of rotating relativistic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhu, Kartik; Wald, Robert M; Schiffrin, Joshua S

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that all rotating perfect fluid stars in general relativity are unstable to certain non-axisymmetric perturbations via the Chandrasekhar–Friedman–Schutz (CFS) instability. However, the mechanism of the CFS instability requires, in an essential way, the loss of angular momentum by gravitational radiation and, in many instances, it acts on too long a timescale to be physically/astrophysically relevant. It is therefore of interest to examine the stability of rotating, relativistic stars to axisymmetric perturbations, where the CFS instability does not occur. In this paper, we provide a Rayleigh–Ritz-type variational principle for testing the stability of perfect fluid stars to axisymmetric perturbations, which generalizes to axisymmetric perturbations of rotating stars a variational principle given by Chandrasekhar for spherical perturbations of static, spherical stars. Our variational principle provides a lower bound to the rate of exponential growth in the case of instability. The derivation closely parallels the derivation of a recently obtained variational principle for analyzing the axisymmetric stability of black holes. (paper)

  9. Thermostability in rubredoxin and its relationship to mechanical rigidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, A. J.

    2010-03-01

    The source of increased stability in proteins from organisms that thrive in extreme thermal environments is not well understood. Previous experimental and theoretical studies have suggested many different features possibly responsible for such thermostability. Many of these thermostabilizing mechanisms can be accounted for in terms of structural rigidity. Thus a plausible hypothesis accounting for this remarkable stability in thermophilic enzymes states that these enzymes have enhanced conformational rigidity at temperatures below their native, functioning temperature. Experimental evidence exists to both support and contradict this supposition. We computationally investigate the relationship between thermostability and rigidity using rubredoxin as a case study. The mechanical rigidity is calculated using atomic models of homologous rubredoxin structures from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus and mesophile Clostridium pasteurianum using the FIRST software. A global increase in structural rigidity (equivalently a decrease in flexibility) corresponds to an increase in thermostability. Locally, rigidity differences (between mesophilic and thermophilic structures) agree with differences in protection factors.

  10. Thermostability in rubredoxin and its relationship to mechanical rigidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rader, A J

    2010-01-01

    The source of increased stability in proteins from organisms that thrive in extreme thermal environments is not well understood. Previous experimental and theoretical studies have suggested many different features possibly responsible for such thermostability. Many of these thermostabilizing mechanisms can be accounted for in terms of structural rigidity. Thus a plausible hypothesis accounting for this remarkable stability in thermophilic enzymes states that these enzymes have enhanced conformational rigidity at temperatures below their native, functioning temperature. Experimental evidence exists to both support and contradict this supposition. We computationally investigate the relationship between thermostability and rigidity using rubredoxin as a case study. The mechanical rigidity is calculated using atomic models of homologous rubredoxin structures from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus and mesophile Clostridium pasteurianum using the FIRST software. A global increase in structural rigidity (equivalently a decrease in flexibility) corresponds to an increase in thermostability. Locally, rigidity differences (between mesophilic and thermophilic structures) agree with differences in protection factors

  11. Coherent distributions for the rigid rotator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigorescu, Marius [CP 15-645, Bucharest 014700 (Romania)

    2016-06-15

    Coherent solutions of the classical Liouville equation for the rigid rotator are presented as positive phase-space distributions localized on the Lagrangian submanifolds of Hamilton-Jacobi theory. These solutions become Wigner-type quasiprobability distributions by a formal discretization of the left-invariant vector fields from their Fourier transform in angular momentum. The results are consistent with the usual quantization of the anisotropic rotator, but the expected value of the Hamiltonian contains a finite “zero point” energy term. It is shown that during the time when a quasiprobability distribution evolves according to the Liouville equation, the related quantum wave function should satisfy the time-dependent Schrödinger equation.

  12. Static friction between rigid fractal surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando; Huang, Pengyu; Hanaor, Dorian A H; Flores-Johnson, E A; Proust, Gwénaëlle; Gan, Yixiang; Shen, Luming

    2015-09-01

    Using spheropolygon-based simulations and contact slope analysis, we investigate the effects of surface topography and atomic scale friction on the macroscopically observed friction between rigid blocks with fractal surface structures. From our mathematical derivation, the angle of macroscopic friction is the result of the sum of the angle of atomic friction and the slope angle between the contact surfaces. The latter is obtained from the determination of all possible contact slopes between the two surface profiles through an alternative signature function. Our theory is validated through numerical simulations of spheropolygons with fractal Koch surfaces and is applied to the description of frictional properties of Weierstrass-Mandelbrot surfaces. The agreement between simulations and theory suggests that for interpreting macroscopic frictional behavior, the descriptors of surface morphology should be defined from the signature function rather than from the slopes of the contacting surfaces.

  13. Observational properties of rigidly rotating dust configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilyas, Batyr; Malafarina, Daniele [Nazarbayev University, Department of Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan); Yang, Jinye [Fudan University, Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); Bambi, Cosimo [Fudan University, Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); Eberhard-Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Theoretical Astrophysics, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    We study the observational properties of a class of exact solutions of Einstein's field equations describing stationary, axially symmetric, rigidly rotating dust (i.e. non-interacting particles). We ask the question whether such solutions can describe astrophysical rotating dark matter clouds near the center of galaxies and we probe the possibility that they may constitute an alternative to supermassive black holes at the center of galaxies. We show that light emission from accretion disks made of ordinary baryonic matter in this space-time has several differences with respect to the emission of light from similar accretion disks around black holes. The shape of the iron Kα line in the reflection spectrum of accretion disks can potentially distinguish this class of solutions from the Kerr metric, but this may not be possible with current X-ray missions. (orig.)

  14. On real structures on rigid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikov, Vik S; Kharlamov, V M

    2002-01-01

    We construct examples of rigid surfaces (that is, surfaces whose deformation class consists of a unique surface) with a particular behaviour with respect to real structures. In one example the surface has no real structure. In another it has a unique real structure, which is not maximal with respect to the Smith-Thom inequality. These examples give negative answers to the following problems: the existence of real surfaces in each deformation class of complex surfaces, and the existence of maximal real surfaces in every complex deformation class that contains real surfaces. Moreover, we prove that there are no real surfaces among surfaces of general type with p g =q=0 and K 2 =9. These surfaces also provide new counterexamples to the 'Dif = Def' problem

  15. On real structures on rigid surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulikov, Vik S [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Kharlamov, V M [Institut de Recherche Matematique Avanee Universite Louis Pasteur et CNRS 7 rue Rene Descartes (France)

    2002-02-28

    We construct examples of rigid surfaces (that is, surfaces whose deformation class consists of a unique surface) with a particular behaviour with respect to real structures. In one example the surface has no real structure. In another it has a unique real structure, which is not maximal with respect to the Smith-Thom inequality. These examples give negative answers to the following problems: the existence of real surfaces in each deformation class of complex surfaces, and the existence of maximal real surfaces in every complex deformation class that contains real surfaces. Moreover, we prove that there are no real surfaces among surfaces of general type with p{sub g}=q=0 and K{sup 2}=9. These surfaces also provide new counterexamples to the 'Dif = Def' problem.

  16. Hybrid inverse design method for nonlifting bodies in incompressible flow

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Broughton, BA

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A methodology for the inverse design of non-lifting axisymmetric bodies in compressible flow is presented. In this method, an inverse design approach based on conformal mapping is used to design a set of airfoils in isolation. These airfoils...

  17. Tile-based rigidization surface parametric design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner Munoz, Laura; Luntz, Jonathan; Brei, Diann; Kim, Wonhee

    2018-03-01

    Inflatable technologies have proven useful in consumer goods as well as in more recent applications including civil structures, aerospace, medical, and robotics. However, inflatable technologies are typically lacking in their ability to provide rigid structural support. Particle jamming improves upon this by providing structures which are normally flexible and moldable but become rigid when air is removed. Because these are based on an airtight bladder filled with loose particles, they always occupy the full volume of its rigid state, even when not rigidized. More recent developments in layer jamming have created thin, compact rigidizing surfaces replacing the loose volume of particles with thinly layered surface materials. Work in this area has been applied to several specific applications with positive results but have not generally provided the broader understanding of the rigidization performance as a function of design parameters required for directly adapting layer rigidization technology to other applications. This paper presents a parametric design study of a new layer jamming vacuum rigidization architecture: tile-based vacuum rigidization. This form of rigidization is based on layers of tiles contained within a thin vacuum bladder which can be bent, rolled, or otherwise compactly stowed, but when deployed flat, can be vacuumed and form a large, flat, rigid plate capable of supporting large forces both localized and distributed over the surface. The general architecture and operation detailing rigidization and compliance mechanisms is introduced. To quantitatively characterize the rigidization behavior, prototypes rigidization surfaces are fabricated and an experimental technique is developed based on a 3-point bending test. Performance evaluation metrics are developed to describe the stiffness, load-bearing capacity, and internal slippage of tested prototypes. A set of experimental parametric studies are performed to better understand the impact of

  18. The Exact Solution for Linear Thermoelastic Axisymmetric Deformations of Generally Laminated Circular Cylindrical Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Michael P.; Schultz, Marc R.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed exact solution is presented for laminated-composite circular cylinders with general wall construction and that undergo axisymmetric deformations. The overall solution is formulated in a general, systematic way and is based on the solution of a single fourth-order, nonhomogeneous ordinary differential equation with constant coefficients in which the radial displacement is the dependent variable. Moreover, the effects of general anisotropy are included and positive-definiteness of the strain energy is used to define uniquely the form of the basis functions spanning the solution space of the ordinary differential equation. Loading conditions are considered that include axisymmetric edge loads, surface tractions, and temperature fields. Likewise, all possible axisymmetric boundary conditions are considered. Results are presented for five examples that demonstrate a wide range of behavior for specially orthotropic and fully anisotropic cylinders.

  19. Experimental studies on an axisymmetric divertor in DIVA(JFT-2a)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Shin

    1979-03-01

    DIVA(JFT-2a) is the first tokamak with an axisymmetric divertor in the world. Objectives of the experiments were i) Plasma production and confinement in a tokamak with a separatrix magnetic surface, and ii) divertor effects on radiation loss and plasma confinement. The results so far are as follows: i) The equilibrium with a separatrix magnetic surface is stable during the discharge. ii) There is an ergodic region near the separatrix magnetic surface due to non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbations. iii) The divertor reduces radiation loss and increases energy confinement time. iv) The divertor does not affect the transport process in the main plasma. (author)

  20. ASCOT-1, Thermohydraulics of Axisymmetric PWR Core with Homogeneous Flow During LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    1 - Nature of the physical problem solved: ASCOT-1 is used to analyze the thermo-hydraulic behaviour in a PWR core during a loss-of-coolant accident. 2 - Method of solution: The core is assumed to be axisymmetric two-dimensional and the conservation laws are solved by the method of characteristics. For the temperature response of fuel in the annular regions into which the core is divided, the heat conduction equations are solved by an explicit method with averaged flow conditions. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Axisymmetric two-dimensional homogeneous flows

  1. Stable operation of an effectively axisymmetric neutral beam driven tandem mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molvik, A.W.; Barter, J.D.; Buchenauer, D.A.; Casper, T.A.; Correll, D.L.; Dimonte, G.; Falabella, S.; Foote, J.H.; Pincosy, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    A quiescent plasma is sustained for 80 energy confinement times by only gas fuelling and neutral beam heating in an axisymmetric region of the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade (TMX-U). This plasma should be unstable because of the bad magnetic curvature and the absence of ion cyclotron heating which previously provided ponderomotive stabilization to sustain plasmas in bad-curvature regions of other axisymmetric mirror experiments. The TMX-U data are consistent with stabilization by a symbiosis between two mechanisms - line tying, which reduces the growth rate, and finite Larmor radius edge stabilization, which can result in quiescent operation. (author). 42 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  2. Numerical Investigation of Pressure Losses in Axisymmetric Sudden Expansion with a Chamfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Youngin; Kim, Keung Koo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this paper, the pressure losses through axisymmetric sudden expansions with a chamfer are analyzed by means of numerical simulation, with an emphasis on the effect of the Reynolds number. In this study, we investigate numerically the turbulent flow in axisymmetric sudden expansions having a slight chamfer on the edge. With the aim of investigating the impact of Reynolds number on the expansion losses in a time-averaged sense, an extensive set of simulations is carried out. On the basis of numerical results, we also propose a general correlation to estimate the local loss coefficient in sudden expansions with a chamfer.

  3. Numerical Investigation of Pressure Losses in Axisymmetric Sudden Expansion with a Chamfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Youngin; Kim, Keung Koo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the pressure losses through axisymmetric sudden expansions with a chamfer are analyzed by means of numerical simulation, with an emphasis on the effect of the Reynolds number. In this study, we investigate numerically the turbulent flow in axisymmetric sudden expansions having a slight chamfer on the edge. With the aim of investigating the impact of Reynolds number on the expansion losses in a time-averaged sense, an extensive set of simulations is carried out. On the basis of numerical results, we also propose a general correlation to estimate the local loss coefficient in sudden expansions with a chamfer

  4. Compact formulas for bounce/transit averaging in axisymmetric tokamak geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duthoit, F.-X. [SNU Division of Graduate Education for Sustainabilization of Foundation Energy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Brizard, A. J. [Department of Physics, Saint Michael' s College, Colchester, Vermont 05439 (United States); Hahm, T. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Compact formulas for bounce and transit orbit averaging of the fluctuation-amplitude eikonal factor in axisymmetric tokamak geometry, which is frequently encountered in bounce-gyrokinetic description of microturbulence, are given in terms of the Jacobi elliptic functions and elliptic integrals. These formulas are readily applicable to the calculation of the neoclassical susceptibility in the framework of modern bounce-gyrokinetic theory. In the long-wavelength limit for axisymmetric electrostatic perturbations, we recover the expression for the Rosenbluth-Hinton residual zonal flow [M. N. Rosenbluth and F. L. Hinton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 724 (1998)] accurately.

  5. bessel functions for axisymmetric elasticity problems of the elastic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    2, 3DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA. ENUGU STATE. ... theory of elasticity and in the case of vertical applied loads, was first ... partial differential equations in bodies having cylindrical symmetry.

  6. Cooperation of axisymmetric connection elements under dynamic load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kołodziej Andrzej

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a method for determining the parameters that define the cooperation of the elements in the axisymmetic connection. The connection, which constitutes a shaft cooperating with a sleeve, has been tested for reaction forces in the connection during shaft rotation in the static sleeve. The shaft was characterized by deliberately modelled roundness deviations in the form of ovality, triangularity and quadrangularity. In addition, the research programme has taken into account the determination of the impact of tolerance of the outside diameter of the shaft. Determination of reaction forces has been carried out using the FEM software. The shaft has been modelled as a rigid element that rotates with a given rotational speed in the deformable sleeve. The conclusions present the impact of roundness deviation types and the tolerance value on reaction forces in the connection restraint. The method presented in the article can be used to predict the behaviour of the elements of axisymmetic connections under dynamic load, which can contribute to forecasting the durability of the connection.

  7. Algebraic Methods for Counting Euclidean Embeddings of Rigid Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.Z. Emiris; E.P. Tsigaridas; A. Varvitsiotis (Antonios); E.R. Gasner

    2009-01-01

    textabstract The study of (minimally) rigid graphs is motivated by numerous applications, mostly in robotics and bioinformatics. A major open problem concerns the number of embeddings of such graphs, up to rigid motions, in Euclidean space. We capture embeddability by polynomial systems

  8. Super rigid nature of super-deformed bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Neha; Mittal, H.M.; Jain, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of high-spin super-deformation represents one of the most remarkable discoveries in nuclear physics. A large number of SD bands have been observed in A = 60, 80, 130, 150, 190 mass regions. The cascades of SD bands are known to be connected by electric quadruple E2 transitions. Because of absence of linking transitions between superdeformed (SD) and normal deformed (ND) levels, the spin assignments of most of these bands carry a minimum uncertainty ≈ 1-2ħ. It was found in an analysis of SD bands in the context of semi classical approach that moment of inertia comes close to the rigid body value in most of the cases. Lack of knowledge of spins has led to an emphasis on the study of dynamical moment of inertia of SD bands and systematic of kinematic moment of inertia has not been examined so far. In this paper, we extract the band moment of inertia J 0 and softness parameter (σ) of all the SD bands corresponding to axes ratio (x) = 1.5 and present their systematic

  9. A soft-rigid contact model of MPM for granular flow impact on retaining structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinpo; Xie, Yanfang; Gutierrez, Marte

    2018-02-01

    Protective measures against hazards associated with rapid debris avalanches include a variety of retaining structures such as rock/boulder fences, gabions, earthfill barriers and retaining walls. However, the development of analytical and numerical methods for the rational assessment of impact force generated by granular flows is still a challenge. In this work, a soft-rigid contact model is built under the coding framework of MPM which is a hybrid method with Eulerian-Lagrangian description. The soft bodies are discretized into particles (material points), and the rigid bodies are presented by rigid node-based surfaces. Coulomb friction model is used to implement the modeled contact mechanics, and a velocity-dependent friction coefficient is coupled into the model. Simulations of a physical experiment show that the peak and residual value of impact forces are well captured by the MPM model. An idealized scenario of debris avalanche flow down a hillslope and impacting on a retaining wall are analyzed using the MPM model. The calculated forces can provide a quantitative estimate from which mound design could proceed for practical implementation in the field.

  10. THE RIGIDITY OF THE EARTH'S INNER CORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. BULLEN

    1953-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine and assess, in the
    light of recent evidence, the theory lliat the Earth's inner core has
    a significant rigidity.
    The presenee of an inner core in the Earth is revealed from
    observations of the seismie pliase PKP in the « sliadow zone » for
    which the epicentral distance A lies in the range 105" < A < 143".
    Miss I. Lehmann (r in 1936, followed by Gutenberg and Richter (2
    in 1938, atlrihuted these observations to tlie presence of an inner
    core; and Jeffreys (3 in 1939 applied Airy's theory of diffraetion
    near a caustic to sliow that the alternative theory of diffraetion
    round the outer boundary of the centrai core was not capable of
    explaining tlie observations in the shadow zone. The existence of the
    inner core has been fairly generallv accepted sinee tliis ealculation
    of Jeffreys.

  11. Rigid multipodal platforms for metal surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Valášek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this review the recent progress in molecular platforms that form rigid and well-defined contact to a metal surface are discussed. Most of the presented examples have at least three anchoring units in order to control the spatial arrangement of the protruding molecular subunit. Another interesting feature is the lateral orientation of these foot structures which, depending on the particular application, is equally important as the spatial arrangement of the molecules. The numerous approaches towards assembling and organizing functional molecules into specific architectures on metal substrates are reviewed here. Particular attention is paid to variations of both, the core structures and the anchoring groups. Furthermore, the analytical methods enabling the investigation of individual molecules as well as monomolecular layers of ordered platform structures are summarized. The presented multipodal platforms bearing several anchoring groups form considerably more stable molecule–metal contacts than corresponding monopodal analogues and exhibit an enlarged separation of the functional molecules due to the increased footprint, as well as restrict tilting of the functional termini with respect to the metal surface. These platforms are thus ideally suited to tune important properties of the molecule–metal interface. On a single-molecule level, several of these platforms enable the control over the arrangement of the protruding rod-type molecular structures (e.g., molecular wires, switches, rotors, sensors with respect to the surface of the substrate.

  12. Inflatable Tubular Structures Rigidized with Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Michael L.; Schnell, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    Inflatable tubular structures that have annular cross sections rigidized with foams, and the means of erecting such structures in the field, are undergoing development. Although the development effort has focused on lightweight structural booms to be transported in compact form and deployed in outer space, the principles of design and fabrication are also potentially applicable to terrestrial structures, including components of ultralightweight aircraft, lightweight storage buildings and shelters, lightweight insulation, and sales displays. The use of foams to deploy and harden inflatable structures was first proposed as early as the 1960s, and has been investigated in recent years by NASA, the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, industry, and academia. In cases of deployable booms, most of the investigation in recent years has focused on solid cross sections, because they can be constructed relatively easily. However, solid-section foam-filled booms can be much too heavy for some applications. In contrast, booms with annular cross sections according to the present innovation can be tailored to obtain desired combinations of stiffness and weight through choice of diameters, wall thicknesses, and foam densities. By far the most compelling advantage afforded by this innovation is the possibility of drastically reducing weights while retaining or increasing the stiffnesses, relative to comparable booms that have solid foamfilled cross sections. A typical boom according to this innovation includes inner and outer polyimide film sleeves to contain foam that is injected between them during deployment.

  13. Spontaneous droplet trampolining on rigid superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutzius, Thomas M.; Jung, Stefan; Maitra, Tanmoy; Graeber, Gustav; Köhme, Moritz; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2015-11-01

    Spontaneous removal of condensed matter from surfaces is exploited in nature and in a broad range of technologies to achieve self-cleaning, anti-icing and condensation control. But despite much progress, our understanding of the phenomena leading to such behaviour remains incomplete, which makes it challenging to rationally design surfaces that benefit from its manifestation. Here we show that water droplets resting on superhydrophobic textured surfaces in a low-pressure environment can self-remove through sudden spontaneous levitation and subsequent trampoline-like bouncing behaviour, in which sequential collisions with the surface accelerate the droplets. These collisions have restitution coefficients (ratios of relative speeds after and before collision) greater than unity despite complete rigidity of the surface, and thus seemingly violate the second law of thermodynamics. However, these restitution coefficients result from an overpressure beneath the droplet produced by fast droplet vaporization while substrate adhesion and surface texture restrict vapour flow. We also show that the high vaporization rates experienced by the droplets and the associated cooling can result in freezing from a supercooled state that triggers a sudden increase in vaporization, which in turn boosts the levitation process. This effect can spontaneously remove surface icing by lifting away icy drops the moment they freeze. Although these observations are relevant only to systems in a low-pressure environment, they show how surface texturing can produce droplet-surface interactions that prohibit liquid and freezing water-droplet retention on surfaces.

  14. A two-dimensional finite element method for analysis of solid body contact problems in fuel rod mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissen, K.L.

    1988-06-01

    Two computer codes for the analysis of fuel rod behavior have been developed. Fuel rod mechanics is treated by a two-dimensional, axisymmetric finite element method. The program KONTAKT is used for detailed examinations on fuel rod sections, whereas the second program METHOD2D allows instationary calculations of whole fuel rods. The mechanical contact of fuel and cladding during heating of the fuel rod is very important for it's integrity. Both computer codes use a Newton-Raphson iteration for the solution of the nonlinear solid body contact problem. A constitutive equation is applied for the dependency of contact pressure on normal approach of the surfaces which are assumed to be rough. If friction is present on the contacting surfaces, Coulomb's friction law is used. Code validation is done by comparison with known analytical solutions for special problems. Results of the contact algorithm for an elastic ball pressing against a rigid surface are confronted with Hertzian theory. Influences of fuel-pellet geometry as well as influences of discretisation of displacements and stresses of a single fuel pellet are studied. Contact of fuel and cladding is calculated for a fuel rod section with two fuel pellets. The influence of friction forces between fuel and cladding on their axial expansion is demonstrated. By calculation of deformations and temperatures during an instationary fuel rod experiment of the CABRI-series the feasibility of two-dimensional finite element analysis of whole fuel rods is shown. (orig.) [de

  15. Esophageal Foreign Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Cobanoglu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal foreign body aspiration is a common event which can cause serious morbidity and mortality in the children and adult population. For that reason, early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for preventing these life threateining complications. Children most often ingest coins and toys whereas adults commonly tend to have problems with meat and bones. Esophageal foreign bodies are located at the cricopharyngeus muscle level in 70%, the thoracic esophagus in 15% and the gastroesophageal junction in the remaining 15%. Symptoms can vary according to the shape and structure of the ingested object, type of location, patient%u2019s age and complications caused by the foreign body. Delay in treatment, esophageal perforation and an underlying esophageal disease are poor prognostic factors. In treatment, observation, foley catheter, rigid or flexible esophagoscopy and removing the foreign body with a Magill forceps, pushing the foreign body into the stomach, giving intravenous glucagon and surgical treatment methods can be used. Rigid esophagoscopy is an effective and safe procedure for foreign body diagnosis and removal. Improved endoscopic experience and clinical management of thoracic surgeons led to reduced morbidity and mortality in recent years. Most of those emergencies of childhood are preventable. Family education is very important.

  16. RIGIDITY, SENSITIVITY AND QUALITY OF ATTACHMENT - THE ROLE OF MATERNAL RIGIDITY IN THE EARLY SOCIOEMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF PREMATURE-INFANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUTCHER, PR; KALVERBOER, A; MINDERAA, RB; VANDOORMAAL, EF; TENWOLDE, Y

    1993-01-01

    The associations between a mother's rigidity, her sensitivity in early (3 month) interaction and the quality of her premature infant's attachment at 13 months were investigated. Rigidity as a personality characteristic was not found to be significantly associated with sensitivity or quality of

  17. ASSESSMENT OF BACTERIAL BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCTION THROUGH AXISYMMETRICAL DROP SHAPE-ANALYSIS BY PROFILE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERVEGT, W; VANDERMEI, HC; BUSSCHER, HJ

    Axisymmetric drop shape analysis by profile (ADSA-P) is a technique developed in colloid and surface science to simultaneously determine the contact angle and liquid surface tension from the profile of a droplet resting on a solid surface. In this paper is described how ADSA-P can be employed to

  18. Generation of new solutions of the stationary axisymmetric Einstein equations by a double complex function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Z.

    1985-01-01

    A new approach to the solution of certain differential equations, the double complex function method, is developed, combining ordinary complex numbers and hyperbolic complex numbers. This method is applied to the theory of stationary axisymmetric Einstein equations in general relativity. A family of exact double solutions, double transformation groups, and n-soliton double solutions are obtained

  19. Material density measurements from dynamic flash x-ray radiographs using axisymmetric tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fugelso, E.

    1981-03-01

    The axisymmetric version of the tomographic x-ray reconstruction procedures has been utilized to determine the material density for the impact of a cylinder on a steel plate. Derivations of the reconstruction algorithms relating x-ray radiographic intensities to the material densities are presented. Effects of noise, point spread functions, and motion blur are minimized

  20. Surface pressure drag for hydrostatic two-layer flow over axisymmetric mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutbecher, M.

    2000-07-01

    The effect of partial reflections on surface pressure drag is investigated for hydrostatic gravity waves in two-layer flow with piecewise constant buoyancy frequency. The variation of normalized surface pressure drag with interface height is analyzed for axisymmetric mountains. The results are compared with the familiar solution for infinitely long ridges. The drag for the two-layer flow is normalized with the drag of one-layer flow, which has the buoyancy frequency of the lower layer. An analytical expression for the normalized drag of axisymmetric mountains is derived from linear theory of steady flow. Additionally, two-layer flow over finite-height axisymmetric mountains is simulated numerically for flow with higher stability in the upper layer. The temporal evolution of the surface pressure drag is examined in a series of experiments with different interface and mountain heights. The focus is on the linear regime and the nonlinear regime of nonbreaking gravity waves. The dispersion of gravity waves in flow over isolated mountains prevents that the entire wave spectrum is in resonance at the same interface height, which is the case in hydrostatic flow over infinitely long ridges. In consequence, the oscillation of the normalized drag with interface height is smaller for axisymmetric mountains than for infinitely long ridges. However, even for a reflection coefficient as low as 1/3 the drag of an axisymmetric mountain can be amplified by 50% and reduced by 40%. The nonlinear drag becomes steady in the numerical experiments in which no wave breaking occurs. The steady state nonlinear drag agrees quite well with the prediction of linear theory if the linear drag is computed for a slightly lowered interface. (orig.)

  1. Numerical simulation of the generation mechanism of axisymmetric supersonic jet screech tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X. D.; Gao, J. H.

    2005-08-01

    In this paper an axisymmetric computational aeroacoustic procedure is developed to investigate the generation mechanism of axisymmetric supersonic jet screech tones. The axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations and the two equations standard k-ɛ turbulence model modified by Turpin and Troyes ["Validation of a two-equation turbulence model for axisymmetric reacting and non-reaction flows," AIAA Paper No. 2000-3463 (2000)] are solved in the generalized curvilinear coordinate system. A generalized wall function is applied in the nozzle exit wall region. The dispersion-relation-preserving scheme is applied for space discretization. The 2N storage low-dissipation and low-dispersion Runge-Kutta scheme is employed for time integration. Much attention is paid to far-field boundary conditions and turbulence model. The underexpanded axisymmetric supersonic jet screech tones are simulated over the Mach number from 1.05 to 1.2. Numerical results are presented and compared with the experimental data by other researchers. The simulated wavelengths of A0, A1, A2, and B modes and part of simulated amplitudes agree very well with the measurement data by Ponton and Seiner ["The effects of nozzle exit lip thickness on plume resonance," J. Sound Vib. 154, 531 (1992)]. In particular, the phenomena of modes jumping have been captured correctly although the numerical procedure has to be improved to predict the amplitudes of supersonic jet screech tones more accurately. Furthermore, the phenomena of shock motions are analyzed. The predicted splitting and combination of shock cells are similar with the experimental observations of Panda ["Shock oscillation in underexpanded screeching jets," J. Fluid. Mech. 363, 173 (1998)]. Finally, the receptivity process is numerically studied and analyzed. It is shown that the receptivity zone is associated with the initial thin shear layer, and the incoming and reflected sound waves.

  2. Tidal Evolution of Asteroidal Binaries. Ruled by Viscosity. Ignorant of Rigidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efroimsky, Michael

    2015-10-01

    This is a pilot paper serving as a launching pad for study of orbital and spin evolution of binary asteroids. The rate of tidal evolution of asteroidal binaries is defined by the dynamical Love numbers kl divided by quality factors Q. Common in the literature is the (oftentimes illegitimate) approximation of the dynamical Love numbers with their static counterparts. Since the static Love numbers are, approximately, proportional to the inverse rigidity, this renders a popular fallacy that the tidal evolution rate is determined by the product of the rigidity by the quality factor: {k}l/Q\\propto 1/(μ Q). In reality, the dynamical Love numbers depend on the tidal frequency and all rheological parameters of the tidally perturbed body (not just rigidity). We demonstrate that in asteroidal binaries the rigidity of their components plays virtually no role in tidal friction and tidal lagging, and thereby has almost no influence on the intensity of tidal interactions (tidal torques, tidal dissipation, tidally induced changes of the orbit). A key quantity that overwhelmingly determines the tidal evolution is a product of the effective viscosity η by the tidal frequency χ . The functional form of the torque’s dependence on this product depends on who wins in the competition between viscosity and self-gravitation. Hence a quantitative criterion, to distinguish between two regimes. For higher values of η χ , we get {k}l/Q\\propto 1/(η χ ), {while} for lower values we obtain {k}l/Q\\propto η χ . Our study rests on an assumption that asteroids can be treated as Maxwell bodies. Applicable to rigid rocks at low frequencies, this approximation is used here also for rubble piles, due to the lack of a better model. In the future, as we learn more about mechanics of granular mixtures in a weak gravity field, we may have to amend the tidal theory with other rheological parameters, ones that do not show up in the description of viscoelastic bodies. This line of study provides

  3. The Almost Periodic Rigidity of Crystallographic Bar-Joint Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Badri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A crystallographic bar-joint framework, C in Rd, is shown to be almost periodically infinitesimally rigid if and only if it is strictly periodically infinitesimally rigid and the rigid unit mode (RUM spectrum, Ω (C, is a singleton. Moreover, the almost periodic infinitesimal flexes of C are characterised in terms of a matrix-valued function, ΦC(z, on the d-torus, Td, determined by a full rank translation symmetry group and an associated motif of joints and bars.

  4. Departures from Axisymmetric Balance Dynamics during Secondary Eyewall Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    institution, theNaval Postgraduate School (NPS) inMonterey, California. The authors thank Christopher Rozoff and two anonymous reviewers for their...combining the twomethods in themain body of this work, has been considered following a suggestion by D. Nolan (2014, personal communica- tion). This...10.1175/2010MWR3161.1. Rozoff, C. M., D. S. Nolan , J. P. Kossin, F. Zhang, and J. Fang, 2012: The roles of an expandingwind field and inertial stability

  5. Neoclassical resonant-plateau transport calculation in an effectively axisymmetrized tandem mirror with finite end plate resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katanuma, I.; Kiwamoto, Y.; Adachi, S.; Inutake, M.; Ishii, K.; Yatsu, K.; Sawada, K.; Miyoshi, S.

    1987-05-01

    Calculations are made for neoclassical resonant-plateau transports in the geometry of the effectively axisymmetrized tandem mirror GAMMA 10 magnetic field, which has minimum B inbord anchors inside the axisymmetric plug/barrier mirror cells. Azimuthal drifts at the local non-axisymmetric regions are included. The radial potential profile is determined by solving selfconsistently the charge neutrality equation. A finite resistance connecting end plate to machine ground provides appropriate boundary conditions on the radial electrostatic potential distribution so that it can be determined uniquely. The calculation is consistent with experimental results of GAMMA 10. (author)

  6. Verification of the Rigidity of the Coulomb Field in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinov, S. V.; Bulyzhenkov, I. É.

    2018-06-01

    Laplace, analyzing the stability of the Solar System, was the first to calculate that the velocity of the motion of force fields can significantly exceed the velocity of light waves. In electrodynamics, the Coulomb field should rigidly accompany its source for instantaneous force action in distant regions. Such rigid motion was recently inferred from experiments at the Frascati Beam Test Facility with short beams of relativistic electrons. The comments of the authors on their observations are at odds with the comments of theoreticians on retarded potentials, which motivates a detailed study of the positions of both sides. Predictions of measurements, based on the Lienard-Wiechert potentials, are used to propose an unambiguous scheme for testing the rigidity of the Coulomb field. Realization of the proposed experimental scheme could independently refute or support the assertions of the Italian physicists regarding the rigid motion of Coulomb fields and likewise the nondual field approach to macroscopic reality.

  7. Oscillations of rigid bar in the special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva, F.M.; Teixeira, A.F.F.

    2011-12-01

    In the special relativity, a rigid bar slides on herself, with a extreme oscillating harmonically. We have discovered at the movement amplitude and in the bar length, indispensable for the elimination of non physical solutions

  8. Resin Infusion Rigidized Inflatable Concept Development and Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel concept utilizing resin infusion to rigidize inflatable structures was developed at JSC ES. This ICA project intends to complete manufacturing of a prototype...

  9. Genus Ranges of 4-Regular Rigid Vertex Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Dorothy; Dolzhenko, Egor; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico; Valencia, Karin

    2015-01-01

    A rigid vertex of a graph is one that has a prescribed cyclic order of its incident edges. We study orientable genus ranges of 4-regular rigid vertex graphs. The (orientable) genus range is a set of genera values over all orientable surfaces into which a graph is embedded cellularly, and the embeddings of rigid vertex graphs are required to preserve the prescribed cyclic order of incident edges at every vertex. The genus ranges of 4-regular rigid vertex graphs are sets of consecutive integers, and we address two questions: which intervals of integers appear as genus ranges of such graphs, and what types of graphs realize a given genus range. For graphs with 2 n vertices ( n > 1), we prove that all intervals [ a, b ] for all a genus ranges. For graphs with 2 n - 1 vertices ( n ≥ 1), we prove that all intervals [ a, b ] for all a genus ranges. We also provide constructions of graphs that realize these ranges.

  10. Re-analysis of exponential rigid-rotor astron equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovelace, R.V.; Larrabee, D.A.; Fleischmann, H.H.

    1978-01-01

    Previous studies of exponential rigid-rotor astron equilibria include particles which are not trapped in the self-field of the configuration. The modification of these studies required to exclude untrapped particles is derived

  11. Rigidity theorem for Willmore surfaces in a sphere

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 126; Issue 2. Rigidity ... Center of Mathematical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, People's Republic of China; College of Mathematics and Information Science, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022, People's Republic of China ...

  12. Role of Rigid Endoscopic Detorsion in the Management of Sigmoid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    had emergency surgery, with gangrenous bowel noted in 43 (72%) ... of any stable patient with clinical and radiological features ... peritonitis, underwent repeat rigid sigmoidoscopy. ... endoscopic detorsion was successful in all six cases.

  13. Magnetism and magnetostriction in a degenerate rigid band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulakowski, K.; Barbara, B.

    1990-09-01

    We investigate the influence of the spin-orbit coupling on the magnetic and magnetoelastic phenomena in ferromagnetic band systems. The description is within the Stoner model of a degenerate rigid band, for temperature T = O. (author). 14 refs

  14. On the atmosphere of a moving body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan Rønby; Aref, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    We explore whether a rigid body moving freely with no circulation around it in a two-dimensional ideal fluid can carry a fluid "atmosphere" with it in its motion. Somewhat surprisingly, the answer appears to be "yes." When the body is elongated and the motion is dominated by rotation, we demonstr...

  15. On the atmosphere of a moving body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan Rønby; Aref, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    We have explored whether a rigid body moving freely with no circulation around it in a two-dimensional ideal fluid can carry a fluid ``atmosphere'' with it in its motion. Somewhat surprisingly, the answer appears to be ``yes''. When the body is elongated and the motion is dominated by rotation, w...

  16. Instability modes on a solid-body-rotation flow in a finite-length pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chunjuan; Liu, Feng; Rusak, Zvi; Wang, Shixiao

    2017-09-01

    Numerical solutions of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are obtained to study the time evolution of both axisymmetric and three-dimensional perturbations to a base solid-body-rotation flow in a finite-length pipe with non-periodic boundary conditions imposed at the pipe inlet and outlet. It is found that for a given Reynolds number there exists a critical swirl number beyond which the initial perturbations grow, in contrast to the solid-body rotation flow in an infinitely-long pipe or a finite-length pipe with periodic inlet and exit boundary conditions for which the classical Kelvin analysis and Rayleigh stability criterion affirm neutrally stable for all levels of swirl. This paper uncovers for the first time the detailed evolution of the perturbations in both the axisymmetric and three-dimensional situations. The computations reveal a linear growth stage of the perturbations with a constant growth rate after a brief initial period of decay of the imposed initial perturbations. The fastest growing axisymmetric and three-dimensional instability modes and the associated growth rates are identified numerically for the first time. The computations show that the critical swirl number increases and the growth rate of instability decreases at the same swirl number with decreasing Reynolds number. The growth rate of the axisymmetric mode at high Reynolds number agrees well with previous stability theory for inviscid flow. More importantly, three-dimensional simulations uncover that the most unstable mode is the spiral type m = 1 mode, which appears at a lower critical swirl number than that for the onset of the axisymmetric mode. This spiral mode grows faster than the unstable axisymmetric mode at the same swirl. Moreover, the computations reveal that after the linear growing stage of the perturbation the flow continues to evolve nonlinearly to a saturated axisymmetric vortex breakdown state.

  17. Instability modes on a solid-body-rotation flow in a finite-length pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjuan Feng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical solutions of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are obtained to study the time evolution of both axisymmetric and three-dimensional perturbations to a base solid-body-rotation flow in a finite-length pipe with non-periodic boundary conditions imposed at the pipe inlet and outlet. It is found that for a given Reynolds number there exists a critical swirl number beyond which the initial perturbations grow, in contrast to the solid-body rotation flow in an infinitely-long pipe or a finite-length pipe with periodic inlet and exit boundary conditions for which the classical Kelvin analysis and Rayleigh stability criterion affirm neutrally stable for all levels of swirl. This paper uncovers for the first time the detailed evolution of the perturbations in both the axisymmetric and three-dimensional situations. The computations reveal a linear growth stage of the perturbations with a constant growth rate after a brief initial period of decay of the imposed initial perturbations. The fastest growing axisymmetric and three-dimensional instability modes and the associated growth rates are identified numerically for the first time. The computations show that the critical swirl number increases and the growth rate of instability decreases at the same swirl number with decreasing Reynolds number. The growth rate of the axisymmetric mode at high Reynolds number agrees well with previous stability theory for inviscid flow. More importantly, three-dimensional simulations uncover that the most unstable mode is the spiral type m = 1 mode, which appears at a lower critical swirl number than that for the onset of the axisymmetric mode. This spiral mode grows faster than the unstable axisymmetric mode at the same swirl. Moreover, the computations reveal that after the linear growing stage of the perturbation the flow continues to evolve nonlinearly to a saturated axisymmetric vortex breakdown state.

  18. A Rigid Mid-Lift-to-Drag Ratio Approach to Human Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerimele, Christopher J.; Robertson, Edward A.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Campbell, Charles H.; Robinson, Phil; Matz, Daniel A.; Johnson, Breanna J.; Stachowiak, Susan J.; Garcia, Joseph A.; Bowles, Jeffrey V.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Current NASA Human Mars architectures require delivery of approximately 20 metric tons of cargo to the surface in a single landing. A proposed vehicle type for performing the entry, descent, and landing at Mars associated with this architecture is a rigid, enclosed, elongated lifting body shape that provides a higher lift-to-drag ratio (L/D) than a typical entry capsule, but lower than a typical winged entry vehicle (such as the Space Shuttle Orbiter). A rigid Mid-L/D shape has advantages for large mass Mars EDL, including loads management, range capability during entry, and human spaceflight heritage. Previous large mass Mars studies have focused more on symmetric and/or circular cross-section Mid-L/D shapes such as the ellipsled. More recent work has shown performance advantages for non-circular cross section shapes. This paper will describe efforts to design a rigid Mid-L/D entry vehicle for Mars which shows mass and performance improvements over previous Mid-L/D studies. The proposed concept, work to date and evolution, forward path, and suggested future strategy are described.

  19. Real-time motion compensated patient positioning and non-rigid deformation estimation using 4-D shape priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasza, Jakob; Bauer, Sebastian; Hornegger, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Over the last years, range imaging (RI) techniques have been proposed for patient positioning and respiration analysis in motion compensation. Yet, current RI based approaches for patient positioning employ rigid-body transformations, thus neglecting free-form deformations induced by respiratory motion. Furthermore, RI based respiration analysis relies on non-rigid registration techniques with run-times of several seconds. In this paper we propose a real-time framework based on RI to perform respiratory motion compensated positioning and non-rigid surface deformation estimation in a joint manner. The core of our method are pre-procedurally obtained 4-D shape priors that drive the intra-procedural alignment of the patient to the reference state, simultaneously yielding a rigid-body table transformation and a free-form deformation accounting for respiratory motion. We show that our method outperforms conventional alignment strategies by a factor of 3.0 and 2.3 in the rotation and translation accuracy, respectively. Using a GPU based implementation, we achieve run-times of 40 ms.

  20. Three-dimensional solutions of the magnetohydrostatic equations for rigidly rotating magnetospheres in cylindrical coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, F.; Neukirch, T.

    2018-01-01

    We present new analytical three-dimensional solutions of the magnetohydrostatic equations, which are applicable to the co-rotating frame of reference outside a rigidly rotating cylindrical body, and have potential applications to planetary magnetospheres and stellar coronae. We consider the case with centrifugal force only, and use a transformation method in which the governing equation for the "pseudo-potential" (from which the magnetic field can be calculated) becomes the Laplace partial differential equation. The new solutions extend the set of previously found solutions to those of a "fractional multipole" nature, and offer wider possibilities for modelling than before. We consider some special cases, and present example solutions.